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Sample records for canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue agar

  1. Identification of Cryptococcus gattii by Use of l-Canavanine Glycine Bromothymol Blue Medium and DNA Sequencing?

    PubMed Central

    Klein, K. R.; Hall, L.; Deml, S. M.; Rysavy, J. M.; Wohlfiel, S. L.; Wengenack, N. L.

    2009-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are closely related pathogenic fungi. Cryptococcus neoformans is ecologically widespread and affects primarily immunocompromised patients, while C. gattii is traditionally found in tropical climates and has been reported to cause disease in immunocompetent patients. l-Canavanine glycine bromothymol blue (CGB) agar can be used to differentiate C. neoformans and C. gattii, but there are few reports of its performance in routine clinical practice. Growth of C. gattii on CGB agar produces a blue color, indicating the assimilation of glycine, while C. neoformans fails to cause a color change. Using reference and clinical strains, we evaluated the ability of CGB agar and D2 large ribosomal subunit DNA sequencing (D2 LSU) to differentiate C. neoformans and C. gattii. One hundred two yeast isolates were screened for urease activity, melanin production, and glycine assimilation on CGB agar as well as by D2 sequencing. Seventeen of 17 (100%) C. gattii isolates were CGB positive, and 54 of 54 C. neoformans isolates were CGB negative. Several yeast isolates other than the C. gattii isolates were CGB agar positive, indicating that CGB agar cannot be used alone for identification of C. gattii. D2 correctly identified and differentiated all C. gattii and C. neoformans isolates. This study demonstrates that the use of CGB agar, in conjunction with urea hydrolysis and Niger seed agar, or D2 LSU sequencing can be reliably used in the clinical laboratory to distinguish C. gattii from C. neoformans. We describe how CGB agar and D2 sequencing have been incorporated into the yeast identification algorithm in our laboratory. PMID:19794048

  2. Identification of Cryptococcus gattii by use of L-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue medium and DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Klein, K R; Hall, L; Deml, S M; Rysavy, J M; Wohlfiel, S L; Wengenack, N L

    2009-11-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are closely related pathogenic fungi. Cryptococcus neoformans is ecologically widespread and affects primarily immunocompromised patients, while C. gattii is traditionally found in tropical climates and has been reported to cause disease in immunocompetent patients. l-Canavanine glycine bromothymol blue (CGB) agar can be used to differentiate C. neoformans and C. gattii, but there are few reports of its performance in routine clinical practice. Growth of C. gattii on CGB agar produces a blue color, indicating the assimilation of glycine, while C. neoformans fails to cause a color change. Using reference and clinical strains, we evaluated the ability of CGB agar and D2 large ribosomal subunit DNA sequencing (D2 LSU) to differentiate C. neoformans and C. gattii. One hundred two yeast isolates were screened for urease activity, melanin production, and glycine assimilation on CGB agar as well as by D2 sequencing. Seventeen of 17 (100%) C. gattii isolates were CGB positive, and 54 of 54 C. neoformans isolates were CGB negative. Several yeast isolates other than the C. gattii isolates were CGB agar positive, indicating that CGB agar cannot be used alone for identification of C. gattii. D2 correctly identified and differentiated all C. gattii and C. neoformans isolates. This study demonstrates that the use of CGB agar, in conjunction with urea hydrolysis and Niger seed agar, or D2 LSU sequencing can be reliably used in the clinical laboratory to distinguish C. gattii from C. neoformans. We describe how CGB agar and D2 sequencing have been incorporated into the yeast identification algorithm in our laboratory. PMID:19794048

  3. FIRST REPORT ON Cryptococcus neoformans IN PIGEON EXCRETA FROM PUBLIC AND RESIDENTIAL LOCATIONS IN THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF CUIABÁ, STATE OF MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Takahara, Doracilde Terumi; Lazéra, Márcia dos Santos; Wanke, Bodo; Trilles, Luciana; Dutra, Valéria; de Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus; Nakazato, Luciano; Anzai, Mariana Caselli; Leite, Diniz Pereira; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues; Hahn, Rosane Christine

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Cryptococcosis is a severe systemic mycosis caused by two species of Cryptococcus that affect humans and animals: C. neoformans and C. gattii. Cosmopolitan and emergent, the mycosis results from the interaction between a susceptible host and the environment. The occurrence of C. neoformans was evaluated in 122 samples of dried pigeon excreta collected in 49 locations in the City of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, including public squares (n = 5), churches (n = 4), educational institutions (n = 3), health units (n = 8), open areas covered with asbestos (n = 4), residences (n = 23), factory (n = 1) and a prison (n = 1). Samples collected from July to December of 2010 were seeded on Niger seed agar (NSA). Dark brown colonies were identified by urease test, carbon source assimilation tests and canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium. Polymerase chain reaction primer pairs specific for C. neoformans were also used for identification. Cryptococcus neoformans associated to pigeon excreta was isolated from eight (6.6%) samples corresponding to six (12.2%) locations. Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from urban areas, predominantly in residences, constituting a risk of acquiring the disease by immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. PMID:24213188

  4. First report on Cryptococcus neoformans in pigeon excreta from public and residential locations in the metropolitan area of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Doracilde Terumi; Lazéra, Márcia dos Santos; Wanke, Bodo; Trilles, Luciana; Dutra, Valéria; Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus de; Nakazato, Luciano; Anzai, Mariana Caselli; Leite Júnior, Diniz Pereira; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues; Hahn, Rosane Christine

    2013-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is a severe systemic mycosis caused by two species of Cryptococcus that affect humans and animals: C. neoformans and C. gattii. Cosmopolitan and emergent, the mycosis results from the interaction between a susceptible host and the environment. The occurrence of C. neoformans was evaluated in 122 samples of dried pigeon excreta collected in 49 locations in the City of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, including public squares (n = 5), churches (n = 4), educational institutions (n = 3), health units (n = 8), open areas covered with asbestos (n = 4), residences (n = 23), factory (n = 1) and a prison (n = 1). Samples collected from July to December of 2010 were seeded on Niger seed agar (NSA). Dark brown colonies were identified by urease test, carbon source assimilation tests and canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium. Polymerase chain reaction primer pairs specific for C. neoformans were also used for identification. Cryptococcus neoformans associated to pigeon excreta was isolated from eight (6.6%) samples corresponding to six (12.2%) locations. Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from urban areas, predominantly in residences, constituting a risk of acquiring the disease by immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. PMID:24213188

  5. ACINETOBACTER SPP.: DISTINCT MORPHOLOGY ON EOSIN METHYLENE BLUE AGAR AS AN AID TO IDENTIFICATION IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    'Acinetobacter calcoaceticus', frequently found in drinking waters and implicated in nosocomial infections, was presumptively identified by its tiny, blue colonial appearance on Levine eosin methylene blue agar. All of the 33 isolates from drinking water showing this distinctive ...

  6. Evaluation of growth characteristics on blood agar and eosin methylene blue agar for the identification of Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata.

    PubMed

    Bale, M J; Yang, C; Pfaller, M A

    1997-06-01

    Candida albicans and Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata are the most common species of yeast encountered in the clinical laboratory. In this study, we sought to evaluate simple means of screening cultures for the presence or absence of C. glabrata. Twelve thousand five hundred (12,500) consecutive cultures were evaluated for sufficient yeast growth to warrant identification. When detected (369 isolates), the amount of growth on eosin methylene blue agar (EMB) versus sheep blood agar (BAP) (both incubated in 5% CO2), wet mount morphology, and germ tube production were evaluated. All germ tube-negative yeasts were definitively identified using the Vitek YBC card. Of the 369 yeast isolates included in this study, 225 were C. albicans, 102 C. glabrata, and 42 other Candida species. Growth on EMB was greater than BAP for 92 isolates; all identified as C. glabrata. When EMB growth was equal to or less than BAP, 10 isolates were C. glabrata and 267 were other Candida ssp. An accurate presumptive identification of C. glabrata may be made using the observation of greater growth on EMB versus BAP. When coupled with the germ tube test, the majority of yeast isolates could be identified by these simple methods in our laboratory. PMID:9239496

  7. Cryptococcus spp isolated from dust microhabitat in Brazilian libraries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Cryptococcus spp is currently composed of encapsulated yeasts of cosmopolitan distribution, including the etiological agents of cryptococcosis. The fungus are found mainly in substrates of animal and plant origin. Human infection occurs through inhalation of spores present in the environment. Methods Eighty-four swab collections were performed on dust found on books in three libraries in the city of Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The material was seeded in Sabouraud agar and then observed for characteristics compatible with colonies with a creamy to mucous aspect; the material was then isolated in birdseed (Niger) agar and cultivated at a temperature of 37°C for 5 to 7?days. Identification of isolated colonies was performed by microscopic observation in fresh preparations dyed with India ink, additional tests performed on CGB (L-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue), urea broth, and carbohydrate assimilation tests (auxanogram). Results Of the 84 samples collected from book dust, 18 (21.4%) were positive for Cryptococcus spp totalizing 41 UFC’s. The most frequently isolated species was C. gattii 15 (36.6%); followed by C. terreus, 12 (29.3%); C. luteolus 4 (9.8%); C. neoformans, and C. uniguttulatus 3 (7.3%), and C. albidus and C. humiculus with 2 (4.6%) of the isolates. Conclusion The high biodiversity of the yeasts of the Cryptococcus genus, isolated from different environmental sources in urban areas of Brazil suggests the possibility of individuals whose immune systems have been compromised or even healthy individuals coming into sources of fungal propagules on a daily bases throughout their lives. This study demonstrates the acquisition possible of cryptococcosis infection from dust in libraries. PMID:22682392

  8. A screening method for ?-glucan hydrolase employing Trypan Blue-coupled ?-glucan agar plate and ?-glucan zymography.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang-Su; Yang, Hee-Jong; Kim, Dong-Ho; Kang, Dae-Ook; Kim, Min-Soo; Choi, Nack-Shick

    2012-06-01

    A new screening method for ?-(1,3-1,6) glucan hydrolase was developed using a pure ?-glucan from Aureobaisidum pullulans by zymography and an LB-agar plate. Paenibacillus sp. was screened as a producer a ?-glucan hydrolase on the Trypan Blue-coupled ?-glucan LB-agar plate and the activity of the enzyme was analyzed by SDS-?-glucan zymography. The ?-glucan was not hydrolyzed by Bacillus spp. strains, which exhibit cellulolytic activity on CMC zymography. The gene, obtaining by shotgun cloning and encoding the ?-glucan hydrolase of Paenibacillus sp. was sequenced. PMID:22350291

  9. Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii--evidence for a natural habitat related to decaying wood in a pottery tree hollow.

    PubMed

    Lazéra, M S; Cavalcanti, M A; Trilles, L; Nishikawa, M M; Wanke, B

    1998-04-01

    To study hollows of living trees as the natural habitat of Cryptococcus neoformans in an endemic area of cryptococcosis in the northeastern Brazilian region, samples of decaying wood were collected inside the hollows, plated on niger seed agar and inoculated into mice and hamsters. Identification of C. neoformans was based on morphological and physiological tests. Canavanine-glycine-bromothymol medium was used to screen the varieties and Crypto Check Iatron Kit to serotype the isolates. For a period of 29 months C. neoformans var. gattii serotype B was isolated repeatedly from the hollow of a pottery tree (Moquilea tomentosa), pointing to the natural occurrence of C. neoformans var. gatti in decaying wood forming hollows in living trees. Evidence for a natural habitat of the variety gattii other than that related to Eucalyptus camaldulensis are discussed. PMID:9776823

  10. Agar Diffusion Procedures for Susceptibility Testing of Malassezia pachydermatis: Evaluation of Mueller-Hinton Agar Plus 2 % Glucose and 0.5 µg/ml Methylene Blue as the Test Medium.

    PubMed

    Pasquetti, M; Chiavassa, E; Tizzani, P; Danesi, P; Peano, A

    2015-10-01

    Aim of this study was to verify whether Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 2 % glucose and methylene blue (MH-GM), which is used for disk diffusion susceptibility testing of Candida species by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, is suitable for testing Malassezia pachydermatis. A variant of the disk diffusion procedure utilizing a 9-mm tablet was used to test 31 isolates against clotrimazole and miconazole using MH-GM as test medium. The MH-GM agar optimally supported the growth of all M. pachydermatis isolates, provided that the yeast inoculum was prepared with a lipid source (Tween 40 and 80). Zone edges were frequently definite and clear, facilitating the measurement of zone size and minimizing subjectivity. The inhibition zones correlated with MIC values obtained in a broth dilution assay. The agar diffusion method with MH-GM as the test medium appears as a suitable procedure for testing the susceptibility of M. pachydermatis to CTZ and MCZ in clinical laboratories. This test format may allow processing a large number of isolates in epidemiological studies. This may in turn facilitate clarifying to what extent the problem "drug resistance" accounts for cases of treatment failure in dogs with Malassezia otitis and dermatitis. PMID:26138434

  11. Electro-osmosis in gels: Application to Agar-Agar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherblanc, Fabien; Boscus, Jérôme; Bénet, Jean-Claude

    2008-10-01

    Widely used in food- and bio-engineering as a reference material, Agar-Agar gel is the focus of an experimental investigation concerning the electro-osmosis phenomenon. After presenting the experimental methods, one trial is discussed in detail. A fair reproducibility of results is obtained, and the averaged electro-osmotic permeability is provided. This value lies in the range generally measured on various kind of soils, even if Agar-Agar gel does not share any micro-structural characteristics with soils. To cite this article: F. Cherblanc et al., C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  12. Simplified 48-hour IMVic test: an agar plate method.

    PubMed

    Powers, E M; Latt, T G

    1977-09-01

    An agar plate method was developed for the performance of the IMVic (indole, methyl red, Voges-Proskauer, and citrate) tests in lieu of the conventional tubed liquid media. By modifying the composition of the media and adding agar, a single "X"-compartmented petri dish was prepared containing all four IMVic test media. Ease of performance and simplification of the test were achieved by inoculating all four media simultaneously from a single colony (single inoculum) on eosin-methylene blue agar. Tests with 87 cultures, representing 7 genera in the family Enterobacteriaceae, were completed with typical (correct) IMVic patterns for all cultures within 48 h. Parallel tests with conventional media showed that the agar plate method was superior, more sensitive, faster, and simpler to perform, and less time was required to identify Escherichia coli by 72 h. PMID:334074

  13. Automatic agar tray inoculation device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    Automatic agar tray inoculation device is simple in design and foolproof in operation. It employs either conventional inoculating loop or cotton swab for uniform inoculation of agar media, and it allows technician to carry on with other activities while tray is being inoculated.

  14. Evaluation of a new chromogenic agar medium for Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Masafumi; Teramura, Hajime; Kashida, Mitsuaki; Kodaka, Hidemasa

    2013-01-01

    Spoilage of fruit juices by a thermoacidophilic spore-forming bacterium, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, is a big problem for fruit juice industries worldwide. We have developed a novel chromogenic selective agar medium (EAATSM) for the isolation and enumeration of A. acidoterrestris. A. acidoterrestris strains appeared as blue colonies on the EAATSM. Other Alicyclobacillus strains appeared as white colonies or were inhibited. A study comparing EAATSM and YSG agar was carried out using artificially contaminated samples of 50 fruit juice products. The correlation coefficient between EAATSM and YSG was 0.991. PMID:23796641

  15. Crystal formation in furunculosis agar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bullock, G.L.; Ross, A.J.

    1964-01-01

    SINCE ITS INTRODUCTION SOME MONTHS AGO, FURUNCULOSIS AGAR has been employed in the diagnosis of suspect furunculosis and also as a general purpose medium. During our work with this medium we have noticed discrete "colonies," of crystalline material, which very closely resemble microbial colonies. These crystal colonies are compact and appear on both the surface and subsurface; they occur in inoculated slants and plates incubated for long periods (2 to 3 weeks), as well as in uninoculated stored medium. As the crystal colonies could be confusing to workers using this medium, we decided to attempt to identify them and also to determine whether storage conditions and different lots of medium affect crystal formation.

  16. Preparation of hydroxypropyl agars and their properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Liu, Xin; Cao, Mingzhao; Xia, Kai; Zhang, Yuqiao

    2015-09-20

    A series of hydroxypropyl agars (HPAs) with different hydroxypropyl molar substitution (MS) were prepared and their physicochemical properties were characterized. After hydroxypropylation, the dissolving temperature, the gelling temperature, the gel melting temperature, the gel strength, and the thermal stability of agar all decreased except that its hygroscopicity increased. The gel skeleton structures of raw agar and HPAs were all of the porous network structures, but the pores of gel skeleton structure of HPAs became smaller and denser. PMID:26050892

  17. Primary isolation of Mycobacterium avium complex-serotype 6 on blood agar.

    PubMed Central

    Thigpen, J E; Thierry, V L; Gupta, B N

    1976-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex-serotype 6 was isolated in pure culture on blood agar plates from inocula taken from the heart blood, lungs, liver, kidneys, and spleen of a naturally infected captive female opossum (Didelphis marsupialis virginiana). Repeat cultures from stored tissues and transfer of colonies from original blood agar plates revealed that the mycobacterium grew on tryptose, brilliant green, eosin-methylene blue. Sabouraud glucose, and mycobiotic agar plates and in Fletcher leptospira medium. The cultural, biochemical, and serological characteristics of the test isolate were compared with other mycobacteria. This is the first report to describe the primary isolation of a serotype from the M. avium complex from an animal species on blood agar or in Fletcher broth. In addition, this is the second documented report describing the isolation and identification of a mycobacterial species from the American opossum. PMID:972192

  18. Primary isolation of Mycobacterium avium complex-serotype 6 on blood agar.

    PubMed

    Thigpen, J E; Thierry, V L; Gupta, B N

    1976-09-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex-serotype 6 was isolated in pure culture on blood agar plates from inocula taken from the heart blood, lungs, liver, kidneys, and spleen of a naturally infected captive female opossum (Didelphis marsupialis virginiana). Repeat cultures from stored tissues and transfer of colonies from original blood agar plates revealed that the mycobacterium grew on tryptose, brilliant green, eosin-methylene blue. Sabouraud glucose, and mycobiotic agar plates and in Fletcher leptospira medium. The cultural, biochemical, and serological characteristics of the test isolate were compared with other mycobacteria. This is the first report to describe the primary isolation of a serotype from the M. avium complex from an animal species on blood agar or in Fletcher broth. In addition, this is the second documented report describing the isolation and identification of a mycobacterial species from the American opossum. PMID:972192

  19. Some Experiments With Agar-Grown Seedlings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, P. W.

    1973-01-01

    Two percent agar gel is reported as a better medium for germination and growth studies. Students can be encouraged to undertake many simple experiments and make precise observations by using this medium. (PS)

  20. Evaluation of Rambach agar for detection of Salmonella subspecies I to VI.

    PubMed Central

    Kühn, H; Wonde, B; Rabsch, W; Reissbrodt, R

    1994-01-01

    Salmonella strains belonging to subspecies I to VI were investigated for colony color when grown on Rambach agar. Most strains of Salmonella subspecies I, II, IV, and VI behaved as described. All strains of Salmonella subspecies IIIa, IIIb, and V produced beta-D-galactosidase and blue-green colonies which could not be distinguished in color from Escherichia coli and other lactose-fermenting members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:8135525

  1. Use of agar agar stabilized milled zero-valent iron particles for in situ groundwater remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Doris; Velimirovi?, Milica; Wagner, Stephan; Mici? Batka, Vesna; von der Kammer, Frank; Hofmann, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    A major obstacle for use of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles as a nontoxic material for effective in situ degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) is the high production cost. For that reason, submicro-scale milled zero-valent iron particles were recently developed (milled ZVI, UVR-FIA, Germany) by grinding macroscopic raw materials of elementary iron as a cheaper alternative to products produced by solid-state reduction. However, milled ZVI particles tend to aggregate and due to the rather large particle size (d50= 11.9 µm) also rapidly sediment. To prevent aggregation and consequently sedimentation of milled ZVI particles and therefore improve the mobility after in situ application, the use of a stabilizer is considered in literature as a most promising option. In this study, milled ZVI particles (1 g L-1 of particle concentration) were stabilized by environmentally friendly polymer agar agar (>0.5 g L-1), which had a positive impact on the milled ZVI stability. Sedimentation rate was significantly decreased by increasing the suspension viscosity. Column transport experiments were performed for bare and agar agar stabilized milled ZVI particles in commercially available fine grained quartz sand (DORSILIT® Nr.8, Gebrüder Dorfner GmbH Co, Germany) and different porous media collected from brownfields. The experiments were carried out under field relevant injection conditions of 100 m d-1. The maximal travel distance (LT) of less than 10 cm was determined for non-stabilized suspension in fine grained quartz sand, while agar agar (1 g L-1) stabilized milled ZVI suspension revealed LT of 12 m. Similar results were observed for porous media from brownfields showing that mobility of agar agar stabilized particle suspensions was significantly improved compared to bare particles. Based on the mobility data, agar agar stabilized milled zero-valent iron particles could be used for in situ application. Finally, lab-scale batch degradation experiments were performed to determine the impact of agar agar on the reactivity of milled ZVI and investigate the apparent corrosion rate of particles by quantifying the hydrogen gas generated by anaerobic corrosion of milled ZVI. The results indicate that agar agar had a positive impact on the milled ZVI stability and mobility, however adverse impact on the reactivity towards trichloroethene (TCE) was observed compared to the non-stabilized material. On the other hand, this study shows that the apparent corrosion rate of non-stabilized and agar agar stabilized milled ZVI particles is in the same order of magnitude. These data indicate that the dechlorination pathway of TCE by agar agar stabilized milled ZVI particles is possibly impacted by blocking of the reactive sites and not hydrogen revealed during particles corrosion. Finally, calculated longevity of the particles based on the apparent corrosion rate is significantly prolonged compared to the longevity of the nZVI particles reported in previous studies. This research receives funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement n°309517.

  2. Biological treatment of textile dyes by agar-agar immobilized consortium in a packed bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Patel, Yogesh; Gupte, Akshaya

    2015-03-01

    The decolorization of Acid Maroon V was investigated using bacterial consortium EDPA containing Enterobacter dissolvens AGYP1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa AGYP2 immobilized in different entrapment matrices. The consortium displayed 96% removal of dye (100 mg/l) within 6 h when immobilized in agar-agar. Under optimum concentrations of agar-agar (3.0% w/v) and cell biomass (0.9 g% w/v), the consortium displayed decolorization for 18 successive batches of Acid Maroon V and also decolorized 14 other different textile dyes. A packed bed reactor under batch mode showed 89% decolorization of dye after 56 repetitive cycles. Under continuous flow mode, maximum color removal was achieved with bed length of 36 cm, hydraulic retention time of 2.66 h, and dye concentration of 100 mg/l. Additionally, the reactor decolorized relatively higher concentrations (100-2000 mg/l) of dye. The synthetic dye wastewater containing five textile dyes was decolorized 92% with 62% COD reduction using an immobilized consortium. PMID:25842535

  3. Screening fungicides for use in fish culture: Evaluation of the agar plug transfer, cellophane transfer, and agar dilution methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, Tom A.

    1983-01-01

    The reliability, reproducibility, and usefulness of three screening methods -- the cellophane transfer, the agar plug transfer, and the agar dilution -- to screen aquatic fungicides were evaluated. Achlya flagellata and Saprolegnia hypogyna were exposed to 1, 10, and 100 mg/L of malachite green to test each method. The cellophane transfer and agar plug transfer techniques had similar reliability and reproducibility in rating fungicidal activity, and were both superior to the agar dilution technique. The agar plug transfer and agar dilution techniques adequately projected in vivo activity of malachite green, but the cellophane transfer technique overestimated its activity. Overall, the agar plug transfer technique most accurately rated the activity of malachite green and was the easiest test to perform. It therefore appears to be the method of choice for testing aquatic fungicides.

  4. Improving agar electrospinnability with choline-based deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ana M M; Souza, Hiléia K S; Uknalis, Joseph; Liu, Shih-Chuan; Gonçalves, Maria P; Liu, LinShu

    2015-09-01

    Very recently our group has produced novel agar-based fibers by an electrospinning technique using water as solvent and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as co-blending polymer. Here, we tested the deep eutectic solvent (DES), (2-hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium chloride/urea prepared at 1:2 molar ratio, as an alternative solvent medium for agar electrospinning. The electrospun materials were collected with an ethanol bath adapted to a previous electrospinning set-up. One weight percent agar-in-DES showed improved viscoelasticity and hence, spinnability, when compared to 1 wt% agar-in-water and pure agar nanofibers were successfully electrospun if working above the temperature of sol-gel transition (?80 °C). By changing the solvent medium we decreased the PVA concentration (5 wt% starting solution) and successfully produced composite fibers with high agar contents (50/50 agar/PVA). Best composite fibers were formed with the 50/50 and 30/70 agar/PVA solutions. These fibers were mechanically resistant, showed tailorable surface roughness and diverse size distributions, with most of the diameters falling in the sub-micron range. Both nano and micro forms of agar fibers (used separately or combined) may have potential for the design of new and highly functional agar-based materials. PMID:26116384

  5. Preparation of oxidized agar and characterization of its properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Liu, Xin; Xia, Kai; Luan, Jimei

    2014-11-01

    A series of oxidized agars with different carboxyl content were prepared, and their properties were determined and analyzed. The results showed that the gelling temperature, the optical rotation and the apparent viscosity of the agar solution, and the melting temperature, the strength, the hardness, the fracturability, the springiness, the chewiness and the gumminess of agar gel all decreased except that the cohesiveness increased after oxidation. The gel skeleton structures of agar before and after oxidation were all of the porous network structures, but the pores of gel skeleton structure became smaller and denser after oxidation. PMID:25129785

  6. Blue Note

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2010-01-08

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  7. Blue Note

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  8. New selective agar medium for isolation of virulent Yersinia enterocolitica.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, H

    1987-06-01

    A selective agar medium for isolation of virulent Yersinia enterocolitica (VYE agar) was developed for the rapid and accurate isolation of virulent Y. enterocolitica from environmental samples highly contaminated with environmental Yersinia organisms, as well as for isolation from clinical specimens. VYE agar provided a quantitative recovery of 51 different strains of virulent Y. enterocolitica at 32 degrees C after incubation for 24 h. The cefsulodin, irgasan, josamycin, and oleandomycin content of the medium resulted in a high selectivity, and the mannitol and esculin content provided some differentiation. The greatest advantage of VYE agar is that virulent Y. enterocolitica, which forms red colonies, is easily differentiated from most environmental Yersinia organisms and other gram-negative bacteria, which form dark colonies with a dark peripheral zone as a result of esculin hydrolysis. Use of VYE agar led to a high recovery of Y. enterocolitica biotype 3B serotype O:3 strains from experimentally inoculated meat samples, compared with use of CIN agar. Biotype 2 serotypes O:5,27 and O:9 and biotype 1 esculin-negative serotypes O:4,32, O:8, O:13a,13b, O:18, O:20, and O:21 (American types) were readily differentiated from other environmental organisms able to grow on VYE agar. Epidemiological studies on Y. enterocolitica should be greatly facilitated by the use of this selective agar medium. PMID:3597750

  9. Fabrication of PMMA microfluidic chips using disposable agar hydrogel templates.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiao; Chen, Zhi; Chen, Gang

    2009-12-01

    A novel method based on disposable agar hydrogel temples have been developed for the fabrication of PMMA microfluidic chips. Molten agar hydrogel was sandwiched between a glass plate and a PMMA template bearing negative relief of microstructure. After cooling, the negative PMMA template could be easily separated from the solidified agar hydrogel and a layer of agar hydrogel temple bearing high-fidelity positive relief of the microstructure was left on the glass plate. Prepolymerized methyl methacrylate molding solution containing ultraviolet-initiator was subsequently sandwiched between the agar hydrogel template and a PMMA plate and was allowed to polymerize under ultraviolet light to fabricate the PMMA channel plate at room temperature. Complete microchips could be obtained by bonding the channel plates with covers. The prepared microfluidic microchips have been successfully employed in the electrophoresis separation and detection of several ions in connection with contactless conductivity detection. PMID:20013907

  10. Direct Protocol for Ambient Mass Spectrometry Imaging on Agar Culture.

    PubMed

    Angolini, Célio Fernando F; Vendramini, Pedro Henrique; Araújo, Francisca D S; Araújo, Welington L; Augusti, Rodinei; Eberlin, Marcos N; de Oliveira, Luciana Gonzaga

    2015-07-01

    Herein we describe a new protocol that allows direct mass spectrometry imaging (IMS) of agar cultures. A simple sample dehydration leads to a thin solid agar, which enables the direct use of spray-based ambient mass spectrometry techniques. To demonstrate its applicability, metal scavengers siderophores were imaged directly from agar culture of S. wadayamensis, and well resolved and intense images were obtained using both desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and easy ambient sonic-spray ionization (EASI) with well-defined selective spatial distributions for the free and the metal-bound molecules, providing clues for their roles in cellular metabolism. PMID:26067682

  11. 21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4600 Ouchterlony agar plate. (a)...

  12. 21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4600 Ouchterlony agar plate. (a)...

  13. 21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4600 Ouchterlony agar plate. (a)...

  14. Blue Water

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent has a mechanical system that creates bubbles that rise to the surface and push ice away from the ship's hull. It also happens to churn the water into an amazing shade of blue....

  15. BLUE HONEYSUCKLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-four blue honeysuckle, Lonicera caerulea L., cultivars available to North America are described. The origin, description and uses of the cultivars are presented. The majority of the cultivars were released from Russia but two were released from Canada. These cultivars have fruits which look l...

  16. [Poisoning with deadly agaric (Amanita virosa). Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Madsen, S; Jenssen, K M

    1990-05-30

    Amatoxin poisonings are uncommon in Norway. We describe a case where a young couple was poisoned after accidental ingestion of Amanita virosa (deadly agaric). After hospital treatment they recovered without serious damage to the liver. We briefly review the biological actions of amatoxins, discuss the symptoms and signs of amatoxin poisoning in detail, and outline current recommendations on therapy. PMID:2363148

  17. 21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ouchterlony agar plate. 866.4600 Section 866.4600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents §...

  18. 21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ouchterlony agar plate. 866.4600 Section 866.4600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents §...

  19. 21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ouchterlony agar plate. 866.4600 Section 866.4600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents §...

  20. 21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ouchterlony agar plate. 866.4600 Section 866.4600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents §...

  1. Improving agar electrospinnability with choline-based deep eutectic solvents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One percent agar (% wt) was dissolved in the deep eutectic solvent (DES), (2-hydroxyethyl) trimethylammonium chloride/urea at a 1:2 molar ratio, and successfully electrospun into nanofibers. An existing electrospinning set-up, operated at 50 deg C, was adapted for use with an ethanol bath to collect...

  2. Multistage Classification for Bacterial Colonies Recognition on Solid Agar Images

    E-print Network

    Signoroni, Alberto

    . As an essential part of these systems, digital recording and processing of cultured bacteria images is expectedMultistage Classification for Bacterial Colonies Recognition on Solid Agar Images Alessandro to improve plate reading, with a key role of image analysis tools in guaranteeing cost

  3. [Salmonella diagnosis and expanded bacteriologic differential diagnosis using Rambach agar].

    PubMed

    Wermter, R; Müller, U

    1995-05-01

    The present study gives not only additional advises and ideas for the use of Rambach agar but also diagnostic support. Resulting from several years of diagnostic experience the medium can be recommended for enlarged routine differential-diagnosis of bacteria and also for improved Salmonella-diagnosis as an alternative medium (under section 35 LMBG; Untersuchung von Lebensmitteln; Nachweis von Salmonellen). PMID:7575387

  4. Recovery of Sublethally Injured Bacteria Using Selective Agar Overlays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKillip, John L.

    2001-01-01

    This experiment subjects bacteria in a food sample and an environmental sample to conditions of sublethal stress in order to assess the effectiveness of the agar overlay method to recover sublethally injured cells compared to direct plating onto the appropriate selective medium. (SAH)

  5. 21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ouchterlony agar plate. 866.4600 Section 866.4600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents §...

  6. Internal structure and thermo-viscoelastic properties of agar ionogels.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anshu; Rawat, Kamla; Solanki, Pratima R; Aswal, V K; Kohlbrecher, J; Bohidar, H B

    2015-12-10

    Ionic liquids (IL) can alter the physical properties of agar hydrogels. Rheology studies show that gels with wide range of storage moduli (gel strength) G0 values ranging from 1 to 20 KPa could be made in imidazolium based IL solutions where the IL concentration may not exceed 5% (w/v). Gelation and gel melting temperatures (tgel and Tm) could be altered by as much as ? 10 °C. Small angle neutron scattering studies revealed the presence of fibre bundles of agar double helices having typical length of 120 nm that increased to ? 180 nm under favorable conditions. These structures gain flexibility from the cladding of the agar bundles by IL molecules which in turn caused partial charge neutralization of its surface. Raman spectroscopy revealed differential hydration of these bundles. It was found that IL molecules with longer alkyl chain (more hydrophobic) altered the gel homogeneity, and changed its thermal and mechanical properties significantly. Therefore, customization of agar hydrogels in green solvent medium (IL solutions) widens the scope of its application potential that may include sensing. PMID:26428165

  7. Hyperspectral Imaging for Detecting Pathogens Grown on Agar Plates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper is concerned with the development of a hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting and identifying one of the most common foodborne pathogens, Campylobacter. Direct plating using agars is an effective tool for laboratory tests and analyses of microorganisms. The morphology (size, growth...

  8. Growth kinetics of three species of Tetrahymena on solid agar

    SciTech Connect

    Dobra, K.W.; McArdle, E.W.; Ehret, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    A nutrient-agar method without liquid overlay has been developed for cultivation of ciliates. Three species of Tetrahymena-T. pyriformis strain W, T. rostrata strain UNI, and T. vorax strain V/sub 2/S, representing the 3 main groups of Tetrahymena species, were used; however the method should apply to other ciliates. Growth on the surface of the agar was facilitated by an optimal surface-to-volume ratio yielding a high density of ciliates and short generation times. At the highest density achieved, the cells became irregularly hexagonal and formed a monolayer tissue on the agar. Ciliates grown on agar were like those in liquid culture, typical oral ciliature, food-vacuole formation, and typical cortical patterns being retained. Advantages of this method include high cell density, easy recovery, and optimal O/sub 2/ supply. The organisms can also be cultivated on the surface of sterile cellulose-nitrate filters, facilitating in situ fixation and staining as well as transfer into different media by transfer of filters with cells, without prior centrifugation and resuspension.

  9. Combination cellulose plate (non-agar solid support) and agar plate method improves isolation of fungi from soil.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Kenichi; Todaka, Nemuri; ?mura, Satoshi; Masuma, Rokuro

    2014-11-01

    This is the first report describing the improved isolation of common filamentous fungi via a method combining cellulose plate and agar plate system. A cellulose plate is a porous plate made of nanofibrous crystaline cellulose. Isolating fungi from soils using these types of media separately resulted in the number of fungal colonies appearing on cellulose plates being lower than that on agar plates. However, the number of actual fungal species isolated using cellulose plates alone was more or less the same as that found using agar plates. Significantly, the diversity of isolates using a combination of the two media was greater than using each media individually. As a result, numerous new or rare fungal species with potential, including previously proposed new species, were isolated successfully in this way. All fungal colonies, including the Penicillium species, that appeared on the cellulose plate penetrated in potato dextrose were either white or yellow. Cultivation on cellulose plates with added copper ion overcomes the change in coloration, the colonies appearing as they do following cultivation on potato dextrose agar. PMID:24849537

  10. Total Antioxidant Capacity of Serum Determined Using the Potassium Permanganate Agar Method Based on Serum Diffusion in Agar

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Zhang, Meijuan; Liu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To develop a new method for determining total antioxidants in serum and to evaluate the total antioxidant capacity of organisms. Design and Methods. Sodium hyposulfite (Na2S2O3) and serum were used to evaluate the linearity and precision of the potassium permanganate agar method. The area of serum diffusion in samples from 30 intensive care unit (ICU) patients compared with 44 healthy subjects was determined by the potassium permanganate agar method. Results. The linearity (R2 in the linear experiment of Na2S2O3 was 0.994; R2 in the linear experiment of serum was 0.987) and precision (coefficient of variation of area of high level serum diffusion within-run, between-run, and between-day and coefficient of variation of area of low serum diffusion within-run, between-run, and between-day were all less than 10%) were acceptable using the potassium permanganate agar method. Total antioxidants of serum between the ICU group and the healthy group were different (p = 0.002, two tailed). Conclusions. Total antioxidants in serum can be determined by the potassium permanganate agar method. The total antioxidant capacity of an organism can be evaluated by the amount of total antioxidants in serum. PMID:26347595

  11. Spectra MRSA, a New Chromogenic Agar Medium To Screen for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus?

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jess F.; Riebe, Katherine M.; Hall, Gerri S.; Wilson, Deborah; Whittier, Susan; Palavecino, Elizabeth; Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2010-01-01

    A novel chromogenic medium, Spectra MRSA (Remel, Lenexa, KS), was designed to detect methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) rapidly and more efficiently than traditional media (i.e., tryptic soy agar with 5% sheep blood [SBA] and mannitol salt agar [MSA]). A multicenter study (including four clinical trial sites and the Medical College of Wisconsin [MCW] Milwaukee, WI) compared the performance characteristics of Spectra MRSA to those of the traditional media for the detection of MRSA. For this study, 767 nasal swab specimens from the multicenter study (traditional medium used, SBA) and 667 nasal swab specimens from MCW (traditional medium used, MSA) were plated on each test medium and examined after 24 and 48 h of incubation. At 24 h, the sensitivity and the specificity of each medium were as follows: in the multicenter study, 95.4% and 99.7%, respectively, for Spectra MRSA and 93.6% and 100%, respectively, for SBA; at MCW, 95.2% and 99.5%, respectively, for Spectra MRSA and 88.7% and 94.0%, respectively, for MSA. The positive predictive values of each medium at 24 h were as follows: in the multicenter study, 98.1% for Spectra MRSA and 100% for SBA; at MCW, 95.2% for Spectra MRSA and 60.4% for MSA. In our evaluation, we found that Spectra MRSA was able to rapidly identify and differentiate methicillin-resistant S. aureus from methicillin-susceptible S. aureus on the basis of the utilization of chromogens that result in denim blue colonies, thus eliminating the need for biochemical analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Extending the incubation beyond 24 h did not significantly improve the recovery of MRSA and resulted in decreased specificity. PMID:19889898

  12. Methods for identifying lipoxygenase producing microorganisms on agar plates

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Plate assays for lipoxygenase producing microorganisms on agar plates have been developed. Both potassium iodide-starch and indamine dye formation methods were effective for detecting soybean lipoxygenase activity on agar plates. A positive result was also achieved using the ?-carotene bleaching method, but the sensitivity of this method was lower than the other two methods. The potassium iodide-starch and indamine dye formation methods were also applied for detecting lipoxygenase production by Trichoderma reesei and Pichia pastoris transformants expressing the lipoxygenase gene of the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis. In both cases lipoxygenase production in the transformants could be identified. For detection of the G. graminis lipoxygenase produced by Aspergillus nidulans the potassium iodide-starch method was successful. When Escherichia coli was grown on agar and soybean lipoxygenase was applied on the culture lipoxygenase activity could clearly be detected by the indamine dye formation method. This suggests that the method has potential for screening of metagenomic libraries in E. coli for lipoxygenase activity. PMID:22449314

  13. Methods for identifying lipoxygenase producing microorganisms on agar plates.

    PubMed

    Nyyssölä, Antti; Heshof, Ruud; Haarmann, Thomas; Eidner, Jasmin; Westerholm-Parvinen, Ann; Langfelder, Kim; Kruus, Kristiina; de Graaff, Leo; Buchert, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    Plate assays for lipoxygenase producing microorganisms on agar plates have been developed. Both potassium iodide-starch and indamine dye formation methods were effective for detecting soybean lipoxygenase activity on agar plates. A positive result was also achieved using the ?-carotene bleaching method, but the sensitivity of this method was lower than the other two methods. The potassium iodide-starch and indamine dye formation methods were also applied for detecting lipoxygenase production by Trichoderma reesei and Pichia pastoris transformants expressing the lipoxygenase gene of the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis. In both cases lipoxygenase production in the transformants could be identified. For detection of the G. graminis lipoxygenase produced by Aspergillus nidulans the potassium iodide-starch method was successful. When Escherichia coli was grown on agar and soybean lipoxygenase was applied on the culture lipoxygenase activity could clearly be detected by the indamine dye formation method. This suggests that the method has potential for screening of metagenomic libraries in E. coli for lipoxygenase activity. PMID:22449314

  14. Modeling development of inhibition zones in an agar diffusion bioassay

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekar, Vaishnavi; Knabel, Stephen J; Anantheswaran, Ramaswamy C

    2015-01-01

    A two-temperature agar diffusion bioassay is commonly used to quantify the concentration of nisin using Micrococcus luteus as the indicator microorganism. A finite element computational model based on Fick's second law of diffusion was used to predict the radius of the inhibition zone in this diffusion bioassay. The model developed was used to calculate nisin concentration profiles as a function of time and position within the agar. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nisin against M. luteus was determined experimentally. The critical time (Tc) for growth of M. luteus within the agar diffusion bioassay was experimentally determined using incubation studies with nisin. The radius of the inhibition zone was predicted from the computational model as the location where the predicted nisin concentration at Tc was equal to MIC. The MIC was experimentally determined to be 0.156 ?g mL?1, and Tc was determined to be 7 h. Good agreement (R2 = 0.984) was obtained between model-predicted and experimentally determined inhibition zone radii. PMID:26405525

  15. Mongolian blue spots

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are a kind of birthmark that are flat, blue, or blue-gray. They appear at birth or in the ... Mongolian blue spots are common among persons who are of Asian, Native American, Hispanic, East Indian, and African descent. ...

  16. The Blue Bottle Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandaveer, Walter R., IV; Mosher, Mel

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of the classic Blue Bottle demonstration that involves the alkaline glucose reduction of methylene blue. Uses other indicators in the classic Blue Bottle to produce a rainbow of colors. (JRH)

  17. 6/15/10 4:46 PMMacConkey agar -Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 1 of 3http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MacConkey_agar

    E-print Network

    Gage, Daniel J.

    6/15/10 4:46 PMMacConkey agar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 1 of 3http://en.wikipedia.org/wikiConkey agar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 2 of 3http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki-12-11. External links #12;6/15/10 4:46 PMMacConkey agar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 3 of 3http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki

  18. Electrospinning of agar/PVA aqueous solutions and its relation with rheological properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work, we report the successful fabrication of agar-based nanofibers by an electrospinning technique using water as the solvent media. A tubeless spinneret was attached inside the electrospinning chamber, operated at 50 deg C, to avoid agar gelation. Pure agar solution 1% (w/w) showed inadequ...

  19. Evaluation of agar diffusion bioassay for nisin quantification.

    PubMed

    Pongtharangkul, T; Demirci, A

    2004-08-01

    The agar diffusion bioassay is the most widely used method for the quantification of nisin, due to its high sensitivity, simplicity, and cost-effectiveness. This method is based on the measurement of the inhibition zone produced in nisin-sensitive microorganisms. The size of the zone is affected by many factors, such as nisin-sensitive strain, amount of added agar and surfactant, and pre-diffusion step. This research aims to evaluate the effects of nisin-sensitive strains and pre-diffusion on the accuracy and precision of nisin quantification. Three strains of nisin-sensitive microorganisms (Micrococcus luteus, Lactobacillus sakei, Brochothrix thermosphacta) were tested along with three different incubation processes. The best combination was the method using L. sakei as an indicator strain with pre-diffusion at 4 degrees C for 24 h. Compared with M. luteus and B. thermosphacta, L. sakei gave more accurate and reproducible results. Moreover, the pre-diffusion step resulted in larger inhibition zones and more precise results. Finally, the best combination was validated and compared with the method that is usually used and the result showed that the method using L. sakei with pre-diffusion gave more accurate and precise results. PMID:14963617

  20. Wetting dynamics of colloidal dispersions on agar gel surfaces.

    PubMed

    Seino, Eri; Chida, Shigeki; Mayama, Hiroyuki; Hotta, Jun-ichi; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2014-10-01

    The effects of silica particle addition on the wetting velocity on flat and fractal agar gel surfaces were analyzed along with the applicability of such particles for controlling the wetting dynamics of water. The contact angles (?D) of the colloidal dispersions obeyed the power law, i.e., ?D?t(-x), where t is time and x is a constant. Wetting was inhibited by the addition of a suitable amount of 20-nm-diameter silica particles. Specifically, the exponent x reached a minimum value for a silica composition of 0.1wt%. However, such inhibition effects were not observed upon the addition of silica particles with diameters of 100, 550, and, 1000nm. The mechanism of the inhibition of the liquid wetting on gel surfaces may be attributed to a slight increase in local viscosity around the contact line during wetting. PMID:25016539

  1. Primer on Agar-Based Microbial Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jane Y.; Phelan, Vanessa V.; Simkovsky, Ryan; Watrous, Jeramie D.; Trial, Rachelle M.; Fleming, Tinya C.; Wenter, Roland; Moore, Bradley S.; Golden, Susan S.; Pogliano, Kit

    2012-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) applied directly to microbes on agar-based medium captures global information about microbial molecules, allowing for direct correlation of chemotypes to phenotypes. This tool was developed to investigate metabolic exchange factors of intraspecies, interspecies, and polymicrobial interactions. Based on our experience of the thousands of images we have generated in the laboratory, we present five steps of microbial IMS: culturing, matrix application, dehydration of the sample, data acquisition, and data analysis/interpretation. We also address the common challenges encountered during sample preparation, matrix selection and application, and sample adherence to the MALDI target plate. With the practical guidelines described herein, microbial IMS use can be extended to bio-based agricultural, biofuel, diagnostic, and therapeutic discovery applications. PMID:22821974

  2. Normal force controlled rheology applied to agar gelation

    E-print Network

    Bosi Mao; Thibaut Divoux; Patrick Snabre

    2015-10-24

    A wide range of thermoreversible gels are prepared by cooling down to ambient temperature hot aqueous solutions of polymers. During the sol-gel transition, such soft solids may experience a volume contraction which is traditionally overlooked as rheological measurements are usually performed in geometries of constant volume. In this article, we revisit the impact of thermal history on the formation of agar gels through a series of benchmark experiments conducted with a plate-plate geometry. We demonstrate that the sample contraction cannot be neglected, and that monitoring the gelation while imposing a constant gap width results in the strain hardening of the sample, as evidenced by the slow drift in time of the gel elastic modulus G'. Furthermore, we show that imposing a constant normal force equals to zero during the gelation, instead of a constant gap width, suppresses the hardening as the decrease of the gap width compensates for the sample contraction. The latter method provides a way to measure more reliably the gel linear properties and is remarkably proved efficient with either rough or smooth boundary conditions. Varying the thermal history, we show by using normal force controlled rheology that neither the value of the cooling rate, nor the addition of a constant temperature stage during the cooling process influence the gel elastic properties. Instead, G' is controlled by the terminal temperature at the end of the cooling ramp as confirmed by direct imaging of the gel microstructure by electron microscopy. The present work offers an extensive review of the artifacts associated with the rheology of agar gels and paves the way for a more systematic use of normal force controlled rheology to monitor non-isochoric processes.

  3. The effect of mixing conditions on the material properties of an agar gel--microstructural and macrostructural considerations

    E-print Network

    Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J.

    rights reserved. Keywords: Mixing; Agar gels; Viscoelasticity; Ultrasound 1. Introduction Agar is a gelThe effect of mixing conditions on the material properties of an agar gel January 2005 Abstract The effect of mixing on the properties of agar gels was investigated

  4. Blue cures blue but be cautious.

    PubMed

    Sikka, Pranav; Bindra, V K; Kapoor, Seema; Jain, Vivek; Saxena, K K

    2011-10-01

    Methemoglobinemia is a disorder characterized by the presence of >1% methemoglobin (metHb) in the blood. Spontaneous formation of methemoglobin is normally counteracted by protective enzyme systems, for example, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) methemoglobin reductase. Methemoglobinemia is treated with supplemental oxygen and methylene blue (1-2 mg/kg) administered slow intravenously, which acts by providing an artificial electron acceptor for NADPH methemoglobin reductase. But known or suspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a relative contraindication to the use of methylene blue because G6PD is the key enzyme in the formation of NADPH through pentose phosphate pathway and G6PD-deficient individuals generate insufficient NADPH to efficiently reduce methylene blue to leukomethylene blue, which is necessary for the activation of the NADPH-dependent methemoglobin reductase system. So, we should be careful using methylene blue in methemoglobinemia patient before G6PD levels. PMID:22219589

  5. Methylene blue test

    MedlinePLUS

    The methylene blue test is a test to determine the type of methemoglobinemia , a blood disorder. ... are removed. A dark green powder called methylene blue goes through the tube into your vein. The ...

  6. Greening the Blue Bottle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Whitney E.; Noble, Mark E.

    2003-01-01

    Compares the revised Blue Bottle formulation to the classical Blue Bottle. Indicates that the revised formulation gives a somewhat bluer solution, but initially slower reduction when compared to the classical formulation. (Author/KHR)

  7. Residual Agar Determination in Bacterial Spores by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Karen L.; Colburn, Heather A.; Wunschel, David S.; Petersen, Catherine E.; Jarman, Kristin H.; Valentine, Nancy B.

    2010-02-15

    Presented here is an analytical method to detect residual agar from a bacterial spore sample as an indication of culturing on an agar plate. This method is based on the resolubilization of agar polysaccharide from a bacterial spore sample, enzymatic digestion, followed by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MSn) analysis for detection of a specific agar fragment ion. A range of Bacillus species and strains were selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. The characteristic agar fragment ion was detected in the spores grown on agar that were washed from 1 to 5 times, irradiated or non-irradiated and not in the spores grown in broth. A sample containing approximately 108 spores is currently needed for confident detection of residual agar from culture on agar plates in the presence of bacterial spores with a limit of detection of approximately 1 ppm agar spiked into a broth-grown spore sample. The results of a proficiency test with 42 blinded samples are presented demonstrating the utility of this method with no false positives and only 3 false negatives for samples that were below the detection level of the method as documented.

  8. A Hidden Pitfall in the Preparation of Agar Media Undermines Microorganism Cultivability

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Tomohiro; Kawasaki, Kosei; Daimon, Serina; Kitagawa, Wataru; Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Michiko; Nakatsu, Cindy H.

