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Natural occurrence and growth reaction on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue agar of non-neoformans Cryptococcus spp. in Malaysia.  


Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii were the predominant non-neoformans cryptococci isolated during an environmental sampling study for C. gattii at Klang Valley, Malaysia. Cryptococcus gattii was not isolated from any of the environmental samples. Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii were isolated mainly from vegetative samples of Eucalyptus trees and bird droppings. Upon testing on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue (CGB) agar, all the C. albidus isolates remained unchanged. Interestingly, a total of 29 (76.3%) C. laurentii isolates formed blue colours on the CGB agar. Sequence analysis of ITS1-5.8rDNA-ITS2 gene sequences (468 bp) of four CGB-blue C. laurentii isolates demonstrated the closest match (99%) with that of C. laurentii CBS 7140. This study demonstrated the diverse environmental niche of C. albidus and C. laurentii in Malaysia. PMID:18498307

Tay, S T; Na, S L; Tajuddin, T H



Identification of Cryptococcus gattii by use of L-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue medium and DNA sequencing.  


Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are closely related pathogenic fungi. Cryptococcus neoformans is ecologically widespread and affects primarily immunocompromised patients, while C. gattii is traditionally found in tropical climates and has been reported to cause disease in immunocompetent patients. l-Canavanine glycine bromothymol blue (CGB) agar can be used to differentiate C. neoformans and C. gattii, but there are few reports of its performance in routine clinical practice. Growth of C. gattii on CGB agar produces a blue color, indicating the assimilation of glycine, while C. neoformans fails to cause a color change. Using reference and clinical strains, we evaluated the ability of CGB agar and D2 large ribosomal subunit DNA sequencing (D2 LSU) to differentiate C. neoformans and C. gattii. One hundred two yeast isolates were screened for urease activity, melanin production, and glycine assimilation on CGB agar as well as by D2 sequencing. Seventeen of 17 (100%) C. gattii isolates were CGB positive, and 54 of 54 C. neoformans isolates were CGB negative. Several yeast isolates other than the C. gattii isolates were CGB agar positive, indicating that CGB agar cannot be used alone for identification of C. gattii. D2 correctly identified and differentiated all C. gattii and C. neoformans isolates. This study demonstrates that the use of CGB agar, in conjunction with urea hydrolysis and Niger seed agar, or D2 LSU sequencing can be reliably used in the clinical laboratory to distinguish C. gattii from C. neoformans. We describe how CGB agar and D2 sequencing have been incorporated into the yeast identification algorithm in our laboratory. PMID:19794048

Klein, K R; Hall, L; Deml, S M; Rysavy, J M; Wohlfiel, S L; Wengenack, N L



The isolation, characterization and antifungal susceptibilities of Cryptococcus neoformans from bird excreta in Klang Valley, Malaysia.  


The occurrence of Cryptococcus neoformans in bird excreta in Klang valley, Malaysia was determined in this study. Of 544 samples of bird excreta collected from a local zoo, pet shops and public areas, 20 strains of C. neoformans were isolated. All C. neoformans strains were serotype A and thus identified as C. neoformans variety grubii. All did not produce color changes on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue agar. All were of alpha-mating types, as determined by a pheromone-specific PCR assay. The antifungal susceptibility testing using agar diffusion method Neo-sensitabs showed that all were susceptible to amphotericin B, fluconazole and itraconazole. PMID:15983736

Tay, S T; Chai, H C; Na, S L; Hamimah, H; Rohani, M Y; Soo-Hoo, T S



Histopathology, serology and cultures in the diagnosis of cryptococcosis.  


Cryptococcosis is one of the most common opportunistic fungal infections in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report 13 cases of cryptococcal infection based on histopathology, serology and cultures. Epidemiological analysis, histochemical techniques of hematoxilin and eosin (HE) and Grocot's silver (GMS), as well special histochemical techniques such as Mayer's mucicarmine (MM) and Fontana-Masson (FM), cryptococcal antigen test (CrAg) and isolation on fungal media: Sabouraud's (SAB), brain-heart infusion agar (BHI) and canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue (CGB) agar were analyzed. Unsatisfactory staining results by MM stain associated to negative titers by CrAg test, which FM stain confirmed that capsule-deficient Cryptococcus infections were observed in four cases. Eight isolated cases were identified as follows: six cases were infection with Cryptococcus neoformans and two cases were Cryptococcus gattii. PMID:19893977

Gazzoni, Alexandra Flávia; Severo, Cecília Bittencourt; Salles, Emily Ferreira; Severo, Luiz Carlos


Diffusion of Methylene Blue in Phantoms of Agar Using a Photoacoustic Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the kinetics of diffusion of methylene blue in agar aqueous solution is studied using a photoacoustic technique.\\u000a Two agar phantoms solutions in water with a relation of mass\\/volume of 0.01% and 0.05% were analyzed. The study was performed\\u000a using a modified Rosencwaig photoacoustic cell that is enclosed by transparent windows, on both sides. The sample is deposited

L. Vilca-Quispe; J. J. Alvarado-Gil; P. Quintana; J. Ordonez-Miranda



Adsorptive removal of methylene blue by agar: effects of NaCl and ethanol  

PubMed Central

Adsorption of methylene blue (MB) on agar was investigated as a function of temperature (308-328 K), different concentrations of NaCl and HCl and various weight percentages of binary mixtures of ethanol with water. It was observed that the maximum experimental adsorption capacity, qm, exp, in water is up to 50 mg g-1 and decreases with increase in weight percentage of ethanol and NaCl and HCl concentration compared to that of water. Analysis of data using ARIAN model showed that MB adsorbs as monomer and dimer on the surface of agar. Binding constants of MB to agar were calculated using the Temkin isotherm. The process is exothermic in water and other solutions. The mean adsorption energy (E) value indicated binding of MB to agar is chemical adsorption. Kinetics of this interaction obeys from the pseudo-second-order model and diffusion of the MB molecules into the agar is the main rate-controlling step.



Acinetobacter Spp.: Distinct Morphology on Eosin Methylene Blue Agar as an Aid to Identification in Drinking Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

'Acinetobacter calcoaceticus', frequently found in drinking waters and implicated in nosocomial infections, was presumptively identified by its tiny, blue colonial appearance on Levine eosin methylene blue agar. All of the 33 isolates from drinking water ...

D. F. Spino E. E. Geldreich




EPA Science Inventory

'Acinetobacter calcoaceticus', frequently found in drinking waters and implicated in nosocomial infections, was presumptively identified by its tiny, blue colonial appearance on Levine eosin methylene blue agar. All of the 33 isolates from drinking water showing this distinctive ...


Quality Control Limits for Posaconazole Disk Susceptibility Tests on Mueller-Hinton Agar with Glucose and Methylene Blue  

Microsoft Academic Search

An international collaborative study was performed in order to propose quality control limits for fluconazole disk diffusion susceptibility tests on Mueller-Hinton agar with 2% glucose and 0.5 g of methylene blue per ml. The supplements may be added before autoclaving the agar, or Mueller-Hinton agar plates may be flooded with a glucose-methylene blue solution. Replicate tests on both types of

S. Brown; M. Traczewski



Disseminated cryptococcosis in an AIDS patient caused by a canavanine-resistant strain of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii.  


A case of disseminated cryptococcosis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is presented in a male diabetic who had AIDS. The diagnosis was based upon the isolation and identification of the aetiological agent from a lymph-node biopsy, cerebrospinal fluid and sputum. The isolate formed spherical, encapsulated yeast cells, produced cherry-brown colonies on niger-seed agar, grew on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue (CGB) medium, changing its colour from greenish yellow to blue, and hydrolysed urea weakly in the presence of 100 microM EDTA. The strain was unable to assimilate D-proline and, serologically, it was untypable. The identity of the isolate as C. neoformans var. grubii, serotype A, possessing a mating-type allele A alpha, was confirmed by crossing with standard laboratory test strains and by performing PCR with the mating-type alpha allele-specific primer of the STE12 gene and with serotype (A and D)- and mating type (a and alpha)-specific primers of the STE20 gene. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of disseminated cryptococcosis in an AIDS patient caused by a canavanine-resistant strain of C. neoformans var. grubii, serotype A, possessing mating type allele A alpha; the strain is probably a hybrid. The report suggests that, in the absence of a clear-cut serotyping result, a positive CGB reaction alone is not sufficient for intervarietal discrimination and additional confirmatory evidence is required. PMID:12621094

Khan, Z U; Al-Anezi, A A; Chandy, R; Xu, J



Cryptococcus species identification by multiplex PCR.  


Members of the Cryptococcus species complex are encapsulated basidiomycetous yeasts, which can affect the central nervous system (CNS) and if untreated may cause meningitis. Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogen causing infections mainly in immunocompromised individuals. Cryptococcus gattii is a primary pathogen responsible for a high incidence of cryptococcomas in the lung and brain and shows a delayed response to antifungal therapy. The differentiation between the two species is primarily based on their growth on and color change of canavanine - glycine-bromothymol blue agar (CGB). Since this test is not always reliable, a multiplex PCR to identify both Cryptococcus species using more than 130 samples was standardized and the results obtained compared to those with the CGB test, using the Crypto Check serotyping kit as the standard. The multiplex PCR was shown to be more specific than the CGB test, in that results obtained with it were in agreement with those from serotyping all the samples, while the data from the CGB test disagreed with 6 out of 131 samples. PMID:18415847

Leal, Ana Lusia; Faganello, Josiane; Bassanesi, Maria Cristina; Vainstein, Marilene H



[Distribution of Cryptococcus neoformans serotypes associated with human infections in Argentina].  


C. neoformans (Cn) causes severe meningitis in immunocompromised patients, particularly those with AIDS. Little is known about Cn serotypes associated with human infections in Argentina due to the lack of antisera availability. The aim of this study was to produce these antisera, to serotype the Argentinean clinical isolates of Cn received at our laboratory from 1984 to 2001 and to evaluate the agreement of these results with the variety differentiation obtained with Canavanine-Glycine-Bromothymol Blue agar (CGB) medium. We studied 123 isolates recovered from first episodes of cryptococcosis from HIV-infected patients (85), non HIV-infected patients (6) and from other non specified patients (32). Of the isolates, 89% (110/123) were serotype A, 4% (5/123) corresponded to serotype D, 3% (3/129) were serotype AD, 3 isolates were untypable and 2 corresponded to serotype B. All the serotyped isolates agreed with the variety determined by CGB medium. These results indicate that, in our country, most cryptococcal infections in patients with AIDS are associated with serotype A (77/85), which agrees with international studies. In patients with other immunosuppressions, this serotype may be also predominant, although a low number of isolates were tested (4/6). Recovery of Cn serotype B in these clinical isolates suggests that studying the variety and their serotypes might be important to detect a probable epidemiological alteration. PMID:12600005

Canteros, C E; Brudny, M; Rodero, L; Perrotta, D; Davel, G


[Characterization of Cryptococcus neoformans strains isolated from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)].  


In Mexico cryptococosis ranks third in frequency among the mycoses ocurring as complications in AIDS patients. Neither the prevalence of the two varieties of C. neoformans in these patients nor the morphological and physiological changes suffered by these strains in AIDS patients are known. A total of 60 isolates were obtained from patients with AIDS from the Hospital de Infectología, Centro Médico "La Raza" IMSS. The identity of each isolate was established by: growth at 37 degrees C, colony and microscopic characteristics, urease and phenoloxidase activity, carbon sources assimilation. The canavanine glycine-bromothymol blue agar was used to distinguish C. neoformans var. neoformans and C. neoformans var. gattii. Pathogenicity in mice was also tested. Fifty one isolates of C. neoformans var. neoformans and nine of C. neoformans var. gattii were identified. All strains grew well at 37 degrees C, urease and phenoloxidase were positive, the morphology and the auxanographic profile were variable. C. neoformans var. neoformans was more virulent in mouse than C. neoformans var. gattii. This study has confirmed the presence of the two varieties of C. neoformans in Mexico with 85% prevalence of var. neoformans and 15% of var. gattii in AIDS patients. This frequency was higher than in reports from other countries. PMID:8850346

Garza-Garza, D; Buendía-Uribe, J L; Martínez-Cruz, E; Argüero-Licea, B


Enumeration of total heterotrophic and psychrotrophic bacteria using different types of agar to evaluate the microbial quality of blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis) and sea scallops ( Placopecten magellanicus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial quality of Fortune Harbor, NL, cultured blue mussels stored at three temperatures (?12, 2 and 9°C) for 10 days was evaluated using aerobic plate count (APC) and psychrotrophic plate count (PPC) on plate count agar (PCA) and marine agar (MA). The relationship between bacterial counts in Fortune Harbor mussels on PCA and MA was established using linear regression analysis.

Muhammad Ahmad Khan; Christopher C. Parrish; Fereidoon Shahidi



Rapid identification of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, C. neoformans var. neoformans, and C. gattii by use of rapid biochemical tests, differential media, and DNA sequencing.  


Rapid identification of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans, and Cryptococcus gattii is imperative for facilitation of prompt treatment of cryptococcosis and for understanding the epidemiology of the disease. Our purpose was to evaluate a test algorithm incorporating commercial rapid biochemical tests, differential media, and DNA sequence analysis that will allow us to differentiate these taxa rapidly and accurately. We assessed 147 type, reference, and clinical isolates, including 6 other Cryptococcus spp. (10 isolates) and 14 other yeast species (24 isolates), using a 4-hour urea broth test (Remel), a 24-hour urea broth test (Becton Dickinson), a 4-hour caffeic acid disk test (Hardy Diagnostics and Remel), 40- to 44-hour growth assessment on l-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue (CGB) agar, and intergenic spacer (IGS) sequence analysis. All 123 Cryptococcus isolates hydrolyzed urea, along with 7 isolates of Rhodotorula and Trichosporon. Eighty-five of 86 C. neoformans (99%) and 26 of 27 C. gattii (96%) isolates had positive caffeic acid results, unlike the other cryptococci (0/10) and yeast species (0/24). Together, these two tests positively identified virtually all C. neoformans/C. gattii isolates (98%) within 4 h. CGB agar or IGS sequencing further differentiated these isolates within 48 h. On CGB, 25 of 27 (93%) C. gattii strains induced a blue color change, in contrast to 0 of 86 C. neoformans isolates. Neighbor-joining cluster analysis of IGS sequences differentiated C. neoformans var. grubii, C. neoformans var. neoformans, and C. gattii. Based on these results, we describe a rapid identification algorithm for use in a microbiology laboratory to distinguish clinically relevant Cryptococcus spp. PMID:21593254

McTaggart, Lisa; Richardson, Susan E; Seah, Christine; Hoang, Linda; Fothergill, Annette; Zhang, Sean X



Human immunodefeciency virus associated cryptococcal meningitis at a tertiary care centre: diagnostic tools and antifungal susceptibility testing.  


Context: Cryptococcal meningitis has emerged as a leading cause of the infectious morbidity and mortality in HIV sero-reactive subjects and it is the second most common cause of the opportunistic neuroinfections in it. As this is a indistinguishable from other causes of meningitis, its early diagnosis is the key to the therapeutic success. Objectives: This study was undertaken to know the incidence of Cryptococcal meningitis in HIV sero-reactive individuals and to assess the role of the microbiological parameters in its specific diagnosis, with a perspective of evaluating the anti-fungal resistance. Material and Methods: A total of 66 CSF samples from suspected cases of meningoencephalitis were subjected to standard microbiological procedures. The Cryptococcal isolates were identified by microscopy, the cultural characteristics, melanin production on Niger Seed agar, urea hydrolysis, the Nitrate assimilation test and by capsular antigen detection by latex agglutination. The Cryptoccal isolates were further biotyped by using Canavanine-Glycine-Bromothymol blue agar. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of Amphotericin B and Fluconazole for the isolates were detected. Results: The incidence of Cryptococcal meningitis in our study group was 18.2% (12/66). The Cryptococcal antigen was detected in all the 12 cases, whereas microscopy was positive only in 9 cases and Cryptococcus was isolated by culture in 10 cases. All the isolates were sensitive to Amphotericin B and 90% of the isolates were sensitive to Fluconazole. The CD4counts ranged between 22-138 cells /?l. Conclusion: A high incidence of Cryptococcal meningitis in HIV sero-reactive subjects necessitates the importance of a precise and an early microbiological diagnosis for better management of such subjects. Due to the growing concern of emerging drug resistance, the testing for the anti-fungal susceptibility has to be encouraged in all the cases. PMID:24086857

Munivenkataswamy, Rashmi; Gopi, Anjana; Usman, Shaik Mohammed; Jagadeesh



Cryptococcus spp isolated from dust microhabitat in Brazilian libraries  

PubMed Central

Background The Cryptococcus spp is currently composed of encapsulated yeasts of cosmopolitan distribution, including the etiological agents of cryptococcosis. The fungus are found mainly in substrates of animal and plant origin. Human infection occurs through inhalation of spores present in the environment. Methods Eighty-four swab collections were performed on dust found on books in three libraries in the city of Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The material was seeded in Sabouraud agar and then observed for characteristics compatible with colonies with a creamy to mucous aspect; the material was then isolated in birdseed (Niger) agar and cultivated at a temperature of 37°C for 5 to 7?days. Identification of isolated colonies was performed by microscopic observation in fresh preparations dyed with India ink, additional tests performed on CGB (L-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue), urea broth, and carbohydrate assimilation tests (auxanogram). Results Of the 84 samples collected from book dust, 18 (21.4%) were positive for Cryptococcus spp totalizing 41 UFC’s. The most frequently isolated species was C. gattii 15 (36.6%); followed by C. terreus, 12 (29.3%); C. luteolus 4 (9.8%); C. neoformans, and C. uniguttulatus 3 (7.3%), and C. albidus and C. humiculus with 2 (4.6%) of the isolates. Conclusion The high biodiversity of the yeasts of the Cryptococcus genus, isolated from different environmental sources in urban areas of Brazil suggests the possibility of individuals whose immune systems have been compromised or even healthy individuals coming into sources of fungal propagules on a daily bases throughout their lives. This study demonstrates the acquisition possible of cryptococcosis infection from dust in libraries.



Human Immunodefeciency Virus Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis at a Tertiary Care Centre: Diagnostic Tools and Antifungal Susceptibility Testing  

PubMed Central

Context: Cryptococcal meningitis has emerged as a leading cause of the infectious morbidity and mortality in HIV sero-reactive subjects and it is the second most common cause of the opportunistic neuroinfections in it. As this is a indistinguishable from other causes of meningitis, its early diagnosis is the key to the therapeutic success. Objectives: This study was undertaken to know the incidence of Cryptococcal meningitis in HIV sero–reactive individuals and to assess the role of the microbiological parameters in its specific diagnosis, with a perspective of evaluating the anti–fungal resistance. Material and Methods: A total of 66 CSF samples from suspected cases of meningoencephalitis were subjected to standard microbiological procedures. The Cryptococcal isolates were identified by microscopy, the cultural characteristics, melanin production on Niger Seed agar, urea hydrolysis, the Nitrate assimilation test and by capsular antigen detection by latex agglutination. The Cryptoccal isolates were further biotyped by using Canavanine–Glycine–Bromothymol blue agar. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of Amphotericin B and Fluconazole for the isolates were detected. Results: The incidence of Cryptococcal meningitis in our study group was 18.2% (12/66). The Cryptococcal antigen was detected in all the 12 cases, whereas microscopy was positive only in 9 cases and Cryptococcus was isolated by culture in 10 cases. All the isolates were sensitive to Amphotericin B and 90% of the isolates were sensitive to Fluconazole. The CD4counts ranged between 22-138 cells /?l. Conclusion: A high incidence of Cryptococcal meningitis in HIV sero-reactive subjects necessitates the importance of a precise and an early microbiological diagnosis for better management of such subjects. Due to the growing concern of emerging drug resistance, the testing for the anti–fungal susceptibility has to be encouraged in all the cases.

Munivenkataswamy, Rashmi; Gopi, Anjana; Usman, Shaik Mohammed; Jagadeesh



Selective medium with DNase test agar and a modified toluidine blue O technique for primary isolation of Branhamella catarrhalis in sputum.  

PubMed Central

A selective medium with DNase test agar and incorporating vancomycin (10 micrograms/ml), trimethoprim (8 micrograms/ml), and amphotericin B (2 micrograms/ml) supported the growth of 305 Branhamella catarrhalis isolates. A modified toluidine blue O technique was used after 48 h of incubation in CO2 to overlay suspected B. catarrhalis colonies. A metachromatic color change was observed in 15 min, indicating DNase production. In 200 unselected sputum samples of hospitalized patients, this method was compared with routine microbiologic procedures; 31 B. catarrhalis isolates were recovered with the method, compared with 22 isolated from the clinical laboratory. This medium will be particularly useful for culture of sputum, which shows inflammatory cells and gram-negative diplococci on Gram-stained smears.

Soto-Hernandez, J L; Nunley, D; Holtsclaw-Berk, S; Berk, S L



[Usefulness of D-proline in the differentiation of varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans].  


A comparative study was conducted between the assimilation of D-proline and the growth on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue (CGB) medium used for the classification of the varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans. In the 86 studied strains, 100% of coincidence between both methods allowed to affirm that 95.34% corresponded to the neoformans var. and the rest (4.65%) to the gattii var. The results obtained corroborated that all the autoctonous clinical isolations up to the present correspond to the. neoformans var. and made possible to suggest the use of D-proline for the initial evaluation of strains, as an alternative and simple method that presented under these conditions high coincidence with the reference method (growth in CGB). PMID:15849915

Martínez Machín, Gerardo; Barrial de la Rosa, Lisset; Illnait Zaragozi, María T; Valdés Hernández, Iliana del C; Fernindez Andreu, Carlos M; Perurena Lancha, Mayda R; Polo Leal, Jorge L; Mendoza Llanes, Dianeya


Metachromatic Agar-Diffusion Methods for Detecting Staphylococcal Nuclease Activity  

PubMed Central

Based on the metachromatic property of Toluidine Blue O, three, convenient agar-diffusion methods have been developed that enable detection of the nuclease of Staphylococcus aureus at concentrations as low as 0.005 ?g/ml in agar and broth cultures. The interactions of agar and deoxyribonucleic acid with Toluidine Blue O are discussed. Images

Lachica, R. V. F.; Genigeorgis, C.; Hoeprich, P. D.



In vitro susceptibility characteristics of Cryptococcus neoformans varieties from AIDS patients in Goiânia, Brazil.  


Sixty clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from AIDS from Goiânia, state of Goiás, Brazil, were characterized according to varieties, serotypes and tested for antifungal susceptibility. To differentiate the two varieties was used L-canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium and to separate the serotypes was used slide agglutination test with Crypto Check Iatron. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of fluconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B were determined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards macrodilution method. Our results identified 56 isolates as C. neoformans var. neoformans serotype A and 4 isolates as C. neoformans var. gattii serotype B. MIC values for C. neoformans var. gattii were higher than C. neoformans var. neoformans. We verified that none isolate was resistant to itraconazole and to amphotericin B, but one C. neoformans var. neoformans and three C. neoformans var. gattii isolates were resistant to fluconazole. The presence of C. neoformans var. gattii fluconazole resistant indicates the importance of determining not only the variety of C. neoformans infecting the patients but also measuring the MIC of the isolate in order to properly orient treatment. PMID:14595465

de F L Fernandes, Orionalda; Passos, Xisto S; Souza, Lúcia K H; Miranda, André T B; Cerqueira, Carlos Henrique P V; Silva, Maria do Rosário R



Antifungal susceptibilities of Cryptococcus neoformans cerebrospinal fluid isolates from AIDS patients in Kenya.  


Poor susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans to fluconazole (FLC) is a matter of concern among clinicians in Africa. The emergence of resistance to FLC was recently reported in Kenya, but it is not known whether it is widespread. Thus, there is need for more antifungal drug susceptibility studies in Kenya. The aim of this study was to measure the in vitro antifungal drug susceptibilities of incident C. neoformans isolates from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients in Kenya. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed in 67 C. neoformans isolates by broth microdilution method as outlined in the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute document M27-A3 using FLC, amphotericin B (AMB), voriconazole (VOR), ravuconazole (RAV) and flucytosine (5-FC). Isolates were grown on l-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue medium for serotype identification. Six per cent of the isolates were identified as C. neoformans var. gattii serotype B or C and 94% as C. neoformans var. neoformans. All isolates tested were susceptible to AMB, VOR and RAV (100%), and high susceptibilities were seen to FLC (97%), and 5-FC (90%). Only 3% and 10% of the isolates' susceptibility to FLC and 5-FC, respectively, was dose-dependent or intermediate. These results demonstrate high susceptibilities of incident C. neoformans isolates to FLC and AMB, antifungals used for treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in Kenya. PMID:21535451

Mdodo, Rennatus; Moser, Stephen A; Jaoko, Walter; Baddley, John; Pappas, Peter; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Aban, Inmaculada; Odera, Susan; Jolly, Pauline



Epidemiological aspects of clinical and environmental Cryptococcus neoformans isolates in the Brazilian state Rio Grande do Sul.  


Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic fungus that causes life-threatening meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised patients (HIV-positive patients), and lymphoproliferative disorders in patients subjected to organ transplantation and other immunosuppressive therapies. This fungus is commonly found in soil and avian excreta, mainly from pigeon and turkey. We describe the isolation and characterization of 17 clinical and 10 environmental (pigeon excreta) isolates from the Brazilian state Rio Grande do Sul. We analyzed capsule formation, carbon assimilation pattern, canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue (CGB) reaction, and nitrate and urease tests, as well as susceptibility to antifungal drugs. The genetic variability among C. neoformans isolates was studied using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Eight of 22 arbitrary polymerase chain reaction primers used confirmed genetic polymorphism among the environmental isolates tested, suggesting that it remains feasible to use RAPD analysis as a typing method. Three of the selected primers yielded 10 molecular subclasses. The majority of the clinical isolates were assigned to the molecular subclass F. The RAPD data obtained reinforce the developing consensus about the population structure of this fungus. PMID:12521120

Horta, J A; Staats, C C; Casali, A K; Ribeiro, A M; Schrank, I S; Schrank, A; Vainstein, M H



Genotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from captive birds in Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil.  


To evaluate Cryptococcus spp. molecular types isolated from captive birds' droppings, an epidemiological survey was carried out in Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil, from December 2006 to September 2008. A total of 253 samples of bird excreta (120 fresh and 133 dry) were collected from pet shop cages and houses in different neighbourhoods. Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated in 19 (14.28%) dry samples and one fresh sample (0.84%). Cryptococcus laurentii was recovered from seven (5.26%) dry samples, but not in the fresh samples. The canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue test was positive in all but one of the C. laurentii isolates. Cryptococcus neoformans molecular typing was performed using URA5-RFLP and the mating type locus using mating type specific PCR. Nineteen (95.0%) presented genotype VNI and one VNII (5.0%). In addition, all isolates presented mating type ?. Thus, the genotype of the environmental C. neoformans isolates observed in this study is in accordance with others already reported around the world and adds information about its distribution in Brazil. Cryptococcus laurentii strains were typed using URA5-RFLP and M13 fingerprinting, which showed similar profiles among them. Thus, despite the low number of C. laurentii isolates analysed, their molecular profile is different from another already reported. PMID:20492533

Ferreira-Paim, Kennio; Andrade-Silva, Leonardo; Mora, Delio Jose; Pedrosa, André Luiz; Rodrigues, Virmondes; Silva-Vergara, Mario León



Antifungal susceptibilities of Cryptococcus neoformans cerebrospinal fluid isolates from AIDS patients in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Poor susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans to fluconazole (FLC) is a matter of concern among clinicians in Africa. The emergence of resistance to FLC was recently reported in Kenya but it is not known if it is widespread. Thus, there is need for more antifungal drug susceptibility studies in Kenya. Objective To measure the in vitro antifungal drug susceptibilities of incident C. neoformans isolates from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients in Kenya. Methods Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed on 67 C. neoformans isolates by broth microdilution method as outlined in the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute document M27-A3 using FLC, amphotericin B (AMB), voriconazole (VOR), ravuconazole (RAV), and flucytosine (5-FC). Isolates were grown on L-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue medium for serotype identification. Results Six percent of the isolates were identified as C. neoformans var. gattii serotype B or C and 94% as C. neoformans var. neoformans. All isolates tested were susceptible to AMB, VOR and RAV (100%), and high susceptibilities were seen to FLC (97%), and 5-FC (90%). Only 3% and 10% of the isolates’ susceptibility to FLC and 5-FC respectively, was dose dependent or intermediate. Conclusions These results demonstrate high susceptibilities of incident C. neoformans isolates to FLC and AMB, antifungals used for treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in Kenya.

Mdodo, Rennatus; Moser, Stephen A.; Jaoko, Walter; Baddley, John; Pappas, Peter; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Aban, Inmaculada; Odera, Susan; Jolly, Pauline



A novel agar formulation for isolation and direct enumeration of Vibrio vulnificus from oyster tissue.  


A new selective and differential medium, Vibrio vulnificus X-Gal (VVX), was developed for direct enumeration of V. vulnificus (Vv) from oyster samples. This agar utilizes cellobiose and lactose as carbon sources, and the antibiotics colistin and polymyxin B as selective agents. Hydrolysis of 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl- beta-d-galactopyranoside (x-gal), used in the agar as a lactose analog, produces an insoluble blue dye that makes lactose positive colonies easily distinguishable from any non-lactose fermenting bacteria. Various bacterial species were spot plated onto thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar (TCBS), and CHROMagar Vibrio, two vibrio-specific selective agars, non-selective agar, and VVX to compare selectivity of VVX to other widely used media. A V. vulnificus pure culture was serially diluted on VVX and non-selective agar to determine the VVX percent recovery. Water and oyster samples were spread plated on VVX agar and allowed to incubate for 16-18 h at 33 °C. Blue and white colonies from VVX agar were picked and screened by end point PCR for the Vv hemolysin vvhA. VVX agar showed a significant improvement over TCBS and CHROMagar at preventing non-target growth. There was an 87.5% recovery compared to non-selective plating and a 98% positivity rate of blue colonies picked from oyster tissue plating. The findings suggest that this new agar is a fast, distinctive, and accurate method for enumeration of V. vulnificus from the environment. PMID:23660708

Griffitt, Kimberly J; Grimes, D Jay



Detection of siderophore production from several fungi and bacteria by a modification of chrome azurol S (CAS) agar plate assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A well-known and widely used method for detection of siderophore production by microorganisms in solid medium is the universal chrome azurol S (CAS)-agar plate assay. However, the high toxicity of CAS-blue agar medium caused by the presence of a detergent impedes its utilization with many varieties of fungi and Gram-positive bacteria. To solve this problem, a modification of the CAS-agar

Adriane M. F. Milagres; Angela Machuca; Diovana Napoleão



BAM Media M20: Blood Agar  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Heat with agitation to dissolve agar. Autoclave 15 min at 121°C. Cool to 50°C. Add 5 ml defibrinated sheep red blood cells to 100 ml melted agar. ... More results from


Blue Cards, Blue Prospects?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the European Commission has proposed to introduce a new mi- gration policy instrument - Blue Cards - to attract highly skilled workers from abroad by lifting labour market restrictions, offering financial and housing ben- efits. The excludability character of human capital suggests that what is benefi- cial for receiving countries might be harmful for sending countries. This article investigates

dArtis Kancs; Pavel Ciaian



Continuous marennin production by agar-entrapped Haslea ostrearia using a tubular photobioreactor with internal illumination.  


The marine diatom Haslea ostrearia was immobilized in a tubular agar gel layer introduced into a photobioreactor of original design with internal illumination for the continuous synthesis of marennin, a blue-green pigment of biotechnological interest. Marennin was produced for a long-term period (27-43 days) and the volumetric productivity was maximum (18.7 mg day(-1) l(-1) gel) at the highest dilution rate (0.25 day(-1)) and lowest agar layer thickness (3 mm). Heterogeneous cell distribution in the agar layer revealed diffusional limitation of light and nutrients. However, the 3 mm gel thickness led to a more homogeneous cell distribution during incubation and to an increase of the whole biomass in the agar gel layer. PMID:11131387

Lebeau, T; Gaudin, P; Junter, G A; Mignot, L; Robert, J M



BAM Media M97: Mannitol Salt Agar  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M97: Mannitol Salt Agar. January 2001. ... International Programs; News & Events; Training and Continuing Education; ... More results from


Breathing Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this demonstration of chemical change, the presenter blows breath into a methylene blue solution releasing carbon dioxide which acidifies the water and changes it from a bright blue color to green.




BAM Media M127: Potato Dextrose Agar  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Medium powder is available commercially but may require supplementing with extra agar to a final concentration of 20 g/liter. ... More results from


Some Experiments With Agar-Grown Seedlings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two percent agar gel is reported as a better medium for germination and growth studies. Students can be encouraged to undertake many simple experiments and make precise observations by using this medium. (PS)

Freeland, P. W.




Microsoft Academic Search

Agar-agar is a polysaccharide extracted as a hydrocolloid from red seaweed, whose gels are homogeneous, stable and transparent. The characterization of ternary equilibrium and mass transfer kinetics in the agar-water-air system is essential for designing operations in the extractive process as well as for ascertaining the behaviour of these gels and sols during evaporation. humectation and swelling.In this work, the

O. Iglesias; A. Garcia; M. Roques; J. L. Bueno



Blue lesions.  


Blue color is found in a wide range of malignant and benign melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions and in lesions that result from penetration of exogenous materials, such as radiation or amalgam tattoo or traumatic penetration of particles. Discriminating between different diagnostic entities that display blue color relies on careful patient examination and lesion assessment. Dermoscopically, the extent, distribution, and patterns created by blue color can help diagnose lesions with specificity and differentiate between benign and malignant entities. This article provides an overview of the main diagnoses whereby blue color can be found, providing simple management rules for these lesions. PMID:24075551

Longo, Caterina; Scope, Alon; Lallas, Aimilios; Zalaudek, Iris; Moscarella, Elvira; Gardini, Stefano; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Pellacani, Giovanni



Pigments of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria).  


The complex pigment pattern of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) cap skins has been studied by LC-DAD and mass spectrometry. Among the betaxanthins the corresponding derivatives of serine, threonine, ethanolamine, alanine, Dopa, phenylalanine and tryptophan are reported for the first time to contribute to the pigment pattern of fly agarics. Betalamic acid, the chromophoric precursor of betaxanthins and betacyanins, muscaflavin and seco-dopas were also detected. Furthermore, the red-purple muscapurpurin and the red muscarubrin were tentatively assigned while further six betacyanin-like components could not be structurally allocated. Stability studies indicated a high susceptibility of pigment extracts to degradation which led to rapid colour loss thus rendering a complete characterization of betacyanin-like compounds impossible at present. Taking into account these difficulties the presented results may be a starting point for a comprehensive characterization of the pigment composition of fly agarics. PMID:18274277

Stintzing, Florian; Schliemann, Willibald


BAM Media M84: Liver-Veal-Egg Yolk Agar  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M84: Liver-Veal-Egg Yolk Agar. January 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. M84 Liver-Veal-Egg Yolk Agar. ... More results from


BAM Media M149: Triple Sugar Iron Agar (TSI)  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M149: Triple Sugar Iron Agar (TSI). January 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. M149 Triple Sugar Iron Agar (TSI). ... More results from


BAM Media M-198: mTEC Agar (BD # 233410)  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M-198: mTEC Agar (BD # 233410). February 2013. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. M198 mTEC Agar (BD # 233410). ... More results from


BAM Media M152: Trypticase (Tryptic) Soy Agar  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M152: Trypticase (Tryptic) Soy Agar. January 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. M152 Trypticase (Tryptic) Soy Agar. ... More results from


BAM Media M182: Malt Extract Agar - (Yeasts and Molds) ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M182: Malt Extract Agar - (Yeasts and Molds) (MEAYM). January 2001. ... M182 Malt Extract Agar for Yeasts and Molds (MEAYM). ... More results from


BAM Media M113: Nutrient Agar (for Bacillus cereus)  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M113: Nutrient Agar (for Bacillus cereus). January 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. M113 Nutrient Agar (for Bacillus cereus). ... More results from


BAM Media M139: Sorbitol-MacConkey Agar  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M139: Sorbitol-MacConkey Agar. January 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. M139 Sorbitol-MacConkey Agar. ... More results from


BAM Media M159: Trypticase Soy-Sheep Blood Agar  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M159: Trypticase Soy-Sheep Blood Agar. January 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. M159 Trypticase Soy-Sheep Blood Agar. ... More results from


BAM Media M191: Vibrio vulnificus sucrose Agar (VPSA)  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M191: Vibrio vulnificus sucrose Agar (VPSA). May 2004. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. M191 Vibrio vulnificus sucrose Agar (VPSA). ... More results from


BAM Media M142: Staphylococcus Agar No. 110  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M142: Staphylococcus Agar No. 110. January 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. M142 Staphylococcus Agar No. 110. ... More results from


BAM Media M190: Vibrio vulnificus Agar (VVA)  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M190: Vibrio vulnificus Agar (VVA). May 2004. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. M190 Vibrio vulnificus Agar (VVA). Solution 1. ... More results from


BAM Media M133: Sabouraud's Dextrose Broth and Agar  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M133: Sabouraud's Dextrose Broth and Agar. January 2001. Bacteriological ... Manual. M133 Sabouraud's Dextrose Broth and Agar. ... More results from


Blue Water  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent has a mechanical system that creates bubbles that rise to the surface and push ice away from the ship's hull. It also happens to churn the water into an amazing shade of blue....




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twenty-four blue honeysuckle, Lonicera caerulea L., cultivars available to North America are described. The origin, description and uses of the cultivars are presented. The majority of the cultivars were released from Russia but two were released from Canada. These cultivars have fruits which look l...


Blue laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This has been a development program to design a low noise, moderate power, blue, hollow cathode laser used for imaging on photoconductors for on-demand color printing. Descriptions of the construction, processing, and testing of experimental unit are presented with recommendations for design improvements.

Griffin, G. R.



Violet red bile 2 agar for stressed coliforms.  


Counts on a new, autoclave-sterilizable violet red bile (VRB-2) agar were compared with counts on freshly boiled VRB agar. Yields on VRB-2 agar averaged 217, 180, 130, and 112% of counts obtained on the control medium for samples of water, cottage cheese, frozen vegetables, and raw milk, respectively. The general principle used for the development of VRB-2 agar could be applied to many other kinds of selective plating media. PMID:1092265

Hartman, P A; Hartman, P S; Lanz, W W



Morphological development of Morchella conica mycelium on different agar media.  


The present study presents the development of mycelium of Morchella conica where different concentration of sucrose added at different agar media. For this sucrose have been added as 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25% concentration to wheat agar potato dextrose agar malt extract agar and complete medium yeast agar The radial growth speed, morphologic specifications, radial growth radius and pigmentation of mycelium were taken as criteria, the development period of mycelium in wheat agar was completed in 4 days and mycelium were very thin. The colonization period of the mycelium was determined; 7 days in potato dextrose agar 5 days in malt extract agar and 5 days at complete medium yeast agar. The development of the mycelium; at potato dextrose agar was dense and circular; at malt extract agar and at completed medium yeast agar was rhizomorphic. Mycelium has developed very well at sucrose medium and formed creamy and light yellow pigmentation. PMID:20120503

Guler, P; Ozkaya, E G



Continuous marennin production by agar-entrapped Haslea ostrearia using a tubular photobioreactor with internal illumination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine diatom Haslea ostrearia was immobilized in a tubular agar gel layer introduced into a photobioreactor of original design with internal illumination\\u000a for the continuous synthesis of marennin, a blue-green pigment of biotechnological interest. Marennin was produced for a long-term\\u000a period (27–43?days) and the volumetric productivity was maximum (18.7?mg day?1?l?1 gel) at the highest dilution rate (0.25?day?1) and lowest

T. Lebeau; P. Gaudin; G.-A. Junter; L. Mignot; J.-M. Robert



Screening fungicides for use in fish culture: Evaluation of the agar plug transfer, cellophane transfer, and agar dilution methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The reliability, reproducibility, and usefulness of three screening methods -- the cellophane transfer, the agar plug transfer, and the agar dilution -- to screen aquatic fungicides were evaluated. Achlya flagellata and Saprolegnia hypogyna were exposed to 1, 10, and 100 mg/L of malachite green to test each method. The cellophane transfer and agar plug transfer techniques had similar reliability and reproducibility in rating fungicidal activity, and were both superior to the agar dilution technique. The agar plug transfer and agar dilution techniques adequately projected in vivo activity of malachite green, but the cellophane transfer technique overestimated its activity. Overall, the agar plug transfer technique most accurately rated the activity of malachite green and was the easiest test to perform. It therefore appears to be the method of choice for testing aquatic fungicides.

Bailey, Tom A.



Blue Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this optics activity, learners explore why the sky is blue and the sunset is red, using a simple setup comprising a transparent plastic box, water, and powdered milk. Learners use a flashlight to shine a beam of light through the container. Learners look at the beam from the side of the container and then from the end of the tank, and compare the colors that they see. Learners also examine a narrower beam of light. Use this activity to introduce learners to the light spectrum, wavelengths, frequency, scattering, and how all this effects what we see in the sky at different times of the day.

Exploratorium, The



Blue Whales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-minute sound segment, a professor of physics and astronomy describes the communication ability of the blue whale. He says that pitch discrimination with whales is incredibly accurate. The whales produce this call always at exactly four octaves below middle C, based on measurements of 6,000 whale calls. This site is from an archive of a daily radio program called Pulse of the Planet, which provides its listeners with a portrait of Planet Earth, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. The site also provides a written transcript of the broadcast.



Chocolate agar, a differential medium for gram-positive cocci.  

PubMed Central

Reactions incurred on chocolate agar by gram-positive cocci were correlated with species identity. Darkening and clearing of the medium was usually associated with the species Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus simulans, and Streptococcus faecalis. Yellowing of chocolate agar was associated with alpha-hemolytic species of Streptococcus. The study demonstrated that reactions occurring on chocolate agar are useful in identifying gram-positive cocci.

Gunn, B A



Acanthamoeba on Sabouraud's agar from a patient with keratitis  

PubMed Central

A 25-year-old transgender patient came with complaints of watery discharge, red eye and photophobia in the left eye since 2 days. The patient had a history of wearing colored contact lenses since 4 years and cleaning the lens with tap water. Culture of lenses on Mac Conkey and blood agar yielded Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Sabouroud's agar showed yeast cells and double-walled cysts of Acanthamoeba species. On further incubation of Sabouroud's agar, the cysts transformed to trophozoites. Parallel results were obtained on tap water agar. The previous therapy of moxifloxacin was changed to local Neosporin application.

Baradkar, Vasant; Samal, Badhuli; Mali, Swapna A; Kulkarni, Ketaki; Shastri, Jayanthi



Acanthamoeba on Sabouraud's agar from a patient with keratitis.  


A 25-year-old transgender patient came with complaints of watery discharge, red eye and photophobia in the left eye since 2 days. The patient had a history of wearing colored contact lenses since 4 years and cleaning the lens with tap water. Culture of lenses on Mac Conkey and blood agar yielded Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Sabouroud's agar showed yeast cells and double-walled cysts of Acanthamoeba species. On further incubation of Sabouroud's agar, the cysts transformed to trophozoites. Parallel results were obtained on tap water agar. The previous therapy of moxifloxacin was changed to local Neosporin application. PMID:23508061

Baradkar, Vasant; Samal, Badhuli; Mali, Swapna A; Kulkarni, Ketaki; Shastri, Jayanthi



Color vision: retinal blues.  


