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1

The isolation, characterization and antifungal susceptibilities of Cryptococcus neoformans from bird excreta in Klang Valley, Malaysia.  

PubMed

The occurrence of Cryptococcus neoformans in bird excreta in Klang valley, Malaysia was determined in this study. Of 544 samples of bird excreta collected from a local zoo, pet shops and public areas, 20 strains of C. neoformans were isolated. All C. neoformans strains were serotype A and thus identified as C. neoformans variety grubii. All did not produce color changes on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue agar. All were of alpha-mating types, as determined by a pheromone-specific PCR assay. The antifungal susceptibility testing using agar diffusion method Neo-sensitabs showed that all were susceptible to amphotericin B, fluconazole and itraconazole. PMID:15983736

Tay, S T; Chai, H C; Na, S L; Hamimah, H; Rohani, M Y; Soo-Hoo, T S

2005-06-01

2

Evidence of canary droppings as an important reservoir of Cryptococcus neoformans.  

PubMed

After preliminary results had shown the occurrence of Cryptococcus neoformans in canary droppings in southern Italy, the increasing epidemiological interest in cryptococcosis and the habitats of the agent led to more extensive studies. 180 samples of canary droppings were collected from pet shops and private households in two towns (Messina and Reggio Calabria) of southern Italy and culturally examined for C. neoformans. The examination was carried out with the help of the brown colour effect (BCE) specific of the C. neoformans colony on Guizotia abyssinica creatinine agar (Staib agar). 48 samples (26.6%) were positive; of these, 32/108 (29.6%) were from pet shops and 16/72 (22.2%) from private households. The colony growth was not mucous, i.e. microscopically the blastospores were found to be little or not encapsulated. All C. neoformans strains tested by the auxanographic method showed a weak assimilation of creatinine. The variety status of the isolates was tested with canavanine-glycine-bromothymol-blue (CGB) agar; all strains tested (n = 420) were found to be C. neoformans var. neoformans. In the light of extensive studies on C. neoformans and the canary in the pre-AIDS era in Germany, the present observations in Italy ask for further basic research, epidemiological studies, and education of the public. PMID:7549156

Criseo, G; Bolignano, M S; De Leo, F; Staib, F

1995-04-01

3

ACINETOBACTER SPP.: DISTINCT MORPHOLOGY ON EOSIN METHYLENE BLUE AGAR AS AN AID TO IDENTIFICATION IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

'Acinetobacter calcoaceticus', frequently found in drinking waters and implicated in nosocomial infections, was presumptively identified by its tiny, blue colonial appearance on Levine eosin methylene blue agar. All of the 33 isolates from drinking water showing this distinctive ...

4

FIRST REPORT ON Cryptococcus neoformans IN PIGEON EXCRETA FROM PUBLIC AND RESIDENTIAL LOCATIONS IN THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF CUIABÁ, STATE OF MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Cryptococcosis is a severe systemic mycosis caused by two species of Cryptococcus that affect humans and animals: C. neoformans and C. gattii. Cosmopolitan and emergent, the mycosis results from the interaction between a susceptible host and the environment. The occurrence of C. neoformans was evaluated in 122 samples of dried pigeon excreta collected in 49 locations in the City of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, including public squares (n = 5), churches (n = 4), educational institutions (n = 3), health units (n = 8), open areas covered with asbestos (n = 4), residences (n = 23), factory (n = 1) and a prison (n = 1). Samples collected from July to December of 2010 were seeded on Niger seed agar (NSA). Dark brown colonies were identified by urease test, carbon source assimilation tests and canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium. Polymerase chain reaction primer pairs specific for C. neoformans were also used for identification. Cryptococcus neoformans associated to pigeon excreta was isolated from eight (6.6%) samples corresponding to six (12.2%) locations. Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from urban areas, predominantly in residences, constituting a risk of acquiring the disease by immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. PMID:24213188

Takahara, Doracilde Terumi; Lazéra, Márcia dos Santos; Wanke, Bodo; Trilles, Luciana; Dutra, Valéria; de Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus; Nakazato, Luciano; Anzai, Mariana Caselli; Leite, Diniz Pereira; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues; Hahn, Rosane Christine

2013-01-01

5

First report on Cryptococcus neoformans in pigeon excreta from public and residential locations in the metropolitan area of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil.  

PubMed

Cryptococcosis is a severe systemic mycosis caused by two species of Cryptococcus that affect humans and animals: C. neoformans and C. gattii. Cosmopolitan and emergent, the mycosis results from the interaction between a susceptible host and the environment. The occurrence of C. neoformans was evaluated in 122 samples of dried pigeon excreta collected in 49 locations in the City of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, including public squares (n = 5), churches (n = 4), educational institutions (n = 3), health units (n = 8), open areas covered with asbestos (n = 4), residences (n = 23), factory (n = 1) and a prison (n = 1). Samples collected from July to December of 2010 were seeded on Niger seed agar (NSA). Dark brown colonies were identified by urease test, carbon source assimilation tests and canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium. Polymerase chain reaction primer pairs specific for C. neoformans were also used for identification. Cryptococcus neoformans associated to pigeon excreta was isolated from eight (6.6%) samples corresponding to six (12.2%) locations. Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from urban areas, predominantly in residences, constituting a risk of acquiring the disease by immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. PMID:24213188

Takahara, Doracilde Terumi; Lazéra, Márcia dos Santos; Wanke, Bodo; Trilles, Luciana; Dutra, Valéria; Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus de; Nakazato, Luciano; Anzai, Mariana Caselli; Leite Júnior, Diniz Pereira; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues; Hahn, Rosane Christine

2013-01-01

6

Diffusion of Methylene Blue in Phantoms of Agar Using a Photoacoustic Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the kinetics of diffusion of methylene blue in agar aqueous solution is studied using a photoacoustic technique. Two agar phantoms solutions in water with a relation of mass/volume of 0.01% and 0.05% were analyzed. The study was performed using a modified Rosencwaig photoacoustic cell that is enclosed by transparent windows, on both sides. The sample is deposited directly on top of the upper window. A red light beam, at a fixed modulation frequency, is sent through the lower window illuminating the sample and inducing the photoacoustic effect inside the closed chamber of the cell. At the beginning of the experiment, a droplet of 100?L of agar solution is deposited; afterwards, the signal stabilizes, and 10?L of methylene blue aqueous solution (0.0125 g · mL-1) is added to the surface of the agar. During the first seconds of the experiment, the photoacoustic signal amplitude increases followed by a gradual and long decay. Results for modulation frequencies in the range from 10Hz to 80Hz for both agar concentrations are presented. A simple theoretical approach is presented to analyze the experimental data. It is demonstrated that the kinetics of the process can be parameterized as a function of the changes of an effective optical absorption coefficient. From these results, the characteristic time, in which the dye diffusion process stabilizes, is obtained. It is found that this time is larger for samples with a higher agar concentration. These differences provide important results for biomedical sciences in which agar gels are used as phantoms resembling some of the properties of living organs and tissues.

Vilca-Quispe, L.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Quintana, P.; Ordonez-Miranda, J.

2010-05-01

7

Selective isolation of Neisseria sicca from the human oral cavity on eosin methylene blue agar.  

PubMed

Strains of Neisseria sicca and N. mucosa, but not N. perflava, N. subflava, N. flava, or N. flavescens were found to grow on eosin methylene blue agar. The distribution of N. sicca on the tongue dorsum, the gingival crevice area, and the coronal surfaces of teeth of humans was determined using this medium. N. sicca averaged about 5% of the total cultivable organisms of the tongues of 14 subjects examined, but it was present in only trace quantities in dental plaque on the coronal surfaces of teeth or in the gingival crevice area. PMID:773308

Querido, N B; De Araujo, W C

1976-04-01

8

Human Immunodefeciency Virus Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis at a Tertiary Care Centre: Diagnostic Tools and Antifungal Susceptibility Testing  

PubMed Central

Context: Cryptococcal meningitis has emerged as a leading cause of the infectious morbidity and mortality in HIV sero-reactive subjects and it is the second most common cause of the opportunistic neuroinfections in it. As this is a indistinguishable from other causes of meningitis, its early diagnosis is the key to the therapeutic success. Objectives: This study was undertaken to know the incidence of Cryptococcal meningitis in HIV sero–reactive individuals and to assess the role of the microbiological parameters in its specific diagnosis, with a perspective of evaluating the anti–fungal resistance. Material and Methods: A total of 66 CSF samples from suspected cases of meningoencephalitis were subjected to standard microbiological procedures. The Cryptococcal isolates were identified by microscopy, the cultural characteristics, melanin production on Niger Seed agar, urea hydrolysis, the Nitrate assimilation test and by capsular antigen detection by latex agglutination. The Cryptoccal isolates were further biotyped by using Canavanine–Glycine–Bromothymol blue agar. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of Amphotericin B and Fluconazole for the isolates were detected. Results: The incidence of Cryptococcal meningitis in our study group was 18.2% (12/66). The Cryptococcal antigen was detected in all the 12 cases, whereas microscopy was positive only in 9 cases and Cryptococcus was isolated by culture in 10 cases. All the isolates were sensitive to Amphotericin B and 90% of the isolates were sensitive to Fluconazole. The CD4counts ranged between 22-138 cells /?l. Conclusion: A high incidence of Cryptococcal meningitis in HIV sero-reactive subjects necessitates the importance of a precise and an early microbiological diagnosis for better management of such subjects. Due to the growing concern of emerging drug resistance, the testing for the anti–fungal susceptibility has to be encouraged in all the cases. PMID:24086857

Munivenkataswamy, Rashmi; Gopi, Anjana; Usman, Shaik Mohammed; Jagadeesh

2013-01-01

9

Cryptococcus spp isolated from dust microhabitat in Brazilian libraries  

PubMed Central

Background The Cryptococcus spp is currently composed of encapsulated yeasts of cosmopolitan distribution, including the etiological agents of cryptococcosis. The fungus are found mainly in substrates of animal and plant origin. Human infection occurs through inhalation of spores present in the environment. Methods Eighty-four swab collections were performed on dust found on books in three libraries in the city of Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The material was seeded in Sabouraud agar and then observed for characteristics compatible with colonies with a creamy to mucous aspect; the material was then isolated in birdseed (Niger) agar and cultivated at a temperature of 37°C for 5 to 7?days. Identification of isolated colonies was performed by microscopic observation in fresh preparations dyed with India ink, additional tests performed on CGB (L-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue), urea broth, and carbohydrate assimilation tests (auxanogram). Results Of the 84 samples collected from book dust, 18 (21.4%) were positive for Cryptococcus spp totalizing 41 UFC’s. The most frequently isolated species was C. gattii 15 (36.6%); followed by C. terreus, 12 (29.3%); C. luteolus 4 (9.8%); C. neoformans, and C. uniguttulatus 3 (7.3%), and C. albidus and C. humiculus with 2 (4.6%) of the isolates. Conclusion The high biodiversity of the yeasts of the Cryptococcus genus, isolated from different environmental sources in urban areas of Brazil suggests the possibility of individuals whose immune systems have been compromised or even healthy individuals coming into sources of fungal propagules on a daily bases throughout their lives. This study demonstrates the acquisition possible of cryptococcosis infection from dust in libraries. PMID:22682392

2012-01-01

10

Genotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from captive birds in Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil.  

PubMed

To evaluate Cryptococcus spp. molecular types isolated from captive birds' droppings, an epidemiological survey was carried out in Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil, from December 2006 to September 2008. A total of 253 samples of bird excreta (120 fresh and 133 dry) were collected from pet shop cages and houses in different neighbourhoods. Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated in 19 (14.28%) dry samples and one fresh sample (0.84%). Cryptococcus laurentii was recovered from seven (5.26%) dry samples, but not in the fresh samples. The canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue test was positive in all but one of the C. laurentii isolates. Cryptococcus neoformans molecular typing was performed using URA5-RFLP and the mating type locus using mating type specific PCR. Nineteen (95.0%) presented genotype VNI and one VNII (5.0%). In addition, all isolates presented mating type ?. Thus, the genotype of the environmental C. neoformans isolates observed in this study is in accordance with others already reported around the world and adds information about its distribution in Brazil. Cryptococcus laurentii strains were typed using URA5-RFLP and M13 fingerprinting, which showed similar profiles among them. Thus, despite the low number of C. laurentii isolates analysed, their molecular profile is different from another already reported. PMID:20492533

Ferreira-Paim, Kennio; Andrade-Silva, Leonardo; Mora, Delio Jose; Pedrosa, André Luiz; Rodrigues, Virmondes; Silva-Vergara, Mario León

2011-09-01

11

Hektoen Enteric Agar Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hektoen enteric agar is a selective and differential media for the recovery of enteric gram-negative rods from mixed microbiota.  The growth of gram-positive organisms and nonpathogenic enteric coliforms is inhibited through the use of bile salts and dyes, allowing intestinal pathogens, such as Salmonella and Shigella, to be more easily recovered.  The media can also differentiate between organisms that produce H2S and those that do not due to the presence of an iron-containing compound.  The use and interpretation of growth on this media is discussed in this protocol.

American Society For Microbiology

2010-11-11

12

Fastidious anaerobe agar compared with Wilkins-Chalgren agar, brain heart infusion agar, and brucella agar for susceptibility testing of Fusobacterium species.  

PubMed

Fastidious anaerobe agar supported the growth of 82 strains of fusobacteria better than brain heart infusion agar, brucella agar, and Wilkins-Chalgren agar. Fastidious anaerobe agar showed less hazing and fewer tailing endpoints with beta-lactam antibiotics. Whole-blood supplementation improved the performance of all media. Wilkins-Chalgren agar without blood failed to support the growth of 17% of the strains. All Fusobacterium ulcerans strains were resistant to clindamycin. PMID:2073122

Brazier, J S; Goldstein, E J; Citron, D M; Ostovari, M I

1990-11-01

13

An evaluation of the Gram stain and chocolate agar culture as part of a routine urine culture set-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 219 urine specimens were Gram stained and inoculated onto 5% sheep blood, eosin methylene blue and chocolate agars. Culture and smear results were evaluated to determine if the Gram stain and chocolate agar culture yielded further meaningful information. Additional information was gained in 42 (19%) of the specimens; however, most of the results were not considered significant.

D. E. Boyd; D. J. Flournoy; S. M. Hussain Qadri

1980-01-01

14

Some Experiments With Agar-Grown Seedlings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two percent agar gel is reported as a better medium for germination and growth studies. Students can be encouraged to undertake many simple experiments and make precise observations by using this medium. (PS)

Freeland, P. W.

1973-01-01

15

Antibiotic susceptibility testing (agar disk diffusion and agar dilution) of clinical isolates of Corynebacterium jeikeium.  

PubMed

Thirty-three clinical isolates of Corynebacterium jeikeium were examined for susceptibility to 27 antimicrobial drugs with the agar dilution test. Sheep-blood-supplemented Mueller-Hinton agar performed better than Wilkins-Chalgren agar. Disk susceptibility (Bauer-Kirby) tests were carried out in parallel with 24 of the chemotherapeutic agents. All isolates were susceptible to teicoplanin and vancomycin. All isolates resisted fosfomycin, mupirocin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The isolates varied in susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, fusidic acid, ofloxacin, and tetracycline; most were susceptible to rifampin. Surprisingly few discrepancies between agar dilution and disk diffusion tests were encountered when utilizing NCCLS interpretive criteria currently valid for enterococcal isolates. PMID:9681199

Traub, W H; Geipel, U; Leonhard, B; Bauer, D

1998-01-01

16

Light Blue - Dark Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem provides students the opportunity to explore fractions in a practical context as well as identify and explain patterns and justify their ideas. Solvers are shown a sequence of five squares shaded light blue and dark blue and are asked to find what fraction of the total area of each square is covered by light blue. They are also asked to work out what the next two squares would look like if they followed the pattern. The Teachers' Notes page offers rationale, suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, and ideas for extension and support.

17

Electro-osmosis in gel -Application to Agar-Agar Fabien Cherblanc, Jer^ome Boscus, Jean-Claude Benet  

E-print Network

Electro-osmosis in gel - Application to Agar-Agar Fabien Cherblanc, J´er^ome Boscus, Jean-Claude B-engineering as a reference material, Agar-Agar gel is the focus of an experimental investigation concerning the electro-osmosis from liquid phase transport phenomena that take place in porous media (osmosis, electro-osmosis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

18

Salt-starch xylose lysine deoxycholate agar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt dependent gram-negative bacilli responsible for gastroenteritis and tissue infections are often not recovered because proper media for isolation are not used. A salt-starch XLD agar with 1.5% NaCl and 0.5% starch medium has been found to permit the isolation of pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae, non-Enterobacteriaceae gram-negative bacilli, and salt-dependent gram-negative bacilli, among which isVibrio parahemolyticus. As far as the Enterobacteriaceae are

Fredy P. Roland

1977-01-01

19

21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ouchterlony agar plate for clinical use is a device containing an agar gel used to examine antigen-antibody reactions. In immunodiffusion, antibodies and antigens migrate toward each other through gel which originally contained neither of...

2010-04-01

20

Evaluation of growth characteristics on blood agar and eosin methylene blue agar for the identification of Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida albicans and Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata are the most common species of yeast encountered in the clinical laboratory. In this study, we sought to evaluate simple means of screening cultures for the presence or absence of C. glabrata. Twelve thousand five hundred (12,500) consecutive cultures were evaluated for sufficient yeast growth to warrant identification. When detected (369 isolates), the amount

Martha J. Bale; Carol Yang; Michael A. Pfaller

1997-01-01

21

Syneresis and delayed detachment in agar plates  

E-print Network

Biogels made of crosslinked polymers such as proteins or polysaccharides behave as porous soft solids and store large amount of solvent. These gels undergo spontaneous aging, called syneresis that consists in the shrinkage of the gel matrix and the progressive expulsion of the solvent. As a result, a biogel originally casted in a container often lose contact with the container sidewalls, and the detachment time is a priori difficult to anticipate since it may occur over variable time spans (from hours to days). Here we report on the syneresis phenomena in agar plates that consist in Petri dishes filled with a gel mainly composed of agar. Direct observations and speckle pattern correlation analysis allow us to rationalize the delayed detachment of the gel from the sidewall of the Petri dish. The detachment time $t^*$ is surprisingly not controlled by the mass loss as one would intuitively expect. Instead, $t^*$ is strongly correlated to the gel minimum thickness $e_{min}$ measured along the sidewall of the plate, and increases as a robust function of $e_{min}$ independently of the prior mass-loss history. Time-resolved correlation spectroscopy atypically applied to such weakly diffusive media gives access to the local thinning rate of the gel. This technique also allows us to detect the gel micro-displacements that are triggered by the water evaporation prior to the detachment, and even to anticipate the latter from a few hours. Our work provides observables to predict the detachment time of agar gels in dishes, and highlights the relevance of speckle pattern correlation analysis for the quantitative investigation of the syneresis dynamics in biopolymer gels.

Thibaut Divoux; Bosi Mao; Patrick Snabre

2015-02-20

22

Antimicrobial activity of seven root canal sealers. Results of agar diffusion and agar dilution tests.  

PubMed

A comparative study of the antimicrobial action of seven root canal sealers: Traitement Spad, Endométhasone, N2 Universal, Diaket-A, AH26 with silver, Tubli Seal, and Sealapex was done with 120 strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Two antimicrobial susceptibility tests were used: the agar dilution test and the agar diffusion test. The Diaket-A and Traitement Spad sealer cements showed the highest efficiency in the dilution test, whereas Diaket-A was in fourth place in the diffusion test, only better than the antimicrobial activity of the Tubli Seal and Sealapex sealers. PMID:1508532

Pumarola, J; Berastegui, E; Brau, E; Canalda, C; Jiménez de Anta, M T

1992-08-01

23

Breathing Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this demonstration of chemical change, the presenter blows breath into a methylene blue solution releasing carbon dioxide which acidifies the water and changes it from a bright blue color to green.

WOSU

2009-08-20

24

Blue Pork  

E-print Network

. Yes. Blue. Shanghai supermarket shoppers were surprised when the pork they brought home recently glowed a faint blue under dim light. An investigation determined that the blue pork wasn't from alien pigs or a genetic modification gone terribly wrong...

Hacker, Randi; Boyd, David

2011-05-29

25

Screening fungicides for use in fish culture: Evaluation of the agar plug transfer, cellophane transfer, and agar dilution methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The reliability, reproducibility, and usefulness of three screening methods -- the cellophane transfer, the agar plug transfer, and the agar dilution -- to screen aquatic fungicides were evaluated. Achlya flagellata and Saprolegnia hypogyna were exposed to 1, 10, and 100 mg/L of malachite green to test each method. The cellophane transfer and agar plug transfer techniques had similar reliability and reproducibility in rating fungicidal activity, and were both superior to the agar dilution technique. The agar plug transfer and agar dilution techniques adequately projected in vivo activity of malachite green, but the cellophane transfer technique overestimated its activity. Overall, the agar plug transfer technique most accurately rated the activity of malachite green and was the easiest test to perform. It therefore appears to be the method of choice for testing aquatic fungicides.

Bailey, Tom A.

1983-01-01

26

A comparison of blood agar supplemented with NAD with plain blood agar and chocolated blood agar in the isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae from sputum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus pneumoniae grows well and generally exhibits typical morphology on Columbia blood agar, whereas Haemophilus influenzae requires a more complex medium to meet its growth requirements - usually chocolated blood agar - on which S. pneumoniae is less easily recognisable. Therefore, a single medium that produces typical morphology of S. pneumoniae and facilitates the growth of H. influenzae would have

K. J. NYE; D. FALLON; B. GEE; S. MESSER; R. E. WARREN; N. ANDREWS

1999-01-01

27

21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4600 Ouchterlony agar plate. (a)...

2013-04-01

28

Blue Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Information is presented on Blue Moons, including what they are, where the expression and name came from, and which months have the most Blue Moons. A calculator is provided to see when past and future Blue Moons have and will occur. In addition, moon phases are charted for the next and last month, year, and Metonic Cycles. General Moon information is included, along with links for further information.

David Harper

29

Blue Note  

ScienceCinema

Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

Murray Gibson

2010-01-08

30

Blue Note  

SciTech Connect

Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

Murray Gibson

2007-04-27

31

Blue Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity provides instructions for using a flashlight and aquarium (or other container of water) to explain why the sky is blue and sunsets are red. When the white light from the sun shines through the earth's atmosphere, it collides with gas molecules with the blue light scattering more than the other colors, leaving a dominant yellow-orange hue to the transmitted light. The scattered light makes the sky blue; the transmitted light makes the sunset reddish orange. The section entitled What's Going On? explains this phenomena.

2010-01-01

32

A Novel Chromogenic Ester Agar Medium for Detection of Salmonellae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel agar medium, chromogenic Salmonella esterase (CSE) agar, for the differentiation of salmonellae is described. The agar contains peptones and nutrient extracts together with the following (grams per liter unless otherwise specified): 4-(2-(4-octanoyloxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-vinyl)-quinolinium-1-(propan-3-yl carboxylic acid) bromide (SLPA-octanoate; bromide form), 0.3223; lactose, 14.65; trisodium citrate dihydrate, 0.5; Tween 20, 3.0; ethyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate, 0.035% (wt\\/vol), novobiocin, 70 mg liter 21 .

VENITIA M. COOKE; R. J. MILES; R. G. PRICE; A. C. RICHARDSON

1999-01-01

33

Comparison of Supplemented Brucella Agar and Modified Clostridium difficile Agar for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Clostridium difficile  

PubMed Central

Background Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of Clostridium difficile is increasingly important because of the rise in resistant strains. The standard medium for the AST of C. difficile is supplemented Brucella agar (sBA), but we found that the growth of C. difficile on sBA was not optimal. Because active growth is critical for reliable AST, we developed a new, modified C. difficile (mCD) agar. C. difficile grew better on mCD agar than on sBA. Methods C. difficile isolates were collected from patients with healthcare-associated diarrhea. sBA medium was prepared according to the CLSI guidelines. Homemade mCD agar containing taurocholate, L-cysteine hydrochloride, and 7% horse blood was used. For 171 C. difficile isolates, we compared the agar dilution AST results from mCD agar with those from sBA. Results No significant differences were observed in the 50% minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC50) and 90% minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC90) of clindamycin (CLI), metronidazole (MTZ), moxifloxacin (MXF), piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ), and rifaximin (RIX), but the values for vancomycin (VAN) were two-fold higher on mCD agar than on sBA. The MICs of CLI, MXF, and RIX were in 100% agreement within two-fold dilutions, but for MTZ, VAN, and PTZ, 13.7%, 0.6%, and 3.1% of the isolates, respectively, were outside the acceptable range. Conclusions The MIC ranges, MIC50 and MIC90, were acceptable when AST was performed on mCD agar. Thus, mCD agar could be used as a substitute medium for the AST of C. difficile. PMID:25368819

Kim, Gye Hyeong; Kim, Jieun; Pai, Hyunjoo

2014-01-01

34

Automated counting of bacterial colony forming units on agar plates.  

PubMed

Manual counting of bacterial colony forming units (CFUs) on agar plates is laborious and error-prone. We therefore implemented a colony counting system with a novel segmentation algorithm to discriminate bacterial colonies from blood and other agar plates.A colony counter hardware was designed and a novel segmentation algorithm was written in MATLAB. In brief, pre-processing with Top-Hat-filtering to obtain a uniform background was followed by the segmentation step, during which the colony images were extracted from the blood agar and individual colonies were separated. A Bayes classifier was then applied to count the final number of bacterial colonies as some of the colonies could still be concatenated to form larger groups. To assess accuracy and performance of the colony counter, we tested automated colony counting of different agar plates with known CFU numbers of S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and M. catarrhalis and showed excellent performance. PMID:22448267

Brugger, Silvio D; Baumberger, Christian; Jost, Marcel; Jenni, Werner; Brugger, Urs; Mühlemann, Kathrin

2012-01-01

35

21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4600 Ouchterlony agar plate. (a)...

2011-04-01

36

21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4600 Ouchterlony agar plate. (a)...

2014-04-01

37

21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4600 Ouchterlony agar plate. (a)...

2012-04-01

38

The Blues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Noted bluesman Willie Dixon once said, "The blues are the roots; everything else is the fruits". Wise words indeed, and the quote informs the spirit of Martin Scorsese's PBS documentary series "The Blues". This interactive website provides users with some great material about this seven part series, which features segments by Clint Eastwood, Wim Wenders, and of course, Mr. Scorsese. On the site, visitors can watch previews of each segment and learn more about the artists profiled in each one. In "The Songs & the Artists" area, visitors can read musician biographies and even check out the accompanying radio series which was released in conjunction with the documentary. Those who like to travel should click on the "Blues Road Trip" area. Here they will have the opportunity to take a musical journey from the Deep South to Memphis, St. Louis, and Chicago via song, photographs, and maps. The site is rounded out by the "Blues Classroom" area, which is designed for educators. Interested parties can view lesson plans, look over a blues glossary, and read several background essays.

39

[Evaluation of blood agar medium for the growth of mycobacteria].  

PubMed

This study was aimed to evaluate the performance of blood agar for the growth of mycobacteria from clinical specimens sent to Mycobacteriology Laboratory of Samsun Chest Diseases Hospital. One hundred fifty six clinical specimens including 123 sputum, 28 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and 5 pleural fluid specimens were inoculated in Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ), BACTEC MGIT 960 system (Becton Dickinson, USA) and blood agar following decontamination process. The specimens were also simultaneously examined for the presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB). Thirty five mycobacteria strains (33 Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 2 atypical mycobacteria) grew in blood agar, 38 (36 M.tuberculosis and 2 atypical mycobacteria) in LJ media and 46 (44 M.tuberculosis and 2 atypical mycobacteria) in BACTEC MGIT 960 system. Among 29 AFB negative specimens, 20 revealed growth in both blood agar and LJ medium and 27 in MGIT system. AFB positive 20 samples yielded growth in 15 samples in blood agar, 18 in LJ medium and 19 in MGIT system. Among the total of 156 samples, contamination was observed in 15 (9.6%) samples in blood agar, 16 (10.2%) in LJ medium and 18 (11.5%) in MGIT system. Growth time was 5-35 days (mean 18 ± 7.4), 11-35 days (mean 19 ± 5.9) and 5-15 days (mean 10 ± 2.4) for blood agar, LJ medium and BACTEC MGIT 960 system, respectively. The three samples which revealed contamination in BACTEC MGIT 960 system, grew successfully in both blood agar and LJ medium without contamination. In one sample, growth was observed only in LJ medium but neither in blood agar nor BACTEC MGIT 960 system. However, in another sample, growth was observed only in blood agar while no growth was detected in LJ or BACTEC MGIT 960 system. Six samples yielded mycobacteria only in BACTEC MGIT 960 system. These results indicated that simultaneous use of one liquid and one solid medium to grow mycobacteria from the clinical samples seemed to be complementary. Blood agar was a promising choice since it was found to be as effective as LJ medium for the growth of mycobacteria, however, this issue needs to be further evaluated in a multicentre study with a larger specimen collection. PMID:22090292

Coban, Ahmet Y?lmaz; Akgüne?, Alper; Durup?nar, Belma

2011-10-01

40

Comparison of Fecal Coliform Agar and Violet Red Bile Lactose Agar for Fecal Coliform Enumeration in Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 24-h direct plating method for fecal coliform enumeration with a resuscitation step (preincubation for 2 h at 37 1°C and transfer to 44 1°C for 22 h) using fecal coliform agar (FCA) was compared with the 24-h standardized violet red bile lactose agar (VRBL) method. FCA and VRBL have equivalent specificities and sensitivities, except for lactose-positive non-fecal coliforms such

A. Leclercq; C. Wanegue; P. Baylac

2002-01-01

41

Blue Water  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent has a mechanical system that creates bubbles that rise to the surface and push ice away from the ship's hull. It also happens to churn the water into an amazing shade of blue....

42

New chromogenic agar medium for the identification of Candida spp.  

PubMed

A new chromogenic agar medium (Candida diagnostic agar [CDA]) for differentiation of Candida spp. is described. This medium is based on Sabouraud dextrose agar (Oxoid CM41) and contains (per liter) 40.0 g of glucose, 10.0 g of mycological peptone, and 15.0 g of agar along with a novel chromogenic glucosaminidase substrate, ammonium 4-(2-[4-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3-methoxyphenyl]-vinyl)-1-(propan-3-yl-oate)-quinolium bromide (0.32 g liter(-1)). The glucosaminidase substrate in CDA was hydrolyzed by Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis, yielding white colonies with deep-red spots on a yellow transparent background after 24 to 48 h of incubation at 37 degrees C. Colonies of Candida tropicalis and Candida kefyr were uniformly pink, and colonies of other Candida spp., including Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis, were white. CDA was evaluated by using 115 test strains of Candida spp. and other clinically important yeasts and was compared with two commercially available chromogenic agars (Candida ID agar [bioMerieux] and CHROMagar Candida [CHROMagar Company Ltd.]). On all three agars, colonies of C. albicans were not distinguished from colonies of C. dubliniensis. However, for the group containing C. albicans plus C. dubliniensis, both the sensitivity and the specificity of detection when CDA was used were 100%, compared with values of 97.6 and 100%, respectively, with CHROMagar Candida and 100 and 96.8%, respectively, with Candida ID agar. In addition, for the group containing C. tropicalis plus C. kefyr, the sensitivity and specificity of detection when CDA was used were also 100%, compared with 72.7 and 98.1%, respectively, with CHROMagar Candida. Candida ID agar did not differentiate C. tropicalis and C. kefyr strains but did differentiate members of a broader group (C. tropicalis, C. kefyr, Candida lusitaniae plus Candida guilliermondii); the sensitivity and specificity of detection for members of this group were 94.7 and 93.8%, respectively. In addition to the increased sensitivity and/or specificity of Candida detection when CDA was used, differentiation of colony types on CDA (red spotted, pink, or no color) was unambiguous and did not require precise assessment of colony color. PMID:12089051

Cooke, Venitia M; Miles, R J; Price, R G; Midgley, G; Khamri, W; Richardson, A C

2002-07-01

43

GELRITE as an Agar Substitute in Bacteriological Media  

PubMed Central

GELRITE gellan gum (formerly known as PS-60 and S-60) is a new naturally derived, highly purified polysaccharide which displays several interesting properties, including selfgelling. The suitability of GELRITE as an agar substitute was tested by evaluating the performance of several media selected from among those most commonly used in the isolation, identification, and enumeration of microorganisms in clinical laboratories. Fifty different bacterial species previously implicated in human infections served as test strains. On the basis of the various parameters considered, namely, colony characteristics, biochemical reactions, hemolytic patterns, and plating efficiency, media gelled by agar and by GELRITE compared quite favorably. Images PMID:16346398

Shungu, Daniel; Valiant, Mary; Tutlane, Vicki; Weinberg, Ellen; Weissberger, Barbara; Koupal, Larry; Gadebusch, Hans; Stapley, Edward

1983-01-01

44

Charcoal-Yeast Extract Agar: Primary Isolation Mediumfor Legionella pneumophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal-yeast extract agar isa new bacteriological mediumthatsupports excellent growth oftheLegionella pneumophila. Itresults frommodifications madeinan existing L.pneumophila medium,F-Gagar.Yeastextract, instead of an acidhydrolysate ofcasein, servesastheprotein source.Beefextractives and starch are notadded. Activated charcoal (Norit A or Norit SG)isincluded at 0.20%(wt\\/vol). Comparison ofcharcoal-yeast extract andF-Gagars showedthat a greater numberofcolony-forming units ofL.pneumophila was recovered from astandardized tissue inoculum on charcoal-yeast extract agar(4.35 x 106colony- forning

JAMES C. FEELEY; ROBERT J. GIBSON; GEORGE W. GORMAN; NANCY C. LANGFORD; J. KAMILE RASHEED; DON C. MACKEL; WILLIAM B. BAINE

1979-01-01

45

Isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from fresh produce using STEC heart infusion washed blood agar with mitomycin-C.  