    2014-01-01

    Microbiologists have been using agar growth medium for over 120 years. It revolutionized microbiology in the 1890s when microbiologists were seeking effective methods to isolate microorganisms, which led to the successful cultivation of microorganisms as single clones. But there has been a disparity between total cell counts and cultivable cell counts on plates, often referred to as the “great plate count anomaly,” that has long been a phenomenon that still remains unsolved. Here, we report that a common practice microbiologists have employed to prepare agar medium has a hidden pitfall: when phosphate was autoclaved together with agar to prepare solid growth media (PT medium), total colony counts were remarkably lower than those grown on agar plates in which phosphate and agar were separately autoclaved and mixed right before solidification (PS medium). We used a pure culture of Gemmatimonas aurantiaca T-27T and three representative sources of environmental samples, soil, sediment, and water, as inocula and compared colony counts between PT and PS agar plates. There were higher numbers of CFU on PS medium than on PT medium using G. aurantiaca or any of the environmental samples. Chemical analysis of PT agar plates suggested that hydrogen peroxide was contributing to growth inhibition. Comparison of 454 pyrosequences of the environmental samples to the isolates revealed that taxa grown on PS medium were more reflective of the original community structure than those grown on PT medium. Moreover, more hitherto-uncultivated microbes grew on PS than on PT medium. PMID:25281372

  9. Detection of Agar, by Analysis of Sugar Markers, Associated with Bacillus Anthracis Spores, After Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Wunschel, David S.; Colburn, Heather A.; Fox, Alvin; Fox, Karen F.; Harley, William M.; Wahl, Jon H.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2008-08-01

    Detection of small quantities of agar associated with spores of Bacillus anthracis could provide key information regarding its source or growth characteristics. Agar, widely used in growth of bacteria on solid surfaces, consists primarily of repeating polysaccharide units of 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose (AGal) and galactose (Gal) with sulfated and O-methylated galactoses present as minor constituents. Two variants of the alditol acetate procedure were evaluated for detection of potential agar markers associated with spores. The first method employed a reductive hydrolysis step, to stabilize labile anhydrogalactose, by converting to anhydrogalactitol. The second eliminated the reductive hydrolysis step simplifying the procedure. Anhydrogalactitol, derived from agar, was detected using both derivatization methods followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. However, challenges with artefactual background (reductive hydrolysis) or marker destruction (hydrolysis) lead to the search for alternative sugar markers. A minor agar component, 6-O-methyl galactose (6-O-M gal), was readily detected in agar-grown but not broth-grown bacteria. Detection was optimized by the use of gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). With appropriate choice of sugar marker and analytical procedure, detection of sugar markers for agar has considerable potential in microbial forensics.

  10. Factors Affecting Selectivity of Brilliant Green-Phenol Red Agar for Salmonellae

    PubMed Central

    Moats, W. A.; Kinner, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Commercial brilliant green (BG)-sulfa agar was found to be nonselective toward a test series of Enterobacteriaceae. Various formulations of BG were prepared by using Trypticase soy agar (BBL) as a base. Results were more reproducible when BG dye was added after sterilization than before. Sulfonamides improved selectivity as compared with brilliant green alone. Sulfanilamide (SN) was slightly more selective for salmonellae than other sulfonamides tested. Bile salts and sodium dodecyl sulfate markedly reduced the toxicity of BG to all the test bacteria. Enterobacter strains were most difficult to inhibit. A combination of 5 mg of BG and 1 g of SN/liter prevented growth of Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli and retarded growth of Enterobacter strains. The BG-SN agars were superior in selectivity to a series of commercial agars tested, and numbers of salmonellae recovered on BG-SN agar and Trypticase soy agar (BBL) were the same. Brilliant green agars with various degrees of selectivity are described. PMID:4589120

  11. A hidden pitfall in the preparation of agar media undermines microorganism cultivability.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tomohiro; Kawasaki, Kosei; Daimon, Serina; Kitagawa, Wataru; Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Michiko; Nakatsu, Cindy H; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2014-12-01

    Microbiologists have been using agar growth medium for over 120 years. It revolutionized microbiology in the 1890s when microbiologists were seeking effective methods to isolate microorganisms, which led to the successful cultivation of microorganisms as single clones. But there has been a disparity between total cell counts and cultivable cell counts on plates, often referred to as the "great plate count anomaly," that has long been a phenomenon that still remains unsolved. Here, we report that a common practice microbiologists have employed to prepare agar medium has a hidden pitfall: when phosphate was autoclaved together with agar to prepare solid growth media (PT medium), total colony counts were remarkably lower than those grown on agar plates in which phosphate and agar were separately autoclaved and mixed right before solidification (PS medium). We used a pure culture of Gemmatimonas aurantiaca T-27(T) and three representative sources of environmental samples, soil, sediment, and water, as inocula and compared colony counts between PT and PS agar plates. There were higher numbers of CFU on PS medium than on PT medium using G. aurantiaca or any of the environmental samples. Chemical analysis of PT agar plates suggested that hydrogen peroxide was contributing to growth inhibition. Comparison of 454 pyrosequences of the environmental samples to the isolates revealed that taxa grown on PS medium were more reflective of the original community structure than those grown on PT medium. Moreover, more hitherto-uncultivated microbes grew on PS than on PT medium. PMID:25281372

  12. Recovery of nematodes from ruminants by migration from gastro-intestinal ingesta and mucosa gelled in agar: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Van Wyk, J A; Gerber, H M

    1978-03-01

    When gastro-intestinal ingesta and mucosa containing larvae or adult Haemonchus contortus, Ostertagia circumcincta. Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Strongyloides papillosus, Nematodirus spathiger, Gaigeria pachyscelis, Oesophagostomum columbianum or Chabertia ovina were suspended in 0,75--1,00% agar gel and incubated in physiological saline, a mean of 93,6% of the helminths migrated from the agar-ingesta or agar-mucosa into the physiological saline. The lowest suitable concentration of agar was 0,85--0,90% for one batch of agar and 0,65% for another. Although most of the worms had migrated from the agar gel after 3--4 h of incubation, migration usually continued for longer than 7 h. While low concentrations of formalin partially inhibited migration from the gel, slightly more worms were recovered from agar containing 1% bile than from agar alone. PMID:704042

  13. Modeling of the Bacillus subtilis Bacterial Biofilm Growing on an Agar Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoling; Wang, Guoqing; Hao, Mudong

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are organized communities composed of millions of microorganisms that accumulate on almost any kinds of surfaces. In this paper, a biofilm growth model on an agar substrate is developed based on mass conservation principles, Fick's first law, and Monod's kinetic reaction, by considering nutrient diffusion between biofilm and agar substrate. Our results show biofilm growth evolution characteristics such as biofilm thickness, active biomass, and nutrient concentration in the agar substrate. We quantitatively obtain biofilm growth dependence on different parameters. We provide an alternative mathematical method to describe other kinds of biofilm growth such as multiple bacterial species biofilm and also biofilm growth on various complex substrates. PMID:26355542

  14. Templated blue phases.

    PubMed

    Ravnik, Miha; Fukuda, Jun-Ichi

    2015-10-28

    Cholesteric blue phases of a chiral liquid crystal are interesting examples of self-organised three-dimensional nanostructures formed by soft matter. Recently it was demonstrated that a polymer matrix introduced by photopolymerization inside a bulk blue phase not only stabilises the host blue phase significantly, but also serves as a template for blue phase ordering. We show with numerical modelling that the transfer of the orientational order of the blue phase to the surfaces of the polymer matrix, together with the resulting surface anchoring, can account for the templating behaviour of the polymer matrix inducing the blue phase ordering of an achiral nematic liquid crystal. Furthermore, tailoring the anchoring conditions of the polymer matrix surfaces can bring about orientational ordering different from those of bulk blue phases, including an intertwined complex of the polymer matrix and topological line defects of orientational order. Optical Kerr response of templated blue phases is explored, finding large Kerr constants in the range of K = 2-10 × 10(-9) m V(-2) and notable dependence on the surface anchoring strength. More generally, the presented numerical approach is aimed to clarify the role and actions of templating polymer matrices in complex chiral nematic fluids, and further to help design novel template-based materials from chiral liquid crystals. PMID:26412643

  15. Blue Willow Story Plates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  16. Effect of Gravity on the Colonial Morphology of Staphylococci in Soft Agar

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Judd R.; Hatten, Mary B.; Salmirs, Seymour

    1969-01-01

    After horizontal rotation on a clinostat at 1 rev/min, subsurface colonies of staphylococci in soft agar were compact and spherical; nonrotated colonies were diffuse and elongated. Images PMID:5369302

  17. A fresh liver agar substrate for rearing small numbers of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gruner, Susan V.; Slone, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Forensically important calliphorids can be reared on a mixture of beef liver and agar. Small pieces of meat, especially fresh or frozen beef liver, will desiccate in 2–6 h, but this simple-to-make feeding substrate remains moist for at least 12 h at 25 and 30°C without desiccation, even in small (5 g) amounts. We determined the survivorship of small numbers of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (first-instar larvae to adult eclosion) raised on 5 g of liver agar and fresh beef liver. We found that all larvae raised on 5 g of liver died due to desiccation, but survivorship on 5 g of liver agar was equivalent to that on larger (50 g) pieces of either liver agar or beef liver.

  18. Hardboiled eggs petri dishes for growing tooth microbes (find proper agar)

    E-print Network

    Materials Hardboiled eggs cola OJ Water petri dishes for growing tooth microbes (find proper agar) activities: roleplay egg in acid grow microbes Intro so just a little about myself; name; Im a Chemist I go

  19. Low density, microcellular, dopable, agar/gelatin foams for pulsed power experiments

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, W.F.; Aubert, J.H.

    1997-04-01

    Low-density, microcellular foams prepared from the natural polymers agar and gelatin have been developed for pulsed-power physics experiments. Numerous experiments were supported with foams having densities at or below 10 mg/cm{sup 3}. For some of the experiments, the agar/gelatin foam was uniformly doped with metallic elements using soluble salts. Depending on the method of preparation, cell sizes were typically below 10 microns and for one process were below 1.0 micron.

  20. Complex impedance and conductivity of agar-based ion-conducting polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwanya, A. C.; Amaechi, C. I.; Udounwa, A. E.; Osuji, R. U.; Maaza, M.; Ezema, F. I.

    2015-04-01

    Agar-based electrolyte standing films with different salts and weak acids as ion and proton conductors were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectrophotometry, photoluminescence emission spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The salts used are lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) and potassium perchlorate (KClO4), while the weak acids used are acetic acid (CH3COOH) and lactic acid (C3H6O3). The values of the ion conductivity obtained for the agar-based polymer films are 6.54 × 10-8, 9.12 × 10-8, 3.53 × 10-8, 2.24 × 10-8 S/cm for the agar/acetic acid, agar/lactic acid, agar/LiClO4 and agar/KClO4 polymer films, respectively. As a function of temperature, the ion conductivity exhibits an Arrhenius behavior and the estimated activation energy is ?0.1 eV for all the samples. The samples depicted high values of dielectric permittivity toward low frequencies which is due mostly to electrode polarization effect. The samples showed very high transparency (85-98 %) in the visible region, and this high transparency is one of the major requirements for application in electrochromic devices (ECD). The values of conductivity and activation energy obtained indicate that the electrolytes are good materials for application in ECD.

  1. Preparation, characterization, and in vitro gastrointestinal digestibility of oil-in-water emulsion-agar gels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Neves, Marcos A; Kobayashi, Isao; Uemura, Kunihiko; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi

    2013-01-01

    Soybean oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion-agar gel samples were prepared and their digestibility evaluated by using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. Emulsion-agar sols were obtained by mixing the prepared O/W emulsions with a 1.5 wt % agar solution at 60 °C, and their subsequent cooling at 5 °C for 1 h formed emulsion-agar gels. Their gel strength values increased with increasing degree of polymerization of the emulsifiers, and the relative gel strength increased in the case of droplets with an average diameter smaller than 700 nm. Flocculation and coalescence of the released emulsion droplets depended strongly on the emulsifier type; however, the emulsifier type hardly affected the ?-potential of emulsion droplets released from the emulsion-agar gels during in vitro digestion. The total FFA content released from each emulsion towards the end of the digestion period was nearly twice that released from the emulsion-agar gel, indicating that gelation of the O/W emulsion may have delayed lipid hydrolysis. PMID:23470750

  2. [GROWTH OF MICROMYCETES FROM DIFFERENT ECOLOGICAL NICHES ON AGAR NUTRIENT MEDIA].

    PubMed

    Kurchenko, I M; Yurieva, E M; Voychuk, S I

    2015-01-01

    Radial growth rate of (K(r)) 153 strains 6 species of micromycetes from different ecological niches was studied on 7 agar media: three standard (malt extract agar, potato-dextrose agar, Czapek's agar), and on agar media with plant polymers (carboxymethylcellulose, xylan, soluble starch and apple pectin). Endophytic and plant pathogenic strains (biotrophs) of all studied species did not differ significantly in their ability to grow on nutrient media of different composition--average values of K(r) for these two groups were the same (0,200 and 0,199 mm/h, respectively). Soil micromycetes (saprophytes) characterized by the lowest average growth rate (0,169 mm/h) and significantly differed from the endophytic and plant pathogenic ones. Average of the radial growth rates of studied microscopic fungi were higher on standard nutrient media than with plant polymers ones. Growth parameters of endophytes and plant pathogens of all studied species on various agar media differed from the soil strains. High growth rate of endophytic and plant pathogenic strains of Fusarium poae, Alternaria alternata and Ceratocystis sp. provides them the rapid colonization of plants. Penicillium funiculosum strains equally can exist as saprophytes in soil and as endophytic plant symbionts. A wide range of K(r) variation of endophytic dark pigmented Mycelia sterilia indicates the presence in this group of different species of micromycetes, which have no sporulation. PMID:26638483

  3. Blue ocean strategy.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades. PMID:15559577

  4. Thermodynamically Stable Blue Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castles, F.; Morris, S. M.; Terentjev, E. M.; Coles, H. J.

    2010-04-01

    We show theoretically that flexoelectricity stabilizes blue phases in chiral liquid crystals. Induced internal polarization reduces the elastic energy cost of splay and bend deformations surrounding singular lines in the director field. The energy of regions of double twist is unchanged. This in turn reduces the free energy of the blue phase with respect to that of the chiral nematic phase, leading to stability over a wider temperature range. The theory explains the discovery of large temperature range blue phases in highly flexoelectric “bimesogenic” and “bent-core” materials, and predicts how this range may be increased further.

  5. Blue nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is found in the blue nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) plant, especially in the fruit and leaves. ... blood: Pulse - slow pulse Shock Lungs: Slow breathing Nervous system: Delirium Fever Hallucinations Headache Loss of sensation Paralysis Whole body Sweating

  6. Blue-green algae

    MedlinePLUS

    ... increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL or “good”) cholesterol. Malnutrition. Early research on the use of blue-green algae in combination with other dietary treatments for malnutrition in infants and children has been mixed. Weight ...

  7. Novel grafted agar disks for the covalent immobilization of ?-D-galactosidase.

    PubMed

    Wahba, Marwa I; Hassan, Mohamed E

    2015-12-01

    Novel grafted agar disks were prepared for the covalent immobilization of ?-D-galactosidase (?-gal). The agar disks were activated through reacting with ethylenediamine or different molecular weights of Polyethyleneimine (PEI), followed by glutaraldehyde (GA). The modification of the agar gel and the binding of the enzyme were verified by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and elemental analysis. Moreover, the agar's activation process was optimized, and the amount of immobilized enzyme increased 3.44 folds, from 38.1 to 131.2 U/g gel, during the course of the optimization process. The immobilization of ?-gal onto the activated agar disks caused its optimum temperature to increase from 45°C to 45-55°C. The optimum pH of the enzyme was also shifted towards the acidic side (3.6-4.6) after its immobilization. Additionally, the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km ) increased for the immobilized ?-gal as compared to its free counterpart whereas the maximum reaction rate (Vmax ) decreased. The immobilized enzyme was also shown to retain 92.99% of its initial activity after being used for 15 consecutive times. PMID:26043937

  8. Effects of shape and size of agar gels on heating uniformity during pulsed microwave treatment.

    PubMed

    Soto-Reyes, Nohemí; Temis-Pérez, Ana L; López-Malo, Aurelio; Rojas-Laguna, Roberto; Sosa-Morales, María Elena

    2015-05-01

    Model gel systems with different shape (sphere, cylinder, and slab) and size (180 and 290 g) were prepared with agar (5%) and sucrose (5%). Dielectric constant (?'), loss factor (?"), thermophysical properties, and temperature distribution of the model system were measured. Each agar model system was immersed and suspended in water, and then, heated in a microwave oven with intermittent heating until the core temperature reached 50 °C. The ?' and ?" of agar gels decreased when frequency increased. The density and thermal conductivity values of the agar gels were 1033 kg/m(3) and 0.55 W/m °C, respectively. The temperature distribution of sphere, cylinder, and slab was different when similar power doses were applied. The slab reached 50 °C in less time (10 min) and showed a more uniform heating than spheres and cylinders in both sizes. Agar model systems of 180 g heated faster than those of 290 g. The coldest point was the center of the model systems in all studied cases. Shape and size are critical food factors that affect the heating uniformity during microwave heating processes. PMID:25827444

  9. Characterization of bionanocomposite films prepared with agar and paper-mulberry pulp nanocellulose.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Jeevan Prasad; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-09-22

    Crystallized nanocellulose (CNC) was separated from paper-mulberry (Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold) bast pulp by sulfuric acid hydrolysis method and they were blended with agar to prepare bionanocomposite films. The effect of CNC content (1, 3, 5 and 10 wt% based on agar) on the mechanical, water vapor permeability (WVP), and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were studied. Changes of the cellulose fibers in structure, morphology, crystallinity, and thermal properties of the films were evaluated using FT-IR, TEM, SEM, XRD, and TGA analysis methods. The CNC was composed of fibrous and spherical or elliptic granules of nano-cellulose with sizes of 50-60 nm. Properties of agar film such as mechanical and water vapor barrier properties were improved significantly (p<0.05) by blending with the CNC. The tensile modulus and tensile strength of agar film increased by 40% and 25%, respectively, in the composite film with 5 wt% of CNC, and the WVP of agar film decreased by 25% after formation of nanocomposite with 3 wt% of CNC. The CNC obtained from the paper-mulberry bast pulp can be used as a reinforcing agent for the preparation of bio-nanocomposites, and they have a high potential for the development of completely biodegradable food packaging materials. PMID:24906782

  10. Migration of chemotactic bacteria in soft agar: role of gel concentration.

    PubMed

    Croze, Ottavio A; Ferguson, Gail P; Cates, Michael E; Poon, Wilson C K

    2011-08-01

    We study the migration of chemotactic wild-type Escherichia coli populations in semisolid (soft) agar in the concentration range C = 0.15-0.5% (w/v). For C?0.35%, expanding bacterial colonies display characteristic chemotactic rings. At C = 0.35%, however, bacteria migrate as broad circular bands rather than sharp rings. These are growth/diffusion waves arising because of suppression of chemotaxis by the agar and have not been previously reported experimentally to our knowledge. For C = 0.4-0.5%, expanding colonies do not span the depth of the agar and develop pronounced front instabilities. The migration front speed is weakly dependent on agar concentration at C < 0.25%, but decreases sharply above this value. We discuss these observations in terms of an extended Keller-Segel model for which we derived novel transport parameter expressions accounting for perturbations of the chemotactic response by collisions with the agar. The model makes it possible to fit the observed front speed decay in the range C = 0.15-0.35%, and its solutions qualitatively reproduce the observed transition from chemotactic to growth/diffusion bands. We discuss the implications of our results for the study of bacteria in porous media and for the design of improved bacteriological chemotaxis assays. PMID:21806920

  11. Migration of Chemotactic Bacteria in Soft Agar: Role of Gel Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Croze, Ottavio A.; Ferguson, Gail P.; Cates, Michael E.; Poon, Wilson C.K.

    2011-01-01

    We study the migration of chemotactic wild-type Escherichia coli populations in semisolid (soft) agar in the concentration range C = 0.15–0.5% (w/v). For C?0.35%, expanding bacterial colonies display characteristic chemotactic rings. At C = 0.35%, however, bacteria migrate as broad circular bands rather than sharp rings. These are growth/diffusion waves arising because of suppression of chemotaxis by the agar and have not been previously reported experimentally to our knowledge. For C = 0.4–0.5%, expanding colonies do not span the depth of the agar and develop pronounced front instabilities. The migration front speed is weakly dependent on agar concentration at C < 0.25%, but decreases sharply above this value. We discuss these observations in terms of an extended Keller-Segel model for which we derived novel transport parameter expressions accounting for perturbations of the chemotactic response by collisions with the agar. The model makes it possible to fit the observed front speed decay in the range C = 0.15–0.35%, and its solutions qualitatively reproduce the observed transition from chemotactic to growth/diffusion bands. We discuss the implications of our results for the study of bacteria in porous media and for the design of improved bacteriological chemotaxis assays. PMID:21806920

  12. Strategies to improve the mechanical strength and water resistance of agar films for food packaging applications.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ana M M; Gonçalves, Maria P

    2015-11-01

    Agar films possess several properties adequate for food packaging applications. However, their high cost-production and quality variations caused by physiological and environmental factors affecting wild seaweeds make them less attractive for industries. In this work, native (NA) and alkali-modified (AA) agars obtained from sustainably grown seaweeds (integrated multi-trophic aquaculture) were mixed with locust bean gum (LBG) to make 'knife-coated' films with fixed final concentration (1 wt%) and variable agar/LBG ratios. Agar films were easier to process upon LBG addition (viscosity increase and gelling character decrease of the film-forming solutions observed by dynamic oscillatory and steady shear measurements). The mechanical properties and water resistance were optimal for films with 50 and/or 75% LBG contents and best in the case of NA (cheaper to extract). These findings can help reduce the cost-production of agar packaging films. Moreover, the controlled cultivation of seaweeds can provide continuous and reliable feedstock for transformation industries. PMID:26256341

  13. Homogeneous Matrix Deposition on Dried Agar for MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry of Microbial Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Thomas; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2015-11-01

    Matrix deposition on agar-based microbial colonies for MALDI imaging mass spectrometry is often complicated by the complex media on which microbes are grown. This Application Note demonstrates how consecutive short spray pulses of a matrix solution can form an evenly closed matrix layer on dried agar. Compared with sieving dry matrix onto wet agar, this method supports analyte cocrystallization, which results in significantly more signals, higher signal-to-noise ratios, and improved ionization efficiency. The even matrix layer improves spot-to-spot precision of measured m/z values when using TOF mass spectrometers. With this technique, we established reproducible imaging mass spectrometry of myxobacterial cultures on nutrient-rich cultivation media, which was not possible with the sieving technique.

  14. Susceptibility of Candida albicans to photodynamic therapy using methylene blue and toluidine blue as photosensitizing dyes.

    PubMed

    Pupo, Yasmine M; Gomes, Giovana M; Santos, Elizabete B; Chaves, Luzia; Michel, Milton D; Kozlowski, Vitoldo A; Gomes, Osnara M M; Gomes, Joãdo Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The increased resistance of Candida albicans to antibiotic therapy indicates the need for alternative treatments for oral candidiasis. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been researched as an alternative tool to inactivate pathogenic microorganisms. It uses a combination of a photosensitizer and a visible light source. This study evaluated the susceptibility of C. albicans to PDT and compared the efficacy of 100 microg/mL methylene blue (MB) and toluidine blue (TB) as photosensitizers. The light source was Indium-Gallium-Aluminum Phosphide (InGaAIP) laser at 53 J/cm2. Suspensions of 108 cells/mL of C. albicans were subject to PDT for 5 minutes in 96-well plates, then decimal dilutions were plated on Sabouraud Dextrose agar After 48h incubation at 37 degreesC, the number of CFU/mL were obtained and submitted to statistical analysis using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, ANOVA (p<0.0001) and Tukey tests. The results showed that MB or laser irradiation alone did not have statistically significant antifungal activity compared to the positive control group (p> 0. 05). Conversely, the number of viable C. albicans cells was reduced significantly after PDT using MB or mainly TB associated to diode laser irradiation. The data proved the efficacy of PDT against C. albicans cells, regardless of the photosensitizer used. PMID:22165318

  15. Agar-polydimethylsiloxane devices for quantitative investigation of oviposition behaviour of adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Leung, Jacob C K; Taylor-Kamall, Rhodri W; Hilliker, Arthur J; Rezai, Pouya

    2015-05-01

    Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) is a model organism and its behaviours including oviposition (egg-laying) on agar substrates have been widely used for assessment of a variety of biological processes in flies. Physical and chemical properties of the substrate are the dominant factors affecting Drosophila's oviposition, but they have not been investigated precisely and parametrically with the existing manual approaches. As a result, many behavioral questions about Drosophila oviposition, such as the combined effects of the aforementioned substrate properties (e.g., exposure area, sugar content, and stiffness) on oviposition and viability, and their threshold values, are yet to be answered. In this paper, we have devised a simple, easily implementable, and novel methodology that allows for modification of physical and chemical composition of agar substrates in order to quantitatively study survival and oviposition of adult fruit flies in an accurate and repeatable manner. Agar substrates have been modified by surface patterning using single and hexagonally arrayed through-hole polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes with various diameters and interspacing, as well as by substrate stiffness and sugar content modification via alteration of chemical components. While pure PDMS substrates showed a significant lethal effect on flies, a 0.5?mm diameter through-hole access to agar was found to abruptly increase the survival of adult flies to more than 93%. Flies avoided ovipositing on pure PDMS and on top of substrates with 0.5?mm diameter agar exposure areas. At a hole diameter of 2?mm (i.e., 0.25% exposure area) or larger, eggs were observed to be laid predominately inside the through-holes and along the edges of the PDMS-agar interface, showing a trending increase in site selection with 4?mm (i.e., 1% exposure area threshold) demonstrating natural oviposition rates similar to pure agar. The surface-modified agar-PDMS hybrid devices and the threshold values reported for the substrate physical and chemical conditions affecting oviposition are novel; therefore, we advocate their use for future in-depth studies of oviposition behaviour in Drosophila melanogaster with accuracy and repeatability. The technique is also useful for development of novel assays for learning and decision-making studies as well as miniaturized devices for self-assembly of eggs and embryonic developmental investigations. PMID:26180569

  16. Agar transfer devices for environmental sampling in the compounding pharmacy: science and compliance.

    PubMed

    Grilli, Anthony; Sutton, Scott

    2015-01-01

    This article provides the results of a study evaluating the sampling efficiency of a flat paddle sampling device against a round surface sampling device in controlled studies. Each device is supplied with identical microbial-growth media, and laboratory studies document equivalent performance of the media in the devices. Both devices perform sampling by the same process (agar transfer of microorganisms from the facility surface to the agar surface), and the performance of the two devices was shown to be equivalent in laboratory studies. Either the commonly used flat paddle sampler or the round contact plate is suitable for surface monitoring in the compounding pharmacy. PMID:25902625

  17. Antibiotic susceptibility testing (agar disk diffusion and agar dilution) of clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium: comparison of Mueller-Hinton, Iso-Sensitest, and Wilkins-Chalgren agar media.

    PubMed

    Traub, W H; Geipel, U; Leonhard, B

    1998-01-01

    Forty-two isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and 56 isolates of Enterococcus faecium, including 8 vancomycin-resistant strains, were examined for comparative susceptibility to 27 antimicrobial drugs with the agar dilution method, employing Mueller-Hinton (MHA), Iso-Sensitest (ISTA), and Wilkins-Chalgren (WCA) agar. The Bauer-Kirby agar disk diffusion method was used to comparatively test 24 of the agents in parallel. The enterococci yielded better growth on ISTA and WCA. However, WCA completely antagonized co-trimoxazole and, though less, fosfomycin. Importantly, WCA slightly reduced the activities of teicoplanin (minimal inhibitory concentrations, MICs, raised up to twofold) and vancomycin (MICs raised two- to fourfold) against enterococci and staphylococcal quality control strains. Therefore, WCA was judged unsuitable for susceptibility testing of enterococci. For E. faecalis no discrepancies between agar dilution MICs and inhibition zone diameters were encountered with augmentin, ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, chloramphenicol, mupirocin, oxacillin, teicoplanin, and co-trimoxazole. Overall, MHA yielded fewer very major (category I) and major (category II) discrepancies than ISTA. However, numerous minor (category III), slight (category IV), minimal (category V), and/or negligible (category VI) discrepancies were encountered with ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, erythromycin, fosfomycin, fusidic acid, meropenem, ofloxacin and rifampin. With respect to E. faecium, only cefotaxime, mupirocin, oxacillin, and teicoplanin yielded nondiscrepant results. Several very major (I) and major (II) discrepancies were observed with augmentin, ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, doxycycline, fusidic acid, imipenem, and penicillin G. Minor discrepancies (categories III-VI) were particularly numerous with augmentin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, and piperacillin. The largest numbers of negligible (VI) discrepancies were noted with fosfomycin, fusidic acid, and ofloxacin. It is recommended to test one cephalosporin (cefuroxime or the like) in parallel for educational purposes and to exclude fosfomycin, fusidic acid, and rifampin from test batteries because of the wide scatter of test results. The large number of minimal (V) discrepancies of ciprofloxacin against E. faecalis, the numerous minor (III) and slight (IV) discrepancies of chloramphenicol against E. faecium, and the not insignificant number of very major (I) and minor (III) discrepancies observed with meropenem against isolates of E. faecalis necessitated proposals for new disk intermediate susceptibility criteria. PMID:9681198

  18. The Blue Tube.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallisch, Bill; Taylor, Bob

    The "Blue Tube" is a 2-part academic package developed at the U.S. Air Force Academy consisting of an English course in communication and writing skills and a management course in advertising and marketing; the two courses are interrelated through student assignments in television production. The first part of the package includes training of…

  19. Great Blue Heron

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Great Blue Herons are found throughout much of North America, but are always associated with water. Because they fish by sight, they need relatively shallow water. Release of too much water through the canals north of the Everglades can interfere with their ability to find food....

  20. EFFECT OF IMPACT STRESS ON MICROBIAL RECOVERY ON AN AGAR SURFACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial stress due to the impaction of microorganisms onto an agar collection surface was studied experimentally. he relative recovery rates of aerosolized Pseudomonas fluorescens and Micrococcus luteus were determined as a function of the impaction velocity by using a moving a...

  1. Structural, physical, and chemical modifications induced by microwave heating on native agar-like galactans.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ana M M; Morais, Simone; Abreu, Maria H; Pereira, Rui; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel; Cabrita, Eurico J; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Gonçalves, Maria Pilar

    2012-05-16

    Native agars from Gracilaria vermiculophylla produced in sustainable aquaculture systems (IMTA) were extracted under conventional (TWE) and microwave (MAE) heating. The optimal extracts from both processes were compared in terms of their properties. The agars' structure was further investigated through Fourier transform infrared and NMR spectroscopy. Both samples showed a regular structure with an identical backbone, ?-d-galactose (G) and 3,6-anhydro-?-l-galactose (LA) units; a considerable degree of methylation was found at C6 of the G units and, to a lesser extent, at C2 of the LA residues. The methylation degree in the G units was lower for MAE(opt) agar; the sulfate content was also reduced. MAE led to higher agar recoveries with drastic extraction time and solvent volume reductions. Two times lower values of [?] and M(v) obtained for the MAE(opt) sample indicate substantial depolymerization of the polysaccharide backbone; this was reflected in its gelling properties; yet it was clearly appropriate for commercial application in soft-texture food products. PMID:22540146

  2. MODIFIED AGAR MEDIUM FOR DETECTING ENVIRONMENTAL SALMONELLAE BY THE MOST-PROBABLE-NUMBER METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmonellae in the environment remain a potential source of disease. Low numbers of salmonellae have been detected and enumerated from environmental samples by most probable number methods that require careful colony selection from plated agar medium. A modified xylose lysine bri...

  3. Comparison of the antibacterial activity of chelating agents using the agar diffusion method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine antibacterial activity of 2 metal chelators. Concentrations of 0 to 40 mM of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and ethylenediamine-N,N’-disuccinic acid (EDDS) were prepared in 1.0 M potassium hydroxide (KOH). The pH of the solutions was adjusted to 1...

  4. THE MICROGARDENING COOKBOOK, DIRECTIONS FOR PREPARING DISHES AND TUBES OF STERILE NUTRIENT AGAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHANDLER, MARION N.

    THIS BOOKLET WAS PREPARED FOR TEACHER USE IN ASSOCIATION WITH THE ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT "MICROGARDENING." IT CONTAINS DIRECTIONS FOR PREPARING CULTURE DISHES AND TUBES OF NUTRIENT STERILE AGAR FOR FUNGAL AND/OR BACTERIAL GROWTH. IT INCLUDES (1) LISTS OF NEEDED SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT, (2) DIRECTIONS FOR THE PREPARATION AND STERILIZATION OF…

  5. IPsec Modulation for Quality of Security Service Evdoxia Spyropoulou Chris Agar Timothy Levin Cynthia Irvine

    E-print Network

    Irvine, Cynthia E.

    to the management of system performance [17]. A Quality of Protection parameter, which manages the levelIPsec Modulation for Quality of Security Service Evdoxia Spyropoulou Chris Agar Timothy Levin and how security can be treated as a dimension of Quality of Service in distributed systems is described

  6. Rapid diagnosis of acanthamoeba keratitis using non-nutrient agar with a lawn of E. coli

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A patient presented with a corneal foreign body in his only eye. He was treated with prophylactic antibiotics and sent home, but deteriorated. Findings He returned to the hospital 5 days later, and on slit-lamp examination, there was ciliary injection, corneal oedema and a 1 mm × 1 mm corneal abscess with mild anterior uveitis. Corneal scrapings were taken for culture on a non-nutrient agar with a lawn of Escherichia coli, on chocolate agar and on blood agar. He was treated with fortified gentamicin and cefazolin drops. He improved and was discharged 4 days after admission. On day 5, the culture results showed acanthamoeba. He was brought back to the hospital and treated with hourly chlorhexidine drops, ofloxacin six times daily and neomycin/dexamethasone drops once daily. On day 7, he was discharged to continue treatment at home, at which time his visual acuity in that eye was 6/9, and slit-lamp examination showed punctate keratitis and a stromal opacity with mild peripheral infiltration. Conclusions Culture on non-nutrient agar with a lawn of E. coli is a rapid, reliable and less invasive alternative to corneal biopsy for the diagnosis of acanthamoeba infection. We suggest using this method where acanthamoeba is suspected. Owing to the risk of corneal abscess, orthokeratology should be avoided in an amblyopic patient or an only eye. Acanthamoeba infection may be masked by other eye diseases. PMID:23514313

  7. Alternative plasticizers for the production of thermo-compressed agar films

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One percent agar (% wt) was dissolved in the deep eutectic solvent (DES), (2-hydroxyethyl) trimethylammonium chloride/urea at a 1:2 molar ratio, and successfully Electrospun into nanofibers. An existing electrospinning set-up, operated at 50 deg C, was adapted for use with an ethanol bath to collect...

  8. Applying Agar's Concept of "Languaculture" to Explain Asian Students' Experiences in the Australian Tertiary Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Lindy; Tsedendamba, Nara

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports part of a broader qualitative case study of Asian students "translation" (Agar, 2006) to study in an Australian university. The paper is concerned with the experiences of eight participants and their involvement in a training programme in the use of language learning strategies (LLS) to support their engagement with…

  9. A Method for Cell Culture and Maintenance of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea in Agar Stab.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yeon-Jin; Lee, Jin-Young; Shin, So-Ra; Kim, Geun-Joong

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) are predominantly found and closely linked with geochemical cycling of nitrogen in non-extreme habitats. However, these strains have mainly been investigated using liquid cultures of enriched cells. Here, we provide an agar stab as a simple and reliable means of cultivating and maintaining AOA. PMID:26543273

  10. USE OF MUELLER-HINTON BROTH AND AGAR IN THE GERM TUBE TEST

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Antonella Souza; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Severo, Cecília Bittencourt; Guazzelli, Luciana da Silva; Oliveira, Flávio de Mattos; Severo, Luiz Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is often isolated from clinical samples, thus its presumptive differentiation from other species of the same genus can be based on its ability to form the germ tube in human serum. Nevertheless, there are two other species that share this characteristic: C. dubliniensis and C. africana. The aim of this study was to compare four different substrates to perform the germ tube (GT) test. The Candida spp. isolates were identified using a manual system (135 C. albicans, 24 C. tropicalis and one C. dubliniensis). The germ tube test was performed with fresh, previously frozen serum and Mueller-Hinton (MH) broth and agar. GT was observed in 96% (130/136) of the isolates through the fresh serum technique, 94% (128/136) through previously frozen serum, 92% (125/136) in MH agar, and 90% (122/136) in MH broth. The sensitivity of each test was higher than 90%, with 100% specificity. Both the MH agar and broth were able to identify the true positives, and false positives were not found. However, some C. albicans isolates were not identified. MH agar and broth may be used in laboratory for the rapid presumptive identification of C. albicans, as an alternative method for germ tube test. PMID:25351541

  11. Hyperspectral image reconstruction using RGB color for foodborne pathogen detection on agar plates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports the latest development of a color vision technique for detecting colonies of foodborne pathogens grown on agar plates with a hyperspectral image classification model that was developed using full hyperspectral data. The hyperspectral classification model depended on reflectance sp...

  12. The Blue Whale, Balaenoptera musculus

    E-print Network

    The Blue Whale, Balaenoptera musculus SALLY A. MIZROCH, DALE W. RICE, and JEFFREY M. BREIWICK Introduction The blue whale, Balaenoptera mus- culus (Linnaeus, 1758), is not only the largest of the whales metric tons (t) (Mackintosh, 1942). Blue whales are entirely bluish-gray in color, except for the white

  13. Productivity Change in U.S. Catch Share Fisheries John Walden, Juan Agar, Ron Felthoven, Abigail Harley, Stephen Kasperski,

    E-print Network

    Productivity Change in U.S. Catch Share Fisheries John Walden, Juan Agar, Ron Felthoven, Abigail.S. Catch Share Fisheries John Walden, Juan Agar, Ron Felthoven, Abigail Harley, Stephen Kasperski, Jean Lee. Productivity Change in U.S. Catch Shares Fisheries. U.S. Dept. of Commer., NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS

  14. The Blue Emu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Descalzi, Doug; Gillett, John; Gordon, Carlton; Keener, ED; Novak, Ken; Puente, Laura

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal in designing the Blue Emu was to provide an airline with a cost efficient and profitable means of transporting passengers between the major cities in Aeroworld. The design attacks the market where a demand for inexpensive transportation exists and for this reason the Blue Emu is an attractive investment for any airline. In order to provide a profitable aircraft, special attention was paid to cost and economics. For example, in manufacturing, simplicity was stressed in structural design to reduce construction time and cost. Aerodynamic design employed a tapered wing which reduced the induced drag coefficient while also reducing the weight of the wing. Even the propulsion system was selected with cost effectiveness in mind, yet also to maintain the marketability of the aircraft. Thus, in every aspect of the design, consideration was given to economics and marketability of the final product.

  15. The blue brain project.

    PubMed

    Markram, Henry

    2006-02-01

    IBM's Blue Gene supercomputer allows a quantum leap in the level of detail at which the brain can be modelled. I argue that the time is right to begin assimilating the wealth of data that has been accumulated over the past century and start building biologically accurate models of the brain from first principles to aid our understanding of brain function and dysfunction. PMID:16429124

  16. Voyager 1 'Blue Movie'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is the original Voyager 'Blue Movie' (so named because it was built from Blue filter images). It records the approach of Voyager 1 during a period of over 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storms shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  17. [Physical properties of the agar of Gracilariopsis tenuifrons (Gracilariacea) from Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Zecchinel, E; Brito, L; Lárez, G

    2000-12-01

    The yield, gel strength, gelling and melting temperatures of Gracilariopsis tenuifrons agar from Guayacán, Araya Peninsula, Sucre State, Venezuela were determined. Yield values with and without alkali treatment ranged from 23.22 to 39.57% and from 16.29 to 22.42% respectively, while gel strength with alkali treatment fluctuated betwen 699.31 and 1231.69 g/cm2 and without treatment varied from 278.0 to 691.06 g/cm2. Gelling and melting temperatures were in the range reported for other agarophytes. Considering gel strength, the agar quality of G. tenuifrons was higher than in other species and its exploitation in economically feasible. PMID:15266808

  18. Cavitation-enhanced delivery of insulin in agar and porcine models of human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiszthuber, Helga; Bhatnagar, Sunali; Gyöngy, Miklós; Coussios, Constantin-C.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound-assisted transdermal insulin delivery offers a less painful and less invasive alternative to subcutaneous insulin injections. However, ultrasound-based drug delivery, otherwise known as sonophoresis, is a highly variable phenomenon, in part dependent on cavitation. The aim of the current work is to investigate the role of cavitation in transdermal insulin delivery. Fluorescently stained, soluble Actrapid insulin was placed on the surface of human skin-mimicking materials subjected to 265?kHz, 10% duty cycle focused ultrasound. A confocally and coaxially aligned 5?MHz broadband ultrasound transducer was used to detect cavitation. Two different skin models were used. The first model, 3% agar hydrogel, was insonated with a range of pressures (0.25-1.40?MPa peak rarefactional focal pressure—PRFP), with and without cavitation nuclei embedded within the agar at a concentration of 0.05% w/v. The second, porcine skin was insonated at 1.00 and 1.40?MPa PRFP. In both models, fluorescence measurements were used to determine penetration depth and concentration of delivered insulin. Results show that in agar gel, both insulin penetration depth and concentration only increased significantly in the presence of inertial cavitation, with up to a 40% enhancement. In porcine skin the amount of fluorescent insulin was higher in the epidermis of those samples that were exposed to ultrasound compared to the control samples, but there was no significant increase in penetration distance. The results underline the importance of instigating and monitoring inertial cavitation during transdermal insulin delivery.

  19. Susceptibility testing of Propionibacterium acnes comparing agar dilution with E test.

    PubMed

    Smith, M A; Alperstein, P; France, K; Vellozzi, E M; Isenberg, H D

    1996-04-01

    Propionibacterium acnes has been identified as a significant agent of nosocomial infections, including endophthalmitis. Data concerning susceptibility of P. acnes to newer beta-lactam antibiotics and fluoroquinolones are limited. Recent reports suggest that quinolones have activity against these organisms sufficient to warrant further study. We undertook a study to select appropriate antimicrobial agents for use in a rabbit model of P. acnes endophthalmitis. We compared the antibiotic susceptibilities of P. acnes by using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards method of agar dilution with the E test. Thirteen clinical isolates obtained from eye specimens and three American Type Culture Collection control strains were tested against 14 antibiotics. All the clinical isolates were susceptible by both methods to piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ampicillin-sulbactam, ticarcillin-clavulanate, cefotaxime, cefotetan, ceftriaxone, cefoxitin, and imipenem in addition to clindamycin but were resistant to metronidazole. The clinical P. acnes isolates also displayed high-level susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, and ofloxacin. Almost all the P. acnes strains demonstrated E-test MICs within 2 dilutions of the MICs observed by the agar dilution method. Those few strains for which discrepancies were noted exhibited E-test susceptibilities three- to fivefold dilutions lower than the agar dilution method susceptibilities but only with ampicillin-sulbactam, ticarcillin-clavulanate, and/or clindamycin. On the basis of our study, all of clinical eye isolates were susceptible to these newer antimicrobial agents and the two methods demonstrated similar susceptibility patterns. PMID:8815076

  20. AgarTrap-mediated genetic transformation using intact gemmae/gemmalings of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L.

    PubMed

    Tsuboyama-Tanaka, Shoko; Kodama, Yutaka

    2015-03-01

    The dioecious liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha L., is an emerging model plant. Various molecular biological techniques have been optimized for M. polymorpha for the past several years, and recently we reported a simplified Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method using sporelings (immature thalli from spores) of M. polymorpha. This method, termed AgarTrap (Agar-utilized Transformation with Pouring Solutions), completed by exchanging appropriate solutions on a single Petri dish to produce a sufficient number of independent transgenic sporelings. However, because spores are produced by crosses between males and females, the genetic backgrounds of resulting transgenic sporelings are not uniform. To easily produce transgenic liverworts with a uniform genetic background using AgarTrap, we developed an AgarTrap-mediated transformation method using intact gemmae/gemmalings produced by asexual reproduction. Using AgarTrap with male and female gemmae/gemmalings produced a sufficient number of independent transgenic gemmalings with uniform genetic backgrounds. The optimized transformation efficiencies were approximately 30 and 50 % in males and females, respectively. As with AgarTrap using sporelings, AgarTrap using intact gemmae/gemmalings will be useful in promoting studies of the molecular biology of M. polymorpha. PMID:25663453

  1. The Blue Marble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This spectacular Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 'blue marble' image is based on the most detailed collection of true-color imagery of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Most of the information contained in this image came from MODIS, illustrating MODIS' outstanding capacity to act as an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of this image is based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the satellite's view on any single day. Global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data was used to simulate the ocean surface. MODIS doesn't measure 3-D features of the Earth, so the surface observations were draped over topographic data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center. MODIS observations of polar sea ice were combined with observations of Antarctica made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's AVHRR sensor-the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The cloud image is a composite of two days of MODIS imagery collected in visible light wavelengths and a third day of thermal infra-red imagery over the poles. A large collection of imagery based on the blue marble in a variety of sizes and formats, including animations and the full (1 km) resolution imagery, is available at the Blue Marble page. Image by Reto Stockli, Render by Robert Simmon. Based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  2. Comparative evaluation of chromogenic agar medium and conventional culture system for isolation and presumptive identification of uropathogens

    PubMed Central

    Akter, Laila; Haque, Rezwana; Salam, Md. Abdus

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Urine is the most frequent specimen received for culture/sensitivity by clinical laboratories. The microbiological performance of HiCrome UTI agar medium was compared with Blood agar and MacConkey agar for isolation and presumptive identification of bacteria from urine culture. Methods: A total of 443 consecutively collected midstream and/or catheter-catch urine samples from patients attending the Islami Bank Medical College Hospital, Rajshahi, Bangladesh during January to December, 2012 were cultured. Urine samples showing pus cells ? 5/HPF were inoculated on to Blood agar (BA), MacConkey agar (MAC) and HiCrome UTI agar (CA) media simultaneously and incubated overnight aerobically at 370C. Rate of isolation and presumptive identification of bacterial species were compared for different media. Results: Culture yielded a total of 199 bacterial isolates from 189 (42.67%) positive plates including 179 (40.40%) unimicrobial and 10 (2.26%) polymicrobial (mixed growth of pair of bacteria) growths. Both HiCrome UTI agar and Blood agar media supported 100% growths while 151 (75.88%) growths were observed on MacConkey agar. The rate of presumptive identification was found significantly higher on HiCrome UTI agar (97.49%) than MAC agar (67.34%) (P<0.001) as primary urine culture medium. Of 199 isolates, E. coli was found to be the leading uropathogen isolated from 118 (59.30%) samples with its presumptive identification rate of 95.76%, 93.22% and 5.93% on CA, MAC and BA respectively. All 10 (100%) polymicrobial growths were demonstrated distinctly on CA against only 01(10%) on each BA and MAC. Conclusion: HiCrome UTI agar was found to be more useful as primary urine culture medium in both higher rate of isolation and presumptive identification of uropathogens in comparison to conventional media. Its inherent characteristics in demonstrating polymicrobial growth and ease of rapid identification by distinct colony colour are unique. PMID:25225521

  3. Blue ocean leadership.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets. PMID:24956870

  4. Project Blue Revolution

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, P.K.

    1996-12-01

    In June of 1992, the National Science Foundation and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration sponsored a strategic planning workshop, involving 35 ocean technologists representing the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific marine communities, to develop a proactive plan for the commercialization of national Exclusive Economic Zone resources. This meeting was the culmination of a series of gatherings held over the past decade, each treating specific ocean applications. The blue-ribbon panel recommended the consolidation of all ocean resource development activities within the federal government,a nd named the Department of Commerce as the ideal agency to manage this office, congressional oversight hearings to reestablish ocean priorities,a nd a broad spectrum of major ocean enterprises for the 21st century. During this same period, an international workshop was held in Hawaii with 50 invited specialists from six countries to discuss the merits of a cooperative program identified as Project Blue Revolution. The attendees determined that a 1 ha (100,000 sq ft) floating platform powered by ocean thermal energy conversion and at a projected cost of $500,000,000 to serve as an incubator for facilitating the commercialization of ocean resources and supporting marine science research, was a feasible venture.

  5. DENTAL INSURANCE ANTHEM BLUE CROSS AND BLUE SHIELD

    E-print Network

    - 28 - DENTAL INSURANCE ANTHEM BLUE CROSS AND BLUE SHIELD Your two choices are: After enrollment, you will receive a combined medical/dental membership card. It will be mailed to your home. Premium Payments To assist in reducing your insurance premium costs, your share of dental insurance premiums can

  6. How do microorganisms influence trace element uptake by plants? Screening in an agar model rhizosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, M.; Robinson, B. H.; Evangelou, M. W. H.; Vachey, A.; Schwitzguebel, J. P.; Bernier-Latmani, R.; Schulin, R.