Two complementary studies have resolved the circuitry underlying green-blue color discrimination in the retina. A blue-sensitive interneuron provides the inhibitory signal required for computing green-blue color opponency. PMID:22917511

Johnston, Jamie; Esposti, Federico; Lagnado, Leon



The Blue Bottle Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a modification of the classic Blue Bottle demonstration that involves the alkaline glucose reduction of methylene blue. Uses other indicators in the classic Blue Bottle to produce a rainbow of colors. (JRH)

Vandaveer, Walter R., IV; Mosher, Mel



Growth of Desulfovibrio on the Surface of Agar Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Growth of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (API strain) was found to take place in an atmosphere of hydrogen on the agar surface of complex media, including yeast extract (Difco), and Trypticase Soy Agar (BBL) without any added reducing agents. For growth on a...

W. P. Iverson



Detection of extracellular proteases from microorganisms on agar plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present herein an improved assay for detecting the presence of extracellular proteases from microorganisms on agar plates. Using different substrates (gelatin, BSA, hemoglobin) incorporated into the agar and varying the culture medium composition, we were able to detect proteolytic activities from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus and Serratia marcescens as well as the influence that these components displayed in the

Alane Beatriz Vermelho; Maria Nazareth Leal Meirelles; Andréa Lopes; Simone Dias Gonçalves Petinate; André Adriano Chaia; Marta Helena Branquinha



A Novel Chromogenic Ester Agar Medium for Detection of Salmonellae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel agar medium, chromogenic Salmonella esterase (CSE) agar, for the differentiation of salmonellae is described. The agar contains peptones and nutrient extracts together with the following (grams per liter unless otherwise specified): 4-(2-(4-octanoyloxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-vinyl)-quinolinium-1-(propan-3-yl carboxylic acid) bromide (SLPA-octanoate; bromide form), 0.3223; lactose, 14.65; trisodium citrate dihydrate, 0.5; Tween 20, 3.0; ethyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate, 0.035% (wt\\/vol), novobiocin, 70 mg liter 21 .




Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Alabama  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Alabama BlueCross and BlueShield Medical Information Server, located and developed by the University of Alabama at Birmingham Department of Computer and Information Sciences, through a grant from Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Alabama for the express purpose of providing Internet access to medical information for all physicians and other health care providers in the state of Alabama. It provides links to a broad range of medical information resources located throughout the Internet. Menus provide information on diseases and disorders, patient care and medical practice, medical specialties, journals and newsletters, health care reform, and other medical information.



21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR




Automated counting of bacterial colony forming units on agar plates.  


Manual counting of bacterial colony forming units (CFUs) on agar plates is laborious and error-prone. We therefore implemented a colony counting system with a novel segmentation algorithm to discriminate bacterial colonies from blood and other agar plates.A colony counter hardware was designed and a novel segmentation algorithm was written in MATLAB. In brief, pre-processing with Top-Hat-filtering to obtain a uniform background was followed by the segmentation step, during which the colony images were extracted from the blood agar and individual colonies were separated. A Bayes classifier was then applied to count the final number of bacterial colonies as some of the colonies could still be concatenated to form larger groups. To assess accuracy and performance of the colony counter, we tested automated colony counting of different agar plates with known CFU numbers of S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and M. catarrhalis and showed excellent performance. PMID:22448267

Brugger, Silvio D; Baumberger, Christian; Jost, Marcel; Jenni, Werner; Brugger, Urs; Mühlemann, Kathrin



Rapid distinction between micrococci and staphylococci with furazolidone agars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Furazolidone agar proved to be a suitable medium for separating strains of the genera Micrococcus and Staphylococcus. 720 isolates (including 24 type strains) of gram- and catalase-positive cocci were tested for growth on tryptone soya and peptone agar with the addition of 50 µg\\/ml furazolidone. The results were compared with the classification obtained by the standard-O\\/F-test and by the test

K. E. yON RHEINBABEN; R. M. Hadlok



Development of an eco-friendly agar extraction technique from the red seaweed Gracilaria lemaneiformis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The red seaweed, Gracilaria lemaneiformis growing as an aquaculture bioremediator along the coasts of Liaodong Peninsula, China, was investigated for the agar production. An eco-friendly method called agar photobleaching extraction process was developed for the benefit of workers’ health and safety of the environment. The native agar (NA), alkali-modified agar (AA), chemical-bleached agar (CA) and photobleached agar (PA), which were

Haiyan Li; Xingju Yu; Yan Jin; Wei Zhang; Yuanling Liu



Enhanced degradation of caffeine by immobilized cells of Pseudomonas sp. in agar–agar matrix using statistical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we isolated caffeine degrading Pseudomonas strain from soil of coffee plantation area, which could utilize caffeine as sole carbon and nitrogen source and could tolerate caffeine up to 20g\\/L. In this study, caffeine degradation by immobilized cells of this strain was investigated. Various matrices were considered and agar–agar was chosen based on degradation rate (0.08g\\/(Lh)), bead stability and reusability.

Sathyanarayana N. Gummadi; K. B. Ganesh; Devarai Santhosh



Greening the Blue Bottle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new formulation is reported for the Blue Bottle demonstration. The new formulation uses methylene blue and O2 as in the classical Blue Bottle, but ascorbic acid replaces glucose. Instead of half-molar KOH, the solution has a pH of 3. Copper serves as the catalyst.

Wellman, Whitney E.; Noble, Mark E.



Staining method of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoic acids) producing bacteria by nile blue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Using an ethanol solution of nile blue, we have developed an efficient method to detect the colonies of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoic\\u000a acids) (PHA) producing bacteria on the agar plate. When the bacterial colonies with PHA granules were stained with nile blue,\\u000a the stained colonies fluoresced bright orange on the irradiation of UV light. In the fluoresce emission spectra, fluorescence\\u000a intensity increased with

Shiro Kitamura; Yoshihara Doi



New Chromogenic Agar Medium for the Identification of Candida spp.  

PubMed Central

A new chromogenic agar medium (Candida diagnostic agar [CDA]) for differentiation of Candida spp. is described. This medium is based on Sabouraud dextrose agar (Oxoid CM41) and contains (per liter) 40.0 g of glucose, 10.0 g of mycological peptone, and 15.0 g of agar along with a novel chromogenic glucosaminidase substrate, ammonium 4-{2-[4-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-?-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-3-methoxyphenyl]-vinyl}-1-(propan-3-yl-oate)-quinolium bromide (0.32 g liter?1). The glucosaminidase substrate in CDA was hydrolyzed by Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis, yielding white colonies with deep-red spots on a yellow transparent background after 24 to 48 h of incubation at 37°C. Colonies of Candida tropicalis and Candida kefyr were uniformly pink, and colonies of other Candida spp., including Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis, were white. CDA was evaluated by using 115 test strains of Candida spp. and other clinically important yeasts and was compared with two commercially available chromogenic agars (Candida ID agar [bioMerieux] and CHROMagar Candida [CHROMagar Company Ltd.]). On all three agars, colonies of C. albicans were not distinguished from colonies of C. dubliniensis. However, for the group containing C. albicans plus C. dubliniensis, both the sensitivity and the specificity of detection when CDA was used were 100%, compared with values of 97.6 and 100%, respectively, with CHROMagar Candida and 100 and 96.8%, respectively, with Candida ID agar. In addition, for the group containing C. tropicalis plus C. kefyr, the sensitivity and specificity of detection when CDA was used were also 100%, compared with 72.7 and 98.1%, respectively, with CHROMagar Candida. Candida ID agar did not differentiate C. tropicalis and C. kefyr strains but did differentiate members of a broader group (C. tropicalis, C. kefyr, Candida lusitaniae plus Candida guilliermondii); the sensitivity and specificity of detection for members of this group were 94.7 and 93.8%, respectively. In addition to the increased sensitivity and/or specificity of Candida detection when CDA was used, differentiation of colony types on CDA (red spotted, pink, or no color) was unambiguous and did not require precise assessment of colony color.

Cooke, Venitia M.; Miles, R. J.; Price, R. G.; Midgley, G.; Khamri, W.; Richardson, A. C.



The Blue Flame Cafe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online biographical encyclopedia of the blues contains entries on almost all of the "great blues singers and singers of the blues." Entries include the pioneers and foundational figures such as Bessie Smith, Robert Johnson, and T-Bone Walker; their lesser-known (outside the Blues community) contemporaries; and their more recent musical heirs such as Stevie Ray Vaughan and Eric Clapton. Each singer's entry includes a concise overview of their influences, career, and musical legacy. Most are also accompanied by a tantalizingly short (only ten seconds) song excerpt in .wav format. A collection of blues links and an internal search engine round out the site.


Comparison of agar disk diffusion, microdilution broth, and agar dilution for testing antimicrobial susceptibility of coagulase-negative staphylococci.  

PubMed Central

A collection of 120 oxacillin-susceptible and 120 oxacillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) from six tertiary care hospital laboratories were tested by agar disk diffusion, three microdilution broth systems (Sensititre, Dynatech, and Alpkem), and the Vitek AutoMicrobic system for comparison with reference agar dilution results. The antimicrobial agents tested were oxacillin, cefazolin, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, cefamandole, fusidic acid, rifampin, and vancomycin. Incubation was at 30 or 35 degrees C for 24, 48, and 72 h. The broth media were supplemented with 2% NaCl for some antimicrobial agents, and the agar dilution method was used with and without the addition of 4% NaCl. The CNS were identified to species by the method of Kloos and Schleifer. The results showed a lack of concordance between two hospitals with respect to oxacillin susceptibility testing by agar dilution with no NaCl supplement. The reasons are not clear but may be related to variations in media. The 4% NaCl supplement or extended incubation to 48 h eliminated this difference. The cefazolin and cefotaxime susceptibility results in the agar disk diffusion test were unreliable if accepted at face value. Cefamandole testing correlated well with the reference method regardless of the method used, and salt supplementation is not recommended. Most of the oxacillin-resistant CNS were resistant to the other beta-lactam drugs except cefamandole. Of 22 CNS resistant to cefamandole, 21 were S. haemolyticus.

Smith, J A; Henry, D A; Bourgault, A M; Bryan, L; Harding, G J; Hoban, D J; Horsman, G B; Marrie, T; Turgeon, P



Isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from fresh produce using STEC heart infusion washed blood agar with mitomycin-C.  


The ability to detect and isolate Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) remains a major challenge for food microbiologists. Although methods based on nucleic acids and antibodies have improved detection of STECs in foods, isolation of these bacteria remains arduous. STEC isolation is necessary for matching food, environmental, and clinical isolates during outbreak investigations and for distinguishing between pathogenic and nonpathogenic organisms. STEC heart infusion washed blood agar with mitomycin-C (SHIBAM) is a modification of washed sheep blood agar prepared by adding mitomycin-C and optimizing both the washed blood and base agar to better isolate STECs. Most STEC isolates produce a zone of hemolysis on SHIBAM plates and are easily distinguishable from background microbiota. Here, we present data supporting the use of SHIBAM to isolate STECs from fresh produce. SHIBAM was tested for accuracy in identifying STECs (365 of 410 STEC strains were hemolytic, and 63 of 73 E. coli strains that did not produce Shiga toxin were not hemolytic) and for recovery from artificially inoculated fresh produce (11 of 24 romaine lettuce samples and 6 of 24 tomato samples). STEC recovery with SHIBAM agar was greatly improved when compared with recovery on Levine's eosin-methylene blue agar as a reference method. PMID:23127712

Lin, Andrew; Nguyen, Lam; Clotilde, Laurie M; Kase, Julie A; Son, Insook; Lauzon, Carol R



Method for Measuring Changes in Surface Tension on Agar  

PubMed Central

The surface tension of agar surfaces was determined by measuring the contact angles formed by drops of various hydrophobic liquids on the surface and then calculating the composite surface free energy function by solving a series of simultaneous equations derived from these data. This method was used to measure the change in the surface tension of agar produced by the addition of various concentrations of albumin. The resulting curve was typical of the effect of increasing concentrations of surfactants on surface tension. The method was compared with other methods of determining surface tension of solids, and it was concluded that the technique used here provided the most reliable results.

Weisberg, David S.; Dworkin, Martin



Plating of isolated tobacco mesophyll protoplasts on agar medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique was developed to derive cell and plant clones from isolated mesophyll protoplasts of tobacco. The protoplasts, plated on a fully defined agar medium, divided and grew actively forming visible colonies after one month of culture. Efficiency of colony formation depended on cell density and light condition during incubation. Under standard conditions, 60% of plated protoplasts formed colonies. Upon

Toshiyuki Nagata; Itaru Takebe



Recovery of Sublethally Injured Bacteria Using Selective Agar Overlays.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This experiment subjects bacteria in a food sample and an environmental sample to conditions of sublethal stress in order to assess the effectiveness of the agar overlay method to recover sublethally injured cells compared to direct plating onto the appropriate selective medium. (SAH)|

McKillip, John L.



Growth kinetics of three species of Tetrahymena on solid agar  

SciTech Connect

A nutrient-agar method without liquid overlay has been developed for cultivation of ciliates. Three species of Tetrahymena-T. pyriformis strain W, T. rostrata strain UNI, and T. vorax strain V/sub 2/S, representing the 3 main groups of Tetrahymena species, were used; however the method should apply to other ciliates. Growth on the surface of the agar was facilitated by an optimal surface-to-volume ratio yielding a high density of ciliates and short generation times. At the highest density achieved, the cells became irregularly hexagonal and formed a monolayer tissue on the agar. Ciliates grown on agar were like those in liquid culture, typical oral ciliature, food-vacuole formation, and typical cortical patterns being retained. Advantages of this method include high cell density, easy recovery, and optimal O/sub 2/ supply. The organisms can also be cultivated on the surface of sterile cellulose-nitrate filters, facilitating in situ fixation and staining as well as transfer into different media by transfer of filters with cells, without prior centrifugation and resuspension.

Dobra, K.W.; McArdle, E.W.; Ehret, C.F.



Spectra MRSA, a new chromogenic agar medium to screen for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  


A novel chromogenic medium, Spectra MRSA (Remel, Lenexa, KS), was designed to detect methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) rapidly and more efficiently than traditional media (i.e., tryptic soy agar with 5% sheep blood [SBA] and mannitol salt agar [MSA]). A multicenter study (including four clinical trial sites and the Medical College of Wisconsin [MCW] Milwaukee, WI) compared the performance characteristics of Spectra MRSA to those of the traditional media for the detection of MRSA. For this study, 767 nasal swab specimens from the multicenter study (traditional medium used, SBA) and 667 nasal swab specimens from MCW (traditional medium used, MSA) were plated on each test medium and examined after 24 and 48 h of incubation. At 24 h, the sensitivity and the specificity of each medium were as follows: in the multicenter study, 95.4% and 99.7%, respectively, for Spectra MRSA and 93.6% and 100%, respectively, for SBA; at MCW, 95.2% and 99.5%, respectively, for Spectra MRSA and 88.7% and 94.0%, respectively, for MSA. The positive predictive values of each medium at 24 h were as follows: in the multicenter study, 98.1% for Spectra MRSA and 100% for SBA; at MCW, 95.2% for Spectra MRSA and 60.4% for MSA. In our evaluation, we found that Spectra MRSA was able to rapidly identify and differentiate methicillin-resistant S. aureus from methicillin-susceptible S. aureus on the basis of the utilization of chromogens that result in denim blue colonies, thus eliminating the need for biochemical analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Extending the incubation beyond 24 h did not significantly improve the recovery of MRSA and resulted in decreased specificity. PMID:19889898

Peterson, Jess F; Riebe, Katherine M; Hall, Gerri S; Wilson, Deborah; Whittier, Susan; Palavecino, Elizabeth; Ledeboer, Nathan A



Comparison of chromogenic Biolog Rainbow agar Shigella/Aeromonas with xylose lysine desoxycholate agar for isolation and detection of Shigella spp. from foods.  


Shigella outbreaks are widely reported throughout the world. However, it remains a challenge to isolate Shigella spp. from foods by using conventional microbiological media. The main objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a novel chromogenic medium, Rainbow agar Shigella/Aeromonas (Rainbow agar), for the isolation and detection of Shigella spp. in foods. All four Shigella species, S. sonnei, S. flexneri, S. dysenteriae, and S. boydii, were studied. Rainbow agar was compared with tryptic soy agar, xylose lysine desoxycholate agar (XLD), and Salmonella Shigella agar (SSA) for enumeration of Shigella spp. in pure culture. This chromogenic agar and XLD were also used to isolate Shigella spp. in artificially contaminated foods (4.8 log CFU/g of food), including lettuce, parsley, cilantro, spinach, potato salad, and shrimp. The inhibitory effect on Shigella growth by Rainbow agar was between that of XLD and SSA. All vegetables studied showed a moderately high background microflora on XLD and Rainbow agar. With artificially inoculated produce, Rainbow agar recovered about 1 to 2 log CFU more S. sonnei, S. dysenteriae, and S. boydii per g of food than did XLD. For potato salad and shrimp, which had low background microflora on Rainbow agar, Rainbow agar was slightly better in recovering Shigella spp. than XLD was in most cases. However, we found that the addition of streptomycin (6.25 mg/liter) to Rainbow agar could facilitate the isolation of Shigella in vegetables tested. In conclusion, Rainbow agar was a much more effective medium than was XLD for the isolation of Shigella spp. from foods. PMID:20819355

Zhang, Guodong; Lampel, Keith A



Correlation of Neo-Sensitabs Tablet Diffusion Assay Results on Three Different Agar Media with CLSI Broth Microdilution M27-A2 and Disk Diffusion M44-A Results for Testing Susceptibilities of Candida spp. and Cryptococcus neoformans to Amphotericin B, Caspofungin, Fluconazole, Itraconazole, and Voriconazole  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the Neo-Sensitabs tablet assay to both reference M27-A2 broth microdilution and M44-A disk diffusion methods for testing susceptibilities of 110 isolates of Candida spp. and Cryptococcus neoformans to amphotericin B, caspofungin, fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole. Neo-Sensitabs assay inhibition zone diameters in millimeters on three agars (Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 2% dextrose and 0.5 g\\/ml methylene blue (MGM), Shadomy

A. Espinel-Ingroff; E. Canton; D. Gibbs; A. Wang



From blue jeans to blue genes.  


Cutaneous venous anomalies are common. They are blue and vary in size, number, and location and account for most consultations at specialized interdisciplinary clinics for vascular anomalies. Venous lesions are clinically important because they cause pain, dysfunction, destruction of adjacent tissues, and esthetic concern. Only resection and sclerotherapy are helpful, although not always curative. Understanding etiopathogenesis could help design animal models and develop novel therapeutic approaches. John B. Mulliken, MD, envisioned a project to uncover the genetic basis of an inherited form of venous malformation in a large New England family. Recruitment of 2 young fellows resulted in a collaborative project that unraveled the searched-for gene and its mutation. This was an opening for a new era in vascular anomalies. Two blue genes' mutations were discovered, which account for most, if not all, of the inherited forms of venous anomalies, but other genes as well, for rheologically diverse lesions. Differential diagnosis and management has improved, and animal models are being made. This was achieved through the help of Dr Mulliken, who inspired 2 young investigators in blue jeans to find 2 blue genes. PMID:19190503

Boon, Laurence M; Vikkula, Miikka




PubMed Central

Cutaneous venous anomalies are common. They are blue in color and vary in size, number and location, and account for the majority of consultations at specialized interdisciplinary clinics for vascular anomalies. Venous lesions are clinically important as they cause pain, dysfunction, destruction of adjacent tissues and esthetic concern. Only resection and sclerotherapy are helpful, although not always curative. Understanding etiopathogenesis could help design animal models and develop novel therapeutic approaches. Dr Mulliken envisioned a project to uncover the genetic basis of an inherited form of venous malformation in a large New England family. Recruitment of two young fellows resulted in a collaborative project that unraveled the searched-for-gene and its mutation. This was an opening for a new era in the field of vascular anomalies. Two blue genes’ mutations were discovered, which account for the majority, if not all, of the inherited forms of venous anomalies, but other genes as well, for rheologically diverse lesions. Differential diagnosis and management has improved, and animal models are being made. This was achieved thanks to Dr Mulliken, who inspired two young investigators in blue jeans to find two blue genes.

Boon, Laurence M.; Vikkula, Miikka



Multicenter Evaluation of a New Disk Agar Diffusion Method for Susceptibility Testing of Filamentous Fungi with Voriconazole, Posaconazole, Itraconazole, Amphotericin B, and Caspofungin?  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to correlate inhibition zone diameters, in millimeters (agar diffusion disk method), with the broth dilution MICs or minimum effective concentrations (MECs) (CLSI M38-A method) of five antifungal agents to identify optimal testing guidelines for disk mold testing. The following disk diffusion testing parameters were evaluated for 555 isolates of the molds Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus sp. (five species), Alternaria sp., Bipolaris spicifera, Fusarium sp. (three species), Mucor sp. (two species), Paecilomyces lilacinus, Rhizopus sp. (two species), and Scedosporium sp. (two species): (i) two media (supplemented Mueller-Hinton agar [2% dextrose and 0.5 ?g/ml methylene blue] and plain Mueller-Hinton [MH] agar), (ii) three incubation times (16 to 24, 48, and 72 h), and (iii) seven disks (amphotericin B and itraconazole 10-?g disks, voriconazole 1- and 10-?g disks, two sources of caspofungin 5-?g disks [BBL and Oxoid], and posaconazole 5-?g disks). MH agar supported better growth of all of the species tested (24 to 48 h). The reproducibility of zone diameters and their correlation with either MICs or MECs (caspofungin) were superior on MH agar (91 to 100% versus 82 to 100%; R, 0.71 to 0.93 versus 0.53 to 0.96 for four of the five agents). Based on these results, the optimal testing conditions for mold disk diffusion testing were (i) plain MH agar; (ii) incubation times of 16 to 24 h (zygomycetes), 24 h (Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, and A. niger), and 48 h (other species); and (iii) the posaconazole 5-?g disk, voriconazole 1-?g disk, itraconazole 10-?g disk (for all except zygomycetes), BBL caspofungin 5-?g disk, and amphotericin B 10-?g (zygomycetes only).

Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Arthington-Skaggs, B.; Iqbal, N.; Ellis, D.; Pfaller, M. A.; Messer, S.; Rinaldi, M.; Fothergill, A.; Gibbs, D. L.; Wang, A.



Marennine production by agar-entrapped Haslea ostrearia Simonsen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pennate Diatom Haslea ostrearia was successfully immobilized in agar-gel disks and tested for marennine production in batch experiments. The concentration of pigment recovered varied between 34 and 92 mg l?1 liquid medium, according to the initial cell loading of the gel structures, which corresponded to volumetric production rates between 15 and 50 mg day?1 l?1 gel. Average specific productivities

T. Lebeau; G.-A. Junter; T. Jouenne; J.-M. Robert



Alcoholic fermentation by agar-immobilized yeast cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immobilized yeast cells in agar gel beads were used in a packed bed reactor for the production of ethanol from cane molasses at 30°C, pH 4.5. The maximum productivity, 79.5g ethanol\\/l.h was obtained with 195g\\/l reducing sugar as feed. Substrate (64.2%) was utilized at a dilution of 1.33h-1. The immobilized cell reactor was operated continuously at a constant dilution rate

J. N. Nigam; B. K. Gogoi; R. L. Bezbaruah



NaCl doping and the conductivity of agar phantoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recipe for manipulating the conductivity of agar impedance-imaging phantoms through their NaCl (salt) content is reexamined. The conductivities at frequencies 100kHz and below are characterized for phantoms created with the recipe. The data are compared against the recipe's predictive formula for conductivity as a function of salt content. Based on analysis of the data a modified version of the

D. Bennett



Screening for drug-resistant Candida yeasts with chromogenic agar.  


We examined the utility of agar dilution to screen yeasts for reduced susceptibility to several newer antifungal drugs including echinocandins and azoles. We compared agar dilution susceptibility screening with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) method for Candida isolates. We added echinocandins and azoles to CHROMagar Candida medium prior to its solidification. Assessment of resistance was based on growth characteristics, wherein decreased colony size in the presence of antifungal drugs was used as an indicator of susceptibility. Clinical Candida isolates of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, C. lusitaniae, C. rugosa and C. dubliniensis were screened for drug susceptibility. Overall, antifungal susceptibility of the yeasts to anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, posaconazole and voriconazole, determined using CHROMagar agar dilution, were shown to be 96, 80, 94, 90 and 97% as accurate, respectively, as those determined by the CLSI method, i.e., within one tube dilution of CLSI MICs. Categorical errors by percentage had a broader range. Major errors noted with anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin were 3, 6 and 0%, respectively, while very major errors were 15, 55 and 38%, respectively. Major errors with posaconazole and voriconazole were 12 and 0%, respectively, while very major errors were 0 and 22%, respectively, compared to CLSI standards. Most of the assessment errors were found with C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis. Agar dilution screening for drug susceptibility with the current panel of antifungal drugs is rapid, accurate and effective. However, the determination of resistance or non-susceptibility in yeasts may be more problematic, and may be species dependent. PMID:20109095

Kirkpatrick, William R; Zimmerman, Joseph D; Haikal, Fadi P; Broker, Michael J; Brockway, Erin; Fothergill, Annette W; McCarthy, Dora I; Patterson, Thomas F; Redding, Spencer W



Methods for identifying lipoxygenase producing microorganisms on agar plates  

PubMed Central

Plate assays for lipoxygenase producing microorganisms on agar plates have been developed. Both potassium iodide-starch and indamine dye formation methods were effective for detecting soybean lipoxygenase activity on agar plates. A positive result was also achieved using the ?-carotene bleaching method, but the sensitivity of this method was lower than the other two methods. The potassium iodide-starch and indamine dye formation methods were also applied for detecting lipoxygenase production by Trichoderma reesei and Pichia pastoris transformants expressing the lipoxygenase gene of the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis. In both cases lipoxygenase production in the transformants could be identified. For detection of the G. graminis lipoxygenase produced by Aspergillus nidulans the potassium iodide-starch method was successful. When Escherichia coli was grown on agar and soybean lipoxygenase was applied on the culture lipoxygenase activity could clearly be detected by the indamine dye formation method. This suggests that the method has potential for screening of metagenomic libraries in E. coli for lipoxygenase activity.



Blue ocean strategy.  


Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades. PMID:15559577

Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée



Beautiful Blue Nile  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students learn about the Blue Nile and compare it to rivers in the United States. They discuss their experiences with rivers and what they think it would be like to travel down a river that rapidly descends from the mountains to the plains. After looking at a map of Ethiopia, students describe what they would see in the area around the Blue Nile. They will witness a demonstration of a river running over flat versus mountainous terrain and view photos of the Blue Nile to describe the terrain.


BAM Media M95: Mannitol-Egg Yolk-Polymyxin (MYP) Agar  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M95: Mannitol-Egg Yolk-Polymyxin (MYP) Agar. January 2001. ... M95 Mannitol-Egg Yolk-Polymyxin (MYP) Agar. Base. Beef extract, 1 g. ... More results from


BAM Media M153: Trypticase Soy Agar with 0.6% Yeast ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M153: Trypticase Soy Agar with 0.6% Yeast Extract. January 2001. ... M153 Trypticase Soy Agar with 0.6% Yeast Extract (TSAYE). ... More results from


Use of the Antiserum-Agar Plate Technique for Specific Identification and Isolation of Pasteurella Pestis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pasteurella pestis colonies were specifically identified on antiserum-agar plates used for primary culture of tissues from experimentally infected guinea pigs. Both selective and nonselective antiserum-agar plates were used to identify P. pestis from guin...

J. M. Albizo M. J. Surgalla



BAM Media M23: Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) Agar (0.7%)  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M23: Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) Agar (0.7%). January 2001. ... M23 Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) Agar (0.7%) (for staphylococcal enterotoxin). ... More results from


Effect of alkali treatment time and extraction time on agar from Gracilaria vermiculophylla  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of alkali treatment time and extraction time of native agar and alkali treated agar obtained from Gracilaria vermiculophylla were studied. The response characteristics were mainly agar yield and gel strength. Alkali treatment was carried out at 0.5,\\u000a 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 h. Agar yield and gel strength decreased with the increase in the time of the alkali

Dora Luz Arvizu-Higuera; Y. Elizabeth Rodríguez-Montesinos; J. Iván Murillo-Álvarez; Mauricio Muñoz-Ochoa; Gustavo Hernández-Carmona



Effect of alkali treatment time and extraction time on agar from Gracilaria vermiculophylla  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of alkali treatment time and extraction time of native agar and alkali treated agar obtained from Gracilaria vermiculophylla were studied. The response characteristics were mainly agar yield and gel strength. Alkali-treatment was carried out at 0.5,\\u000a 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 h. Agar yield and gel strength decreased with the increase in the time of the alkali-treatment.\\u000a The

Dora Luz Arvizu-Higuera; Y. Elizabeth Rodríguez-Montesinos; J. Iván Murillo-Álvarez; Mauricio Muñoz-Ochoa; Gustavo Hernández-Carmona


Blue Cone Monochromacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue cone monochromacy (BCM) is an X-linked ocular disorder in which affected males have normal short-wavelength-sensitive\\u000a (blue) cone and rod function but lack medium-(green) and long-wavelength-sensitive (red) cone function. Affected males characteristically\\u000a have visual acuities of 20\\/100 to 20\\/200, myopia, nystagmus, and minimal foveal granularity with otherwise normal fundus findings.1

Radha Ayyagari; Laura E. Kakuk; Yumiko Toda; Caraline L. Coats; Eve L. Bingham; Janet J. Szczesny; Joost Felius; Paul A. Sieving


Development of an eco-friendly agar extraction technique from the red seaweed Gracilaria lemaneiformis.  


The red seaweed, Gracilaria lemaneiformis growing as an aquaculture bioremediator along the coasts of Liaodong Peninsula, China, was investigated for the agar production. An eco-friendly method called agar photobleaching extraction process was developed for the benefit of workers' health and safety of the environment. The native agar (NA), alkali-modified agar (AA), chemical-bleached agar (CA) and photobleached agar (PA), which were extracted using different processes, were evaluated for their physical and chemical properties. The PA showed most desirable performances in terms of gel strength, gelling temperature, sulfate content and 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose content. Among the different processed agars, PA gel strength was 1913 g/cm2, the highest among the different processed agars, which increased 8.6% on the basis of the AA. Further we applied this new technique to extract agars from Gracilaria asiatica, and similar results were obtained with that of G. lemaneiformis. This indicates that the agar photobleaching extraction process is a feasible method for Gracilaria species and has a potential application. During the whole agar photobleaching extraction process the pigment content of G. lemaneiformis declined gradually and the TOC concentration in photobleaching solution increased along with the increase in the irradiation time. The mechanism of agar photobleaching could be elucidated by the photolysis theory. PMID:17765536

Li, Haiyan; Yu, Xingju; Jin, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Yuanling



Agar Underlay Method for Recovery of Sublethally Heat-Injured Bacteria  

PubMed Central

A method of recovering sublethally heat-injured bacteria was developed. The procedure (termed the agar underlay method) uses a nonselective agar underlaid with a selective medium. In a two-chambered petri dish, the Lutri plate (LP), a nonselective agar is inoculated with a population of sublethally heat-injured bacteria. After a 2-h repair incubation period, selective agar is added to the bottom chamber of the LP and incubated. By diffusing through the nonselective top agar, selective agents from the underlay medium impart selectivity to the system. By the agar underlay method, recovery rates of the heat-injured food-borne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium were not different (P > 0.05) from recovery rates determined with nonselective media. Sublethally heat-injured cells (60°C for 1.5 min in buffer or 80°C for 30 s on meat surfaces) grew and produced a typical colony morphology and color reaction when the agar underlay procedure was used with the appropriate respective selective agars. Unlike agar overlay methods for injury repair, the agar underlay procedure allows the typical selective-medium colony morphology to develop and allows colonies to be more easily picked for further characterization. Higher recovery rates of heat-injured fecal enterococci from bovine fecal samples and total coliforms from animal waste lagoons were obtained by the agar underlay method with selective agars than by direct plating on the respective selective media.

Kang, D. H.; Siragusa, G. R.



Evaluation of an Automated Instrument for Inoculating and Spreading Samples onto Agar Plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The findings from a preliminary assessment of a new instrument designed for the inoculation and spreading of specimens for microbiological analysis onto agar plates are described. The study found that the instrument was able to select full or biplates from a number of input cassettes, each containing different agar types. Samples were then inoculated by the instrument onto the agar

J. H. Glasson; L. H. Guthrie; D. J. Nielsen; F. A. Bethell



Which is Better for Disc Diffusion Assays of Essential Oils—IsoSensitest or Nutrient Agar?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disc diffusion assay is often used for screening of essential oils for antimicrobial activity. In this paper we describe an investigation into whether differences exist in the zone of inhibition obtained with two agar types; IsoSensitest and nutrient agar. Standard disc diffusion assay was performed using both agar types using three essential oils against two bacteria and one yeast.

Therese Moon; Heather Ma Cavanagh; Jenny M. Wilkinson



Agar-Gel Precipitin Technique in Anthrax Antibody Determinations1  

PubMed Central

A modification of the agar-gel precipitation inhibition technique of Thorne and Belton for detecting anthrax antibodies reduces inconsistency of visually determined end points on the same sera observed by different technicians. Determination of the minimal reacting concentrations of the anthrax antigen and antibody reagents, modifications of the visualization apparatus, methods for combining reagents, and length of incubation periods contribute to the ease of the end-point determinations and the uniformity of results. When compared with the previous technique, the modified procedure is less time-consuming while retaining satisfactory reproducibility, simplicity, specificity, and sensitivity. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2

Ray, John G.; Kadull, Paul J.



Culture of Piscirickettsia salmonis on enriched blood agar.  


Piscirickettsia salmonis is the etiologic agent of piscirickettsiosis, an economically significant disease of fish. Isolation of P. salmonis by culturing on fish cell lines has been the standard technique since the initial isolation of the organism. The ability to grow P. salmonis on artificial media would relieve facilities of the cost of maintaining cell lines, permit isolation at fish culture sites with fewer contamination problems, and allow easier transport of isolates to diagnostic facilities for confirmation assays. This report describes the successful culture of P. salmonis on enriched blood agar. PMID:18319435

Mauel, Michael J; Ware, Cynthia; Smith, Pedro A



Physicochemical properties of biodegradable polyvinyl alcohol-agar films from the red algae Hydropuntia cornea.  


Agar obtained from the red alga Hydropuntia cornea was blended with polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) in order to produce biodegradable films. In this study, we compare the properties of biopolymeric films formulated with agars extracted from H. cornea collected at different seasons (rainy and dry) in the Gulf of Mexico coast and PVOH as synthetic matrix. The films were prepared at different agar contents (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) and their optical, mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties analyzed. The tensile strength of PVOH-agar films increased when agar content was augmented. The formulation with 50% agar from rainy season (RS) had a significant higher tensile strength when compared to those from dry season (DS; p?agar blends from RS showed higher values than those from DS (p?agar content increased, independently of the season. Environmental scanning electron microscopy images of PVOH-agar 75% biofilms from RS showed a homogeneous structure with good interfacial adhesion between the two components. The changes evidenced in the FTIR spectrum of this blend suggest that hydrogen bonding is taking place between the agar ether linkages (C-O-C) and the hydroxyl groups (OH) of the PVOH. Based on the above mentioned results, blends of PVOH and 75% agar from H. cornea collected in rainy season showed good properties for applications in the biodegradable packaging industry. PMID:21207092

Madera-Santana, Tomás J; Robledo, Daniel; Freile-Pelegrín, Yolanda



Improved agar diffusion method for detecting residual antimicrobial agents.  


The improved agar diffusion method for determination of residual antimicrobial agents was investigated, and the sensitivities of various combinations of test organisms and assay media were determined using 7 organisms, 5 media, and 31 antimicrobial agents. Bacillus stearothermophilus and synthetic assay medium (SAM) showed the greatest sensitivity for screening penicillins (penicillin G and ampicillin). The combination of Bacillus subtilis and minimum medium (MM) was the most sensitive for tetracyclines (oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline), B. stearothermophilus and SAM or Micrococcus luteus and Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) for detecting tylosin and erythromycin, B. subtilis and MHA for aminoglycosides (streptomycin, kanamycin, gentamicin, and dihydrostreptomycin), B. stearothermophilus and SAM for polyethers (salinomycin and lasalocid), and B. subtilis and MM or Clostridium perfringens and GAM for polypeptides (thiopeptin, enramycin, virginiamycin, and bacitracin). However, gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli ATCC 27166 and MM were better for screening for colistin and polymixin-B. For detecting the synthetic drugs tested, the best combination was B. subtilis and MM for sulfonamides, E. coli 27166 and MM for quinolones (oxolinic acid and nalidixic acid), B. subtilis and MM for furans (furazolidone), and the bioluminescent bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum and luminescence assay medium for chloramphenicol and oxolinic acid. The results showed that the use of four assay plates, B. stearothermophilus and SAM, B. subtilis and MM, M. luteus and MHA, and E. coli 27166 and MM, was superior to the currently available techniques for screening for residual antimicrobial agents in edible animal tissues. PMID:11252480

Tsai, C E; Kondo, F



Extraction and Quantification of Solutes in Solidified Agar Culture Media  

PubMed Central

A method is described for determining the concentration of certain solutes in solidified culture media. The method is based upon the finding that under specified conditions the concentration of solute in an agar gel (Cg) is related to the concentration of solute in a centrifugally extracted gel supernatant (Cs) by the ratio, Cg/Cs, which is characteristic for each solute. The method avoids direct assays of the gels and instead involves assaying the supernatants from inoculated and uninoculated (control) gels with conventional liquid assay techniques and then calculating solute concentrations in the inoculated gels by use of the Cg/Cs ratios determined from the controls. Uninoculated agar gels containing known concentrations of various solutes and similar gels inoculated with Neurospora crassa or Escherichia coli were centrifuged at various times, and the supernatants were assayed for solute concentrations. The solute concentrations in the supernatants from the inoculated gels multiplied by the Cg/Cs ratios for those solutes determined at the same times for the uninoculated controls gave calculated solute concentrations in the inoculated gels. The differences between these calculated solute concentrations and those initially present in the inoculated gels indicated the amounts of solutes utilized from the gels by the microorganisms at various incubation times.

Buynitzky, Stephen J.; Howe, H. Branch; Shellhorse, Yovonne



Variation in Plating Efficiency of Salmonellae on Eight Lots of Brilliant Green Agar  

PubMed Central

The plating efficiency of Salmonella anatum, S. cubana, S. dublin, S. tennessee, and S. typhimurium was determined for eight lots of Brilliant Green Agar made by two manufacturers. Washed cells were used as the inoculum and cultures were incubated at 41.5 C. All lots of Brilliant Green Agar were supplemented with 12 mg of sulfadiazine per 100 ml of medium. Of the eight lots of Brilliant Green Agar tested, average recovery of the test salmonellae in three did not differ from recoveries with Trypticase Soy Agar, which was used as a control to indicate the number of viable salmonellae in the test suspension capable of growth on a nonselective medium. Two lots of Brilliant Green Agar gave salmonellae recoveries with geometric means about 25% lower than, and significantly different from, those of the control agar. The remaining three lots of Brilliant Green Agar were generally unproductive.

Read, R. B.; Reyes, A. L.



Quality control of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus agar and comparison with dichloran 18% glycerol agar: a collaborative study.  


AFPA culture medium, which is used for recognition of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, has been validated in a collaborative study including nine laboratories located in Australia, Brazil, Denmark, The Netherlands, Sweden and United Kingdom. Three freeze-dried fungal mixtures, containing A. flavus/A. parasiticus and background fungi, were produced and checked for homogeneity. The coefficients of variance were low, ranging from 0.81% to 1.09% for total fungal counts and between 2.50% and 2.72% for counts of A. flavus/A. parasiticus. The laboratories analysed the contents of two vials of each mixture on commercial A. flavus and A. parasiticus agar (AFPA), in-house-made AFPA, and on a standard media, dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18). Reproducibility values for counts of A. flavus/A. parasiticus indicated no differences between the commercial AFPA and the in-house-made AFPA. Variation between laboratories was low, indicating that the medium was effective in use. Reproducibility values for DG18 were higher. There were no differences in counts of A. flavus/A. parasiticus on AFPA and DG18. However, DG18 gave slightly higher total fungal counts compared to AFPA. PMID:14580978

Frändberg, Emma; Pitt, John; Olsen, Monica



[Precipitation of streptavidin complexes with biotinylated proteins in agar gel].  


The effect of precipitation of complexes of streptavidin with biotinylated proteins under conditions of simple (according to Mancini) and double (according to Ouchterlony) radial diffusion in agar gel was studied. The position and form of precipitation lines depended primarily on the initial concentration of components and the degree of protein biotinylation. Free biotin, 1% SDS, and 6 M urea contained in the gel, as well as thermal denaturation of streptavidin inhibited the precipitate formation. Mannose, glucose, fucose, galactose, sucrose, and NaCl at high concentrations had no effect on biospecific precipitation. A model of interaction of streptavidin with biotinylated macromolecules is suggested, which accounts for the observed effect, and the prospects of practical application of the precipitation effect are discussed. PMID:19235518

Novakovski?, M E; Vashkevich, I I; Sviridov, O V


Comparative dermatology: blue nevus.  


There are elements in nature that may be compared to some dermatological lesions, such as the black pearl, which is very similar to a cellular blue nevus observed in the gluteus region of a 31-year-old male patient. PMID:22892793

Barros, Jefferson Alfredo de; Kafler, Cristiane Calcidoni; Barros, Juliano Cesar de; Proto, Rodrigo Sestito; Priscila dos Santos, Costa; Machado Filho, Carlos D'Apparecida


Blue Crab Education Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Information compiled by the Virginia Institute of Marine Science on the anatomy, life cycle, ecology, and fisheries of the blue crab. Data, research reports, and instructions on eating crabs are all available. Educational resources include lesson plans, teaching tools, and access to online publications. Site serves as an exceptional resource for both beginners and experts.


Large Blue Butterflies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page deals with research being done on the parasitism of the "blue butterfly" group Maculinea. These species are well known for taking advantage of ants by chemically convincing ants that they are one of their own larvae. This page has some lovely photos, and a nice generalized life history table. Other links deal with aspects of the research including population genetics and communication.



Blue Crab Education Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Information compiled by the Virginia Institute of Marine Science on the anatomy, life cycle, ecology, and fisheries of the blue crab. Data, research reports, and instructions on eating crabs are all available. Educational resources include lesson plans, teaching tools, and access to online publications. Site serves as an exceptional resource for both beginners and experts.



The Blue Angel Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Blue Angel is a hibonite-rich calcite-bearing CAI from Murchison that has condensation textures. We have measured Al-Mg isotopic systematics by ion probe and find a good isochron with (^26Al\\/^27Al)_0 = 5 × 10 - 5. Implications are discussed.

G. J. Wasserburg; G. R. Huss; D. P. Papanastassiou



The Blue Angel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milan Uhde, born in 1936, is a Czech essayist, poet and playwright. He has also written extensively for radio, film and television, and fringe theatres in Brno, where he still lives. Since 1969 his work has appeared only in samizdat or abroad.His ‘monodrama’ The Blue Angel was purposely written in the most simple theatrical form to allow performance without a

Milan Uhde



The Blue Angel Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Blue Angel is a hibonite-rich calcite-bearing CAI from Murchison that has condensation textures. We have measured Al-Mg isotopic systematics by ion probe and find a good isochron with (^26Al/^27Al)_0 = 5 × 10 - 5. Implications are discussed.

Wasserburg, G. J.; Huss, G. R.; Papanastassiou, D. P.