PubMed

The ability to detect and isolate Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) remains a major challenge for food microbiologists. Although methods based on nucleic acids and antibodies have improved detection of STECs in foods, isolation of these bacteria remains arduous. STEC isolation is necessary for matching food, environmental, and clinical isolates during outbreak investigations and for distinguishing between pathogenic and nonpathogenic organisms. STEC heart infusion washed blood agar with mitomycin-C (SHIBAM) is a modification of washed sheep blood agar prepared by adding mitomycin-C and optimizing both the washed blood and base agar to better isolate STECs. Most STEC isolates produce a zone of hemolysis on SHIBAM plates and are easily distinguishable from background microbiota. Here, we present data supporting the use of SHIBAM to isolate STECs from fresh produce. SHIBAM was tested for accuracy in identifying STECs (365 of 410 STEC strains were hemolytic, and 63 of 73 E. coli strains that did not produce Shiga toxin were not hemolytic) and for recovery from artificially inoculated fresh produce (11 of 24 romaine lettuce samples and 6 of 24 tomato samples). STEC recovery with SHIBAM agar was greatly improved when compared with recovery on Levine's eosin-methylene blue agar as a reference method. PMID:23127712

Lin, Andrew; Nguyen, Lam; Clotilde, Laurie M; Kase, Julie A; Son, Insook; Lauzon, Carol R

2012-11-01

46

Preparation of Agar-Agar from the Red Seaweed Pterocladia capillacea off the Coast of Alexandria, Egypt  

PubMed Central

The effect of different treatments on the quality of agar produced from Pterocladia has been studied, and the conditions for the production of material of good quality have been standardized. In the modified process, sun-bleached seaweed was washed well in water, soaked for 24 h, and then ground to a pulp and rinsed again in water. The pulp was then extracted with water (weed-to-water ratio, 1:30) under pressure for 2 h after adjusting the pH to 6 by the addition of acetic acid. The agar gel, after freeze thawing, was bleached with NaClO before drying in a current of hot air. Pretreatment of the seaweed with alkali at 80°C for 2 h prior to extraction was found to improve the quality of agar to a very great extent. PMID:16345175

Rao, A. V.; Bekheet, Inaam A.

1976-01-01

47

Antimicrobial activity of highly stable silver nanoparticles embedded in agar-agar matrix as a thin film.  

PubMed

Highly stable silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in agar-agar (Ag/agar) as inorganic-organic hybrid were obtained as free-standing film by in situ reduction of silver nitrate by ethanol. The antimicrobial activity of Ag/agar film on Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Candida albicans (C. albicans) was evaluated in a nutrient broth and also in saline solution. In particular, films were repeatedly tested for antimicrobial activity after recycling. UV-vis absorption and TEM studies were carried out on films at different stages and morphological studies on microbes were carried out by SEM. Results showed spherical Ag NPs of size 15-25 nm, having sharp surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band. The antimicrobial activity of Ag/agar film was found to be in the order, C. albicans>E. coli>S. aureus, and antimicrobial activity against C. albicans was almost maintained even after the third cycle. Whereas, in case of E. coli and S. aureus there was a sharp decline in antimicrobial activity after the second cycle. Agglomeration of Ag NPs in Ag/agar film on exposure to microbes was observed by TEM studies. Cytotoxic experiments carried out on HeLa cells showed a threshold Ag NPs concentration of 60 ?g/mL, much higher than the minimum inhibition concentration of Ag NPs (25.8 ?g/mL) for E. coli. The mechanical strength of the film determined by nanoindentation technique showed almost retention of the strength even after repeated cycle. PMID:20800222

Ghosh, S; Kaushik, R; Nagalakshmi, K; Hoti, S L; Menezes, G A; Harish, B N; Vasan, H N

2010-10-13

48

Agar disk diffusion (Bauer-Kirby) tests with various fastidious and nonfastidious reference (ATCC) strains: comparison of several agar media.  

PubMed

Several agar media (Mueller-Hinton agar, MHA; diagnostic sensitivity test agar, DSTA; Schaedler agar, SchA; Todd-Hewitt agar with added yeast extract, THYA; Wilkins-Chalgren agar, WCA) were compared using the Bauer-Kirby agar disk diffusion test against six nonfastidious quality control strains: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and ATCC 35218, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. MHA, DSTA, and THYA yielded essentially comparable inhibition zones. However, WCA and SchA antagonized cotrimoxazole and aminoglycoside antibiotics; furthermore, SchA antagonized polymyxin B, and both WCA and SchA antagonized imipenem against the P. aeruginosa strain, but not against the E. coli strains. Sheep blood-MHA (Bl-MHA), WCA, THYA, and DSTA were examined with Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615, Streptococcus agalactiae ATCC 13813, and Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 6306. In comparison with Bl-MHA, both WCA and THYA yielded comparable inhibition zones against S. pyogenes; DSTA afforded suboptimal growth. DSTA yielded larger inhibition zones with the majority of antimicrobial drugs against S. agalactiae, whereas WCA and THYA enhanced the activity of oxacillin and penicillin G against this strain. S. pneumoniae strain ATCC 6306 grew well on Bl-MHA, yielded suboptimal growth on WCA and faint growth on THYA, and failed to grow on DSTA. Chocolate-supplemented sheep blood-MHA (CHOC-MHA) was compared with Haemophilus test medium (HTM), WCA with added NAD, and THYA with added hematin and NAD against Haemophilus influenzae strains ATCC 35056 and ATCC 49247. The activities of doxycycline and rifampin were enhanced against both strains by HTM, WCA+NAD, and THYA+hematin+NAD. Only WCA+NAD antagonized cotrimoxazole against both H. influenzae strains, an effect due to thymidine; however, HTM antagonized cotrimoxazole against S. aureus ATCC 25923 and E. coli ATCC 25922. It was concluded that Bl-MHA performed best for beta-hemolytic streptococci quality control strains. Likewise, CHOC-MHA was optimal for the two H. influenzae strains used in this comparative agar disk diffusion study. PMID:7842820

Traub, W H; Leonhard, B

1994-01-01

49

Blue Whales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-minute sound segment, a professor of physics and astronomy describes the communication ability of the blue whale. He says that pitch discrimination with whales is incredibly accurate. The whales produce this call always at exactly four octaves below middle C, based on measurements of 6,000 whale calls. This site is from an archive of a daily radio program called Pulse of the Planet, which provides its listeners with a portrait of Planet Earth, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. The site also provides a written transcript of the broadcast.

50

Blue Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site is a companion to the Discovery Channel/ BBC television series Blue Planet: Seas of Life. The Web site includes images, games, and expeditions all related to oceanography and marine biology. One feature that is particularly interesting is Ocean Alert, an interactive, current events feature where users can identify the topics that most interest them. News headlines, with links to more complete stories, are organized into twelve topics; users select the topics and area of the world of interest from a rotating map. This site is fun to use and informative, and users may appreciate the options to explore only as in-depth as they choose.

2002-01-01

51

Blue Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this optics activity, learners explore why the sky is blue and the sunset is red, using a simple setup comprising a transparent plastic box, water, and powdered milk. Learners use a flashlight to shine a beam of light through the container. Learners look at the beam from the side of the container and then from the end of the tank, and compare the colors that they see. Learners also examine a narrower beam of light. Use this activity to introduce learners to the light spectrum, wavelengths, frequency, scattering, and how all this effects what we see in the sky at different times of the day.

The Exploratorium

2011-12-07

52

Direct Cloning of Human Ovarian Carcinoma Cells in Agar1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently developed an in vitro assay for human tumor stem cells that permits cloning of human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells in soft agar. Tumor colonies grew from both effusions and biopsies from 85% of 31 ovarian cancer patients. The cloning efficiency did not vary with the histology of the tumor. Growth was induced with medium conditioned by the adherent

Anne W. Hamburger; Sydney E. Salmon; Mary B. Kim; Jeff M. Trent; Barbara J. Soehnlen

53

Maintenance of Leptospira Species in Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun Agar  

PubMed Central

The maintenance of Leptospira species in liquid or semisolid medium is time-consuming and at risk of contamination due to the needs of routine subculture and dark field microscopy. Using Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) agar, we maintained 100 pathogenic Leptospira isolates for 12 months without the need for subculture and confirmed the viability of all isolates by the naked eye. PMID:25253789

Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Langla, Sayan; Oyuchua, Malinee; Day, Nicholas P. J.

2014-01-01

54

Maintenance of leptospira species in leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun agar.  

PubMed

The maintenance of Leptospira species in liquid or semisolid medium is time-consuming and at risk of contamination due to the needs of routine subculture and dark field microscopy. Using Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) agar, we maintained 100 pathogenic Leptospira isolates for 12 months without the need for subculture and confirmed the viability of all isolates by the naked eye. PMID:25253789

Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Langla, Sayan; Oyuchua, Malinee; Day, Nicholas P J; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

2014-12-01

55

Plaque Formation in Agar by Single Antibody-Producing Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distinct plaques, each of which is due to the release of hemolysin by a single antibody-forming cell, are revealed by complement after incubation, in an agar layer, of a mixture of sheep red cells and lymphoid cells from a rabbit immunized with sheep red cells.

Niels K. Jerne; Albert A. Nordin

1963-01-01

56

Transferring a Bacterial Culture to an Agar Slant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video from CUNY Kingsborough Community College describes how to transfer a bacterial culture to an agar slant. The brief demonstration is described step by step and would be easy to replicate in a laboratory setting. Running time for the video is 0:34.

57

Hyperspectral Imaging for Detecting Pathogens Grown on Agar Plates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper is concerned with the development of a hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting and identifying one of the most common foodborne pathogens, Campylobacter. Direct plating using agars is an effective tool for laboratory tests and analyses of microorganisms. The morphology (size, growth...

58

Recovery of Sublethally Injured Bacteria Using Selective Agar Overlays.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment subjects bacteria in a food sample and an environmental sample to conditions of sublethal stress in order to assess the effectiveness of the agar overlay method to recover sublethally injured cells compared to direct plating onto the appropriate selective medium. (SAH)

McKillip, John L.

2001-01-01

59

Development of a selective agar plate for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to develop a selective medium for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. Campylobacter spp. (n=4), non-Campylobacter (showing positive results on Campylobacter selective agar) strains (n=49) isolated from fresh produce, indicator bacteria (n=13), and spoilage bacteria isolated from fresh produce (n=15) were plated on four Campylobacter selective media. Bolton agar and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) exhibited higher sensitivity for Campylobacter spp. than did Preston agar and Hunt agar, although certain non-Campylobacter strains isolated from fresh produce by using a selective agar isolation method, were still able to grow on Bolton agar and mCCDA. To inhibit the growth of non-Campylobacter strains, Bolton agar and mCCDA were supplemented with 5 antibiotics (rifampicin, polymyxin B, sodium metabisulfite, sodium pyruvate, ferrous sulfate) and the growth of Campylobacter spp. (n=7) and non-Campylobacter strains (n=44) was evaluated. Although Bolton agar supplemented with rifampicin (BR agar) exhibited a higher selectivity for Campylobacter spp. than did mCCDA supplemented with antibiotics, certain non-Campylobacter strains were still able to grow on BR agar (18.8%). When BR agar with various concentrations of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were tested with Campylobacter spp. (n=8) and non-Campylobacter (n=7), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was inhibitory against 3 of 7 non-Campylobacter strains. Finally, we validated the use of BR agar containing 50mg/L sulfamethoxazole (BRS agar) or 0.5mg/L ciprofloxacin (BRCS agar) and other selective agars for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and fresh produce. All chicken samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. when tested on mCCDA, BR agar, and BRS agar. In fresh produce samples, BRS agar exhibited the highest selectivity for Campylobacter spp., demonstrating its suitability for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. PMID:25126968

Yoo, Jin-Hee; Choi, Na-Young; Bae, Young-Min; Lee, Jung-Su; Lee, Sun-Young

2014-10-17

60

Agar-agar entrapment increases the stability of endo-?-1,4-xylanase for repeated biodegradation of xylan.  

PubMed

Microbial xylanases, specially endo-?-1,4-xylanase catalyzes the hydrolysis of xylan, is considered one of the most significant hydrolases. It has numerous applications but most extensively is utilized in paper and pulp industry as a bio-bleaching agent. Immobilization technique is comprehensively studied with the expectation of modifying and improving enzyme stability and characteristics for commercial purposes. Currently, matrix entrapment technique is applied to immobilize endo-?-1,4-xylanase within agar-agar gel beads produced by Geobacillus stearothermophilus KIBGE-IB29. Maximal enzyme immobilization yield was achieved at 2.5% of agar-agar concentration. Optimized conditions demonstrated an increase in the optimal reaction time from 05min to 30min and incubation temperature from 50°C to 60°C with reference to free enzyme whereas; no effect was observed for optimum pH. Entrapment technique uniquely changed the kinetic parameters of immobilized endo-?-1,4-xylanase (Km: 0.5074mgmin(-1) to 0.5230mgmin(-1) and Vmax: 4773Umin(-1) to 968Umin(-1)) as compared to free enzyme. However, immobilized enzyme displayed broad thermal stability and retained 79.0% of its initial activity at 80°C up to 30min whereas; free enzyme completely lost its activity at this temperature. With respect to economic feasibility, the immobilized enzyme showed impressive recycling efficiency up to six reaction cycles. PMID:25603143

Bibi, Zainab; Shahid, Faiza; Ul Qader, Shah Ali; Aman, Afsheen

2015-04-01

61

Combination cellulose plate (non-agar solid support) and agar plate method improves isolation of fungi from soil.  

PubMed

This is the first report describing the improved isolation of common filamentous fungi via a method combining cellulose plate and agar plate system. A cellulose plate is a porous plate made of nanofibrous crystaline cellulose. Isolating fungi from soils using these types of media separately resulted in the number of fungal colonies appearing on cellulose plates being lower than that on agar plates. However, the number of actual fungal species isolated using cellulose plates alone was more or less the same as that found using agar plates. Significantly, the diversity of isolates using a combination of the two media was greater than using each media individually. As a result, numerous new or rare fungal species with potential, including previously proposed new species, were isolated successfully in this way. All fungal colonies, including the Penicillium species, that appeared on the cellulose plate penetrated in potato dextrose were either white or yellow. Cultivation on cellulose plates with added copper ion overcomes the change in coloration, the colonies appearing as they do following cultivation on potato dextrose agar. PMID:24849537

Nonaka, Kenichi; Todaka, Nemuri; ?mura, Satoshi; Masuma, Rokuro

2014-11-01

62

Mongolian blue spots  

MedlinePLUS

Mongolian spots are flat, blue, or blue-gray skin markings near the buttocks that appear at birth or shortly thereafter. ... Mongolian blue spots are common among persons who are of Asian, East Indian, and African descent.

63

Blue nightshade poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Blue nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This is for information only and ... The poison is found in the blue nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) plant, especially in the fruit and leaves.

64

Arbovirus Identification by an Agar-Gel Diffusion Technique  

PubMed Central

A double diffusion-in-agar test was used to investigate precipitation reactions of 75 arboviruses. Specific reactions were regularly observed with members of arbovirus groups B, California, Simbu, Turlock, Hart Park, vesicular stomatitis, and several other arboviruses as well as with a member of the Tacaribe group and a herpesvirus. The results demonstrated the feasibility of applying this technique to the identification of arboviruses. PMID:4315859

Calisher, C. H.; Maness, K. S. C.

1970-01-01

65

Pulsed photothermal temperature profiling of agar tissue phantoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determine experimentally the accuracy of pulsed photothermal radiometric (PPTR) temperature depth profiling in water-based\\u000a samples. We use custom tissue phantoms composed of agar gel layers separated by very thin absorbing layers. Two configurations\\u000a of the acquisition system are compared, one using the customary spectral band of the InSb radiation detector (3.0–5.5 ?m)\\u000a and the other with a spectrally narrowed acquisition

Matija Milani?; Boris Majaron; J. Stuart Nelson

2007-01-01

66

Cell aggregates in the soft agar “human tumour stem-cell assay”  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated colony formation in soft agar by cells obtained after mechanical and\\/or enzymatic disaggregation of 455 malignant human tumours. Counting and assessment of cell colonies in the agar plates were done by inverted microscopy, computerized image analysis, and inspection of serial photomicrographs of the agar plates. Our results indicate that standard methods of tumour disaggregation did not usually produce

M V Agrez; J S Kovach; M M Lieber

1982-01-01

67

Colorimetric alamarBlue assay as a bacterial concentration and spoilage index of marine foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alamarBlue (resazurin) assay incorporates a colorimetric and fluorometric growth indicator based on detection of the metabolic activity of cells. We investigated the relationship between results of the colorimetric alamarBlue assay using 96-well microplates and colony-forming units (CFU) on aerobic agar plates of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis strains and unknown bacterial flora in spoiled foods. As bacteria grew

Takashi Kuda; Toshihiro Yano

2003-01-01

68

Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Alabama  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Alabama BlueCross and BlueShield Medical Information Server, located and developed by the University of Alabama at Birmingham Department of Computer and Information Sciences, through a grant from Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Alabama for the express purpose of providing Internet access to medical information for all physicians and other health care providers in the state of Alabama. It provides links to a broad range of medical information resources located throughout the Internet. Menus provide information on diseases and disorders, patient care and medical practice, medical specialties, journals and newsletters, health care reform, and other medical information.

69

Enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria in water for dialysis: Comparison of the efficiency of reasoner’2 agar and plate count agar  

PubMed Central

Due to the fact the incubation conditions may influence the microbiological evaluation of water for dialysis, the objective of the present study was the comparison of the efficiency of R2A and PCA media in the enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria in 193 samples of water collected in dialysis clinics from 12 cities in São Paulo, between October and December 2007. Results showed counts significantly greater in R2A, suggesting that enumeration should be carried out in R2A, suggesting that enumeration should be carried out in R2A agar associated with longer incubation times, because of the greater sensitivity. PMID:24031456

Bugno, Adriana; Almodóvar, Adriana Aparecida Buzzo; Pereira, Tatiana Caldas

2010-01-01

70

Methylene blue test  

MedlinePLUS

The methylene blue test is a test to determine the type of methemoglobinemia (a blood disorder). ... are removed. A dark green powder called methylene blue goes through the tube into your vein. The ...

71

Greening the Blue Bottle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the revised Blue Bottle formulation to the classical Blue Bottle. Indicates that the revised formulation gives a somewhat bluer solution, but initially slower reduction when compared to the classical formulation. (Author/KHR)

Wellman, Whitney E.; Noble, Mark E.

2003-01-01

72

Comparison of microbial adherence to antiseptic and antibiotic central venous catheters using a novel agar subcutaneous infection model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An agar subcutaneous infection model (agar model), which simulates the rat subcutaneous infection model (rat model), was developed to assess the ability of antimicrobial catheters to resist microbial colonization. The catheters were implanted in the agar and rat models and the insertion sites were infected immediately or on day 7, 14 or 21 post-implantation. The catheters implanted in the agar

Trupti A. Gaonkar; Shanta M. Modak

73

Simplified measurement of soil pH using an agar-contact technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the indirect measurement of soil-pH is described. This method allows the spatial arrangement of soil and rhizosphere to be conserved. The soil is brought into contact with a layer of agar, containing bromocresol purple. A nylon gauze is placed between soil and agar. For quantitative pH measurements, a micro-electrode is inserted into the agar after three hours

Jan W. M. Pijnenborg; T. A. Lie; A. J. B. Zehnder

1990-01-01

74

Improved Isolation of Vibrio vulnificus from Seawater and Sediment with Cellobiose-Colistin Agar  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved selective medium, cellobiose-colistin (CC) agar, gave a significantly higher (P < 0.05) isolation rate of Vibrio vulnificus from water and sediment samples than did modified cellobiose-polymyxin B-colistin (mCPC) agar. In a total of 446 alkaline peptone water preenrichments amended with polymyxin B, V. vulnificus was isolated from 154 preenrichments (35%) with mCPC agar and from 179 preenrichments (40%)

LISE HØI; INGER DALSGAARD; ANDERS DALSGAARD

75

Migration of chemotactic bacteria in soft agar: role of gel concentration  

E-print Network

We study the migration of chemotactic wild-type Escherichia coli populations in semisolid (soft) agar in the concentration range C = 0.15-0.5% (w/v). For C bacteria migrate as broad circular bands rather than sharp rings. These are growth/diffusion waves arising because of suppression of chemotaxis by the agar and have not been previously reported experimentally to our knowledge. For C = 0.4-0.5%, expanding colonies do not span the depth of the agar and develop pronounced front instabilities. The migration front speed is weakly dependent on agar concentration at C bacteria in porous media and for the design of improved bacteriological chemotaxis assays.

O. A. Croze; G. P. Ferguson; M. E. Cates; W. C. K. Poon

2011-08-06

76

Residual Agar Determination in Bacterial Spores by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Presented here is an analytical method to detect residual agar from a bacterial spore sample as an indication of culturing on an agar plate. This method is based on the resolubilization of agar polysaccharide from a bacterial spore sample, enzymatic digestion, followed by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MSn) analysis for detection of a specific agar fragment ion. A range of Bacillus species and strains were selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. The characteristic agar fragment ion was detected in the spores grown on agar that were washed from 1 to 5 times, irradiated or non-irradiated and not in the spores grown in broth. A sample containing approximately 108 spores is currently needed for confident detection of residual agar from culture on agar plates in the presence of bacterial spores with a limit of detection of approximately 1 ppm agar spiked into a broth-grown spore sample. The results of a proficiency test with 42 blinded samples are presented demonstrating the utility of this method with no false positives and only 3 false negatives for samples that were below the detection level of the method as documented.

Wahl, Karen L.; Colburn, Heather A.; Wunschel, David S.; Petersen, Catherine E.; Jarman, Kristin H.; Valentine, Nancy B.

2010-02-15

77

Comparison of ChromID Agar and Clostridium difficile Selective Agar for Effective Isolation of C. difficile from Stool Specimens  

PubMed Central

Background ChromID Clostridium difficile agar (IDCd; bioMérieux SA, France) is a recently developed chromogenic medium for rapid and specific isolation of C. difficile. We compared the performance of IDCd with that of Clostridium difficile Selective Agar (CDSA). Methods A total of 530 fresh stool specimens were collected from patients with clinical signs compatible with C. difficile infection, and cultures for C. difficile were performed on IDCd and CDSA. C. difficile colonies were identified by spore staining, odor, use of an ANI identification test kit (bioMérieux SA), and multiplex PCR for tcdA, tcdB, and tpi. Results The concordance rate between IDCd and CDSA was 90.6% (480/530). The positivity rates on IDCd on days 1 and 2 (55.6% and 85.0%, respectively) were significantly higher than those on CDSA (19.4% and 75.6%, respectively) (P<0.001 for day 1 and P=0.02 for day 2), but the detection rates on IDCd and CDSA on day 3 were not different (89.4% vs. 82.8%, P=0.0914). On day 3, the recovery rates for non-C. difficile isolates on IDCd and CDSA were 30.2% (160/530) and 22.1% (117/530), respectively (P=0.0075). Clostridium spp. other than C. difficile were the most prevalent non-C. difficile isolates on both media. Conclusions The culture positivity rates on IDCd and CDSA were not different on day 3 but IDCd may allow for rapid and sensitive detection of C. difficile within 2 days of cultivation. PMID:24422190

Lee, Eun Joo

2014-01-01

78

Effect of agar concentration on the matric potential of glycerol agar media and the germination and growth of xerophilic and non-xerophilic fungi.  

PubMed

The concept of water activity (a(w)) does not differentiate between water status resulting from the interaction of water with solutes, and that from interaction of water with matrices, which is termed matric potential (psi(m)). This study reports the effect of agar concentration (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, and 7.5%, w/w) on matric potential of glycerol agar media (GA) and the germination and growth of xerophilic fungi (Eurotium herbariorum and E. rubrum) and non-xerophilic fungi (Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, and Penicillium roqueforti) on GA with or without sorbic acid (0.1-0.4%, w/w) at 0.90 a(w) and 0.95 a(w). The matric potential of GA decreased when the agar concentration increased from 1.5 to 7.5%. When the agar concentration increased at each a(w), the radial growth rate of the xerophilic fungi generally increased but the biomass density (biomass per unit area) decreased, whereas the radial growth rate of the non-xerophilic fungi generally decreased but the biomass density was unchanged. In the absence of sorbic acid, the time to germination of each species was similar for all agar concentrations. In the presence of sorbic acid, the time to germination of some species was significantly longer at higher agar concentrations (4.5%-7.5%) than 1.5% agar. This study demonstrated the inhibition effect on germination and growth of non-xerophilic fungi and xerophilic fungi by decreased matric potential resulting from increased agar concentrations, and the different responses of non-xerophilic fungi and xerophilic fungi to water stress from solutes and matrices. The concept of matric potential may be useful in food microbiology to provide a better understanding of fungal growth in complex food matrices. PMID:19520449

Huang, Yang; Chapman, Belinda; Wilson, Mark; Hocking, Ailsa D

2009-07-31

79

[Evaluation of a new medium, eggplant (Solanum melongena) agar as a screening medium for Cryptococcus neoformans in environmental samples].  

PubMed

Cryptococcus neofomans is an encapsulated yeast-like fungus that causes life-threatening infections, especially in immunosuppresive patients. C.neoformans infection is believed to be acquired via inhalation of aerosolized particles from the environment. Avian guano, decaying tree hollows and soil are the related known environmental niches. Brown pigmented yeast growth from the precursors in growth media is an important step for the identification and isolation of C.neoformans. Seeds of plants in nature are preferred owing to easy accessibility and low costs for the preparation of such media. Guizotia abysinicca (Niger seed) as Staib agar, Helianthus annus (Sunflower) as Pal's medium, Brassica nigra (Mustard) agar, tobacco agar, Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) seed agar, Perilla frutescens (Beefsteak plant) seed agar, Rubus fruticosus (Blackberry) agar and ground red hot pepper agar are pigment-based selective media for the differentiation of C.neoformans. The aim of this study was to observe the pigment production of C.neoformans in a new medium based on eggplant (Solanum melongena) and also to compare its performance with the simplified Staib, Pal's and tobacco agar for isolation from the environment. Three different eggplant-based medium (S.melongena Melanzaza viserba, S.melongena Pinstripe F1 and S.ovigerum Ivory F1) were included in the study. Pigment-forming eggplant medium, simplified Staib agar, Pal's agar and tobacco agar were used for the cultivation of the environmental swabbed samples from 19 Eucalyptus camaldulensis trunk hollows in continuous colonization region. While pigment formation were observed with S.melongena Melanzaza viserba and S.melongena Pinstripe F1 containing media, S.ovigerum Ivory F1 medium was found to be non-reactive. In colonization area (Gökova-Akyaka, Turkey), 11 (57.9%) out of 19 E.camaldulensis samples were positive with simplified Staib agar, Pal's agar and eggplant agar while 10 (52.6%) of them are positive with tobacco agar. C.neoformans colony forming unit (cfu) per plate were found as 51, 57 and 48 (median values) on simplified Staib agar, Pal's agar and eggplant agar, respectively, while tobacco agar has lower performance with 33 cfu/petri. No statistically significant difference were found between simplified Staib agar, Pal's agar and eggplant agar's performances for C.neoformans isolations from the nature (p=0.71). In conclusion, easily prepared eggplant agar is as functional as widely used media such as simplified Staib agar and Pal's agar for the isolation of C.neoformans from the natural environment. PMID:24819266

Sengul, Mustafa; Ergin, Ca?r?; Kartal, Tu?ba

2014-04-01

80

Caprylate-thallous agar medium for selectively isolating Serratia and its utility in the clinical laboratory.  

PubMed Central

A defined agar medium (hereinafter designated caprylate-thallous [CT5 agar) containing 0.01% yeast extract, 0.1% caprylic (n-octanoic) acid, and 0.025% thallous sulfate is highly selective for all Serratia species and effectively discriminates against most non-Serratia strains likely to be in the same habitats. The selectivity of CT agar is demonstrated by the very high efficiency of colony formation (mean, 80.7% of that on a nonselective complex medium) on CT agar by known Serratia strains and the very low efficiency of colony formation (close to zero) on CT agar by bacterial strains known not to be Serratia. The utility of this medium in actual clinical laboratory practice is demonstrated by the more rapid and higher recovery of Serratia on this selective medium as compared to conventional procedures of in-tandem runs of 513 consecutive urine, feces, and sputum specimens. Pigmented and nonpigmented Serratia strains deliberately added to fecal specimens can be selectively and quantitatively recovered on CT agar. CT agar compares favorably with, or in some cases is an improvement over, other selective media which have been recommended for isolating Serratia. This selective CT agar medium could be quite useful in ecological surveys, especially those related to hospital-acquired infections. PMID:972193

Starr, M P; Grimont, P A; Grimont, F; Starr, P B

1976-01-01

81

Agar gel electrophoresis of proteolytic enzymes in gastric juice of patients with chronic gastritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agar gel electrophoresis with proteolytic digestion of albumin substrate and subsequent Chromoscan analysis of the agar slide, were used to study the proteolytic enzymes of gastric juice in 28 patients with atrophic gastritis with or without intestinal metaplasia, 7 patients with chronic superficial gastritis and 6 with a normal gastric mucosa. Five proteolytic enzyme spots, designated I through V in

Mona Agunod; George B. Jerzy Glass

1972-01-01

82

Electrospinning of agar/PVA aqueous solutions and its relation with rheological properties.  

PubMed

In this work, we report the successful fabrication of agar-based nanofibers by electrospinning technique, using water as solvent media. A tubeless spinneret was attached inside the electrospinning chamber, operating at 50°C, to avoid agar gelation. Agar pure solution (1 wt%) showed inadequate spinnability regardless of the used electrospinning conditions. The addition of a co-blending polymer such as PVA (10 wt% starting solution) improved the solutions viscoelasticity and hence, the solutions spinnability. Agar/PVA solutions were prepared with different mass ratios (100/0, 50/50, 40/60, 30/70, 20/80 and 0/100) and electrospun at various sets of electrospinning conditions. Best nanofibers were obtained with 30/70 and 20/80 agar/PVA blends while samples with higher agar contents (50/50 and 40/60 agar/PVA) were harder to process and led to discontinuous fibrous mats. This first set of encouraging results can open a new window of opportunities for agar-based biomaterials in the form of nanofibers. PMID:25439904

Sousa, Ana M M; Souza, Hiléia K S; Uknalis, Joseph; Liu, Shih-Chuan; Gonçalves, Maria P; Liu, LinShu

2015-01-22

83

Standing Stock, Agar Yield and Properties of Gracilaria salicornia Harvested along the Tanzanian Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal biomass variation and agar yield of G. salicornia (C. Ag.) Dawson from Oyster Bay, Dar es Salaam, and Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar, were determined, and some properties of the agar examined. Mean biomass and canopy cover values ranged from 21-60 g\\/m 2 and 7- 20 %, respectively. The highest mean biomass and cover values were obtained during the SE monsoon.

A. S. Buriyo; A. K. Kivaisi

84

Physicochemical and morphological properties of plasticized poly(vinyl alcohol)-agar biodegradable films.  

PubMed

The effects of the addition of glycerol (GLY) on the physicochemical and morphological properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-agar films were reported. PVA-agar films were prepared by solution cast method, and the addition of GLY in PVA-agar films altered the optical properties, resulting in a decrease in opacity values and in the color difference (?E) of the films. Structural characterization using Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the presence of GLY altered the intensity of the bands (from 1200 to 800cm(-1)) and crystallinity. The characterization of the thermal properties indicated that an increase in the agar content produces a decrease in the melting temperature and augments the heat of fusion. Similar tendencies were observed in plasticized films, but at different magnification. The formulation that demonstrated the lowest mechanical properties contained 25wt.% agar, whereas the formulation that contained 75wt.% agar demonstrated a significant improvement. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and surface morphology analysis demonstrated that the structure of PVA-agar films is reorganized upon GLY addition. The physicochemical properties of PVA-agar films using GLY as a plasticizer provide information for the application of this formulation as packaging material for specific food applications. PMID:24875313

Madera-Santana, T J; Freile-Pelegrín, Y; Azamar-Barrios, J A

2014-08-01

85

Agar medium for use in susceptibility testing of bacteria from human periodontal pockets.  

PubMed

An agar medium (medium V) was formulated to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimicrobial agents for bacteria encountered in human periodontal pockets. The medium contained (per liter) Trypticase, 15 g; yeast extract, 5 g; sodium chloride, 5 g; glucose, 2 g; sodium pyruvate, 2 g; sodium formate, 1 g; sodium fumarate, 1.5 g; sodium succinate, 0.1 g; Tween 80, 0.25 ml; agar, 15 g; hemin, 5 mg; and menadione, 0.5 mg. The growth of 50 oral strains was compared on this and six other media which included: Wilkins-Chalgren agar, Schaedler agar, Brucella agar, Trypticase-soy blood agar, and Schaedler and Brucella agars supplemented with whole blood. Growth, for most strains, was greatest on medium V. Medium V was also compared with Wilkins-Chalgren agar, using the same oral strains, to determine the MICs of the following antibiotics: penicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and erythromycin. The MICs of these antibiotics were essentially the same on both media when growth was quantitatively similar. PMID:518074

Walker, C B; Niebloom, T A; Socransky, S S

1979-10-01

86

Copper removal by algae Gelidium, agar extraction algal waste and granulated algal waste: Kinetics and equilibrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosorption of copper ions by an industrial algal waste, from agar extraction industry has been studied in a batch system. This biosorbent was compared with the algae Gelidium itself, which is the raw material for agar extraction, and the industrial waste immobilized with polyacrylonitrile (composite material).The effects of contact time, pH, ionic strength (IS) and temperature on the biosorption process

Vítor J. P. Vilar; Cidália M. S. Botelho; Rui A. R. Boaventura

2008-01-01

87

Physical-mechanical properties of agar/?-carrageenan blend film and derived clay nanocomposite film.  

