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1

Natural occurrence and growth reaction on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue agar of non-neoformans Cryptococcus spp. in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii were the predominant non-neoformans cryptococci isolated during an environmental sampling study for C. gattii at Klang Valley, Malaysia. Cryptococcus gattii was not isolated from any of the environmental samples. Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii were isolated mainly from vegetative samples of Eucalyptus trees and bird droppings. Upon testing on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue (CGB) agar, all the C. albidus isolates remained unchanged. Interestingly, a total of 29 (76.3%) C. laurentii isolates formed blue colours on the CGB agar. Sequence analysis of ITS1-5.8rDNA-ITS2 gene sequences (468 bp) of four CGB-blue C. laurentii isolates demonstrated the closest match (99%) with that of C. laurentii CBS 7140. This study demonstrated the diverse environmental niche of C. albidus and C. laurentii in Malaysia. PMID:18498307

Tay, S T; Na, S L; Tajuddin, T H

2008-11-01

2

Identification of Cryptococcus gattii by use of L-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue medium and DNA sequencing.  

PubMed

Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are closely related pathogenic fungi. Cryptococcus neoformans is ecologically widespread and affects primarily immunocompromised patients, while C. gattii is traditionally found in tropical climates and has been reported to cause disease in immunocompetent patients. l-Canavanine glycine bromothymol blue (CGB) agar can be used to differentiate C. neoformans and C. gattii, but there are few reports of its performance in routine clinical practice. Growth of C. gattii on CGB agar produces a blue color, indicating the assimilation of glycine, while C. neoformans fails to cause a color change. Using reference and clinical strains, we evaluated the ability of CGB agar and D2 large ribosomal subunit DNA sequencing (D2 LSU) to differentiate C. neoformans and C. gattii. One hundred two yeast isolates were screened for urease activity, melanin production, and glycine assimilation on CGB agar as well as by D2 sequencing. Seventeen of 17 (100%) C. gattii isolates were CGB positive, and 54 of 54 C. neoformans isolates were CGB negative. Several yeast isolates other than the C. gattii isolates were CGB agar positive, indicating that CGB agar cannot be used alone for identification of C. gattii. D2 correctly identified and differentiated all C. gattii and C. neoformans isolates. This study demonstrates that the use of CGB agar, in conjunction with urea hydrolysis and Niger seed agar, or D2 LSU sequencing can be reliably used in the clinical laboratory to distinguish C. gattii from C. neoformans. We describe how CGB agar and D2 sequencing have been incorporated into the yeast identification algorithm in our laboratory. PMID:19794048

Klein, K R; Hall, L; Deml, S M; Rysavy, J M; Wohlfiel, S L; Wengenack, N L

2009-11-01

3

Identification of Cryptococcus gattii by Use of l-Canavanine Glycine Bromothymol Blue Medium and DNA Sequencing?  

PubMed Central

Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are closely related pathogenic fungi. Cryptococcus neoformans is ecologically widespread and affects primarily immunocompromised patients, while C. gattii is traditionally found in tropical climates and has been reported to cause disease in immunocompetent patients. l-Canavanine glycine bromothymol blue (CGB) agar can be used to differentiate C. neoformans and C. gattii, but there are few reports of its performance in routine clinical practice. Growth of C. gattii on CGB agar produces a blue color, indicating the assimilation of glycine, while C. neoformans fails to cause a color change. Using reference and clinical strains, we evaluated the ability of CGB agar and D2 large ribosomal subunit DNA sequencing (D2 LSU) to differentiate C. neoformans and C. gattii. One hundred two yeast isolates were screened for urease activity, melanin production, and glycine assimilation on CGB agar as well as by D2 sequencing. Seventeen of 17 (100%) C. gattii isolates were CGB positive, and 54 of 54 C. neoformans isolates were CGB negative. Several yeast isolates other than the C. gattii isolates were CGB agar positive, indicating that CGB agar cannot be used alone for identification of C. gattii. D2 correctly identified and differentiated all C. gattii and C. neoformans isolates. This study demonstrates that the use of CGB agar, in conjunction with urea hydrolysis and Niger seed agar, or D2 LSU sequencing can be reliably used in the clinical laboratory to distinguish C. gattii from C. neoformans. We describe how CGB agar and D2 sequencing have been incorporated into the yeast identification algorithm in our laboratory.

Klein, K. R.; Hall, L.; Deml, S. M.; Rysavy, J. M.; Wohlfiel, S. L.; Wengenack, N. L.

2009-01-01

4

Serotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans Isolates from Clinical and Environmental Sources in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast that is re- sponsible for life-threatening infections, particularly in immu- nocompromised patients (7, 21). C. neoformans exists in two varieties, C. neoformans var. neoformans and C. neoformans var. gattii (4, 32). These two varieties of C. neoformans (4, 32) are easily differentiated by their growth in L-canavanine-glycine- bromothymol blue agar (CGB) (19, 20) and

TERESA BARO ´; JOSEP M. TORRES-RODRIGUEZ; YOLANDA MORERA; CONCEPCION ALIA; OLGA LOPEZ; RAUL MENDEZ

1999-01-01

5

Serotypes of Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from patients prior to and during the AIDS era in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and eighty-seven strains of Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from patients in Thailand were charcterized by biochemical varieties relating to serogroups. Canavanine-glycine-bromothymol\\u000a blue (CGB) agar was used for differentiating the varieties of C. neoformans. Slide agglutination tests were performed with Crypto Check (Iatron, Inc., Tokyo) to determine their serotypes. Fifty-five\\u000a percent (10 out of 18) of the pre-AIDS isolates were

Samaniya Sukroongreung I; Churairatana Nilakull; Orawan Ruangsomboon; Wongsatit Chuakul; Boonchuay Eampokalap

1996-01-01

6

The isolation, characterization and antifungal susceptibilities of Cryptococcus neoformans from bird excreta in Klang Valley, Malaysia.  

PubMed

The occurrence of Cryptococcus neoformans in bird excreta in Klang valley, Malaysia was determined in this study. Of 544 samples of bird excreta collected from a local zoo, pet shops and public areas, 20 strains of C. neoformans were isolated. All C. neoformans strains were serotype A and thus identified as C. neoformans variety grubii. All did not produce color changes on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue agar. All were of alpha-mating types, as determined by a pheromone-specific PCR assay. The antifungal susceptibility testing using agar diffusion method Neo-sensitabs showed that all were susceptible to amphotericin B, fluconazole and itraconazole. PMID:15983736

Tay, S T; Chai, H C; Na, S L; Hamimah, H; Rohani, M Y; Soo-Hoo, T S

2005-06-01

7

Histopathology, serology and cultures in the diagnosis of cryptococcosis.  

PubMed

Cryptococcosis is one of the most common opportunistic fungal infections in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report 13 cases of cryptococcal infection based on histopathology, serology and cultures. Epidemiological analysis, histochemical techniques of hematoxilin and eosin (HE) and Grocot's silver (GMS), as well special histochemical techniques such as Mayer's mucicarmine (MM) and Fontana-Masson (FM), cryptococcal antigen test (CrAg) and isolation on fungal media: Sabouraud's (SAB), brain-heart infusion agar (BHI) and canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue (CGB) agar were analyzed. Unsatisfactory staining results by MM stain associated to negative titers by CrAg test, which FM stain confirmed that capsule-deficient Cryptococcus infections were observed in four cases. Eight isolated cases were identified as follows: six cases were infection with Cryptococcus neoformans and two cases were Cryptococcus gattii. PMID:19893977

Gazzoni, Alexandra Flávia; Severo, Cecília Bittencourt; Salles, Emily Ferreira; Severo, Luiz Carlos

2009-01-01

8

In Vitro Susceptibility Characteristics of Cryptococcus neoformans Varieties from AIDS Patients in Goiânia, Brazil Orionalda de FL Fernandes\\/+, Xisto S Passos, Lúcia KH Souza, André TB Miranda, Carlos Henrique PV Cerqueira, Maria do Rosário R Silva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from AIDS from Goiânia, state of Goiás, Brazil, were characterized according to varieties, serotypes and tested for antifungal susceptibility. To differentiate the two varieties was used L-canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium and to separate the serotypes was used slide agglutination test with Crypto Check Iatron. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of fluconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B

Rua Delenda; Resende de Melo

9

Use of Chromogenic Tube and Methyl Blue Sabouraud Agar for the Identification of Candida Albicans Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to investigate the use of chromogenic tube and methyl blue-Sabouraud agar for the presumptive identification of Candida albicans. 124 clinical isolates, including 111 C.albicans and 13 Candida spp strains, which had been identified by morphology on cornmeal tween 80 agar and Vitek automated identification system, were included. Three different identification procedures, a) germ tube test, b)

Nuran Esen

10

Adsorptive removal of methylene blue by agar: effects of NaCl and ethanol  

PubMed Central

Adsorption of methylene blue (MB) on agar was investigated as a function of temperature (308-328 K), different concentrations of NaCl and HCl and various weight percentages of binary mixtures of ethanol with water. It was observed that the maximum experimental adsorption capacity, qm, exp, in water is up to 50 mg g-1 and decreases with increase in weight percentage of ethanol and NaCl and HCl concentration compared to that of water. Analysis of data using ARIAN model showed that MB adsorbs as monomer and dimer on the surface of agar. Binding constants of MB to agar were calculated using the Temkin isotherm. The process is exothermic in water and other solutions. The mean adsorption energy (E) value indicated binding of MB to agar is chemical adsorption. Kinetics of this interaction obeys from the pseudo-second-order model and diffusion of the MB molecules into the agar is the main rate-controlling step.

2012-01-01

11

ACINETOBACTER SPP.: DISTINCT MORPHOLOGY ON EOSIN METHYLENE BLUE AGAR AS AN AID TO IDENTIFICATION IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

'Acinetobacter calcoaceticus', frequently found in drinking waters and implicated in nosocomial infections, was presumptively identified by its tiny, blue colonial appearance on Levine eosin methylene blue agar. All of the 33 isolates from drinking water showing this distinctive ...

12

Disseminated cryptococcosis in an AIDS patient caused by a canavanine-resistant strain of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii.  

PubMed

A case of disseminated cryptococcosis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is presented in a male diabetic who had AIDS. The diagnosis was based upon the isolation and identification of the aetiological agent from a lymph-node biopsy, cerebrospinal fluid and sputum. The isolate formed spherical, encapsulated yeast cells, produced cherry-brown colonies on niger-seed agar, grew on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue (CGB) medium, changing its colour from greenish yellow to blue, and hydrolysed urea weakly in the presence of 100 microM EDTA. The strain was unable to assimilate D-proline and, serologically, it was untypable. The identity of the isolate as C. neoformans var. grubii, serotype A, possessing a mating-type allele A alpha, was confirmed by crossing with standard laboratory test strains and by performing PCR with the mating-type alpha allele-specific primer of the STE12 gene and with serotype (A and D)- and mating type (a and alpha)-specific primers of the STE20 gene. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of disseminated cryptococcosis in an AIDS patient caused by a canavanine-resistant strain of C. neoformans var. grubii, serotype A, possessing mating type allele A alpha; the strain is probably a hybrid. The report suggests that, in the absence of a clear-cut serotyping result, a positive CGB reaction alone is not sufficient for intervarietal discrimination and additional confirmatory evidence is required. PMID:12621094

Khan, Z U; Al-Anezi, A A; Chandy, R; Xu, J

2003-03-01

13

Cryptococcus species identification by multiplex PCR.  

PubMed

Members of the Cryptococcus species complex are encapsulated basidiomycetous yeasts, which can affect the central nervous system (CNS) and if untreated may cause meningitis. Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogen causing infections mainly in immunocompromised individuals. Cryptococcus gattii is a primary pathogen responsible for a high incidence of cryptococcomas in the lung and brain and shows a delayed response to antifungal therapy. The differentiation between the two species is primarily based on their growth on and color change of canavanine - glycine-bromothymol blue agar (CGB). Since this test is not always reliable, a multiplex PCR to identify both Cryptococcus species using more than 130 samples was standardized and the results obtained compared to those with the CGB test, using the Crypto Check serotyping kit as the standard. The multiplex PCR was shown to be more specific than the CGB test, in that results obtained with it were in agreement with those from serotyping all the samples, while the data from the CGB test disagreed with 6 out of 131 samples. PMID:18415847

Leal, Ana Lusia; Faganello, Josiane; Bassanesi, Maria Cristina; Vainstein, Marilene H

2008-06-01

14

First report on Cryptococcus neoformans in pigeon excreta from public and residential locations in the metropolitan area of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil.  

PubMed

Cryptococcosis is a severe systemic mycosis caused by two species of Cryptococcus that affect humans and animals: C. neoformans and C. gattii. Cosmopolitan and emergent, the mycosis results from the interaction between a susceptible host and the environment. The occurrence of C. neoformans was evaluated in 122 samples of dried pigeon excreta collected in 49 locations in the City of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, including public squares (n = 5), churches (n = 4), educational institutions (n = 3), health units (n = 8), open areas covered with asbestos (n = 4), residences (n = 23), factory (n = 1) and a prison (n = 1). Samples collected from July to December of 2010 were seeded on Niger seed agar (NSA). Dark brown colonies were identified by urease test, carbon source assimilation tests and canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium. Polymerase chain reaction primer pairs specific for C. neoformans were also used for identification. Cryptococcus neoformans associated to pigeon excreta was isolated from eight (6.6%) samples corresponding to six (12.2%) locations. Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from urban areas, predominantly in residences, constituting a risk of acquiring the disease by immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. PMID:24213188

Takahara, Doracilde Terumi; Lazéra, Márcia dos Santos; Wanke, Bodo; Trilles, Luciana; Dutra, Valéria; Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus de; Nakazato, Luciano; Anzai, Mariana Caselli; Leite Júnior, Diniz Pereira; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues; Hahn, Rosane Christine

2013-01-01

15

FIRST REPORT ON Cryptococcus neoformans IN PIGEON EXCRETA FROM PUBLIC AND RESIDENTIAL LOCATIONS IN THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF CUIAB?, STATE OF MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Cryptococcosis is a severe systemic mycosis caused by two species of Cryptococcus that affect humans and animals: C. neoformans and C. gattii. Cosmopolitan and emergent, the mycosis results from the interaction between a susceptible host and the environment. The occurrence of C. neoformans was evaluated in 122 samples of dried pigeon excreta collected in 49 locations in the City of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, including public squares (n = 5), churches (n = 4), educational institutions (n = 3), health units (n = 8), open areas covered with asbestos (n = 4), residences (n = 23), factory (n = 1) and a prison (n = 1). Samples collected from July to December of 2010 were seeded on Niger seed agar (NSA). Dark brown colonies were identified by urease test, carbon source assimilation tests and canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium. Polymerase chain reaction primer pairs specific for C. neoformans were also used for identification. Cryptococcus neoformans associated to pigeon excreta was isolated from eight (6.6%) samples corresponding to six (12.2%) locations. Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from urban areas, predominantly in residences, constituting a risk of acquiring the disease by immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals.

Takahara, Doracilde Terumi; Lazera, Marcia dos Santos; Wanke, Bodo; Trilles, Luciana; Dutra, Valeria; de Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus; Nakazato, Luciano; Anzai, Mariana Caselli; Leite, Diniz Pereira; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues; Hahn, Rosane Christine

2013-01-01

16

Enumeration of total heterotrophic and psychrotrophic bacteria using different types of agar to evaluate the microbial quality of blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis) and sea scallops ( Placopecten magellanicus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial quality of Fortune Harbor, NL, cultured blue mussels stored at three temperatures (?12, 2 and 9°C) for 10 days was evaluated using aerobic plate count (APC) and psychrotrophic plate count (PPC) on plate count agar (PCA) and marine agar (MA). The relationship between bacterial counts in Fortune Harbor mussels on PCA and MA was established using linear regression analysis.

Muhammad Ahmad Khan; Christopher C. Parrish; Fereidoon Shahidi

2005-01-01

17

Rapid identification of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, C. neoformans var. neoformans, and C. gattii by use of rapid biochemical tests, differential media, and DNA sequencing.  

PubMed

Rapid identification of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans, and Cryptococcus gattii is imperative for facilitation of prompt treatment of cryptococcosis and for understanding the epidemiology of the disease. Our purpose was to evaluate a test algorithm incorporating commercial rapid biochemical tests, differential media, and DNA sequence analysis that will allow us to differentiate these taxa rapidly and accurately. We assessed 147 type, reference, and clinical isolates, including 6 other Cryptococcus spp. (10 isolates) and 14 other yeast species (24 isolates), using a 4-hour urea broth test (Remel), a 24-hour urea broth test (Becton Dickinson), a 4-hour caffeic acid disk test (Hardy Diagnostics and Remel), 40- to 44-hour growth assessment on l-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue (CGB) agar, and intergenic spacer (IGS) sequence analysis. All 123 Cryptococcus isolates hydrolyzed urea, along with 7 isolates of Rhodotorula and Trichosporon. Eighty-five of 86 C. neoformans (99%) and 26 of 27 C. gattii (96%) isolates had positive caffeic acid results, unlike the other cryptococci (0/10) and yeast species (0/24). Together, these two tests positively identified virtually all C. neoformans/C. gattii isolates (98%) within 4 h. CGB agar or IGS sequencing further differentiated these isolates within 48 h. On CGB, 25 of 27 (93%) C. gattii strains induced a blue color change, in contrast to 0 of 86 C. neoformans isolates. Neighbor-joining cluster analysis of IGS sequences differentiated C. neoformans var. grubii, C. neoformans var. neoformans, and C. gattii. Based on these results, we describe a rapid identification algorithm for use in a microbiology laboratory to distinguish clinically relevant Cryptococcus spp. PMID:21593254

McTaggart, Lisa; Richardson, Susan E; Seah, Christine; Hoang, Linda; Fothergill, Annette; Zhang, Sean X

2011-07-01

18

Cryptococcus spp isolated from dust microhabitat in Brazilian libraries  

PubMed Central

Background The Cryptococcus spp is currently composed of encapsulated yeasts of cosmopolitan distribution, including the etiological agents of cryptococcosis. The fungus are found mainly in substrates of animal and plant origin. Human infection occurs through inhalation of spores present in the environment. Methods Eighty-four swab collections were performed on dust found on books in three libraries in the city of Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The material was seeded in Sabouraud agar and then observed for characteristics compatible with colonies with a creamy to mucous aspect; the material was then isolated in birdseed (Niger) agar and cultivated at a temperature of 37°C for 5 to 7?days. Identification of isolated colonies was performed by microscopic observation in fresh preparations dyed with India ink, additional tests performed on CGB (L-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue), urea broth, and carbohydrate assimilation tests (auxanogram). Results Of the 84 samples collected from book dust, 18 (21.4%) were positive for Cryptococcus spp totalizing 41 UFC’s. The most frequently isolated species was C. gattii 15 (36.6%); followed by C. terreus, 12 (29.3%); C. luteolus 4 (9.8%); C. neoformans, and C. uniguttulatus 3 (7.3%), and C. albidus and C. humiculus with 2 (4.6%) of the isolates. Conclusion The high biodiversity of the yeasts of the Cryptococcus genus, isolated from different environmental sources in urban areas of Brazil suggests the possibility of individuals whose immune systems have been compromised or even healthy individuals coming into sources of fungal propagules on a daily bases throughout their lives. This study demonstrates the acquisition possible of cryptococcosis infection from dust in libraries.

2012-01-01

19

Human immunodefeciency virus associated cryptococcal meningitis at a tertiary care centre: diagnostic tools and antifungal susceptibility testing.  

PubMed

Context: Cryptococcal meningitis has emerged as a leading cause of the infectious morbidity and mortality in HIV sero-reactive subjects and it is the second most common cause of the opportunistic neuroinfections in it. As this is a indistinguishable from other causes of meningitis, its early diagnosis is the key to the therapeutic success. Objectives: This study was undertaken to know the incidence of Cryptococcal meningitis in HIV sero-reactive individuals and to assess the role of the microbiological parameters in its specific diagnosis, with a perspective of evaluating the anti-fungal resistance. Material and Methods: A total of 66 CSF samples from suspected cases of meningoencephalitis were subjected to standard microbiological procedures. The Cryptococcal isolates were identified by microscopy, the cultural characteristics, melanin production on Niger Seed agar, urea hydrolysis, the Nitrate assimilation test and by capsular antigen detection by latex agglutination. The Cryptoccal isolates were further biotyped by using Canavanine-Glycine-Bromothymol blue agar. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of Amphotericin B and Fluconazole for the isolates were detected. Results: The incidence of Cryptococcal meningitis in our study group was 18.2% (12/66). The Cryptococcal antigen was detected in all the 12 cases, whereas microscopy was positive only in 9 cases and Cryptococcus was isolated by culture in 10 cases. All the isolates were sensitive to Amphotericin B and 90% of the isolates were sensitive to Fluconazole. The CD4counts ranged between 22-138 cells /?l. Conclusion: A high incidence of Cryptococcal meningitis in HIV sero-reactive subjects necessitates the importance of a precise and an early microbiological diagnosis for better management of such subjects. Due to the growing concern of emerging drug resistance, the testing for the anti-fungal susceptibility has to be encouraged in all the cases. PMID:24086857

Munivenkataswamy, Rashmi; Gopi, Anjana; Usman, Shaik Mohammed; Jagadeesh

2013-08-01

20

Human Immunodefeciency Virus Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis at a Tertiary Care Centre: Diagnostic Tools and Antifungal Susceptibility Testing  

PubMed Central

Context: Cryptococcal meningitis has emerged as a leading cause of the infectious morbidity and mortality in HIV sero-reactive subjects and it is the second most common cause of the opportunistic neuroinfections in it. As this is a indistinguishable from other causes of meningitis, its early diagnosis is the key to the therapeutic success. Objectives: This study was undertaken to know the incidence of Cryptococcal meningitis in HIV sero–reactive individuals and to assess the role of the microbiological parameters in its specific diagnosis, with a perspective of evaluating the anti–fungal resistance. Material and Methods: A total of 66 CSF samples from suspected cases of meningoencephalitis were subjected to standard microbiological procedures. The Cryptococcal isolates were identified by microscopy, the cultural characteristics, melanin production on Niger Seed agar, urea hydrolysis, the Nitrate assimilation test and by capsular antigen detection by latex agglutination. The Cryptoccal isolates were further biotyped by using Canavanine–Glycine–Bromothymol blue agar. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of Amphotericin B and Fluconazole for the isolates were detected. Results: The incidence of Cryptococcal meningitis in our study group was 18.2% (12/66). The Cryptococcal antigen was detected in all the 12 cases, whereas microscopy was positive only in 9 cases and Cryptococcus was isolated by culture in 10 cases. All the isolates were sensitive to Amphotericin B and 90% of the isolates were sensitive to Fluconazole. The CD4counts ranged between 22-138 cells /?l. Conclusion: A high incidence of Cryptococcal meningitis in HIV sero-reactive subjects necessitates the importance of a precise and an early microbiological diagnosis for better management of such subjects. Due to the growing concern of emerging drug resistance, the testing for the anti–fungal susceptibility has to be encouraged in all the cases.

Munivenkataswamy, Rashmi; Gopi, Anjana; Usman, Shaik Mohammed; Jagadeesh

2013-01-01

21

[Usefulness of D-proline in the differentiation of varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans].  

PubMed

A comparative study was conducted between the assimilation of D-proline and the growth on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue (CGB) medium used for the classification of the varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans. In the 86 studied strains, 100% of coincidence between both methods allowed to affirm that 95.34% corresponded to the neoformans var. and the rest (4.65%) to the gattii var. The results obtained corroborated that all the autoctonous clinical isolations up to the present correspond to the. neoformans var. and made possible to suggest the use of D-proline for the initial evaluation of strains, as an alternative and simple method that presented under these conditions high coincidence with the reference method (growth in CGB). PMID:15849915

Martínez Machín, Gerardo; Barrial de la Rosa, Lisset; Illnait Zaragozi, María T; Valdés Hernández, Iliana del C; Fernindez Andreu, Carlos M; Perurena Lancha, Mayda R; Polo Leal, Jorge L; Mendoza Llanes, Dianeya

2004-01-01

22

Genotypic diversity of environmental Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from Northern Portugal.  

PubMed

The Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex members are the main agents of systemic cryptococcosis. This disease is believed to be acquired from the environment via fungal cell inhalation. Often, isolates recovered from environmental and clinical sources have proven to be genotypically similar. We assessed the occurrence of C. neoformans and C. gattii in environmental substrates collected in a Portuguese region. Twenty-eight isolates were identified as C. neoformans - five from decaying Eucalyptus leaves and 23 from domestic pigeon droppings. The isolates were genotyped using a URA5-RFLP approach. The C. neoformans VNIV (53.6%, n = 15) and VNI (32.1%, n = 9) genotypes were abundantly present among environmental isolates. The hybrid VNIII (14.3%, n = 4) genotype was underrepresented and the VNII was not found. Cryptococcus gattii was also not found although some isolates yielded a positive canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue test. PMID:23848429

Ferreira, Ana Sofia; Sampaio, Ana; Maduro, Ana Paula; Silva, Inês; Teles, Fernando; Martins, Maria da Luz; Inácio, João

2014-02-01

23

Antifungal susceptibilities of Cryptococcus neoformans cerebrospinal fluid isolates from AIDS patients in Kenya.  

PubMed

Poor susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans to fluconazole (FLC) is a matter of concern among clinicians in Africa. The emergence of resistance to FLC was recently reported in Kenya, but it is not known whether it is widespread. Thus, there is need for more antifungal drug susceptibility studies in Kenya. The aim of this study was to measure the in vitro antifungal drug susceptibilities of incident C. neoformans isolates from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients in Kenya. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed in 67 C. neoformans isolates by broth microdilution method as outlined in the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute document M27-A3 using FLC, amphotericin B (AMB), voriconazole (VOR), ravuconazole (RAV) and flucytosine (5-FC). Isolates were grown on l-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue medium for serotype identification. Six per cent of the isolates were identified as C. neoformans var. gattii serotype B or C and 94% as C. neoformans var. neoformans. All isolates tested were susceptible to AMB, VOR and RAV (100%), and high susceptibilities were seen to FLC (97%), and 5-FC (90%). Only 3% and 10% of the isolates' susceptibility to FLC and 5-FC, respectively, was dose-dependent or intermediate. These results demonstrate high susceptibilities of incident C. neoformans isolates to FLC and AMB, antifungals used for treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in Kenya. PMID:21535451

Mdodo, Rennatus; Moser, Stephen A; Jaoko, Walter; Baddley, John; Pappas, Peter; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Aban, Inmaculada; Odera, Susan; Jolly, Pauline

2011-09-01

24

Genotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from captive birds in Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil.  

PubMed

To evaluate Cryptococcus spp. molecular types isolated from captive birds' droppings, an epidemiological survey was carried out in Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil, from December 2006 to September 2008. A total of 253 samples of bird excreta (120 fresh and 133 dry) were collected from pet shop cages and houses in different neighbourhoods. Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated in 19 (14.28%) dry samples and one fresh sample (0.84%). Cryptococcus laurentii was recovered from seven (5.26%) dry samples, but not in the fresh samples. The canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue test was positive in all but one of the C. laurentii isolates. Cryptococcus neoformans molecular typing was performed using URA5-RFLP and the mating type locus using mating type specific PCR. Nineteen (95.0%) presented genotype VNI and one VNII (5.0%). In addition, all isolates presented mating type ?. Thus, the genotype of the environmental C. neoformans isolates observed in this study is in accordance with others already reported around the world and adds information about its distribution in Brazil. Cryptococcus laurentii strains were typed using URA5-RFLP and M13 fingerprinting, which showed similar profiles among them. Thus, despite the low number of C. laurentii isolates analysed, their molecular profile is different from another already reported. PMID:20492533

Ferreira-Paim, Kennio; Andrade-Silva, Leonardo; Mora, Delio Jose; Pedrosa, André Luiz; Rodrigues, Virmondes; Silva-Vergara, Mario León

2011-09-01

25

In vitro susceptibility characteristics of Cryptococcus neoformans varieties from AIDS patients in Goiânia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Sixty clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from AIDS from Goiânia, state of Goiás, Brazil, were characterized according to varieties, serotypes and tested for antifungal susceptibility. To differentiate the two varieties was used L-canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium and to separate the serotypes was used slide agglutination test with Crypto Check Iatron. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of fluconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B were determined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards macrodilution method. Our results identified 56 isolates as C. neoformans var. neoformans serotype A and 4 isolates as C. neoformans var. gattii serotype B. MIC values for C. neoformans var. gattii were higher than C. neoformans var. neoformans. We verified that none isolate was resistant to itraconazole and to amphotericin B, but one C. neoformans var. neoformans and three C. neoformans var. gattii isolates were resistant to fluconazole. The presence of C. neoformans var. gattii fluconazole resistant indicates the importance of determining not only the variety of C. neoformans infecting the patients but also measuring the MIC of the isolate in order to properly orient treatment. PMID:14595465

de F L Fernandes, Orionalda; Passos, Xisto S; Souza, Lúcia K H; Miranda, André T B; Cerqueira, Carlos Henrique P V; Silva, Maria do Rosário R

2003-09-01

26

Hektoen Enteric Agar Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hektoen enteric agar is a selective and differential media for the recovery of enteric gram-negative rods from mixed microbiota.  The growth of gram-positive organisms and nonpathogenic enteric coliforms is inhibited through the use of bile salts and dyes, allowing intestinal pathogens, such as Salmonella and Shigella, to be more easily recovered.  The media can also differentiate between organisms that produce H2S and those that do not due to the presence of an iron-containing compound.  The use and interpretation of growth on this media is discussed in this protocol.

American Society For Microbiology;

2010-11-11

27

Electro-osmosis in gels: Application to Agar-Agar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widely used in food- and bio-engineering as a reference material, Agar-Agar gel is the focus of an experimental investigation concerning the electro-osmosis phenomenon. After presenting the experimental methods, one trial is discussed in detail. A fair reproducibility of results is obtained, and the averaged electro-osmotic permeability is provided. This value lies in the range generally measured on various kind of soils, even if Agar-Agar gel does not share any micro-structural characteristics with soils. To cite this article: F. Cherblanc et al., C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

Cherblanc, Fabien; Boscus, Jérôme; Bénet, Jean-Claude

2008-10-01

28

Automatic agar tray inoculation device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automatic agar tray inoculation device is simple in design and foolproof in operation. It employs either conventional inoculating loop or cotton swab for uniform inoculation of agar media, and it allows technician to carry on with other activities while tray is being inoculated.

Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M.

1972-01-01

29

48 CFR 401.371 - AGAR Advisories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 4 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false AGAR Advisories. 401.371 Section 401.371 ...Agency Acquisition Regulations 401.371 AGAR Advisories. The SPE may issue AGAR Advisories, consistent with the policies of...

2009-10-01

30

48 CFR 401.371 - AGAR Advisories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false AGAR Advisories. 401.371 Section 401.371 ...Agency Acquisition Regulations 401.371 AGAR Advisories. The SPE may issue AGAR Advisories, consistent with the policies of...

2010-10-01

31

Agar degradation by microorganisms and agar-degrading enzymes.  

PubMed

Agar is a mixture of heterogeneous galactans, mainly composed of 3,6-anhydro-L-galactoses (or L-galactose-6-sulfates) D-galactoses and L-galactoses (routinely in the forms of 3,6-anhydro-L-galactoses or L-galactose-6-sulfates) alternately linked by ?-(1,4) and ?-(1,3) linkages. It is a major component of the cell walls of red algae and has been used in a variety of laboratory and industrial applications, owing to its jellifying properties. Many microorganisms that can hydrolyze and metabolize agar as a carbon and energy source have been identified in seawater and marine sediments. Agarolytic microorganisms commonly produce agarases, which catalyze the hydrolysis of agar. Numerous agarases have been identified in microorganisms of various genera. They are classified according to their cleavage pattern into three types-?-agarase, ?-agarase, and ?-porphyranase. Although, in a broad sense, many other agarases are involved in complete hydrolysis of agar, most of those identified are ?-agarases. In this article we review agarolytic microorganisms and their agar-hydrolyzing systems, covering ?-agarases as well as ?-agarases, ?-neoagarobiose hydrolases, and ?-porphyranases, with emphasis on the recent discoveries. We also present an overview of the biochemical and structural characteristics of the various types of agarases. Further, we summarize and compare the agar-hydrolyzing systems of two specific microorganisms: Gram-negative Saccharophagus degradans 2-40 and Gram-positive Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). We conclude with a brief discussion of the importance of agarases and their possible future application in producing oligosaccharides with various nutraceutical activities and in sustainably generating stock chemicals for biorefinement and bioenergy. PMID:22526785

Chi, Won-Jae; Chang, Yong-Keun; Hong, Soon-Kwang

2012-05-01

32

Light Blue - Dark Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem provides students the opportunity to explore fractions in a practical context as well as identify and explain patterns and justify their ideas. Solvers are shown a sequence of five squares shaded light blue and dark blue and are asked to find what fraction of the total area of each square is covered by light blue. They are also asked to work out what the next two squares would look like if they followed the pattern. The Teachers' Notes page offers rationale, suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, and ideas for extension and support.

2003-04-01

33

An Agar Agar Chamber for the Study of Electromagnetic Waves in an Inhomogeneous Medium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A medium for the propagation of electromagnetic waves whose dielectric constant or loss tangent has a prescribed profile was fabricated by using a large quantity of agar agar in simulation chambers. The dielectric constant of the agar agar could be change...

K. Iizuka

1968-01-01

34

Application of the Agar-Agar Electrophoretic Method to Isolation of Soluble Proteins in Nerve Tissue.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method of electrophoresis using agar-agar in lieu of filtering paper in order to lessen protein adsorption was investigated. Satisfactory results were obtained in the isolation of the proteins of nerve tissue. The agar also made it possible to demonstra...

A. V. Palladin N. M. Polyakova

1964-01-01

35

Agar Concentration in Counting Clostridium Colonies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Decreasing the agar concentration of a counting medium from the usual 1.5% resulted in larger colonies with less interference from gas in Clostridium botulinum 115B and C. sporogenes PA 3679. Optimal agar concentration was 0.65% for C. botulinum with 24-h...

C. Eller L. Rogers E. S. Wynne

1966-01-01

36

Breathing Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this demonstration of chemical change, the presenter blows breath into a methylene blue solution releasing carbon dioxide which acidifies the water and changes it from a bright blue color to green.

Wosu

2009-08-20

37

The physicochemical property characterization of agar acetate.  

PubMed

A series of agar acetates with different degree of substitution (DS) were prepared, and their properties were determined and analyzed. The results showed that the gelling temperature, the gel melting temperature, the gel strength, the gel hardness, the gel fracturability, the gel springiness and the solution apparent viscosity of agar acetates all decreased except that their gel cohesiveness increased with the increase of DS. The variation process of agar molecules in solution from coil to helix could be also observed by measuring solution optical rotation in a lower concentration at which even the solution could not form a gel. The gel skeleton structures of agar acetates were of porous network structures, and the pores became smaller and denser with the increase of DS. After acetylation, the water holding capacity of the agar was improved, but its thermal stability was lowered. PMID:24906725

Xia, Kai; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Jingkun; Zhang, Xiaodong

2014-09-22

38

Evaluation of an automated agar plate streaker.  

PubMed Central

An automated agar plate streaker was evaluated. The Autostreaker mechanizes the agar plate streaking process by providing storage for plates, labeling and streaking one or more plates for either isolation or quantitation, and stacking in one of several racks for subsequent incubation. Results showed the Autostreaker to produce agar plates with well-separated colonies and accurate colony counts. A total of 1,930 clinical specimens were processed either in parallel with manual methods or solely by the Autostreaker. Technologist acceptance of machine-streaked plates was outstanding. Images

Tilton, R C; Ryan, R W

1978-01-01

39

Some Experiments With Agar-Grown Seedlings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two percent agar gel is reported as a better medium for germination and growth studies. Students can be encouraged to undertake many simple experiments and make precise observations by using this medium. (PS)

Freeland, P. W.

1973-01-01

40

Characterization of physicochemical properties of carboxymethyl agar.  

PubMed

A series of carboxymethyl agars (CMAs) with different degree of substitution (DS) were prepared, and their properties were determined and analyzed. The results showed that with the increase of DS, the dissolving temperature, the gelling temperature, the gel melting temperature, the gel strength, the gel hardness, the gel fracturability, and the solution apparent viscosity of CMA all decreased, except that its gel cohesiveness and gel springiness increased. The variation process of agar molecules in solution from coil to helix could be observed by measuring the optical rotation of the solution at such a low concentration, at which even the solution could not form a gel. The gel skeleton microstructures of both agar and CMA were of porous network structure, and the pore size of CMA became smaller and denser with the increase of its DS. After carboxymethylation, the agar hygroscopicity was improved, but its thermal stability was lowered. PMID:25037374

Cao, Mingzhao; Liu, Xin; Luan, Jimei; Zhang, Xiaodong

2014-10-13

41

Natural porous agar materials from macroalgae.  

PubMed

Porous agar materials have been prepared from marine macroalgae species using a simple microwave-assisted extraction/drying methodology, providing a new family of polysaccharide derived porous solids. The microwave-assisted extraction allows a more efficient and less time-consuming extraction of the polysaccharide compared to conventional extraction protocols based on conventional heating. DRIFT and (13)C NMR results indicated that the internal agar structure (based on d-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose linked units) was preserved after the extraction methodology, which opens a wide range of future possibilities and applications for this new family of porous polysaccharides. The extracted agar materials, which have already applications per se due to their high purities, could be subsequently transformed into a novel family of attractive mesoporous agar materials that could be used as natural templates for the production of nanocrystals of metal oxides. PMID:23399188

Francavilla, Matteo; Pineda, Antonio; Lin, Carol S K; Franchi, Massimo; Trotta, Pasquale; Romero, Antonio A; Luque, Rafael

2013-02-15

42

21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Ouchterlony agar plate. 866.4600 Section 866.4600...and Reagents § 866.4600 Ouchterlony agar plate. (a) Identification. An ouchterlony agar plate for clinical use is a device...

2009-04-01

43

21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ouchterlony agar plate. 866.4600 Section 866.4600...and Reagents § 866.4600 Ouchterlony agar plate. (a) Identification. An ouchterlony agar plate for clinical use is a device...

2010-04-01

44

Comparison of Four Selective Agars for the Isolation of Pseudomonads  

PubMed Central

Significant differences were found between Dettol (chloroxylenol) agar, nalidixic acid-cetrimide agar, and two other cetrimide-containing agars used for the isolation of small numbers of pseudomonads.

Hart, A.; Kite, Atricia E.

1977-01-01

45

Blue Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Information is presented on Blue Moons, including what they are, where the expression and name came from, and which months have the most Blue Moons. A calculator is provided to see when past and future Blue Moons have and will occur. In addition, moon phases are charted for the next and last month, year, and Metonic Cycles. General Moon information is included, along with links for further information.

Harper, David; Stockman, Lynne

46

Blue Note  

ScienceCinema

Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

Murray Gibson

2010-01-08

47

Blue Note  

SciTech Connect

Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

Murray Gibson

2007-04-27

48

Extraction of agar from Gelidium sesquipedale (Rhodopyta) and surface characterization of agar based films.  

PubMed

The chemical structure of the agar obtained from Gelidium sesquipedale (Rhodophyta) has been determined by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Agar (AG) films with different amounts of soy protein isolate (SPI) were prepared using a thermo-moulding method, and transparent and hydrophobic films were obtained and characterized. FTIR analysis provided a detailed description of the binding groups present in the films, such as carboxylic, hydroxyl and sulfonate groups, while the surface composition was examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The changes observed by FTIR and XPS spectra suggested interactions between functional groups of agar and SPI. This is a novel approach to the characterization of agar-based films and provides knowledge about the compatibility of agar and soy protein for further investigation of the functional properties of biodegradable films based on these biopolymers. PMID:24274535

Guerrero, P; Etxabide, A; Leceta, I; Peñalba, M; de la Caba, K

2014-01-01

49

The Blues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Noted bluesman Willie Dixon once said, "The blues are the roots; everything else is the fruits". Wise words indeed, and the quote informs the spirit of Martin Scorsese's PBS documentary series "The Blues". This interactive website provides users with some great material about this seven part series, which features segments by Clint Eastwood, Wim Wenders, and of course, Mr. Scorsese. On the site, visitors can watch previews of each segment and learn more about the artists profiled in each one. In "The Songs & the Artists" area, visitors can read musician biographies and even check out the accompanying radio series which was released in conjunction with the documentary. Those who like to travel should click on the "Blues Road Trip" area. Here they will have the opportunity to take a musical journey from the Deep South to Memphis, St. Louis, and Chicago via song, photographs, and maps. The site is rounded out by the "Blues Classroom" area, which is designed for educators. Interested parties can view lesson plans, look over a blues glossary, and read several background essays.

50

Troubleshooting in the Analysis of Hexachlorocyclohexane Isomers in Agar-Agar Culture Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to determine hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) in agar-agar culture media was developed in order to study the bioremediation potential of these compounds. Spiked culture medium samples (0.5 g) were finely chopped and then extracted with 20 ml of hexane:ethyl acetate (80:20) in an ultrasonic bath during 30 min and analyzed by gas chromatography and electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Analytical

M. Barriada-Pereira; M. J. González-Castro; S. Muniategui-Lorenzo; P. López-MahÍa; D. Prada-RodrÍguez; E. Fernández-Fernández

2007-01-01

51

[Utilization of tomato juice agar (V8 agar) in the presumptive identification of Candida dubliniensis].  

PubMed

We evaluated the capacity of tomato juice agar (V8 agar) to differentiate Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans based on chlamydospore production. Candida albicans (n= 93) and Candida dubliniensis (n= 26) were studied; 100% of Candida dubliniensis showed chlamydospores and in 92.5% of Candida albicans isolates these elements were absent. These results suggest this medium as an alternative tool for presumptive differentiation between these species. PMID:16501777

Alves, Sydney Hartz; Linares, Carlos Eduardo; Loreto, Erico Silva de; Rodrigues, Magnus; Thomazi, Diego I; Souza, Felipe; Santurio, Janio M

2006-01-01

52

Automatic surface inoculation of agar trays.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Description of a machine and technique for the automatic inoculation of a plastic tray containing agar media with a culture, using either a conventional inoculation loop or a cotton swab. The design of the machine is simple, it is easy to use, and it relieves the operator from the manual task of streaking cultures. The described technique makes possible the visualization of the overall qualitative and, to some extent, quantitative relationships of various bacterial types in a sample tested.

Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M.; Boykin, E. H.

1972-01-01

53

Chemical structure and quality of agars from Gracilaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agar polymers synthesized by species of the genus Gracilaria constitute a complex mixture of molecules, containing several extremes in structure. Sulphate hemi-esters, methyl ethers\\u000a and pyruvic ketals can alter in a number of ways the structural regularity of agar based on strictly 3-O-linked ?-l-galactopyranose and 4-O-linked ?-l-galactopyranose residues. In comparison with agars from Gelidium and Pterocladia, agars from Gracilaria can

Erminio Murano

1995-01-01

54

Agars from three species of Gracilaria (Rhodophyta) from Yucatán Peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gracilaria cervicornis, Gracilaria blodgettii and Gracilaria crassissima growing along the coasts of Yucatán were investigated for their agar content. The effect of different concentrations of NaOH in the alkali treatment was evaluated. The three species of Gracilaria produced agars, both native and alkali treated, with different properties confirming the heterogeneity of the agar polymers in this genera. G. cervicornis produces

Y. Freile-Pelegr??n; E. Murano

2005-01-01

55

[New selective indicator medium for detection of Aeromonas and Plesiomonas: UNISC agar].  

PubMed

We evaluated a new selective indicator medium (UNISC Agar) for isolation of classical enteropathogens, Aeromonas spp and Plesiomonas shigelloides. The xylose fermentation capacity is indicated by a yellow color (fermenting agents) or blue (no fermenting agent). This, together with the oxidase test, establishes it as an indicator for detecting Aeromonas and Plesiomonas shigelloides. Its productivity and selectivity, as assessed using the absolute count index and relative count index, indicate it as an alternative to the classical feces culturing media. This is because, in a single medium, it enables isolation of Escherichia coli, Shigella spp and Salmonella spp, in addition to Aeromonas and Plesiomonas shigelloides, thereby favoring the laboratory diagnosis of gastroenteritis. PMID:18853024

Rocha, Marion Pereira da; Scheid, Liliane A; Alves, Sydney Hartz

2008-01-01

56

Blue Whales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-minute sound segment, a professor of physics and astronomy describes the communication ability of the blue whale. He says that pitch discrimination with whales is incredibly accurate. The whales produce this call always at exactly four octaves below middle C, based on measurements of 6,000 whale calls. This site is from an archive of a daily radio program called Pulse of the Planet, which provides its listeners with a portrait of Planet Earth, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. The site also provides a written transcript of the broadcast.