Simplified measurement of soil pH using an agar-contact technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the indirect measurement of soil-pH is described. This method allows the spatial arrangement of soil and rhizosphere to be conserved. The soil is brought into contact with a layer of agar, containing bromocresol purple. A nylon gauze is placed between soil and agar. For quantitative pH measurements, a micro-electrode is inserted into the agar after three hours

Jan W. M. Pijnenborg; T. A. Lie; A. J. B. Zehnder



Quantification of gentamicin in Mueller–Hinton agar by high-performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to optimise a method for gentamicin determination in an agar matrix and to investigate if and how agar composition can affect the gentamicin diffusion kinetics during the agar diffusion tests for antibiotics sensitivity. Gentamicin was separated by RP-HPLC and detected at 365 nm after pre-column derivatization with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Recovery (?79%), linearity (r2?0.997) and sensitivity

C. Arcelloni; B. Comuzzi; R. Vaiani; R. Paroni



Gentamicin diffusion in Mueller-Hinton agar plates from different manufacturers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sir, The diameter of inhibition zones in agar diffusion suscept- ibility test is the result of several variables related to the antibiotic-bacterium pair, standard method and composi- tion of the medium.1 The evaluation of different lots of Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) and the development and application of reference media in the agar diffusion test has been taken into consideration by the

C. Arcelloni; R. Vaiani; R. Paroni; H. S. Raffaele Milan


A modified agar pad method for mycobacterial live-cell imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Two general approaches to prokaryotic live-cell imaging have been employed to date, growing bacteria on thin agar pads or\\u000a growing bacteria in micro-channels. The methods using agar pads 'sandwich' the cells between the agar pad on the bottom and\\u000a a glass cover slip on top, before sealing the cover slip. The advantages of this technique are that it is simple

Graham Joyce; Brian D Robertson; Kerstin J Williams



Susceptibility of Candida albicans to photodynamic therapy using methylene blue and toluidine blue as photosensitizing dyes.  


The increased resistance of Candida albicans to antibiotic therapy indicates the need for alternative treatments for oral candidiasis. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been researched as an alternative tool to inactivate pathogenic microorganisms. It uses a combination of a photosensitizer and a visible light source. This study evaluated the susceptibility of C. albicans to PDT and compared the efficacy of 100 microg/mL methylene blue (MB) and toluidine blue (TB) as photosensitizers. The light source was Indium-Gallium-Aluminum Phosphide (InGaAIP) laser at 53 J/cm2. Suspensions of 108 cells/mL of C. albicans were subject to PDT for 5 minutes in 96-well plates, then decimal dilutions were plated on Sabouraud Dextrose agar After 48h incubation at 37 degreesC, the number of CFU/mL were obtained and submitted to statistical analysis using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, ANOVA (p<0.0001) and Tukey tests. The results showed that MB or laser irradiation alone did not have statistically significant antifungal activity compared to the positive control group (p> 0. 05). Conversely, the number of viable C. albicans cells was reduced significantly after PDT using MB or mainly TB associated to diode laser irradiation. The data proved the efficacy of PDT against C. albicans cells, regardless of the photosensitizer used. PMID:22165318

Pupo, Yasmine M; Gomes, Giovana M; Santos, Elizabete B; Chaves, Luzia; Michel, Milton D; Kozlowski, Vitoldo A; Gomes, Osnara M M; Gomes, Joãdo Carlos



Bacterial pathogens of otitis media and sinusitis: detection in the nasopharynx with selective agar media.  


Carriage rates for the bacterial pathogens associated with otitis media (Streptococcus pneumoniae [SP], Hemophilus influenzae [HI], and Moraxella catarrhalis [MC]) are of interest. Culture on three selective agars was compared with culture on two standard agars to determine the more accurate method for detection of these species in the nasopharynx of healthy children. Weekly samples were obtained in winter from 18 healthy children (ages 1 through 9 years) as part of a longitudinal study. A 0.1-mL sample of 116 nasopharyngeal aspirate/washes was inoculated onto each of five agars. Two were standard (sheep blood and chocolate), and three were selective (blood with gentamicin for SP; chocolate with vancomycin, bacitracin, and clindamycin for HI; blood with amphotericin B, vancomycin, trimethoprim, and acetazolamide for MC). One technician read the standard plates and another the selective; both were blinded to the results of the other. SP was found in 44% of samples with selective agar versus 25% with standard agar; HI was found in 31% with selective versus 9% with standard; MC was found in 56% with selective versus 37% with standard. Overall, 80% of samples had one or more pathogens detected with selective agars as compared with 58% with standard agars (P =.0004). Selective agars were more accurate than standard agars for detecting otitis pathogens in the nasopharynx, where they are a common part of normal flora in healthy children. PMID:11709658

Dudley, S; Ashe, K; Winther, B; Hendley, J O



Residual Agar Determination in Bacterial Spores by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Presented here is an analytical method to detect residual agar from a bacterial spore sample as an indication of culturing on an agar plate. This method is based on the resolubilization of agar polysaccharide from a bacterial spore sample, enzymatic digestion, followed by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MSn) analysis for detection of a specific agar fragment ion. A range of Bacillus species and strains were selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. The characteristic agar fragment ion was detected in the spores grown on agar that were washed from 1 to 5 times, irradiated or non-irradiated and not in the spores grown in broth. A sample containing approximately 108 spores is currently needed for confident detection of residual agar from culture on agar plates in the presence of bacterial spores with a limit of detection of approximately 1 ppm agar spiked into a broth-grown spore sample. The results of a proficiency test with 42 blinded samples are presented demonstrating the utility of this method with no false positives and only 3 false negatives for samples that were below the detection level of the method as documented.

Wahl, Karen L.; Colburn, Heather A.; Wunschel, David S.; Petersen, Catherine E.; Jarman, Kristin H.; Valentine, Nancy B.



Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles of different sizes and shapes using agar-agar water solution and femtosecond pulse laser irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a method to create gold nanoparticles of different sizes and shapes using agar-agar water solution and irradiation with light from a xenon lamp, followed by ultrashort laser pulses. No additives, such as solvents, surfactants or reducing agents, were used in the procedure. Laser irradiation (laser ablation) was important to the reduction of the nanoparticles diameter and formation of another shapes. Distilled water was used as solvent and agar-agar (hydrophilic colloid extracted from certain seaweeds) was important for the stabilization of gold nanoparticles, avoiding their agglomeration. The formation of gold nanoparticles was confirmed with ultraviolet-visible absorption and TEM microscopy. The gold nanoparticles acquired spherical, prism, and rod shapes depending on the laser parameters. Variation of laser irradiation parameters as pulse energy, irradiation time and repetition rate was assessed. The relevant mechanisms contributing for the gold nanoparticles production are discussed.

Almeida de Matos, Ricardo; da Silva Cordeiro, Thiago; Elgul Samad, Ricardo; Dias Vieira, Nilson; Coronato Courrol, Lilia



Blue metal-poor stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the discovery of blue metal-poor (BMP) stars and the resolution of this population into blue stragglers and intermediate-age Main-Sequence stars by use of binary fractions. We show that the specific frequencies of blue stragglers in the halo field and in globular clusters differ by an order of magnitude. We attribute this difference to the different modes of production of these two populations. We report carbon and s-process enrichment among very metal-poor field blue stragglers and discuss how this result can be used to further resolve field blue stragglers into groups formed during RGB and AGB evolution of their erstwhile primary companions.

Preston, George W.; Sneden, Christopher



National Geographic: Blue Whales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a cameraman leans in to get a shot of a blue whale, this massive creature glides through the water off of Costa Rica. That's the opening photograph that visitors to this interactive article from National Geographic are presented with, and it's a rather amazing image. This interactive article and feature is derived from a March 2009 feature in the print edition of National Geographic magazine, and it features the photography of Flip Nicklin and the writing of Ken Brower. The article offers an in-depth look into the recovery of the blue whale population off the coast of Costa Rica in recent years, and along the way visitors can stop off to take a look at a special photo gallery, take a quiz on these remarkable creatures, and also watch a video the provides the story behind one of Nicklin's photographs.

Brower, Ken; Nicklin, Flip


Jonathan Bird's Blue World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Jonathan Bird's Blue World Collection is based on a public television science adventure series and offers science curriculum based videos, lesson plans, activities and the capacity to search by topic, NSES, and geography. These materials illustrate topics such as sound, osmosis and pH with videos of sperm whales, mangroves and coral reefs. These resources can be used by learners of all ages in formal and informal settings.



Blue native PAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue native PAGE (BN-PAGE) can be used for one-step isolation of protein complexes from biological membranes and total cell and tissue homogenates. It can also be used to determine native protein masses and oligomeric states and to identify physiological protein–protein interactions. Native complexes are recovered from gels by electroelution or diffusion and are used for 2D crystallization and electron microscopy

Ilka Wittig; Hans-Peter Braun; Hermann Schägger



Blue Crab Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This easy to navigate and well-written site is packed with information and excellent photos about the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) and its fishery. Biology section covers: species profile, anatomy, life cycle, reproduction, larval development, life cycle and more. Industry and trade section includes recipes and tips for catching or buying hard and soft shell crabs, and fishery information. Also offers news, discussion forum, links, a glossary, and reference lists.



Genome Sequence of the Agar-Degrading Marine Bacterium Alteromonadaceae sp. Strain G7  

PubMed Central

Here, we present the high-quality draft genome sequence of the agar-degrading marine gammaproteobacterium Alteromonadaceae sp. strain G7, which was isolated from coastal seawater to be utilized as a bioresource for production of agar-derived biofuels. The 3.91-Mb genome contains a number of genes encoding algal polysaccharide-degrading enzymes such as agarases and sulfatases.

Kwak, Min-Jung; Song, Ju Yeon; Kim, Byung Kwon; Chi, Won-Jae; Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Choi, Soobeom; Chang, Yong-Keun



Agar and broth dilution methods to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antimicrobial substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of broth and agar dilution methods is to determine the lowest concentration of the assayed antimicrobial agent (minimal inhibitory concentration, MIC) that, under defined test conditions, inhibits the visible growth of the bacterium being investigated. MIC values are used to determine susceptibilities of bacteria to drugs and also to evaluate the activity of new antimicrobial agents. Agar dilution

Irith Wiegand; Kai Hilpert; Robert E W Hancock



Bacterial pathogens of otitis media and sinusitis: Detection in the nasopharynx with selective agar media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carriage rates for the bacterial pathogens associated with otitis media (Streptococcus pneumoniae [SP], Hemophilus influenzae [HI], and Moraxella catarrhalis [MC]) are of interest. Culture on three selective agars was compared with culture on two standard agars to determine the more accurate method for detection of these species in the nasopharynx of healthy children. Weekly samples were obtained in winter from

Sharon Dudley; Kathleen Ashe; Birgit Winther; J. Owen Hendley



Evaluation of a chromogenic agar for detection of group B streptococcus in pregnant women.  


We compared ChromID Strepto B agar (STRB; bioMérieux, Inc.), a selective and differential medium for group B streptococcus, with culture using neomycin-nalidixic acid agar (NNA) and LIM broth. STRB alone was more sensitive (87.7%) than NNA alone (79.0%), while each had a sensitivity of 100% when used in conjunction with LIM broth. PMID:20592154

Craven, Robin R; Weber, Carol J; Jennemann, Rebecca A; Dunne, W Michael



Effect of refrigerated storage on cefaclor in Mueller-Hinton agar.  

PubMed Central

Cefaclor is less stable than most cephalosporins in media at 35 degrees C. We demonstrated that the activity of cefaclor in Mueller-Hinton agar diminishes continuously at 4 degrees C, resulting in a loss of two-thirds of the activity within 21 days. We recommend that agar dilution plates for this cephalosporin be prepared on the day of their use.

Surprenant, A M; Preston, D A



An extension of the Coconut Cream Agar method to screen Penicillium citrinum isolates for citrinin production.  


A simple and rapid screening method was developed for the detection of citrinin in fungal cultures using Coconut Cream Agar (CCA) described previously for detecting aflatoxin and ochratoxin A. Fifteen isolates of Penicillium citrinum were inoculated onto CCA and incubated at 25 and 30°C for 10 days. All isolates produced a distinct yellow green fluorescence on CCA when the reverse side of the agar plates were viewed under long wavelength UV light. Detection was optimal at 25°C after four to 5 days of incubation. Isolates positive by the CCA method also tested positive for citrinin production by the TLC agar plug method after growth on CCA, Czapek yeast extract agar and yeast extract sucrose agar. Control cultures were negative by both methods, indicating that the CCA Petri dish method was suitable for screening cultures for citrinin production. PMID:23682683

Mohamed, S; Flint, S; Palmer, J; Fletcher, G C; Pitt, J I



E. coli swimming over agar in a thin aqueous film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When cells of Escherichia coli are grown in a rich medium over somewhat soft agar (0.45%) they elongate, produce more flagella, and swarm (or flock). Their behavior is dominated by collisions: an individual cell's velocity is randomized in about 0.2 s [1]. However, cells do not swim in spirals, as they do when in a thick layer of fluid near a solid boundary [2]. This suggests that the surface of the swarm is stationary, i.e., that the cells swim in a thin film of fluid between two fixed surfaces. We showed that this is the case by following the motion of MgO smoke particles deposited at the fluid-air interface [3]. By visualizing flagella of cells in swarms, we found that cells can escape from a confined environment by swimming back through the flagellar bundle, without changing the orientation of the cell body. This maneuver involves normal-to-curly and curly-to-normal polymorphic transformations [4]. These phenomena will be illustrated.[4pt] [1] Darnton NC, Turner L, Rojevsky S, & Berg HC (2010) Dynamics of bacterial swarming. Biophys. J. 98:2082-2090.[0pt] [2] Lauga E, DiLuzio WR, Whitesides GM, & Stone HA (2006) Swimming in circles: motion of bacteria near solid boundaries. Biophys. J. 90:400-412.[0pt] [3] Zhang R, Turner L, & Berg HC (2010) The upper surface of an Escherichia coli swarm is stationary. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107:288-290.[0pt] [4] Turner L, Zhang R, Darnton NC, & Berg HC (2010) Visualization of flagella during bacterial swarming. J. Bacteriol. 192:3259-3267.

Berg, Howard



Blue semiconductor nanocrystal laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate tunable room-temperature amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from blue-emitting core-shell CdS/ZnS nanocrystals (NCs) stabilized in a sol-gel derived silica matrix. Variable stripe length measurements show that these NC-silica composites have a modal gain of ~100 cm-1 at room temperature. Coating microspheres with a NC-silica composite film via a facile process resulted in uniform resonators that exhibit room-temperature lasing over long periods of continuous excitation. This work opens up a spectral window for emission tunable, microscale NC-based lasers.

Chan, Yinthai; Steckel, Jonathan S.; Snee, Preston T.; Caruge, J.-Michel; Hodgkiss, Justin M.; Nocera, Daniel G.; Bawendi, Moungi G.



New blue pigment produced by Pantoea agglomerans and its production characteristics at various temperatures.  


A bacterium capable of producing a deep blue pigment was isolated from the environment and identified as Pantoea agglomerans. The pigment production characteristics of the bacterium under various conditions were studied. The optimal agar plate ingredients for pigment production by the bacterium were first studied: the optimal ingredients were 5 g/liter glucose, 10 g/liter tryptic soy broth, and 40 g/liter glycerol at pH 6.4. Bacterial cells grew on the agar plate during the incubation, while the pigment spread into the agar plate, meaning that it is water soluble. Pigment production was affected by the initial cell density. Namely, at higher initial cell densities ranging from 10(6.3) to 10(8.2) CFU/cm(2) on the agar plate, faster pigment production was observed, but no blue pigment was produced at a very high initial density of 10(9.1) CFU/cm(2). Thus, the cell population of 10(8.2) CFU/cm(2) was used for subsequent study. Although the bacterium was capable of growing at temperatures above and below 10°C, it could produce the pigment only at temperatures of ?10°C. Moreover, the pigment production was faster at higher temperatures in the range of 10 to 20°C. Pigment production at various temperature patterns was well described by a new logistic model. These results suggested that the bacterium could be used in the development of a microbial temperature indicator for the low-temperature-storage management of foods and clinical materials. To our knowledge, there is no other P. agglomerans strain capable of producing a blue pigment and the pigment is a new one of microbial origin. PMID:20971865

Fujikawa, Hiroshi; Akimoto, Ryo



New Blue Pigment Produced by Pantoea agglomerans and Its Production Characteristics at Various Temperatures ?  

PubMed Central

A bacterium capable of producing a deep blue pigment was isolated from the environment and identified as Pantoea agglomerans. The pigment production characteristics of the bacterium under various conditions were studied. The optimal agar plate ingredients for pigment production by the bacterium were first studied: the optimal ingredients were 5 g/liter glucose, 10 g/liter tryptic soy broth, and 40 g/liter glycerol at pH 6.4. Bacterial cells grew on the agar plate during the incubation, while the pigment spread into the agar plate, meaning that it is water soluble. Pigment production was affected by the initial cell density. Namely, at higher initial cell densities ranging from 106.3 to 108.2 CFU/cm2 on the agar plate, faster pigment production was observed, but no blue pigment was produced at a very high initial density of 109.1 CFU/cm2. Thus, the cell population of 108.2 CFU/cm2 was used for subsequent study. Although the bacterium was capable of growing at temperatures above and below 10°C, it could produce the pigment only at temperatures of ?10°C. Moreover, the pigment production was faster at higher temperatures in the range of 10 to 20°C. Pigment production at various temperature patterns was well described by a new logistic model. These results suggested that the bacterium could be used in the development of a microbial temperature indicator for the low-temperature-storage management of foods and clinical materials. To our knowledge, there is no other P. agglomerans strain capable of producing a blue pigment and the pigment is a new one of microbial origin.

Fujikawa, Hiroshi; Akimoto, Ryo



Plant blue-light receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants have several blue-light receptors, which regulate different aspects of growth and development. Recent studies have identified three such receptors: cryptochrome 1, cryptochrome 2 and phototropin. Cryptochromes 1 and 2 are photolyase-like receptors that regulate hypocotyl growth and flowering time; phototropin mediates phototropism in response to blue light. In addition, phytochrome A has also been found to mediate various blue-light

Chentao Lin



Tunable blue laser diode  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A harmonic generator laser system which features a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) or distributed feedback (DFB) tunable diode laser coupled to a quasi-phasematched (QPM) waveguide of optically nonlinear material. Tuning of the DBR laser may be achieved either thermally or via current injection, or both, halving the wavelength of a red laser into the visible blue spectral band. Thermal tuning may provide a coarse tuning adjustment, while injected current may provide fine tuning accessible to a user. Separately or in combination with current tuning, a modulation signal may be applied to the DBR laser for achieving an intensity modulated or a pulsed output. In another embodiment, modulation may be achieved by frequency modulation of the laser. A very compact tunable blue laser is formed. In yet another embodiment a double clad fiber amplifier is disposed between the tunable laser and the waveguide. The fiber amplifier is pumped by a high power laser, while the core guides light to be frequency doubled in the nonlinear material from a continuously tunable laser.



Project Blue Revolution  

SciTech Connect

In June of 1992, the National Science Foundation and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration sponsored a strategic planning workshop, involving 35 ocean technologists representing the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific marine communities, to develop a proactive plan for the commercialization of national Exclusive Economic Zone resources. This meeting was the culmination of a series of gatherings held over the past decade, each treating specific ocean applications. The blue-ribbon panel recommended the consolidation of all ocean resource development activities within the federal government,a nd named the Department of Commerce as the ideal agency to manage this office, congressional oversight hearings to reestablish ocean priorities,a nd a broad spectrum of major ocean enterprises for the 21st century. During this same period, an international workshop was held in Hawaii with 50 invited specialists from six countries to discuss the merits of a cooperative program identified as Project Blue Revolution. The attendees determined that a 1 ha (100,000 sq ft) floating platform powered by ocean thermal energy conversion and at a projected cost of $500,000,000 to serve as an incubator for facilitating the commercialization of ocean resources and supporting marine science research, was a feasible venture.

Takahashi, P.K. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Hawaii Natural Energy Inst.



Detection of Agar, by Analysis of Sugar Markers, Associated with Bacillus Anthracis Spores, After Culture  

SciTech Connect

Detection of small quantities of agar associated with spores of Bacillus anthracis could provide key information regarding its source or growth characteristics. Agar, widely used in growth of bacteria on solid surfaces, consists primarily of repeating polysaccharide units of 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose (AGal) and galactose (Gal) with sulfated and O-methylated galactoses present as minor constituents. Two variants of the alditol acetate procedure were evaluated for detection of potential agar markers associated with spores. The first method employed a reductive hydrolysis step, to stabilize labile anhydrogalactose, by converting to anhydrogalactitol. The second eliminated the reductive hydrolysis step simplifying the procedure. Anhydrogalactitol, derived from agar, was detected using both derivatization methods followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. However, challenges with artefactual background (reductive hydrolysis) or marker destruction (hydrolysis) lead to the search for alternative sugar markers. A minor agar component, 6-O-methyl galactose (6-O-M gal), was readily detected in agar-grown but not broth-grown bacteria. Detection was optimized by the use of gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). With appropriate choice of sugar marker and analytical procedure, detection of sugar markers for agar has considerable potential in microbial forensics.

Wunschel, David S.; Colburn, Heather A.; Fox, Alvin; Fox, Karen F.; Harley, William M.; Wahl, Jon H.; Wahl, Karen L.



Development of an Improved Selective Agar Medium for Isolation of Yersinia pestis  

PubMed Central

Existing media designed for selective isolation of clinically important members of the genus Yersinia were found to be unsatisfactory for the growth and isolation of Yersinia pestis. We report the development of a new selective agar medium (termed BIN) that supports the growth of Y. pestis. The development of the formulation of this medium was based on a fluorescence screening system designed for monitoring bacterial growth on semisolid media, using a green fluorescent protein-expressing strain. High-throughput combinatorial experiments can be conducted for the quantitative evaluation of the effect of different medium components on growth. Generation of fluorescence plots in this system, using microplates, allowed the quantitative evaluation of the growth rate of Y. pestis EV76 cultures in different agar compositions. The final BIN formulation is based on brain heart infusion agar, to which the selective agents irgasan, cholate salts, crystal violet, and nystatin were introduced. It was found that BIN agar is more efficient in supporting colony formation and recovery of Y. pestis than are the conventional semisolid media MacConkey agar and Yersinia-selective agar (cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin agar). The advantage of BIN over other media has been also demonstrated in recovering virulent Y. pestis from the mixed bacterial populations found in decaying carcasses of infected mice. The BIN medium is suggested as a selective medium for isolation and recovery of Y. pestis from various backgrounds.

Ber, Raphael; Mamroud, Emanuelle; Aftalion, Moshe; Tidhar, Avital; Gur, David; Flashner, Yehuda; Cohen, Sara



Three-dimensional modeling of blue jets and blue starters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blue jets are narrow cones of blue light propagating upward from the apparent cloud tops at speeds of the order of 100 km/s to a terminal altitude of about 40 km [Wescott et al., GRL, 22, 1209, 1995]. Blue starters are distinguished from blue jets by a much lower terminal altitude. They protrude upward from the cloud top (17-18 km) to a maximum 25.5 km in altitude [Wescott et al., GRL, 23, 2153, 1996]. It has recently been suggested that blue jets correspond qualitatively to the development of the streamer zone of a positive leader and therefore should be filled with a branching structure of streamer channels [Petrov and Petrova, Tech. Phys., 44, 472, 1999]. In our talk we will discuss the physical concept proposed by Petrov and Petrova [1999] as well as will demonstrate a role of blue jets and blue starters in the large-scale atmospheric electric circuit. We will also discuss specific physical reasons and required circumstances for occurrence of blue jets and starters above thundercloud tops and will support our arguments with results from a new three-dimensional model. The model simulates the propagation of branching streamer channels constituting blue jets and starters as a three dimensional growth of fractal trees in a self-consistent electric field created by thundercloud charges. The model is based on a phenomenological probabilistic approach proposed in [Niemeyer et al., IEEE Trans. Electr. Insul., 24, 309, 1989] and is a straightforward expansion of the previously developed two-dimensional version [Pasko et al., GRL, 27, 497, 2000]. The model results indicate that blue jets and starters can be formed by a fast ( ~1 sec) accumulation of 110-150 C of positive thundercloud charge distributed in a volume with effective radius 3 km near the cloud top at 15 km. The obtained results closely resemble characteristics of blue jets and blue starters observed by Wescott et al. [1995; 1996] in terms of their altitude extents, transverse dimensions and conical structure, and support the suggestion of Wescott et al. [1996] that blue starters are related to the initial phases of blue jets.

Pasko, V. P.; George, J. J.



Polymer film deposition on agar using a dielectric barrier discharge jet and its bacterial growth inhibition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer film deposition on agar in ambient air was achieved using the helium dielectric barrier discharge jet (DBD jet) fed with polymer precursors, and the bacterial growth inhibition due to the deposited film was observed. The DBD jet with precursor addition was more efficient at sterilization than a helium-only DBD jet. On the areas where polymer films cover the agar the bacterial growth was significantly inhibited. The inhibition efficacy showed dependence on the film thickness. The DBD jet without precursor also created a modified agar layer, which may slow the growth of some bacterial strains.

Tsai, T.-C.; Cho, J.; Mcintyre, K.; Jo, Y.-K.; Staack, D.



Effect of heat treatment on the performance of tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar for enumeration of Clostridium perfringens.  

PubMed Central

Dissolving dehydrated tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar by only boiling or microwaving was found to inhibit Clostridium perfringens colony development in pour plates when compared with C. perfringens recovery in tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar prepared by autoclaving. Images

Brodsky, M H; Ciebin, B W



Blue Light Perception in Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on the blue light responses in bacteria and on the bacterial proteins which have been demonstrated to function as blue light receptors. Results of the previous years reveal that different types of photoreceptors have already evolved in prokaryotes. However, for most of these photoreceptors the exact biological functions and the mechanisms of signaling to downstream components are

Stephan Braatsch; Gabriele Klug



Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The WebWare molecules of the month for May are featured in several articles in this issue. "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?" discusses the pharmaceutical uses of methylene blue and its development as the first synthetic drug used against a specific disease. The JCE Classroom Activity "Out of the Blue" and the article "Greening the Blue Bottle" feature methylene blue and ascorbic acid as two key ingredients in the formulation of the blue bottle. You can also see a colorful example of these two molecules in action on the cover. "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist" describes an experiment to determine the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of citrus fruits and challenges students, as eighteenth-century sea captains, to decide the best fruit to take on a long voyage.


Vibrios from Fish Pen Slime Which Mimic Escherichia coli on Violet Red Bile Agar  

PubMed Central

Organisms from fish pen slime which mimicked coliforms and Escherichia coli on Violet Red Bile Agar were identified as members of the genus Vibrio on the basis of metabolic and morphological characteristics. Images

Rosen, A.; Levin, R. E.



[Angle reproducibility and surface roughness of stone casts obtained from combined agar-alginate impressions].  


Angle reproducibility and surface roughness were compared among stone casts obtained from two agar-alginate impression methods; 1) conventional method in which an alginate mix was applied before gelation of agar, and 2) improved method in which an alginate mix was applied to gelled agar. Impressions of the rectangular parallel piped metal mold with a high accurate point angle was taken according to the above methods, and stone casts were obtained. Enlarged images of the angles of the casts were projected with an optical projector, and the defects of the point angle were traced. The area, the length and the circular-degree coefficient of the defects were determined using an image analysis system. The surface roughness of the stone casts was also measured. The stone casts prepared by the improved agar-alginate method had better angle reproducibility and the same surface roughness as that prepared by the conventional method. PMID:2135530

Ohta, T



Lysis of Blue-Green Algae by Myxobacter  

PubMed Central

Enrichment from local fishponds led to the isolation of a bacterium capable of lysing many species of unicellular and filamentous blue-green algae, as well as certain bacteria. The isolate is an aflagellate, motile rod which moves in a gliding, flexuous manner; the organism is capable of digesting starch and agar, but not cellulose and gelatin. Its deoxyribonucleic acid base pair composition (per cent guanine plus cytosine ?70) shows a close resemblance to that of the fruiting myxobacteria. Algae in lawns on agar plates were lysed rapidly by the myxobacter, but only limited and slow lysis occurred in liquid media, and no lysis took place when liquid cultures were shaken. No diffusible lytic factors would be demonstrated. Continuous observation of the lytic process under a phase-contrast microscope suggested that a close contact between the polar tip of the myxobacter and the alga is necessary for lysis. The lytic action is limited to the vegetative cells of the algae, whereas heterocysts are not affected. The gas vacuoles of the algal host are the only remnant visible after completion of digestion by the myxobacter. Images

Shilo, Miriam



Preparation and characterization of dysprosium-neodymium modified magnetic fluid coated by agar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment used agar as a coating agent to manufacture dysprosium-neodymium modified water-based magnetic fluid coated by agar with the method of chemical co-precipitation when the two rare-earth element dysprosium and neodymium were precipitated with Fe3+ and Fe2+ together, which has high stability and a strong magnetic field. After the experimental research on all aspects of factors influencing the magnetic

Yuan Xing-hai; Liu Ru; Deng Yan-jun



Effect of Impact Stress on Microbial Recovery on an Agar Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial stress due to the impaction of microorganisms onto an agar collection surface was studied experimentally. The relative recovery rates of aerosolizedPseudomonasfluorescensandMicrococcus luteuswere determined as a function of the impaction velocity by using a moving agar slide impactor operating over aflow rate range from 3.8 to 40 liters\\/min yielding impaction velocities from 24 to 250 m\\/s. As a reference, the




Ethanol production by yeast cells immobilized in open-pore agar  

Microsoft Academic Search

An open-pore agar matrix has been shown to be suitable for the entrapment of microbial whole cells required for use in reactions\\u000a that involve cell growth and gas evolution. Beads of porous agar with entrapped yeast cells have been used for the continuous\\u000a fermentation of sugar cane molasses to ethanol, without apparent bead rupture, even after periods of 3 mo

B. S. Rao; A. V. Pundle; A. A. Prabhune; V. Shankar; H. SivaRaman



Mustard Seed Agar, a New Medium for Differentiation of Cryptococcus neoformans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryptococcosis due to Cryptococcus neoformans has emerged as the fourth most common lethal infection among AIDS patients (2). The formation of brown pigment due to phenol oxidase activity on medium containing seed extracts of Guizotia abyssinica (Staib's niger seed agar) or Helianthus an- nus (Pal's sunflower seed agar) or on medium containing chemicals such as caffeic acid or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)

B. Nandhakumar; C. P. Girish Kumar; D. Prabu; Thangam Menon



Detection of agar, by analysis of sugar markers, associated with Bacillus anthracis spores, after culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of small quantities of agar associated with spores of Bacillus anthracis could provide key information regarding its source or growth characteristics. Agar, widely used in growth of bacteria on solid surfaces, consists primarily of repeating polysaccharide units of 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose (AGal) and galactose (Gal) with sulfated and O-methylated galactoses present as minor constituents. Two variants of the alditol acetate procedure

David S. Wunschel; Heather A. Colburn; Alvin Fox; Karen F. Fox; William M. Harley; Jon H. Wahl; Karen L. Wahl



Production and properties of agar from the invasive marine alga, Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization potential, in terms of agar production, of the invasive alga, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, collected at Ria de Aveiro, northwestern Portugal was investigated. The agar yield ranged from 15% to 33%, with pre-extraction\\u000a treatment with alkali generally increasing the yield. The gel quality (gel strength and apparent Young’s modulus) was best\\u000a (>600 g cm?2 and >1,000 kPa, respectively) when alkali treatment with

R. D. Villanueva; A. M. M. Sousa; M. P. Gonçalves; M. Nilsson; L. Hilliou



Low density, microcellular, dopable, agar/gelatin foams for pulsed power experiments  

SciTech Connect

Low-density, microcellular foams prepared from the natural polymers agar and gelatin have been developed for pulsed-power physics experiments. Numerous experiments were supported with foams having densities at or below 10 mg/cm{sup 3}. For some of the experiments, the agar/gelatin foam was uniformly doped with metallic elements using soluble salts. Depending on the method of preparation, cell sizes were typically below 10 microns and for one process were below 1.0 micron.

McNamara, W.F. [Orion International Technologies, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aubert, J.H. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)



Preparation, characterization, and in vitro gastrointestinal digestibility of oil-in-water emulsion-agar gels.  


Soybean oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion-agar gel samples were prepared and their digestibility evaluated by using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. Emulsion-agar sols were obtained by mixing the prepared O/W emulsions with a 1.5 wt % agar solution at 60 °C, and their subsequent cooling at 5 °C for 1 h formed emulsion-agar gels. Their gel strength values increased with increasing degree of polymerization of the emulsifiers, and the relative gel strength increased in the case of droplets with an average diameter smaller than 700 nm. Flocculation and coalescence of the released emulsion droplets depended strongly on the emulsifier type; however, the emulsifier type hardly affected the ?-potential of emulsion droplets released from the emulsion-agar gels during in vitro digestion. The total FFA content released from each emulsion towards the end of the digestion period was nearly twice that released from the emulsion-agar gel, indicating that gelation of the O/W emulsion may have delayed lipid hydrolysis. PMID:23470750

Wang, Zheng; Neves, Marcos A; Kobayashi, Isao; Uemura, Kunihiko; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi



Evaluation of the Oxoid Brilliance™ CRE Agar for the detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae.  


The adequate detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is essential for adequate antibiotic therapy and for infection control purposes, especially in an outbreak setting. Selective agars play an important role in the detection of CPE. The Oxoid Brilliance™ CRE Agar (Thermo Fisher Scientific) was evaluated for the detection of CPE using 255 non-repetitive Enterobacteriaceae isolates, including 95 CPE (36 KPC, 4 KPC plus VIM, 4 NDM, 6 GIM, 20 VIM, and 25 OXA-48-producing isolates). The sensitivity of the CRE agar for the detection of CPE was 94 % (89/95), but differed per carbapenemase gene (100 % for KPC, NDM, and GIM, 90 % for VIM, and 84 % for OXA-48-producing isolates). The specificity of the CRE agar was 71 %, due to the growth of AmpC- and/or ESBL-producing isolates. The CRE agar is a sensitive tool for the detection of KPC and metallo-carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, although the detection of OXA-48 producers is less optimal. The relatively low specificity requires confirmation of carbapenemase production for isolates recovered from the CRE agar. PMID:23728736

Cohen Stuart, J; Voets, G; Rottier, W; Voskuil, S; Scharringa, J; Van Dijk, K; Fluit, A C; Leverstein-Van Hall, M



Influence of the extraction process on the rheological and structural properties of agars.  


Agars obtained by traditional hot-water (TWE) and microwave-assisted (MAE) extractions were compared in terms of their rheological and physicochemical properties and molecular self-association in solutions of low (0.05%, w/w) and high (1.5%, w/w) polymer concentrations. At low concentration, thin gelled layers were imaged by AFM. Slow or rapid cooling of the solutions influenced structure formation. In each case, TWE and MAE agar structures were different and apparently larger for MAE. At high concentration, progressive structural reinforcement was seen; while TWE agar showed a more open and irregular 3D network, MAE agar gel imaged by cryoSEM was denser and fairly uniform. The rheological (higher thermal stability and consistency) and mechanical (higher gel strength) behaviors of MAE agar seemed consistent with a positive effect of molecular mass and 3,6-anhydro-?-l-galactose content. MAE produced non-degraded agar comparable with commercial ones and if properly monitored, could be a promising alternative to TWE. PMID:23688466

Sousa, Ana M M; Borges, João; Silva, A Fernando; Gonçalves, Maria P



Blue upconversion thulium laser  

SciTech Connect

Upconversion has been an active area of research for at least two decades, mainly because of its wide ranging applications from infrared quantum counters, visible-emitting phosphors, to upconversion lasers. The upconversion lasers have recently become attractive with the advent of semiconductor laser diodes as the pump source. In an upconversion laser, the laser active ion is excited by internal upconversion of near-ir or red light via multiphoton excitation or cooperative processes and emits anti-Stokes visible light. Since the laser diode output wavelength can be composition turned to match the upconversion laser ion absorption lines, a substantial fraction of the ions can be driven into higher energy levels, thus enhancing the upconversion process. These upconversion solid-state lasers offer a potentially simple and compact source of visible coherent light with semiconductor laser diode excitation. We recently reported a novel upconversion thulium laser that emits blue light at 77 K. In this paper additional data on this 77 K upconversion laser as well as preliminary results on the room temperature upconversion laser are presented. In these demonstrations, dye lasers were used instead of diode lasers because they were more readily available than high power semiconductor laser diodes and their wavelengths could be adjusted easily. 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.; Weber, M.E.; Dulick, M.



Blue tits are ultraviolet tits  

PubMed Central

The blue tit (Parus caeruleus) has been classified as sexually monochromatic. This classification is based on human colour perception yet, unlike humans, most birds have four spectrally distinct classes of cone and are visually sensitive to wavelengths in the near-ultraviolet (300 to 400 nm). Reflectance spectrophotometry reveals that blue tit plumage shows considerable reflection of UV light. For example, the blue crest shows peak reflectance at wavelengths around 352 nm. Furthermore, the blue tit is sexually dichromatic for multiple regions of plumage, including the crest. Choice trials performed in the laboratory indicate that females prefer males with the brightest crests. This study has implications for both intra- and interspecific studies of sexual selection, as well as future classification of dichromatism, which should not ignore the possibility of variation in reflectance in the UV.

Hunt, S.; Bennett, A. T. D.; Cuthill, I. C.; Griffiths, R.



Hazards of solar blue light  

SciTech Connect

Short-wavelength visible light (blue light) of the Sun has caused retinal damage in people who have stared fixedly at the Sun without adequate protection. The author quantified the blue-light hazard of the Sun according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines by measuring the spectral radiance of the Sun. The results showed that the exposure limit for blue light can be easily exceeded when people view the Sun and that the solar blue-light hazard generally increases with solar elevation, which is in accordance with a model of the atmospheric extinction of sunlight. Viewing the Sun can be very hazardous and therefore should be avoided except at very low solar elevations.

Okuno, Tsutomu



Evaluation of CP Chromo Select Agar for the enumeration of Clostridium perfringens from water.  


The European Directive on drinking water quality has included mCP agar as the reference method for recovering Clostridium perfringens from drinking waters. In the present study, three media (mCP, TSCF and CP Chromo Select Agar) were evaluated for recovery of C. perfringens in different surface water samples. Out of 139 water samples, using a membrane filtration technique, 131 samples (94.2%) were found to be presumptively positive for C. perfringens in at least one of the culture media. Green colored colonies on CP Chromo Select Agar (CCP agar) were counted as presumptive C. perfringens isolates. Out of 483 green colonies on CCP agar, 96.3% (465 strains, indole negative) were identified as C. perfringens, and 15 strains (3.1%) were indole positive and were identified as Clostridium sordellii, Clostridium bifermentans or Clostridium tetani. Only 3 strains (0.6%) gave false positive results and were identified as Clostridium fallax, Clostridium botulinum, and Clostridium tertium. Variance analysis of the data obtained shows statistically no significant differences in the counts obtained between media employed in this work. The mCP method is very onerous for routine screening and bacterial colonies could not be used for further biochemical testing. The colonies on CCP and TSCF were easy to count and subculture for confirmation tests. TSCF detects sulfite-reducing clostridia, including species other than C. perfringens, and in some cases excessive blackening of the agar frustrated counting of the colonies. If the contamination was too high, TSCF did not consistently produce black colonies and as a consequence, the colonies were white and gave false negative results. On the other hand, the identification of typical and atypical colonies isolated from all media demonstrated that CCP agar was the most useful medium for C. perfringens recovery in water samples. PMID:23816139

Manafi, Mammad; Waldherr, Kerstin; Kundi, Michael



Production of microbial medium from defatted brebra (Milletia ferruginea) seed flour to substitute commercial peptone agar  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate and optimize microbial media that substitute peptone agar using brebra seed defatted flour. Methods 'Defatted process, inoculums preparation, evaluation of bacterial growth, preparation of cooked and hydrolyzed media and growth turbidity of tested bacteria were determined. Results Two percent defatted flour was found to be suitable concentration for the growth of pathogenic bacteria: Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Salmonella (NCTC 8385) and Shigella flexneri (ATCC 12022) (S. flexneri), while 3% defatted flour was suitable for Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) (S. aureus). E. coli (93±1) and S. flexneri (524±1) colony count were significantly (P?0.05) greater in defatted flour without supplement than in supplemented medium. E. coli [(3.72×109±2) CFU/mL], S. aureus [(7.4×109±2) CFU/mL], S. flexneri [(4.03×109±2) CFU/mL] and Salmonella [(2.37×109±1) CFU/mL] in non-hydrolyzed sample were statistically (P?0.05) greater than hydrolyzed one and commercial peptone agar. Colony count of Salmonella [(4.55×109±3) CFU/mL], S. flexneri [(5.40×109±3) CFU/mL] and Lyesria moncytogenes (ATCC 19116) [(5.4×109±3) CFU/mL] on raw defatted flour agar was significantly (P?0.05) greater than cooked defatted flour and commercial peptone agar. Biomass of E. coli, S. aureus, Salmonella and Enterococcus faecalis in non-hydrolyzed defatted flour is highly increased over hydrolyzed defatted flour and commercial peptone broth. Conclusions The defatted flour agar was found to be better microbial media or comparable with peptone agar. The substances in it can serve as sources of carbon, nitrogen, vitamins and minerals that are essential to support the growth of microorganisms without any supplements. Currently, all supplements of peptone agar are very expensive in the market.

Andualem, Berhanu; Gessesse, Amare



Laponite blue: dissolving the insoluble.  


The neutral organic dye indigo forms an inorganic-organic hybrid material with nanoclays (see picture; blue circles on disks symbolizing indigo, spheres indicating liberated cations) and can thus be transferred into aqueous solution. Solids recovered from these solutions resemble the ancient Maya Blue pigment. The method can also be applied to other hydrophobic species and may open the gate for novel solution chemistry, including photonic and catalytic applications. PMID:22952053

Lezhnina, Marina M; Grewe, Tobias; Stoehr, Hardo; Kynast, Ulrich



Comparison of the photodynamic fungicidal efficacy of methylene blue, toluidine blue, malachite green and low-power laser irradiation alone against Candida albicans.  


This study was to evaluate specific effects of photodynamic therapy (energy density 15.8 J/cm(2), 26.3 J/cm(2) and 39.5 J/cm(2)) using methylene blue, toluidine blue and malachite green as photosensitizers and low-power laser irradiation on the viability of Candida albicans. Suspensions of C. albicans containing 10(6) cells/ml were standardized in a spectrophotometer. For each dye, 120 assays, divided into four groups according to the following experimental conditions, were carried out: laser irradiation in the presence of the photosensitizer; laser irradiation only; treatment with the photosensitizer only; no exposure to laser light or photosensitizer. Next, serial dilutions were prepared and seeded onto Sabouraud dextrose agar for the determination of the number of colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/ml). The results were subjected to analysis of variance and the Tukey test (P < 0.05). Photodynamic therapy using the photosensitizers tested was effective in reducing the number of C. albicans.. The number of CFU/ml was reduced by between 0.54 log(10) and 3.07 log(10) and depended on the laser energy density used. Toluidine blue, methylene blue and malachite green were effective photosensitizers in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy against C. albicans, as was low-power laser irradiation alone. PMID:19579004

Souza, Rodrigo C; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Rossoni, Rodnei D; Pereira, Cristiane A; Munin, Egberto; Jorge, Antonio O C



Synthesis of agar microparticles using temperature-controlled microfluidic devices for Cordyceps militaris cultivation.  