PubMed

Binary blend films with different mixing ratio of agar and ?-carrageenan were prepared using a solution casting method with and without nanoclay and the effect of their composition on the mechanical, water vapor barrier, and water resistance properties was tested. The tensile strength (TS) of the ?-carrageenan film was greater than that of agar film. The water vapor permeability (WVP) of the agar film was lower than that of ?-carrageenan film, the swelling ratio (SR) and water solubility (WS) of ?-carrageenan film were higher than those of agar film. Each property of the binary blend films varied proportionately depending on the mixing ratio of each component. The XRD result indicated that the nanocomposite with agar/?-carrageenan/clay (Cloisite(®) Na(+)) was intercalated. Consequently, the mechanical strength, water vapor barrier properties, and water contact angle (CA) were significantly (P < 0.05) improved through nanocomposite formation. PMID:23170836

Rhim, Jong-Whan

2012-12-01

88

Modeling Surface Growth of Escherichia coli on Agar Plates  

PubMed Central

Surface growth of Escherichia coli cells on a membrane filter placed on a nutrient agar plate under various conditions was studied with a mathematical model. The surface growth of bacterial cells showed a sigmoidal curve with time on a semilogarithmic plot. To describe it, a new logistic model that we presented earlier (H.?Fujikawa et al., Food Microbiol. 21:501-509, 2004) was modified. Growth curves at various constant temperatures (10 to 34°C) were successfully described with the modified model (model III). Model III gave better predictions of the rate constant of growth and the lag period than a modified Gompertz model and the Baranyi model. Using the parameter values of model III at the constant temperatures, surface growth at various temperatures was successfully predicted. Surface growth curves at various initial cell numbers were also sigmoidal and converged to the same maximum cell numbers at the stationary phase. Surface growth curves at various nutrient levels were also sigmoidal. The maximum cell number and the rate of growth were lower as the nutrient level decreased. The surface growth curve was the same as that in a liquid, except for the large curvature at the deceleration period. These curves were also well described with model III. The pattern of increase in the ATP content of cells grown on a surface was sigmoidal, similar to that for cell growth. We discovered several characteristics of the surface growth of bacterial cells under various growth conditions and examined the applicability of our model to describe these growth curves. PMID:16332768

Fujikawa, Hiroshi; Morozumi, Satoshi

2005-01-01

89

Continuous degradation of maltose: improvement in stability and catalytic properties of maltase (?-glucosidase) through immobilization using agar-agar gel as a support.  

PubMed

Maltose degrading enzyme was immobilized within agar-agar support via entrapment method due to its industrial utilization. The maximum immobilization efficiency (82.77 %) was achieved using 4.0 % agar-agar keeping the diameter of bead up to 3.0 mm. The matrix entrapment showed maximum catalytic activity at pH 7.0 and temperature 65 °C. Substrate saturation kinetics showed that the K m of immobilized enzyme increased from 1.717 to 2.117 mM ml(-1) where as Vmax decreased from 8,411 to 7,450 U ml(-1 )min(-1) as compared to free enzyme. The immobilization significantly increased the stability of maltase against various temperatures and immobilized maltase retain 100 % of its original activity after 2 h at 50 °C, whereas the free maltase only showed 60 % residual activity under same condition. The reusability of entrapped maltase showed activity up to 12 cycles and retained 50 % of activity even after 5th cycle. Storage stability of agar entrapped maltase retain 73 % of its initial activity even after 2 months when stored at 30 °C while free enzyme showed only 37 % activity at same storage conditions. PMID:25326060

Nawaz, Muhammad Asif; Karim, Asad; Aman, Afsheen; Marchetti, Roberta; Qader, Shah Ali Ul; Molinaro, Antonio

2015-04-01

90

Introducing the Blues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the history of the blues and presents a list of resources that are designed to introduce the blues, both as a feeling and as an influential part of American music and culture. Includes picture books and nonfiction for young readers, nonfiction for older readers, Web sites, and compact disks. (LRW)

Sinclair, Bryan

2000-01-01

91

Blue Willow Story Plates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

Fontes, Kris

2009-01-01

92

On the properties of agar gel containing ionic and non-ionic surfactants.  

PubMed

Rheological and thermal properties of agar sol and gel in presence of various cationic, anionic and non-ionic surfactants are reported. The agar used was from the red seaweed Gelidiella acerosa. The gel strength, viscosity, rigidity (G'), gelling temperature and melting temperature were observed to decrease in presence of non-ionic surfactants whereas these were enhanced in presence of ionic surfactants. TGA studies showed that 1.5% agar gels containing non-ionic surfactants lose water at a lower temperature than the control agar gel whereas gels containing ionic surfactants hold on to water more tenaciously. DSC studies, on the other hand, show that the gel to sol transition occurs at lower temperatures in presence of non-ionic surfactants and at higher temperature in presence of ionic surfactants when compared with the control gel. The non-ionic surfactants, Triton X-100 and Brij 35, enabled relatively concentrated agar extractive to be filtered readily, as a result of which water usage in the process could be reduced by 50%. The surfactant was subsequently removed through freeze-thaw operations to restore the gelling capacity of the agar. The finding that 0.3-0.4% (w/v) sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) lowers the sol-gel transition temperature from 41 to 36 degrees C without adversely affecting gel strength is another useful outcome of the study that may enable better formulations of bacteriological agar to be prepared. PMID:15811467

Prasad, Kamalesh; Siddhanta, A K; Rakshit, A K; Bhattacharya, Amit; Ghosh, Pushpito K

2005-04-01

93

Membrane-assisted culture of fungal mycelium on agar plates for RNA extraction and pharmacological analyses.  

PubMed

Fungal mycelium grown in liquid culture is easy to harvest for RNA extraction and gene expression analyses, but liquid cultures often develop rather heterogeneously. In contrast, growth of fungal mycelium on agar plates is highly reproducible. However, this biological material cannot be harvested easily for downstream analyses. This article describes a PVDF (polyvinylidene difluoride) membrane-assisted agar plate culture method that enables the harvest of mycelium grown on agar plates. This culture method leads to a strongly reduced variation in gene expression between biological replicates and requires less growth space as compared with liquid cultures. PMID:24607793

Lange, Mario; Müller, Carolin; Peiter, Edgar

2014-05-15

94

Beautiful Blue Nile  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students learn about the Blue Nile and compare it to rivers in the United States. They discuss their experiences with rivers and what they think it would be like to travel down a river that rapidly descends from the mountains to the plains. After looking at a map of Ethiopia, students describe what they would see in the area around the Blue Nile. They will witness a demonstration of a river running over flat versus mountainous terrain and view photos of the Blue Nile to describe the terrain.

95

Blue Shark Adventure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, Jonathan joins Charlie Donilon on his shark charter boat in Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and learns about how shark tagging has shed light on the biology of and behavior of Blue sharks. Tagging has shown that these incredible swimmers actually migrate completely across the Atlantic ocean. Jonathan tries his hand at tagging a shark and then swims with Blue sharks. We also learn that Blue sharks are not nearly as vicious as they have been reputed to be, and the divers are actually able to pet the sharks! Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

2012-07-09

96

Growth of erythroid colonies in agar cultures of normal human bone marrow.  

PubMed

The use of methylcellulose (MC) gels or plasma clots, for the support of human erythropoiesis in vitro, is associated with several technical disadvantages. Substitution of soft agar offers the prospect of overcoming these difficulties. In comparative studies, normal human bone marrow cells were cultured with erythropoietin (Epo) in agar (0.1%-0.3%) and MC. Concentrations of 0.175% and 0.2% agar proved to be optimal with respect to the combination of cloning efficiency and colony density. Further morphological examination revealed that subcolony formation in erythroid 'bursts' was influenced by gel viscosity. In additional experiments, miniaturising the assay system, to 0.25 ml culture volumes, increased cloning efficiency and reduced Epo utilization. These results confirm and expand earlier observations, and support a preference for the general use of agar in human erythroid cell cultures. PMID:3978242

Barr, R D; Koekebakker, M; Rand, C A

1985-03-01

97

Preparation and characterization of dysprosium-neodymium modified magnetic fluid coated by agar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment used agar as a coating agent to manufacture dysprosium-neodymium modified water-based magnetic fluid coated by agar with the method of chemical co-precipitation when the two rare-earth element dysprosium and neodymium were precipitated with Fe3+ and Fe2+ together, which has high stability and a strong magnetic field. After the experimental research on all aspects of factors influencing the magnetic

Yuan Xing-hai; Liu Ru; Deng Yan-jun

2009-01-01

98

Comparison of microtiter broth dilution and agar dilution methods for susceptibility testing of Eikenella corrodens.  

PubMed

Eikenella corrodens is a slow-growing, capnophilic, gram-negative rod which often grows poorly in liquid media. Consequently, the agar dilution technique is the method of choice for susceptibility testing of E. corrodens. We report a new microtiter broth dilution method for susceptibility testing of E. corrodens which compared favorably with results obtained by the agar dilution technique. Minimal bactericidal concentrations correlated well with minimal inhibitory concentrations. PMID:6338819

Goldstein, E J; Cherubin, C E; Shulman, M

1983-01-01

99

Influence of agar gel properties on the in vitro micropropagation of different clones of Thuja plicata.  

PubMed

The influence of four agar-type polysaccharides, used as solidifying agents for culture media and differing in their sulfate content (0.14 to 10.95 % w/w), was tested on the budding and the elongation of five clones of Thuja plicata. Budding is reduced on the most sulfated polysaccharide and the differences observed between clones in elongation are as important as those observed between agar types. PMID:24221734

Pochet, B; Scoman, V; Mestdagh, M M; Moreau, B; Andre, P

1991-10-01

100

Transparent submicrometer grains alumina formed by gel casting using agar as gelling additive  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, transparent submicrometer grains alumina formed by gel casting using agar as gelling additive was investigated. Green bodies were obtained by mixing well- dispersed alumina slurries (65-75 wt.%) with agar solution (0.1-0.3 wt%) at 45°C and changed to gel on cooling. The density of green bodies ranging from 51-57 % was obtained. The density of bodies sintered

Soontorn Tansungnoen; Pavadee Aungkavattana; Shigetaka Wada

101

Antioxidation of agar oligosaccharides produced by agarase from a marine bacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to prepare the active agar oligosaccharide, agarase extracted from a strain of unidentified marine bacterium from the South China Sea coast was selected for the agar depolymerization. The optimum decomposing conditions were determined to be pH 7.0, 35 °C and halophilic properties 2%. Three main degraded products, AOS-1, AOS-2 and AOS-3, were separated by ethanol fractionation and anion

Jingxue Wang; Xiaolu Jiang; Haijin Mou; Huashi Guan

2004-01-01

102

Low density, microcellular, dopable, agar/gelatin foams for pulsed power experiments  

SciTech Connect

Low-density, microcellular foams prepared from the natural polymers agar and gelatin have been developed for pulsed-power physics experiments. Numerous experiments were supported with foams having densities at or below 10 mg/cm{sup 3}. For some of the experiments, the agar/gelatin foam was uniformly doped with metallic elements using soluble salts. Depending on the method of preparation, cell sizes were typically below 10 microns and for one process were below 1.0 micron.

McNamara, W.F. [Orion International Technologies, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aubert, J.H. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-04-01

103

Preparation, characterization, and in vitro gastrointestinal digestibility of oil-in-water emulsion-agar gels.  

PubMed

Soybean oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion-agar gel samples were prepared and their digestibility evaluated by using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. Emulsion-agar sols were obtained by mixing the prepared O/W emulsions with a 1.5 wt % agar solution at 60 °C, and their subsequent cooling at 5 °C for 1 h formed emulsion-agar gels. Their gel strength values increased with increasing degree of polymerization of the emulsifiers, and the relative gel strength increased in the case of droplets with an average diameter smaller than 700 nm. Flocculation and coalescence of the released emulsion droplets depended strongly on the emulsifier type; however, the emulsifier type hardly affected the ?-potential of emulsion droplets released from the emulsion-agar gels during in vitro digestion. The total FFA content released from each emulsion towards the end of the digestion period was nearly twice that released from the emulsion-agar gel, indicating that gelation of the O/W emulsion may have delayed lipid hydrolysis. PMID:23470750

Wang, Zheng; Neves, Marcos A; Kobayashi, Isao; Uemura, Kunihiko; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi

2013-01-01

104

Complex impedance and conductivity of agar-based ion-conducting polymer electrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agar-based electrolyte standing films with different salts and weak acids as ion and proton conductors were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectrophotometry, photoluminescence emission spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The salts used are lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) and potassium perchlorate (KClO4), while the weak acids used are acetic acid (CH3COOH) and lactic acid (C3H6O3). The values of the ion conductivity obtained for the agar-based polymer films are 6.54 × 10-8, 9.12 × 10-8, 3.53 × 10-8, 2.24 × 10-8 S/cm for the agar/acetic acid, agar/lactic acid, agar/LiClO4 and agar/KClO4 polymer films, respectively. As a function of temperature, the ion conductivity exhibits an Arrhenius behavior and the estimated activation energy is ?0.1 eV for all the samples. The samples depicted high values of dielectric permittivity toward low frequencies which is due mostly to electrode polarization effect. The samples showed very high transparency (85-98 %) in the visible region, and this high transparency is one of the major requirements for application in electrochromic devices (ECD). The values of conductivity and activation energy obtained indicate that the electrolytes are good materials for application in ECD.

Nwanya, A. C.; Amaechi, C. I.; Udounwa, A. E.; Osuji, R. U.; Maaza, M.; Ezema, F. I.

2015-04-01

105

Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts is an Independent Licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association Expanded Coverage for Preventive Care Under  

E-print Network

Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts is an Independent Licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue. Effect the New Rules Will Have on Members and Accounts Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts. Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts will offer the following services with no member cost share

Aalberts, Daniel P.

106

Evaluation of modified dichloran 18% glycerol (DG18) agar for enumerating fungi in wheat flour: a collaborative study.  

PubMed

Dichloran 18% glycerol agar base supplemented with 100 micrograms of chloramphenicol ml-1 (DG18 agar) was compared to DG18 agar supplemented with 100 micrograms of Triton X-301 ml-1 (DG18T) and DG18 agar supplemented with 1 microgram of iprodione [3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-N-(1-methyl-ethyl)-2,4-dioxo-1-imidazolidine- carboxamide] ml-1 (DG18I agar) for enumeration of fungi in ten brands of wheat flour. As the flours contained low fungal populations, all were inoculated with two to four strains of xerophilic fungi (Aspergillus candidus, A. penicillioides, Eurotium amstelodami, E. intermedium, E. repens, E. rubrum, E. tonophilum, E. umbrosum and Wallemia sebi), after which counts ranged from 3.87 to 6.37 log10 CFU g-1. Significantly higher populations (p < 0.05) were detected in four flours: three were on DG18T compared to DG18 and DG18I agar. A. candidus had been inoculated into all three flours. E. amstelodami, E. intermedium, E. repens or E. tonophilum had also been inoculated into at least one of the three flours showing significantly higher numbers of CFU on DG18T agar. Analysis of collapsed data from all samples showed that DG18T agar was significantly better than DG18 or DG18I agars at p < 0.10 but not at p < 0.05. Coefficients of variation for reproducibility (among-laboratory variation) were 8.4%, 7.5% and 8.6%, respectively, for DG18, DG18T and DG18I agars. DG18I agar restricted colony development most, especially for Eurotium species. Naturally occurring Penicillium species grew equally well on DG18 and DG18T agars, whereas W. sebi grew well on all three media. DG18T agar was judged to be superior to DG18 and DG18I agars for enumerating fungi in wheat flours. PMID:8796418

Beuchat, L R; Hwang, C A

1996-04-01

107

Production of microbial medium from defatted brebra (Milletia ferruginea) seed flour to substitute commercial peptone agar  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate and optimize microbial media that substitute peptone agar using brebra seed defatted flour. Methods 'Defatted process, inoculums preparation, evaluation of bacterial growth, preparation of cooked and hydrolyzed media and growth turbidity of tested bacteria were determined. Results Two percent defatted flour was found to be suitable concentration for the growth of pathogenic bacteria: Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Salmonella (NCTC 8385) and Shigella flexneri (ATCC 12022) (S. flexneri), while 3% defatted flour was suitable for Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) (S. aureus). E. coli (93±1) and S. flexneri (524±1) colony count were significantly (P?0.05) greater in defatted flour without supplement than in supplemented medium. E. coli [(3.72×109±2) CFU/mL], S. aureus [(7.4×109±2) CFU/mL], S. flexneri [(4.03×109±2) CFU/mL] and Salmonella [(2.37×109±1) CFU/mL] in non-hydrolyzed sample were statistically (P?0.05) greater than hydrolyzed one and commercial peptone agar. Colony count of Salmonella [(4.55×109±3) CFU/mL], S. flexneri [(5.40×109±3) CFU/mL] and Lyesria moncytogenes (ATCC 19116) [(5.4×109±3) CFU/mL] on raw defatted flour agar was significantly (P?0.05) greater than cooked defatted flour and commercial peptone agar. Biomass of E. coli, S. aureus, Salmonella and Enterococcus faecalis in non-hydrolyzed defatted flour is highly increased over hydrolyzed defatted flour and commercial peptone broth. Conclusions The defatted flour agar was found to be better microbial media or comparable with peptone agar. The substances in it can serve as sources of carbon, nitrogen, vitamins and minerals that are essential to support the growth of microorganisms without any supplements. Currently, all supplements of peptone agar are very expensive in the market. PMID:24075344

Andualem, Berhanu; Gessesse, Amare

2013-01-01

108

Susceptibility of Candida albicans to photodynamic therapy using methylene blue and toluidine blue as photosensitizing dyes.  

PubMed

The increased resistance of Candida albicans to antibiotic therapy indicates the need for alternative treatments for oral candidiasis. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been researched as an alternative tool to inactivate pathogenic microorganisms. It uses a combination of a photosensitizer and a visible light source. This study evaluated the susceptibility of C. albicans to PDT and compared the efficacy of 100 microg/mL methylene blue (MB) and toluidine blue (TB) as photosensitizers. The light source was Indium-Gallium-Aluminum Phosphide (InGaAIP) laser at 53 J/cm2. Suspensions of 108 cells/mL of C. albicans were subject to PDT for 5 minutes in 96-well plates, then decimal dilutions were plated on Sabouraud Dextrose agar After 48h incubation at 37 degreesC, the number of CFU/mL were obtained and submitted to statistical analysis using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, ANOVA (p<0.0001) and Tukey tests. The results showed that MB or laser irradiation alone did not have statistically significant antifungal activity compared to the positive control group (p> 0. 05). Conversely, the number of viable C. albicans cells was reduced significantly after PDT using MB or mainly TB associated to diode laser irradiation. The data proved the efficacy of PDT against C. albicans cells, regardless of the photosensitizer used. PMID:22165318

Pupo, Yasmine M; Gomes, Giovana M; Santos, Elizabete B; Chaves, Luzia; Michel, Milton D; Kozlowski, Vitoldo A; Gomes, Osnara M M; Gomes, Joãdo Carlos

2011-01-01

109

Characterization of bionanocomposite films prepared with agar and paper-mulberry pulp nanocellulose.  

PubMed

Crystallized nanocellulose (CNC) was separated from paper-mulberry (Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold) bast pulp by sulfuric acid hydrolysis method and they were blended with agar to prepare bionanocomposite films. The effect of CNC content (1, 3, 5 and 10 wt% based on agar) on the mechanical, water vapor permeability (WVP), and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were studied. Changes of the cellulose fibers in structure, morphology, crystallinity, and thermal properties of the films were evaluated using FT-IR, TEM, SEM, XRD, and TGA analysis methods. The CNC was composed of fibrous and spherical or elliptic granules of nano-cellulose with sizes of 50-60 nm. Properties of agar film such as mechanical and water vapor barrier properties were improved significantly (p<0.05) by blending with the CNC. The tensile modulus and tensile strength of agar film increased by 40% and 25%, respectively, in the composite film with 5 wt% of CNC, and the WVP of agar film decreased by 25% after formation of nanocomposite with 3 wt% of CNC. The CNC obtained from the paper-mulberry bast pulp can be used as a reinforcing agent for the preparation of bio-nanocomposites, and they have a high potential for the development of completely biodegradable food packaging materials. PMID:24906782

Reddy, Jeevan Prasad; Rhim, Jong-Whan

2014-09-22

110

IBM Research: Blue Gene  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home page of an IBM research and development project that is designing a supercomputer, called Blue Gene/L, capable of 200 trillion floating point operations per second. According to the Web site, this specification "is larger than the total computing power of the top 500 supercomputers in the world today." Working in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, IBM expects the project to be completed by 2005. There are a few publications and presentations given about the status of the project and its uses. There is also a fact sheet and several industry links about protein folding, which is the main application of Blue Gene/L.

111

New Blue Pigment Produced by Pantoea agglomerans and Its Production Characteristics at Various Temperatures ?  

PubMed Central

A bacterium capable of producing a deep blue pigment was isolated from the environment and identified as Pantoea agglomerans. The pigment production characteristics of the bacterium under various conditions were studied. The optimal agar plate ingredients for pigment production by the bacterium were first studied: the optimal ingredients were 5 g/liter glucose, 10 g/liter tryptic soy broth, and 40 g/liter glycerol at pH 6.4. Bacterial cells grew on the agar plate during the incubation, while the pigment spread into the agar plate, meaning that it is water soluble. Pigment production was affected by the initial cell density. Namely, at higher initial cell densities ranging from 106.3 to 108.2 CFU/cm2 on the agar plate, faster pigment production was observed, but no blue pigment was produced at a very high initial density of 109.1 CFU/cm2. Thus, the cell population of 108.2 CFU/cm2 was used for subsequent study. Although the bacterium was capable of growing at temperatures above and below 10°C, it could produce the pigment only at temperatures of ?10°C. Moreover, the pigment production was faster at higher temperatures in the range of 10 to 20°C. Pigment production at various temperature patterns was well described by a new logistic model. These results suggested that the bacterium could be used in the development of a microbial temperature indicator for the low-temperature-storage management of foods and clinical materials. To our knowledge, there is no other P. agglomerans strain capable of producing a blue pigment and the pigment is a new one of microbial origin. PMID:20971865

Fujikawa, Hiroshi; Akimoto, Ryo

2011-01-01

112

Multilaboratory comparison of anaerobe susceptibility results using 3 different agar media.  

PubMed

A 5-laboratory study was performed that used the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) reference agar dilution method with 3 media formulations to determine whether the use of different media would affect minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results. Wilkins-Chalgren, Brucella-based blood agar (BRU), and Wilkins-Chalgren agar plus blood (WCB) and 6 antibiotics (clindamycin, cefoxitin, ceftizoxime, piperacillin, metronidazole, and trovafloxacin) were evaluated with 58 isolates. The MIC values were compared, and a significant correlation of >0.80 was demonstrated for all media and each antibiotic/organism group. The cumulative rate of errors for all antibiotics was 0.1%. These data indicate that a change in the NCCLS reference medium for testing of anaerobic bacteria susceptibility to either BRU or WCB will not affect the MIC results for the antibiotics and organisms evaluated. PMID:12173107

Roe, D E; Finegold, S M; Citron, D M; Goldstein, E J C; Wexler, H M; Rosenblatt, J E; Cox, M E; Jenkins, S G; Hecht, D W

2002-09-01

113

Multilaboratory comparison of growth characteristics for anaerobes, using 5 different agar media.  

PubMed

A multilaboratory study compared the growth of 30 fastidious anaerobes, using 5 different agar media: Wilkins-Chalgren (WC), WC with either whole or laked sheep blood, and Brucella supplemented with vitamin K(1) and hemin and either laked or whole sheep blood. The media were compared for quality and quantity of growth. Experiments were conducted either entirely in an anaerobic chamber or inoculated in ambient air with anaerobic incubation. The results showed that (1) any medium plus whole or laked blood was better than unsupplemented WC, (2) whole blood and laked blood additives gave similar results, (3) supplemented Brucella with whole or laked blood was superior to WC and WC with whole or laked blood, and (4) anaerobic and aerobic inoculation with anaerobic incubation gave similar results. Brucella agar supplemented with whole or laked blood supports the growth of fastidious anaerobic species better than the WC agars do. PMID:12173106

Roe, D E; Finegold, S M; Citron, D M; Goldstein, E J C; Wexler, H M; Rosenblatt, J E; Cox, M E; Jenkins, S G; Hecht, D W

2002-09-01

114

Blue Mojito 7 Bacardi rum, mint & lime, blue curacao,  

E-print Network

Signature Cocktails Blue Mojito 7 Bacardi rum, mint & lime, blue curacao, simple syrup and seltzer juice, cucumber, mint and seltzer Eric's Royale 7 Crown Royal, cranberry juice, peach schnapps, sprite

Azevedo, Ricardo

115

Large Blue Butterflies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page deals with research being done on the parasitism of the "blue butterfly" group Maculinea. These species are well known for taking advantage of ants by chemically convincing ants that they are one of their own larvae. This page has some lovely photos, and a nice generalized life history table. Other links deal with aspects of the research including population genetics and communication.

0000-00-00

116

Blue Crab Education Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Information compiled by the Virginia Institute of Marine Science on the anatomy, life cycle, ecology, and fisheries of the blue crab. Data, research reports, and instructions on eating crabs are all available. Educational resources include lesson plans, teaching tools, and access to online publications. Site serves as an exceptional resource for both beginners and experts.

117

Blue honeysuckle list 47  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This manuscript summarizes descriptions for two newly released Lonicera caerulea L., blue honeysuckle, cultivars released for northern production. This fruit is popular in Russia and in Japan, particularly Hokkaido. It has possibility as a new fruit cultivar for North America. The University of Sask...

118

Great Blue Heron  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Great Blue Herons are found throughout much of North America, but are always associated with water. Because they fish by sight, they need relatively shallow water. Release of too much water through the canals north of the Everglades can interfere with their ability to find food....

119

The Blue Highway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Blue Highway is a collection of eleven literary short stories and ten miniatures that depict men in trouble, searching for a code to live by. The miniatures are repressed memories, appearing suddenly like the tips of ice bergs and act as stepping stones (tension bridges) between the larger works. The stories begin at the end with \\

David Oakley Ash

1996-01-01

120

Agar plate method for rapid screening of rhizobium for tolerance to acid-aluminum stress  

SciTech Connect

An agar plate method has been developed for the rapid, preliminary screening of large numbers of rhizobia for tolerance to acidity and aluminum (acid-Al). Media containing pH indicators are used, and distinguish true tolerance from cases where growth depends on a previous pH shift. Strains which were highly tolerant or sensitive to acid Al on agar behaved similarly in defined liquid media. Strains that formed dry, pinpoint colonies were more sensitive to acid-Al than those that formed large, gummy colonies.

Ayanaba, A.; Asanuma, S.; Munns, D.N.

1983-01-01

121

Antibiotic susceptibility testing (agar disk diffusion and agar dilution) of clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium: comparison of Mueller-Hinton, Iso-Sensitest, and Wilkins-Chalgren agar media.  

PubMed

Forty-two isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and 56 isolates of Enterococcus faecium, including 8 vancomycin-resistant strains, were examined for comparative susceptibility to 27 antimicrobial drugs with the agar dilution method, employing Mueller-Hinton (MHA), Iso-Sensitest (ISTA), and Wilkins-Chalgren (WCA) agar. The Bauer-Kirby agar disk diffusion method was used to comparatively test 24 of the agents in parallel. The enterococci yielded better growth on ISTA and WCA. However, WCA completely antagonized co-trimoxazole and, though less, fosfomycin. Importantly, WCA slightly reduced the activities of teicoplanin (minimal inhibitory concentrations, MICs, raised up to twofold) and vancomycin (MICs raised two- to fourfold) against enterococci and staphylococcal quality control strains. Therefore, WCA was judged unsuitable for susceptibility testing of enterococci. For E. faecalis no discrepancies between agar dilution MICs and inhibition zone diameters were encountered with augmentin, ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, chloramphenicol, mupirocin, oxacillin, teicoplanin, and co-trimoxazole. Overall, MHA yielded fewer very major (category I) and major (category II) discrepancies than ISTA. However, numerous minor (category III), slight (category IV), minimal (category V), and/or negligible (category VI) discrepancies were encountered with ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, erythromycin, fosfomycin, fusidic acid, meropenem, ofloxacin and rifampin. With respect to E. faecium, only cefotaxime, mupirocin, oxacillin, and teicoplanin yielded nondiscrepant results. Several very major (I) and major (II) discrepancies were observed with augmentin, ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, doxycycline, fusidic acid, imipenem, and penicillin G. Minor discrepancies (categories III-VI) were particularly numerous with augmentin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, and piperacillin. The largest numbers of negligible (VI) discrepancies were noted with fosfomycin, fusidic acid, and ofloxacin. It is recommended to test one cephalosporin (cefuroxime or the like) in parallel for educational purposes and to exclude fosfomycin, fusidic acid, and rifampin from test batteries because of the wide scatter of test results. The large number of minimal (V) discrepancies of ciprofloxacin against E. faecalis, the numerous minor (III) and slight (IV) discrepancies of chloramphenicol against E. faecium, and the not insignificant number of very major (I) and minor (III) discrepancies observed with meropenem against isolates of E. faecalis necessitated proposals for new disk intermediate susceptibility criteria. PMID:9681198

Traub, W H; Geipel, U; Leonhard, B

1998-01-01

122

Why is the Sky Blue?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This hands on lab helps explain why the color of our sky/upper atmosphere appears blue in color. Students will be able to simulate how light from the sun is scattered by our atmosphere to create blue light.

123

The Blue Whale, Balaenoptera musculus  

E-print Network

The Blue Whale, Balaenoptera musculus SALLY A. MIZROCH, DALE W. RICE, and JEFFREY M. BREIWICK Introduction The blue whale, Balaenoptera mus- culus (Linnaeus, 1758), is not only the largest of the whales metric tons (t) (Mackintosh, 1942). Blue whales are entirely bluish-gray in color, except for the white

124

Crater Lake Blue Through Time  

E-print Network

Crater Lake Blue Through Time Blue is the color of constancy, hence the term true blue. The unearthly blueness of Crater Lake reflects its pristine character and gives scientists a focal point the lake for the last two decades. Long-term monitoring of this lake is a priority of Crater Lake National

Torgersen, Christian

125

THE MICROGARDENING COOKBOOK, DIRECTIONS FOR PREPARING DISHES AND TUBES OF STERILE NUTRIENT AGAR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS BOOKLET WAS PREPARED FOR TEACHER USE IN ASSOCIATION WITH THE ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT "MICROGARDENING." IT CONTAINS DIRECTIONS FOR PREPARING CULTURE DISHES AND TUBES OF NUTRIENT STERILE AGAR FOR FUNGAL AND/OR BACTERIAL GROWTH. IT INCLUDES (1) LISTS OF NEEDED SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT, (2) DIRECTIONS FOR THE PREPARATION AND STERILIZATION OF…

CHANDLER, MARION N.

126

Hyperspectral image reconstruction using RGB color for foodborne pathogen detection on agar plates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper reports the latest development of a color vision technique for detecting colonies of foodborne pathogens grown on agar plates with a hyperspectral image classification model that was developed using full hyperspectral data. The hyperspectral classification model depended on reflectance sp...

127

Alternative plasticizers for the production of thermo-compressed agar films  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One percent agar (% wt) was dissolved in the deep eutectic solvent (DES), (2-hydroxyethyl) trimethylammonium chloride/urea at a 1:2 molar ratio, and successfully Electrospun into nanofibers. An existing electrospinning set-up, operated at 50 deg C, was adapted for use with an ethanol bath to collect...

128

Hydrogen production from tofu wastewater by Rhodobacter sphaeroides immobilized in agar gels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen production from the wastewater of tofu factory was examined by using anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides immobilized in agar gels. The maximum rate of hydrogen production observed from the wastewater was 2.1 l h?1 m2 gel which was even slightly higher than that from a glucose medium (as control). The hydrogen production lasted up to 50 h. The yield

Heguang Zhu; Tomoo Suzuki; Anatoly A Tsygankov; Yasuo Asada; Jun Miyake

1999-01-01

129

EFFECT OF IMPACT STRESS ON MICROBIAL RECOVERY ON AN AGAR SURFACE  

EPA Science Inventory

Microbial stress due to the impaction of microorganisms onto an agar collection surface was studied experimentally. he relative recovery rates of aerosolized Pseudomonas fluorescens and Micrococcus luteus were determined as a function of the impaction velocity by using a moving a...

130

Identification of an agar constituent responsible for hydric control in micropropagation of radiata pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue cultured Pinus radiata grown on media containing agar as the gelling agent display toxic symptoms and poor long-term shoot survival, however it does have the attribute of hydric control, through a mechanism which, until now, has not been elucidated. Gelrite as an alternative gelling agent is clearly non-toxic but results in hyperhydric (vitrified) tissues. In an effort to overcome

Beverley J. Nairn; Richard H. Furneaux; Thomas T. Stevenson

1995-01-01

131

Cresol Red Thallium Acetate Sucrose Inulin (CTSI) agar for the selective recovery of Carnobacterium spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carnobacterium spp. are commonly isolated from a variety of foods, especially from meats stored under anaerobic atmospheres at refrigeration temperatures, but the role of these organisms in the spoilage of meat and meat products is yet to be determined. Cresol Red Thallium Acetate Sucrose (CTAS) agar was developed as a selective medium for enumeration of carnobacteria, however problems such as

M. A. Wasney; R. A. Holley; D. S. Jayas

2001-01-01

132

MODIFIED AGAR MEDIUM FOR DETECTING ENVIRONMENTAL SALMONELLAE BY THE MOST-PROBABLE-NUMBER METHOD  

EPA Science Inventory

Salmonellae in the environment remain a potential source of disease. Low numbers of salmonellae have been detected and enumerated from environmental samples by most probable number methods that require careful colony selection from plated agar medium. A modified xylose lysine bri...

133

Development of hyperspectral imaging technique for salmonella enteritidis and typhimurium on agar plates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Salmonella is a common cause of foodborne disease resulting from the consumption of contaminated food products. Although a direct plating method is widely used for presumptive positive screening of pathogenic Salmonella colonies on agar plates, it is labor-intensive, time-consuming and also prone to...

134

Modified agar medium for detecting environmental salmonellae by the most-probable-number method.  

PubMed Central

Salmonellae in the environment remain a potential source of disease. Low numbers of salmonellae have been detected and enumerated from environmental samples by most-probable-number methods which require careful colony selection from a plated agar medium. A modified xylose lysine brilliant green medium was prepared to control the loss of selectivity caused by heating the brilliant green component. Added agar reduced colony spreading. The medium contained 47 g of xylose lysine agar base per liter; the agar content was adjusted to 2%, autoclaved, cooled to 50 degrees C, and then amended just before pouring to include H2S indicator and 7 ppm (7 ml of 1:1,000 brilliant green per liter) of unheated brilliant green dye. H2S-positive salmonellae were easily detected from sewage sludge compost to the exclusion of most other gram-negative bacteria. As a result, fewer non-salmonellae were picked for further most-probable-number analysis, greatly reducing the work load associated with the most-probable-number method. Direct plating was possible for enumerating salmonellae in laboratory composts containing ca. 10(3) or more salmonellae. PMID:6439119

Hussong, D; Enkiri, N K; Burge, W D

1984-01-01

135

Hyperspectral image reconstruction using RGB color for foodborne pathogen detection on agar plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the latest development of a color vision technique for detecting colonies of foodborne pathogens grown on agar plates with a hyperspectral image classification model that was developed using full hyperspectral data. The hyperspectral classification model depended on reflectance spectra measured in the visible and near-infrared spectral range from 400 and 1,000 nm (473 narrow spectral bands). Multivariate regression methods were used to estimate and predict hyperspectral data from RGB color values. The six representative non-O157 Shiga-toxin producing Eschetichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) were grown on Rainbow agar plates. A line-scan pushbroom hyperspectral image sensor was used to scan 36 agar plates grown with pure STEC colonies at each plate. The 36 hyperspectral images of the agar plates were divided in half to create training and test sets. The mean Rsquared value for hyperspectral image estimation was about 0.98 in the spectral range between 400 and 700 nm for linear, quadratic and cubic polynomial regression models and the detection accuracy of the hyperspectral image classification model with the principal component analysis and k-nearest neighbors for the test set was up to 92% (99% with the original hyperspectral images). Thus, the results of the study suggested that color-based detection may be viable as a multispectral imaging solution without much loss of prediction accuracy compared to hyperspectral imaging.