2007-06-05

57

Screening fungicides for use in fish culture: Evaluation of the agar plug transfer, cellophane transfer, and agar dilution methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The reliability, reproducibility, and usefulness of three screening methods -- the cellophane transfer, the agar plug transfer, and the agar dilution -- to screen aquatic fungicides were evaluated. Achlya flagellata and Saprolegnia hypogyna were exposed to 1, 10, and 100 mg/L of malachite green to test each method. The cellophane transfer and agar plug transfer techniques had similar reliability and reproducibility in rating fungicidal activity, and were both superior to the agar dilution technique. The agar plug transfer and agar dilution techniques adequately projected in vivo activity of malachite green, but the cellophane transfer technique overestimated its activity. Overall, the agar plug transfer technique most accurately rated the activity of malachite green and was the easiest test to perform. It therefore appears to be the method of choice for testing aquatic fungicides.

Bailey, Tom A.

1983-01-01

58

Blue light (470 nm) effectively inhibits bacterial and fungal growth.  

PubMed

Blue light (470 nm) LED antimicrobial properties were studied alone against bacteria and with or without the food grade photosensitizer, erythrosine (ERY) against filamentous fungi. Leuconostoc mesenteroides (LM), Bacillus atrophaeus (BA) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) aliquots were exposed on nutrient agar plates to Array 1 (AR1, 0·2 mW cm(-2) ) or Array 2 (AR2, 80 mW cm(-2) ), which emitted impure or pure blue light (0-300 J cm(-2) ), respectively. Inoculated control (room light only) plates were incubated (48 h) and colonies enumerated. The antifungal properties of blue light combined with ERY (11·4 and 22·8 ?mol l(-1) ) on Penicillium digitatum (PD) and Fusarium graminearum (FG) conidia were determined. Conidial controls consisted of: no light, room light-treated conidia and ERY plus room light. Light-treated (ERY + blue light) conidial samples were exposed only to AR2 (0-100 J cm(-2) ), aliquots spread on potato dextrose agar plates, incubated (48 h, 30°C) and colonies counted. Blue light alone significantly reduced bacterial and FG viability. Combined with ERY, it significantly reduced PD viability. Blue light is lethal to bacteria and filamentous fungi although effectiveness is dependent on light purity, energy levels and microbial genus. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Light from two arrays of different blue LEDs significantly reduced bacterial (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Bacillus atrophaeus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) viabilities. Significant in vitro viability loss was observed for the filamentous fungi, Penicillium digitatum and Fusarium graminearum when exposed to pure blue light only plus a photosensitizer. F.graminearum viability was significantly reduced by blue light alone. Results suggest that (i) the amount of significant loss in bacterial viability observed for blue light that is pure or with traces of other wavelengths is genus dependent and (ii) depending on fungal genera, pure blue light is fungicidal with or without a photosensitizer. PMID:23009190

De Lucca, A J; Carter-Wientjes, C; Williams, K A; Bhatnagar, D

2012-09-25

59

Chocolate agar, a differential medium for gram-positive cocci.  

PubMed Central

Reactions incurred on chocolate agar by gram-positive cocci were correlated with species identity. Darkening and clearing of the medium was usually associated with the species Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus simulans, and Streptococcus faecalis. Yellowing of chocolate agar was associated with alpha-hemolytic species of Streptococcus. The study demonstrated that reactions occurring on chocolate agar are useful in identifying gram-positive cocci.

Gunn, B A

1984-01-01

60

Comparison of three gracilarioids: growth rate, agar content and quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three gracilarioid species, Gracilariopsis bailiniae and Gracilaria tenuistipitata from Vietnam and Gracilaria gracilis from Russia, were studied in order to determine whether Gracilaria gracilis might be a superior species for cultivation in brackish-water ponds for agar production compared with the Vietnamese species.\\u000a The effects of different salinity levels on the growth rate and agar production as well as agar properties

Anna V. Skriptsova; Yulia V. Nabivailo

2009-01-01

61

Acanthamoeba on Sabouraud's agar from a patient with keratitis  

PubMed Central

A 25-year-old transgender patient came with complaints of watery discharge, red eye and photophobia in the left eye since 2 days. The patient had a history of wearing colored contact lenses since 4 years and cleaning the lens with tap water. Culture of lenses on Mac Conkey and blood agar yielded Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Sabouroud's agar showed yeast cells and double-walled cysts of Acanthamoeba species. On further incubation of Sabouroud's agar, the cysts transformed to trophozoites. Parallel results were obtained on tap water agar. The previous therapy of moxifloxacin was changed to local Neosporin application.

Baradkar, Vasant; Samal, Badhuli; Mali, Swapna A; Kulkarni, Ketaki; Shastri, Jayanthi

2011-01-01

62

The Blue Bottle Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a modification of the classic Blue Bottle demonstration that involves the alkaline glucose reduction of methylene blue. Uses other indicators in the classic Blue Bottle to produce a rainbow of colors. (JRH)

Vandaveer, Walter R., IV; Mosher, Mel

1997-01-01

63

Blue nightshade poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Blue nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This is for information only and ... The poison is found in the blue nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) plant, especially in the fruit and leaves.

64

Mongolian blue spots  

MedlinePLUS

Mongolian spots are flat, blue, or blue-gray skin markings near the buttocks that appear at birth or shortly thereafter. ... Mongolian blue spots are common among persons who are of Asian, East Indian, and African descent.

65

Growth of Desulfovibrio on the Surface of Agar Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (API strain) was grown in an atmosphere of hydrogen on the agar surface of complex media, including yeast extract (Difco) and trypticase soy agar (BBL). Sodium lactate was required in the medium for the organism to grow on a 2%...

W. P. Iverson

1965-01-01

66

Growth of Desulfovibrio on the Surface of Agar Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Growth of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (API strain) was found to take place in an atmosphere of hydrogen on the agar surface of complex media, including yeast extract (Difco), and Trypticase Soy Agar (BBL) without any added reducing agents. For growth on a...

W. P. Iverson

1966-01-01

67

Hyperspectral imaging for detecting pathogens grown on agar plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the development of a hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting and identifying one of the most common foodborne pathogens, Campylobacter. Direct plating using agars is an effective tool for laboratory tests and analyses of microorganisms. The morphology (size, growth pattern, color, etc.) of colonies grown on agar plates has been widely used to tentatively differentiate organisms.

Seung Chul Yoon; Kurt C. Lawrence; Gregory R. Siragusa; John E. Line; William R. Windham

2007-01-01

68

Differentiation of Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans on rosemary extract agar and oregano extract agar.  

PubMed

Candida dubliniensis is a recently described pathogenic species which shares many phenotypic features with Candida albicans and therefore, may be misidentified in microbiological laboratories. Because molecular methods can be onerous and unfeasible in routine mycological laboratories with restricted budgets such as those in developing countries, phenotypic techniques have been encouraged in the development of differential media for the presumptive identification of these species. We examined the colony morphology and chlamydospore production of 30 C. dubliniensis isolates and 100 C. albicans isolates on two new proposed media: rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract agar (REA) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) extract agar (OEA). These substrates are traditionally used as spices and medicinal herbs. In both of these media, all C. dubliniensis isolates (100%) showed rough colonies with peripheral hyphal fringes and abundant chlamydospores after 24 to 48 hr of incubation at 25 degrees C. In contrast, under the same conditions, all isolates of C. albicans (100%) showed smooth colonies without hyphal fringes or chlamydospores. In conclusion, REA and OEA offer a simple, rapid, and inexpensive screening media for the differentiation of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis. PMID:18484650

de Loreto, Erico Silva; Pozzatti, Patrícia; Alves Scheid, Liliane; Santurio, Deise; Morais Santurio, Janio; Alves, Sydney Hartz

2008-01-01

69

Egg yolk emulsion agar, a new medium for the cultivation of Helicobacter pylori.  

PubMed Central

We developed a new agar, egg yolk emulsion (EYE) agar, for cultivation of Helicobacter pylori. EYE agar contains Columbia agar base (Oxoid), 10% EYE (Oxoid), 1% IsoVitaleX (BBL), and 40 mg of Triphenyleteraxolium chloride (Sigma) per liter. We compared EYE agar with the following agars: (i) brain heart infusion agar-7% horse blood-1% IsoVitaleX (GDW agar; C. S. Goodwin, E. D. Blincow, J. R. Warren, T. E. Waters, C. R. Sanderson, and L. Easton, J. Clin. Pathol. 38:1127-1131, 1985), (ii) brain heart infusion agar-10% horse serum-0.2% charcoal-1% yeast extract-40 mg of triphenyltetrazolium chloride per liter (GLU agar; Y. Glupczynski, M. Labbe, and F. Thiabaumont, p. 3-6, in F. Megraud and H. Lamouliatte, ed., Gastroduodenal Pathology and Campylobacter pylori, 1989), (iii) Columbia agar with 7% lysed horse blood (D&M agar; J. C. Dent and C. A. M. McNulty, Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 7:555-558, 1988), and (iv) brain heart infusion agar-10% EYE-1% IsoVitaleX (BHIE agar). H. pylori CFU counts, expressed as average percentages of maximum growth, were as follows: EYE agar, 96; GDW agar. 76; BHIE agar, 57; D&M agar, 52; and GLU agar, 23. Colony counts for EYE agar were significantly higher than for GDW agar (P = 0.027), BHIE agar (P = 0.005), D&M agar (P = 0.0001), and GLU agar (P less than 0.0001). EYE agar also had higher CFU counts than two commercial chocolate media; the EYE agar count was 80%, versus 33% for BBL chocolate medium and 63% for Remel chocolate medium.

Westblom, T U; Madan, E; Midkiff, B R

1991-01-01

70

Egg yolk emulsion agar, a new medium for the cultivation of Helicobacter pylori.  

PubMed

We developed a new agar, egg yolk emulsion (EYE) agar, for cultivation of Helicobacter pylori. EYE agar contains Columbia agar base (Oxoid), 10% EYE (Oxoid), 1% IsoVitaleX (BBL), and 40 mg of Triphenyleteraxolium chloride (Sigma) per liter. We compared EYE agar with the following agars: (i) brain heart infusion agar-7% horse blood-1% IsoVitaleX (GDW agar; C. S. Goodwin, E. D. Blincow, J. R. Warren, T. E. Waters, C. R. Sanderson, and L. Easton, J. Clin. Pathol. 38:1127-1131, 1985), (ii) brain heart infusion agar-10% horse serum-0.2% charcoal-1% yeast extract-40 mg of triphenyltetrazolium chloride per liter (GLU agar; Y. Glupczynski, M. Labbe, and F. Thiabaumont, p. 3-6, in F. Megraud and H. Lamouliatte, ed., Gastroduodenal Pathology and Campylobacter pylori, 1989), (iii) Columbia agar with 7% lysed horse blood (D&M agar; J. C. Dent and C. A. M. McNulty, Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 7:555-558, 1988), and (iv) brain heart infusion agar-10% EYE-1% IsoVitaleX (BHIE agar). H. pylori CFU counts, expressed as average percentages of maximum growth, were as follows: EYE agar, 96; GDW agar. 76; BHIE agar, 57; D&M agar, 52; and GLU agar, 23. Colony counts for EYE agar were significantly higher than for GDW agar (P = 0.027), BHIE agar (P = 0.005), D&M agar (P = 0.0001), and GLU agar (P less than 0.0001). EYE agar also had higher CFU counts than two commercial chocolate media; the EYE agar count was 80%, versus 33% for BBL chocolate medium and 63% for Remel chocolate medium. PMID:1890184

Westblom, T U; Madan, E; Midkiff, B R

1991-04-01

71

Rapid distinction between micrococci and staphylococci with furazolidone agars.  

PubMed

Furazolidone agar proved to be a suitable medium for separating strains of the genera Micrococcus and Staphylococcus. 720 isolates (including 24 type strains) of gram- and catalase-positive cocci were tested for growth on tryptone soya and peptone agar with the addition of 50 microgram/ml furazolidone. The results were compared with the classification obtained by the standard-O/F-test and by the test system of Schleifer and Kloos. For routine identification and separation of staphylococci from micrococci a peptone agar with 20 microgram furazolidone/ml is recommended. PMID:7018395

von Rheinbaben, K E; Hadlok, R M

1981-03-01

72

A Novel Chromogenic Ester Agar Medium for Detection of Salmonellae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel agar medium, chromogenic Salmonella esterase (CSE) agar, for the differentiation of salmonellae is described. The agar contains peptones and nutrient extracts together with the following (grams per liter unless otherwise specified): 4-(2-(4-octanoyloxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-vinyl)-quinolinium-1-(propan-3-yl carboxylic acid) bromide (SLPA-octanoate; bromide form), 0.3223; lactose, 14.65; trisodium citrate dihydrate, 0.5; Tween 20, 3.0; ethyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate, 0.035% (wt\\/vol), novobiocin, 70 mg liter 21 .

VENITIA M. COOKE; R. J. MILES; R. G. PRICE; A. C. RICHARDSON

1999-01-01

73

Agar Gel Precipitin-Inhibition Technique for Histoplasmosis Antibody Determinations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The agar gel precipitin-inhibition techniques of Ray, Kadull and Shay have been modified to detect Histoplasma capsulatum antibodies in sera from human clinical cases and experimental animals infected with this organism. With the modified procedure antibo...

J. G. Ray

1967-01-01

74

21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4600 Ouchterlony agar plate. (a)...

2013-04-01

75

Rapid distinction between micrococci and staphylococci with furazolidone agars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Furazolidone agar proved to be a suitable medium for separating strains of the genera Micrococcus and Staphylococcus. 720 isolates (including 24 type strains) of gram- and catalase-positive cocci were tested for growth on tryptone soya and peptone agar with the addition of 50 µg\\/ml furazolidone. The results were compared with the classification obtained by the standard-O\\/F-test and by the test

K. E. yON RHEINBABEN; R. M. Hadlok

1981-01-01

76

Diffusion of sucrose and dextran through agar gel membranes.  

PubMed

Mass transfer limitations severely impede the performance of bioreactions involving large molecules by gel-entrapped microorganisms. This paper describes a quantitative investigation of such diffusional limitations in agar gel membranes. Sucrose and commercial dextran fractions with (weight-average) molecular weights ranging from 10,000 to 2,000,000 Da were used as standard diffusants. For all tested solutes but sucrose, the values of the agar/water partition coefficients highlighted steric hindrance at the entrance of the membrane pores. The effective diffusivity of sucrose in agar was similar to that in water. All dextran fractions, however, displayed restricted diffusion in the agar membranes. Their effective diffusivities were a decreasing function of the agar content of the gel membrane (0.5, 1.0, or 1.5% w/v). The effective diffusivity in a given membrane decreased as the molecular weight of the diffusing molecule increased. T500 (Mw = 470,000 Da) and T2000 (Mw = 1,950,000 Da) fractions were unable to diffuse through 1.0 or 1.5% agar membranes. The diffusion data did not agree with the classical (Renkin) model for a hard sphere diffusing through a cylindrical pore. These results are discussed in terms of gel and diffusant characteristics. PMID:7505595

Lebrun, L; Junter, G A

1993-12-01

77

Thermal characterization of magnetically aligned carbonyl iron/agar composites.  

PubMed

Composites of magnetic particles into polymeric matrices have received increasing research interest due to their capacity to respond to external magnetic or electromagnetic fields. In this study, agar from Gelidium robustum has been chosen as natural biocompatible polymer to build the matrix of the magnetic carbonyl iron particles (CIP) for their uses in biomedical fields. Heat transfer behavior of the CIP-agar composites containing different concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% w/w) of magnetically aligned and non-aligned CIP in the agar matrix was studied using photothermal radiometry (PTR) in the back-propagation emission configuration. The morphology of the CIP-agar composites with aligned and non-aligned CIP under magnetic field was also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results revealed a dominant effect of CIP concentration over the alignment patterns induced by the magnetic field, which agrees with the behavior of the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity. Agar served as a perfect matrix to be used with CIP, and CIP-agar composites magnetically aligned at 20% CIP concentration can be considered as promising 'smart' material for hyperthermia treatments in the biomedical field. PMID:24274482

Diaz-Bleis, D; Vales-Pinzón, C; Freile-Pelegrín, Y; Alvarado-Gil, J J

2014-01-01

78

Methylene blue test  

MedlinePLUS

The methylene blue test is a test to determine the type of methemoglobinemia (a blood disorder). ... are removed. A dark green powder called methylene blue goes through the tube into your vein. The ...

79

Greening the Blue Bottle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the revised Blue Bottle formulation to the classical Blue Bottle. Indicates that the revised formulation gives a somewhat bluer solution, but initially slower reduction when compared to the classical formulation. (Author/KHR)

Wellman, Whitney E.; Noble, Mark E.

2003-01-01

80

Evaluation of Mannitol Salt Agar for Detection of Oxacillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by Disk Diffusion and Agar Screening  

PubMed Central

Mannitol salt agar was evaluated for detection of oxacillin resistance in 136 Staphylococcus aureus isolates. All mecA-positive isolates (n = 54) were correctly categorized as oxacillin resistant by the disk diffusion test (1-?g disk; zone diameter, <16 mm); the specificity was 97.6%. Agar screening (2 ?g of oxacillin per ml) revealed a sensitivity of 98.1% and a specificity of 95.1%.

Kampf, Gunter; Lecke, Christoph; Cimbal, Ann-Katrin; Weist, Klaus; Ruden, Henning

1998-01-01

81

Immobilization of pectin degrading enzyme from Bacillus licheniformis KIBGE IB-21 using agar-agar as a support.  

PubMed

Pectinase from Bacillus licheniformis KIBGE IB-21 was immobilized in agar-agar matrix using entrapment technique. Effect of different concentrations of agar-agar on pectinase immobilization was investigated and it was found that maximum immobilization was achieved at 3.0% agar-agar with 80% enzyme activity. After immobilization, the optimum temperature of enzyme increased from 45 to 50 °C and reaction time from 5 to 10 minutes as compared to free enzyme. Due to the limited diffusion of high molecular weight substrate, K(m) of immobilized enzyme slightly increased from 1.017 to 1.055 mg ml(-1), while Vmax decreased from 23,800 to 19,392 ?M min(-1) as compared to free enzyme. After 120 h entrapped pectinase retained their activity up to 82% and 71% at 30 °C and 40 °C, respectively. The entrapped pectinase showed activity until 10th cycle and maintain 69.21% activity even after third cycle. PMID:24507327

Rehman, Haneef Ur; Aman, Afsheen; Zohra, Raheela Rahmat; Qader, Shah Ali Ul

2014-02-15

82

Enhanced isolation of Serpulina hyodysenteriae by using sliced agar media.  

PubMed Central

A method has been developed for separating Serpulina hyodysenteriae, a large spirochete and the causative agent of swine dysentery (SD), from other fecal anaerobic bacteria in rectal and colonic swabs. This was done by cutting the blood agar in parallel cuts and streaking perpendicular to the cuts in the center of the petri dish. Migration of S. hyodysenteriae from the central streak was apparent by the presence of strong beta-hemolysis along the edges of the cuts. If only S. hyodysenteriae migrated in the cut, they migrated to the end of the cut. However, if both motile bacteria and S. hyodysenteriae migrated in the cut, the motile bacteria migrated to the end of the cut where they formed colonies and the S. hyodysenteriae located along the edges of the cut between the colonies of motile bacteria and the central streak. Although motile bacteria were present where S. hyodysenteriae located, the growth of the motile bacteria was partially inhibited since they rarely formed visible colonies and were low in number. The cut in the agar was thought to improve traction for the serpentine movement of the S. hyodysenteriae and for the flagellar movement of the motile bacteria. Use of sliced blood agar was superior to conventionally streaked blood agar in that (i) it was easier to see strong beta-hemolysis on sliced agar; (ii) frequently, a confirmatory diagnosis could be made using only one petri dish with sliced agar, thereby saving time and media; (iii) S. hyodysenteriae could sometimes be isolated free of other bacteria; and (iv) sliced agar was more effective in isolating S. hyodysenteriae from swine with chronic diarrhea and nondiarrhetic carriers of SD in which the shedding of S. hyodysenteriae was low.

Olson, L D

1996-01-01

83

The Blue Flame Cafe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online biographical encyclopedia of the blues contains entries on almost all of the "great blues singers and singers of the blues." Entries include the pioneers and foundational figures such as Bessie Smith, Robert Johnson, and T-Bone Walker; their lesser-known (outside the Blues community) contemporaries; and their more recent musical heirs such as Stevie Ray Vaughan and Eric Clapton. Each singer's entry includes a concise overview of their influences, career, and musical legacy. Most are also accompanied by a tantalizingly short (only ten seconds) song excerpt in .wav format. A collection of blues links and an internal search engine round out the site.

84

Hyperspectral imaging for detecting pathogens grown on agar plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with the development of a hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting and identifying one of the most common foodborne pathogens, Campylobacter. Direct plating using agars is an effective tool for laboratory tests and analyses of microorganisms. The morphology (size, growth pattern, color, etc.) of colonies grown on agar plates has been widely used to tentatively differentiate organisms. However, it is sometimes difficult to differentiate target organisms like Campylobacters from other contaminants grown together on the same agar plates. A hyperspectral imaging system operating at the visible and near infrared (VNIR) spectral region from 400 nm to 900 nm was set up to measure spectral signatures of 17 different Campylobacter and non-Campylobacter subspecies. Protocols for culturing, imaging samples and for calibrating measured data were developed. The VNIR spectral library of all 17 organisms commonly encountered in poultry was established from calibrated hyperspectral images. A classification algorithm was developed to locate and identify Campylobacters, non-Campylobacter contaminants, and background agars with 99.29% accuracy. This research has a potential to be expanded to detect other pathogens grown on agar media.

Yoon, Seung Chul; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Siragusa, Gregory R.; Line, John E.; Park, Bosoon; Windham, William R.

2007-09-01

85

Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) poisoning, case report and review.  

PubMed

Gathering and eating mushrooms and other plants containing psychoactive substances has become increasingly popular among young people experimenting with drugs. Dried fly agaric Amanita muscaria fruiting bodies were eaten by five young persons (18-21 years of age) at a party in order to evoke hallucinations. Visual and auditory hallucinations occurred in four of them, whereas a 18-year-old girl lost consciousness. The following morning, she went to the Clinic of Toxicology. Due to the fact that not all the active substances present in the fly agaric have been identified, and some of them have an effect after a period of latency, the patient was admitted for several days of observation during which check-up examinations were performed. After four days without any problems, she was discharged. The poisoning regressed with no organ complications. The remaining persons who had eaten the fly agaric were free from any complaints. PMID:15904689

Satora, Leszek; Pach, Dorota; Butryn, Beata; Hydzik, Piotr; Balicka-Slusarczyk, Barbara

2005-06-01

86

Remazol Brilliant Blue R decolourisation by the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus and its oxidative enzymatic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decolourisation of the recalcitrant dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) by the fungus basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus was investigated. P. ostreatus is able to decolourise RBBR on agar plate. When grow in liquid media supplemented with veratryl alcohol, the fungus completely decolourises RBBR in 3 days. In these conditions, P. ostreatus produces among other enzymes, laccases, veratryl alcohol oxidase and dye-decolourising

G. Palmieri; G. Cennamo; G. Sannia

2005-01-01

87

Agar from two coexisting species of Gracilaria (Gracilariaceae) from the Mexican Caribbean Agar de dos especies coexistentes de Gracilaria (Gracilariaceae) del Caribe mexicano  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gracilaria cornea and G. crassissima are similar species that coexist at Bajo Pepito in the Mexican Caribbean. Differences in agar properties from both species were determined for two reproductive categories: carposporic and undetermined, the latter mainly composed of tetrasporophytes. Agar yield (AY), agar gel strength (GS), 3,6-anhydrogalactose content (AG) and sulfate content (S) of native and alkali-treated agar were determined

Julio Espinoza-Avalos; Enrique Hernández-Garibay; José A. Zertuche-González

2003-01-01

88

Transferring a Bacterial Culture to an Agar Slant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video from CUNY Kingsborough Community College describes how to transfer a bacterial culture to an agar slant. The brief demonstration is described step by step and would be easy to replicate in a laboratory setting. Running time for the video is 0:34.

2013-06-28

89

Direct Cloning of Human Ovarian Carcinoma Cells in Agar1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently developed an in vitro assay for human tumor stem cells that permits cloning of human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells in soft agar. Tumor colonies grew from both effusions and biopsies from 85% of 31 ovarian cancer patients. The cloning efficiency did not vary with the histology of the tumor. Growth was induced with medium conditioned by the adherent

Anne W. Hamburger; Sydney E. Salmon; Mary B. Kim; Jeff M. Trent; Barbara J. Soehnlen

90

Blue Crab Fisheries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A comprehensive resource on the commercial and recreational blue crab fishery in the Maryland and Virginia waters of the Chesapeake Bay. Explore regulation information for both states, as well as the different gear and methods for catching blue crabs. Though most information pertains to MD and VA, there is an abundance of links to additional information that is not area-specific.

2010-12-01

91

Blue Willow Story Plates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

Fontes, Kris

2009-01-01

92

Blue Ribbon Art Show.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the process of selecting judges for a Blue Ribbon Art Show (Springfield, Missouri). Used adults (teachers, custodians, professional artists, parents, and principals) chosen by the Willard South Elementary School art teacher to judge student artwork. States that nominated students received blue ribbons. (CMK)

Bowen, Judy Domeny

2002-01-01

93

Evaluation of Pseudosel Agar as an Aid in the Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and thirty-five other species of gramnegative bacilli was observed on 0.03% cetrimide in heart infusion agar medium and Pseudosel agar (BBL). The 0.03% cetrimide agar was more selective for growth of P. aeruginosa than was Pseudosel agar; however, certain bacteria other than P. aeruginosa also grew on the former medium. Although Pseudosel agar was not a highly selective medium for P. aeruginosa, it was preferable to technicolor agar for detection of the pyocyanin and pyorubin pigments produced by P. aeruginosa.

Lambe, Dwight W.; Stewart, Phyllis

1972-01-01

94

Evaluation of Pseudosel agar as an aid in the identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and thirty-five other species of gramnegative bacilli was observed on 0.03% cetrimide in heart infusion agar medium and Pseudosel agar (BBL). The 0.03% cetrimide agar was more selective for growth of P. aeruginosa than was Pseudosel agar; however, certain bacteria other than P. aeruginosa also grew on the former medium. Although Pseudosel agar was not a highly selective medium for P. aeruginosa, it was preferable to technicolor agar for detection of the pyocyanin and pyorubin pigments produced by P. aeruginosa. PMID:4622830

Lambe, D W; Stewart, P

1972-02-01

95

Multicenter evaluation of a new disk agar diffusion method for susceptibility testing of filamentous fungi with voriconazole, posaconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to correlate inhibition zone diameters, in millimeters (agar diffusion disk method), with the broth dilution MICs or minimum effective concentrations (MECs) (CLSI M38-A method) of five antifungal agents to identify optimal testing guidelines for disk mold testing. The following disk diffusion testing parameters were evaluated for 555 isolates of the molds Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus sp. (five species), Alternaria sp., Bipolaris spicifera, Fusarium sp. (three species), Mucor sp. (two species), Paecilomyces lilacinus, Rhizopus sp. (two species), and Scedosporium sp. (two species): (i) two media (supplemented Mueller-Hinton agar [2% dextrose and 0.5 microg/ml methylene blue] and plain Mueller-Hinton [MH] agar), (ii) three incubation times (16 to 24, 48, and 72 h), and (iii) seven disks (amphotericin B and itraconazole 10-microg disks, voriconazole 1- and 10-microg disks, two sources of caspofungin 5-microg disks [BBL and Oxoid], and posaconazole 5-microg disks). MH agar supported better growth of all of the species tested (24 to 48 h). The reproducibility of zone diameters and their correlation with either MICs or MECs (caspofungin) were superior on MH agar (91 to 100% versus 82 to 100%; R, 0.71 to 0.93 versus 0.53 to 0.96 for four of the five agents). Based on these results, the optimal testing conditions for mold disk diffusion testing were (i) plain MH agar; (ii) incubation times of 16 to 24 h (zygomycetes), 24 h (Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, and A. niger), and 48 h (other species); and (iii) the posaconazole 5-microg disk, voriconazole 1-microg disk, itraconazole 10-microg disk (for all except zygomycetes), BBL caspofungin 5-microg disk, and amphotericin B 10-microg (zygomycetes only). PMID:17428932

Espinel-Ingroff, A; Arthington-Skaggs, B; Iqbal, N; Ellis, D; Pfaller, M A; Messer, S; Rinaldi, M; Fothergill, A; Gibbs, D L; Wang, A

2007-06-01

96

Multicenter Evaluation of a New Disk Agar Diffusion Method for Susceptibility Testing of Filamentous Fungi with Voriconazole, Posaconazole, Itraconazole, Amphotericin B, and Caspofungin?  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to correlate inhibition zone diameters, in millimeters (agar diffusion disk method), with the broth dilution MICs or minimum effective concentrations (MECs) (CLSI M38-A method) of five antifungal agents to identify optimal testing guidelines for disk mold testing. The following disk diffusion testing parameters were evaluated for 555 isolates of the molds Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus sp. (five species), Alternaria sp., Bipolaris spicifera, Fusarium sp. (three species), Mucor sp. (two species), Paecilomyces lilacinus, Rhizopus sp. (two species), and Scedosporium sp. (two species): (i) two media (supplemented Mueller-Hinton agar [2% dextrose and 0.5 ?g/ml methylene blue] and plain Mueller-Hinton [MH] agar), (ii) three incubation times (16 to 24, 48, and 72 h), and (iii) seven disks (amphotericin B and itraconazole 10-?g disks, voriconazole 1- and 10-?g disks, two sources of caspofungin 5-?g disks [BBL and Oxoid], and posaconazole 5-?g disks). MH agar supported better growth of all of the species tested (24 to 48 h). The reproducibility of zone diameters and their correlation with either MICs or MECs (caspofungin) were superior on MH agar (91 to 100% versus 82 to 100%; R, 0.71 to 0.93 versus 0.53 to 0.96 for four of the five agents). Based on these results, the optimal testing conditions for mold disk diffusion testing were (i) plain MH agar; (ii) incubation times of 16 to 24 h (zygomycetes), 24 h (Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, and A. niger), and 48 h (other species); and (iii) the posaconazole 5-?g disk, voriconazole 1-?g disk, itraconazole 10-?g disk (for all except zygomycetes), BBL caspofungin 5-?g disk, and amphotericin B 10-?g (zygomycetes only).

Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Arthington-Skaggs, B.; Iqbal, N.; Ellis, D.; Pfaller, M. A.; Messer, S.; Rinaldi, M.; Fothergill, A.; Gibbs, D. L.; Wang, A.

2007-01-01

97

Blue ocean strategy.  

PubMed

Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades. PMID:15559577

Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

2004-10-01

98

Water vapor adsorption isotherms of agar-based nanocomposite films.  

PubMed

Adsorption isotherms of agar and agar/clay nanocomposite films prepared with different types of nanoclays, that is, a natural montmorillonite (Cloisite Na(+) ) and 2 organically modified montmorillonites (Cloisite 30B and Cloisite 20A), were determined at 3 different temperatures (10, 25, and 40 °C). The water vapor adsorption behavior of the nanocomposite films was found to be greatly influenced with the type of clay. The Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) isotherm model parameters were estimated by using both polynomial regression and nonlinear regression methods and it was found that the GAB model fitted adequately for describing experimental adsorption isotherm data for the film samples. The monolayer moisture content (m(o) ) of the film samples was also greatly affected by the type of nanoclay used, that is, m(o) of nanocomposite films was significantly lower than that of the neat agar film. Nanocomposite films prepared with hydrophobic nanoclays (Cloisite 30B and Cloisite 20A) exhibited lower m(o) values than those prepared with hydrophilic nanoclay (Cloisite Na(+) ). PMID:22417601

Rhim, Jong-Whan

2011-10-01

99

Methods for identifying lipoxygenase producing microorganisms on agar plates  

PubMed Central

Plate assays for lipoxygenase producing microorganisms on agar plates have been developed. Both potassium iodide-starch and indamine dye formation methods were effective for detecting soybean lipoxygenase activity on agar plates. A positive result was also achieved using the ?-carotene bleaching method, but the sensitivity of this method was lower than the other two methods. The potassium iodide-starch and indamine dye formation methods were also applied for detecting lipoxygenase production by Trichoderma reesei and Pichia pastoris transformants expressing the lipoxygenase gene of the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis. In both cases lipoxygenase production in the transformants could be identified. For detection of the G. graminis lipoxygenase produced by Aspergillus nidulans the potassium iodide-starch method was successful. When Escherichia coli was grown on agar and soybean lipoxygenase was applied on the culture lipoxygenase activity could clearly be detected by the indamine dye formation method. This suggests that the method has potential for screening of metagenomic libraries in E. coli for lipoxygenase activity.

2012-01-01

100

Blue Shark Adventure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, Jonathan joins Charlie Donilon on his shark charter boat in Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and learns about how shark tagging has shed light on the biology of and behavior of Blue sharks. Tagging has shown that these incredible swimmers actually migrate completely across the Atlantic ocean. Jonathan tries his hand at tagging a shark and then swims with Blue sharks. We also learn that Blue sharks are not nearly as vicious as they have been reputed to be, and the divers are actually able to pet the sharks! Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2007-03-01

101

Unusual Colonies of 'Ureaplasma Urealyticum' (T Mycoplasmas) in Primary Agar Cultures of Certain Urine Specimens.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The existence of unusual colonies of Ureaplasma urealyticum (T mycoplasmas) in primary agar cultures of certain urine specimens is reported and their morphology is illustrated. The occurrence of such unusual colonies of U. urealyticum in agar cultures of ...

M. C. Shepard C. D. Lunceford

1975-01-01

102

Methylene blue unresponsive methemoglobinemia  

PubMed Central

Acquired methemoglobinemia is an uncommon blood disorder induced by exposure to certain oxidizing agents and drugs. Although parents may not give any history of toxin ingestion; with the aid of pulse-oximetry and blood gas analysis, we can diagnose methemoglobinemia. Prompt recognition of this condition is required in emergency situations to institute early methylene blue therapy. We report an unusual case of severe toxic methemoglobinemia, which did not respond to methylene blue, but was successfully managed with exchange transfusion.

Patnaik, Sibabratta; Natarajan, Manivachagan Muthappa; James, Ebor Jacob; Ebenezer, Kala

2014-01-01

103

Pulmonary blue bodies.  

PubMed

Pulmonary blue bodies are intra-alveolar laminated basophilic concretions of uncertain etiology. Blue bodies were studied in lung biopsy specimens from 10 patients. The patients ranged in age from 47 to 69 years and were predominantly men. Three had a history of overt exposure to environmental dusts such as sawdust and asbestos, and two showed occasional ferruginous bodies in the lung, raising the possibility of pneumoconiosis. In eight cases there was interstitial pneumonitis, which resembled desquamative interstitial pneumonia by light microscopy but which was often seen to be patchy and asymmetrically distributed in the lung by chest x-ray examination. Of two other patients, one had xanthogranulomatous inflammation and the other, necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. Light and electron microscopic, histochemical, microchemical, and x-ray diffraction studies of blue bodies were also performed. Calcium carbonate is a major component of blue bodies and is responsible for their birefringence in unstained sections and ready solubility in acid solutions. Blue bodies also contain a mucopolysaccharide matrix and iron. We offer the hypothesis that blue bodies (calcium carbonate) are a product of histiocytic catabolism. PMID:6164627

Koss, M N; Johnson, F B; Hochholzer, L

1981-03-01

104

Agar Underlay Method for Recovery of Sublethally Heat-Injured Bacteria  

PubMed Central

A method of recovering sublethally heat-injured bacteria was developed. The procedure (termed the agar underlay method) uses a nonselective agar underlaid with a selective medium. In a two-chambered petri dish, the Lutri plate (LP), a nonselective agar is inoculated with a population of sublethally heat-injured bacteria. After a 2-h repair incubation period, selective agar is added to the bottom chamber of the LP and incubated. By diffusing through the nonselective top agar, selective agents from the underlay medium impart selectivity to the system. By the agar underlay method, recovery rates of the heat-injured food-borne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium were not different (P > 0.05) from recovery rates determined with nonselective media. Sublethally heat-injured cells (60°C for 1.5 min in buffer or 80°C for 30 s on meat surfaces) grew and produced a typical colony morphology and color reaction when the agar underlay procedure was used with the appropriate respective selective agars. Unlike agar overlay methods for injury repair, the agar underlay procedure allows the typical selective-medium colony morphology to develop and allows colonies to be more easily picked for further characterization. Higher recovery rates of heat-injured fecal enterococci from bovine fecal samples and total coliforms from animal waste lagoons were obtained by the agar underlay method with selective agars than by direct plating on the respective selective media.

Kang, D. H.; Siragusa, G. R.

1999-01-01

105

Culture of Piscirickettsia salmonis on enriched blood agar.  

PubMed

Piscirickettsia salmonis is the etiologic agent of piscirickettsiosis, an economically significant disease of fish. Isolation of P. salmonis by culturing on fish cell lines has been the standard technique since the initial isolation of the organism. The ability to grow P. salmonis on artificial media would relieve facilities of the cost of maintaining cell lines, permit isolation at fish culture sites with fewer contamination problems, and allow easier transport of isolates to diagnostic facilities for confirmation assays. This report describes the successful culture of P. salmonis on enriched blood agar. PMID:18319435

Mauel, Michael J; Ware, Cynthia; Smith, Pedro A

2008-03-01

106

Complexation of WPI and microwave-assisted extracted agars with different physicochemical properties.  

PubMed

The complex formation between whey protein isolate (WPI) and agar has been investigated and their interactions were monitored as a function of the physicochemical properties of agar, the pH and the ionic strength of the medium. Agars from Gracilaria vermiculophylla were extracted under different MAE conditions and characterized according to their physicochemical properties. By using microwave irradiation a wide variety of agars was obtained, as different MAE conditions results in polyelectrolytes with distinct properties. UV-vis (in optical dispersion (O.D.) model) spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) have been used to study the formation of insoluble (coacervate) complexes. MAE agars revealed excellent properties for complex formation with WPI. The binding of WPI to MAE agar samples has been shown to be the result of different contributions. O.D. and ITC results showed that the molecular mass and the sulfate content of different agars had a determinant effect on coacervate formation. PMID:24750916

Souza, Hiléia K S; Sousa, Ana M M; Gómez, Javier; Gonçalves, Maria Pilar

2012-08-01

107

More sensitive test agar for detection of dextranase-producing oral streptococci and identification of two glucan synthesis-defective dextranase mutants of Streptococcus mutans 6715.  

PubMed Central

A more sensitive test agar was developed to detect oral microbes with relatively low dextranase activity and to identify dextranase-negative mutants. Several oral streptococci that had previously been scored as dextranase negative readily decolorized the new, blue dextran-containing medium. To assess whether dextranase plays a role in glucan synthesis by oral streptococci, various glucan synthesis-defective mutants were tested for dextranase activity on the new medium. Mutants 4 and 27, which do not cause smooth-surface caries and which synthesize more soluble glucan than their parent, Streptococcus mutans 6715-13, were markedly deficient in these dextranase activity tests. Images

Donkersloot, J A; Harr, R J

1979-01-01

108

Improved agar diffusion method for detecting residual antimicrobial agents.  

PubMed

The improved agar diffusion method for determination of residual antimicrobial agents was investigated, and the sensitivities of various combinations of test organisms and assay media were determined using 7 organisms, 5 media, and 31 antimicrobial agents. Bacillus stearothermophilus and synthetic assay medium (SAM) showed the greatest sensitivity for screening penicillins (penicillin G and ampicillin). The combination of Bacillus subtilis and minimum medium (MM) was the most sensitive for tetracyclines (oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline), B. stearothermophilus and SAM or Micrococcus luteus and Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) for detecting tylosin and erythromycin, B. subtilis and MHA for aminoglycosides (streptomycin, kanamycin, gentamicin, and dihydrostreptomycin), B. stearothermophilus and SAM for polyethers (salinomycin and lasalocid), and B. subtilis and MM or Clostridium perfringens and GAM for polypeptides (thiopeptin, enramycin, virginiamycin, and bacitracin). However, gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli ATCC 27166 and MM were better for screening for colistin and polymixin-B. For detecting the synthetic drugs tested, the best combination was B. subtilis and MM for sulfonamides, E. coli 27166 and MM for quinolones (oxolinic acid and nalidixic acid), B. subtilis and MM for furans (furazolidone), and the bioluminescent bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum and luminescence assay medium for chloramphenicol and oxolinic acid. The results showed that the use of four assay plates, B. stearothermophilus and SAM, B. subtilis and MM, M. luteus and MHA, and E. coli 27166 and MM, was superior to the currently available techniques for screening for residual antimicrobial agents in edible animal tissues. PMID:11252480

Tsai, C E; Kondo, F

2001-03-01

109

Agar Medium for Differential Enumeration of Lactic Streptococci1  

PubMed Central

An agar medium containing arginine and calcium citrate as specific substrates, diffusible (K2HPO4) and undiffusible (CaCO3) buffer systems, and bromocresol purple as the pH indicator was developed to differentiate among lactic streptococci in pure and mixed cultures. Milk was added as the sole source of carbohydrate (lactose) and to provide growth-stimulating factors. Production of acid from lactose caused developing bacterial colonies to seem yellow. Subsequent arginine utilization by Streptococcus lactis and S. diacetilactis liberated ammonia, resulting in a localized pH shift back toward neutrality and a return of the original purple indicator hue. The effects of production of acid from lactose and ammonia were fixed around individual colonies by the buffering capacity of CaCO3. After 36 hr at 32 C in a candle oats jar, colonies of S. cremoris were yellow, whereas colonies of S. lactis and S. diacetilactis were white. S. diacetilactis, on further incubation, utilized suspended calcium citrate, and, after 6 days, the citrate-degrading colonies exhibited clear zoning against a turbid background, making them easily distinguishable from the colonies of the other two species. The medium proved suitable for quantitative differential enumeration when compared with another widely used general agar medium for lactic streptococci. Images

Reddy, M. S.; Vedamuthu, E. R.; Washam, C. J.; Reinbold, G. W.

1972-01-01

110

Web White & Blue 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released earlier this year, Web White & Blue 2000 is intended to "help voters, journalists, and others use the Internet to learn more about the presidential candidates, their campaigns, their scheduled debates this fall as well as the way the online resources are impacting politics in this presidential election year." The Best of the Best section provides links to election coverage and campaign material from a wide range of sources on the Internet. Beginning on October 1, the Rolling Cyber Debate is intended to provide a forum for candidates and their campaigns to continue debates online between the televised ones. Web White and Blue 2000 is supported by the Markle Foundation.

111

Blue-Green Laser.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application concerns a blue-green solid state laser which operates at room temperature and uses as its active medium an LiYf4 crystal as the host material for the trivalent rare earth ion Tb(3+). High Tb concentrations, 20% or more, are employe...

H. P. Jensen

1974-01-01

112

Large Blue Butterflies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page deals with research being done on the parasitism of the "blue butterfly" group Maculinea. These species are well known for taking advantage of ants by chemically convincing ants that they are one of their own larvae. This page has some lovely photos, and a nice generalized life history table. Other links deal with aspects of the research including population genetics and communication.

0002-11-30

113

Comparative dermatology: blue nevus.  

PubMed

There are elements in nature that may be compared to some dermatological lesions, such as the black pearl, which is very similar to a cellular blue nevus observed in the gluteus region of a 31-year-old male patient. PMID:22892793

Barros, Jefferson Alfredo de; Kafler, Cristiane Calcidoni; Barros, Juliano Cesar de; Proto, Rodrigo Sestito; Priscila dos Santos, Costa; Machado Filho, Carlos D'Apparecida

2012-01-01

114

The Blue Tube.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 'Blue Tube' is a 2-part academic package developed at the U.S. Air Force Academy consisting of an English course in communication and writing skills and a management course in advertising and marketing: the two courses are interrelated through student...

B. Wallisch B. Taylor

1979-01-01

115

Blue Crab Education Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Information compiled by the Virginia Institute of Marine Science on the anatomy, life cycle, ecology, and fisheries of the blue crab. Data, research reports, and instructions on eating crabs are all available. Educational resources include lesson plans, teaching tools, and access to online publications. Site serves as an exceptional resource for both beginners and experts.

116

Great Blue Heron  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Great Blue Herons are found throughout much of North America, but are always associated with water. Because they fish by sight, they need relatively shallow water. Release of too much water through the canals north of the Everglades can interfere with their ability to find food....

2009-12-11

117

[Precipitation of streptavidin complexes with biotinylated proteins in agar gel].  