A temperature-controlled microfluidic approach was developed for fabricating monodispersed agar beads with the potential to be a brand-new strategy for cultivating Cordyceps militaris. The proposed microfluidic system features a circulating water bath with precise temperature control (temperature deviation ?T<0.1°C). This device holds the promise of allowing us to develop a temperature-controlled system, characterized as simple, low cost, and easy to set up and use. The size-controllable agar beads were achieved by utilizing microfluidic emulsification in the cross-junction channel under temperature-controlled conditions. The flow conditions of the dispersed/continuous phases were adjusted to generate various sizes of agar beads. Our results show that the microparticles produced are as small as 176 ??m with a 95% particle size distribution within 5? ?m. The prepared agar microparticles performed well as a substrate for the cultivation of C. militaris. The proposed method could also be applied for encapsulating biomaterials, enzymes, drugs, catalysts, and nanoparticles into agar beads for biomedical applications. PMID:22012813

Lin, Yung-Sheng; Yang, Chih-Hui; Lu, Kang; Huang, Keng-Shiang; Zheng, Ying-Zhen



Limitations of the clonal agar assay for the assessment of primary human ovarian tumour biopsies.  

PubMed Central

114 biopsy specimens from 70 patients with ovarian carcinoma at all stages of disease were submitted for assessment of clonogenic capacity in agar. A highly significant correlation was found between agar clonogenicity and patient survival after biopsy. However, problems related to inherent tumour heterogeneity, quality of sample and tissue disaggregation indicate that this technique may have limited applicability in the routine assessment of patients. Only 41 biopsy specimens (36%) from 31 patients (44.3%) complied with the prerequisite criteria for agar clonogenic assessment, namely: (a) the confirmed presence of malignant cells in the biopsy, (b) the ability to prepare a single-cell suspension, and (c) adequate viable cell numbers for assay. Furthermore, although the dominant patterns of agar clonogenic growth could be identified and correlated with stage of disease, the heterogeneity in both initial clonogenic capacity and "self-renewal" capacity assessed by the ability of primary clones to propagate in liquid culture and reclone in agar was too inconsistent for the assay to be used as a prognostic index for the individual patient. Images Figure

Bertoncello, I.; Bradley, T. R.; Campbell, J. J.; Day, A. J.; McDonald, I. A.; McLeish, G. R.; Quinn, M. A.; Rome, R.; Hodgson, G. S.



Migration of Chemotactic Bacteria in Soft Agar: Role of Gel Concentration  

PubMed Central

We study the migration of chemotactic wild-type Escherichia coli populations in semisolid (soft) agar in the concentration range C = 0.15–0.5% (w/v). For C?0.35%, expanding bacterial colonies display characteristic chemotactic rings. At C = 0.35%, however, bacteria migrate as broad circular bands rather than sharp rings. These are growth/diffusion waves arising because of suppression of chemotaxis by the agar and have not been previously reported experimentally to our knowledge. For C = 0.4–0.5%, expanding colonies do not span the depth of the agar and develop pronounced front instabilities. The migration front speed is weakly dependent on agar concentration at C < 0.25%, but decreases sharply above this value. We discuss these observations in terms of an extended Keller-Segel model for which we derived novel transport parameter expressions accounting for perturbations of the chemotactic response by collisions with the agar. The model makes it possible to fit the observed front speed decay in the range C = 0.15–0.35%, and its solutions qualitatively reproduce the observed transition from chemotactic to growth/diffusion bands. We discuss the implications of our results for the study of bacteria in porous media and for the design of improved bacteriological chemotaxis assays.

Croze, Ottavio A.; Ferguson, Gail P.; Cates, Michael E.; Poon, Wilson C.K.



Improvement of Karmali agar by addition of polymyxin B for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in whole-chicken carcass rinse.  


The Karmali agar was modified by supplementation with a high concentration of polymyxin B. The goal of the study was to evaluate the effect of a high concentration of polymyxin B on the ability and selectivity of the modified Karmali agar to isolate Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from whole chicken carcass rinse. A total of 80 whole chickens were rinsed with 400 mL of buffer peptone water. The rinsed samples were incubated with 2× blood-free modified Bolton enrichment broth for 48 h, and then streaked onto unmodified Karmali agar and modified Karmali agar supplemented with 100000 IU/L polymixin B (P-Karmali agar). The suspected colonies were finally confirmed by colony PCR. The P-Karmali agar exhibited a significantly better (P < 0.05) isolation rate than the unmodified Karmali agar (P-Karmali agar, 73.8%; unmodified Karmali agar, 33.8%). Moreover, the selectivity of the P-Karmali agar was also better (P < 0.05) than that of the other selective agar when comparing the number of contaminated plates (P-Karmali agar, 68.8%; unmodified Karmali agar, 87.5%) and growth index of competing flora (P-Karmali agar, 1.4; unmodified Karmali agar, 2.7). The improved selective agar excluded competing flora resistant to antibiotic agents in unmodified Karmali agar, increasing isolation rate and selectivity for C. jejuni and C. coli. PMID:23550907

Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Hyunsook; Yim, Jin-Hyeok; Song, Kwang-Young; Moon, Jin-San; Kim, Young-Jo; Seo, Kun-Ho



Effects of a functional agar surface on in vitro dentinogenesis induced in proteolytically isolated, agar-coated dental papillae in rat mandibular incisors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to study the effects of a three-dimensional agar surface on in vitro dentinogenesis both in the growing end and in incisally cross-cut pulp, the possible expression of odontoblast phenotype was investigated morphologically, autoradiographically and immunohistochemically. Explants were incubated for 8 days. In the growing end, duringt the last 4 days, mitotic cells differentiated into [3H]-thymidine-labelled, tubular matrix-forming

H. Kikuchi; T. Sawada; T. Yanagisawa



Evaluation of commercial vancomycin agar screen plates for detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci.  


Brain heart infusion-6-micrograms/ml vancomycin agar plates obtained from five commercial sources (B-D Microbiology Systems, Carr-Scarborough Microbiologicals, MicroBio Products, PML Microbiologicals, and REMEL) were evaluated with 714 enterococci for detection of vancomycin resistance. All 465 (100%) vancomycin-resistant enterococci (MIC > or = 32 micrograms/ml) were detected by each manufacturer's agar screen plate, and each manufacturer's agar screen plate detected at least 99% of the 177 vancomycin-susceptible enterococci (MIC < or = 4 micrograms/ml). Detection of the 72 vancomycin-intermediate enterococci (MIC = 6 to 16 micrograms/ml) ranged from 94% for B-D Microbiology Systems to 99% for PML Microbiologicals. PMID:8818911

Van Horn, K G; Gedris, C A; Rodney, K M; Mitchell, J B



[Presumptive identification of Candida spp. and other clinically important yeasts: usefulness of Brilliance Candida Agar].  


Fungal infections caused by yeasts have increased during the last decades and invasive forms represent a serious problem for human health. Candida albicans is the species most frequently isolated from clinical samples. However, other emerging yeast pathogens are increasingly responsible for mycotic infections, and some of them are resistant to some antifungal drugs. Consequently, it is necessary to have methods that can provide a rapid presumptive identification at species level. Numerous chromogenic agar media have been shown to be of value as diagnostic tools. We have compared a chromogenic medium, Brilliance Candida Agar, with CHROMagar Candida, the chromogenic medium most used in our country. A multicentre study was conducted in 16 Hospitals belonging to the Mycology Net of Buenos Aires City Government. A total of 240 yeast isolates were included in this research. The new chromogenic agar showed results very similar to those obtained with CHROMagar Candida. PMID:20346288

Alfonso, Claudia; López, Mónica; Arechavala, Alicia; Perrone, María Del Carmen; Guelfand, Liliana; Bianchi, Mario



Blood agar to detect virulence factors in tap water heterotrophic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Cytolytic colonies were found in 57% of tap water samples, and up to 6% of samples were found to contain bacteria having three or more virulence factors. The factors evaluated were cytotoxicity, hemolysis, cell adherence, and cell invasiveness. Overall, 17% of the samples contained cytolytic colonies that were adherent and hemolytic. Among the media tested, tryptic soy agar with sheep blood (incubated at 35 degrees C for 48 h) was the best medium for the detection of cytolytic colonies. Of the colonies growing on this medium, 13% were cytolytic, whereas on medium R2A, less than 3% were cytolytic. Furthermore, when tryptic soy agar with blood was used, 24% of the samples contained colonies with at least three virulence factors whereas only 5% were positive with R2A. Routine monitoring by using tryptic soy agar with sheep blood is suggested as an appropriate procedure for the detection of bacteria with pathogenic potential in drinking water.

Payment, P; Coffin, E; Paquette, G



Eradication of bovine leukemia virus infection in commercial dairy herds using the agar gel immunodiffusion test.  

PubMed Central

Demands for bovine leukemia virus test negative breeding cattle and for semen from bovine leukemia virus test negative bulls by several countries have encouraged the eradication of bovine leukemia virus infection from selected herds in Canada. This project was undertaken to evaluate the suitability of the agar gel immunodiffusion test, standardized to detect anti-bovine leukemia virus glycoprotein antibodies, for eradication of bovine leukemia virus from commercial dairy herds. Of nine participating herds, the prevalence rate of bovine leukemia virus infection was low (less than 10%) in three, medium (11-30%) in four and high (greater than 30%) in two. The herds were tested by the agar gel immunodiffusion test, reactors were removed and the herds were then retested at regular intervals. The results indicate that it is possible to eliminate bovine leukemia virus infection from the herds after two to three cycles of agar gel immunodiffusion tests and prompt removal of the reactors.

Shettigara, P T; Samagh, B S; Lobinowich, E M



Improved soft-agar colony assay in a fluid processing apparatus.  


The standard method for quantitating bone marrow precursor cells has been to count the number of colony-forming units that form in semisolid (0.3%) agar. Recently we adapted this assay for use in hardware, the Fluid Processing Apparatus, that is flown in standard payload lockers of the space shuttle. When mouse or rat macrophage colony-forming units were measured with this hardware in ground-based assays, we found significantly more colony growth than that seen in standard plate assays. The improved growth correlates with increased agar thickness but also appears to be due to properties inherent to the Fluid Processing Apparatus. This paper describes an improved method for determining bone marrow macrophage precursor numbers in semisolid agar. PMID:10475256

Forsman, A D; Herpich, A R; Chapes, S K



Ampicillin-dextrin agar medium for the enumeration of Aeromonas species in water by membrane filtration.  


Published selective media were evaluated for the isolation of Aeromonas spp. from environmental samples by membrane filtration. Satisfactory recoveries were obtained only with mA agar (Rippey & Cabelli) and dextrin-fuchsin-sulphite agar (Schubert), but neither was sufficiently selective. The positive aspects of these two media were combined in a new medium, ampicillin-dextrin agar. Recovery from pure cultures and environmental samples was optimal at an ampicillin concentration of 10 mg/l and incubation for 24 h at 30 degrees C under aerobic conditions, and specificity was high (i.e. confirmation rate usually greater than 90%, no false negative colonies encountered). The medium can also be used for isolation of Aeromonas spp. from sea water provided that the vibriostatic agent 0/129 is added at 50 mg/l. PMID:3597206

Havelaar, A H; During, M; Versteegh, J F



The Blue-Collar Brain  

PubMed Central

Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body’s tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior.

Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian



Blue-green upconversion laser  


A blue-green laser (450-550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm{sup 3+}. The Tm{sup 3+} is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconducting laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP.

Nguyen, Dinh C.; Faulkner, G.E.



Thin agar film for enhanced fungal growth and microscopic viewing in a new sealable fungal culture case.  

PubMed Central

This project was undertaken to find ways to enhance fungus colony maturation, to make viewing of fungal cultures easier, and to reduce disruption of the fungal structures to be observed for identification. Accordingly, a technique using a thin (0.2-mm) agar film that avoids problems inherent in traditional methods of fungal culture and identification was developed. In addition, to accommodate the 0.2-mm layer of agar film and a contiguous thicker 4-mm section of agar, a sealable fungal culture case that fits within microscope stage calipers and under the objective lenses was invented. The growth and identification of 28 organisms were evaluated in the sealable fungal culture cases and on double-pour agar plates by using potato dextrose agar in both. Compared with results obtained with the double-pour agar plates (rated as "good"), fungal growth and identification with the sealable fungal culture case were superior (rated as "excellent") (P < 0.05, chi-square test). The thin agar film limits excessive mycelial growth, while it often promotes complete sporulation or other forms of maturation of the fungal colony. More importantly, the thin agar film allows direct microscopic viewing of the developing fungal colonies. The portion of the sealable fungal culture case with the 4-mm layer of agar can be used for evaluation of colony pigment and texture. In conclusion, this new sealable fungal culture case allows direct viewing and earlier fungal species identification with greater intrinsic safety.

Hill, D R



A Specific Diffusible Antigen of Rinderpest Virus demonstrated by the Agar Double-Diffusion Precipitation Reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN recent years diffusible antigens of many viruses have been demonstrated by the double-diffusion precipitation reaction in agar. Early attempts in this laboratory to demonstrate such antigens associated with rinderpest virus failed, probably because the convalescent bovine and rabbit sera used did not contain a sufficiently high concentration of antibody.

G. White



Clonal growth of Blastocystis hominis in soft agar with sodium thioglycollate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present report describes a method for establishment of colonies of Blastocystis hominis from single cells in soft agar. The percentage of colony-forming efficiency (% CFE = number of colonies grown \\/ number of\\u000a cells inoculated × 100) for the cultures was greatly improved by the addition of sodium thioglycollate. Five human Blastocystis isolates chosen for this study showed no

S. W. Tan; M. Singh; K. T. Thong; L. C. Ho; K. T. Moe; X. Q. Chen; G. C. Ng; E. H. Yap



Multicenter Evaluation of Ethambutol Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Agar Proportion and Radiometric Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproducibility of ethambutol (EMB) susceptibility test results for Mycobacterium tuberculosis has always been difficult for a variety of reasons, including the narrow range between the critical breakpoint for EMB resistance and the MIC for susceptible strains, borderline results obtained with the BACTEC 460TB method, the presence of microcolonies determined using the agar proportion (AP) method, and a lack of agreement

B. Madison; B. Robinson-Dunn; I. George; W. Gross; H. Lipman; B. Metchock; A. Sloutsky; G. Washabaugh; G. Mazurek; J. Ridderhof



Evolutionary consequences of putative intra- and interspecific hybridization in agaric fungi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agaric fungi of the southern Appalachians including the Great Smoky Mountains National Park are often heterozygous for the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) with >42% of collections showing some level of heterozygosity for indels and/or base-pair substitutions. For these collections, int...


Influence of different Mueller–Hinton agars and media age on Etest susceptibility testing of tigecycline  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect of different Mueller–Hinton agars and media age on tigecycline MICs, obtained by Etest. Variations in MIC values on different Mueller–Hinton were noted, which may result in changes in categoric susceptibility. The use of stored Mueller–Hinton media had minimal effect on MIC values.

Thean Yen Tan; Lily Siew Yong Ng; Dorene Mei Mei Chen




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The germicidal effect of ultraviolet light (UVC) at 254 nm is used to decontaminate surfaces. Using the combined light from a 185 and 254 nm source, the reduction of Shigella sonnei was determined on inoculated agars and radish sprouts, and in distilled water and vegetable broth. The combined UVC li...



EPA Science Inventory

Salmonellae in the environment remain a potential source of disease. Low numbers of salmonellae have been detected and enumerated from environmental samples by most probable number methods that require careful colony selection from plated agar medium. A modified xylose lysine bri...


Evaluation of S. aureus ID, a New Chromogenic Agar Medium for Detection of Staphylococcus aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

S. aureus ID (bioMerieux, La Balme Les Grottes, France) is a new chromogenic agar medium designed to enable the isolation of staphylococci and the specific identification of Staphylococcus aureus. S. aureus produces green colonies on this medium due to production of -glucosidase. To evaluate this medium, a total of 350 wound swabs were cultured onto S. aureus ID, CHROMagar Staph.

John D. Perry; Claire Rennison; Lynne A. Butterworth; Andrew L. J. Hopley; F. Kate



Evidence of Agar Gel Electrophoresis Changes of Lipoprotein-X after Phospholipase A and Deoxycholic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of phospholipase A from snake venom and deoxycholic acid on lipoprotein-X (LP-X) recovered from the cathode side of a previous agar gel electrophoresis is described. Adding phospholipase A and deoxycholic acid to the removed cathodal fraction is followed by a marked migration to the anode side on a second electrophoresis procedure. This seems to confirm that phospholipase A

J. C. Frisón; M. R. Ras; J. Rubiés-Prat; S. Masdeu; S. Schwartz



Spore-to-spore agar culture of the myxomycete Physarum globuliferum.  


The ontogeny of the myxomycete Physarum globuliferum was observed on corn meal agar and hanging drop cultures without adding sterile oat flakes, bacteria or other microorganisms. Its complete life cycle including spore germination, myxamoebae, swarm cells, plasmodial development, and maturity of fructifications was demonstrated. Details of spore-to-spore development are described and illustrated. PMID:20024530

Liu, Pu; Wang, Qi; Li, Yu



An electrochemical approach to monitor pH change in agar media during plant tissue culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, metal oxide microelectrodes were developed to monitor pH change in agar media during plant tissue culture. An antimony wire was produced by a new approach “capillary melt method”. The surface of the obtained antimony wire was oxidized in a potassium nitrate melt to fabricate an antimony oxide film for pH sensing. Characterization results show that the oxide

Min Wang; Yang Ha



Comparison of Etest and Agar Dilution Method for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing ofFlavobacteriumIsolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Etest was evaluated as a possible alternative to the standard agar dilution method for susceptibility testing of nine antimicrobial agents against Flavobacterium species. In studies of 100 clinical isolates, the agreement between the MICs (61 log2dilution) obtained by the two methods was acceptable for cefotaxime, ceftazidime, amikacin, minocycline, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin (>90%). Conversely, the agreement between the results obtained





ERIC Educational Resources Information Center





EPA Science Inventory

Microbial stress due to the impaction of microorganisms onto an agar collection surface was studied experimentally. he relative recovery rates of aerosolized Pseudomonas fluorescens and Micrococcus luteus were determined as a function of the impaction velocity by using a moving a...


Structural, physical, and chemical modifications induced by microwave heating on native agar-like galactans.  


Native agars from Gracilaria vermiculophylla produced in sustainable aquaculture systems (IMTA) were extracted under conventional (TWE) and microwave (MAE) heating. The optimal extracts from both processes were compared in terms of their properties. The agars' structure was further investigated through Fourier transform infrared and NMR spectroscopy. Both samples showed a regular structure with an identical backbone, ?-d-galactose (G) and 3,6-anhydro-?-l-galactose (LA) units; a considerable degree of methylation was found at C6 of the G units and, to a lesser extent, at C2 of the LA residues. The methylation degree in the G units was lower for MAE(opt) agar; the sulfate content was also reduced. MAE led to higher agar recoveries with drastic extraction time and solvent volume reductions. Two times lower values of [?] and M(v) obtained for the MAE(opt) sample indicate substantial depolymerization of the polysaccharide backbone; this was reflected in its gelling properties; yet it was clearly appropriate for commercial application in soft-texture food products. PMID:22540146

Sousa, Ana M M; Morais, Simone; Abreu, Maria H; Pereira, Rui; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel; Cabrita, Eurico J; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Gonçalves, Maria Pilar



Reliability of VRB agar and BGLB broth for enumeration of 44 degrees C coliforms in food.  


This study shows that colony diameter exceeding 0.5 mm and presence of a surrounding precipitation zone are not unconditional criteria for 44 degrees C coliforms (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species) grown on violet red bile agar. Confirmatory studies in brilliant green lactose bile broth will add to the numbers of coliforms which are missed if these criteria are adhered to. PMID:7015268

Tham, W; Danielsson, M L


The use of Agar as a novel filler for monolithic matrices produced using hot melt extrusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of filler materials in an extended release monolithic polymer matrix can lead to a vastly altered release profile for the active pharmaceutical ingredient. A range of excipients for use in monolithic matrices have been discussed in the literature. The body of work described in this research paper outlines the use of agar as a novel filler material in

John G. Lyons; Declan M. Devine; James E. Kennedy; Luke M. Geever; Patrick O’Sullivan; Clement L. Higginbotham



Variability of Photodynamic Killing in Escherichia coli and Avoidance of Variability with Agar  

PubMed Central

Photodynamic killing of Escherichia coli in acridine orange is influenced by the composition of the containing vessel, and after high kill the variance between replicate suspensions is greater than attributable solely to sampling and plating. Addition of agar minimizes both phenomena, but a higher illumination dose is required to produce the same degree of killing.

O'Bryan, Corliss; Harrison, Arthur P.



Comparison of CHROMagar Salmonella Medium and Hektoen Enteric Agar for Isolation of Salmonellae from Stool Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

CHROMagar Salmonella (CAS), a new chromogenic medium, was retrospectively compared to Hektoen enteric agar (HEA) with 501 Salmonella stock isolates and was then prospectively compared to HEA for the detection and presumptive identification of Salmonella spp. with 508 stool samples before and after enrichment. All stock cultures (100%), including cultures of H2S-negative isolates, yielded typical mauve colonies on CAS, while




Performance of CHROMAGAR candida and BIGGY agar for identification of yeast species  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The importance of identifying the pathogenic fungi rapidly has encouraged the development of differential media for the presumptive identification of yeasts. In this study two differential media, CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar, were evaluated for the presumptive identification of yeast species. METHODS: A total number of 270 yeast strains including 169 Candida albicans, 33 C.

Mine Yücesoy; Serhat Marol



Agar-Gel Precipitin-Inhibition Technique for Plague Antibody Determinations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The agar-gel precipitin-inhibition technique of Ray and Kadull can be used to detect plague antibodies in human and animal sera after a series of plague vaccine inoculations or after exposure to Pasteurella pestis. Determination of the minimum reacting co...

J. G. Ray P. J. Kadull



In-Gel Determination of L-Amino Acid Oxidase Activity Based on the Visualization of Prussian Blue-Forming Reaction  

PubMed Central

L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) is attracting increasing attention due to its important functions. Diverse detection methods with their own properties have been developed for characterization of LAAO. In the present study, a simple, rapid, sensitive, cost-effective and reproducible method for quantitative in-gel determination of LAAO activity based on the visualization of Prussian blue-forming reaction is described. Coupled with SDS-PAGE, this Prussian blue agar assay can be directly used to determine the numbers and approximate molecular weights of LAAO in one step, allowing straightforward application for purification and sequence identification of LAAO from diverse samples.

Zhou, Ning; Zhao, Chuntian



Baby T (Blue) (Size: Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.



Baby T (Blue) (Size: Small)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.



Baby T (Blue) (Size: Medium)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.



The Blue Whale, Balaenoptera musculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

pers. They are members of the family Balaenopteridae, all of which have fringed baleen plates rather than teeth. Baleen whales graze through swarms of small crustaceans known as krill, and capture the krill in their baleen as water is filtered through. Like most balaenopterids, blue whales exhibit no well defined social or schooling structure, and in most of their range



Striatal neuroprotection with methylene blue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent literature indicates that low-dose Methylene Blue (MB), an autoxidizable dye with powerful antioxidant and metabolic enhancing properties, might prevent neurotoxin-induced neural damage and associated functional deficits. This study evaluated whether local MB may counteract the anatomical and functional effects of the intrastriatal infusion of the neurotoxin rotenone (Rot) in the rat. To this end, stereological analyses of striatal lesion

J. C. Rojas; N. Simola; B. A. Kermath; J. R. Kane; T. Schallert; F. Gonzalez-Lima



The Next Generation Blue Marble  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomena is a full yearÂs worth of NASA satellite data of Earth's land surface, coastal oceans, sea ice, and clouds that has been organized into a seamless, photo-like mosaic of our planet The image beneath the title "The Next Generation Blue Marble" features an animation. Click the image to begin the animation.


Scientific Blue-Water Diving.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this book is to open the world of blue-water diving to a larger scientific community, without compromising the safety of the procedure. It is not meant to impose excessive restrictions on the methodology, but to provide guidelines for conducti...

J. N. Heine S. H. D. Haddock



Blue light hazard and aniridia.  

PubMed Central

The fundi of three patients with aniridia were photographed with a 470 nm illuminating light source. No apparent change in contrast was observable throughout the macular region. This would suggest an absence of the macular pigment. The likelihood of aniridics being more susceptible than normal persons to blue light damage is discussed. Images

Abadi, R. V.; Dickinson, C. M.



Blue Crabs in the Chesapeake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a classroom unit and data activity focusing on juvenile and adult blue crab distribution in the Chesapeake Bay. The pdf includes background on crab biology, anatomy, life cycle, and fisheries. Authentic data tables are provided for in-class analysis and discussion questions guide inquiry.

Clark, Vicki P.; Musick, Susanna; Lawrence, Lisa; Van Montfrans, Jacques



Singing' the Black and Blues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is so obvious that the sky is blue in the daytime and black at night, but it took the smartest humans thousands of years of observation, thought, discussion, conjecture, and analysis to finally come up with answers that make scientific sense as to why the sky is these colors. This article discusses light and the scientific research…

Fisher, Diane



Effect of impact stress on microbial recovery on an agar surface.  

PubMed Central

Microbial stress due to the impaction of microorganisms onto an agar collection surface was studied experimentally. The relative recovery rates of aerosolized Pseudomonas fluorescens and Micrococcus luteus were determined as a function of the impaction velocity by using a moving agar slide impactor operating over a flow rate range from 3.8 to 40 liters/min yielding impaction velocities from 24 to 250 m/s. As a reference, the sixth stage of the Andersen Six-Stage Viable Particle Sizing Sampler was used at its operating flow rate of 28.3 liters/min (24 m/s). At a collection efficiency of close to 100% for the agar slide impactor, an increase in sampling flow rate and, therefore, in impaction velocity produced a significant decline in the percentage of microorganisms recovered. Conversely, when the collection efficiency was less than 100%, greater recovery and lower injury rates occurred. The highest relative rate of recovery (approximately 51% for P. fluorescens and approximately 62% for M. luteus) was obtained on the complete (Trypticase soy agar) medium at 40 and 24 m/s (6.4 and 3.8 liters/min), respectively. M. luteus demonstrated less damage than P. fluorescens, suggesting the hardy nature of the gram-positive strain versus that of the gram-negative microorganism. Comparison of results from the agar slide and Andersen impactors at the same sampling velocity showed that recovery and injury due to collection depends not only on the magnitude of the impaction velocity but also on the degree to which the microorganisms may be embedded in the collection medium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Stewart, S L; Grinshpun, S A; Willeke, K; Terzieva, S; Ulevicius, V; Donnelly, J



Improvement of two toluidine blue O-mediated techniques for DNase detection.  

PubMed Central

Two DNase detection techniques in which the metachromatic dye toluidine blue O (TBO) is used have been improved, and a potential source of difficulty for personnel attempting to use TBO-related methods has been identified. Reducing the concentration of TBO in the Streitfeld plate-flooding method from 0.1 to 0.05% resulted in easier control of staining intensity, less masking of DNase-positive reactions due to overstaining, sharper delineation of zones of DNase activity, and more sensitive detection of weak DNase reactions. Incorporation of 0.005% TBO in DNase agar, rather than the recommended 0.01%, allowed growth and expression of DNase activity by gram-positive as well as gram-negative bacteria. The reduced dye content in the agar also enhanced expression of DNase activity by some organisms and provided sharper delineation of DNase-positive reactions. Because optimum expression of DNase activity depends upon exact TBO concentrations in both the flooding and agar incorporation techniques, strict attention must be paid to the dye content of commercially available TBO dye powders. TBO concentrations must reflect actual dye content; therefore, calculations must include a conversion factor that accounts for the true dye content of the commercial preparation. The conversion factor that we developed is determined by dividing 100 by the percentage of dye in the commercial powder. The grams of commercial dye powder required per 100 ml of dye mixture is calculated by multiplying the percentage of dye required in the dye mixture by the conversion factor.

Waller, J R; Hodel, S L; Nuti, R N



Comparison of microplate, agar drop and well diffusion plate methods for evaluating hemolytic activity of Listeria monocytogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

th May, 2009 Hemolytic activity is an important characteristic for the differentiation of Listeria monocytogenes from apathogenic Listeria species within of conventional laboratory practices. We compared the efficacy of the agar well diffusion method with respect to two previously described methods such as the agar drop and microplate methods in quantifying hemolysis of L. monocytogenes cultures. The hemolytic activities of

M. L. Vaca Ruiz; P. G. Silva; A. L. Laciar


Agar extraction from integrated multitrophic aquacultured Gracilaria vermiculophylla: Evaluation of a microwave-assisted process using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of agar from Gracilaria vermiculophylla, produced in an integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) system, from Ria de Aveiro (northwestern Portugal), was tested and optimized using response surface methodology. The influence of the MAE operational parameters (extraction time, temperature, solvent volume and stirring speed) on the physical and chemical properties of agar (yield, gel strength, gelling and melting temperatures,

A. M. M. Sousa; V. D. Alves; S. Morais; C. Delerue-Matos; M. P. Gonçalves



Evaluation of BBL CHROMagar Listeria agar for the isolation and identification of Listeria monocytogenes from food and environmental samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of BBL CHROMagar Listeria chromogenic agar for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated for its ability to isolate and identify L. monocytogenes from food and environmental samples. The medium was compared to non-chromogenic selective agars commonly used for Listeria isolation: Oxford, Modified Oxford, and PALCAM. BBL CHROMagar Listeria had a sensitivity of 99% and 100% for the

Veena Hegde; Carlos G. Leon-Velarde; Christina M. Stam; Lee-Ann Jaykus; Joseph A. Odumeru



Agar-block microcosms for controlled plant tissue decomposition by aerobic fungi.  


The two principal methods for studying fungal biodegradation of lignocellulosic plant tissues were developed for wood preservative testing (soil-block; agar-block). It is well-accepted that soil-block microcosms yield higher decay rates, fewer moisture issues, lower variability among studies, and higher thresholds of preservative toxicity. Soil-block testing is thus the more utilized technique and has been standardized by American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) (method D 1413-07). The soil-block design has drawbacks, however, using locally-variable soil sources and in limiting the control of nutrients external (exogenous) to the decaying tissues. These drawbacks have emerged as a problem in applying this method to other, increasingly popular research aims. These modern aims include degrading lignocellulosics for bioenergy research, testing bioremediation of co-metabolized toxics, evaluating oxidative mechanisms, and tracking translocated elements along hyphal networks. Soil-blocks do not lend enough control in these applications. A refined agar-block approach is necessary. Here, we use the brown rot wood-degrading fungus Serpula lacrymans to degrade wood in agar-block microcosms, using deep Petri dishes with low-calcium agar. We test the role of exogenous gypsum on decay in a time-series, to demonstrate the utility and expected variability. Blocks from a single board rip (longitudinal cut) are conditioned, weighed, autoclaved, and introduced aseptically atop plastic mesh. Fungal inoculations are at each block face, with exogenous gypsum added at interfaces. Harvests are aseptic until the final destructive harvest. These microcosms are designed to avoid block contact with agar or Petri dish walls. Condensation is minimized during plate pours and during incubation. Finally, inoculum/gypsum/wood spacing is minimized but without allowing contact. These less technical aspects of agar-block design are also the most common causes of failure and the key source of variability among studies. Video publication is therefore useful in this case, and we demonstrate low-variability, high-quality results. PMID:21339715

Schilling, Jonathan S; Jacobson, K Brook



Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

Not Available



The Physics of the Blues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

Gibson, J. Murray



III-nitride blue microdisplays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prototype blue microdisplays have been fabricated from InGaN\\/GaN quantum wells. The device has a dimension of 0.5×0.5 mm2 and consists of 10×10 pixels 12 mum in diameter. Emission properties such as electroluminescence spectra, output power versus forward current (L-I) characteristic, viewing angle, and uniformity have been measured. Due to the unique properties of III-nitride wide-band-gap semiconductors, microdisplays fabricated from III

H. X. Jiang; S. X. Jin; J. Li; J. Shakya; J. Y. Lin



Once in a Blue Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will demonstrate an understanding of the moon's features by creating an art or writing project about it. They will learn the concept of a "Blue Moon", which occurs in months with two full moons. They will also understand that the moon is smaller than the Earth, has no light of its own, has no air or water, and has a dusty brown surface marked with craters.



The Blue Crab's Chesapeake Journey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this data collection activity about crabs, learners use data from the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) trawl survey to determine the areas of the Chesapeake Bay that are being used by blue crabs during different life stages. Learners work in groups and use the data to construct hypotheses which explain the location of the crabs based on factors such as water chemistry, currents, season, human impact, etc.

Clark, Vicki



Electrochemical degradation of methylene blue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to compare the direct and indirect electrochemical oxidation of a synthetic solution containing methylene blue. The direct electrolysis was carried out using boron-doped diamond, while the indirect electrolyses were mediated by active chlorine electrogenerated on a TiRuO2 oxide anode. The effects of the operating factors that influence COD and colour removal were investigated for each type

Marco Panizza; Antonio Barbucci; Rico Ricotti; Giacomo Cerisola



Modification of the Congo red agar method to detect biofilm production by Staphylococcus epidermidis.  


Staphylococcus epidermidis in immunocompromised patients can cause bacteremia related to the use of catheter due to biofilm production. There are different phenotypic methods to detect biofilm formation. One method is based on culture in brain heart infusion agar (BHIA) containing sucrose and red Congo dye (original Congo red agar). Our group created a new CRA formula and we have confirmed its capacity to detect biofilm production in 210 S. epidermidis strains, including 76 (36.2%) icaAB gene-positive strains. Other parameters were also evaluated. The new CRA formula that gave the best results was BHIA with sucrose (5%), Congo red (0.08%), NaCl (1.5%), glucose (2%), and vancomycin (0.5 mg/mL) (vancomycin-modified CRA-CRAmod). The CRAmod plus vancomycin may be a promising tool and can help to determine the real participation of S. epidermidis in the infectious process. PMID:23313084

Kaiser, Thaís Dias Lemos; Pereira, Eliezer Menezes; Dos Santos, Kátia Regina Netto; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia; Schuenck, Ricardo Pinto; Nunes, Ana Paula Ferreira



Ground red hot pepper agar in the isolation and presumptive identification of Cryptococcus neoformans.  


The study compared ground red hot pepper agar (GRHP) and Guizotia abyssinica creatinine agar (GACA), a medium routinely used for isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans. In order to confirm the capacity of GRHP to support the Cr. neoformans growth and pigment production, 15 strains were inoculated onto GRHP and GACA. No significant differences in the growth and pigmentation of the tested strains on the two media were noted. As heavily contaminated specimens, 50 samples of pigeon droppings were examined by plating on GRHP and GACA, which resulted in the isolation of 14 and nine Cr. neoformans strains, respectively. The results indicate that GRHP, as a result of its superior selectivity and significant reduction of contaminant growth, provides better conditions than GACA for isolation and presumptive identification of Cr. neoformans from heavily contaminated specimens. PMID:12421286

Stepanovi?, S; Vukovi?, D; Radonji?, I; Dimitrijevi?, V; Svabi?-Vlahovi?, M



Specific Identification of Fraction I-Positive Pasteurella pestis Colonies on Antiserum-Agar Plates  

PubMed Central

A method is described for the use of antiplague serum in Blood Agar Base plating media to detect fraction I-positive Pasteurella pestis. The antiserum was produced conveniently and in large volume in rabbits by use of Cutter plague vaccine combined with Freund's complete adjuvant. P. pestis colonies were specifically identified within 48 hr after plating by the presence of a precipitin ring surrounding each colony. The basis of the test was shown to be a precipitin reaction between fraction I antigen released from P. pestis colonies after chloroform vapor treatment and fraction I antibody present in the antiserum-agar medium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5

Albizo, Johnnie M.; Surgalla, Michael J.



Synthesis and applications of poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) grafted agar: A microwave based approach.  


Synthesis of graft copolymers under the influence of microwave radiation alone is a rapid, efficient, clean, cheap, convenient, energy-saving and green method. Grafting of poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) on agar backbone was carried out under the influence of microwave radiation. The synthesis is optimized in terms of percentage grafting and intrinsic viscosity, by varying the microwave irradiation time and monomer (2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) concentration. The synthesized graft copolymers have been characterized by intrinsic viscosity measurement, FTIR spectroscopy, UV-spectroscopy, elemental analysis (C, H, N, & S), thermal studies and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flocculation efficacy of the synthesized graft copolymers was studied in 0.25% kaolin and 1% coal fine suspension, through 'jar test' procedure. Further, flocculation efficacy of the best grade, coagulant (alum) and agar were studied for possible application in remediation of metals from river water. PMID:23850679

Rani, G Usha; Mishra, Sumit; Pathak, Gopal; Jha, Usha; Sen, Gautam



Control of the pattern of perithecium development in Sordaria fimicola on agar medium.  


In a Sordaria fimicola (Rob.) Ces. and de Not. colony grown on agar medium in a petri plate, perithecia developed in a narrow band around the plate edge after the colony margin reached the edge. Physical wounding of the colony carried out shortly before or during the time perithecia were developing around the plate edge stimulated perithecium development in the wound area. Diffusion barriers were created by cutting small trenches in the agar parallel to the plate edge. The trenches were made at several different positions between the plate center and edge using cultures of several different ages, and the resultant distribution of perithecia along the trench edges suggested that the colony center and periphery produce diffusible inhibitors of perithecium development. These inhibitors may be responsible, in part, for the observed pattern of perithecium development in the colony. PMID:1158169

Pollock, R T



An improved agar-plate method for studying root growth and response of Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Arabidopsis thaliana is a widely used model plant for plant biology research. Under traditional agar-plate culture system (TPG, traditional plant-growing), both plant shoots and roots are exposed to illumination, and roots are grown in sucrose-added medium. This is not a natural environment for the roots and may cause artifact responses. We have developed an improved agar-plate culture system (IPG, improved plant-growing) where shoots are illuminated but roots are grown in darkness without sucrose addition. Compared to TPG, IPG produced plants with significantly less total root length, lateral root length and root hair density, although their primary roots were longer. Root gravitropism, PIN2 (an auxin efflux carrier) abundance, H+ efflux or Ca2+ influx in root apexes, were weaker in IPG-grown roots than those in TPG-grown roots. We conclude that IPG offers a more natural way to study the root growth and response of Arabidopsis thaliana.

Xu, Weifeng; Ding, Guochang; Yokawa, Ken; Baluska, Frantisek; Li, Qian-Feng; Liu, Yinggao; Shi, Weiming; Liang, Jiansheng; Zhang, Jianhua



Routine Identification of Yeasts with the Aid of Molybdate-Agar Medium  

PubMed Central

A large number of yeasts, including a variety of species other than Candida albicans, were isolated from clinical specimens. C. tropicalis and Torulopsis glabrata were each found one-third as frequently as C. albicans. A schema is presented which made possible, by simple procedures, the identification of the great majority of the isolated yeasts. Preliminary isolation and differentiation was aided by the use of molybdate-agar medium. The use of the schema by diagnostic bacteriological laboratories is discussed.

Bump, Charles M.; Kunz, Lawrence J.



Tracer-diffusion of cobalt ions in sodium and potassium nitrates in agar gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracer-diffusion of Co2+ ions is studied in agar gel in the presence of sodium and potassium nitrates at 25°C. The diffusion coefficient values at various electrolyte concentrations are compared with the corresponding theoretical values computed on the basis of Onsager's theory. The deviations from the theory are attributed to the various co-occurring effects in the diffusion medium. The activation energy

Mahendrakumar K. Patil



Enhancing Bioaerosol Sampling by Andersen Impactors Using Mineral-Oil-Spread Agar Plate  

PubMed Central

As a bioaerosol sampling standard, Andersen type impactor is widely used since its invention in 1950s, including the investigation of the anthrax attacks in the United States in 2001. However, its related problems such as impaction and desiccation stress as well as particle bounce have not been solved. Here, we improved its biological collection efficiencies by plating a mineral oil layer (100 µL) onto the agar plate. An Andersen six-stage sampler and a BioStage impactor were tested with mineral-oil-spread agar plates in collecting indoor and outdoor bacterial and fungal aerosols. The effects of sampling times (5, 10 and 20 min) were also studied using the BioStage impactor when sampling environmental bioaerosols as well as aerosolized Bacillus subtilis (G+) and Escherichia coli (G-). In addition, particle bounce reduction by mineral-oil-plate was also investigated using an optical particle counter (OPC). Experimental results revealed that use of mineral-oil-spread agar plate can substantially enhance culturable bioaerosol recoveries by Andersen type impactors (p-values<0.05). The recovery enhancement was shown to depend on bioaerosol size, type, sampling time and environment. In general, more enhancements (extra 20%) were observed for last stage of the Andersen six-stage samplers compared to the BioStage impactor for 10 min sampling. When sampling aerosolized B. subtilis, E. coli and environmental aerosols, the enhancement was shown to increase with increasing sampling time, ranging from 50% increase at 5 min to ?100% at 20 min. OPC results indicated that use of mineral oil can effectively reduce the particle bounce with an average of 66% for 10 min sampling. Our work suggests that enhancements for fungal aerosols were primarily attributed to the reduced impaction stress, while for bacterial aerosols reduced impaction, desiccation and particle bounce played major roles. The developed technology can readily enhance the agar-based techniques including those high volume portable samplers for bioaerosol monitoring.

Xu, Zhenqiang; Wei, Kai; Wu, Yan; Shen, Fangxia; Chen, Qi; Li, Mingzhen; Yao, Maosheng



Rapid Isolation and Susceptibility Testing of Leptospira spp. Using a New Solid Medium, LVW Agar  

PubMed Central

Pathogenic Leptospira spp., the causative agents of leptospirosis, are slow-growing Gram-negative spirochetes. Isolation of Leptospira from clinical samples and testing of antimicrobial susceptibility are difficult and time-consuming. Here, we describe the development of a new solid medium that facilitates more-rapid growth of Leptospira spp. and the use of this medium to evaluate the Etest's performance in determining antimicrobial MICs to drugs in common use for leptospirosis. The medium was developed by evaluating the effects of numerous factors on the growth rate of Leptospira interrogans strain NR-20157. These included the type of base agar, the concentration of rabbit serum (RS), and the concentration and duration of CO2 incubation during the initial period of culture. The highest growth rate of NR-20157 was achieved using a Noble agar base supplemented with 10% RS (named LVW agar), with an initial incubation at 30°C in 5% CO2 for 2 days prior to continuous culture in air at 30°C. These conditions were used to develop the Etest for three species, L. interrogans (NR-20161), L. kirschnerii (NR-20327), and L. borgpetersenii (NR-20151). The MICs were read on day 7 for all samples. The Etest was then performed on 109 isolates of pathogenic Leptospira spp. The MIC90 values for penicillin G, doxycycline, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and chloramphenicol were 0.64 units/ml and 0.19, 0.047, 0.5, and 2 ?g/ml, respectively. The use of LVW agar, which enables rapid growth, isolation of single colonies, and simple antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Leptospira spp., provides an opportunity for new areas of fundamental and applied research.

Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Paris, Daniel H.; Langla, Sayan; Thaipadunpanit, Janjira; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Smythe, Lee D.; White, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Peacock, Sharon J.