Yoon, Seung-Chul; Shin, Tae-Sung; Park, Bosoon; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Heitschmidt, Gerald W.

2014-03-01

136

EVALUATION OF M-T7 AGAR AS A FECAL COLIFORM MEDIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

The m-T/7 agar, designed to improve recoveries of injured total coliforms, was evaluated for its effectiveness as a fecal coliform medium. The time and temperature of preincubation were found to be crucial to the optimal recovery of fetal coliforms. Isolation rates for fecal coli...

137

Thallium toxicosis in a dog consequent to ingestion of Mycoplasma agar plates.  

PubMed

A 1-year-old dog ingested a mixture of blood agar and Mycoplasma agar plates. The Mycoplasma agar plates contained thallium acetate, which resulted in an estimated minimum dose of 5 mg thallium acetate/kg bodyweight. Clinical signs over the course of 2-3 weeks included vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss, alopecia, dysphonia, ataxia, paresthesia, intension tremors, megaesophagus with subsequent aspiration pneumonia, and several seizure episodes. The dog was treated with intravenous fluids and placement of a gastric feeding tube. Thallium concentrations in hair were 8.2 µg/g in samples taken on day 19, 16.4 µg/g in samples taken 3 months after exposure, 13.4 µg/g in samples taken 5 months after exposure, and nondetectable in samples taken 7 months after exposure. The blood thallium concentration was 190 µg/l on day 19 and nondetec table 3 months after exposure. Megaesophagus and dysphonia continued for 10 months after exposure. This case of thallium poisoning following ingestion of mycoplasma agar plates demonstrates that unusual sources of thallium still exist and suggests that thallium toxicosis should be included in the list of differential diagnoses in dogs presented with megaesophagus, especially if alopecia and other unexplained peripheral neuropathies are present. Hair and blood samples are useful specimens to reach an accurate diagnosis even if taken several weeks post exposure. The postexposure blood and hair thallium concentrations reported in this case are useful data for diagnosticians investigating dogs with potential thallium poisoning. PMID:22362959

Puschner, Birgit; Basso, Marguerite M; Graham, Thomas W

2012-01-01

138

Automated agar plate streaker: a linear plater on Society for Biomolecular Sciences standard plates.  

PubMed

Several protocols for bacterial isolation and techniques for aerobic plate counting rely on the use of a spiral plater to deposit concentration gradients of microbial suspensions onto a circular agar plate to isolate colony growth. The advantage of applying a gradient of concentrations across the agar surface is that the original microbiological sample can be applied at a single concentration rather than as multiple serial dilutions. The spiral plater gradually dilutes the sample across a compact area and therefore saves time preparing dilutions and multiple agar plates. Commercial spiral platers are not automated and require manual sample loading. Dispensing of the sample volume and rate of gradients are often very limited in range. Furthermore, the spiral sample application cannot be used with rectangular microplates. Another limitation of commercial spiral platers is that they are useful only for dilute, filtered suspensions and cannot plate suspensions of coarse organic particles therefore precluding the use of many kinds of microorganism-containing substrata. An automated agar plate spreader capable of processing 99 rectangular microplates in unattended mode is described. This novel instrument is capable of dispensing discrete volumes of sample in a linear pattern. It can be programmed to dispense a sample suspense at a uniform application rate or across a decreasing concentration gradient. PMID:16844965

King, Gregory W; Kath, Gary S; Siciliano, Sal; Simpson, Neal; Masurekar, Prakash; Sigmund, Jan; Polishook, Jon; Skwish, Stephen; Bills, Gerald; Genilloud, Olga; Peláez, Fernando; Martín, Jesus; Dufresne, Claude

2006-09-01

139

The effect of copper on the growth of wood-rotting fungi and a blue-stain fungus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of copper (II) ions on the growth of three brown-rot fungi, six white-rot fungi and one blue-stain fungus in solid\\u000a medium was evaluated. The fungi were grown in malt extract agar with different concentrations of copper added, and the radial\\u000a growth rate was determined. At the end of the incubation period, the mycelial biomass and the media pH

Yudith Guillén; Ángela Machuca

2008-01-01

140

The Blue Emu  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary goal in designing the Blue Emu was to provide an airline with a cost efficient and profitable means of transporting passengers between the major cities in Aeroworld. The design attacks the market where a demand for inexpensive transportation exists and for this reason the Blue Emu is an attractive investment for any airline. In order to provide a profitable aircraft, special attention was paid to cost and economics. For example, in manufacturing, simplicity was stressed in structural design to reduce construction time and cost. Aerodynamic design employed a tapered wing which reduced the induced drag coefficient while also reducing the weight of the wing. Even the propulsion system was selected with cost effectiveness in mind, yet also to maintain the marketability of the aircraft. Thus, in every aspect of the design, consideration was given to economics and marketability of the final product.

Descalzi, Doug; Gillett, John; Gordon, Carlton; Keener, ED; Novak, Ken; Puente, Laura

1993-01-01

141

National Geographic: Blue Whales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a cameraman leans in to get a shot of a blue whale, this massive creature glides through the water off of Costa Rica. That's the opening photograph that visitors to this interactive article from National Geographic are presented with, and it's a rather amazing image. This interactive article and feature is derived from a March 2009 feature in the print edition of National Geographic magazine, and it features the photography of Flip Nicklin and the writing of Ken Brower. The article offers an in-depth look into the recovery of the blue whale population off the coast of Costa Rica in recent years, and along the way visitors can stop off to take a look at a special photo gallery, take a quiz on these remarkable creatures, and also watch a video the provides the story behind one of Nicklin's photographs.

Brower, Ken

142

Blue Sky Innovation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chicago Tribune has broken new ground with this ambitious initiative to gather news, analysis, and events related to innovation and entrepreneurship. As the site indicates, "Blue Sky informs, inspires and connects an audience that looks at businessâ?¦in new ways." Visitors can get started by looking over the short-form news stories on the homepage. Recent pieces have covered the curious barge built by Google, the financial stability of Groupon, and the transformation of event planning via mobile apps. Visitors can look over the event calendar, which brings together information about ongoing activities such as mobile app contests and networking events. The Innovation Hub area is a good place to look around, as it features content gathered from organizations recognized for expertise in the field of innovation. Finally, visitors can sign up to receive updates from Blue Sky via Facebook, Google+, or email.

143

Blue Crab Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This easy to navigate and well-written site is packed with information and excellent photos about the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) and its fishery. Biology section covers: species profile, anatomy, life cycle, reproduction, larval development, life cycle and more. Industry and trade section includes recipes and tips for catching or buying hard and soft shell crabs, and fishery information. Also offers news, discussion forum, links, a glossary, and reference lists.

144

Voyager 1 'Blue Movie'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the original Voyager 'Blue Movie' (so named because it was built from Blue filter images). It records the approach of Voyager 1 during a period of over 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storms shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

2000-01-01

145

The effect of mixing conditions on the material properties of an agar gel—microstructural and macrostructural considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of mixing on the properties of agar gels was investigated with consideration being given to both macrostructural and microstructural characteristics of the gel through rheological techniques that include conventional and ultrasound based methods and Differential Scanning Calorimetry.Agar gels of 1 and 3% concentrations were prepared. The gels were subjected to three different mixing conditions: no mix, slow mix

K. A. Ross; L. J. Pyrak-Nolte; O. H. Campanella

2006-01-01

146

Differentiating non-0157:H7 STEC serogroups from ground beef plated on agar media by hyperspetral imaging  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction: The development of an assay to detect and confirm a positive non-O157:H7 isolate is challenging when mixed morphologically results are obtained from the serogroups growing on Rainbow agar. Rainbow agar is only claimed by the manufacturer to be very specific for E.coli O157:H7 strain...

147

The Blue Marble  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This spectacular Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 'blue marble' image is based on the most detailed collection of true-color imagery of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Most of the information contained in this image came from MODIS, illustrating MODIS' outstanding capacity to act as an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of this image is based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the satellite's view on any single day. Global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data was used to simulate the ocean surface. MODIS doesn't measure 3-D features of the Earth, so the surface observations were draped over topographic data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center. MODIS observations of polar sea ice were combined with observations of Antarctica made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's AVHRR sensor-the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The cloud image is a composite of two days of MODIS imagery collected in visible light wavelengths and a third day of thermal infra-red imagery over the poles. A large collection of imagery based on the blue marble in a variety of sizes and formats, including animations and the full (1 km) resolution imagery, is available at the Blue Marble page. Image by Reto Stockli, Render by Robert Simmon. Based on data from the MODIS Science Team

2002-01-01

148

Compatibilization of HDPE/agar biocomposites with eutectic-based ionic liquid containing surfactant  

E-print Network

In this research, eutectic-based ionic liquid specifically choline chloride/glycerol was prepared at a 1:2 mole ratio. The choline chloride/glycerol was added with the different content of surfactant (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide). The choline chloride/glycerol-hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide was introduced into high-density polyethylene/agar biocomposites through melt mixing. The mechanical testing results indicated that the impact strength and tensile extension of the biocomposites increased with the introduction of the choline chloride/glycerol-hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. The scanning electron microscope, differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analysis results exhibited that significant decrease in the number of agar fillers pull-out, melting point and thermal decomposition temperatures of the biocomposites are also due to the choline chloride/glycerol-hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. The Fourier transform infrared spectra and X-ray diffractometer patterns of the bioc...

Shamsuri, AA; Zainudin, ES; Tahir, PM

2014-01-01

149

Blue emitting undecaplatinum clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents.A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of experimental procedures, instrumentation, chromatogram of the crude cluster; SEM/EDAX, DLS, PXRD, TEM, FT-IR, and XPS of the isolated Pt11 cluster; UV/Vis, MALDI MS and SEM/EDAX of isolated 2 and 3; and 195Pt NMR of the K2PtCl6 standard. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02778g

Chakraborty, Indranath; Bhuin, Radha Gobinda; Bhat, Shridevi; Pradeep, T.

2014-07-01

150

Interactions among ammonia fungi on MY agar medium with varying pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five early-phase ammonia fungi (EP fungi) – Amblyosporium botrytis, Ascobolus denudatus, Peziza moravecii, Pseudombrophila petrakii, Coprinopsis phlyctidospora, and Tephrocybe tesquorum, and one late-phase ammonia fungus (LP fungus), Hebeloma vinosophyllum – were co-cultured on malt extract-yeast extract agar media at pH 5.5, 7.0, 8.0, and 9.0. The co-cultures among the early-stage\\u000a EP fungi Amblyosporium botrytis, Ascobolus denudatus, Peziza moravecii, and Pseudombrophila

Dinah Corazon M. Licyayo; Akira Suzuki; Masahiro Matsumoto

2007-01-01

151

Enhancing bioaerosol sampling by Andersen impactors using mineral-oil-spread agar plate.  

PubMed

As a bioaerosol sampling standard, Andersen type impactor is widely used since its invention in 1950s, including the investigation of the anthrax attacks in the United States in 2001. However, its related problems such as impaction and desiccation stress as well as particle bounce have not been solved. Here, we improved its biological collection efficiencies by plating a mineral oil layer (100 µL) onto the agar plate. An Andersen six-stage sampler and a BioStage impactor were tested with mineral-oil-spread agar plates in collecting indoor and outdoor bacterial and fungal aerosols. The effects of sampling times (5, 10 and 20 min) were also studied using the BioStage impactor when sampling environmental bioaerosols as well as aerosolized Bacillus subtilis (G+) and Escherichia coli (G-). In addition, particle bounce reduction by mineral-oil-plate was also investigated using an optical particle counter (OPC). Experimental results revealed that use of mineral-oil-spread agar plate can substantially enhance culturable bioaerosol recoveries by Andersen type impactors (p-values<0.05). The recovery enhancement was shown to depend on bioaerosol size, type, sampling time and environment. In general, more enhancements (extra 20%) were observed for last stage of the Andersen six-stage samplers compared to the BioStage impactor for 10 min sampling. When sampling aerosolized B. subtilis, E. coli and environmental aerosols, the enhancement was shown to increase with increasing sampling time, ranging from 50% increase at 5 min to ?100% at 20 min. OPC results indicated that use of mineral oil can effectively reduce the particle bounce with an average of 66% for 10 min sampling. Our work suggests that enhancements for fungal aerosols were primarily attributed to the reduced impaction stress, while for bacterial aerosols reduced impaction, desiccation and particle bounce played major roles. The developed technology can readily enhance the agar-based techniques including those high volume portable samplers for bioaerosol monitoring. PMID:23460818

Xu, Zhenqiang; Wei, Kai; Wu, Yan; Shen, Fangxia; Chen, Qi; Li, Mingzhen; Yao, Maosheng

2013-01-01

152

Comparison of the E Test and Agar Dilution Method for Antimicrobial Suceptibility Testing of Helicobacter pylori  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  A multicentre study was carried out in order to validate the E test in comparison with the reference agar dilution method\\u000a for testing the susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and metronidazole. Ten clinical isolates and one control collection isolate (Helicobacter pylori ATCC 43504) were tes\\u000a \\u000a ted blindly at four centres according to a uniform methodology. The E test

Y. Glupczynski; N. Broutet; A. Cantagrel; L. Andersen; T. Alarcon; M. López-Brea; F. Mégraud

2002-01-01

153

Co-precipitation with PVP and Agar to Improve Physicomechanical Properties of Ibuprofen  

PubMed Central

Objective(s) : Ibuprofen is a problematic drug in tableting due to its viscoelastic properties. Additionally its high cohesivity results in low flowability. In this study, co-precipitation of ibuprofen with varying concentration of agar and PVP to optimize properties of Ibuprofen was carried out. Materials and Methods: Co-precipitates of ibuprofen- PVP or agar were prepared by solvent evaporation technique under vacuum condition. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X -ray diffraction of powder (XRDP) and FT-IR spectroscopy were used to investigate the solid state characteristics of the co-precipitates. The dissolution behavior, flowability, particle size and compaction properties of various batches were also studied. Results: Co-precipitation of drug with agar led to a change in habit from needle to plate shape crystals, while drug –PVP co-precipitates had agglomerated structure and consisted of numerous crystals which had been aggregated together. The co-precipitates showed improved flow properties compared with ibuprofen alone. Precipitation of ibuprofen with these additives led to modification in the dissolution of the drug. Agar in 1% w/w improved slightly the dissolution rate of drug while PVP had a negative impact and led to reduction in the dissolution rate of drug to less than that of pure drug. The all obtained co-precipitates exhibited significantly improved tableting behavior compared with drug crystals alone. This may be due to this fact that, the polymer covering the drug particles increases and changes the nature of the surface area available for interparticulate bonds between particles. DSC, XRDP and FT-IR experiments showed that drug particles, in co-precipitates samples, did not undergo polymorphic modifications. Conclusion: The study highlights the influence of polymeric additives on crystallization process leading to modified performance. PMID:24250942

Maghsoodi, Maryam; Kiafar, Farhad

2013-01-01

154

Influence of agar gel properties on the in vitro micropropagation of different clones of Thuja plicata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of four agar-type polysaccharides, used as solidifying agents for culture media and differing in their sulfate content (0.14 to 10.95 % w\\/w), was tested on the budding and the elongation of five clones of Thuja plicata. Budding is reduced on the most sulfated polysaccharide and the differences observed between clones in elongation are as important as those observed

B. Pochet; V. Scoman; M. M. Mestdagh; B. Moreau; P. Andre

1991-01-01

155

Draft genome sequence of an agar-degrading marine bacterium Flammeovirga pacifica WPAGA1.  

PubMed

Flammeovirga pacifica WPAGA1(T), which was isolated from sediment of the west Pacific Ocean in 2009 has the ability to produce agar-oligosaccharides from Gracilaria lemaneiformis directly by enzyme-degradation. The draft genome sequence of this strain was sequenced and annotated. Its draft genome contained 6,507,364bp with a G+C content of 33.8%. Genome sequence information provided a basis for analyzing the digestion of G. lemaneiformis. PMID:25526668

Chan, Zhuhua; Wang, Runping; Liu, Shenglong; Zhao, Chungui; Yang, Suping; Zeng, Runying

2015-04-01

156

Co-precipitation with PVP and Agar to Improve Physicomechanical Properties of Ibuprofen  

PubMed Central

Objective(s) : Ibuprofen is a problematic drug in tableting due to its viscoelastic properties. Additionally its high cohesivity results in low flowability. In this study, co-precipitation of ibuprofen with varying concentration of agar and PVP to optimize properties of Ibuprofen was carried out. Materials and Methods: Co-precipitates of ibuprofen- PVP or agar were prepared by solvent evaporation technique under vacuum condition. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X -ray diffraction of powder (XRDP) and FT-IR spectroscopy were used to investigate the solid state characteristics of the co-precipitates. The dissolution behavior, flowability, particle size and compaction properties of various batches were also studied. Results: Co-precipitation of drug with agar led to a change in habit from needle to plate shape crystals, while drug –PVP co-precipitates had agglomerated structure and consisted of numerous crystals which had been aggregated together. The co-precipitates showed improved flow properties compared with ibuprofen alone. Precipitation of ibuprofen with these additives led to modification in the dissolution of the drug. Agar in 1% w/w improved slightly the dissolution rate of drug while PVP had a negative impact and led to reduction in the dissolution rate of drug to less than that of pure drug. The all obtained co-precipitates exhibited significantly improved tableting behavior compared with drug crystals alone. This may be due to this fact that, the polymer covering the drug particles increases and changes the nature of the surface area available for interparticulate bonds between particles. DSC, XRDP and FT-IR experiments showed that drug particles, in co-precipitates samples, did not undergo polymorphic modifications. Conclusion: The study highlights the influence of polymeric additives on crystallization process leading to modified performance. PMID:24250936

Maghsoodi, Maryam; Kiafar, Farhad

2013-01-01

157

The Use of Agar Nutrient Solution to Simulate Lack of Convection in Waterlogged Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agar at 0.1% in nutrient solution (‘stagnant solution’) was used to prevent turbulence (convection), thus simulating the slow gas movements which occur in waterlogged soils. Wheat, aged between 6 and 16 d at the start of the treatment, was used to test plant growth and development in this stagnant solution for 8–15 d. K-MES buffer at 5 mol m?3was used

AMARA WIENGWEERA; HANK GREENWAY; CAMPBELL J. THOMSON

1997-01-01

158

Cavitation-enhanced delivery of insulin in agar and porcine models of human skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasound-assisted transdermal insulin delivery offers a less painful and less invasive alternative to subcutaneous insulin injections. However, ultrasound-based drug delivery, otherwise known as sonophoresis, is a highly variable phenomenon, in part dependent on cavitation. The aim of the current work is to investigate the role of cavitation in transdermal insulin delivery. Fluorescently stained, soluble Actrapid insulin was placed on the surface of human skin-mimicking materials subjected to 265?kHz, 10% duty cycle focused ultrasound. A confocally and coaxially aligned 5?MHz broadband ultrasound transducer was used to detect cavitation. Two different skin models were used. The first model, 3% agar hydrogel, was insonated with a range of pressures (0.25–1.40?MPa peak rarefactional focal pressure—PRFP), with and without cavitation nuclei embedded within the agar at a concentration of 0.05% w/v. The second, porcine skin was insonated at 1.00 and 1.40?MPa PRFP. In both models, fluorescence measurements were used to determine penetration depth and concentration of delivered insulin. Results show that in agar gel, both insulin penetration depth and concentration only increased significantly in the presence of inertial cavitation, with up to a 40% enhancement. In porcine skin the amount of fluorescent insulin was higher in the epidermis of those samples that were exposed to ultrasound compared to the control samples, but there was no significant increase in penetration distance. The results underline the importance of instigating and monitoring inertial cavitation during transdermal insulin delivery.

Feiszthuber, Helga; Bhatnagar, Sunali; Gyöngy, Miklós; Coussios, Constantin-C.

2015-03-01

159

New agar microspheres for the separation and purification of natural products.  

PubMed

A new type of agar chromatography media has been prepared with a yield over 80% using a water-in-oil emulsion technique. These microspheres have regular spherical shapes and particle diameters in the range 40-165 ?m (average ?90 ?m). Cross-linking of the resulting agar microspheres with epichlorohydrin and 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether enhanced their mechanical and thermal stability. The alkaline conditions used during the cross-linking reaction also decreased the content of ionized sulfate groups of the polysaccharide, thus reducing the nonspecific adsorption of positively charged molecules. The cross-linked agar microspheres were functionalized with (i) branched poly(ethyleneimine) to obtain a stationary phase useful for the separation of proteins in an anion-exchange mode and (ii) with poly-?-cyclodextrin enabling direct isolation and purification of puerarin from a crude extract of Radix puerariae. Using a 23.5 mL column loaded with 20 mg extract (0.85 mg/mL gel), puerarin with a purity of 96% was recovered with a yield of 86%. PMID:25156195

Ge, Chunling; Hu, Yu; Zhang, Fan; Lv, Yongqin; Tan, Tianwei

2014-11-01

160

Alternative plasticizers for the production of thermo-compressed agar films.  

PubMed

Agar films were produced by thermo-compression using choline chloride (ChCl) as a plasticizer with urea. The three solid components were mixed together with the salt and urea (minor components) added to agar (main component) according to a fixed mass ratio of, respectively, 1.16:1:5. A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) with three parameters, 2(3), was used to evaluate the effects of temperature (X1; °C), time (X2; min) and applied load (X3; kN) of heat-pressing on the maximum tensile strength (TS) of the films (Y; MPa). Mixtures of urea and agar prepared at a mass ratio of 1:5 did not form homogeneous films suggesting the important plasticizing role of the salt. Heat-pressing the mixtures at more draconian conditions led to much darker and opaque films, with better mechanical resistance (higher values of TS). The most resistant film (?15MPa) was obtained at 140°C, 20min and 176kN. Selected films, including the optimal, showed similar water sorption profiles and close values of water vapor permeability (?2.5-3.7×10(-9)gm(-1)s(-1)Pa(-1)). The fracture behavior and mechanical properties of the films were greatly affected by additional water plasticization when the films were stored at different conditions of relative humidity. PMID:25727746

Sousa, Ana M M; Souza, Hiléia K S; Liu, LinShu; Gonçalves, Maria P

2015-05-01

161

A supplemented soft agar chemotaxis assay demonstrates the Helicobacter pylori chemotactic response to zinc and nickel  

PubMed Central

Directed motility, or chemotaxis, is required for Helicobacter pylori to establish infection in the stomach, although the full repertoire of this bacterium’s chemotactic responses is not yet known. Here we report that H. pylori responds to zinc as an attractant and nickel as a repellent. To reach this conclusion, we employed both a temporal chemotaxis assay based on bacterial reversals and a supplemented soft agar spatial assay. We refined the temporal assay using a previously described chemorepellent, acid, and found that H. pylori requires rich media with serum to maintain optimal swimming motility. Surprisingly, we found that some strains respond to acid as an attractant, and that the TlpC chemoreceptor correlated with whether acid was sensed as an attractant or repellent. Using this same assay, we detected weak repellent responses to nickel and copper, and a varied response to zinc. We thus developed an alternative spatial chemotactic assay called the supplemented soft agar assay, which utilizes soft agar medium supplemented with the test compound. With Escherichia coli, the attractant serine slowed overall bacterial migration, while the repellent nickel increased the speed of overall migration. In H. pylori we detected slowed migration with doubled tryptone media, as well as zinc, consistent with an attractant response. In contrast, nickel increased migration, consistent with repulsion. PMID:23139399

Sanders, Lisa; Andermann, Tessa M.

2013-01-01

162

Selective isolation of Pseudomonas stutzeri from vertebrate faeces on Rambach agar.  

PubMed

Faecal samples collected from 308 wild birds of 25 species and 19 rodents of 3 species in South Moravia (Czechland) were pre-incubated in Müller-Kauffmann tetrathionate broth at 42 degrees C for 24 h and then streaked onto Rambach agar plates which were incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 h. Seventeen out of 22 isolates forming orange-red colonies on Rambach agar were identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri, the rest as Pseudomonas sp. and Alcaligenes sp. The colonies of P. stutzeri were either dry, wrinkled and adherent to the agar (resembling Bacillus) or smooth, less adherent (mimicking Salmonella). P. stutzeri was recovered from five species of vertebrates caught in farmland habitats: the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), the tree sparrow (P. montanus), the great warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus), the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and the common vole (Microtus arvalis). The overall isolation rate was 4.5% in birds (12.6% in house sparrows) and 15.8% in rodents. The procedure can be useful for the isolation of P. stutzeri in clinical and environmental studies. PMID:9861678

Hubálek, Z; Pácová, Z; Halouzka, J; Sedlácek, I; Dlouhý, M; Honza, M

1998-11-01

163

AgarTrap-mediated genetic transformation using intact gemmae/gemmalings of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L.  

PubMed

The dioecious liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha L., is an emerging model plant. Various molecular biological techniques have been optimized for M. polymorpha for the past several years, and recently we reported a simplified Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method using sporelings (immature thalli from spores) of M. polymorpha. This method, termed AgarTrap (Agar-utilized Transformation with Pouring Solutions), completed by exchanging appropriate solutions on a single Petri dish to produce a sufficient number of independent transgenic sporelings. However, because spores are produced by crosses between males and females, the genetic backgrounds of resulting transgenic sporelings are not uniform. To easily produce transgenic liverworts with a uniform genetic background using AgarTrap, we developed an AgarTrap-mediated transformation method using intact gemmae/gemmalings produced by asexual reproduction. Using AgarTrap with male and female gemmae/gemmalings produced a sufficient number of independent transgenic gemmalings with uniform genetic backgrounds. The optimized transformation efficiencies were approximately 30 and 50 % in males and females, respectively. As with AgarTrap using sporelings, AgarTrap using intact gemmae/gemmalings will be useful in promoting studies of the molecular biology of M. polymorpha. PMID:25663453

Tsuboyama-Tanaka, Shoko; Kodama, Yutaka

2015-03-01

164

DENTAL INSURANCE ANTHEM BLUE CROSS AND BLUE SHIELD  

E-print Network

- 28 - DENTAL INSURANCE ANTHEM BLUE CROSS AND BLUE SHIELD Your two choices are: After enrollment, you will receive a combined medical/dental membership card. It will be mailed to your home. Premium Payments To assist in reducing your insurance premium costs, your share of dental insurance premiums can

165

75 FR 65525 - Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Training Administration [TA-W-74,327] Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations...applicable to workers and former workers of Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services,...

2010-10-25

166

Melanoma and satellite blue papule  

PubMed Central

The colors that are seen in dermoscopy depend on the anatomic level of the skin at which the chromophores are seen. Blue color can be found in a variety of melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions. An 89-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of a slow-growing, hyperpigmented patch located on the distal third of the right arm. Dermoscopy showed an atypical network, irregularly distributed globules, pigmented internal streaks and a milky-red area. Based on these findings a diagnosis of slow-growing malignant melanoma was made. Simultaneously, a well-defined blue papule was seen on the proximal third of the same arm. Dermoscopy disclosed a homogeneous blue pattern. After clinical and dermoscopic correlation our differential diagnosis for this blue lesion included cutaneous melanoma metastasis, blue nevus and foreign body reaction. The patient recalled its onset 75 years ago after a grenade explosion. We also discuss the blue lesion appearance under reflectance confocal microscopy and high-definition optical coherence tomography. Histopathological examination after excision of the hyperpigmented patch and blue papule revealed a melanoma in situ and a foreign body reaction, respectively. The diagnostic evaluation of a blue lesion should always rely on the integration of all data, especially clinical and dermoscopic features. Other non-invasive techniques, like reflectance confocal microscopy and high-definition optical coherence tomography can also be important aids for its differential diagnosis. PMID:25126462

Oliveira, André; Arzberger, Edith; Massone, Cesare; Zalaudek, Iris; Fink-Puches, Regina; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer

2014-01-01

167

MICROAEROPHILIC BACTERIAL BIOMASS MEASUREMENTS BASED ON ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE AND DIRECT COUNTING TECHNIQUES IN A SEMISOLID AGAR COLUMN BIOMASA BACTERIANA MICROAEROFÍLICA CALCULADA POR LAS TÉCNICAS DE ADENOSINA TRIFOSFATO Y DE CONTEO DIRECTO EN UNA COLUMNA DE AGAR SEMISÓLIDO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microaerophilic-diazotrophic bacterial biomass was measured by Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) extraction and direct counting\\/biovolume techniques. Microaerophilic bacterial growth in a semi-solid agar column is visible in the form of sharp, well-defined growth rings at different depths within the column according to oxygen requirements. The microaerophilic zone is found between 3 and 15 mm below the agar surface, where the dissolved oxygen

Armand Bianchi

2000-01-01

168

Taxonomical and technological characteristics of Saccharomyces spp. associated with blue veined cheese.  

PubMed

In blue veined cheeses, the dominant yeast species in most cases is Debaryomyces hansenii. Saccharomyces spp. occurs less frequently, but they can be found in some blue veined cheeses. In the present study, the taxonomy of Saccharomyces spp. associated to blue veined cheeses was studied and comparisons made to type strains of Saccharomyces spp. and starter cultures of Saccharomyces spp. used in other food fermentations. Phenotypically, the cheese strains were referred to the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex and were further identified as S. cerevisiae. Genotypically, the Saccharomyces spp. investigated were similar although chromosomal polymorphism were observed. Concerning the technological characteristics, they were similar in assimilation and fermentation of the residual sugars and organic acids naturally found in cheese. The investigated yeasts were also similar in their lipolytic activity being able to hydrolyse tributyrin and low chain (C:8), but not C:14 fatty acids. However, they differed in their tolerance to NaCl with the blue cheese strains showing a higher tolerance. The cheese strain S. cerevisiae FB 7 was the only yeast capable of degrading casein. It mainly degraded the alpha(s1)-casein and the beta(alpha2)-casein components. It was also the only isolate stimulating the development of Penicillium roqueforti in cheese agar imitating the conditions in blue veined cheese. The stimulation of P. roqueforti was most pronounced for the least proteolytic strain of P. roqueforti examined. PMID:11589561

Hansen, T K; Jakobsen, M

2001-09-19

169

Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The WebWare molecules of the month for May are featured in several articles in this issue. "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?" discusses the pharmaceutical uses of methylene blue and its development as the first synthetic drug used against a specific disease. The JCE Classroom Activity "Out of the Blue" and the article "Greening the Blue Bottle" feature methylene blue and ascorbic acid as two key ingredients in the formulation of the blue bottle. You can also see a colorful example of these two molecules in action on the cover. "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist" describes an experiment to determine the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of citrus fruits and challenges students, as eighteenth-century sea captains, to decide the best fruit to take on a long voyage.

170

Draft Genome Sequence of the Agar-Degrading Bacterium Catenovulum sp. Strain DS-2, Isolated from Intestines of Haliotis diversicolor  

PubMed Central

Catenovulum sp. strain DS-2, isolated from intestines of Haliotis diversicolor, is able to degrade agar and produce agaro-oligosaccharides. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Catenovulum sp. strain DS-2. PMID:24604650

Shan, Dapeng; Li, Xu; Gu, Zheng; Wei, Guangshan; Gao, Zheng

2014-01-01

171

Draft Genome Sequence of the Agar-Degrading Bacterium Catenovulum sp. Strain DS-2, Isolated from Intestines of Haliotis diversicolor.  

PubMed

Catenovulum sp. strain DS-2, isolated from intestines of Haliotis diversicolor, is able to degrade agar and produce agaro-oligosaccharides. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Catenovulum sp. strain DS-2. PMID:24604650

Shan, Dapeng; Li, Xu; Gu, Zheng; Wei, Guangshan; Gao, Zheng; Shao, Zongze

2014-01-01

172

Preparation of an agar-silver nanoparticles (A-AgNp) film for increasing the shelf-life of fruits.  

PubMed

Preparation of protective coating possessing antimicrobial properties is present day need as they increase the shelf life of fruits and vegetables. In the present study, preparation of agar-silver nanoparticle film for increasing the shelf life of fruits is reported. Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) biosynthesised using an extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves, were mixed with agar-agar to prepare an agar-silver nanoparticles (A-AgNp) film. This film was surface-coated over the fruits, Citrus aurantifolium (Thornless lime) and Pyrus malus (Apple), and evaluated for the determination of antimicrobial activity of A-AgNp films using disc diffusion method, weight loss and shelf life of fruits. This study demonstrates that these A-AgNp films possess antimicrobial activity and also increase the shelf life of fruits. PMID:25429496

Gudadhe, Janhavi A; Yadav, Alka; Gade, Aniket; Marcato, Priscyla D; Durán, Nelson; Rai, Mahendra

2014-12-01

173

AgarTrap: a simplified Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method for sporelings of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L.  