    2009-04-01

    Trace elements (TE) are essential for humans and plants, but they may be toxic if their concentration is too high. For this reason, the management of TE in soils is very important. In some cases it may be necessary to increase the uptake of nutrients or TE by plants, for example in a biofortification perspective. Conversely, in some other cases TE uptake by plants should be decreased, for instance to avoid heavy metals entering the food chain via edible crops. Microorganisms living in the rhizosphere affect trace element (TE) uptake by plants. However, due to the complexity of this space and the variety of microorganisms that occur there, it is difficult to isolate the effect of any particular strain. To overcome this hurdle, we developed a system in which we grew plants under sterile conditions in agar and inoculated their rhizosphere with a single, well-defined microbial strain. For many years, agar has been used as a growth substrate for microorganisms and plant tissues. It is cheap, easy to use, and can be autoclaved to ensure its sterility. Because of its widespread use, an experiment conducted using this substrate can be reproduced under the same conditions in any laboratory. In contrast to soil, there is little interaction between the trace elements and the agar matrix. There are many studies investigating the influence of microorganisms on TE uptake by plants. However, so far only a small variety of microorganisms has been tested on few plant species. Therefore, the first objective of our research was to develop a method to rapidly screen a large variety of microorganisms on various plant species. Once this goal was achieved, we sought to study the effect of single, well-defined microbial strains on TE uptake by sunflower and wheat. The substrate for plants growth was a 10% agar solution prepared with modified Hoagland's solution and a TE solution containing 1 mg/kg Pb and molar equivalents of Cu, Ni and Zn. The agar solution was autoclaved and poured into sterile, transparent plastic boxes, whose lid was equipped with a filter allowing gas exchanges without contamination by external microorganisms. The seed surface was sterilised and the plants grew one week in agar before their rhizosphere was inoculated with LB broth containing a pure bacterial strain or agar plugs colonized by fungal hyphae. We tested 14 strains, with 5 replicates per treatment and a control where the system was inoculated with sterile LB broth. The plants grew for 2 weeks in a climate chamber and their shoots were analysed for their TEs by ICP-OES. Samples of agar and roots were collected to confirm microbial colonization of the rhizosphere, respectively sterile conditions in the control treatments. Concerning the method development, the plants grew without visible toxicity in all the boxes, and the analysis of root and agar samples indicated that the controls were sterile and the strains inoculated were growing along the roots. More than 90% of the TE and nutrients added to the system were in the liquid fraction of the agar medium, thus available for root uptake. The screening showed that the microorganisms in general decreased TE uptake by wheat and sunflower, although some of them had an opposite effect on the plants. However, with the same plant species, the microorganisms had a consistent effect on all TE tested, i.e. a given single strain caused the same effect (increase or decrease of TE uptake) on all TE tested. In sunflower, 3 microorganisms (Paenibacillus polymyxa, Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani) decreased Cu and Zn uptake by 50% compared to the control treatment. These three species are common soil microorganisms. All three are known to exude auxin, a phytohormone. This hormone can modify root morphology and physiology and thus may affect TE uptake by plants. R. solani and P. ultimum are root pathogens. Their effect was opposite to what we expected. If roots are damaged, TE should have flooded into the plant and accumulate in the tissues, but this was not the case. One explanation could be the biosorption of TE by these mi

  7. Preparation of an agar-silver nanoparticles (A-AgNp) film for increasing the shelf-life of fruits.

    PubMed

    Gudadhe, Janhavi A; Yadav, Alka; Gade, Aniket; Marcato, Priscyla D; Durán, Nelson; Rai, Mahendra

    2014-12-01

    Preparation of protective coating possessing antimicrobial properties is present day need as they increase the shelf life of fruits and vegetables. In the present study, preparation of agar-silver nanoparticle film for increasing the shelf life of fruits is reported. Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) biosynthesised using an extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves, were mixed with agar-agar to prepare an agar-silver nanoparticles (A-AgNp) film. This film was surface-coated over the fruits, Citrus aurantifolium (Thornless lime) and Pyrus malus (Apple), and evaluated for the determination of antimicrobial activity of A-AgNp films using disc diffusion method, weight loss and shelf life of fruits. This study demonstrates that these A-AgNp films possess antimicrobial activity and also increase the shelf life of fruits. PMID:25429496

  8. AgarTrap: a simplified Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method for sporelings of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L.

    PubMed

    Tsuboyama, Shoko; Kodama, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. is being developed as an emerging model plant, and several transformation techniques were recently reported. Examples are biolistic- and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methods. Here, we report a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sporelings, and it is termed Agar-utilized Transformation with Pouring Solutions (AgarTrap). The procedure of the AgarTrap was carried out by simply exchanging appropriate solutions in a Petri dish, and completed within a week, successfully yielding sufficient numbers of independent transformants for molecular analysis (e.g. characterization of gene/protein function) in a single experiment. The AgarTrap method will promote future molecular biological study in M. polymorpha. PMID:24259681

  9. Trace Amounts of Furan-2-Carboxylic Acids Determine the Quality of Solid Agar Plates for Bacterial Culture

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Shintaro; Isoda, Reika; Tahvanainen, Teemu; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Background Many investigators have recognised that a significant proportion of environmental bacteria exist in a viable but non-culturable state on agar plates, and some researchers have also noticed that some of such bacteria clearly recover their growth on matrices other than agar. However, the reason why agar is unsuitable for the growth of some bacteria has not been addressed. Methodology/Principal Findings According to the guide of a bioassay for swarming inhibition, we identified 5-hydroxymethylfuran-2-carboxylic acid (5-HMFA) and furan-2-carboxylic acid (FA) as factors that inhibit bacterial swarming and likely inhibit extracellular polysaccharide production on agar. The furan-2-carboxylic acids 5-HMFA and FA effectively inhibited the swarming and swimming of several environmental bacteria at concentrations of 1.8 and 2.3 µg L?1 (13 and 21 nmol L?1), respectively, which are equivalent to the concentrations of these compounds in 0.3% agar. On Luria-Bertani (LB) plates containing 1.0% agar that had been previously washed with MeOH, a mixture of 5-HMFA and FA in amounts equivalent to their original concentrations in the unwashed agar repressed the swarming of Escherichia coli K12 strain W3110, a representative swarming bacterium. Conclusions/Significance Agar that contains trace amounts of 5-HMFA and FA inhibits the proliferation of some slow-growing or difficult-to-culture bacteria on the plates, but it is useful for single colony isolation due to the ease of identification of swarmable bacteria as the non-swarmed colonies. PMID:22848437

  10. Amino acid mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and preparation of antimicrobial agar/silver nanoparticles composite films.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Shiv; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2015-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using amino acids (tyrosine and tryptophan) as reducing and capping agents, and they were incorporated into the agar to prepare antimicrobial composite films. The AgNPs solutions exhibited characteristic absorption peak at 420 nm that showed a red shift to ?434 nm after forming composite with agar. XRD data demonstrated the crystalline structure of AgNPs with dominant (111) facet. Apparent surface color and transmittance of agar films were greatly influenced by the AgNPs. The incorporation of AgNPs into agar did not exhibit any change in chemical structure, thermal stability, moisture content, and water vapor permeability. The water contact angle, tensile strength, and modulus decreased slightly, but elongation at break increased after AgNPs incorporation. The agar/AgNPs nanocomposite films possessed strong antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli. The agar/AgNPs film could be applied to the active food packaging by controlling the food-borne pathogens. PMID:26076636

  11. Clonal proliferation of PHA-stimulated human lymphocytes in soft agar culture.

    PubMed Central

    Rozenszajn, L A; Shoham, D; Kalechman, I

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was the induction of clonal proliferation of PHA-stimulated normal human lymphocytes using a two-layer soft agar technique. Essential conditions for colony formation include preceding sensitization of lymphocytes with PHA, and continuous presence of PHA in the soft agar culture. Two types of colonies developed: large colonies which appeared 3-4 days after seeding and comprised, after 5-6 days, 200-500 cells, and small colonies which were seen after 6-7 days of culture, resulting in production of 50-150 cells. Morphological study showed that all cells were blast-like and the mitotic index exceeded that in liquid medium by a factor of 50. Comparison between the number of colonies developing from cultured bone marrow and spleen cells with those from peripheral blood showed that, in proportion to the number of lymphocytes seeded, a larger number of colonies developed from bone marrow cells and a lower number of colonies developed from spleen cells. The time required for sensitization of lymphocytes in liquid medium with PHA was found to be no less than 12 hours. The greatest number of colonies appeared when the optimal concentration of PHA was placed in the lower agar layer. A linear relation between the number of cells seeded and the number of resulting colonies was found. One out of 2 X 10(3) or 3 X 10(3) lymphocytes in peripheral blood has the potential to develop as colony. The rosette-forming ability and morphological identification of the cells suggest that the colonies are composed of T lymphocytes. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:1081491

  12. Cavitation-enhanced delivery of insulin in agar and porcine models of human skin.

    PubMed

    Feiszthuber, Helga; Bhatnagar, Sunali; Gyöngy, Miklós; Coussios, Constantin-C

    2015-03-21

    Ultrasound-assisted transdermal insulin delivery offers a less painful and less invasive alternative to subcutaneous insulin injections. However, ultrasound-based drug delivery, otherwise known as sonophoresis, is a highly variable phenomenon, in part dependent on cavitation. The aim of the current work is to investigate the role of cavitation in transdermal insulin delivery. Fluorescently stained, soluble Actrapid insulin was placed on the surface of human skin-mimicking materials subjected to 265?kHz, 10% duty cycle focused ultrasound. A confocally and coaxially aligned 5?MHz broadband ultrasound transducer was used to detect cavitation. Two different skin models were used. The first model, 3% agar hydrogel, was insonated with a range of pressures (0.25-1.40?MPa peak rarefactional focal pressure-PRFP), with and without cavitation nuclei embedded within the agar at a concentration of 0.05% w/v. The second, porcine skin was insonated at 1.00 and 1.40?MPa PRFP. In both models, fluorescence measurements were used to determine penetration depth and concentration of delivered insulin. Results show that in agar gel, both insulin penetration depth and concentration only increased significantly in the presence of inertial cavitation, with up to a 40% enhancement. In porcine skin the amount of fluorescent insulin was higher in the epidermis of those samples that were exposed to ultrasound compared to the control samples, but there was no significant increase in penetration distance. The results underline the importance of instigating and monitoring inertial cavitation during transdermal insulin delivery. PMID:25716689

  13. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Grown on Vancomycin-Supplemented Screening Agar Displays Enhanced Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wenjiao; Ding, Ding; Zhang, Shanshan; Dai, Yuanyuan; Pan, Qing; Lu, Huaiwei; Luo, Qingli; Shen, Jilong; Ma, Xiaoling

    2015-12-01

    Brain heart infusion agar containing 3 mg/liter vancomycin (BHI-V3) was used to screen for heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA). There was markedly greater biofilm formation by isolates that grew on BHI-V3 than by strains that did not grow on BHI-V3. Increased biofilm formation by hVISA may be mediated by FnbA- and polysaccharide intercellular adhesin-dependent pathways, and upregulation of atlA and sarA may also contribute to enhanced biofilm formation by hVISA upon prolonged exposure to vancomycin. PMID:26459889

  14. Starch-Ampicillin Agar for the Quantitative Detection of Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, S A; Maxino, F; Williams, A C; Buchanan, R L; Thayer, D W

    1985-10-01

    Interest in Aeromonas hydrophila as a food-borne and human pathogen is increasing. Isolation media from the clinical laboratory were evaluated for food use and either did not give quantitative recovery of A. hydrophila or did not permit ready differentiation of A. hydrophila from the background microflora. A new medium was developed which permitted quantitative recovery of A. hydrophila from foods. The medium consisted of phenol red agar base (Difco Laboratories), soluble starch (10 g/liter), and ampicillin (10 mg/liter). All foods surveyed contained A. hydrophila. Foods sampled included red meats, chicken, raw milk, and seafood (fish, shrimp, scallops, crab, and oysters). The count of A. hydrophila at the time of purchase ranged from 1 x 10/g (lower limit of detection) to 5 x 10/g. In most instances, the count of A. hydrophila increased during 1 week of storage at 5 degrees C. The starch-ampicillin agar developed permitted rapid quantitative recovery of A. hydrophila from foods in the presence of very large numbers of competing microflora. PMID:16346899

  15. Visualization of Biosurfactant Film Flow in a Bacillus subtilis Swarm Colony on an Agar Plate

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Kim, Jung Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Collective bacterial dynamics plays a crucial role in colony development. Although many research groups have studied the behavior of fluidic swarm colonies, the detailed mechanics of its motion remains elusive. Here, we developed a visualization method using submicron fluorescent beads for investigating the flow field in a thin layer of fluid that covers a Bacillus subtilis swarm colony growing on an agar plate. The beads were initially embedded in the agar plate and subsequently distributed spontaneously at the upper surface of the expanding colony. We conducted long-term live cell imaging of the B. subtilis colony using the fluorescent tracers, and obtained high-resolution velocity maps of microscale vortices in the swarm colony using particle image velocimetry. A distinct periodic fluctuation in the average speed and vorticity of flow in swarm colony was observed at the inner region of the colony, and correlated with the switch between bacterial swarming and growth phases. At the advancing edge of the colony, both the magnitudes of velocity and vorticity of flow in swarm colony were inversely correlated with the spreading speed of the swarm edge. The advanced imaging tool developed in this study would facilitate further understanding of the effect of micro vortices in swarm colony on the collective dynamics of bacteria. PMID:26343634

  16. Evaluation of a Modified Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin Agar for Isolation of Yersinia spp

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Lai Kuan; Ooi, Peck Toung; Carniel, Elisabeth; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2014-01-01

    Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis are important food borne pathogens. However, the presence of competitive microbiota makes the isolation of Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis from naturally contaminated foods difficult. We attempted to evaluate the performance of a modified Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin (CIN) agar in the differentiation of Y. enterocolitica from non-Yersinia species, particularly the natural intestinal microbiota. The modified CIN enabled the growth of Y. enterocolitica colonies with the same efficiency as CIN and Luria-Bertani agar. The detection limits of the modified CIN for Y. enterocolitica in culture medium (10 cfu/ml) and in artificially contaminated pork (104 cfu/ml) were also comparable to those of CIN. However, the modified CIN provided a better discrimination of Yersinia colonies from other bacteria exhibiting Yersinia-like colonies on CIN (H2S-producing Citrobacter freundii, C. braakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Aeromonas hydrophila, Providencia rettgeri, and Morganella morganii). The modified CIN exhibited a higher recovery rate of Y. enterocolitica from artificially prepared bacterial cultures and naturally contaminated samples compared with CIN. Our results thus demonstrated that the use of modified CIN may be a valuable means to increase the recovery rate of food borne Yersinia from natural samples, which are usually contaminated by multiple types of bacteria. PMID:25170941

  17. Detection of encapsulation in Staphylococcus aureus by use of antiserum agar.

    PubMed Central

    West, T E; Apicella, M A

    1984-01-01

    We examined an antiserum agar method to study its reliability in screening Staphylococcus aureus strains for capsule production. The encapsulated S. aureus Smith diffuse strain was compared with its nonencapsulated variant, Smith compact, in CCY medium containing 0.5% NaCl and 5.0% Smith diffuse rabbit antiserum. A halo was visible surrounding colonies of the Smith diffuse strain but not the Smith compact strain. On this same medium, the protein A-producing Cowan I strain possessed a halo that was visible on photographs. Single high-salt medium is known to inhibit protein A production, halo formation by the strains was also compared in 7.5% NaCl medium. The halo surrounding the Cowan I strain was not present when the salt content of the medium was increased. In contrast, the halo surrounding the Smith diffuse strain persisted in the 7.5% NaCl medium. By use of this medium, the antiserum agar technique may be valuable for the identification of encapsulated staphylococci without appreciable interference from protein A. Images PMID:6490810

  18. Preparation and characterization agar-based nanocomposite film reinforced by nanocrystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Atef, Maryam; Rezaei, Masoud; Behrooz, Rabi

    2014-09-01

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was prepared from microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) with particle size of 24.7 ?m using sulfuric acid hydrolysis technique. The obtained NCC revealed size of 0-100 nm, which the major part of them was about 30 nm. Then different contents (2.5, 5 and 10 wt%) of these NCC incorporated in agar film solution and the morphology, structure, and properties of the nanocomposite films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), mechanical, physical and optical testing. Results showed that the water vapor permeability (WVP) and water solubility (WS) of the agar-based nanocomposite films significantly (P<0.05) decreased about 13% and 21%, respectively, upon increasing the NCC content to 10%. Tensile strength (TS) and Young's modulus (YM) values of nanocomposite films significantly increased (P?0.05) with addition of NCC, whereas the elongation percent (E%) decreased not significantly (P>0.05). In addition, swelling percentage, transparency and light transmission of the films were decreased by incorporating NCC into polymer matrix. PMID:25036597

  19. Visualization of Biosurfactant Film Flow in a Bacillus subtilis Swarm Colony on an Agar Plate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Kim, Jung Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Collective bacterial dynamics plays a crucial role in colony development. Although many research groups have studied the behavior of fluidic swarm colonies, the detailed mechanics of its motion remains elusive. Here, we developed a visualization method using submicron fluorescent beads for investigating the flow field in a thin layer of fluid that covers a Bacillus subtilis swarm colony growing on an agar plate. The beads were initially embedded in the agar plate and subsequently distributed spontaneously at the upper surface of the expanding colony. We conducted long-term live cell imaging of the B. subtilis colony using the fluorescent tracers, and obtained high-resolution velocity maps of microscale vortices in the swarm colony using particle image velocimetry. A distinct periodic fluctuation in the average speed and vorticity of flow in swarm colony was observed at the inner region of the colony, and correlated with the switch between bacterial swarming and growth phases. At the advancing edge of the colony, both the magnitudes of velocity and vorticity of flow in swarm colony were inversely correlated with the spreading speed of the swarm edge. The advanced imaging tool developed in this study would facilitate further understanding of the effect of micro vortices in swarm colony on the collective dynamics of bacteria. PMID:26343634

  20. William Blue College of Hospitality Management

    E-print Network

    New South Wales, University of

    Management has forged deep relationships with industry employers. Every student enrolled at William Blue of Australia's iconic education brands including William Blue College of Hospitality Management, APM College

  1. Blue moons and Martian sunsets.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Kurt; Chakrabarty, Rajan; Moosmüller, Hans

    2014-03-20

    The familiar yellow or orange disks of the moon and sun, especially when they are low in the sky, and brilliant red sunsets are a result of the selective extinction (scattering plus absorption) of blue light by atmospheric gas molecules and small aerosols, a phenomenon explainable using the Rayleigh scattering approximation. On rare occasions, dust or smoke aerosols can cause the extinction of red light to exceed that for blue, resulting in the disks of the sun and moon to appear as blue. Unlike Earth, the atmosphere of Mars is dominated by micron-size dust aerosols, and the sky during sunset takes on a bluish glow. Here we investigate the role of dust aerosols in the blue Martian sunsets and the occasional blue moons and suns on Earth. We use the Mie theory and the Debye series to calculate the wavelength-dependent optical properties of dust aerosols most commonly found on Mars. Our findings show that while wavelength selective extinction can cause the sun's disk to appear blue, the color of the glow surrounding the sun as observed from Mars is due to the dominance of near-forward scattering of blue light by dust particles and cannot be explained by a simple, Rayleigh-like selective extinction explanation. PMID:24663457

  2. Susceptibility of a polycaprolactone-based root canal filling material to degradation using an agar-well diffusion assay

    PubMed Central

    Hiraishi, Noriko; Sadek, Fernanda T.; King, Nigel M.; Ferrari, Marco; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Cholesterol esterase is both a component of salivary hydrolases as well as an inflammatory cell-derived enzyme and has been shown to cause biodegradation of methacrylate-based resin composites. This study examined whether Resilon, a polycaprolactone-based thermoplastic root filling material is susceptible to biodegradation by cholesterol esterase using agar-well diffusion assay of serially-diluted aqueous Resilon emulsions that were dispersed in agar. Materials and methods Emulsions of Resilon and polycaprolactone were prepared and dispersed in agar on culture plates. Two different concentrations of a cholesterol esterase (0.3 and 1.2 U/mL) were prepared and fed to wells prepared in the agar plates using an agar-well diffusion assay for examination the degradation of polymeric materials. Results Degradation of the emulsified Resilon was manifested as the formation of clear zones of different sizes around the agar wells. No clear zones were observed in agar wells that contain sterile distilled water as the negative control. Clinical significance Although dispersion Resilon into an emulsion is not the way in which this material is employed as a root filling material, the potential for Resilon to be degraded by cholesterol esterase is of potential concern as one cannot limit the degradation of extruded Resilon from a root apex by monocyte-derived macrophages to just the anatomical root apex. As the present study employed a high concentration of cholesterol esterase, further studies should be directed to examining the degradation of Resilon using macrophage cell cultures. PMID:18578181

  3. Can the diagnosis of recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis be improved by use of vaginal lavage samples and cultures on chromogenic agar?

    PubMed Central

    Novikova, N; Rodrigues, A; Mårdh, P A

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if introital and vaginal flushing samples inoculated on chromogenic agar could increase the recovery rate and rapid identification of Candida and non-albicans species, as compared to culture of posterior vaginal fornix samples on Sabouraud agar and speciation of isolates by biochemical tests. METHODS: Samples from the introitus and the posterior vaginal fornix and vaginal lavage samples were collected from 91 women with a history suggestive of recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis (RVVC), and with a suspected new attack of the condition. The specimens were cultured on Sabouraud and CHROMagar. Speciation of yeast isolates was made on the chromogenic agar by API 32C kits and by an atomized system (Vitek). RESULTS: Forty-six (51%) women were positive for Candida from one or more of the samples. The introital cultures were positive in 43 (47%) women, both on Sabouraud and chromogenic agar. From the posterior vaginal fomix, 42 (46%) women were positive on the Sabouraud and 43 (47%) on chromogenic agar cultures, while the vaginal lavage cultures yielded Candida on those two media in 40 (44%) and 41 (45%) cases, respectively. Candida albicans was the most frequent species recovered, from 40 (87%) cases, followed by C. krusei in 4 (9%), C. glabrata in 2 (4%), and C. parapsilosis in one case. There was only one woman who had a mixed yeast infection, by C. albicans and C. krusei. There was only one discrepancy in the speciation as demonstrated by mean of chromogenic agar and API 32C kit. CONCLUSIONS: Neither cultures of introital nor of vaginal lavage samples increases the detection rate of Candida in RVVC cases as compared to cultures of posterior vaginal fornix samples. Use of chromogenic agar is a convenient and reliable means to detect colonization by Candida and differentiate between C. albicans and non-albicans species. PMID:12530485

  4. “Anting” in Blue Jays

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Thomas; Aneshansley, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Summary Anting, the plumage-dipping behavior to which ants (mostly formicines) are commonly subjected by birds (mostly passerines), is shown in tests with hand-raised Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata) and the ant Formica exsectoides to be instinctive: the birds displayed typical renditions of the behavior on the first occasion that they encountered ants. Evidence is presented supportive of the view that anting is a strategy by which birds render ants fit for ingestion. Formicine ants are ordinarily protected by their formic acid-containing spray. Being wiped into the bird’s plumage causes them to discharge that spray, without harm to the bird, to the point of almost total emptying of the glandular sac in which the secretion is stored. The ants are therefore essentially secretion-free by the time they are swallowed. Further evidence indicates that it is the ant’s possession of the acid sac that triggers the anting behavior in the bird. If F. exsectoides are surgically deprived of their acid sac, they are eaten by the birds without first being subjected to anting. Data are also presented indicating that the ant’s crop, which is especially capacious in formicines (its contents may amount to over 30% of the formicine’s mass), and which appears to survive the anting procedure intact, constitutes, at least when laden, a valuable component of the trophic package that the bird accesses by anting. PMID:19169379

  5. Agar extraction from integrated multitrophic aquacultured Gracilaria vermiculophylla: evaluation of a microwave-assisted process using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Sousa, A M M; Alves, V D; Morais, S; Delerue-Matos, C; Gonçalves, M P

    2010-05-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of agar from Gracilaria vermiculophylla, produced in an integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) system, from Ria de Aveiro (northwestern Portugal), was tested and optimized using response surface methodology. The influence of the MAE operational parameters (extraction time, temperature, solvent volume and stirring speed) on the physical and chemical properties of agar (yield, gel strength, gelling and melting temperatures, as well as, sulphate and 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose contents) was evaluated in a 2(4) orthogonal composite design. The quality of the extracted agar compared favorably with the attained using traditional extraction (2 h at 85 degrees Celsius) while reducing drastically extraction time, solvent consumption and waste disposal requirements. Agar MAE optimum results were: an yield of 14.4 + or - 0.4%, a gel strength of 1331 + or - 51 g/cm(2), 40.7 + or - 0.2 degrees Celsius gelling temperature, 93.1 + or - 0.5 degrees Celsius melting temperature, 1.73 + or - 0.13% sulfate content and 39.4 + or - 0.3% 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose content. Furthermore, this study suggests the feasibility of the exploitation of G. vermiculophylla grew in IMTA systems for agar production. PMID:20056408

  6. Clonal growth of Entamoeba in agar: some applications of this technique to the study of their cell biology.

    PubMed

    Gillin, F D; Diamond, L S

    1978-01-01

    A new technique for growing single Entamoeba trophozoites into colonies in agar has been developed. This method depended upon axenic cultivation and utilized Diamond's new TYI-S-33 medium. The present paper describes several different types of experiment which have utilized the agar technique. a) Cloning. The isolation of clones from agar way easy and successful. Clones of the HM-1 strain did not differ in virulence for newborn hamster liver or in colony morphology or colony forming efficiency. b) Viability measurements. Colony forming efficiency (CFE) was proportional to the number of viable cells in a culture. Pilot studies with the amebacides, metronidazole and emetine, showed that the agar method should be useful in drug testing. Colchicine at high concentration inhibited clonal growth in a non-specific manner. c) E. histolytica HM-1 and E. invadens cells were rapidly killed by exposure to 42 degree C but survived relatively well at 0 degree C. d) Hemolysis. In a preliminary experiment HM-1 colonies did not produce halo's of hemolysis when grown in agar containing sheep red blood cells. PMID:211957

  7. Trinity Hall Blues 2013/14 Neil Houlsby Colours Athletics

    E-print Network

    Lasenby, Joan

    Mattos Half Blue Basketball Sophie Miller Half Blue Basketball Stephanie Polderjik Half Blue Basketball Half Blue and Colours Rifle shooting Bridget Hipwell Full Blue Rugby Harry Maxwell Colours Rugby Olly Collas Half Blue Small bore shooting Fabio van der Zuid Half Blue Water polo Bartosz Redlicki Half Blue

  8. 21 CFR 133.106 - Blue cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blue cheese. 133.106 Section 133.106 Food and... Products § 133.106 Blue cheese. (a) Description. (1) Blue cheese is the food prepared by the procedure set... methods described in § 133.5. The dairy ingredients used may be pasteurized. Blue cheese is at least...

  9. 21 CFR 133.106 - Blue cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blue cheese. 133.106 Section 133.106 Food and... Products § 133.106 Blue cheese. (a) Description. (1) Blue cheese is the food prepared by the procedure set... methods described in § 133.5. The dairy ingredients used may be pasteurized. Blue cheese is at least...

  10. 21 CFR 133.106 - Blue cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blue cheese. 133.106 Section 133.106 Food and... Products § 133.106 Blue cheese. (a) Description. (1) Blue cheese is the food prepared by the procedure set... methods described in § 133.5. The dairy ingredients used may be pasteurized. Blue cheese is at least...

  11. Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Testing of Leptospira spp. Using Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) Agar.

    PubMed

    Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Langla, Sayan; White, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P J; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Peacock, Sharon J

    2015-08-01

    Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) agar was used to develop a disk diffusion assay for Leptospira spp. Ten pathogenic Leptospira isolates were tested, all of which were susceptible to 17 antimicrobial agents (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, amoxicillin, azithromycin, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, doripenem, doxycycline, gentamicin, linezolid, nitrofurantoin, penicillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, and tetracycline). All 10 isolates had no zone of growth inhibition for four antimicrobials (fosfomycin, nalidixic acid, rifampicin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole). Of the ten Leptospira, seven had a growth inhibition zone of ? 21 mm for aztreonam, the zone diameter susceptibility break point for Enterobacteriaceae. This assay could find utility as a simple screening method during the epidemiological surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Leptospira spp. PMID:26055750

  12. Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Testing of Leptospira spp. Using Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) Agar

    PubMed Central

    Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Langla, Sayan; White, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2015-01-01

    Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) agar was used to develop a disk diffusion assay for Leptospira spp. Ten pathogenic Leptospira isolates were tested, all of which were susceptible to 17 antimicrobial agents (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, amoxicillin, azithromycin, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, doripenem, doxycycline, gentamicin, linezolid, nitrofurantoin, penicillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, and tetracycline). All 10 isolates had no zone of growth inhibition for four antimicrobials (fosfomycin, nalidixic acid, rifampicin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole). Of the ten Leptospira, seven had a growth inhibition zone of ? 21 mm for aztreonam, the zone diameter susceptibility break point for Enterobacteriaceae. This assay could find utility as a simple screening method during the epidemiological surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Leptospira spp. PMID:26055750

  13. Agar hydrogel with silver nanoparticles to prolong the shelf life of Fior di Latte cheese.

    PubMed

    Incoronato, A L; Conte, A; Buonocore, G G; Del Nobile, M A

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of an antimicrobial packaging system containing active nanoparticles on the quality deterioration of Fior di Latte cheese. To this aim, 3 concentrations of silver montmorillonite embedded in agar were used. The cell loads of spoilage and useful microorganisms were monitored during a refrigerated storage period. Moreover, cheese sensory quality (i.e., odor, color, consistency, and overall quality) was evaluated by means of a panel test. Results showed that the active packaging system markedly increased the shelf life of Fior di Latte cheese, due to the ability of silver cations to control microbial proliferation, without affecting the functional dairy microbiota and the sensory characteristics of the product. The active packaging system developed in this work could be used to prolong the shelf life of Fior di Latte and boost its distribution beyond local market borders. PMID:21426957

  14. Injection of Acanthaster planci with thiosulfate-citrate-bile-sucrose agar (TCBS). I. Disease induction.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Posada, J A; Pratchett, M; Cano-Gómez, A; Arango-Gómez, J D; Owens, L

    2011-12-01

    This is the first report of the successful induction of a transmissible disease in the coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci (COTS). Injection of thiosulfate-citrate-bile-sucrose agar (TCBS) culture medium into COTS induced a disease characterized by discoloured and necrotic skin, ulcerations, loss of body turgor, accumulation of colourless mucus on many spines especially at their tip, and loss of spines. Blisters on the dorsal integument broke through the skin surface and resulted in large, open sores that exposed the internal organs. Oedema and reddened digestive tissues and destruction of connective fibers were common. Moreover, healthy COTS in contact with these infected animals also displayed signs of disease and died within 24 h. TCBS induced 100% mortality in injected starfish. There was no introduction of new pathogens into the marine environment. TCBS promoted the growth of COTS' naturally occurring Vibrionales to high densities with subsequent symbiont imbalance followed by disease and death. PMID:22303625

  15. Inhibition of Aspergillus flavus on agar media and brown rice cereal bars using cold atmospheric plasma treatment.

    PubMed

    Suhem, Kitiya; Matan, Narumol; Nisoa, Mudtorlep; Matan, Nirundorn

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to optimize the operating parameters of cold atmospheric plasma treatment to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus flavus on agar media and brown rice cereal bars. The effects of argon plasma jet treatment on the growth of A. flavus on malt extract agar (MEA) at powers of 20 W and 40 W with exposure times at 5, 15 and 25 min were studied using response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite face-centered (CCF) design. Multiple regression analysis indicated that plasma treatment at 40 W for 25 min is most effective for inhibiting growth of A. flavus on the agar medium. On brown rice cereal bars, plasma powered at 40 W for 20 min was capable of giving protection against A. flavus growth for up to 20 days under storage conditions of 25°C and 100% RH. These results demonstrated the potential of cold atmospheric plasma jet treatment to control mold growth on various food products. PMID:23279819

  16. Evaluation of agar dilution and broth microdilution methods to determine the disinfectant susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoyan; Yang, Qianru; Long, Mei; Guo, Lijuan; Li, Bei; Meng, Yue; Zhang, Anyun; Wang, Hongning; Liu, Shuliang; Zou, Likou

    2015-11-01

    A variety of disinfectants have been widely used in veterinary hygiene, food industries and environments, which could induce the development of bacterial resistance to disinfectants. The methods used to investigate antimicrobial effects of disinfectant vary considerably among studies, making comparisons difficult. In this study, agar dilution and broth microdilution methods were used to compare the antimicrobial activities of four quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) against foodborne and zoonotic pathogens. The potential relationship between the presence of QACs resistance genes and phenotypic resistance to QACs was also investigated. Our results indicated that the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) determined by two methods might be different depended upon different QACs and bacteria applied. Regardless of the testing methods, Klebsiella pneumoniae was more tolerant among Gram-negative strains to four QACs, followed by Salmonella and Escherichia coli. The agreement between MICs obtained by the two methods was good, for benzalkonium chloride (78.15%), didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) (82.35%), cetylpyridinium chloride (CTPC) (97.48%) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) (99.16%), respectively. Among all Gram-negative bacteria, 94.55% (n=52) of qacE?1-positive strains showed higher MICs (512?mg?l(-1)) to CTAB. The qacE?1 gene was highly associated (P<0.05) with the high MICs of QACs (?512?mg?l(-1)). In addition, DDAC remained as the most effective disinfectant against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This is the first study that compared the agar dilution and broth microdilution methods to assess the antimicrobial activity of QACs. The study demonstrated the need to standardize method that would be used in evaluating QACs antimicrobial properties in the future. PMID:25944532

  17. Appressorium-mediated penetration of Magnaporthe oryzae and Colletotrichum orbiculare into surface-cross-linked agar media.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Eiji

    2015-05-01

    Many phytopathogenic fungi form appressoria on some artificial substances. However, it is difficult to induce appressorium-mediated penetration into artificial substances. In the present study, novel artificial agar media were developed to investigate the in vitro penetration process of phytopathogenic fungi. The media contained sodium carboxymethyl cellulose or sodium alginate, and the surfaces were subjected to ionic cross-linking using trivalent metal ions. The hemibiotrophic phytopathogenic fungi, rice blast fungus and cucurbit anthracnose fungus, formed appressoria and penetrated into the surface cross-linked artificial agar media from the base of appressoria. These artificial media appeared to induce fungal infection behaviour that occurred on host plants. PMID:25877547

  18. Variation in the excitability of developed D. discoideum cells as a function of agar concentration in the substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, Noriko; Bae, Albert; Amselem, Gabriel; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2010-03-01

    In the absence of nutrients, Dictyostelium discoideum cells enter a developmental cycle--they signal each other, aggregate, and ultimately form fruiting bodies. During the signaling stage, the cells relay waves of cyclic adenosine 3',5' monophosphate (cAMP). We observed a transition from spiral to circular patterns in the signaling wave, depending on the agar concentration of the substrate. In this talk we will present the changes in the times for the onset of signaling and synchronization versus agar concentration, as measured by spectral entropy. We also will discuss the origin of these effects.

  19. Evaluation of Agar-Based Medium with Sheep Sera for Testing of Drug Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Isoniazid, Rifampin, Ethambutol, and Streptomycin

    PubMed Central

    Uzun, Meltem; Bozdogan, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    The performance of sheep sera instead of sheep blood in agar-based media was investigated for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis against primary drugs. The levels of agreement between agar-based medium supplemented with sheep sera and the proportion method on Middlebrook 7H11 agar as the reference method for determining susceptibility to isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), ethambutol (EMB), and streptomycin (STR) were 98.4, 98.4, 95.3, and 100%, respectively. PMID:24131699

  20. "Clothed in triple blues": sorting out the Italian blues.

    PubMed

    Bimler, David; Uusküla, Mari

    2014-04-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of color perception and cognition often feature versions of the "similarity sorting" procedure. By interpreting the assignment of two color samples to different groups as an indication that the dissimilarity between them exceeds some threshold, sorting data can be regarded as low-resolution similarity judgments. Here we analyze sorting data from speakers of Italian, Russian, and English, applying multidimensional scaling to delineate the boundaries between perceptual categories while highlighting differences between the three populations. Stimuli were 55 color swatches, predominantly from the blue region. Results suggest that at least two Italian words for "blue" are basic, a similar situation to Russian, in contrast to English where a single "blue" term is basic. PMID:24695190

  1. Agar Block Smear Preparation: a Novel Method of Slide Preparation for Preservation of Native Fungal Structures for Microscopic Examination and Long-Term Storage?

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Ngan, Antonio H. Y.; Chui, Hon-Kit; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2010-01-01

    We describe a novel method of fungal slide preparation named “agar block smear preparation.” A total of 510 agar block smears of 25 fungal strains obtained from culture collections, 90 QC fungal strains, and 82 clinical fungal strains from our clinical microbiology laboratory, which included a total of 137 species of yeasts, molds, and thermal dimorphic fungi, were prepared and examined. In contrast to adhesive tape preparation, agar block smears preserved the native fungal structures, such as intact conidiophores of Aspergillus species and arrangements of conidia in Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Furthermore, agar block smears allowed examination of fungal structures embedded in the agar, such as the ascomata with ascomal hairs in Chaetomium funicola; pycnidium of Phoma glomerata; the intercalary ovoidal chlamydospores arranged in chains of Fusarium dimerum; and the lateral, spherical chlamydospores arranged in pairs of Fusarium solani. After 1 year of storage, morphological integrity was found to have been maintained in 459 (90%) of the 510 agar block smears. After 3 years of storage, morphological integrity was found to have been maintained in 72 (71%) of the 102 smears prepared in 2006. Agar block smear preparation preserves the native fungal structures and allows long-term storage and examination of fungal structures embedded in the agar, hence overcoming the major drawbacks of adhesive tape preparation. The major roles of agar block smear should be diagnosis for difficult cases, accurate identification of fungal species for clinical management of patients and epidemiological studies, and long-term storage for transportation of slides and education purposes. PMID:20660221

  2. Crater Lake: blue through time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Gary L.; Buktenica, Mark; Collier, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Blue is the color of constancy, hence the term true blue. The unearthly blueness of Crater Lake reflects its pristine character and gives scientists a focal point for studying human impacts on aquatic environments over long periods of time. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Park Service, and Oregon State University have systematically studied the lake for the last two decades. Long-term monitoring of this lake is a priority of Crater Lake National Park and will continue far into the future.

  3. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Dinh C. (Los Alamos, NM); Faulkner, George E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A blue-green laser (450-550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm.sup.3+. The Tm.sup.+ is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP.

  4. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.

    1990-08-14

    A blue-green laser (450--550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm[sup 3+]. The Tm[sup 3+] is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP. 3 figs.

  5. The blue-collar brain.

    PubMed

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  6. The Blue-Collar Brain

    PubMed Central

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body’s tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  7. Blue light emitting thiogallate phosphor

    DOEpatents

    Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); King, Christopher N. (Portland, OR); Tuenge, Richard T. (Hillsboro, OR)

    1998-01-01

    A crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor of the formula RGa.sub.2 S.sub.4 :Ce.sub.x where R is selected from the group consisting of calcium, strontium, barium and zinc, and x is from about 1 to 10 atomic percent, the phosphor characterized as having a crystalline microstructure on the size order of from about 100 .ANG. to about 10,000 .ANG. is provided together with a process of preparing a crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor by depositing on a substrate by CVD and resultant thin film electroluminescent devices including a layer of such deposited phosphor on an ordinary glass substrate.

  8. Webb & Agar (1991). The Application of Machine Learning to the Diagnosis of Glomerular Disease. Page 1 of 7

    E-print Network

    Webb, Geoff

    1991-01-01

    Webb & Agar (1991). The Application of Machine Learning to the Diagnosis of Glomerular Disease. Page 1 of 7 The application of machine learning to the diagnosis of glomerular disease Geoffrey I. Webb and interpretation of clinical and laboratory data in glomerular disease. Despite the limited size of the data

  9. Hydrogen-bond-mediated in situ fabrication of AgNPs/agar/PAN electrospun nanofibers as reproducible SERS substrates.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tong; Yang, Hui; Zhen, Shu Jun; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2015-01-28

    Reproducibility in surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurements is a challenge. This work developed a facile way to make highly dispersed uniform silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) loaded in the agar/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers by the coupling the electrospinning technology from metal complex-containing polymer solution and in situ photoreductive technique. Agar, as hydrophilic component, was introduced into the electrospinning solution considering that its abundant hydroxyl group sites could greatly improve the contents of silver ions in the polymers because of the rich silver ion chelated with the hydroxyl group, whereas hydrophilic agar was integrated with hydrophobic PAN by -OH···N?C- hydrogen bonds as a bridge. Meanwhile, the in situ photoreductive reaction was made under different light irradiations such as desk lamp, 365 nm UV-lamp, and 254 nm UV-lamp. High yield of stable AgNPs with highly uniform and dispersion are available in the agar/PAN nanofibers after the in situ photoreductive reaction, supplying the possibility of reproducible SERS signals. To identify that concept of proof, a facile approach for the determination of malachite green (MG) in three environmental practical samples was demonstrated by using the composite nanofibrous material irradiated by 365 nm UV-lamp, giving the minimum detection concentration of MG as low as 0.1 ?mol/L with a good linear response ranging from 0.1-100 ?mol/L (R(2) = 0.9960). PMID:25546719

  10. Alternative to the soft-agar assay that permits high-throughput drug and genetic screens for

    E-print Network

    formation in soft agar is the gold-standard assay for cellular transformation in vitro, but it is unsuited For nearly 50 y (1, 2), the gold-standard assay for cellular transformation/tumorigenicity has been the soft cells, drug and genetic screens are routinely performed on standard plates that permit efficient

  11. Colony morphology of Staphylococcus aureus in serum-soft agar following in vivo and in vitro growth.

    PubMed

    Opdebeeck, J P; Watson, D L; Frost, A J

    1988-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cases of mastitis in ruminants were grown in vitro and in vivo and subsequently examined for expression of diffuse colony morphology in serum-soft agar. Growth in the bovine mammary gland, but not in the ovine mammary gland or ovine peritoneal cavity, resulted in subsequent expression of diffuse colony morphology. PMID:3354194

  12. Properties and characterization of agar/CuNP bionanocomposite films prepared with different copper salts and reducing agents.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Shiv; Teng, Xinnan; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-12-19

    Various types of agar-based bio-nanocomposite (BNC) films were prepared by blending agar and six different copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) with different shapes and sizes obtained from three different sources of copper salts and two different reducing agents. The BNC films were characterized by UV-visible, FE-SEM, FT-IR, and XRD. The thermogravimetric study showed that the melting point of BNC films was increased when ascorbic acid was used as a reducing agent for CuNPs synthesis. Apparent surface color and transmittance of agar film was greatly influenced by the reinforcement of CuNPs. However, mechanical and water vapor barrier properties did not change significantly (p>0.05) by blending with CuNPs. Tensile modulus and tensile strength decreased slightly for all types of CuNPs reinforced while elongation at break slightly increased when CuNPs produced by ascorbic acid were blended. The agar bio-nanocomposite films showed profound antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative food-borne pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25263917

  13. Alternative Use for Spectra MRSA Chromogenic Agar in Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Positive Blood Cultures ?

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jess F.; Dionisio, Alexander A.; Riebe, Katherine M.; Hall, Gerri S.; Wilson, Deborah A.; Whittier, Susan; DiPersio, Joseph R.; Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2010-01-01

    Spectra MRSA agar (Remel, Lenexa, KS), a novel chromogenic medium originally developed to detect methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from nasal swabs, was evaluated in this multicenter study for the detection of MRSA from positive blood cultures exhibiting Gram-positive cocci upon initial Gram staining. PMID:20392925

  14. Multi-chamber electroosmosis using textile reinforced agar membranes - A promising concept for the future of hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Kofler, Markus; Lenninger, Margit; Mayer, Gert; Neuwirt, Hannes; Grimm, Michael; Bechtold, Thomas

    2016-01-20

    Renal replacement therapy options are limited to hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis (70% of US patients) or renal transplantation. Diffusion processes are the main physico-chemical principle behind hemodialysis. An alternative way to achieve liquid flow through membranes bases on the electroosmotic flow which is observed as electrokinetic phenomenon in porous membranes which bear surface charges. Agar consists of the non-ionic agarose and the negatively charged agaropectine thus an electroosmotic flux is observed in analytical electrophoresis. In this study the potential electroosmosis on textile reinforced agar membranes as separation method was investigated. Using a five-chamber electrolysis cell and an agar membrane/cellulose fabric composite an intensive electroosmotic flow of 1-2mlcm(2)h(-1) at 100mA cell current could be observed. The movement of cations in the negatively charged agar structure led to an intensive electroosmotic flux, which also transported uncharged molecules such as urea, glucose through the membrane. Separation of uncharged low molecular weight molecules is determined by the membrane characteristic. The transport of ions (K(+), PO4(3-), creatinine) and uncharged molecules (urea, glucose) in electroosmotic separation experiments was monitored using a pH 5.5 phosphate electrolyte with the aim to assess the overall transport processes in the electrochemical cell. The results demonstrate the potential of the method for filtration of biological fluids in the absence of external pressure or high shear rates. PMID:26572331

  15. Elemental composition of Physarum compressum Alb. et Schw. sporocarps and their structures cultivated on rabbit dung and agar substrates.

    PubMed

    Janik, Paulina; Tylko, Grzegorz; Ostachowicz, Beata; Turnau, Katarzyna

    2010-12-01

    The elemental composition of spores, peridium walls, and lime nodes of Physarum compressum sporocarps, cultivated on rabbit dung as a natural growing environment for the slime mold and on artificial agar medium, was compared to evaluate differences that may be dependent on substrates. Whole fruiting bodies and samples of both experimental media were extracted with nitric acid or Parr digest bomb, respectively, and analyzed by means of total X-ray reflection fluorescence (TXRF). Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of spores, peridium walls, and lime nodes structure was carried out with the scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive spectrometer. Because of minute sizes and roughness of investigated structures, Monte Carlo simulations were utilized to establish analytical conditions of EPMA. Biological and geological standards were used in the quantification of element concentrations. According to TXRF, the fruiting bodies from agar medium revealed lower concentrations of K, Ca, Cr, Mn, and Fe in relation to fruiting bodies from the dung, reflecting elemental relationships in the experimental media. According to EPMA, the highest Ca concentration was found in the lime nodes followed by the peridium and the spores. Culturing of the slime molds on the rabbit dung indicated higher concentration of Ca in the lime nodes and peridium walls when compared with those obtained from the sporocarps grown on agar media. The opposite relation was found for the spores. The concentration of Na, Mg, P, S, and Cl was generally lower in all structures of the sporocarps harvested from the dung than from the agar medium. K was in higher concentration in analyzed structures from dung than from agar. Different element uptake (except for Ca and K) was revealed by the two methods: TXRF and EPMA. PMID:20981759

  16. Characterisation of Elastic and Acoustic Properties of an Agar-Based Tissue Mimicking Material.

    PubMed

    Brewin, M P; Birch, M J; Mehta, D J; Reeves, J W; Shaw, S; Kruse, C; Whiteman, J R; Hu, S; Kenz, Z R; Banks, H T; Greenwald, S E

    2015-10-01

    As a first step towards an acoustic localisation device for coronary stenosis to provide a non-invasive means of diagnosing arterial disease, measurements are reported for an agar-based tissue mimicking material (TMM) of the shear wave propagation velocity, attenuation and viscoelastic constants, together with one dimensional quasi-static elastic moduli and Poisson's ratio. Phase velocity and attenuation coefficients, determined by generating and detecting shear waves piezo-electrically in the range 300 Hz-2 kHz, were 3.2-7.5 ms(-1) and 320 dBm(-1). Quasi-static Young's modulus, shear modulus and Poisson's ratio, obtained by compressive or shear loading of cylindrical specimens were 150-160 kPa; 54-56 kPa and 0.37-0.44. The dynamic Young's and shear moduli, derived from fitting viscoelastic internal variables by an iterative statistical inverse solver to freely oscillating specimens were 230 and 33 kPa and the corresponding relaxation times, 0.046 and 0.036 s. The results were self-consistent, repeatable and provide baseline data required for the computational modelling of wave propagation in a phantom. PMID:25773982

  17. Theoretical and experimental NMR studies on muscimol from fly agaric mushroom (Amanita muscaria).

    PubMed

    Kupka, Teobald; Wieczorek, Piotr P

    2016-01-15

    In this article we report results of combined theoretical and experimental NMR studies on muscimol, the bioactive alkaloid from fly agaric mushroom (Amanita muscaria). The assignment of (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of muscimol in DMSO-d6 was supported by additional two-dimensional heteronuclear correlated spectra (2D NMR) and gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) NMR calculations using density functional theory (DFT). The effect of solvent in theoretical calculations was included via polarized continuum model (PCM) and the hybrid three-parameter B3LYP density functional in combination with 6-311++G(3df,2pd) basis set enabled calculation of reliable structures of non-ionized (neutral) molecule and its NH and zwitterionic forms in the gas phase, chloroform, DMSO and water. GIAO NMR calculations, using equilibrium and rovibrationally averaged geometry, at B3LYP/6-31G* and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ-J levels of theory provided muscimol nuclear magnetic shieldings. The theoretical proton and carbon chemical shifts were critically compared with experimental NMR spectra measured in DMSO. Our results provide useful information on its structure in solution. We believe that such data could improve the understanding of basic features of muscimol at atomistic level and provide another tool in studies related to GABA analogs. PMID:26312739

  18. Theoretical and experimental NMR studies on muscimol from fly agaric mushroom (Amanita muscaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupka, Teobald; Wieczorek, Piotr P.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we report results of combined theoretical and experimental NMR studies on muscimol, the bioactive alkaloid from fly agaric mushroom (Amanita muscaria). The assignment of 1H and 13C NMR spectra of muscimol in DMSO-d6 was supported by additional two-dimensional heteronuclear correlated spectra (2D NMR) and gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) NMR calculations using density functional theory (DFT). The effect of solvent in theoretical calculations was included via polarized continuum model (PCM) and the hybrid three-parameter B3LYP density functional in combination with 6-311++G(3df,2pd) basis set enabled calculation of reliable structures of non-ionized (neutral) molecule and its NH and zwitterionic forms in the gas phase, chloroform, DMSO and water. GIAO NMR calculations, using equilibrium and rovibrationally averaged geometry, at B3LYP/6-31G* and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ-J levels of theory provided muscimol nuclear magnetic shieldings. The theoretical proton and carbon chemical shifts were critically compared with experimental NMR spectra measured in DMSO. Our results provide useful information on its structure in solution. We believe that such data could improve the understanding of basic features of muscimol at atomistic level and provide another tool in studies related to GABA analogs.