Effect of Agar, MS Medium Strength, Sucrose and Polyamines on in vitro Rooting of Syzygium Alternifolium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the effect of agar, MS basal medium strength, sucrose and polyamines on the in vitro rooting of Syzygium\\u000a alternifolium realized by a two step procedure involving root initiation (RI) and root elongation (RE). RI was carried out\\u000a on solidified MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg dm?3 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for 3 weeks, and RE following transfer to

P. S. Sha Valli Khan; J. F. Hausman; K. R. Rao



Effect of time on migration of Oesophagostomum spp. and Hyostrongylus rubidus out of agar-gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agar-gel migration technique has previously been described, however, aspects regarding the effect of timing on worm migration\\u000a needed further scrutiny. In the first experiment, pigs inoculated with Oesophagostomum dentatum were slaughtered simultaneously and their intestines stored at 21–23?°C until processed pairwise 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 18?h\\u000a after slaughter. More than 95% of the worms migrated out of

P. Nosal; C. M. Christensen; P. Nansen



Direct impression on agar surface as a diagnostic sampling procedure for candida balanitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe diagnosis of candida balanitis should be based upon both clinical and mycological data. The procedure of material collection is a critical issue to confirm or rule out the clinical diagnosis of candida balanitis.ObjectiveTo compare direct impression of the glans on the agar surface of solid culture media with the collection of genital exudates with cotton swab for the diagnosis

Carmen Lisboa; António Santos; Filomena Azevedo; Cidália Pina-Vaz; Acácio Gonçalves Rodrigues



The diffusion of gibberellins into agar and water during early germination of Pharbitis nil Choisy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agar diffusion of imbibed seeds yielded significant amounts of diffusible Gibberellin-like substances. An analysis of the extractable and diffusible gibberellin-like substance, including an analysis of the remaining imbibition water of the seeds, indicated that a significant part of these gibberellin-like substances could be attributed to a net biosynthesis of these substances in the imbibing seeds. At the same time it

Gerard W. M. Barendse; Hans A. M. Gilissen



Agar properties of two species of Gracilariaceae from the Gulf of California, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agar properties of two potentially commercial important seaweeds from the Gulf of California were studied. Maximum yield in\\u000a Gracilaria vermiculophylla (45.7%) occurred during the summer months, coinciding with high water temperatures (31°C) whereas minimum yields (11.6%)\\u000a were obtained during the coldest months of the year when populations of this species diminish in the bay. Gracilariopsis longissima showed two yield peaks,

Javier Orduña-Rojas; Karla Y. García-Camacho; Priscila Orozco-Meyer; Rafael Ríosmena-Rodríguez; Isaí Pacheco-Ruiz; José A. Zertuche-González; Alf E. Meling-López



Xanthan gum: an economical substitute for agar in plant tissue culture media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xanthan gum, a microbial desiccation-resistant polysaccharide prepared commercially by aerobic submerged fermentation from\\u000a Xanthomonas campestris, has been successfully used as a solidifying agent for plant tissue culture media. Its suitability as a substitute to agar\\u000a was demonstrated for in vitro seed germination, caulogenesis and rhizogenesis of Albizzia lebbeck, androgenesis in anther cultures of Datura innoxia, and somatic embryogenesis in callus

R. Jain; S. B. Babbar



CHROMagar Yersinia, a New Chromogenic Agar for Screening of Potentially Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica Isolates in Stools  

PubMed Central

CHROMagar Yersinia (CAY) is a new chromogenic medium for the presumptive detection of virulent Yersinia enterocolitica in stools. Based on a comparative analysis of 1,494 consecutive stools from hospitalized patients, CAY was found to be just as sensitive as the reference medium (cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin agar) but was significantly more specific and had a very low false-positive rate. CAY reduces the workload (and thus costs) for stool analysis and can therefore be recommended for routine laboratory use.

Renaud, Nicolas; Lecci, Laetitia; Courcol, Rene J.; Simonet, Michel



An agar-based silver|silver chloride reference electrode for use in micro-electrochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A miniaturised Ag|AgCl reference electrode is described which can be easily set up. Its electrochemical behaviour was proven by micro-polarisation curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potential transients. A saturated potassium chloride solution was used which was solidified by adding agar. The electrode is as small as 800 ?m in diameter and 5 mm in length, with further potential for down-sizing.

Achim Walter Hassel; Koji Fushimi; Masahiro Seo



Micro-agar salt bridge in patch-clamp electrode holder stabilizes electrode potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintaining a stable electrode potential is critical for patch-clamp measurements. The electrode potential of conventional patch electrode-holder assembly, where an Ag\\/AgCl wire is in direct contact with the patch pipette filling solution, is subject to drift if the pipette solution contains a low concentration of chloride ions (Cl?). We developed an agar bridge of 3M KCl filled in a polyimide

Xuesi M. Shao; Jack L. Feldman



Quantitative Assessment of Bactericidal Activities of ?-Lactam Antibiotics by Agar Plate Method  

PubMed Central

Quantitative bactericidal activities of ?-lactam antibiotics were determined by the agar plate method. Broth cultures, of which the colony-forming units were counted before the study, were inoculated on antibiotic-containing agar plates, utilizing a 10?3, 10?2, or 10?1 dilution or undiluted culture plated with each 0.001-ml calibrated loop. These plates were incubated at 37°C overnight, and the minimal drug concentration at which no bacterial growth was observed on the plates was defined as minimal inhibitory concentration. After this procedure, the agar surface was treated with ?-lactamase spray to inactivate the antibiotic. These plates were incubated again at 37°C overnight. The minimal drug concentration at which no evidence of bacterial growth was visible on the plates (resulting in a 100% kill) was defined as minimal bactericidal concentration. The lowest concentration which reduced the number of colony-forming units to 1/1,000 that in the original inoculum (resulting in a 99.9% kill) was defined as minimal lethal concentration. When compared for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter sp., Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, alpha-hemolytic streptococcus (non-enterococcal), beta-hemolytic streptococcus, and enterococcus, the minimal bactericidal concentrations were generally several fold higher than the minimal inhibitory concentrations. Minimal lethal concentrations were virtually the same as minimal inhibitory concentrations for gram-negative strains; however, for some gram-positive strains, minimal lethal concentrations were higher than minimal inhibitory concentrations.

Masuda, Gohta; Tomioka, Susumu



Agar Plate Method for Detection and Enumeration of Alkylbenzenesulfonate-Degrading Microorganisms  

PubMed Central

A simple method for detection and enumeration of alkylbenzenesulfonate (ABS)-degrading microorganisms by using agar plates was developed and used in microbiological studies of coastal marine and polluted river waters. The method depends upon the color responses of neutral red in alkaline medium. Neutral red changes from pink, when it enters into ABS micelles, to yellow, when the ABS is degraded, and does not form micelles. When neutral red-tris(hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane buffer solution and then cationic surfactant solution were sprayed onto the agar surface of ABS-nutrient agar cultures, transparent haloes appeared around the colonies of ABS-degrading microorganisms against a pink background. Viable counts of ABS-degrading bacteria isolated from both seawater and freshwater environments were considerably higher in polluted waters than in less polluted areas. Viable counts of ABS-degrading bacteria averaged 1.5 × 105/ml in samples from the surface water of polluted Tokyo Bay and 3.0 × 104/ml in samples from the surface water of polluted Tamagawa River but were fewer in number in samples from less polluted waters. Images

Ohwada, Kouichi



ABC Medium, a New Chromogenic Agar for Selective Isolation of Salmonella spp.  

PubMed Central

We describe a new chromogenic agar medium, ABC medium (??-chromogenic medium), which includes two substrates, 3,4-cyclohexenoesculetin-?-d-galactoside and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-?-d-galactopyranoside, to facilitate the selective isolation of Salmonella spp. This medium exploits the fact that Salmonella spp. may be distinguished from other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae by the presence of ?-galactosidase activity in the absence of ?-galactosidase activity. A total of 1,022 strains of Salmonella spp. and 300 other gram-negative strains were inoculated onto this medium. Of these, 1,019 (99.7%) strains of Salmonella spp. produced a characteristic green colony, whereas only 1 strain (0.33%) of non-Salmonella produced a green colony. A total of 283 stool samples were cultured onto desoxycholate citrate (DC) agar and ABC medium by direct inoculation and after selective enrichment in selenite broth. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity were superior for ABC medium (100 and 90.5%, respectively) than for DC agar (88 and 26.9%, respectively). We conclude that ABC medium offers a high degree of specificity for the detection of Salmonella spp. in stool samples.

Perry, John D.; Ford, Michael; Taylor, Jeffrey; Jones, Amanda L.; Freeman, Roger; Gould, Frances K.



A novel locus essential for spreading of Cytophaga hutchinsonii colonies on agar.  


Cytophaga hutchinsonii is an aerobic cellulolytic gliding bacterium. The mechanism of its cell motility over surfaces without flagella and type IV pili is not known. In this study, mariner-based transposon mutagenesis was used to identify a new locus CHU_1797 essential for colony spreading on both hard and soft agar surfaces through gliding. CHU_1797 encodes a putative outer membrane protein of 348 amino acids with unknown function, and proteins which have high sequence similarity to CHU_1797 were widespread in the members of the phylum Bacteroidetes. The disruption of CHU_1797 suppressed spreading toward glucose on an agar surface, but had no significant effect on cellulose degradation for cells already in contact with cellulose. SEM observation showed that the mutant cells also regularly arranged on the surface of cellulose fiber similar with that of the wild type strain. These results indicated that the colony spreading ability on agar surfaces was not required for cellulose degradation by C. hutchinsonii. This was the first study focused on the relationship between cell motility and cellulose degradation of C. hutchinsonii. PMID:23579728

Ji, Xiaofei; Bai, Xinfeng; Li, Zhe; Wang, Sen; Guan, Zhiwei; Lu, Xuemei



Use of the Antiserum-Agar Plate Technique for Specific Identification and Isolation of Pasteurella Pestis from Tissues of Experimentally Infected Guinea Pigs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pasteurella pestis colonies were specifically identified on antiserum-agar plates used for primary culture of tissues from experimentally infected guinea pigs. Both selective and nonselective antiserum-agar plates were used to identify P. pestis from guin...

J. M. Albizo M. J. Surgalla




EPA Science Inventory

A new membrane filter (MF) medium, MI agar, recently validated for use in recovering chlorine-damaged total coloiforms (TC) and Escherichia coli from drinking water, was compared to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved MF method(mEndo agar and nutrient agar suppl...


Methylene blue diffusion in skin tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of Methylene Blue penetration in both skin and subcutaneous fat is presented. Experiments have been carried out with both rat skin and human adipose tissue in vitro at room temperature. Microscopic analysis with digital imaging system has been applied for visualizing and investigation of the Methylene Blue diffusion in the epidermal, dermal and adipose tissue. Diffusion coefficient of Methylene Blue in skin in vitro has been estimated.

Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Tuchin, Valery V.



Seasonal variation of agar from Gracilaria vermiculophylla, effect of alkali treatment time, and stability of its Colagar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gracilaria vermiculophylla, from Baja California Sur, Mexico, was studied in order to determine the seasonal variation of yield and quality of native\\u000a and alkaline agar during 2007–2008. The highest alkaline agar yield was obtained in summer (17%) and the highest gel strength\\u000a in spring (1,132 g?cm?2). The highest melting temperature was 98°C (winter). The highest gelling temperature was 68°C (summer). The

Mario Antonio Vergara-Rodarte; Gustavo Hernández-Carmona; Y. Elizabeth Rodríguez-Montesinos; Dora Luz Arvizu-Higuera; Rafael Riosmena-Rodríguez; Jesús Iván Murillo-Álvarez



Production of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids by monoxenic growth of labyrinthulids on oil-dispersed agar medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method is proposed for the production of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) by labyrinthulids. The method comprises a monoxenic culture with Psychlobacter phenylpyruvicus, using agar medium in which oil was dispersed. Soybean oil (SBO) was selected as the optimum material for an oil-dispersed agar medium. The labyrinthulids showed three-dimensional growth and an anastomosing ectoplasmic network in the SBO-dispersed

Y. Kumon; T. Yokochi; T. Nakahara; M. Yamaoka; K. Mito



Preenrichment versus direct selective agar plating for the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs.  


The relative effectiveness of two methods for the recovery of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) from jumbo and medium shell eggs was compared. The first method used in the comparison consisted of a preenrichment of the sample, and the second method was developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). Three bulk lots of blended, pooled eggs, each containing 220 liquid whole eggs that were thoroughly mixed manually were artificially inoculated with different levels of SE cells between approximately 10(0) and 10(3) CFU/ml. Twenty samples containing the contents of approximately 10 eggs each (by weight) were withdrawn from each of the inoculated bulk lots and incubated for 4 days at room temperature (ca. 23 degrees C). For the APHIS method, each sample was cultured by direct plating onto brilliant green (BG), brilliant green with novobiocin (BGN), xylose lysine desoxycholate (XLD), and xylose lysine agar Tergitol 4 (XLT4) agars. For the preenrichment method, 25-g portions from each pool were enriched in modified tryptic soy broth with 30 mg/liter of FeSO4. After 24 h of incubation, the preenrichments were subcultured to tetrathionate and Rappaport-Vassiliadis broths, and streaked to BG, BGN, bismuth sulfite, XLD, and XLT4 agar plates. SE isolates were confirmed biochemically and serologically. In all of the experiments, the preenrichment method recovered significantly more SE isolates (P < 0.05) of all the phage types and inoculum levels than did the APHIS method. From a total of 539 jumbo egg test portions analyzed, 381 (71%) were SE-positive by the preenrichment method and 232 (43%) were positive by the APHIS method. From a total of 360 medium egg test portions analyzed, 223 (62%) were SE-positive by the preenrichment method and 174 (48%) were positive by the APHIS method. The preenrichment method provided greater sensitivity for the isolation of SE in contaminated egg slurries than did the APHIS method. PMID:14503723

Valentín-Bon, I E; Brackett, R E; Seo, K H; Hammack, T S; Andrews, W H



Activity of Cefoperazone Against Ampicillin-Resistant Bacteria in Agar and Broth Dilution Tests  

PubMed Central

Examination of the activity of cefoperazone against ampicillin-resistant, gramnegative bacteria in agar dilution and simultaneously in broth dilution revealed that strains could be divided into three classes: class I strains were susceptible in agar (mean minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC], 0.5 mg/liter) as well as in broth dilution (mean MIC, 1.5 mg/liter), class II strains were susceptible in agar (MIC, 0.9 mg/liter), but resistant in broth dilution (MIC, 182 mg/liter); and class III strains were highly resistant in both test systems. Among 100 randomly selected ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli cultures, 51 belonged to class I and 49 belonged to class II. Class III E. coli strains were much rarer. Similar results were obtained with cefamandole and cephalothin, but not with six other second-and third-generation cephalosporins. MICs of cefoperazone against cultures of all three classes were influenced by initial inoculum size. The inoculum effect was greatest with class II strains. Examination of bactericidal activity by cefoperazone showed killing of class I and class II E. coli strains and of class III strains of other genera during the first hours of incubation and regrowth after the drug was destroyed by the action of TEM ?-lactamase (penicillinase). Representative class I bacteria produced 10 to 100 times less TEM ?-lactamase than did class II strains. It appeared that the quantitative difference in TEM production was the reason for the different resistance phenotypes in class I and class II strains. Salmonella and Klebsiella strains of class III produced the same amounts of TEM ?-lactamase as did class II E. coli strains. Probably, some factors other than ?-lactamase contributed to the class III phenotype in these species.

Kayser, Fritz H.; Morenzoni, Giovanna; Homberger, Francoise



Photoluminescence of the inorganic pigments Egyptian blue, Han blue and Han purple  

Microsoft Academic Search

The room-temperature photoluminescence spectra of various samples of Egyptian blue (CaCuSi4O10) are presented, discussed and compared with those of recently synthesized compounds corresponding to the ancient pigments Han blue (BaCuSi4O10) and Han purple (BaCuSi2O6). All the samples of Egyptian blue show identical spectra, in spite of their very different origin. The spectra of Han blue and Han purple are significantly

Giorgio Pozza; David Ajò; Giacomo Chiari; Franco De Zuane; Marialuisa Favaro



Use of sodium polyanethol sulfonate in the preparation of 5 per cent sheep blood agar plates.  


An alternative method to defibrinating sheep blood for use in bacteriological media is described. The new procedure incorporates sodium polyanethol sulfonate in a concentration of 0.05% (vol/vol). In testing 117 bacterial and fungal isolates, no significant differences were found with respect to adequate growth, pigment production, hemolytic reactions, and other physical attributes. Further tests demonstrate that the sodium polyanethol sulfonate in sheep blood agar plates does not cause any aberrations in zone sizes around disks used in antibiotic susceptibility tests. Consequently, the method represents a suitable alternative to the use of defibrinated sheep blood in the preparation of bacteriological media. PMID:4210729

Wasilauskas, B L; Floyd, J; Roberts, T R



CHROMagar Yersinia, a new chromogenic agar for screening of potentially pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica isolates in stools.  


CHROMagar Yersinia (CAY) is a new chromogenic medium for the presumptive detection of virulent Yersinia enterocolitica in stools. Based on a comparative analysis of 1,494 consecutive stools from hospitalized patients, CAY was found to be just as sensitive as the reference medium (cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin agar) but was significantly more specific and had a very low false-positive rate. CAY reduces the workload (and thus costs) for stool analysis and can therefore be recommended for routine laboratory use. PMID:23363840

Renaud, Nicolas; Lecci, Laetitia; Courcol, René J; Simonet, Michel; Gaillot, Olivier



Comparative Study for Determination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Susceptibility to First- and Second-Line Antituberculosis Drugs by the Etest Using 7H11, Blood, and Chocolate Agar?  

PubMed Central

We investigated the performance of blood and chocolate agar as alternatives to Middlebrook 7H11 agar for testing the susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to first-and second-line drugs by the Etest method. A total of 39 strains of M. tuberculosis including 22 multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains and 17 susceptible strains were tested. In conclusion, our results showed that chocolate agar gave insufficient growth, needing up to 21 days of incubation, while results on blood agar were comparable to those on Middlebrook 7H11 agar and can be further explored as an alternative for Etest-based susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis.

Coban, Ahmet Yilmaz; Bilgin, Kemal; Uzun, Meltem; Akgunes, Alper; Yusof, Anne; Durupinar, Belma



Mechanical and water barrier properties of agar/?-carrageenan/konjac glucomannan ternary blend biohydrogel films.  


Multicomponent hydrogel films composed of agar, ?-carrageenan, konjac glucomannan powder, and nanoclay (Cloisite(®) 30B) were prepared and their mechanical and water barrier properties such as water vapor permeability (WVP), water contact angle (CA), water solubility (WS), water uptake ratio (WUR), water vapor uptake ratio (WVUR) were determined. Mechanical, water vapor barrier, and water resistance properties of the ternary blend film exhibited middle range of individual component films, however, they increased significantly after formation of nanocomposite with the clay. Especially, the water holding capacity of the ternary blend biopolymer films increased tremendously, from 800% to 1681% of WUR for agar and ?-carrageenan films up to 5118% and 5488% of WUR for the ternary blend and ternary blend nanocomposite films, respectively. Water vapor adsorption behavior of films was also tested by water vapor adsorption kinetics and water vapor adsorption isotherms test. Preliminary test result for fresh spinach packaging revealed that the ternary blend biohydrogel films had a high potential for the use as an antifogging film for packaging highly respiring agricultural produce. In addition, the ternary blend nanocomposite film showed an antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes. PMID:23688456

Rhim, Jong-Whan; Wang, Long-Feng



An electrochemical approach to monitor pH change in agar media during plant tissue culture.  


In this work, metal oxide microelectrodes were developed to monitor pH change in agar media during plant tissue culture. An antimony wire was produced by a new approach "capillary melt method". The surface of the obtained antimony wire was oxidized in a potassium nitrate melt to fabricate an antimony oxide film for pH sensing. Characterization results show that the oxide layer grown on the wire surface consists of Sb(2)O(3) crystal phase. The sensing response, open-circuit potential, of the electrode has a good linear relationship (R(2)=1.00) with pH value of the test solution. Adding organic compounds into the test media would not affect the linear relationship, although the slope of the lines varied with different ingredients added. The antimony oxide electrodes were employed to continuously monitor pH change of agar culture media during a 2-week plant tissue culture of Dendrobium candidum. The antimony oxide electrode fabricated this way has the advantages of low cost, easy fabrication, fast response, and almost no contamination introduced into the system. It would be suitable for in situ and continuous pH measurement in many bio applications. PMID:17178219

Wang, Min; Ha, Yang



Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on agar and processed meat surfaces by atmospheric pressure plasma jets.  


An apparatus for generating atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) jet was used to investigate the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of agar plates and slices of cooked chicken breast and ham. He, N? (both 7 L/min), and mixtures of each with O? (0.07 L/min) were used to produce the plasma jets. After treatment for 2 min with APP jets of He, He + O?, N?, or N? + O?, the numbers of L. monocytogenes on agar plates were reduced by 0.87, 4.19, 4.26, and 7.59 log units, respectively. Similar treatments reduced the L. monocytogenes inoculated onto sliced chicken breast and ham by 1.37 to 4.73 and 1.94 to 6.52 log units, respectively, according to the input gas used with the N? + O? mixture being the most effective. Most APP jets reduced the numbers of aerobic bacteria on the meat surfaces to <10² CFU/g, and the numbers remained below that level of detection after storage at 10 °C for 7 days. The results indicate that APP jets are effective for the inactivation of L. monocytogenes on sliced meats and for prolonging the shelf-life of such foods. PMID:21925030

Lee, Hyun Jung; Jung, Heesoo; Choe, Wonho; Ham, Jun Sang; Lee, Jun Heon; Jo, Cheorun



The formation of B-lymphocyte colonies in agar contained in glass capillaries.  

PubMed Central

Optimal conditions were established for a micro method for the production of colonies of B lymphocytes from mouse spleen cells cultured in agar in glass capillaries, in the presence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Besides LPS the cultures require 5 X 10(-5) M mercaptoethanol and 20% horse serum for optimal colony growth. Foetal calf serum and heat-inactivated horse or foetal calf serum were found to be inferior. An agar gel strength of 0.3% was best for colony counting. A sigmoid curve was obtained when the number of colonies formed was related to the seeded cell density suggesting that some kind of cell to cell co-operation is essential for colony formation. The daily kinetics of colony growth were followed by microscopic colony counting and photometric capillary scanning with integration of the signal areas. Both methods indicated that colony growth had ceased by day 6. The combination of both methods gave the most realistic picture of B-lymphocyte colony development. Images Figure 1

Ulmer, A; Maurer, H R



Double meaning in the popular negro blues  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a long acquaintance with negroes and negro songs, the author feels that there is no doubt as to the existence of double meanings, chiefly of a sex nature, in the popular blues songs, and bases his contention upon research into negro vulgar expressions, and the origin and development of the blues. The double meanings found pertain either to the

G. B. Johnson



Blue enhanced light sources: opportunities and risks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural daylight is characterized by high proportions of blue light. By proof of a third type of photoreceptor in the human eye which is only sensitive in this spectral region and by subsequent studies it has become obvious that these blue proportions are essential for human health and well being. In various studies beneficial effects of indoor lighting with higher blue spectral proportions have been proven. On the other hand with increasing use of light sources having enhanced blue light for indoor illumination questions are arising about potential health risks attributed to blue light. Especially LED are showing distinct emission characteristics in the blue. Recently the French agency for food, environmental and occupational health & safety ANSES have raised the question on health issues related to LED light sources and have claimed to avoid use of LED for lighting in schools. In this paper parameters which are relevant for potential health risks will be shown and their contribution to risk factors will quantitatively be discussed. It will be shown how to differentiate between photometric parameters for assessment of beneficial as well as hazardous effects. Guidelines will be discussed how blue enhanced light sources can be used in applications to optimally support human health and well being and simultaneously avoid any risks attributed to blue light by a proper design of lighting parameters. In the conclusion it will be shown that no inherent health risks are related to LED lighting with a proper lighting design.

Lang, Dieter



Methylene blue diffusion in skin tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of Methylene Blue penetration in both skin and subcutaneous fat is presented. Experiments have been carried out with both rat skin and human adipose tissue in vitro at room temperature. Microscopic analysis with digital imaging system has been applied for visualizing and investigation of the Methylene Blue diffusion in the epidermal, dermal and adipose tissue. Diffusion coefficient of

Elina A. Genina; Alexey N. Bashkatov; Valery V. Tuchin



New ionomer membranes for blue energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue energy is energy gained from the difference between fresh and salt water. As this type of power generation does not consume fossil fuel, it belongs to the green energy sources, i.e. a type of sustainable energy. There are two methods of blue power generation: osmosis and reverse electrodialysis. Both types require membranes. The paper explains the background of this

R. Ross; J. Krijgsman



Fire Effects in Blue Oak Woodland1  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Mortality and resprouting of shrubs and trees were assessed in one recent fire and 11 older burns in blue oak woodland in the southern Sierra Nevada foothills. This poster reported results for blue oak. Survival following fire was high; with a 93 percent two year postfire survival rate after one intensively studied fire, despite a large number of

Patricia K. Haggerty


Louisiana Blue Crab Production, Processing, and Markets,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The blue crab fishery, in view of its dockside value, is becoming an increasingly important component of the Louisiana fishing sector. Worth $20.1 million in 1987, the Louisiana blue crab fishery was exceeded in dockside value only by shrimp ($184.2 milli...

W. R. Keithly K. J. Roberts A. W. Liebzeit



Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

Liebl, Michael



Why is the sky blue? (Tyndall Effect)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides an answer to the common question of âWhy is the sky blue?â The page uses drawings and images to explain how Tyndall Effect causes the blue color we see. Similar topics like Sunsets and âWhy is Mars sky red?â are also addressed.



Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

Liebl, Michael



Smart games: beyond the Deep Blue horizon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the Deep Blue chess computer defeated Garry Kasparov in May 1997, public interest in artificial intelligence has piqued once again. Many in the AI field see Deep Blue's victory as a major milestone in AI history. Indeed, the victory achieves one of the long-standing AI Grand Challenges-a computer beating the reigning world champion of chess

S. Hedberg



Morpho-blue reproduced by nanocasting lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The brilliant metallic blue in wings of Morpho butterflies has a mysterious feature. The blue luster is produced from the butterfly's scale, which does not contain a blue pigment at all. The origin of the coloration is then attributed to a microscopic structure that can also explain its high reflectivity. However, its optical characteristics on the scattered wavelength contradicts obviously the grating or multilayer, because it appears blue from wide angle. The mystery of the lack of multi-coloration has recently been explained using a model with a peculiar optical structure, and experimentally proven by fabricating the optical film by controlling the parameters in nanoscale. The reproduced Morpho-blue was found to be important from viewpoint of a wide variety of applications. However, the fabrication process of the nano- structure is too costly due to conventional lithography method. To solve the problem, nano-casting lithography (NCL) was newly applied using UV curable polymer to replicate the nanostructure and improve heat-resistance for the following process of deposition. After fabrication of the nano-patterned polymer structure by the NCL, TiO2 and SiO2 layers were deposited and the Morpho-blue structure was successfully replicated in low cost. The reflective characteristic of the replicated structure was found to reproduce the basic properties of the natural Morpho-blue, as well as the originally fabricated Morpho-blue.

Saito, Akira; Nakajima, Masaki; Miyamura, Yusuke; Sogo, Kenji; Ishikawa, Yoko; Hirai, Yoshihiko



Environmental labels—the German ‘Blue Angel’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental considerations are becoming increasingly important for consumers and producers. A credible environmental label can only be established if it is issued by a neutral or state organisation on the basis of scientifically derived criteria. This holds true for the German ‘Blue Angel’. A case study of emulsion lacquer paints labelled with the Blue Angel indicates that an environmental label

Jens Hemmelskamp; Karl Ludwig Brockmann



Exoplanets as blue as Neptune  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polarimetry is a powerful technique for detecting directly exoplanetary atmospheres and exploring its geometry, chemistry, and thermodynamics. In addition, observed polarization variability exhibits the orbital period of the planet and reveal the inclination, eccentricity, and orientation of the orbit. Recently, we have started a polarimetric survey of nearby planetary systems with hot Jupiters closely orbiting their host stars. Here we will demonstrate how polarized scattered light reveals the presence of exoplanets in unresolved planetary systems and provides direct probes of their atmospheres. We identify a small group of inflated and highly reflective hot Jupiters, with albedo defined by Rayleigh scattering on, most probably, condensates in high altitude haze or clouds. The scattering results in the blue shine of these planets similar to Neptune.

Berdyugina, S.; Berdyugin, A.; Piirola, V.



Stable isotope ratios as a tool in microbial forensics--part 3. Effect of culturing on agar-containing growth media.  


Stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen in microbes have been shown to be functions of the corresponding isotope ratios of the water with which the culture medium was prepared, and thus to contain a potential geographic signal. Water can evaporate from agar (solid) media during culturing, changing its isotope ratios. Here we describe the effect of drying on the isotope ratios of water extracted from agar media and the H and O stable isotope ratios ratios of Bacillus subtilis spores cultured on agar. The delta2H vs delta18O relationship of water in Petri dish agar was surprisingly constant during evaporation regardless of the ambient relative humidity, making it possible to calculate the approximate isotope ratios of the original water, even in significantly evaporated agar. The H stable isotope ratios of spores cultured on agar remained relatively unchanged as the agar dried, but the O ratio became significantly enriched. PMID:16382831

Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W; Chesson, Lesley A; Lott, Michael J; Ehleringer, James R



Blue Blobs in Compact Groups of Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the discovery of a population of young blue objects, similar to M81/M82 blue blobs (de Mello et al. 2008), outside galaxies in compact groups. These blue blobs were found using multiwavelength data (UV, HI, optical) for the compact groups of galaxies HCG 2, 7, 22, 23, 92, 100 and NGC 92 which are in different stages of interaction. We find that all three evolved groups, HCG92, HCG100 and NGC 92, contain a population of young blue objects consistent with having ages < 100 Myr. Moreover, they also show extended HI tails and peculiar velocity field. Our results indicate that the blue blobs are stellar clusters and/or dwarf galaxies formed in the intra-group HI clouds of groups in advanced stage of interaction .

De Mello, Duilia F.; Torres-Flores, S.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BLUE RIDGE TUNNEL (LEFT) FROM SOUTHEAST. ORIGINAL BLUE RIDGE R.R. (CROZET) TUNNEL IS VISIBLE AT RIGHT. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Blue Ridge Tunnel, Highway 250 at Rockfish Gap, Afton, Nelson County, VA


Screening for ligninolytic enzymes from autochthonous fungi and applications for decolorization of Remazole Marine Blue  

PubMed Central

This study presents new and alternative fungal strains for the production of ligninolytic enzymes which have great potential to use in industrial and biotechnological processes. Thirty autochthonous fungal strains were harvested from Bornova-Izmir in Turkiye. In the fresh fruitbody extracts laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase activities, which are the principal enzymes responsible for ligninocellulose degradation by Basidiomycetes, were screened. Spores of some of the basidiomycetes species such as Cortinarius sp., Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Abortiporus biennis, Lyophyllum subglobisporium, Ramaria stricta, Ganoderma carnosum, Lactarius delicious ve Lepista nuda were isolated and investigated optimum cultivation conditions in submerged fermentation for high yields of ligninolytic enzyme production. In addition, isolated fungal strains were monitored on agar plates whether having the capability of decolorization of a textile dye Remazol Marine Blue.

Erden, Emre; Ucar, M. Cigdem; Gezer, Tekin; Pazarlioglu, Nurdan Kasikara



Cultivation Media for Bacteria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Common bacteriological culture media (tryptic soy agar, chocolate agar, Thayer-Martin agar, MacConkey agar, eosin-methylene blue agar, hektoen agar, mannitol salt agar, and sheep blood agar) are shown uninoculated and inoculated with bacteria.

American Society For Microbiology;



Colonyzer: automated quantification of micro-organism growth characteristics on solid agar  

PubMed Central

Background High-throughput screens comparing growth rates of arrays of distinct micro-organism cultures on solid agar are useful, rapid methods of quantifying genetic interactions. Growth rate is an informative phenotype which can be estimated by measuring cell densities at one or more times after inoculation. Precise estimates can be made by inoculating cultures onto agar and capturing cell density frequently by plate-scanning or photography, especially throughout the exponential growth phase, and summarising growth with a simple dynamic model (e.g. the logistic growth model). In order to parametrize such a model, a robust image analysis tool capable of capturing a wide range of cell densities from plate photographs is required. Results Colonyzer is a collection of image analysis algorithms for automatic quantification of the size, granularity, colour and location of micro-organism cultures grown on solid agar. Colonyzer is uniquely sensitive to extremely low cell densities photographed after dilute liquid culture inoculation (spotting) due to image segmentation using a mixed Gaussian model for plate-wide thresholding based on pixel intensity. Colonyzer is robust to slight experimental imperfections and corrects for lighting gradients which would otherwise introduce spatial bias to cell density estimates without the need for imaging dummy plates. Colonyzer is general enough to quantify cultures growing in any rectangular array format, either growing after pinning with a dense inoculum or growing with the irregular morphology characteristic of spotted cultures. Colonyzer was developed using the open source packages: Python, RPy and the Python Imaging Library and its source code and documentation are available on SourceForge under GNU General Public License. Colonyzer is adaptable to suit specific requirements: e.g. automatic detection of cultures at irregular locations on streaked plates for robotic picking, or decreasing analysis time by disabling components such as lighting correction or colour measures. Conclusion Colonyzer can automatically quantify culture growth from large batches of captured images of microbial cultures grown during genome-wide scans over the wide range of cell densities observable after highly dilute liquid spot inoculation, as well as after more concentrated pinning inoculation. Colonyzer is open-source, allowing users to assess it, adapt it to particular research requirements and to contribute to its development.



Agar extraction from integrated multitrophic aquacultured Gracilaria vermiculophylla: evaluation of a microwave-assisted process using response surface methodology.  


Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of agar from Gracilaria vermiculophylla, produced in an integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) system, from Ria de Aveiro (northwestern Portugal), was tested and optimized using response surface methodology. The influence of the MAE operational parameters (extraction time, temperature, solvent volume and stirring speed) on the physical and chemical properties of agar (yield, gel strength, gelling and melting temperatures, as well as, sulphate and 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose contents) was evaluated in a 2(4) orthogonal composite design. The quality of the extracted agar compared favorably with the attained using traditional extraction (2 h at 85 degrees Celsius) while reducing drastically extraction time, solvent consumption and waste disposal requirements. Agar MAE optimum results were: an yield of 14.4 + or - 0.4%, a gel strength of 1331 + or - 51 g/cm(2), 40.7 + or - 0.2 degrees Celsius gelling temperature, 93.1 + or - 0.5 degrees Celsius melting temperature, 1.73 + or - 0.13% sulfate content and 39.4 + or - 0.3% 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose content. Furthermore, this study suggests the feasibility of the exploitation of G. vermiculophylla grew in IMTA systems for agar production. PMID:20056408

Sousa, A M M; Alves, V D; Morais, S; Delerue-Matos, C; Gonçalves, M P



In Virginia, Trigon and its opponents fight over how to split up the Blues' money. Trigon BlueCross BlueShield, Richmond, Va.  


Blue Cross/Blue Shield organizations around the country are all undergoing radical change, and not without controversy. A citizens group in California, for example, won a raucous public relations battle, getting the Blues to put $3.2 billion into two charitable trusts. Then, in Virginia, Trigon BlueCross BlueShield squared off against a citizens group when it, too, tried to reorganize itself. PMID:10162508


Optimization of reproduced Morpho-blue coloration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morpho butterfly's metallic blue luster, which is produced from the butterfly's scale, has a mysterious feature. Since the scale does not contain a blue pigment, the origin of the coloration is attributed to a microscopic structure that can also explain its high reflectivity. However, it appears blue from wide angular range, which contradicts obviously the grating or multilayer. The mystery of the lack of multi-coloration has recently been explained with a peculiar nano-structure, and experimentally proven by fabricating the optical film by controlling the parameters in nanoscale. The reproduced Morpho-blue was found to be important from viewpoint of a wide variety of applications. However, optical properties of the fabricated film were found to contain still some differences with that of the Morpho-butterfly, although the basic characteristics of the Morpho-blue itself was reproduced. In order to make the artificial Morpho-blue closer to the natural one than the prototype, we attempted to optimize the artificial film structure by controlling fabrication parameters. In this process, optical simulations and micro-structural observations were taken in account. By comparing a series of films fabricated with different nano-patterns, optimized parameters were semi-empirically obtained. Also the relationship between the structural parameters and the optical properties was analyzed. The reflective characteristics of the optimized film were found to reproduce the optical properties more closely to the natural Morpho-blue than the prototypes.

Saito, Akira; Ishikawa, Yoko; Miyamura, Yusuke; Akai-Kasaya, Megumi; Kuwahara, Yuji



Stimulating growth and xylindein production of Chlorociboria aeruginascens in agar-based systems.  


Four isolates of Chlorociboria aeruginascens were tested for possible stimulatory effects when grown on malt agar media containing wood additives. The addition of any of the four types of test wood (Acer saccharum, Populus tremuloides, spalted P. tremuloides, and Ailanthus altissima), stimulated colony growth and xylindein production in C. aeruginascens. Addition of any amount of wood produced more growth than no wood additions, while ground wood produced more growth than chopped wood. Of the wood types tested, A. saccharum wood stimulated all four isolates, while spalted Populus tremuloides stimulated three of the four isolates. High glucose and sucrose amounts may be partially responsible for the greater stimulatory affect of some woods over others. The development of this simple and reliable method for growth and pigment stimulation of C. aeruginascens in laboratory conditions will allow for further development of this fungus for decorative and commercial use. PMID:22409931

Robinson, Sara C; Tudor, Daniela; Snider, Hilary; Cooper, Paul A



Cell cytotoxicity and mycotoxin and secondary metabolite production by common penicillia on cheese agar.  


Known or potential new fungal starter culture species such as Penicillium camemberti, P. roqueforti, P. nalgiovense, P. caseifulvum, and P. solitum have been cultivated on a cheese agar medium together with the common cheese contaminants P. commune, P. crustosum, P. discolor, P. atramentosum, and P. nordicum. Secondary metabolites were extracted and analyzed by HPLC-DAD and tested for cytotoxicity by using the MTT-cell culture assay. Metabolites such as cyclopiazonic acid, roquefortine C, and penitrem A, previously reported from cheese, were detected together with sclerotigenin, solistatin, meleagrin, oxaline, compactins, diaportins, chaetoglobosins, rugulovasines, verrucolones, anacines, verrucines, cyclopeptines, viridicatins, and viridic acid, all metabolites not previously reported from cheese. The two P. nalgiovense extracts were the most toxic in the MTT-cell culture test. These extracts contained diaportines together with a number of unknown compounds. P. roqueforti extracts were not toxic at all. Fungal extracts from the rest of the studied penicillia were toxic at levels between these two extremes. PMID:12358494

Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Gareis, Manfred; Frisvad, Jens Christian



Agar hydrogel with silver nanoparticles to prolong the shelf life of Fior di Latte cheese.  


The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of an antimicrobial packaging system containing active nanoparticles on the quality deterioration of Fior di Latte cheese. To this aim, 3 concentrations of silver montmorillonite embedded in agar were used. The cell loads of spoilage and useful microorganisms were monitored during a refrigerated storage period. Moreover, cheese sensory quality (i.e., odor, color, consistency, and overall quality) was evaluated by means of a panel test. Results showed that the active packaging system markedly increased the shelf life of Fior di Latte cheese, due to the ability of silver cations to control microbial proliferation, without affecting the functional dairy microbiota and the sensory characteristics of the product. The active packaging system developed in this work could be used to prolong the shelf life of Fior di Latte and boost its distribution beyond local market borders. PMID:21426957

Incoronato, A L; Conte, A; Buonocore, G G; Del Nobile, M A



Injection of Acanthaster planci with thiosulfate-citrate-bile-sucrose agar (TCBS). I. Disease induction.  


This is the first report of the successful induction of a transmissible disease in the coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci (COTS). Injection of thiosulfate-citrate-bile-sucrose agar (TCBS) culture medium into COTS induced a disease characterized by discoloured and necrotic skin, ulcerations, loss of body turgor, accumulation of colourless mucus on many spines especially at their tip, and loss of spines. Blisters on the dorsal integument broke through the skin surface and resulted in large, open sores that exposed the internal organs. Oedema and reddened digestive tissues and destruction of connective fibers were common. Moreover, healthy COTS in contact with these infected animals also displayed signs of disease and died within 24 h. TCBS induced 100% mortality in injected starfish. There was no introduction of new pathogens into the marine environment. TCBS promoted the growth of COTS' naturally occurring Vibrionales to high densities with subsequent symbiont imbalance followed by disease and death. PMID:22303625

Rivera-Posada, J A; Pratchett, M; Cano-Gómez, A; Arango-Gómez, J D; Owens, L



Modulation of tumour cell colony growth in soft agar by oxygen and its mechanism.  

PubMed Central

A simple technique for maintaining low oxygen concentrations (0.1-20%) is described. These conditions were then used to study the effect of oxygen on colony growth of neoplastic cells in soft-agar. Physiologically low oxygen concentrations (0.1-10%) compared to 20% O2 were found to enhance plating efficiency and colony size of tumour cells. The optimal oxygen concentration for plating efficiency varied with tumour studied and may be as low as 0.1%. Having established that tumour cell colonies will grow better at 0.1-10% O2 compared to 20% O2, the mechanism by which this enhancement occurs was investigated. Observations on the effect of free radical scavengers and superoxide dismutase on plating efficiency of Ehrlich's ascites tumour cells suggests that this phenomenon occurs through oxygen toxicity mediated by superoxide anion.

Gupta, V.; Eberle, R.



Structural colours in blue-banded bee  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Periodic, micro-textured biological materials are ubiquitous in nature. Electromagnetic waves at different frequencies are selectively reflected by such materials. This phenomenon is the origin of structural colours observed in variety of insects. In this work, we analyze the mechanisms that lead to the bluish-green colour of the blue-banded bee feathers. The reflection spectrum of the blue-banded bee feather was calculated by the transfer matrix method (TMM). The reflection peaks found are compatible within the experimental data. In addition to Bragg scattering, guided resonance has been observed in our theoretical calculation, which leads to a novel understanding of the structural colours in blue-banded bees.

Wan, Jones; Dai, Lixiin; Li, Jensen; Fung, Kwok-Kwong; Chan, Che-Ting



High-Efficiency Blue Emitting Phosphorescent OLEDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we will show our latest results on high-efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs). Effects of triplet exciton confinement, exciton energy transfer and charge trapping, and charge balance on iridium(III)bis [(4,6-di-fluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N,C2'] picolinate (FIrpic)-based blue PHOLEDs will be presented. By optimizing the aforementioned device parameters, a high-efficiency blue PHOLED with 59 cd\\/A (48 lm\\/W at 100 cd\\/m2) was

Neetu Chopra; Jaewon Lee; Jiangeng Xue; Franky So



Hair Sheep Blood, Citrated or Defibrinated, Fulfills All Requirements of Blood Agar for Diagnostic Microbiology Laboratory Tests  

PubMed Central

Background Blood agar is used for the identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of many bacterial pathogens. In the developing world, microbiologists use human blood agar because of the high cost and inhospitable conditions for raising wool sheep or horses to supply blood. Many pathogens either fail to grow entirely or exhibit morphologies and hemolytic patterns on human blood agar that confound colony recognition. Furthermore, human blood can be hazardous to handle due to HIV and hepatitis [1], [2]. This study investigated whether blood from hair sheep, a hardy, low-maintenance variety of sheep adapted for hot climates, was suitable for routine clinical microbiology studies. Methods and Findings Hair sheep blood obtained by jugular venipuncture was anticoagulated by either manual defibrination or collection in human blood bank bags containing citrate-phosphate-dextrose. Trypticase soy 5% blood agar was made from both forms of hair sheep blood and commercial defibrinated wool sheep blood. Growth characteristics, colony morphologies, and hemolytic patterns of selected human pathogens, including several streptococcal species, were evaluated. Specialized identification tests, including CAMP test, reverse CAMP test, and satellite colony formation with Haemophilus influenzae and Abiotrophia defectiva were also performed. Mueller-Hinton blood agar plates prepared from the three blood types were compared in antibiotic susceptibility tests by disk diffusion and E-test. Conclusions The results of all studies showed that blood agar prepared from citrated hair sheep blood is suitable for microbiological tests used in routine identification and susceptibility profiling of human pathogens. The validation of citrated hair sheep blood eliminates the labor-intensive and equipment-requiring process of manual defibrination. Use of hair sheep blood, in lieu of human blood currently used by many developing world laboratories and as an alternative to cost-prohibitive commercial sheep blood, offers the opportunity to dramatically improve the safety and accuracy of laboratory diagnosis of pathogenic bacteria in resource-poor countries.