PubMed

The liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. is being developed as an emerging model plant, and several transformation techniques were recently reported. Examples are biolistic- and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methods. Here, we report a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sporelings, and it is termed Agar-utilized Transformation with Pouring Solutions (AgarTrap). The procedure of the AgarTrap was carried out by simply exchanging appropriate solutions in a Petri dish, and completed within a week, successfully yielding sufficient numbers of independent transformants for molecular analysis (e.g. characterization of gene/protein function) in a single experiment. The AgarTrap method will promote future molecular biological study in M. polymorpha. PMID:24259681

Tsuboyama, Shoko; Kodama, Yutaka

2014-01-01

174

How do microorganisms influence trace element uptake by plants? Screening in an agar model rhizosphere.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace elements (TE) are essential for humans and plants, but they may be toxic if their concentration is too high. For this reason, the management of TE in soils is very important. In some cases it may be necessary to increase the uptake of nutrients or TE by plants, for example in a biofortification perspective. Conversely, in some other cases TE uptake by plants should be decreased, for instance to avoid heavy metals entering the food chain via edible crops. Microorganisms living in the rhizosphere affect trace element (TE) uptake by plants. However, due to the complexity of this space and the variety of microorganisms that occur there, it is difficult to isolate the effect of any particular strain. To overcome this hurdle, we developed a system in which we grew plants under sterile conditions in agar and inoculated their rhizosphere with a single, well-defined microbial strain. For many years, agar has been used as a growth substrate for microorganisms and plant tissues. It is cheap, easy to use, and can be autoclaved to ensure its sterility. Because of its widespread use, an experiment conducted using this substrate can be reproduced under the same conditions in any laboratory. In contrast to soil, there is little interaction between the trace elements and the agar matrix. There are many studies investigating the influence of microorganisms on TE uptake by plants. However, so far only a small variety of microorganisms has been tested on few plant species. Therefore, the first objective of our research was to develop a method to rapidly screen a large variety of microorganisms on various plant species. Once this goal was achieved, we sought to study the effect of single, well-defined microbial strains on TE uptake by sunflower and wheat. The substrate for plants growth was a 10% agar solution prepared with modified Hoagland's solution and a TE solution containing 1 mg/kg Pb and molar equivalents of Cu, Ni and Zn. The agar solution was autoclaved and poured into sterile, transparent plastic boxes, whose lid was equipped with a filter allowing gas exchanges without contamination by external microorganisms. The seed surface was sterilised and the plants grew one week in agar before their rhizosphere was inoculated with LB broth containing a pure bacterial strain or agar plugs colonized by fungal hyphae. We tested 14 strains, with 5 replicates per treatment and a control where the system was inoculated with sterile LB broth. The plants grew for 2 weeks in a climate chamber and their shoots were analysed for their TEs by ICP-OES. Samples of agar and roots were collected to confirm microbial colonization of the rhizosphere, respectively sterile conditions in the control treatments. Concerning the method development, the plants grew without visible toxicity in all the boxes, and the analysis of root and agar samples indicated that the controls were sterile and the strains inoculated were growing along the roots. More than 90% of the TE and nutrients added to the system were in the liquid fraction of the agar medium, thus available for root uptake. The screening showed that the microorganisms in general decreased TE uptake by wheat and sunflower, although some of them had an opposite effect on the plants. However, with the same plant species, the microorganisms had a consistent effect on all TE tested, i.e. a given single strain caused the same effect (increase or decrease of TE uptake) on all TE tested. In sunflower, 3 microorganisms (Paenibacillus polymyxa, Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani) decreased Cu and Zn uptake by 50% compared to the control treatment. These three species are common soil microorganisms. All three are known to exude auxin, a phytohormone. This hormone can modify root morphology and physiology and thus may affect TE uptake by plants. R. solani and P. ultimum are root pathogens. Their effect was opposite to what we expected. If roots are damaged, TE should have flooded into the plant and accumulate in the tissues, but this was not the case. One explanation could be the biosorption of TE by these mi

Marchetti, M.; Robinson, B. H.; Evangelou, M. W. H.; Vachey, A.; Schwitzguebel, J. P.; Bernier-Latmani, R.; Schulin, R.

2009-04-01

175

Mongolian Spot (Blue-Gray Spot)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Mongolian Spot (Blue-Gray Spot) A parent's guide for infants and babies A A A Blue-gray spots (Mongolian spots) appear as gray to blue colored, flat, "bruise-like" areas of skin. Overview ...

176

Evaluation of Bio-Rad MRSASelect Agar for Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Directly from Blood Cultures?  

PubMed Central

MRSASelect agar (Bio-Rad, Redmond, WA) was evaluated for its performance in detecting MRSA directly from positive blood cultures containing Gram-positive cocci in clusters. Agar plates were evaluated for the presence of pink colonies at 18 to 24 h. Results were compared to organism identification by using standard laboratory methods. Confirming coagulase on pink isolates, the sensitivity and specificity were both 99%. PMID:20392926

Riedel, Stefan; Dam, Lisa; Stamper, Paul D.; Shah, Syed A. R.; Carroll, Karen C.

2010-01-01

177

Equilibrium and kinetic modelling of Cd(II) biosorption by algae Gelidium and agar extraction algal waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study an industrial algal waste from agar extraction has been used as an inexpensive and effective biosorbent for cadmium (II) removal from aqueous solutions. This biosorbent was compared with the algae Gelidium itself, which is the raw material for agar extraction. Equilibrium data follow both Langmuir and Redlich–Peterson models. The parameters of Langmuir equilibrium model are qmax=18.0mgg-1, b=0.19mgl-1

Vítor J. P. Vilar; Cidália M. S. Botelho; Rui A. R. Boaventura

2006-01-01

178

Blue ellipticals in compact groups  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By studying galaxies in compact groups, the authors examine the hypothesis that mergers of spiral galaxies make elliptical galaxies. The authors combine dynamical models of the merger-rich compact group environment with stellar evolution models and predict that roughly 15 percent of compact group ellipticals should be 0.15 mag bluer in B - R color than normal ellipticals. The published colors of these galaxies suggest the existence of this predicted blue population, but a normal distribution with large random errors can not be ruled out based on these data alone. However, the authors have new ultraviolet blue visual data which confirm the blue color of the two ellipticals with blue B - R colors for which they have their own colors. This confirmation of a population of blue ellipticals indicates that interactions are occurring in compact groups, but a blue color in one index alone does not require that these ellipticals are recent products of the merger of two spirals. The authors demonstrate how optical spectroscopy in the blue may distinguish between a true spiral + spiral merger and the swallowing of a gas-rich system by an already formed elliptical. The authors also show that the sum of the luminosity of the galaxies in each group is consistent with the hypothesis that the final stage in the evolution of compact group is an elliptical galaxy.

Zepf, Stephen E.; Whitmore, Bradley C.

1990-01-01

179

Cavitation-enhanced delivery of insulin in agar and porcine models of human skin.  

PubMed

Ultrasound-assisted transdermal insulin delivery offers a less painful and less invasive alternative to subcutaneous insulin injections. However, ultrasound-based drug delivery, otherwise known as sonophoresis, is a highly variable phenomenon, in part dependent on cavitation. The aim of the current work is to investigate the role of cavitation in transdermal insulin delivery. Fluorescently stained, soluble Actrapid insulin was placed on the surface of human skin-mimicking materials subjected to 265?kHz, 10% duty cycle focused ultrasound. A confocally and coaxially aligned 5?MHz broadband ultrasound transducer was used to detect cavitation. Two different skin models were used. The first model, 3% agar hydrogel, was insonated with a range of pressures (0.25-1.40?MPa peak rarefactional focal pressure-PRFP), with and without cavitation nuclei embedded within the agar at a concentration of 0.05% w/v. The second, porcine skin was insonated at 1.00 and 1.40?MPa PRFP. In both models, fluorescence measurements were used to determine penetration depth and concentration of delivered insulin. Results show that in agar gel, both insulin penetration depth and concentration only increased significantly in the presence of inertial cavitation, with up to a 40% enhancement. In porcine skin the amount of fluorescent insulin was higher in the epidermis of those samples that were exposed to ultrasound compared to the control samples, but there was no significant increase in penetration distance. The results underline the importance of instigating and monitoring inertial cavitation during transdermal insulin delivery. PMID:25716689

Feiszthuber, Helga; Bhatnagar, Sunali; Gyöngy, Miklós; Coussios, Constantin-C

2015-03-21

180

Activity of Cefoperazone Against Ampicillin-Resistant Bacteria in Agar and Broth Dilution Tests  

PubMed Central

Examination of the activity of cefoperazone against ampicillin-resistant, gramnegative bacteria in agar dilution and simultaneously in broth dilution revealed that strains could be divided into three classes: class I strains were susceptible in agar (mean minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC], 0.5 mg/liter) as well as in broth dilution (mean MIC, 1.5 mg/liter), class II strains were susceptible in agar (MIC, 0.9 mg/liter), but resistant in broth dilution (MIC, 182 mg/liter); and class III strains were highly resistant in both test systems. Among 100 randomly selected ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli cultures, 51 belonged to class I and 49 belonged to class II. Class III E. coli strains were much rarer. Similar results were obtained with cefamandole and cephalothin, but not with six other second-and third-generation cephalosporins. MICs of cefoperazone against cultures of all three classes were influenced by initial inoculum size. The inoculum effect was greatest with class II strains. Examination of bactericidal activity by cefoperazone showed killing of class I and class II E. coli strains and of class III strains of other genera during the first hours of incubation and regrowth after the drug was destroyed by the action of TEM ?-lactamase (penicillinase). Representative class I bacteria produced 10 to 100 times less TEM ?-lactamase than did class II strains. It appeared that the quantitative difference in TEM production was the reason for the different resistance phenotypes in class I and class II strains. Salmonella and Klebsiella strains of class III produced the same amounts of TEM ?-lactamase as did class II E. coli strains. Probably, some factors other than ?-lactamase contributed to the class III phenotype in these species. PMID:6214994

Kayser, Fritz H.; Morenzoni, Giovanna; Homberger, Françoise

1982-01-01

181

Bacterial interference in vitro. Comparison between a quantitative kinetic and a cocultivation blood agar test method.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to compare two methods for estimation of bacterial growth interference between various bacteria using a Bioscreen robot analyzer, allowing kinetic documentation, and a cocultivation test on blood agar plates. Six laboratory strains with different virulence and growth requirements were used: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mitis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The interference activity was correlated with a reference system of Streptococcus sanguis (strain alpha 89) and Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci, GAS serotypes T 9 and T 22). The methods used and results obtained were as follows: 1. Estimation of synergistic and antagonistic bacterial interferences using a Bioscreen robot analyzer. Suspensions of viable bacteria were added to microtiter plates with different concentrations of UV light-killed bacteria in liquid media. The Bioscreen analyzer monitored bacterial growth every 10 min for 24 h giving kinetic data during the growth period. Synergisms as well as antagonisms were demonstrated between the tested bacterial strains which have not earlier been reported in the literature. However, the antagonistic effect observed between the six strains was less than that induced by the S. sanguis strain on the two strains of S. pyogenes. 2. Cocultivation of bacterial strains on blood agar surface with precultivated or simultaneously stamped interfering bacteria indicated no detectable interference between the six tested bacterial strains, while the S. sanguis strain inhibited the growth of S. pyogenes strains as well as the hemolysis around the colonies. The Bioscreen method was found more sensitive for testing bacterial interference compared to the commonly used blood agar test. PMID:7833000

Johansson, A; Bergenholtz, A; Holm, S E

1994-11-01

182

Evaluation of Group B Streptococcus Differential Agar for detection and isolation of Streptococcus agalactiae.  

PubMed

In total, 320 vaginal or rectal swabs were cultured on Granada medium (GM) or Group B Streptococcus Differential Agar (GBSDA), and were also inoculated into LIM broth (Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with selective antibiotics), for detection of group B Streptococcus (GBS). Overall, GBS isolates were detected on 53 of the 320 swabs; 47 of these isolates grew on both GM and GBSDA, five only on GBSDA, and one only following subculture from LIM broth. GBSDA appears to be a valid alternative to GM for the growth of GBS isolates from pregnant women. PMID:16008623

Bou, G; Figueira, M; Canle, D; Cartelle, M; Eiros, J M; Villanueva, R

2005-08-01

183

Three-dimensional characterization of bacterial microcolonies on solid agar-based culture media.  

PubMed

For the last century, in vitro diagnostic process in microbiology has mainly relied on the growth of bacteria on the surface of a solid agar medium. Nevertheless, few studies focused in the past on the dynamics of microcolonies growth on agar surface before 8 to 10h of incubation. In this article, chromatic confocal microscopy has been applied to characterize the early development of a bacterial colony. This technology relies on a differential focusing depth of the white light. It allows one to fully measure the tridimensional shape of microcolonies more quickly than classical confocal microscopy but with the same spatial resolution. Placing the device in an incubator, the method was able to individually track colonies growing on an agar plate, and to follow the evolution of their surface or volume. Using an appropriate statistical modeling framework, for a given microorganism, the doubling time has been estimated for each individual colony, as well as its variability between colonies, both within and between agar plates. A proof of concept led on four bacterial strains of four distinct species demonstrated the feasibility and the interest of the approach. It showed in particular that doubling times derived from early tri-dimensional measurements on microcolonies differed from classical measurements in micro-dilutions based on optical diffusion. Such a precise characterization of the tri-dimensional shape of microcolonies in their late-lag to early-exponential phase could be beneficial in terms of in vitro diagnostics. Indeed, real-time monitoring of the biomass available in a colony could allow to run well established microbial identification workflows like, for instance, MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry, as soon as a sufficient quantity of material is available, thereby reducing the time needed to provide a diagnostic. Moreover, as done for pre-identification of macro-colonies, morphological indicators such as three-dimensional growth profiles derived from microcolonies could be used to perform a first pre-identification step, but in a shorten time. PMID:25533218

Drazek, Laurent; Tournoud, Maud; Derepas, Frédéric; Guicherd, Maryse; Mahé, Pierre; Pinston, Frédéric; Veyrieras, Jean-Baptiste; Chatellier, Sonia

2015-02-01

184

Blue metal complex pigments involved in blue flower color  

PubMed Central

The blue pigment of cornflower, protocyanin, has been investigated for a long time, but its precise structure was not entirely explained until recently. The molecular structure of the pigment was recently shown to be a metal complex of six molecules each of anthocyanin and flavone glycoside, with one ferric iron, one magnesium and two calcium ions by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The studies provided the answer to the question posed in the early part of the last century, “why is the cornflower blue and rose red when both flowers contain the same anthocyanin?” This work was achieved on the basis of the results of long years of the studies made by many researchers. In this review, the author focuses on the investigations of the blue metal complex pigments involved in the bluing of flowers, commelinin from Commelina commusis, protocyanin from Centaurea cyanus, protodelphin from Salvia patens and hydrangea blue pigment.

Takeda, Kosaku

2006-01-01

185

“Anting” in Blue Jays  

PubMed Central

Summary Anting, the plumage-dipping behavior to which ants (mostly formicines) are commonly subjected by birds (mostly passerines), is shown in tests with hand-raised Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata) and the ant Formica exsectoides to be instinctive: the birds displayed typical renditions of the behavior on the first occasion that they encountered ants. Evidence is presented supportive of the view that anting is a strategy by which birds render ants fit for ingestion. Formicine ants are ordinarily protected by their formic acid-containing spray. Being wiped into the bird’s plumage causes them to discharge that spray, without harm to the bird, to the point of almost total emptying of the glandular sac in which the secretion is stored. The ants are therefore essentially secretion-free by the time they are swallowed. Further evidence indicates that it is the ant’s possession of the acid sac that triggers the anting behavior in the bird. If F. exsectoides are surgically deprived of their acid sac, they are eaten by the birds without first being subjected to anting. Data are also presented indicating that the ant’s crop, which is especially capacious in formicines (its contents may amount to over 30% of the formicine’s mass), and which appears to survive the anting procedure intact, constitutes, at least when laden, a valuable component of the trophic package that the bird accesses by anting. PMID:19169379

Eisner, Thomas; Aneshansley, Daniel

2008-01-01

186

2012 BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee. BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee, Inc., an Independent Licensee of the BlueCross BlueShield Association.  

E-print Network

© 2012 BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee. BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee, Inc., an Independent and individual rates must be filed and approved by Tennessee Department of Commerce and Insurance. Minimum loss ratio requirements in Tennessee prior to health care reform: None for group 55% for most Individual

Hong, Don

187

In-Gel Determination of L-Amino Acid Oxidase Activity Based on the Visualization of Prussian Blue-Forming Reaction  

PubMed Central

L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) is attracting increasing attention due to its important functions. Diverse detection methods with their own properties have been developed for characterization of LAAO. In the present study, a simple, rapid, sensitive, cost-effective and reproducible method for quantitative in-gel determination of LAAO activity based on the visualization of Prussian blue-forming reaction is described. Coupled with SDS-PAGE, this Prussian blue agar assay can be directly used to determine the numbers and approximate molecular weights of LAAO in one step, allowing straightforward application for purification and sequence identification of LAAO from diverse samples. PMID:23383337

Zhou, Ning; Zhao, Chuntian

2013-01-01

188

Revisiting Three Blue Straggler Binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For blue stragglers in binary systems, two kinds of origin mechanisms, i.e., collision and mass transfer, are theoretically predicted and companion mass is one of the most important probes to distinguish their origin mechanisms. By fitting the revised Hipparcos Intermediate Astrometric Data, we obtain the astrometric orbits of three single-lined spectroscopic binaries (HIP 39903, 55022, and 59750) with blue stragglers. On the basis of the obtained orbits and blue straggler masses estimated from stellar evolutionary model, their companion masses are computed. The values of the companion masses (0.44, 0.47, and 0.44 M?) suggest that all these three blue stragglers are originated from the mass transfer mechanism.

Wang, X.; Ren, S.

2014-08-01

189

Blue Flame from Common Salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present time any spectroscopic observations of coloured flames are peculiarly interesting, and I am glad to see the origin of the blue or violet flame produced by common salt and other chlorides again discussed in your pages.

J. H. Gladstone

1879-01-01

190

Blue Crabs in the Chesapeake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classroom unit and data activity focusing on juvenile and adult blue crab distribution in the Chesapeake Bay. Includes background on crab biology, anatomy, life cycle, and fisheries. Authentic data tables provided for in-class analysis, discussion questions guide inquiry.

191

Efficacy of chromocult coliform agar for coliform and Escherichia coil detection in foods.  

PubMed

Chromocult coliform agar (CCA) was compared with Petrifilm Escherichia coli count plate (PEC) for identifying coliforms and E. coli in a variety of meat products. Products examined included 45 raw beef samples, 12 sausage emulsion samples, 11 samples of meat-based ready-to-eat appetizers, and 8 pork trimming samples. Coliforms from CCA and PEC were confirmed by gassing in brilliant green lactose broth plus a positive reaction on purple broth agar plus lactose after incubation at 35 degrees C for 48 h. Lauryl sulfate tryptose plus methylumbelliferyl-beta-glucuronide and tryptophan broth were used to confirm E. coli from CCA and PEC with 48-h incubations at 35 and 42.5 degrees C, respectively. API 20E test strips were inoculated for final confirmation. The overall respective confirmation percentages (CFU/g) for the PEC and the CCA methods were 93.1 and 93.7% for coliforms and 99.8 and 98.1% for E. coli, although the CCA method yielded significantly (P < 0.001) higher mean CFU/g values for both coliforms and E. coli. Regression analyses of these data indicated a strong positive linear relationship existed between the two methods over a wide CFU/g range for both coliforms and E. coli. The respective correlation coefficients obtained for coliforms and E. coli of 0.89 and 0.86 indicate that the CCA method provides a reliable optional method for these determinations in meat products. PMID:10772222

Turner, K M; Restaino, L; Frampton, E W

2000-04-01

192

[Comparison of MICs of new quinolones obtained using agar-dilution and broth-microdilution procedures].  

PubMed

Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of new quinolones against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria obtained using agar-dilution and broth-microdilution procedures were compared. A primary regression curve and a correlation coefficient (r) between 2 MICs for each of ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tosufloxacin, sparfloxacin or balofloxacin were calculated. For the 5 quinolones, average correlation coefficients were 0.891 for the Gram-positive bacteria tested, and 0.865 for the Gram-negative bacteria. The range of, correlation coefficients for the Gram-positive bacteria for these drugs was from 0.835 to 0.919, and that for the Gram-negative bacteria was from 0.815 to 0.865. From these data, it is clear that there is a good correlation between the 2 MICs of the new quinolones obtained using the agar-dilution and the broth-microdilution procedures. It was also shown that the value of the slope of the regression curves were nearly the same for the 5 quinolones tested. However, some particular strains of Morganella morganii, Pseudomonas cepacia, Xanthomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumoniae exhibited different correlation coefficients from other strains. PMID:7752452

Iwasaki, H; Tsuji, A; Kaneko, Y; Goto, S

1995-03-01

193

Agar films containing silver nanoparticles as new supports for electromembrane extraction.  

PubMed

A new support containing silver nanoparticles to assist electromembrane extraction (EME) procedures is proposed. For the first time, synthesized agar films containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as a support for liquid membranes in EME. Agarose films of 20 ?m thickness containing 107.9 mg Ag/g agar were synthesized and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), showing isolated spherical silver nanoparticles of 20-30 nm diameter with homogeneous distribution. Nanometallic films were cut and glued to narrow bore glass tubes and used as supports for a dihexyl ether liquid membrane for use in an EME procedure. EME conditions were optimized and applied to the extraction of selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The results were compared to those using polypropylene membranes (450 ?m and 100 ?m thickness), achieving 10- to 70-fold higher extraction efficiency. This article opens a new line of research into electrically assisted microextraction systems by combining other possible kinds of nanometallic films, including different metals, film functionalization through metallic NPs, and the use of low polarity solvents. Also, very low currents are obtained during the extraction process, which lead to high electromigration of the analytes. PMID:25519723

Hidalgo, Cristina Román; Ramos-Payán, María; Ocaña-González, Juan Antonio; Martín-Valero, María Jesús; Bello-López, Miguel Ángel

2015-02-01

194

Mitis salivarius-bacitracin 10% sacarose agar for oral streptococci and Streptococcus mutans counts.  

PubMed

The MSB Agar (mitis salivarius-bacitracin) 20% sacarose medium is frequently used for the isolation and count of total streptococci and Streptococcus mutans. Although it is considered a selective culture medium for this micro-organism, S. mutans recovery in this medium is much lower than in this Mitis Salivarius Agar (MSA). Because the number of S. mutans in saliva is used for estimating caries risk and activity from a microbiological stand point, the aim of this work was to find a modification of the MSB 20% sacarose medium so that it would offer not only selectivity in the isolation but also maximum recovery. This would detect people at risk more efficiency and would evaluate the preventive odontological treatments more accurately. The results show that: 1) the greatest recovery of total streptococci and S. mutans is obtained in the MSB 10% sacarose medium, 2) S. mutans must be incubated in aerobiosis and the total streptococci in a candle jar (10% CO2). MSB 10% sacarose medium is proposed as a choice medium for the microbiological estimation of cariogenic risk and activity, to detect infection levels and evaluate preventive odontological treatments. PMID:11885081

Gutiérrez de Annan, S; Ruíz de Valladares, R E; Benito de Cárdenas, I L

1997-01-01

195

Microcolonies in fluoroquinolone agar proportion susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: an indicator of drug resistance  

PubMed Central

Microcolony growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on agar proportion susceptibility testing is neither well-defined nor previously reported with fluoroquinolone susceptibility testing. We describe here M. tuberculosis microcolony growth with fluoroquinolones, and assess its clinical significance. We screened 797M. tuberculosis isolates for ofloxacin resistance (2.0 µg/mL) by agar proportion; 19 ofloxacin-resistant and 38 ofloxacin-susceptible isolates were selected for more detailed susceptibility testing with ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin (all at 2.0 µg/mL) and moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The 57 isolates were also tested at two concentrations both above and below the critical concentrations. Microcolonies were defined as colonies 0.2–0.4 mm in diameter; confirmed microcolonies were present on repeat testing. Of the 57 isolates tested in detail, 7 grew microcolonies, of which 2 (0.3% of all isolates tested) had confirmed microcolonies on repeat testing (6 tests performed, and microcolonies were present on at least 4). Both M. tuberculosis isolates were ofloxacin-resistant on screening, and had ofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) >8 µg/mL. The five other isolates were ofloxacin-susceptible on screening, but had regular colony growth (i.e., resistance) at the drug concentration that initially resulted in microcolonies (ofloxacin 0.5 or 1.0 µg/mL). Microcolonies were observed infrequently with fluoroquinolone susceptibility testing, but when confirmed, they were associated with drug resistance. PMID:22322359

Blackman, A.; May, S.; Devasia, R. A.; Maruri, F.; Stratton, C.

2014-01-01

196

Microcolonies in fluoroquinolone agar proportion susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: an indicator of drug resistance.  

PubMed

Microcolony growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on agar proportion susceptibility testing is neither well-defined nor previously reported with fluoroquinolone susceptibility testing. We describe here M. tuberculosis microcolony growth with fluoroquinolones, and assess its clinical significance. We screened 797?M. tuberculosis isolates for ofloxacin resistance (2.0 ?g/mL) by agar proportion; 19 ofloxacin-resistant and 38 ofloxacin-susceptible isolates were selected for more detailed susceptibility testing with ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin (all at 2.0 ?g/mL) and moxifloxacin (0.5 ?g/mL). The 57 isolates were also tested at two concentrations both above and below the critical concentrations. Microcolonies were defined as colonies 0.2-0.4 mm in diameter; confirmed microcolonies were present on repeat testing. Of the 57 isolates tested in detail, 7 grew microcolonies, of which 2 (0.3% of all isolates tested) had confirmed microcolonies on repeat testing (6 tests performed, and microcolonies were present on at least 4). Both M. tuberculosis isolates were ofloxacin-resistant on screening, and had ofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) >8 ?g/mL. The five other isolates were ofloxacin-susceptible on screening, but had regular colony growth (i.e., resistance) at the drug concentration that initially resulted in microcolonies (ofloxacin 0.5 or 1.0 ?g/mL). Microcolonies were observed infrequently with fluoroquinolone susceptibility testing, but when confirmed, they were associated with drug resistance. PMID:22322359

Blackman, A; May, S; Devasia, R A; Maruri, F; Stratton, C; Sterling, T R

2012-09-01

197

21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultramarine blue. 73.50 Section 73.50 Food and...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.50 Ultramarine blue. (a) Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by...

2010-04-01

198

Cultivation Media for Bacteria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Common bacteriological culture media (tryptic soy agar, chocolate agar, Thayer-Martin agar, MacConkey agar, eosin-methylene blue agar, hektoen agar, mannitol salt agar, and sheep blood agar) are shown uninoculated and inoculated with bacteria.

American Society For Microbiology

2009-12-08

199

Nicole Hudson Sillerman Center Summer Internship at the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts Foundation  

E-print Network

Nicole Hudson Sillerman Center Summer Internship at the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts of Philanthropy, I had the privilege of interning at The Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts Foundation (the Blue Shield of Massachusetts. The Foundation's mission is to expand access to health care services

Snider, Barry B.

200

Preparation and performance of cross-linked agar encapsulated activated charcoal (CAAC-III).  

PubMed

A technique is described to encapsulate activated charcoal for hemoperfusion to be used in an artificial liver support. Spherical activated charcoal was coated with agar and shaped in organic solvent, as well as cross-linked by epichlorohydrin (40-50 degrees C). The product withstood autoclaving at 121 degrees C for 0.5 hours, and had a good adsorption ability for compounds with molecular weight ranging from 113-5200. The adsorption kinetic showed pore diffusion limitation to compounds of small molecular weight, and film diffusion limitation to compounds of large molecular weight. Microparticles of charcoal release were greatly reduced, and within the permissible range according to the requirements in the U.S. Pharmacopeia (1985). PMID:1941439

Chen, Y M; Tang, X J; Xu, C X; Li, Z M

1991-01-01

201

Agar-Like Polysaccharide Produced by a Pseudomonas Species: Production and Basic Properties  

PubMed Central

A new species of Pseudomonas was isolated that produced copious amounts of an exocellular heteropolysaccharide (PS-60) after incubation for 3 days at 30°C in media containing 3% glucose as a carbon source. The polysaccharide was composed of approximately 46% glucose and 30% rhamnose and, in addition, contained 21% uronic acid and 3% O-acetyl. Upon deacetylation by a mild alkaline treatment, PS-60 produced a brittle, firm, and optically clear gel. This gelling property was thermoreversible. The PS-60 gel exhibited excellent heat stability that withstood autoclaving (i.e., 121°C for 15 min) for several cycles. The gel strength, melting point, and setting point of the polysaccharide were controlled primarily by the concentration of cations. PS-60 was not affected by a variety of enzymes. The results of tests involving various culture media and biochemical test media indicate that PS-60 is an excellent alternative gelling agent to agar. PMID:16346007

Kang, Kenneth S.; Veeder, George T.; Mirrasoul, Peter J.; Kaneko, Tatsuo; Cottrell, Ian W.

1982-01-01

202

Copper removal by algae Gelidium, agar extraction algal waste and granulated algal waste: kinetics and equilibrium.  

PubMed

Biosorption of copper ions by an industrial algal waste, from agar extraction industry has been studied in a batch system. This biosorbent was compared with the algae Gelidium itself, which is the raw material for agar extraction, and the industrial waste immobilized with polyacrylonitrile (composite material). The effects of contact time, pH, ionic strength (IS) and temperature on the biosorption process have been studied. Equilibrium data follow both Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich models. The parameters of Langmuir equilibrium model were: q(max)=33.0mgg(-1), K(L)=0.015mgl(-1); q(max)=16.7mgg(-1), K(L)=0.028mgl(-1) and q(max)=10.3mgg(-1), K(L)=0.160mgl(-1) respectively for Gelidium, algal waste and composite material at pH=5.3, T=20 degrees C and IS=0.001M. Increasing the pH, the number of deprotonated active sites increases and so the uptake capacity of copper ions. In the case of high ionic strengths, the contribution of the electrostatic component to the overall binding decreases, and so the uptake capacity. The temperature has little influence on the uptake capacity principally for low equilibrium copper concentrations. Changes in standard enthalpy, Gibbs energy and entropy during biosorption were determined. Kinetic data at different solution pH (3, 4 and 5.3) were fitted to pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The adsorptive behaviour of biosorbent particles was modelled using a batch reactor mass transfer kinetic model, which successfully predicts Cu(II) concentration profiles. PMID:17376672

Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

2008-03-01

203

Population Analysis of Escherichia coli Isolates with Discordant Resistance Levels by Piperacillin-Tazobactam Broth Microdilution and Agar Dilution Testing  

PubMed Central

Population analysis was performed for 42 Escherichia coli isolates to determine whether heterogeneity of resistance was a factor in piperacillin-tazobactam category differences between agar dilution and broth microdilution. Of 20 isolates discordant between methods, 80% were heterogeneous. Of 22 isolates in agreement, 59% were homogeneous. Heterogeneity and homogeneity rates for those in agreement were significantly different from those that were discordant (P value, 0.010). Heterogeneity of resistance expression appears to be an important factor in category differences observed between broth microdilution and agar dilution for piperacillin-tazobactam. PMID:24342642

Slaughter, Jen; Creely, David; van Belkum, Alex; Gayral, Jean Pierre; Dunne, William Michael; Zambardi, Gilles; Shortridge, Dee

2014-01-01

204

Evaluation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice with Cornus fruit ( Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.) extract by conventional media and thin agar layer method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival in apple juice supplemented with Cornus fruit (Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.) extract was studied. Inoculated samples with or without Cornus fruit extract were kept at 21 and 7°C. Microbial analysis was conducted on days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7. MacConkey sorbitol agar (MSA), tryptic soy agar (TSA), and thin agar layer (TAL) medium were

Vivian C. H. Wu; Xujian Qiu; Y.-H. Peggy Hsieh

2008-01-01

205

Evaluation of Agar-Based Medium with Sheep Sera for Testing of Drug Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Isoniazid, Rifampin, Ethambutol, and Streptomycin  

PubMed Central

The performance of sheep sera instead of sheep blood in agar-based media was investigated for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis against primary drugs. The levels of agreement between agar-based medium supplemented with sheep sera and the proportion method on Middlebrook 7H11 agar as the reference method for determining susceptibility to isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), ethambutol (EMB), and streptomycin (STR) were 98.4, 98.4, 95.3, and 100%, respectively. PMID:24131699

Uzun, Meltem; Bozdogan, Bulent

2013-01-01

206

The Blue-Collar Brain  

PubMed Central

Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body’s tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

2012-01-01

207

Crater Lake: blue through time  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Blue is the color of constancy, hence the term true blue. The unearthly blueness of Crater Lake reflects its pristine character and gives scientists a focal point for studying human impacts on aquatic environments over long periods of time. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Park Service, and Oregon State University have systematically studied the lake for the last two decades. Long-term monitoring of this lake is a priority of Crater Lake National Park and will continue far into the future.

Larson, Gary L.; Buktenica, Mark; Collier, Robert

2003-01-01

208

Blue-green upconversion laser  

DOEpatents

A blue-green laser (450-550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm.sup.3+. The Tm.sup.+ is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP.

Nguyen, Dinh C. (Los Alamos, NM); Faulkner, George E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01

209

Blue-green upconversion laser  

DOEpatents

A blue-green laser (450--550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm[sup 3+]. The Tm[sup 3+] is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP. 3 figs.

Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.

1990-08-14

210

Blue light emitting thiogallate phosphor  

DOEpatents

A crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor of the formula RGa.sub.2 S.sub.4 :Ce.sub.x where R is selected from the group consisting of calcium, strontium, barium and zinc, and x is from about 1 to 10 atomic percent, the phosphor characterized as having a crystalline microstructure on the size order of from about 100 .ANG. to about 10,000 .ANG. is provided together with a process of preparing a crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor by depositing on a substrate by CVD and resultant thin film electroluminescent devices including a layer of such deposited phosphor on an ordinary glass substrate.

Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); King, Christopher N. (Portland, OR); Tuenge, Richard T. (Hillsboro, OR)

1998-01-01

211

Blues and the Blues Committee Some historical notes  

E-print Network

, the Cambridge crew wore white, with a scarlet or pink (accounts vary) sash, honouring their Captain W. Snow from to it by C.U.B.C. (a letter on file with the Blues Committee reports that the early chess Varsity matches

Travis, Adrian

212

Agar Block Smear Preparation: a Novel Method of Slide Preparation for Preservation of Native Fungal Structures for Microscopic Examination and Long-Term Storage?  