PubMed

The effect of precipitation of complexes of streptavidin with biotinylated proteins under conditions of simple (according to Mancini) and double (according to Ouchterlony) radial diffusion in agar gel was studied. The position and form of precipitation lines depended primarily on the initial concentration of components and the degree of protein biotinylation. Free biotin, 1% SDS, and 6 M urea contained in the gel, as well as thermal denaturation of streptavidin inhibited the precipitate formation. Mannose, glucose, fucose, galactose, sucrose, and NaCl at high concentrations had no effect on biospecific precipitation. A model of interaction of streptavidin with biotinylated macromolecules is suggested, which accounts for the observed effect, and the prospects of practical application of the precipitation effect are discussed. PMID:19235518

Novakovski?, M E; Vashkevich, I I; Sviridov, O V

2009-01-01

118

[Agar-Gel Precipitin Reactions In Experimental Paragonimiasis  

PubMed

In an attempt to investigate the sensitivity of immunodiagnosis in cats experimentally infected with Paragonimus westermani, agar-gel precipitin reaction were studied. Metacercariae of P. westermani were administered to cats in various doses(2~100 metacercariae per cat) and antisera were obtained at an interval of a week. 1. Precipitin bands appeared in homologous antigen-antibody in experimental paragonimiasis between 3 and 5 weeks after infection in all the cats. 2. Almost all the cases in which a large number of worms were detected, showed strong reactions as revealed by deeply stained bands. 3. Precipitin reactions did not necessarily parallel with the number of worms detected. This may be attributable to the individual difference of a cat's conditions. 4. Very weak precipitin reactions were noticed between Clonorchis antigen and Paragonimus antisera of cats, but no reactions were noticed between Paragonimus antigen and Clonorchis antisera of cats or rabbits. PMID:12902705

Choi, Won Young; Lee, Ok Ran

1981-12-01

119

Comparison of spiral gradient and conventional agar dilution for susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed on brucella laked blood agar with 340 isolates and 14 antimicrobial agents by the standard agar dilution technique and the spiral gradient technique in which antibiotic concentrations were established by diffusion from the agar surface. For comparison, spiral gradient MICs were determined by calculating antimicrobial concentrations at growth endpoints and rounding up to the next twofold incremental concentration. The cumulative percentage of strains susceptible at the breakpoint determined from spiral gradient data was within 10%, generally, of the percentage of strains susceptible at the breakpoint determined from agar dilution data. The overall agreement between the two techniques (within one doubling dilution) was 90.6%. The spiral gradient agar dilution technique is a reasonable alternative to the conventional agar dilution technique for susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria. Images

Wexler, H M; Molitoris, E; Jashnian, F; Finegold, S M

1991-01-01

120

Agar culture of Piscirickettsia salmonis, a serious pathogen of farmed salmonid and marine fish.  

PubMed

Piscirickettsia salmonis, a serious bacterial pathogen of farmed marine fish, previously considered culturable only in eukaryotic cell-culture systems, was grown for the first time on agar and broth containing enhanced levels of cysteine, thus greatly increasing the potential for isolation, in vitro culture and study of this organism. Virulence towards Atlantic salmon following passage on agar media was retained in a controlled laboratory trial. Of the studied temperatures, optimal growth on agar was observed at 22 degrees C. PMID:18028392

Mikalsen, Jarle; Skjaervik, Olaf; Wiik-Nielsen, Jannicke; Wasmuth, Marit A; Colquhoun, Duncan J

2008-01-01

121

Evaluation of Commercial Vancomycin Agar Screen Plates for Detection of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain heart infusion-6-mg\\/ml vancomycin agar plates obtained fromfive commercial sources (B-D Micro- biology Systems, Carr-Scarborough Microbiologicals, MicroBio Products, PML Microbiologicals, and REMEL) were evaluated with 714 enterococci for detection of vancomycin resistance. All 465 (100%) vancomycin- resistant enterococci (MIC > 32 mg\\/ml) were detected by each manufacturer's agar screen plate, and each manufacturer's agar screen plate detected at least 99%

KENNETH G. VAN HORN; CHERYL A. GEDRIS; KAREN M. RODNEY; ANDJOHN B. MITCHELL

1996-01-01

122

Comparison among tomato juice agar with other three media for differentiation of Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study is to compare the tomato juice agar, a well known medium employed to observe ascospore formation, with niger seed agar, casein agar and sunflower seed agar, applied to a differentiation between C. dubliniensis and C. albicans. After 48 hours of incubation at 30 degrees C all 26 (100%) C. dubliniensis isolates tested produced chlamydospores on tomato juice agar as well as in the other three media evaluated. However, when we inoculated all media with C. albicans, the absence of chlamydospores became resulting in the following percents: tomato juice agar (92.47%), niger seed agar (96.7%), casein agar (91.39%), and sunflower seed agar (96.7%). These results indicate that tomato juice agar is another medium which can also be used in the first phenotypic differentiation between C. dubliniensis and C. albicans. PMID:16847498

Alves, Sydney Hartz; de Loreto, Erico Silva; Linares, Carlos Eduardo; Silveira, Carolina P; Scheid, Liliane A; Pereira, Daniela I Brayer; Santuario, Janio Morais

2006-01-01

123

Comparison of ChromID Agar and Clostridium difficile Selective Agar for Effective Isolation of C. difficile from Stool Specimens  

PubMed Central

Background ChromID Clostridium difficile agar (IDCd; bioMérieux SA, France) is a recently developed chromogenic medium for rapid and specific isolation of C. difficile. We compared the performance of IDCd with that of Clostridium difficile Selective Agar (CDSA). Methods A total of 530 fresh stool specimens were collected from patients with clinical signs compatible with C. difficile infection, and cultures for C. difficile were performed on IDCd and CDSA. C. difficile colonies were identified by spore staining, odor, use of an ANI identification test kit (bioMérieux SA), and multiplex PCR for tcdA, tcdB, and tpi. Results The concordance rate between IDCd and CDSA was 90.6% (480/530). The positivity rates on IDCd on days 1 and 2 (55.6% and 85.0%, respectively) were significantly higher than those on CDSA (19.4% and 75.6%, respectively) (P<0.001 for day 1 and P=0.02 for day 2), but the detection rates on IDCd and CDSA on day 3 were not different (89.4% vs. 82.8%, P=0.0914). On day 3, the recovery rates for non-C. difficile isolates on IDCd and CDSA were 30.2% (160/530) and 22.1% (117/530), respectively (P=0.0075). Clostridium spp. other than C. difficile were the most prevalent non-C. difficile isolates on both media. Conclusions The culture positivity rates on IDCd and CDSA were not different on day 3 but IDCd may allow for rapid and sensitive detection of C. difficile within 2 days of cultivation.

Lee, Eun Joo

2014-01-01

124

Teachers' Domain: Breathing Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 3-minute video demonstrates chemical reaction as a presenter exhales into "bromothymol blue", a chemical indicator for acids and bases. His breath releases carbon dioxide, which acidifies the solution and changes it from a bright blue color to yellow-green. Resource also includes teacher's guide and assessment. Editor's Note: In a chemical reaction, properties of the original substances change as new substances with different properties are formed. The molecular structure of the substances is altered irreversibly. This video is part of "Lessons in Matter and Energy" by WOSU Public Media. See related materials for a link to the full collection, also available for iTunes viewing. Teachers' Domain is a growing collection of more than 1,000 free educational resources compiled by researchers and experienced teachers to promote the use of digital resources in the classroom.

2011-06-23

125

National Geographic: Blue Whales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a cameraman leans in to get a shot of a blue whale, this massive creature glides through the water off of Costa Rica. That's the opening photograph that visitors to this interactive article from National Geographic are presented with, and it's a rather amazing image. This interactive article and feature is derived from a March 2009 feature in the print edition of National Geographic magazine, and it features the photography of Flip Nicklin and the writing of Ken Brower. The article offers an in-depth look into the recovery of the blue whale population off the coast of Costa Rica in recent years, and along the way visitors can stop off to take a look at a special photo gallery, take a quiz on these remarkable creatures, and also watch a video the provides the story behind one of Nicklin's photographs.

Brower, Ken; Nicklin, Flip

126

The Blue Emu  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary goal in designing the Blue Emu was to provide an airline with a cost efficient and profitable means of transporting passengers between the major cities in Aeroworld. The design attacks the market where a demand for inexpensive transportation exists and for this reason the Blue Emu is an attractive investment for any airline. In order to provide a profitable aircraft, special attention was paid to cost and economics. For example, in manufacturing, simplicity was stressed in structural design to reduce construction time and cost. Aerodynamic design employed a tapered wing which reduced the induced drag coefficient while also reducing the weight of the wing. Even the propulsion system was selected with cost effectiveness in mind, yet also to maintain the marketability of the aircraft. Thus, in every aspect of the design, consideration was given to economics and marketability of the final product.

Descalzi, Doug; Gillett, John; Gordon, Carlton; Keener, ED; Novak, Ken; Puente, Laura

1993-01-01

127

Blue Sky Innovation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chicago Tribune has broken new ground with this ambitious initiative to gather news, analysis, and events related to innovation and entrepreneurship. As the site indicates, "Blue Sky informs, inspires and connects an audience that looks at businessâ¦in new ways." Visitors can get started by looking over the short-form news stories on the homepage. Recent pieces have covered the curious barge built by Google, the financial stability of Groupon, and the transformation of event planning via mobile apps. Visitors can look over the event calendar, which brings together information about ongoing activities such as mobile app contests and networking events. The Innovation Hub area is a good place to look around, as it features content gathered from organizations recognized for expertise in the field of innovation. Finally, visitors can sign up to receive updates from Blue Sky via Facebook, Google+, or email.

128

Blue Crab Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This easy to navigate and well-written site is packed with information and excellent photos about the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) and its fishery. Biology section covers: species profile, anatomy, life cycle, reproduction, larval development, life cycle and more. Industry and trade section includes recipes and tips for catching or buying hard and soft shell crabs, and fishery information. Also offers news, discussion forum, links, a glossary, and reference lists.

129

The blue brain project.  

PubMed

IBM's Blue Gene supercomputer allows a quantum leap in the level of detail at which the brain can be modelled. I argue that the time is right to begin assimilating the wealth of data that has been accumulated over the past century and start building biologically accurate models of the brain from first principles to aid our understanding of brain function and dysfunction. PMID:16429124

Markram, Henry

2006-02-01

130

[The "blue man"].  

PubMed

The authors present the case of a 63-year-old man who was evaluated for symptoms of lung fibrosis, blue face and epithelopathy affecting both eyes. All these symptoms could be attributed to the adverse effects of amiodarone. Thyroid disorders, which are the most common side-effects of amiodarone treatment were absent. The authors want to draw attention to the potential side effects of amiodarone. PMID:24334136

Lakatos, Gergely; Nádházi, Zoltán; Igaz, Péter; Rácz, Károly

2013-12-22

131

Jonathan Bird's Blue World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Jonathan Bird's Blue World Collection is based on a public television science adventure series and offers science curriculum based videos, lesson plans, activities and the capacity to search by topic, NSES, and geography. These materials illustrate topics such as sound, osmosis and pH with videos of sperm whales, mangroves and coral reefs. These resources can be used by learners of all ages in formal and informal settings.

2012-08-06

132

Voyager 1 'Blue Movie'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the original Voyager 'Blue Movie' (so named because it was built from Blue filter images). It records the approach of Voyager 1 during a period of over 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storms shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

2000-01-01

133

Detection of cellulase activity in polyacrylamide gels using Congo red-stained agar replicas.  

PubMed

Bands that have cellulolytic activity are visualized after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis by laying the slab gel on top of a thin sheet of 2% agar containing 0.1% carboxymethylcellulose. After a suitable incubation time, zones of carboxymethylcellulose hydrolysis are revealed by staining the agar replica with Congo red. PMID:6193735

Béguin, P

1983-06-01

134

Physicochemical and morphological properties of plasticized poly(vinyl alcohol)-agar biodegradable films.  

PubMed

The effects of the addition of glycerol (GLY) on the physicochemical and morphological properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-agar films were reported. PVA-agar films were prepared by solution cast method, and the addition of GLY in PVA-agar films altered the optical properties, resulting in a decrease in opacity values and in the color difference (?E) of the films. Structural characterization using Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the presence of GLY altered the intensity of the bands (from 1200 to 800cm(-1)) and crystallinity. The characterization of the thermal properties indicated that an increase in the agar content produces a decrease in the melting temperature and augments the heat of fusion. Similar tendencies were observed in plasticized films, but at different magnification. The formulation that demonstrated the lowest mechanical properties contained 25wt.% agar, whereas the formulation that contained 75wt.% agar demonstrated a significant improvement. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and surface morphology analysis demonstrated that the structure of PVA-agar films is reorganized upon GLY addition. The physicochemical properties of PVA-agar films using GLY as a plasticizer provide information for the application of this formulation as packaging material for specific food applications. PMID:24875313

Madera-Santana, T J; Freile-Pelegrín, Y; Azamar-Barrios, J A

2014-08-01

135

Effect of Activated Charcoal in Agar on the Culture of Lower Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proskauer and Berman1 have described a technique for culturing green organisms such as filamentous algae and moss protonema on an agar substrate containing activated charcoal which may simulate conditions found in nature. They ascribed the resulting morphological changes primarily to a decrease in the amount of light transmitted by the blackened agar, and considered their technique a simulation of natural

Berthold Klein; Martin Bopp

1971-01-01

136

Development of a molecular method for the rapid discrimination of red seaweeds used for agar production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Tunisia, agar is produced from the species Gracilaria verrucosa. Other species, such as Gracilariopsis sp. which have a very similar morphology to Gracilaria, can be harvested in a mixture with Gracilaria with the result that the quantity and quality of agar extracted is different than initially expected. In this study, we tested the use of ITS sequences from 5.8s

Yolaine Joubert; Leïla Ben Abdeladhim; Jamel Ksouri; Joël Fleurence

2009-01-01

137

Effect of refrigerated storage on cefaclor in Mueller-Hinton agar.  

PubMed Central

Cefaclor is less stable than most cephalosporins in media at 35 degrees C. We demonstrated that the activity of cefaclor in Mueller-Hinton agar diminishes continuously at 4 degrees C, resulting in a loss of two-thirds of the activity within 21 days. We recommend that agar dilution plates for this cephalosporin be prepared on the day of their use.

Surprenant, A M; Preston, D A

1985-01-01

138

Tobacco agar: a new medium for chlamydosporulation in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis.  

PubMed

Chlamydospores are a distinctive morphologic feature of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis and aid in their identification. A new medium, tobacco agar, for chlamydosporulation in Candida is described. All the strains of C. dubliniensis and 96% of isolates of C. albicans tested produced chlamydospores after 24 h incubation on tobacco agar, whereas none of the other seven species produced chlamydospores. PMID:16178377

Kumar, C P Girish; Menon, Thangam

2005-08-01

139

[Evaluation of a new medium, eggplant (Solanum melongena) agar as a screening medium for Cryptococcus neoformans in environmental samples].  

PubMed

Cryptococcus neofomans is an encapsulated yeast-like fungus that causes life-threatening infections, especially in immunosuppresive patients. C.neoformans infection is believed to be acquired via inhalation of aerosolized particles from the environment. Avian guano, decaying tree hollows and soil are the related known environmental niches. Brown pigmented yeast growth from the precursors in growth media is an important step for the identification and isolation of C.neoformans. Seeds of plants in nature are preferred owing to easy accessibility and low costs for the preparation of such media. Guizotia abysinicca (Niger seed) as Staib agar, Helianthus annus (Sunflower) as Pal's medium, Brassica nigra (Mustard) agar, tobacco agar, Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) seed agar, Perilla frutescens (Beefsteak plant) seed agar, Rubus fruticosus (Blackberry) agar and ground red hot pepper agar are pigment-based selective media for the differentiation of C.neoformans. The aim of this study was to observe the pigment production of C.neoformans in a new medium based on eggplant (Solanum melongena) and also to compare its performance with the simplified Staib, Pal's and tobacco agar for isolation from the environment. Three different eggplant-based medium (S.melongena Melanzaza viserba, S.melongena Pinstripe F1 and S.ovigerum Ivory F1) were included in the study. Pigment-forming eggplant medium, simplified Staib agar, Pal's agar and tobacco agar were used for the cultivation of the environmental swabbed samples from 19 Eucalyptus camaldulensis trunk hollows in continuous colonization region. While pigment formation were observed with S.melongena Melanzaza viserba and S.melongena Pinstripe F1 containing media, S.ovigerum Ivory F1 medium was found to be non-reactive. In colonization area (Gökova-Akyaka, Turkey), 11 (57.9%) out of 19 E.camaldulensis samples were positive with simplified Staib agar, Pal's agar and eggplant agar while 10 (52.6%) of them are positive with tobacco agar. C.neoformans colony forming unit (cfu) per plate were found as 51, 57 and 48 (median values) on simplified Staib agar, Pal's agar and eggplant agar, respectively, while tobacco agar has lower performance with 33 cfu/petri. No statistically significant difference were found between simplified Staib agar, Pal's agar and eggplant agar's performances for C.neoformans isolations from the nature (p=0.71). In conclusion, easily prepared eggplant agar is as functional as widely used media such as simplified Staib agar and Pal's agar for the isolation of C.neoformans from the natural environment. PMID:24819266

Sengul, Mustafa; Ergin, Ca?r?; Kartal, Tu?ba

2014-04-01

140

The Blue Marble  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This spectacular Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 'blue marble' image is based on the most detailed collection of true-color imagery of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Most of the information contained in this image came from MODIS, illustrating MODIS' outstanding capacity to act as an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of this image is based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the satellite's view on any single day. Global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data was used to simulate the ocean surface. MODIS doesn't measure 3-D features of the Earth, so the surface observations were draped over topographic data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center. MODIS observations of polar sea ice were combined with observations of Antarctica made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's AVHRR sensor-the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The cloud image is a composite of two days of MODIS imagery collected in visible light wavelengths and a third day of thermal infra-red imagery over the poles. A large collection of imagery based on the blue marble in a variety of sizes and formats, including animations and the full (1 km) resolution imagery, is available at the Blue Marble page. Image by Reto Stockli, Render by Robert Simmon. Based on data from the MODIS Science Team

2002-01-01

141

New Blue Pigment Produced by Pantoea agglomerans and Its Production Characteristics at Various Temperatures ?  

PubMed Central

A bacterium capable of producing a deep blue pigment was isolated from the environment and identified as Pantoea agglomerans. The pigment production characteristics of the bacterium under various conditions were studied. The optimal agar plate ingredients for pigment production by the bacterium were first studied: the optimal ingredients were 5 g/liter glucose, 10 g/liter tryptic soy broth, and 40 g/liter glycerol at pH 6.4. Bacterial cells grew on the agar plate during the incubation, while the pigment spread into the agar plate, meaning that it is water soluble. Pigment production was affected by the initial cell density. Namely, at higher initial cell densities ranging from 106.3 to 108.2 CFU/cm2 on the agar plate, faster pigment production was observed, but no blue pigment was produced at a very high initial density of 109.1 CFU/cm2. Thus, the cell population of 108.2 CFU/cm2 was used for subsequent study. Although the bacterium was capable of growing at temperatures above and below 10°C, it could produce the pigment only at temperatures of ?10°C. Moreover, the pigment production was faster at higher temperatures in the range of 10 to 20°C. Pigment production at various temperature patterns was well described by a new logistic model. These results suggested that the bacterium could be used in the development of a microbial temperature indicator for the low-temperature-storage management of foods and clinical materials. To our knowledge, there is no other P. agglomerans strain capable of producing a blue pigment and the pigment is a new one of microbial origin.

Fujikawa, Hiroshi; Akimoto, Ryo

2011-01-01

142

Preparation and characterization of agar/clay nanocomposite films: the effect of clay type.  

PubMed

Agar-based nanocomposite films with different types of nanoclays, such as Cloisite Na+, Cloisite 30B, and Cloisite 20A, were prepared using a solvent casting method, and their tensile, water vapor barrier, and antimicrobial properties were tested. Tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (E), and water vapor permeability (WVP) of control agar film were 29.7±1.7 MPa, 45.3±9.6%, and (2.22±0.19)×10(-9) g·m/m2·s·Pa, respectively. All the film properties tested, including transmittance, tensile properties, WVP, and X-ray diffraction patterns, indicated that Cloisite Na+ was the most compatible with agar matrix. TS of the nanocomposite films prepared with 5% Cloisite Na+ increased by 18%, while WVP of the nanocomposite films decreased by 24% through nanoclay compounding. Among the agar/clay nanocomposite films tested, only agar/Cloisite 30B nanocomposite film showed a bacteriostatic function against?Listeria monocytogenes. PMID:21535851

Rhim, Jong-Whan; Lee, Soo-Bin; Hong, Seok-In

2011-04-01

143

Stability of agar in the seaweed Gracilaria eucheumatoides (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) during postharvest storage.  

PubMed

The status of the cell-wall polysaccharide of the red seaweed, Gracilaria eucheumatoides upon postharvest storage was assessed in this study. The yield, chemical composition, physical and textural properties of alkali-treated agar extract was determined at different time intervals within 31 months of storage at dried state after harvest. Minimal fluctuation in agar yield was observed, ranging from 22.9% to 29.0%. The gel strength of agar extracts averaged 318gcm(-2) until the third month of storage but decreased considerably thereafter. The relative viscosity and molecular weight of the extracts varied inversely with storage time. Results indicated that both physical and textural parameters of agar generally decreased with storage time, likely due to depolymerization as indicated by decrease in molecular weight. Agar extracted from seaweeds up to 3 months of storage could be considered to exhibit gel quality suitable for food applications. Prolonged storage of the seaweed harvest is not recommended. PMID:18413284

Romero, Jumelita B; Villanueva, Ronald D; Montaño, Marco Nemesio E

2008-11-01

144

Physical-mechanical properties of agar/?-carrageenan blend film and derived clay nanocomposite film.  

PubMed

Binary blend films with different mixing ratio of agar and ?-carrageenan were prepared using a solution casting method with and without nanoclay and the effect of their composition on the mechanical, water vapor barrier, and water resistance properties was tested. The tensile strength (TS) of the ?-carrageenan film was greater than that of agar film. The water vapor permeability (WVP) of the agar film was lower than that of ?-carrageenan film, the swelling ratio (SR) and water solubility (WS) of ?-carrageenan film were higher than those of agar film. Each property of the binary blend films varied proportionately depending on the mixing ratio of each component. The XRD result indicated that the nanocomposite with agar/?-carrageenan/clay (Cloisite(®) Na(+)) was intercalated. Consequently, the mechanical strength, water vapor barrier properties, and water contact angle (CA) were significantly (P < 0.05) improved through nanocomposite formation. PMID:23170836

Rhim, Jong-Whan

2012-12-01

145

Rheological and structural characterization of agar/whey proteins insoluble complexes.  

PubMed

Complex coacervation between whey proteins and carboxylated or highly sulphated polysaccharides has been widely studied. The aim of this work was to characterise a slightly sulphated polysaccharide (agar) and whey protein insoluble complexes in terms of yield, composition and physicochemical properties as well as to study their rheological behaviour for better understanding their structure. Unlike other sulphated polysaccharides, complexation of agar and whey protein at pH 3 in the absence of a buffering agent resulted in a coacervate that was a gel at 20°C with rheological properties and structure similar to those of simple agar gels, reinforced by proteins electrostatically aggregated to the agar network. The behaviour towards heat treatment was similar to that of agar alone, with a high thermal hysteresis and almost full reversibility. In the presence of citrate buffer, the result was a "flocculated solid", with low water content (75-81%), whose properties were governed by protein behaviour. PMID:24906765

Rocha, Cristina M R; Souza, Hiléia K S; Magalhães, Natália F; Andrade, Cristina T; Gonçalves, Maria Pilar

2014-09-22

146

Thin-layer electrodeposition of Zn in the agar gel medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preparation of Zn deposits has been performed by thin-layer electrodeposition in acidic zinc sulphate solution with and without agar, respectively. The morphological and structural characteristics of the deposits have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The study shows that the presence of agar has a significant influence on the morphology of the Zn deposits. Under the chosen conditions and without agar, the deposit shows a dendritic morphology, which is made of orderly arranged grains with a preferred orientation in [0001]. In the presence of agar, the deposit shows a dense branch morphology, which has a randomly oriented grain texture and diminished grain size in comparison with that of the dendritic morphology. This work contributes to understanding the influence of agar gel on the pattern formation in thin-layer electrodeposition.

Tu, Ya-Fang; Chao, Xiao-Hui; Sang, Jian-Ping; Huang, Sheng-You; Zou, Xian-Wu

2008-07-01

147

Production of a Blue Pigment (Glaukothalin) by Marine Rheinheimera spp.  

PubMed Central

Two ?-Proteobacteria strains, that is, HP1 and HP9, which both produce a diffusible deep blue pigment, were isolated from the German Wadden Sea and from the Øresund, Denmark, respectively. Both strains affiliate with the genus Rheinheimera. Small amounts of the pigment could be extracted from HP1 grown in a 50 L fermenter and were purified chromatographically. Chemical analysis of the pigment including NMR and mass spectrometry led to a molecular formula of C34H56N4O4 (m.w. 584.85) which has not yet been reported in literature. The molecule is highly symmetrically and consists of two heterocyclic halves to which aliphatic side chains are attached. The pigment has been named glaukothalin due to its blue color and its marine origin (glaukos, gr. = blue, thalatta, gr. = sea). Production of glaukothalin on MB2216 agar plates by our Rheinheimera strains is affected in the presence of other bacterial strains either increasing or decreasing pigment production. The addition of a single amino acid, arginine (5 gl?1), greatly increases pigment production by our Rheinheimera strains. Even though the production of glaukothalin leads to inhibitory activity against three bacterial strains from marine particles, our Rheinheimera isolates are inhibited by various bacteria of different phylogenetic groups. The ecological role of glaukothalin production by Rheinheimera strains, however, remains largely unknown.

Grossart, Hans-Peter; Thorwest, Marc; Plitzko, Inken; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Simon, Meinhard; Zeeck, Axel

2009-01-01

148

Blue ocean leadership.  

PubMed

Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets. PMID:24956870

Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

2014-05-01

149

Three-dimensional modeling of blue jets and blue starters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blue jets are narrow cones of blue light propagating upward from the apparent cloud tops at speeds of the order of 100 km/s to a terminal altitude of about 40 km [Wescott et al., GRL, 22, 1209, 1995]. Blue starters are distinguished from blue jets by a much lower terminal altitude. They protrude upward from the cloud top (17-18 km) to a maximum 25.5 km in altitude [Wescott et al., GRL, 23, 2153, 1996]. It has recently been suggested that blue jets correspond qualitatively to the development of the streamer zone of a positive leader and therefore should be filled with a branching structure of streamer channels [Petrov and Petrova, Tech. Phys., 44, 472, 1999]. In our talk we will discuss the physical concept proposed by Petrov and Petrova [1999] as well as will demonstrate a role of blue jets and blue starters in the large-scale atmospheric electric circuit. We will also discuss specific physical reasons and required circumstances for occurrence of blue jets and starters above thundercloud tops and will support our arguments with results from a new three-dimensional model. The model simulates the propagation of branching streamer channels constituting blue jets and starters as a three dimensional growth of fractal trees in a self-consistent electric field created by thundercloud charges. The model is based on a phenomenological probabilistic approach proposed in [Niemeyer et al., IEEE Trans. Electr. Insul., 24, 309, 1989] and is a straightforward expansion of the previously developed two-dimensional version [Pasko et al., GRL, 27, 497, 2000]. The model results indicate that blue jets and starters can be formed by a fast ( ~1 sec) accumulation of 110-150 C of positive thundercloud charge distributed in a volume with effective radius 3 km near the cloud top at 15 km. The obtained results closely resemble characteristics of blue jets and blue starters observed by Wescott et al. [1995; 1996] in terms of their altitude extents, transverse dimensions and conical structure, and support the suggestion of Wescott et al. [1996] that blue starters are related to the initial phases of blue jets.

Pasko, V. P.; George, J. J.

2001-12-01

150

Detection of Agar, by Analysis of Sugar Markers, Associated with Bacillus Anthracis Spores, After Culture  

SciTech Connect

Detection of small quantities of agar associated with spores of Bacillus anthracis could provide key information regarding its source or growth characteristics. Agar, widely used in growth of bacteria on solid surfaces, consists primarily of repeating polysaccharide units of 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose (AGal) and galactose (Gal) with sulfated and O-methylated galactoses present as minor constituents. Two variants of the alditol acetate procedure were evaluated for detection of potential agar markers associated with spores. The first method employed a reductive hydrolysis step, to stabilize labile anhydrogalactose, by converting to anhydrogalactitol. The second eliminated the reductive hydrolysis step simplifying the procedure. Anhydrogalactitol, derived from agar, was detected using both derivatization methods followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. However, challenges with artefactual background (reductive hydrolysis) or marker destruction (hydrolysis) lead to the search for alternative sugar markers. A minor agar component, 6-O-methyl galactose (6-O-M gal), was readily detected in agar-grown but not broth-grown bacteria. Detection was optimized by the use of gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). With appropriate choice of sugar marker and analytical procedure, detection of sugar markers for agar has considerable potential in microbial forensics.

Wunschel, David S.; Colburn, Heather A.; Fox, Alvin; Fox, Karen F.; Harley, William M.; Wahl, Jon H.; Wahl, Karen L.

2008-08-01

151

On the properties of agar gel containing ionic and non-ionic surfactants.  

PubMed

Rheological and thermal properties of agar sol and gel in presence of various cationic, anionic and non-ionic surfactants are reported. The agar used was from the red seaweed Gelidiella acerosa. The gel strength, viscosity, rigidity (G'), gelling temperature and melting temperature were observed to decrease in presence of non-ionic surfactants whereas these were enhanced in presence of ionic surfactants. TGA studies showed that 1.5% agar gels containing non-ionic surfactants lose water at a lower temperature than the control agar gel whereas gels containing ionic surfactants hold on to water more tenaciously. DSC studies, on the other hand, show that the gel to sol transition occurs at lower temperatures in presence of non-ionic surfactants and at higher temperature in presence of ionic surfactants when compared with the control gel. The non-ionic surfactants, Triton X-100 and Brij 35, enabled relatively concentrated agar extractive to be filtered readily, as a result of which water usage in the process could be reduced by 50%. The surfactant was subsequently removed through freeze-thaw operations to restore the gelling capacity of the agar. The finding that 0.3-0.4% (w/v) sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) lowers the sol-gel transition temperature from 41 to 36 degrees C without adversely affecting gel strength is another useful outcome of the study that may enable better formulations of bacteriological agar to be prepared. PMID:15811467

Prasad, Kamalesh; Siddhanta, A K; Rakshit, A K; Bhattacharya, Amit; Ghosh, Pushpito K

2005-04-01

152

Agar-screew specimen carrier for bulk processing of biopsy material for electron microscopy.  

PubMed

A specimen carrier for processing large numbers of biopsy materials for epoxy embedding and electron microscopy is described. Commercially available 18-mesh stainless steel or 16-mesh aluminum wire screening is used. The screening is cut into 1 x 3-inch strips. One corner is snipped off for orientation purposes. Four drops of warm 4% agar is placed on a prewarmed standard microscopic glass slide. A thin agar support film is formed on the bottom side of the horizontally held wire screen by lightly running it against the agar. Tissue blocks trimmed to 1 mm-3 are blotted on filter paper and placed in a prearranged order on the top surface of the support film. A thin top coating of agar is applied on the specimen by touching it with the tip of a pasteur pipette containing warm 4% agar. The agar-screen unit with the mounted specimens is stabilized in 4% buffered formalin and rinsed with Sorenson's phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, with 6.8% sucrose. It is then processed as a unit through routine osmium tetroxide postfixation, alcohol dehydration, and Epon 812 filtration. The tissue blocks are plucked off the agar support film with fine-tipped tweezers and embedded in individual capsules. No difficulty in thin sectioning was encountered and examination of the sections under the electron microscope showed good infiltration by the epoxy resin. PMID:1096371

Tio, F O; Cowley, L H; Garber, M C

1975-03-01

153

Development of glucosidase agar for the confirmation of water-borne Enterococcus.  

PubMed

Analysis of 56 river water samples by the Enterolert defined substrate technique, and standard m-Enterococcus agar isolation followed by confirmation, indicated that after 24 h incubation. Enterolert significantly underestimated the true numbers of enterococci. Extending Enterolert incubatioin to 36 h improved detection but also revealed false positives. These findings prompted the development of a novel confirmation medium we have termed glucosidase agar, which was prepared by dissolving Enterolert substrate in 2% (w/v) bacteriological agar. Analysis of 1,043 colonies arising on m-Enterococcus agar from 280 freshwater, marine and sewage effluent samples, demonstrated that 2-4 h incubation on glucosidase agar was a rapid and accurate means of confirming presumptive enterococci, when compared to standard confirmation procedures that take 48 h. The combination of primary isolation on m-Enterococcus agar followed by confirmation on glucosidase agar permits maximum recovery of Enteroccus whilst effectively eliminating false positives/negatives and provides a reliable alternative use of the Enterolert defined substrate technology. PMID:11791856

Adcock, P W; Saint, C P

2001-12-01

154

Polymer film deposition on agar using a dielectric barrier discharge jet and its bacterial growth inhibition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer film deposition on agar in ambient air was achieved using the helium dielectric barrier discharge jet (DBD jet) fed with polymer precursors, and the bacterial growth inhibition due to the deposited film was observed. The DBD jet with precursor addition was more efficient at sterilization than a helium-only DBD jet. On the areas where polymer films cover the agar the bacterial growth was significantly inhibited. The inhibition efficacy showed dependence on the film thickness. The DBD jet without precursor also created a modified agar layer, which may slow the growth of some bacterial strains.

Tsai, T.-C.; Cho, J.; Mcintyre, K.; Jo, Y.-K.; Staack, D.

2012-08-01

155

Xanthan gum: an economical substitute for agar in plant tissue culture media.  

PubMed

Xanthan gum, a microbial desiccation-resistant polysaccharide prepared commercially by aerobic submerged fermentation from Xanthomonas campestris, has been successfully used as a solidifying agent for plant tissue culture media. Its suitability as a substitute to agar was demonstrated for in vitro seed germination, caulogenesis and rhizogenesis of Albizzia lebbeck, androgenesis in anther cultures of Datura innoxia, and somatic embryogenesis in callus cultures of Calliandra tweedii. Culture media used for eliciting these morphogenic responses were gelled with either 1% xanthan gum or 0.9% agar. Xanthan gum, like agar, supported all these responses. PMID:16331459

Jain, R; Babbar, S B

2006-03-01

156

Membrane-assisted culture of fungal mycelium on agar plates for RNA extraction and pharmacological analyses.  

PubMed

Fungal mycelium grown in liquid culture is easy to harvest for RNA extraction and gene expression analyses, but liquid cultures often develop rather heterogeneously. In contrast, growth of fungal mycelium on agar plates is highly reproducible. However, this biological material cannot be harvested easily for downstream analyses. This article describes a PVDF (polyvinylidene difluoride) membrane-assisted agar plate culture method that enables the harvest of mycelium grown on agar plates. This culture method leads to a strongly reduced variation in gene expression between biological replicates and requires less growth space as compared with liquid cultures. PMID:24607793

Lange, Mario; Müller, Carolin; Peiter, Edgar

2014-05-15

157

Respiration induced by blue light.  

PubMed

The high rate of respiration in Chlorella which is found after feeding with glucose or after a longer period of photosynthesis, declines in the dark in the course of hours to about a quarter of its original value. Blue-green light (?<550 m?) specifically counteracts this decline and maintains the high rate. This blue light effect is independent of photosynthesis. PMID:24557830

Kowallik, W; Gaffron, H

1966-03-01

158

75 FR 65525 - Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Training Administration [TA-W-74,327] Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations...applicable to workers and former workers of Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services,...

2010-10-25

159

Modification of Kanamycin-Esculin-Azide Agar To Improve Selectivity in the Enumeration of Fecal Streptococci from Water Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kanamycin-esculin-azide agar was modified by increasing the concentration of sodium azide to 0.4 g liter 21 and replacing kanamycin sulfate with 5 mg of oxolinic acid liter 21 . The modification, named oxolinic acid- esculin-azide (OAA) agar, was compared with Slanetz-Bartley and KF agars by using drinking water and seawater samples. The OAA agar showed higher specificity, selectivity, and recovery

ANA AUDICANA; ILDEFONSO PERALES; ANDJUAN J. BORREGO

1995-01-01

160

Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The WebWare molecules of the month for May are featured in several articles in this issue. "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?" discusses the pharmaceutical uses of methylene blue and its development as the first synthetic drug used against a specific disease. The JCE Classroom Activity "Out of the Blue" and the article "Greening the Blue Bottle" feature methylene blue and ascorbic acid as two key ingredients in the formulation of the blue bottle. You can also see a colorful example of these two molecules in action on the cover. "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist" describes an experiment to determine the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of citrus fruits and challenges students, as eighteenth-century sea captains, to decide the best fruit to take on a long voyage.

161

Mongolian Spot (Blue-Gray Spot)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Mongolian Spot (Blue-Gray Spot) A parent's guide for infants and babies A A A Blue-gray spots (Mongolian spots) appear as gray to blue colored, flat, "bruise-like" areas of skin. Overview ...

162

Serological Comparison of the Three Morphological Phases of Coccidioides Immitis by the Agar Gel Diffusion Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hyperimmune sera against spherules and against arthrospores of Coccidioides immitis were prepared by inoculation of rabbits. The antibody content of these sera was studied by the agar gel diffusion method. It was observed that antispherule pooled sera for...

M. E. Landay R. W. Wheat N. F. Conant E. P. Lowe

1966-01-01

163

Agar-Gel Precipitin-Inhibition Technique for Histoplasmosis Antibody Determinations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The agar-gel precipitin-inhibition technique has been modified to detect antibodies of Histoplasma capsulatum in sera from human clinical cases and experimental animals infected with this organism. By use of this modified technique, the histoplasmosis can...

J. G. Ray

1967-01-01

164

A fresh liver agar substrate for rearing small numbers of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).  

PubMed

Forensically important calliphorids can be reared on a mixture of beef liver and agar. Small pieces of meat, especially fresh or frozen beef liver, will desiccate in 2-6 h, but this simple-to-make feeding substrate remains moist for at least 12 h at 25 and 30 degrees C without desiccation, even in small (5 g) amounts. We determined the survivorship of small numbers of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (first-instar larvae to adult eclosion) raised on 5 g of liver agar and fresh beef liver. We found that all larvae raised on 5 g of liver died due to desiccation, but survivorship on 5 g of liver agar was equivalent to that on larger (50 g) pieces of either liver agar or beef liver. PMID:24897867

Gruner, Susan V; Slone, Daniel H

2014-05-01

165

Use of cephalexin-aztreonam-arabinose agar for selective isolation of Enterococcus faecium.  

PubMed Central

Cephalexin-aztreonam-arabinose agar (CAA), a new selective agar, was examined in comparison with nalidixic acid-colistin agar for the differentiation of Enterococcus faecium from other enterococci and the ability to isolate the organism from feces. Two hundred sixteen enterococcus isolates and a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative control strains were inoculated onto both media. All control strains of E. faecium were easily differentiated from Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus durans on the basis of arabinose fermentation on CAA. Differentiation of E. faecium from other enterococci or Streptococcus bovis was not possible on nalidixic acid-colistin agar. Increased isolation of E. faecium was demonstrated on CAA when both media were compared for the isolation of the organism from feces. CAA has been shown to possess excellent differential and selective features allowing the simple and effective isolation of E. faecium from heavily contaminated sites. Images

Ford, M; Perry, J D; Gould, F K

1994-01-01

166

Development of a U.S. Source of Agar - Third Quarterly Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are presented of efforts to develop the effective planting and cultivation techniques necessary to farm the marine algae used in the commercial production of agar. Observations were made on plants collected from natural populations and plants were...

N. Neushul

1983-01-01

167

Proton beam writing of microstructures in Agar gel for patterned cell growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rather useful prerequisite for many biological and biophysical studies, e.g., for cell-cell communication or neuronal networks, is confined cell growth on micro-structured surfaces. Solidified Agar layers have smooth surfaces which are electrically neutral and thus inhibit receptor binding and cell adhesion. For the first time, Agar microstructures have been manufactured using proton beam writing (PBW). In the irradiated Agar material the polysaccharides are split into oligosaccharides which can easily be washed off leaving Agar-free areas for cell adhesion. The beam diameter of 1 ?m allows the fabrication of compartments accommodating single cells which are connected by micrometer-sized channels. Using the external beam the production process is very fast. Up to 50 Petri dishes can be produced per day which makes this technique very suitable for biological investigations which require large throughputs.

Larisch, Wolfgang; Koal, Torsten; Werner, Ronald; Hohlweg, Marcus; Reinert, Tilo; Butz, Tilman

2011-10-01

168

Low density, microcellular, dopable, agar/gelatin foams for pulsed power experiments  

SciTech Connect

Low-density, microcellular foams prepared from the natural polymers agar and gelatin have been developed for pulsed-power physics experiments. Numerous experiments were supported with foams having densities at or below 10 mg/cm{sup 3}. For some of the experiments, the agar/gelatin foam was uniformly doped with metallic elements using soluble salts. Depending on the method of preparation, cell sizes were typically below 10 microns and for one process were below 1.0 micron.

McNamara, W.F. [Orion International Technologies, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aubert, J.H. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-04-01

169

Detection of agar, by analysis of sugar markers, associated with Bacillus anthracis spores, after culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of small quantities of agar associated with spores of Bacillus anthracis could provide key information regarding its source or growth characteristics. Agar, widely used in growth of bacteria on solid surfaces, consists primarily of repeating polysaccharide units of 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose (AGal) and galactose (Gal) with sulfated and O-methylated galactoses present as minor constituents. Two variants of the alditol acetate procedure

David S. Wunschel; Heather A. Colburn; Alvin Fox; Karen F. Fox; William M. Harley; Jon H. Wahl; Karen L. Wahl

2008-01-01

170

Effect of Impact Stress on Microbial Recovery on an Agar Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial stress due to the impaction of microorganisms onto an agar collection surface was studied experimentally. The relative recovery rates of aerosolizedPseudomonasfluorescensandMicrococcus luteuswere determined as a function of the impaction velocity by using a moving agar slide impactor operating over aflow rate range from 3.8 to 40 liters\\/min yielding impaction velocities from 24 to 250 m\\/s. As a reference, the

SHELBY L. STEWART; SERGEY A. GRINSHPUN; KLAUS WILLEKE; SILVA TERZIEVA; VIDMANTAS ULEVICIUS; ANDJEAN DONNELLY

1995-01-01

171

Clinical Evaluation of a Novel Chromogenic Agar Dipslide for Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a novel dipslide (DipStreak; Novamed, Israel) consisting of chromogenic agar (Uriselect 3; Sanofi Pasteur,\\u000a France) and blood agar media was evaluated prospectively and compared to that of conventional urine culture for the diagnosis\\u000a of urinary tract infection. A total of 1070 clean-catch urine specimens obtained from 251 hospitalized patients and 819 outpatients\\u000a were processed. The overall performance

P. Yagupsky; M. Rider; N. Peled

2000-01-01

172

Blue ellipticals in compact groups  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By studying galaxies in compact groups, the authors examine the hypothesis that mergers of spiral galaxies make elliptical galaxies. The authors combine dynamical models of the merger-rich compact group environment with stellar evolution models and predict that roughly 15 percent of compact group ellipticals should be 0.15 mag bluer in B - R color than normal ellipticals. The published colors of these galaxies suggest the existence of this predicted blue population, but a normal distribution with large random errors can not be ruled out based on these data alone. However, the authors have new ultraviolet blue visual data which confirm the blue color of the two ellipticals with blue B - R colors for which they have their own colors. This confirmation of a population of blue ellipticals indicates that interactions are occurring in compact groups, but a blue color in one index alone does not require that these ellipticals are recent products of the merger of two spirals. The authors demonstrate how optical spectroscopy in the blue may distinguish between a true spiral + spiral merger and the swallowing of a gas-rich system by an already formed elliptical. The authors also show that the sum of the luminosity of the galaxies in each group is consistent with the hypothesis that the final stage in the evolution of compact group is an elliptical galaxy.

Zepf, Stephen E.; Whitmore, Bradley C.

1990-01-01

173

Growth of coagulase-negative staphylococci on colistin-nalidixic acid agar and susceptibility to polymyxins.  

PubMed

Colistin-nalidixic acid agar, although recently recommended as a replacement for blood agar for primary plating of urine specimens ( Fung et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 16:632-636, 1982), has also been reported to suppress the growth of some strains of staphylococci that are susceptible to colistin (polymyxin E). The susceptibility of 11 species of staphylococci to polymyxins was determined, and the ability of these species to grow on colistin-nalidixic acid agar was examined. Although the MICs for most of the strains tested were 8 micrograms/ml or less, only a few coagulase-negative staphylococci grew on or were inhibited by colistin-nalidixic acid agar. This descrepancy was explained by the antagonistic effects that medium components, such as physiological concentrations of magnesium and calcium and 5% sheep blood, had on the activity of polymyxin. Colistin-nalidixic acid agar is still recommended for routine urine processing; however, the poor growth of 13% of the Staphylococcus saprophyticus strains tested suggests that blood agar should be included in the primary plating battery of urine specimens obtained from female outpatients. PMID:6330170

Fung, J C; McKinley, G; Tyburski, M B; Berman, M; Goldstein, J

1984-05-01

174

Evaluation of the Oxoid Brilliance™ CRE Agar for the detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae.  

PubMed

The adequate detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is essential for adequate antibiotic therapy and for infection control purposes, especially in an outbreak setting. Selective agars play an important role in the detection of CPE. The Oxoid Brilliance™ CRE Agar (Thermo Fisher Scientific) was evaluated for the detection of CPE using 255 non-repetitive Enterobacteriaceae isolates, including 95 CPE (36 KPC, 4 KPC plus VIM, 4 NDM, 6 GIM, 20 VIM, and 25 OXA-48-producing isolates). The sensitivity of the CRE agar for the detection of CPE was 94 % (89/95), but differed per carbapenemase gene (100 % for KPC, NDM, and GIM, 90 % for VIM, and 84 % for OXA-48-producing isolates). The specificity of the CRE agar was 71 %, due to the growth of AmpC- and/or ESBL-producing isolates. The CRE agar is a sensitive tool for the detection of KPC and metallo-carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, although the detection of OXA-48 producers is less optimal. The relatively low specificity requires confirmation of carbapenemase production for isolates recovered from the CRE agar. PMID:23728736

Cohen Stuart, J; Voets, G; Rottier, W; Voskuil, S; Scharringa, J; Van Dijk, K; Fluit, A C; Leverstein-Van Hall, M

2013-11-01

175

Influence of the extraction process on the rheological and structural properties of agars.  