Yeh, Ellen; Pinsky, Benjamin A.; Banaei, Niaz; Baron, Ellen Jo



Laboratory Detection of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae: Evaluation of Two Screening Agar Plates and Two Confirmation Techniques?  

PubMed Central

The worldwide prevalence of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) is increasing, making the need for optimized detection techniques more urgent. In this study we investigated the performance of two ESBL-E screening and two ESBL-E confirmation techniques. In accordance with the Dutch national guidelines (, a collection of 642 highly resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains, as identified by Vitek2, was used to test the performances of two screening techniques (EbSA ESBL agar plate and ChromID ESBL agar plate) and of two confirmation techniques (MIC-strip ESBL and Vitek2 ESBL test panel). The individual test results were compared by using Etest, followed by a combination disk test if Etest results were inconclusive. Among group 1 isolates (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp., Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp.) 291 (57.6%) were ESBL-E, versus 65 (47.4%) in group 2 (Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Morganella morganii, Serratia spp., and Providencia spp.). The sensitivities of all four tests for group 1 were comparable (EbSA, 96.6%; ChromID, 97.3%; MIC-strip, 99.6%; and Vitek2, 95.1%). The specificities of the EbSA and ChromID were the same (93.9%). However, the confirmation techniques produced many inconclusive test results, which reduces the applicability in routine laboratories. Only the two screening agar plates were validated for ESBL testing of group 2 microorganisms. They showed comparable sensitivities; however, the EbSA screening agar plate had a significantly higher specificity (78.6% versus 44.3%). In conclusion the screening agar plates performed better than the two confirmation techniques. The EbSA agar plate had the best overall performance.

Overdevest, I. T. M. A.; Willemsen, I.; Elberts, S.; Verhulst, C.; Kluytmans, J. A. J. W.



Impaction onto a Glass Slide or Agar versus Impingement into a Liquid for the Collection and Recovery of Airborne Microorganisms  

PubMed Central

To study impaction versus impingement for the collection and recovery of viable airborne microorganisms, three new bioaerosol samplers have been designed and built. They differ from each other by the medium onto which the bioaerosol particles are collected (glass, agar, and liquid) but have the same inlet and collection geometries and the same sampling flow rate. The bioaerosol concentrations recorded by three different collection techniques have been compared with each other: impaction onto a glass slide, impaction onto an agar medium, and impingement into a liquid. It was found that the particle collection efficiency of agar slide impaction depends on the concentration of agar in the collection medium and on the sampling time, when samples are collected on a nonmoving agar slide. Impingement into a liquid showed anomalous behavior with respect to the sampling flow rate. Optimal sampling conditions in which all three new samplers exhibit the same overall sampling efficiency for nonbiological particles have been established. Inlet and collection efficiencies of about 100% have been achieved for all three devices at a sampling flow rate of 10 liters/min. The new agar slide impactor and the new impinger were then used to study the biological factors affecting the overall sampling efficiency. Laboratory experiments on the total recovery of a typical environmental microorganism, Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525, showed that both sampling methods, impaction and impingement, provided essentially the same total recovery when relatively nonstressed microorganisms were sampled under optimal sampling conditions. Comparison tests of the newly developed bioaerosol samplers with those commercially available showed that the incorporation of our research findings into the design of the new samplers yields better performance data than data from currently available samplers.

Juozaitis, Arvydas; Willeke, Klaus; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Donnelly, Jean



Prussian Blue as a Prebiotic Reagent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferrocyanide has been proposed as a potential prebiotic reagent and the complex salt Prussian Blue, Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3, might be an important reservoir of HCN, in the early Earth. HCN is considered the main precursor of amino acids and purine and pyrimidine bases under prebiotic conditions. Recently, we observed the formation of Prussian Blue in spark discharge experiments using saline solutions of ferrous chloride, FeCl2. Using Prussian Blue as starting material in ammonium suspensions, we obtained organic compounds containing nitrogen. These results seem to indicate that Prussian Blue could have been first, a sink of HCN, and then in subsequent reactions, triggered by pH fluctuations, it might have lead to organic life precursors.

Ruiz-Bermejo, M.; Menor-Salván, C.; Osuna-Esteban, S.; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S.



Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site  


The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.


Blue-Green Lasers and Electrodeless Flashlamps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper addresses the questions of combining the technology of moderate pressure electrodeless discharge lamps with the efficiency of a resonantly pumped solid state laser to achieve an efficient, compact, and reliable blue green laser. The scheme is b...

F. W. Perkins



Random lasing in blue phase liquid crystals.  


Random lasing actions have been observed in optically isotropic pure blue-phase and polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals containing laser dyes. Scattering, interferences and recurrent multiple scatterings arising from disordered platelet texture as well as index mismatch between polymer and mesogen in these materials provide the optical feedbacks for lasing action. In polymer stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals, coherent random lasing could occur in the ordered blue phase with an extended temperature interval as well as in the isotropic liquid state. The dependence of lasing wavelength range, mode characteristics, excitation threshold and other pertinent properties on temperature and detailed make-up of the crystals platelets were obtained. Specifically, lasing wavelengths and mode-stability were found to be determined by platelet size, which can be set by controlling the cooling rate; lasing thresholds and emission spectrum are highly dependent on, and therefore can be tuned by temperature. PMID:23188364

Chen, Chun-Wei; Jau, Hung-Chang; Wang, Chun-Ta; Lee, Chun-Hong; Khoo, I C; Lin, Tsung-Hsien



Public Notification: “Japan Weight Loss Blue” Contains ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... [2-18-2012] The Food and Drug ... analysis confirmed that “Japan Weight Loss Blue” contains ... dietary supplements or conventional foods with hidden ... More results from


Blue-Green Algae and Rice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rising costs of the chemical fertilizers used to provide the combined nitrogen needed for rice production have prompted rice researchers to turn their attention to biological nitrogen sources such as blue-green (BGA). Although BGA produced nitrogen when i...

P. A. Roger S. A. Kulasooriya



Variation in the excitability of developed D. discoideum cells as a function of agar concentration in the substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the absence of nutrients, Dictyostelium discoideum cells enter a developmental cycle--they signal each other, aggregate, and ultimately form fruiting bodies. During the signaling stage, the cells relay waves of cyclic adenosine 3',5' monophosphate (cAMP). We observed a transition from spiral to circular patterns in the signaling wave, depending on the agar concentration of the substrate. In this talk we will present the changes in the times for the onset of signaling and synchronization versus agar concentration, as measured by spectral entropy. We also will discuss the origin of these effects.

Oikawa, Noriko; Bae, Albert; Amselem, Gabriel; Bodenschatz, Eberhard



Evaluation of brilliance MRSA 2 agar for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in clinical samples.  


We compared 2 chromogenic media (Oxoid Brilliance MRSA 2 agar [Thermo Fisher Scientific] and MRSA-ID [bioMérieux]) for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 1,368 hospital samples. For both media, broth enrichment was essential to obtain satisfactory diagnostic performance. Although with direct cultures only, the diagnostic performance (particularly sensitivity) of Brilliance MRSA 2 agar appears better than that of MRSA-ID, no difference in sensitivity or specificity between the media was detected after inclusion of an enrichment step. PMID:23284023

Veenemans, J; Verhulst, C; Punselie, R; van Keulen, P H J; Kluytmans, J A J W



Evaluation of Brilliance MRSA 2 Agar for Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Clinical Samples  

PubMed Central

We compared 2 chromogenic media (Oxoid Brilliance MRSA 2 agar [Thermo Fisher Scientific] and MRSA-ID [bioMérieux]) for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 1,368 hospital samples. For both media, broth enrichment was essential to obtain satisfactory diagnostic performance. Although with direct cultures only, the diagnostic performance (particularly sensitivity) of Brilliance MRSA 2 agar appears better than that of MRSA-ID, no difference in sensitivity or specificity between the media was detected after inclusion of an enrichment step.

Verhulst, C.; Punselie, R.; van Keulen, P. H. J.; Kluytmans, J. A. J. W.



Blue Matter: Strong Scaling of Molecular Dynamics on Blue Gene\\/L  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents strong scaling performance data for the Blue Mat- ter molecular dynamics framework using a novel n-body spatial decomposition and a collective communications technique implemented on both MPI and low level hardware interfaces. Using Blue Matter on Blue Gene\\/L, we have measured scalability through 16,384 nodes with measured time per time-step of under 2.3 milliseconds for a 43,222

Blake G. Fitch; Aleksandr Rayshubskiy; Maria Eleftheriou; T. J. Christopher Ward; Mark Giampapa; Yuriy Zhestkov; Michael Pitman; Frank Suits; Alan Grossfield; Jed W. Pitera; William C. Swope; Ruhong Zhou; Scott Feller; Robert S. Germain



Structural colours in blue-banded bee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodic, micro-textured biological materials are ubiquitous in nature. Electromagnetic waves at different frequencies are selectively reflected by such materials. This phenomenon is the origin of structural colours observed in variety of insects. In this work, we analyze the mechanisms that lead to the bluish-green colour of the blue-banded bee feathers. The reflection spectrum of the blue-banded bee feather was calculated

Jones Wan; Lixiin Dai; Jensen Li; Kwok-Kwong Fung; Che-Ting Chan



Red, White and Blue II Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry demonstration, learners investigate the rule "likes dissolve likes" by combining three, immiscible liquids to create a colorful density column. Learners are asked, "What color will result from mixing red, white, and blue?" They will be surprised by the answer as a beaker is revealed with red syrup on the bottom, white milk over the syrup and blue lamp oil on top. This is a perfect activity to use to demonstrate density and polarity, especially around the 4th of July.

House, The S.



Axion isocurvature fluctuations with extremely blue spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct an axion model for generating isocurvature fluctuations with blue spectrum, niso=2-4, which is suggested by recent analyses of admixture of adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations with independent spectral indices, nad?niso. The distinctive feature of the model is that the spectrum is blue at large scales while scale invariant at small scales. This is naturally realized by the dynamics of the Peccei-Quinn scalar field.

Kasuya, Shinta; Kawasaki, Masahiro



Blue irradiance intercomparison in the medical field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the results of a blue irradiance intercomparison among industrial laboratories of medical devices companies. This intercomparison aims to support the metrological issues of medical equipment manufactures regarding the blue irradiance infant phototherapy equipment requirements on the international standard IEC 60601-2-50:2000. The results showed a low agreement of participants' measurements according to normalized error criterion. The major explanation for this result is associated to an incorrect equipment choice and long recalibration period.

Ferreira, Antonio F. G.



A Blue Organic Light Emitting Diode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A blue organic light emitting diode (OLED) which has a structure like an SH-B type diode has been developed. The blue OLED consists of a hole-injection layer (m-MTDATA), a hole-transporting emissive layer, a hole-blocking layer and an electron-injection layer (Alq3) formed on an ITO anode by vacuum vapor deposition. alpha-NPD was used for the hole-transporting emissive layer, which has an

Yasunori Kijima; Nobutoshi Asai; Shin-ichiro Tamura



Diode-laser-pumped blue light sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonlinear optical techniques may be used in conjunction with GaAlAs diode laser technology to yield compact blue light sources applicable to optical data storage, color displays, and underwater optical communications. Attention is given to two approaches to blue light generation using second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation of diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG lasers. Using KNbO3 as the nonlinearcrystal, a 3-mW output power was

W. P. Risk; W. Lenth



Safe thyroidectomy with intraoperative methylene blue spraying  

PubMed Central

Background We aimed to minimalize operative complications by spraying of methylene blue stain on thyroid glands and the perithyroidal area. Material and methods The intra-operative methylene blue spraying technique was used prospectively on a total of 56 patients who had undergone primary (not recurrent) thyroid surgery for a variety of thyroid diseases. Bilateral total thyroidectomy was performed in all cases. After superior but before inferior pole ligation, 0.5ml of methylene blue was sprayed over the thyroid lobe and perilober area. Tissues, especially parathyroides, the recurrent laryngeal nerve, and the inferior thyroid artery, were identified and evaluated. Results Recurrent laryngeal nerve and arteries were not stained and thus they remained white in all cases while all other tissues were stained blue. Within three minutes parathyroid glands washed out the blue stain and the original yellow color was regained. Thyroid tissue wash-out time was not less than 15 minutes; perithyroideal muscles, tendinous and lipoid structures took no less than 25 minutes. Conclusion The safety of intravascular methylene blue guidance on thyroid surgery is known. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of the spraying technique, a new technique which ensures not only identification of parathyroid glands within three minutes, but also identification of recurrent laryngeal nerves and inferior thyroid arteries.



Cell immobilization in composite agar layer microporous membrane structures: growth kinetics of gel-entrapped cultures and cell leakage limitation by a microporous membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agar discs containing different amounts of viable Escherichia coli cells (from 10 to 106 organisms·g-1 agar) were incubated in a nutrient medium and the growth of agar-entrapped bacteria and free (released) cells was monitored. The study was repeated with composite immobilized-cell structures obtained by placing a microporous membrane filter between the gel matrix and the incubation medium. In both cases,

Thierry Jouenne; Hélène Bonato; Laurent Mignot; Guy-Alain Junter



Spectrophotometric determination of nitrite and nitrate using phosphomolybdenum blue complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for spectrophotometric determination of nitrite and nitrate is described. This method is based on the reduction of phosphomolybdic acid to phosphomolybdenum blue complex by sodium sulfide. The obtained phosphomolybdenum blue complex is oxidized by the addition of nitrite and this causes a reduction in intensity of the blue color. The absolute decrease in the absorbance of the blue

Nidal A. Zatar; Maher A. Abu-Eid; Abdullah F. Eid



Streptomyces shaanxiensis sp. nov., a blue pigment-producing streptomycete from sewage irrigation soil.  


A novel isolate belonging to the genus Streptomyces, strain CCNWHQ 0031(T), was isolated from soil in a sewage irrigation area in Shaanxi province, China. The isolate produced light greyish-blue aerial mycelium and dark blue diffusible pigment on Gause's synthetic agar. Strain CCNWHQ 0031(T) formed Spirales-type chains with spiny spores. Chemotaxonomic data confirmed that strain CCNWHQ 0031(T) belonged to the genus Streptomyces. Analysis of the almost complete 16S rRNA gene sequence placed strain CCNWHQ 0031(T) in the genus Streptomyces where it formed a distinct phyletic line with recognized Streptomyces species. Strain CCNWHQ 0031(T) exhibited highest sequence similarities to Streptomyces caeruleatus GIMN4.002(T) (99.3%), Streptomyces coeruleorubidus NBRC 12855(T) (98.9%), Streptomyces curacoi NBRC 12761(T) (98.8%) and Streptomyces lincolnensis NBRC 13054(T) (98.0%). DNA-DNA hybridization studies of strain CCNWHQ 0031(T) with these four closest relatives showed relatedness values of 56.6 ± 0.4, 50.3 ± 0.6, 49.8 ± 0.7 and 36.9 ± 0.9 %, respectively. On the basis of its molecular and physiological properties, it is evident that strain CCNWHQ 0031(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces shaanxiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CCNWHQ 0031(T) (?=?CCNWTJ 0031(T)?=?JCM 16925(T)?=?ACCC 41873(T)). PMID:21930680

Lin, Yan Bing; Wang, Xin Ye; Fang, Hui; Ma, Ya Nan; Tang, Jing; Tang, Ming; Wei, Ge Hong



Evaluation of a new agar medium containing cetrimide, kanamycin and nalidixic acid for isolation and enhancement of pigment production of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in clinical samples.  


A new selective agar medium (CKNA), containing cetrimide 0.3 g/l, kanamycin sulfate 50 mg/l, and nalidixic acid 5 mg/l, was developed for the isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It was compared to Nalidixic Acid Cetrimide agar (NAC), Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Selective Agar (PASA) and Pseudosel(TM) agar (CET) using 1,148 clinical specimens. The sensitivities rates of P. aeruginosa with CKNA, NAC, PASA, and CET were 88.2%, 81.3%, 79.2%, and 84.0%, respectively. The specificities of CKNA, NAC, PASA, and CET were 99.2%, 98.4%, 99.2%, and 99.7%, respectively. PMID:12964184

Kodaka, Hidemasa; Iwata, Morihiro; Yumoto, Shigeo; Kashitani, Fusako



Agar block smear preparation: a novel method of slide preparation for preservation of native fungal structures for microscopic examination and long-term storage.  


We describe a novel method of fungal slide preparation named "agar block smear preparation." A total of 510 agar block smears of 25 fungal strains obtained from culture collections, 90 QC fungal strains, and 82 clinical fungal strains from our clinical microbiology laboratory, which included a total of 137 species of yeasts, molds, and thermal dimorphic fungi, were prepared and examined. In contrast to adhesive tape preparation, agar block smears preserved the native fungal structures, such as intact conidiophores of Aspergillus species and arrangements of conidia in Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Furthermore, agar block smears allowed examination of fungal structures embedded in the agar, such as the ascomata with ascomal hairs in Chaetomium funicola; pycnidium of Phoma glomerata; the intercalary ovoidal chlamydospores arranged in chains of Fusarium dimerum; and the lateral, spherical chlamydospores arranged in pairs of Fusarium solani. After 1 year of storage, morphological integrity was found to have been maintained in 459 (90%) of the 510 agar block smears. After 3 years of storage, morphological integrity was found to have been maintained in 72 (71%) of the 102 smears prepared in 2006. Agar block smear preparation preserves the native fungal structures and allows long-term storage and examination of fungal structures embedded in the agar, hence overcoming the major drawbacks of adhesive tape preparation. The major roles of agar block smear should be diagnosis for difficult cases, accurate identification of fungal species for clinical management of patients and epidemiological studies, and long-term storage for transportation of slides and education purposes. PMID:20660221

Woo, Patrick C Y; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Chui, Hon-Kit; Lau, Susanna K P; Yuen, Kwok-Yung



[An oropharyngeal tularemia case diagnosed by the isolation of Francisella tularensis on human blood agar].  


Tularemia which is a multisystem disease of humans and some animals, is endemic in North America, some parts of Europe and Asia. The causative agent, Francisella tularensis, is a fastidious gram-negative, intracellular bacterium which requires supplementation with sulphydryl compounds (cysteine, cystine, thiosulphate, isoVitaleX) for growth on common laboratory media. In this report, a case of oropharyngeal tularemia diagnosed by the isolation of the causative agent on non-selective-common microbiological agar, has been presented. The patient was from Yozgat located in central Anatolia where tularemia has not been reported so far. Forty-two years old male was admitted to the hospital with two weeks history of sudden onset fever, headache, generalized aches, sore throat, and cervical tender lump on the left. Physical examination revealed bilateral exudative tonsillitis and tender posterior cervical lymphadenopathy. He has been empirically treated with amoxicilin-clavulanic acid for 7 days with initial diagnosis of acute tonsillopharyngitis. However, he was admitted to the hospital since the symptoms persisted and swelling increased despite antibiotic therapy. Microscopical examination of the Gram and Ehrlich-Ziehl-Neelsen stained smears prepared from the surgically drained lymph node revealed PMNL, with no evidence of bacteria. Routine cultures of the lymph node material yielded growth of gram-negative coccobacilli only on human blood agar and the cultures were negative for pyogenic bacteria, acid-fast organisms and fungi. Pathologic examination of the drainage material revealed suppurative inflammation. Lymph node aspirate and serum samples of the patient together with the isolated strain were sent to reference laboratory for further investigation in accordance to the clinical and laboratory findings compatible with tularemia. The isolate was confirmed as F.tularensis by slide agglutination and direct immunofluorescence antibody tests, and identified as F.tularensis subsp. holarctica by polymerase chain reaction. Microagglutination test performed on patient's serum yielded positive with an antibody titer of 1/5120. Gentamicin (5 mg/kg/day) was initiated, and the therapy was completed for two weeks. The patient recovered completely without sequela. This case was presented in order to call attention to the strain of F.tularensis which failed to demonstrate a requirement for cysteine and enriched medium on primary isolation, but grew well on conventional laboratory medium. Tularemia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of related infectious diseases since cases of tularemia have been reported from several parts of Turkey after the year 2004. PMID:21063979

Ozel, Gönül; Arslan, Ilker Burak; Ye?ilyurt, Murat; Celebi, Bekir; K?l?ç, Selçuk



Relationship of Histoplasmin Agar-Gel Bands and Complement-Fixation Titers in Histoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Wiggins, Geraldine L. (Communicable Disease Center, Atlanta, Ga.), and Joseph H. Schubert. Relationship of histoplasmin agar-gel bands and complement-fixation titers in histoplasmosis. J. Bacteriol. 89:589–596. 1965.—Culture filtrates of various strains of Histoplasma capsulatum were studied with sera from patients with histoplasmosis, by use of the agar-gel and complement-fixation tests. It was found that the filtrates represented three types: those containing H and M components, those with H only, and those with neither H nor M. The same strain of H. capsulatum often produced culture filtrates of more than one type. Complement fixation showed that only the filtrates having both the H and M components were sufficiently sensitive as diagnostic antigens to detect the antibodies in histoplasmosis. H and M fractions prepared by ion-exchange chromatography were found to produce more than one band; therefore, it was concluded that the available fractions were not pure. The formation and identification of bands were affected by the concentration of the antigen and the arrangement of the wells containing the antigen and serum. The optimal concentration of the antigen varied, depending on the position of these reagents. The method found most practical for the identification of bands in unknown sera consisted of selecting the optimal concentration of the components with a box titration, by use of antigen having both the H and M components, placing known positive sera in wells adjacent to the unknown sera, and studying the sera for lines of identity. The M band was usually closest to the antigen well, and the H was nearest the serum well. These bands could be reversed by dilution, adjusting the H antibodies so that they equalled or exceeded the M antibodies. One human serum in which the bands were reversed showed the H bands at a higher serum dilution than that obtained with the M band. Patients with culturally proven histoplasmosis had the M band in their serum regardless of the stage of disease or length of duration; only 4 of 10 patients in the active stage of histoplasmosis also had the H band. The low prevalence of the H band would eliminate it as a diagnostic tool for detecting the active stage of the disease. Other bands obtained with histoplasmin antigen in the sera from proven cases were of no assistance in determining the clinical status of the patient.

Wiggins, Geraldine L.; Schubert, Joseph H.



21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133...133.184 Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk....



21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133...133.184 Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk....



Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the blue pigment VINAMON® Blue BX FW - a phthalocyanine blue in a vinyl glove.  


A 44-year-old metalworker suffered from severe hand eczema in spite of treatment with corticosteroid ointments. He had been using protective cotton gloves with blue PVC anti-slip dots on the finger tips. On clinical examination, the backs of both hands were erythematous and thickened while the finger tips showed vesicles. There was a positive patch test reaction to the blue PVC dots of an unworn cotton glove at 72, 96, 120 hours. To identify the causative chemicals, we carried out further patch tests using ingredients of the glove and cupric sulfate. The patient reacted to the blue dye VYNAMON(®) Blue BX FW (PB 15) at two concentrations - 10% at 72 and 96 hours, and 50% at 48 and 72 hours. This dye is a very strong and brilliant blue with red-copper tones and resistant to fire and weathering. The cupric-phthalocyanine complexes are used as pigments in cosmetics (e. g. CI 74160, 74180, 74260). To the best of our knowledge, no allergic reactions to this dye have been described, particularly not in gloves. PMID:20163502

Weimann, Stefanie; Skudlik, Christoph; John, Swen Malte



Identification of Staphylococcus aureus: DNase and Mannitol salt agar improve the efficiency of the tube coagulase test  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The ideal identification of Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates requires a battery of tests and this is costly in resource limited settings. In many developing countries, the tube coagulase test is usually confirmatory for S. aureus and is routinely done using either human or sheep plasma. This study evaluated Mannitol salt agar and the deoxyribonuclease (DNase) test for improving the

David P Kateete; Cyrus N Kimani; Fred A Katabazi; Alfred Okeng; Moses S Okee; Ann Nanteza; Moses L Joloba; Florence C Najjuka



Evaluation of the Granada Agar Plate for Detection of Vaginal and Rectal Group B Streptococci in Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granada medium was evaluated for the detection of group B streptococci (GBS) in vaginal and rectal swabs compared with selective Columbia blood agar and selective Lim broth. From May 1996 to March 1998, 702 pregnant women (35 to 37 weeks of gestation) participated in this three-phase study; 103 (14.7%) of these women carried GBS. In the first phase of the




A method for turbidimetric measurement of bacterial growth in liquid cultures and agar plug diffusion cultures, using standard test tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed for turbidimetric measurement of bacterial growth in standard inexpensive test tubes with closures in-place. Liquid cultures and agar plug diffusion cultures can be assayed using an unmodified spectrophotometer. Growth curves of replicate cultures grown in test tubes, are reproducible with respect to similarity of curve shape, onset of logarithmic growth phase, and maximum growth.

K. J. Brown



Morphometric and Colorimetrie Analyses of Human Tumor Cell Line Growth and Drug Sensitivity in Soft Agar Culture1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have demonstrated the suitability of image analysis of tetrazolium-stained colonies to assess growth and drug sensitivity of human tumor cells cultivated in soft agar culture. In the present study, the potential utility of colorimetrie analysis to expedite experimental drug evaluations using human tumor cell lines was investigated. The same culture dishes were assessed by image analysis and by

M. C. Alle; C. M. Pacula-Co; M. L. Hursey; L. R. Rubinstein; M. R. Boy



Studies on the utilisation of carbohydrates and krebs cycle intermediates by Rhizobia, using an agar plate method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An agar plate method for the testing of substrate utilisation is described, and is applied to 108 strains of bacteria belonging to the generaRhizobium andAgrobacterium. With this method, utilisation can be observed without misleading results due to the utilisation of amino acids and other substances present in the medium. Major differences in the utilisation of carbohydrates by the tested species

P. H. Graham



Gelidium robustum agar: quality characteristics from exploited beds and seasonality from an unexploited bed at Southern Baja California, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yield and gel properties of agar from Gelidium robustum, harvested in Baja California for industrial production is affected by season of collection and epiphyte loading. The alga is epiphytized to various extents by the bryozoan Membraniphora tuberculata ('conchilla') and the resulting calcareous crust on the alga diminishes the price of the seaweed biomass. Classification of the algal biomass quality

Y. Freile-Pelegrín; D. Robledo; E. Serviere-Zaragoza



Performance of CHROMagar Selective Medium and Oxacillin Resistance Screening Agar Base for Identifying Staphylococcus aureus and Detecting Methicillin Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new selective media, oxacillin resistance screening agar base (ORSAB) and CHROMagar Staph aureus (CSA), were evaluated for identification of Staphylococcus aureus and for screening of methicillin resistance by addition of antimicrobial agents to these media. A well-defined collection consisting of 1,140 staphylococci was used. A total of 624 were S. aureus, of which 358 were methicillin susceptible and 266

Jan Kluytmans; Arjanne Van Griethuysen; Piet Willemse; Peter Van Keulen



[Determination of the formation of hydrogen sulfide in a dry differentiating medium of the Kligler agar type].  


The indicator system for hydrogen sulfide detection in media analogous to Kligler's agar, intended for the primary identification of enterobacteria, has been studied. The indicator system under study, in contrast to the known formulas, contains sodium metabisulfite for improving the capacity for detecting hydrogen sulfide production in bacteria which produce it in small amounts from inorganic sulfur compounds. PMID:6868888

Gorchenina, L V; Khoemnko, N A; Golubeva, I V



Comparison of the quantitative formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique and agar plate culture for diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis.  


The quantitative formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique (QFEC) was compared to agar plate culture (APC) for the detection of Strongyloides stercoralis larvae. QFEC could substitute for APC only when the parasite load was higher than 50 larvae per g of stool. This study serves as a good reminder to those conducting stool exams about the sensitivity and specificity limitations of both techniques. PMID:15815023

Intapan, P M; Maleewong, W; Wongsaroj, T; Singthong, S; Morakote, N



A unique carbon with a high specific surface area produced by the carbonization of agar in the presence of graphene.  


A unique carbon with a high specific surface area was prepared by carbonization of a polymer-based precursor, agar, in the presence of graphene. Graphene prevents the shrinkage and aggregation of the carbonized particles, resulting in extraordinarily large external surface area (?1200 m(2) g(-1)) of the carbon, which shows a high rate performance as a supercapacitor electrode. PMID:24081381

Xie, Tingting; Lv, Wei; Wei, Wei; Li, Zhengjie; Li, Baohua; Kang, Feiyu; Yang, Quan-Hong



Osmotic Dehydration of Foods in a Multicomponent Solution Part II. Water Loss and Solute Uptake in Agar Gels and Meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the solution defined in Part I of this study was tested and improved to obtain high water loss during the dehydration of an agar gel. This solution was used for osmotic dehydration of meat slices. A mathematical model based on Fick's law of diffusion was used to estimate the time course of the water profile in meat,

G. Djelveh; J.-B. Gros; Z. Emam-Djomeh



Osmotic Dehydration of Foods in a Multicomponent Solution Part I. Lowering of Solute Uptake in Agar Gels: Diffusion Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of a multicomponent aqueous solution containing sugars and salts was studied in order to lower solute uptake during osmotic dehydration of an agar gel. A diffusion cell was used to obtain the effective diffusivity and the main diffusion coefficient of each solute in the presence of the others. The main diffusion coefficients were then expressed as a function

Z. Emam-Djomeh; G. Djelveh; J.-B. Gros



Analysis of Antibiotics Susceptibility of Old and Fresh ATCC Strain of Staphylococcus aureus by Standard Agar Diffusion Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of an old and fresh ATCC strain of Staphylococcus aureus was carried out to determine the mechanism of antibiotic resistance of the old one, which had been preserved in lyophilized condition. Five different antibiotics having five different modes of action were used. They included amoxicillin, azithromycin, neomycin, ciprofloxacin and polymixin B. Agar diffusion technique was followed to

Marufa Zerin Akhter; Ibrahim Khalil; Priyanath Roy; Mir Mohammad Ibna Masud



Pharmacologic assessment of regimen chemosensitivity in the soft-agar assay: Effect of oxygen on human tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of oxygen on the growth and the in vitro chemosensitivity of human tumor cells was studied in the soft-agar assay. Tumor cells of pancreatic and ovarian origin prefer a reduced oxygen atmosphere for colony formation, whereas those of pulmonary origin grow better in 20% oxygen. Depending on the physiologic oxygen tension and the histologic origin of a particular

Dominic Fan; Lee Roy Morgan; Christine Schneider; Helene Blank; Subrata Roy; Yun Fang Wang; Susan Fan



Comparison of the BBL CHROMagar Staph aureus Agar Medium to Conventional Media for Detection of Staphylococcus aureus in Respiratory Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening for Staphylococcus aureus has become routine in certain patient populations. This study is the first clinical evaluation of the BBL CHROMagar Staph aureus agar (CSA) medium (BD Diagnostics, Sparks, Md.) for detection of S. aureus in nasal surveillance cultures and in respiratory samples from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. S. aureus colonies appear mauve on CSA. Other organisms are inhibited

Diane Flayhart; Clara Lema; Anita Borek; Karen C. Carroll



Diffusion of Cesium Ions Labeled with 134 Cs in Agar Gel Containing Alkali Metal Iodides: Obstruction Effect and Activation Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of some alkali metal iodides on the obstruction effect and activation energy for tracer-diffusion of cesium ions in an agar gel medium was studied using the zone-diffusion technique. It to be observed that both the extent of obstruction (?) and the activation energy (E) decrease with the increasing charge density of the cation of the supporting electrolyte. These

Narendra A. Gokarn; Nilima S. Rajurkar



Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Florida implements a system for measuring and reporting alliance performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Like many other organizations undertaking strategic alliances, Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Florida, Inc. (BCBSF) needed to effectively monitor alliance activities, or track their return on investment in those activities. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This case shows in detail how BCBSF developed a metrics framework, a standard set of value measures, and introduced a new alliance management software platform.

Bridget Booth; Reneé Finley; Matt McCredie



Evaluation of Brilliance ESBL Agar, a Novel Chromogenic Medium for Detection of Extended-Spectrum-Beta- Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae?  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Brilliance ESBL agar (OX; Oxoid, Basingstoke, United Kingdom), a novel chromogenic agar for the selective isolation and the presumptive identification of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. A panel of 200 clinical Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermenting isolates with defined resistance mechanisms was inoculated onto OX and onto ChromID ESBL agar (BM; bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) chromogenic medium in the first part of the study to evaluate the growth selectivity and chromogenic features of these two media. Of the 156 Enterobacteriaceae challenge isolates, 8 fully susceptible isolates were inhibited, all 98 ESBL producers were detected, and 50 isolates harboring other resistance mechanisms were recovered on both chromogenic agars. In the second phase, 528 clinical samples (including 344 fecal specimens) were plated onto OX, BM, and MacConkey agar with a ceftazidime disk (MCC) for the screening of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Growth on at least one medium was observed with 144 (27%) of the clinical samples screened. A total of 182 isolates, including 109 (60%) of Enterobacteriaceae, were recovered and 70 of these (from 59 specimens) were confirmed as ESBL-producing isolates. The sensitivities of MCC, BM, and OX were 74.6%, 94.9%, and 94.9%, respectively. The specificities of MCC, BM, and OX by specimens reached 94.9%, 95.5%, and 95.7%, respectively, when only colored colonies were considered on the two selective chromogenic media. The high negative predictive value (99.3%) found for OX suggests that this medium may constitute an excellent screening tool for the rapid exclusion of patients not carrying ESBL producers.

Huang, Te-Din; Bogaerts, Pierre; Berhin, Catherine; Guisset, Amelie; Glupczynski, Youri



Effects of pulsed lasers on agar model simulation of the arterial wall.  


Coronary laser angioplasty is limited by a high rate of dissection and the occurrence of abrupt closure and perforation. The aim of this study was to visualize the mechanical effects of pulsed lasers on two chamber in vitro models. These models consisted of 1 or 2 agar layers and calcium carbonate inclusions (1-layer model) or lipid (2-layer model) simulating lipid or calcified tissue. The inclusions were irradiated with a holmium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho-YAG) laser or a xenon chloride excimer laser. The Ho-YAG laser demonstrated dissection-like expansions of the target and perforation-like cracks. The size of dissection was obtained using an the empirical formula of energy (E) and the maximal expansion distance (Dmax) of the targets, Dmax = 0.15E0,87-1,17. The excimer laser showed rare and short perforation-like cracks and little dissection-like expansion of the gaseous products originating from the ablation of material. Ho-YAG laser ablation is likely to induce target tissue dissections and/or perforations. Excimer laser-ablates targets with less traumatic effects than Ho-YAG laser. PMID:8366739

Asada, M; Kvasnicka, J; Geschwind, H J



Tissue-mimicking agar/gelatin materials for use in heterogeneous elastography phantoms  

PubMed Central

Five 9 cm × 9 cm × 9 cm phantoms, each with a 2-cm-diameter cylindrical inclusion, were produced with various dry-weight concentrations of agar and gelatin. Elastic contrasts ranged from 1.5 to 4.6, and values of the storage modulus (real part of the complex Young’s modulus) were all in the soft tissue range. Additives assured immunity from bacterial invasion and can produce tissue-mimicking ultrasound and NMR properties. Monitoring of strain ratios over a 7 to 10 month period indicated that the mechanical properties of the phantoms were stable, allowing about 1 month for the phantom to reach chemical equilibrium. The only dependable method for determining the storage moduli of the inclusions is to make measurements on samples excised from the phantoms. If it is desired to produce and accurately characterize a phantom with small inclusions with other shapes, such as an array of small spheres, an auxiliary phantom with the geometry of the cylindrical inclusion phantoms or the equivalent should be made at the same time using the same materials. The elastic contrast can then be determined using samples excised from the auxiliary phantom. A small increase of about 10% in volume of the cylindrical inclusions occurred—a tolerable increase. Interestingly, the smallest increase (about 5%) occurred in the phantom with the largest elastic contrast.

Madsen, Ernest L; Hobson, Maritza A; Shi, Hairong; Varghese, Tomy; Frank, Gary R



Fungistatic activity of flaxseed in potato dextrose agar and a fresh noodle system.  


Although numerous researchers have studied flaxseed as a food ingredient for its health benefits, flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) has never been considered as a food preservative. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of flaxseed flour (FF) concentration (0, 6, 9, 12, and 15% wt/wt), cultivar ('Omega' and brown) and source (four seed companies located in Minnesota and North Dakota) on flaxseed fungistatic activity. Fungal radial growth was used to assess the fungistatic activity of FF in both potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and a fresh noodle system. Strains of Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium graminearum, and a Penicillium sp. isolated from molded noodles were used as the test microorganisms. Results showed that growth of F. graminearum was completely inhibited at all FF concentrations in PDA, and the inhibition of the other three test microorganisms increased with increasing FF concentrations. In the model noodle system, FF concentration at 9% or higher significantly reduced the mold count of fresh noodle during storage. In the inoculated noodle system, 6% FF addition was sufficient to significantly inhibit the growth of F. graminearum and A. flavus, whereas 9% FF concentrations showed fungistatic activity against P. chrysogenum and the Penicillium sp. isolate. Differences in the degree of mold inhibition were found among FFs obtained from different sources and cultivars. Results suggested that flaxseed possesses fungistatic activity and could be used as a multifunctional food ingredient. PMID:18077042

Xu, Yingying; Hall, Clifford; Wolf-Hall, Charlene; Manthey, Frank



Smart approach to evaluate drug diffusivity in injectable agar-carbomer hydrogels for drug delivery.  


Hydrogels are commonly studied for tissue engineering applications and controlled drug delivery. In order to evaluate their reliability as scaffolds and delivery devices, literature describes many release studies performed involving different analytical techniques. However, these experiments can be expensive, time-consuming, and often not reproducible. In this study, two injectable agar-carbomer-based hydrogels were studied, both being loaded with sodium fluorescein, a harmless fluorophore with a steric hindrance similar to many small drugs, such as for example steroids and other neuroprotecting agents. Starting from simple, traditional, and inexpensive release experiments, it was possible to indirectly estimate the self-diffusion coefficient (D) of loaded sodium fluorescein. Such a parameter was also directly measured in the gel matrix by means of high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) diffusion-ordered spectroscopy NMR. Because of the agreement between the calculated values and those measured by HRMAS-NMR spectroscopy, the latter approach can be considered as a simple and fast alternative to long analytic procedures. PMID:21355616

Santoro, M; Marchetti, P; Rossi, F; Perale, G; Castiglione, F; Mele, A; Masi, M



Injection of Acanthaster planci with thiosulfate-citrate-bile-sucrose agar (TCBS). II. Histopathological changes.  


We assessed histological changes in the tissues of the crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci (COTS) after injection of thiosulfate-citrate-bile-sucrose agar (TCBS) which was used as a disease inducer (potential outbreak control method), by conventional and scanning electron microscopy. Digestive glands were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin to describe the histological architecture of the intestinal epithelium. Subsequently comparison of healthy versus infected tissues and Gram stains were carried out to confirm bacterial occurrence on infected tissues, characterize the structural changes induced by bacterial communities in COTS tissues, and to determine if the histopathological changes of intestinal tissues were consistent with vibrio infection. TCBS injections induced marked epithelial desquamation, hypertrophy and hypersecretion of glandular cells, epithelial cell destruction, pyknosis, reduction of thickness and disorganization of connective tissue and associated nerve plexus, presence of bacterial colonies, irregular eosinophilic foci in glandular cells, brush border disruption, atrophy and detachment of intestinal microvilli and cell debris in the lumen. All these changes were attributed to a fulminating systemic dysbiosis and were consistent with vibrio infections. PMID:22303626

Rivera-Posada, J A; Pratchett, M; Owens, L



Cation concentration variability of four distinct Mueller-Hinton agar brands influences polymyxin B susceptibility results.  


Polymyxins have been the only alternative therapeutic option for the treatment of serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii or Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. For this reason, it is of crucial importance that susceptibility tests provide accurate results when testing these drug-pathogen combinations. In this study, the effect of cation concentration variability found on different commercial brands of Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) for testing polymyxin B susceptibility was evaluated. The polymyxin B susceptibilities determined using Etest and disk diffusion were compared to those determined by the CLSI reference broth microdilution method. In general, the polymyxin B MIC values were higher when determined by Etest than when determined by broth microdilution against both A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa isolates. A high very major error rate (10%) was observed, as well as a trend toward lower MICs, compared to those determined by broth microdilution when the Merck MHA was tested by Etest. Poor essential agreement rates (10 to 70%) were observed for P. aeruginosa when all MHA brands were tested by Etest. Although an excellent categorical agreement rate (100%) was seen between the disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods for P. aeruginosa, larger zones of inhibition were shown obtained using the Merck MHA. The high cation concentration variability found for the MHA brands tested correlated to the low accuracy, and discrepancies in the polymyxin B MICs were determined by Etest method, particularly for P. aeruginosa isolates. PMID:22553247

Girardello, Raquel; Bispo, Paulo J M; Yamanaka, Tiago M; Gales, Ana C



Leader streamers nature of blue jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new model of blue jets as a lightning-related phenomenon is proposed. A blue jet consists of the bi-leader, whose top part is seen on photos as a “trunk of a tree”, and is capped at the topside of the leader by its streamer zone. The latter is shown as tall and narrow branches of “the tree”. It is shown that the time independent fractal blue jet model does not provide an adequate description of blue jets and streamer zone of a leader. It ignores an important fact of the fast loss of the streamer channel conductivity due to the electron attachment to the oxygen. The top streamer branches were born mostly prior to the bottom branches not as result of branching, but formed by the leader tip. It was shown that due to transfer of the high potential of the edge of the thundercloud by the leader, long streamers of blue jets can be sustained by moderate cloud charge. The streamer length is estimated along with the height at which the streamers can reach the ionosphere. The propagation of a streamer in the atmosphere of exponentially falling density N and in the self-consistent electric field of the streamer zone was computed. It was found that the critical external field ES required for unlimited streamer growth satisfies the similarity law ES/N?const. The similarity law was numerically studied in a wide range of N.

Raizer, Y. P.; Milikh, G. M.; Shneider, M. N.



Equivalency testing of TTC Tergitol 7 agar (ISO 9308-1:2000) with five culture media for the detection of E. coli in water samples in Greece.  


In this study ten laboratories in Greece compared the performance of reference method TTC Tergitol 7 Agar (with the additional test of beta-glucuronidase production) with five alternative methods, to detect E. coli in water, in line with European Water Directive recommendations. The samples were prepared by spiking drinking water with sewage effluent following a standard protocol. Chlorinated and non-chlorinated samples were used. The statistical analysis was based on the mean relative difference of confirmed counts and was performed in line with ISO 17994. The results showed that in total, three of the alternative methods (Chromocult Coliform agar, Membrane Lauryl Sulfate agar and Trypton Bilex-glucuronidase medium) were not different from TTC Tergitol 7 agar (TTC Tergitol 7 agar vs Chromocult Coliform agar, 294 samples, mean RD% 5.55; vs MLSA, 302 samples, mean RD% 1; vs TBX, 297 samples, mean RD% -2.78). The other two alternative methods (Membrane Faecal coliform medium and Colilert 18/ Quantitray) gave significantly higher counts than TTC Tergitol 7 agar (TTC Tergitol 7 agar vs MFc, 303 samples, mean RD% 8.81; vs Colilert-18/Quantitray, 76 samples, mean RD% 18.91). In other words, the alternative methods generated performance that was as reliable as, or even better than, the reference method. This study will help laboratories in Greece overcome culture and counting problems deriving from the EU reference method for E. coli counts in water samples. PMID:20057092

Mavridou, A; Smeti, E; Mandilara, G; Mandilara, G; Boufa, P; Vagiona-Arvanitidou, M; Vantarakis, A; Vassilandonopoulou, G; Pappa, O; Roussia, V; Tzouanopoulos, A; Livadara, M; Aisopou, I; Maraka, V; Nikolaou, E; Mandilara, G



Activity of Retapamulin against Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus Evaluated by Agar Dilution, Microdilution, E-Test, and Disk Diffusion Methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro activity of retapamulin against 106 Staphylococcus aureus isolates and 109 Streptococcus pyogenes isolates was evaluated by the agar dilution, broth microdilution, E-test, and disk diffusion methodologies. Where possible, the tests were performed by using the CLSI methodology. The results of agar dilution, broth microdilution, and E-test (all with incubation in ambient air) for S. aureus yielded similar

Glenn A. Pankuch; Gengrong Lin; Dianne B. Hoellman; Caryn E. Good; Michael R. Jacobs; Peter C. Appelbaum



Is cosmology compatible with blue gravity waves?  