PubMed Central

We describe a novel method of fungal slide preparation named “agar block smear preparation.” A total of 510 agar block smears of 25 fungal strains obtained from culture collections, 90 QC fungal strains, and 82 clinical fungal strains from our clinical microbiology laboratory, which included a total of 137 species of yeasts, molds, and thermal dimorphic fungi, were prepared and examined. In contrast to adhesive tape preparation, agar block smears preserved the native fungal structures, such as intact conidiophores of Aspergillus species and arrangements of conidia in Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Furthermore, agar block smears allowed examination of fungal structures embedded in the agar, such as the ascomata with ascomal hairs in Chaetomium funicola; pycnidium of Phoma glomerata; the intercalary ovoidal chlamydospores arranged in chains of Fusarium dimerum; and the lateral, spherical chlamydospores arranged in pairs of Fusarium solani. After 1 year of storage, morphological integrity was found to have been maintained in 459 (90%) of the 510 agar block smears. After 3 years of storage, morphological integrity was found to have been maintained in 72 (71%) of the 102 smears prepared in 2006. Agar block smear preparation preserves the native fungal structures and allows long-term storage and examination of fungal structures embedded in the agar, hence overcoming the major drawbacks of adhesive tape preparation. The major roles of agar block smear should be diagnosis for difficult cases, accurate identification of fungal species for clinical management of patients and epidemiological studies, and long-term storage for transportation of slides and education purposes. PMID:20660221

Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Ngan, Antonio H. Y.; Chui, Hon-Kit; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2010-01-01

213

BLUE MUSTARD IN CHEATGRASS COMMUNITIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Until very recently, the exotic, invasive species of the mustard family (Brassicaceae) that occurred in cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) communities on former big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)/bunchgrass rangelands had yellow or white flowers. In the Great Basin, the “blue” flowered species Chorispo...

214

Blue Sky and Rayleigh Scattering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Georgia State University explains why we see the sky as blue. It describes Rayleigh scattering, which refers to the scattering of light off of the molecules of the air, and Mie scattering, which refers to the scattering of light by larger particles.

Carl R. (Rod) Nave

215

Baby T (Blue) (Size: Medium)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

1900-01-01

216

Optically Modulatable Blue Fluorescent Proteins  

PubMed Central

Blue fluorescent proteins (BFPs) offer visualization of protein location and behavior, but often suffer from high autofluorescent background and poor signal discrimination. Through dual-laser excitation of bright and photoinduced dark states, mutations to the residues surrounding the BFP chromophore enable long-wavelength optical modulation of BFP emission. Such dark state engineering enables violet-excited blue emission to be increased upon lower energy, green co-illumination. Turning this green co-illumination on and off at a specific frequency dynamically modulates collected blue fluorescence without generating additional background. Interpreted as transient photoconversion between neutral cis- and anionic trans- chromophoric forms, mutations tune photoisomerization and ground state tautomerizations to enable long-wavelength depopulation of the millisecond-lived, spectrally shifted dark states. Single mutations to the tyrosine-based blue fluorescent protein T203V/S205V exhibit enhanced modulation depth and varied frequency. Importantly, analogous single point mutations in the non-modulatable BFP, mKalama1, creates a modulatable variant. Building modulatable BFPs offers opportunities for improved BFP signal discrimination vs. background, greatly enhancing their utility. PMID:24099419

Jablonski, Amy E.; Vegh, Russell B.; Hsiang, Jung-Cheng; Bommarius, Bettina; Chen, Yen-Cheng; Solntsev, Kyril M.; Bommarius, Andreas S.; Tolbert, Laren M.; Dickson, Robert M.

2014-01-01

217

Baby T (Blue) (Size: Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

1900-01-01

218

Baby T (Blue) (Size: Small)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

1900-01-01

219

Why is the Sky Blue?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a flashlight, a glass of water, and some milk to examine why the sky is blue and sunsets are red. Learners will discover that the sky appears a different color depending on the position of the sun as well as molecules and particles in the air that cause the scattering of light.

2012-01-06

220

The Next Generation Blue Marble  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomena is a full year?s worth of NASA satellite data of Earth's land surface, coastal oceans, sea ice, and clouds that has been organized into a seamless, photo-like mosaic of our planet The image beneath the title "The Next Generation Blue Marble" features an animation. Click the image to begin the animation.

221

Singing' the Black and Blues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is so obvious that the sky is blue in the daytime and black at night, but it took the smartest humans thousands of years of observation, thought, discussion, conjecture, and analysis to finally come up with answers that make scientific sense as to why the sky is these colors. This article discusses light and the scientific research…

Fisher, Diane

2004-01-01

222

Alternative Use for Spectra MRSA Chromogenic Agar in Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Positive Blood Cultures ?  

PubMed Central

Spectra MRSA agar (Remel, Lenexa, KS), a novel chromogenic medium originally developed to detect methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from nasal swabs, was evaluated in this multicenter study for the detection of MRSA from positive blood cultures exhibiting Gram-positive cocci upon initial Gram staining. PMID:20392925

Peterson, Jess F.; Dionisio, Alexander A.; Riebe, Katherine M.; Hall, Gerri S.; Wilson, Deborah A.; Whittier, Susan; DiPersio, Joseph R.; Ledeboer, Nathan A.

2010-01-01

223

Properties and characterization of agar/CuNP bionanocomposite films prepared with different copper salts and reducing agents.  

PubMed

Various types of agar-based bio-nanocomposite (BNC) films were prepared by blending agar and six different copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) with different shapes and sizes obtained from three different sources of copper salts and two different reducing agents. The BNC films were characterized by UV-visible, FE-SEM, FT-IR, and XRD. The thermogravimetric study showed that the melting point of BNC films was increased when ascorbic acid was used as a reducing agent for CuNPs synthesis. Apparent surface color and transmittance of agar film was greatly influenced by the reinforcement of CuNPs. However, mechanical and water vapor barrier properties did not change significantly (p>0.05) by blending with CuNPs. Tensile modulus and tensile strength decreased slightly for all types of CuNPs reinforced while elongation at break slightly increased when CuNPs produced by ascorbic acid were blended. The agar bio-nanocomposite films showed profound antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative food-borne pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25263917

Shankar, Shiv; Teng, Xinnan; Rhim, Jong-Whan

2014-12-19

224

Metabolite production of yeasts on a strawberry-agar during storage at 7 °C in air and low oxygen atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes of different quality factors of strawberries have been described until now from a physiological point of view. Possible effects on quality caused by yeast proliferation have not been described. To elucidate the metabolic activity of yeasts (i.e. Debaryomyces melissophilus, Rhodotorula glutinis, Cryptococcus laurentii), isolated from strawberries, they were inoculated on a simulation medium of strawberries (strawberry-agar). Their activity was

P. Ragaert; F. Devlieghere; S. Loos; J. Dewulf; H. Van Langenhove; J. Debevere

2006-01-01

225

Controlled evaluation of the agar-slide and radiometric blood culture systems for the detection of bacteremia and fungemia.  

PubMed Central

A commercially available agar-slide blood culture bottle (Septi-Chek; Roche Diagnostics, Div. Hoffman-La Roche, Inc., Nutley, N.J.) was compared with the radiometric blood culture system (BACTEC; Johnston Laboratories, Inc., Towson, Md.) in 8,544 paired blood cultures from adult patients. The systems were inoculated with equal volumes (10 ml) of blood. Overall, there was no statistically significant difference between the two systems in the recovery of clinically important microorganisms, but significantly more members of the family Enterobacteriaceae other than Escherichia coli were detected by the agar-slide system (P less than 0.005). The agar-slide system detected more fungi, and the BACTEC detected more anaerobic bacteria; however, small numbers of recovered organisms precluded statistical significance. When microorganisms grew in both systems, their presence was detected one or more days earlier in the BACTEC (P less than 0.001). More contaminants grew in the agar-slide system (P less than 0.001). Both systems performed well, and either system should provide high yield and prompt detection of positive blood cultures in patients with bacteremia and fungemia if used in an optimal way as recommended by the respective manufacturers. PMID:3517047

Weinstein, M P; Reller, L B; Mirrett, S; Stratton, C W; Reimer, L G; Wang, W L

1986-01-01

226

Hydrogen-bond-mediated in situ fabrication of AgNPs/agar/PAN electrospun nanofibers as reproducible SERS substrates.  

PubMed

Reproducibility in surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurements is a challenge. This work developed a facile way to make highly dispersed uniform silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) loaded in the agar/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers by the coupling the electrospinning technology from metal complex-containing polymer solution and in situ photoreductive technique. Agar, as hydrophilic component, was introduced into the electrospinning solution considering that its abundant hydroxyl group sites could greatly improve the contents of silver ions in the polymers because of the rich silver ion chelated with the hydroxyl group, whereas hydrophilic agar was integrated with hydrophobic PAN by -OH···N?C- hydrogen bonds as a bridge. Meanwhile, the in situ photoreductive reaction was made under different light irradiations such as desk lamp, 365 nm UV-lamp, and 254 nm UV-lamp. High yield of stable AgNPs with highly uniform and dispersion are available in the agar/PAN nanofibers after the in situ photoreductive reaction, supplying the possibility of reproducible SERS signals. To identify that concept of proof, a facile approach for the determination of malachite green (MG) in three environmental practical samples was demonstrated by using the composite nanofibrous material irradiated by 365 nm UV-lamp, giving the minimum detection concentration of MG as low as 0.1 ?mol/L with a good linear response ranging from 0.1-100 ?mol/L (R(2) = 0.9960). PMID:25546719

Yang, Tong; Yang, Hui; Zhen, Shu Jun; Huang, Cheng Zhi

2015-01-28

227

CCMR: Sisal Fiber Reinforced Green Composite Using Soy Flour Resin Modified With Sorbitol, Agar and NB416 Microfibers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fully biodegradable green composites were prepared using natural sisal fiber and soy flour (SF) resin modified with sorbitol, agar, and NB416 microfiber. The SF resin modified with agar and NB416 microfibers had a higher Tensile Stress and Young’s Modulus, 8.73 + 0.60 MPa, 232.61 + 25.44 MPa, and 12.15 + 1.53 MPa, 327.87 + 27.62 respectively, compared to the Tensile Stress and Young’s Modulus of the sorbitol modified SF resin. The composites fabricated with sorbitol modified SF resin showed the highest Tensile Stress of 141.45 + 16.72 MPa which was significantly greater than the Tensile Stress of the pure SF resin. Problems arose in preparing the composites with the resins modified with agar and NB416. The method for coating the fibers with the more viscous resin solutions was not an adequate way to prepare the composite. The mechanical properties of the SF resins modified with agar and NB416 microfibers suggests that if the resin was equally dispersed in the composites then the composite properties would be very high. These composites are very useful in replacing some of the petroleum based composites in use today and reducing the amount of plastics in the landfills.

Khalsa, Amrit

2009-08-15

228

Choline chloride based ionic liquid analogues as tool for the fabrication of agar films with improved mechanical properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the present paper, we test the suitability of Choline-Cl/urea (DES-U) and Choline-Cl/glycerol (DES-G) eutectic mixtures at 1:2 molar ratios for the production of agar biodegradable films. A three-step process is proposed: pre-solubilization of polymer in DES followed by compression-molding and s...

229

Comparison of Broth Microdilution, E Test, and Agar Dilution Methods for Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

A standardized broth microdilution method was compared to the E test and an agar dilution method for the antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolates. A group of 47 human clinical isolates, 37 isolates from retail poultry, and 29 isolates from living turkeys (total, 113 isolates) was included in the study. These encompassed 92 C. jejuni and

Petra Luber; Edda Bartelt; Elke Genschow; Jutta Wagner; Helmut Hahn

2003-01-01

230

Performance of CHROMagar Selective Medium and Oxacillin Resistance Screening Agar Base for Identifying Staphylococcus aureus and Detecting Methicillin Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new selective media, oxacillin resistance screening agar base (ORSAB) and CHROMagar Staph aureus (CSA), were evaluated for identification of Staphylococcus aureus and for screening of methicillin resistance by addition of antimicrobial agents to these media. A well-defined collection consisting of 1,140 staphylococci was used. A total of 624 were S. aureus, of which 358 were methicillin susceptible and 266

Jan Kluytmans; Arjanne Van Griethuysen; Piet Willemse; Peter Van Keulen

2002-01-01

231

Elemental composition of Physarum compressum Alb. et Schw. sporocarps and their structures cultivated on rabbit dung and agar substrates.  

PubMed

The elemental composition of spores, peridium walls, and lime nodes of Physarum compressum sporocarps, cultivated on rabbit dung as a natural growing environment for the slime mold and on artificial agar medium, was compared to evaluate differences that may be dependent on substrates. Whole fruiting bodies and samples of both experimental media were extracted with nitric acid or Parr digest bomb, respectively, and analyzed by means of total X-ray reflection fluorescence (TXRF). Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of spores, peridium walls, and lime nodes structure was carried out with the scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive spectrometer. Because of minute sizes and roughness of investigated structures, Monte Carlo simulations were utilized to establish analytical conditions of EPMA. Biological and geological standards were used in the quantification of element concentrations. According to TXRF, the fruiting bodies from agar medium revealed lower concentrations of K, Ca, Cr, Mn, and Fe in relation to fruiting bodies from the dung, reflecting elemental relationships in the experimental media. According to EPMA, the highest Ca concentration was found in the lime nodes followed by the peridium and the spores. Culturing of the slime molds on the rabbit dung indicated higher concentration of Ca in the lime nodes and peridium walls when compared with those obtained from the sporocarps grown on agar media. The opposite relation was found for the spores. The concentration of Na, Mg, P, S, and Cl was generally lower in all structures of the sporocarps harvested from the dung than from the agar medium. K was in higher concentration in analyzed structures from dung than from agar. Different element uptake (except for Ca and K) was revealed by the two methods: TXRF and EPMA. PMID:20981759

Janik, Paulina; Tylko, Grzegorz; Ostachowicz, Beata; Turnau, Katarzyna

2010-12-01

232

Identification of Staphylococcus aureus: DNase and Mannitol salt agar improve the efficiency of the tube coagulase test  

PubMed Central

Background The ideal identification of Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates requires a battery of tests and this is costly in resource limited settings. In many developing countries, the tube coagulase test is usually confirmatory for S. aureus and is routinely done using either human or sheep plasma. This study evaluated Mannitol salt agar and the deoxyribonuclease (DNase) test for improving the efficiency of the tube coagulase test in resource limited settings. The efficiency of human and sheep plasma with tube coagulase tests was also evaluated. Methods One hundred and eighty Gram positive, Catalase positive cocci occurring in pairs, short chains or clusters were subjected to growth on Mannitol salt agar, deoxyribonuclease and tube coagulase tests. Of these, isolates that were positive for at least two of the three tests (n = 60) were used to evaluate the performance of the tube coagulase test for identification of S. aureus, using PCR-amplification of the nuc gene as a gold standard. Results Human plasma was more sensitive than sheep plasma for the tube coagulase test (sensitivity of 91% vs. 81% respectively), but both plasmas had very low specificity (11% and 7% respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of the tube coagulase test (human plasma) was markedly improved when Mannitol salt agar and DNase were introduced as a tri-combination test for routine identification of Staphylococcus aureus (100% specificity and 75% sensitivity). The specificity and sensitivity of Mannitol salt agar/DNase/tube coagulase (sheep plasma) combination was 100% and 67%, respectively. Conclusion The efficiency of the tube coagulase test can be markedly improved by sequel testing of the isolates with Mannitol salt agar, DNase and Tube coagulase. There is no single phenotypic test (including tube coagulase) that can guarantee reliable results in the identification of Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:20707914

2010-01-01

233

Blue Blobs in Compact Groups of Galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the discovery of a population of young blue objects, similar to M81\\/M82 blue blobs (de Mello et al. 2008), outside galaxies in compact groups. These blue blobs were found using multiwavelength data (UV, HI, optical) for the compact groups of galaxies HCG 2, 7, 22, 23, 92, 100 and NGC 92 which are in different stages of interaction.

Duilia F. De Mello; S. Torres-Flores; C. Mendes de Oliveira

2009-01-01

234

BLUE WHALE-SIZED MOUTHFULS MAKE FORAGING  

E-print Network

Inside JEB i BLUE WHALE-SIZED MOUTHFULS MAKE FORAGING SUPER EFFICIENT When a blue whale dives from the University of British Columbia, Canada, explains that blue whales may be able to dive. Explaining that the whales feed by lunging repeatedly through deep shoals of krill, engulfing their own body

Martin, Paul R.

235

The SLAC Blue Book: A Brief History  

E-print Network

The SLAC Blue Book: A Brief History By Jean Marie Deken, Archivist, SLAC Archives and History;The SLAC Blue Book: A Brief History probably late in 1966 or early 1967, the Two-Mile Accelerator had 2007 #12;The SLAC Blue Book: A Brief History Doug Dupen (1975) Doug Dupen, then SLAC Director

Wechsler, Risa H.

236

Blue Gene/Q Overview and Update  

E-print Network

Blue Gene®/Q Overview and Update November 2011 #12;Agenda Hardware Architecture George Chiu Sexton #12;© 2011 IBM Corporation IBM System Technology Group 3 Industrial Design BQC DD2.0 Blue Gene/Q 4 Gene/Q #12;© 2011 IBM Corporation IBM System Technology Group Examples of Applications Running on Blue

Kemner, Ken

237

Blue Lobster Bowl 2013: Team Intent Form Preparations are underway for the Blue Lobster Bowl  

E-print Network

Blue Lobster Bowl 2013: Team Intent Form Preparations are underway for the Blue Lobster Bowl Forms will be requested at a later date. Up to 24 student teams can compete in the Blue Lobster Lobster Bowl The Blue Lobster Bowl is an annual academic competition that encourages high school

Entekhabi, Dara

238

Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant Group B Streptococci with Reduced Penicillin Susceptibility Forming Small Non-Beta-Hemolytic Colonies on Sheep Blood Agar Plates  

PubMed Central

We isolated and characterized three multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of group B streptococci with reduced penicillin susceptibility (PRGBS) that formed small non-beta-hemolytic colonies on sheep blood agar plates but grew well on chocolate agar plates. They can be overlooked in the bacterial identification step, leading to clinical misdiagnosis and treatment failure. PMID:24622103

Banno, Hirotsugu; Tanaka, Yosuke; Kitanaka, Hiromitsu; Jin, Wanchun; Wachino, Jun-ichi; Yamada, Keiko; Shibayama, Keigo; Arakawa, Yoshichika

2014-01-01

239

Characterization of multidrug-resistant group B streptococci with reduced penicillin susceptibility forming small non-Beta-hemolytic colonies on sheep blood agar plates.  

PubMed

We isolated and characterized three multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of group B streptococci with reduced penicillin susceptibility (PRGBS) that formed small non-beta-hemolytic colonies on sheep blood agar plates but grew well on chocolate agar plates. They can be overlooked in the bacterial identification step, leading to clinical misdiagnosis and treatment failure. PMID:24622103

Banno, Hirotsugu; Kimura, Kouji; Tanaka, Yosuke; Kitanaka, Hiromitsu; Jin, Wanchun; Wachino, Jun-ichi; Yamada, Keiko; Shibayama, Keigo; Arakawa, Yoshichika

2014-06-01

240

Use of agar diffusion assay to evaluate bactericidal activity of formulations of alkaline salts of fatty acids against bacteria associated with poultry processing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The agar diffusion assay was used to examine antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids (FA). Wells in agar media seeded with bacteria were filled with FA-potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions, plates were incubated, and zones of inhibition were measured. The relationship between bacteric...

241

Controlled evaluation of Trypticase soy broth in agar slide and conventional blood culture systems.  

PubMed Central

A commercially available biphasic blood culture system that utilizes an attachable agar slide paddle and Trypticase soy broth (BBL Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, Md.) was compared with a conventional Trypticase soy broth blood culture bottle in 6,867 paired blood cultures from adult patients. Both systems were inoculated with equal volumes of blood (5 ml) and incubated aerobically (vented) for 2 weeks. More clinically important bacteria and fungi, including Staphylococcus epidermidis, streptococci, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., other Enterobacteriaceae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were recovered from the biphasic system (P less than 0.001). In contrast, more anaerobic bacteria of importance were recovered in the conventional bottle (P less than 0.01). Staphylococci (P less than 0.001), gram-negative facultative and aerobic bacteria (P less than 0.001), and fungi (P less than 0.001) were detected 1 or more days earlier in the biphasic system, whereas pneumococci (P less than 0.05) were detected earlier in the conventional bottle. Of 603 clinically important microorganisms that grew in the biphasic system, 601 (99.7%) were detected by day 7 of incubation, but only 403 of 490 microorganisms (82.2%) were detected by day 7 in the conventional bottle. Overall, the biphasic system was superior to the conventional bottle. For optimal detection of anaerobic bacteremia, however, the biphasic system should be used in conjunction with a complementary anaerobic conventional bottle. PMID:3157701

Weinstein, M P; Reller, L B; Mirrett, S; Wang, W L; Alcid, D V

1985-01-01

242

Cryptococcuria as manifestation of disseminated cryptococcosis: Staib agar as a selective identification medium.  

PubMed

We conducted a retrospective study of 58 cases of cryptococcosis (1986-2008) with urine test positive for Cryptococcus sp, in Mycology Laboratory, Santa Casa-Hospital Complex, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. The diagnosis of cryptococcuria was based on microscopic examination and culture of urinary sediment. Cryptococcus was isolated from other clinical specimens such as blood, cerebrospinal fluid, ascitic and pleural fluids, respiratory secretions, biopsies of skin, nasal and bone marrow. Cryptocccus neoformans was present in 55 cases and Cryptocccus gattii in three cases. Males predominated (79.3%); age ranged from 12 to 86 years. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) were present in 60.3%, 31.1% did not have AIDS and 5.2% were apparently immunocompetent patients. The most frequent signs and symptoms were headache (53.4%) and fever (51.7%). The most widely used medication was the amphotericin B (43 patients). The mortality rate was 45%. We conclude that the mycological examination of the urine can be an alternative simple, non-invasive and useful in diagnosis of disseminated cryptococcosis, especially when used in conjunction with techniques for demonstration of the capsule (nigrosine) and/or production of melanin in special culture media (Staib agar). PMID:21623936

Severo, C B; Pinto, G L F; Sotilli, J; Garcia, M R; Gazzoni, A F; Oliveira, F M; Severo, L C

2011-11-01

243

Smart approach to evaluate drug diffusivity in injectable agar-carbomer hydrogels for drug delivery.  

PubMed

Hydrogels are commonly studied for tissue engineering applications and controlled drug delivery. In order to evaluate their reliability as scaffolds and delivery devices, literature describes many release studies performed involving different analytical techniques. However, these experiments can be expensive, time-consuming, and often not reproducible. In this study, two injectable agar-carbomer-based hydrogels were studied, both being loaded with sodium fluorescein, a harmless fluorophore with a steric hindrance similar to many small drugs, such as for example steroids and other neuroprotecting agents. Starting from simple, traditional, and inexpensive release experiments, it was possible to indirectly estimate the self-diffusion coefficient (D) of loaded sodium fluorescein. Such a parameter was also directly measured in the gel matrix by means of high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) diffusion-ordered spectroscopy NMR. Because of the agreement between the calculated values and those measured by HRMAS-NMR spectroscopy, the latter approach can be considered as a simple and fast alternative to long analytic procedures. PMID:21355616

Santoro, M; Marchetti, P; Rossi, F; Perale, G; Castiglione, F; Mele, A; Masi, M

2011-03-24

244

Growth of Physarum gyrosum on agar plates and in liquid culture.  

PubMed

The physical and nutritional requirements of the antibiotic-producing slime mold Physarum gyrosum were examined to develop a liquid medium for this myxomycete. Liquid culture is desired to expedite a useful scale of production of antibiotic materials for ease of isolation and structure study. Culture conditions were selected to favor antibiotic production rather than maximum growth. The medium devised consisted of 0.010 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.0), 2% bakers' yeast, and 0.2% glucose and was supplemented with either 10(-7) M hemoglobin (preferred) or 2.0 ml of live Escherichia coli per 100 ml of culture medium grown to a steady-state population in nutrient broth. The slime mold, which contained some E. coli carried along with the inoculum, was allowed to grow as a surface plasmodium at 20 degrees C in the dark with weekly subculturing for stocks or for 10 days for antibiotic production. P. gyrosum produced the same antibiotic materials when grown in liquid medium as it did when grown on agar plates. A seeded plate disk assay against Bacillus cereus was employed to follow antibiotic activity. PMID:10830

Taylor, R L; Mallette, M F

1976-10-01

245

49 CFR 218.23 - Blue signal display.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blue signal display. 218.23 Section 218...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Blue Signal Protection of Workers § 218.23 Blue signal display. (a) Blue signals...

2010-10-01

246

Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

Not Available

1990-09-01

247

The Physics of the Blues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

Gibson, J. Murray

2009-03-01

248

Ol' Blue Eyes, in Focus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholarly books with "identity" and "culture" in the title have loomed large on academic publishing lists for several years. Scholarly books with "Sinatra" in the title are a more recent phenomenon. Despite his six-decade career as the Voice (the 1940s), the Chairman of the Board (the 50s and 60s), and Ol' Blue Eyes (the 70s through his death, in…

Nelson, Michael

2009-01-01

249

Models of Individual Blue Stragglers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter describes the current state of models of individual blue stragglers. Stellar collisions, binary mergers (or coalescence), and partial or ongoing mass transfer have all been studied in some detail. The products of stellar collisions retain memory of their parent stars and are not fully mixed. Very high initial rotation rates must be reduced by an unknown process to allow the stars to collapse to the main sequence. The more massive collision products have shorter lifetimes than normal stars of the same mass, while products between low mass stars are long-lived and look very much like normal stars of their mass. Mass transfer can result in a merger, or can produce another binary system with a blue straggler and the remnant of the original primary. The products of binary mass transfer cover a larger portion of the colour-magnitude diagram than collision products for two reasons: there are more possible configurations which produce blue stragglers, and there are differing contributions to the blended light of the system. The effects of rotation may be substantial in both collision and merger products, and could result in significant mixing unless angular momentum is lost shortly after the formation event. Surface abundances may provide ways to distinguish between the formation mechanisms, but care must be taken to model the various mixing mechanisms properly before drawing strong conclusions. Avenues for future work are outlined.

Sills, Alison

250

Uncovering Blue Diffuse Dwarf Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) and the star-formation within their chemically pristine environments are fundamental to our understanding of the galaxy formation process at early times. However, traditional emission-line surveys detect only the brightest metal-poor galaxies where star-formation occurs in compact, starbursting environments, and thereby give us only a partial view of the dwarf galaxy population. To avoid such biases, we have developed a new search algorithm based on the morphological, rather then spectral, properties of XMPs and have applied to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database of images. Using this novel approach, we have discovered ~100 previously undetected, faint blue galaxies, each with isolated HII regions embedded in a diffuse continuum. In this talk I will present the first results from follow-up optical spectroscopy of this sample, which reveals these blue diffuse dwarfs (BDDs) to be young, very metal-poor and actively forming stars despite their intrinsically low luminosities. I will present evidence showing that BDDs appear to bridge the gap between quiescent dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies and blue compact galaxies (BCDs) and as such offer an ideal opportunity to assess how star-formation occurs in more `normal' metal-poor systems.

James, Bethan; Koposov, Sergey; Stark, Daniel; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W.

2015-01-01

251

76 FR 19466 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, et al.; Amended Certification Regarding...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...895, et al.] Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, et al.; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility...TA-W-74,895 Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data...

2011-04-07

252

76 FR 22923 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...895, et al.] Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team Including...TA-W-74,895 Wellpoint, Inc., D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, Enterprise Provider Data...

2011-04-25

253

Inflation and alternatives with blue tensor spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the tilt of the primordial gravitational waves spectrum. A hint of blue tilt is shown from analyzing the BICEP2 and POLARBEAR data. Motivated by this, we explore the possibilities of blue tensor spectra from the very early universe cosmology models, including null energy condition violating inflation, inflation with general initial conditions, and string gas cosmology, etc. For the simplest G-inflation, blue tensor spectrum also implies blue scalar spectrum. In general, the inflation models with blue tensor spectra indicate large non-Gaussianities. On the other hand, string gas cosmology predicts blue tensor spectrum with highly Gaussian fluctuations. If further experiments do confirm the blue tensor spectrum, non-Gaussianity becomes a distinguishing test between inflation and alternatives.

Wang, Yi; Xue, Wei

2014-10-01

254

Polish Terms for "Blue" in the Perspective of Vantage Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Polish set of terms for blue includes, inter alia, the following adjectives: "niebieski" "blue", "blekitny" "(sky) blue", "granatowy" "navy blue", "lazurowy" "azure", "modry" "(intense) blue" and "siny" "(grey) violet-blue". The adjective "niebieski" is the basic term; however, it shares some of its functions with "blekitny", which is…

Stanulewicz, Danuta

2010-01-01

255

In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of Scopulariopsis brevicaulis strains using agar diffusion method.  

PubMed

The genus Scopulariopsis is a common soil saprotroph and has been isolated from air, organic waste and also from plant, animal and human tissues. Scopulariopsis has mainly been associated in humans with superficial mycoses, but it has also been described as the cause of subcutaneous and invasive infections. The most common aetiological agent of infections in humans is Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. This species has been reported to be resistant in vitro to broad-spectrum antifungal agents available today. The aim of the study was to establish in vitro antifungal susceptibility of 35 S. brevicaulis strains against amphotericin B (AMB), flucytosine (FC), caspofungin (CAS), terbinafine (TER), ciclopirox (CIC), voriconazole (VOR), clotrimazole (CTR), miconazole (MCZ), econazole (ECO), ketoconazole (KET), itraconazole (ITR), and fluconazole (FLU). Antifungal susceptibility tests were evaluated by an agar diffusion method (Neo-Sensitabs, Rosco, Denmark). AMB, FC, CAS, ITR and FLU showed no antifungal activity against S. brevicaulis. TER, CIC, CTR, KET, VOR, ECO, and MCZ revealed inhibitory activity for S. brevicaulis, but it varied for each of the drugs. The best antifungal effect was observed for TER and CIC. All isolates had large inhibition zones for TER and CIC. CTR was also inhibitory for all tested S. brevicaulis isolates, but the diameters of inhibition zones were smaller than for TER and CIC. Nearly 89% isolates showed inhibition zones for KET and the mean diameter of the inhibition zone was comparable to CTR. The least antifungal activity exhibited VQR, ECO and MCZ. Because of the multiresistance of S. brevicaulis, infections due to this species may not respond to particular antifungal treatment and other therapeutic approaches should be considered, e.g., combined therapy and/or surgery. PMID:21682097

Skóra, Magdalena; Macura, Anna B

2011-01-01

256

Evaluation of the antibacterial effects of vancomycin hydrochloride released from agar-gelatin-bioactive glass composites.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate the perfomance of agar-gelatin (AG) composites and AG-containing 45S5 bioactive glass (BG) microparticles (AGBG) in relation to their water uptake capacity, sustained release of a drug over time, and antibacterial effects. The composites were fabricated by the gel-casting method. To impart the local drug release capacity, vancomycin hydrochloride (VC) was loaded in the composites in concentrations of 0.5 and 1?mg?ml(-1). VC release was assessed in distilled water at 37?°C up to 72?h and quantified spectrophotometrically. The antibacterial activity of composites was evaluated by the inhibition zone test and the plate count method. The experiments were performed in vitro up to 48?h on three staphylococcus strains: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213, S. aureus ATCC6538 and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC12228. The results showed that the addition of BG to AG composites did not affect the degree of water uptake. The release of VC was significantly affected by the presence of BG. VC release was higher from AGBGVC films than from AGVC ones over prolonged incubation times. Bacterial inhibition zones were found around the composites. The halos were larger when the cells were put in contact with AGVC composites than when they were put in contact with AGBGVC ones. Nevertheless, the viable count method demonstrated that the composites inhibited Staphylococcus cell growth with no statistical differences. In conclusion, the addition of BG did not reflect an improvement in the parameters studied. On the other hand, composites loaded with VC would have a role in prophylaxis against bacterial infection. PMID:25586240

Rivadeneira, Josefina; Di Virgilio, Ana Laura; Audisio, M Carina; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Gorustovich, Alejandro A

2015-02-01

257

Screening for ligninolytic enzymes from autochthonous fungi and applications for decolorization of Remazole Marine Blue  

PubMed Central

This study presents new and alternative fungal strains for the production of ligninolytic enzymes which have great potential to use in industrial and biotechnological processes. Thirty autochthonous fungal strains were harvested from Bornova-Izmir in Turkiye. In the fresh fruitbody extracts laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase activities, which are the principal enzymes responsible for ligninocellulose degradation by Basidiomycetes, were screened. Spores of some of the basidiomycetes species such as Cortinarius sp., Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Abortiporus biennis, Lyophyllum subglobisporium, Ramaria stricta, Ganoderma carnosum, Lactarius delicious ve Lepista nuda were isolated and investigated optimum cultivation conditions in submerged fermentation for high yields of ligninolytic enzyme production. In addition, isolated fungal strains were monitored on agar plates whether having the capability of decolorization of a textile dye Remazol Marine Blue. PMID:24031371

Erden, Emre; Ucar, M. Cigdem; Gezer, Tekin; Pazarlioglu, Nurdan Kasikara

2009-01-01

258

Protoplast transformation of recalcitrant alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. with methylated plasmid DNA and a developed hard agar regeneration medium.  

PubMed

Among the diverse alkaliphilic Bacillus strains, only a little have been reported to be genetically transformed. In this study, an efficient protoplast transformation procedure was developed for recalcitrant alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. N16-5. The procedure involved polyethylene glycol-induced DNA uptake by the protoplasts and subsequent protoplast regeneration with a developed hard agar regeneration medium. An in vivo methylation strategy was introduced to methylate the exogenous plasmid DNA for improving the transformation efficiency. The transformation efficiency reached to 1.1×10(5) transformants per µg plasmid DNA with methylated plasmid pHCMC04 and the developed hard agar regeneration medium. This procedure might also be applicable to the genetic transformation of other Bacillus strains. PMID:22132233

Gao, Chenghua; Xue, Yanfen; Ma, Yanhe

2011-01-01

259

Cytological comparison of leaves and stems of Prunus avium L. shoots cultured on a solid medium with agar or gelrite.  

PubMed

An axillary proliferating clone of Prunus avium L. was subcultured every four weeks on solid MS medium with agar as the gelling agent. Vitrification (hyperhydricity) of shoots was induced in one four week cycle with the same medium except that agar was replaced by gelrite. During culture on the vitrifying medium, the water content of the shoots progressively increased with a parallel decrease in chlorophyll content. Cytological differences between the leaves and stems of the vitrified and normal shoots were detected by light and electron (both transmission and scanning) microscopy. Leaves of vitrified shoots were characterized by lower number of chloroplasts in the palisade parenchyma and by a defective cuticle. The stems of vitrified shoots had a less developed and lignifled xylem tissue, lacked sclerenchymatic areas and showed hypertrophy of the cortical parenchyma. More intense vacuolar activity with evaginations of the chloroplast envelope into the vacuole was noted in cells of vitrified leaves. PMID:9554582

Franck, T; Crèvecoeur, M; Wuest, J; Greppin, H; Gaspar, T

1998-01-01

260

[Clinical symptoms and circumastances of acute poisonings with fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and panther cap (Amanita pantherina)].  