PubMed

Agars obtained by traditional hot-water (TWE) and microwave-assisted (MAE) extractions were compared in terms of their rheological and physicochemical properties and molecular self-association in solutions of low (0.05%, w/w) and high (1.5%, w/w) polymer concentrations. At low concentration, thin gelled layers were imaged by AFM. Slow or rapid cooling of the solutions influenced structure formation. In each case, TWE and MAE agar structures were different and apparently larger for MAE. At high concentration, progressive structural reinforcement was seen; while TWE agar showed a more open and irregular 3D network, MAE agar gel imaged by cryoSEM was denser and fairly uniform. The rheological (higher thermal stability and consistency) and mechanical (higher gel strength) behaviors of MAE agar seemed consistent with a positive effect of molecular mass and 3,6-anhydro-?-l-galactose content. MAE produced non-degraded agar comparable with commercial ones and if properly monitored, could be a promising alternative to TWE. PMID:23688466

Sousa, Ana M M; Borges, João; Silva, A Fernando; Gonçalves, Maria P

2013-07-01

176

Blue upconversion thulium laser  

SciTech Connect

Upconversion has been an active area of research for at least two decades, mainly because of its wide ranging applications from infrared quantum counters, visible-emitting phosphors, to upconversion lasers. The upconversion lasers have recently become attractive with the advent of semiconductor laser diodes as the pump source. In an upconversion laser, the laser active ion is excited by internal upconversion of near-ir or red light via multiphoton excitation or cooperative processes and emits anti-Stokes visible light. Since the laser diode output wavelength can be composition turned to match the upconversion laser ion absorption lines, a substantial fraction of the ions can be driven into higher energy levels, thus enhancing the upconversion process. These upconversion solid-state lasers offer a potentially simple and compact source of visible coherent light with semiconductor laser diode excitation. We recently reported a novel upconversion thulium laser that emits blue light at 77 K. In this paper additional data on this 77 K upconversion laser as well as preliminary results on the room temperature upconversion laser are presented. In these demonstrations, dye lasers were used instead of diode lasers because they were more readily available than high power semiconductor laser diodes and their wavelengths could be adjusted easily. 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.; Weber, M.E.; Dulick, M.

1990-01-01

177

Tween 40-based precipitate production observed on modified chromogenic agar and development of biological identification kit for Malassezia species.  

PubMed

We developed a simple identification kit for nine species of Malassezia (M. furfur, M. slooffiae, M. sympodialis, M. restricta, M. obtusa, M. globosa, M. pachydermatis, M. dermatis, and M. japonica) based on their biological features. This method utilizes Tween 40-based precipitate production on modified chromogenic agar (CHROMagar) Malassezia medium, growth on specific agars (Sabouraud's dextrose agar, Cremophor EL agar, Tween 60-esculin agar), and catalase reactions. This identification kit was verified with 11 type and reference strains of nine Malassezia species. An additional 26 clinical isolates were also successfully identified using the kit and the results were confirmed by molecular biological analysis. PMID:16702101

Kaneko, Takamasa; Makimura, Koichi; Sugita, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Hideyo

2006-05-01

178

Alexandrite solid state blue laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1991 an alexandrite based blue laser was developed with its wavelength locked to the cesium (Cs) absorption line at 455.6 nm. The device was used to successfully demonstrate two-way airplane-submarine communications.

Kenrick R. Leslie

1995-01-01

179

Blue Crabs in the Chesapeake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classroom unit and data activity focusing on juvenile and adult blue crab distribution in the Chesapeake Bay. Includes background on crab biology, anatomy, life cycle, and fisheries. Authentic data tables provided for in-class analysis, discussion questions guide inquiry.

180

Hazards of solar blue light  

SciTech Connect

Short-wavelength visible light (blue light) of the Sun has caused retinal damage in people who have stared fixedly at the Sun without adequate protection. The author quantified the blue-light hazard of the Sun according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines by measuring the spectral radiance of the Sun. The results showed that the exposure limit for blue light can be easily exceeded when people view the Sun and that the solar blue-light hazard generally increases with solar elevation, which is in accordance with a model of the atmospheric extinction of sunlight. Viewing the Sun can be very hazardous and therefore should be avoided except at very low solar elevations.

Okuno, Tsutomu

2008-06-01

181

Blue jets, blue starters and other blue luminous events observed by ISUAL payload on the FORMOSAT-2 satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue jets and blue starters were first discovered in 1994 (Wescott, et. al. GRL, 22, 1209, 1995; GRL, 23, 2153, 1996). During 2000 STEPS campaign, other blue luminous events were also observed to emerge directly from cloud-top and were named gnomes and pixies (Lyons, et. al. BAMS, 445, 2003). The spectroscopic properties of blue starters were investigated in EXL98 campaign

H. Su; R. Hsu; C. Kuo; A. B. Chen; Y. Lee; P. Chiang; H. U. Frey; S. B. Mende; Y. Takahashi; H. Fukunishi; L. Lee

2005-01-01

182

Blue holes: Definition and genesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue holes are karst features that were initially described from Bahamian islands and banks, which have been documented for\\u000a over 100 years. They are water-filled vertical openings in the carbonate rock that exhibit complex morphologies, ecologies,\\u000a and water chemistries. Their deep blue color, for which they are named, is the result of their great depth, and they may lead\\u000a to

John E. Mylroie; James L. Carew; Audra I. Moore

1995-01-01

183

Mass production of spores of lactic acid-producing Rhizopus oryzae NBRC 5384 on agar plate.  

PubMed

Mass production of sporangiospores (spores) of Rhizopus oryzae NBRC 5384 (identical to NRRL 395 and ATCC 9363) on potato-dextrose-agar medium was studied aiming at starting its L(+)-lactic acid fermentation directly from spore inoculation. Various parameters including harvest time, sowed spore density, size of agar plate, height of air space, and incubation mode of plate (agar-on-bottom or agar-on-top) were studied. Ordinarily used shallow Petri dishes were found out to be unsuitable for the full growth of R. oryzae sporangiophores. In a very wide range of the sowed spore density, the smaller it was, the greater the number of the harvested spores was. It was also interesting to find out that R. oryzae grown downward vertically with a deep air space in an agar-on-top mode gave larger amount of spores than in an agar-on-bottom mode at 30°C for 7-day cultivation. Scale-up of the agar plate culture from 26.4 to 292 cm(2) was studied, resulting in the proportional relationship between the number of the harvested spores/plate and the plate area in the deep Petri dishes. The number of plates of 50 cm in diameter needed for 100 m(3) industrial submerged fermentation started directly from 2 × 10(5) spores/mL inoculum size was estimated as about 6, from which it was inferred that such a fermentation would be feasible. Designing a 50 cm plate and a method of spreading and collecting the spores were suggested. Bioprocess technological significance of the "full-scale industrial submerged fermentation started directly from spore inoculation omitting pre-culture" has been discussed. PMID:23658025

Yamane, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Ryosuke

2013-01-01

184

Evaluation of CP Chromo Select Agar for the enumeration of Clostridium perfringens from water.  

PubMed

The European Directive on drinking water quality has included mCP agar as the reference method for recovering Clostridium perfringens from drinking waters. In the present study, three media (mCP, TSCF and CP Chromo Select Agar) were evaluated for recovery of C. perfringens in different surface water samples. Out of 139 water samples, using a membrane filtration technique, 131 samples (94.2%) were found to be presumptively positive for C. perfringens in at least one of the culture media. Green colored colonies on CP Chromo Select Agar (CCP agar) were counted as presumptive C. perfringens isolates. Out of 483 green colonies on CCP agar, 96.3% (465 strains, indole negative) were identified as C. perfringens, and 15 strains (3.1%) were indole positive and were identified as Clostridium sordellii, Clostridium bifermentans or Clostridium tetani. Only 3 strains (0.6%) gave false positive results and were identified as Clostridium fallax, Clostridium botulinum, and Clostridium tertium. Variance analysis of the data obtained shows statistically no significant differences in the counts obtained between media employed in this work. The mCP method is very onerous for routine screening and bacterial colonies could not be used for further biochemical testing. The colonies on CCP and TSCF were easy to count and subculture for confirmation tests. TSCF detects sulfite-reducing clostridia, including species other than C. perfringens, and in some cases excessive blackening of the agar frustrated counting of the colonies. If the contamination was too high, TSCF did not consistently produce black colonies and as a consequence, the colonies were white and gave false negative results. On the other hand, the identification of typical and atypical colonies isolated from all media demonstrated that CCP agar was the most useful medium for C. perfringens recovery in water samples. PMID:23816139

Manafi, Mammad; Waldherr, Kerstin; Kundi, Michael

2013-10-01

185

Modification of karmali agar by supplementation with potassium clavulanate for the isolation of campylobacter from chicken carcass rinses.  

PubMed

The detection ability and selectivity of Karmali agar was improved by supplementation of an extended-spectrum ?-lactamase inhibitor, potassium clavulanate. The optimum concentration of potassium clavulanate (0.5 ?g/ml) in Karmali agar was determined by inoculation of 50 Campylobacter and 30 extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing E. coli strains onto normal and modified Karmali agar containing various concentrations of the agent. Eighty retail carcasses were rinsed with 400 ml of buffered peptone water. The rinse samples were enriched in 2 × blood-free Bolton enrichment broth at 42°C for 48 h and then were streaked onto normal and modified Karmali agar containing 0.5 ?g/ml potassium clavulanate. The suspicious colonies were subcultured on Columbia blood agar and confirmed by colony PCR. In chicken carcass samples, the modified Karmali agar showed a significantly greater isolation rate than normal Karmali agar (42.5 versus 21.3%; P < 0.05). Furthermore, the selectivity of the modified Karmali agar was also significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of the normal Karmali agar, as seen by comparison of the number of contaminated agar plates (83.8 versus 97.5%) and the growth index (1.67 versus 2.91) of the non-Campylobacter colonies. PMID:24988031

Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyunsook; Choi, In-Soo; Oh, Deog-Hwan; Seo, Kun-Ho

2014-07-01

186

Synthesis of agar microparticles using temperature-controlled microfluidic devices for Cordyceps militaris cultivation.  

PubMed

A temperature-controlled microfluidic approach was developed for fabricating monodispersed agar beads with the potential to be a brand-new strategy for cultivating Cordyceps militaris. The proposed microfluidic system features a circulating water bath with precise temperature control (temperature deviation ?T<0.1°C). This device holds the promise of allowing us to develop a temperature-controlled system, characterized as simple, low cost, and easy to set up and use. The size-controllable agar beads were achieved by utilizing microfluidic emulsification in the cross-junction channel under temperature-controlled conditions. The flow conditions of the dispersed/continuous phases were adjusted to generate various sizes of agar beads. Our results show that the microparticles produced are as small as 176 ??m with a 95% particle size distribution within 5? ?m. The prepared agar microparticles performed well as a substrate for the cultivation of C. militaris. The proposed method could also be applied for encapsulating biomaterials, enzymes, drugs, catalysts, and nanoparticles into agar beads for biomedical applications. PMID:22012813

Lin, Yung-Sheng; Yang, Chih-Hui; Lu, Kang; Huang, Keng-Shiang; Zheng, Ying-Zhen

2011-11-01

187

Nutrient agar with sodium chloride supplementation for presumptive detection of Moraxella catarrhalis in clinical specimens.  

PubMed

We previously reported that Nissui nutrient agar (N medium) promoted the growth of Moraxella catarrhalis but not commensal Neisseria spp. In the present study, we examined which constituent of N medium was responsible for the selective growth of M. catarrhalis using 209 M. catarrhalis and 100 commensal Neisseria spp. clinical strains. We found that peptone, but not meat extract or agar of N medium, had growth-promoting or growth-inhibiting ability with respect to M. catarrhalis and commensal Neisseria spp. Thus, we investigated the amino acid content of N peptone and found it had higher concentrations of amino acids than other commercial peptone products. On varying the sodium chloride concentration of reconstituted N medium, we noted that the concentration was an important factor in bacterial growth differences. Varying the sodium chloride concentration of other commercial nutrient agars achieved similar results to those for N medium. This is, to our knowledge, the first study observing that sodium chloride concentration is responsible for difference in growth between the two organisms. We also successfully isolated colonies of M. catarrhalis from respiratory specimens on N medium, whereas the growth of commensal Neisseria spp. was inhibited, and by adding bovine hematin and ?-NAD we were able to isolate Haemophilus influenzae colonies as efficiently as with a chocolate agar. In conclusion, nutrient agar can be used as a medium for the preferential isolation of M. catarrhalis from upper respiratory tract specimens. PMID:22350402

Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Saito, Ryoichi; Chida, Toshio; Sano, Kazumitsu; Tsuchiya, Tatsuyuki; Okamura, Noboru

2012-04-01

188

Comparison of agar based media for primary isolation of Helicobacter pylori.  

PubMed Central

AIMS--To determine the best medium for the primary isolation of Helicobacter pylori. METHODS--Sixty six gastric mucosal biopsy specimens frozen in 1 ml Cysteine Albimi media with 20% glycerol from 22 histologically proven H pylori infected patients were cultured on brain heart infusion agar (BHIA) with 7% fresh whole defibrinated horse blood, egg yolk agar (EYA), Columbia blood agar-cyclodextrin agar (CBA-Cd), and commercial trypticase soy agar (TSA) supplemented with 5% sheep blood. RESULTS--Successful primary isolation of H pylori was 96% with BHIA, 78% with TSA, 64% for EYA, and 32% with CBA-Cd. Colonies appeared earlier on BHIA (4.7 +/- 0.1 days, 5.3 +/- 0.4 days, 5.3 +/- 0.4 days, and 7.1 +/- 0.9 days for BHIA, TSA, EYA, and CBA-Cd) and there were more colonies on BHIA than on CBA-Cd, EYA or TSA (599 +/- 88, 104 +/- 66, 260 +/- 107, and 358 +/- 89, respectively). CONCLUSIONS--Success of a medium for passage of isolates apparently does not reliably predict usefulness for primary isolation. Freshly made BHIA with 7% horse blood medium is recommended for primary isolation. However, the easily obtainable TSA media would be the best alternative for routine clinical laboratories with no access to BHIA. Images

Hachem, C Y; Clarridge, J E; Evans, D G; Graham, D Y

1995-01-01

189

Migration of Chemotactic Bacteria in Soft Agar: Role of Gel Concentration  

PubMed Central

We study the migration of chemotactic wild-type Escherichia coli populations in semisolid (soft) agar in the concentration range C = 0.15–0.5% (w/v). For C?0.35%, expanding bacterial colonies display characteristic chemotactic rings. At C = 0.35%, however, bacteria migrate as broad circular bands rather than sharp rings. These are growth/diffusion waves arising because of suppression of chemotaxis by the agar and have not been previously reported experimentally to our knowledge. For C = 0.4–0.5%, expanding colonies do not span the depth of the agar and develop pronounced front instabilities. The migration front speed is weakly dependent on agar concentration at C < 0.25%, but decreases sharply above this value. We discuss these observations in terms of an extended Keller-Segel model for which we derived novel transport parameter expressions accounting for perturbations of the chemotactic response by collisions with the agar. The model makes it possible to fit the observed front speed decay in the range C = 0.15–0.35%, and its solutions qualitatively reproduce the observed transition from chemotactic to growth/diffusion bands. We discuss the implications of our results for the study of bacteria in porous media and for the design of improved bacteriological chemotaxis assays.

Croze, Ottavio A.; Ferguson, Gail P.; Cates, Michael E.; Poon, Wilson C.K.

2011-01-01

190

McKay agar enables routine quantification of the 'Streptococcus milleri' group in cystic fibrosis patients.  

PubMed

The 'Streptococcus milleri' group (SMG) has recently been recognized as a contributor to bronchopulmonary disease in cystic fibrosis (CF). Routine detection and quantification is limited by current CF microbiology protocols. McKay agar was developed previously for the semi-selective isolation of this group. Here, McKay agar was validated against a panel of clinical SMG isolates, which revealed improved SMG recovery compared with Columbia blood agar. The effectiveness of this medium was evaluated by appending it to the standard CF sputum microbiology protocols in a clinical laboratory for a 6-month period. All unique colony types were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Whilst a wide variety of organisms were isolated, members of the SMG were the most prevalent bacteria cultured, and McKay agar allowed routine quantification of the SMG from 10(3) to >10(8) c.f.u. ml(-1) directly from sputum. All members of the SMG were detected [Streptococcus anginosus (40.7 %), Streptococcus intermedius (34.3 %) and Streptococcus constellatus (25 %)] with an overall prevalence rate of 40.6 % in our adult CF population. Without exception, samples where SMG isolates were cultured at 10(7) c.f.u. ml(-1) or greater were associated with pulmonary exacerbations. This study demonstrates that McKay agar can be used routinely to quantify the SMG from complex clinical samples. PMID:20093379

Sibley, Christopher D; Grinwis, Margot E; Field, Tyler R; Parkins, Michael D; Norgaard, Jens C; Gregson, Daniel B; Rabin, Harvey R; Surette, Michael G

2010-05-01

191

Characterization of bionanocomposite films prepared with agar and paper-mulberry pulp nanocellulose.  

PubMed

Crystallized nanocellulose (CNC) was separated from paper-mulberry (Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold) bast pulp by sulfuric acid hydrolysis method and they were blended with agar to prepare bionanocomposite films. The effect of CNC content (1, 3, 5 and 10wt% based on agar) on the mechanical, water vapor permeability (WVP), and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were studied. Changes of the cellulose fibers in structure, morphology, crystallinity, and thermal properties of the films were evaluated using FT-IR, TEM, SEM, XRD, and TGA analysis methods. The CNC was composed of fibrous and spherical or elliptic granules of nano-cellulose with sizes of 50-60nm. Properties of agar film such as mechanical and water vapor barrier properties were improved significantly (p<0.05) by blending with the CNC. The tensile modulus and tensile strength of agar film increased by 40% and 25%, respectively, in the composite film with 5wt% of CNC, and the WVP of agar film decreased by 25% after formation of nanocomposite with 3wt% of CNC. The CNC obtained from the paper-mulberry bast pulp can be used as a reinforcing agent for the preparation of bio-nanocomposites, and they have a high potential for the development of completely biodegradable food packaging materials. PMID:24906782

Reddy, Jeevan Prasad; Rhim, Jong-Whan

2014-09-22

192

Antimicrobial and physical-mechanical properties of agar-based films incorporated with grapefruit seed extract.  

PubMed

The use of synthetic petroleum based packaging films caused serious environmental problems due to their difficulty in recycling and poor biodegradability. Therefore, present study was aimed to develop natural biopolymer-based antimicrobial packaging films as an alternative for the synthetic packaging films. As a natural antimicrobial agent, grapefruit seed extract (GSE) has been incorporated into agar to prepare antimicrobial packaging film. The films with different concentrations of GSE were prepared by a solvent casting method and the resulting composite films were examined physically and mechanically. In addition, the films were characterized by FE-SEM, XRD, FT-IR and TGA. The incorporation of GSE caused increase in color, UV barrier, moisture content, water solubility and water vapor permeability, while decrease in surface hydrophobicity, tensile strength and elastic modulus of the films. As the concentration of GSE increased from 0.6 to 13.3 ?g/mL, the physical and mechanical properties of the films were affected significantly. The addition of GSE changed film microstructure of the film, but did not influence the crystallinity of agar and thermal stability of the agar-based films. The agar/GSE films exhibited distinctive antimicrobial activity against three test food pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. These results suggest that agar/GSE films have potential to be used in an active food packaging systems for maintaining food safety and extending the shelf-life of the packaged food. PMID:24507339

Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

2014-02-15

193

Photostability of Aniline Blue (CI 42755) and Methyl Blue (CI 42780)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercially available and purified samples of Aniline Blue and Methyl Blue (both dyes having the synonym “Cotton Blue”) in aqueous solution appeared to be reasonably photostable when subjected to simulated sunlight. The compounds were, however, degraded in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (100 vol.), the reaction following second order kinetics with Aniline Blue and first order kinetics with Methyl Blue.

K. Kotak; A. S. Schulte; J. Hay; J. K. Sugden

1997-01-01

194

True blue: blue-emitting aluminum(III) quinolinolate complexes.  

PubMed

Blue-emitting heteroleptic aluminum(III) bis(2-methyl-8-quinolinolate)phenolate complexes were synthesized. A tunable, blue-to-green emission is achieved by attaching electron-withdrawing modulators to the emisssive quinaldinate ligand. The electronic nature of modulator substituents attached to the position of the highest HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) density is used to modulate ligand HOMO levels to achieve effective emission tuning to obtain blue-emitting materials. Optical and electrochemical properties of the resulting complexes were investigated and compared to the results of density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP/6-31G*) studies. The resulting materials may find application as organic light-emitting device materials. PMID:17112247

Pérez-Bolívar, César; Montes, Victor A; Anzenbacher, Pavel

2006-11-27

195

Glass bead cultivation of fungi: combining the best of liquid and agar media.  

PubMed

Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads that allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani cultivated on agar plates, in shaking liquid culture or on glass beads was compared. Agar plate culture and glass bead cultivation yielded comparable results while liquid culture had lower production of secondary metabolites. RNA extraction from glass beads and liquid cultures was easier than from agar plates and the quality was superior. The system allows simple control of nutrient availability throughout fungal cultivation. This combined with the ease of extraction of nucleic acids and metabolites makes the system highly suitable for the study of gene regulation in response to specific nutrient factors. PMID:23871859

Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette; Sondergaard, Teis Esben

2013-09-01

196

Polyacrylamide grafted Agar: synthesis and applications of conventional and microwave assisted technique.  

PubMed

Polyacrylamide grafted Agar (Ag-g-PAM) has been successfully synthesized by conventional method and microwave assisted method. The former method employs ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as the free radical initiator while the latter uses the combination of ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) and microwave irradiation. The synthesized graft copolymers have been characterized by elemental analysis (C, H, N, O and S), FTIR spectroscopy, intrinsic viscosity measurement and scanning electron micrograph (SEM); taking agar as a reference. Flocculation efficacy of synthesized graft copolymers was studied in kaolin suspension and in waste water through 'Jar test' procedure. In the present investigation, we have observed that polyacrylamide grafted agar synthesized by microwave assisted technique shows superior properties than conventional technique. These properties are reported in terms of intrinsic viscosity, flocculation efficacy and pollutant load reduction of waste water. PMID:22840002

Rani, G Usha; Mishra, Sumit; Sen, Gautam; Jha, Usha

2012-10-01

197

Synthesis and characterization of agar-based silver nanoparticles and nanocomposite film with antibacterial applications.  

PubMed

This study describes the synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles and nanocomposite material using agar extracted from the red alga Gracilaria dura. Characterization of silver nanoparticles was carried out based on UV-Vis spectroscopy (421 nm), transmission electron microscopy, EDX, SAED and XRD analysis. The thermal stability of agar/silver nanocomposite film determined by TGA and DSC analysis showed distinct patterns when compared with their raw material (agar and AgNO(3)). The TEM findings revealed that the silver nanoparticles synthesized were spherical in shape, 6 nm in size with uniform dispersal. The synthesized nanoparticles had the great bactericidal activity with reduction of 99.9% of bacteria over the control value. The time required for synthesis of silver nanoparticles was found to be temperature dependent and higher the temperature less the time for nanoparticles formation. DSC and XRD showed approximately the same crystalline index (CI(DSC) 0.73). PMID:22244898

Shukla, Mahendra K; Singh, Ravindra Pal; Reddy, C R K; Jha, Bhavanath

2012-03-01

198

Agar plate method for rapid screening of rhizobium for tolerance to acid-aluminum stress  

SciTech Connect

An agar plate method has been developed for the rapid, preliminary screening of large numbers of rhizobia for tolerance to acidity and aluminum (acid-Al). Media containing pH indicators are used, and distinguish true tolerance from cases where growth depends on a previous pH shift. Strains which were highly tolerant or sensitive to acid Al on agar behaved similarly in defined liquid media. Strains that formed dry, pinpoint colonies were more sensitive to acid-Al than those that formed large, gummy colonies.

Ayanaba, A.; Asanuma, S.; Munns, D.N.

1983-01-01

199

Antibiotic susceptibility testing (agar disk diffusion and agar dilution) of clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium: comparison of Mueller-Hinton, Iso-Sensitest, and Wilkins-Chalgren agar media.  

PubMed

Forty-two isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and 56 isolates of Enterococcus faecium, including 8 vancomycin-resistant strains, were examined for comparative susceptibility to 27 antimicrobial drugs with the agar dilution method, employing Mueller-Hinton (MHA), Iso-Sensitest (ISTA), and Wilkins-Chalgren (WCA) agar. The Bauer-Kirby agar disk diffusion method was used to comparatively test 24 of the agents in parallel. The enterococci yielded better growth on ISTA and WCA. However, WCA completely antagonized co-trimoxazole and, though less, fosfomycin. Importantly, WCA slightly reduced the activities of teicoplanin (minimal inhibitory concentrations, MICs, raised up to twofold) and vancomycin (MICs raised two- to fourfold) against enterococci and staphylococcal quality control strains. Therefore, WCA was judged unsuitable for susceptibility testing of enterococci. For E. faecalis no discrepancies between agar dilution MICs and inhibition zone diameters were encountered with augmentin, ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, chloramphenicol, mupirocin, oxacillin, teicoplanin, and co-trimoxazole. Overall, MHA yielded fewer very major (category I) and major (category II) discrepancies than ISTA. However, numerous minor (category III), slight (category IV), minimal (category V), and/or negligible (category VI) discrepancies were encountered with ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, erythromycin, fosfomycin, fusidic acid, meropenem, ofloxacin and rifampin. With respect to E. faecium, only cefotaxime, mupirocin, oxacillin, and teicoplanin yielded nondiscrepant results. Several very major (I) and major (II) discrepancies were observed with augmentin, ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, doxycycline, fusidic acid, imipenem, and penicillin G. Minor discrepancies (categories III-VI) were particularly numerous with augmentin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, and piperacillin. The largest numbers of negligible (VI) discrepancies were noted with fosfomycin, fusidic acid, and ofloxacin. It is recommended to test one cephalosporin (cefuroxime or the like) in parallel for educational purposes and to exclude fosfomycin, fusidic acid, and rifampin from test batteries because of the wide scatter of test results. The large number of minimal (V) discrepancies of ciprofloxacin against E. faecalis, the numerous minor (III) and slight (IV) discrepancies of chloramphenicol against E. faecium, and the not insignificant number of very major (I) and minor (III) discrepancies observed with meropenem against isolates of E. faecalis necessitated proposals for new disk intermediate susceptibility criteria. PMID:9681198

Traub, W H; Geipel, U; Leonhard, B

1998-01-01

200

The Blue-Collar Brain  

PubMed Central

Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body’s tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior.

Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

2012-01-01

201

The blue-collar brain.  

PubMed

Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

2012-01-01

202

Crater Lake: blue through time  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Blue is the color of constancy, hence the term true blue. The unearthly blueness of Crater Lake reflects its pristine character and gives scientists a focal point for studying human impacts on aquatic environments over long periods of time. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Park Service, and Oregon State University have systematically studied the lake for the last two decades. Long-term monitoring of this lake is a priority of Crater Lake National Park and will continue far into the future.

Larson, Gary L.; Buktenica, Mark; Collier, Robert

2003-01-01

203

Blue light emitting thiogallate phosphor  

DOEpatents

A crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor of the formula RGa.sub.2 S.sub.4 :Ce.sub.x where R is selected from the group consisting of calcium, strontium, barium and zinc, and x is from about 1 to 10 atomic percent, the phosphor characterized as having a crystalline microstructure on the size order of from about 100 .ANG. to about 10,000 .ANG. is provided together with a process of preparing a crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor by depositing on a substrate by CVD and resultant thin film electroluminescent devices including a layer of such deposited phosphor on an ordinary glass substrate.

Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); King, Christopher N. (Portland, OR); Tuenge, Richard T. (Hillsboro, OR)

1998-01-01

204

Blue-green upconversion laser  

DOEpatents

A blue-green laser (450-550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm.sup.3+. The Tm.sup.+ is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP.

Nguyen, Dinh C. (Los Alamos, NM); Faulkner, George E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01

205

Blue-green upconversion laser  

DOEpatents

A blue-green laser (450--550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm[sup 3+]. The Tm[sup 3+] is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP. 3 figs.

Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.

1990-08-14

206

"Ancient" blue nevi (cellular blue nevi with degenerative stromal changes).  

PubMed

Ancient melanocytic nevi are benign melanocytic neoplasms that show degenerative and atypical changes, sometimes leading to a misdiagnosis of melanoma. We describe 6 patients (M:F ratio 4:2; age range, 15-84 years; median, 50 years) who presented with cellular blue nevi showing stromal changes resembling those of ancient melanocytic nevi. The lesions were located on the buttocks (4 patients) and on the trunk (2 patients) and clinically consisted of heavily pigmented nodules. Histology revealed the architectural pattern of cellular blue nevi. However, the architecture was strikingly altered by stromal changes like those seen in ancient melanocytic nevi, including increased number of large, dilated vessels with pseudoangiomatous features in 4 cases, hyaline angiopathy in 4 cases, myxoid changes, sclerosis or hyalinization of the stroma in all cases, and variable amounts of edema in 4 cases. In 2 cases, a large edematous area was present in the center of the lesion, and nests of ovoidal melanocytes and single dendritic melanocytes appeared to "float" in the stroma. Pleomorphic melanocytes were observed in all cases. Ancient blue nevi represent a morphologic variation of cellular blue nevi-Masson neuronevi with degenerative stromal changes. Recognition of these lesions can help prevent overdiagnosis of melanoma. PMID:18212535

Cerroni, Lorenzo; Borroni, Riccardo G; Massone, Cesare; Kerl, Helmut

2008-02-01

207

Blue-ice and snow runways <  

NSF Publications Database

Concepts for such runways include "blue-ice" runways on glacier ice and runways on compacted snow. 2.2.1.2 Development of a blue-ice runway at the Pegasus site (Pegasus II) The concept for the Pegasus II runway is to develop a runway directly on exposed blue ice. 2.2.2.1 Development of a blue-ice runway at Mount Howe The closest potential blue-ice runway site to the South Pole is at Mount Howe, where the exposed blue-ice surface is suitable as a runway with relatively little smoothing.

208

The Next Generation Blue Marble  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomena is a full yearÂs worth of NASA satellite data of Earth's land surface, coastal oceans, sea ice, and clouds that has been organized into a seamless, photo-like mosaic of our planet The image beneath the title "The Next Generation Blue Marble" features an animation. Click the image to begin the animation.

209

Blue Sky and Rayleigh Scattering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Georgia State University explains why we see the sky as blue. It describes Rayleigh scattering, which refers to the scattering of light off of the molecules of the air, and Mie scattering, which refers to the scattering of light by larger particles.

Carl R. (Rod) Nave; University, Georgia S.

210

Baby T (Blue) (Size: Medium)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

1900-01-01

211

Baby T (Blue) (Size: Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

1900-01-01

212

Baby T (Blue) (Size: Small)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

1900-01-01

213

LE BLUES ET SA MUSIQUE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blues, an original form of music, born in USA d uring the second half of the XIXth century, is being deeply questioned. D oes it come from the « share- cropping », system which replaced slavery in the de ep South ? Is it a reaction against racism, a statement of the black culture ? Concerni ng music, it

Bernard JOLIBERT

214

Singing' the Black and Blues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is so obvious that the sky is blue in the daytime and black at night, but it took the smartest humans thousands of years of observation, thought, discussion, conjecture, and analysis to finally come up with answers that make scientific sense as to why the sky is these colors. This article discusses light and the scientific research…

Fisher, Diane

2004-01-01

215

Agar barrier method for removal of yeast and other fungal contamination from Leishmania promastigotes culture  

PubMed Central

The present study explains a novel method of Leishmania promastigotes culture decontamination. The method is based on motility of Leishmania promastigotes across agar barrier which facilitates decontamination from yeast and other non motile contamination. This is inexpensive, easy, rapid and reliable physical method and is able to save valuable isolates in culture.

Gupta, Anil Kumar; Narayan, Shyam; Singh, Shubhankar Kumar; Thakur, Ajit Kumar; Das, Pradeep

2012-01-01

216

Performance of Five Agar Media for Recovery of Fungi from Isolator Blood Cultures  

PubMed Central

We studied the recovery of 1,270 fungal isolates from 176,144 Isolator blood cultures (0.72% positive) on bacterial and fungal media, under routine and differing incubation conditions. Except with Histoplasma capsulatum, chocolate agar incubated for only 3 days proved to be an excellent medium for the recovery of fungi from the Isolator system.

Procop, G. W.; Cockerill, F. R.; Vetter, E. A.; Harmsen, W. S.; Hughes, J. G.; Roberts, G. D.

2000-01-01

217

Identification of 'T' Mycoplasmas in Primary Agar Cultures by Means of a Direct Test for Urease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A direct test for urease has been described that can be applied directly to colonies of T mycoplasmas in agar cultures. The test is specific for T mycoplasmas, since these are the only members of the mycoplasma group known to possess a urease enzyme syste...

M. C. Shepard D. R. Howard

1970-01-01

218

Preliminary Evaluation of a Semisolid Agar Antifungal Susceptibility Test for Yeasts and Molds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a semisolid agar antifungal susceptibility (SAAS) method for the rapid susceptibility screening of yeasts and molds. The reproducibility and accuracy of the SAAS method were assessed by com- paring the MICs of amphotericin B and fluconazole obtained for 10 candidate quality control (QC) American Type Culture Collection yeast strains in >15 replicates with those found by six

HARRIET PROVINE; SUSAN HADLEY

2000-01-01

219

Boundaries and breakdowns: applying Agar's concept of ethnography to observations in a pediatric clinic.  

PubMed

This paper discusses a methodology for observing and describing interactions between clinicians and patients in an inner-city pediatric clinic serving families of diverse ethnicity. The framework is derived from Michael Agar's concept of ethnography as an interpretive, problem-resolving method. In Agar's model, the participant-observer moves cognitively and analytically from focusing on breakdown (awareness of a problem in understanding) to resolution (applying knowledge structures or schemas to bounded phenomena or strips) and ultimately to coherence. This framework applies not only to describing what the ethnographer does, but also stages in the clinician's efforts to communicate. Awareness of repeated breakdowns allows the ethnographer to document fundamental differences in expectations and premises that affect communication between clinician and patient. Two major types of breakdowns are discussed: those occurring between clinic staff and families, and those occurring between staff and ethnographer. Terminological and analytical modifications of Agar's method are recommended to reflect more accurately the ethnographer's degree of involvement in the communication breakdown (active resolution versus passive resolution). The paper concludes that Agar's model provides a useful structure for developing a systematic ethnographic language that can readily be demonstrated and communicated to clinicians. PMID:10278578

McElroy, A; Jezewski, M A

1986-01-01

220

MODIFIED AGAR MEDIUM FOR DETECTING ENVIRONMENTAL SALMONELLAE BY THE MOST-PROBABLE-NUMBER METHOD  

EPA Science Inventory

Salmonellae in the environment remain a potential source of disease. Low numbers of salmonellae have been detected and enumerated from environmental samples by most probable number methods that require careful colony selection from plated agar medium. A modified xylose lysine bri...

221

EVALUATION OF M-T7 AGAR AS A FECAL COLIFORM MEDIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

The m-T/7 agar, designed to improve recoveries of injured total coliforms, was evaluated for its effectiveness as a fecal coliform medium. The time and temperature of preincubation were found to be crucial to the optimal recovery of fetal coliforms. Isolation rates for fecal coli...

222

Is inclusion of Sabouraud dextrose agar essential for the laboratory diagnosis of fungal keratitis?  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To determine whether the inclusion of Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) is essential in the diagnosis of fungal keratitis. Materials and Methods: Corneal scrapings of 141 patients with microbial keratitis were smeared and cultured. Sheep blood agar (BA), chocolate agar (CA), SDA, non-nutrient agar (NNA) with Escherichia coli overlay, and brain heart infusion broth (BHI) were evaluated for time taken for growth and cost. The media were also evaluated experimentally for rate of growth and time taken for identification. Results: Twenty-six of 39 patients positive for fungus in corneal scrapings by microscopy were culture-positive. Fungus grew on BA in 22/39, on CA in 18/39, on SDA in 17/39, on NNA in 17/39, and on BHI in 13/39 cases. Growth on SDA was higher in ulcers with larger infiltrate (6/18 versus 9/13, P = 0.04). Estimated saving with inclusion of only BA/CA was Rs. 600 per patient. Performance of all media was similar in in vitro experiment although the characteristic spores and color were seen earlier on SDA. Conclusion: Fungal keratitis can be reliably confirmed on BA or CA, which support growth of both bacteria and fungus.

Das, Sujata; Sharma, Savitri; Kar, Sarita; K Sahu, Srikant; Samal, Bikash; Mallick, Aparajita

2010-01-01

223

Agar media that indicate acid production from sorbitol by oral microorganisms.  

PubMed Central

Two varieties of agar medium (Trypticase [BBL Microbiology Systems]-serum-sorbitol-bromcresol purple agar [TSSB] and Trypticase-blood-sorbitol-CaCO3 agar [TBSCa]) indicating microbial acid production from sorbitol were tested. The media were devised for use in studies on the prevalence of sorbitol-fermenting human oral microorganisms incubated in an anaerobic or microaerophilic atmosphere containing 5 to 6% CO2. TSSB contains bromcresol purple as the pH indicator and NaHCO3 as the main buffering salt. TBSCa contains CaCO3 as both the buffering salt and the indicator of acid production. The growth yield of pure cultures of oral microorganisms on TBSCa was shown to equal that on blood agar incubated under similar conditions. TSSB inhibited the growth of several bacteria to various extents. The recovery of sorbitol-fermenting microorganisms from oral specimens was the greatest when the specimens were assayed with TBSCa. The poorer results obtained with TSSB were mainly due to the decoloration of the pH indicator in this medium and the presence of greater numbers of sorbitol false-positive colonies. Images

Kalfas, S; Edwardsson, S

1985-01-01

224

Evaluation of CPS ID 2 chromogenic agar as a single medium for urine culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CPS ID 2 (CPS) chromogenic agar was compared to routine media for use in the isolation, enumeration, identification, and susceptibility testing of bacteria recovered from urine specimens. Of 487 urine specimens, 318 were culture negative, 12 were positive on CPS only, 16 positive on routine only, and 141 positive on both. The enumeration of microorganisms agreed for 96 of

Barbara S. Reisner; Ellen F. Austin

1997-01-01

225

Clinical evaluation of a novel chromogenic agar dipslide for diagnosis of urinary tract infections.  

PubMed

The performance of a novel dipslide (DipStreak; Novamed, Israel) consisting of chromogenic agar (Uriselect 3; Sanofi Pasteur, France) and blood agar media was evaluated prospectively and compared to that of conventional urine culture for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection. A total of 1070 clean-catch urine specimens obtained from 251 hospitalized patients and 819 outpatients were processed. The overall performance of the DipStreak was as follows: sensitivity, 95.7%; specificity, 99.2%; agreement, 89.8%; accuracy, 98%; positive predictive value, 98.5%; and negative predictive value, 97.7%. A total of 270 urine specimens were positive by both DipStreak and conventional culture. The chromogenic agar allowed rapid identification of organisms in 211 (78.1%) cultures, while isolates in the other 59 (21.9%) cultures remained unidentified. The results indicate that the DipStreak device coupled with the Uriselect 3 agar represents a convenient and accurate method for inoculation of urine specimens, quantitation of bacteria, diagnosis of significant bacteriuria, and presumptive identification of isolates. PMID:11057503

Yagupsky, P; Rider, M; Peled, N

2000-09-01

226

Structural, physical, and chemical modifications induced by microwave heating on native agar-like galactans.  

PubMed

Native agars from Gracilaria vermiculophylla produced in sustainable aquaculture systems (IMTA) were extracted under conventional (TWE) and microwave (MAE) heating. The optimal extracts from both processes were compared in terms of their properties. The agars' structure was further investigated through Fourier transform infrared and NMR spectroscopy. Both samples showed a regular structure with an identical backbone, ?-d-galactose (G) and 3,6-anhydro-?-l-galactose (LA) units; a considerable degree of methylation was found at C6 of the G units and, to a lesser extent, at C2 of the LA residues. The methylation degree in the G units was lower for MAE(opt) agar; the sulfate content was also reduced. MAE led to higher agar recoveries with drastic extraction time and solvent volume reductions. Two times lower values of [?] and M(v) obtained for the MAE(opt) sample indicate substantial depolymerization of the polysaccharide backbone; this was reflected in its gelling properties; yet it was clearly appropriate for commercial application in soft-texture food products. PMID:22540146

Sousa, Ana M M; Morais, Simone; Abreu, Maria H; Pereira, Rui; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel; Cabrita, Eurico J; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Gonçalves, Maria Pilar

2012-05-16

227

In vitro growth of bioactive nanostructured apatites via agar-gelatin hybrid hydrogel.  

PubMed

Biomimetic synthesis of bone-like carbonated apatite with good biocompatibility is a promising strategy for the development of novel biomaterials for bone engineering applications. Most research efforts have been focused on only protein-based or only polysaccharide-based template for synthesis of apatite minerals. To understand the cooperative roles of gelatin and polysaccharide playing in the biomineralization, agar hydrogel, gelatin and agar-gelatin hybrid hydrogel were respectively introduced as mineralization matrix for the in vitro growth of apatite in the study. It was shown that bundle-like carbonated apatite was successfully prepared in agar-gelatin hybrid hydrogel for the first time, through the interaction between apatite and matrix macromolecule under physiological temperature. Moreover, the in vitro biocompatibility of the prepared nanostructured apatite crystals was investigated using CCK-8 assay and alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1. Compared with HA synthesized by traditional method, the obtained apatite in agar-gelatin hybrid hydrogel could provide significantly higher cell viability and alkaline phosphatase activity. Through the study, we could better understand the role of gelatin and polysaccharide in bone formation process, and the product is a promising candidate to be used in bone tissue engineering. PMID:24266253

Deng, Yi; Zhao, Xianghui; Zhou, Yongsheng; Zhu, Peizhi; Zhang, Li; Wei, Shicheng

2013-12-01

228

EFFECT OF IMPACT STRESS ON MICROBIAL RECOVERY ON AN AGAR SURFACE  

EPA Science Inventory

Microbial stress due to the impaction of microorganisms onto an agar collection surface was studied experimentally. he relative recovery rates of aerosolized Pseudomonas fluorescens and Micrococcus luteus were determined as a function of the impaction velocity by using a moving a...

229

Effect of impact stress on microbial recovery on an agar surface.  

PubMed Central

Microbial stress due to the impaction of microorganisms onto an agar collection surface was studied experimentally. The relative recovery rates of aerosolized Pseudomonas fluorescens and Micrococcus luteus were determined as a function of the impaction velocity by using a moving agar slide impactor operating over a flow rate range from 3.8 to 40 liters/min yielding impaction velocities from 24 to 250 m/s. As a reference, the sixth stage of the Andersen Six-Stage Viable Particle Sizing Sampler was used at its operating flow rate of 28.3 liters/min (24 m/s). At a collection efficiency of close to 100% for the agar slide impactor, an increase in sampling flow rate and, therefore, in impaction velocity produced a significant decline in the percentage of microorganisms recovered. Conversely, when the collection efficiency was less than 100%, greater recovery and lower injury rates occurred. The highest relative rate of recovery (approximately 51% for P. fluorescens and approximately 62% for M. luteus) was obtained on the complete (Trypticase soy agar) medium at 40 and 24 m/s (6.4 and 3.8 liters/min), respectively. M. luteus demonstrated less damage than P. fluorescens, suggesting the hardy nature of the gram-positive strain versus that of the gram-negative microorganism. Comparison of results from the agar slide and Andersen impactors at the same sampling velocity showed that recovery and injury due to collection depends not only on the magnitude of the impaction velocity but also on the degree to which the microorganisms may be embedded in the collection medium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Stewart, S L; Grinshpun, S A; Willeke, K; Terzieva, S; Ulevicius, V; Donnelly, J

1995-01-01

230

Efficacy of the thin agar layer method for the recovery of stressed Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii).  