SciTech Connect

A primordial gravitational wave background with positive (blue) spectral index is expected in several nonstandard inflationary cosmologies where the stress-energy tensor violates the null energy condition. Here we show that a sizable amount of blue gravitational waves is compatible with current cosmological and astrophysical data. So far most of the works on parameter estimation from cosmic microwave background data have assumed a negative or negligible spectral index. The present limits on cosmological parameters, especially on the scalar spectral index, widen up considerably when one allows also for blue tilts of the tensor spectrum. Since the amplitude of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode polarization is larger in these models, future data from Planck are likely to provide crucial measurements.

Camerini, Roberta; Durrer, Ruth; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Riotto, Antonio [Physics Department, Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza', Ple Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Rome (Italy); Departement de Physique Theorique, Universite de Geneve, 24 quai Ernest Ansermet, 1211 Geneve 4 (Switzerland); Physics Department and INFN, Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza', Ple Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Rome (Italy); CERN, Theory Division, Geneve 23, CH-1211, Switzerland and INFN, Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)



Aviation Safety Analyst Flies with Blue Angels  

NASA Video Gallery

Abegael “Abby” Jakey has aviation in her blood, taking her first flight at six months old in a Globe Swift. Now a contractor with Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc. working for NASA’s Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), Jakey recently took her passion for flight to a higher level as she rode with the U.S. Navy Flight Demonstration Squadron, the Blue Angels. Because of her dedication to flight and the benefit of adding this experience to her understanding of the full scope of aviation, Jakey was invited earlier this year to ride along with the Blue Angels. Read more, including Jakey's firsthand account of the flight:

Jessica Culler



Photooxidative Death in Blue-Green Algae  

PubMed Central

When incubated in the light under 100% oxygen, wild-type blue-green algae (Anacystis nidulans, Synechococcus cedrorum) die out rapidly at temperatures of 4 to 15 C, and at 35 C (or at 26 C in the case of S. cedrorum) in the absence of CO2. Photosynthesis is impaired in these cells long before they die. Blocking of photosystem II at high temperatures in the presence of CO2 sensitizes the algae to photooxidative death. Photooxidative death and bleaching of photosynthetic pigments are separable phenomena. Photooxidative conditions were demonstrated in Israeli fish ponds using A. nidulans as the test organism during dense summer blooms, when dissolved CO2 is low, and in winter, when water temperatures generally drop below 15 C. This finding suggests that photooxidative death may be responsible for the sudden decomposition of blue-green blooms in summer, and may be a factor in the absence of blue-green blooms in winter.

Abeliovich, A.; Shilo, M.



WhaleNet Blue Whale Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive educational Web site from WhaleNet provides a study guide to use with blue whale satellite tag data. WhaleNet is sponsored by Wheelock College, and the blue whale data set comes from the Mingan Island Cetacean Study, a "non-profit research organization dedicated to ecological studies of marine mammals." The study guide consists of a series of questions that guide students in analyzing and interpreting data. In the larger context, these questions uncover how satellite tag data provides valuable insight "into the natural history of the whales and will enable more intelligent and meaningful decisions which will increase the potential for recovery and for an improved existence in the shared marine environments around the world." Users of the Web site may also view blue whale tagging and biopsy movie clips. Links to a bibliography and additional resources are provided.



Anomalously Blue Ellipticals in the Sloan Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, we identified two extremely isolated early-type galaxies with unusually blue optical colors (Marcum etal, AJ 127, 3213), indicating current or recent massive star formation. Merger-induced star formation is the most likely mechanism for the odd photometric properties of these systems, yet, interestingly, they do not show the strong morphological scars (tidal tails, shells) generally attributed to merger activity. We concluded that these systems are late stage mergers, in which those morphological scars have largely dissipated, but photometric anomalies remain. In a separate investigation, we are exploring the properties of a large sample of luminous blue compact galaxies (Fanelli etal, 2004), many of which exhibit blue colors and an elliptical-like morphology. While the luminous blue compacts exist in a variety of environments, both samples may represent the same phenomena - the assembly of a spheroidal stellar system from the merger of multiple smaller gas-rich systems. To further explore the evolutionary paths which lead to isolated early-type galaxies, we are "mining" the Sloan Digital Sky Survey for anomalously blue ellipticals. These systems exhibit blue colors within the Sloan bands, and also show radial light profiles largely consistent with an r(1/4) law. We will present and describe representative objects. The importance of identifying local universe analogues to distant young galaxies comes from the ability to explore these systems at many wavelengths with excellent spatial and spectral resolution, in contrast to high-redshift systems. The latter are faint and subtend a few arcseconds, requiring substantial integration times with 4-10m class telescopes. This research was supported by NASA ADP grant NNG05GC53G, and the Texas Advanced Research Program.

Fanelli, M. N.; Marcum, P. M.; Mitchell, C.



Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh.1 Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available.2-5 Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of classroom demonstrations have been described for showing the effects.6-11 This paper describes how these demonstrations can be enhanced by using a spectrometer to measure the preferential scattering of the shorter wavelength light.

Liebl, Michael




Microsoft Academic Search

ALL the colors which one observes in bird feathers are due to one of two things: either to a pigment, or to some modification in the structure of the barb, producing what is known as structural color. The pigment colors are black, brown, red, yellow, and in a few cases green, while the blues, whites, some of the greens and



Comparative performance of Thin Layer Agar and Löwenstein-Jensen culture for diagnosis of tuberculosis.  


Sputum smear microscopy for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is cheap and simple but its sensitivity is low. Culture on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) is more sensitive but it takes a long time to yield results. Thin-Layer Agar (TLA) culture was suggested as an equally sensitive and faster alternative. We evaluated the performance of TLA for diagnosing TB in Jogjakarta, Indonesia. People with suspected TB presenting from July 2010 to July 2011 to two chest clinics of the National TB Control Programme network of Jogjakarta were eligible for inclusion. A sputum sample was sent to the Gadjah Mada University microbiology laboratory for concentration, smearing, Ziehl-Neelsen staining and culture on LJ and TLA. Sensitivity of cultures was evaluated against a composite reference standard (any positive culture). Time to detection of Mycobacteria was recorded. Out of 1414 samples, 164 (12%) were smear positive, 99 (7%) were scanty and 1151 (81%) were negative. On TLA and LJ respectively, 168 (12%) and 149 (11%) samples were positive, 72 (5%) and 32 (2%) were contaminated (? = 0.64; 95% CI 0.59-0.69, p <0.01). Using the reference standard, 196 (14%) TB cases were identified. The sensitivity of TLA was 0.86 (95% CI 0.80-0.90), significantly higher (p 0.03) than for LJ (0.76; 95% CI 0.69-0.81). The median time to detection in days was significantly shorter (p <0.01) for TLA (12; 95% CI 11-13) than for LJ (44; 95% CI 43-45). TLA is a rapid and sensitive method for the diagnosis of TB. Implementation studies to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and impact of its introduction into programmatic settings are urgently needed. PMID:23738759

Battaglioli, T; Rintiswati, N; Martin, A; Palupi, K R; Bernaerts, G; Dwihardiani, B; Ahmad, R A; Matthys, F; Mahendradhata, Y; Van der Stuyft, P



Activity of 2-fluoro-Ara AMP against gynecologic tumors in the soft agar assay.  


To characterize in vitro activity of 2-fluoro-Ara AMP and its relation to the activities of cisplatin and doxorubicin, 28 specimens from patients wit gynecologic tumors (predominantly ovarian) were tested in a soft agar assay. Twenty-six of 28 (93%) grew when the medium was supplemented with four hormones (epidermal growth factor, hydrocortisone, estradiol-17, and insulin). Normal bone marrow cells were utilized as a biologic control to define in vitro concentrations of the three drugs. Tumors were exposed continuously to three different concentrations of each drug. 2-fluoro-Ara AMP was tested against 26 tumors, cisplatin against 24, and doxorubicin against 14. In vitro sensitivity was defined as greater than or equal to 50% colony inhibition at a drug concentration within the bone marrow inhibitory range. Seven of 26 (27%) tumor specimens were sensitive to 2-fluoro-Ara AMP. Among these, four tumors were derived from previously treated patients. However, in the 2-fluoro-Ara AMP concentration range (0.26 micrograms/ml to 0.78 micrograms/ml) tested, five of eight (62.5%) tumors from untreated patients achieved IC50 compared to only seven of 18 (39%) tumors from treated patients. Five of six (83%) specimens demonstrated cross-sensitivity between cisplatin and 2-fluoro-Ara AMP. Seventeen of 18 (94%) specimens demonstrated cross-resistance between cisplatin and 2-fluoro-Ara AMP, and 13 of 13 (100%) specimens demonstrated cross-resistance between 2-fluoro-Ara AMP and doxorubicin. A higher proportion of tumors from previously untreated patients achieved greater than or equal to 50% colony inhibition when exposed to 2-fluoro-Ara-AMP or cisplatin than did those from previously treated patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2426218

Ajani, J A; Tomasovic, B; Spitzer, G; Kavanagh, J J; Thielvoldt, D; Baker, F L; Gershenson, D



Surface tension-induced gel fracture. Part 1. Fracture of agar gels.  


This work involves an experimental investigation of the spreading of liquids on gel layers in the presence of surfactants. Of primary interest is the instability that accompanies the cracking of gels through the deposition and subsequent spreading of a drop of surfactant solution on their surfaces. This instability manifests itself via the shaping of crack-like spreading "arms", in formations that resemble starbursts. The main aim of this study is to elucidate the complex interactions between spreading surfactants and underlying gels and to achieve a fundamental understanding of the mechanism behind the observed phenomenon of the cracking pattern formation. By spreading SDS and Silwet L-77 surfactant solutions on the surfaces of agar gels, the different ways that system parameters such as the surfactant chemistry and concentration and the gel strength can affect the morphology and dynamics of the starburst patterns are explored. The crack propagation dynamics is fitted to a power law by measuring the temporal evolution of the length of the spreading arms that form each one of the observed patterns. The values of the exponent of the power law are within the predicted limits for Marangoni-driven spreading on thick layers. Therefore, Marangoni stresses, induced by surface tension gradients between the spreading surfactant and the underlying gel layer, are identified to be the main driving force behind these phenomena, whereas gravitational forces were also found to play an important role. A mechanism that involves the "unzipping" of the gel in a manner perpendicular to the direction of the largest surface tension gradient is proposed. This mechanism highlights the important role of the width of the arms in the process; it is demonstrated that a cracking pattern is formed only within the experimental conditions that allow S/?w to be greater than G', where S is the spreading coefficient, ?w is the change in the width of the crack, and G' is the storage modulus of the substrate. PMID:22512657

Spandagos, Constantinos; Goudoulas, Thomas B; Luckham, Paul F; Matar, Omar K



Comparison of Sorbitol MacConkey Agar and a Two-Step Method Which Utilizes Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Toxin Testing and a Chromogenic Agar To Detect and Isolate Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and specifically serotype O157:H7 are a significant cause of hemorrhagic gastrointestinal disease and the hemolytic uremic syndrome. Methods currently used in clinical microbiology labs, such as sorbitol-MacConkey (SMAC) agar, reliably detect only O157:H7. We have evaluated a two-step method that has the potential to identify and isolate all EHEC serotypes, including serotype O157: H7. This method




Effect of EDTA on Pb(II) Uptake and Translocation by Tumbleweed (Salsola Kali): Agar and Hydroponics Studies  

SciTech Connect

Environmental accumulation of Pb represents a worldwide health hazard. While conventional cleanup techniques are generally expensive and soil disturbing, phytoremediation represents an inexpensive friendly option for the removal of contaminants from soil and water. In this research, tumbleweed (Salsola kali) plants exposed for 15 days to Pb(NO3)2 at 80 and 125 ppm in hydroponics and agar media, demonstrated a high capacity to uptake lead. The results showed that the plants cultivated in agar accumulated 25563, 5534 and 2185 mg Pb kg-1 DW in roots, stems and leaves, respectively. Moreover, Pb concentrations found in hydroponically grown tumbleweed plants tissues were 30744, 1511 and 1421 mg kg-1 DW in roots, stems and leaves, respectively. It was observed that EDTA enhanced Pb translocation. No Pb phytotoxic effects were observed during the experimental time period. Cellular structural features were also observed using TEM.

de la Rosa, Guadalupe; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Aldrich, Mary



Use of hydrogen peroxide treatment and crystal violet agar plates for selective recovery of bacteriophages from natural environments  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen peroxide inactivated bacteriophages and bacteria at different rates. A concentration of 0.1% hydrogen peroxide reduced the numbers of several bacteria by an average of 94% but caused an average of 25% inactivation in the numbers of bacteriophages tested. Treating natural samples with hydrogen peroxide selectively reduced the indigenous bacterial flora and permitted better visualization of plaques of lawns of Escherichia coli C-3000. In some cases indigenous gram-positive bacteria were relatively resistant to hydrogen peroxide, but their growth could be limited by incorporation of crystal violet into the bottom agar used for plaque assays. The use of hydrogen peroxide treatment and crystal violet-containing plates permitted recovery of more phages from natural samples than did other procedures, such as chloroform pretreatment or the use of selective plating agar such as EC medium.

Asghari, A.; Farrah, S.R.; Bitton, G. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States))



Field evaluation of the direct detection of multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis by nitrate reductase assay on 7H11 agar.  


In this study we evaluated the performance of colorimetric nitrate reductase assay (NRA) on Middlebrook 7H11 agar instead of Lowenstein-Jensen medium for detection of isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF) resistance directly on 114 smear positive sputum specimens and compared the results with direct proportion method on LJ medium. The results of both methods were in 100% agreement for detection of RIF resistance while agreement for INH was 96.4%. The average turnaround time for NRA was 18.6 days and majority of the specimens gave positive results within 21 days. Thus direct NRA testing on smear positive sputum specimens by using 7H11 agar could be used as a fast, reliable and inexpensive method in resource starved settings. PMID:23507185

Satti, Luqman; Ikram, Aamer; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi; Khan, Farooq Ahmad



A rapid detection of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis by a nitrate reductase assay on blood agar.  


The susceptibility of 49 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates to isoniazid (INH) and rifampisin (RIF) (28 multi-drug resistant-tuberculosis samples) was determined by a nitrate reductase assay (NRA) on blood agar. Agreement between the NRA and other testing methods was found to be 93.8% for both INH and RIF. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for INH were 92.8%, 94.2%, 86.6% and 97%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for RIF were 90.4%, 96.4%, 95% and 93.1%. In conclusion, we show here that blood agar can be used effectively for the NRA test. PMID:21655831

Coban, Ahmet Yilmaz; Cayci, Yeliz Tanriverdi; Deveci, Aydin; Akgunes, Alper; Uzun, Meltem; Durupinar, Belma



Adsorption of methylene blue on kaolinite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylene blue was adsorbed on kaolin from a local deposit. The raw kaolin itself was a relatively good adsorbent. The adsorption capacity was improved by purification and by treatment with NaOH solution. Calcination of the kaolin reduced the adsorption capacity. The adsorption data could be fitted by the Freundlich and Langmuir equations. Also, the thermodynamic parameters such as ?H0, ?S0

Dipa Ghosh; Krishna G Bhattacharyya



Baby T (Blue) (Size: X Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.



Baby T (Blue) (Size: XX Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.



Baby T (Blue) (Size: XXX Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.



The Stock of Antarctic Blue Whales  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING the current investigations into the conditions of Southern whaling, I have had occasion to consult the publications1 of the Norwegian Whaling Bureau, in which the catch statistics given in ``International Whaling Statistics'' have been amplified and to some extent analysed. From these data I have calculated the average length of female Blue whales taken from 1930 to 1935. The

Alec H. Laurie



Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.  


Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood. PMID:22393434

Melcón, Mariana L; Cummins, Amanda J; Kerosky, Sara M; Roche, Lauren K; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A



“No Dr. Blue\\/Do Not Resuscitate”  

Microsoft Academic Search

In December 1980 an elementary school teacher in Minnesota obtained a Restraining Order to ensure that a severely brain damaged friend would receive emergency medical care in her nursing home if she needed it. This situation focussed attention on the need for better understanding, among medical professionals and consumers alike, of the significance of a “No Dr. Blue\\/Do Not Resuscitate”

Jane D. Hoyt



The luminous blue variables: Astrophysical geysers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the most luminous stars have sporadic, violent mass-loss events whose causes are not understood. These evolved hot stars are called luminous blue variables (LBVs), and their instability may shape the appearance of the upper Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. LBV eruptions are interestingly reminiscent of geysers or even volcanos. They have received considerable observational attention since 1980, but theoretical work

Roberta M. Humphreys; Kris Davidson



The Blueing Effect in Massive Young Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remarkable photometric effect known as "blueing" or "color-reversal", in which when the star fades the color index (B-V) becomes bluer instead of redder, as predicted for normal main sequence stars, has been found to be present in several massive pre-main sequence or Herbig Ae/Be stars (HAEBE). This obscuration of the central source in many cases of up to 3 magnitudes, due to probably large thick clouds orbiting in the outer parts of the circumstellar disks, gives us the opportunity of obtaining the spectral signature of bipolar flows, winds normal to the disk, and of the incident scattering. No general consensus exits in the explanation of this phenomenon, which occurs mostly in objects later than A0 and possible edgeon systems. Two case studies, UX Ori and HD 45677, are discussed here, which led us to propose that the blueing effect is the signature of the accretion and bipolar winds in these stars. Therefore, in this proposal we would like to observe a larger sample of massive PMS stars at deep minima in order to properly assess the UV signature of the blueing effect. Our current interpretation of this phenomenon is radically different from the explanations derived from optical photometry. Up to now, the blueing effect has only be observed and interpreted using optical photometry; our goal is to describe this phenomenon in term of UV continuum and emission fluxes in a larger sample of HAEBE stars.

Perez, Mario R.


T's and Blues. Specialized Information Service.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This compilation of journal articles provides basic information on abuse of Talwin, a mild prescription painkiller (T's), and Pyribenzamine, a nonprescription antihistimine (Blues). These two drugs, taken in combination, produce an effect similar to that produced by heroin. Stories from "Drug Survival News,""Emergency Medicine," and "FDA Consumer"…

Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.


Extracellular Products of Blue Green Algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY An examination was made of soluble extracellular materials produced by Anabaena cylindrica and some other species of blue-green algae, to exasmine whether they have any functional importance. Organisms of all the 15 species (representing 10 genera) examined produced extracellular pigment; with at least 10 of these species part of this pigment was not dif- fusible on dialysis, though the




State of blue-green laser diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the Zn(Se,Te) graded contact scheme to p-ZnSe is found to be effective in supporting the room-temperature CW operation of blue-green (508 nm) laser diodes with a threshold voltage of about 5 volts. Factors contributing to device degradation are analyzed by electroluminescence and plan-view TEM imaging. Both the nucleation/growth of the extended structural defects and the presence of point defects within the active region are responsible for the observed degradation. The more recent exploratory effort on blue-green surface emitting lasers and deep blue (edge emitting) lasers will be reported. Surface emitting laser operation at room temperature at (lambda) equals 496 nm by pulsed optical injection has been demonstrated in a II-VI separate confinement heterostructure cavity. By increasing the energy gaps of the cladding, waveguiding, and quantum well layers, pulsed operation of a 460-nm edge-emitting laser at room temperature was also demonstrated. Electrically, p-type doping of ZnMgSSe is complicated by an apparent increase in the activation energy caused by a mechanism very much like that of the DX center in n-type III-V alloys. These factors must be addressed for II- VI light emitting devices to reach the deep blue part of the spectrum.

Han, Jung; Gunshor, Robert L.; Nurmikko, Arto V.



Novel deep-blue emitting phosphorescent emitter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, one of the most challenging applications for OLEDs is the full color display. The most energy-efficient way to realize light generation in OLEDs is by using phosphorescent emitters. Green and red emitters have already been demonstrated, but the search for blue emitting organic phosphorescent emitters with good color purity is still ongoing with arduous effort. Here we present our

C. Schildknecht; G. Ginev; A. Kammoun; T. Riedl; W. Kowalsky; H.-H. Johannes; C. Lennartz; K. Kahle; M. Egen; T. Geßner; M. Bold; S. Nord; P. Erk



Visualising DNA in Classrooms Using Nile Blue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Giving students the opportunity to extract, manipulate and visualise DNA molecules enhances a constructivist approach to learning about modern techniques in biology and biotechnology Visualisation usually requires agarose gel electrophoresis and staining. In this article, we report on an alternative DNA stain, Nile Blue A, that may be used in the…

Milne, Christine; Roche, Scott; McKay, David



Genetic markers in blue crabs ( Callinectes sapidus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the commercial and ecological importance of the dwindling Chesapeake Bay blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) population there is a surprising scarcity of information concerning the molecular ecology of this species. The few studies published to date are based on allozyme data and indicate a single, panmictic population along the Atlantic coast. To address this short-coming we have initiated the development

Xiaojun Feng; Colin R. Steven; H. Matthew Fourcade; Jeffrey L. Boore



Geographical Study of American Blues Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Music is not often utilized in teaching geography, despite the fact that many scholars orient their research around analyzing both the historical and spatial dimensions of musical expression. This article reports on the use of a teaching module that utilizes blues culture as a lens to understand the geographical history of the United States. The…

Strait, John B.



Environmental Requirements of Blue-Green Algae.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of accelerated eutrophication has many facets, and some are being examined through research to find the keys for solution. The symposium was held to fulfill the need to understand better the environmental requirements of blue-green algae. The ...



Quantum mechanical model for Maya Blue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is about Maya Blue (MB), a pigment developed by Mesoamerican civilizations between the 5th and 16th centuries from an aluminosilicate mineral (palygorskite) and an organic dye (indigo). Two different supramolecular quantum-mechanical models afford explanations for the unusual stability of MB based on the oxidation of the indigo molecule during the heating process and its interaction with palygorskite. A

María E. Fuentes; Brisa Peña; César Contreras; Ana L. Montero; Russell Chianelli; Manuel Alvarado; Ramón Olivas; Luz M. Rodríguez; Héctor Camacho; Luis A. Montero-Cabrera



The taxonomy of blue-green algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventions at present used in the classification of blue-green algae frequently prove unsatisfactory. A solution is suggested which requires the simultaneous use of two different approaches. When a binomial is essential the flora of Geitler (1932) should be adequate for most purposes, but any long term attempt to sort out the present chaos will require the use of numerical

B. A. Whitton



Charlie Patton and his Mississippi Boweavil Blues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides a short article, in PDF format, about the legendary American blues artist, Charley Patton, and his famous song about the notorious cotton boll pest, the boll weevil. The article, by R. K. D. Peterson, was scanned from a 2007 issue of the American Entomologist magazine.



“Lest we forget you — methylene blue?…”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylene blue (MB), the first synthetic drug, has a 120-year-long history of diverse applications, both in medical treatments and as a staining reagent. In recent years there was a surge of interest in MB as an antimalarial agent and as a potential treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), possibly through its inhibition of the aggregation of tau

R. Heiner Schirmer; Heike Adler; Marcus Pickhardt; Eckhard Mandelkow



Factors Affecting Blue Oak Sapling Recruitment1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used logistic regression to identify environmental and management history factors associated with blue oak (Quercus douglasii) sapling recruitment. Recent canopy gaps caused by natural mortality or clearing were positively associated with sapling recruitment. Plots with very high or low levels of tree canopy cover were less likely to have saplings than those with intermediate canopy cover levels. Across all

Tedmund J. Swiecki; Elizabeth A. Bernhardt; Christiana Drake


Kearney's Blue Star ('Amsonia kearneyana') Recovery Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Keamey's blue star is listed as endangered. It is known from two extant populations, one natural and one ex situ, located in the Baboquivan Mountains in Pima County, Arizona. The natural population supported about 25 plants in 1981 but has since decreased...

F. W. Reichenbacher J. M. Welch




EPA Science Inventory

Two long-term studies were conducted to determine toxicity, uptake and duration of Kepone in blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus). In the first, Kepone was administered to crabs in seawater 0.03 or 0.3 micrograms Kepone/l or food (eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, containing 0.2...



Microsoft Academic Search

IGRATION in the Little Blue Heron (Florida caerulea) is a composite of three distinct phases: 1) dispersal of the young and adults from the colonial nesting sites; 2) th e autumnal southward movement of adults and of the young after their dispersal; and 3) the return to the breeding areas in the north the following spring. The writer started banding



Raman spectroscopy of blue gel pen inks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raman spectroscopy is becoming a tool of major importance in forensic science. It is a non-invasive, non-destructive analytical method allowing samples to be examined without any preparation. This paper demonstrates the use of the technique as a general tool for gel pen inks analysis. For this purpose, 55 blue gel pen inks, of different brands and models representative of gel

Williams David Mazzella; Patrick Buzzini



Corruption and the Blue Code of Silence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the 'Blue Code of Silence' and its contribution to police corruption. After offering evidence for the existence of such a code, the paper locates the origins of the code in the work and culture of policing. The paper also examines cases, commission reports and an original case study to understand how the code is reinforced. Based on

Jerome H. Skolnick



Practices of Blue Ribbon Catholic Schools, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For almost 20 years, the U.S. Department of Education has invited schools to seek the Blue Ribbon School Award. A large number of Catholic schools have received this award. For this publication, the Department of Elementary Schools Executive Committee requested principals of awarded schools to write a short article on an exemplary school program…

Kealey, Robert J., Comp.


Fe Kedge XANES of Maya blue pigment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of techniques used in Materials Science for the characterization of artefacts of interest for cultural heritage is getting more and more attention nowadays. One of the products of the ancient Maya chemistry is the “Maya blue” pigment, made with natural indigo and palygorskite. This pigment is different from any other pigment used in other parts of the world.

M. Sánchez del Río; A. Sodo; S. G. Eeckhout; T. Neisius; P. Martinetto; E. Dooryhee; C. Reyes-Valerio



21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 73.50 Section 73.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.50 Ultramarine blue...more than 10 parts per million. Arsenic (as As), not more than 1...



Practices of Blue Ribbon Catholic Schools, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For almost 20 years, the U.S. Department of Education has invited schools to seek the Blue Ribbon School Award. A large number of Catholic schools have received this award. For this publication, the Department of Elementary Schools Executive Committee requested principals of awarded schools to write a short article on an exemplary school program…

Kealey, Robert J., Comp.


Avoiding the Negative: Blue Jeans Baseball  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Blue Jeans Baseball, for eight- to twelve-year old children, is based on the concept that everyone plays. No coaches are allowed; everyone bats once per inning; defensive players rotate positions. These and other rules reduce the emphasis on competition and increase the emphasis on skill development. (MJB)|

Maggard, Bob



Wrinkly-Spreader Fitness in the Two-Dimensional Agar Plate Microcosm: Maladaptation, Compensation and Ecological Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial adaptation to new environments often leads to the establishment of new genotypes with significantly altered phenotypes. In the Wrinkly Spreader (WS), ecological success in static liquid microcosms was through the rapid colonisation of the air-liquid interface by the production of a cellulose-based biofilm. Rapid surface spreading was also seen on agar plates, but in this two-dimensional environment the WS

Andrew J. Spiers



Detection ofBacterial Nitrite Production fromNitrate bya Nitrate-Starch-I odide AgarMedium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mediumconsisting ofnitrate agar (Difco), modified bytheaddition of1% starch and1%KI,was usedtodetect theproduction ofnitrite bya numberof different bacterial species. Thecommonly usednitrite detection method isaGriess reaction (3). Thisprocedure involves theuseofa-naphthylamine, acompound which hasbeenclassified bytheOccupational Safety andHealth Administration oftheU.S.Depart- mentofLabor(1)asahumanbladder carcino- gen.A less hazardous methodofdetermining nitrite production bymicroorganisms hasbeen devised based onthereaction between acidified nitrite andiodide ions andtheconcomitant pro- duction offree iodine (2).




Production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 by Staphylococcus aureus as determined by tampon disk-membrane-agar method.  

PubMed Central

The influence of 17 commercially available tampons on production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) by Staphylococcus aureus was investigated by using a tampon disk method. Filter membranes overlaying agar medium (with or without blood) in small petri dishes were spread inoculated with a TSST-1-producing strain of S. aureus. Disks cut from unrolled tampons were pressed and laid on the inoculated membranes; incubation was for 19 h at 37 degrees C with 5% CO2 in air. CFU on the membranes and in the disks were enumerated, and the presence of TSST-1 in the disks and in the agar layers was determined. Tampons made of different materials supported characteristic levels of cell growth and toxin production in the tampon. Colonization of the interface surface of the tampon disks was heavy. The number of CFU extracted from the tampon disks ranged from 5 X 10(10) to 82 X 10(10). There was little variation in the CFU recovered from the membranes ([1.9 +/- 0.4] X 10(11)). Sixty to 170 micrograms of TSST-1 was recoverable from the agar, with an additional 10 to 90 micrograms recoverable from tampon disks, depending on the type of tampon disk. The amount of toxin in the agar layer from the various tampon disks was relatively constant and indicated an important contribution of toxin from vaginal S. aureus cells not growing in the tampon. The main role of tampons in toxic shock syndrome may be that of providing a fibrous surface for heavy colonization and sufficient air for TSST-1 production.

Robbins, R N; Reiser, R F; Hehl, G L; Bergdoll, M S



Protoplast Transformation of Recalcitrant Alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. with Methylated Plasmid DNA and a Developed Hard Agar Regeneration Medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the diverse alkaliphilic Bacillus strains, only a little have been reported to be genetically transformed. In this study, an efficient protoplast transformation procedure was developed for recalcitrant alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. N16-5. The procedure involved polyethylene glycol-induced DNA uptake by the protoplasts and subsequent protoplast regeneration with a developed hard agar regeneration medium. An in vivo methylation strategy was introduced

Chenghua Gao; Yanfen Xue; Yanhe Ma



Development of blood-yolk-polymyxin B-trimethoprim agar for the enumeration of Bacillus cereus in various foods.  


Blood-yolk-polymyxin B-trimethoprim agar (BYPTA) was developed by the addition of egg yolk, laked horse blood, sodium pyruvate, polymyxin B, and trimethoprim, and compared with mannitol-yolk-polymyxin B agar (MYPA) for the isolation and enumeration of Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) in pure culture and various food samples. In pure culture, there was no statistical difference (p>0.05) between the recoverability and sensitivity of MYPA and BYPTA, whereas BYPTA exhibited higher specificity (p<0.05). To evaluate BYPTA agar with food samples, B. cereus was experimentally spiked into six types of foods, triangle kimbab, sandwich, misugaru, Saengsik, red pepper powder, and soybean paste. No statistical difference was observed in recoverability (p>0.05) between MYPA and BYPTA in all tested foods, whereas BYPTA exhibited higher selectivity than MYPA, especially in foods with high background microflora, such as Saengsik, red pepper powder, and soybean paste. The newly developed selective medium BYPTA could be a useful enumeration tool to assess the level of B. cereus in foods, particularly with high background microflora. PMID:23732830

Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyunsook; Chon, Jung-Whan; Moon, Jin-San; Song, Kwang-Young; Seo, Kun-Ho



BAM R10: 0.04% Bromthymol Blue Indicator  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM R10: 0.04% Bromthymol Blue Indicator. January 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. R10 Bromthymol Blue Indicator, 0.04%. ... More results from


Beat the Winter Blues: Shedding Light on Seasonal Sadness  


... Issue This Issue Features Beat the Winter Blues Radon Risk Health Capsules Trust Rises With Age Salivary ... select search option Features Beat the Winter Blues Radon Risk Wise Choices Links Lift Your Mood These “ ...


75 FR 13757 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting...Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (the Commission). In that...



Historical catch series for Antarctic and pygmy blue whales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide catch series are presented for blue whales during the modern whaling period (1868-1878), divided into five populations. There are only a handful of documented catches of blue whales prior to this period, and none afterwards. The data come from the IWC summary annual catch database and the IWC individual whale catch database, and correct for Soviet misreporting of blue



Is blue light good or bad for plants?  


Blue photons are energetically expensive so the most energy-efficient lamps contain the least blue light. Blue photons are not used efficiently in photosynthesis, but blue light has dramatic effects on plant development. We studied the growth and development of soybean, wheat, and lettuce plants under high-pressure sodium and metal halide lamps with yellow filters creating five fractions of blue light (0.5%, 3.5%, 6%, 1 8%, and 26% blue) at 500 micromoles m-2 s-1 and (< 0.1%, 1.7%, 6%, 12%, and 26%) at 200 mol m-2 s-1. The response was species dependent. Lettuce was highly sensitive to blue light fraction and had an optimum dry weight and leaf area at about 6% blue, but results were complicated by sensitivity to lamp type. Wheat and soybean were less sensitive to blue light, but dry mass and leaf area decreased steadily with increasing blue light. Blue light fraction significantly affected specific leaf area (SLA, m2 kg-1) and chlorophyll in lettuce, but had no significant effect on wheat and soybeans. The data suggest that lettuce benefits from some added blue light, but soybean and wheat may not. PMID:11541668

Dougher, T A; Bugbee, B G



Methylene blue selectively stains intestinal metaplasia in Barrett's esophagus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Specialized columnar epithelium in Barrett's esophagus resembles gastric intestinal metaplasia, which selectively stains with methylene blue. Methods: We prospectively evaluated the safety, accuracy, reproducibility, cost, and diagnostic yield of methylene blue–directed biopsy in detecting specialized columnar epithelium and dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus. We performed upper endoscopy with methylene blue–directed biopsy and obtained 236 large cup biopsy specimens (145 stained,

Marcia Irene F. Canto; Sebouh Setrakian; Robert E. Petras; Edmond Blades; Amitabh Chak; Michael V. Sivak



Dietary circumvention of acorn tannins by blue jays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue jays consume large quantities of acorns to fuel energy-demanding caching flights in the fall. Yet blue jays possess no known physiological adaptation to counter the negative effects of a high tannin diet on protein digestion. Dietary experiments were conducted to determine if blue jays could subsist on an acorn-only diet, and if they could not, to determine whether supplements

W. Carter Johnson; Libby Thomas; Curtis S. Adkisson



Impact of Medicare's Prospective Payment System and Private Sector Initiatives: Blue Cross and Blue Shield Plan Experience, 1980-1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study analyzes the impact of Medicare's Prospective Payment System (PPS) on utilization and payments for inpatient and outpatient hospital services covered by Blue Cross and Blue Shield (BCBS) Plans. It examines the effects of cost control efforts und...

R. M. Scheffler T. W. Hu S. D. Sullivan D. A. Gurnick J. O. Gibbs



Experiencing Blues at the Crossroads: A Place-Based Method for Teaching the Geography of Blues Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article offers a pedagogical module that explores the geography of blues culture across the Mississippi Delta. By focusing on blues culture, rather than simply blues music itself, this project provides a forum for understanding the broader geographical conditions from which this musical form emerged. This module utilizes place-based…

Strait, John



Experiencing Blues at the Crossroads: A Place-Based Method for Teaching the Geography of Blues Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article offers a pedagogical module that explores the geography of blues culture across the Mississippi Delta. By focusing on blues culture, rather than simply blues music itself, this project provides a forum for understanding the broader geographical conditions from which this musical form emerged. This module utilizes place-based methodologies and musical expressions as lenses to understand the influences that

John Strait



The effect of graphene on liquid-crystalline blue phases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stabilization of liquid-crystalline blue phases is recently attracting considerable interest because of the envisioned applications in fast optical displays and tunable photonic crystals. We report on the effect of surface-functionalized graphene nanosheets on the blue phase range of a chiral liquid crystal. Calorimetric and optical measurements, reproducible on heating and cooling, demonstrate that the resulting soft nanocomposite exhibits an increased blue phase temperature stability range for a minute concentration of dispersed graphene. The impact is stronger on the ordered, cubic structured blue phase I. These findings suggest that anisotropic nanoparticles may be of great usefulness for stabilizing blue phases.

Lavri?, M.; Tzitzios, V.; Kralj, S.; Cordoyiannis, G.; Lelidis, I.; Nounesis, G.; Georgakilas, V.; Amenitsch, H.; Zidanšek, A.; Kutnjak, Z.



Anomalously Blue Ellipticals in the Sloan Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, we identified two isolated early-type galaxies with unusually blue optical colors (Marcum etal, AJ 127, 3213), indicating current or recent massive star formation. Merger-induced star formation is the most likely mechanism for the odd photometric properties of these systems, yet, interestingly, they do not show the strong morphological scars (tidal tails, shells) generally attributed to merger activity. We concluded that these systems are late stage mergers, in which those morphological scars have largely dissipated, but photometric anomalies remain. To further explore the evolutionary paths of elliptical galaxies, we are ``mining'' the Sloan Digital Sky Survey for anomalously blue ellipticals, which may represent local universe analogues to distant young galaxies. We will describe representative objects and outline their properties.

Fanelli, Michael; Marcum, Pamela; Fuse, Chris



Reactive evaporation of anomalous blue VO(2).  


Thin films of vanadium dioxide exhibit a thermally induced semiconductor-to-metal phase transition near 67 degrees C. In most deposition conditions, the transition is accompanied by large changes in optical properties at infrared wavelengths, but with only slight visible contrast. Recently, reactive evaporation at high temperatures and in stringent process conditions of so-called blue VO(2) has been reported [G. A. Nyberg and R. A. Buhrman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 301 (1984)]. These films exhibit a striking blue-to-red transition in transmitted light. In this paper, a new technique for thin-film growth of anomalous vanadium dioxide will be presented. The primary steps in the process are the reactive evaporation of vanadium oxide at ambient temperature followed by anneal in flowing oxygen. Optical and microstructural data for material deposited on sapphire and fused quartz substrates will be compared to standard vanadium dioxide. PMID:20454358

Case, F C



Blue light dermal imaging of human skin.  


While the number of occurrences of skin cancer is constantly increasing, the medical industry relies on the same slow and invasive method of detection. Image processing techniques could prove to be a useful diagnostic tool. With a blue light laser, an optical system, and imaging techniques, a noninvasive detection method that produces immediate results could be developed. This paper analyzes the feasibility of developing such a detection device. The evaluation included the safety and effectiveness of using a blue laser for dermal imaging. The data came from research and a preliminary laboratory experiment. The analysis showed that this laser-based method of skin cancer detection is safe, effective, and continued research should be performed in this area. PMID:12085632

Kirkpatrick, Nathaniel; Donham, Dennis



Blue-green lasers and electrodeless flashlamps  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses the questions of combining the technology of moderate pressure electrodeless discharge lamps with the efficiency of a resonantly pumped solid state laser to achieve an efficient, compact, and reliable blue green laser. The scheme is based on resonant absorption of the 1D2 state of Pr(+3) which coincides with strong yellow lines of a sodium discharge at 589 nm. A Q switched lasing transition to the 3F3 state can be doubled into the desired blue green region. Estimates show that a moderate pressure electrodeless flashlamp should emit roughly 30% of its light in the 589 nm band. More generally, the moderate pressure electrodeless flashlamp should be an effective and efficient emitter of resonant radiation throughout the visible and UV region, opening possibilities for other resonantly pumped lasers. Several specific possibilities are pointed out, including an energy efficient system at 610 nm, and a candidate inertial fusion driven at 250 nm.

Perkins, F.W.



Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized\\u000a using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec\\u000a period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any

M. Sánchez del Río; A. Gutiérrez-León; G. R. Castro; J. Rubio-Zuazo; C. Solís; R. Sánchez-Hernández; J. Robles-Camacho; J. Rojas-Gaytán



State of blue-green laser diodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the Zn(Se,Te) graded contact scheme to p-ZnSe is found to be effective in supporting the room-temperature CW operation of blue-green (508 nm) laser diodes with a threshold voltage of about 5 volts. Factors contributing to device degradation are analyzed by electroluminescence and plan-view TEM imaging. Both the nucleation\\/growth of the extended structural defects and the presence of

Jung Han; Robert L. Gunshor; Arto V. Nurmikko



Chitosan/Prussian blue-based biosensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chitosan/Prussian blue (PB) based biosensors, including a glucose sensor, a glutamate sensor and a galactose sensor have been developed. The biosensors exhibit excellent performance; in particular, the interference of ascorbic and uric acids can be avoided due to selective permeability of chitosan film and electro-catalysis of the PB layer to H2O2. The biosensors have been applied to detect glucose, galactose and glutamate in human blood serum and fermented solution.

Wang, Yiting; Zhu, Jianzhong; Zhu, Rongjin; Zhu, Ziqiang; Lai, Zongsheng; Chen, Zongyou



Degradation of microgun-pumped blue lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microgun-pumped blue lasers with lasing thresholds in the 4–20 kW\\/cm2 range for temperatures between 83 and 225 K were fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy. The devices exploit graded index, separate confinement Zn1 ? xCdxSeZnSe heterostructures and use an array of low-voltage field-emission microtips for electron beam pumping. Degradation occurs through the formation of characteristic (100) dark-line defects, as in diode

D. Herve; J. M. Bonard; L. Vanzetti; J. J. Paggel; L. Sorba; J. D. Ganière; E. Molva; A. Franciosi



Habitat Suitability Index Models: Blue Grouse  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Schroeder, Richard L.




Microsoft Academic Search

The audibility thresholds of two Blue Jays were measured behaviorally using operant conditioning and psychophysical techniques. The jays responded to pure tones between 0.25 and 10 kHz. Their thresholds are similar to those reported for seven other passerines. This indicates that passerines are somewhat less sensitive than man in the detection of sounds in the 1 to 4 kHz range




Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few ?g of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as añil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue.

Sánchez Del Río, M.; Gutiérrez-León, A.; Castro, G. R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Solís, C.; Sánchez-Hernández, R.; Robles-Camacho, J.; Rojas-Gaytán, J.



Trypan blue assisted phacoemulsification in corneal opacities  

PubMed Central

Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of trypan blue for enhancing visualisation during phacoemulsification and foldable lens implantation in cases of cataract with corneal opacities. Methods: 11 eyes of 11 patients with nebulomacular corneal opacities involving the visual axis with partially and visually debilitating cataract underwent trypan blue assisted phacoemulsification with foldable intraocular lens implantation. The patients were followed at the first day, first week, first month, and third month postoperatively. Completion of capsulorhexis, phacoemulsification with foldable lens implantation, and postoperative best corrected visual acuity were measured. Results: The dye improved visualisation of the anterior capsule and a complete capsulorhexis could be performed successfully in all eyes. In all but one eye phacoemulsification was accomplished successfully. In one eye with Fuchs' dystrophy penetrating keratoplasty was performed later. Visual acuity was ?6/60 preoperatively in all eyes and improved to ?6/24 in eight eyes postoperatively. Conclusion: Trypan blue assisted phacoemulsification may be performed in selected cases of corneal haze/opacification with cataract. It provides acceptable visual outcome in cases awaiting penetrating keratoplasty or in cases where it is not feasible or promising.