  19. Isolation of novel bacteria and actinomycetes using soil-extract agar medium.

    PubMed

    Hamaki, Takefumi; Suzuki, Motomasa; Fudou, Ryosuke; Jojima, Yasuko; Kajiura, Takayuki; Tabuchi, Akira; Sen, Kikuo; Shibai, Hiroshiro

    2005-05-01

    Novel bacteria were discovered using an isolation technique consisting of (i) selection of microorganisms that grew on soil-extract agar medium, but not on conventional media, and (ii) detection of small microbial colonies with a microscope. Three bacterial strains thus isolated were provisionally designated Shinshu-th1, -th2, -th 3, and five actinomycete strains, Shinshu-MS-01, -02, -03, -04, -05, respectively. Sequence analysis of their 16S rDNA showed that th1 had 95--96% homology with three unculturable bacteria, and th2 had 96% similarity to Bradyrhizobium sp., one unculturable and one unidentified bacterial strain. A phylogenetic study indicated that both strains were alpha-Proteobacteria belonging to the order Rhizobiales and the family Bradyrhizobiaceae. Since they had low homology (96%) with their close relatives, it is possible that th1 and th2 belong to a new genus. The actinomycetes Shinshu-MS-02 and -03 had 95--96% homology with four strains of Actinomadura, -04 had 95--96% similarity to Streptosporangium and Microbispora, and -05 had 97--98% homology with three strains of Acrocarpospora, Herbidospora and Planotetraspora. According to the phylogenetic study, both 02 and 03 are possibly new species of Actinomadura, -04 of Streptosporangium, and -05 of Acrocarpospora. Shinshu-th 3 and -MS-01 were identified as Mycobacterium cookii and Frankia sp., respectively, having 99% homology with these species. PMID:16233821

  20. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards agar dilution susceptibility testing of anaerobic gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, W J

    1988-01-01

    One hundred nine recent clinical isolates of anaerobic gram-negative bacteria were tested in triplicate by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards agar dilution procedure for their susceptibility to 32 antimicrobial agents. All isolates were inhibited by imipenem, but there were significant numbers of strains resistant to other beta-lactam drugs, and therefore the in vitro response to these antimicrobial agents cannot be predicted. This was particularly true for the bile-resistant or Bacteroides fragilis group. beta-Lactamase production was detected in 82% of the bacteroides with the nitrocefin test. Clavulanic acid combined with amoxicillin and ticarcillin and sulbactam combined with ampicillin resulted in synergistic activity against all beta-lactamase-positive organisms. Ceftizoxime was the most active of the cephalosporins. Two percent of the isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol and metronidazole. Clindamycin resistance was detected in 38% of the B. fragilis group, which is a marked increase from the 4% detected 10 years ago at this institution. PMID:3364956

  1. Effectiveness of pulsed ultraviolet-light treatment for bacterial inactivation on agar surface and liquid medium.

    PubMed

    Ben Saïd, Noura Elmnasser; Federighi, Michel; Bakhrouf, Amina; Orange, Nicole

    2010-11-01

    In the present study, the efficiency of a broad-spectrum pulsed ultraviolet (UV)-light for the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, L. monocytogenes CNL 895807, and Pseudomonas fluorescens MF37 populations as agar seeded or suspended cells was investigated. The bacterial populations were treated by pulsed UV-light at different number of pulses (1 to 3), dose of energy (162, 243, or 324 J), and distance from the strobe (4, 9, or 12 cm). After pulsed UV-light treatment, the bacterial reduction was determined by standard plate count. The results showed that there was a significant reduction of population along with an increase of light energy and number of pulses. Decreasing the distance between the Petri dishes and the xenon lamp demonstrated an increase in bacterial reduction. Decontamination efficacy decreased significantly with the increase in level of contamination. This study demonstrates that pulsed UV-light can be used as an effective sterilizing method for the bacteria. PMID:20586608

  2. Fungistatic activity of flaxseed in potato dextrose agar and a fresh noodle system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingying; Hall, Clifford; Wolf-Hall, Charlene; Manthey, Frank

    2008-02-10

    Although numerous researchers have studied flaxseed as a food ingredient for its health benefits, flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) has never been considered as a food preservative. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of flaxseed flour (FF) concentration (0, 6, 9, 12, and 15% wt/wt), cultivar ('Omega' and brown) and source (four seed companies located in Minnesota and North Dakota) on flaxseed fungistatic activity. Fungal radial growth was used to assess the fungistatic activity of FF in both potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and a fresh noodle system. Strains of Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium graminearum, and a Penicillium sp. isolated from molded noodles were used as the test microorganisms. Results showed that growth of F. graminearum was completely inhibited at all FF concentrations in PDA, and the inhibition of the other three test microorganisms increased with increasing FF concentrations. In the model noodle system, FF concentration at 9% or higher significantly reduced the mold count of fresh noodle during storage. In the inoculated noodle system, 6% FF addition was sufficient to significantly inhibit the growth of F. graminearum and A. flavus, whereas 9% FF concentrations showed fungistatic activity against P. chrysogenum and the Penicillium sp. isolate. Differences in the degree of mold inhibition were found among FFs obtained from different sources and cultivars. Results suggested that flaxseed possesses fungistatic activity and could be used as a multifunctional food ingredient. PMID:18077042

  3. Injection of Acanthaster planci with thiosulfate-citrate-bile-sucrose agar (TCBS). II. Histopathological changes.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Posada, J A; Pratchett, M; Owens, L

    2011-12-01

    We assessed histological changes in the tissues of the crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci (COTS) after injection of thiosulfate-citrate-bile-sucrose agar (TCBS) which was used as a disease inducer (potential outbreak control method), by conventional and scanning electron microscopy. Digestive glands were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin to describe the histological architecture of the intestinal epithelium. Subsequently comparison of healthy versus infected tissues and Gram stains were carried out to confirm bacterial occurrence on infected tissues, characterize the structural changes induced by bacterial communities in COTS tissues, and to determine if the histopathological changes of intestinal tissues were consistent with vibrio infection. TCBS injections induced marked epithelial desquamation, hypertrophy and hypersecretion of glandular cells, epithelial cell destruction, pyknosis, reduction of thickness and disorganization of connective tissue and associated nerve plexus, presence of bacterial colonies, irregular eosinophilic foci in glandular cells, brush border disruption, atrophy and detachment of intestinal microvilli and cell debris in the lumen. All these changes were attributed to a fulminating systemic dysbiosis and were consistent with vibrio infections. PMID:22303626

  4. Singing' the Black and Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Diane

    2004-01-01

    It is so obvious that the sky is blue in the daytime and black at night, but it took the smartest humans thousands of years of observation, thought, discussion, conjecture, and analysis to finally come up with answers that make scientific sense as to why the sky is these colors. This article discusses light and the scientific research…

  5. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-05-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  6. Optically Modulatable Blue Fluorescent Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Amy E.; Vegh, Russell B.; Hsiang, Jung-Cheng; Bommarius, Bettina; Chen, Yen-Cheng; Solntsev, Kyril M.; Bommarius, Andreas S.; Tolbert, Laren M.; Dickson, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Blue fluorescent proteins (BFPs) offer visualization of protein location and behavior, but often suffer from high autofluorescent background and poor signal discrimination. Through dual-laser excitation of bright and photoinduced dark states, mutations to the residues surrounding the BFP chromophore enable long-wavelength optical modulation of BFP emission. Such dark state engineering enables violet-excited blue emission to be increased upon lower energy, green co-illumination. Turning this green co-illumination on and off at a specific frequency dynamically modulates collected blue fluorescence without generating additional background. Interpreted as transient photoconversion between neutral cis- and anionic trans- chromophoric forms, mutations tune photoisomerization and ground state tautomerizations to enable long-wavelength depopulation of the millisecond-lived, spectrally shifted dark states. Single mutations to the tyrosine-based blue fluorescent protein T203V/S205V exhibit enhanced modulation depth and varied frequency. Importantly, analogous single point mutations in the non-modulatable BFP, mKalama1, creates a modulatable variant. Building modulatable BFPs offers opportunities for improved BFP signal discrimination vs. background, greatly enhancing their utility. PMID:24099419

  7. Comparison of Six Chromogenic Agar Media for the Isolation of a Broad Variety of Non-O157 Shigatoxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC) Serogroups

    PubMed Central

    Verhaegen, Bavo; De Reu, Koen; Heyndrickx, Marc; De Zutter, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    The isolation of non-O157 STEC from food samples has proved to be challenging. The selection of a suitable selective isolation agar remains problematic. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate six chromogenic agar media for the isolation of STEC: Tryptone Bile X-glucuronide agar (TBX), Rainbow® Agar O157 (RB), Rapid E. coli O157:H7 (RE), Modified MacConkey Agar (mMac), CHROMagarTM STEC (Chr ST) and chromIDTM EHEC (Chr ID). During this study, 45 E. coli strains were used, including 39 STEC strains belonging to 16 different O serogroups and 6 non-STEC E. coli. All E. coli strains were able to grow on TBX and RB, whereas one STEC strain was unable to grow on Chr ID and a number of other STEC strains did not grow on mMac, CHROMagar STEC and Rapid E. coli O157:H7. However, only the latter three agars were selective enough to completely inhibit the growth of the non-STEC E. coli. Our conclusion was that paired use of a more selective agar such as CHROMagar STEC together with a less selective agar like TBX or Chr ID might be the best solution for isolating non-O157 STEC from food. PMID:26090610

  8. Use of agar diffusion assay to evaluate bactericidal activity of formulations of alkaline salts of fatty acids against bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids (FA). Wells in agar media seeded with bacteria were filled with FA-potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions, plates were incubated, and zones of inhibition were measured. The relationship between bacteric...

  9. R E S E A R C H L E T T E R Copper deciency in potato dextrose agar causes reduced

    E-print Network

    Griffith, Gareth

    R E S E A R C H L E T T E R Copper de¢ciency in potato dextrose agar causes reduced pigmentation; organic farming. Abstract Potato dextrose agar (PDA) is one of the most commonly used media of powdered (commercial) potato dextrose media revealed deficient pigmentation in five of 10 media tested

  10. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  11. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  12. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  13. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  14. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  15. BLUE WHALE-SIZED MOUTHFULS MAKE FORAGING

    E-print Network

    Martin, Paul R.

    Inside JEB i BLUE WHALE-SIZED MOUTHFULS MAKE FORAGING SUPER EFFICIENT When a blue whale dives from the University of British Columbia, Canada, explains that blue whales may be able to dive. Explaining that the whales feed by lunging repeatedly through deep shoals of krill, engulfing their own body

  16. Blue Brain Project Brain Mind Institute

    E-print Network

    © Blue Brain Project Brain Mind Institute Prof. Henry Markram Dr. Felix Schürmann felix.schuermann@epfl.ch http://bluebrainproject.epfl.ch Reverse-Engineering the Brain #12;© Blue Brain Project The Electrophysiologist's View BBP BBPBBP #12;© Blue Brain Project Accurate Models that Relate to Experiment LBC PC SBC PC

  17. January 2002 BLUE WHALE (Balaenoptera musculus)

    E-print Network

    January 2002 BLUE WHALE (Balaenoptera musculus): Western North Atlantic Stock STOCK DEFINITION and northeastern North Atlantic. POPULATION SIZE Little is known about the population size of blue whales except that the blue whale population in the western North Atlantic may number only in the low hundreds. R. Sears (pers

  18. October 1999 BLUE WHALE (Balaenoptera musculus)

    E-print Network

    31 October 1999 BLUE WHALE (Balaenoptera musculus): Western North Atlantic Stock STOCK DEFINITION in the northern and northeastern North Atlantic. POPULATION SIZE Little is known about the population size of blue (1974) estimated that the blue whale population in the western North Atlantic may number only in the low

  19. January 2002 BLUE WHALE (Balaenoptera musculus)

    E-print Network

    400 January 2002 BLUE WHALE (Balaenoptera musculus): Western North Atlantic Stock STOCK DEFINITION and northeastern North Atlantic. POPULATION SIZE Little is known about the population size of blue whales except that the blue whale population in the western North Atlantic may number only in the low hundreds. R. Sears (pers

  20. Table of Contents Blue Ribbon Panel 1

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    Table of Contents Blue Ribbon Panel 1 Hooding 1 Dr. Lomeli 2 Dr. Brown 3 Advocacy Day 7 OHSU School Student Dental Association. (ASDA). Blue Ribbon Panel to Chart Dental Education Dental School Graduates 90 (continued on page six) A Blue Ribbon panel was recently appointed by OHSU President Joe Robertson to chart

  1. On Seeing Reddish Green and Yellowish Blue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Hewitt D.; Piantanida, Thomas P.

    1983-01-01

    Stabilization of the retinal image of the boundary between a pair of red/green or yellow/blue stripes, but not their outer edges, results in the entire region being perceived simultaneously as both red/green or yellow/blue. This suggests that the percepts of reddish-green/yellowish-blue apparently are possible in corticocortical color vision…

  2. Halococcus agarilyticus sp. nov., an agar-degrading haloarchaeon isolated from commercial salt.

    PubMed

    Minegishi, Hiroaki; Echigo, Akinobu; Shimane, Yasuhiro; Kamekura, Masahiro; Itoh, Takashi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Usami, Ron

    2015-05-01

    Two agar-degrading halophilic archaeal strains, 62 E(T) and 197 A, were isolated from commercial salt samples. Cells were non-motile cocci, approximately 1.2-2.0 µm in diameter and stained Gram-negative. Colonies were pink-pigmented. Strain 62 E(T) was able to grow with 24-30% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 27%), at pH 6.5-8.5 (optimum, pH 7.5) and at 22-47 °C (optimum, 42 °C). The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains 62 E(T) and 197 A were identical, and the level of DNA-DNA relatedness between them was 90 and 90% (reciprocally). The closest relative was Halococcus saccharolyticus JCM 8878(T) with 99.7% similarity in 16S rRNA orthologous gene sequences, followed by Halococcus salifodinae JCM 9578(T) (99.6%), while similarities with other species of the genus Halococcus were equal to or lower than 95.1%. The rpoB' gene tree strongly supported that the two strains were members of the genus Halococcus . Mean DNA-DNA relatedness between strain 62 E(T) and H. saccharolyticus JCM 8878(T) and H. salifodinae JCM 9578(T) was 46 and 44%, respectively. The major polar lipids were archaeol derivatives of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, derived from both C20C20 and C20C25 archaeol, and sulfated diglycosyl archaeol-1. Several unidentified glycolipids were present. Based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses, the isolates are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Halococcus , for which the name Halococcus agarilyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 62 E(T) (?=?JCM 19592(T)?=KCTC 4143(T)). PMID:25721723

  3. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of Scopulariopsis brevicaulis strains using agar diffusion method.

    PubMed

    Skóra, Magdalena; Macura, Anna B

    2011-01-01

    The genus Scopulariopsis is a common soil saprotroph and has been isolated from air, organic waste and also from plant, animal and human tissues. Scopulariopsis has mainly been associated in humans with superficial mycoses, but it has also been described as the cause of subcutaneous and invasive infections. The most common aetiological agent of infections in humans is Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. This species has been reported to be resistant in vitro to broad-spectrum antifungal agents available today. The aim of the study was to establish in vitro antifungal susceptibility of 35 S. brevicaulis strains against amphotericin B (AMB), flucytosine (FC), caspofungin (CAS), terbinafine (TER), ciclopirox (CIC), voriconazole (VOR), clotrimazole (CTR), miconazole (MCZ), econazole (ECO), ketoconazole (KET), itraconazole (ITR), and fluconazole (FLU). Antifungal susceptibility tests were evaluated by an agar diffusion method (Neo-Sensitabs, Rosco, Denmark). AMB, FC, CAS, ITR and FLU showed no antifungal activity against S. brevicaulis. TER, CIC, CTR, KET, VOR, ECO, and MCZ revealed inhibitory activity for S. brevicaulis, but it varied for each of the drugs. The best antifungal effect was observed for TER and CIC. All isolates had large inhibition zones for TER and CIC. CTR was also inhibitory for all tested S. brevicaulis isolates, but the diameters of inhibition zones were smaller than for TER and CIC. Nearly 89% isolates showed inhibition zones for KET and the mean diameter of the inhibition zone was comparable to CTR. The least antifungal activity exhibited VQR, ECO and MCZ. Because of the multiresistance of S. brevicaulis, infections due to this species may not respond to particular antifungal treatment and other therapeutic approaches should be considered, e.g., combined therapy and/or surgery. PMID:21682097

  4. Evaluation of the antibacterial effects of vancomycin hydrochloride released from agar-gelatin-bioactive glass composites.

    PubMed

    Rivadeneira, Josefina; Di Virgilio, Ana Laura; Audisio, M Carina; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Gorustovich, Alejandro A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the perfomance of agar-gelatin (AG) composites and AG-containing 45S5 bioactive glass (BG) microparticles (AGBG) in relation to their water uptake capacity, sustained release of a drug over time, and antibacterial effects. The composites were fabricated by the gel-casting method. To impart the local drug release capacity, vancomycin hydrochloride (VC) was loaded in the composites in concentrations of 0.5 and 1?mg?ml(-1). VC release was assessed in distilled water at 37?°C up to 72?h and quantified spectrophotometrically. The antibacterial activity of composites was evaluated by the inhibition zone test and the plate count method. The experiments were performed in vitro up to 48?h on three staphylococcus strains: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213, S. aureus ATCC6538 and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC12228. The results showed that the addition of BG to AG composites did not affect the degree of water uptake. The release of VC was significantly affected by the presence of BG. VC release was higher from AGBGVC films than from AGVC ones over prolonged incubation times. Bacterial inhibition zones were found around the composites. The halos were larger when the cells were put in contact with AGVC composites than when they were put in contact with AGBGVC ones. Nevertheless, the viable count method demonstrated that the composites inhibited Staphylococcus cell growth with no statistical differences. In conclusion, the addition of BG did not reflect an improvement in the parameters studied. On the other hand, composites loaded with VC would have a role in prophylaxis against bacterial infection. PMID:25586240

  5. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Food habits of blue grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, R.E.

    1944-01-01

    The food habits of Blue Grouse vary from a simple winter diet that is made up predominantly of coniferous needles to a complex diet during the summer months, characterized by great variety of foods including green leaves, fruits and seeds, flowers, animal matter and coniferous needles. The spring and fall, which represent the transition periods between these two, are characterized by feeding habits that are generally intermediate. The diets of the two species of Blue Grouse, Dendrugapus obscurus and Dendragapus juliginosus, are quite similar as far as major types of food are concerned, but they differ considerably in the species that are taken. Such differences reflect differences in the vegetation within the ecologic and geographic ranges occupied by the two species.

  7. The Physics of the Blues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2009-03-01

    In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

  8. Preparation of agar nanospheres: comparison of response surface and artificial neural network modeling by a genetic algorithm approach.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Mohammad Reza; Varshosaz, Jaleh; Fathi, Milad

    2015-05-20

    Multivariate nature of drug loaded nanospheres manufacturing in term of multiplicity of involved factors makes it a time consuming and expensive process. In this study genetic algorithm (GA) and artificial neural network (ANN), two tools inspired by natural process, were employed to optimize and simulate the manufacturing process of agar nanospheres. The efficiency of GA was evaluated against the response surface methodology (RSM). The studied responses included particle size, poly dispersity index, zeta potential, drug loading and release efficiency. GA predicted greater extremum values for response factors compared to RSM. However, real values showed some deviations from predicted data. Appropriate agreement was found between ANN model predicted and real values for all five response factors with high correlation coefficients. GA was more successful than RSM in optimization and along with ANN were efficient tools in optimizing and modeling the fabrication process of drug loaded in agar nanospheres. PMID:25817674

  9. [Tryptose sulphite cycloserine agar for the recovery of Clostridium perfringens in surface waters: a study of different modes of utilization].

    PubMed

    Nusca, A; Orefice, L; Paradiso, R

    2007-01-01

    In the recent European Drinking Water Directive, Clostridium perfringens has assumed increasing importance so as to be considered a primary contamination indicator. Therefore it emerged the necessity to make culture methods, aimed at its recovery, more specific and sensitive. In this study we have verified the ability of Tryptose Sulphite Cycloserine Agar plates (TSC Agar), prepared and stored before the use at refrigeration temperature (+4 degrees) for different times, to show typical colonies, using both, the single layer and double layer techniques. Results show that storage of the prepared medium, even for a few days, decrease the recovery of typical colonies although such negative effect is minimized by using the double layer technique. PMID:17405507

  10. Alternative to the soft-agar assay that permits high-throughput drug and genetic screens for cellular transformation

    PubMed Central

    Rotem, Asaf; Janzer, Andreas; Izar, Benjamin; Ji, Zhe; Doench, John G.; Garraway, Levi A.; Struhl, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Colony formation in soft agar is the gold-standard assay for cellular transformation in vitro, but it is unsuited for high-throughput screening. Here, we describe an assay for cellular transformation that involves growth in low attachment (GILA) conditions and is strongly correlated with the soft-agar assay. Using GILA, we describe high-throughput screens for drugs and genes that selectively inhibit or increase transformation, but not proliferation. Such molecules are unlikely to be found through conventional drug screening, and they include kinase inhibitors and drugs for noncancer diseases. In addition to known oncogenes, the genetic screen identifies genes that contribute to cellular transformation. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability of Food and Drug Administration-approved noncancer drugs to selectively kill ovarian cancer cells derived from patients with chemotherapy-resistant disease, suggesting this approach may provide useful information for personalized cancer treatment. PMID:25902495

  11. Effect of EDTA on Pb(II) Uptake and Translocation by Tumbleweed (Salsola Kali): Agar and Hydroponics Studies

    SciTech Connect

    de la Rosa, Guadalupe; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Aldrich, Mary

    2004-03-31

    Environmental accumulation of Pb represents a worldwide health hazard. While conventional cleanup techniques are generally expensive and soil disturbing, phytoremediation represents an inexpensive friendly option for the removal of contaminants from soil and water. In this research, tumbleweed (Salsola kali) plants exposed for 15 days to Pb(NO3)2 at 80 and 125 ppm in hydroponics and agar media, demonstrated a high capacity to uptake lead. The results showed that the plants cultivated in agar accumulated 25563, 5534 and 2185 mg Pb kg-1 DW in roots, stems and leaves, respectively. Moreover, Pb concentrations found in hydroponically grown tumbleweed plants tissues were 30744, 1511 and 1421 mg kg-1 DW in roots, stems and leaves, respectively. It was observed that EDTA enhanced Pb translocation. No Pb phytotoxic effects were observed during the experimental time period. Cellular structural features were also observed using TEM.

  12. Ol' Blue Eyes, in Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Scholarly books with "identity" and "culture" in the title have loomed large on academic publishing lists for several years. Scholarly books with "Sinatra" in the title are a more recent phenomenon. Despite his six-decade career as the Voice (the 1940s), the Chairman of the Board (the 50s and 60s), and Ol' Blue Eyes (the 70s through his death, in…

  13. Uncovering Blue Diffuse Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Bethan; Koposov, Sergey; Stark, Daniel; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    Extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) and the star-formation within their chemically pristine environments are fundamental to our understanding of the galaxy formation process at early times. However, traditional emission-line surveys detect only the brightest metal-poor galaxies where star-formation occurs in compact, starbursting environments, and thereby give us only a partial view of the dwarf galaxy population. To avoid such biases, we have developed a new search algorithm based on the morphological, rather then spectral, properties of XMPs and have applied to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database of images. Using this novel approach, we have discovered ~100 previously undetected, faint blue galaxies, each with isolated HII regions embedded in a diffuse continuum. In this talk I will present the first results from follow-up optical spectroscopy of this sample, which reveals these blue diffuse dwarfs (BDDs) to be young, very metal-poor and actively forming stars despite their intrinsically low luminosities. I will present evidence showing that BDDs appear to bridge the gap between quiescent dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies and blue compact galaxies (BCDs) and as such offer an ideal opportunity to assess how star-formation occurs in more `normal' metal-poor systems.

  14. 76 FR 22923 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ...A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team Including...Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, Enterprise Provider Data Management Team, Including...Anthem Health Plans Of Kentucky, Enterprise Provider Data Management Team,...

  15. Inflation and alternatives with blue tensor spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi; Xue, Wei E-mail: wei.xue@sissa.it

    2014-10-01

    We study the tilt of the primordial gravitational waves spectrum. A hint of blue tilt is shown from analyzing the BICEP2 and POLARBEAR data. Motivated by this, we explore the possibilities of blue tensor spectra from the very early universe cosmology models, including null energy condition violating inflation, inflation with general initial conditions, and string gas cosmology, etc. For the simplest G-inflation, blue tensor spectrum also implies blue scalar spectrum. In general, the inflation models with blue tensor spectra indicate large non-Gaussianities. On the other hand, string gas cosmology predicts blue tensor spectrum with highly Gaussian fluctuations. If further experiments do confirm the blue tensor spectrum, non-Gaussianity becomes a distinguishing test between inflation and alternatives.

  16. Polish Terms for "Blue" in the Perspective of Vantage Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanulewicz, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    The Polish set of terms for blue includes, inter alia, the following adjectives: "niebieski" "blue", "blekitny" "(sky) blue", "granatowy" "navy blue", "lazurowy" "azure", "modry" "(intense) blue" and "siny" "(grey) violet-blue". The adjective "niebieski" is the basic term; however, it shares some of its functions with "blekitny", which is…

  17. BLUE VIEW VISION! Good news--your vision plan

    E-print Network

    WELCOME TO BLUE VIEW VISION! Good news--your vision plan is flexible and easy to use. This benefit. Blue View VisionSM BVMO C25.130.130 Your Blue View Vision network Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield vision members have access to one of the nation's largest vision networks. Blue View Vision is the only

  18. A new locus in Cytophaga hutchinsonii involved in colony spreading on agar surfaces and individual cell gliding.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhe; Zhang, Cong; Wang, Sen; Cao, Jing; Zhang, Weican; Lu, Xuemei

    2015-07-01

    Cytophaga hutchinsonii glides rapidly over surfaces by an unknown mechanism without flagella and type IV pili and it can degrade crystalline cellulose efficiently by a novel mechanism. Tn4351 transposon mutagenesis was used to identify a new gene, CHU_1798, essential for colony spreading on agar surfaces. Further study showed that disruption of CHU_1798 caused non-spreading colonies on both soft and hard agar surfaces and individual cells were partially deficient in gliding on glass surfaces. The CHU_1798 mutant could digest cellulose as long as the cells were in direct contact with the cellulose, but it could not degrade cellulose powder buried in the agar plate. Scanning electron microscopy showed that individual mutant cells arranged irregularly on the cellulose fiber surface at an early stage of incubation, but later showed a regular parallel arrangement when there were plenty of cells and could spread along the cellulose fibers. These results suggest that CHU_1798 plays an important role in the motility of C. hutchinsonii and provide insight into the relation between cell motility and cellulose degradation. PMID:26066317

  19. Metronidazole susceptibility testing for Helicobacter pylori: comparison of disk, broth, and agar dilution methods and their clinical relevance.

    PubMed Central

    DeCross, A J; Marshall, B J; McCallum, R W; Hoffman, S R; Barrett, L J; Guerrant, R L

    1993-01-01

    Since the methods for metronidazole susceptibility testing of Helicobacter pylori have not been standardized or validated, we compared three methods that are used to test the metronidazole susceptibilities of 25 isolates of H. pylori. Specifically, we examined the methods of Steer's replicator agar dilution, tube broth microdilution, and modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion. The metronidazole disk zone sizes obtained by the disk diffusion method correlated well (r = 0.74) with the MICs obtained by the agar dilution method. Afterward, the disk diffusion method was used to characterize the metronidazole susceptibilities of 44 isolates of H. pylori. Dual therapy (bismuth and metronidazole) proved to be highly effective against metronidazole-susceptible strains (81.6% eradication rate) but fared poorly against resistant strains (16.7% eradication rate; P < 0.01). Using agar dilution testing, we validated the modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method for metronidazole susceptibility testing of H. pylori and conclude that it is practical, accurate, and clinically applicable. PMID:8370723

  20. Nutrient limitation leads to penetrative growth into agar and affects aroma formation in Pichia fabianii, P. kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    van Rijswijck, Irma M H; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Wolkers-Rooijackers, Judith C M; Abee, Tjakko; Smid, Eddy J

    2015-01-01

    Among fermentative yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is most frequently used as a model organism, although other yeast species may have special features that make them interesting candidates to apply in food-fermentation processes. In this study, we used three yeast species isolated from fermented masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruit, S. cerevisiae 131, Pichia fabianii 65 and Pichia kudriavzevii 129, and determined the impact of nitrogen and/or glucose limitation on surface growth mode and the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All three species displayed significant changes in growth mode in all nutrient-limited conditions, signified by the formation of metafilaments or pseudohyphae. The timing of the transition was found to be species-specific. Transition in growth mode is suggested to be linked to the production of certain fusel alcohols, such as phenylethyl alcohol, which serve as quorum-sensing molecules. Interestingly, we did not observe concomitant increased production of phenylethyl alcohol and filamentous growth. Notably, a broader range of esters was found only for the Pichia spp. grown on nitrogen-limited agar for 21?days compared to nutrient-rich agar, and when grown on glucose- and glucose- plus nitrogen-limited agar. Our data suggest that for the Pichia spp., the formation of esters may play an important role in the switch in growth mode upon nitrogen limitation. Further biological or ecological implications of ester formation are discussed. PMID:25308873

  1. Beyond Agar: Gel Substrates with Improved Optical Clarity and Drug Efficiency and Reduced Autofluorescence for Microbial Growth Experiments.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Philipp A; McElfresh, Cameron; Wong, Lily R; Ideker, Trey

    2015-08-15

    Agar, a seaweed extract, has been the standard support matrix for microbial experiments for over a century. Recent developments in high-throughput genetic screens have created a need to reevaluate the suitability of agar for use as colony support, as modern robotic printing systems now routinely spot thousands of colonies within the area of a single microtiter plate. Identifying optimal biophysical, biochemical, and biological properties of the gel support matrix in these extreme experimental conditions is instrumental to achieving the best possible reproducibility and sensitivity. Here we systematically evaluate a range of gelling agents by using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model microbe. We find that carrageenan and Phytagel have superior optical clarity and reduced autofluorescence, crucial for high-resolution imaging and fluorescent reporter screens. Nutrient choice and use of refined Noble agar or pure agarose reduce the effective dose of numerous selective drugs by >50%, potentially enabling large cost savings in genetic screens. Using thousands of mutant yeast strains to compare colony growth between substrates, we found no evidence of significant growth or nutrient biases between gel substrates, indicating that researchers could freely pick and choose the optimal gel for their respective application and experimental condition. PMID:26070672

  2. Screening for ligninolytic enzymes from autochthonous fungi and applications for decolorization of Remazole Marine Blue.

    PubMed

    Erden, Emre; Ucar, M Cigdem; Gezer, Tekin; Pazarlioglu, Nurdan Kasikara

    2009-04-01

    This study presents new and alternative fungal strains for the production of ligninolytic enzymes which have great potential to use in industrial and biotechnological processes. Thirty autochthonous fungal strains were harvested from Bornova-Izmir in Turkiye. In the fresh fruitbody extracts laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase activities, which are the principal enzymes responsible for ligninocellulose degradation by Basidiomycetes, were screened. Spores of some of the basidiomycetes species such as Cortinarius sp., Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Abortiporus biennis, Lyophyllum subglobisporium, Ramaria stricta, Ganoderma carnosum, Lactarius delicious ve Lepista nuda were isolated and investigated optimum cultivation conditions in submerged fermentation for high yields of ligninolytic enzyme production. In addition, isolated fungal strains were monitored on agar plates whether having the capability of decolorization of a textile dye Remazol Marine Blue. PMID:24031371

  3. Screening for ligninolytic enzymes from autochthonous fungi and applications for decolorization of Remazole Marine Blue

    PubMed Central

    Erden, Emre; Ucar, M. Cigdem; Gezer, Tekin; Pazarlioglu, Nurdan Kasikara

    2009-01-01

    This study presents new and alternative fungal strains for the production of ligninolytic enzymes which have great potential to use in industrial and biotechnological processes. Thirty autochthonous fungal strains were harvested from Bornova-Izmir in Turkiye. In the fresh fruitbody extracts laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase activities, which are the principal enzymes responsible for ligninocellulose degradation by Basidiomycetes, were screened. Spores of some of the basidiomycetes species such as Cortinarius sp., Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Abortiporus biennis, Lyophyllum subglobisporium, Ramaria stricta, Ganoderma carnosum, Lactarius delicious ve Lepista nuda were isolated and investigated optimum cultivation conditions in submerged fermentation for high yields of ligninolytic enzyme production. In addition, isolated fungal strains were monitored on agar plates whether having the capability of decolorization of a textile dye Remazol Marine Blue. PMID:24031371

  4. [Comparison of ertapenem-EMB Agar with traditional methods for screening carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae from rectal swabs].

    PubMed

    Perçin, Duygu; Colako?lu, Selcan; Durmaz, Süleyman; Ekincio?lu, P?nar

    2012-10-01

    Detection of rectal colonization with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is the most important step in the infection control protocols in order to prevent infections caused by CRKP which has an increasing incidence all over the world. In this study, it was aimed to compare the detection rate of 2 mg/L ertapenem EMB agar medium with the other methods recommended by various international guidelines. These methods include direct plate method using ertapenem disc, enrichment method in tryptic soy broth containing 2 mg/L ertapenem and the investigation of the predominant betalactamases in the colonized patients. The lowest inoculum detected by different methods was determined by using simulative challenge test prepared for this purpose. The ability to detect CRKP from rectal swabs was evaluated by using the clinical specimens of 801 patients. For all bacteria isolated, carbapenem susceptibility was evaluated by using E-test method, the presence of beta-lactamases was determined by using modified Hodge test (MHT), and the carbapenemase genes were investigated by using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The lowest inoculum detected by ertapenem-EMB agar was 50 CFU/mL whereas the lowest inocula were 1 x 105 and 1 x 103, respectively by tryptic soy broth with ertapenem and direct plate method. No resistance gene were identified by PCR in 13 (39.4%) of 33 isolates, whereas blaOXA-48 was detected in 19 (95%) and blaIMP in 1 (5%) of 20 positive isolates. All of the positive strains were resistant to imipenem and ertapenem, while 2 (10%) strains were found to be susceptible to doripenem and meropenem. While MHT was negative in all strains which were negative for resistance genes, all resistance gene positive strains except one blaOXA-48 strain that was also sensitive to doripenem and meropenem, were found to be positive with MHT. According to the results of PCR, the sensitivities of the three methods were found to be 80%. The specificities, positive and negative predictive values were found to be 15.4%, 59% and 33.3% for ertapenem-EMB agar, 23%, 61.5% and 42.9% for broth with ertapenem and 61.5%, 76% and 66.6% for direct plate method, respectively. Average labor time of the methods (isolation + identification + sensitivity + MHT) was determined as 48 hours for ertapenem-EMB agar, whereas it was 96 hours for the other methods. In conclusion, since ertapenem- EMB agar method is a sensitive and rapid method, it can be used safely for the preliminary detection of CRKP without increasing the workload of the laboratory. PMID:23188568

  5. Metastatic malignant blue nevus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ozgür, F; Akyürek, M; Kayikçio?lu, A; Bari?ta, I; Gököz, A

    1997-10-01

    This report presents a 63-year-old Caucasian woman with a malignant blue nevus, which is an extremely rare form of melanoma originating from or associated with a preexisting blue nevus. The background blue nevus on the left upper arm, which had been present for 5 to 6 years, increased in size and darkened in color for 3 months prior to histological diagnosis of malignant blue nevus. Although the tumor looked much like a nodular melanoma clinically, the diagnosis of malignant blue nevus was established histologically. The patient had a poor outcome due to metastatic spread of the tumor to the visceral organs 1 year following the initial excision of the tumor. To distinguish this rare tumor from other melanocytic lesions, strict histological criteria are needed to make the diagnosis of malignant blue nevus. Differential diagnosis includes cellular blue nevus, atypical cellular blue nevus, primary malignant melanoma, and metastatic melanoma to the dermis. Malignant blue nevus is most commonly seen on the scalp. The tumor has an aggressive behavior and metastasizes in the majority of patients. This paper describes the second reported case of malignant blue nevus involving the upper arm. Clinical and histological features of this uncommon tumor are presented, along with a review of the literature. PMID:9339284

  6. Uncovering blue diffuse dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Bethan L.; Koposov, Sergey; Stark, Daniel P.; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W.

    2015-04-01

    Extremely metal poor (XMP) galaxies are known to be very rare, despite the large numbers of low-mass galaxies predicted by the local galaxy luminosity function. This paper presents a subsample of galaxies that were selected via a morphology-based search on Sloan Digital Sky Survey images with the aim of finding these elusive XMP galaxies. By using the recently discovered XMP galaxy, Leo P, as a guide, we obtained a collection of faint, blue systems, each with isolated H II regions embedded in a diffuse continuum, that have remained optically undetected until now. Here we show the first results from optical spectroscopic follow-up observations of 12 of ˜100 of these blue diffuse dwarf (BDD) galaxies yielded by our search algorithm. Oxygen abundances were obtained via the direct method for eight galaxies, and found to be in the range 7.45 < 12 + log (O/H) < 8.0, with two galaxies being classified as XMPs. All BDDs were found to currently have a young star-forming population (<10 Myr) and relatively high ionization parameters of their H II regions. Despite their low luminosities (-11 ? MB ? -18) and low surface brightnesses (˜23-25 mag arcsec-2), the galaxies were found to be actively star forming, with current star formation rates between 0.0003 and 0.078 M? yr-1. From our current subsample, BDD galaxies appear to be a population of non-quiescent dwarf irregular galaxies, or the diffuse counterparts to blue compact galaxies and as such may bridge the gap between these two populations. Our search algorithm demonstrates that morphology-based searches are successful in uncovering more diffuse metal-poor star-forming galaxies, which traditional emission-line-based searches overlook.

  7. Black Holes from Blue Spectra

    E-print Network

    James E. Lidsey; B. J. Carr; J. H. Gilbert

    1994-06-09

    Blue primordial power spectra with a spectral index $n>1$ can lead to a significant production of primordial black holes in the very early Universe. The evaporation of these objects leads to a number of observational consequences and a model independent upper limit of $n \\approx 1.4$. In some cases this limit is strengthened to $n=1.3$. Such limits may be employed to define the boundary to the region of parameter space consistent with generalized inflationary predictions. [To appear in Proceedings of the CASE WESTERN CMB WORKSHOP, April 22-24 1994. Figures available on request from J.H.Gilbert@qmw.ac.uk

  8. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  9. Methylene blue diffusion in skin tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2004-07-01

    The study of Methylene Blue penetration in both skin and subcutaneous fat is presented. Experiments have been carried out with both rat skin and human adipose tissue in vitro at room temperature. Microscopic analysis with digital imaging system has been applied for visualizing and investigation of the Methylene Blue diffusion in the epidermal, dermal and adipose tissue. Diffusion coefficient of Methylene Blue in skin in vitro has been estimated.

  10. Blue Photoluminescence From Silacyclobutene Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernisz, Udo

    1999-04-01

    Organosilicon compounds in which the Si atom is bound to an aromatic moiety such as a phenyl group, exhibit strong blue photoluminescence when excited with UV light (for example at a wavelength of 337 nm). This phenomenon was investigated quantitatively at room temperature and at the temperature of liquid nitrogen (78 K) by measuring the emission and excitation spectra of the total luminescence, and of the phosphorescence, for a silacyclobutene compound in which two phenyl groups are joined across the C=C double bond of the ring. The effect of a series of organic substituents on the Si atom was investigated as well as the time dependence of the phosphorescence intensity decay for this class of materials. A tentative model of the energy levels in this compound is proposed. The observation of visible blue emission -- in contrast to photoluminescence in the UV from the aromatic groups -- is explained by the Si-C bond lowering the energy of the molecular orbitals, an effect that is currently under study for a range of Si-containing compounds. Synthesis of the silacyclobutene compounds was performed at the laboratory of Prof. N. Auner, now at J.W. Goethe Universität, Frankfurt, Germany. His contributions, and those of his collaborators, to the work reported here are gratefully acknowledged.

  11. Morphological responses of wheat to blue light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C.; Bugbee, B.

    1992-01-01

    Blue light significantly increased tillering in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown at the same photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). Plants were grown under two levels of blue light (400-500 nm) in a controlled environment with continuous irradiation. Plants received either 50 micromoles m-2 s-1 of blue light or 2 micromoles m-2 s-1 blue light from filtered metal halide lamps at a total irradiance of 200 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPF (400-700 nm). Plants tillered an average of 25% more under the higher level of blue light. Blue light also caused a small, but consistent, increase in main culm development, measured as Haun stage. Leaf length was reduced by higher levels of blue light, while plant dry-mass was not significantly affected by blue light. Applying the principle of equivalent light action, the results suggest that tillering and leaf elongation are mediated by the blue-UV light receptor(s) because phytochrome photoequilibrium for each treatment were nearly identical.

  12. Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.-Y.; Wang, C.-T.; Hsu, C.-Y.; Lin, T.-H.; Liu, J.-H.

    2010-03-22

    This study investigates an optically switchable band gap of photonic crystal that is based on an azobenzene-doped liquid crystal blue phase. The trans-cis photoisomerization of azobenzene deforms the cubic unit cell of the blue phase and shifts the photonic band gap. The fast back-isomerization of azobenzene was induced by irradiation with different wavelengths light. The crystal structure is verified using Kossel diffraction diagram. An optically addressable blue phase display, based on Bragg reflection from the photonic band gap, is also demonstrated. The tunable ranges are around red, green, and blue wavelengths and exhibit a bright saturated color.

  13. Optimization of the Agar-gel Method for Isolation of Migrating Ascaris suum Larvae From the Liver and Lungs of Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, I; Roepstorff, A; Rasmussen, T; Høg, M; Jungersen, G

    2001-01-01

    Experiments on use of an agar-gel method for recovery of migrating Ascaris suum larvae from the liver and lungs of pigs were conducted to obtain fast standardized methods. Subsamples of blended tissues of pig liver and lungs were mixed with agar to a final concentration of 1% agar and the larvae allowed to migrate out of the agar-gel into 0.9% NaCl at 38°C. The results showed that within 3 h more than 88% of the recoverable larvae migrated out of the liver agar-gel and more than 83% of the obtained larvae migrated out of the lung agar-gel. The larvae were subsequently available in a very clean suspension which reduced the sample counting time. Blending the liver for 60 sec in a commercial blender showed significantly higher larvae recovery than blending for 30 sec. Addition of gentamycin to reduce bacterial growth during incubation, glucose to increase larval motility during migration or ice to increase sedimentation of migrated larvae did not influence larvae recovery significantly. PMID:11503373

  14. Relation of Mucoid Growth of Staphylococcus aureus to Clumping Factor Reaction, Morphology in Serum-Soft Agar, and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kosaku; Ekstedt, Richard D.

    1968-01-01

    The growth characteristics of several strains of Staphylococcus aureus in Brain Heart Infusion and in a modified Staphylococcus Medium No. 110 were compared. In the latter medium all of the strains studied showed an increased mucoid character. Some of the strains studied showed a greater potential to synthesize excess slime layer material than others. The highly mucoid strains grew as diffuse-type colonies in modified Staphylococcus Medium No. 110 serum-soft agar and reacted as though they were negative in the test for clumping factor. These strains were also found to be more virulent when used to challenge normal mice intraperitoneally. Images PMID:5686016

  15. Relation of mucoid growth of Staphylococcus aureus to clumping factor reaction, morphology in serum-soft agar, and virulence.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Ekstedt, R D

    1968-10-01

    The growth characteristics of several strains of Staphylococcus aureus in Brain Heart Infusion and in a modified Staphylococcus Medium No. 110 were compared. In the latter medium all of the strains studied showed an increased mucoid character. Some of the strains studied showed a greater potential to synthesize excess slime layer material than others. The highly mucoid strains grew as diffuse-type colonies in modified Staphylococcus Medium No. 110 serum-soft agar and reacted as though they were negative in the test for clumping factor. These strains were also found to be more virulent when used to challenge normal mice intraperitoneally. PMID:5686016

  16. High internal phase agar hydrogel dispersions in cocoa butter and chocolate as a route towards reducing fat content.

    PubMed

    Skelhon, Thomas S; Olsson, Patrik K A; Morgan, Adam R; Bon, Stefan A F

    2013-09-01

    Reducing the fat content of chocolate formulations is a major challenge for the confectionery industry. We report the suspension of aqueous microgel agar particles of up to 80% v/v within sunflower oil, cocoa butter, and ultimately chocolate. The optimised emulsification process involves a shear-cooling step. We demonstrate the versatility of our method when applied to white, milk, and dark chocolate formulations, whilst preserving the desired polymorph V of the cocoa butter matrix. In addition, we show that this technology can be used as a strategy to disperse alcoholic beverages into chocolate confectionery. PMID:23799607

  17. Grain Fish Money Financing Africa's Green and Blue Revolutions Financing Africa's Green and Blue Revolutions

    E-print Network

    Grain Fish Money Financing Africa's Green and Blue Revolutions 1 Financing Africa's Green and Blue Revolutions GRAIN FISH MONEY AFRICA PROGRESS REPORT 2014 #12;AFRICA PROGRESS REPORT 2014 2 #12;Grain Fish Money Financing Africa's Green and Blue Revolutions 3 #12;#12;Grain Fish Money Financing Africa's Green

  18. Characterization and optimization of hydrogen production by a salt water blue-green alga Oscillatoria sp. Miami BG 7. II - Use of immobilization for enhancement of hydrogen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phlips, E. J.; Mitsui, A.

    1986-01-01

    The technique of cellular immobilization was applied to the process of hydrogen photoproduction of nonheterocystous, filamentous marine blue-green alga, Oscillatoria sp. Miami BG 7. Immobilization with agar significantly improved the rate and longevity of hydrogen production, compared to free cell suspensions. Rates of H2 production in excess of 13 microliters H2 mg dry/wt h were observed and hydrogen production was sustained for three weeks. Immobilization also provided some stabilization to environmental variability and was adaptable to outdoor light conditions. In general, immobilization provides significant advantages for the production and maintenance of hydrogen photoproduction for this strain.

  19. Enumeration of coagulase and thermonuclease-positive Staphylococcus spp. in raw milk and fresh soft cheese: an evaluation of Baird-Parker agar, Rabbit Plasma Fibrinogen agar and the Petrifilm Staph Express count system.

    PubMed

    Viçosa, Gabriela Nogueira; Moraes, Paula Mendonça; Yamazi, Anderson Keizo; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2010-06-01

    Staphylococcus spp. are microorganisms that are naturally present in milk and dairy products and are often associated with food-borne diseases outbreaks due to the ability of some strains to produce thermostable enterotoxins. This ability is usually associated with coagulase and thermonuclease production, characteristics that are considered in the microbiological analyses for the control of such microorganisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the culture media and the methodologies used for the enumeration of coagulase and thermonuclease-positive Staphylococcus spp. in raw milk and fresh soft cheese. Samples of artificially contaminated milk (with coagulase-positive Staphylococcus reference strains) and samples of naturally contaminated raw milk and cheese were submitted for enumeration in Baird-Parker agar (BP), Rabbit Plasma Fibrinogen agar (RPFA) and in the Petrifilm Staph Express count system (STX). No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed between the mean counts obtained in all of the evaluated culture media. RPFA and STX had good correlation indices between the total and typical colony counts as well as with coagulase and the thermonuclease-positive colony counts. Thus, there is a better association between coagulase and thermonuclease production to typical colony morphology developed on these culture media, leading to more accurate and reliable results than with BP, which demonstrated lower correlation indices between these counts. PMID:20417392

  20. Ecology of Blue Straggler Stars

    E-print Network

    Boffin, H M J; Beccari, G

    2014-01-01

    The existence of blue straggler stars (BSS), which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution, as such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. As such, BSS could just be some quirks but in fact their understanding requires a deep knowledge of many different areas in astronomy, from stellar evolution through cluster dynamics, from chemical abundances to stellar populations. In November 2012, a workshop on this important topic took place at the ESO Chilean headquarters in Santiago. The many topics covered at this workshop were introduced by very comprehensive invited reviews, providing a unique and insightful view on the field. These reviews have now become chapters of the first ever book on BSS.

  1. Methylthymol blue in Fricke gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penev, K. I.; Mequanint, K.

    2015-01-01

    The initial trial of methylthymol blue (MTB) as a chelator for ferric iron in Fricke gel dosimeters, used for three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry in cancer radiotherapy, is reported. MTB is a structural analogue of the conventionally used xylenol orange (XO); however, the absorbance spectrum of the ferric-MTB complex is shifted to higher wavelengths, which should allow for lower amount of light scattering during gel scanning. In this study, two gelatin substrates, two sources of XO and one source of MTB have been compared. The MTB- containing gels exhibited similar dose response and diffusion coefficient to the XO-containing gels at their wavelengths of maximum absorption (620 and 585 nm, respectively). In addition, the MTB gels gave an excellent dose response at 633 nm, which is an important wavelength that is already used with other 3D dosimeters.

  2. Long-persistence blue phosphors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, William M. (Inventor); Jia, Weiyi (Inventor); Lu, Lizhu (Inventor); Yuan, Huabiao (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to phosphors including long-persistence blue phosphors. Phosphors of the invention are represented by the general formula: MO . mAl.sub.2 O.sub.3 :Eu.sup.2+,R.sup.3+ wherein m is a number ranging from about 1.6 to about 2.2, M is Sr or a combination of Sr with Ca and Ba or both, R.sup.3+ is a trivalent metal ion or trivalent Bi or a mixture of these trivalent ions, Eu.sup.2+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M, and R.sup.3+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M. Phosphors of this invention include powders, ceramics, single crystals and single crystal fibers. A method of manufacturing improved phosphors and a method of manufacturing single crystal phosphors are also provided.

  3. Blue enhanced light sources: opportunities and risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Dieter

    2012-03-01

    Natural daylight is characterized by high proportions of blue light. By proof of a third type of photoreceptor in the human eye which is only sensitive in this spectral region and by subsequent studies it has become obvious that these blue proportions are essential for human health and well being. In various studies beneficial effects of indoor lighting with higher blue spectral proportions have been proven. On the other hand with increasing use of light sources having enhanced blue light for indoor illumination questions are arising about potential health risks attributed to blue light. Especially LED are showing distinct emission characteristics in the blue. Recently the French agency for food, environmental and occupational health & safety ANSES have raised the question on health issues related to LED light sources and have claimed to avoid use of LED for lighting in schools. In this paper parameters which are relevant for potential health risks will be shown and their contribution to risk factors will quantitatively be discussed. It will be shown how to differentiate between photometric parameters for assessment of beneficial as well as hazardous effects. Guidelines will be discussed how blue enhanced light sources can be used in applications to optimally support human health and well being and simultaneously avoid any risks attributed to blue light by a proper design of lighting parameters. In the conclusion it will be shown that no inherent health risks are related to LED lighting with a proper lighting design.

  4. Name________________________________________ Blue Whale Skeleton: Observations and Questions

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Name________________________________________ SH 8/08 Blue Whale Skeleton: Observations and Questions Form and Function: The blue whale is a mammal adapted to life in the open ocean. Compare its the whale survive in its environment? Write down your observations and questions about the following body

  5. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium...incorporated in the mixture in order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  6. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium...incorporated in the mixture in order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  7. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium...incorporated in the mixture in order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  8. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium...incorporated in the mixture in order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  9. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium...incorporated in the mixture in order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  10. Trypan Blue Exclusion Test of Cell Viability.