PubMed

Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) are emerging opportunistic pathogens for all age groups, and are of particular concern when it comes to infants. Prior to contaminating food, the organism may be exposed to a variety of stresses, leading to a generation of sublethally injured cells that may not be detected by selective media unless a protracted recovery period is included in the isolation procedure. This study evaluated the efficacy of the thin agar layer (TAL) method for the recovery of Cronobacter cells that had been exposed to various stress conditions. Five strains of C. sakazakii and C. muytjensii were exposed to starvation, heat, cold, acid, alkaline, chlorine, or ethanol, with or without further exposure to desiccation stress. The recovery of the stressed cells was determined on tryptone soy agar (TSA; nonselective control medium), violet red bile glucose agar (VRBGA; selective agar), Druggan-Forsythe-Iversen (DFI; selective agar), and TAL media (viz., VRBGA overlaid with TSA, and DFI overlaid with TSA). Regardless of stress type, there were no significant differences among the recoveries of stressed desiccated Cronobacter spp. cultures on TSA, DFI+TSA, and VRBGA+TSA, but there was significantly less recovery on VRBGA. The recovery of prestressed desiccated Cronobacter spp. on DFI+TSA was similar to that on TSA, whereas the recovery on VRBGA+TSA was lower. DFI+TSA performed better than VRBGA+TSA did in differentiating Cronobacter spp. within mixed bacterial cultures. The results of this study suggest the use of the TAL method DFI+TSA as an improved method for the direct recovery of stressed Cronobacter spp. PMID:21067681

Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Shaker, Reyad R; Al-Holy, Murad M; Al-Haddaq, Mohammed S; Olaimat, Amin N; Ayyash, Mutamed M; Al Ta'ani, Mahmoud K; Forsythe, Stephen J

2010-10-01

231

Blue Light Regulation in Neurospora crassa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungusNeurospora crassahas been shown to be a paradigm for photobiological, biochemical, and genetic studies of blue light perception and signal transduction. Several different developmental and morphological processes ofNeurosporaare regulated by blue light and can be divided into early and late blue light responses. The characterization of two central regulator proteins of blue light signal transduction inNeurospora crassa,WC1 and WC2,

H. Linden; P. Ballario; G. Macino

1997-01-01

232

Seasonal variations of growth and agar composition of Gracilaria multipartita harvested along the Atlantic coast of Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biology and agar composition and properties of Gracilaria multipartita, a common species along the coasts of Morocco, have been studied on samples collected monthly for one year. Growth of the alga was maximum in spring and autumn, and the seaweed partially decayed after its maximum fertility was reached in June and October. The agar content and composition showed seasonal

Thierry Givernaud; Abderrazak El Gourji; Aziza Mouradi-Givernaud; Yves Lemoine; Nadia Chiadmi

1999-01-01

233

STUDIES ON THE AGAROPHYTE, GRACILARIA EDULIS - EXPERIMENTAL FIELD CULTIVATION AND METHODS OF lMPROVING YIELD AND QUALITY OF AGAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstraa : Preliminary investigations on the extraction of phycocolloids from five common red algae of Sri Lanka revealed that Gracilaria edulis forms a suitable source for the production of agar. This coupled with the relative abundance of this species prompted the investigations on the cultivation of this alga and on the methods of extraction of agar from this species. Vegetative

A. SIVAPALAN; K. THEIVENDIRARAJAH

234

A new rhythm for the Blues.  

PubMed

If 1994 was the year the nation's Blue Cross and Blue Shield plans surpassed their managed care competitors in enrollment, 1995 is shaping up to be the year the Blues lead the stampede to form integrated delivery systems. Plus, a look at the new BC/BS chief, Patrick Hays. PMID:7866438

Tokarski, C

1995-03-01

235

On Seeing Reddish Green and Yellowish Blue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stabilization of the retinal image of the boundary between a pair of red/green or yellow/blue stripes, but not their outer edges, results in the entire region being perceived simultaneously as both red/green or yellow/blue. This suggests that the percepts of reddish-green/yellowish-blue apparently are possible in corticocortical color vision…

Crane, Hewitt D.; Piantanida, Thomas P.

1983-01-01

236

Removal of reactive blue 221 and acid blue 62 anionic dyes from aqueous solutions by sepiolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of reactive blue 221 and acid blue 62 anionic dyes onto sepiolite from aqueous solutions has been investigated using parameters such as calcination temperature, pH, ionic strength and temperature. After 200°C calcination temperature, the specific surface area of sepiolite decreased with increasing calcination temperature. The amount adsorbed of reactive blue 221 and acid blue 62 on sepiolite increased

Mahir Alkan; Sermet Çelikçapa; Özkan Demirba?; Mehmet Do?an

2005-01-01

237

Simple procedure for preparation of bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus antigens for agar gel immunodiffusion.  

PubMed

A simplified procedure was developed for preparing soluble antigen from two related orbiviruses, bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses, for agar gel immunodiffusion. The antigens gave excellent results in both micro-agar gel diffusion (agar gel precipitin) and macro-agar gel diffusion (bluetongue immunodiffusion). Minor modification in the spatial arrangement of reference antisera, commonly utilized in the agar gel immunodiffusion tests, was employed to reduce the possible development of false-positive reactions. The procedures for antigen preparation were inexpensive and did not require elaborate filtration or high-speed centrifugation. Stability of antigen preparations at 5 degrees C was excellent (in excess of 3 years for bluetongue virus and 2 years for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus). PMID:6140269

Stott, J L; Osburn, B I

1983-12-01

238

Methylene blue dye as an alternative to isosulfan blue dye for sentinel lymph node localization.  

PubMed

Isosulfan blue dye has been used with increasing frequency in localizing sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients. Few alternative types of dye have been investigated. In a prospective study of 30 patients, methylene blue dye was used instead of isosulfan blue dye to localize the sentinel lymph node. The methylene blue dye localization technique was successful in 90% of patients. These results are similar to those for isosulfan blue dye. This study describes methylene blue dye localization as a successful alternative to isosulfan dye in identifying the sentinel node in breast cancer patients. The methylene blue dye technique offers a substantial cost reduction. PMID:11469932

Simmons, R M; Smith, S M; Osborne, M P

2001-01-01

239

Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

Not Available

1990-09-01

240

49 CFR 218.23 - Blue signal display.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Blue signal display. 218.23 Section 218...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Blue Signal Protection of Workers § 218.23 Blue signal display. (a) Blue signals...

2009-10-01

241

49 CFR 218.23 - Blue signal display.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blue signal display. 218.23 Section 218...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Blue Signal Protection of Workers § 218.23 Blue signal display. (a) Blue signals...

2010-10-01

242

Ol' Blue Eyes, in Focus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholarly books with "identity" and "culture" in the title have loomed large on academic publishing lists for several years. Scholarly books with "Sinatra" in the title are a more recent phenomenon. Despite his six-decade career as the Voice (the 1940s), the Chairman of the Board (the 50s and 60s), and Ol' Blue Eyes (the 70s through his death, in…

Nelson, Michael

2009-01-01

243

Blue light regulated shade avoidance.  

PubMed

Most plants grow in dense vegetation with the risk of being out-competed by neighboring plants. These neighbors can be detected not only through the depletion in light quantity that they cause, but also through the change in light quality, which plants perceive using specific photoreceptors. Both the reduction of the red:far-red ratio and the depletion of blue light are signals that induce a set of phenotypic traits, such as shoot elongation and leaf hyponasty, which increase the likelihood of light capture in dense plant stands. This set of phenotypic responses are part of the so called shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). This addendum discusses recent findings on the regulation of the SAS of Arabidopsis thaliana upon blue light depletion. Keller et al. and Keuskamp et al. show that the low blue light attenuation induced shade avoidance response of seedling and rosette-stage A. thaliana plants differ in their hormonal regulation. These studies also show there is a regulatory overlap with the R:FR-regulated SAS. PMID:22499181

Keuskamp, Diederik H; Keller, Mercedes M; Ballaré, Carlos L; Pierik, Ronald

2012-04-01

244

The Cryptochrome Blue Light Receptors.  

PubMed

Cryptochromes are photolyase-like blue light receptors originally discovered in Arabidopsis but later found in other plants, microbes, and animals. Arabidopsis has two cryptochromes, CRY1 and CRY2, which mediate primarily blue light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and photoperiodic control of floral initiation, respectively. In addition, cryptochromes also regulate over a dozen other light responses, including circadian rhythms, tropic growth, stomata opening, guard cell development, root development, bacterial and viral pathogen responses, abiotic stress responses, cell cycles, programmed cell death, apical dominance, fruit and ovule development, seed dormancy, and magnetoreception. Cryptochromes have two domains, the N-terminal PHR (Photolyase-Homologous Region) domain that bind the chromophore FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), and the CCE (CRY C-terminal Extension) domain that appears intrinsically unstructured but critical to the function and regulation of cryptochromes. Most cryptochromes accumulate in the nucleus, and they undergo blue light-dependent phosphorylation or ubiquitination. It is hypothesized that photons excite electrons of the flavin molecule, resulting in redox reaction or circular electron shuttle and conformational changes of the photoreceptors. The photoexcited cryptochrome are phosphorylated to adopt an open conformation, which interacts with signaling partner proteins to alter gene expression at both transcriptional and posttranslational levels and consequently the metabolic and developmental programs of plants. PMID:21841916

Yu, Xuhong; Liu, Hongtao; Klejnot, John; Lin, Chentao

2010-09-23

245

76 FR 19466 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, et al.; Amended Certification Regarding...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...895, et al.] Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, et al.; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility...TA-W-74,895 Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data...

2011-04-07

246

76 FR 71355 - United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et al.; Proposed Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive...Montana, Billings Division, in United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of...

2011-11-17

247

Polish Terms for "Blue" in the Perspective of Vantage Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Polish set of terms for blue includes, inter alia, the following adjectives: "niebieski" "blue", "blekitny" "(sky) blue", "granatowy" "navy blue", "lazurowy" "azure", "modry" "(intense) blue" and "siny" "(grey) violet-blue". The adjective "niebieski" is the basic term; however, it shares some of its functions with "blekitny", which is…

Stanulewicz, Danuta

2010-01-01

248

HYDROLOGY OF WATLING'S BLUE HOLE: SAN SALVADOR, BAHAMAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Watling's blue hole is a karst feature located on the Bahamian island of San Salvador. The blue hole's physiography and hydrology were studied in April 2001. Watling '.I' blue hole was compared with other Bahamian inland blue holes. Unlike typical blue holes, Watling '.I' blue hole did not have a fresh water lens, and therefore did not exhibit a halocline.

Stephen Vermette; Rebecca Hudson

249

Synthesis and applications of poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) grafted agar: a microwave based approach.  

PubMed

Synthesis of graft copolymers under the influence of microwave radiation alone is a rapid, efficient, clean, cheap, convenient, energy-saving and green method. Grafting of poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) on agar backbone was carried out under the influence of microwave radiation. The synthesis is optimized in terms of percentage grafting and intrinsic viscosity, by varying the microwave irradiation time and monomer (2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) concentration. The synthesized graft copolymers have been characterized by intrinsic viscosity measurement, FTIR spectroscopy, UV-spectroscopy, elemental analysis (C, H, N, & S), thermal studies and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flocculation efficacy of the synthesized graft copolymers was studied in 0.25% kaolin and 1% coal fine suspension, through 'jar test' procedure. Further, flocculation efficacy of the best grade, coagulant (alum) and agar were studied for possible application in remediation of metals from river water. PMID:23850679

Rani, G Usha; Mishra, Sumit; Pathak, Gopal; Jha, Usha; Sen, Gautam

2013-10-01

250

Flow cytometric analysis of E. coli on agar plates: implications for recombinant protein production.  

PubMed

Recombinant protein production in bacterial hosts is a commercially important process in the pharmaceutical industry. Optimisation of such processes is of critical importance for process productivity and reproducibility. Here, flow cytometry methods were developed to assess characteristics of bacteria during two process steps that are infrequently studied: agar plate culture and liquid culture set-up. During storage on agar plates, three discrete populations of varying green fluorescence intensity were observed along with a progressive shift of cells from the high green fluorescence population to an intermediate green fluorescence population, observed to be due formation of amyloid inclusion bodies. The dynamics of cellular fluorescence and scatter properties upon setup of liquid cultures were also assessed. These methods have the potential to improve the development of fermentation set-up, a currently little-understood area. PMID:24652548

Wyre, Chris; Overton, Tim W

2014-07-01

251

Nonspecific Precipitation of Serum Proteins by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate in Agar Diffusion and Immunoelectrophoresis  

PubMed Central

The anionic detergent sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), in a final concentration of 0.1% and greater, reacted with whole serum in agar diffusion and immunoelectrophoresis to form artifactual precipitin lines. These lines occurred when either Ionagar or agarose was used as the supporting gel and were not affected by the presence of urea and 2-mercaptoethanol. Analytic chemical tests confirmed that the precipitating agent is SLS, and staining techniques showed that the detergent precipitates both protein and lipoprotein components of whole serum. Multiple artifactual precipitin lines occurred with a wide variety of animal sera, and a single line formed with human 7S immunoglobulin. Hence, in agar diffusion studies in which SLS is present in the test system, these artifactual lines may be easily misinterpreted as true antigen-antibody precipitin reactions. Images

Palmer, E. L.; Martin, M. L.; Hierholzer, J. C.; Ziegler, D. W.

1971-01-01

252

An improved agar-plate method for studying root growth and response of Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Arabidopsis thaliana is a widely used model plant for plant biology research. Under traditional agar-plate culture system (TPG, traditional plant-growing), both plant shoots and roots are exposed to illumination, and roots are grown in sucrose-added medium. This is not a natural environment for the roots and may cause artifact responses. We have developed an improved agar-plate culture system (IPG, improved plant-growing) where shoots are illuminated but roots are grown in darkness without sucrose addition. Compared to TPG, IPG produced plants with significantly less total root length, lateral root length and root hair density, although their primary roots were longer. Root gravitropism, PIN2 (an auxin efflux carrier) abundance, H+ efflux or Ca2+ influx in root apexes, were weaker in IPG-grown roots than those in TPG-grown roots. We conclude that IPG offers a more natural way to study the root growth and response of Arabidopsis thaliana.

Xu, Weifeng; Ding, Guochang; Yokawa, Ken; Baluska, Frantisek; Li, Qian-Feng; Liu, Yinggao; Shi, Weiming; Liang, Jiansheng; Zhang, Jianhua

2013-01-01

253

Crystallization of brushite from EDTA-chelated calcium in agar gels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brushite (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, CaHPO 4·2H 2O, DCPD) has been crystallized from ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-chelated calcium in agar gels at initial pH 4.5-6.4 and Ca/P molar ratio above about 0.8. White, spherular crystalline DCPD aggregates up to 1 mm in diameter grew in 8-10 weeks. Liesegang ring were occassionally observed at initial gel pH 5 and Ca/P molar ratio near 1. Crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and infrared absorption spectroscopy. Brushite crystals were also grown in agar gels with either unchelated Ca initially present in the gels and EDTA in overlying solutions, or EDTA initially present in the gels and unchelated Ca in overlying solutions. These crystals grew as 2-3 mm aggregates mainly within 1-3 cm of the gel-solution interface.

Plovnick, Ross H.

1991-10-01

254

CHROMagar Yersinia, a New Chromogenic Agar for Screening of Potentially Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica Isolates in Stools  

PubMed Central

CHROMagar Yersinia (CAY) is a new chromogenic medium for the presumptive detection of virulent Yersinia enterocolitica in stools. Based on a comparative analysis of 1,494 consecutive stools from hospitalized patients, CAY was found to be just as sensitive as the reference medium (cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin agar) but was significantly more specific and had a very low false-positive rate. CAY reduces the workload (and thus costs) for stool analysis and can therefore be recommended for routine laboratory use.

Renaud, Nicolas; Lecci, Laetitia; Courcol, Rene J.; Simonet, Michel

2013-01-01

255

Tracer-diffusion of cobalt ions in sodium and potassium nitrates in agar gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracer-diffusion of Co2+ ions is studied in agar gel in the presence of sodium and potassium nitrates at 25°C. The diffusion coefficient values at various electrolyte concentrations are compared with the corresponding theoretical values computed on the basis of Onsager's theory. The deviations from the theory are attributed to the various co-occurring effects in the diffusion medium. The activation energy

Mahendrakumar K. Patil

1986-01-01

256

Agar gel immobilization of Bacillus brevis cells for production of thermostable ?-amylase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing cells of a thermophilic strain ofBacillus brevis, producer of thermostable ?-amylase, were immobilized by entrapment in agar gel. Optimum immobilization conditions for effective\\u000a ?-amylase production in batch fermentations were established (gel concentration 3%, initial biomass concentration in the gel\\u000a 0.8% (W\\/V), and preculture age—late exponential phase). The dynamics of ?-amylase synthesis by the biocatalysts obtained under the\\u000a optimal conditions

M. E. Stefanova; A. I. Tonkova; E. P. Dobreva; D. I. Spasova

1998-01-01

257

Co-precipitation with PVP and Agar to Improve Physicomechanical Properties of Ibuprofen.  

PubMed

Objective(s) : Ibuprofen is a problematic drug in tableting due to its viscoelastic properties. Additionally its high cohesivity results in low flowability. In this study, co-precipitation of ibuprofen with varying concentration of agar and PVP to optimize properties of Ibuprofen was carried out. Materials and Methods: Co-precipitates of ibuprofen- PVP or agar were prepared by solvent evaporation technique under vacuum condition. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X -ray diffraction of powder (XRDP) and FT-IR spectroscopy were used to investigate the solid state characteristics of the co-precipitates. The dissolution behavior, flowability, particle size and compaction properties of various batches were also studied. Results: Co-precipitation of drug with agar led to a change in habit from needle to plate shape crystals, while drug -PVP co-precipitates had agglomerated structure and consisted of numerous crystals which had been aggregated together. The co-precipitates showed improved flow properties compared with ibuprofen alone. Precipitation of ibuprofen with these additives led to modification in the dissolution of the drug. Agar in 1% w/w improved slightly the dissolution rate of drug while PVP had a negative impact and led to reduction in the dissolution rate of drug to less than that of pure drug. The all obtained co-precipitates exhibited significantly improved tableting behavior compared with drug crystals alone. This may be due to this fact that, the polymer covering the drug particles increases and changes the nature of the surface area available for interparticulate bonds between particles. DSC, XRDP and FT-IR experiments showed that drug particles, in co-precipitates samples, did not undergo polymorphic modifications. Conclusion: The study highlights the influence of polymeric additives on crystallization process leading to modified performance. PMID:24250942

Maghsoodi, Maryam; Kiafar, Farhad

2013-04-01

258

Co-precipitation with PVP and Agar to Improve Physicomechanical Properties of Ibuprofen.  

PubMed

Objective(s) : Ibuprofen is a problematic drug in tableting due to its viscoelastic properties. Additionally its high cohesivity results in low flowability. In this study, co-precipitation of ibuprofen with varying concentration of agar and PVP to optimize properties of Ibuprofen was carried out. Materials and Methods: Co-precipitates of ibuprofen- PVP or agar were prepared by solvent evaporation technique under vacuum condition. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X -ray diffraction of powder (XRDP) and FT-IR spectroscopy were used to investigate the solid state characteristics of the co-precipitates. The dissolution behavior, flowability, particle size and compaction properties of various batches were also studied. Results: Co-precipitation of drug with agar led to a change in habit from needle to plate shape crystals, while drug -PVP co-precipitates had agglomerated structure and consisted of numerous crystals which had been aggregated together. The co-precipitates showed improved flow properties compared with ibuprofen alone. Precipitation of ibuprofen with these additives led to modification in the dissolution of the drug. Agar in 1% w/w improved slightly the dissolution rate of drug while PVP had a negative impact and led to reduction in the dissolution rate of drug to less than that of pure drug. The all obtained co-precipitates exhibited significantly improved tableting behavior compared with drug crystals alone. This may be due to this fact that, the polymer covering the drug particles increases and changes the nature of the surface area available for interparticulate bonds between particles. DSC, XRDP and FT-IR experiments showed that drug particles, in co-precipitates samples, did not undergo polymorphic modifications. Conclusion: The study highlights the influence of polymeric additives on crystallization process leading to modified performance. PMID:24250936

Maghsoodi, Maryam; Kiafar, Farhad

2013-04-01

259

Influence of alkali treatment on agar from Gracilaria cornea from Yucatán, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of alkali treatments on the yield, rheological and chemical properties of agar from Gracilaria cornea growing along\\u000a the Yucatáncoast were studied in order to evaluate its potential for industrial use inan attractive economic standpoint. Alkali\\u000a treatment was carried out with NaOH concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, 3% and 5% in a water bath at 80, 85 and 90 °C.

Y. Freile-Pelegrín; D. Robledo

1997-01-01

260

Superior quality agar from Gracilaria species (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) collected from the Gulf of Mannar, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gracilaria edulis, G. crassa, G. foliifera, and G. corticata are naturally occurring agarophytes of Indian waters. These agarophytes were evaluated for their agar contents using an improved\\u000a process recently reported by us (US Patent 2005\\/0267296A1). The effect of different concentrations of NaOH in the alkali treatment\\u000a was studied for optimizing the extraction conditions. These Gracilaria species of Indian waters produced

Ramavatar Meena; Kamalesh Prasad; M. Ganesan; A. K. Siddhanta

2008-01-01

261

Agar properties of two species of Gracilariaceae from the Gulf of California, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agar properties of two potentially commercial important seaweeds from the Gulf of California were studied. Maximum yield in\\u000a Gracilaria vermiculophylla (45.7%) occurred during the summer months, coinciding with high water temperatures (31°C) whereas minimum yields (11.6%)\\u000a were obtained during the coldest months of the year when populations of this species diminish in the bay. Gracilariopsis longissima showed two yield peaks,

Javier Orduña-Rojas; Karla Y. García-Camacho; Priscila Orozco-Meyer; Rafael Ríosmena-Rodríguez; Isaí Pacheco-Ruiz; José A. Zertuche-González; Alf E. Meling-López

2008-01-01

262

Co-precipitation with PVP and Agar to Improve Physicomechanical Properties of Ibuprofen  

PubMed Central

Objective(s) : Ibuprofen is a problematic drug in tableting due to its viscoelastic properties. Additionally its high cohesivity results in low flowability. In this study, co-precipitation of ibuprofen with varying concentration of agar and PVP to optimize properties of Ibuprofen was carried out. Materials and Methods: Co-precipitates of ibuprofen- PVP or agar were prepared by solvent evaporation technique under vacuum condition. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X -ray diffraction of powder (XRDP) and FT-IR spectroscopy were used to investigate the solid state characteristics of the co-precipitates. The dissolution behavior, flowability, particle size and compaction properties of various batches were also studied. Results: Co-precipitation of drug with agar led to a change in habit from needle to plate shape crystals, while drug –PVP co-precipitates had agglomerated structure and consisted of numerous crystals which had been aggregated together. The co-precipitates showed improved flow properties compared with ibuprofen alone. Precipitation of ibuprofen with these additives led to modification in the dissolution of the drug. Agar in 1% w/w improved slightly the dissolution rate of drug while PVP had a negative impact and led to reduction in the dissolution rate of drug to less than that of pure drug. The all obtained co-precipitates exhibited significantly improved tableting behavior compared with drug crystals alone. This may be due to this fact that, the polymer covering the drug particles increases and changes the nature of the surface area available for interparticulate bonds between particles. DSC, XRDP and FT-IR experiments showed that drug particles, in co-precipitates samples, did not undergo polymorphic modifications. Conclusion: The study highlights the influence of polymeric additives on crystallization process leading to modified performance.

Maghsoodi, Maryam; Kiafar, Farhad

2013-01-01

263

The Use of Agar Nutrient Solution to Simulate Lack of Convection in Waterlogged Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agar at 0.1% in nutrient solution (‘stagnant solution’) was used to prevent turbulence (convection), thus simulating the slow gas movements which occur in waterlogged soils. Wheat, aged between 6 and 16 d at the start of the treatment, was used to test plant growth and development in this stagnant solution for 8–15 d. K-MES buffer at 5 mol m?3was used

AMARA WIENGWEERA; HANK GREENWAY; CAMPBELL J. THOMSON

1997-01-01

264

The Use of Agar Nutrient Solution to Simulate Lack of Convection in Waterlogged Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agar at 0-1% in nutrient solution ('stagnant solution') was used to prevent turbulence (convection), thus simulating the slow gas movements which occur in waterlogged soils. Wheat, aged between 6 and 16 d at the start of the treatment, was used to test plant growth and development in this stagnant solution for 8-15 d. K-MES buer at 5 mol m'$ was

AMARA W IENGWEERA; J. T HOMSON

265

Tissue-mimicking agar\\/gelatin materials for use in heterogeneous elastography phantoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five 9 cm × 9 cm × 9 cm phantoms, each with a 2-cm-diameter cylindrical inclusion, were produced with various dry-weight concentrations of agar and gelatin. Elastic contrasts ranged from 1.5 to 4.6, and values of the storage modulus (real part of the complex Young's modulus) were all in the soft tissue range. Additives assured immunity from bacterial invasion and

Ernest L. Madsen; Maritza A. Hobson; Hairong Shi; Tomy Varghese; Gary R. Frank

2005-01-01

266

Tissue-mimicking agar\\/gelatin materials for use in heterogeneous elastography phantoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five 9 cm 9 cm 9 cm phantoms, each with a 2-cm-diameter cylindrical inclusion, were produced with various dry-weight concentrations of agar and gelatin. Elastic contrasts ranged from 1.5 to 4.6, and values of the storage modulus (real part of the complex Young's modulus) were all in the soft tissue range. Additives assured immunity from bacterial invasion and can produce

Ernest L Madsen; Maritza A Hobson; Hairong Shi; Tomy Varghese; Gary R Frank

2005-01-01

267

Agar-Gel Precipitin-Inhibition Technique for C-Reactive Protein Determinations1  

PubMed Central

The agar-gel precipitin-inhibition test (AGPI) for C-reactive protein determinations proved more sensitive than the capillary tube-precipitin procedure. Furthermore, titers of positive CRP sera were obtained by this AGPI technique. This technique was compared with other indices of infectivity, namely, the white blood cell count and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The ease and reproducibility of this recommended test procedure were demonstrated by technicians unfamiliar with this procedure.

Ray, John G.; Shay, Donald E.

1965-01-01

268

Enhancing bioaerosol sampling by Andersen impactors using mineral-oil-spread agar plate.  

PubMed

As a bioaerosol sampling standard, Andersen type impactor is widely used since its invention in 1950s, including the investigation of the anthrax attacks in the United States in 2001. However, its related problems such as impaction and desiccation stress as well as particle bounce have not been solved. Here, we improved its biological collection efficiencies by plating a mineral oil layer (100 µL) onto the agar plate. An Andersen six-stage sampler and a BioStage impactor were tested with mineral-oil-spread agar plates in collecting indoor and outdoor bacterial and fungal aerosols. The effects of sampling times (5, 10 and 20 min) were also studied using the BioStage impactor when sampling environmental bioaerosols as well as aerosolized Bacillus subtilis (G+) and Escherichia coli (G-). In addition, particle bounce reduction by mineral-oil-plate was also investigated using an optical particle counter (OPC). Experimental results revealed that use of mineral-oil-spread agar plate can substantially enhance culturable bioaerosol recoveries by Andersen type impactors (p-values<0.05). The recovery enhancement was shown to depend on bioaerosol size, type, sampling time and environment. In general, more enhancements (extra 20%) were observed for last stage of the Andersen six-stage samplers compared to the BioStage impactor for 10 min sampling. When sampling aerosolized B. subtilis, E. coli and environmental aerosols, the enhancement was shown to increase with increasing sampling time, ranging from 50% increase at 5 min to ?100% at 20 min. OPC results indicated that use of mineral oil can effectively reduce the particle bounce with an average of 66% for 10 min sampling. Our work suggests that enhancements for fungal aerosols were primarily attributed to the reduced impaction stress, while for bacterial aerosols reduced impaction, desiccation and particle bounce played major roles. The developed technology can readily enhance the agar-based techniques including those high volume portable samplers for bioaerosol monitoring. PMID:23460818

Xu, Zhenqiang; Wei, Kai; Wu, Yan; Shen, Fangxia; Chen, Qi; Li, Mingzhen; Yao, Maosheng

2013-01-01

269

A simple and rapid semiquantitative method for measuring cellulase activity in agar media.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid semiquantitative technique for the determination of fungal cellulytic activities in solid (agar slant) media has been developed. This method is a combination of Congo-red staining widely used for qualitative cellulase detection and common cellulase activity tests. Previous investigation on the adsorptive effect of cellulose content of media showed that the real enzyme activity values can be measured with minimum loss by means of agar discs cut from the most active zones of slants visualized by Congo-red staining. Different cellulase activity tests (FPase, CMCase and beta-glucosidase by PNPG-method) of seven cellulolytic fungal strains were investigated by this technique. Data give information on the different enzyme profiles of the species. The method can be regarded as very simple and suitable for simultaneous rapid comparison of cellulase components of greater series of fungal strains from agar slant cultures. It can also be used in the case of fungi unable to grow in liquid cultures. PMID:7542535

Jakucs, E; Várallyay, E

1995-01-01

270

Streptomyces caeruleatus sp. nov., with dark blue diffusible pigment.  

PubMed

An actinomycete, designated strain GIMN4.002(T), was isolated from a tomato rhizosphere soil sample in Guangzhou, China. The strain produces white aerial mycelium and dark blue diffusible pigment on Gause's synthetic agar, and microscopic observation revealed that it produces looped chains of spiny spores. Morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of the strain are typical of the genus Streptomyces. Melanin was produced and antibacterial activity was detected against Gram-positive micro-organisms, such as Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain GIMN4.002(T) had highest similarity (99.4? %) to Streptomyces lincolnensis B91; however, DNA-DNA relatedness between strain GIMN4.002(T) and S. lincolnensis NBRC 13054(T) was only 32.17? %. Further, the morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of strain GIMN4.002(T) are distinct from S. lincolnensis and other species of the genus Streptomyces with which this strain has high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (98-99? %). On the basis of the physiological and molecular properties observed, it is proposed that strain GIMN4.002(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces caeruleatus sp. nov. is proposed, with GIMN4.002(T) (=CCTCC M 208213(T) =NRRL B-24802(T)) as the type strain. PMID:20363928

Zhu, Hong-hui; Guo, Jun; Yao, Qing; Yang, Song-zhen; Deng, Ming-rong; Li, Tai-hui

2011-03-01

271

Relative effectiveness of selective plating agars for recovery of Salmonella species from selected high-moisture foods.  

PubMed

The relative effectiveness of 6 selective plating media were compared for effectiveness in recovery of Salmonella spp. from selected high-moisture foods. Three new plating agars (EF-18, Rambach, and xylose lysine Tergitol-4) and 3 selective plating agars (bismuth sulfite, Hektoen enteric, and xylose lysine desoxycholate) recommended by AOAC INTERNATIONAL and the Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) were compared. The agars were streaked from cultures selectively enriched in selenite cystine broth, tetrathionate broth, and Rappaport-Vassiliadis medium. The high-moisture foods studied were naturally contaminated pork sausage, chicken parts, turkey parts, and frog legs and artificially contaminated shrimp, oysters, egg yolks, and lettuce. The relative effectiveness of each selective plating agar was determined by recovery of Salmonella spp. and enumeration of false-positive and false-negative reactions. Although the new selective plating agars compared favorably with the AOAC/BAM-recommended agars, they offered no advantage. Incubation of selective enrichment broths at elevated temperatures decreased the numbers of false-positive and false-negative reactions for all 6 selective plating agars. PMID:7756882

Sherrod, P S; Amaguana, R M; Andrews, W H; June, G A; Hammack, T S

1995-01-01

272

Isolation of Clostridium difficile from faecal specimens--a comparison of chromID C. difficile agar and cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose agar.  

PubMed

The culture of toxigenic Clostridium difficile from stool specimens is still seen as the gold standard for the laboratory diagnosis of C. difficile infection (CDI). bioMérieux have released ChromID Cdiff chromogenic agar (CDIF) for the isolation and identification of C. difficile in 24 h. In this study, we compared CDIF to pre-reduced cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose agar with sodium taurocholate (TCCFA) in the examination of glutamate dehydrogenase-positive faecal specimens that were either GeneOhm positive or negative, using direct culture or culture following alcohol shock. Direct culture on CDIF had a sensitivity of 100 % and recovery of 94 % while for TCCFA these were 87 % and 82 %, respectively. For GeneOhm-positive alcohol-shocked faecal samples, sensitivity and recovery on CDIF was similar to direct culture while on TCCFA they were about 10 % higher. For direct culture, there was a significant difference between growth on CDIF at 24 h and TCCFA at 48 h (P = 0.001) and between the two media at 48 h (P<0.001). A total of 142 strains of C. difficile were recovered in pure culture from all GeneOhm-positive samples used in this study and 11 (7.7 %) of these were A(-)B(-)CDT(-) and may represent mixed infections of toxigenic and non-toxigenic C. difficile. The most dominant ribotype was UK 014 (14.7 %) followed by 002 (11.9 %) and 020 (11.9 %), and 36 % of toxigenic isolates, including an A(-)B(+)CDT(-) strain, could not be assigned a UK ribotype. CDIF outperformed pre-reduced TCCFA by negating the need for alcohol shock treatment and by giving a time saving of 24 h in the isolation of C. difficile. CDIF plates were also more selective than TCCFA and C. difficile colonies were easy to identify and subculture prior to strain typing. PMID:23579394

Carson, Kerry C; Boseiwaqa, Lusiana V; Thean, Sara K; Foster, Niki F; Riley, Thomas V

2013-09-01

273

BLUE STRAGGLERS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER 47 TUCANAE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The core of globular cluster 47 Tucanae is home to many blue stragglers, rejuvenated stars that glow with the blue light of young stars. A ground-based telescope image (on the left) shows the entire crowded core of 47 Tucanae, located 15,000 light-years away in the constellation Tucana. Peering into the heart of the globular cluster's bright core, the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 separated the dense clump of stars into many individual stars (image on right). Some of these stars shine with the light of old stars; others with the blue light of blue stragglers. The yellow circles in the Hubble telescope image highlight several of the cluster's blue stragglers. Analysis for this observation centered on one massive blue straggler. Astronomers theorize that blue stragglers are formed either by the slow merger of stars in a double-star system or by the collision of two unrelated stars. For the blue straggler in 47 Tucanae, astronomers favor the slow merger scenario. This image is a 3-color composite of archival Hubble Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 images in the ultraviolet (blue), blue (green), and violet (red) filters. Color tables were assigned and scaled so that the red giant stars appear orange, main-sequence stars are white/green, and blue stragglers are appropriately blue. The ultraviolet images were taken on Oct. 25, 1995, and the blue and violet images were taken on Sept. 1, 1995. Credit: Rex Saffer (Villanova University) and Dave Zurek (STScI), and NASA

2002-01-01

274

Blue Metal-Poor Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A photometric investigation of three blue stars of low iron abundance was conducted during the summer of 2003; the goal was to determine if a periodic variation in brightness exists. The observations were taken with the SARA 0.9m telescope during three nights at the end of June for the stars CS22890-069 and CS22872-062, and data taken during one night in the beginning of July for the star CS22884-065. This project was made possible by the National Science Foundation with grant AST0097616, the Curry Foundation, and the Shodor Foundation.

Cortes, S. R.; King, J. R.

2003-12-01

275

INTERLABORATORY EVALUATION OF MI AGAR AND THE US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY-APPROVED MEMBRANE FILTER METHOD FOR THE RECOVERY OF TOTAL COLIFORMS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A new membrane filter (MF) medium, MI agar, recently validated for use in recovering chlorine-damaged total coloiforms (TC) and Escherichia coli from drinking water, was compared to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved MF method(mEndo agar and nutrient agar suppl...

276

Ghost Fishing by Blue Crab Traps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghost fishing by abandoned or lost traps for blue crab Callinectes sapidus was evaluated experimentally in the Timbalier Bay estuary, Louisiana. An average of 12.8 blue crabs per trap were captured by the initial baiting, and an additional 34.9 blue crabs later entered each subsequently unbaited trap; of the total captured, 25.8 died and 21.7 escaped per trap. The turnover

Vincent Guillory

1993-01-01

277

Acute idiopathic blue finger: case report.  

PubMed

An acute blue finger is an uncommon but potentially serious finding with a heterogeneous etiology. A rare group of patients will present with acute, atraumatic, nonischemic blue fingers. The clinical course of these patients appears to be benign. We describe the presentation of an otherwise healthy 22-year-old woman with an acute idiopathic blue finger. We highlight the differential diagnoses and evaluation of this rare condition. PMID:24021741

Harper, Carl M; Waters, Peter M

2013-10-01

278

How do microorganisms influence trace element uptake by plants? Screening in an agar model rhizosphere.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace elements (TE) are essential for humans and plants, but they may be toxic if their concentration is too high. For this reason, the management of TE in soils is very important. In some cases it may be necessary to increase the uptake of nutrients or TE by plants, for example in a biofortification perspective. Conversely, in some other cases TE uptake by plants should be decreased, for instance to avoid heavy metals entering the food chain via edible crops. Microorganisms living in the rhizosphere affect trace element (TE) uptake by plants. However, due to the complexity of this space and the variety of microorganisms that occur there, it is difficult to isolate the effect of any particular strain. To overcome this hurdle, we developed a system in which we grew plants under sterile conditions in agar and inoculated their rhizosphere with a single, well-defined microbial strain. For many years, agar has been used as a growth substrate for microorganisms and plant tissues. It is cheap, easy to use, and can be autoclaved to ensure its sterility. Because of its widespread use, an experiment conducted using this substrate can be reproduced under the same conditions in any laboratory. In contrast to soil, there is little interaction between the trace elements and the agar matrix. There are many studies investigating the influence of microorganisms on TE uptake by plants. However, so far only a small variety of microorganisms has been tested on few plant species. Therefore, the first objective of our research was to develop a method to rapidly screen a large variety of microorganisms on various plant species. Once this goal was achieved, we sought to study the effect of single, well-defined microbial strains on TE uptake by sunflower and wheat. The substrate for plants growth was a 10% agar solution prepared with modified Hoagland's solution and a TE solution containing 1 mg/kg Pb and molar equivalents of Cu, Ni and Zn. The agar solution was autoclaved and poured into sterile, transparent plastic boxes, whose lid was equipped with a filter allowing gas exchanges without contamination by external microorganisms. The seed surface was sterilised and the plants grew one week in agar before their rhizosphere was inoculated with LB broth containing a pure bacterial strain or agar plugs colonized by fungal hyphae. We tested 14 strains, with 5 replicates per treatment and a control where the system was inoculated with sterile LB broth. The plants grew for 2 weeks in a climate chamber and their shoots were analysed for their TEs by ICP-OES. Samples of agar and roots were collected to confirm microbial colonization of the rhizosphere, respectively sterile conditions in the control treatments. Concerning the method development, the plants grew without visible toxicity in all the boxes, and the analysis of root and agar samples indicated that the controls were sterile and the strains inoculated were growing along the roots. More than 90% of the TE and nutrients added to the system were in the liquid fraction of the agar medium, thus available for root uptake. The screening showed that the microorganisms in general decreased TE uptake by wheat and sunflower, although some of them had an opposite effect on the plants. However, with the same plant species, the microorganisms had a consistent effect on all TE tested, i.e. a given single strain caused the same effect (increase or decrease of TE uptake) on all TE tested. In sunflower, 3 microorganisms (Paenibacillus polymyxa, Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani) decreased Cu and Zn uptake by 50% compared to the control treatment. These three species are common soil microorganisms. All three are known to exude auxin, a phytohormone. This hormone can modify root morphology and physiology and thus may affect TE uptake by plants. R. solani and P. ultimum are root pathogens. Their effect was opposite to what we expected. If roots are damaged, TE should have flooded into the plant and accumulate in the tissues, but this was not the case. One explanation could be the biosorption of TE by these mi

Marchetti, M.; Robinson, B. H.; Evangelou, M. W. H.; Vachey, A.; Schwitzguebel, J. P.; Bernier-Latmani, R.; Schulin, R.

2009-04-01

279

Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates an optically switchable band gap of photonic crystal that is based on an azobenzene-doped liquid crystal blue phase. The trans-cis photoisomerization of azobenzene deforms the cubic unit cell of the blue phase and shifts the photonic band gap. The fast back-isomerization of azobenzene was induced by irradiation with different wavelengths light. The crystal structure is verified using Kossel diffraction diagram. An optically addressable blue phase display, based on Bragg reflection from the photonic band gap, is also demonstrated. The tunable ranges are around red, green, and blue wavelengths and exhibit a bright saturated color.

Liu, Hu-Yi; Wang, Chun-Ta; Hsu, Chiao-Yun; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Liu, Jui-Hsiang

2010-03-01

280

Photonic bandgaps controllable blue phase liquid crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates an optically switchable band gap of photonic crystal that is based on an azobenzene-doped liquid crystal blue phase. The trans-cis photoisomerization of azobenzene deforms the cubic unit cell of the blue phase and shifts the photonic band gap. The fast back-isomerization of azobenzene was induced by irradiation with different wavelengths light. The crystal structure is verified using Kossel diffraction diagram. An optically addressable blue phase display, based on Bragg reflection from the photonic band gap, is also demonstrated. The tunable ranges are around red, green and blue wavelengths and exhibit a bright saturated color.

Liu, Hu-Yi; Wang, Chun-Ta; Hsu, Chiao-Yun; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

2011-02-01

281

Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates an optically switchable band gap of photonic crystal that is based on an azobenzene-doped liquid crystal blue phase. The trans-cis photoisomerization of azobenzene deforms the cubic unit cell of the blue phase and shifts the photonic band gap. The fast back-isomerization of azobenzene was induced by irradiation with different wavelengths light. The crystal structure is verified using Kossel diffraction diagram. An optically addressable blue phase display, based on Bragg reflection from the photonic band gap, is also demonstrated. The tunable ranges are around red, green, and blue wavelengths and exhibit a bright saturated color.

Liu, H.-Y.; Wang, C.-T.; Hsu, C.-Y.; Lin, T.-H. [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Liu, J.-H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

2010-03-22

282

Morphological responses of wheat to blue light  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blue light significantly increased tillering in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown at the same photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). Plants were grown under two levels of blue light (400-500 nm) in a controlled environment with continuous irradiation. Plants received either 50 micromoles m-2 s-1 of blue light or 2 micromoles m-2 s-1 blue light from filtered metal halide lamps at a total irradiance of 200 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPF (400-700 nm). Plants tillered an average of 25% more under the higher level of blue light. Blue light also caused a small, but consistent, increase in main culm development, measured as Haun stage. Leaf length was reduced by higher levels of blue light, while plant dry-mass was not significantly affected by blue light. Applying the principle of equivalent light action, the results suggest that tillering and leaf elongation are mediated by the blue-UV light receptor(s) because phytochrome photoequilibrium for each treatment were nearly identical.

Barnes, C.; Bugbee, B.

1992-01-01

283

Seasonal variation of agar from Gracilaria vermiculophylla, effect of alkali treatment time, and stability of its Colagar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gracilaria vermiculophylla, from Baja California Sur, Mexico, was studied in order to determine the seasonal variation of yield and quality of native\\u000a and alkaline agar during 2007–2008. The highest alkaline agar yield was obtained in summer (17%) and the highest gel strength\\u000a in spring (1,132 g?cm?2). The highest melting temperature was 98°C (winter). The highest gelling temperature was 68°C (summer). The

Mario Antonio Vergara-Rodarte; Gustavo Hernández-Carmona; Y. Elizabeth Rodríguez-Montesinos; Dora Luz Arvizu-Higuera; Rafael Riosmena-Rodríguez; Jesús Iván Murillo-Álvarez

2010-01-01

284

Trace Amounts of Furan-2-Carboxylic Acids Determine the Quality of Solid Agar Plates for Bacterial Culture  

PubMed Central

Background Many investigators have recognised that a significant proportion of environmental bacteria exist in a viable but non-culturable state on agar plates, and some researchers have also noticed that some of such bacteria clearly recover their growth on matrices other than agar. However, the reason why agar is unsuitable for the growth of some bacteria has not been addressed. Methodology/Principal Findings According to the guide of a bioassay for swarming inhibition, we identified 5-hydroxymethylfuran-2-carboxylic acid (5-HMFA) and furan-2-carboxylic acid (FA) as factors that inhibit bacterial swarming and likely inhibit extracellular polysaccharide production on agar. The furan-2-carboxylic acids 5-HMFA and FA effectively inhibited the swarming and swimming of several environmental bacteria at concentrations of 1.8 and 2.3 µg L?1 (13 and 21 nmol L?1), respectively, which are equivalent to the concentrations of these compounds in 0.3% agar. On Luria-Bertani (LB) plates containing 1.0% agar that had been previously washed with MeOH, a mixture of 5-HMFA and FA in amounts equivalent to their original concentrations in the unwashed agar repressed the swarming of Escherichia coli K12 strain W3110, a representative swarming bacterium. Conclusions/Significance Agar that contains trace amounts of 5-HMFA and FA inhibits the proliferation of some slow-growing or difficult-to-culture bacteria on the plates, but it is useful for single colony isolation due to the ease of identification of swarmable bacteria as the non-swarmed colonies.