PubMed

Mushroom poisonings in Poland are quite common, especially in summer and autumn, but fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and panther cap (Amanita pantherina) are rather rare cause of these intoxications. Fly agaric is a cause of deliberate poisoning, whereas panther cap poisoning also happens accidentally. The main toxins of these two mushrooms are ibotenic acid (pantherine, agarine), muscimol, muscazone and muscaridine. The other bioactive substances are stizolobic and stizolobinic acids and aminodicarboxyethylthiopropanoic acids. All these compounds are responsible for diverse picture of intoxication. An analysis of patients with Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina poisoning hospitalized in the Poznan Departament of Toxicology revealed that symptoms occurred after 30 minutes to 2 hours with vomiting, hallucinations, restlessness, increased psychomotor drive and central nervous system depression. Other antycholinergic symptoms like tachycardia and increased blood pressure, mydriasis, dry and red skin were seen only in a few cases. Acute respiratory failure was the most dangerous symptom observed in the course of poisoning. PMID:22010435

?ukasik-G?ebocka, Magdalena; Druzdz, Artur; Naskret, Maciej

2011-01-01

261

Effect of EDTA on Pb(II) Uptake and Translocation by Tumbleweed (Salsola Kali): Agar and Hydroponics Studies  

SciTech Connect

Environmental accumulation of Pb represents a worldwide health hazard. While conventional cleanup techniques are generally expensive and soil disturbing, phytoremediation represents an inexpensive friendly option for the removal of contaminants from soil and water. In this research, tumbleweed (Salsola kali) plants exposed for 15 days to Pb(NO3)2 at 80 and 125 ppm in hydroponics and agar media, demonstrated a high capacity to uptake lead. The results showed that the plants cultivated in agar accumulated 25563, 5534 and 2185 mg Pb kg-1 DW in roots, stems and leaves, respectively. Moreover, Pb concentrations found in hydroponically grown tumbleweed plants tissues were 30744, 1511 and 1421 mg kg-1 DW in roots, stems and leaves, respectively. It was observed that EDTA enhanced Pb translocation. No Pb phytotoxic effects were observed during the experimental time period. Cellular structural features were also observed using TEM.

de la Rosa, Guadalupe; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Aldrich, Mary

2004-03-31

262

Field evaluation of the direct detection of multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis by nitrate reductase assay on 7H11 agar.  

PubMed

In this study we evaluated the performance of colorimetric nitrate reductase assay (NRA) on Middlebrook 7H11 agar instead of Lowenstein-Jensen medium for detection of isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF) resistance directly on 114 smear positive sputum specimens and compared the results with direct proportion method on LJ medium. The results of both methods were in 100% agreement for detection of RIF resistance while agreement for INH was 96.4%. The average turnaround time for NRA was 18.6 days and majority of the specimens gave positive results within 21 days. Thus direct NRA testing on smear positive sputum specimens by using 7H11 agar could be used as a fast, reliable and inexpensive method in resource starved settings. PMID:23507185

Satti, Luqman; Ikram, Aamer; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi; Khan, Farooq Ahmad

2013-05-01

263

Preparation of agar nanospheres: Comparison of response surface and artificial neural network modeling by a genetic algorithm approach.  

PubMed

Multivariate nature of drug loaded nanospheres manufacturing in term of multiplicity of involved factors makes it a time consuming and expensive process. In this study genetic algorithm (GA) and artificial neural network (ANN), two tools inspired by natural process, were employed to optimize and simulate the manufacturing process of agar nanospheres. The efficiency of GA was evaluated against the response surface methodology (RSM). The studied responses included particle size, poly dispersity index, zeta potential, drug loading and release efficiency. GA predicted greater extremum values for response factors compared to RSM. However, real values showed some deviations from predicted data. Appropriate agreement was found between ANN model predicted and real values for all five response factors with high correlation coefficients. GA was more successful than RSM in optimization and along with ANN were efficient tools in optimizing and modeling the fabrication process of drug loaded in agar nanospheres. PMID:25817674

Zaki, Mohammad Reza; Varshosaz, Jaleh; Fathi, Milad

2015-05-20

264

Liofilchem® O.A. Listeria agar and direct CAMP test provided sooner Listeria monocytogenes identification from neonatal bacteremia  

PubMed Central

Listeria monocytogenes infection in pregnant women and newborns is a cause for serious concern, and invasive disease outcome strongly depends on prompt antibiotic therapy. To provide sooner identification from neonatal bacteremia we performed a CAMP test directly on positive blood aliquots and inoculated the Liofilchem® O.A. Listeria chromogenic agar as well, thus providing a 24-h turn-around time for response. PMID:24695762

Savini, Vincenzo; Marrollo, Roberta; Serio, Annalisa; Paparella, Antonello; Argentieri, Angela Valentina; D’Antonio, Marianna; Coclite, Eleonora; Fusilli, Paola; Fazii, Paolo

2014-01-01

265

Liofilchem(®) O.A. Listeria agar and direct CAMP test provided sooner Listeria monocytogenes identification from neonatal bacteremia.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes infection in pregnant women and newborns is a cause for serious concern, and invasive disease outcome strongly depends on prompt antibiotic therapy. To provide sooner identification from neonatal bacteremia we performed a CAMP test directly on positive blood aliquots and inoculated the Liofilchem(®) O.A. Listeria chromogenic agar as well, thus providing a 24-h turn-around time for response. PMID:24695762

Savini, Vincenzo; Marrollo, Roberta; Serio, Annalisa; Paparella, Antonello; Argentieri, Angela Valentina; D'Antonio, Marianna; Coclite, Eleonora; Fusilli, Paola; Fazii, Paolo

2014-01-01

266

Selection of tumour cell subpopulations occurs during cultivation of human tumours in soft agar. A DNA flow cytometric study.  

PubMed Central

To examine whether selection of tumour cell subpopulations occurs during cultivation in soft agar, we compared in 23 human tumours of different histological types the DNA content of cells from colonies formed in soft agar (method of Courtenay and Mills, 1978) with that of the original tumour cells. The ploidy as well as the fraction of cells in S phase were determined from DNA histograms after staining of the nuclei with a propidium-iodide procedure and flow cytometric recordings. In 8 of 17 aneuploid tumours analysed, specific aneuploid subpopulations disappeared during cultivation or new aneuploid populations, not demonstrable in the original cell suspensions, appeared in the colonies. In 9 cases identical aneuploid populations were found in the colonies and the tumours. In one of 6 diploid tumours examined, aneuploid cell populations not revealed in the original cell suspension, were found in addition to diploid cells, whereas 5 tumours gave rise to colonies containing a purely diploid population. The results show that in a variety of human malignant tumours cultivation in soft agar may select specific aneuploid tumour cell populations. PMID:4063145

Tveit, K. M.; Pettersen, E. O.; Fosså, S. D.; Pihl, A.

1985-01-01

267

Choline chloride based ionic liquid analogues as tool for the fabrication of agar films with improved mechanical properties.  

PubMed

In the present paper, we test the suitability of ChCl/urea (DES-U) and ChCl/glycerol (DES-G) eutectic mixtures, each one prepared at 1:2 molar ratio, for the production of agar films. A three-step process is proposed: pre-solubilization of polymer in DES followed by compression-molding and subsequent drying. The mechanical properties, water resistance and microstructure of the films were evaluated at different polymer concentrations (i.e. 2-6%, w/w). DES-U showed by far, the best film forming ability. Agreeing with the diffusion and SEM data, films with the best mechanical properties were found at the lowest and highest agar concentrations (tensile strengths of 24.2-42 MPa and elongations of 15.4-38.9%). The water sorption and contact angle studies suggested increased hydrophilicity for the film containing the lowest concentration of agar. The use of choline chloride based ionic liquid analogues as solvent and plasticizer might be a promising tool for the development of new non-aqueous materials based on seaweed polysaccharides. PMID:25037344

Sousa, Ana M M; Souza, Hiléia K S; Latona, Nicholas; Liu, Cheng-Kung; Gonçalves, Maria P; Liu, LinShu

2014-10-13

268

Nutrient limitation leads to penetrative growth into agar and affects aroma formation in Pichia fabianii, P. kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Among fermentative yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is most frequently used as a model organism, although other yeast species may have special features that make them interesting candidates to apply in food-fermentation processes. In this study, we used three yeast species isolated from fermented masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruit, S. cerevisiae 131, Pichia fabianii 65 and Pichia kudriavzevii 129, and determined the impact of nitrogen and/or glucose limitation on surface growth mode and the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All three species displayed significant changes in growth mode in all nutrient-limited conditions, signified by the formation of metafilaments or pseudohyphae. The timing of the transition was found to be species-specific. Transition in growth mode is suggested to be linked to the production of certain fusel alcohols, such as phenylethyl alcohol, which serve as quorum-sensing molecules. Interestingly, we did not observe concomitant increased production of phenylethyl alcohol and filamentous growth. Notably, a broader range of esters was found only for the Pichia spp. grown on nitrogen-limited agar for 21?days compared to nutrient-rich agar, and when grown on glucose- and glucose- plus nitrogen-limited agar. Our data suggest that for the Pichia spp., the formation of esters may play an important role in the switch in growth mode upon nitrogen limitation. Further biological or ecological implications of ester formation are discussed. PMID:25308873

van Rijswijck, Irma M H; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Wolkers-Rooijackers, Judith C M; Abee, Tjakko; Smid, Eddy J

2015-01-01

269

Uncovering blue diffuse dwarf galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extremely metal poor (XMP) galaxies are known to be very rare, despite the large numbers of low-mass galaxies predicted by the local galaxy luminosity function. This paper presents a subsample of galaxies that were selected via a morphology-based search on Sloan Digital Sky Survey images with the aim of finding these elusive XMP galaxies. By using the recently discovered XMP galaxy, Leo P, as a guide, we obtained a collection of faint, blue systems, each with isolated H II regions embedded in a diffuse continuum, that have remained optically undetected until now. Here we show the first results from optical spectroscopic follow-up observations of 12 of ˜100 of these blue diffuse dwarf (BDD) galaxies yielded by our search algorithm. Oxygen abundances were obtained via the direct method for eight galaxies, and found to be in the range 7.45 < 12 + log (O/H) < 8.0, with two galaxies being classified as XMPs. All BDDs were found to currently have a young star-forming population (<10 Myr) and relatively high ionization parameters of their H II regions. Despite their low luminosities (-11 ? MB ? -18) and low surface brightnesses (˜23-25 mag arcsec-2), the galaxies were found to be actively star forming, with current star formation rates between 0.0003 and 0.078 M? yr-1. From our current subsample, BDD galaxies appear to be a population of non-quiescent dwarf irregular galaxies, or the diffuse counterparts to blue compact galaxies and as such may bridge the gap between these two populations. Our search algorithm demonstrates that morphology-based searches are successful in uncovering more diffuse metal-poor star-forming galaxies, which traditional emission-line-based searches overlook.

James, Bethan L.; Koposov, Sergey; Stark, Daniel P.; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W.

2015-04-01

270

Blue Photoluminescence From Silacyclobutene Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organosilicon compounds in which the Si atom is bound to an aromatic moiety such as a phenyl group, exhibit strong blue photoluminescence when excited with UV light (for example at a wavelength of 337 nm). This phenomenon was investigated quantitatively at room temperature and at the temperature of liquid nitrogen (78 K) by measuring the emission and excitation spectra of the total luminescence, and of the phosphorescence, for a silacyclobutene compound in which two phenyl groups are joined across the C=C double bond of the ring. The effect of a series of organic substituents on the Si atom was investigated as well as the time dependence of the phosphorescence intensity decay for this class of materials. A tentative model of the energy levels in this compound is proposed. The observation of visible blue emission -- in contrast to photoluminescence in the UV from the aromatic groups -- is explained by the Si-C bond lowering the energy of the molecular orbitals, an effect that is currently under study for a range of Si-containing compounds. Synthesis of the silacyclobutene compounds was performed at the laboratory of Prof. N. Auner, now at J.W. Goethe Universität, Frankfurt, Germany. His contributions, and those of his collaborators, to the work reported here are gratefully acknowledged.

Pernisz, Udo

1999-04-01

271

Polymer stabilized and dispersed blue phases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blue phase liquid crystal (BPLC) materials have potential for advanced applications of display material and technology based on their optical behaviors, such as field-induced birefringence and sub-millisecond response time, which is at least one order of magnitude faster than the present nematic liquid crystal based displays. Since blue phases appear in the narrow temperature range between the chiral nematic and the isotropic phases, there is a temperature range limitation for the application of blue phase liquid crystal. In this dissertation, we have developed blue phase liquid crystal materials with a wide temperature range and low driving voltage. The first goal was to develop wide-temperature range blue phase liquid crystal materials using several stabilization methods notably polymer stabilization, doping of carbon-nanotubes and bent-core molecules. The temperature range could be expanded more than 54°C via the polymer stabilization. The second goal was to explore the polymer dispersed blue phase liquid crystal combining the advantages of the polymer dispersion method and blue phase materials. Polymer encapsulated blue phase films showed a large Kerr constant, low switching voltage and fast response time. Moreover, the temperature range of encapsulated blue phase films were successfully expanded from 9°C to 54°C .

Kemiklioglu, Emine

272

Morphological responses of wheat to blue light  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blue light significantly increased tillering in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown at the same photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). Plants were grown under two levels of blue light (400-500 nm) in a controlled environment with continuous irradiation. Plants received either 50 micromoles m-2 s-1 of blue light or 2 micromoles m-2 s-1 blue light from filtered metal halide lamps at a total irradiance of 200 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPF (400-700 nm). Plants tillered an average of 25% more under the higher level of blue light. Blue light also caused a small, but consistent, increase in main culm development, measured as Haun stage. Leaf length was reduced by higher levels of blue light, while plant dry-mass was not significantly affected by blue light. Applying the principle of equivalent light action, the results suggest that tillering and leaf elongation are mediated by the blue-UV light receptor(s) because phytochrome photoequilibrium for each treatment were nearly identical.

Barnes, C.; Bugbee, B.

1992-01-01

273

Enumeration of beta-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia coli in foods by using the ISO-GRID method with SD-39 agar.  

PubMed

A study was undertaken to compare beta-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia coli counts produced by the ISO-GRID hydrophobic grid membrane filter method using SD-39 agar (test method) with those produced by AOAC Official Method 990.11, an existing ISO-GRID method using lactose monensin glucuronate agar and buffered MUG agar (reference method). The methods were evaluated using 21 food products, with three independent lots of five replicate samples analyzed per product by both methods. The test and reference methods were statistically equivalent for 19 of the 21 products; frozen, raw ground lamb produced significantly higher counts using the reference method, whereas counts obtained from cottage cheese were significantly higher using the SD-39 agar-based method. PMID:9678181

Entis, P; Lerner, I

1998-07-01

274

Characterization and optimization of hydrogen production by a salt water blue-green alga Oscillatoria sp. Miami BG 7. II - Use of immobilization for enhancement of hydrogen production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technique of cellular immobilization was applied to the process of hydrogen photoproduction of nonheterocystous, filamentous marine blue-green alga, Oscillatoria sp. Miami BG 7. Immobilization with agar significantly improved the rate and longevity of hydrogen production, compared to free cell suspensions. Rates of H2 production in excess of 13 microliters H2 mg dry/wt h were observed and hydrogen production was sustained for three weeks. Immobilization also provided some stabilization to environmental variability and was adaptable to outdoor light conditions. In general, immobilization provides significant advantages for the production and maintenance of hydrogen photoproduction for this strain.

Phlips, E. J.; Mitsui, A.

1986-01-01

275

Inactivation of B. cereus spores on agar, stainless steel or in water with a combination of Nd:YAG laser and UV irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nd:YAG laser irradiation at 1.06 ?m and germicidal ultraviolet irradiation (UV) were combined to treat B. cereus spores lawned on agar surfaces, stainless steel discs or distilled water. On the agar surface the applied laser energy density was 3000 J cm?2 (applied as 100 or 200 W) and the UV (2×8 W at 24 cm) irradiance was 190 ?W cm?2

Graham N. Armstrong; Ian A. Watson; Duncan E. Stewart-Tull

2006-01-01

276

Root Development and Aerenchyma Formation in Two Wheat Cultivars and One Triticale Cultivar Grown in Stagnant Agar and Aerated Nutrient Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stagnant nutrient solution containing 0.1% agar and with an extremely low oxygen level (‘stagnant agar solution’) was used to simulate the gaseous composition and slow gas diffusion of waterlogged soils. Comparisons were made between the growth of two wheat cultivars(Triticum aestivum,cvs. Gamenya and Kite) and one triticale cultivar(Triticosecale,cv. Muir) grown in stagnant relative to aerated solution. For all genotypes tested,

ELIZABETH L. J. WATKIN; CAMPBELL J THOMSON; HANK GREENWAY

1998-01-01

277

Ecology of Blue Straggler Stars  

E-print Network

The existence of blue straggler stars (BSS), which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution, as such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. As such, BSS could just be some quirks but in fact their understanding requires a deep knowledge of many different areas in astronomy, from stellar evolution through cluster dynamics, from chemical abundances to stellar populations. In November 2012, a workshop on this important topic took place at the ESO Chilean headquarters in Santiago. The many topics covered at this workshop were introduced by very comprehensive invited reviews, providing a unique and insightful view on the field. These reviews have now become chapters of the first ever book on BSS.

Boffin, H M J; Beccari, G

2014-01-01

278

Long-persistence blue phosphors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates to phosphors including long-persistence blue phosphors. Phosphors of the invention are represented by the general formula: MO . mAl.sub.2 O.sub.3 :Eu.sup.2+,R.sup.3+ wherein m is a number ranging from about 1.6 to about 2.2, M is Sr or a combination of Sr with Ca and Ba or both, R.sup.3+ is a trivalent metal ion or trivalent Bi or a mixture of these trivalent ions, Eu.sup.2+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M, and R.sup.3+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M. Phosphors of this invention include powders, ceramics, single crystals and single crystal fibers. A method of manufacturing improved phosphors and a method of manufacturing single crystal phosphors are also provided.

Yen, William M. (Inventor); Jia, Weiyi (Inventor); Lu, Lizhu (Inventor); Yuan, Huabiao (Inventor)

2000-01-01

279

Methylthymol blue in Fricke gels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The initial trial of methylthymol blue (MTB) as a chelator for ferric iron in Fricke gel dosimeters, used for three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry in cancer radiotherapy, is reported. MTB is a structural analogue of the conventionally used xylenol orange (XO); however, the absorbance spectrum of the ferric-MTB complex is shifted to higher wavelengths, which should allow for lower amount of light scattering during gel scanning. In this study, two gelatin substrates, two sources of XO and one source of MTB have been compared. The MTB- containing gels exhibited similar dose response and diffusion coefficient to the XO-containing gels at their wavelengths of maximum absorption (620 and 585 nm, respectively). In addition, the MTB gels gave an excellent dose response at 633 nm, which is an important wavelength that is already used with other 3D dosimeters.

Penev, K. I.; Mequanint, K.

2015-01-01

280

Ecology of Blue Straggler Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of blue straggler stars (BSS), which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution, as such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. As such, BSS could just be some quirks but in fact their understanding requires a deep knowledge of many different areas in astronomy, from stellar evolution through cluster dynamics, from chemical abundances to stellar populations. In November 2012, a workshop on this important topic took place at the ESO Chilean headquarters in Santiago. The many topics covered at this workshop were introduced by very comprehensive invited reviews, providing a unique and insightful view on the field. These reviews have now become chapters of the first ever book on BSS.

Boffin, Henri M. J.; Carraro, Giovanni; Beccari, Giacomo

281

Delta Blues Scholarship and Imperialist Nostalgia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When Delta blues are considered to be "folk music," the genre is inextricably tied to the neocolonial, sharecropping system of cotton production characteristic of the Mississippi Delta region between the Civil War and World War II. "Imperialist nostalgia," then, arises in accounts which pay primary and positive tribute to blues performances…

Nye, William P.

282

Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

Liebl, Michael

2010-01-01

283

Morpho-blue reproduced by nanocasting lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The brilliant metallic blue in wings of Morpho butterflies has a mysterious feature. The blue luster is produced from the butterfly's scale, which does not contain a blue pigment at all. The origin of the coloration is then attributed to a microscopic structure that can also explain its high reflectivity. However, its optical characteristics on the scattered wavelength contradicts obviously the grating or multilayer, because it appears blue from wide angle. The mystery of the lack of multi-coloration has recently been explained using a model with a peculiar optical structure, and experimentally proven by fabricating the optical film by controlling the parameters in nanoscale. The reproduced Morpho-blue was found to be important from viewpoint of a wide variety of applications. However, the fabrication process of the nano- structure is too costly due to conventional lithography method. To solve the problem, nano-casting lithography (NCL) was newly applied using UV curable polymer to replicate the nanostructure and improve heat-resistance for the following process of deposition. After fabrication of the nano-patterned polymer structure by the NCL, TiO II and SiO II layers were deposited and the Morpho-blue structure was successfully replicated in low cost. The reflective characteristic of the replicated structure was found to reproduce the basic properties of the natural Morpho-blue, as well as the originally fabricated Morpho-blue.

Saito, Akira; Nakajima, Masaki; Miyamura, Yusuke; Sogo, Kenji; Ishikawa, Yoko; Hirai, Yoshihiko

2006-08-01

284

Blue4Green: Towards a healthier  

E-print Network

Blue4Green: Towards a healthier agri-sector Blue4Green started four years ago with a lab of blood ater a drop of a cow's blood has been applied to the block. If a cow has too little calcium in its blood it can become sick, and before such a situation arises a farmer can decide whether to give the cow

Twente, Universiteit

285

À propos du post-partum blues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since postpartum blues was described by Savage in 1875, the controversy regarding its nature and cause has been sustained. In a first part, the author reviews the conventional clinical assessment of the blues as described in international medical literature. Its constitutive symptoms are mundane, of an affective, emotional, cognitive or psychosomatic nature. On the other hand, their originality resides in

J. Jouppe

2007-01-01

286

Optimization of modified Middlebrook 7H11 agar for isolation of Mycobacterium bovis from raw milk cheese.  

PubMed

Reports have highlighted the absence of contemporary peer reviewed publications pertaining to Mycobacterium bovis culture from raw milk and cheese. By replicating traditional methods, cheese-making methodology and equipment were devised to produce Cheddar (n = 6) and Caerphilly (n = 3) artificially contaminated with M. bovis (three genotypes) under stringent laboratory-containment guidelines for handling hazardous microbiological material. Middlebrook 7H11, modified for M. bovis isolation, was assessed for capacity to enumerate M. bovis despite changing cheese microflora and prolonged M. bovis exposure to the cheese matrix using maturing cheese test portions (n = 63; up to 16 weeks). Malachite green (MG) containing media isolated M. bovis at significantly (P < 0·05) lower levels than unmodified Middlebrook 7H11 agar despite MG being a common adjunct of Middlebrook 7H11 agar modified for M. bovis growth. Subsequently, a selective MG-free Middlebrook 7H11 agar modified using haemolysed red cells and calf serum was demonstrated as the best performing (P < 0·05) medium for recovery of M. bovis from typical UK cheese types, Cheddar and Caerphilly. Significance and impact of the study: Following increased M. bovis infection of UK cattle, the risk posed to consumers from consumption of unpasteurized milk and dairy products has changed. Furthermore, published methods for the culture and molecular detection of M. bovis in raw milk products are limited. Cheese-making protocols and M. bovis culture media reported here provide tools for further investigation of M. bovis survival during all stages of cheese manufacture and could inform future assessment of the risk to consumers from M. bovis contamination of unpasteurized dairy products. PMID:24888395

Forgrave, R; Donaghy, J A; Fisher, A; Rowe, M T

2014-10-01

287

Blue Stragglers After the Main Sequence  

E-print Network

We study the post-main sequence evolution of products of collisions between main sequence stars (blue stragglers), with particular interest paid to the horizontal branch and asymptotic giant branch phases. We found that the blue straggler progeny populate the colour-magnitude diagram slightly blueward of the red giant branch and between 0.2 and 1 magnitudes brighter than the horizontal branch. We also found that the lifetimes of collision products on the horizontal branch is consistent with the numbers of so-called "evolved blue straggler stars" (E-BSS) identified by various authors in a number of globular clusters, and is almost independent of mass or initial composition profile. The observed ratio of the number of E-BSS to blue stragglers points to a main sequence lifetime for blue stragglers of approximately 1-2 Gyr on average.

Alison Sills; Amanda Karakas; John Lattanzio

2008-11-18

288

Evaluation of Chemicals for Restricting Colony Spreading by a Xerophilic Mold, Eurotium amstelodami, on Dichloran-18% Glycerol Agar  

PubMed Central

Twenty chemicals were screened for their effectiveness in restricting colony spreading by four strains of a xerophilic mold, Eurotium amstelodami, on dichloran-18% glycerol agar. Triton X-100, Triton X-301, Tergitol NP-7, and Tergitol 15-S-3 (each at 200 ?g/ml) and 1,000 ?g of sodium deoxycholate, 1 ?g of iprodione, 0.1 ?g of propiconazole, and 0.01 ?g of Maxim per ml were judged to be most effective for restricting the rate of colony spreading. PMID:16348725

Beuchat, Larry R.; De Daza, Maria Soledad Tapia

1992-01-01

289

High internal phase agar hydrogel dispersions in cocoa butter and chocolate as a route towards reducing fat content.  

PubMed

Reducing the fat content of chocolate formulations is a major challenge for the confectionery industry. We report the suspension of aqueous microgel agar particles of up to 80% v/v within sunflower oil, cocoa butter, and ultimately chocolate. The optimised emulsification process involves a shear-cooling step. We demonstrate the versatility of our method when applied to white, milk, and dark chocolate formulations, whilst preserving the desired polymorph V of the cocoa butter matrix. In addition, we show that this technology can be used as a strategy to disperse alcoholic beverages into chocolate confectionery. PMID:23799607

Skelhon, Thomas S; Olsson, Patrik K A; Morgan, Adam R; Bon, Stefan A F

2013-09-01

290

Enumerating actinomycetes in compost bioaerosols at source—Use of soil compost agar to address plate 'masking'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Actinomycetes are the dominant bacteria isolated from bioaerosols sampled at composting facilities. Here, a novel method for the isolation of actinomycetes is reported, overcoming masking of conventional agar plates, as well as reducing analysis time and costs. Repeatable and reliable actinomycetes growth was best achieved using a soil compost media at an incubation temperature of 44 °C and 7 days' incubation. The results are of particular value to waste management operators and their advisors undertaking regulatory risk assessments that support environmental approvals for compost facilities.

Taha, M. P. M.; Drew, G. H.; Tamer Vestlund, A.; Aldred, D.; Longhurst, P. J.; Pollard, S. J. T.

291

49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section 173.216 Transportation...7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following...

2014-10-01

292

49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section 173.216 Transportation...7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following...

2013-10-01

293

49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section 173.216 Transportation...7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following...

2012-10-01

294

76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...2410-OYC] Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway AGENCY: National Park Service...award of temporary concession contracts for Blue Ridge Parkway, NC/VA...of certain visitor services within the Blue Ridge Parkway, North Carolina and...

2011-06-20

295

77 FR 55895 - Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Notice of permanent closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ...it was permanently closing Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ), Cincinnati,...

2012-09-11

296

75 FR 25850 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...Background: The President directed that the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's...

2010-05-10

297

76 FR 1608 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...Background: The President directed that the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's...

2011-01-11

298

76 FR 1607 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...Background: The President directed that the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's...

2011-01-11

299

75 FR 81592 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...Background: The President directed that the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's...

2010-12-28

300

75 FR 10791 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...Background: The President directed that the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's...

2010-03-09

301

75 FR 36647 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...Background: The President directed that the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's...

2010-06-28

302

78 FR 42451 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247 Copolymers; Confirmation of Effective Date Correction...2-methyl-2-propenoic)ester (C.I. Reactive Blue 247) and additional copolymers of...

2013-07-16

303

78 FR 19413 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247 Copolymers AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...2-methacryloxyethyl)phenylamino]anthraquinone (C.I. Reactive Blue 246) and copolymers of 1,4-bis[(2-...

2013-04-01

304

78 FR 37962 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247 Copolymers; Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY...2-methacryloxyethyl)phenylamino]anthraquinone (C.I. Reactive Blue 246) and copolymers of 1,4-bis[(2-...

2013-06-25

305

Effect of growth factors on matrix synthesis by human nasal chondrocytes cultured in monolayer and in agar.  

PubMed

Reconstructive surgery of multiple areas of the body may require replacement bone or cartilage transplants to repair defects or lesions of skeletal tissue. Advances in cell and tissue culture techniques now permit synthesis of autologous human cartilage in vitro. Several growth factors regulate the metabolism and activation of cartilage cells. To enhance culture conditions and effectiveness for in vitro cartilage engineering, the aim of our investigations was to characterize the influence of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on human nasal septal chondrocytes. The isolated cells were cultured as monolayers on plastic and in soft agar. The biological effects of the growth factors were assessed by determining synthesis of total protein and proteoglycan. TGF-beta caused a dose-dependent stimulation of total protein as well as glycosaminoglycan synthesis by all chondrocytes cultured. This stimulatory effect of TGF-beta was greater for chondrocytes cultured in soft agar than for chondrocytes cultured on plastic. No stimulatory effects of matrix synthesis was observed for bFGF in either culture condition. Our results show that TGF-beta can be employed to enhance in vitro production of cartilage grafts for reconstructive surgery. PMID:8858257

Bujía, J; Pitzke, P; Kastenbauer, E; Wilmes, E; Hammer, C

1996-01-01

306

Highly efficient synthesis of exopolysaccharides by Lactobacillus curvatus DPPMA10 during growth in hydrolyzed wheat flour agar.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to optimize the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) by sourdough Lactobacillus curvatus DPPMA10 for industrial application. The effects of pH, temperature, planktonic or attached cells and of some food matrices as substrates were studied. Wheat flour hydrolysate (WFH), reconstituted skimmed milk (RSM) and whey milk were supplemented with fresh yeast extract, mineral salts, and/or molasses. Non-controlled pH, starting from 5.6 to 3.5, was the optimal condition for L. curvatus DPPMA10. Temperature of 30 degrees C was also found to be optimal. Solid surfaces (agar culture media) stimulated attached bacteria to synthesize EPS (> or = of two-fold, P<0.05) with respect to planktonic cells (broth media). The highest production of EPS (ca. 46-50 g/kg of wet medium) was found during growth as attached cells in WFH agar supplemented with glucose, sucrose or molasses, mineral salts and fresh yeast extract at 30 degrees C for 48 h. As shown by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, glucose was the only hydrolysis end-product for EPS synthesized during 48 h of incubation. The EPS synthesized by L. curvatus DPPMA10 improved the quality of bread and was utilized as carbon course by intestinal strains of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. The synthesis of EPS by L. curvatus DPPMA10 under the conditions of this study may open new perspectives for their industrial applications. PMID:20398955

Minervini, F; De Angelis, M; Surico, R F; Di Cagno, R; Gänzle, M; Gobbetti, M

2010-06-30

307

Determination of in vitro synergy for dual antimicrobial therapy against resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae using Etest and agar dilution.  

PubMed

In response to antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to last-resort extended-spectrum cephalosporins, combination therapy of azithromycin+ceftriaxone is now recommended. Dual therapy can be effective to treat monoresistant strains as well as multidrug-resistant strains, preferably employing the effect of in vitro synergy. As reports on in vitro synergy of azithromycin+ceftriaxone in N. gonorrhoeae are conflicting, in this study an evaluation of this combination was performed using a cross-wise Etest method and agar dilution. Synergy was defined as a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of ?0.5. To identify other dual treatment options for gonorrhoea, in vitro synergy was evaluated for 65 dual antimicrobial combinations using Etest. Azithromycin, cefixime, ceftriaxone, colistin, ertapenem, fosfomycin, gentamicin, minocycline, moxifloxacin, rifampicin, spectinomycin and tigecycline were screened for synergy in all possible combinations. No synergy or antagonism was found for any of the 65 combinations. The geometric mean FICI ranged from 0.82 to 2.00. The mean FICI of azithromycin+ceftriaxone was 1.18 (Etest) and 0.55 (agar dilution). The difference between both methods did not result in a difference in interpretation of synergy. Ceftriaxone-resistant strain F89 was tested in all combinations and no synergy was found for any of them. Most importantly, the ceftriaxone minimum inhibitory concentration of F89 was not decreased below the breakpoint with any concentration of azithromycin. PMID:25532741

Wind, Carolien M; de Vries, Henry J C; van Dam, Alje P

2015-03-01

308

Screening femoral heads from living donors: a prospective study comparing swab-agar versus bone fragment-broth culture.  

PubMed

Femoral heads are an important source of allograft bone used in reconstructive orthopaedic surgery. The sterility of donor material is of major importance for the recipient. Femoral heads intraoperatively retrieved during hip arthroplasty from medically screened living donors are routinely checked with a surface swab to exclude microbiological contamination. There is, however, evidence that swab cultures have limited sensitivity. We therefore prospectively compared two ways of screening femoral heads. Bacterial recovery from swabs in Amies transport medium taken intraoperatively, subsequently transported to the microbiology laboratory and inoculated on agar and in broth was compared with the recovery from a bone fragment also taken intraoperatively but immediately inoculated into Wilkins Chalgren broth. Forty femoral heads were tested with both methods. Bacteria were cultured neither from the femoral surface swabs nor from the femoral fragments. Consequently no distinct conclusions regarding the sensitivity of both techniques could be drawn. In addition the bacterial yield of two swabs in Amies transport medium streaked on a variety of culture media other than the conventional agar plates was also studied. Culturing of these swabs resulted in the detection of bacteria that are predominantly considered contaminants. PMID:21846008

Saegeman, Veroniek; Verhaegen, Jan; Simon, Jean-Pierre

2011-06-01

309

Biological and chemical detection of fumonisins produced on agar medium by Fusarium verticillioides isolates collected from corn in Sohag, Egypt.  