    PubMed

    Strober, Warren

    2015-01-01

    The protocol described in this appendix allows for light microscopic quantitation of cell viability. Cells are suspended in PBS containing trypan blue and then examined to determine the percentage of cells that have clear cytoplasm (viable cells) versus cells that have blue cytoplasm (nonviable cells). © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26529666

  11. Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

  12. 2016 PREMIUMS Blue Advantage Point of Service/HMO, Blue Priority PPO, and Custom Plus (Current Plans)

    E-print Network

    2016 PREMIUMS Blue Advantage Point of Service/HMO, Blue Priority PPO, and Custom Plus (Current Changes to the Blue Advantage POS/HMO, Blue Priority PPO, or Custom Plus Plans #12;New Plan Option! Blue Specialist Office Visit $60 Copayment Hospital Based Services Emergency Room $250 Copayment Inpatient

  13. Featured Molecules: Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, William F.; Wildman, Randall J.

    2003-05-01

    The WebWare molecules of the month for May are featured in several articles in this issue. "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?" discusses the pharmaceutical uses of methylene blue and its development as the first synthetic drug used against a specific disease. The JCE Classroom Activity "Out of the Blue" and the article "Greening the Blue Bottle" feature methylene blue and ascorbic acid as two key ingredients in the formulation of the blue bottle. You can also see a colorful example of these two molecules in action on the cover. "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist" describes an experiment to determine the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of citrus fruits and challenges students, as eighteenth-century sea captains, to decide the best fruit to take on a long voyage. Fully manipulable (Chime) versions of these and other molecules are available at Only@JCE Online.

  14. Highly efficient synthesis of exopolysaccharides by Lactobacillus curvatus DPPMA10 during growth in hydrolyzed wheat flour agar.

    PubMed

    Minervini, F; De Angelis, M; Surico, R F; Di Cagno, R; Gänzle, M; Gobbetti, M

    2010-06-30

    The aim of this study was to optimize the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) by sourdough Lactobacillus curvatus DPPMA10 for industrial application. The effects of pH, temperature, planktonic or attached cells and of some food matrices as substrates were studied. Wheat flour hydrolysate (WFH), reconstituted skimmed milk (RSM) and whey milk were supplemented with fresh yeast extract, mineral salts, and/or molasses. Non-controlled pH, starting from 5.6 to 3.5, was the optimal condition for L. curvatus DPPMA10. Temperature of 30 degrees C was also found to be optimal. Solid surfaces (agar culture media) stimulated attached bacteria to synthesize EPS (> or = of two-fold, P<0.05) with respect to planktonic cells (broth media). The highest production of EPS (ca. 46-50 g/kg of wet medium) was found during growth as attached cells in WFH agar supplemented with glucose, sucrose or molasses, mineral salts and fresh yeast extract at 30 degrees C for 48 h. As shown by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, glucose was the only hydrolysis end-product for EPS synthesized during 48 h of incubation. The EPS synthesized by L. curvatus DPPMA10 improved the quality of bread and was utilized as carbon course by intestinal strains of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. The synthesis of EPS by L. curvatus DPPMA10 under the conditions of this study may open new perspectives for their industrial applications. PMID:20398955

  15. Determination of in vitro synergy for dual antimicrobial therapy against resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae using Etest and agar dilution.

    PubMed

    Wind, Carolien M; de Vries, Henry J C; van Dam, Alje P

    2015-03-01

    In response to antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to last-resort extended-spectrum cephalosporins, combination therapy of azithromycin+ceftriaxone is now recommended. Dual therapy can be effective to treat monoresistant strains as well as multidrug-resistant strains, preferably employing the effect of in vitro synergy. As reports on in vitro synergy of azithromycin+ceftriaxone in N. gonorrhoeae are conflicting, in this study an evaluation of this combination was performed using a cross-wise Etest method and agar dilution. Synergy was defined as a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of ?0.5. To identify other dual treatment options for gonorrhoea, in vitro synergy was evaluated for 65 dual antimicrobial combinations using Etest. Azithromycin, cefixime, ceftriaxone, colistin, ertapenem, fosfomycin, gentamicin, minocycline, moxifloxacin, rifampicin, spectinomycin and tigecycline were screened for synergy in all possible combinations. No synergy or antagonism was found for any of the 65 combinations. The geometric mean FICI ranged from 0.82 to 2.00. The mean FICI of azithromycin+ceftriaxone was 1.18 (Etest) and 0.55 (agar dilution). The difference between both methods did not result in a difference in interpretation of synergy. Ceftriaxone-resistant strain F89 was tested in all combinations and no synergy was found for any of them. Most importantly, the ceftriaxone minimum inhibitory concentration of F89 was not decreased below the breakpoint with any concentration of azithromycin. PMID:25532741

  16. Malt-yeast extract-sucrose agar, a suitable medium for enumeration and isolation of fungi from silage.

    PubMed Central

    Skaar, I; Stenwig, H

    1996-01-01

    A general medium named malt-yeast extract-sucrose agar (MYSA) containing oxgall was designed. The medium was intended for the enumeration and isolation of molds and yeasts in routine examinations of animal feed stuffs. In this study MYSA was tested as a general medium for mycological examination of silage. The medium was compared with dichloran-rose bengal medium (DRBC) in an examination of more than 500 specimens of big bale grass silage. Selected characteristics of known fungal species commonly isolated from feeds were examined after growth on MYSA and DRBC and on malt extract agar, used as a noninhibitory control medium. MYSA suppressed bacterial growth, without affecting the growth of fungi common in feeds. The fungi growing on MYSA were easily recognized, and the medium seemed to slow radial growth of fungal colonies, which permitted, easy counting. The number of species found was higher on MYSA than on DRBC. When we compared MYSA with DRBC for mycological examination of grass silage samples, MYSA was found to be the medium of choice. PMID:8837416

  17. [Analysis of bactericidal material generated by electrical devices advertising bactericidal ability against bacteria on the agar gel plates].

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Hidekazu

    2012-11-01

    Several Japanese companies sell electrical devices advertised as effective in inactivating viruses and killing bacteria by releasing special materials, e.g., Plasmacluster ions, Nanoe particle and minus ions, into the air. These companies claim that their devices killed bacteria on plates in their own experiments. We tested device effectiveness using the same experiments from the Plasmacluster ioniser SHARP Co., Japan, the Nanoe generator Panasonic Co., Japan, and the Vion KING JIM Co., Japan, to test their advertising claims. Bactericidal ability on agar plate was tested, using Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, and Enterococcus faecalis as follows: the medium containing a certain amount of each bacterium was put onto an agar plate and smeared. Plates were kept in a closed chamber (inner volume 14.4 m3) or a glove box (inner volume 0.2 m), with one of the devices run for 2 hours. Plates not exposed to any device were used as controls. Each plate was retrieved and put in an incubator to count the number of bacterial colonies formed on the plate. There was no significant difference in the number of colonies on plates exposed to devices compared to control, in the number for all devices, or in all bacteria tested in experiments in the 14.4 m3 chamber. These results strongly suggest that these devices have almost no bactericidal effect, at least in space exceeding this volume. Colony formation was suppressed in the glove box in all devices and in all bacteria tested except P. aeruginosa, although the degree of suppression differed among experiments. The colony formation suppression mechanism was analyzed, and indicated that:colony formation did not change even after the removal of Plasmacluster ions, Nanoe particles, or negative ions from the air, while colony formation was decreased drastically by the removal of ozone from space, which was revealed to be generated inevitably during device operation. These results strongly suggest that the bactericidal effect seen only on the agar plate in narrow space was explained by ozone released in space as a by-product, not by special materials as advertising claimed. It is thus important to analyze the effect of special materials such as those done in this study and to suggest the involvement of ozone as the true cause, as have been done in this study, in evaluating bactericidal effect or viral inactivation as advertised by these companies. PMID:23367847

  18. Blue outliers among intermediate redshift quasars

    E-print Network

    Marziani, P; Stirpe, G M; Dultzin, D; Del Olmo, A; Martínez-Carballo, M A

    2015-01-01

    [Oiii]{\\lambda}{\\lambda}4959,5007 "blue outliers" -- that are suggestive of outflows in the narrow line region of quasars -- appear to be much more common at intermediate z (high luminosity) than at low z. About 40% of quasars in a Hamburg ESO intermediate-z sample of 52 sources qualify as blue outliers (i.e., quasars with [OIII] {\\lambda}{\\lambda}4959,5007 lines showing large systematic blueshifts with respect to rest frame). We discuss major findings on what has become an intriguing field in active galactic nuclei research and stress the relevance of blue outliers to feedback and host galaxy evolution.

  19. Neptune's blue-green atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Neptune's blue-green atmosphere is shown in greater detail than ever before by the Voyager 2 spacecraft as it rapidly approaches its encounter with the giant planet. This color image, produced from a distance of about 16 million kilometers, shows several complex and puzzling atmospheric features. The Great Dark Spot (GDS) seen at the center is about 13,000 km by 6,600 km in size -- as large along its longer dimension as the Earth. The bright, wispy 'cirrus-type' clouds seen hovering in the vicinity of the GDS are higher in altitude than the dark material of unknown origin which defines its boundaries. A thin veil often fills part of the GDS interior, as seen on the image. The bright cloud at the southern (lower) edge of the GDS measures about 1,000 km in its north-south extent. The small, bright cloud below the GDS, dubbed the 'scooter,' rotates faster than the GDS, gaining about 30 degrees eastward (toward the right) in longitude every rotation. Bright streaks of cloud at the latitude of the GDS, the small clouds overlying it, and a dimly visible dark protrusion at its western end are examples of dynamic weather patterns on Neptune, which can change significantly on time scales of one rotation (about 18 hours).

  20. Biomimetic synthesis of hollow calcium carbonate with the existence of the agar matrix and bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jianhua; Wu, Gang; Qing, Chengsong

    2016-01-01

    Proteins play important roles in the process of biomineralization. Vaterite and calcite have been synthesized by the reaction of Na2CO3 and CaCl2 in the bovine serum albumin (BSA) and agar system. The samples have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The shape of CaCO3 crystal has been analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The results show that calcite is a single product in the absence of BSA, but the product is a mixture of calcite and vaterite in the presence of BSA. The spheral shell of CaCO3 crystal was obtained when the concentration of BSA increased to 9.0mg/mL. PMID:26478327

  1. Evaluation of the thin agar layer method for the recovery of pressure-injured and heat-injured Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Lavieri, Nicolas A; Sebranek, Joseph G; Cordray, Joseph C; Dickson, James S; Jung, Stephanie; Manu, David K; Mendonça, Aubrey F; Brehm-Stecher, Byron F; Stock, Joseph; Stalder, Kenneth J

    2014-05-01

    A sublethally injured bacterial cell has been defined as a cell that survives a stress such as heating, freezing, acid treatment, or other antimicrobial intervention but can repair the cellular damage exerted by the stressor and later regain its original ability to grow. Consequently, sublethally injured cells are not likely to be included in conventional enumeration procedures, which could result in unrealistically low counts unless efforts are made to encourage recovery of the injured cells before enumeration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the thin agar layer (TAL) method for the recovery of pressure-injured and heat-injured Listeria monocytogenes in a tryptic soy broth with 0.6% yeast extract system. Pressure injury consisted of treatment of a culture of mixed L. monocytogenes strains with high hydrostatic pressure at 400 or 600 MPa for 1 s, 2 min, 4 min, or 6 min at a process temperature of 12±2 °C. Heat injury consisted of treatment of a culture of mixed L. monocytogenes strains at 60±1 °C for 3, 6, or 9 min. Growth media were tryptic soy agar (TSA) with 0.6% yeast extract, modified Oxford medium (MOX), and TAL, which consisted of a 7-ml layer of TSA overlaid onto solidified MOX. Counts of viable L. monocytogenes on TAL were higher than those on MOX in the heat-injury experiment but not in the pressure-injury experiment. Therefore, the effectiveness of the TAL method may be specific to the type of injury applied to the microorganism and should be investigated in a variety of cellular injury scenarios. PMID:24780340

  2. Effects of extracellular matrix proteins on macrophage differentiation, growth, and function: comparison of liquid and agar culture systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Both spaceflight and skeletal unloading suppress the haematopoietic differentiation of macrophages (Sonnenfeld et al., Aviat. Space Environ. Med., 61:648-653, 1990; Armstrong et al., J. Appl. Physiol., 75:2734-2739, 1993). The mechanism behind this reduction in haematopoiesis has yet to be elucidated. However, changes in bone marrow extracellular matrix (ECM) may be involved. To further understand the role of ECM products in macrophage differentiation, we have performed experiments evaluating the effects of fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I, and collagen type IV on macrophage development and function. Bone marrow-derived macrophages cultured on four different ECM substrates in liquid culture medium showed less growth than those cultured on plastic. Significant morphological differences were seen on each of the substrates used. Phenotypically and functionally, as measured by class II major histocompatibility molecule (MHCII) expression, MAC-2 expression, and the secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), these macrophages were similar. In contrast, bone marrow-derived macrophages cultured in suspension, using agar, showed no difference in growth when exposed to ECM proteins. However, IL-6 and TNF-alpha secretion was affected by fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I, and collagen type IV in a concentration-dependent manner. We conclude that the ECM products fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I, and collagen type IV have profound effects on macrophage development and function. Additionally, we suggest that an ECM-supplemented agar culture system provides an environment more analogous to in vivo bone marrow than does a traditional liquid culture system.

  3. Agar gel immunodiffusion test for the detection of bovine leukemia virus antibodies: lack of trans-Atlantic standardization.

    PubMed Central

    Simard, C; Richardson, S; Dixon, P; Komal, J

    2000-01-01

    Two agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) kits for the serodiagnosis of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) were imported from Europe and were compared with North American kits. The BLV AGID kits from North America and from Europe differed significantly. The punches were different, as were the pattern distribution in the agar of the reference and the test sera, resulting in differences in the reading of the immunoprecipitation lines. Based on the testing of 1200 serum samples from cattle, the European kits gave a good correlation with the American kits, as indicated by their respective kappa values. However, the European kits were found to be less sensitive when evaluated against weakly positive samples from field specimens or following a dilution trial. Only 65% and 50% of the weakly positive samples detected by the American kit #1 were detected by the European kits #2 and #3, respectively. The American kit was also capable of detecting BLV antibodies in 45% of strongly positive samples diluted 1/50 in negative sera, while antibodies were detected in only 15% of the samples with the European kit #2 and in none of the samples with the European kit #3. False negatives were also detected with the European kits. Among the false negatives, the degree of expected reactions was weak (European kit #2) or of varying degrees of positivity (European kit #3). Besides the differences in format and performance, the BLV-AGID kits in Europe are evaluated with the National Standard Serum E4 while a proficiency panel composed of a quadruplicate set of 10 reference sera is used in Canada to monitor the kits. Based on the overall observations, we noted a lack of standardization between the BLV-AGID kits used in North America and in Europe. PMID:10805247

  4. Blue Mountain Community College Chemeketa Community College

    E-print Network

    Escher, Christine

    Blue Mountain Community College Chemeketa Community College Clackamas Community College Clatsop Community College Columbia Gorge Community College Lane Community College Linn-Benton Community College Oregon Coast Community College Portland Community College Southwestern Oregon Community College Tillamook

  5. Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site

    ScienceCinema

    Paul Saueressig

    2010-09-01

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.

  6. Prussian Blue as a Prebiotic Reagent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Bermejo, M.; Menor-Salván, C.; Osuna-Esteban, S.; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S.

    2009-12-01

    Ferrocyanide has been proposed as a potential prebiotic reagent and the complex salt Prussian Blue, Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3, might be an important reservoir of HCN, in the early Earth. HCN is considered the main precursor of amino acids and purine and pyrimidine bases under prebiotic conditions. Recently, we observed the formation of Prussian Blue in spark discharge experiments using saline solutions of ferrous chloride, FeCl2. Using Prussian Blue as starting material in ammonium suspensions, we obtained organic compounds containing nitrogen. These results seem to indicate that Prussian Blue could have been first, a sink of HCN, and then in subsequent reactions, triggered by pH fluctuations, it might have lead to organic life precursors.

  7. A Clock Reaction Based on Molybdenum Blue

    E-print Network

    Neuenschwander, Ulrich

    Clock reactions are rare kinetic phenomena, so far limited mostly to systems with ionic oxoacids and oxoanions in water. We report a new clock reaction in cyclohexanol that forms molybdenum blue from a noncharged, yellow ...

  8. Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Saueressig

    2010-07-14

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.

  9. Enumeration of sublethally injured Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895 and Escherichia coli strain B-41560 using selective agar overlays versus commercial methods.

    PubMed

    Smith, Amanda R; Ellison, Alysha L; Robinson, Amanda L; Drake, Maryanne; McDowell, Susan A; Mitchell, James K; Gerard, Patrick D; Heckler, Rachel A; McKillip, John L

    2013-04-01

    Quality control procedures during food processing may involve direct inoculation of food samples onto appropriate selective media for subsequent enumeration. However, sublethally injured bacteria often fail to grow, enabling them to evade detection and intervention measures and ultimately threaten the health of consumers. This study compares traditional selective and nonselective agar-based overlays versus two commercial systems (Petrifilm and Easygel) for recovery of injured E. coli B-41560 and O157:H7 strains. Bacteria were propagated in tryptic soy broth (TSB), ground beef slurry, and infant milk formula to a density of 10(6) to 10(8) CFU/ml and then were stressed for 6 min either in lactic acid (pH 4.5) or heat shocked for 3 min at 60°C. Samples were pour plated in basal layers of either tryptic soy agar (TSA), sorbitol MacConkey agar (SMAC), or violet red bile agar (VRB) and were resuscitated for 4 h prior to addition of agar overlays. Other stressed bacteria were plated directly onto Petrifilm and Easygel. Results indicate that selective and nonselective agar overlays recovered significantly higher numbers (greater than 1 log) of acid- and heat-injured E. coli O157:H7 from TSB, ground beef, and infant milk formula compared with direct plating onto selective media, Petrifilm, or Easygel, while no significant differences among these media combinations were observed for stressed E. coli B-41560. Nonstressed bacteria from TSB and ground beef were also recovered at densities significantly higher in nonselective TSA-TSA and in VRB-VRB and SMAC-SMAC compared with Petrifilm and Easygel. These data underscore the need to implement food safety measures that address sublethally injured pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7 in order to avoid underestimation of true densities for target pathogens. PMID:23575132

  10. MitoBlue: A Nontoxic and Photostable Blue-Emitting Dye That Selectively Labels Functional Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of a fluorogenic dye, N1,N3-di(2-aminidonaphthalen-6-yl) propane-1,3-diamine, MitoBlue, which selectively stains functional mitochondria while displaying low toxicity, bright blue emission, and high resistance to photobleaching. Additionally, we show that a biotin-labeled MitoBlue derivative can be used as a handle for the delivery of streptavidin-tagged species to the mitochondria. PMID:25325672

  11. Barium Enhancement in NGC 6819 Blue Stragglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliman, Katelyn; Mathieu, Robert D.; Schuler, Simon C.

    2015-01-01

    Possible formation pathways for blue straggler stars include mergers in hierarchical triple systems, stellar collisions during dynamical encounters, and mass transfer from a giant companion. Extensive work on the blue stragglers in the old open cluster NGC 188 (7 Gyr) has led to exciting discoveries including a binary secondary mass distribution peaked at 0.5 MSolar and the detection of three young white dwarf binary companions. These indicate that mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch star is the dominant mechanism for blue straggler formation in open clusters. Such mass transfer events should pollute the surface abundance of the blue straggler with nucleosynthesis products from the evolved donor. The other formation pathways, mergers and collisions, are predicted to produce no such enhancements. In an effort to move beyond NGC 188 and into other open clusters we present the first results of a surface abundance study of the blue stragglers in the intermediate-aged open cluster NGC 6819 (2.5 Gyr) using the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope. This part of our study centers on the s-process element barium as a tracer of formation via mass transfer. We compare the blue straggler surface abundance of barium to that of a sample of main-sequence stars in NGC 6819 and find multiple blue stragglers with anomalous abundances. Surprising, most of the blue stragglers with barium anomalies show no radial-velocity evidence for a companion. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the National Science Foundation under grant AST- 0908082 and the Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium.

  12. Blue irradiance intercomparison in the medical field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Antonio F. G.

    2012-10-01

    This work presents the results of a blue irradiance intercomparison among industrial laboratories of medical devices companies. This intercomparison aims to support the metrological issues of medical equipment manufactures regarding the blue irradiance infant phototherapy equipment requirements on the international standard IEC 60601-2-50:2000. The results showed a low agreement of participants' measurements according to normalized error criterion. The major explanation for this result is associated to an incorrect equipment choice and long recalibration period.

  13. Studies on plasma processing of blue dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samal, S. K.; P, Sindhoora L.; Mishra, S. C.; Mishra, B.

    2015-02-01

    Plasma smelting was carried out using blue dust and petroleum coke mixtures for five different compositions. By altering percentage of reductant and type of plasma forming gas, recovery rate and degree of metallization were calculated in order to examine the extent of reduction of blue dust. The products were characterized by XRD and optical microscopy techniques. The results of these investigations exhibited that highest degree of metallization and recovery rate of about 98% and 86% respectively, were achieved for nitrogen plasma smelted products.

  14. Blue-phase liquid crystal droplets.

    PubMed

    Martínez-González, José A; Zhou, Ye; Rahimi, Mohammad; Bukusoglu, Emre; Abbott, Nicholas L; de Pablo, Juan J

    2015-10-27

    Blue phases of liquid crystals represent unique ordered states of matter in which arrays of defects are organized into striking patterns. Most studies of blue phases to date have focused on bulk properties. In this work, we present a systematic study of blue phases confined into spherical droplets. It is found that, in addition to the so-called blue phases I and II, several new morphologies arise under confinement, with a complexity that increases with the chirality of the medium and with a nature that can be altered by surface anchoring. Through a combination of simulations and experiments, it is also found that one can control the wavelength at which blue-phase droplets absorb light by manipulating either their size or the strength of the anchoring, thereby providing a liquid-state analog of nanoparticles, where dimensions are used to control absorbance or emission. The results presented in this work also suggest that there are conditions where confinement increases the range of stability of blue phases, thereby providing intriguing prospects for applications. PMID:26460039

  15. Blue-phase liquid crystal droplets

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-González, José A.; Zhou, Ye; Rahimi, Mohammad; Bukusoglu, Emre; Abbott, Nicholas L.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Blue phases of liquid crystals represent unique ordered states of matter in which arrays of defects are organized into striking patterns. Most studies of blue phases to date have focused on bulk properties. In this work, we present a systematic study of blue phases confined into spherical droplets. It is found that, in addition to the so-called blue phases I and II, several new morphologies arise under confinement, with a complexity that increases with the chirality of the medium and with a nature that can be altered by surface anchoring. Through a combination of simulations and experiments, it is also found that one can control the wavelength at which blue-phase droplets absorb light by manipulating either their size or the strength of the anchoring, thereby providing a liquid–state analog of nanoparticles, where dimensions are used to control absorbance or emission. The results presented in this work also suggest that there are conditions where confinement increases the range of stability of blue phases, thereby providing intriguing prospects for applications. PMID:26460039

  16. Blue space geographies: Enabling health in place.

    PubMed

    Foley, Ronan; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Drawing from research on therapeutic landscapes and relationships between environment, health and wellbeing, we propose the idea of 'healthy blue space' as an important new development Complementing research on healthy green space, blue space is defined as; 'health-enabling places and spaces, where water is at the centre of a range of environments with identifiable potential for the promotion of human wellbeing'. Using theoretical ideas from emotional and relational geographies and critical understandings of salutogenesis, the value of blue space to health and wellbeing is recognised and evaluated. Six individual papers from five different countries consider how health can be enabled in mixed blue space settings. Four sub-themes; embodiment, inter-subjectivity, activity and meaning, document multiple experiences within a range of healthy blue spaces. Finally, we suggest a considerable research agenda - theoretical, methodological and applied - for future work within different forms of blue space. All are suggested as having public health policy relevance in social and public space. PMID:26238330

  17. BLUE VIEW VISION INSIGHT! Good news--your vision plan

    E-print Network

    Oviedo, Néstor J.

    WELCOME TO BLUE VIEW VISION INSIGHT! Good news--your vision plan is flexible and easy to use, your discounts, and much more! Blue View VisionSM Insight University of California Student Health Insurance Plan (UC SHIP) 2014/15 Your Blue View Vision Insight network Blue View Vision Insight offers you

  18. Comparison of eight different agars for the recovery of clinically relevant non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from baby spinach, cilantro, alfalfa sprouts and raw milk.

    PubMed

    Kase, Julie A; Maounounen-Laasri, Anna; Son, Insook; Lin, Andrew; Hammack, Thomas S

    2015-04-01

    The FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Chapter 4a recommends several agars for isolating non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC); not all have been thoroughly tested for recovering STECs from food. Using E. coli strains representing ten clinically relevant O serogroups (O26, O45, O91, O103, O104, O111, O113, O121, O128, O145) in artificially-contaminated fresh produce--bagged baby spinach, alfalfa sprouts, cilantro, and raw milk--we evaluated the performance of 8 different agars. Performance was highly dependent upon strain used and the presence of inhibitors, but not necessarily dependent on food matrix. Tellurite resistant-negative strains, O91:-, O103:H6, O104:H21, O113:H21, and O128, grew poorly on CHROMagar STEC, Rainbow agar O157, and a modified Rainbow O157 (mRB) agar. Although adding washed sheep's blood to CHROMagar STEC and mRB agars improved overall performance; however, this also reversed the inhibition of non-target bacteria provided by original formulations. Variable colony coloration made selecting colonies from Rainbow agar O157 and mRB agars difficult. Study results support a strategy using inclusive agars (e.g. L-EMB, SHIBAM) in combination with selective agars (R & F E. coli O157:H7, CHROMagar STEC) to allow for recovery of the most STECs while increasing the probability of recovering STEC in high bacterial count matrices. PMID:25475297

  19. Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da-Un; Han, Jae Won; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Lee, Seung Hwan; Cha, Richard; Chang, Byung-Soo; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2015-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS), floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall. PMID:26379749

  20. Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Da-Un; Han, Jae Won; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Lee, Seung Hwan; Cha, Richard; Chang, Byung-Soo; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2015-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS), floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall. PMID:26379749

  1. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. (a) Description. (1) Roquefort...

  2. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. (a) Description. (1) Roquefort...

  3. Variations on the "Blue-Bottle" Demonstration Using Food Items That Contain FD&C Blue #1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staiger, Felicia A.; Peterson, Joshua P.; Campbell, Dean J.

    2015-01-01

    Erioglaucine dye (FD&C Blue #1) can be used instead of methylene blue in the classic "blue-bottle" demonstration. Food items containing FD&C Blue #1 and reducing species such as sugars can therefore be used at the heart of this demonstration, which simply requires the addition of strong base such as sodium hydroxide lye.

  4. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. (a) Description. (1) Roquefort...

  5. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. (a) Description. (1) Roquefort...

  6. Structure of Blue Phase III of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrich, O.; Stratford, K.; Cates, M. E.; Marenduzzo, D.

    2011-03-01

    We report large scale simulations of the blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals. Our results suggest a structure for blue phase III, the blue fog, which has been the subject of a long debate in liquid crystal physics. We propose that blue phase III is an amorphous network of disclination lines, which is thermodynamically and kinetically stabilized over crystalline blue phases at intermediate chiralities. This amorphous network becomes ordered under an applied electric field, as seen in experiments.

  7. GREEN BLUE CITY Visions of Green-Blue Infrastructure in the Salt Lake Valley

    E-print Network

    Capecchi, Mario R.

    GREEN BLUE CITY Visions of Green-Blue Infrastructure in the Salt Lake Valley Memorial House, Memory of life in our city. Our natural and working lands, open space and parks, gardens and urban forests, these important threads are easily lost as we grow. Here in the Wasatch region, we have a unique set of natural

  8. The Delphinium flower, which is in the book, Chrysanthemum, is blue. Can you find a blue

    E-print Network

    Ashline, George

    The Delphinium flower, which is in the book, Chrysanthemum, is blue. Can you find a blue flower? Draw the flower here: The Nasturtium flower is orange. Can you find this bright flower in the garden? Draw the flower here: The Zinnia, Petunia, and Phlox flowers are all Purple. Can you find one

  9. Why is the ocean blue? One of these misconceptions is that the ocean is blue

    E-print Network

    Cruz-Pol, Sandra L.

    is blue is because the water, pure water, is blue. Yes, according to its frequency spectra, water. The scientific explanation involves the theory of radiative transfer (absorption and scattering), and material electromagnetic spectra. I asked Prof. Bob Stewart from Texas A&M to explain this in simple words so that kids

  10. Preparation, Optimization, and Screening of the Effect of Processing Variables on Agar Nanospheres Loaded with Bupropion HCl by a D-Optimal Design

    PubMed Central

    Varshosaz, Jaleh; Zaki, Mohammad Reza; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Banoozadeh, Jaafar

    2015-01-01

    Bupropion is an atypical antidepressant drug. Fluctuating in its serum levels following oral administration of immediate release dosage forms leads to occasional seizure. The aim of the present work was designing of sustained release bupropion HCl nanospheres suited for pulmonary delivery. Agar nanospheres were prepared by transferring the w/o emulsion to solid in oil (s/o) suspension. Calcium chloride was used as cross-linking agent and hydroxypropyl ?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD) was used as permeability enhancer. A response surface D-optimal design was used for optimization of nanospheres. Independent factors included in the design were calcium chloride percent, speed of homogenization, agar percent, and HP?CD percent. Optimum condition was predicted to be achieved when the calcium chloride was set at 7.19%, homogenization speed at 8500?rpm, agar content at 2%, and HP?CD at 0.12%. The optimized nanoparticles showed particle size of 587?nm, zeta potential of ?30.9?mV, drug loading efficiency of 38.6%, and release efficiency of 51% until 5?h. The nanospheres showed high degree of bioadhesiveness. D-optimal response surface method is a satisfactory design to optimize the fabrication of bupropion HCl loaded agar nanospheres and these nanospheres can be successively exploited to deliver bupropion in a controlled manner for a sufficiently extended period. PMID:26090423

  11. A technique for the recovery of nematodes from ruminants by migration from gastro-intestinal ingesta gelled in agar: large-scale application.

    PubMed

    van Wyk, J A; Gerber, H M; Groeneveld, H T

    1980-09-01

    A gelled-agar technique for worm recovery was adapted to facilitate the recovery of larval and adult nematodes from the total ingesta of large numbers of sheep. The technique was also used to recover nematodes from 4 calves. In one trial involving 120 sheep, 100% of 2013 4th stage larvae (L4) and 92,1% of 134,205 adult Haemonchus contortus migrated from the agar preparations. Highly significantly more male than female worms failed to migrate. Using 1 x 1/10 aliquot to estimate the numbers of worms that failed to migrate from the agar, the mean error in the total worm count (worms that migrated plus those that failed to migrate) per sheep was 2,2%; with an examination of 2 x 1/10 aliquot the error was 1,7%. We concluded from this that the gelled-agar method may be of value for quantitative worm recovery, for example, in anthelmintic tests. In a second trial, 98,5% of 17,056 L4 and adult nematodes of 5 genera migrated from the ingesta of 4 calves and 96,4% of 62,597 L4 and adult nematodes of 9 species from the ingesta of 15 sheep. In general, L4 migrated slightly more efficiently than adult worms. In sheep and, to a lesser extent, in calves, Haemonchus spp. did not migrate as efficiently as the other genera such as Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, Nematodirus, Oesophagostomum, Marshallagia and Chabertia. PMID:7465167

  12. Evaluation of an immunochromatographic assay for direct identification of thermostable direct hemolysin-producing Vibrio parahaemolyticus colonies on selective agar plates.

    PubMed

    Kawatsu, Kentaro; Sakata, Junko; Yonekita, Taro; Kumeda, Yuko

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the utility of an immunochromatographic assay (NH IC TDH) in identifying thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH)-producing Vibrio parahaemolyticus colonies on selective agar plates. The sensitivity of the NH IC TDH assay was 100% (189 samples) and its specificity was 100% (41 samples) compared with the presence of tdh. PMID:26432103

  13. A comparison of a new centrifuge sugar flotation technique with the agar method for the extraction of immature Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) life stages from salt marsh soils.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two sampling techniques, agar extraction (AE) and centrifuge sugar flotation extraction (CSFE) were compared to determine their relative efficacy to recover immature stages of Culicoides spp from salt marsh substrates. Three types of samples (seeded with known numbers of larvae, homogenized field s...

  14. Use of agar diffusion assay to measure bactericidal activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids against bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, and myristic acids. A 0.5M concentration of each fatty acid was dissolved in 1.0 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and pH of the mixtures was adjusted to 10.5 with citric acid. Solu...

  15. Preparation, Optimization, and Screening of the Effect of Processing Variables on Agar Nanospheres Loaded with Bupropion HCl by a D-Optimal Design.

    PubMed

    Varshosaz, Jaleh; Zaki, Mohammad Reza; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Banoozadeh, Jaafar

    2015-01-01

    Bupropion is an atypical antidepressant drug. Fluctuating in its serum levels following oral administration of immediate release dosage forms leads to occasional seizure. The aim of the present work was designing of sustained release bupropion HCl nanospheres suited for pulmonary delivery. Agar nanospheres were prepared by transferring the w/o emulsion to solid in oil (s/o) suspension. Calcium chloride was used as cross-linking agent and hydroxypropyl ?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD) was used as permeability enhancer. A response surface D-optimal design was used for optimization of nanospheres. Independent factors included in the design were calcium chloride percent, speed of homogenization, agar percent, and HP?CD percent. Optimum condition was predicted to be achieved when the calcium chloride was set at 7.19%, homogenization speed at 8500?rpm, agar content at 2%, and HP?CD at 0.12%. The optimized nanoparticles showed particle size of 587?nm, zeta potential of -30.9?mV, drug loading efficiency of 38.6%, and release efficiency of 51% until 5?h. The nanospheres showed high degree of bioadhesiveness. D-optimal response surface method is a satisfactory design to optimize the fabrication of bupropion HCl loaded agar nanospheres and these nanospheres can be successively exploited to deliver bupropion in a controlled manner for a sufficiently extended period. PMID:26090423

  16. Characterization of a novel alkaline arylsulfatase from Marinomonas sp. FW-1 and its application in the desulfation of red seaweed agar.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueyan; Duan, Delin; Xu, Jiachao; Gao, Xin; Fu, Xiaoting

    2015-10-01

    A bacterial strain capable of hydrolyzing sulfate ester bonds of p-nitrophenyl sulfate (pNPS) and agar was isolated from the coast area of Qingdao, China. It was identified as Marinomonas based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence and named as Marinomonas sp. FW-1. An arylsulfatase with a recovery of 13 % and a fold of 12 was purified to a homogeneity using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatographies. The enzyme was composed of a single polypeptide chain with the molecular mass of 33 kDa estimated using SDS-PAGE. The optimal pH and temperature of arylsulfatase were pH 9.0 and 45, respectively. Arylsulfatase was stable over pH 8-11 and at temperature below 55 °C. The K m and V max of this enzyme for the hydrolysis of pNPS were determined to be 13.73 and 270.27 ?M/min, respectively. The desulfation ratio against agar from red seaweed Gelidium amansii and Gracilaria lemaneiformis were 86.11 and 89.61 %, respectively. There was no difference between the DNA electrophoresis spectrum on the gel of the arylsulfatase-treated G. amansii agar and that of the commercial agarose. Therefore, this novel alkaline arylsulfatase might have a great potential for application in enzymatic conversion of agar to agarose. PMID:26286088

  17. Complexation between carrageenan and methylene blue for sensor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Yew Pei; Heng, Lee Yook

    2013-11-01

    Theoretical studies on the methylene blue (MB)-carrageenans complexation at solution and solid states have been carried out via ultraviolet spectrophotoscopy and reflectometry methods. The equilibrium constant (Ka) of the MBcarrageenans complexation follows the order of Iota > Lambda > Kappa carrageenans, which indicated Iota-carrageenan forms a stable complex. MB-carrageenan complexation reaction showed decrease in Ka value from 210.71 ppm-1 to 114.57 ppm-1 when the reaction temperature increased from 298 K to 323 K. Le Chatelier's principle and mass action law explained that the MB-carrageenan complexation was an exothermic reaction (?H=-18.54 kJmol-1) that release heat. Thus MB-carrageenan complex was less stable at high temperature and tend to dissociate into free MB and carrageenan molecules. It was also supported by the van't Hoff equation. The reaction is a spontaneous process (?G=-13.23 kJmol-1) where the randomness of the molecules reduced (?S=-17.83 Jmol-1K-1) due to complexation. Besides, linear regression of the concentration and absorption of the MB-carrageenan reaction obeys the Beer Lambert law, which elucidated that the complexation process was not affected by any concentration dependent factors such as aggregation and self-quenching. Moreover, linear Benesi Hilderbrend plot revealed that the interaction between MB and carrageenan was a reversible and stoichiometric reaction with 1:1 ratio. However, the molar extinction coefficient (?) and molar adsorption coefficient (?a) of the MB-carrageenan complex were lower compared to free MB, described that the complex was less adsorptive. The sensor constructed based on these theoretical investigations showed response behavior that was similar with solution test as both have attraction for carrageenans in the sequence of Iota-, Lambda-, Kappa- carrageenans. Likewise, carrageenan sensor was more selective towards Iota-carrageenan than to Lambda- and Kappa-carrageenans, and no response observed when tested with agar, alginate and glucose. Therefore the sensor is able to detect carrageenans specifically and offers rapid detection without the need of sample pretreatment when compared to conventional methods.

  18. Strain-rate and temperature dependent material properties of Agar and Gellan Gum used in biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Schiavi, Alessandro; Cuccaro, Rugiada; Troia, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    Agar and Gellan Gum are biocompatible polymers extensively used in several fields of tissue engineering research (e.g. tissue replacement, tissue support, tissue mimicking), due to their mechanical behaviour effectively representative of actual biological tissues. Since mechanical properties of artificial tissues are related to biocompatibility and functionality of medical implants and significantly influence adhesion, growth and differentiation of cells in tissue-engineering scaffolds, an accurate characterization of Young?s modulus and relaxation time processes is needed. In this study, the strain-rate and temperature dependent material properties of Agarose and one among the numerous kind of Gellan Gum commercially available, known as Phytagel(®), have been investigated. Nine hydrogel samples have been realized with different mechanical properties: the first one Agar-based as a reference material, the further eight samples Gellan Gum based in which the effect of dispersed solid particles like kieselguhr and SiC, as enhancing mechanical properties factors, have been investigated as a function of concentration. Stress-strain has been investigated in compression and relaxation time has been evaluated by means of the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts time decay function. Mechanical properties have been measured as a function of temperature between 20°C and 35°C and at different strain rates, from ~10(-3)s(-1) and ~10(-2)s(-1) (or deformation rate from ~0.01mms(-1) to ~0.1mms(-1)). From experimental data, the combined temperature and strain-rate dependence of hydrogels Young?s modulus is determined on the basis of a constitutive model. In addition to a dependence of Young?s modulus on temperature, a remarkable influence of strain-rate has been observed, especially in the sample containing solid particles; in same ranges of temperature and strain-rate, also relaxation time variations have been monitored in order to identify a possible dependence of damping properties on temperature and strain-rate. The result is the impossibility to determine univocally mechanical properties of studied biomaterials without a proper definition of boundary conditions at which they have been obtained. PMID:26318572

  19. An electron transporting blue emitter for OLED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Boyuan; Luo, Jiaxiu; Li, Suyue; Xiao, Lixin; Sun, Wenfang; Chen, Zhijian; Qu, Bo; Gong, Qihuang

    2010-11-01

    After the premier commercialization of OLED in 1997, OLED has been considered as the candidate for the next generation of flat panel display. In comparison to liquid crystal display (LCD) and plasma display panel (PDP), OLED exhibits promising merits for display, e.g., flexible, printable, micro-buildable and multiple designable. Although many efforts have been made on electroluminescent (EL) materials and devices, obtaining highly efficient and pure blue light is still a great challenge. In order to improve the emission efficiency and purity of the blue emission, a new bipolar blue light emitter, 2,7-di(2,2':6',2"-terpyridine)- 2,7-diethynyl-9,9-dioctyl-9H-fluorene (TPEF), was designed and synthesized. A blue OLED was obtained with the configuration of ITO/PEDOT/PVK:CBP:TPEF/LiF/Al. The device exhibits a turn-on voltage of 9 V and a maximum brightness of 12 cd/m2 at 15 V. The device gives a deep blue emission located at 420 nm with the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.17, 0.10). We also use TPEF as electron transporting material in the device of ITO/PPV/TPEF/LiF/Al, the turn-on voltage is 3 V. It is proved the current in the device was enhanced indeed by using the new material.

  20. Comparison of Agar Diffusion Methodologies for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Jane L.; Saiman, Lisa; Whittier, Susan; Larone, Davise; Krzewinski, Jay; Liu, Zhenling; Marshall, Steven A.; Jones, Ronald N.

    2000-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common pathogen infecting the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Improved antimicrobial chemotherapy has significantly increased the life expectancy of these patients. However, accurate susceptibility testing of P. aeruginosa isolates from CF sputum may be difficult because the organisms are often mucoid and slow growing. This study of 597 CF isolates of P. aeruginosa examined the correlation of disk diffusion and Etest (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden) results with a reference broth microdilution method. The rates of interpretive errors for 12 commonly used antipseudomonal antimicrobials were determined. The disk diffusion method correlated well (zone diameter versus MIC) for all of the agents tested. However, for mucoid isolates, correlation coefficients (r values) for piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and meropenem were <0.80. The Etest correlation with reference broth microdilution results (MIC versus MIC) was acceptable for all of the agents tested, for both mucoid and nonmucoid isolates. Category interpretation errors were similar for the disk diffusion and Etest methods with 0.4 and 0.1%, respectively, very major errors (false susceptibility) and 1.1 and 2.2% major errors (false resistance). Overall, both agar diffusion methods appear to be broadly acceptable for routine clinical use in susceptibility testing of CF isolates of P. aeruginosa. PMID:10790106

  1. Restoring the selectivity of modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar for the isolation of Campylobacter species using tazobactam, a ?-lactamase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shaun; Meade, Joseph; McGill, Kevina; Gibbons, James; Bolton, Declan; Whyte, Paul

    2015-10-01

    Extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli have emerged as a contaminant on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) when attempting to selectively isolate Campylobacter spp. from poultry. E. coli are particularly problematic given their ability to grow under microaerophilic conditions and have been shown to outcompete Campylobacter species making Campylobacter detection or enumeration difficult. This paper recommends a novel method for restoring the selectivity of mCCDA using tazobactam, a ?-lactamase inhibitor. The method significantly inhibited ESBL E. coli growth in spiked or naturally contaminated broiler caecal samples (p?0.01) when compared to conventional mCCDA. This effect was seen at concentrations as low as 1mg/L tazobactam. TmCCDA(1) was found to inhibit up to 8 log10 CFU/mL of ESBL E. coli in mixed pure cultures and 7.5 log10 CFU/mL in caecal samples. Furthermore TmCCDA concentrations up to 10 mg/L had no statistically significant inhibitory effect (p?0.05) on the recovery of a panel of 27 Campylobacter jejuni and 5 Campylobacter coli isolates when compared to conventional mCCDA. From this study it is suggested that tazobactam, which is more chemically stable than clavulanic acid or sulbactam, is more suitable for restoring the selectivity of mCCDA for the detection or isolation of campylobacters. PMID:26119190

  2. Mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana genes involved in the tryptophan biosynthesis pathway affect root waving on tilted agar surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutherford, R.; Gallois, P.; Masson, P. H.

    1998-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana roots grow in a wavy pattern upon a slanted surface. A novel mutation in the anthranilate synthase alpha 1 (ASA1) gene, named trp5-2wvc1, and mutations in the tryptophan synthase alpha and beta 1 genes (trp3-1 and trp2-1, respectively) confer a compressed root wave phenotype on tilted agar surfaces. When trp5-2wvc1 seedlings are grown on media supplemented with anthranilate metabolites, their roots wave like wild type. Genetic and pharmacological experiments argue that the compressed root wave phenotypes of trp5-2wvc1, trp2-1 and trp3-1 seedlings are not due to reduced IAA biosynthetic potential, but rather to a deficiency in L-tryptophan (L-Trp), or in a L-Trp derivative. Although the roots of 7-day-old seedlings possess higher concentrations of free L-Trp than the shoot as a whole, trp5-2wvc1 mutants show no detectable alteration in L-Trp levels in either tissue type, suggesting that a very localized shortage of L-Trp, or of a L-Trp-derived compound, is responsible for the observed phenotype.

  3. Eastward migration of blue-winged teal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharp, B.

    1972-01-01

    Of 3,789 recoveries of blue-winged teal (Anas discors) banded prior to the hunting season in the prairie pothole region, 183 (4.8 percent) were recovered, due east in New England, Ontario, Quebec, and the Maritime Provinces during the subsequent hunting season. Of 19 recoveries looked at in detail, all were banded as either hatching-year (flying young) or local (flightless young) birds. A blue-winged teal banded in Minnesota in September was retrapped in October in South Carolina, before being shot later that month in Colombia, South America.

  4. New England's Blue Cross Blue Shield shake-out: a case study in consumer activism.

    PubMed

    Sherman, R

    1999-12-01

    For two generations, Blue Cross Blue Shield (BCBS) insurance plans could be counted on to play a key role in the financing of every community's health care system. "The Blues" dominated the health insurance market, yet they were also a reliable "insurer of last resort." In recent years, BCBS plans have begun to re-structure to stay competitive. Four of New England's BCBS plans have proposed or completed mergers with Anthem Insurance, a mutual insurance company based in Indiana. This issue of States of Health looks at how advocates in New England are working together to protect health care consumers amid this transformation. PMID:11503595

  5. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    PubMed

    Melcón, Mariana L; Cummins, Amanda J; Kerosky, Sara M; Roche, Lauren K; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood. PMID:22393434

  6. A Code Blue Answer to Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huneycutt, Richy; Callahan, Barbara; Welch, Alexis

    2008-01-01

    Code Blue addresses the capacity challenges in healthcare training. This pilot, grant funded project, focuses on a holistic approach to selecting and educating career ready and capable students and training them to be confident and competent healthcare workers. Lessons learned from this project will be assessed and reviewed for replication.

  7. Visualising DNA in Classrooms Using Nile Blue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Christine; Roche, Scott; McKay, David

    2008-01-01

    Giving students the opportunity to extract, manipulate and visualise DNA molecules enhances a constructivist approach to learning about modern techniques in biology and biotechnology Visualisation usually requires agarose gel electrophoresis and staining. In this article, we report on an alternative DNA stain, Nile Blue A, that may be used in the…

  8. Blue LED irradiation to hydration of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Priscila F. C.; Requena, Michelle B.; Lizarelli, Rosane F., Z.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2015-06-01

    Blue LED system irradiation shows many important properties on skin as: bacterial decontamination, degradation of endogenous skin chromophores and biostimulation. In this clinical study we prove that the blue light improves the skin hydration. In the literature none authors reports this biological property on skin. Then this study aims to discuss the role of blue light in the skin hydration. Twenty patients were selected to this study with age between 25-35 years old and phototype I, II and III. A defined area from forearm was pre determined (A = 4.0 cm2). The study was randomized in two treatment groups using one blue light device (power of 5.3mW and irradiance of 10.8mW/cm2). The first treatment group was irradiated with 3J/cm2 (277seconds) and the second with 6J/cm2 (555 seconds). The skin hydration evaluations were done using a corneometer. The measurements were collected in 7, 14, 21 and 30 days, during the treatment. Statistical test of ANOVA, Tukey and T-Student were applied considering 5% of significance. In conclusion, both doses were able to improve the skin hydration; however, 6J/cm2 has kept this hydration for 30 days.

  9. Great Blue Heron and Great Egret

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A great blue heron and great egret in the parking lot by the Big Cypress Bend boardwalk at Fakahatchee Strand State Preserve. The heron is enjoying a fish dinner thanks to the hunting skills of the egret. While the egret had initially held a fish in it's beak, the heron's squabbling caused the...

  10. Veronica sp cv. Sunny Border Blue (Cultivated) 

    E-print Network

    James R. Manhart

    2011-08-10

    mechanisms of ROS-induced neuronal damage by paraquat???..44 10 Effect of paraquat on trypan blue exclusion??????????????64 11 Effect of paraquat on formazan reduction??????????????...65 12 Effect of paraquat on LDH release... Page II MATERIALS AND METHODS.?????????????...............48 Sources of materials????????????????????.. 48 Cell culture and chemical treatment??????????????..49 Trypan...

  11. A Discography of the Real Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor, Dean

    1972-01-01

    A short account of the rise and decline of the Blues and a discussion of the artists who performed it is followed by an annotated bibliography of periodicals, books, records and tapes related to this form of Black" music. (184 references) (NH)

  12. African Retentions in Blues and Jazz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Eddie S.

    1979-01-01

    The perseverance of African musical characteristics among American Blacks is an historic reality. African retentions have been recorded in Black music of the antebellum period. Various African scales and rhythms permeate Black American music today as evidenced in the retentions found in blues and jazz. (RLV)

  13. 21 CFR 133.106 - Blue cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... has developed. During storage the surface of the cheese may be scraped to remove surface growth of... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blue cheese. 133.106 Section 133.106 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  14. 21 CFR 133.106 - Blue cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... has developed. During storage the surface of the cheese may be scraped to remove surface growth of... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blue cheese. 133.106 Section 133.106 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  15. T's and Blues. Specialized Information Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    This compilation of journal articles provides basic information on abuse of Talwin, a mild prescription painkiller (T's), and Pyribenzamine, a nonprescription antihistimine (Blues). These two drugs, taken in combination, produce an effect similar to that produced by heroin. Stories from "Drug Survival News,""Emergency Medicine," and "FDA Consumer"…

  16. Blue beetle-killed pine park

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Stripped bark from a dead pine tree reveals the tell-tale blue streaks of a mountain pine beetle attack. Mountain pine beetle outbreaks can result in the loss of millions of pine trees throughout western North America. The beetles lay eggs and develop in the bark of mountain trees, especially lodge...

  17. Practices of Blue Ribbon Catholic Schools, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kealey, Robert J., Comp.