Hara, Shintaro; Isoda, Reika; Tahvanainen, Teemu; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki

2012-01-01

285

Susceptibility testing by E-test and agar dilution of 30 strains of Legionella spp. isolated in Portugal.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the activity of erythromycin, roxithromycin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim and rifampin against 32 strains of Legionella spp. under different testing conditions. METHODS: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the E-test (Ab Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) and agar dilution reference technique (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), 1990) on two different media, buffered charcoal yeast extract agar (BCYE-alpha) and buffered yeast extract agar (BYE-alpha), under 48- and 72-h incubation, without CO2. RESULTS: All the antimicrobial agents were inhibited by BCYE-alpha agar. The MIC90 values on BYE-alpha were lower than those on BCYE-alpha but the variation factor was not the same: ciprofloxacin and rifampin, followed by erythromycin, suffered the greatest inhibition by the charcoal in the culture medium. Except for ciprofloxacin and rifampin, the 72-h MIC90 readings were always higher than the 48-h results whenever the agar dilution method was used. The E-test results showed slight variations with some, but not all, antibiotics. The most active agents against the 32 Legionella strains tested were rifampin and ciprofloxacin. CONCLUSIONS: BCYE-alpha is not suitable for susceptibility testing of Legionella spp. The E-test method on BYE-alpha agar with 48-h incubation is recommended. PMID:11864134

Marques, Teresa; Piedade, Júlia

1997-06-01

286

Comparison of manual mycobacteria growth indicator tube and epsilometer test with agar proportion method for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Background and Objectives: Antimycobacterial susceptibility tests take weeks, and delayed therapy can lead to spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Therefore, rapid, accurate and cost-effective methods are required for proper therapy selection. In this study, the Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) and epsilometer test (Etest) methods were compared to the agar proportion method for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: The susceptibility tests against isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), streptomycin (STM) and ethambutol (ETM) of 51 M. tuberculosis complex isolates were analyzed by the MGIT, Etest and agar proportion methods. Results: The concordance between MGIT/Etest and agar proportion methods was 98% for INH and 100% for RIF, STM, ETM. There were not statistically significant differences in results of the susceptibility tests between MGIT/Etest and the reference agar proportion method. Conclusion: The results have shown that MGIT and Etest methods can be used instead of the agar proportion method, because these two methods are more rapid and easier than the agar proportion method. PMID:25008821

Karabulut, N; Bayraktar, B; Bulut, Y

2014-01-01

287

Usefulness of Chromogenic CromoCen® AGN agar medium for the identification of the genus Aeromonas: Assessment of faecal samples.  

PubMed

Selective screening media for the detection and identification of Aeromonas strains are needed to guide primary isolation procedures in the clinical laboratory. This study compared the selective CromoCen® AGN chromogenic agar medium for the detection and identification of Aeromonas strains that were isolated from various samples against the conventional selective agar media that are commonly used for the isolation of this organism in food, environmental and clinical samples. The Miles and Misra and ecometric methods were used to evaluate the microbiological performance of CromoCen® AGN chromogenic agar medium, which was shown to be satisfactory. A total of 14 reference Aeromonas strains, 44 wild strains and 106 clinical stool specimens were examined using both non-chromogenic selective agars that are commonly used for Aeromonas isolation and CromoCen® AGN agar. The latter exhibited 94.73% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the various samples. On CromoCen® AGN agar medium, Aeromonas formed colonies with light green, greenish and salmon pigments with or without a surrounding wide transparent zone (halo) of 2-3mm in diameter around the entire border. This medium is recommended for the isolation and potential identification of the Aeromonas genus. PMID:22561188

Aguilera-Arreola, M G; Portillo-Muñoz, M I; Rodríguez-Martínez, C; Castro-Escarpulli, G

2012-08-01

288

[VCA agar (bioMérieux) for selective isolation of vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) from fecal specimens].  

PubMed

Screening for Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) is recommended for preventing nosocomial infections with VRE. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of VCA3 agar (bioMérieux) in VRE isolation from fecal specimens. 220 specimens were cultured on VCA3 agar, which contains vancomycin and in parallel, on CAP agar (Oxoid), which is vancomycin-free. 36 vancomycin resistant enterococci were isolated: 24 isolates of Enterococcus faecium expressed a high-level resistance to vancomycin and 12 isolates of E. gallinarum/casseliflavus exhibited resistance at low-level. The sensitivity of VCA3 appeared greater than that of CAP for VRE isolation: 92% (22/24) vs 79% (19/24) for E. faecium (NS, P>0.05) ; 83% (10/12) vs 50% (6/12) for E. gallinarum/casselliflavus (NS, P>0.05). As expected, initial cultures of multiple gram positive organisms were far more frequent on CAP agar than on VCA3 agar. The isolation rate of vancomycin susceptible gram positive strains was impressively lower on VCA3 medium than on CAP medium. VCA3 agar avoided therefore additional subcultures, useless identification and susceptibility tests. In conclusion, VCA3 medium could be useful for the direct, rapid and selective isolation of VRE from fecal specimens. PMID:16084029

Delmas, J; Robin, F; Romaszko, J-P; Baraduc, R; Lesens, O; Sirot, J; Bonnet, R

2005-01-01

289

Characterization of biomechanical properties of agar based tissue mimicking phantoms for ultrasound stiffness imaging techniques.  

PubMed

Pathological changes of the body have been observed to change the mechanical properties of soft tissue types which can be imaged by ultrasound elastography. Though initial clinical results using ultrasound elastography in detection of tumors are promising, quantification of signal to noise ratio, resolution and strain image patterns are the best achieved under a controlled study using phantoms with similar biomechanical properties of normal and abnormal tissues. The purpose of this work is to characterize the biomechanical properties of agar based tissue mimicking phantoms by varying the agar concentration from 1.7 to 6.6% by weight and identify the optimum property to be used in classification of cancerous tissues. We performed quasi-static uniaxial compression test under a strain rate of 0.5mm/min up to 15% strain and measured Young's modulus of phantom samples which are from 50kPa to 450kPa. Phantoms show nonlinear stress-strain characteristics at finite strain which were characterized using hyperelastic parameters by fitting Neo-Hookean, Mooney Rivlin, Ogden and Veronda Westmann models. We also investigated viscoelastic parameters of the samples by conducting oscillatory shear rheometry at various precompression levels (2-5%). Loss modulus values are always less than storage modulus which represents the behavior of soft tissues. The increase in agar concentration increases the shear modulus of the samples as well as decreases the linear viscoelastic region. The results suggest that dynamic shear modul are more promising than linear and nonlinear elastic modul in differentiation of various classes of abnormal tissues. PMID:24769915

Manickam, Kavitha; Machireddy, Ramasubba Reddy; Seshadri, Suresh

2014-07-01

290

[Use of the agar diffusion precipitation method for detecting rotavirus antigen].  

PubMed

The possibility of rotavirus detection in feces of patients with acute enteric diseases by the agar gel diffusion (AGD) test was studied. The effectiveness of this method was compared with that of the standard method, direct electron microscopy. Both methods showed good correlation of the results, but the AGD test is methodically much simpler which recommends it for diagnosis of rotavirus infection. Rotavirus-specific hyperimmune calf serum may by used as a serological diagnostic preparation for the detection of human rotavirus antigen. PMID:3026098

Gracheva, N M; Demidova, S A; Blokhina, T A; Avakov, A A; Eliseeva, I Ia

1986-01-01

291

Sequence Analysis of a 101-Kilobase Plasmid Required for Agar Degradation by a Microscilla Isolate  

PubMed Central

An agar-degrading marine bacterium identified as a Microscilla species was isolated from coastal California marine sediment. This organism harbored a single 101-kb circular DNA plasmid designated pSD15. The complete nucleotide sequence of pSD15 was obtained, and sequence analysis indicated a number of genes putatively encoding a variety of enzymes involved in polysaccharide utilization. The most striking feature was the occurrence of five putative agarase genes. Loss of the plasmid, which occurred at a surprisingly high frequency, was associated with loss of agarase activity, supporting the sequence analysis results.

Zhong, Zhenping; Toukdarian, Aresa; Helinski, Donald; Knauf, Vic; Sykes, Sean; Wilkinson, Jane E.; O'Bryne, Colleen; Shea, Terry; DeLoughery, Craig; Caspi, Ron

2001-01-01

292

Tobacco agar, a new medium for differentiating Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans.  

PubMed

Isolates of Candida dubliniensis may be misidentified as Candida albicans in microbiological laboratories if only the germ tube and/or the chlamydospore test is used for identification to the species level. In this study, we have evaluated the efficacy of tobacco agar for the differentiation of C. dubliniensis from C. albicans. On this medium at 28 degrees C, all 30 C. dubliniensis isolates produced yellowish-brown colonies with hyphal fringes and abundant chlamydospores, whereas 54 C. albicans isolates formed smooth, white-to-cream-colored colonies with no chlamydospore production. This medium provides a simple tool for presumptive differentiation of C. dubliniensis from C. albicans. PMID:15472343

Khan, Zia U; Ahmad, Suhail; Mokaddas, Eiman; Chandy, Rachel

2004-10-01

293

Tobacco Agar, a New Medium for Differentiating Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

Isolates of Candida dubliniensis may be misidentified as Candida albicans in microbiological laboratories if only the germ tube and/or the chlamydospore test is used for identification to the species level. In this study, we have evaluated the efficacy of tobacco agar for the differentiation of C. dubliniensis from C. albicans. On this medium at 28°C, all 30 C. dubliniensis isolates produced yellowish-brown colonies with hyphal fringes and abundant chlamydospores, whereas 54 C. albicans isolates formed smooth, white-to-cream-colored colonies with no chlamydospore production. This medium provides a simple tool for presumptive differentiation of C. dubliniensis from C. albicans.

Khan, Zia U.; Ahmad, Suhail; Mokaddas, Eiman; Chandy, Rachel

2004-01-01

294

A blue dive: from 'blue fingers' to 'blue silver'. A comparative overview of staining methods for in-gel proteomics.  

PubMed

Gel-based proteomics are the most useful method for protein separation, even when compared with gel-free proteomics. Proteomic analysis by 2D gel electrophoresis (2-DE) with immobilized pH gradients is in turn the best approach to large-scale protein-expression screening. Spots visualization is pivotal for protein identification by mass spectrometry. Commonly used staining methods with excellent mass spectrometry compatibility are coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) or fluorescent dyes. In this study, an implementation of 'blue silver' colloidal CBB staining, characterized by high sensitivity and immediate low background, is discussed. The sensitivity of classical, colloidal and 'blue silver' CBB staining methods was compared on monodimensional and 2-DE gels. The implementation of the 'blue silver' method performs better, provided the physical state of the micelles is respected. An example of a 2-DE of human urine treated with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries demonstrates that implemented 'blue silver' can evidence the complexity of the sample. PMID:23256673

Panfoli, Isabella; Calzia, Daniela; Santucci, Laura; Ravera, Silvia; Bruschi, Maurizio; Candiano, Giovanni

2012-12-01

295

Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Venous malformations of blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) may involve any area of the gastrointestinal tract.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Gastrointestinal blood loss and anemia brings these patients to the attention of gastroenterologists.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Effective treatment of these malformations throughout the gastrointestinal tract requires aggressive management to ultimately\\u000a decrease blood loss and restore the patient’s hemoglobin to a near-normal

John M. Andersen

2001-01-01

296

The Blue Comet: A Railroad's Astronomical Heritage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1929 February 21 and 1941 September 27, the Central New Jersey Railroad operated a luxury passenger train between Jersey City and Atlantic City. Named The Blue Comet, the locomotive, tender, and coaches sported a unique royal blue paint scheme designed to evoke images of celestial bodies speeding through space. Inside each car were etched window panes and lampshades featuring

Kenneth S. Rumstay

2009-01-01

297

À propos du post-partum blues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since postpartum blues was described by Savage in 1875, the controversy regarding its nature and cause has been sustained. In a first part, the author reviews the conventional clinical assessment of the blues as described in international medical literature. Its constitutive symptoms are mundane, of an affective, emotional, cognitive or psychosomatic nature. On the other hand, their originality resides in

J. Jouppe

2007-01-01

298

Blue LEDs feasibility for tissue fluorescence analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We considered the limited number of light-induced fluorescence applications for marketed ultra-bright blue LEDs where they can compete with versatile laser sources. Satisfactory optical output and miniature size as well as low power consumption of blue LEDs emitting at 470 nm allow to consider them as a promising alternatives to metal vapor or gas lasers used in many expires LIF

Sergiy M. Dets; Nikolay A. Denisov

2000-01-01

299

Quirks of dye nomenclature. 1. Evans blue.  

PubMed

The history, origin, identity, chemistry and use of Evans blue dye are described along with the first application to staining by Herbert McLean Evans in 1914. In the 1930s, the dye was marketed under the name, Evans blue dye, which was profoundly more acceptable than the ponderous chemical name. PMID:23957706

Cooksey, C J

2014-02-01

300

Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

Liebl, Michael

2010-01-01

301

Blue enhanced light sources: opportunities and risks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural daylight is characterized by high proportions of blue light. By proof of a third type of photoreceptor in the human eye which is only sensitive in this spectral region and by subsequent studies it has become obvious that these blue proportions are essential for human health and well being. In various studies beneficial effects of indoor lighting with higher blue spectral proportions have been proven. On the other hand with increasing use of light sources having enhanced blue light for indoor illumination questions are arising about potential health risks attributed to blue light. Especially LED are showing distinct emission characteristics in the blue. Recently the French agency for food, environmental and occupational health & safety ANSES have raised the question on health issues related to LED light sources and have claimed to avoid use of LED for lighting in schools. In this paper parameters which are relevant for potential health risks will be shown and their contribution to risk factors will quantitatively be discussed. It will be shown how to differentiate between photometric parameters for assessment of beneficial as well as hazardous effects. Guidelines will be discussed how blue enhanced light sources can be used in applications to optimally support human health and well being and simultaneously avoid any risks attributed to blue light by a proper design of lighting parameters. In the conclusion it will be shown that no inherent health risks are related to LED lighting with a proper lighting design.

Lang, Dieter

2012-02-01

302

Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue phases are types of liquid crystal phases that appear in a temperature range between a chiral nematic phase and an isotropic liquid phase. Because blue phases have a three-dimensional cubic structure with lattice periods of several hundred nanometres, they exhibit selective Bragg reflections in the range of visible light corresponding to the cubic lattice. From the viewpoint of applications,

Hirotsugu Kikuchi; Masayuki Yokota; Yoshiaki Hisakado; Huai Yang; Tisato Kajiyama

2002-01-01

303

Cultivation Media for Bacteria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Common bacteriological culture media (tryptic soy agar, chocolate agar, Thayer-Martin agar, MacConkey agar, eosin-methylene blue agar, hektoen agar, mannitol salt agar, and sheep blood agar) are shown uninoculated and inoculated with bacteria.

American Society For Microbiology;

2009-12-08

304

Featured Molecules: Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The WebWare molecules of the month for May are featured in several articles in this issue. "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?" discusses the pharmaceutical uses of methylene blue and its development as the first synthetic drug used against a specific disease. The JCE Classroom Activity "Out of the Blue" and the article "Greening the Blue Bottle" feature methylene blue and ascorbic acid as two key ingredients in the formulation of the blue bottle. You can also see a colorful example of these two molecules in action on the cover. "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist" describes an experiment to determine the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of citrus fruits and challenges students, as eighteenth-century sea captains, to decide the best fruit to take on a long voyage. Fully manipulable (Chime) versions of these and other molecules are available at Only@JCE Online.

Coleman, William F.; Wildman, Randall J.

2003-05-01

305

Alterococcus agarolyticus, gen.nov., sp.nov., a halophilic thermophilic bacterium capable of agar degradation.  

PubMed

Five strains of facultatively anaerobic moderately thermophilic bacteria were isolated from two hot springs in the intertidal zone of Lutao, Taiwan. They produced extracellular agarase on agar medium, yielding reducing sugars and organic acids as the end products under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The growth temperature range was approximately 38-58 degrees C with an optimal temperature of about 48 degrees C. The five strains tolerated a relatively narrow pH range from 7.0 to 8.5. They were Gram-negative halophiles growing optimally at 2.0-2.5% NaCl (ca. 0.34-0.43 M). They were capable of anaerobic growth by fermenting glucose and producing various organic acids such as butyrate, propionate, formate, lactate, and acetate. Cells grown in liquid medium were motile monotrichous cocci, normally 0.8-0.9 micron in diameter. They possessed saturated anteiso-15-carbon acid (anteiso-C15:0) as the most abundant cellular fatty acid (46.0-51.3 mo1%) and had G + C contents ranging from 65.5 to 67.0 mo1%. They are the first thermophiles found to degrade agar and also the first halophilic thermophilic bacteria known to be capable of both aerobic and anaerobic fermentative growth. These bacteria are considered to represent a new genus that we named Alterococcus, and Alterococcus agarolyticus is the type species. PMID:9783423

Shieh, W Y; Jean, W D

1998-07-01

306

Mechanical and water barrier properties of agar/?-carrageenan/konjac glucomannan ternary blend biohydrogel films.  

PubMed

Multicomponent hydrogel films composed of agar, ?-carrageenan, konjac glucomannan powder, and nanoclay (Cloisite(®) 30B) were prepared and their mechanical and water barrier properties such as water vapor permeability (WVP), water contact angle (CA), water solubility (WS), water uptake ratio (WUR), water vapor uptake ratio (WVUR) were determined. Mechanical, water vapor barrier, and water resistance properties of the ternary blend film exhibited middle range of individual component films, however, they increased significantly after formation of nanocomposite with the clay. Especially, the water holding capacity of the ternary blend biopolymer films increased tremendously, from 800% to 1681% of WUR for agar and ?-carrageenan films up to 5118% and 5488% of WUR for the ternary blend and ternary blend nanocomposite films, respectively. Water vapor adsorption behavior of films was also tested by water vapor adsorption kinetics and water vapor adsorption isotherms test. Preliminary test result for fresh spinach packaging revealed that the ternary blend biohydrogel films had a high potential for the use as an antifogging film for packaging highly respiring agricultural produce. In addition, the ternary blend nanocomposite film showed an antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes. PMID:23688456

Rhim, Jong-Whan; Wang, Long-Feng

2013-07-01

307

Without Blue Crabs, Southern Salt Marshes Wash Away  

NSF Publications Database

... of this News Tip: Without Blue Crabs, Southern Salt Marshes Wash Away Ocean Drilling Program ... Technology Research Without Blue Crabs, Southern Salt Marshes Wash Away The blue crab harvest needs ...

308

Karner Blue Butterfly: A Symbol of a Vanishing Landscape.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: A Review of Lycaeides Hubner and Karner Blue Taxonomy; Historical Notes on Wild Lupine and the Kaener Blue Butterfly at the Albany Pine Bush, New York; Benefits to Karner Blue Butterfly Larvae from Association with Ants; The Distribution...

C. P. Lane D. A. Andow R. J. Baker

1994-01-01

309

75 FR 36647 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...Background: The President directed that the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's...

2010-06-28

310

76 FR 1608 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...Background: The President directed that the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's...

2011-01-11

311

76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2410-OYC] Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway AGENCY: National Park Service...award of temporary concession contracts for Blue Ridge Parkway, NC/VA...of certain visitor services within the Blue Ridge Parkway, North Carolina and...

2011-06-20

312

75 FR 25850 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...Background: The President directed that the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's...

2010-05-10

313

75 FR 81592 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...Background: The President directed that the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's...

2010-12-28

314

77 FR 55895 - Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Notice of permanent closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ...it was permanently closing Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ), Cincinnati,...

2012-09-11

315

1. GENERAL VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BLUE RIDGE TUNNEL (LEFT) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BLUE RIDGE TUNNEL (LEFT) FROM SOUTHEAST. ORIGINAL BLUE RIDGE R.R. (CROZET) TUNNEL IS VISIBLE AT RIGHT. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Blue Ridge Tunnel, Highway 250 at Rockfish Gap, Afton, Nelson County, VA

316

Infrared thermography analysis of thermal diffusion induced by RF magnetic field on agar phantoms loaded with magnetic nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, several treatments for fighting malignant tumors have been designed. However these procedures have well known inconveniences, depending on their applicability, tumor size and side effects, among others. Magnetic hyperthermia is a safe, non-invasive method for cancer therapy. This treatment is applied via elevation of target tissue temperature by dissipation of heat from Magnetic Nanoparticles (MNPs), previously located within the tumor. The induction of heat causes cell death and therefore the removal of the tumor. In this work the thermal diffusion in phantoms of agar loaded with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is studied using the infrared thermography technique, which is widely used in biology/medicine (e.g. skin temperature mapping). Agar is one of the materials used to simulate different types of body tissues, these samples are known as "phantoms". Agar is of natural origin, low cost and high degree of biocompatibility. In this work the agar gel was embedded with MNPs by coprecipitation and placed in an alternating magnetic field radiation. As a consequence, the energy from the radiation source is dissipated as heat and then transferred from the MNP to the gel, increasing its temperature. For the temperature analysis, the samples of agar gel were stimulated by RF magnetic field generated by coils. Heating was measured with infrared thermography using a Thermovision A20M infrared camera. Thermographic images allowed obtaining the dependence of thermal diffusion in the phantom as a function of the magnitude of the applied RF magnetic field and the load of magnetic particles.

Bante-Guerra, Jose; Macías, J. D.; Caballero-Aguilar, L.; Vales-Pinzón, C.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

2013-02-01

317

78 FR 42451 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247 Copolymers; Confirmation of Effective Date Correction...2-methyl-2-propenoic)ester (C.I. Reactive Blue 247) and additional copolymers of...

2013-07-16

318

78 FR 37962 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247 Copolymers; Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY...2-methacryloxyethyl)phenylamino]anthraquinone (C.I. Reactive Blue 246) and copolymers of 1,4-bis[(2-...

2013-06-25

319

Benign blue naevus of the lungs.  

PubMed

Blue naevus is a dark blue, gray or black lesion consisted of dermal melanocytes and usually found on face, scalp, or on the dorsum of hands and feet. Two well defined histologic and clinical variants, designated as "common" and "cellular", have been recognised. An unusual case of accidentally detected common blue naevus of the lungs has been reported. The specimen of lung tissue was taken during autopsy of a 62-year old woman who died of myocardial infarction. Microscopic analysis revealed the area containing melanocytes filled with melanin pigment. PMID:22634927

Pigac, Biserka; Mari?, Svjetlana; Maši?, Silvija

2012-02-01

320

One blue colour channel or two?  

PubMed

Contrary to the general belief that the yellow-blue mechanism has lower spatial resolution than the red-green mechanism, it has been recently claimed that both mechanisms have similar spatial sensitivity (McKeefry et al, 2001 Vision Research 41 245-255). Studying high-spatial-frequency tritanopia (a colour illusion based on spatio-chromatic interactions in human vision), we found strong evidence for the existence of two blue mechanisms-with low and high spatial-frequency resolution. If confirmed, this may resolve the apparent paradox concerning spatial resolution of the yellow-blue mechanism. PMID:16178144

Logvinenko, Alexander D; Hutchinson, Sara J

2005-01-01

321

Semiconducting layered blue phosphorus: a computational study.  

PubMed

We investigate a previously unknown phase of phosphorus that shares its layered structure and high stability with the black phosphorus allotrope. We find the in-plane hexagonal structure and bulk layer stacking of this structure, which we call "blue phosphorus," to be related to graphite. Unlike graphite and black phosphorus, blue phosphorus displays a wide fundamental band gap. Still, it should exfoliate easily to form quasi-two-dimensional structures suitable for electronic applications. We study a likely transformation pathway from black to blue phosphorus and discuss possible ways to synthesize the new structure. PMID:24836265

Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

2014-05-01

322

Semiconducting Layered Blue Phosphorus: A Computational Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate a previously unknown phase of phosphorus that shares its layered structure and high stability with the black phosphorus allotrope. We find the in-plane hexagonal structure and bulk layer stacking of this structure, which we call "blue phosphorus," to be related to graphite. Unlike graphite and black phosphorus, blue phosphorus displays a wide fundamental band gap. Still, it should exfoliate easily to form quasi-two-dimensional structures suitable for electronic applications. We study a likely transformation pathway from black to blue phosphorus and discuss possible ways to synthesize the new structure.

Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

2014-05-01

323

Effect of solvent transfer in agar gels on stress relaxation under large deformation.  

PubMed

We measured stress relaxation, volume of exuded water, and spatial distribution of stress in agar gels under large deformation. Gels with smaller sample size and lower concentration exuded water faster and had shorter stress relaxation time. Gels with the storage time of 3 days exuded more water and had shorter stress relaxation time than gels with the storage time of 1 day, and this tendency was remarkable for low-concentration gels. Examination of the spatial distribution of stress in a cylindrical gel under large deformation showed that the outer part of the gel had smaller stress than the inner part at an early stage, and the area with small stress gradually extended into the inner part. This result indicates that the inhomogeneity of water content caused by water exudation from the gel surface induces the stress distribution in the gel. PMID:24815413

Matsukawa, Shingo; Ding, Yichun; Zhao, Qiuhua; Mogi, Akiko; Tashiro, Yuri; Ogawa, Hiroo

2014-08-30

324

E rosette-positive agar colonies containing the Philadelphia chromosome in chronic myeloid leukaemia.  

PubMed

In an attempt to document possible T-cell involvement in chronic myeloid leukaemia, E rosette-positive colonies (ERPC) were grown in agar culture using a T-cell-conditioned medium. Colonies were grown from whole mononuclear cells (WMN), nonadherent E rosette-positive (NAT+) and nonadherent E rosette-negative (NAT-) cells. Cells collected from the colonies after 10 d in culture were 99-100% E rosette-positive. 8 metaphases were obtained from both NAT+ and NAT- ERPCs. In NAT- ERPCs, 5 out of 8 metaphases were positive for the Philadelphia (Ph1) chromosome as compared to 1 Ph1 positive out of 8 metaphases in the NAT+ ERPCs. These results suggest that, at least in this particular patient we studied, a subpopulation of E rosette-positive cells derived from the NAT- cell fraction express the Ph1 chromosome. PMID:3871961

Nogueira-Costa, R; Spitzer, G; Cork, A; Trujillo, J M

1985-02-01

325

Cell cytotoxicity and mycotoxin and secondary metabolite production by common penicillia on cheese agar.  

PubMed

Known or potential new fungal starter culture species such as Penicillium camemberti, P. roqueforti, P. nalgiovense, P. caseifulvum, and P. solitum have been cultivated on a cheese agar medium together with the common cheese contaminants P. commune, P. crustosum, P. discolor, P. atramentosum, and P. nordicum. Secondary metabolites were extracted and analyzed by HPLC-DAD and tested for cytotoxicity by using the MTT-cell culture assay. Metabolites such as cyclopiazonic acid, roquefortine C, and penitrem A, previously reported from cheese, were detected together with sclerotigenin, solistatin, meleagrin, oxaline, compactins, diaportins, chaetoglobosins, rugulovasines, verrucolones, anacines, verrucines, cyclopeptines, viridicatins, and viridic acid, all metabolites not previously reported from cheese. The two P. nalgiovense extracts were the most toxic in the MTT-cell culture test. These extracts contained diaportines together with a number of unknown compounds. P. roqueforti extracts were not toxic at all. Fungal extracts from the rest of the studied penicillia were toxic at levels between these two extremes. PMID:12358494

Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Gareis, Manfred; Frisvad, Jens Christian

2002-10-01

326

Agar-Like Polysaccharide Produced by a Pseudomonas Species: Production and Basic Properties  

PubMed Central

A new species of Pseudomonas was isolated that produced copious amounts of an exocellular heteropolysaccharide (PS-60) after incubation for 3 days at 30°C in media containing 3% glucose as a carbon source. The polysaccharide was composed of approximately 46% glucose and 30% rhamnose and, in addition, contained 21% uronic acid and 3% O-acetyl. Upon deacetylation by a mild alkaline treatment, PS-60 produced a brittle, firm, and optically clear gel. This gelling property was thermoreversible. The PS-60 gel exhibited excellent heat stability that withstood autoclaving (i.e., 121°C for 15 min) for several cycles. The gel strength, melting point, and setting point of the polysaccharide were controlled primarily by the concentration of cations. PS-60 was not affected by a variety of enzymes. The results of tests involving various culture media and biochemical test media indicate that PS-60 is an excellent alternative gelling agent to agar.

Kang, Kenneth S.; Veeder, George T.; Mirrasoul, Peter J.; Kaneko, Tatsuo; Cottrell, Ian W.

1982-01-01

327

Modulation of tumour cell colony growth in soft agar by oxygen and its mechanism.  

PubMed Central

A simple technique for maintaining low oxygen concentrations (0.1-20%) is described. These conditions were then used to study the effect of oxygen on colony growth of neoplastic cells in soft-agar. Physiologically low oxygen concentrations (0.1-10%) compared to 20% O2 were found to enhance plating efficiency and colony size of tumour cells. The optimal oxygen concentration for plating efficiency varied with tumour studied and may be as low as 0.1%. Having established that tumour cell colonies will grow better at 0.1-10% O2 compared to 20% O2, the mechanism by which this enhancement occurs was investigated. Observations on the effect of free radical scavengers and superoxide dismutase on plating efficiency of Ehrlich's ascites tumour cells suggests that this phenomenon occurs through oxygen toxicity mediated by superoxide anion.

Gupta, V.; Eberle, R.

1984-01-01

328

Growth characteristics of large- and small-colony types of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides on 5% sheep blood agar.  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides of the large-colony (LC) type was isolated in pure culture on 5% sheep blood agar plates inoculated with lung specimens from a 4-month-old Toggenburg goat. The growth characteristics of this isolate, of four known LC types, and of five known small-colony (SC) types of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides were compared on 5% sheep blood agar at 2, 5, and 7 days. The SC types were not visible at 2 days and did not grow larger than 0.1 mm, whereas the LC types were visible in 2 days and increased in diameter over 7 days to between 0.4 and 0.7 mm. These results indicate that growth on 5% sheep blood agar can be used as an additional marker in differentiating LC and SC types of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides. Images

Thigpen, J E; Cottew, G S; Yeats, F; McGhee, C E; Rose, D L

1983-01-01

329

Methods for serotyping nasopharyngeal isolates of Haemophilus influenzae: slide agglutination, Quellung reaction, countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis, latex agglutination, and antiserum agar.  

PubMed Central

Nasopharyngeal isolates of H. influenzae were typed by the slide agglutination test, the Quelling reaction, the latex agglutination test, countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis, and the antiserum agar test. These tests gave essentially comparable results, with countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis and latex agglutination being slightly more sensitive. Cross-reactive problems encountered with latex agglutination and the expense of performing countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis or the antiserum agar test made these tests less practical than the slide agglutination test to identify single strains that were already isolated. The Quellung reaction and slide agglutination were the most rapid tests used to type an organism. For mass screening of multiple samples, countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis was the simplest technique. The antiserum agar test was slow but was the best technique to screen nasopharyngeal swab cultures to identify the presence of any encapsulated strains in the mixed flora. Whether any of the above techniques were as sensitive as the immunofluorescence test was not evaluated in this study. Images

Ingram, D L; Collier, A M; Pendergrass, E; King, S H

1979-01-01

330

Effect of two aerosolization methods on the release of fungal propagules from a contaminated agar surface.  

PubMed

The effect of perpendicular and swirling aerozolization methods on the release of fungal fragments and spores from agar surface was studied. Three fungal species (Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Penicillium chrysogenum) were selected for the tests as they commonly occur indoors, create different hyphae structure when they grow on surfaces, and have different spore shapes, aerodynamic sizes, and formation mechanisms. As the tested surface, Petri dishes filled with malt extract agar, separately inoculated with fungal strains and cultivated to obtain an abundant and even growth were used. For the purpose of these experiments, a new aerosolization chamber was built in which HEPA-filtered air stream responsible for fungal propagule release was either perpendicularly directed towards the contaminated surface or set in swirling motion above it. The experiments were conducted at 2 air velocities, typical for outdoor environment (11.6 m/s) and ventilation ducts (29.1 m/s). Concentrations and size distributions of released fragments and spores were measured using an optical particle counter. The results showed that the propagule release depends on the direction (swirling motion was able to release up to 3.4 × 10(5) fragments and 3 × 10(5) spores from 1 cm( 2) of contaminated surface, i.e. significantly more than the perpendicularly directed air stream), velocity (the higher the swirling air velocity applied, the higher the number of released propagules) of the air stream above the contaminated surface, and varied due to the taxonomical species origin (the higher number of particulates was released by Aspergillus colonies). Hence, the efficient control of both microbial fragments and spores, not only in the air, but also in their source should be an integral part of the quality control procedure. PMID:22742802

Górny, Rafa? L; ?awniczek-Wa?czyk, Anna

2012-01-01

331

Determination of agar tissue phantoms depth profiles with pulsed photothermal radiometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR) can be used for non-invasive depth profiling of skin vascular lesions (e.g., port wine stain birthmarks), aimed towards optimizing laser therapy on an individual patient basis. Optimal configuration of the experimental setup must be found and its performance characterized on samples with well defined structure, before introducing the technique into clinical practice. The aim of our study is to determine how sample structure and width of spectruml acquisition band affect the accuracy of measured depth profiles. We have constructed tissue phantoms composed of multiple layers of agar and of thin absorbing layers between the agar layers. Three phantoms had a single absorber layer at various depths between 100 and 500 ?m, and one phantom had two absorber layers. In each sample we induced a non-homogeneous temperature profile with a 585 nm pulsed laser and acquired the resulting radiometric signal with a fast InSb infrared camera. We tested two configurations of the acquisition system, one using the customary 3-5 um spectruml band and one with a custom 4.5 ?m cut-on filter. The laser-induced temperature depth profiles were reconstructed from measured PPTR signals using a custom algorithm and compared with sample structure as determined by histology and optical coherent tomography (OCT). PPTR determined temperature profiles correlate well with sample structure in all samples. Determination of the absorbing layer depth shows good repeatability with spatial resolution decreasing with depth. Spectruml filtering improved the accuracy of reconstructed profiles for shallow absorption layers (100-200 ?m). PPTR technique enables reliable determination of structure in tissue phantoms with thin absorbing layers. Narrowing of the spectruml acquisition band (to 4.5 - 5.3 ?m) improves reconstruction of objects near the surface.

Milani?, Matija; Majaron, Boris; Nelson, J. Stuart

2007-07-01

332

Laboratory Detection of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae: Evaluation of Two Screening Agar Plates and Two Confirmation Techniques?  

PubMed Central

The worldwide prevalence of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) is increasing, making the need for optimized detection techniques more urgent. In this study we investigated the performance of two ESBL-E screening and two ESBL-E confirmation techniques. In accordance with the Dutch national guidelines (www.wip.nl), a collection of 642 highly resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains, as identified by Vitek2, was used to test the performances of two screening techniques (EbSA ESBL agar plate and ChromID ESBL agar plate) and of two confirmation techniques (MIC-strip ESBL and Vitek2 ESBL test panel). The individual test results were compared by using Etest, followed by a combination disk test if Etest results were inconclusive. Among group 1 isolates (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp., Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp.) 291 (57.6%) were ESBL-E, versus 65 (47.4%) in group 2 (Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Morganella morganii, Serratia spp., and Providencia spp.). The sensitivities of all four tests for group 1 were comparable (EbSA, 96.6%; ChromID, 97.3%; MIC-strip, 99.6%; and Vitek2, 95.1%). The specificities of the EbSA and ChromID were the same (93.9%). However, the confirmation techniques produced many inconclusive test results, which reduces the applicability in routine laboratories. Only the two screening agar plates were validated for ESBL testing of group 2 microorganisms. They showed comparable sensitivities; however, the EbSA screening agar plate had a significantly higher specificity (78.6% versus 44.3%). In conclusion the screening agar plates performed better than the two confirmation techniques. The EbSA agar plate had the best overall performance.

Overdevest, I. T. M. A.; Willemsen, I.; Elberts, S.; Verhulst, C.; Kluytmans, J. A. J. W.

2011-01-01

333

Laboratory detection of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae: evaluation of two screening agar plates and two confirmation techniques.  

PubMed

The worldwide prevalence of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) is increasing, making the need for optimized detection techniques more urgent. In this study we investigated the performance of two ESBL-E screening and two ESBL-E confirmation techniques. In accordance with the Dutch national guidelines (www.wip.nl), a collection of 642 highly resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains, as identified by Vitek2, was used to test the performances of two screening techniques (EbSA ESBL agar plate and ChromID ESBL agar plate) and of two confirmation techniques (MIC-strip ESBL and Vitek2 ESBL test panel). The individual test results were compared by using Etest, followed by a combination disk test if Etest results were inconclusive. Among group 1 isolates (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp., Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp.) 291 (57.6%) were ESBL-E, versus 65 (47.4%) in group 2 (Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Morganella morganii, Serratia spp., and Providencia spp.). The sensitivities of all four tests for group 1 were comparable (EbSA, 96.6%; ChromID, 97.3%; MIC-strip, 99.6%; and Vitek2, 95.1%). The specificities of the EbSA and ChromID were the same (93.9%). However, the confirmation techniques produced many inconclusive test results, which reduces the applicability in routine laboratories. Only the two screening agar plates were validated for ESBL testing of group 2 microorganisms. They showed comparable sensitivities; however, the EbSA screening agar plate had a significantly higher specificity (78.6% versus 44.3%). In conclusion the screening agar plates performed better than the two confirmation techniques. The EbSA agar plate had the best overall performance. PMID:21123527

Overdevest, I T M A; Willemsen, I; Elberts, S; Verhulst, C; Kluytmans, J A J W

2011-02-01

334

Evaluation of mupirocin E-test for determination of isolate susceptibility: comparison with standard agar dilution techniques.  

PubMed

Mupirocin E-test strips have been evaluated for their ease of use and accuracy in determining the susceptibilities of 171 strains of Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. The susceptibility of each strain was determined on two occasions, using parallel E-test and agar dilution methodologies each time. To ensure similar precisions for statistical analyses, E-test MICs were rounded up to a standard twofold agar dilution scale. Clear, elliptical zones were obtained against Staphylococcus spp. M. catarrhalis also gave clear zones, but the scale intercept was often difficult to interpret because of the irregular shape of the inhibition zone. Poor growth sometimes resulted in less-distinct zones of inhibition against Streptococcus spp. and H. influenzae. Excellent correlation was observed between the the E-test and agar dilution against Staphylococcus spp. and H. influenzae, with > 95% of the E-test values falling within one log2 dilution of the corresponding agar MIC. The correlation was lower for Streptococcus spp. and M. catarrhalis, with 86 and 83%, respectively, of E-test results falling within one log2 dilution of the agar MIC. When E-test MICs did not agree exactly with the corresponding agar MIC against Staphylococcus spp. or Streptococcus spp., there was a tendency for the E-test to give a lower MIC. This bias has little effect upon individual MICs in staphylococci or in the generation of susceptibility interpretation errors ( < 1.5% overall), but it could reduce population geometric mean MICs by factors of 0.78 to 0.83. This effect was more marked for Streptococcus spp., reducing the population mean by a factor of 0.73 and resulting in 0.7% major and 8% very major errors. In contrast, the E-test tended to give higher MICs against M. catarrhalis, resulting in 7.3% major errors and increasing the population geometric mean MIC by a factor of 1.60. PMID:7494011

Simpson, I N; Gisby, J; Hemingway, C P; Durodie, J; Macpherson, I

1995-09-01

335

Phototherapy with turquoise versus blue light.  

PubMed

Preterm jaundiced infants were treated by phototherapy with a new turquoise fluorescent lamp. This was more effective in reducing plasma total bilirubin in relation to light irradiance than the ubiquitously used blue fluorescent lamp. PMID:12937051

Ebbesen, F; Agati, G; Pratesi, R

2003-09-01

336

Phototherapy with turquoise versus blue light  

PubMed Central

Preterm jaundiced infants were treated by phototherapy with a new turquoise fluorescent lamp. This was more effective in reducing plasma total bilirubin in relation to light irradiance than the ubiquitously used blue fluorescent lamp.

Ebbesen, F; Agati, G; Pratesi, R

2003-01-01

337

Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site  

ScienceCinema

The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.

338

Blue Origin Conducts Pad Escape Test  

NASA Video Gallery

Blue Origin conducted a successful pad escape test Oct. 19 at the company's West Texas launch site, firing its pusher escape motor and launching a full-scale suborbital crew capsule from a simulate...

339

Fingermarks detection by eosin-blue dye.  

PubMed

Eosin-blue (I) dye, along with a phase transfer catalyst, has been used to detect latent fingerprints on a wide range of surfaces, including paper, glass, steel, lamination sheets, polythene, plastic and bakelite. PMID:11056271

Sodhi, G S; Kaur, J

2001-01-01

340

Alexander Spotswood Crosses the Blue Ridge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report deals with one aspect of the larger subject of the settlement of the Shenandoah Valley and Blue Ridge Mountains. Of especial interest is that portion of the area closely associated with Shenandoah National Park. Lieutenant Governor Alexander Sp...

C. E. Hatch

1968-01-01

341

Ostracoda ('Myodocopina') from Bahamian Blue Holes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three troglobitic myodocopid ostracodes (two previously described and one new) in the Order Halocyprida are reported from anchialine waters in inland blue holes on Grand Bahama Island and Andros Island. The adult male and female Deeveya bransoni Kornicker...

L. Kornicker T. M. Ilife E. Harrison-Nelson

2002-01-01

342

Upgrading Blue Collar and Service Workers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study is reported of upgrading of blue collar and service workers in New York City in five major industries: apparel, food, health, construction, and transit. Concludes that there are limited expectations for manpower programs to increase the number of ...

C. Brecher

1972-01-01

343

Lasing effect in blue phase liquid crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the investigation of random lasing in blue phase liquid crystals. Multiple scattering and interference effects arising from disordered platelet texture as well as index mismatch between polymer and mesogen contribute the optical feedbacks towards laser action. In pure blue phase liquid crystals, the random laser can be switched between the coherent and incoherent types by executing distinct heating/cooling cycles; and, the randomness of lasing wavelengths can be determined by the platelet size, which can be set by controlling the cooling rate. After the blue phase liquid crystals are polymer-stabilized, coherent random lasing may occur in both the blue phase with an extended temperature interval and the isotropic liquid state; also, the selected modes are constant from one pulse to another. Additionally, if the laser dye is sensitive to temperature, the excitation threshold and the emission spectrum could be altered via thermal control.

Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Chen, Chun-Wei; Jau, Hung-Chang; Lee, Chun-Hong; Wang, Chun-Ta; Wu, Chih-Wei; Huang, Huai-Ping; Khoo, I. C.

2013-09-01

344

Longview Lake, Little Blue River, Missouri.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Longview Lake project is part of a basin plan consisting of two lakes, channel works, and levee protection authorized for flood control, water quality control, recreation, and fish and wildlife enhancement in the Little Blue River Basin, Missouri. The...

1971-01-01

345

Great Blue Herons in Puget Sound.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias) is an iconic species representing the natural heritage, interconnectedness and ecological richness of Puget Sound and the greater Salish Sea (Puget Sound, Strait of Georgia and Strait of Juan de Fuca). This area const...

A. Eissinger

2007-01-01

346

Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site  

ScienceCinema

The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.

Paul Saueressig

2010-09-01

347

Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.

Paul Saueressig

2010-07-14

348

Blue-Green Lasers and Electrodeless Flashlamps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper addresses the questions of combining the technology of moderate pressure electrodeless discharge lamps with the efficiency of a resonantly pumped solid state laser to achieve an efficient, compact, and reliable blue green laser. The scheme is b...

F. W. Perkins

1983-01-01

349

Comparison of Guizotia abyssinica seed extract (birdseed) agar with conventional media for selective identification of Cryptococcus neoformans in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.  

PubMed

Growth of Cryptococcus neoformans from the sputum of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome may be obscured by oral contamination with Candida albicans on conventional media. We prospectively compared direct plating of sputum and urine onto birdseed agar and compared birdseed agar plating with plating onto Mycosel and Sabouraud dextrose agar cultures. Thirty-two sputum and three urine specimens were compared. C. neoformans was isolated from five specimens. In two specimens, one of sputum and one of urine, C. neoformans was detected only on the birdseed agar plate because of overgrowth on the conventional media by C. albicans. C. neoformans produced dark colonies on birdseed agar, unlike C. albicans, which produces white colonies. The use of birdseed agar as the primary culture medium for sputum and urine specimens from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome increases sensitivity for C. neoformans. PMID:2254431

Denning, D W; Stevens, D A; Hamilton, J R

1990-11-01

350

The Blue Obelisk - Interoperability in Chemical Informatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Blue Obelisk Movement (http:\\/\\/www.blueobelisk.org\\/) is the name used by a diverse Internet group promoting reusable chemistry via open source software development, consistent and complimentary chemoinformatics research, open data, and open standards. We outline recent examples of cooperation in the Blue Obelisk group:  a shared dictionary of algorithms and implementations in chemoinformatics algorithms drawing from our various software projects; a

Rajarshi Guha; Michael T. Howard; Geoffrey R. Hutchison; Peter Murray-rust; Henry S. Rzepa; Christoph Steinbeck; Jörg K. Wegner; Egon L. Willighagen

2006-01-01

351

Fatal methylene blue associated serotonin toxicity.  