Bhartiya, P; Sharma, N; Ray, M; Sinha, R; Vajpayee, R B



Blue and white organic light-emitting devices using oligo(phenylenvinylene) as a blue emitter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly bright and efficient blue and white organic light-emitting devices based on oligo(phenylenvinylene) derivatives, 1,4-di(4'-N,N-diphenylaminostyryl) benzene (DPA-DSB) and 2,5,2',5'-tetrastyryl-biphenyl (TSB), are fabricated. In the blue device, using DPA-DSB doped TSB as a blue emitter, due to efficient energy transfer from TSB to DPA-DSB and depression of concentration quenching of the dopant, a maximum brightness of 17 350 cd m-2 and a maximum luminous efficiency of 12.18 cd A-1 are obtained. In the white device, DPA-DSB doped 4,4-N,N'-dicarbazole-biphenyl (CBP) acts not only as a blue emitter, but also as a blocking layer to prevent the energy transfer between the two phosphorescent layers in order to balance emissions from the three emissive layers. Combining the blue emission from it with the green and red emissions from the phosphorescent layers, white emission with a maximum brightness of 13 290 cd m-2 and a maximum luminous efficiency of 14.97 cd A-1 is obtained. The colour rendering index of the white device is 79.

Zhang, Yingfang; He, Feng; Cheng, Gang; Ruan, Chunyan; Lin, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yi; Ma, Yuguang; Liu, Shiyong



Evaluation of Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica and Staphylococcus aureus counts in apple juice with cinnamon, by conventional media and thin agar layer method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pasteurized apple juice (pH 3.64) with cinnamon (0% and 0.3%) was inoculated with Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica or enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus at 104cfuml?1, and stored at 5°C and 20°C. Counts on tryptic soy agar (TSA), selective medium and thin agar layer (TAL) were determined at 1h and 1, 3, 7 and 14 days. The TAL method (selective medium overlaid with

J. Yuste; D. Y. C. Fung



Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci: Comparison of Phenotypic and Genotypic Oxacillin Susceptibility Tests and Evaluation of the Agar Screening Test by Using Different Concentrations of Oxacillin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the oxacillin susceptibilities of 152 coagulase-negative staphylococcal (CoNS) strains of 12 species by disk diffusion; agar dilution; E-test; the slide latex agglutination test (Slidex MRSA Detection test; bioMerieux S\\/A, Paris, France); the agar screening test with 1, 2, 4, or 6 g of oxacillin per ml and incubation for 24 or 48 h; and detection of the

Rosana B. R. Ferreira; Natalia L. P. Iorio; Karoline L. Malvar; Ana Paula; F. Nunes; Leila S. Fonseca; Carla C. R. Bastos; Katia R. N. Santos



Studies of blood cholinesterase activity in liver desease (2nd report) Change of esterase zymogram by thin layer agar gel electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present report was performed for purpose to represent the change of serum esterase zymogram in the liver desease and the effect of carbon tetrachloride poisoning upon that of plasma and liver homogenete of the rat. Agar gel electrophoresis carried out under conditions described by Wieme and Sibata. Component of agar gel was as follows; pH6.8 phosphate buffer (~:0.025), 0.75%

H. Saito; Y. Sugawara; K. Komatubara; T. Niimi; T. Adachi; H. Kano; K. Miyata



Comparison of a simple butterfat agar medium with other media used for isolation and enumeration of lipolytic bacteria from dairy products.  


A nutrient agar medium containing 0.1% of a low melting point fraction of butterfat was shown to be suitable for detection, enumeration and isolation of lipolytic bacteria from milk. Bacterial growth was not inhibited by the butterfat and lipolytic reactions were clearly visible and easily interpreted. Lipolytic counts on the butterfat agar compared favourably with lipolytic counts obtained with other commonly used media. PMID:3655071

Shelley, A W; Deeth, H C; MacRae, I C



Quality issues in blue noise halftoning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The blue noise mask (BNM) is a halftone screen that produces unstructured visually pleasing dot patterns. The BNM combines the blue-noise characteristics of error diffusion and the simplicity of ordered dither. A BNM is constructed by designing a set of interdependent binary patterns for individual gray levels. In this paper, we investigate the quality issues in blue-noise binary pattern design and mask generation as well as in application to color reproduction. Using a global filtering technique and a local 'force' process for rearranging black and white pixels, we are able to generate a series of binary patterns, all representing a certain gray level, ranging from white-noise pattern to highly structured pattern. The quality of these individual patterns are studied in terms of low-frequency structure and graininess. Typically, the low-frequency structure (LF) is identified with a measurement of the energy around dc in the spatial frequency domain, while the graininess is quantified by a measurement of the average minimum distance (AMD) between minority dots as well as the kurtosis of the local kurtosis distribution (KLK) for minority pixels of the binary pattern. A set of partial BNMs are generated by using the different patterns as unique starting 'seeds.' In this way, we are able to study the quality of binary patterns over a range of gray levels. We observe that the optimality of a binary pattern for mask generation is related to its own quality mertirc values as well as the transition smoothness of those quality metric values over neighboring levels. Several schemes have been developed to apply blue-noise halftoning to color reproduction. Different schemes generate halftone patterns with different textures. In a previous paper, a human visual system (HVS) model was used to study the color halftone quality in terms of luminance and chrominance error in CIELAB color space. In this paper, a new series of psycho-visual experiments address the 'preferred' color rendering among four different blue noise halftoning schemes. The experimental results will be interpreted with respect to the proposed halftone quality metrics.

Yu, Qing; Parker, Kevin J.



Inaccuracy of the disk diffusion method compared with the agar dilution method for susceptibility testing of Campylobacter spp.  


The agar dilution method has been standardized by the CLSI for the susceptibility testing of Campylobacter species, and according to these standards, the disk diffusion method should be used only in screening for macrolide and ciprofloxacin resistance. Nevertheless, the disk diffusion test is currently widely used, since it is easy to perform in clinical microbiology laboratories. In this study, the disk diffusion method was compared to the agar dilution method by analyzing the in vitro activities of seven antimicrobial agents against 174 Campylobacter strains collected in Finland between 2003 and 2008. Recommendations of the CLSI were followed using Mueller-Hinton agar plates with 5% of sheep blood. For each strain, the disk diffusion tests were performed two to four times. Of the 33 erythromycin-resistant strains (MIC, ?16 ?g/ml), 24 (73%) constantly showed a 6-mm erythromycin inhibition zone (i.e., no inhibition), while for seven strains the inhibition zone varied from 6 to 44 mm in repeated measurements. Among the 141 erythromycin-susceptible strains (MIC, <16 ?g/ml), erythromycin inhibition zones varied between 6 and 61 mm. Of the 87 ciprofloxacin-resistant strains, 47 (54%) showed 6-mm inhibition zones, while 40 strains showed inhibition zones between 6 and 60 mm. Significant differences between the repetitions were observed in the disk diffusion for all antimicrobial agents and all strains except for the macrolide-resistant strains regarding the macrolides. For 17 (10%) strains, the variation in repeated measurements was substantial. These results show that the disk diffusion method may not be a reliable tool for the susceptibility testing of Campylobacter spp. Further studies are needed to assess whether the disk diffusion test could be improved or whether all susceptibilities of campylobacters should be tested using an MIC-based method. PMID:22075583

Lehtopolku, Mirva; Kotilainen, Pirkko; Puukka, Pauli; Nakari, Ulla-Maija; Siitonen, Anja; Eerola, Erkki; Huovinen, Pentti; Hakanen, Antti J



High internal phase agar hydrogel dispersions in cocoa butter and chocolate as a route towards reducing fat content.  


Reducing the fat content of chocolate formulations is a major challenge for the confectionery industry. We report the suspension of aqueous microgel agar particles of up to 80% v/v within sunflower oil, cocoa butter, and ultimately chocolate. The optimised emulsification process involves a shear-cooling step. We demonstrate the versatility of our method when applied to white, milk, and dark chocolate formulations, whilst preserving the desired polymorph V of the cocoa butter matrix. In addition, we show that this technology can be used as a strategy to disperse alcoholic beverages into chocolate confectionery. PMID:23799607

Skelhon, Thomas S; Olsson, Patrik K A; Morgan, Adam R; Bon, Stefan A F



Detection of bacterial cytotoxic activities from water-damaged ceiling tile material following incubation on blood agar.  


Samples of ceiling tiles with high levels of bacteria exhibited cytotoxic activities on a HEP-2 tissue culture assay. Ceiling tiles containing low levels of bacterial colonization did not show cytotoxic activities on the HEP-2 tissue culture assay. Using a spread plate procedure on blood agar plates, the levels of bacteria colonizing portions of cellulosic indoor ceiling tiles were easily identified. Levels of bacteria measured by this simple procedure may be a good indicator of microbial colonization of indoor building materials especially in the case of water damage. We suggest that bacterial levels above 150 CFU g(-1) of ceiling tile material indicate colonization has occurred. PMID:10455496

DeMaria, L; Lye, D J



Testing Susceptibility of Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Second-Line Drugs by Use of Blood Agar?  

PubMed Central

In this study, the susceptibilities of 35 multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates to second-line drugs, including kanamycin (KM), rifabutin (RBU), ofloxacin (OFX), p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), capreomycin (CAP), clofazimine (CFM), and ethionamide (ETH), were investigated on blood agar according to CLSI recommendations. Compared with the results of the Bactec 460 TB system, agreement was 100, 100, 97, 100, 100, 100, and 86% for KM, RBU, OFX, PAS, CAP, CFM, and ETH, respectively. Compared with the results of the proportion method, agreement was 100, 100, 97, 100, 97, 100, and 77% for KM, RBU, OFX, PAS, CAP, CFM, and ETH, respectively.

Satana, Dilek; Coban, Ahmet Yilmaz; Uzun, Meltem



Optimization of the Agar-gel Method for Isolation of Migrating Ascaris suum Larvae From the Liver and Lungs of Pigs  

PubMed Central

Experiments on use of an agar-gel method for recovery of migrating Ascaris suum larvae from the liver and lungs of pigs were conducted to obtain fast standardized methods. Subsamples of blended tissues of pig liver and lungs were mixed with agar to a final concentration of 1% agar and the larvae allowed to migrate out of the agar-gel into 0.9% NaCl at 38°C. The results showed that within 3 h more than 88% of the recoverable larvae migrated out of the liver agar-gel and more than 83% of the obtained larvae migrated out of the lung agar-gel. The larvae were subsequently available in a very clean suspension which reduced the sample counting time. Blending the liver for 60 sec in a commercial blender showed significantly higher larvae recovery than blending for 30 sec. Addition of gentamycin to reduce bacterial growth during incubation, glucose to increase larval motility during migration or ice to increase sedimentation of migrated larvae did not influence larvae recovery significantly.

Saeed, I; Roepstorff, A; Rasmussen, T; H?g, M; Jungersen, G



Mock Observations of Blue Stragglers in Globular Cluster Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We created artificial color-magnitude diagrams of Monte Carlo dynamical models of globular clusters and then used observational methods to determine the number of blue stragglers in those clusters. We compared these blue stragglers to various cluster properties, mimicking work that has been done for blue stragglers in Milky Way globular clusters to determine the dominant formation mechanism(s) of this unusual stellar population. We find that a mass-based prescription for selecting blue stragglers will select approximately twice as many blue stragglers than a selection criterion that was developed for observations of real clusters. However, the two numbers of blue stragglers are well-correlated, so either selection criterion can be used to characterize the blue straggler population of a cluster. We confirm previous results that the simplified prescription for the evolution of a collision or merger product in the BSE code overestimates their lifetimes. We show that our model blue stragglers follow similar trends with cluster properties (core mass, binary fraction, total mass, collision rate) as the true Milky Way blue stragglers as long as we restrict ourselves to model clusters with an initial binary fraction higher than 5%. We also show that, in contrast to earlier work, the number of blue stragglers in the cluster core does have a weak dependence on the collisional parameter ? in both our models and in Milky Way globular clusters.

Sills, Alison; Glebbeek, Evert; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A.



Excited state electric dipole moment of nile blue and brilliant cresyl blue: a comparative study.  


A solvatochromic study on the photophysical properties of two cationic oxazine dyes (brilliant cresyl blue and nile blue) was carried out. The electronic absorption and emission spectra of the dyes were recorded in various organic solvents with different polarity. The ground and the excited state dipole moments of the dyes were estimated from solvatochromic shift method. The solvent dependent spectral shifts in absorption and fluorescence spectra were analyzed by the Katritzky and Kamlet-Taft multi-parameter scales. This work is characterized by detailed quantitative studies on the nature and extent of solvent-solute interactions. PMID:22261111

Gilani, A Ghanadzadeh; Hosseini, S E; Moghadam, M; Alizadeh, E



Compensation of blue phase I by blue phase II in optoeletronic device.  


Compensation effect of blue phase I (BP I) with blue phase II (BP II) liquid crystal was demonstrated. BP I and BP II were co-exist in the optoeletronic device by polymer stabilization. Consequently, disadvantages of BP I and BP II were greatly improved by compensation effect and resulted in high contrast ratio, low hysteresis and fast falling time. Mechanism of compensation effect was explained by relaxation ability of lattice structure under electrical field and compensation structure was well confirmed by Bragg's reflectance spectrum and Commission International de l'Éclairage chromaticity diagram. PMID:23482036

Lan, Yi-Fen; Tsai, Cheng-Yeh; Lu, Jen-Kuei; Sugiura, Norio



Photodynamic effects of methylene blue-loaded polymeric nanoparticles on dental plaque bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is increasingly being explored for treatment of oral infections. Here, we investigate the effect of PDT on human dental plaque bacteria in vitro using methylene blue (MB)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA) nanoparticles with a positive or negative charge and red light at 665 nm. Study Design/Materials and Methods Subgingival plaque samples were obtained from 14 patients with chronic periodontitis. Suspensions of plaque microorganisms from seven patients were sensitized with anionic, cationic PLGA nanoparticles (50 ?g/ml equivalent to MB) or free MB (50 ?g/ml) for 20 min followed by exposure to red light for 5 min with a power density of 100 mW/cm2. Polymicrobial oral biofilms, which were developed on blood agar in 96-well plates from dental plaque inocula obtained from seven patients, were also exposed to PDT as above. Following the treatment, survival fractions were calculated by counting the number of colony-forming units. Results The cationic MB-loaded nanoparticles exhibited greater bacterial phototoxicity in both planktonic and biofilm phase compared to anionic MB-loaded nanoparticles and free MB, but results were not significantly different (p>0.05). Conclusion Cationic MB-loaded PLGA nanoparticles have the potential to be used as carriers of MB for PDT systems.

Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Patel, Niraj; Song, Xiaoqing; Holewa, Colleen; Patel, Chitrang; Kent, Ralph; Amiji, Mansoor M.; Soukos, Nikolaos S.



Highly efficient synthesis of exopolysaccharides by Lactobacillus curvatus DPPMA10 during growth in hydrolyzed wheat flour agar.  


The aim of this study was to optimize the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) by sourdough Lactobacillus curvatus DPPMA10 for industrial application. The effects of pH, temperature, planktonic or attached cells and of some food matrices as substrates were studied. Wheat flour hydrolysate (WFH), reconstituted skimmed milk (RSM) and whey milk were supplemented with fresh yeast extract, mineral salts, and/or molasses. Non-controlled pH, starting from 5.6 to 3.5, was the optimal condition for L. curvatus DPPMA10. Temperature of 30 degrees C was also found to be optimal. Solid surfaces (agar culture media) stimulated attached bacteria to synthesize EPS (> or = of two-fold, P<0.05) with respect to planktonic cells (broth media). The highest production of EPS (ca. 46-50 g/kg of wet medium) was found during growth as attached cells in WFH agar supplemented with glucose, sucrose or molasses, mineral salts and fresh yeast extract at 30 degrees C for 48 h. As shown by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, glucose was the only hydrolysis end-product for EPS synthesized during 48 h of incubation. The EPS synthesized by L. curvatus DPPMA10 improved the quality of bread and was utilized as carbon course by intestinal strains of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. The synthesis of EPS by L. curvatus DPPMA10 under the conditions of this study may open new perspectives for their industrial applications. PMID:20398955

Minervini, F; De Angelis, M; Surico, R F; Di Cagno, R; Gänzle, M; Gobbetti, M



Malt-yeast extract-sucrose agar, a suitable medium for enumeration and isolation of fungi from silage.  

PubMed Central

A general medium named malt-yeast extract-sucrose agar (MYSA) containing oxgall was designed. The medium was intended for the enumeration and isolation of molds and yeasts in routine examinations of animal feed stuffs. In this study MYSA was tested as a general medium for mycological examination of silage. The medium was compared with dichloran-rose bengal medium (DRBC) in an examination of more than 500 specimens of big bale grass silage. Selected characteristics of known fungal species commonly isolated from feeds were examined after growth on MYSA and DRBC and on malt extract agar, used as a noninhibitory control medium. MYSA suppressed bacterial growth, without affecting the growth of fungi common in feeds. The fungi growing on MYSA were easily recognized, and the medium seemed to slow radial growth of fungal colonies, which permitted, easy counting. The number of species found was higher on MYSA than on DRBC. When we compared MYSA with DRBC for mycological examination of grass silage samples, MYSA was found to be the medium of choice.

Skaar, I; Stenwig, H



Algivirga pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov., a Novel Agar-Degrading Marine Bacterium of the Family Flammeovirgaceae Isolated from Micronesia.  


An aerobic, Gram-negative, coccoid to short rod-shaped and non-flagellated marine bacterial strain S354(T) was isolated from seawater of Micronesia. The strain was capable to degrade agar-forming slight depression into agar plate. Growth occurred at a temperature range of 12-44 °C, a pH range of 5-9, and a salinity range of 1-7 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested that S354(T) belongs to the family Flammeovirgaceae. The novel strain was most closely related to Limibacter armeniacum YM 11-185(T) with similarity of 92.5 %. The DNA G+C content was 43.8 mol%. The major fatty acids (>10 %) were iso-C15:0 and C16:1 ?5c. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was determined to be MK-7. Polar lipid profile of S354(T) consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown polar lipid, and unknown glycolipids. Based on the phenotypic, phylogenetic, biochemical, and physiological tests conducted in this study, S354(T) is proposed to represent a type strain of a novel genus and species. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of S354(T) is registered in GenBank under the accession number JQ639084. The type of strain Algivirga pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov. is S354(T) (=KCCM 90107(T)=JCM 18326(T)). PMID:23907492

Kim, Jennifer Jooyoun; Kim, Ji Hyung; Kwon, Young-Kyung; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Yang, Sung-Hyun; Jang, Jiyi; Heo, Soo-Jin; Park, Heung-Sik; Jung, Won-Kyo; Lee, Youngdeuk; Kang, Do-Hyung; Oh, Chulhong



Nile Blue derivatives as lysosomotropic photosensitizers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The benzophenoxazines, including several Nile blue analogues, are a unique group of dyes that localize selectively in animal tumors. Chemical modifications of Nile blue A can yield derivatives with high 1O2 quantum yields. These derivatives represent a group of potentially effective photosensitizers for selective phototherapy of malignant tumors. In vitro evaluation of these derivatives has indicated that those with high 1O2 yields are very effective in mediating the photocytotoxicity of tumor cells. This photodynamic effect is most likely mediated through the action of 1O2, since photoirradiation under D2O enhanced and under hypoxic conditions diminished the photocytotoxic action. The subcellular localization of these photosensitizers in bladder tumor cells in culture was examined by light and fluorescence microscopies as well as by histochemical and biochemical studies. The results indicate that these dyes are localized primarily in the lysosome. The cellular uptake and retention of these dyes is energy- and pH-dependent. Agents such as nigericin, which alter the transmembrane pH gradient, reduced uptake and enhanced efflux of the dyes, while agents such as valinomycin, which reduce cellular membrane potential, had no effect on the uptake. These findings are consistent with having ion-trapping as the mechanism for the uptake of these dyes. Photoirradiation of sensitizer-treated cells obliterated lysosomes in a light-dose and drug-dose dependent fashion. Release of the hydrolytic enzymes may be the main cause for subsequent cell death since the cytolytic effect was reduced by a specific inhibitor of lysosomal proteolytic enzyme. A lysosomotropic photosensitization mechanism is therefore proposed for the photocytotoxic action of the Nile blue derivatives. This mechanism may provide an approach to the development of new photosensitizers for the effective and selective destruction of malignant tumors.

Lin, Chi-Wei; Shulok, Janine R.; Kirley, S. D.; Cincotta, Louis; Foley, James W.



Structural forces in liquid crystalline blue phases.  


We show numerically that the interaction potential or force mediated by a liquid crystalline blue phase (BP) between two parallel plates exhibits oscillatory behavior with variation of the interplate distance, when the parallel plates impose strong normal anchoring. Its periodicity is approximately half of the unit-cell dimension of the bulk BP. The interaction arises from the deformation of the confined BP structure around the midplane of the system. The oscillatory interaction can be regarded as a clear manifestation of the BP ordering, because the cholesteric helical alignment adopted by a chiral liquid crystal cannot yield an oscillatory interaction. PMID:22181080

Fukuda, Jun-ichi; Zumer, Slobodan



Trypan blue dye for anterior segment surgeries  

PubMed Central

Use of vital dyes in ophthalmic surgery has gained increased importance in the past few years. Trypan blue (TB) has been a popular choice among anterior segment surgeons mainly due to its safety, ease of availability, and remarkable ability to enable an easy surgery in difficult situations mostly related to visibility of the targeted tissue. It is being used in cataract surgery since nearly a decade and its utilization has been extended to other anterior segment surgeries like trabeculectomy and corneal transplantation. This review will discuss the techniques and outcome of TB dye-assisted anterior segment surgeries.

Jhanji, V; Chan, E; Das, S; Zhang, H; Vajpayee, R B



Blue Straggler Stars in Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With our homogeneous photometric data of 8 dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs, -9.5 < MV < -4.9) obtained by Subaru / Suprime-Cam, we have confirmed the anti-correlation between FBSS and MV found by Momany et al. (2007). We have also derived luminosity functions and radial distributions of blue straggler stars (BSSs) of three classical dSphs, Draco, Ursa Minor (UMi) and Sextans. The results suggest that BSSs in these dSphs were mainly formed from mass transfer in primordial binaries.

Zhao, Z.; Okamoto, S.; Arimoto, N.; Aoki, W.; Kodama, T.



Pathological infatuation or the Blue Angel syndrome.  


The term masochism has undergone an evaluation since first being introduced solely in relation to sexual perversion by Kraft Ebing in 1906. Masochism can be defined as any behavior that is repetitively self destructive. Relationships in which partners sacrifice themselves and their own best interests can be considered masochistic. There is a difference between a normal pattern of falling in love and a masochistic pattern. The concept of pathological infatuation or what this author has termed the Blue Angel syndrome is presented. A case history with clinical examples is examined to further illustrate these concepts. PMID:1417079

Bruno, C A



Periumbilical allergic contact dermatitis: blue jeans or belt buckles?  


Nickel is the most ubiquitous contact allergen among children and adolescents. Metal blue jeans buttons and belts have been noted to cause nickel dermatitis around the umbilicus. For these children, traditional teaching is strict avoidance of all pants with metal snaps/buttons, particularly blue jeans. In this study we tested 90 pairs of blue jeans and 47 belts for nickel using the dimethylglyoxime spot test. Only 10% of blue jeans tested positive, while 53% of belts tested positive. Furthermore, 10 pairs of nickel-negative blue jeans remained negative after 10 washings. Overall we found no resistance to testing in clothing stores. From these results, we recommend that patients with allergic contact dermatitis secondary to nickel need not strictly avoid blue jeans and metal belt buckles. Rather, families should be encouraged to use the dimethylglyoxime spot test to test these items for nickel prior to purchase. PMID:15165199

Byer, Tara T; Morrell, Dean S


Spain's Leather Industry: Prospects for Blue Chrome (Wet-Blue) Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rapid expansion of the Spanish leather-goods industry has created a serious problem of pollution from tannery effluents. The use of chrome (wet-blue) leather in Spanish tanneries would reduce the pollution caused by cleaning and dehairing of conventional ...

A. D. V. Pintos H. H. Taylor



Development of Host Crystals for Ce(+3) Blue and Blue-Green Solid-State Lasers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Blue-green lasers operating at equivalent 480 nm, a region of sea water transparency, could become an integral part of undersea and air-to-sea communication and imaging systems. During Phase I of this program, wide band gap oxides were examined which coul...

R. D. Rauh A. N. Scoville



Studies with deoxyribonucleic acid from blue-green algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total DNA in species of blue-green algae is similar to that of bacteria on an individual cell, but not on a dry weight, basis. The % G+C content of DNA from four species of blue-green algae has been determined by melting temperature measurement. An attempt tomeasure genetic homology between blue-green algae and certain bacterial species is described.

I. W. Craig; C. K. Leach; N. G. Carr



Victoria blue B — a nuclear stain for cytology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the staining characteristics of Victoria Blue B in alcohol solutions. Cytological specimens (liver and spleen tissue imprints, blood smears) were stained with methanol solutions of commercially available Victoria Blue B-Cl and with pure Victoria Blue B-BF4. The dye concentration, staining time, and protone concentration of the dye solution were varied. The dye

E. Schulte; D. Wittekind; V. Kretschmer



Crystal habit of liquid-crystal blue phase I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-facetted monocrystals of blue phase I are grown and observed in coexistence with the isotropic liquid. Observations of this three-dimensional polyhedral habit, combined with a conjecture that facets perpendicular to screw axes are absent, are compatible with the I(4132) space group for blue phase I. The (200) planes Bragg reflect approximately the same wavelength as the cholesteric spiral indicating that the blue phase I lattice constant is the cholesteric pitch even very close to the isotropic phase.

Barbet-Massin, R.; Cladis, P. E.; Pieranski, P.



The blue anthocyanin pigments from the blue flowers of Heliophila coronopifolia L. (Brassicaceae).  


Six acylated delphinidin glycosides (pigments 1-6) and one acylated kaempferol glycoside (pigment 9) were isolated from the blue flowers of cape stock (Heliophila coronopifolia) in Brassicaceae along with two known acylated cyanidin glycosides (pigments 7 and 8). Pigments 1-8, based on 3-sambubioside-5-glucosides of delphinidin and cyanidin, were acylated with hydroxycinnamic acids at 3-glycosyl residues of anthocyanidins. Using spectroscopic and chemical methods, the structures of pigments 1, 2, 5, and 6 were determined to be: delphinidin 3-O-[2-O-(?-xylopyranosyl)-6-O-(acyl)-?-glucopyranoside]-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-?-glucopyranoside], in which acyl moieties were, respectively, cis-p-coumaric acid for pigment 1, trans-caffeic acid for pigment 2, trans-p-coumaric acid for pigment 5 (a main pigment) and trans-ferulic acid for pigment 6, respectively. Moreover, the structure of pigments 3 and 4 were elucidated, respectively, as a demalonyl pigment 5 and a demalonyl pigment 6. Two known anthocyanins (pigments 7 and 8) were identified to be cyanidin 3-(6-p-coumaroyl-sambubioside)-5-(6-malonyl-glucoside) for pigment 7 and cyanidin 3-(6-feruloyl-sambubioside)-5-(6-malonyl-glucoside) for pigment 8 as minor anthocyanin pigments. A flavonol pigment (pigment 9) was isolated from its flowers and determined to be kaempferol 3-O-[6-O-(trans-feruloyl)-?-glucopyranoside]-7-O-cellobioside-4'-O-glucopyranoside as the main flavonol pigment. On the visible absorption spectral curve of the fresh blue petals of this plant and its petal pressed juice in the pH 5.0 buffer solution, three characteristic absorption maxima were observed at 546, 583 and 635 nm. However, the absorption curve of pigment 5 (a main anthocyanin in its flower) exhibited only one maximum at 569 nm in the pH 5.0 buffer solution, and violet color. The color of pigment 5 was observed to be very unstable in the pH 5.0 solution and soon decayed. In the pH 5.0 solution, the violet color of pigment 5 was restored as pure blue color by addition of pigment 9 (a main flavonol in this flower) like its fresh flower, and its blue solution exhibited the same three maxima at 546, 583 and 635 nm. On the other hand, the violet color of pigment 5 in the pH 5.0 buffer solution was not restored as pure blue color by addition of deacyl pigment 9 or rutin (a typical flower copigment). It is particularly interesting that, a blue anthocyanin-flavonol complex was extracted from the blue flowers of this plant with H(2)O or 5% HOAc solution as a dark blue powder. This complex exhibited the same absorption maxima at 546, 583 and 635 nm in the pH 5.0 buffer solution. Analysis of FAB mass measurement established that this blue anthocyanin-flavonol complex was composed of one molecule each of pigment 5 and pigment 9, exhibiting a molecular ion [M+1] (+) at 2102 m/z (C(93)H(105)O(55) calc. 2101.542). However, this blue complex is extremely unstable in acid solution. It really dissociates into pigment 5 and pigment 9. PMID:21903230

Saito, Norio; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Toki, Kenjiro; Shinoda, Koichi; Shigihara, Atsushi; Honda, Toshio



Toluidine blue: A review of its chemistry and clinical utility  

PubMed Central

Toluidine blue is a basic thiazine metachromatic dye with high affinity for acidic tissue components, thereby staining tissues rich in DNA and RNA. It has found wide applications both as vital staining in living tissues and as a special stain owing to its metachromatic property. Toluidine blue has been used in vivo to identify dysplasia and carcinoma of the oral cavity. Use of toluidine blue in tissue sections is done with the aim to highlight components, such as mast cells granules, mucins, and cartilage. This article provides an overview on chemistry, technique, and the various applications of toluidine blue.

Sridharan, Gokul; Shankar, Akhil A



Progress towards a ``blue'' potassium MOT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One difficulty when preparing quantum degenerate gases of potassium 40 is the low efficiency of sub-Doppler cooling. In this talk, we discuss how we are attempting to circumvent this problem by implementing a ``blue'' MOT for ^40K on the non-cycling 4S1/2->5P3/2 transition, which has a wavelength of 404.53nm and a decay rate of 1.17MHz. The Doppler temperature should be 27?K, which is a factor of five improvement over the D2 transition at 767nm. This lower temperature would also facilitate in-situ imaging of atoms in optical lattices. The laser setup consists of a cooled diode injection locked to an external cavity diode laser. The master laser is in turn locked to ^39K saturation spectroscopy in a heated vapor cell. The proximity of this 4S-5P transition to the wavelength used in ``Blu-ray'' technology provides a relatively inexpensive source of laser diodes with powers up to 150mW. A dual MOT will be implemented using dichroic mirrors and waveplates for loading and capture with 767nm, followed by a switch to a ``blue'' MOT for late-stage cooling before loading into a magnetic trap. We will also present results on the spectroscopy of the ^40K 5P3/2 hyperfine levels using our setup.

McKay, David; Fine, Dan; Jervis, Dylan; Edge, Graham; Thywissen, Joseph



Pulsations and outbursts of luminous blue variables  

SciTech Connect

We propose an outburst mechanism for the most luminous stars in our and other galaxies. These million solar luminosity stars, with masses (after earlier mass loss) of between 20 and maybe 70 solar masses, are pulsationally unstable for both radial and low-degree nonradial modes. Some of these modes are ``strange,`` meaning mostly that the pulsations are concentrated near the stellar surface and have very rapid growth rates in linear theory. The pulsation driving is by both the high iron line opacity (near 150,000 K) and the helium opacity (near 30,000 K) kappa effects. Periods range from 5 to 40 days. Depending on the composition, pulsations periodically produce luminosities above the Eddington limit for deep layers. The radiative luminosity creates an outward push that readily eases the very low gamma envelope to very large outburst radii. A key point is that a super-Eddington luminosity cannot be taken up by the sluggish convection rapidly enough to prevent an outward acceleration of much of the envelope. As the helium abundance in the envelope stellar material increases by ordinary wind mass loss and the luminous blue variable outbursts, the opacity in the deep pulsation driving layers decreases. This makes the current Eddington luminosity even higher so that pulsations can then no longer give radiative luminosities exceeding the limit. For the lower mass and luminosity luminous blue variables there is considerably less iron line opacity driving, and pulsations are almost all caused by the helium ionization kappa effect.

Cox, A.N.; Guzik, J.A.; Soukup, M.S.; Despain, K.M.



Prussian blue analogues of reduced dimensionality.  


Mixed-valence polycyanides (Prussian Blue analogues) possess a rich palette of properties spanning from room-temperature ferromagnetism to zero thermal expansion, which can be tuned by chemical modifications or the application of external stimuli (temperature, pressure, light irradiation). While molecule-based materials can combine physical and chemical properties associated with molecular-scale building blocks, their successful integration into real devices depends primarily on higher-order properties such as crystal size, shape, morphology, and organization. Herein a study of a new reduced-dimensionality system based on Prussian Blue analogues (PBAs) is presented. The system is built up by means of a modified Langmuir-Blodgett technique, where the PBA is synthesized from precursors in a self-limited reaction on a clay mineral surface. The focus of this work is understanding the magnetic properties of the PBAs in different periodic, low-dimensional arrangements, and the influence of the "on surface" synthesis on the final properties and dimensionality of the system. PMID:22761043

Gengler, Régis Y N; Toma, Luminita M; Pardo, Emilio; Lloret, Francesc; Ke, Xiaoxing; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra



Raphael Meldola, his blue and his times.  


Raphael Meldola (1849-1915), English industrial and academic chemist, spectroscopist, naturalist, educator and lobbyist for science, is today almost a forgotten scientist whose life is celebrated only with a medal awarded by the Royal Society of Chemistry that honors achievement by younger chemists. In the 1870-80s, however, he invented a number of important synthetic dyestuffs including the cotton dyes isamine blue and Meldola's blue, and also naphthol green B, all of which have had application in biology and medicine. I describe here the early emergence of the synthetic dye industry, the first science-based industry, Meldola's role in its development, and his own inventions. Meldola's wide ranging achievements in science led to appointments as president of important professional scientific and manufacturers' societies. He was a fervent disciple of natural selection, a correspondent of Charles Darwin, and a prominent 19(th)-century neo-Darwinian. In 1886, drawing on analogies with evolutionary theory, he warned the British that neglect of science, particularly chemistry, would lead to industrial decline and even extinction, though his message generally was ignored, at least until 1914. PMID:22148999

Travis, A S



Spectroscopy and Interferometry of Luminous Blue Variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the preliminary results of a three-year monitoring campaign of Galactic and Magellanic luminous blue variables with both moderate and high resolution spectroscopy. We have collected more than 500 moderate-resolution spectra of 20 stars in the red portion of the optical spectrum, which includes the wind-sensitive transitions of H? and He I at 5876 and 6678 Å. We summarize our detailed study of 15 years of high resolution H? spectroscopy of the prototypical luminous blue variable, P Cygni. We report on the discovery of discrete absorption components in P Cygni's H? profile, and we discuss their relationship to structure in the wind. These results are compared to our recent high resolution interferometric imaging of the H-band emitting region surrounding the star. We discuss recent observations of ? Car, highlighting its unusual recovery from the previous periastron passage. Our results on HDE 326823 indicate that the star has a short period binary orbit, with Roche lobe overflow onto an unseen massive companion.

Richardson, N. D.; Gies, D. R.; Morrison, N. D.; Schaefer, G.; ten Brummelaar, T.; Monnier, J. D.; Parks, J. R.



Performance of three chromogenic VRE screening agars, two Etest(®) vancomycin protocols, and different microdilution methods in detecting vanB genotype Enterococcus faecium with varying vancomycin MICs.  


Frequencies of vanB-type Enterococcus faecium increased in Europe during the last years. VanB enterococci show various levels of vancomycin MICs even below the susceptible breakpoint challenging a reliable diagnostics. The performance of 3 chromogenic vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) screening agars, 2 Etest® vancomycin protocols, and different microdilution methods to detect 129 clinical vanB E. faecium strains was investigated. Altogether, 112 (87%) were correctly identified as VanB-type Enterococcus by microdilution MICs. An Etest® macromethod protocol was more sensitive than the standard protocol while keeping sufficient specificity in identifying 15 vanA/vanB-negative strains. Three chromogenic VRE agars performed similarly with 121 (94%), 123 (95%), and 124 (96%) vanB isolates that grew on Brilliance™ VRE Agar, CHROMagar™ VRE, and chromID™ VRE agar, respectively. Using identical media and conditions, we did not identify different growth behaviour on agar and in broth. A few vanB strains showed growth of microcolonies inside the Etest® vancomycin inhibition zones, suggesting a VanB heteroresistance phenotype. PMID:22901792

Klare, Ingo; Fleige, Carola; Geringer, Uta; Witte, Wolfgang; Werner, Guido



Microwave assisted synthesis of polyacrylamide grafted agar (Ag-g-PAM) and its application as flocculant for wastewater treatment.  


Grafting of polyacrylamide (PAM) chains was performed onto the backbone of Agar by microwave assisted method, using microwave radiation in synergism with ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as the chemical free radical initiator. The intended grafting of the PAM chains were confirmed through intrinsic viscosity study, FTIR spectroscopy and elemental analysis (C, H, N, O & S). Further characterization of the grafted product was done in form of SEM morphology and TGA study. Flocculation efficacy of the synthesized graft copolymers was studied in kaolin suspension, through 'Jar test' procedure. Further, flocculation efficacy of the 'best grade' (as determined by 'jar test' in kaolin suspension) in wastewater was studied for possible application in reduction of pollutant load of wastewater. PMID:21704652

Mishra, Sumit; Sen, Gautam; Rani, G Usha; Sinha, Sweta



An Unclassified Gram-Negative Rod Isolated From the Pharynx on Thayer-Martin Medium (Selective Agar)  

PubMed Central

An oxidase-positive, small gram-negative rod was isolated on Thayer-Martin medium (TM) inoculated with pharyngeal swabs obtained during surveys to detect Neisseria carriers. In one survey, this organism was isolated from 48% of the subjects, and 50 or more colonies were present on the majority of the primary isolation plates. Other characteristics of the organism, which has been given the provisional designation „TM-1,” include: delayed production (2 to 10 days) of acid from glucose, formation of gas during nitrate reduction, and the frequent formation of „pits” in the agar surface. On TM, nonpitting colonies of TM-1 are morphologically similar to colonies of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and N. lactamica. Comparison of the characteristics of TM-1 strains with other similar fastidious gram-negative organisms encountered in clinical laboratories indicates that TM-1 is a distinct species. Further studies are required before proper taxonomic placement can be made. Images

Hollis, Dannie G.; Wiggins, Geraldine L.; Weaver, Robert E.



Time- and media-saving testing and identification of microorganisms by multipoint inoculation on undivided agar plates.  

PubMed Central

Motility and various biochemical activities of isolates of bacteria and yeasts were tested on undivided agar plates by using a simple, manually operated multipoint inoculation apparatus that allowed the analysis of 25 isolates per 9-cm-diameter petri plate. Fermentation of all 17 carbohydrates tested as well as 13 other biochemical activities commonly used for identification of bacteria were readily demonstrated by the multipoint inoculation plate method, and the results agreed very well with those of conventional tube tests. In addition to speedy inoculation and low cost of materials, the multipoint inoculation plate method offers several other advantages when compared with conventional tube tests or with some of the manufactured test kits currently available for recognizing members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Images

Burman, L G; Ostensson, R



Expression analysis of rare cellular subsets: direct RT-PCR on limited cell numbers obtained by FACS or soft agar assays.  


Since tissues and tumors are heterogenous populations containing different cell types, their transcriptomes are blends of multiple mRNA expression profiles. Although fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) allows isolation of individual cell types, RNA isolation and quantification remain problematic from rare subsets, such as tissue stem cells. Likewise, identification of transcriptional changes relevant to the tumorigenic potential of mammalian cells while they are actively growing as colonies in soft agar is also hampered by limited amounts of starting material. Here we describe a convenient method that fills the gap between single cell and whole tissue mRNA analysis, enabling mRNA quantification for individual colonies picked from soft agar. Our method involves direct lysis, reverse transcription and quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) on 500 sorted cells or a single soft agar colony, thus allowing evaluation of up to 20 transcripts in functionally distinct subpopulations without the need for RNA isolation or amplification. PMID:23581467

Ho, Victor; Yeo, Shi Yun; Kunasegaran, Kamini; De Silva, Duvini; Tarulli, Gerard A; Voorhoeve, P Mathijs; Pietersen, Alexandra M



Clinical evaluation of Oxoid Brilliance MRSA Agar in comparison with bioMerieux MRSA ID medium for detection of livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  


Oxoid Brilliance MRSA Agar and bioMérieux MRSA ID medium were evaluated for their ability to identify meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in clinical samples. Nasal and throat samples (n?=?629) were taken from veterinarians and their household members. The sensitivities of Brilliance MRSA Agar and MRSA ID medium after 20 h of incubation were 63.6 and 64.5?%, and the specificities were 94.1 and 99.4?%, respectively. After an enrichment step, the sensitivities increased to 96.3 and 97.2?%, but the specificities decreased to 88.7 and 98.5?%, respectively. Brilliance MRSA Agar and MRSA ID medium are both sensitive methods for the screening of MRSA in combination with broth enrichment, but positive results require confirmation. PMID:21415201

Verkade, Erwin; Ferket, Marianne; Kluytmans, Jan



Staining of water trees with methylene blue explained  

Microsoft Academic Search

Staining with a methylene blue solution, a popular technique for achieving the required high contrast images of water trees, was carried out at 70°C. It is shown that methylene blue stains the complete tree, which justifies water tree length measurements after staining. The water tree is not stained exclusively, but rather faster and probably to a higher degree than the

R. Ross; J. J. Smit; P. Aukema



Monitoring time and temperature by methylene blue containing polyacrylate film  

Microsoft Academic Search

The redox characteristic of methylene blue in polyacrylate film has been investigated for applications in monitoring time and temperature. This monitoring capability is based on a color change from colorless to blue under exposure to air. The oxidation process is controlled by the air diffusion which is affected by the chemical structure of the polyacrylate. The activation energy of diffusion,

Yulia Galagan; Sheng-Hao Hsu; Wei-Fang Su



Revisiting Maya Blue and Designing Hybrid Pigments by Archaeomimetism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maya Blue is actually one of the best known examples of an organic-inorganic hybrid material. Yet despite 50 years of sustained interest, its microscopic structure and its relation to durability remain open questions. We address the issue by archaeomimetism: engineering an archaeoinspired pigment, satisfactorily reproducing the colour and chemical stability of Maya Blue. By comparing and contrasting ancient pigment and

Catherine Dejoie; Eric Dooryhee; Pauline Martinetto; Sylvie Blanc; Patrice Bordat; Ross Brown; Florence Porcher; Manolo Sanchez Del Rio; Pierre Strobel; Michel Anne; Elsa Van Eslande; Philippe Walter



New ionomer membranes for blue energy - making water trees useful  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue energy is the energy gained from the difference between fresh and salt water. As this type of power generation does not consume fossil fuel, it belongs to the green energy sources, i.e., a type of sustainable energy. There are two methods of blue power generation: osmosis and reverse electro-dialysis. Both types require membranes. The paper explains the background of

R. Ross; J. Krijgsman



Model of UV Flashes Due to Gigantic Blue Jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon termed Gigantic Blue Jet (GBJ) was discovered by Pasko et al. [1] when observing a thunderstorm over the Atlantic Ocean. A number of GBJ's was observed since from the ground and from space by the ISUAL optical detector flying on the board of the FORMOSA-2 satellite. Alike blue jets the GBJ's have a pencil-like shape however a trunk

M. Shneider; G. Milikh




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There have been three types of "blue" trout described in the scientific literature, one from Japan, one from the US and one from France. The version described from Japan is apparently sterile. This is a "cobalt" blue colored rainbow trout with a pituitary defect first described in 1974 from a hatche...

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