    For almost 20 years, the U.S. Department of Education has invited schools to seek the Blue Ribbon School Award. A large number of Catholic schools have received this award. For this publication, the Department of Elementary Schools Executive Committee requested principals of awarded schools to write a short article on an exemplary school program…

  18. BlueWallet: The Secure Bitcoin Wallet

    E-print Network

    BlueWallet: The Secure Bitcoin Wallet Christian Decker ETH Zurich Distributed Computing Group www Pseudonymous Secure? #12;Security Bitcoin: Ledger based on consensus ECDSA (secp256k1) signatures Auditable #12;Security Bitcoin: Ledger based on consensus ECDSA (secp256k1) signatures Auditable User: Theft Price

  19. Agonism and dominance in female blue monkeys.

    PubMed

    Klass, Keren; Cords, Marina

    2015-12-01

    Agonistic behavior features prominently in hypotheses that explain how social variation relates to ecological factors and phylogenetic constraints. Dominance systems vary along axes of despotism, tolerance, and nepotism, and comparative studies examine cross-species patterns in these classifications. To contribute to such studies, we present a comprehensive picture of agonistic behavior and dominance relationships in wild female blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis), an arboreal guenon, with data from 9 groups spanning 18 years. We assessed where blue monkeys fall along despotic, tolerant, and nepotistic spectra, how their dominance system compares to other primates, primarily cercopithecines, and whether their agonistic behavior matches socioecological model predictions. Blue monkeys showed low rates of mainly low-intensity agonism and little counter-aggression. Rates increased with rank and group size. Dominance asymmetry varied at different organizational levels, being more pronounced at the level of interactions than dyad or group. Hierarchies were quite stable, had moderate-to-high linearity and directional consistency and moderate steepness. There was clear maternal rank inheritance, but inconsistent adherence to Kawamura's rules. There was little between-group variation, although hierarchy metrics showed considerable variation across group-years. Overall, blue monkeys have moderately despotic, moderately tolerant, and nepotistic dominance hierarchies. They resemble other cercopithecines in having significantly linear and steep hierarchies with a generally stable, matriline-based structure, suggesting a phylogenetic basis to this aspect of their social system. Blue monkeys most closely match Sterck et al.'s [1997] Resident-Nepotistic-Tolerant dominance category, although they do not fully conform to predictions of any one socioecological model. Our results suggest that socioecological models might better predict variation within than across clades, thereby incorporating both ecological variables and phylogenetic constraints. Our findings also highlight the need for clearer definitions of socioecologically relevant dominance categories, which would ideally derive from quantitative measures of dominance behavior. Intraspecific and methodological variation may, however, be a challenge. Am. J. Primatol. 77:1299-1315, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26378396

  20. Gilvimarinus polysaccharolyticus sp. nov., an agar-digesting bacterium isolated from seaweed, and emended description of the genus Gilvimarinus.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Shun; Huo, Ying-Yi; Jiang, Xia-Wei; Zhang, Xin-Qi; Pan, Jie; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Wu, Min

    2015-02-01

    A taxonomic study was carried out on strain YN3(T), which was isolated from a seaweed sample taken from the coast of Weihai, China. The bacterium was Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, and could grow at pH 5.0-10.0 and 4-32 °C in the presence of 0-9.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain YN3(T) was positive for the hydrolysis of polysaccharides, such as agar, starch and xylan. The predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-8. The major fatty acids were C16 : 1?7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH, C16 : 0 and C18 : 1?7c. The main polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine, and two unidentified glycolipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 49.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain YN3(T) should be assigned to the genus Gilvimarinus. 'Gilvimarinus agarilyticus' KCTC 23325 and Gilvimarinus chinensis QM42(T) had the closest phylogenetic relationship to strain YN3(T), and showed 97.9 % and 95.8 % sequence similarities, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic data and DNA-DNA hybridization studies, we propose that strain YN3(T) represents a novel species of the genus Gilvimarinus, for which the name Gilvimarinus polysaccharolyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YN3(T) (?= KCTC 32438(T)?= JCM 19198(T)). An emended description of the genus Gilvimarinus is also presented. PMID:25392347

  1. Photoacoustic lifetime contrast between methylene blue monomers and self-

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    Photoacoustic lifetime contrast between methylene blue monomers and self- quenched dimers/03/2013 Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms #12;Photoacoustic lifetime contrast between methylene blue Church Street SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 Abstract. Activatable photoacoustic probes efficiently

  2. SH 8/08 Ms. Blue's Measurements Page 1 of 5 Ms. Blue's Measurements

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    - decibel whistle of the blue whale is the loudest recorded sound made by an animal #12;SH 8/08 Ms. Blue are black - Baleen weighed 400 pounds - Water would enter the mouth at a rate of 5-20 tons per second swim speed of 20-48 km/hr while being chased or harassed (12-30 mph) - Normally make 10 ­ 20 shallow

  3. Developing the urban blue: Comparative health responses to blue and green urban open spaces in Germany.

    PubMed

    Völker, Sebastian; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Recently, new perspectives upon healthy urban open spaces propose that open spaces can be regarded as urban green or blue spaces. However, there has so far been very little research into blue environments and their benefits for mental well-being. Our article focuses on the effects of water in cities, "urban blue" (as compared to "urban green"), on human health and well-being. To assess the mental well-being of visitors, we conducted qualitative semi-standardised interviews (n=113), asking which differences in well-being occur when visiting urban green and blue spaces in high-density areas of the inner city in Dusseldorf and Cologne, Germany. Although we found many similarities, some health-enhancing effects for users turned out to be prominent for urban blue in the four conceptual therapeutic landscape dimensions: experienced, symbolic, social and activity space. These effects include enhanced contemplation, emotional bonding, participation, and physical activity. The results suggest that urban blue as a health-promoting factor needs more detailed and accurate determination and examination of its general and local health-enhancing effects. PMID:25475835

  4. Effects of Agar Gel Strength and Fat on Oral Breakdown, Volatile Release, and Sensory Perception Using in Vivo and in Vitro Systems.

    PubMed

    Frank, Damian; Eyres, Graham T; Piyasiri, Udayasika; Cochet-Broch, Maeva; Delahunty, Conor M; Lundin, Leif; Appelqvist, Ingrid M

    2015-10-21

    The density and composition of a food matrix affect the rates of oral breakdown and in-mouth flavor release as well as the overall sensory experience. Agar gels of increasing concentration (1.0, 1.7, 2.9, and 5% agarose) with and without added fat (0, 2, 5, and 10%) were spiked with seven aroma volatiles. Differences in oral processing and sensory perception were systematically measured by a trained panel using a discrete interval time intensity method. Volatile release was measured in vivo and in vitro by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. Greater oral processing was required as agar gel strength increased, and the intensity of flavor-related sensory attributes decreased. Volatile release was inversely related to gel strength, showing that physicochemical phenomena were the main mechanisms underlying the perceived sensory changes. Fat addition reduced the amount of oral processing and had differential effects on release, depending on the fat solubility or lipophilicity of the volatiles. PMID:26435196

  5. Evaluation of Remel Spectra CRE Agar for Detection of Carbapenem-Resistant Bacteria from Rectal Swabs Obtained from Residents of a Long-Term-Care Facility.

    PubMed

    LaBombardi, Vincent J; Urban, Carl M; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Chen, Liang; Osorio, Giuliana; Kopacz, Joanna; Labaze, Georges; Segal-Maurer, Sorana

    2015-09-01

    We compared the Remel Spectra CRE agar plate to CDC standard methodology for the isolation of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) from 300 rectal swab specimens obtained from patients residing in a long-term-care facility (LTCF). Multiplex PCR experiments were performed on isolates to identify specific Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC) and additional ?-lactamases. Of the 300 patients, 72 (24%) harbored CRE and were PCR positive for KPC enzymes. The Remel Spectra CRE plates detected KPC-type CRE in isolates from 70 of 72 patients (97.2%), while the CDC method detected CRE in 56 of 72 (77.8%). CRE identification results were available in 18 h compared to 36 h for the CDC method. Remel Spectra CRE agar plates can provide useful means for a fast and reliable method for detecting KPC-type CRE and for accelerated institution of appropriate infection control precautions. PMID:26085613

  6. Virulence for mice of Staphylococcus aureus strains from bovine mastitis related to colonial morphology and serological types in serum-soft agar.

    PubMed

    Calvinho, L F; Dodd, K

    1994-07-01

    Six Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitic milk representing the typical growth types in soft agar media were injected into mice via the intraperitoneal route. Strains showing diffuse colony morphology (DCM) in serum-soft agar (SSA) as a permanent characteristic which reacted against anti-capsular sera types A, B, and D were virulent for mice. A strain showing DCM in SSA that reacted only against anti-capsular serum D behaved as a compact-colony-morphology-type strain in the peritoneal cavity of the mouse. Diffuse-type colony morphology and presence of capsular antigens type A, B, and D correlated with increased virulence for mice, but a capsule could not be demonstrated. PMID:7839755

  7. Preparation of nanocellulose from micro-crystalline cellulose: The effect on the performance and properties of agar-based composite films.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Shiv; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2016-01-01

    A facile approach has been performed to prepare nanocellulose (NC) from micro-crystalline cellulose (MCC) and test their effect on the performance properties of agar-based composite films. The NC was characterized by STEM, XRD, FTIR, and TGA. The NC was well dispersed in distilled water after sonication and their size was in the range of 100-500nm. The XRD results revealed the crystallinity of NC. The crystallinity index of NC (0.71) was decreased compared to the MCC (0.81). The effect of NC or MCC content (1, 3, 5 and 10wt% based on agar) on the mechanical, water vapor permeability (WVP), and thermal properties of the composites were studied. The NC obtained from MCC can be used as a reinforcing agent for the preparation of biodegradable composites films for their potential use in the development of biodegradable food packaging materials. PMID:26453846

  8. Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) sounds from the North Atlantic

    E-print Network

    Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) sounds from the North Atlantic David K. Mellingera) Bioacoustics 2003 Sounds of blue whales were recorded from U.S. Navy hydrophone arrays in the North Atlantic-duration, very-low-frequency sound units repeated every 1­2 min are typical of blue whale sounds recorded

  9. THE SIZE AT SEXUAL MATURITY OF BLUE KING CRAB, PARAUTHODES

    E-print Network

    NOTES THE SIZE AT SEXUAL MATURITY OF BLUE KING CRAB, PARAUTHODES PLATYPUS, IN ALASKAI The blue king of a male 3 yr after reaching sexual maturity in an attempt to assure that each male will have at least one 1981). For blue king crab, however, the size at maturity is not well known, and in some areas

  10. Vegetation Change in Blue Oak Woodlands in California1

    E-print Network

    Vegetation Change in Blue Oak Woodlands in California1 Barbara A. Holzman Barbara H. Alien-Diaz2 Abstract: A preliminary report of a statewide project investigat ing vegetation change in blue oak (Quercus of blue oak and foothill pine (Pinus sabiniana), particularly due to an increase in small trees (4-11 DBH

  11. Blue Moon sampling, vectorial reaction coordinates, and unbiased constrained dynamics

    E-print Network

    Van Den Eijnden, Eric

    Blue Moon sampling, vectorial reaction coordinates, and unbiased constrained dynamics Giovanni force in terms of a conditional expectation which can be computed by Blue Moon sampling Introduction Fifteen years ago the Blue Moon ensemble method was introduced to sample rare events that occur

  12. ORIGINAL PAPER Horizontal movements of Atlantic blue marlin

    E-print Network

    Rooker, Jay R.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Horizontal movements of Atlantic blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) in the Gulf November 2010 Ó Springer-Verlag 2011 Abstract We examined movements of Atlantic blue marlin (Makaira­south seasonal changes in blue marlin distribution showed strong correspondence with established seasonal

  13. Blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) are widely distributed throughout the

    E-print Network

    420 Blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) are widely distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical waters of the Pacific and Indian oceans (Nakamura, 1985). In the Pacific, blue marlin are harvested data (Kleiber et al., 2003) indicate that there is a single stock of blue marlin in the Pacific Ocean

  14. Methylene Blue as a Cerebral Metabolic and Hemodynamic Enhancer

    E-print Network

    Duong, Timothy Q.

    Methylene Blue as a Cerebral Metabolic and Hemodynamic Enhancer Ai-Ling Lin1,2 *, Ethan Poteet3, methylene blue (MB) is an effective neuroprotectant in many neurological disorders (e.g., Parkinson, Liu R, et al. (2012) Methylene Blue as a Cerebral Metabolic and Hemodynamic Enhancer. PLoS ONE 7

  15. Biostimulation of estuarine microbiota on substrate coated agar slides: a novel approach to study diversity of autochthonous Bdellovibrio- and like organisms.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Ashvini; Williams, Henry N

    2008-05-01

    Characterization of Bdellovibrio- and like organisms (BALOs) from environmental samples involves growing them in the presence of Gram-negative prey bacteria and isolation of BALO plaques. This labor-intensive enrichment and isolation procedure may impede the detection and phylogenetic characterization of uncultivable BALOs. In this article, we describe a simple slide biofilm assay to improve detection and characterization of BALO microbiota. Agar spiked with biostimulants such as yeast extract (YE), casamino acids (CA), or concentrated cells of Vibrio parahaemolyticus P5 (most widely used prey bacteria for isolation of halophilic BALOs) was plated onto buffed glass slides and exposed to water samples collected from Apalachicola Bay, Florida. After incubating for a week, diversity of the biofilm bacterial community was studied by culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular methods. The results revealed that most probable numbers (MPNs) of BALOs and total culturable bacteria recovered from YE agar slide were significantly higher than the numbers on CA- or P5-spiked agar slides. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism followed by 16S rDNA sequencing of clones from different biostimulants resulted in identification of a plethora of Gram-negative bacteria predominantly from the alpha, gamma, delta-proteobacteria, and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group. Corresponding to the higher biomass on the YE agar slide, the BALO clone library from YE was most diverse, consisting of Bacteriovorax spp. and a novel clade representing Peredibacter spp. Microbiota from all three biostimulated biofilms were exclusively Gram-negative, and each bacterial guild represented potential prey for BALOs. We propose the use of this simple yet novel slide biofilm assay to study oligotrophic aquatic bacterial diversity which could also potentially be utilized to isolate marine bacteria with novel traits. PMID:17968612

  16. Standardization of disk diffusion and agar dilution susceptibility tests for Neisseria gonorrhoeae: interpretive criteria and quality control guidelines for ceftriaxone, penicillin, spectinomycin, and tetracycline.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, R N; Gavan, T L; Thornsberry, C; Fuchs, P C; Gerlach, E H; Knapp, J S; Murray, P; Washington, J A

    1989-01-01

    A six-laboratory study developed a standardized method for determining the susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains to penicillin, tetracycline, spectinomycin, and ceftriaxone. Three quality control organisms were also selected, and quality assurance guidelines were initially generated for the disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. The medium recommended for gonococcal susceptibility testing was GC agar with a defined "XV-like" supplement. The supplement should be free of cysteine, a component implicated in the inactivation of some newer beta-lactam compounds. Penicillin, tetracycline, spectinomycin, and ceftriaxone were stable in agar plates stored at 3 to 5 degrees C for at least 2 weeks. Numerous GC agar and drug disk lots were used during the trials without significant variation in test results. Several other gonococcal strains were recommended for additional medium quality assurance. The disk quality control zone limits were established for N. gonorrhoeae ATCC 49226 (formerly CDC F-18) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. MIC quality control ranges were also developed for N. gonorrhoeae ATCC 49226 and S. aureus ATCC 29213. The interpretive criteria for penicillin were as follows: susceptibility, greater than or equal to 47 mm (diameter of inhibition zone) (less than or equal to 0.06 micrograms/ml [MIC]); resistance, less than or equal to 26 mm (greater than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml). For tetracycline they were as follows: susceptibility, greater than or equal to 38 mm (less than or equal to 0.25 microgram/ml); resistance, less than or equal to 30 mm (greater than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml). For spectinomycin they were as follows: susceptibility, >/= 18 mm (/= 128 micrograms/ml). For ceftriaxone susceptibility, the criterion was >/= 35 mm (

  17. 76 FR 71355 - United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et al.; Proposed Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ...routinely pressuring Blue Cross to offer lower prices and better customer service. New West's annual revenues in 2010 were approximately...routinely pressuring Blue Cross to offer lower prices and better customer service. New West's annual revenues in 2010 were...

  18. Toxicity and bioavailability of copper nanoparticles to the terrestrial plants mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus) and wheat (Triticum aestivum): plant agar test for water-insoluble nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo-Mi; An, Youn-Joo; Yoon, Hyeon; Kweon, Hee-Seok

    2008-09-01

    Because of their insolubility in water, nanoparticles have a limitation concerning toxicity experiments. The present study demonstrated a plant agar test for homogeneous exposure of nanoparticles to plant species. The effect of Cu nanoparticles on the growth of a plant seedling was studied, and bioaccumulation of nanoparticles was investigated. All tests were conducted in plant agar media to prevent precipitation of water-insoluble nanoparticles in test units. The plant species were Phaseolus radiatus (mung bean) and Triticum aestivum (wheat). Growth inhibition of a seedling exposed to different concentrations of Cu nanoparticles was examined. Copper nanoparticles were toxic to both plants and also were bioavailable. The 2-d median effective concentrations for P. radiatus and T. aestivum exposed to Cu nanoparticles were 335 (95% confidence level, 251-447) and 570 (450-722) mg/L, respectively. Phaseolus radiatus was more sensitive than T. aestivum to Cu nanoparticles. A cupric ion released from Cu nanoparticles had negligible effects in the concentration ranges of the present study, and the apparent toxicity clearly resulted from Cu nanoparticles. Bioaccumulation increased with increasing concentration of Cu nanoparticles, and agglomeration of particles was observed in the cells using transmission-electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The present study demonstrated that the plant agar test was a good protocol for testing the phytotoxicity of nanoparticles, which are hardly water soluble. PMID:19086317

  19. Distribution assessment comparing continuous and periodic wound instillation in conjunction with negative pressure wound therapy using an agar-based model.

    PubMed

    Rycerz, Anthony M; Slack, Paul; McNulty, Amy K

    2013-04-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a widely accepted and effective treatment for various wound types, including complex wounds. Negative pressure with instillation was initially used as a gravity-fed system whereby reticulated, open-cell foam in the wound bed was periodically exposed to cycles of soaking with instillation solution followed by NPWT. Recent publications have alluded to positive outcomes with continuous instillation, where fluid is delivered simultaneously with negative pressure. To evaluate the distribution of instillation solutions to wound beds in conjunction with negative pressure, agar-based models were developed and exposed to coloured instillation solutions to identify exposure intensity via agar staining. This model allowed comparison of continuous- versus periodic-instillation therapy with negative pressure. Continuous instillation at a rate of 30 cc/hour with negative pressure showed isolated exposure of instillation fluid to wound beds in agar wound models with and without undermining and tunnelling. In contrast, periodic instillation illustrated uniform exposure of the additive to the entire wound bed including undermined and tunnel areas, with increased staining with each instillation cycle. These findings suggest that periodic instillation facilitates more uniform exposure throughout the wound, including tunnels and undermining, to instillation solutions, thereby providing therapy consistent with the clinician-ordered treatment. PMID:22487428

  20. Synthesis of three-dimensional agaric-like biomorphic TiO2 by a facile method with Coscinodiscus sp. frustule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Chen, Ran; Li, Ling

    2012-12-01

    The paper aims to expand the application of natural marine algae. Marine diatoms, which have intricate frustule structures, can serve as bio-template for preparing three-dimensional materials. A simple and effective approach to synthesize the corrugated agaric-like biomorphic TiO2 templated with frustule of Coscinodiscus sp. is reported. In the sol-gel preparation process, the titania-coating on the frustule is prepared through the deposition and condensation with the aid of acetylacetone (acac) as a controlling agent to make the precursor Ti(BuO)4 hydrolyze slowly. The as-prepared titania-coated frustule and biomorphic TiO2 is characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) attached with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EMAX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The microstructure of the corresponding titania nanoparticles appears to be sphere with the diameters distributed around 10-20 nm. The templating process is repeated for three cycles. Subsequently, the three-dimensional freestanding corrugated agaric-like biomorphic TiO2 structure is obtained by a selective removal in the NaOH solution. As far as we known, the 3D freestanding corrugated agaric-like biomorphic TiO2 with greatly increased surface area is obtained for the first time.

  1. 76 FR 81004 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Woman in Blue, Against...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ...Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Woman in Blue, Against Blue Water'' by Edvard Munch SUMMARY: Notice...of April 15, 2003), I hereby determine that the object ``Woman in Blue, Against Blue Water'' by Edvard Munch,...

  2. Experiencing Blues at the Crossroads: A Place-Based Method for Teaching the Geography of Blues Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strait, John

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a pedagogical module that explores the geography of blues culture across the Mississippi Delta. By focusing on blues culture, rather than simply blues music itself, this project provides a forum for understanding the broader geographical conditions from which this musical form emerged. This module utilizes place-based…

  3. Colloidal particles in blue phase liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Pawsey, Anne C; Clegg, Paul S

    2015-05-01

    We study the effect of disorder on the phase transitions of a system already dominated by defects. Micron-sized colloidal particles are dispersed chiral nematic liquid crystals which exhibit a blue phase (BP). The colloids are a source of disorder, disrupting the liquid crystal as the system is heated from the cholesteric to the isotropic phase through the blue phase. The colloids act as a preferential site for the growth of BPI from the cholesteric; in high chirality samples BPII also forms. In both BPI and BPII the colloids lead to localised melting to the isotropic, giving rise to faceted isotropic inclusions. This is in contrast to the behaviour of a cholesteric LC where colloids lead to system spanning defects. PMID:25698218

  4. Genetic heterogeneity among blue-cone monochromats

    SciTech Connect

    Nathans, J.; Maumenee, I.H.; Zrenner, E.; Sadowski, B.; Sharpe, L.T.; Lewis, R.A.; Hansen, E.; Rosenberg, T.; Schwartz, M.; Heckenlively, J.R.; Traboulsi, E.; Klingaman, R.; Bech-Hansen, N.T.; LaRoche, G.R.; Pagon, R.A.; Murphey, W.H.; Weleber, R.G.

    1993-11-01

    Thirty-three unrelated subjects with blue-cone monochromacy or closely related variants of blue-cone monochromacy were examined for rearrangements in the tandem array of genes encoding the red- and green-cone pigments. In 24 subjects, eight genotypes were found that would be predicted to eliminate the function of all of the genes within the array. As observed in an earlier study, the rearrangements involve either deletion of a locus control region adjacent to the gene array or loss of function via homologous recombination and point mutation. One inactivating mutation, Cy[sup 203]-to-Arg, was found in 15 probands who carry single genes and in both visual pigment genes in one subject whose array has two genes. This mutation was also found in at least one of the visual pigment genes in one subject whose array has multiple genes and in 2 of 321 control subjects, suggesting that preexisting Cys[sup 203]-to-Arg mutations constitute a reservoir of chromosomes that are predisposed to generate blue-cone-monochromat genotypes by unequal homologous recombination and/or gene conversion. Two other point mutations were identified: (a) Arg[sup 247]-to-Ter in one subject with a single red-pigment gene and (b) Pro[sup 307]-to-Leu in one subject with a single 5[prime] red-3[prime] green hybrid gene. The observed heterogeneity of genotypes points to the existence of multiple one- and two-step mutational pathways to blue-cone monochromacy. 28 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Eta Carinae and Other Luminous Blue Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M. F.

    2006-01-01

    Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) are believed to be evolved, extremely massive stars close to the Eddington Limit and hence prone to bouts of large-scale, unstable mass loss. I discuss current understanding of the evolutionary state of these objects, the role duplicity may play and known physical characteristics of these stars using the X-ray luminous LBVs Eta Carinae and HD 5980 as test cases.

  6. Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlotter, P.; Schmidt, R.; Schneider, J.

    Using blue-emitting GaN/6HSiC chips as primary light sources, we have fabricated green, yellow, red and white emitting LEDs. The generation of mixed colors, as turquoise and magenta is also demonstrated. The underlying physical principle is that of luminescence down-conversion (Stokes shift), as typical for organic luminescent dye molecules. A white emitting LED, using an inorganic converter, Y3Al5O12:Ce3+( ), has also been realized.

  7. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Blue Grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  8. Spectral Effects of Pulsations in Blue Supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomi?, S.; Kraus, M.; Oksala, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    We have been spectroscopically monitoring a number of blue supergiants, focusing on several strategic photospheric and wind lines. Our aim is to detect line profile variability, and to determine its origin. Here, we present preliminary results for ? Leo and ? Ori. We conduct an asteroseismic analysis of Hei ?6678. We find in each star multiple periods raging from hours to several days. In addition, we observe strong, night to night variability in H?.

  9. Automated detection of Antarctic blue whale calls.

    PubMed

    Socheleau, Francois-Xavier; Leroy, Emmanuelle; Carvallo Pecci, Andres; Samaran, Flore; Bonnel, Julien; Royer, Jean-Yves

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the problem of automated detection of Z-calls emitted by Antarctic blue whales (B. m. intermedia). The proposed solution is based on a subspace detector of sigmoidal-frequency signals with unknown time-varying amplitude. This detection strategy takes into account frequency variations of blue whale calls as well as the presence of other transient sounds that can interfere with Z-calls (such as airguns or other whale calls). The proposed method has been tested on more than 105?h of acoustic data containing about 2200?Z-calls (as found by an experienced human operator). This method is shown to have a correct-detection rate of up to more than 15% better than the extensible bioacoustic tool package, a spectrogram-based correlation detector commonly used to study blue whales. Because the proposed method relies on subspace detection, it does not suffer from some drawbacks of correlation-based detectors. In particular, it does not require the choice of an a priori fixed and subjective template. The analytic expression of the detection performance is also derived, which provides crucial information for higher level analyses such as animal density estimation from acoustic data. Finally, the detection threshold automatically adapts to the soundscape in order not to violate a user-specified false alarm rate. PMID:26627784

  10. The Blue Comet: A Railroad's Astronomical Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    Between 1929 February 21 and 1941 September 27, the Central New Jersey Railroad operated a luxury passenger train between Jersey City and Atlantic City. Named The Blue Comet, the locomotive, tender, and coaches sported a unique royal blue paint scheme designed to evoke images of celestial bodies speeding through space. Inside each car were etched window panes and lampshades featuring stars and comets. And each coach sported the name of a famous comet on its side; these comets were of course named for their discoverers. Some of the astronomers honored in this unique fashion remain famous to this day, or at least their comets do. The names D'Arrest, Barnard, Encke, Faye, Giacobini, Halley, Olbers, Temple, Tuttle, and Westphal are familiar ones. But Biela, Brorsen, deVico, Spitaler, and Winnecke have now largely faded into obscurity; their stories are recounted here. Although more than sixty years have elapsed since its last run, The Blue Comet, perhaps the most famous passenger train in American history, lives on in the memories of millions of passengers and railfans. This famous train returned to the attention of millions of television viewers on the evening of 2007 June 3, in an episode of the HBO series The Sopranos. This work was supported by a faculty development grant from Valdosta State University.

  11. QCD and the BlueGene

    SciTech Connect

    Vranas, P

    2007-06-18

    Quantum Chromodynamics is the theory of nuclear and sub-nuclear physics. It is a celebrated theory and one of its inventors, F. Wilczek, has termed it as '... our most perfect physical theory'. Part of this is related to the fact that QCD can be numerically simulated from first principles using the methods of lattice gauge theory. The computational demands of QCD are enormous and have not only played a role in the history of supercomputers but are also helping define their future. Here I will discuss the intimate relation of QCD and massively parallel supercomputers with focus on the Blue Gene supercomputer and QCD thermodynamics. I will present results on the performance of QCD on the Blue Gene as well as physics simulation results of QCD at temperatures high enough that sub-nuclear matter transitions to a plasma state of elementary particles, the quark gluon plasma. This state of matter is thought to have existed at around 10 microseconds after the big bang. Current heavy ion experiments are in the quest of reproducing it for the first time since then. And numerical simulations of QCD on the Blue Gene systems are calculating the theoretical values of fundamental parameters so that comparisons of experiment and theory can be made.

  12. Effects of Photodynamic Therapy with Blue Light and Curcumin as Mouth Rinse for Oral Disinfection: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Diego Portes Vieira; Parmesano, Thiago Nogueira; Fontana, Carla Raquel; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (a-PDT) with blue light and curcumin on oral disinfection during the 2?h after treatment. Background data: a-PDT is a technique that can potentially affect the viability of bacterial cells, with selective action targeting only areas with photosensitizer accumulation. Materials and methods: A randomized controlled trial was undertaken. Twenty-seven adults were randomly divided into three groups: (1) the PDT group, which was treated with the drug, curcumin, and blue light (n=9); (2) the light group, which was treated only with the blue light, and no drug (n=9) and; (3) the curcumin group, which was treated only with the drug, curcumin, and no light (n=9). The irradiation parameters were: blue light-emitting diode (LED) illumination (455±30?nm), 400?mW of average optical power, 5?min of application, illumination area of 0.6?cm2, 600?mW/cm2 of intensity, and 200?J/cm2 of fluence. A curcumin concentration of 30?mg/L was used. The saliva samples were collected for bacterial counts at baseline and after the experimental phases (immediately after treatment, and 1 and 2?h after treatment). Serial dilutions were performed, and the resulting samples were cultured on blood agar plates in microaerophilic conditions. The number of colony-forming units (CFU) was determined. Results: The PDT group showed a significant reduction of CFU immediately after treatment (post-treatment) with PDT (5.71±0.48, p=0.001), and 1?h (5.14±0.92, p=0.001) and 2?h (5.35±0.76, p=0.001) after treatment, compared with pretreatment (6.61±0.82). There were no significant changes for the light group. The curcumin group showed a significant increase of CFU 1?h after treatment (6.77±0.40, p=0.02) compared with pretreatment (5.57±0.91) falling to baseline values at 2?h after treatment (5.58±0.70). Conclusions: The PDT group showed significant difference in microbial reduction (p<0.05) compared with both the light and curcumin groups until 2?h post-treatment. The new blue LED device for PDT using curcumin may be used for reduction of salivary microorganisms, leading to overall disinfection of the mouth (e.g., mucosa, tongue, and saliva), but new protocols should be explored. PMID:25343373

  13. MOCK OBSERVATIONS OF BLUE STRAGGLERS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Sills, Alison; Glebbeek, Evert; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A. E-mail: e.glebbeek@astro.ru.nl E-mail: rasio@northwestern.edu

    2013-11-10

    We created artificial color-magnitude diagrams of Monte Carlo dynamical models of globular clusters and then used observational methods to determine the number of blue stragglers in those clusters. We compared these blue stragglers to various cluster properties, mimicking work that has been done for blue stragglers in Milky Way globular clusters to determine the dominant formation mechanism(s) of this unusual stellar population. We find that a mass-based prescription for selecting blue stragglers will select approximately twice as many blue stragglers than a selection criterion that was developed for observations of real clusters. However, the two numbers of blue stragglers are well-correlated, so either selection criterion can be used to characterize the blue straggler population of a cluster. We confirm previous results that the simplified prescription for the evolution of a collision or merger product in the BSE code overestimates their lifetimes. We show that our model blue stragglers follow similar trends with cluster properties (core mass, binary fraction, total mass, collision rate) as the true Milky Way blue stragglers as long as we restrict ourselves to model clusters with an initial binary fraction higher than 5%. We also show that, in contrast to earlier work, the number of blue stragglers in the cluster core does have a weak dependence on the collisional parameter ? in both our models and in Milky Way globular clusters.

  14. Evaluation of Petrifilm™ aerobic count plates as an equivalent alternative to drop plating on R2A agar plates in a biofilm disinfectant efficacy test.

    PubMed

    Fritz, B G; Walker, D K; Goveia, D E; Parker, A E; Goeres, D M

    2015-03-01

    This paper compares Petrifilm™ aerobic count (AC) plates to drop plating on R2A agar plates as an alternative method for biofilm bacteria enumeration after application of a disinfectant. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm was grown in a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention biofilm reactor (ASTM E2562) and treated with 123 ppm sodium hypochlorite (as free chlorine) according to the Single Tube Method (ASTM E2871). Aliquots from the same dilution tubes were plated on Petrifilm™ AC plates and drop plated on R2A agar plates. The Petrifilm™ AC and R2A plates were incubated for 48 and 24 h, respectively, at 36 ± 1 °C. After nine experimental runs performed by two technicians, the mean difference in biofilm log densities [log biofilm density (LD) = log10(CFU/cm(2))] between the two methods for control coupons, treated coupons, and log reduction (LR) was 0.052 (p = 0.451), -0.102 (p = 0.303), and 0.152 (p = 0.313). Equivalence testing was used to assess equivalence of the two plating methods. The 90 % confidence intervals for the difference in control and treated mean LDs between methods were (-0.065, 0.170) and (-0.270, 0.064), both of which fall within a (-0.5, +0.5) equivalence criterion. The 90 % confidence interval for the mean LR difference (-0.113, 0.420) also falls within this equivalence criterion. Thus, Petrifilm™ AC plates were shown to be statistically equivalent to drop plating on R2A agar for the determination of control LDs, treated LDs, and LR values in an anti-biofilm efficacy test. These are the first published results that establish equivalency to a traditional plate counting technique for biofilms and for a disinfectant assay. PMID:25471267

  15. Effect of post-treatments and concentration of cotton linter cellulose nanocrystals on the properties of agar-based nanocomposite films.

    PubMed

    Oun, Ahmed A; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2015-12-10

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were prepared by acid hydrolysis of cotton linter pulp fibers and three different purification methods, i.e., without post purification (CNC1), dialyzed against distilled water (CNC2), and neutralized with NaOH (CNC3), and their effect on film properties was evaluated by preparation of agar/CNCs composite films. All the CNCs were rod in shape with diameter of 15-50 nm and length of 210-480 nm. FTIR result indicated that there was no distinctive differences in the chemical structure between CNCs and cotton linter cellulose fiber. No significant relationship was observed between the sulfate content and crystallinity index of CNCs. The CNC3 showed higher thermal stability than the other type of CNCs due to the less adverse effect on the thermal stability of sulfate groups induced by the neutralization with NaOH. The tensile strength (TS) of agar film increased by 15% with incorporation of 5 wt% of CNC3, on the contrary, it decreased by 10% and 15% with incorporation of CNC1 and CNC2, respectively. Other performance properties of agar/CNCs composite films such as optical and water vapor barrier properties showed that the CNC3 was more effective filler than the other CNCs. In the range of concentration of CNC3 tested (1-10 wt%), inclusion of 5 wt% of CNC3 was the maximum concentration for improving or maintaining film properties of the composite films. The neutralization of acid hydrolyzed cellulose using NaOH was simple and convenient for the preparation of CNC and bionanocomposite films. PMID:26428095

  16. Comparing Diagnostic Accuracy of Kato-Katz, Koga Agar Plate, Ether-Concentration, and FLOTAC for Schistosoma mansoni and Soil-Transmitted Helminths

    PubMed Central

    Glinz, Dominik; Silué, Kigbafori D.; Knopp, Stefanie; Lohourignon, Laurent K.; Yao, Kouassi P.; Steinmann, Peter; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg

    2010-01-01

    Background Infections with schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths exert a considerable yet underappreciated economic and public health burden on afflicted populations. Accurate diagnosis is crucial for patient management, drug efficacy evaluations, and monitoring of large-scale community-based control programs. Methods/Principal Findings The diagnostic accuracy of four copromicroscopic techniques (i.e., Kato-Katz, Koga agar plate, ether-concentration, and FLOTAC) for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminth eggs was compared using stool samples from 112 school children in Côte d'Ivoire. Combined results of all four methods served as a diagnostic ‘gold’ standard and revealed prevalences of S. mansoni, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis and Ascaris lumbricoides of 83.0%, 55.4%, 40.2%, 33.9% and 28.6%, respectively. A single FLOTAC from stool samples preserved in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin for 30 or 83 days showed a higher sensitivity for S. mansoni diagnosis (91.4%) than the ether-concentration method on stool samples preserved for 40 days (85.0%) or triplicate Kato-Katz using fresh stool samples (77.4%). Moreover, a single FLOTAC detected hookworm, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections with a higher sensitivity than any of the other methods used, but resulted in lower egg counts. The Koga agar plate method was the most accurate diagnostic assay for S. stercoralis. Conclusion/Significance We have shown that the FLOTAC method holds promise for the diagnosis of S. mansoni. Moreover, our study confirms that FLOTAC is a sensitive technique for detection of common soil-transmitted helminths. For the diagnosis of S. stercoralis, the Koga agar plate method remains the method of choice. PMID:20651931

  17. Ochrovirga pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel agar-lytic marine bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from a seaweed.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young-Kyung; Kim, Ji Hyung; Kim, Jennifer Jooyoun; Yang, Sung-Hyun; Ye, Bo-Ram; Heo, Soo-Jin; Hyun, Jung-Ho; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Park, Heung-Sik; Kang, Do-Hyung; Oh, Chulhong

    2014-10-01

    A strain designated as S85(T) was isolated from a seaweed collected from coastal area of Chuuk State in Micronesia. The strain was gram-negative, rod-shaped, and non-motile and formed yellow colonies on the SWY agar (0.2 % yeast extract and 1.5 % agar in seawater) and Marine agar 2216. The strain grew at pH 5-9 (optimum, pH 8), at 15-40 °C (optimum, 25-28 °C), and with 1-9 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 3 %). The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain S85(T) was related to Lutibacter litoralis CL-TF09(T) and Maritimimonas rapanae A31(T) with 91.4 % and with 90.5 % similarity, respectively. The dominant fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C15:0 3-OH and iso-C17:0 3-OH, C16:0 3-OH and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ?7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH). The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-6. The DNA G+C content of the type strain was 34.6 mol %. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, an unknown glycolipid and two unknown polar lipids. Based on this polyphasic taxonomic data, strain S85(T) stands for a novel species of a new genus, and we propose the name Ochrovirga pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of O. pacifica is S85(T) (=KCCM 90106 =JCM 18327(T)). PMID:24842302

  18. Light-scattering sensor for real-time identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae colonies on solid agar plate.

    PubMed

    Huff, Karleigh; Aroonnual, Amornrat; Littlejohn, Amy E Fleishman; Rajwa, Bartek; Bae, Euiwon; Banada, Padmapriya P; Patsekin, Valery; Hirleman, E Daniel; Robinson, J Paul; Richards, Gary P; Bhunia, Arun K

    2012-09-01

    The three most common pathogenic species of Vibrio, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus, are of major concerns due to increased incidence of water- and seafood-related outbreaks and illness worldwide. Current methods are lengthy and require biochemical and molecular confirmation. A novel label-free forward light-scattering sensor was developed to detect and identify colonies of these three pathogens in real time in the presence of other vibrios in food or water samples. Vibrio colonies grown on agar plates were illuminated by a 635?nm laser beam and scatter-image signatures were acquired using a CCD (charge-coupled device) camera in an automated BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical light-scattering Technology) system. Although a limited number of Vibrio species was tested, each produced a unique light-scattering signature that is consistent from colony to colony. Subsequently a pattern recognition system analysing the collected light-scatter information provided classification in 1-2?min with an accuracy of 99%. The light-scattering signatures were unaffected by subjecting the bacteria to physiological stressors: osmotic imbalance, acid, heat and recovery from a viable but non-culturable state. Furthermore, employing a standard sample enrichment in alkaline peptone water for 6?h followed by plating on selective thiosulphate citrate bile salts sucrose agar at 30°C for ??12?h, the light-scattering sensor successfully detected V.?cholerae, V.?parahaemolyticus and V.?vulnificus present in oyster or water samples in 18?h even in the presence of other vibrios or other bacteria, indicating the suitability of the sensor as a powerful screening tool for pathogens on agar plates. PMID:22613192

  19. Light?scattering sensor for real?time identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae colonies on solid agar plate

    PubMed Central

    Huff, Karleigh; Aroonnual, Amornrat; Littlejohn, Amy E. Fleishman; Rajwa, Bartek; Bae, Euiwon; Banada, Padmapriya P.; Patsekin, Valery; Hirleman, E. Daniel; Robinson, J. Paul; Richards, Gary P.; Bhunia, Arun K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The three most common pathogenic species of Vibrio, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus, are of major concerns due to increased incidence of water? and seafood?related outbreaks and illness worldwide. Current methods are lengthy and require biochemical and molecular confirmation. A novel label?free forward light?scattering sensor was developed to detect and identify colonies of these three pathogens in real time in the presence of other vibrios in food or water samples. Vibrio colonies grown on agar plates were illuminated by a 635?nm laser beam and scatter?image signatures were acquired using a CCD (charge?coupled device) camera in an automated BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical light?scattering Technology) system. Although a limited number of Vibrio species was tested, each produced a unique light?scattering signature that is consistent from colony to colony. Subsequently a pattern recognition system analysing the collected light?scatter information provided classification in 1?2?min with an accuracy of 99%. The light?scattering signatures were unaffected by subjecting the bacteria to physiological stressors: osmotic imbalance, acid, heat and recovery from a viable but non?culturable state. Furthermore, employing a standard sample enrichment in alkaline peptone water for 6?h followed by plating on selective thiosulphate citrate bile salts sucrose agar at 30°C for ??12?h, the light?scattering sensor successfully detected V.?cholerae, V.?parahaemolyticus and V.?vulnificus present in oyster or water samples in 18?h even in the presence of other vibrios or other bacteria, indicating the suitability of the sensor as a powerful screening tool for pathogens on agar plates. PMID:22613192

  20. Investigation of the effect of power ultrasound on the nucleation of water during freezing of agar gel samples in tubing vials.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Hossein; Sun, Da-Wen; Delgado, Adriana; Zhang, Zhihang

    2012-05-01

    Nucleation, as an important stage of freezing process, can be induced by the irradiation of power ultrasound. In this study, the effect of irradiation temperature (-2 °C, -3 °C, -4 °C and -5 °C), irradiation duration (0s, 1s, 3s, 5s, 10s or 15s) and ultrasound intensity (0.07 W cm(-2), 0.14 W cm(-2), 0.25 W cm(-2), 0.35 W cm(-2) and 0.42 W cm(-2)) on the dynamic nucleation of ice in agar gel samples was studied. The samples were frozen in an ethylene glycol-water mixture (-20 °C) in an ultrasonic bath system after putting them into tubing vials. Results indicated that ultrasound irradiation is able to initiate nucleation at different supercooled temperatures (from -5 °C to -2 °C) in agar gel if optimum intensity and duration of ultrasound were chosen. Evaluation of the effect of 0.25 W cm(-2) ultrasound intensity and different durations of ultrasound application on agar gels showed that 1s was not long enough to induce nucleation, 3s induced the nucleation repeatedly but longer irradiation durations resulted in the generation of heat and therefore nucleation was postponed. Investigation of the effect of ultrasound intensity revealed that higher intensities of ultrasound were effective when a shorter period of irradiation was used, while lower intensities only resulted in nucleation when a longer irradiation time was applied. In addition to this, higher intensities were not effective at longer irradiation times due to the heat generated in the samples by the heating effect of ultrasound. In conclusion, the use of ultrasound as a means to control the crystallization process offers promising application in freezing of solid foods, however, optimum conditions should be selected. PMID:22070859

  1. Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Xie, Ping (San Jose, CA); Gosnell, Timothy R. (Sante Fe, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A laser for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr.sup.3+ ions and Yb.sup.3+ ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output.

  2. Measuring star formation rates in blue galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, John S., III; Hunter, Deidre A.

    1987-01-01

    The problems associated with measurements of star formation rates in galaxies are briefly reviewed, and specific models are presented for determinations of current star formation rates from H alpha and Far Infrared (FIR) luminosities. The models are applied to a sample of optically blue irregular galaxies, and the results are discussed in terms of star forming histories. It appears likely that typical irregular galaxies are forming stars at nearly constant rates, although a few examples of systems with enhanced star forming activity are found among HII regions and luminous irregular galaxies.

  3. Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Xie, P.; Gosnell, T.R.

    1998-09-08

    A laser is disclosed for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr{sup 3+} ions and Yb{sup 3+} ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output. 11 figs.

  4. Slow-blue PanSTARRS transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Bruce, Alastair; Lawrence, Andy; Ward, Martin; Collinson, James; Elvis, Martin; Gezari, Suvi; Smartt, Steven; Smith, Ken; Wright, Darryl; Fraser, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    Photometric and spectroscopic monitoring of 50 blue, nuclear "transients" in PanSTARRS-1 has revealed different types of extremely variable AGN. The majority show a gradual brightening by ~2 mag from the SDSS observation a decade ago and may represent a new class of AGN microlensed by foreground galaxies. Spectra from the William Herschel Telescope identify these as z~1 AGN with atypical spectroscopic properties. We present an analysis of their photometric and spectroscopic variability in an effort to constrain the detailed structure of the source AGN.

  5. Blue running of the primordial tensor spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk

    2014-07-01

    We examine the possibility of positive spectral index of the power spectrum of the primordial tensor perturbation produced during inflation in the light of the detection of the B-mode polarization by the BICEP2 collaboration. We find a blue tilt is in general possible when the slow-roll parameter decays rapidly. We present two known examples in which a positive spectral index for the tensor power spectrum can be obtained. We also briefly discuss other consistency tests for further studies on inflationary dynamics.

  6. Abilities of the mCP Agar Method and CRENAME Alpha Toxin-Specific Real-Time PCR Assay To Detect Clostridium perfringens Spores in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Maheux, Andrée F.; Bérubé, Ève; Boudreau, Dominique K.; Villéger, Romain; Cantin, Philippe; Boissinot, Maurice; Bissonnette, Luc

    2013-01-01

    We first determined the analytical specificity and ubiquity (i.e., the ability to detect all or most strains) of a Clostridium perfringens-specific real-time PCR (rtPCR) assay based on the cpa gene (cpa rtPCR) by using a bacterial strain panel composed of C. perfringens and non-C. perfringens Clostridium strains. All non-C. perfringens Clostridium strains tested negative, whereas all C. perfringens strains tested positive with the cpa rtPCR, for an analytical specificity and ubiquity of 100%. The cpa rtPCR assay was then used to confirm the identity of 116 putative C. perfringens isolates recovered after filtration of water samples and culture on mCP agar. Colonies presenting discordant results between the phenotype on mCP agar and cpa rtPCR were identified by sequencing the 16S rRNA and cpa genes. Four mCP?/rtPCR+ colonies were identified as C. perfringens, whereas 3 mCP+/rtPCR? colonies were identified as non-C. perfringens. The cpa rtPCR was negative with all 51 non-C. perfringens strains and positive with 64 of 65 C. perfringens strains. Finally, we compared mCP agar and a CRENAME (concentration and recovery of microbial particles, extraction of nucleic acids, and molecular enrichment) procedure plus cpa rtPCR (CRENAME + cpa rtPCR) for their abilities to detect C. perfringens spores in drinking water. CRENAME + cpa rtPCR detected as few as one C. perfringens CFU per 100 ml of drinking water sample in less than 5 h, whereas mCP agar took at least 25 h to deliver results. CRENAME + cpa rtPCR also allows the simultaneous and sensitive detection of Escherichia coli and C. perfringens from the same potable water sample. In itself, it could be used to assess the public health risk posed by drinking water potentially contaminated with pathogens more resistant to disinfection. PMID:24077714

  7. An anion channel in Arabidopsis hypocotyls activated by blue light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, M. H.; Spalding, E. P.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    A rapid, transient depolarization of the plasma membrane in seedling stems is one of the earliest effects of blue light detected in plants. It appears to play a role in transducing blue light into inhibition of hypocotyl (stem) elongation, and perhaps other responses. The possibility that activation of a Cl- conductance is part of the depolarization mechanism was raised previously and addressed here. By patch clamping hypocotyl cells isolated from dark-grown (etiolated) Arabidopsis seedlings, blue light was found to activate an anion channel residing at the plasma membrane. An anion-channel blocker commonly known as NPPB 15-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid] potently and reversibly blocked this anion channel. NPPB also blocked the blue-light-induced depolarization in vivo and decreased the inhibitory effect of blue light on hypocotyl elongation. These results indicate that activation of this anion channel plays a role in transducing blue light into growth inhibition.

  8. Lethal effect of blue light-activated hydrogen peroxide, curcumin and erythrosine as potential oral photosensitizers on the viability of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum

    PubMed Central

    Habiboallh, Ghanbari; Mahbobeh, Naderi Nasab; Mina, Zareian Jahromi; Majid, Zakeri; Nooshin, Arjmand

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Recently, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been introduced as a new modality in oral bacterial decontamination. Current research aims to evaluate the effect of photodynamic killing of visible blue light in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, curcumin and erythrosine as potential oral photosensitizers on Porphyromonas gingivalis associated with periodontal bone loss and Fusobacterium nucleatum associated with soft tissue inflammation. Materials and methods: Standard suspension of P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum were exposed to Light Emitting Diode (LED) (440–480 nm) in combination with erythrosine (22 µm), curcumin (60 µM) and hydrogen peroxide (0.3 mM) for 5 min. Bacterial samples from each treatment groups (radiation-only group, photosensitizer-only group and blue light-activated photosensitizer group) were subcultured onto the surface of agar plates. Survival of these bacteria was determined by counting the number of colony forming units (CFU) after incubation. Results: Results for antibacterial assays on P. gingivalis confirmed that curcumin, Hydrogen peroxide and erythrosine alone exerted a moderate bactericidal effect which enhanced noticeably in conjugation with visible light. The survival rate of P. gingivalis reached zero present when the suspension exposed to blue light-activated curcumin and hydrogen peroxide for 2 min. Besides, curcumin exerted a remarkable antibacterial activity against F. nucleatum in comparison with erythrosine and hydrogen peroxide (P=0.00). Furthermore, the bactericidal effect of visible light alone on P. gingivalis as black-pigmented bacteria was significant. Conclusion: Our result suggested that visible blue light in the presence of erythrosine, curcumin and hydrogen peroxide would be consider as a potential approach of PDT to kill the main gramnegative periodontal pathogens. From a clinical standpoint, this regimen could be established as an additional minimally invasive antibacterial treatment of plaque induced periodontal pathologies. PMID:26246690

  9. PART A: TYPE OF COVERAGE HMO Colorado/Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield

    E-print Network

    Plan is available throughout Colorado Plan is available throughout Colorado PART B: SUMMARY OF BENEFIT Insurance Benefits Alliance Trust Effective January 1, 2015 Blue Advantage HMO/Point-of-Service(POS) Plan PRIME PPO Health Plan Custom Plus (Traditional) TYPE OF PLAN Point of Service Preferred Provider Plan

  10. "Big Blue Marble" Fact Sheet and "Big Blue Marble" Program Content (Shows 1 through 78).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Telephone and Telegraph Corp., New York, NY.

    This booklet describes the content of 78 programs presented in the "Big Blue Marble" series, an international series of children's television shows sponsored by the International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation. The major sequence of subjects is given, as well as a description of each program's folktale adaptation (a regular feature) and…

  11. Progress towards a ``blue'' potassium MOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, David; Fine, Dan; Jervis, Dylan; Edge, Graham; Thywissen, Joseph

    2011-05-01

    One difficulty when preparing quantum degenerate gases of potassium 40 is the low efficiency of sub-Doppler cooling. In this talk, we discuss how we are attempting to circumvent this problem by implementing a ``blue'' MOT for 40K on the non-cycling 4S1/2 --> 5P3/2 transition, which has a wavelength of 404.53nm and a decay rate of 1.17 MHz. The Doppler temperature should be 27 ?K, which is a factor of five improvement over the D2 transition at 767 nm. This lower temperature would also facilitate in-situ imaging of atoms in optical lattices. The laser setup consists of a cooled diode injection locked to an external cavity diode laser. The master laser is in turn locked to 39K saturation spectroscopy in a heated vapor cell. The proximity of this 4S-5P transition to the wavelength used in ``Blu-ray'' technology provides a relatively inexpensive source of laser diodes with powers up to 150 mW. A dual MOT will be implemented using dichroic mirrors and waveplates for loading and capture with 767 nm, followed by a switch to a ``blue'' MOT for late-stage cooling before loading into a magnetic trap. We will also present results on the spectroscopy of the 40K 5P3/2 hyperfine levels using our setup.