PubMed

This is the first report of a fatal outcome from serotonin toxicity, precipitated by an interaction between methylene blue and venlafaxine. Methylene blue-associated serotonin toxicity has been described before but usually as mild toxicity. Its presentation after general anaesthesia may be atypical and therefore more difficult to diagnose. However, the syndrome is completely preventable if serotonin re-uptake inhibiting agents are stopped beforehand. PMID:24846936

Top, W M C; Gillman, P K; de Langen, C J; Kooy, A

2014-04-01

352

Eye damage control by reduced blue illumination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to demonstrate that a blue light and ultraviolet cut-off filter (blue filter) could reduce short-wavelength retina\\/RPE damage threshold by a continuous spectrum source. Sixteen normal eyes of two rhesus monkeys and six cynomolgus monkeys were subjected to macular irradiation of 20, 24, 27.4, 30, 35, 45, 50 and 60 J\\/cm2 energy densities. The values of

Toshihiko Ueda; Takako Nakanishi-Ueda; Hajime Yasuhara; Ryohei Koide; William W. Dawson

2009-01-01

353

Red, White and Blue II Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry demonstration, learners investigate the rule "likes dissolve likes" by combining three, immiscible liquids to create a colorful density column. Learners are asked, "What color will result from mixing red, white, and blue?" They will be surprised by the answer as a beaker is revealed with red syrup on the bottom, white milk over the syrup and blue lamp oil on top. This is a perfect activity to use to demonstrate density and polarity, especially around the 4th of July.

House, The S.

2014-02-03

354

Stylish or safe blue-block eyewear  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of modern, save and stylish eyewear is entertaining not only to people with unwell eyesight. Many people use glasses with anti-UV or blue-block coatings, glasses for driving or working with a computer. There were investigated the blue-block eyewear. There were analyzed reflected radiation at 300 - 400 nm wavelengths with cross- incidence. The traditional eyewear with classical or

Jerzy Ciosek

1998-01-01

355

Eye damage control by reduced blue illumination.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to demonstrate that a blue light and ultraviolet cut-off filter (blue filter) could reduce short-wavelength retina/RPE damage threshold by a continuous spectrum source. Sixteen normal eyes of two rhesus monkeys and six cynomolgus monkeys were subjected to macular irradiation of 20, 24, 27.4, 30, 35, 45, 50 and 60 J/cm(2) energy densities. The values of energy density were measured before the blue filter. Lesions were measured before and at 2 and 30 days after irradiation of a 2.8 mm diameter region within the macular arcade. Measures were fundoscopy, fluorescein angiography and long wavelength scanning by the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph (HRT) unit. The lesions, which were produced, were scored and compared to irradiant energy density of the blue LED (NSPB500S, Nichia, Tokushima, Japan). The exposure at the 20 J/cm(2) produced no detectable result at 2 or 30 days. Exposure at 35 J/cm(2) showed definite lesion production without blue filter. With the filter added there was one indication of minor change. At 60 J/cm(2) there was extensive heavy, enduring damage without the filter and with the filter damage was present but was significantly attenuated. These results strongly support the conclusion that the blue filter attenuation reduces the frequency of damage by exposure. This experimental system is a useful model for normal human eye aging and continuous spectrum environment irradiance. PMID:19660452

Ueda, Toshihiko; Nakanishi-Ueda, Takako; Yasuhara, Hajime; Koide, Ryohei; Dawson, William W

2009-12-01

356

Interlaboratory evaluation of MI agar and the US Environmental Protection Agency-Approved Membrane Filter Method for the recovery of total coliforms and Escherichia coli from drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new membrane filter (MF) medium, MI agar, recently validated for use in recovering chlorine-damaged total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli from drinking water, was compared to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved MF method (mEndo agar and nutrient agar supplemented with 4-methylumbelliferyl-?-d-glucuronide) in a collaborative study. Six wastewater-spiked Cincinnati tap water samples, containing three different concentrations of E. coli

Kristen P. Brenner; Clifford C. Rankin; Manohari Sivaganesan

1996-01-01

357

Cell immobilization in composite agar layer microporous membrane structures: growth kinetics of gel-entrapped cultures and cell leakage limitation by a microporous membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agar discs containing different amounts of viable Escherichia coli cells (from 10 to 106 organisms·g-1 agar) were incubated in a nutrient medium and the growth of agar-entrapped bacteria and free (released) cells was monitored. The study was repeated with composite immobilized-cell structures obtained by placing a microporous membrane filter between the gel matrix and the incubation medium. In both cases,

Thierry Jouenne; Hélène Bonato; Laurent Mignot; Guy-Alain Junter

1993-01-01

358

Evaluation of Agar-Based Medium with Sheep Sera for Testing of Drug Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Isoniazid, Rifampin, Ethambutol, and Streptomycin  

PubMed Central

The performance of sheep sera instead of sheep blood in agar-based media was investigated for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis against primary drugs. The levels of agreement between agar-based medium supplemented with sheep sera and the proportion method on Middlebrook 7H11 agar as the reference method for determining susceptibility to isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), ethambutol (EMB), and streptomycin (STR) were 98.4, 98.4, 95.3, and 100%, respectively.

Uzun, Meltem; Bozdogan, Bulent

2013-01-01

359

Characterization and optimization of hydrogen production by a salt water blue-green alga Oscillatoria sp. Miami BG 7. II - Use of immobilization for enhancement of hydrogen production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technique of cellular immobilization was applied to the process of hydrogen photoproduction of nonheterocystous, filamentous marine blue-green alga, Oscillatoria sp. Miami BG 7. Immobilization with agar significantly improved the rate and longevity of hydrogen production, compared to free cell suspensions. Rates of H2 production in excess of 13 microliters H2 mg dry/wt h were observed and hydrogen production was sustained for three weeks. Immobilization also provided some stabilization to environmental variability and was adaptable to outdoor light conditions. In general, immobilization provides significant advantages for the production and maintenance of hydrogen photoproduction for this strain.

Phlips, E. J.; Mitsui, A.

1986-01-01

360

Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the blue pigment VINAMON® Blue BX FW - a phthalocyanine blue in a vinyl glove.  

PubMed

A 44-year-old metalworker suffered from severe hand eczema in spite of treatment with corticosteroid ointments. He had been using protective cotton gloves with blue PVC anti-slip dots on the finger tips. On clinical examination, the backs of both hands were erythematous and thickened while the finger tips showed vesicles. There was a positive patch test reaction to the blue PVC dots of an unworn cotton glove at 72, 96, 120 hours. To identify the causative chemicals, we carried out further patch tests using ingredients of the glove and cupric sulfate. The patient reacted to the blue dye VYNAMON(®) Blue BX FW (PB 15) at two concentrations - 10% at 72 and 96 hours, and 50% at 48 and 72 hours. This dye is a very strong and brilliant blue with red-copper tones and resistant to fire and weathering. The cupric-phthalocyanine complexes are used as pigments in cosmetics (e. g. CI 74160, 74180, 74260). To the best of our knowledge, no allergic reactions to this dye have been described, particularly not in gloves. PMID:20163502

Weimann, Stefanie; Skudlik, Christoph; John, Swen Malte

2010-10-01

361

A comparative study of Prussian-Blue-modified graphite paste electrodes and solid graphite electrodes with mechanically immobilized Prussian Blue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyclic voltammetry of Prussian Blue was studied using two different types of electrodes. In one case microcrystalline particles of Prussian Blue were mechanically immobilized on the surface of a paraffin-impregnated solid graphite electrode, whereas in the other the Prussian Blue was added to a paste of graphite and silicone oil. The overall behaviour of Prussian Blue in both electrodes

Nina F. Zakharchuk; Birgit Meyer; Horst Henning; Fritz Scholz; Aleksander Jaworksi; Zbigniew Stojek

1995-01-01

362

21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133...133.184 Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk....

2009-04-01

363

21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133...133.184 Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk....

2010-04-01

364

AgarCyto: A Novel Cell-processing Method for Multiple Molecular Diagnostic Analyses of the Uterine Cervix  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In diagnostic cytology, it has been advocated that molecular techniques will improve cytopathological diagnosis and may predict clinical course. Ancillary molecular techniques, however, can be applied only if a sufficient number of preparations are made from a single cell sample. We have developed the AgarCyto cell block procedure for multi- ple molecular diagnostic analyses on a single scraping from

Harold M. J. Kerstens; Johanna C. M. Robben; Pino J. Poddighe; Willem J. G. Melchers; Henk Boonstra; Merryn V. E. Macville; Antonius G. J. M. Hanselaar

365

[Clinical assessment of novel ChromID ESBL agar plates for detection of ESBL producers in the family Enterobacteriaceae].  

PubMed

Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-producers in the family Enterobacteriaceae are recognized worldwide as nosocomial pathogens, however it is difficult to screen them in the routine laboratory processing. ChromID ESBL agar newly developed for screening ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae was released in Japan in April, 2007. We evaluated the clinical assessment of ChromID ESBL agar in routine microbiology laboratory. The 47 strains investigated were clinical isolates belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae with the MICs of cefpodoxime greater than 2 mug/ml. The 27 ESBL-producers examined were comprising of 19 Escherichia coli, 3 Klebsiella oxytoca, 1 Citrobacter freundii, 3 Enterobacter cloacae, and 1 S. marcescens (ESBL group) and 20 ESBL non-producers consiating of 5 K. oxytoca, 1 Proteus mirabilis, 1 P. vlugaris, 2 Serratia marcescens, 8 C. freundii, 2 Enterobacter cloacae, and 1 E. aerogenes (non-ESBL group). Characterization of beta-lactamase genes was carried out by use of polymerase chain reaction. As the results, the sensitivity and the specificity of ChromID ESBL agar plates after incubation for 18 hours was 100% and 20%, respectively. It should be noted that the values of specificity was extremely low compared with those of the sensitivity. These findings clearly suggested that in cases of utilizing ChromID ESBL agar plates, it should be important to consider its characteristic properties, as even the ESBL-non-producers could grow on these media only when they were resistant to CPDX. PMID:20528091

Kasuga, Eriko; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Hidaka, Eiko; Oguchi, Harumi; Kanai, Shinichiro; Oana, Kozue; Yamauchi, Kazuyoshi; Honda, Takayuki; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

2009-01-01

366

Metabolite production of yeasts on a strawberry-agar during storage at 7 °C in air and low oxygen atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes of different quality factors of strawberries have been described until now from a physiological point of view. Possible effects on quality caused by yeast proliferation have not been described. To elucidate the metabolic activity of yeasts (i.e. Debaryomyces melissophilus, Rhodotorula glutinis, Cryptococcus laurentii), isolated from strawberries, they were inoculated on a simulation medium of strawberries (strawberry-agar). Their activity was

P. Ragaert; F. Devlieghere; S. Loos; J. Dewulf; H. Van Langenhove; J. Debevere

2006-01-01

367

CCMR: Sisal Fiber Reinforced Green Composite Using Soy Flour Resin Modified With Sorbitol, Agar and NB416 Microfibers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fully biodegradable green composites were prepared using natural sisal fiber and soy flour (SF) resin modified with sorbitol, agar, and NB416 microfiber. The SF resin modified with agar and NB416 microfibers had a higher Tensile Stress and Youngâs Modulus, 8.73 + 0.60 MPa, 232.61 + 25.44 MPa, and 12.15 + 1.53 MPa, 327.87 + 27.62 respectively, compared to the Tensile Stress and Youngâs Modulus of the sorbitol modified SF resin. The composites fabricated with sorbitol modified SF resin showed the highest Tensile Stress of 141.45 + 16.72 MPa which was significantly greater than the Tensile Stress of the pure SF resin. Problems arose in preparing the composites with the resins modified with agar and NB416. The method for coating the fibers with the more viscous resin solutions was not an adequate way to prepare the composite. The mechanical properties of the SF resins modified with agar and NB416 microfibers suggests that if the resin was equally dispersed in the composites then the composite properties would be very high. These composites are very useful in replacing some of the petroleum based composites in use today and reducing the amount of plastics in the landfills.

Khalsa, Amrit

2009-08-15

368

A Statistical Comparison of Analyst Accuracy and Speed in Counting Standard Methods Agar Plates Within Selected Colony Count Ranges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Agar plates, prepared from serially diluted food homogenate and containing from 30-300 colonies per plate, are used by food microbiology testing laboratories to estimate the microbial population of food samples. Six analysts counted plates with 0-<400 col...

J. T. Fruin T. M. Hill J. B. Clarke J. L. Fowler

1976-01-01

369

In vitro fermentation and prebiotic potential of novel low molecular weight polysaccharides derived from agar and alginate seaweeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermentation properties and prebiotic potential of novel low molecular weight polysaccharides (LMWPs) derived from agar and alginate bearing seaweeds was investigated. Ten LMWPs were supplemented to pH, temperature controlled anaerobic batch cultures inoculated with human feces from three donors, in triplicate. Microbiota changes were monitored using Fluorescent in-situ hybridization and short chain fatty acids, the fermentation end products were analysed

Priya Ramnani; Roberto Chitarrari; Kieran Tuohy; John Grant; Sarah Hotchkiss; Kevin Philp; Ross Campbell; Chris Gill; Ian Rowland

370

The yield, physical and chemical properties of agar gel from Gracilaria species (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) of the Kenya coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six species of Gracilaria, G. corticata J. Agardh, G. crassa Harvey, G. millardetii J. Agardh, G. salicornia (J. Ag.) Dawson, G. verrucosa (Huds.) Papenfuss and Gracilaria sp, collected from different stations along the Kenya coast were studied. The yield of hot water native agar extract ranges from 8.1–30% of dry weight, with G. verrucosa and G. salicornia having the greatest

H. A. Oyieke

1993-01-01

371

Solvent bonding of poly(methyl methacrylate) microfluidic chip using phase-changing agar hydrogel as a sacrificial layer.  

PubMed

In this report, a solvent bonding method based on phase-changing agar hydrogel has been developed for the fabrication of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microfluidic chips. Prior to bonding, the channels and the reservoir ports on PMMA channel plates were filled with molten agar hydrogel that could gelate to form solid sacrificial layers at room temperature. Subsequently, PMMA cover sheets were covered on the channeled plates and 1,2-dichlororethane was applied to the interspaces between them. The agar hydrogel in the channels could prevent the bonding solvent and the softened surface of the PMMA cover sheets from filling in the channels. After solvent bonding, the agar hydrogel in the channels and the reservoir ports was melted and removed under pressure. The sealed channels in the complete microchips had been examined by an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The results indicated that high-quality bonding was achieved at room temperature. The prepared microfluidic microchips have been successfully employed in the electrophoresis separation and detection of three cations in combination with contactless conductivity detection. PMID:22072551

Gan, Zhibin; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang

2011-11-01

372

Morphometric and Colorimetrie Analyses of Human Tumor Cell Line Growth and Drug Sensitivity in Soft Agar Culture1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have demonstrated the suitability of image analysis of tetrazolium-stained colonies to assess growth and drug sensitivity of human tumor cells cultivated in soft agar culture. In the present study, the potential utility of colorimetrie analysis to expedite experimental drug evaluations using human tumor cell lines was investigated. The same culture dishes were assessed by image analysis and by

M. C. Alle; C. M. Pacula-Co; M. L. Hursey; L. R. Rubinstein; M. R. Boy

1991-01-01

373

A unique carbon with a high specific surface area produced by the carbonization of agar in the presence of graphene.  

PubMed

A unique carbon with a high specific surface area was prepared by carbonization of a polymer-based precursor, agar, in the presence of graphene. Graphene prevents the shrinkage and aggregation of the carbonized particles, resulting in extraordinarily large external surface area (?1200 m(2) g(-1)) of the carbon, which shows a high rate performance as a supercapacitor electrode. PMID:24081381

Xie, Tingting; Lv, Wei; Wei, Wei; Li, Zhengjie; Li, Baohua; Kang, Feiyu; Yang, Quan-Hong

2013-11-14

374

The soft agar clonogenicity and characterization of cells obtained from human solid tumors by mechanical and enzymatic means  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-step procedure for releasing cells from solid tumors has been applied to specimens of human melanoma, sarcoma, lung, colon, and breast carcinoma. The first population released mechanically has been compared with the population subsequently released enzymatically in tests of dye exclusion, ribonucleoside triposphate pool sizes, intactness of DNA, and clonogenicity in soft agar. While greater numbers of dye-excluding cells

Harry K. Slocum; Zlatko P. Pavelic; Peter M. Kanter; Norma J. Nowak; Youcef M. Rustum

1981-01-01

375

Agar-plated bacteria found in the activated sludge of lab-scale SBR and CFSTR systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identified and compared the predominant agar-plated bacteria in the activated sludge of two popular wastewater treatment systems, the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and the continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR). All tests had the same feed composition except for the buffer intensity. It was found that Corynebacterium sp. seemed to prefer growing under lower buffer condition, and Arthrobacter sp. grew

D.-F. Juang; C.-S. Hwu

2003-01-01

376

Comparison of Neisseria gonorrhoeae MICs obtained by Etest and agar dilution for ceftriaxone, cefpodoxime, cefixime and azithromycin.  

PubMed

We evaluated Neisseria gonorrhoeae Etest minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) relative to agar dilution MICs for 664 urethral isolates for ceftriaxone (CRO) and azithromycin (AZM), 351 isolates for cefpodoxime (CPD) and 315 isolates for cefixime (CFM). Etest accurately determined CPD, CFM and AZM MICs, but resulted in higher CRO MICs. PMID:24455772

Gose, Severin; Kong, Carol J; Lee, Yer; Samuel, Michael C; Bauer, Heidi M; Dixon, Paula; Soge, Olusegun O; Lei, John; Pandori, Mark

2013-12-01

377

Comparison of Ashdown's Medium, Burkholderia cepacia Medium, and Burkholderia pseudomallei Selective Agar for Clinical Isolation of Burkholderia pseudomallei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ashdown's medium, Burkholderia pseudomallei selective agar (BPSA), and a commercial Burkholderia cepacia medium were compared for their abilities to grow B. pseudomallei from 155 clinical specimens that proved positive for this organism. The sensitivity of each was equivalent; the selectivity of BPSA was lower than that of Ashdown's or B. cepacia medium. Burkholderia pseudomallei is a gram-negative soil saprophyte and

Sharon J. Peacock; Grace Chieng; Allen C. Cheng; David A. B. Dance; Gumphol Wongsuvan; Nittaya Teerawattanasook; Nicholas P. J. Day

2005-01-01

378

Structure of blue phase III of cholesteric liquid crystals.  

PubMed

We report large scale simulations of the blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals. Our results suggest a structure for blue phase III, the blue fog, which has been the subject of a long debate in liquid crystal physics. We propose that blue phase III is an amorphous network of disclination lines, which is thermodynamically and kinetically stabilized over crystalline blue phases at intermediate chiralities. This amorphous network becomes ordered under an applied electric field, as seen in experiments. PMID:21469836

Henrich, O; Stratford, K; Cates, M E; Marenduzzo, D

2011-03-11

379

Use of big data by Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina.  

PubMed

The health care industry is grappling with the challenges of working with and analyzing large, complex, diverse data sets. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina provides several promising examples of how big data can be used to reduce the cost of care, to predict and manage health risks, and to improve clinical outcomes. PMID:24830494

Helm-Murtagh, Susan C

2014-01-01

380

An electron transporting blue emitter for OLED  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the premier commercialization of OLED in 1997, OLED has been considered as the candidate for the next generation of flat panel display. In comparison to liquid crystal display (LCD) and plasma display panel (PDP), OLED exhibits promising merits for display, e.g., flexible, printable, micro-buildable and multiple designable. Although many efforts have been made on electroluminescent (EL) materials and devices, obtaining highly efficient and pure blue light is still a great challenge. In order to improve the emission efficiency and purity of the blue emission, a new bipolar blue light emitter, 2,7-di(2,2':6',2"-terpyridine)- 2,7-diethynyl-9,9-dioctyl-9H-fluorene (TPEF), was designed and synthesized. A blue OLED was obtained with the configuration of ITO/PEDOT/PVK:CBP:TPEF/LiF/Al. The device exhibits a turn-on voltage of 9 V and a maximum brightness of 12 cd/m2 at 15 V. The device gives a deep blue emission located at 420 nm with the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.17, 0.10). We also use TPEF as electron transporting material in the device of ITO/PPV/TPEF/LiF/Al, the turn-on voltage is 3 V. It is proved the current in the device was enhanced indeed by using the new material.

Qi, Boyuan; Luo, Jiaxiu; Li, Suyue; Xiao, Lixin; Sun, Wenfang; Chen, Zhijian; Qu, Bo; Gong, Qihuang

2010-11-01

381

Evaluation of Brilliance ESBL agar, a novel chromogenic medium for detection of extended-spectrum-beta- lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Brilliance ESBL agar (OX; Oxoid, Basingstoke, United Kingdom), a novel chromogenic agar for the selective isolation and the presumptive identification of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. A panel of 200 clinical Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermenting isolates with defined resistance mechanisms was inoculated onto OX and onto ChromID ESBL agar (BM; bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) chromogenic medium in the first part of the study to evaluate the growth selectivity and chromogenic features of these two media. Of the 156 Enterobacteriaceae challenge isolates, 8 fully susceptible isolates were inhibited, all 98 ESBL producers were detected, and 50 isolates harboring other resistance mechanisms were recovered on both chromogenic agars. In the second phase, 528 clinical samples (including 344 fecal specimens) were plated onto OX, BM, and MacConkey agar with a ceftazidime disk (MCC) for the screening of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Growth on at least one medium was observed with 144 (27%) of the clinical samples screened. A total of 182 isolates, including 109 (60%) of Enterobacteriaceae, were recovered and 70 of these (from 59 specimens) were confirmed as ESBL-producing isolates. The sensitivities of MCC, BM, and OX were 74.6%, 94.9%, and 94.9%, respectively. The specificities of MCC, BM, and OX by specimens reached 94.9%, 95.5%, and 95.7%, respectively, when only colored colonies were considered on the two selective chromogenic media. The high negative predictive value (99.3%) found for OX suggests that this medium may constitute an excellent screening tool for the rapid exclusion of patients not carrying ESBL producers. PMID:20410342

Huang, Te-Din; Bogaerts, Pierre; Berhin, Catherine; Guisset, Amelie; Glupczynski, Youri

2010-06-01

382

Evaluation of Brilliance ESBL Agar, a Novel Chromogenic Medium for Detection of Extended-Spectrum-Beta- Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae?  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Brilliance ESBL agar (OX; Oxoid, Basingstoke, United Kingdom), a novel chromogenic agar for the selective isolation and the presumptive identification of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. A panel of 200 clinical Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermenting isolates with defined resistance mechanisms was inoculated onto OX and onto ChromID ESBL agar (BM; bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) chromogenic medium in the first part of the study to evaluate the growth selectivity and chromogenic features of these two media. Of the 156 Enterobacteriaceae challenge isolates, 8 fully susceptible isolates were inhibited, all 98 ESBL producers were detected, and 50 isolates harboring other resistance mechanisms were recovered on both chromogenic agars. In the second phase, 528 clinical samples (including 344 fecal specimens) were plated onto OX, BM, and MacConkey agar with a ceftazidime disk (MCC) for the screening of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Growth on at least one medium was observed with 144 (27%) of the clinical samples screened. A total of 182 isolates, including 109 (60%) of Enterobacteriaceae, were recovered and 70 of these (from 59 specimens) were confirmed as ESBL-producing isolates. The sensitivities of MCC, BM, and OX were 74.6%, 94.9%, and 94.9%, respectively. The specificities of MCC, BM, and OX by specimens reached 94.9%, 95.5%, and 95.7%, respectively, when only colored colonies were considered on the two selective chromogenic media. The high negative predictive value (99.3%) found for OX suggests that this medium may constitute an excellent screening tool for the rapid exclusion of patients not carrying ESBL producers.

Huang, Te-Din; Bogaerts, Pierre; Berhin, Catherine; Guisset, Amelie; Glupczynski, Youri

2010-01-01

383

CD3-T cell receptor modulation is selectively induced in CD8 but not CD4 lymphocytes cultured in agar.  

PubMed Central

The CD3-T cell receptor (TcR) complex is central to the immune response. Upon binding by specific ligands, internalized CD3-TcR molecules increase, and either T cell response or unresponsiveness may ensue depending on the triggering conditions. Using semi-solid agar culture, we have shown previously that quiescent CD4 but not CD8 lymphocytes generate clonal colonies under phytohaemagglutinin stimulation. Here we have demonstrated that the agar induces selective CD3-TcR modulation in the CD8 and not in the CD4 subset. CD8 lymphocytes preactivated in liquid culture and recultured in agar with exogenous recombinant interleukin-2 generate colonies with a modulated CD3-TcR surface expression. The peptides composing the CD3-TcR complex are synthesized in CD8 colonies as well as in CD4; however, the CD3 gamma chain is phosphorylated at a higher level in CD8 colonies. A component of the agar polymer, absent in agarose, appears to be the ligand that induces differential CD3-TcR modulation in the CD8 subset. In contrast to agar culture, CD8 colonies can be derived from quiescent CD8 lymphocytes in agarose. These CD8 colonies express unmodulated CD-TcR. CD3-TcR modulation with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody prior to culturing in agarose inhibits the colony formation. We conclude that given triggering conditions can result in both CD3-TcR modulation and inhibition of the proliferative response selectively in the CD8 lymphocyte subset and not in the CD4. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5

Oudrhiri, N; Farcet, J P; Gourdin, M F; M'Bemba, E; Gaulard, P; Katz, A; Divine, M; Galazka, A; Reyes, F

1990-01-01

384

Origin of colour stability in blue/orange/blue stacked phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of colour stability in phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes (PHWOLEDs) with a blue/orange/blue stacked emitting structure was studied by monitoring the change in a recombination zone. A balanced recombination zone shift between the blue and the orange light-emitting layers was found to be responsible for the colour stability in the blue/orange/blue stacked PHWOLEDs.

Kim, Sung Hyun; Jang, Jyongsik; Yook, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Jun Yeob

2009-01-01

385

Coomassie Brilliant Blue G is a more potent antagonist of P2 purinergic responses than Reactive Blue 2 (Cibacron Blue 3GA) in rat parotid acinar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Brilliant Blue G (Coomassie Brilliant Blue G) and Reactive Blue 2 (Cibacron Blue 3GA) to block the effects of extracellular ATP on rat parotid acinar cells was examined by evaluating their effects on ATP-stimulated 45Ca{sup 2+} entry and the elevation of (Ca{sup 2+})i (Fura 2 fluorescence). ATP (300 microM) increased the rate of Ca{sup 2+} entry to

S. P. Soltoff; M. K. McMillian; B. R. Talamo

1989-01-01

386

Diagnosis of Rhodococcus equi infection in foals by the agar gel diffusion test with protein antigen.  

PubMed

A protein antigen that reacted in the agar gel diffusion (AGD) test and which had equi factor(s) activity, was partially purified from the culture supernatant of Rhodococcus equi by successive column chromatography on diethylaminoethyl cellulose and Sepharose 4B. Employing a standard foal serum, the concentration of this antigen was adjusted for the AGD test. Optimal dilutions of the antigen reacted in the AGD test with sera from foals naturally infected with serologically different R. equi. The antigen prepared was considered suitable for use in field surveys of R. equi infection. Accordingly, four groups of sera were tested: those from 18 foals diagnosed as being infected with R. equi, those from 54 control foals with culture-negative R. equi pneumonia, arthritis or cellulitis, those from 46 diseased foals suspected of having R. equi infection and those from 51 clinically normal foals. A positive precipitation reaction was observed with sera from 100% of the first group, 69.5% of the third group and 17.7% of the fourth group. A negative reaction was obtained with sera from 100% of the second group. PMID:3125665

Nakazawa, M; Isayama, Y; Kashiwazaki, M; Yasui, T

1987-10-01

387

Differentiation of murine male germ cells to spermatozoa in a soft agar culture system  

PubMed Central

Establishment of an in vitro system that allows the development of testicular germ cells to sperm will be valuable for studies of spermatogenesis and future treatments for male infertility. In the present study, we developed in vitro culture conditions using three-dimensional agar culture system (SACS), which has the capacity to induce testicular germ cells to reach the final stages of spermatogenesis, including spermatozoa generation. Seminiferous tubules from testes of 7-day-old mice were enzymatically dissociated, and intratubular cells were cultured in the upper layer of the SACS in RPMI medium supplemented with fetal calf serum (FCS). The lower layer of the SACS contained only RPMI medium supplemented with FCS. Colonies in the upper layer were isolated after 14 and 28 days of culture and were classified according to their size. Immunofluorescence and real-time PCR were used to analyse specific markers expressed in undifferentiated and differentiated spermatogonia (Vasa, Dazl, OCT-4, C-Kit, GFR-?-1, CD9 and ?-6-integrin), meiotic cells (LDH, Crem-1 and Boule) and post-meiotic cells (Protamine-1, Acrosin and SP-10). Our results reveal that it is possible to induce mouse testicular pre-meiotic germ cell expansion and induce their differentiation to spermatozoa in SACS. The spermatozoa showed normal morphology and contained acrosomes. Thus, our results demonstrate that SACS could be used as a novel in vitro system for the maturation of pre-meiotic mouse germ cells to post-meiotic stages and morphologically-normal spermatozoa.

Abu Elhija, Mahmoud; Lunenfeld, Eitan; Schlatt, Stefan; Huleihel, Mahmoud

2012-01-01

388

Differentiation of murine male germ cells to spermatozoa in a soft agar culture system.  

PubMed

Establishment of an in vitro system that allows the development of testicular germ cells to sperm will be valuable for studies of spermatogenesis and future treatments for male infertility. In the present study, we developed in vitro culture conditions using three-dimensional agar culture system (SACS), which has the capacity to induce testicular germ cells to reach the final stages of spermatogenesis, including spermatozoa generation. Seminiferous tubules from testes of 7-day-old mice were enzymatically dissociated, and intratubular cells were cultured in the upper layer of the SACS in RPMI medium supplemented with fetal calf serum (FCS). The lower layer of the SACS contained only RPMI medium supplemented with FCS. Colonies in the upper layer were isolated after 14 and 28 days of culture and were classified according to their size. Immunofluorescence and real-time PCR were used to analyse specific markers expressed in undifferentiated and differentiated spermatogonia (Vasa, Dazl, OCT-4, C-Kit, GFR-?-1, CD9 and ?-6-integrin), meiotic cells (LDH, Crem-1 and Boule) and post-meiotic cells (Protamine-1, Acrosin and SP-10). Our results reveal that it is possible to induce mouse testicular pre-meiotic germ cell expansion and induce their differentiation to spermatozoa in SACS. The spermatozoa showed normal morphology and contained acrosomes. Thus, our results demonstrate that SACS could be used as a novel in vitro system for the maturation of pre-meiotic mouse germ cells to post-meiotic stages and morphologically-normal spermatozoa. PMID:22057383

Abu Elhija, Mahmoud; Lunenfeld, Eitan; Schlatt, Stefan; Huleihel, Mahmoud

2012-03-01

389

Agaribacter marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., an agar-degrading bacterium from surface seawater.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-negative, motile, mesophilic, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, strain 8-8(T), was isolated from surface seawater at Muroto, Kochi, Japan. The strain exhibited agar-degrading activity. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain fell within the family Alteromonadaceae and clustered distantly with members of the genus Glaciecola (?94.0?% similarity). The DNA G+C content was 41.8 mol%. The major fatty acids were C16?:?1?7c and/or iso-C15?:?0 2-OH, C16?:?0 and C18?:?1?7c and the major hydroxy fatty acid was C12?:?0 3-OH. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified polar lipid; lysophosphatidylethanolamine and unidentified polar lipids were found as minor components. The major quinone was Q-8. On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic data, strain 8-8(T) represents a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Agaribacter marinus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Agaribacter marinus is 8-8(T) (?=?NBRC 110023(T)?=?LMG 28167(T)). PMID:24763604

Teramoto, Maki; Nishijima, Miyuki

2014-07-01

390

Growth of Physarum gyrosum on agar plates and in liquid culture.  

PubMed

The physical and nutritional requirements of the antibiotic-producing slime mold Physarum gyrosum were examined to develop a liquid medium for this myxomycete. Liquid culture is desired to expedite a useful scale of production of antibiotic materials for ease of isolation and structure study. Culture conditions were selected to favor antibiotic production rather than maximum growth. The medium devised consisted of 0.010 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.0), 2% bakers' yeast, and 0.2% glucose and was supplemented with either 10(-7) M hemoglobin (preferred) or 2.0 ml of live Escherichia coli per 100 ml of culture medium grown to a steady-state population in nutrient broth. The slime mold, which contained some E. coli carried along with the inoculum, was allowed to grow as a surface plasmodium at 20 degrees C in the dark with weekly subculturing for stocks or for 10 days for antibiotic production. P. gyrosum produced the same antibiotic materials when grown in liquid medium as it did when grown on agar plates. A seeded plate disk assay against Bacillus cereus was employed to follow antibiotic activity. PMID:10830

Taylor, R L; Mallette, M F

1976-10-01

391

Cryptococcuria as manifestation of disseminated cryptococcosis: Staib agar as a selective identification medium.  

PubMed

We conducted a retrospective study of 58 cases of cryptococcosis (1986-2008) with urine test positive for Cryptococcus sp, in Mycology Laboratory, Santa Casa-Hospital Complex, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. The diagnosis of cryptococcuria was based on microscopic examination and culture of urinary sediment. Cryptococcus was isolated from other clinical specimens such as blood, cerebrospinal fluid, ascitic and pleural fluids, respiratory secretions, biopsies of skin, nasal and bone marrow. Cryptocccus neoformans was present in 55 cases and Cryptocccus gattii in three cases. Males predominated (79.3%); age ranged from 12 to 86 years. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) were present in 60.3%, 31.1% did not have AIDS and 5.2% were apparently immunocompetent patients. The most frequent signs and symptoms were headache (53.4%) and fever (51.7%). The most widely used medication was the amphotericin B (43 patients). The mortality rate was 45%. We conclude that the mycological examination of the urine can be an alternative simple, non-invasive and useful in diagnosis of disseminated cryptococcosis, especially when used in conjunction with techniques for demonstration of the capsule (nigrosine) and/or production of melanin in special culture media (Staib agar). PMID:21623936

Severo, C B; Pinto, G L F; Sotilli, J; Garcia, M R; Gazzoni, A F; Oliveira, F M; Severo, L C

2011-11-01

392

Tissue-mimicking agar/gelatin materials for use in heterogeneous elastography phantoms  

PubMed Central

Five 9 cm × 9 cm × 9 cm phantoms, each with a 2-cm-diameter cylindrical inclusion, were produced with various dry-weight concentrations of agar and gelatin. Elastic contrasts ranged from 1.5 to 4.6, and values of the storage modulus (real part of the complex Young’s modulus) were all in the soft tissue range. Additives assured immunity from bacterial invasion and can produce tissue-mimicking ultrasound and NMR properties. Monitoring of strain ratios over a 7 to 10 month period indicated that the mechanical properties of the phantoms were stable, allowing about 1 month for the phantom to reach chemical equilibrium. The only dependable method for determining the storage moduli of the inclusions is to make measurements on samples excised from the phantoms. If it is desired to produce and accurately characterize a phantom with small inclusions with other shapes, such as an array of small spheres, an auxiliary phantom with the geometry of the cylindrical inclusion phantoms or the equivalent should be made at the same time using the same materials. The elastic contrast can then be determined using samples excised from the auxiliary phantom. A small increase of about 10% in volume of the cylindrical inclusions occurred—a tolerable increase. Interestingly, the smallest increase (about 5%) occurred in the phantom with the largest elastic contrast.

Madsen, Ernest L; Hobson, Maritza A; Shi, Hairong; Varghese, Tomy; Frank, Gary R

2013-01-01

393

Tissue-mimicking agar/gelatin materials for use in heterogeneous elastography phantoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five 9 cm × 9 cm × 9 cm phantoms, each with a 2-cm-diameter cylindrical inclusion, were produced with various dry-weight concentrations of agar and gelatin. Elastic contrasts ranged from 1.5 to 4.6, and values of the storage modulus (real part of the complex Young's modulus) were all in the soft tissue range. Additives assured immunity from bacterial invasion and can produce tissue-mimicking ultrasound and NMR properties. Monitoring of strain ratios over a 7 to 10 month period indicated that the mechanical properties of the phantoms were stable, allowing about 1 month for the phantom to reach chemical equilibrium. The only dependable method for determining the storage moduli of the inclusions is to make measurements on samples excised from the phantoms. If it is desired to produce and accurately characterize a phantom with small inclusions with other shapes, such as an array of small spheres, an auxiliary phantom with the geometry of the cylindrical inclusion phantoms or the equivalent should be made at the same time using the same materials. The elastic contrast can then be determined using samples excised from the auxiliary phantom. A small increase of about 10% in volume of the cylindrical inclusions occurred—a tolerable increase. Interestingly, the smallest increase (about 5%) occurred in the phantom with the largest elastic contrast.

Madsen, Ernest L.; Hobson, Maritza A.; Shi, Hairong; Varghese, Tomy; Frank, Gary R.

2005-12-01

394

Development and Validation of a Microbiological Agar Assay for Determination of Orbifloxacin in Pharmaceutical Preparation  

PubMed Central

Orbifloxacin is a fluoroquinolone with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, and belongs to the third generation of quinolones. Regarding the quality control of medicines, a validated microbiological assay for determination of orbifloxacin in pharmaceutical formulations has not as yet been reported. For this purpose, this paper reports the development and validation of a simple, sensitive, accurate and reproducible agar diffusion method to quantify orbifloxacin in tablet formulations. The assay is based on the inhibitory effect of orbifloxacin upon the strain of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 used as test microorganism. The results were treated statistically by analysis of variance and were found to be linear (r = 0.9992) in the selected range of 16.0–64.0 ?g/mL, precise with relative standard deviation (RSD) of repeatability intraday = 2.88%, intermediate precision RSD = 3.33%, and accurate (100.31%). The results demonstrated the validity of the proposed bioassay, which allows reliable orbifloxacin quantitation in pharmaceutical samples and therefore can be used as a useful alternative methodology for the routine quality control of this medicine.

Cazedey, Edith C. L.; Salgado, Herida R. N.

2011-01-01

395

Serodiagnosis of paratuberculosis in sheep by use of agar gel immunodiffusion.  

PubMed

An agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test was used over a 3-year period to examine 1,871 serum samples from sheep representing 5 Mycobacterium paratuberculosis-infected flocks and 4 flocks presumed to be uninfected. Of 1,032 sheep, 31 had positive AGID test results (scoring 1 to 5), and 23 of these 31 were necropsied. Infection with M paratuberculosis was confirmed by 1 or more of the following findings: observation of typical lesions on histologic examination of sections of ileum or ileocecal lymph nodes, observation of clumps of acid-fast bacteria in mucosal smears of ileum, and isolation of the organism from feces or tissue. False-positive results on AGID testing were not found in sheep from flocks known to have exposure to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Diarrhea in infected sheep was observed infrequently; chronic, severe weight loss was the most common sign observed. On histologic examination of tissues from 20 infected sheep, 16 (80%) had diffuse lesions of the ileum and 13 (65%) had acid-fast bacteria in areas of ileal inflammation; 4 had discrete granulomas and peripheral lymphocytic infiltrates in the ileum. Sheep with diffuse lesions tended to have higher mean scores on AGID testing and examination for acid-fast bacteria, compared with those from sheep with more discrete lesions. Bacteriologic culture yielded M paratuberculosis from only 3 sheep with paratuberculosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8427456

Shulaw, W P; Bech-Nielsen, S; Rings, D M; Getzy, D M; Woodruff, T S

1993-01-01

396

``Amarna blue'' painted on ancient Egyptian pottery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Amarna blue" pigments (18 Dynasty, c. 1400 BC) painted on pottery fragments were investigated using the PIXE, XRF and XRD methods in laboratories and also using a portable type of X-ray spectrometer at the sites of excavation. On the blue-colored part enrichment of Na, Al, S, Cl, Ca, Mn, Co, Ni and Zn was found using X-ray spectroscopy, and CaSO 4, NaCl and Co(M)Al 2O 4, M denoting Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn, were found by the help of X-ray diffraction. This means that Amarna blue is a mixture of CaSO 4 and Co(M)Al 2O 4, at least in part.

Uda, M.; Nakamura, M.; Yoshimura, S.; Kondo, J.; Saito, M.; Shirai, Y.; Hasegawa, S.; Baba, Y.; Ikeda, K.; Ban, Y.; Matsuo, A.; Tamada, M.; Sunaga, H.; Oshio, H.; Yamashita, D.; Nakajima, Y.; Utaka, T.

2002-04-01

397

WhaleNet Blue Whale Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive educational Web site from WhaleNet provides a study guide to use with blue whale satellite tag data. WhaleNet is sponsored by Wheelock College, and the blue whale data set comes from the Mingan Island Cetacean Study, a "non-profit research organization dedicated to ecological studies of marine mammals." The study guide consists of a series of questions that guide students in analyzing and interpreting data. In the larger context, these questions uncover how satellite tag data provides valuable insight "into the natural history of the whales and will enable more intelligent and meaningful decisions which will increase the potential for recovery and for an improved existence in the shared marine environments around the world." Users of the Web site may also view blue whale tagging and biopsy movie clips. Links to a bibliography and additional resources are provided.

398

Is cosmology compatible with blue gravity waves?  

SciTech Connect

A primordial gravitational wave background with positive (blue) spectral index is expected in several nonstandard inflationary cosmologies where the stress-energy tensor violates the null energy condition. Here we show that a sizable amount of blue gravitational waves is compatible with current cosmological and astrophysical data. So far most of the works on parameter estimation from cosmic microwave background data have assumed a negative or negligible spectral index. The present limits on cosmological parameters, especially on the scalar spectral index, widen up considerably when one allows also for blue tilts of the tensor spectrum. Since the amplitude of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode polarization is larger in these models, future data from Planck are likely to provide crucial measurements.

Camerini, Roberta; Durrer, Ruth; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Riotto, Antonio [Physics Department, Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza', Ple Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Rome (Italy); Departement de Physique Theorique, Universite de Geneve, 24 quai Ernest Ansermet, 1211 Geneve 4 (Switzerland); Physics Department and INFN, Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza', Ple Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Rome (Italy); CERN, Theory Division, Geneve 23, CH-1211, Switzerland and INFN, Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

2008-05-15

399

Characterization of multidrug-resistant group B streptococci with reduced penicillin susceptibility forming small non-Beta-hemolytic colonies on sheep blood agar plates.  

PubMed

We isolated and characterized three multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of group B streptococci with reduced penicillin susceptibility (PRGBS) that formed small non-beta-hemolytic colonies on sheep blood agar plates but grew well on chocolate agar plates. They can be overlooked in the bacterial identification step, leading to clinical misdiagnosis and treatment failure. PMID:24622103

Banno, Hirotsugu; Kimura, Kouji; Tanaka, Yosuke; Kitanaka, Hiromitsu; Jin, Wanchun; Wachino, Jun-ichi; Yamada, Keiko; Shibayama, Keigo; Arakawa, Yoshichika

2014-06-01

400

Equivalency testing of TTC Tergitol 7 agar (ISO 9308-1:2000) with five culture media for the detection of E. coli in water samples in Greece.  

PubMed

In this study ten laboratories in Greece compared the performance of reference method TTC Tergitol 7 Agar (with the additional test of beta-glucuronidase production) with five alternative methods, to detect E. coli in water, in line with European Water Directive recommendations. The samples were prepared by spiking drinking water with sewage effluent following a standard protocol. Chlorinated and non-chlorinated samples were used. The statistical analysis was based on the mean relative difference of confirmed counts and was performed in line with ISO 17994. The results showed that in total, three of the alternative methods (Chromocult Coliform agar, Membrane Lauryl Sulfate agar and Trypton Bilex-glucuronidase medium) were not different from TTC Tergitol 7 agar (TTC Tergitol 7 agar vs Chromocult Coliform agar, 294 samples, mean RD% 5.55; vs MLSA, 302 samples, mean RD% 1; vs TBX, 297 samples, mean RD% -2.78). The other two alternative methods (Membrane Faecal coliform medium and Colilert 18/ Quantitray) gave significantly higher counts than TTC Tergitol 7 agar (TTC Tergitol 7 agar vs MFc, 303 samples, mean RD% 8.81; vs Colilert-18/Quantitray, 76 samples, mean RD% 18.91). In other words, the alternative methods generated performance that was as reliable as, or even better than, the reference method. This study will help laboratories in Greece overcome culture and counting problems deriving from the EU reference method for E. coli counts in water samples. PMID:20057092

Mavridou, A; Smeti, E; Mandilara, G; Mandilara, G; Boufa, P; Vagiona-Arvanitidou, M; Vantarakis, A; Vassilandonopoulou, G; Pappa, O; Roussia, V; Tzouanopoulos, A; Livadara, M; Aisopou, I; Maraka, V; Nikolaou, E; Mandilara, G

2010-01-01

401

Comparison of Agar Dilution, Broth Dilution, Cylinder Plate and Disk Diffusion Methods for Evaluation of Anti-leishmanial Drugs on Leishmania promastigotes  

PubMed Central

Background Leishmaniases are a group of diseases caused by Leishmania parasites. Growing of drug unresponsiveness in leishmaniasis patients necessitates the development of new drugs and accordingly a suitable assay is needed for evaluation of any modalities. The aim of this study was to compare four drug assays methods, agar dilution, broth dilution, cylinder plate and disk diffusion, for evaluation of anti-leishmanial drugs on Leishmania promastigotes, using glucantime as a currently available drug for treatment of leishmaniasis. Methods For broth dilution method, different concentration of glucantime was added to the parasite culture (promastigotes of Leishmania), while in cylinder plate method wells were punched in agar gel and filled with different concentration of drug and zone of inhibition was measured in each well. In disk diffusion method, the parasites were cultivated on the surface of agar; filter paper disks were enriched with various concentration of glucantime and were placed on the surface of agar. In agar dilution method, various concentrations of drug were incorporated onto blood agar and the parasites were cultivated on the surface of the agar. Results A direct correlation was found between the drug concentration and size of inhibitory zones in cylinder plate and disk diffusion methods. These two drug assays methods provided much better performance in comparison with broth and agar dilution methods. Conclusion Cylinder plate and disk diffusion methods seem to be acceptable methods for susceptibility testing of anti-leishmanial compounds on Leishmania promastigotes.