  12. DNA Electrochemistry with Tethered Methylene Blue

    PubMed Central

    Pheeney, Catrina G.

    2012-01-01

    Methylene blue (MB?), covalently attached to DNA through a flexible C12 alkyl linker, provides a sensitive redox reporter in DNA electrochemistry measurements. Tethered, intercalated MB? is reduced through DNA-mediated charge transport; the incorporation of a single base mismatch at position 3, 10, or 14 of a 17-mer causes an attenuation of the signal to 62 ± 3% of the well-matched DNA, irrespective of position in the duplex. The redox signal intensity for MB?–DNA is found to be least 3-fold larger than that of Nile blue (NB)–DNA, indicating that MB? is even more strongly coupled to the ?-stack. The signal attenuation due to an intervening mismatch does, however, depend on DNA film density and the backfilling agent used to passivate the surface. These results highlight two mechanisms for reduction of MB? on the DNA-modified electrode: reduction mediated by the DNA base pair stack and direct surface reduction of MB? at the electrode. These two mechanisms are distinguished by their rates of electron transfer that differ by 20-fold. The extent of direct reduction at the surface can be controlled by assembly and buffer conditions. PMID:22512327

  13. Raphael Meldola, his blue and his times.

    PubMed

    Travis, A S

    2012-05-01

    Raphael Meldola (1849-1915), English industrial and academic chemist, spectroscopist, naturalist, educator and lobbyist for science, is today almost a forgotten scientist whose life is celebrated only with a medal awarded by the Royal Society of Chemistry that honors achievement by younger chemists. In the 1870-80s, however, he invented a number of important synthetic dyestuffs including the cotton dyes isamine blue and Meldola's blue, and also naphthol green B, all of which have had application in biology and medicine. I describe here the early emergence of the synthetic dye industry, the first science-based industry, Meldola's role in its development, and his own inventions. Meldola's wide ranging achievements in science led to appointments as president of important professional scientific and manufacturers' societies. He was a fervent disciple of natural selection, a correspondent of Charles Darwin, and a prominent 19(th)-century neo-Darwinian. In 1886, drawing on analogies with evolutionary theory, he warned the British that neglect of science, particularly chemistry, would lead to industrial decline and even extinction, though his message generally was ignored, at least until 1914. PMID:22148999

  14. Differential migration of Blue Grouse in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cade, Brian S.; Hoffman, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    We examined migration of adult Blue Grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) in north-central Colorado by radio tracking 13 males and 19 females. Elevational changes associated with movements to winter areas were greater for males (median = 488 m, range = 183-671 m) than females (median = 122 m, range = -61-760 m). Males (median = 10.5 km, range = 1.0-29.4 km) also moved farther than females (median = 1.0 km, range = 0.1-28.0 km), resulting in partial segregation of sexes during winter. Directional orientation of movements to wintering areas was nonrandom for long-distance (>3 km) migrants. Median elevational change (122 m) and distance (0.6 km) between the first-winter and first-breeding areas for seven juvenile females were similar to movements of adult females. Males (median = 7 July) departed breeding areas earlier than females (median = 11 August), but arrived (median = 14 October) on winter areas about the same time as females (median = 23 October). Both sexes exhibited fidelity to winter areas. The average distance between winter locations ranged from 94 to 312 m (median = 135 m) for 11 radio-marked adults, suggesting Blue Grouse were sedentary on their winter ranges.

  15. The Return of the Blue Butterfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Anabela

    2014-05-01

    The Return of the Blue Butterfly The English writer Charles Dickens once wrote: "I only ask to be free. The butterflies are free". But are they really? The work that I performed with a group of students from 8th grade, had a starting point of climate change and the implications it has on ecosystems. Joining the passion I have for butterflies, I realized that they are also in danger of extinction due to these climatic effects. Thus, it was easy to seduce my students wanting to know more. Luckily I found Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo, a researcher at the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, who has worked on butterflies and precisely investigated this issue. Portugal is the southern limit of butterfly-blue (Phengaris alcon), and has been many years in the red book of endangered species. Butterfly-blue is very demanding of their habitat, and disappears very easily if ideal conditions are not satisfied. Increased fragmentation of landscapes and degradation of suitable habitats, are considered the greatest challenges of the conservation of Phengaris butterfly in Portugal. In recent decades, climate change has also changed butterfly-blue spatial distribution with a movement of the species northward to colder locations, and dispersion in latitude. Butterflies of Europe must escape to the North because of the heat. Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo and her research team began a project, completed in December 2013, wanted to preserve and restore priority habitats recognized by the European Union to help species in danger of disappearing with increasing temperature. The blue butterfly is extremely important because it is a key indicator of the quality of these habitats. In the field, the butterflies are monitored to collect all possible data in order to identify the key species. Butterflies start flying in early July and cease in late August. Mating takes about an hour and occurs in the first days of life. The gentian-peat (Gentiana pneumonanthe) serves as the host plant for laying eggs. Each female lays an average of 60 eggs. Larva must grow in a plant near an anthill of Myrmica aloba species. This is important because butterfly larvae are myrmecophilous, living with ants that feed the butterfly larvae for 11 months, because the ants think the butterfly larvae are ant larvae. In early summer the larvae pupate in the nest of ants. Before expanding their wings, they have to leave quickly to avoid being killed by ants when the ants discover have been deceived. My students became aware of this research; we studied and prepared in order to carry out fieldwork. Thus students learn the content and curricular in a scientifically fun way, first with group work in the classroom with my guidance and in a second stage carry knowledge to the field under the guidance of Dra Paula Seixas Arnaldo. We know where we started ... where we arrives is success!

  16. Effects of PVA, agar contents, and irradiation doses on properties of PVA/ws-chitosan/glycerol hydrogels made by ?-irradiation followed by freeze-thawing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaomin; Zhu, Zhiyong; Liu, Qi; Chen, Xiliang; Ma, Mingwang

    2008-08-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/water soluble chitosan (ws-chitosan)/glycerol hydrogels were prepared by ?-irradiation and ?-irradiation followed by freeze-thawing, respectively. The effects of irradiation dose and the contents of PVA and agar on the swelling, rheological, and thermal properties of these hydrogels were investigated. The swelling capacity decreases while the mechanical strength increases with increasing PVA or agar content. Increasing the irradiation dose leads to an increase in chemical crosslinking density but a decrease in physical crosslinking density. Hydrogels made by irradiation followed by freeze-thawing own smaller swelling capacity but larger mechanical strength than those made by pure irradiation. The storage modulus of the former hydrogels decreases above 50 °C and above 70 °C it comes to the same value as that prepared by irradiation. The ordered association of PVA is influenced by both chemical and physical crosslinkings and by the presence of ws-chitosan and glycerol. These hydrogels are high sensitive to pH and ionic strength, indicating that they may be useful in stimuli-responsive drug release system.

  17. Ultra-sensitive detection of tumorigenic cellular impurities in human cell-processed therapeutic products by digital analysis of soft agar colony formation

    PubMed Central

    Kusakawa, Shinji; Yasuda, Satoshi; Kuroda, Takuya; Kawamata, Shin; Sato, Yoji

    2015-01-01

    Contamination with tumorigenic cellular impurities is one of the most pressing concerns for human cell-processed therapeutic products (hCTPs). The soft agar colony formation (SACF) assay, which is a well-known in vitro assay for the detection of malignant transformed cells, is applicable for the quality assessment of hCTPs. Here we established an image-based screening system for the SACF assay using a high-content cell analyzer termed the digital SACF assay. Dual fluorescence staining of formed colonies and the dissolution of soft agar led to accurate detection of transformed cells with the imaging cytometer. Partitioning a cell sample into multiple wells of culture plates enabled digital readout of the presence of colonies and elevated the sensitivity for their detection. In practice, the digital SACF assay detected impurity levels as low as 0.00001% of the hCTPs, i.e. only one HeLa cell contained in 10,000,000 human mesenchymal stem cells, within 30 days. The digital SACF assay saves time, is more sensitive than in vivo tumorigenicity tests, and would be useful for the quality control of hCTPs in the manufacturing process. PMID:26644244

  18. Evaluation of side effects of radiofrequency capacitive hyperthermia with magnetite on the blood vessel walls of tumor metastatic lesion surrounding the abdominal large vessels: an agar phantom study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Magnetite used in an 8-MHz radiofrequency (RF) capacitive heating device can increase the temperature of a specific site up to 45°C. When treating a metastatic lesion around large abdominal vessels via hyperthermia with magnetite, heating-induced adverse effects on these vessels need to be considered. Therefore, this study examined hyperthermia-induced damage to blood vessel walls in vitro. Methods A large agar phantom with a circulatory system consisting of a swine artery and vein connected to a peristaltic pump was prepared. The blood vessels were placed on the magnetite-containing agar piece. Heating was continued for 30 min at 45°C. After heating, a histological study for injury to the blood vessels was performed. Results The inner membrane temperature did not reach 45°C due to the cooling effect of the blood flow. In the heated vessels, vascular wall collagen degenerated and smooth muscle cells were narrowed; however, no serious changes were noted in the vascular endothelial cells or vascular wall elastic fibers. The heated vessel wall was not severely damaged; this was attributed to cooling by the blood flow. Conclusions Our findings indicate that RF capacitive heating therapy with magnetite may be used for metastatic lesions without injuring the surrounding large abdominal vessels. PMID:25114787

  19. Ultra-sensitive detection of tumorigenic cellular impurities in human cell-processed therapeutic products by digital analysis of soft agar colony formation.

    PubMed

    Kusakawa, Shinji; Yasuda, Satoshi; Kuroda, Takuya; Kawamata, Shin; Sato, Yoji

    2015-01-01

    Contamination with tumorigenic cellular impurities is one of the most pressing concerns for human cell-processed therapeutic products (hCTPs). The soft agar colony formation (SACF) assay, which is a well-known in vitro assay for the detection of malignant transformed cells, is applicable for the quality assessment of hCTPs. Here we established an image-based screening system for the SACF assay using a high-content cell analyzer termed the digital SACF assay. Dual fluorescence staining of formed colonies and the dissolution of soft agar led to accurate detection of transformed cells with the imaging cytometer. Partitioning a cell sample into multiple wells of culture plates enabled digital readout of the presence of colonies and elevated the sensitivity for their detection. In practice, the digital SACF assay detected impurity levels as low as 0.00001% of the hCTPs, i.e. only one HeLa cell contained in 10,000,000 human mesenchymal stem cells, within 30 days. The digital SACF assay saves time, is more sensitive than in vivo tumorigenicity tests, and would be useful for the quality control of hCTPs in the manufacturing process. PMID:26644244

  20. The fungicidal and phytotoxic properties of benomyl and PPM in supplemented agar media supporting transgenic arabidopsis plants for a Space Shuttle flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, A. L.; Semer, C.; Kucharek, T.; Ferl, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    Fungal contamination is a significant problem in the use of sucrose-enriched agar-based media for plant culture, especially in closed habitats such as the Space Shuttle. While a variety of fungicides are commercially available, not all are equal in their effectiveness in inhibiting fungal contamination. In addition, fungicide effectiveness must be weighed against its phytotoxicity and in this case, its influence on transgene expression. In a series of experiments designed to optimize media composition for a recent shuttle mission, the fungicide benomyl and the biocide "Plant Preservative Mixture" (PPM) were evaluated for effectiveness in controlling three common fungal contaminants, as well as their impact on the growth and development of arabidopsis seedlings. Benomyl proved to be an effective inhibitor of all three contaminants in concentrations as low as 2 ppm (parts per million) within the agar medium, and no evidence of phytotoxicity was observed until concentrations exceeded 20 ppm. The biocide mix PPM was effective as a fungicide only at concentrations that had deleterious effects on arabidopsis seedlings. As a result of these findings, a concentration of 3 ppm benomyl was used in the media for experiment PGIM-01 which flew on shuttle Columbia mission STS-93 in July 1999.

  1. Determination of mercury in water and fish samples by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry after solid phase extraction on agar modified with 2-mercaptobenzimidazole.

    PubMed

    Pourreza, N; Ghanemi, K

    2009-01-30

    A novel solid phase extraction method for the determination of mercury has been developed. The Hg(II) ions were retained on a mini-column packed with agar powder modified with 2-mercaptobenzimidazole at a flow rate of 6 mL min(-1). The retained Hg(II) ions were eluted with 3 mol L(-1) solution of HCl and measured by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS). The effect of different variables such as pH, sample flow rate, amounts of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole loaded on agar and SnCl(2) concentration was investigated and optimum conditions were established. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.040-2.40 ng mL(-1) with r=0.9994 (n=8). The limit of detection based on three times the standard deviation (3S(b)) (n=10) obtained under optimum conditions was 0.02 ng mL(-1). The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for the determination of 0.4 and 2.0 ng mL(-1) of Hg(II) was 2.6 and 1.9% (n=8), respectively. The method was successfully applied to determine Hg(II) in water, wastewater and fish samples. PMID:18513869

  2. Jupiter in blue, ultraviolet and near infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These three images of Jupiter, taken through the narrow angle camera of NASA's Cassini spacecraft from a distance of 77.6 million kilometers (48.2 million miles) on October 8, reveal more than is apparent to the naked eye through a telescope.

    The image on the left was taken through the blue filter. The one in the middle was taken in the ultraviolet. The one on the right was taken in the near infrared.

    The blue-light filter is within the part of the electromagnetic spectrum detectable by the human eye. The appearance of Jupiter in this image is, consequently, very familiar. The Great Red Spot (below and to the right of center) and the planet's well-known banded cloud lanes are obvious. The brighter bands of clouds are called zones and are probably composed of ammonia ice particles. The darker bands are called belts and are made dark by particles of unknown composition intermixed with the ammonia ice.

    Jupiter's appearance changes dramatically in the ultraviolet and near infrared images. These images are near negatives of each other and illustrate the way in which observations in different wavelength regions can reveal different physical regimes on the planet.

    All gases scatter sunlight efficiently at short wavelengths; this is why the sky appears blue on Earth. The effect is even more pronounced in the ultraviolet. The gases in Jupiter's atmosphere, above the clouds, are no different. They scatter strongly in the ultraviolet, making the deep banded cloud layers invisible in the middle image. Only the very high altitude haze appears dark against the bright background. The contrast is reversed in the near infrared, where methane gas, abundant on Jupiter but not on Earth, is strongly absorbing and therefore appears dark. Again the deep clouds are invisible, but now the high altitude haze appears relatively bright against the dark background. High altitude haze is seen over the poles and the equator.

    The Great Red Spot, prominent in all images, is obviously a feature whose influence extends high in the atmosphere. As the Cassini cameras continue to return images of Jupiter, it will be possible to construct a three-dimensional picture of how clouds form and evolve by watching the changing appearance of Jupiter in different spectral regions.

    JPL manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPl is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. 77 FR 68117 - Blue Summit Wind, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Blue Summit Wind, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice... (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedure 18 CFR 385.207(a)(2), Blue Summit Wind, LLC (Blue Summit) filed a...) interconnection facilities that deliver power from the Blue Summit's wind energy generator (Blue Summit...

  4. Approaches toward a blue semiconductor laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladany, I.

    1989-01-01

    Possible approaches for obtaining semiconductor diode laser action in the blue region of the spectrum are surveyed. A discussion of diode lasers is included along with a review of the current status of visible emitters, presently limited to 670 nm. Methods are discussed for shifting laser emission toward shorter wavelengths, including the use of II-IV materials, the increase in the bandgap of III-V materials by addition of nitrogen, and changing the bandstructure from indirect to direct by incorporating interstitial atoms or by constructing superlattices. Non-pn-junction injection methods are surveyed, including avalanche breakdown, Langmuir-Blodgett diodes, heterostructures, carrier accumulation, and Berglund diodes. Prospects of inventing new multinary semiconducting materials are discussed, and a number of novel materials described in the literature are tabulated. New approaches available through the development of quantum wells and superlattices are described, including resonant tunneling and the synthesis of arbitrary bandgap materials through multiple quantum wells.

  5. Methylene Blue: Magic Bullet for Vasoplegia?

    PubMed

    Hosseinian, Leila; Weiner, Menachem; Levin, Matthew A; Fischer, Gregory W

    2016-01-01

    Methylene blue (MB) has received much attention in the perioperative and critical care literature because of its ability to antagonize the profound vasodilation seen in distributive (also referred to as vasodilatory or vasoplegic) shock states. This review will discuss the pharmacologic properties of MB and review the critical care, liver transplantation, and cardiac anesthesia literature with respect to the efficacy and safety of MB for the treatment of shock. Although improved blood pressure has consistently been demonstrated with the use of MB in small trials and case reports, better oxygen delivery or decreased mortality with MB use has not been demonstrated. Large randomized controlled trials are still necessary to identify the role of MB in hemodynamic resuscitation of the critically ill. PMID:26678471

  6. FIrpic: archetypal blue phosphorescent emitter for electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    Baranoff, Etienne; Curchod, Basile F E

    2015-05-14

    FIrpic is the most investigated bis-cyclometallated iridium complex in particular in the context of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) because of its attractive sky-blue emission, high emission efficiency, and suitable energy levels. In this Perspective we review the synthesis, structural characterisations, and key properties of this emitter. We also survey the theoretical studies and summarise a series of selected monochromatic electroluminescent devices using FIrpic as the emitting dopant. Finally we highlight important shortcomings of FIrpic as an emitter for OLEDs. Despite the large body of work dedicated to this material, it is manifest that the understanding of photophysical and electrochemical processes are only broadly understood mainly because of the different environment in which these properties are measured, i.e., isolated molecules in solvent vs. device. PMID:25388935

  7. Blue Skies Research and the global economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braben, Donald W.

    2002-11-01

    Robert Solow's seminal work of the 1950s showed that science and technology are major sources of long-term global economic growth. But we have recently changed the ways that science and technology are managed. Industrial and academic research once thrived on individual freedom and flair. Progressively for the past three decades or so, however, research has been focused on short-term objectives selected by consensus. Global per-capita growth has steadily declined. Scientific enterprise is losing diversity. Blue Skies Research can help to restore diversity and to create the new technologies that can stimulate growth, but funding agencies nowadays rarely allow total freedom. A new coefficient of adventurousness is described. Its use, or other means, may help restore economic growth to its former levels.

  8. A bolt out of the blue.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Joseph R

    2005-05-01

    Lightning is a particularly unsettling product of bad weather. It causes more deaths and injuries in the U.S. than either hurricanes or tornadoes do, and it strikes without warning, sometimes with nothing but blue sky overhead. In central Florida, where I live, thunderstorms are a daily occurrence during the summer, and so, ironically, people in the Sunshine State often spend their afternoons indoors to avoid the risk of death from the sky. Worldwide, lightning flashes about four million times a day, and bolts have even been observed on other planets. Yet despite its familiarity, we still do not know what causes lightning. It is a misconception that Benjamin Franklin solved the puzzle when he conducted his famous kite experiment in 1752. PMID:15882023

  9. Statistical thermodynamics of supercapacitors and blue engines

    E-print Network

    René van Roij

    2012-11-06

    We study the thermodynamics of electrode-electrolyte systems, for instance supercapacitors filled with an ionic liquid or blue-energy devices filled with river- or sea water. By a suitable mapping of thermodynamic variables, we identify a strong analogy with classical heat engines. We introduce several Legendre transformations and Maxwell relations. We argue that one should distinguish between the differential capacity at constant ion number and at constant ion chemical potential, and derive a relation between them that resembles the standard relation between heat capacity at constant volume and constant pressure. Finally, we consider the probability distribution of the electrode charge at a given electrode potential, the standard deviation of which is given by the differential capacity.

  10. New Luminous Blue Variables in M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholukhova, O.; Bizyaev, D.; Fabrika, S.; Sarkisian, A.; Malanushenko, V.; Valeev, A.

    We performed spectroscopy of four Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) candidates and two known LBV stars (AE And and Var A-1) in M31. We observed the same-epoch infrared and optical spectra of these stars in October of 2011. The infrared spectra are taken with Triplespec spectrograph at the 3.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory, and the optical spectra are obtained with the Russian 6-m telescope at the Special Astrophysical Observatory. All our candidates show typical LBV features in their spectra: broad and strong H-alpha emission together with other hydrogen, HeI, FeII and [FeII] lines. We confirm clear photometric variability in two our candidates. The bolometric luminosities of our candidates are similar to those of known LBV stars in the Andromeda. At least these two variables, and potentially all of the observed candidates, have to be classified as LBV stars.

  11. Blue Marble: Remote Characterization of Habitable Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolf, Neville; Lewis, Brian; Chartres, James; Genova, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The study of the nature and distribution of habitable environments beyond the Solar System is a key area for Astrobiology research. At the present time, our Earth is the only habitable planet that can be characterized in the same way that we might characterize planets beyond the Solar System. Due to limitations in our current and near-future technology, it is likely that extra-solar planets will be observed as single-pixel objects. To understand this data, we must develop skills in analyzing and interpreting the radiation obtained from a single pixel. These skills must include the study of the time variation of the radiation, and the range of its photometric, spectroscopic and polarimetric properties. In addition, to understand whether we are properly analyzing the single pixel data, we need to compare it with a ground truth of modest resolution images in key spectral bands. This paper discusses the concept for a mission called Blue Marble that would obtain data of the Earth using a combination of spectropolarimetry, spectrophotometry, and selected band imaging. To obtain imagery of the proper resolution, it is desirable to place the Blue Marble spacecraft no closer than the outer region of cis-lunar space. This paper explores a conceptual mission design that takes advantage of low-cost launchers, bus designs and mission elements to provide a cost effective observing platform located at one of the stable Earth-moon Lagrangian points (L4, L5). The mission design allows for the development and use of novel technologies, such as a spinning moon sensor for attitude control, and leverages lessons-learned from previous low-cost spacecraft such as Lunar Prospector to yield a low-risk mission concept.

  12. A Second Luminous Blue Variable in the Quintuplet Cluster

    E-print Network

    closely match those of the Pistol Star, a luminous blue variable and one of the most luminous stars known, and similarities to the Pistol Star, we conclude that FMM#362 is a luminous blue variable. Subject headings: stars & Moorwood (1994), and now known as the Pistol Star, has a luminosity of ¸ 10 7 L fi , making it one

  13. The electrochemical characteristics of blue copper protein monolayers on gold

    E-print Network

    Tuscia, Università Degli Studi Della

    The electrochemical characteristics of blue copper protein monolayers on gold L. Andolfi a , D blue copper proteins, Pseu- domonas aeruginosa azurin and Populus nigra plastocyanin, in order Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Plastocyanin; Azurin; Protein monolayer; Self-assembly; Copper

  14. ONE FISH, TWO FISH, RED FISH AND THREE BLUE FISH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There have been three types of "blue" trout described in the scientific literature, one from Japan, one from the US and one from France. The version described from Japan is apparently sterile. This is a "cobalt" blue colored rainbow trout with a pituitary defect first described in 1974 from a hatche...

  15. Supplemental on-line material for Semiconducting layered blue phosphorus

    E-print Network

    Tománek, David

    en- ergy in black phosphorus is 20 meV/atom according to PBE and 100 meV/atom according to LDA the LDA value of 38 meV/atom. S2. BULK BAND STRUCTURE OF BLACK AND BLUE PHOSPHORUS The calculated bulk band structures of black and blue phosphorus are presented in Fig. S1. There is a strong band

  16. Using the Blue Gourami in Ethological and Embryological Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Theresa; Pollak, Edward I.

    1981-01-01

    Lists advantages in the use of the blue gourami in laboratory experiments on reproduction and embryogenesis. Materials and procedures for maintaining and spawning blue gouramis are provided. Also includes details on microscopic examination of developing embryos and histological techniques for microscope slide preparation. (CS)

  17. Blue Cross MedicareRxSM Medicare Prescription Drug Plan

    E-print Network

    Blue Cross MedicareRxSM Medicare Prescription Drug Plan Individual Enrollment Form Please contact Medicare Part A or Part B (or both) to join a Medicare prescription drug plan. Name: Medicare Claim Number drug coverage from your Medicare Advantage Plan that will meet your needs. By joining Blue Cross

  18. White marlin (Tetrapturus albidus) and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans)

    E-print Network

    659 White marlin (Tetrapturus albidus) and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) are widely distributed assessment indicators indicate that the white marlin population has been severely overfished for several decades (ICCAT, 2001, 2002). The Atlan- tic blue marlin stock is also heavily over

  19. Horizontal and Vertical Movements of Pacific Blue Marlin

    E-print Network

    Horizontal and Vertical Movements of Pacific Blue Marlin Captured and Released Using Sportfishing were in- itiated several miles away along the same coast, and one marlin was tracked off the Waianae- ational importance of Pacific blue marlin Makaira nigrieans, little is known about their biology or be

  20. Methylene Blue Is Neuroprotective against Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    E-print Network

    Duong, Timothy Q.

    Methylene Blue Is Neuroprotective against Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Lora Talley Watts,1 of death and disability worldwide. Methylene blue (MB) has known energy-enhancing and antioxidant injury. As such, mitochondria have become an important target for neuroprotection in TBI.2,3 Methylene

  1. BLUE JOINT WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA, AND BLUE JOINT ROADLESS AREA, IDAHO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lund, Karen; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    During field studies of the Blue Joint Wilderness Study Area, Montana, and the Blue Joint Roadless Area, Idaho, areas of substantiated resource potential for epithermal precious-metal vein deposits were identified in areas of hydrothermal alteration and fossil hot springs activity in the Eocene volcanic rocks. Areas with substantiated resource potential for cobalt, copper, silver, and barite resources of the sediment-hosted type were identified in the Proterozoic quartz schist of the eastern part of the area. Probable potential exists for molybdenum in a prophyry system; anomalously high molybdenum values are coincident with high values for precious and base metals and uranium in some places. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources.

  2. Ignacio NegueruelaIgnacio Negueruela BlueBlue hypergiantshypergiants in thein the

    E-print Network

    Crowther, Paul

    with a single burst of star formation. Age slightly above 5 Myr Distance around 5 kpc #12;Late-B hypergiants B0&A 446, 279 log g ~ 2.6 MV ~ -7.0 B0Ia ­ B2 Ia 1 Sco, B1.5Ia+ #12;Blue Hypergiants Higher luminosity (MV and 8 late (Clark et al. 2012, A&A 541, A146) #12;The massive star laboratory Westerlund 1 NTT

  3. How does the blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena lunulata) flash its blue rings?

    PubMed

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Bell, George R R; Kuzirian, Alan M; Allen, Justine J; Hanlon, Roger T

    2012-11-01

    The blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena lunulata), one of the world's most venomous animals, has long captivated and endangered a large audience: children playing at the beach, divers turning over rocks, and biologists researching neurotoxins. These small animals spend much of their time in hiding, showing effective camouflage patterns. When disturbed, the octopus will flash around 60 iridescent blue rings and, when strongly harassed, bite and deliver a neurotoxin that can kill a human. Here, we describe the flashing mechanism and optical properties of these rings. The rings contain physiologically inert multilayer reflectors, arranged to reflect blue-green light in a broad viewing direction. Dark pigmented chromatophores are found beneath and around each ring to enhance contrast. No chromatophores are above the ring; this is unusual for cephalopods, which typically use chromatophores to cover or spectrally modify iridescence. The fast flashes are achieved using muscles under direct neural control. The ring is hidden by contraction of muscles above the iridophores; relaxation of these muscles and contraction of muscles outside the ring expose the iridescence. This mechanism of producing iridescent signals has not previously been reported in cephalopods and we suggest that it is an exceptionally effective way to create a fast and conspicuous warning display. PMID:23053367

  4. 76 FR 22923 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... was published in the Federal Register on January 26, 2011 (76 FR 4731). The certification was amended... Data Management Team Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services and Jacobsen Group, et al... Wellpoint, Inc., D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, Enterprise Provider Data Management Team,...

  5. 76 FR 19466 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, et al.; Amended Certification Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... January 26, 2011 (76 FR 4731). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the... Enterprise Provider Data Management Team Manchester, New Hempshire TA-W-74,895J Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Empire... Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Empire Blue Cross and Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team...

  6. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED...

  7. Nanocomposite of a chromium Prussian blue with TiO2. Redox reactions and the synthesis of Prussian blue

    E-print Network

    Girolami, Gregory S.

    Nanocomposite of a chromium Prussian blue with TiO2. Redox reactions and the synthesis of Prussian similar to those of the ``all-chromium'' Prussian blue CrII [CrIII (CN)6]0.67 Æ 6H2O. All data, including to generate the crystalline all-chromium PB species. The electrochemical potentials suggest that the [Cr

  8. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 95 percent relative humidity, until the characteristic mold growth has developed. During storage, the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...

  9. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 95 percent relative humidity, until the characteristic mold growth has developed. During storage, the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...

  10. 78 FR 19413 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ...Reactive Blue 247) as color additives in contact lenses. This action is in response to...Rockville, MD 20852. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Regarding CAP 1C0291 (C.I. Reactive...Reactive Blue 246) as color additives in contact lenses. The color additives are...

  11. Blue crabs are a valuable economic species in Biscayne Bay. The blue crabs Latin name translates as

    E-print Network

    as beautiful swimmer that is savory. They are from the Phylum Arthropoda (animals with jointed legs). Blue. Blue crabs can walk very quickly across the ocean floor. The females have been known to swim 500 miles in 100 days! Sideways swimming is unique among crabs. Are there any other animals that you know to swim

  12. UNC Health Systems and Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina patient-centered medical home collaborative.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Don; Rubinow, David R

    2011-01-01

    UNC Health Systems and Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina have entered into a joint venture that is designed to improve patient outcomes and experience and to control medical costs for patients with chronic conditions. This commentary reviews the impetus for, and the anticipated outcomes of, the model practice. PMID:21901922

  13. Three-dimensional modeling of blue jets and blue starters Victor P. Pasko and Jeremy J. George

    E-print Network

    Pasko, Victor

    by thundercloud charges and self-consistently accounts for the electric field effects due to the propagating of blue jets and blue starters, in particular, by the documentation of the 427.8 nm (first negative N2, 1999, and references therein]. [5] It was not until an ``image of an unusual luminous electrical

  14. Production and Processing Traits of Blue Catfish, Blue Catfish X Channel Catfish Hybrids, and Two Strains of Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish is the primary species used in commercial catfish farming. However, increased incidence of disease and associated economic losses have led to speculation that other catfish species or hybrids also have potential. In this study production and processing traits of blue catfish, blue x ...

  15. 78 FR 37962 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... the Federal Register of April 1, 2013 (78 FR 19413), and that amended the color additive regulations... SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 73 Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247 Copolymers; Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY: Food and...

  16. Isolation and Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes from Blue Crab Meat (Callinectus sapidus) and Blue Crab Processing Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram positive, intracellular food borne pathogen which causes a severe disease called listeriosis in high risk groups. However, there is limited information about the prevalence and sources of L. monocytogenes in blue crab and blue crab processing plants in Maryland. The...

  17. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED...

  18. 75 FR 10309 - Wisconsin Statewide Habitat Conservation Plan for Karner Blue Butterfly

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ...Habitat Conservation Plan for Karner Blue Butterfly AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service...incidental take of the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) throughout...take of the Federally listed Karner blue butterfly to the maximum extent practicable,...

  19. 40 CFR 1048.140 - What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines? 1048.140 Section...What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines? This section defines...control for engines designated as “Blue Sky Series” engines. If you...

  20. 40 CFR 1048.140 - What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines? 1048.140 Section...What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines? This section defines...control for engines designated as “Blue Sky Series” engines. If you...

  1. 40 CFR 1048.140 - What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines? 1048.140 Section...What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines? This section defines...control for engines designated as “Blue Sky Series” engines. If you...

  2. 40 CFR 1048.140 - What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines? 1048.140 Section...What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines? This section defines...control for engines designated as “Blue Sky Series” engines. If you...

  3. 40 CFR 1048.140 - What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines? 1048.140 Section...What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines? This section defines...control for engines designated as “Blue Sky Series” engines. If you...

  4. Time-resolved x-ray imaging of high-power laser-irradiated under-dense silica aerogels and agar foams

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.A.; Estabrook, K.G.; Bauer, J.D.

    1995-08-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments in which a high-power laser was used to irradiate low density (4 - 9 mg/cm{sup 3}) silica aerogel and agar foam targets. The laser-solid interaction and energy transport through the material were monitored with time-resolved imaging diagnostics, and the data show the production and propagation of an x-ray emission front in the plasma. The emission-front trajectory data are found to be in significant disagreement with detailed simulations, which predict a much more rapid heating of the cold material, and the data suggest that this discrepancy is not explainable by target inhomogeneities. Evidence suggests that energy transport into the cold material may be dominated by thermal conduction; however, no completely satisfactory explanation for the discrepancies is identified, and further experimental and theoretical research is necessary in order to resolve this important problem in laser-plasma interaction physics.

  5. Lethal doses of oxbile, peptones and thiosulfate-citrate-bile-sucrose agar (TCBS) for Acanthaster planci; exploring alternative population control options.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Posada, Jairo; Caballes, Ciemon F; Pratchett, Morgan S

    2013-10-15

    Effective control of outbreaks of Acanthaster planci represents the most immediate and practical intervention to reverse sustained declines in coral cover on reefs in the Indo-Pacific. This study explored the minimum doses of oxbile, oxgall, and thiosulfate-citrate-bile-sucrose agar (TCBS) that result in reliable and comprehensive mortality when injected into adult A. planci. The minimum doses required to induce 100% mortality among starfish (n=10) were 4 g l(-1) of oxbile, 8 g l(-1) of oxgall and 22 g l(-1) of TCBS. Moreover, there was no evidence of unintended side effects for other coral reef organisms (e.g., scleractinian corals, echinoderms and fishes) when using oxbile, oxgall, or TCBS at minimum doses. The effectiveness of peptones in killing crown-of-thorns starfish was also tested, but inconsistency in the results revealed that these proteins are unreliable. PMID:23972677

  6. Melatonin Protects Human Cells from Clustered DNA Damages, Killing and Acquisition of Soft Agar Growth Induced by X-rays or 970 MeV/n Fe ions

    SciTech Connect

    Das, B.; Sutherland, B.; Bennett, P. V.; Cutter, N. C.; Sutherland, J. C.

    2011-06-01

    We tested the ability of melatonin (N-acetyl-5 methoxytryptamine), a highly effective radical scavenger and human hormone, to protect DNA in solution and in human cells against induction of complex DNA clusters and biological damage induced by low or high linear energy transfer radiation (100 kVp X-rays, 970 MeV/nucleon Fe ions). Plasmid DNA in solution was treated with increasing concentrations of melatonin (0.0-3.5 mM) and were irradiated with X-rays. Human cells (28SC monocytes) were also irradiated with X-rays and Fe ions with and without 2 mM melatonin. Agarose plugs containing genomic DNA were subjected to Contour Clamped Homogeneous Electrophoretic Field (CHEF) followed by imaging and clustered DNA damages were measured by using Number Average length analysis. Transformation experiments on human primary fibroblast cells using soft agar colony assay were carried out which were irradiated with Fe ions with or without 2 mM melatonin. In plasmid DNA in solution, melatonin reduced the induction of single- and double-strand breaks. Pretreatment of human 28SC cells for 24 h before irradiation with 2 mM melatonin reduced the level of X-ray induced double-strand breaks by {approx}50%, of abasic clustered damages about 40%, and of Fe ion-induced double-strand breaks (41% reduction) and abasic clusters (34% reduction). It decreased transformation to soft agar growth of human primary cells by a factor of 10, but reduced killing by Fe ions only by 20-40%. Melatonin's effective reduction of radiation-induced critical DNA damages, cell killing, and striking decrease of transformation suggest that it is an excellent candidate as a countermeasure against radiation exposure, including radiation exposure to astronaut crews in space travel.

  7. Final report on the safety assessment of Basic Blue 99.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Basic Blue 99 is a direct, nonoxidative hair colorant used in temporary and semipermanent hair dyes. According to current reported usage data, Basic Blue 99 is used at concentrations from 0.004% to 2% and the most often reported use is in hair tints. Hair dyes containing Basic Blue 99, as "coal tar" hair dye products, are exempt from the principal adulteration provision and from the color additive provision of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 when the label bears a caution statement and "patch test" instructions for determining whether the product causes skin irritation. Preliminary testing on or by individuals should be done using an open patch test that is evaluated at 48 h after application of the test material. Users, therefore, would be able to determine their individual reactions to hair dye products containing Basic Blue 99. Basic Blue 99 dye is approximately 60% to 63% dye, whereas the remainder of the mixture is composed of sugar ( approximately 25.7%), volatile matter/water crystallization ( approximately 1.8%), and inorganic salts (bringing the mixture to 100%). The dermal absorption of Basic Blue 99 is low in both rats and humans. The LD(50) values of Basic Blue 99 in mice and rats were 2.7 g/kg and between 1.0 g/kg and greater than 2.0 g/kg, respectively. Mice and rats orally administered Basic Blue 99 for 90 days did not show any indications of cumulative toxicity. Discoloration of organs involved in the elimination of Basic Blue 99 from the animals was noted in both test species. In rabbits, Basic Blue 99 did not cause ocular irritation, but some discoloration was noted. Basic Blue 99 caused minimal dermal irritation in rabbits. Sensitization occurred in animals exposed to Basic Blue 99 in a DMSO vehicle, but not in a water vehicle in guinea pigs and mice. Basic Blue 99 administered by gavage did not cause developmental toxicity in rats. Basic Blue 99 was a weak mutagen with and without metabolic activation in the Ames test, producing both reverse and frameshift mutations, but did not induce mutations in Escherichia coli or in any mammalian cells tested. In a modified repeated-insult patch test (RIPT), no volunteers had any reaction to Basic Blue 99 after a 1-h occlusive challenge. Case reports have documented positive patch test results to 1% Basic Blue 99 in three patients. A current review of the hair dye epidemiology literature identified that use of direct hair dyes, although not the focus in all investigations, appears to have little evidence of an association with cancer or other adverse events. The Panel recognizes that hair dye epidemiology studies do not address the safety of individual hair dyes. Based on the available safety test data on Basic Blue 99, however, the Panel determined that this ingredient would not likely have carcinogenic potential as used in hair dyes. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel concluded that Basic Blue 99 is safe as a hair dye ingredient in the practice of use and concentration as described in this safety assessment. PMID:17613131

  8. Blue glass: A new impactite variety from Zhamanshin crater, USSR

    SciTech Connect

    Koeberl, C. )

    1988-03-01

    A new variety of impact glass has been discovered at Zhamanshin impact crater (USSR). The crater has been known as the source of different impact glasses such as irghizites and Si-rich zhamanshinites (Si-rich varieties) and Si-poor (andesitic) zhamanshinites. The newly discovered impact glass is of distinct blue color and shows a layered structure with numerous small vesicles. The blue color ranges between the layers from opaque turquoise to very dark blue. The layers of blue glass are usually connected with layers of greyish or brownish color showing normal Si-rich zhamanshinite composition. The major and trace element chemistry of the blue glass differs from the chemistry of other Si-rich impact glasses from the Zhamanshin crater in several ways. One of the most distinct features is the high CaO content (up to about 7 wt.%), and the different CaO/MgO ratios. Volatile trace elements are generally intermediate between irghizites and Si-rich zhamanshinites, or even higher than in Si-rich zhamanshinites, reflecting the inhomogeneity of the blue glass. REE abundances are slightly larger than in Si-rich zhamanshinites and irghizites and show a less pronounced Eu anomaly. Impact mixing of country rocks present at the crater seems capable of explaining the chemistry of the blue glass.

  9. Methylene Blue Inhibits Caspases by Oxidation of the Catalytic Cysteine.

    PubMed

    Pakavathkumar, Prateep; Sharma, Gyanesh; Kaushal, Vikas; Foveau, Bénédicte; LeBlanc, Andrea C

    2015-01-01

    Methylene blue, currently in phase 3 clinical trials against Alzheimer Disease, disaggregates the Tau protein of neurofibrillary tangles by oxidizing specific cysteine residues. Here, we investigated if methylene blue can inhibit caspases via the oxidation of their active site cysteine. Methylene blue, and derivatives, azure A and azure B competitively inhibited recombinant Caspase-6 (Casp6), and inhibited Casp6 activity in transfected human colon carcinoma cells and in serum-deprived primary human neuron cultures. Methylene blue also inhibited recombinant Casp1 and Casp3. Furthermore, methylene blue inhibited Casp3 activity in an acute mouse model of liver toxicity. Mass spectrometry confirmed methylene blue and azure B oxidation of the catalytic Cys163 cysteine of Casp6. Together, these results show a novel inhibitory mechanism of caspases via sulfenation of the active site cysteine. These results indicate that methylene blue or its derivatives could (1) have an additional effect against Alzheimer Disease by inhibiting brain caspase activity, (2) be used as a drug to prevent caspase activation in other conditions, and (3) predispose chronically treated individuals to cancer via the inhibition of caspases. PMID:26400108

  10. Methylene Blue Inhibits Caspases by Oxidation of the Catalytic Cysteine

    PubMed Central

    Pakavathkumar, Prateep; Sharma, Gyanesh; Kaushal, Vikas; Foveau, Bénédicte; LeBlanc, Andrea C.

    2015-01-01

    Methylene blue, currently in phase 3 clinical trials against Alzheimer Disease, disaggregates the Tau protein of neurofibrillary tangles by oxidizing specific cysteine residues. Here, we investigated if methylene blue can inhibit caspases via the oxidation of their active site cysteine. Methylene blue, and derivatives, azure A and azure B competitively inhibited recombinant Caspase-6 (Casp6), and inhibited Casp6 activity in transfected human colon carcinoma cells and in serum-deprived primary human neuron cultures. Methylene blue also inhibited recombinant Casp1 and Casp3. Furthermore, methylene blue inhibited Casp3 activity in an acute mouse model of liver toxicity. Mass spectrometry confirmed methylene blue and azure B oxidation of the catalytic Cys163 cysteine of Casp6. Together, these results show a novel inhibitory mechanism of caspases via sulfenation of the active site cysteine. These results indicate that methylene blue or its derivatives could (1) have an additional effect against Alzheimer Disease by inhibiting brain caspase activity, (2) be used as a drug to prevent caspase activation in other conditions, and (3) predispose chronically treated individuals to cancer via the inhibition of caspases. PMID:26400108

  11. Age determination of blue-winged teal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dane, C.W.

    1968-01-01

    Primary feather length, markings on the greater secondary coverts, and the degree of bill spotting were evaluated as characters for use in the spring to distinguish first-year, blue-winged teal (Anas discors) females from older ones. The length of the 10th primary feather did not prove suitable to separate different aged females. Extreme primary lengths might be used to determine the age of some males. In females that have been through a postnuptial molt the greater secondary coverts have a more symmetrical, and more acutely angled, white, inverted 'V'-marking. Any female with a 'V' subjectively classified as good has gone through at least one postnuptial molt, and a female with no sign of a 'V' on the coverts is a juvenile or yearling before her first postnuptial molt. By measuring the longest bill spot on the upper mandible of each known-age female, it was possible to determine the age of some female teal. Because the spots fade during the breeding season, no lower size limit could be set to delineate first-year females at that time of year, but any nest-trapped hen with a spot longer than 10 mm was considered to be older than 1 year. Upper and lower limits were also established to distinguish some yearlings and 2-year-olds in the fall.

  12. Microrods based on nanocubes of Prussian blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shikui; Shen, Xiaoping; Xu, Zheng; Wu, Jili; Gao, Cuiling

    2009-08-01

    Using a facile dynamic vacuum evaporation method, a novel microrod with diameters of ca. 1-2 ?m and lengths of up to 80 ?m has been constructed using uniform Prussian blue (PB) nanocubes as the building blocks. The PB nanocubes are arranged fairly orderly in the rod-like superstructures. The assembled architecture can be transformed from one-dimensional microrods to two-dimensional layers via a fish-bone-like structure by tuning the evaporation rate. The formation of the PB superstructures follows an oriented-attachment mechanism and this provides a simple approach to fabricate hierarchical nanostructures and self-assembled superstructures using nanosized building blocks. Magnetic studies indicate that the PB microrods have a Curie temperature ( Tc) of 4.9 K and a coercivity of ca. 26 Oe at 1.8 K. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the PB microrods and the dispersed nanocubes show an UV emission band at 358 and 367 nm respectively, suggesting an interesting assembly effect.

  13. Why aye-ayes see blue.

    PubMed

    Melin, Amanda D; Moritz, Gillian L; Fosbury, Robert A E; Kawamura, Shoji; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2012-03-01

    The capacity for cone-mediated color vision varies among nocturnal primates. Some species are colorblind, having lost the functionality of their short-wavelength-sensitive-1 (SWS1) opsin pigment gene. In other species, such as the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), the SWS1 gene remains intact. Recent studies focused on aye-ayes indicate that this gene has been maintained by natural selection and that the pigment has a peak sensitivity (lambda(max)) of 406 nm, which is -20 nm closer to the ultraviolet region of the spectrum than in most primates. The functional significance behind the retention and unusual lambda(max) of this opsin pigment is unknown, and it is perplexing given that all mammals are presumed to be colorblind in the dark. Here we comment on this puzzle and discuss recent findings on the color vision intensity thresholds of terrestrial vertebrates with comparable optics to aye-ayes. We draw attention to the twilight activities of aye-ayes and report that twilight is enriched in short-wavelength (bluish) light. We also show that the intensity of twilight and full moonlight is probably sufficient to support cone-mediated color vision. We speculate that the intact SWS1 opsin pigment gene of aye-ayes is a crepuscular adaptation and we report on the blueness of potential visual targets, such as scent marks and the brilliant blue arils of Ravenala madagascariensis. PMID:24006536

  14. [The effects of blue algae on health].

    PubMed

    van Riel, A J H P; Schets, F M; Meulenbelt, J

    2007-08-01

    Cyanobacteria (blue algae) regularly cause recreational waters to become murky and smelly. Skin irritation and mild gastrointestinal disorders have regularly been reported following recreational activities in water suspected of being contaminated with cyanobacteria. The exact cause of these effects on health is not clear. Severe effects are not to be expected from recreational exposure to water contaminated with cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria can produce hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins and irritants. In Brazil lethal intoxications have occurred due to the occurrence of toxins in drinking water and in dialysis fluid. The Dutch policy is based on the Commissie Integraal Waterbeheer (Commission Integral Water Management) guidelines for recreational waters. It is not clear to what extent the other cyanotoxins occur in the Netherlands. However, several genera ofcyanobacteria capable of producing these other cyanotoxins have been found in the Netherlands. For a good risk assessment in the Netherlands, more information is needed on the effects on health of cyanobacteria. There is also a need for more data on the prevalence of different cyanobacteria and toxins in Dutch recreational waters. PMID:17784694

  15. The outlook for blue-phase LCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuan; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2014-02-01

    Polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal (BPLC) has become an increasingly important technology trend for information display and photonic applications. BPLC exhibits several attractive features, such as reasonably wide temperature range, submillisecond gray-to-gray response time, no need for alignment layer, optically isotropic voltageoff state, and large cell gap tolerance when an in-plane switching (IPS) cell is employed. Fast response time not only suppresses image blurs, improves the overall transmittance but also enables color sequential display without noticeable color breakup. With time sequential RGB LED colors, the spatial color filters can be eliminated so that both optical efficiency and resolution density are tripled. High optical efficiency helps to reduce power consumption while high resolution density is particularly desirable for the future Ultra High Definition Television. However, some bottlenecks such as high operation voltage, hysteresis, low relaxation frequency, residual birefringence, image sticking, charging issue due to the large capacitance, and relatively low transmittance for the IPS mode, remain to be overcome before widespread application of BPLC can be realized. To reduce operation voltage, both new BPLC materials and new device structures have been investigated. In this paper, we highlight some recent advances in large Kerr constant, fast response time BPLC material development, and new device structures. Especially, we will focus on new BP LCDs with low operation voltage, submillisecond response time, high transmittance, and negligible hysteresis and residual birefringence. The sunrise for BP LCD is near.

  16. Blue-green pulsed propagation through fog.

    PubMed

    Mooradian, G C; Geller, M; Stotts, L B; Stephens, D H; Krautwald, R A

    1979-02-15

    Measurements and analysis of a blue-green pulsed propagation through fog have identified three distinct regions for energy transport. Region I small number of attenuation lengths tau in the path (0 32): the direct beam and the forwardscattered beam have decayed to the point where the diffusion type multiple-scattered radiation is the dominant energy received. This component does not decay exponentially but results in large spatial, angular, and temporal spreading. This paper presents quantitative data on Region II. PMID:20208740

  17. Contralateral comparison of blue-filtering and non-blue-filtering intraocular lenses: glare disability, heterochromatic contrast, and photostress recovery

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Billy R; Renzi, Lisa M; Sachak, Sohel; Brint, Stephen F

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare visual performance in eyes with intraocular lenses (IOLs) that filter short-wave blue light versus contralateral eyes with IOLs that do not filter visible blue light. Methods: In this prospective, assessor-masked study that was conducted at five clinics in the US, eligible candidates were at least 12 months postimplantation of a control IOL and a contralateral IOL that filtered blue light. Glare disability was defined as the intensity of a white-light annulus that obscured a subject’s ability to see a central target. Heterochromatic contrast thresholds were defined as the intensity of a blue-light disk that obscured a central target. Photostress recovery time was the duration required to regain sight of the target after a five-second flash of annulus light. Results: Fifty-two subjects were evaluated. Mean glare disability was significantly less (P = 0.04) in the blue-filtering IOL group (1.97 ± 0.44 log ?W/cm2) than in the control group (1.88 ± 0.43 log ?W/cm2). Mean heterochromatic contrast threshold was significantly higher (P = 0.0003) in the blue-filtering IOL group (0.36 ± 0.43 log ?W/cm2) than in the control IOL group (0.15 ± 0.49 log ?W/cm2). Geometric mean photostress recovery time was significantly faster (P = 0.02) in the blue-filtering IOL group (21 ± 3 seconds) than in the control IOL group (26 ± 3 seconds). Conclusions: Glare disability was significantly lower, heterochromatic contrast threshold was significantly better, and recovery from photostress was significantly faster in the eyes with blue-filtering IOLs than in the contralateral control eyes with IOLs that did not filter blue light. PMID:21191442

  18. No effect of blue on winning contests in judo

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Peter D; Preenen, Paul T.Y

    2008-01-01

    A study by Rowe et al. reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white one during the 2004 Olympics. It was suggested that blue is associated with a higher likelihood of winning through differential effects of colour on opponent visibility and/or an intimidating effect on the opponent. However, we argue that there is no colour effect on winning in judo. We show that alternative factors, namely allocation biases, asymmetries in prior experience and differences in recovery time are possible confounding factors in the analysis of Rowe et al. After controlling for these factors, we found no difference in blue and white wins. We further analysed contest outcomes of 71 other major judo tournaments and also found no winning bias. Our findings have implications for sports policy makers: they suggest that a white–blue outfit pairing ensures an equal level of play. PMID:18270157

  19. Salamander Blue-sensitive Cones Lost During Metamorphosis†

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Znoiko, Sergey; DeGrip, Willem J.; Crouch, Rosalie K.; Ma, Jian-xing

    2009-01-01

    The tiger salamander lives in shallow water with bright light in the aquatic phase, and in dim tunnels or caves in the terrestrial phase. In the aquatic phase, there are five types of photoreceptors—two types of rods and three types of cones. Our previous studies showed that the green rods and blue-sensitive cones contain the same visual pigment and have the same absorbance spectra; however, the green rods have a larger photon-catch area and thus have higher light sensitivity than the blue-sensitive cones. Here we show that after metamorphosis, the terrestrial salamander looses the blue-sensitive cones, while the density of the green rods increases. Moreover, the size of the green rod outer segments is increased in the terrestrial phase, compared to that in the aquatic phase. This switch from the blue-sensitive cones to the green rods may represent an adaptation to the dim light environment of the terrestrial phase. PMID:18331398

  20. 45. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown SECOND FLOOR PLAN - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 44. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown FIRST FLOOR PLAN - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 49. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown SECTION THROUGH BUILDING, LOOKING EAST - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 48. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA., Photographer, Date unknown SECTION THROUGH BUILDING, LOOKING NORTH - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 53. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown DETAILS OF CORRIDORS ON SECOND - TWELFTH FLOORS - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 46. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown NORTH ELEVATION - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 47. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angleles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown WEST ELEVATION - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 52. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown DETAILS OF MAIN FLOOR ELEVATOR LOBBY - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 50. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angleles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown ENTRANCE AND TYPICAL BAY ON FLOWER STREET - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 51. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown EXTERIOR, ELEVATION DETAILS - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey From The Blue Book, Official ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey From The Blue Book, Official Souvenir View Book Panama Pacific International Exposition - 1915 VIEW FROM THE EAST - Palace of Fine Arts, Baker Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. Nested Paleozoic successor basins in the southern Appalachian Blue Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Tull, J.F.; Groszos, M.S. )

    1990-11-01

    Field studies in the southern Appalachian Blue Ridge and its southwest extension, the Talladega belt, indicate that in at least three regions, polydeformed and metamorphosed turbidite-dominated sequences unconformably overlie rifted-margin continental-terrace wedge clastic rocks and overlying carbonate-platform deposits. These sequences are (1) the Talladega Group (in the Talladega belt), (2) the Walden Creek Group (along the west flank of the Blue Ridge), and (3) the Mineral Bluff Formation (within the core of the Blue Ridge). Paleontologic evidence indicates that the Talladega and Walden Creek Groups are in part as young as Silurian-Devonian. The presence of these anomalously young sequences unconformably above the trailing-margin stratigraphy in the Blue Ridge brings into question conventional ideas of the timing and nature of the tectonic evolution of the ancient continental margin.

  12. Formation of nanoparticles of blue haze enhanced by anthropogenic pollution

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Renyi

    The molecular processes leading to formation of nanoparticles of blue haze over forested areas are highly complex and not fully understood. We show that the interaction between biogenic organic acids and sulfuric acid ...

  13. Blue Origin Conducts Pad Escape Test - Duration: 106 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Blue Origin conducted a successful pad escape test Oct. 19 at the company's West Texas launch site, firing its pusher escape motor and launching a full-scale suborbital crew capsule from a simulate...

  14. Beat the Winter Blues: Shedding Light on Seasonal Sadness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... exit disclaimer . Subscribe Beat the Winter Blues Shedding Light on Seasonal Sadness As the days get shorter, ... clock” responds to cues in your surroundings, especially light and darkness. During the day, your brain sends ...

  15. 7. Photo copy of blue print, (original in Forest Service ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photo copy of blue print, (original in Forest Service Office, Elkins, WV), November 1933. FIRST FLOOR PLAN, SECOND FLOOR PLAN. - Parsons Nursery, Manager's Residence, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

  16. Albert Bloch and the Blue Rider: The Munich Years

    E-print Network

    Baron, Frank; Blumb, Jon

    2014-01-01

    1 Detailed documentation for many aspects of Bloch’s Munich years appeared in Albert Bloch: Artistic and Literary Perspectives, ed. by Frank Baron, Helmut Arntzen, and David Cateforis (Munich: Prestel, 1997) and Albert Bloch: The American Blue...

  17. Blue Origin Tests BE-3 Engine - Duration: 85 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Blue Origin successfully fires the thrust chamber assembly for its new 100,000 pound thrust BE-3 liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen rocket engine. As part of the company's Reusable Booster System (RBS)...

  18. 44. Blue Coal Corporation Office Building (foreground), Huber Breaker (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Blue Coal Corporation Office Building (foreground), Huber Breaker (left), Retail Coal Storage Bins (far center) Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  19. Blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals as thermotropic photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etchegoin, P.

    2000-07-01

    The study of dye-doped low pitch cholesteric liquid crystals in their blue phases as an example of tunable ``weak'' photonic crystals is proposed and demonstrated. The presence of the blue phases in cholesterics can be tuned with temperature, and this allows for an easy in situ comparison of the emission and/or absorption of the dyes with or without an enwrapping lattice of disclination lines. The fluorescence emission of the dyes is shown to be affected by the presence of the blue phases. Although unlikely to be suitable for real applications (due to the natural low refractive index contrast), these systems may represent unique examples of tunable photonic crystals. It is proposed that single crystals of dye-doped blue phases should provide a very interesting testing ground for the study of optical emission anisotropies which can, on the other hand, be controlled by an external parameter.

  20. Exfoliation of Egyptian Blue and Han Blue, two alkali earth copper silicate-based pigments.

    PubMed

    Johnson-McDaniel, Darrah; Salguero, Tina T

    2014-01-01

    In a visualized example of the ancient past connecting with modern times, we describe the preparation and exfoliation of CaCuSi4O10 and BaCuSi4O10, the colored components of the historic Egyptian blue and Han blue pigments. The bulk forms of these materials are synthesized by both melt flux and solid-state routes, which provide some control over the crystallite size of the product. The melt flux process is time intensive, but it produces relatively large crystals at lower reaction temperatures. In comparison, the solid-state method is quicker yet requires higher reaction temperatures and yields smaller crystallites. Upon stirring in hot water, CaCuSi4O10 spontaneously exfoliates into monolayer nanosheets, which are characterized by TEM and PXRD. BaCuSi4O10 on the other hand requires ultrasonication in organic solvents to achieve exfoliation. Near infrared imaging illustrates that both the bulk and nanosheet forms of CaCuSi4O10 and BaCuSi4O10 are strong near infrared emitters. Aqueous CaCuSi4O10 and BaCuSi4O10 nanosheet dispersions are useful because they provide a new way to handle, characterize, and process these materials in colloidal form. PMID:24796494

  1. Blue and blue-green light-emitting cationic iridium complexes: synthesis, characterization, and optoelectronic properties.

    PubMed

    Sunesh, Chozhidakath Damodharan; Shanmugasundaram, Kanagaraj; Subeesh, Madayanad Suresh; Chitumalla, Ramesh Kumar; Jang, Joonkyung; Choe, Youngson

    2015-04-15

    Two new cationic iridium complexes, [Ir(ppy)2(phpzpy)]PF6 (complex 1) and [Ir(dfppy)2(phpzpy)]PF6 (complex 2), bearing a 2-(3-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine (phpzpy) ancillary ligand and either 2-phenylpyridine (Hppy) or 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine (Hdfppy) cyclometalating ligands, were synthesized and fully characterized. The photophysical and electrochemical properties of these complexes were investigated by means of UV-visible spectroscopy, emission spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. Density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations were performed to simulate and study the photophysical and electrochemical properties of both complexes. Light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) were fabricated by incorporating complexes 1 and 2, which respectively exhibit blue-green (488 and 516 nm) and blue (463 and 491 nm) emission colors, achieved through the meticulous design of the ancillary ligand. The luminance and current efficiency measurements recorded for the LEC based on complex 1 were 1246 cd m(-2) and 0.46 cd A(-1), respectively, and were higher than those measured for complex 2 because of the superior balanced carrier injection and recombination properties of the former. PMID:25790085

  2. Copper blue in an ancient glass bead: a XANES study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiga, J. P.; Figueiredo, M. O.

    2006-06-01

    The blue colour in ancient soda-lime glasses has been attributed to the presence of copper and/or cobalt but the origin of different shades is not yet fully interpreted. As a contribution to this question, a non-destructive X-ray absorption study at [ Cu]K-edge was undertaken on the blue (turquoise) layer from a “Nueva Cadiz” type tubular glass bead dated pre-XVII century where copper is the unique colouring agent. Minerals configuring two distinct blue tonalities due to Cu (2+) in similar square coordination were selected as basic model compounds: azurite, which is a classical navy-blue pigment used in ancient wall paintings over plaster, and chalcanthite, displaying exactly the same turquoise-blue tonality of tubular glass beads manufactured since the Egyptian Antiquity. Theoretical modelling of the XAFS spectra was undertaken using the FEFF code. The IFEFFIT software package was used for fitting the calculated spectra to experimental data. EXAFS results are discussed in view of the crystal structures of copper minerals chosen to model the speciation state and structural situation of that element prevailing in the turquoise-blue archaeological glass. Special attention is focused on the difficulties in theoretical modelling [ Cu]K-XANES spectra of ancient glasses with different colourings.

  3. Blue Stragglers in Globular Clusters: Observations, Statistics and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knigge, Christian

    This chapter explores how we might use the observed statistics of blue stragglers in globular clusters to shed light on their formation. This means we will touch on topics also discussed elsewhere in this book, such as the discovery and implications of bimodal radial distributions and the "double sequences" of blue stragglers that have recently been found in some clusters. However, we will focus particularly on the search for a "smoking gun" correlation between the number of blue stragglers in a given globular cluster and a physical cluster parameter that would point towards a particular formation channel. As we shall see, there is little evidence for an intrinsic correlation between blue straggler numbers and stellar collision rates, even in dense cluster cores. On the other hand, there is a clear correlation between blue straggler numbers and the total (core) mass of the cluster. This would seem to point towards a formation channel involving binaries, rather than dynamical encounters. However, the correlation between blue straggler numbers and actual binary numbers—which relies on recently determined empirical binary fractions—is actually weaker than that with core mass. We explain how this surprising result may be reconciled with a binary formation channel if binary fractions depend almost uniquely on core mass. If this is actually the case, it would have significant implications for globular cluster dynamics more generally.

  4. Final report on the safety assessment of disperse Blue 7.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Disperse Blue 7 is an anthraquinone dye used in cosmetics as a hair colorant in five hair dye and color products reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Hair dyes containing Disperse Blue 7, as "coal tar" hair dye products, are exempt from the principal adulteration provision and from the color additive provision in sections 601 and 706 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 when the label bears a caution statement and "patch test" instructions for determining whether the product causes skin irritation. Disperse Blue 7 is also used as a textile dye. The components of Disperse Blue 7 reportedly include Disperse Turquoise ALF Granules, Disperse Turquoise LF2G, Reax 83A, Tamol SW, and Twitchell Oil. No data were available that addressed the acute, short-term, or chronic toxicity of Disperse Blue 7. A mouse lymph node assay used to predict the sensitization potential of Disperse Blue 7 was negative. Although most bacterial assays for genotoxicity were negative in the absence of metabolic activation, consistently positive results were found with metabolic activation in Salmonella strains TA1537, TA1538, and TA98, which were interpreted as indicative of point mutations. Studies using L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells appeared to confirm this mutagenic activity. Mammalian assays for chromosome damage, however, were negative and animal tests found no evidence of dominant lethal mutations. Cases reports describe patients patch tested with Disperse Blue 7 to determine the source of apparent adverse reactions to textiles. In most patients, patch tests were negative, but there are examples in which the patch test for Disperse Blue 7 was positive. In general, anthraquinone dyes are considered frequent causes of clothing dermatitis. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel determined that there was a paucity of data regarding the safety of Disperse Blue 7 as used in cosmetics. The following data are needed in order to arrive at a conclusion on the safety of Disperse Blue 7 in cosmetic products: (1) methods of manufacture, including clarification of the relationship between Disperse Blue 7 and Disperse Turquoise ALF and Disperse Turquoise LF2G mixed with Reax 83A, Tamol SW, and Twitchell Oil; (2) analytical methods by which Disperse Blue 7 is measured; (3) impurities; (4) concentration of use as a function of product type; (5) confirmation that this is a direct hair dye; and (6) clarification of genotoxicity study results (e.g., Disperse Turquoise ALF and Disperse Turquoise LF2G were genotoxic in bacteria - what is the specific relation to Disperse Blue 7? Disperse Blue 7 at 60% purity was genotoxic in bacteria - is the other 40% the inert Reax 83A, Tamol SW, and Twitchell Oil?). Until such data are provided, the available data are insufficient to support the safety of Disperse Blue 7 as a hair dye ingredient in cosmetic formulations. PMID:17613132

  5. A cell suspension agar diffusion test using Neutral Red release to assess the relative irritancy potential of cosmetic ingredients and formulations.

    PubMed

    Butler, N J; Langley, G R; Winwood, J

    1993-02-01

    Synopsis An established cytotoxicity test for plastic materials in medical devices has been adapted and used to assess the relative potential irritancy of cosmetic ingredients and formulations during product development. Serum-free medium containing a novel protein supplement supported growth in suspension of LS mouse fibroblast cells. Release of the vital dye Neutral Red from pre-loaded cells suspended in agar was the endpoint. Test substances and reference standards were applied to a central well cut into the agar, a sensitive method which allowed accurate dose application and yielded consistent results. Relative irritancy potential was measured quantitatively by comparing the diameters of the clear zones of damaged cells which surround the central well. The test has been used with raw materials such as surfactants, preservatives and herbal extracts, as well as finished products ranging from shampoos and conditioners to creams, lotions and coloured cosmetics. The method is practical, versatile, reproducible and economic to use. Résumé Un test de cytotoxicité utilisé pour la détection de toxines dans les plastiques des appareils médicaux a été adapté pour prévenir le potentiel d'irritation relative. Le point mesuré est la libération de la teinture vitale rouge neutre des cellules chargées au préalable, résultant de l'incubation avec des substances tests. La mesure des diamétres de la zone claire de dilutions sequentielles de substances tests permet de calculer l'irritation potentielle d'un produit testé par rapport à un standard. Parmi les modifications, on a pu constater à l'aide d'une ligne de cellules en suspension dérivées de fibroblastes de souris L-929, la pousse en milieu sans sérum pour éviter les produits d'abattoir. A la place du sérum de veau, on a ajouté au milieu une nouvelle protéine innovatrice supportant la pousse normale en suspension. Durant la procédure de test les cellules se trouvaient en suspension dans une solution agar et les substances tests ont été appliquées sur une cellule centrale bien délimitéc sur la gélose plutôt qu'à l'aide d'un disque de papier filtre. L'application par une cellule centrale était plus sensible qu'avec un disque, permettant l'application d'une dose précise et fournissant des résultats plus fiables. Le test modifié a été utilisé sur une période de 4 ans pour des matiéres premières telles que tensioactifs, conservateurs et extraits de plantes, ainsi que des formules de shampooings, savons, lotions hydratantes et cosmétiques colorés. Ces produits ont étéévalués sur des panels de volontaires, et les produits testés sont commercialisés depuis 2 ans au moins. Le test est un moyen pratique, versatile, reproductible et économique de calculer le potentiel d'irritation relative d'une gamme de produits et ingrédients cosmktiques. PMID:19272118

  6. Linguistic Structure and Non-linguistic Cognition: English and Russian Blues Compared.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laws, Glynis; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the influence of linguistic structure on non-linguistic cognition by comparing Russian and English behavior on tasks involving the color blue. Russians, who differentiate this region into "dark blue" and "light blue," were expected to separate blues more often than English subjects for whom the colors belong to one lexical category.…

  7. Ostracoda of Moss Town Blue Hole, Great Exuma Island, Great Bahama Bank (Crustacea: Ostracoda: Myodocopa)

    E-print Network

    Iliffe, Thomas M.

    Ostracoda of Moss Town Blue Hole, Great Exuma Island, Great Bahama Bank (Crustacea: Ostracoda Halocypridina, and one Cladocopina) are reported from 30 to 60 m depths in Moss Town Blue Hole, an ocean blue. The collection from Moss Town Blue Hole contained no new species, but five species had not been reported

  8. Physical Properties of Blue Shark Useful in Designing a Skinning Machine

    E-print Network

    Physical Properties of Blue Shark Useful in Designing a Skinning Machine D. E. BROWN, R. PAUL SINGH for a machine to skin blue shark 2 · A wider market for blue shark products is being sought. For example, if removed in one piece the skin is of value for making leather. The machine proposed to skin blue shark

  9. Use of pop-up satellite archival tags to demonstrate survival of blue marlin (Makaira nigricans)

    E-print Network

    939 Use of pop-up satellite archival tags to demonstrate survival of blue marlin (Makaira nigricans Greate Road Gloucester Point, Virginia 23062 Blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) sup- (MSY fishing mor commercial pelagic longline fishery. tality on blue marlin, without severely Although blue

  10. The effect of regions of interest and spectral pre-processing on the detection of non-O157 shiga-toxin producing escherichia coli serogroups on agar media by hyperspectral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food borne infection caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a major worldwide health concern. The best known STEC serotype is E. coli O157:H7, which can be easily identified when cultured on sorbitol-MacConkey (SMAC) agar. Recently, six non-O157 STEC serotypes have been found t...

  11. Red, White, and the Blues Part 3 of 4: The New Beat of the Blues: R&B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassinos-Carr, Cathy

    2004-01-01

    When rhythm & blues--or, as it is more commonly called, R&B, was first born, it did not even have a name. Prior to 1949, all black popular music, including jazz, blues, and gospel, was known as "race music." But by the end of the 1940s, the music had become so successful that it gained a new-found respect--and Billboard magazine, realizing that…

  12. Photometric identification of blue horizontal branch stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Klement, R. J.; Xue, X. X.

    2010-11-01

    We investigate the performance of some common machine learning techniques in identifying blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars from photometric data. To train the machine learning algorithms, we use previously published spectroscopic identifications of BHB stars from Sloan digital sky survey (SDSS) data. We investigate the performance of three different techniques, namely k nearest neighbour classification, kernel density estimation for discriminant analysis and a support vector machine (SVM). We discuss the performance of the methods in terms of both completeness (what fraction of input BHB stars are successfully returned as BHB stars) and contamination (what fraction of contaminating sources end up in the output BHB sample). We discuss the prospect of trading off these values, achieving lower contamination at the expense of lower completeness, by adjusting probability thresholds for the classification. We also discuss the role of prior probabilities in the classification performance, and we assess via simulations the reliability of the dataset used for training. Overall it seems that no-prior gives the best completeness, but adopting a prior lowers the contamination. We find that the support vector machine generally delivers the lowest contamination for a given level of completeness, and so is our method of choice. Finally, we classify a large sample of SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7) photometry using the SVM trained on the spectroscopic sample. We identify 27 074 probable BHB stars out of a sample of 294 652 stars. We derive photometric parallaxes and demonstrate that our results are reasonable by comparing to known distances for a selection of globular clusters. We attach our classifications, including probabilities, as an electronic table, so that they can be used either directly as a BHB star catalogue, or as priors to a spectroscopic or other classification method. We also provide our final models so that they can be directly applied to new data. Full Tables 7, A.3 and A.4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/522/A88

  13. Magnetic Properties of selected Prussian Blue Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Manjita

    Prussian Blue Analogs (PBAs) of composition M[M(C,N)6 ] 2.xH2O are bimetallic cyanide complexes, where M and M are bivalent or trivalent transition metals and x is number of water molecule per unit cell. The PBAs form cubic framework structures, which consist mostly of alternating MIIIN6 and MIIC 6 octahedrals. However, occupancies of the octrahedrals are not perfect: they may be empty and the charges are balanced by the guest water molecules at the lattice site (C or N site) or the interstitial site (between the octahedrals) of the unit cell. Most (but not all) PBAs exhibit negative thermal expansion behavior, i.e. volume decrease with increasing temperature. Another area of interest in PBA research is the occurrence of unusual magnetic properties. Similar to other molecular magnets, large crystal-field splitting due to the octrahedral environment may result in a combination of low- or high-spin configurations of the localized magnetic moments, i.e. spin crossover effects may be found. My dissertation focuses on the magnetic properties of the selected 3d transition-metal PBAs, namely metal hexacyanochromates M3[Cr(C,N)6 ]2.xH2O, metal hexcyanoferrates M3[Fe(C,N)6]2.xH2O and metal hexcyanocobaltates M3[Co(C,N)6]2 .xH2O where M = Mn, Co, Ni and Cu. In particular, I analyzed the temperature and field dependencies of the bulk magnetic response of those PBAs. My results show that the magnetic susceptibility of all studied PBAs follows the Curie-Weiss behavior in the paramagnetic region up to room temperature; however, some of the compounds exhibit long-range magnetic order at lower temperatures (ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic). In particular, the data provide evidence for magnetic ground states for most of the metal hexacyanochromates and all of the metal hexacyanoferrates but none of the hexacyanocobaltates that were studied. For each of the compounds, my analysis provides a measure of the effective magnetic moment, which is then compared with the predicted moments assuming high- and/or low-spin configurations. Finally, I provide a discussion as to whether magnetism may play any role into the occurrence of negative thermal expansion for most PBAs.

  14. Comparative Evaluation of the VITEK 2, Disk Diffusion, Etest, Broth Microdilution, and Agar Dilution Susceptibility Testing Methods for Colistin in Clinical Isolates, Including Heteroresistant Enterobacter cloacae and Acinetobacter baumannii Strains?

    PubMed Central

    Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R.; de Smet, Anne Marie G. A.; Diederen, Bram M. W.; Kluytmans, Jan A. J. W.; van Keulen, Peter H. J.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing antibiotic resistance in gram-negative bacteria has recently renewed interest in colistin as a therapeutic option. The increasing use of colistin necessitates the availability of rapid and reliable methods for colistin susceptibility testing. We compared seven methods of colistin susceptibility testing (disk diffusion, agar dilution on Mueller-Hinton [MH] and Isosensitest agar, Etest on MH and Isosensitest agar, broth microdilution, and VITEK 2) on 102 clinical isolates collected from patient materials during a selective digestive decontamination or selective oral decontamination trial in an intensive-care unit. Disk diffusion is an unreliable method to measure susceptibility to colistin. High error rates and low levels of reproducibility were observed in the disk diffusion test. The colistin Etest, agar dilution, and the VITEK 2 showed a high level of agreement with the broth microdilution reference method. Heteroresistance for colistin was observed in six Enterobacter cloacae isolates and in one Acinetobacter baumannii isolate. This is the first report of heteroresistance to colistin in E. cloacae isolates. Resistance to colistin in these isolates seemed to be induced upon exposure to colistin rather than being caused by stable mutations. Heteroresistant isolates could be detected in the broth microdilution, agar dilution, Etest, or disk diffusion test. The VITEK 2 displayed low sensitivity in the detection of heteroresistant subpopulations of E. cloacae. The VITEK 2 colistin susceptibility test can therefore be considered to be a reliable tool to determine susceptibility to colistin in isolates of genera that are known not to exhibit resistant subpopulations. In isolates of genera known to (occasionally) exhibit heteroresistance, an alternative susceptibility testing method capable of detecting heteroresistance should be used. PMID:17646414

  15. Biomedical applications and chemical nature of three dyes first synthesized by Raphael Meldola: isamine blue, Meldola's blue and naphthol green B.

    PubMed

    Hope-Roberts, M; Horobin, R W

    2012-05-01

    Brief accounts are given of the chemical nature, and past and current biomedical applications of three dyes first synthesized by Raphael Meldola: isamine blue, Meldola's blue and naphthol green B. PMID:22149360

  16. Using argon laser blue light reduces ophthalmologists' color contrast sensitivity. Argon blue and surgeons' vision.

    PubMed

    Berninger, T A; Canning, C R; Gündüz, K; Strong, N; Arden, G B

    1989-10-01

    Color contrast sensitivity was measured in laser operators before and after laser use. After argon blue-green laser treatment sessions, sensitivity was reduced for colors lying along a tritan color-confusion line for several hours. This acute effect is due to specular "flash-backs" from the aiming beam off the surface of the contact lens. It is caused only by argon 488-nm light, when the aiming beam intensity is high. In addition, a correlation has been demonstrated between the number of years of laser experience and a chronic reduction in tritan color contrast sensitivity. It is suggested that repeated acute changes caused by the argon lasers may cause cumulative effects and produce a chronic threshold elevation. A simple method of eliminating the acute effect is documented. PMID:2803091

  17. Global Monthly Water Scarcity: Blue Water Footprints versus Blue Water Availability

    PubMed Central

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Chapagain, Ashok K.; Mathews, Ruth E.; Richter, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater scarcity is a growing concern, placing considerable importance on the accuracy of indicators used to characterize and map water scarcity worldwide. We improve upon past efforts by using estimates of blue water footprints (consumptive use of ground- and surface water flows) rather than water withdrawals, accounting for the flows needed to sustain critical ecological functions and by considering monthly rather than annual values. We analyzed 405 river basins for the period 1996–2005. In 201 basins with 2.67 billion inhabitants there was severe water scarcity during at least one month of the year. The ecological and economic consequences of increasing degrees of water scarcity – as evidenced by the Rio Grande (Rio Bravo), Indus, and Murray-Darling River Basins – can include complete desiccation during dry seasons, decimation of aquatic biodiversity, and substantial economic disruption. PMID:22393438

  18. Using argon laser blue light reduces ophthalmologists' color contrast sensitivity. Argon blue and surgeons' vision

    SciTech Connect

    Berninger, T.A.; Canning, C.R.; Guenduez, K.St.; Strong, N.; Arden, G.B. )

    1989-10-01

    Color contrast sensitivity was measured in laser operators before and after laser use. After argon blue-green laser treatment sessions, sensitivity was reduced for colors lying along a tritan color-confusion line for several hours. This acute effect is due to specular flash-backs from the aiming beam off the surface of the contact lens. It is caused only by argon 488-nm light, when the aiming beam intensity is high. In addition, a correlation has been demonstrated between the number of years of laser experience and a chronic reduction in tritan color contrast sensitivity. It is suggested that repeated acute changes caused by the argon lasers may cause cumulative effects and produce a chronic threshold elevation. A simple method of eliminating the acute effect is documented.

  19. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to maedi-visna virus in sheep. II. Comparison to conventional agar gel immunodiffusion test.

    PubMed Central

    Simard, C L; Briscoe, M R

    1990-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent-assay (i-ELISA) test using antigen prepared by a simple technique using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) treatment to the conventional agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID). Ten specific-pathogen-free (SPF) sheep were inoculated with maedi-visna virus (MVV) and serum antibody titers compared over a period of 14 weeks. All the sheep seroconverted by the i-ELISA compared to 90% by the AGID. The i-ELISA detected antibody at a mean of 2.6 weeks prior to the AGID. In both tests, fluctuations were observed in the serum antibody response of two sheep. The i-ELISA had a specificity of at least 98.8% and an increased relative sensitivity of 15.5% compared to the AGID, based on the analysis of sera from experimental sheep with MVV free status and sera from sheep from various sources. Of the sera from a seronegative flock which had been monitored with the AGID after a "test and remove" eradication program, 10.2% were positive by the i-ELISA. It was concluded that the AGID test may not be adequate to monitor samples for an eradication scheme. PMID:2174296

  20. NOTE: A cooled water-irrigated intraesophageal balloon to prevent thermal injury during cardiac ablation: experimental study based on an agar phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequerica, Juan L.; Berjano, Enrique J.; Herrero, Maria; Melecio, Lemuel; Hornero, Fernando

    2008-02-01

    A great deal of current research is directed to finding a way to minimize thermal injury in the esophagus during radiofrequency catheter ablation of the atrium. A recent clinical study employing a cooling intraesophageal balloon reported a reduction of the temperature in the esophageal lumen. However, it could not be determined whether the deeper muscular layer of the esophagus was cooled enough to prevent injury. We built a model based on an agar phantom in order to experimentally study the thermal behavior of this balloon by measuring the temperature not only on the balloon, but also at a hypothetical point between the esophageal lumen and myocardium (2 mm distant). Controlled temperature (55 °C) ablations were conducted for 120 s. The results showed that (1) the cooling balloon provides a reduction in the final temperature reached, both on the balloon surface and at a distance of 2 mm; (2) coolant temperature has a significant effect on the temperature measured at 2 mm from the esophageal lumen (it has a less effect on the temperature measured on the balloon surface) and (3) the pre-cooling period has a significant effect on the temperature measured on the balloon surface (the effect on the temperature measured 2 mm away is small). The results were in good agreement with those obtained in a previous clinical study. The study suggests that the cooling balloon gives thermal protection to the esophagus when a minimum pre-cooling period of 2 min is programmed at a coolant temperature of 5 °C or less.

  1. The Speed of Sound and Attenuation of an IEC Agar-Based Tissue-Mimicking Material for High Frequency Ultrasound Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chao; Pye, Stephen D.; Browne, Jacinta E.; Janeczko, Anna; Ellis, Bill; Butler, Mairead B.; Sboros, Vassilis; Thomson, Adrian J.W.; Brewin, Mark P.; Earnshaw, Charles H.; Moran, Carmel M.

    2012-01-01

    This study characterized the acoustic properties of an International Electromechanical Commission (IEC) agar-based tissue mimicking material (TMM) at ultrasound frequencies in the range 10–47 MHz. A broadband reflection substitution technique was employed using two independent systems at 21°C ± 1°C. Using a commercially available preclinical ultrasound scanner and a scanning acoustic macroscope, the measured speeds of sound were 1547.4 ± 1.4 m?s?1 and 1548.0 ± 6.1 m?s?1, respectively, and were approximately constant over the frequency range. The measured attenuation (dB?cm?1) was found to vary with frequency f (MHz) as 0.40f + 0.0076f2. Using this polynomial equation and extrapolating to lower frequencies give values comparable to those published at lower frequencies and can estimate the attenuation of this TMM in the frequency range up to 47 MHz. This characterisation enhances understanding in the use of this TMM as a tissue equivalent material for high frequency ultrasound applications. PMID:22502881

  2. Bacteria holding times for fecal coliform by mFC agar method and total coliform and Escherichia coli by Colilert®-18 Quanti-Tray® method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aulenbach, Brent T.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria holding-time experiments of up to 62 h were performed on five surface-water samples from four urban stream sites in the vicinity of Atlanta, GA, USA that had relatively high densities of coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli densities were all well above the US Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 126 colonies (100 ml)???1 for recreational waters). Holding-time experiments were done for fecal coliform using the membrane filtration modified fecal coliform (mFC) agar method and for total coliform and E. coli using the Colilert®-18 Quanti-Tray® method. The precisions of these analytical methods were quantified. Precisions determined for fecal coliform indicated that the upper bound of the ideal range of counts could reasonably be extended upward and would improve precision. For the Colilert®-18 method, analytical precisions were similar to the theoretical precisions for this method. Fecal and total coliform densities did not change significantly with holding times up to about 27 h. Limited information indicated that fecal coliform densities might be stable for holding times of up to 62 h, whereas total coliform densities might not be stable for holding times greater than about 27 h. E. coli densities were stable for holding times of up to 18 h—a shorter period than indicated from a previous studies. These results should be applicable to non-regulatory monitoring sampling designs for similar urban surface-water sample types.

  3. Auxofuran, a Novel Metabolite That Stimulates the Growth of Fly Agaric, Is Produced by the Mycorrhiza Helper Bacterium Streptomyces Strain AcH 505†

    PubMed Central

    Riedlinger, Julia; Schrey, Silvia D.; Tarkka, Mika T.; Hampp, Rüdiger; Kapur, Manmohan; Fiedler, Hans-Peter

    2006-01-01

    The mycorrhiza helper bacterium Streptomyces strain AcH 505 improves mycelial growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi and formation of ectomycorrhizas between Amanita muscaria and spruce but suppresses the growth of plant-pathogenic fungi, suggesting that it produces both fungal growth-stimulating and -suppressing compounds. The dominant fungal-growth-promoting substance produced by strain AcH 505, auxofuran, was isolated, and its effect on the levels of gene expression of A. muscaria was investigated. Auxofuran and its synthetic analogue 7-dehydroxy-auxofuran were most effective at a concentration of 15 ?M, and application of these compounds led to increased lipid metabolism-related gene expression. Cocultivation of strain AcH 505 and A. muscaria stimulated auxofuran production by the streptomycete. The antifungal substances produced by strain AcH 505 were identified as the antibiotics WS-5995 B and C. WS-5995 B completely blocked mycelial growth at a concentration of 60 ?M and caused a cell stress-related gene expression response in A. muscaria. Characterization of these compounds provides the foundation for molecular analysis of the fungus-bacterium interaction in the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between fly agaric and spruce. PMID:16672502

  4. Evaluation of Etest performed in Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with glucose for antifungal susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Pinto, E; Lago, M; Branco, L; Vale-Silva, L A; Pinheiro, M D

    2014-04-01

    Although reference broth microdilution protocol is currently available for filamentous fungi antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST), simpler alternatives as Etest(®) tend to be favoured in clinical routine, making their validation of utmost importance. In this study, Etest(®) method using 2% glucose supplemented Muller-Hinton agar was compared to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A2 protocol for filamentous fungi AFST. The echinocandins, caspofungin and anidulafungin, the azoles voriconazole and posaconazole, and the polyene amphotericin B were tested against 48 Aspergillus spp., seven Fusarium spp., one Beauveria bassiana and three Paecilomyces lilacinus isolates. The majority of the isolates were susceptible to the antifungals tested, and the overall level of agreement between the CLSI and Etest methods was 71.9% for one dilution and 99.7% when using two dilutions. Since interpretative breakpoints for filamentous fungi employing the CLSI or Etest methods are not available yet, the established epidemiological cut-off values for Aspergillus spp. were used to distinguish wild-type isolates from those with acquired resistance mechanisms. Forty-five Aspergillus strains did not evidence resistance mutations. PMID:24570038

  5. Systematic analysis of secreted proteins reveals synergism between IL6 and other proteins in soft agar growth of MCF10A cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer, the most common malignancy in women, still holds many secrets. The causes for non-hereditary breast cancer are still unknown. To elucidate any role for circulating naturally secreted proteins, a screen of secreted proteins' influence of MCF10A cell anchorage independent growth was set up. Methods To systematically screen secreted proteins for their capacity to transform mammalian breast epithelial cells, a soft agar screen of MCF10A cells was performed using a library of ~ 470 secreted proteins. A high concentration of infecting viral particles was used to obtain multiple infections in individual cells to specifically study the combined effect of multiple secreted proteins. Results Several known breast cancer factors, such as Wnt, FGF and IL were retained, as well as factors that were previously unknown to have a role in breast cancer, such as paraoxonase 1 and fibroblast growth factor binding protein 2. Additionally, a combinatory role of Interleukin 6 with other factors in MCF10A anchorage-independent growth is demonstrated. Conclusion The transforming effect of combinations of IL6 with other secreted proteins allows studying the transformation of mammary epithelial cells in vitro, and may also have implications in in vivo studies where secreted proteins are upregulated or overexpressed. PMID:21711799

  6. Effects of low molecular weight agar and Lactobacillus plantarum on growth performance, immunity, and disease resistance of basa fish (Pangasius bocourti, Sauvage 1880).

    PubMed

    Van Doan, Hien; Doolgindachbaporn, Sompong; Suksri, Amnuaysilpa

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated effects of low molecular weight agar (LMWA) and Lactobacillus plantarum singly or combined on growth performance, immunity and disease resistance of basa fish (Pangasius bocourti). Two hundred forty fish were divided into four treatments, i.e. 0 g kg(-1) LMWA (Control), 2 g kg(-1) LMWA, 10(8) cfu g(-1)L. plantarum, and 2 g kg(-1) LMWA + 10(8) cfu g(-1)L. plantarum. Following 7, 14 and 28 days of the treatment, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), serum lysozyme, phagocytosis, respiratory burst and alternative complement activity (ACP) were measured. A Completely Randomized Design with four replications was applied. At the end of the feeding trial, five fish were randomly selected for a challenge test against Aeromonas hydrophila. The results showed that fish fed diet of 2 g kg(-1) LMWA and 10(8) cfu g(-1) of L. plantarum singly or combined significantly enhanced SGR, FCR, serum lysozyme, phagocytosis, respiratory burst, alternative complement activities and post-challenge survival rate of P. bocourti. The results inferred that dietary of LMWA and L. plantarum stimulated growth, immunity and disease resistance of the P. bocourti. PMID:25241604

  7. Spectroscopic investigations on the binding of Methylene Blue and Nile Blue to negatively charged gold nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, R.; Jain, B.; Das, K.

    2012-08-01

    The effect of longitudinal surface plasmon (l-SP) electric field of gold nanorods (AuNRs) on the optical (absorption and fluorescence) properties of two dyes Methylene Blue (MB) and Nile Blue (NB) has been studied by tuning and detuning the l-SP band with the absorption maxima of the dyes. Binding between dyes and nanorods were established by electrostatic interaction by making the nanorods negatively charged after coating them with polystyrene sulfonate (PSS). The absorption spectra of the dye-nanorod complex showed two prominent absorption bands in the 550-700 nm regions. For the detuned condition these changes are attributed to the nanorod induced aggregation of the dyes. However for the tuned condition, with increasing dye concentration the energy gap between the bands were observed to increase and then saturate. This is attributed to resonance coupling between the l-SP of the nanorod with the dye absorption. Although the fluorescence intensity of the dyes in the presence of increasing amount of AuNRs were observed to be quenched their lifetimes were observed to increase. Both the radiative (kr) and nonradiative (knr) rates of the dyes decreases in the presence of AuNRs. The magnitude of decrease for kr is much higher than knr, which is attributed to the formation of the non-fluorescent dimeric species. The increase in the fluorescence lifetime is attributed to the suppression of the excited state nonradiative pathways of these dyes adsorbed on the surface of the AuNRs. In addition, the changes of kr and knr were observed to be greater for the tuned condition.

  8. 21 CFR 184.1115 - Agar-agar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...PM 9002-18-0) is a dried, hydrophyllic, colloidal polysaccharide extracted from one of a number of related species of red algae (class Rhodophyceae ). (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex,” 3d...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1115 - Agar-agar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...PM 9002-18-0) is a dried, hydrophyllic, colloidal polysaccharide extracted from one of a number of related species of red algae (class Rhodophyceae ). (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex,” 3d...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1115 - Agar-agar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...PM 9002-18-0) is a dried, hydrophyllic, colloidal polysaccharide extracted from one of a number of related species of red algae (class Rhodophyceae ). (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex,” 3d...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1115 - Agar-agar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...PM 9002-18-0) is a dried, hydrophyllic, colloidal polysaccharide extracted from one of a number of related species of red algae (class Rhodophyceae ). (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex,” 3d...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1115 - Agar-agar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...PM 9002-18-0) is a dried, hydrophyllic, colloidal polysaccharide extracted from one of a number of related species of red algae (class Rhodophyceae ). (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex,” 3d...

  13. Plumage and body size in Blue-winged and Cinnamon teals 107 Plumage and body size in Blue-winged and Cinnamon teals

    E-print Network

    McCracken, Kevin G.

    Plumage and body size in Blue-winged and Cinnamon teals 107 Plumage and body size in Blue-winged and Cinnamon teals doi: 10.3184/175815512X13350025801205 Plumage and body size differentiation in Blue-winged teal and Cinnamon teal Robert E. Wilsona* , Muir D. Eatonb and Kevin G. McCrackena a Institute

  14. The BlueSky Smoke Modeling Framework: Recent Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, D. C.; Larkin, N.; Raffuse, S. M.; Strand, T.; ONeill, S. M.; Leung, F. T.; Qu, J. J.; Hao, X.

    2012-12-01

    BlueSky systems—a set of decision support tools including SmartFire and the BlueSky Framework—aid public policy decision makers and scientific researchers in evaluating the air quality impacts of fires. Smoke and fire managers use BlueSky systems in decisions about prescribed burns and wildland firefighting. Air quality agencies use BlueSky systems to support decisions related to air quality regulations. We will discuss a range of recent improvements to the BlueSky systems, as well as examples of applications and future plans. BlueSky systems have the flexibility to accept basic fire information from virtually any source and can reconcile multiple information sources so that duplication of fire records is eliminated. BlueSky systems currently apply information from (1) the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Hazard Mapping System (HMS), which represents remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES); (2) the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) interagency project, which derives fire perimeters from Landsat 30-meter burn scars; (3) the Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Group (GeoMAC), which produces helicopter-flown burn perimeters; and (4) ground-based fire reports, such as the ICS-209 reports managed by the National Wildfire Coordinating Group. Efforts are currently underway to streamline the use of additional ground-based systems, such as states' prescribed burn databases. BlueSky systems were recently modified to address known uncertainties in smoke modeling associated with (1) estimates of biomass consumption derived from sparse fuel moisture data, and (2) models of plume injection heights. Additional sources of remotely sensed data are being applied to address these issues as follows: - The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis Real-Time (TMPA-RT) data set is being used to improve dead fuel moisture estimates. - EastFire live fuel moisture estimates, which are derived from NASA's MODIS direct broadcast, are being used to improve live fuel moisture estimates. - NASA's Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) stereo heights are being used to improve estimates of plume injection heights. Further, the Fire Location and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBÉ) model was incorporated into the BlueSky Framework as an alternative means of calculating fire emissions. FLAMBÉ directly estimates emissions on the basis of fire detections and radiance measures from NASA's MODIS and NOAA's GOES satellites. (The authors gratefully acknowledge NASA's Applied Sciences Program [Grant Nos. NN506AB52A and NNX09AV76G)], the USDA Forest Service, and the Joint Fire Science Program for their support.)

  15. Three-dimensional colloidal crystals in liquid crystalline blue phases

    PubMed Central

    Ravnik, Miha; Alexander, Gareth P.; Yeomans, Julia M.; Žumer, Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Applications for photonic crystals and metamaterials put stringent requirements on the characteristics of advanced optical materials, demanding tunability, high Q factors, applicability in visible range, and large-scale self-assembly. Exploiting the interplay between structural and optical properties, colloidal lattices embedded in liquid crystals (LCs) are promising candidates for such materials. Recently, stable two-dimensional colloidal configurations were demonstrated in nematic LCs. However, the question as to whether stable 3D colloidal structures can exist in an LC had remained unanswered. We show, by means of computer modeling, that colloidal particles can self-assemble into stable, 3D, periodic structures in blue phase LCs. The assembly is based on blue phases providing a 3D template of trapping sites for colloidal particles. The particle configuration is determined by the orientational order of the LC molecules: Specifically, face-centered cubic colloidal crystals form in type-I blue phases, whereas body-centered crystals form in type-II blue phases. For typical particle diameters (approximately 100 nm) the effective binding energy can reach up to a few 100 kBT, implying robustness against mechanical stress and temperature fluctuations. Moreover, the colloidal particles substantially increase the thermal stability range of the blue phases, for a factor of two and more. The LC-supported colloidal structure is one or two orders of magnitude stronger bound than, e.g., water-based colloidal crystals. PMID:21368186

  16. Domain growth in cholesteric blue phases: hybrid lattice Boltzmann simulations

    E-print Network

    O. Henrich; D. Marenduzzo; K. Stratford; M. E. Cates

    2009-01-21

    Here we review a hybrid lattice Boltzmann algorithm to solve the equations of motion of cholesteric liquid crystals. The method consists in coupling a lattice Boltzmann solver for the Navier-Stokes equation to a finite difference method to solve the dynamical equations governing the evolution of the liquid crystalline order parameter. We apply this method to study the growth of cholesteric blue phase domains, within a cholesteric phase. We focus on the growth of blue phase II and on a thin slab geometry in which the domain wall is flat. Our results show that, depending on the chirality, the growing blue phase is either BPII with no or few defects, or another structure with hexagonal ordering. We hope that our simulations will spur further experimental investigations on quenches in micron-size blue phase samples. The computational size that our hybrid lattice Boltzmann scheme can handle suggest that large scale simulations of new generation of blue phase liquid crystal device are within reach.

  17. Reduction and accumulation of methylene blue by the lung.

    PubMed

    Bongard, R D; Krenz, G S; Linehan, J H; Roerig, D L; Merker, M P; Widell, J L; Dawson, C A

    1994-09-01

    We studied the disposition of methylene blue added to the perfusate passing through isolated perfused rabbit lungs. Experiments were carried out in a recirculating or single-pass mode, the latter with either a steady infusion or bolus injection of the dye in its blue oxidized form (MB+) or in its colorless reduced leukomethylene blue form (MBH). The recirculation experiments revealed that the dye was taken up by the lungs and that a substantial fraction (approximately 16%) of the MB+ entering the pulmonary artery was reduced before it emerged from the pulmonary veins. Sequestration of the dye by the lungs was a relatively slow process, and the blue color of the lungs at a time when there was little dye left in the perfusate suggests that much of the sequestered dye was in the oxidized form. The results from the single-pass bolus and steady infusion experiments suggest that MBH diffuses rapidly between perfusate and tissue and that it is more soluble in the tissue than in the perfusates used in the study. In this context, the concept of "solubility" includes the impact of the rapidly equilibrating associations of the dye with the perfusate albumin and tissue components. The observed characteristics of the disposition of the methylene blue within the lungs and the rapid rate of its reduction on passage through the lungs suggest that it may be useful to evaluate the possibility that changes in reduction, uptake, and/or sequestration rates may reflect alterations in the metabolic function of the lungs. PMID:7836156

  18. CENSUS OF BLUE STARS IN SDSS DR8

    SciTech Connect

    Scibelli, Samantha; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Yanny, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We present a census of the 12,060 spectra of blue objects ((g – r){sub 0} < –0.25) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8). As part of the data release, all of the spectra were cross-correlated with 48 template spectra of stars, galaxies, and QSOs to determine the best match. We compared the blue spectra by eye to the templates assigned in SDSS DR8. 10,856 of the objects matched their assigned template, 170 could not be classified due to low signal-to-noise ratio, and 1034 were given new classifications. We identify 7458 DA white dwarfs, 1145 DB white dwarfs, 273 rarer white dwarfs (including carbon, DZ, DQ, and magnetic), 294 subdwarf O stars, 648 subdwarf B stars, 679 blue horizontal branch stars, 1026 blue stragglers, 13 cataclysmic variables, 129 white dwarf-M dwarf binaries, 36 objects with spectra similar to DO white dwarfs, 179, quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), and 10 galaxies. We provide two tables of these objects, sample spectra that match the templates, figures showing all of the spectra that were grouped by eye, and diagnostic plots that show the positions, colors, apparent magnitudes, proper motions, etc., for each classification. Future surveys will be able to use templates similar to stars in each of the classes we identify to automatically classify blue stars, including rare types.

  19. Census of Blue Stars in SDSS DR8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scibelli, Samantha; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Yanny, Brian

    2014-12-01

    We present a census of the 12,060 spectra of blue objects ((g - r)0 < -0.25) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8). As part of the data release, all of the spectra were cross-correlated with 48 template spectra of stars, galaxies, and QSOs to determine the best match. We compared the blue spectra by eye to the templates assigned in SDSS DR8. 10,856 of the objects matched their assigned template, 170 could not be classified due to low signal-to-noise ratio, and 1034 were given new classifications. We identify 7458 DA white dwarfs, 1145 DB white dwarfs, 273 rarer white dwarfs (including carbon, DZ, DQ, and magnetic), 294 subdwarf O stars, 648 subdwarf B stars, 679 blue horizontal branch stars, 1026 blue stragglers, 13 cataclysmic variables, 129 white dwarf-M dwarf binaries, 36 objects with spectra similar to DO white dwarfs, 179, quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), and 10 galaxies. We provide two tables of these objects, sample spectra that match the templates, figures showing all of the spectra that were grouped by eye, and diagnostic plots that show the positions, colors, apparent magnitudes, proper motions, etc., for each classification. Future surveys will be able to use templates similar to stars in each of the classes we identify to automatically classify blue stars, including rare types.

  20. Sustainable Life on the Blue Frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helvarg, D.

    2002-05-01

    Environmental trends such as declining sources of potable fresh-water and the recognized need to restore and give full economic value to natural water recharging services derived from watersheds, forests, wetlands, etc. pose global security issues. Fifty years ago top White House Science and technology advisors saw the solution to future water shortages, not in water conservation but rather in building a series of nuclear powered desalination plants along America's shorelines. This reflected the popular belief that we could compensate for any land-based resource shortfalls in protein, energy and fresh water by turning to the seas, while also using these same waters as dumping sites for our wastes and toxins. The world's largest habitat, the deep seas, are threatened by commercial trawling and deep-drilling for oil and gas, as well as revived interest in deep ocean mineral mining. The collapse of global fisheries suggests a need for restoration of marine wildlife and limited sustainable wild harvests (from a vastly decapitalized fishing fleet) combined with sustainable forms of aquaculture. Ocean mineral mining has proven environmental risks, and we have now begun the shift to mineral substitution using various composites and petrochemical derivatives. My old metal bathtub for example, rather than being replaced, was recently covered with a plastic liner, extending its life for years to come. This would suggest that petroleum is far too valuable a substance needed for the manufacture of things like sailcloth and hot-tubs, to be frittered away as a (climate altering) fuel. Deep ocean drilling technology in the Gulf of Mexico and elsewhere is extending projected oil resources even as it creates new and unmanageable risks both to climate and to the marine environment (as does oil industry interest in mining methane hydrates from the abyssal depths). The role of whale oil in the US economy of the 1850s (as the lubricant of the machine age) and "rock oil" (petroleum) in the 1950s suggest we now have the technological capacity for a new energy transition to non-carbon systems including photovoltaics, wind-turbines, biofuels and hydrogen fuel-cells. A (largely) hydrogen based economy could also lead to a decentralized power grid less vulnerable to terrorism and the increased natural disasters we can expect in the coming greenhouse century. Sustainable development of limited resources and the shift to renewable forms of agriculture, water-planning, energy and other technologies will ultimately depend not simply on earth science, but on a highly political process which will (hopefully) combine the best-available science, and society's values to determine public policy that benefits the long-term interests of our blue planet's varied residents, recognizing that our economy is a fully owned subsidiary of our environment.