Mohammadzadeh, T; Sadjjadi, SM; Habibi, P; Sarkari, B

2012-01-01

402

Eastward migration of blue-winged teal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Of 3,789 recoveries of blue-winged teal (Anas discors) banded prior to the hunting season in the prairie pothole region, 183 (4.8 percent) were recovered, due east in New England, Ontario, Quebec, and the Maritime Provinces during the subsequent hunting season. Of 19 recoveries looked at in detail, all were banded as either hatching-year (flying young) or local (flightless young) birds. A blue-winged teal banded in Minnesota in September was retrapped in October in South Carolina, before being shot later that month in Colombia, South America.

Sharp, B.

1972-01-01

403

Blue and white organic light-emitting devices using oligo(phenylenvinylene) as a blue emitter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly bright and efficient blue and white organic light-emitting devices based on oligo(phenylenvinylene) derivatives, 1,4-di(4'-N,N-diphenylaminostyryl) benzene (DPA-DSB) and 2,5,2',5'-tetrastyryl-biphenyl (TSB), are fabricated. In the blue device, using DPA-DSB doped TSB as a blue emitter, due to efficient energy transfer from TSB to DPA-DSB and depression of concentration quenching of the dopant, a maximum brightness of 17 350 cd m-2 and

Yingfang Zhang; Feng He; Gang Cheng; Chunyan Ruan; Yuanyuan Lin; Yi Zhao; Yuguang Ma; Shiyong Liu

2007-01-01

404

Comparison of growth rate in culture, dry matter content, agar content and agar quality of two New Zealand red seaweeds, Gracilaria chilensis Bird, McLachlan et Oliveira and Gracilaria truncata Kraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth rates and agar characteristics were compared for two agarophytes,Gracilaria chilensis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) andG. truncata, so that the suitability ofG. truncata for mariculture could be assessed.G. chilensis plants grew steadily in the laboratory culture system at rates of 5–8% day-1 (mean Relative Growth Rate) throughout the 6 week experimental period, with no decline in health.G. truncata plants grew at

T. D. Pickering; V. H. Sladden; R. H. Furneaux; J. A. Hemmingson; P. Redfearn

1993-01-01

405

Serological typing of Ureaplasma urealyticum isolates from urethritis patients by an agar growth inhibition method.  

PubMed

An agar growth inhibition method for serotyping Ureaplasma urealyticum is described, and the results of applying this method to serotyping 338 strains of the organism are presented. The serotyped strains consisted of cloned isolates from male patients with primary and recurrent nongonococcal urethritis (NGU), isolates from symptomatic patients with other genitourinary tract infections and disorders, and isolates from asymptomatic carriers of U. urealyticum in the genitourinary tract (controls). Among 122 male patients with NGU, serotype 4 was associated most frequently (52%) with this disease at Camp Lejeune, N.C. Seventeen percent of the isolates were type 2. The remaining isolates consisted of types 1, 3, 6, and 8 and accounted for 6 to 9% each of the serotypes isolated from the NGU group. Types 5 and 7 were not isolated. Among 91 symptomatic patients with other genitourinary tract infections and disorders, U. urealyticum type 4 also was associated most frequently (37%) with these disorders. The remaining isolates, represented by types 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8, accounted for 9 to 15% each of the types isolated from this group. Type 5 was not isolated. Among 125 symptomfree carriers of U. urealyticum in the genitourinary tract, type 8 was recovered most frequently (30%), whereas type 4 was isolated next most frequently (24%). The remaining isolates consisted of types 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 and accounted for 2 to 15% each in this asymptomatic control group. Type 7 was not isolated. Of the present eight serotypes of U. urealyticum studied in this investigation, type 4 was associated most frequently with disease (NGU) and certain other disorders of the genitourinary tract at Camp Lejeune. A previously unknown association of U. urealyticum with frequently abacteriuric, unexplained pyuria (with or without urethral pruritus and dysuria) is reported, suggesting the existence of asymptomatic Ureaplasma urethritis. PMID:730828

Shepard, M C; Lunceford, C D

1978-11-01

406

Surface tension-induced gel fracture. Part 1. Fracture of agar gels.  

PubMed

This work involves an experimental investigation of the spreading of liquids on gel layers in the presence of surfactants. Of primary interest is the instability that accompanies the cracking of gels through the deposition and subsequent spreading of a drop of surfactant solution on their surfaces. This instability manifests itself via the shaping of crack-like spreading "arms", in formations that resemble starbursts. The main aim of this study is to elucidate the complex interactions between spreading surfactants and underlying gels and to achieve a fundamental understanding of the mechanism behind the observed phenomenon of the cracking pattern formation. By spreading SDS and Silwet L-77 surfactant solutions on the surfaces of agar gels, the different ways that system parameters such as the surfactant chemistry and concentration and the gel strength can affect the morphology and dynamics of the starburst patterns are explored. The crack propagation dynamics is fitted to a power law by measuring the temporal evolution of the length of the spreading arms that form each one of the observed patterns. The values of the exponent of the power law are within the predicted limits for Marangoni-driven spreading on thick layers. Therefore, Marangoni stresses, induced by surface tension gradients between the spreading surfactant and the underlying gel layer, are identified to be the main driving force behind these phenomena, whereas gravitational forces were also found to play an important role. A mechanism that involves the "unzipping" of the gel in a manner perpendicular to the direction of the largest surface tension gradient is proposed. This mechanism highlights the important role of the width of the arms in the process; it is demonstrated that a cracking pattern is formed only within the experimental conditions that allow S/?w to be greater than G', where S is the spreading coefficient, ?w is the change in the width of the crack, and G' is the storage modulus of the substrate. PMID:22512657

Spandagos, Constantinos; Goudoulas, Thomas B; Luckham, Paul F; Matar, Omar K

2012-05-01

407

Antimicrobial susceptibility of flavobacteria as determined by agar dilution and disk diffusion methods.  

PubMed Central

A total of 106 clinical isolates of flavobacteria, including 41 isolates of Flavobacterium meningosepticum, 59 of Flavobacterium indologenes, and 6 of Flavobacterium odoratum were collected from January 1992 to December 1995 from patients in Taiwan. The in vitro activities of antimicrobial agents were determined concomitantly by the standard agar dilution and disk diffusion methods. More than 90% of the flavobacterial isolates were resistant to cephalothin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, moxalactam, aztreonam, imipenem, aminoglycosides, erythromycin, and glycopeptides. The majority of F. meningosepticum isolates were susceptible to piperacillin and to minocycline but resistant to ceftazidime, with MICs at which 90% of the isolates are inhibited being 8, 4, and > 128 microg/ml, respectively. Approximately half of the F. indologenes isolates were susceptible to piperacillin, cefoperazone, ceftazidime, and minocycline, with MICs at which 50% of the isolates are inhibited being 4, 16, 8, and 4 microg/ml, respectively. The majority of F. odoratum isolates were resistant to all the antimicrobial agents tested except minocycline, to which five of six isolates were susceptible. With least-squares regression analysis and error rate-bounded analysis methods, the following resistant and susceptible zone diameter breakpoints were established: < or = 12 and > or = 17 mm, respectively, for piperacillin against F. meningosepticum and F. indologenes; < or = 13 and > or = 18 mm, respectively, for ceftazidime against F. meningosepticum and F. indologenes, < or = 17 and > or = 21 mm, respectively, for ofloxacin against F. indologenes; < or = 16 and > or = 20 mm, respectively, for ciprofloxacin against F. meningosepticum. Valid breakpoints for the disk diffusion method could not be established for cefoperazone and ofloxacin against F. meningosepticum and for minocycline against F. meningosepticum and F. indologenes due to a poor correlation coefficient for the regression line or for cefoperazone and ciprofloxacin against F. indologenes due to the presence of remarkable error rates.

Chang, J C; Hsueh, P R; Wu, J J; Ho, S W; Hsieh, W C; Luh, K T

1997-01-01

408

Sodium bicarbonate reduces viability and alters aflatoxin distribution of Aspergillus parasiticus in Czapek's agar.  

PubMed Central

The potential of sodium bicarbonate to inhibit growth of and aflatoxin synthesis by Aspergillus parasiticus was examined in Czapek's agar (CA), a medium in which fluorescence under UV light indicates aflatoxin production. Incorporation of sodium bicarbonate (SB) into CA at 0.011, 0.022, and 0.033 mol% reduced cell viability 63-, 10(3)-, and greater than 10(7)-fold, respectively. Colonies resulting from surviving cells did not fluoresce under UV light, but thin-layer chromatography analysis of culture extracts detected aflatoxins. Potassium bicarbonate (KB) at 0.011 and 0.022 mol% produced inhibitory effects similar to those of SB, but NaCl and silica had no effect. After 7 days, control cultures had the normal aflatoxin distribution (B1 greater than G1 greater than B2 greater than G2), but this distribution shifted to B2 greater than B1 approximately equal to G2 greater than G1 during prolonged incubation. Cultures supplemented with SB and KB contained mostly aflatoxins B1 and G1 after 28 days. Both SB and KB raised the pH of CA to 7.5 to 8.5 at the time of growth. Culture growth on CA adjusted to pH 7.5 to 8.5 with NaOH was not inhibited but exhibited reduced fluorescence and elevated levels of aflatoxins B1 and G1. Thus, while bicarbonate inhibition of growth could not be attributed to pH elevation, the lack of culture fluorescence on CA-SB and CA-KB and the altered aflatoxin distribution were caused by the ability of SB and KB to elevate pH.

Montville, T J; Goldstein, P K

1987-01-01

409

Recovery Plan: Blue Shiner ('Cyprinella caerulea').  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The blue shiner was listed as threatened on April 22, 1992. It is represented by approximately six populations occurring in headwater streams of the Coosa River system in Northwest Georgia and Southeast Tennessee, and in smaller tributaries of the Coosa R...

J. H. Stewart R. Larson

1995-01-01

410

Practices of Blue Ribbon Catholic Schools, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For almost 20 years, the U.S. Department of Education has invited schools to seek the Blue Ribbon School Award. A large number of Catholic schools have received this award. For this publication, the Department of Elementary Schools Executive Committee requested principals of awarded schools to write a short article on an exemplary school program…

Kealey, Robert J., Comp.

411

Great Blue Heron and Great Egret  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A great blue heron and great egret in the parking lot by the Big Cypress Bend boardwalk at Fakahatchee Strand State Preserve. The heron is enjoying a fish dinner thanks to the hunting skills of the egret. While the egret had initially held a fish in it's beak, the heron's squabbling caused the...

2009-06-17

412

The 1993-1994 Blue Ribbon Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This year's 276 Blue Ribbon schools, including 220 public and 56 private schools, are in 45 states and the District of Columbia, with a Department of Defense school in Honshu, Japan. About 70% are headed by women principals. In 89 schools, students from low-income families comprise at least a quarter of the enrollment. Schools are listed by state.…

Schaefer, Christine M.

1994-01-01

413

Nonlinear Pulsation Modeling of Luminous Blue Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an updated version of the Ostlie and Cox (1993) nonlinear hydrodynamics code, we show the results of Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) envelope models based on evolution models of initial mass 50-80 M solar. including mass loss. The models use OPAL opacities, contain 60-120 Lagrangian zones, include time dependent convection, and are given an initial photospheric radial velocity amplitude of

Kate M. Despain; Joyce A. Guzik; Arthur N. Cox

1997-01-01

414

Nonlinear Pulsation Modeling of Luminous Blue Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show the results of nonlinear hydrodynamic calculations of luminous blue variable envelope models based on first crossing evolution models of initial mass 50-80 solar masses including mass loss. The models are predicted in the linear analysis to pulsate in multiple radial and nonradial \\

K. M. Despain; J. A. Guzik; A. N. Cox

1998-01-01

415

Baby T (Blue) (Size: XX Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

1900-01-01

416

Baby T (Blue) (Size: XXX Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

1900-01-01

417

Baby T (Blue) (Size: X Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

1900-01-01

418

The luminous blue variables: Astrophysical geysers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the most luminous stars have sporadic, violent mass-loss events whose causes are not understood. These evolved hot stars are called luminous blue variables (LBVs), and their instability may shape the appearance of the upper Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. LBV eruptions are interestingly reminiscent of geysers or even volcanos. They have received considerable observational attention since 1980, but theoretical work

Roberta M. Humphreys; Kris Davidson

1994-01-01

419

Laser surgery for blue rubber bleb nevus.  

PubMed

A 21-year-old man has had extensive cutaneous and visceral manifestations of the blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome since birth. Surgical therapy with the carbon dioxide laser was successful in removing 225 skin hemangiomas without recurrences or complications such as hemorrhage and infection. The cosmetic and follow-up results have been excellent. PMID:760663

Olsen, T G; Milroy, S K; Goldman, L; Fidler, J P

1979-01-01

420

T's and Blues. Specialized Information Service.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This compilation of journal articles provides basic information on abuse of Talwin, a mild prescription painkiller (T's), and Pyribenzamine, a nonprescription antihistimine (Blues). These two drugs, taken in combination, produce an effect similar to that produced by heroin. Stories from "Drug Survival News,""Emergency Medicine," and "FDA Consumer"…

Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

421

Technology Teacher: Singin' the Black and Blues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an article about the color of the sky. Learners will read about and discuss the colors of the day- and night-time skies. They may sing the Top-down Black and Blues, a song about the sky; or they may write a poem, essay, or song about the bluest sky or blackest night they have ever experienced.

422

A Code Blue Answer to Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Code Blue addresses the capacity challenges in healthcare training. This pilot, grant funded project, focuses on a holistic approach to selecting and educating career ready and capable students and training them to be confident and competent healthcare workers. Lessons learned from this project will be assessed and reviewed for replication.

Huneycutt, Richy; Callahan, Barbara; Welch, Alexis

2008-01-01

423

Space Place: Why Is the Sky Blue?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article explains how Earth's atmosphere scatters the light from the sun, thereby creating the blue color we typically associate with our sky. Supplementing this article is an explanation of the importance of scattering sunlight. The article is targeted to children ages 10-12.

424

New solely Prussian-blue EC configurations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-established ferric ferrocyanide chromophore Prussian Blue (PB) has often been studied for electrochromic use. New observations and conclusions are now presented. Detailed analyses, chemical and by means of EDX, of films deposited on Pt in a variety of conditions and solution compositions, are presented, and a remarkably efficient uptake of Cs+ noted. In particular, the pH for stablest film

David R. Rosseinsky; Andrew M. Soutar; Ingegerd F. Annergren; Andrew Glidle

2001-01-01

425

Environmental Requirements of Blue-Green Algae.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of accelerated eutrophication has many facets, and some are being examined through research to find the keys for solution. The symposium was held to fulfill the need to understand better the environmental requirements of blue-green algae. The ...

1967-01-01

426

Scalable Time Warp on Blue Gene Supercomputers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we illustrate scalable parallel perfor- mance for the Time Warp synchronization protocol on the L and P variants of the IBM Blue Gene supercomputer. Scalable Time Warp performance for models that communicate a large percentage of the event population over the network has not been shown on more than a handful of processors. We present our design

David W. Bauer; Christopher D. Carothers; Akintayo Holder

2009-01-01

427

Geographical Study of American Blues Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Music is not often utilized in teaching geography, despite the fact that many scholars orient their research around analyzing both the historical and spatial dimensions of musical expression. This article reports on the use of a teaching module that utilizes blues culture as a lens to understand the geographical history of the United States. The…

Strait, John B.

2010-01-01

428

Blue Ridge Technical College Writing Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing that writing across the curriculum supports the idea that writing is an integral part of the total learning process, this paper describes the philosophy of the writing program at Blue Ridge Technical College (North Carolina). It begins with some comments and thoughts on what makes writing worthwhile and how to judge good writing.…

Wittman, Eugene

429

Blue Ridge Technical College Adult Reading Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and implementation of a tutor training program designed to eliminate adult illiteracy in one area of North Carolina are described in this paper. Various sections of the paper provide information about (1) the history of the program, which was initiated by staff members at the learning center of the Blue Ridge Technical College in…

Kessler, Caren

430

Blue Ridge: An Appalachian Community in Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stressors created by social change were studied in the Appalachian community of Blue Ridge, West Virginia. Data were gathered through open-ended interviews of community informants. Informants invariably described 3 distinct ways of life; data analysis therefore provided for the possibility of different crises in each stratum. Interview topics…

Kaplan, Berton H.

431

Bright blue electroluminescence from hole transporting polycarbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bright blue electroluminescence (EL) was observed for the EL cell with a nonconjugated polymer as an emitting layer. The emitting layer was composed of a hole transporting polycarbonate containing styrylamine as a functional repeating unit (SA-PC). SA-PC was soluble in many solvents. It was very easy to form a smooth and dense thin film at a thickness less than 100

Chishio Hosokawa; Nobuo Kawasaki; Shuji Sakamoto; Tadashi Kusumoto

1992-01-01

432

Corneal Cryopreservation Evaluated by Trypane Blue Staining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine corneal tissue was employed in the study of variable factors in a method of deep-freezing, storage and thawing, using Trypane blue staining as indicator of cellular damage. Variations in cell population density in the endothelial sheet were studied as a prerequisite for the evaluation of damage during the successive stages of the freezing procedures. 90% of the cells in

Steffen Sperling

1974-01-01

433

Blue Whales Respond to Anthropogenic Noise  

PubMed Central

Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

Melcon, Mariana L.; Cummins, Amanda J.; Kerosky, Sara M.; Roche, Lauren K.; Wiggins, Sean M.; Hildebrand, John A.

2012-01-01

434

Raman spectroscopy of blue gel pen inks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raman spectroscopy is becoming a tool of major importance in forensic science. It is a non-invasive, non-destructive analytical method allowing samples to be examined without any preparation. This paper demonstrates the use of the technique as a general tool for gel pen inks analysis. For this purpose, 55 blue gel pen inks, of different brands and models representative of gel

Williams David Mazzella; Patrick Buzzini

2005-01-01

435

KEPONE: TOXICITY AND BIOACCUMULATION IN BLUE CRABS  

EPA Science Inventory

Two long-term studies were conducted to determine toxicity, uptake and duration of Kepone in blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus). In the first, Kepone was administered to crabs in seawater 0.03 or 0.3 micrograms Kepone/l or food (eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, containing 0.2...

436

Characterizing Dicyanin, a novel Blue Copper Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue Copper Binding (BCB) Proteins are an important family of proteins found in every kingdom of life with a bewildering diversity of functions. Important examples of BCB protein function include pollen tube growth in angiosperm fertilization, signal transduction, and participation in myriad redox reactions throughout the domains of life (especially electron transport chains). Phylogenetic analysis of known BCB proteins in

Spenser Smith

2006-01-01

437

Smith's Blue Butterfly Recovery Plan, 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Smith's blue butterfly may be tiny, but it's endangered in a big way. It spends its whole life within a few hundred yards of two native plants, sea cliff buckwheat and coast buckwheat - and is completely dependent on them. But central California's coa...

1984-01-01

438

Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood. PMID:22393434

Melcón, Mariana L; Cummins, Amanda J; Kerosky, Sara M; Roche, Lauren K; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

2012-01-01

439

Factitious oxygen desaturation after isosulfan blue injection.  

PubMed

Profound pulse oximetery desaturations are observed following isosulfan blue dye injection during breast sentinel node biopsy. The objective of this study was to examine the effect isosulfan dye has on oxygenation status and the reliability of pulse oximetery in evaluating this parameter. After study design, institutional review board approval was obtained. A prospective 5-month study was performed between January and April 2002. Twenty-one women with invasive breast cancer were monitored during breast sentinel node biopsies. Twenty-two operative cases were analyzed by pulse oximetry and arterial catheterization to record oxygen saturation. Time intervals of analysis were 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 minutes following injection of isosulfan blue dye. Simultaneous pulse oximetry and arterial blood gas analysis allowed comparison of indirect oximetry oxygen saturation (SpO2) to actual arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2). SpO2 values were decreased from baseline values at 10, 20, and 30 minutes without decrease in SaO2 saturation (P < 0.001). The mean oximetry SpO2 desaturation was 5.6 per cent, with a range to 9 per cent. After injection with isosulfan blue dye, a significant SpO2 desaturation occurs. Clinicians must be aware of the factitious effect isosulfan blue dye has on SpO2 monitoring, to assess accurately the oxygenation status of the anesthetized patient. PMID:14570371

Heinle, Erin; Burdumy, Theodore; Recabaren, James

2003-10-01

440

Red, White and Blue I Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry demonstration, learners observe a chemical reaction that produces a colorful effect. Learners will be surprised to see the colors change to red, white, and blue when ammonia is added to three beakers with different chemicals. This is a perfect activity to use to demonstrate chemical reactions, especially around the 4th of July.

House, The S.

2014-01-28

441

Synthesis and analysis of ethylated tetracycline, an antibiotic derivative that inhibits the growth of tetracycline-resistant XL1-Blue bacteria.  

PubMed

Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a significant problem in medical care facilities, causing increased fatalities due to infection. The present study demonstrates that antibiotic structures can be selectively altered in a manner that revives their ability to inhibit bacterial growth. The antibiotic tetracycline was ethylated at the position of the phenolic hydroxy group with the use of diazoethane, forming an ethyl ether functional group. This derivative was dissolved in Luria-Bertani (LB) agar medium, then placed in tissue culture for screening against a tetracycline-resistant bacterial strain. The growth of this bacterial strain, designated XL1-Blue, was inhibited by the ethylated form of tetracycline. The procedure for synthesizing ethylated tetracycline utilizes diazoethane and is presented with the molecular structures and IR spectra. The ethylated form of tetracycline was stable at -20 degrees C for many weeks, and was soluble in LB agar plate medium. Ethylated tetracycline induced growth inhibition of XL1-Blue bacteria within the first 24 h of incubation. The level of bacterial growth inhibition was greater than 30%. Calculation of the partition coefficient, log P, was accomplished and indicates that ethylated tetracycline has an increased lipophilic tendency relative to unmodified tetracycline, and therefore has greater solubility in lipid bilayers. PMID:11277857

Bartzatt, R; Koziol, K; Benish, T; Stoddard, J

2001-04-01

442

Development of a selective myclobutanil agar (MBA) medium for the isolation of Fusarium species from asparagus fields.  

PubMed

A new selective myclobutanil agar medium for the detection of Fusarium, species is proposed. Ten media formulations based on various selective agents (pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB), Rose Bengal, malachite green, sodium hypochlorite, captan, benomyl, chlorotalonil, myclobutanil, thiram, and cupric sulfate) were compared. First, mycelium growth and colony appearance of Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum, Fusarium sp., Fuisarium solani, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi, Penicillium sp., and Trichoderma viride isolates were compared. Second, the ability of the different media to isolate and enumerate fusaria from asparagus fields was evaluated. The myclobutanil-based medium showed the highest selectivity to Fusarium spp. growth but required a slightly longer incubation time (>5 d) than peptone-pentachloronitrobenzene-based agar (PPA) (< 5 d). PPA allowed a faster fusaria growth but also permited the growth of other moulds. The other media were less selective and did not allow to isolate fusaria or to differenciate them from other growing fungi. PMID:12455616

Vujanovic, Vladimir; Hamel, Chantal; Jabaji-Hare, Suha; St-Arnaud, Marc

2002-09-01

443

Cytological comparison of leaves and stems of Prunus avium L. shoots cultured on a solid medium with agar or gelrite.  

PubMed

An axillary proliferating clone of Prunus avium L. was subcultured every four weeks on solid MS medium with agar as the gelling agent. Vitrification (hyperhydricity) of shoots was induced in one four week cycle with the same medium except that agar was replaced by gelrite. During culture on the vitrifying medium, the water content of the shoots progressively increased with a parallel decrease in chlorophyll content. Cytological differences between the leaves and stems of the vitrified and normal shoots were detected by light and electron (both transmission and scanning) microscopy. Leaves of vitrified shoots were characterized by lower number of chloroplasts in the palisade parenchyma and by a defective cuticle. The stems of vitrified shoots had a less developed and lignifled xylem tissue, lacked sclerenchymatic areas and showed hypertrophy of the cortical parenchyma. More intense vacuolar activity with evaginations of the chloroplast envelope into the vacuole was noted in cells of vitrified leaves. PMID:9554582

Franck, T; Crèvecoeur, M; Wuest, J; Greppin, H; Gaspar, T

1998-01-01

444

Detection ofBacterial Nitrite Production fromNitrate bya Nitrate-Starch-I odide AgarMedium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mediumconsisting ofnitrate agar (Difco), modified bytheaddition of1% starch and1%KI,was usedtodetect theproduction ofnitrite bya numberof different bacterial species. Thecommonly usednitrite detection method isaGriess reaction (3). Thisprocedure involves theuseofa-naphthylamine, acompound which hasbeenclassified bytheOccupational Safety andHealth Administration oftheU.S.Depart- mentofLabor(1)asahumanbladder carcino- gen.A less hazardous methodofdetermining nitrite production bymicroorganisms hasbeen devised based onthereaction between acidified nitrite andiodide ions andtheconcomitant pro- duction offree iodine (2).

GERALD S. REISNER

1978-01-01

445

Ethanol production from glucose by free and agar-entrapped batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at different oxygenation levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The influence of the oxygenation level on glucose alcoholic fermentation by free- and immobilized-cell batch cultures ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae (CBS 1200) was investigated. Ethanol production by suspended cultures was stimulated by moderate oxygen flow rates (OFRs) but inhibited by higher OFRs (1.25 mol O2 h-1 dm-3). On the contrary, agar-entrapped yeasts displayed the best fermentation performance under strict anaerobiosis and

Claire Hinfray; Thierry Jouenne; Guy-Alain Junter

1994-01-01

446

Beauveria bassiana yeast phase on agar medium and its pathogenicity against Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beauveria bassiana colonizes insect hosts initially through a yeast phase, which is common in some artificial liquid cultures, but not reported on artificial solid media. We describe a yeast-like phase for B. bassiana isolate 447 (ATCC 20872) on MacConkey agar and its virulence toward Diatraea saccharalis and Tetranychus urticae. The yeast-like cells of B. bassiana developed by budding from germinating

Sérgio Batista Alves; Luciana Savoi Rossi; Rogério Biaggioni Lopes; Marco Antonio Tamai; Roberto M Pereira

2002-01-01

447

Epidemiology of Klebsiella oxytoca-associated diarrhea detected by Simmons citrate agar supplemented with inositol, tryptophan, and bile salts.  

PubMed

We studied the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of Klebsiella oxytoca-associated diarrhea in hospitalized patients in Hong Kong. Between 1 November 2009 and 30 April 2011, all inositol-fermenting colonies found on Simmons citrate agar supplemented with inositol, tryptophan, and bile salts (SCITB agar) used for the culturing of diarrheal stool samples were screened by a spot indole test for K. oxytoca. The overall sensitivity of SCITB agar plus the spot indole test (93.3%) for the detection of K. oxytoca in stool samples was superior to that of MacConkey agar (63.3%), while the specificities were 100% and 60.4%, respectively. The former achieved a 23-fold reduction in the workload and cost of subsequent standard biochemical identifications. Cytotoxin production and the clonality of K. oxytoca were determined by a cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay using HEp-2 cells and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), respectively. Of 5,581 stool samples from 3,537 patients, K. oxytoca was cultured from 117/5,581 (2.1%) stool samples from 104/3,537 (2.9%) patients. Seventy-six of 104 (73.1%) patients with K. oxytoca had no copathogens in their diarrheal stool samples. Twenty-four (31.6%) of 76 patients carried cytotoxin-producing strains, which were significantly associated with antibiotic therapy after hospital admission (50% versus 21.2%; P = 0.01). Health care-associated diarrhea was found in 44 (42%) of 104 patients with K. oxytoca, but there was no epidemiological linkage suggestive of a nosocomial outbreak, and PFGE showed a diverse pattern. None of the patients with cytotoxin-producing K. oxytoca developed antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis, suggesting that K. oxytoca can cause a mild disease manifesting as uncomplicated antibiotic-associated diarrhea with winter seasonality. PMID:22357507

Cheng, Vincent C C; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Tsang, Lee-Lee; Yau, Miranda C Y; Siu, Gilman K H; Wong, Sally C Y; Chan, Jasper F W; To, Kelvin K W; Tse, Herman; Hung, Ivan F N; Tai, Josepha W M; Ho, Pak-Leung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2012-05-01

448

Epidemiology of Klebsiella oxytoca-Associated Diarrhea Detected by Simmons Citrate Agar Supplemented with Inositol, Tryptophan, and Bile Salts  

PubMed Central

We studied the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of Klebsiella oxytoca-associated diarrhea in hospitalized patients in Hong Kong. Between 1 November 2009 and 30 April 2011, all inositol-fermenting colonies found on Simmons citrate agar supplemented with inositol, tryptophan, and bile salts (SCITB agar) used for the culturing of diarrheal stool samples were screened by a spot indole test for K. oxytoca. The overall sensitivity of SCITB agar plus the spot indole test (93.3%) for the detection of K. oxytoca in stool samples was superior to that of MacConkey agar (63.3%), while the specificities were 100% and 60.4%, respectively. The former achieved a 23-fold reduction in the workload and cost of subsequent standard biochemical identifications. Cytotoxin production and the clonality of K. oxytoca were determined by a cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay using HEp-2 cells and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), respectively. Of 5,581 stool samples from 3,537 patients, K. oxytoca was cultured from 117/5,581 (2.1%) stool samples from 104/3,537 (2.9%) patients. Seventy-six of 104 (73.1%) patients with K. oxytoca had no copathogens in their diarrheal stool samples. Twenty-four (31.6%) of 76 patients carried cytotoxin-producing strains, which were significantly associated with antibiotic therapy after hospital admission (50% versus 21.2%; P = 0.01). Health care-associated diarrhea was found in 44 (42%) of 104 patients with K. oxytoca, but there was no epidemiological linkage suggestive of a nosocomial outbreak, and PFGE showed a diverse pattern. None of the patients with cytotoxin-producing K. oxytoca developed antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis, suggesting that K. oxytoca can cause a mild disease manifesting as uncomplicated antibiotic-associated diarrhea with winter seasonality.

Cheng, Vincent C. C.; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Tsang, Lee-Lee; Yau, Miranda C. Y.; Siu, Gilman K. H.; Wong, Sally C. Y.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; To, Kelvin K. W.; Tse, Herman; Hung, Ivan F. N.; Tai, Josepha W. M.; Ho, Pak-Leung

2012-01-01

449

Evaluation of PCR-based screening for vancomycin-resistant enterococci compared with a chromogenic agar-based culture method.  

PubMed

Rapid detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) infection is very important for control and prevention of nosocomial spread of these bacteria. A multiplex PCR method for rapid screening of VRE has recently been developed. We performed a prospective study of VRE screening tests to compare the performance of PCR to that of a chromogenic agar-based culture method. From January to December 2009, a total of 8815 rectal swab specimens were tested simultaneously for VRE by VRE selective culture and by PCR. The specimens were inoculated onto ChromID VRE agar containing 8 µg vancomycin ml?¹ and examined after 24 and 48 h of incubation. Identification and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using the automated VITEK-2 system and a supplementary E-test and disk diffusion test. Detection of the vanA and vanB genes was performed with the Seeplex VRE detection kit. Specimens were inoculated in enterococcosel broth for 16-24 h before PCR for enrichment of VRE. VRE were isolated from 741 of the 8815 specimens by chromogenic agar-based culture (8.4?%). vanA and vanB genotypes were detected in 758 (8.6?%) and 3 (0.03?%) specimens, respectively, by multiplex PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of PCR for detection of VRE were 98.2?%, 99.6?%, 95.7?%, and 99.8?%. No VRE were isolated from vanB-positive specimens. The overall performance of PCR is comparable to that of a chromogenic agar-based culture method for screening of VRE, so PCR could be an alternative or supportive method for effective control of nosocomial VRE infection. PMID:21459908

Seo, Ja Young; Kim, Pyung-Whan; Lee, Jang-Ho; Song, Jae-Hoon; Peck, Kyong-Ran; Chung, Doo-Ryeon; Kang, Cheol-In; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong

2011-07-01

450

Comparison of plate count agar and R2A medium for enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria in natural mineral water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to recover as many viable bacteria as possible from natural mineral water, in this study we have compared the counts obtained with the standard method (pour plate procedure with Plate Count Agar (PCA)) and counts with alternative test methods (PCA\\/spread plates, R2A medium\\/pour plates and R2A medium\\/spread plates). The results showed that counts with R2A medium\\/spread plates at

Salvatore Massa; Marisa Caruso; Francesca Trovatelli; Massimo Tosques

1998-01-01

451

Spectrophotometric determination of 6-aminopenicillanic acid using bromophenol blue and bromothymol blue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two simple, selective and sensitive spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA). The methods are based on the reaction of 6-APA with either bromophenol blue (BPB) or bromothymol blue (BTB), to give orange-red and green species, respectively. The coloured products are quantified spectrophotometrically at 625 and 616 nm for BPB and BTB, respectively. The optimization of

Alaa S. Amin; Yousry M. Issa

1995-01-01

452

Extraction-spectrophotometric determination of amprolium hydrochloride using bromocresol green, bromophenol blue and bromothymol blue  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new procedure for the determination of amprolium hydrochloride by reaction with bromocresol green (BCG), bromophenol blue (BPB) and bromothymol blue (BTB) has been developed. The method consists of extracting the yellow ion-pair formed into chloroform from aqueous medium. The ion-pairs have absorption maxima at 420, 410 and 415 nm with molar absorptivities of 3.64 × 104, 3.12 × 104

Adel F. Shoukry; Mahmoud S. Rizk; Yousry M. Issa; Ehab M. Atia

1997-01-01

453

Enhancement of Blue-Light Sensitivity of Arabidopsis Seedlings by a Blue Light Receptor Cryptochrome 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryptochrome is a group of flavin-type blue light receptors that regulate plant growth and development. The function of Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2 in the early photomorphogenesis of seedlings was studied by using transgenic plants overexpressing CRY2 protein, and cry2 mutant plants accumulating no CRY2 protein. It is found that cryptochrome 2 mediates blue light-dependent inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and stimulation of

Chentao Lin; Hongyun Yang; Hongwei Guo; Todd Mockler; Jeff Chen; Anthony R. Cashmore

1998-01-01

454

Discordance in the minimal inhibitory concentrations of ertapenem for Enterobacter cloacae: Vitek 2 system versus Etest and agar dilution methods.  

PubMed

Our objective was to compare the ertapenem minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for Enterobacter cloacae isolates categorized intermediate or resistant to ertapenem when measured with the Vitek 2 system, with the MICs for these isolates when measured by two methods performed in agar medium: the Etest and agar plate dilution method (APDM). Overall, 50 E. cloacae isolates were included in the study. The mean MIC of ertapenem was 2.92±1.77?g/ml according to the Vitek 2 system, 0.94±0.84?g/ml according to the Etest strips, and 0.93±0.62?g/ml according to the APDM. Furthermore, the MICs determined by the Vitek 2 system were higher than the MICs determined by the two other methods for 96% of strains. Lastly, according to the Etest strips and APDM, 42% of E. cloacae were susceptible to ertapenem. No carbapenemase was identified by the screening method used. Using the Vitek 2 system to determine ertapenem MICs for E. cloacae can have potential consequences in terms of additional carbapenemase-detecting tests and antimicrobial therapy. It would be interesting to determine if the Vitek 2 system is more effective for the detection of carbapenemase producers with low-level carbapenem resistance than the two methods performed in agar medium. PMID:24183718

Pailhoriès, Hélène; Cassisa, Viviane; Lamoureux, Claudie; Chesnay, Adélaïde; Lebreton, Cyrielle; Lemarié, Carole; Kempf, Marie; Mahaza, Chetaou; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Eveillard, Matthieu

2014-01-01

455

Choline chloride based ionic liquid analogues as tool for the fabrication of agar films with improved mechanical properties.  

PubMed

In the present paper, we test the suitability of ChCl/urea (DES-U) and ChCl/glycerol (DES-G) eutectic mixtures, each one prepared at 1:2 molar ratio, for the production of agar films. A three-step process is proposed: pre-solubilization of polymer in DES followed by compression-molding and subsequent drying. The mechanical properties, water resistance and microstructure of the films were evaluated at different polymer concentrations (i.e. 2-6%, w/w). DES-U showed by far, the best film forming ability. Agreeing with the diffusion and SEM data, films with the best mechanical properties were found at the lowest and highest agar concentrations (tensile strengths of 24.2-42MPa and elongations of 15.4-38.9%). The water sorption and contact angle studies suggested increased hydrophilicity for the film containing the lowest concentration of agar. The use of choline chloride based ionic liquid analogues as solvent and plasticizer might be a promising tool for the development of new non-aqueous materials based on seaweed polysaccharides. PMID:25037344

Sousa, Ana M M; Souza, Hiléia K S; Latona, Nicholas; Liu, Cheng-Kung; Gonçalves, Maria P; Liu, LinShu

2014-10-13

456

An agar diffusion comparison of the antimicrobial effect of calcium hydroxide at five different concentrations with three different vehicles.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine if varying the percent (by weight) of aqueous calcium hydroxide or using different vehicles had an effect on its antibacterial efficacy against common endodontic pathogens in a pour plate/traditional streak agar diffusion model. Mixtures of calcium hydroxide powder and sterile saline in 40, 50 and 60 percent concentrations and the commercial preparations UltraCal XS and Vitapex were tested against six known endodontic pathogens with an agar diffusion method. Each medicament was placed in one of five wells, in each of 10 agar plates (n = 10), for cultures of each bacterial species. Zones of inhibition were measured after 48 hours incubation for aerobes and 96 hours incubation for anaerobes. Multiple one-way analyses of variance and post-hoc Student Neuman Keuls evaluated the data at alpha = 0.05. Larger zones of inhibition were consistently observed for higher concentrations of calcium hydroxide with statistical significance among the bacteria, particularly between 40% and 60%. Vitapex had significantly smaller zones of inhibition than all other medicaments and 35% UltraCal XS with methylcellulose was nearly as effective as 50% Ca(OH)(2) in inhibitory activity. Formulations containing 50-60% Ca(OH)(2) or 35% Ca(OH)(2) with aqueous methylcellulose are recommended as endodontic interappointment medicaments. PMID:18793931

Blanscet, Michael L; Tordik, Patricia A; Goodell, Gary G

2008-10-01

457

Comparative studies on structural feature of agar polysaccharides from Porphyra haitanensis grown in south and north China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural feature of agar polysaccharides from Porphyra haitanensis grown in south China and transplanted to the north was investigated by fractionation on DEAE—Sephadex A 50, chemical analysis, and infrared and13C-NMR spectroscopy. The agars composed mainly of charged molecules were eluted from DEAE—Sephadex A 50 with 1.0 mol/L NaCl solution from the southern P. haitanensis and with 0.5 mol/L NaCl from the northern one. The13C-NMR spectra showed that agarobiose [(1?3)-?- D-galactopyranosyl-(1?4)-3,6-anhydro-?- L-galactopyranose] and the biological precursor of agarobiose [(1?3)-?- D-galactopyra nosyl-(1?4)-6-sulfate-?- L-galactopyranose] were the major disaccharide repeating units in the charged fractions. The content of the biological precursor in the agar polysaccharides from southern P. haitanensis was higher than that in the northern one, the content of the biological precursor extracted from cold water was higher than that from hot water, and the content of 6-OMe- D-galactose in the southern P. haitanensis polysaccharides was higher than in the northern one. This distinct difference will be of significance for further study of the physiological characters of P. haitanensis.

Gao, Hongfeng; Ji, Minghou; Cao, Wenda

1993-03-01

458

Synopsis of Principal Diseases of the Blue Crab, 'Callinectes sapidus'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, are an important economic and recreational resource on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Accordingly, a number of pathological agents which may decrease the availability or demand for blue crabs have been studied. Investigatio...

G. A. Messick C. J. Sindermann

1992-01-01

459

75 FR 53685 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Office...SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (the...

2010-09-01

460

75 FR 67958 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Office...SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (the...

2010-11-04

461

76 FR 71334 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Office...SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (the...

2011-11-17

462

76 FR 23798 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Office...SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (the...

2011-04-28

463

76 FR 2891 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Office...SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (the...

2011-01-18

464

Isolation and detection of extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing enterobacteriaceae from meat using chromogenic agars and isothermal loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) assays.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to develop a molecular method using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for detection of extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae from meat, and to compare it with different isolation agars and microarrays. LAMP assays were developed for CTX-M groups 1, 2, and 9 and OXA-10-like genes. Chicken, lamb, beef, pork, and turkey samples were spiked with 10, 100, and 1,000 cfu/gram using 8 strains of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CTX-M sequence types 1, 2, 3, 14, 15, OXA-11, SHV-2, TEM-52) +/- a mix of competitor organisms. Samples were enriched overnight in buffered peptone water (BPW) +/- antibacterials before plating to CHROMagar CTX, OXOID ESBL Brilliance agar, and MacConkey agar with 1 mg/L cefotaxime. Selected BPW broths were also tested using LAMP assays, microarrays and using cefpodoxime discs on agar. For isolation/detection of ESBL producers from beef, pork, lamb, and turkey spiked with 10 or 100 cfu/gram ESBL (natural flora only), all agars and the LAMP assays showed 100% sensitivity and specificity for ESBL spike strains. For chicken samples, both LAMP and chromogenic agars showed improved sensitivity and specificity for isolation of ESBLs compared with MacConkey agar, particularly with competitor bacteria added. In comparison, the cefpodoxime disc method and microarray showed reduced sensitivity. PMID:24329955

Anjum, M F; Lemma, F; Cork, D J; Meunier, D; Murphy, N; North, S E; Woodford, N; Haines, J; Randall, L P

2013-12-01

465

49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section...Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes...

2013-10-01

466

Methylene blue selectively stains intestinal metaplasia in Barrett's esophagus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Specialized columnar epithelium in Barrett's esophagus resembles gastric intestinal metaplasia, which selectively stains with methylene blue. Methods: We prospectively evaluated the safety, accuracy, reproducibility, cost, and diagnostic yield of methylene blue–directed biopsy in detecting specialized columnar epithelium and dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus. We performed upper endoscopy with methylene blue–directed biopsy and obtained 236 large cup biopsy specimens (145 stained,

Marcia Irene F. Canto; Sebouh Setrakian; Robert E. Petras; Edmond Blades; Amitabh Chak; Michael V. Sivak

1996-01-01

467

Blue-blocking IOLs Decrease Photoreception Without Providing Significant Photoprotection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Violet and blue light are responsible for 45% of scotopic, 67% of melanopsin, 83% of human circadian (melatonin suppression) and 94% of S-cone photoreception in pseudophakic eyes (isoilluminance source). Yellow chromophores in blue-blocking intraocular lenses (IOLs) eliminate between 43 and 57% of violet and blue light between 400 and 500 nm, depending on their dioptric power. This restriction adversely affects

Martin A. Mainster; Patricia L. Turner

2010-01-01

468

THE USE OF PRECIPITIN ANALYSIS IN AGAR FOR THE STUDY OF HUMAN STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS  

PubMed Central

It has been shown by agar precipitin tests (Ouchterlony and Oakley) that human sera may contain from 0 to 5 antibodies against antigens present in a partially purified streptolysin O preparation, and from 0 to 7 antibodies against antigens in a crude ammonium sulfate concentrate of the streptococcal culture supernate used. These antigens were prepared from a Group A hemolytic streptococcus (strain C203S). Strong evidence was presented suggesting that some of the bands seen with streptolysin O concentrate represented antibody reponses to streptococcal antigens heretofore undescribed. Tests were also carried out with other streptococcal antigens, including streptokinase-desoxyribonuclease mixture from Group C streptococci (varidase-Lederle), crystalline proteinase, proteinase precursor, C carbohydrate, and sonic vibrated streptococcal cell extracts (group A, C203S). Fewer bands were seen with these preparations, and with some they were quite uncommon. The observations indicated that the predominating antibody responses in human streptococcal infections were to extracellular products of the micro-organisms, and only very slightly and infrequently to intracellular antigens. The human sera studied included sera from patients with active or convalescent rheumatic fever, and non-rheumatic subjects suffering from a variety of illnesses. As was expected, the rheumatic subjects showed antibody responses to many more of the antigens present in these preparations than did the nonrheumatic group. Pooled normal human gamma globulin was found to contain many of the antibodies found in potent human sera. This finding confirmed the antigen-antibody nature of the bands seen with individual sera. The epidemiological significance of these findings with gamma, globulin was briefly discussed. It was found that rabbit, guinea pig, and human antibody precipitin bands join quite readily in the Ouchterlony tests. This finding adds another tool for the identification of the precipitin bands found with human sera. Evidence was obtained which indicated differing immunological specificities of two samples of streptococcal desoxyribonuclease, one from Group A, the other from a Group C streptococcus. The value of these technics as representing a new approach to the study of human infectious disease was discussed.

Halbert, Seymour P.; Swick, Lois; Sonn, Constance

1955-01-01

469