PubMed

Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg is among the most common Fusarium species corn pathogens worldwide, and has been recognized as a fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) producer. In the present work, extracts of 58 F. verticillioides isolates from corn samples collected from Sohag Governorate, Egypt, were tested for their biotoxicity and production of fumonisin toxins. Forty-four Fusarium verticillioides isolates out of 58 tested produced FB1 or FB1 and FB2 (15 and 29 isolates, respectively) on potato-sucrose agar medium, detected by TLC, whereas the other 14 isolates did not produce fumonisin toxins. HPLC crude extract analysis confirmed the results from TLC plates. Brine shrimp larvae as well as the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeuroginosa showed low bio-sensitivity towards the F. verticillioides crude extract toxicity, whereas the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis, especially B. subtilis, showed higher sensitivity towards the tested Fusarium crude extracts. These results enabled us to bio-evaluate and chemically detect fumonisin mycotoxins using a simple agar medium technique. PMID:23760819

Aboul-Nasr, M B; Obied-Allah, M R A

2013-08-01

310

Semiconducting layered blue phosphorus: a computational study.  

PubMed

We investigate a previously unknown phase of phosphorus that shares its layered structure and high stability with the black phosphorus allotrope. We find the in-plane hexagonal structure and bulk layer stacking of this structure, which we call "blue phosphorus," to be related to graphite. Unlike graphite and black phosphorus, blue phosphorus displays a wide fundamental band gap. Still, it should exfoliate easily to form quasi-two-dimensional structures suitable for electronic applications. We study a likely transformation pathway from black to blue phosphorus and discuss possible ways to synthesize the new structure. PMID:24836265

Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

2014-05-01

311

Semiconducting Layered Blue Phosphorus: A Computational Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate a previously unknown phase of phosphorus that shares its layered structure and high stability with the black phosphorus allotrope. We find the in-plane hexagonal structure and bulk layer stacking of this structure, which we call "blue phosphorus," to be related to graphite. Unlike graphite and black phosphorus, blue phosphorus displays a wide fundamental band gap. Still, it should exfoliate easily to form quasi-two-dimensional structures suitable for electronic applications. We study a likely transformation pathway from black to blue phosphorus and discuss possible ways to synthesize the new structure.

Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

2014-05-01

312

Pollinia-borne chemicals that induce early postpollination effects in Dendrobium flowers move rapidly into agar blocks and include ACC and compounds with auxin activity.  

PubMed

The early visible effects of pollination in orchids are likely due to pollinia-borne chemicals. In Dendrobium we tested whether such compounds were water soluble and would diffuse in solid-aqueous phase, and determined both 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) concentrations and auxin activity. Following pollination, the flower peduncle showed epinastic movement, followed by yellowing of the flower lip, flower senescence and ovary growth. Placing pollinia on agar blocks for 3, 6, 9 or 12h, prior to transferring them to the stigma, increased the time to these early postpollination effects or prevented them. Placing agar blocks that had been used for contact with the pollinia on the stigma also induced the early postpollination effects. The concentrations of ACC, the direct precursor of ethylene, in pollinia was lower the longer the pollinia had been in contact with the agar blocks, whilst the ACC content in the agar blocks increased with the period of contact. The auxin activity of the agar blocks also increased with the time of contact with pollinia. It is concluded that chemicals in the pollinia are responsible for the early visible postpollination effects, and that these (a) rapidly diffuse in aqueous media, and (b) comprise at least ACC and compounds with auxin activity. The idea is discussed that ACC plus auxin is adequate for the production of the early postpollination effects. PMID:25240156

Promyou, Surassawadee; Ketsa, Saichol; van Doorn, Wouter G

2014-11-15

313

Career Planning in a Blue Collar Company.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the career development program at Lockheed Marine in Seattle. Considerations discussed include the presence of unions in blue-collar companies, the well-established career paths that exist in the skilled trades, and affirmative action goals. (JOW)

Russell, Mary

1984-01-01

314

A Clock Reaction Based on Molybdenum Blue  

E-print Network

Clock reactions are rare kinetic phenomena, so far limited mostly to systems with ionic oxoacids and oxoanions in water. We report a new clock reaction in cyclohexanol that forms molybdenum blue from a noncharged, yellow ...

Neuenschwander, Ulrich

315

Blue-green algae Flagellates Rotifers  

E-print Network

Diatoms Blue-green algae Flagellates Rotifers Green algae Calanoids CyclopoidsNative waterflea). Prefers clear open water in lakes and large rivers. Visual feeders, uses sight instead of smell to find

316

Prussian Blue as a Prebiotic Reagent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferrocyanide has been proposed as a potential prebiotic reagent and the complex salt Prussian Blue, Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3, might be an important reservoir of HCN, in the early Earth. HCN is considered the main precursor of amino acids and purine and pyrimidine bases under prebiotic conditions. Recently, we observed the formation of Prussian Blue in spark discharge experiments using saline solutions of ferrous chloride, FeCl2. Using Prussian Blue as starting material in ammonium suspensions, we obtained organic compounds containing nitrogen. These results seem to indicate that Prussian Blue could have been first, a sink of HCN, and then in subsequent reactions, triggered by pH fluctuations, it might have lead to organic life precursors.

Ruiz-Bermejo, M.; Menor-Salván, C.; Osuna-Esteban, S.; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S.

2009-12-01

317

Phototherapy with turquoise versus blue light  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preterm jaundiced infants were treated by phototherapy with a new turquoise fluorescent lamp. This was more effective in reducing plasma total bilirubin in relation to light irradiance than the ubiquitously used blue fluorescent lamp.

F Ebbesen; G Agati; R Pratesi

2003-01-01

318

Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site  

ScienceCinema

The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.

Paul Saueressig

2010-09-01

319

Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.

Paul Saueressig

2010-07-14

320

MitoBlue: A Nontoxic and Photostable Blue-Emitting Dye That Selectively Labels Functional Mitochondria  

PubMed Central

We report the discovery of a fluorogenic dye, N1,N3-di(2-aminidonaphthalen-6-yl) propane-1,3-diamine, MitoBlue, which selectively stains functional mitochondria while displaying low toxicity, bright blue emission, and high resistance to photobleaching. Additionally, we show that a biotin-labeled MitoBlue derivative can be used as a handle for the delivery of streptavidin-tagged species to the mitochondria. PMID:25325672

2014-01-01

321

Methylene Blue Dye as an Alternative to Isosulfan Blue Dye for Sentinel Lymph Node Localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Our study describes the use of methylene blue dye as an alternative to isosulfan blue dye to identify the sentinel lymph node (SLN).Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed of 112 breast cancer patients (113 axillae) who underwent SLN biopsy (SLNB) with methylene blue dye and 99mTc-labeled sulfur colloid for SLN identification. All SLNs were submitted for intraoperative frozen section

Rache Simmons; Sarmela Thevarajah; Meghan B. Brennan; Paul Christos; Michael Osborne

2003-01-01

322

Barium Enhancement in NGC 6819 Blue Stragglers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Possible formation pathways for blue straggler stars include mergers in hierarchical triple systems, stellar collisions during dynamical encounters, and mass transfer from a giant companion. Extensive work on the blue stragglers in the old open cluster NGC 188 (7 Gyr) has led to exciting discoveries including a binary secondary mass distribution peaked at 0.5 MSolar and the detection of three young white dwarf binary companions. These indicate that mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch star is the dominant mechanism for blue straggler formation in open clusters. Such mass transfer events should pollute the surface abundance of the blue straggler with nucleosynthesis products from the evolved donor. The other formation pathways, mergers and collisions, are predicted to produce no such enhancements. In an effort to move beyond NGC 188 and into other open clusters we present the first results of a surface abundance study of the blue stragglers in the intermediate-aged open cluster NGC 6819 (2.5 Gyr) using the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope. This part of our study centers on the s-process element barium as a tracer of formation via mass transfer. We compare the blue straggler surface abundance of barium to that of a sample of main-sequence stars in NGC 6819 and find multiple blue stragglers with anomalous abundances. Surprising, most of the blue stragglers with barium anomalies show no radial-velocity evidence for a companion. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the National Science Foundation under grant AST- 0908082 and the Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium.

Milliman, Katelyn; Mathieu, Robert D.; Schuler, Simon C.

2015-01-01

323

Blue Color Formation of Cyanobacteria with ?-Cyclocitral  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile compounds, such as ?-cyclocitral, geosmin, and 2-methylisoborneol, from cyanobacteria showed a lytic activity against\\u000a cyanobacteria. Particularly, ?-cyclocitral caused an interesting color change in the culture broth from green to blue during\\u000a the lysis process. In the present study, the lytic behavior of various cyanobacteria with ?-cyclocitral was investigated,\\u000a and a mechanism for the blue color formation was developed. ?-Cyclocitral

Ken-Ichi Harada; Keiko Ozaki; Sayaka Tsuzuki; Hajime Kato; Masateru Hasegawa; Emilia K. Kuroda; Suzue Arii; Kiyomi Tsuji

2009-01-01

324

Red, White and Blue II Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry demonstration, learners investigate the rule "likes dissolve likes" by combining three, immiscible liquids to create a colorful density column. Learners are asked, "What color will result from mixing red, white, and blue?" They will be surprised by the answer as a beaker is revealed with red syrup on the bottom, white milk over the syrup and blue lamp oil on top. This is a perfect activity to use to demonstrate density and polarity, especially around the 4th of July.

2014-02-03

325

A Blue Organic Light Emitting Diode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A blue organic light emitting diode (OLED) which has a structure like an SH-B type diode has been developed. The blue OLED consists of a hole-injection layer (m-MTDATA), a hole-transporting emissive layer, a hole-blocking layer and an electron-injection layer (Alq3) formed on an ITO anode by vacuum vapor deposition. alpha-NPD was used for the hole-transporting emissive layer, which has an

Yasunori Kijima; Nobutoshi Asai; Shin-ichiro Tamura

1999-01-01

326

Studies on plasma processing of blue dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma smelting was carried out using blue dust and petroleum coke mixtures for five different compositions. By altering percentage of reductant and type of plasma forming gas, recovery rate and degree of metallization were calculated in order to examine the extent of reduction of blue dust. The products were characterized by XRD and optical microscopy techniques. The results of these investigations exhibited that highest degree of metallization and recovery rate of about 98% and 86% respectively, were achieved for nitrogen plasma smelted products.

Samal, S. K.; P, Sindhoora L.; Mishra, S. C.; Mishra, B.

2015-02-01

327

Blue irradiance intercomparison in the medical field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the results of a blue irradiance intercomparison among industrial laboratories of medical devices companies. This intercomparison aims to support the metrological issues of medical equipment manufactures regarding the blue irradiance infant phototherapy equipment requirements on the international standard IEC 60601-2-50:2000. The results showed a low agreement of participants' measurements according to normalized error criterion. The major explanation for this result is associated to an incorrect equipment choice and long recalibration period.

Ferreira, Antonio F. G.

2012-10-01

328

Orange G and Remazol Brilliant Blue R decolorization by white rot fungi Dichomitus squalens, Ischnoderma resinosum and Pleurotus calyptratus.  

PubMed

Thirty different white rot strains were screened for Orange G and Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) decolorization on agar plates. Three promising strains, Dichomitus squalens, Ischnoderma resinosum and Pleurotus calyptratus, selected on the basis of this screening, were used for decolorization study in liquid media. All three strains efficiently decolorized both Orange G and RBBR, but they differed in decolorization capacity depending on cultivation conditions and ligninolytic enzyme production. Two different decolorization patterns were found in these strains: Orange G decolorization in I. resinosum and P. calyptratus was caused mainly by laccase, while RBBR decolorization was effected by manganese peroxidase (MnP); in D. squalens laccase and MnP cooperated in the decolorization processes. PMID:15924959

Eichlerová, Ivana; Homolka, Ladislav; Lisá, Ludmila; Nerud, Frantisek

2005-07-01

329

Inhomogeneous problems Q. How do you kill a blue elephant?  

E-print Network

Inhomogeneous problems Q. How do you kill a blue elephant? A. With a blue elephant gun Q. How do you kill a pink elephant? A. Squeeze its trunk until it turns blue, and then shoot it with a blue elephant gun. Q. How do you kill a white elephant? A. Tickle it pink, then squeeze its trunk until it turns

DeTurck, Dennis

330

BLUE VIEW VISION INSIGHT! Good news--your vision plan  

E-print Network

WELCOME TO BLUE VIEW VISION INSIGHT! Good news--your vision plan is flexible and easy to use, your discounts, and much more! Blue View Vision InsightSM University of California Student Health Insurance Plan (UC SHIP) 2012/13 Your Blue View Vision Insight Network Blue View Vision Insight offers you

Barrett, Jeffrey A.

331

The detection of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus antigen by agar gel precipitation test and counter-immunoelectrophoresis.  

PubMed

The detectability of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) viral antigen in both ante-mortem secretions and necropsy samples from experimentally infected goats was investigated by both the agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) and counter-immunoelectrophoresis (CIE). Viral antigen was detected from 42.6% of the samples tested by the AGPT and 80.3% by CIE. The detection of viral antigen in a high proportion of the ocular and nasal secretions as well as the faeces and buccal scrapings, particularly from those collected within seven days of the onset of fever, by both techniques, would seem to obviate the need for lymph node biopsies or post-mortem samples in order to make a diagnosis of PPRV infection. PMID:6512258

Obi, T U; Patrick, D

1984-12-01

332

Effects of extracellular matrix proteins on macrophage differentiation, growth, and function: comparison of liquid and agar culture systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both spaceflight and skeletal unloading suppress the haematopoietic differentiation of macrophages (Sonnenfeld et al., Aviat. Space Environ. Med., 61:648-653, 1990; Armstrong et al., J. Appl. Physiol., 75:2734-2739, 1993). The mechanism behind this reduction in haematopoiesis has yet to be elucidated. However, changes in bone marrow extracellular matrix (ECM) may be involved. To further understand the role of ECM products in macrophage differentiation, we have performed experiments evaluating the effects of fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I, and collagen type IV on macrophage development and function. Bone marrow-derived macrophages cultured on four different ECM substrates in liquid culture medium showed less growth than those cultured on plastic. Significant morphological differences were seen on each of the substrates used. Phenotypically and functionally, as measured by class II major histocompatibility molecule (MHCII) expression, MAC-2 expression, and the secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), these macrophages were similar. In contrast, bone marrow-derived macrophages cultured in suspension, using agar, showed no difference in growth when exposed to ECM proteins. However, IL-6 and TNF-alpha secretion was affected by fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I, and collagen type IV in a concentration-dependent manner. We conclude that the ECM products fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I, and collagen type IV have profound effects on macrophage development and function. Additionally, we suggest that an ECM-supplemented agar culture system provides an environment more analogous to in vivo bone marrow than does a traditional liquid culture system.

Armstrong, J. W.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

1994-01-01

333

Equilibrium and kinetic modelling of Cd(II) biosorption by algae Gelidium and agar extraction algal waste.  

PubMed

In this study an industrial algal waste from agar extraction has been used as an inexpensive and effective biosorbent for cadmium (II) removal from aqueous solutions. This biosorbent was compared with the algae Gelidium itself, which is the raw material for agar extraction. Equilibrium data follow both Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson models. The parameters of Langmuir equilibrium model are q(max)=18.0 mgg(-1), b=0.19 mgl(-1) and q(max)=9.7 mgg(-1), b=0.16 mgl(-1), respectively for Gelidium and the algal waste. Kinetic experiments were conducted at initial Cd(II) concentrations in the range 6-91 mgl(-1). Data were fitted to pseudo-first- and second-order Lagergren models. For an initial Cd(II) concentration of 91 mgl(-1) the parameters of the pseudo-first-order Lagergren model are k(1,ads)=0.17 and 0.87 min(-1); q(eq)=16.3 and 8.7 mgg(-1), respectively, for Gelidium and algal waste. Kinetic constants vary with the initial metal concentration. The adsorptive behaviour of biosorbent particles was modelled using a batch reactor mass transfer kinetic model. The model successfully predicts Cd(II) concentration profiles and provides significant insights on the biosorbents performance. The homogeneous diffusivity, D(h), is in the range 0.5-2.2 x10(-8) and 2.1-10.4 x10(-8)cm(2)s(-1), respectively, for Gelidium and algal waste. PMID:16380148

Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

2006-01-01

334

21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section...Products § 133.184 Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's...

2010-04-01

335

Why is the ocean blue? One of these misconceptions is that the ocean is blue  

E-print Network

is a very light shade of turquoise blue. But you need a huge amount of it to really see its color. It's like transparent not turquoise blue, as it is observed even in indoor pools, where there's no sky to be reflected

Cruz-Pol, Sandra L.

336

Use of big data by Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina.  

PubMed

The health care industry is grappling with the challenges of working with and analyzing large, complex, diverse data sets. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina provides several promising examples of how big data can be used to reduce the cost of care, to predict and manage health risks, and to improve clinical outcomes. PMID:24830494

Helm-Murtagh, Susan C

2014-01-01

337

Comparison of eight different agars for the recovery of clinically relevant non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from baby spinach, cilantro, alfalfa sprouts and raw milk.  

PubMed

The FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Chapter 4a recommends several agars for isolating non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC); not all have been thoroughly tested for recovering STECs from food. Using E. coli strains representing ten clinically relevant O serogroups (O26, O45, O91, O103, O104, O111, O113, O121, O128, O145) in artificially-contaminated fresh produce--bagged baby spinach, alfalfa sprouts, cilantro, and raw milk--we evaluated the performance of 8 different agars. Performance was highly dependent upon strain used and the presence of inhibitors, but not necessarily dependent on food matrix. Tellurite resistant-negative strains, O91:-, O103:H6, O104:H21, O113:H21, and O128, grew poorly on CHROMagar STEC, Rainbow agar O157, and a modified Rainbow O157 (mRB) agar. Although adding washed sheep's blood to CHROMagar STEC and mRB agars improved overall performance; however, this also reversed the inhibition of non-target bacteria provided by original formulations. Variable colony coloration made selecting colonies from Rainbow agar O157 and mRB agars difficult. Study results support a strategy using inclusive agars (e.g. L-EMB, SHIBAM) in combination with selective agars (R & F E. coli O157:H7, CHROMagar STEC) to allow for recovery of the most STECs while increasing the probability of recovering STEC in high bacterial count matrices. PMID:25475297

Kase, Julie A; Maounounen-Laasri, Anna; Son, Insook; Lin, Andrew; Hammack, Thomas S

2015-04-01

338

Complexation between carrageenan and methylene blue for sensor design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical studies on the methylene blue (MB)-carrageenans complexation at solution and solid states have been carried out via ultraviolet spectrophotoscopy and reflectometry methods. The equilibrium constant (Ka) of the MBcarrageenans complexation follows the order of Iota > Lambda > Kappa carrageenans, which indicated Iota-carrageenan forms a stable complex. MB-carrageenan complexation reaction showed decrease in Ka value from 210.71 ppm-1 to 114.57 ppm-1 when the reaction temperature increased from 298 K to 323 K. Le Chatelier's principle and mass action law explained that the MB-carrageenan complexation was an exothermic reaction (?H=-18.54 kJmol-1) that release heat. Thus MB-carrageenan complex was less stable at high temperature and tend to dissociate into free MB and carrageenan molecules. It was also supported by the van't Hoff equation. The reaction is a spontaneous process (?G=-13.23 kJmol-1) where the randomness of the molecules reduced (?S=-17.83 Jmol-1K-1) due to complexation. Besides, linear regression of the concentration and absorption of the MB-carrageenan reaction obeys the Beer Lambert law, which elucidated that the complexation process was not affected by any concentration dependent factors such as aggregation and self-quenching. Moreover, linear Benesi Hilderbrend plot revealed that the interaction between MB and carrageenan was a reversible and stoichiometric reaction with 1:1 ratio. However, the molar extinction coefficient (?) and molar adsorption coefficient (?a) of the MB-carrageenan complex were lower compared to free MB, described that the complex was less adsorptive. The sensor constructed based on these theoretical investigations showed response behavior that was similar with solution test as both have attraction for carrageenans in the sequence of Iota-, Lambda-, Kappa- carrageenans. Likewise, carrageenan sensor was more selective towards Iota-carrageenan than to Lambda- and Kappa-carrageenans, and no response observed when tested with agar, alginate and glucose. Therefore the sensor is able to detect carrageenans specifically and offers rapid detection without the need of sample pretreatment when compared to conventional methods.

Ling, Yew Pei; Heng, Lee Yook

2013-11-01

339

Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy on Streptococcus mutans using curcumin and toluidine blue activated by a novel LED device.  

PubMed

Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is an antimicrobial approach that uses photosensitizers (PS) in combination with light sources at specific wavelengths aiming the production of reactive oxygen species. The long illumination time necessary to active PS is a challenge in PACT. Thus, this study investigated the antimicrobial effect of a novel single source of light-emitting diode (LED) light that covers the entire spectrum of visible light beyond interchangeable probes at high power intensity. Blue and red LED probes were used into different exposure times to active different concentrations of curcumin (C) and toluidine blue (T) on planktonic suspensions of Streptococcus mutans UA 159 (S. mutans). S. mutans were standardized and submitted to (1) PACT treatment at three concentrations of C and T exposure at three radiant exposures of a blue LED (BL) (C+BL+) and a red LED (RL) (T+RL+), (2) C (C+BL-) or T alone (T+RL-), (3) both LED lights (C-BL+ and T-RL+), and (4) neither PS nor LED illumination (control group: C-BL- and T-RL-). Aliquots of the suspensions were diluted and cultured on blood agar plates. The number of colony-forming units was calculated after 48 h. The groups submitted to PACT presented a lethal photokilling rate to all PS concentrations at tested dosimetries. The comparison to control group when PS and LED lights used alone demonstrated no decrease in the number of viable bacterial counts. The novel LED device in combination with curcumin and toluidine blue promoted an effective photoinactivation of S. mutans suspensions at ultrashort light illumination times. PMID:24249357

Paschoal, Marco Aurelio; Lin, Meng; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; Duarte, Simone

2015-02-01

340

Development of a Code Blue Protocol test.  

PubMed

The purpose of this project was to develop a test to evaluate knowledge of the Code Blue Protocol at St. John's Regional Health Center. In critical care and telemetry units, the registered nurses are required to pass a yearly test concerning the Code Blue Protocol. The content of the test was based on the nursing service policy containing the Code Blue Protocol. The test was based on content items deemed very important by nursing directors. A panel of experts in education and critical care reviewed the test. A pilot administration of the test occurred in January 1994. Any item with a 50% pass/ nonpass was examined by the panel of experts; their feedback was used to modify those test items. The test was administered to the population of registered nurses in March 1994. PMID:9287628

Gloe, D

1997-01-01

341

WhaleNet Blue Whale Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive educational Web site from WhaleNet provides a study guide to use with blue whale satellite tag data. WhaleNet is sponsored by Wheelock College, and the blue whale data set comes from the Mingan Island Cetacean Study, a "non-profit research organization dedicated to ecological studies of marine mammals." The study guide consists of a series of questions that guide students in analyzing and interpreting data. In the larger context, these questions uncover how satellite tag data provides valuable insight "into the natural history of the whales and will enable more intelligent and meaningful decisions which will increase the potential for recovery and for an improved existence in the shared marine environments around the world." Users of the Web site may also view blue whale tagging and biopsy movie clips. Links to a bibliography and additional resources are provided.

342

Formation of a clear zone on tannin-treated brain heart infusion agar by a Streptococcus sp. isolated from feces of koalas.  

PubMed Central

Gram-positive cocci, isolated from the feces of koalas and identified as Streptococcus bovis biotype I, formed a distinct clear zone on tannin-treated brain heart infusion agar, suggesting that this isolate has the unique characteristic of degrading the tannin-protein complex. Images PMID:2180375

Osawa, R

1990-01-01

343

Novel Method for Rapid Assessment of Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolates from Environmental Waters by Use of a Modified Chromogenic Agar  

Microsoft Academic Search

We validated a novel method for screening Escherichia coli resistance to antibiotics in environmental samples using modified Difco MI agar (Becton Dickinson) impregnated with selected antibiotics (tetracycline, ampi- cillin, cephalexin, and sulfamethoxazole), termed MI-R. This method combines an existing rapid assessment technique for E. coli enumeration with clinical reference data for breakpoint analysis of antibiotic resistance and was developed to

A. J. Watkinson; G. R. Micalizzi; J. R. Bates; S. D. Costanzo

2007-01-01

344

Comparison of Microscan Broth Microdilution, Synergy Quad Plate Agar Dilution, and Disk Diffusion Screening Methods for Detection of High-Level Aminoglycoside Resistance in Enterococcus Species  

PubMed Central

We compared the dried MicroScan microdilution panel, Synergy Quad plate agar dilution, and high-potency disk diffusion screening methods for the detection of high-level aminoglycoside resistance in 815 enterococcal bloodstream isolates. Agreement between the three methods was 99% when testing for high-level gentamicin resistance and 96% when testing for high-level streptomycin resistance. PMID:12791910

Murdoch, David R.; Mirrett, Stanley; Harrell, Lizzie J.; Donabedian, Susan M.; Zervos, Marcus J.; Reller, L. Barth

2003-01-01

345

R E S E A R C H L E T T E R Copper deciency in potato dextrose agar causes reduced  

E-print Network

-based fungicides in the former case. Routine addition of 1000 ng mL�1 copper (or standard trace element solutionsR E S E A R C H L E T T E R Copper de¢ciency in potato dextrose agar causes reduced pigmentation. Reduced pigmentation on these media was correlated with low levels of copper and colony colour

Griffith, Gareth

346

Use of agar diffusion assay to measure bactericidal activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids against bacteria associated with poultry processing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The agar diffusion assay was used to examine antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, and myristic acids. A 0.5M concentration of each fatty acid was dissolved in 1.0 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and pH of the mixtures was adjusted to 10.5 with citric acid. Solu...

347

Stable Isotope Ratios as a Tool in Microbial Forensics—Part 3. Effect of Culturing on Agar-containing Growth Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen in microbes have been shown to be functions of the corresponding isotope ratios of the water with which the culture medium was prepared, and thus to contain a potential geographic signal. Water can evaporate from agar (solid) media during culturing, changing its isotope ratios. Here we describe the effect of drying on the

Helen W. Kreuzer-Martin; Lesley A. Chesson; Michael J. Lott; James R. Ehleringer

2005-01-01

348

A comparison of a new centrifuge sugar flotation technique with the agar method for the extraction of immature Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) life stages from salt marsh soils.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two sampling techniques, agar extraction (AE) and centrifuge sugar flotation extraction (CSFE) were compared to determine their relative efficacy to recover immature stages of Culicoides spp from salt marsh substrates. Three types of samples (seeded with known numbers of larvae, homogenized field s...

349

Carbapenem Disks on MacConkey Agar in Screening Methods for Detection of Carbapenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Rods in Stools  

PubMed Central

Direct plating of simulated stool specimens on MacConkey agar (MCA) with 10-?g ertapenem, meropenem, and imipenem disks allowed the establishment of optimal zone diameters for the screening of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative rods (CRGNR) of ?24 mm (ertapenem), ?34 mm (meropenem), and ?32 mm (imipenem). PMID:23135936

Blackburn, Julie; Tsimiklis, Catherine; Lavergne, Valéry; Pilotte, Josée; Grenier, Sophie; Gilbert, Andrée; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Tremblay, Cécile; Bourgault, Anne-Marie

2013-01-01

350

Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available.2-5 Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of classroom demonstrations have been described for showing the effects.6-11 This paper describes how these demonstrations can be enhanced by using a spectrometer to measure the preferential scattering of the shorter wavelength light.

Liebl, Michael

2010-05-01

351

Eastward migration of blue-winged teal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Of 3,789 recoveries of blue-winged teal (Anas discors) banded prior to the hunting season in the prairie pothole region, 183 (4.8 percent) were recovered, due east in New England, Ontario, Quebec, and the Maritime Provinces during the subsequent hunting season. Of 19 recoveries looked at in detail, all were banded as either hatching-year (flying young) or local (flightless young) birds. A blue-winged teal banded in Minnesota in September was retrapped in October in South Carolina, before being shot later that month in Colombia, South America.

Sharp, B.

1972-01-01

352

THE CAUSE OF BLUE COLOR AS FOUND IN THE BLUE BIRD (SIALIA SIALIS) AND THE BLUE JAY (CYANOCITTA CRISTATA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALL the colors which one observes in bird feathers are due to one of two things: either to a pigment, or to some modification in the structure of the barb, producing what is known as structural color. The pigment colors are black, brown, red, yellow, and in a few cases green, while the blues, whites, some of the greens and

CARL GOWER

353

Practices of Blue Ribbon Catholic Schools, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For almost 20 years, the U.S. Department of Education has invited schools to seek the Blue Ribbon School Award. A large number of Catholic schools have received this award. For this publication, the Department of Elementary Schools Executive Committee requested principals of awarded schools to write a short article on an exemplary school program…

Kealey, Robert J., Comp.

354

Original article Blue-stain fungi associated  

E-print Network

, Hormonema dematioides, Leptographium wingfieldii and Ophiostoma minus. The latter 2 species were most active dematioides, Leptographium wingfieldii, et Ophiostoma minus. Les 2 der- nières nommées se sont avérées les (L) and the blue-stain fungus Ophiostoma polonicum Siem (Horntvedt et al, 1983; Christiansen

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

355

Blue Ridge Technical College Adult Reading Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and implementation of a tutor training program designed to eliminate adult illiteracy in one area of North Carolina are described in this paper. Various sections of the paper provide information about (1) the history of the program, which was initiated by staff members at the learning center of the Blue Ridge Technical College in…

Kessler, Caren

356

The luminous blue variables: Astrophysical geysers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the most luminous stars have sporadic, violent mass-loss events whose causes are not understood. These evolved hot stars are called luminous blue variables (LBVs), and their instability may shape the appearance of the upper Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. LBV eruptions are interestingly reminiscent of geysers or even volcanos. They have received considerable observational attention since 1980, but theoretical work

Roberta M. Humphreys; Kris Davidson

1994-01-01

357

KEPONE: TOXICITY AND BIOACCUMULATION IN BLUE CRABS  

EPA Science Inventory

Two long-term studies were conducted to determine toxicity, uptake and duration of Kepone in blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus). In the first, Kepone was administered to crabs in seawater 0.03 or 0.3 micrograms Kepone/l or food (eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, containing 0.2...

358

Baby T (Blue) (Size: XX Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

1900-01-01

359

Baby T (Blue) (Size: X Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

1900-01-01

360

Blue Waters: An Extraordinary Research Capability for  

E-print Network

Blue Waters: An Extraordinary Research Capability for Ad ancing Science & Engineering Frontiers... Dr. Thom H. Dunning, Jr. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Institute for Advanced Computing materials at the atomic level, predicting changes in the earth's climate and ecosystems, and designing

361

Baby T (Blue) (Size: XXX Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

1900-01-01

362

Blue Whales Respond to Anthropogenic Noise  

PubMed Central

Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood. PMID:22393434

Melcón, Mariana L.; Cummins, Amanda J.; Kerosky, Sara M.; Roche, Lauren K.; Wiggins, Sean M.; Hildebrand, John A.

2012-01-01

363

Red, White and Blue I Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry demonstration, learners observe a chemical reaction that produces a colorful effect. Learners will be surprised to see the colors change to red, white, and blue when ammonia is added to three beakers with different chemicals. This is a perfect activity to use to demonstrate chemical reactions, especially around the 4th of July.

2014-01-28

364

Great Blue Heron and Great Egret  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A great blue heron and great egret in the parking lot by the Big Cypress Bend boardwalk at Fakahatchee Strand State Preserve. The heron is enjoying a fish dinner thanks to the hunting skills of the egret. While the egret had initially held a fish in it's beak, the heron's squabbling caused the...

365

Blue nano titania made in diffusion flames.  

PubMed

Blue titanium suboxide nanoparticles (including Magneli phases) were formed directly without any post-processing or addition of dopants by combustion of titanium-tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) vapor at atmospheric pressure. Particle size, phase composition, rutile and anatase crystal sizes as well as the blue coloration were controlled by rapid quenching of the flame with a critical flow nozzle placed at various heights above the burner. The particles showed a broad absorption in the near-infrared region and retained their blue color upon storage in ambient atmosphere. A high concentration of paramagnetic Ti3+ centres was found in the substoichiometric particles by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Furthermore particles with controlled band gap energy from 3.2 to 3.6 eV were made by controlling the burner-nozzle-distance from 10 to 1 cm, respectively. The color robustness and extent of suboxidation could be further enhanced by co-oxidation of TTIP with hexamethyldisiloxane in the flame resulting in SiO2-coated titanium suboxide particles. The process is cost-effective and green while the particles produced can replace traditional blue colored, cobalt-containing pigments. PMID:19421486

Teleki, Alexandra; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

2009-05-21

366

Technology Teacher: Singin' the Black and Blues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an article about the color of the sky. Learners will read about and discuss the colors of the day- and night-time skies. They may sing the Top-down Black and Blues, a song about the sky; or they may write a poem, essay, or song about the bluest sky or blackest night they have ever experienced.

2012-08-03

367

Visualising DNA in Classrooms Using Nile Blue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Giving students the opportunity to extract, manipulate and visualise DNA molecules enhances a constructivist approach to learning about modern techniques in biology and biotechnology Visualisation usually requires agarose gel electrophoresis and staining. In this article, we report on an alternative DNA stain, Nile Blue A, that may be used in the…

Milne, Christine; Roche, Scott; McKay, David

2008-01-01

368

Methylene blue phosphoramidite for DNA labelling.  

PubMed

We report the first synthesis of a methylene blue (MB) phosphoramidite derivative suitable for DNA solid-phase synthesis. The electrochemical and optical properties of the resulting MB modified oligonucleotides were confirmed. This new molecule is an important breakthrough in the design of new probes labelled with MB. PMID:25679473

De Crozals, Gabriel; Farre, Carole; Sigaud, Monique; Fortgang, Philippe; Sanglar, Corinne; Chaix, Carole

2015-02-26

369

Charlie Patton and his Mississippi Boweavil Blues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides a short article, in PDF format, about the legendary American blues artist, Charley Patton, and his famous song about the notorious cotton boll pest, the boll weevil. The article, by R. K. D. Peterson, was scanned from a 2007 issue of the American Entomologist magazine.

0000-00-00

370

A Code Blue Answer to Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Code Blue addresses the capacity challenges in healthcare training. This pilot, grant funded project, focuses on a holistic approach to selecting and educating career ready and capable students and training them to be confident and competent healthcare workers. Lessons learned from this project will be assessed and reviewed for replication.

Huneycutt, Richy; Callahan, Barbara; Welch, Alexis

2008-01-01

371

Space Place: Why Is the Sky Blue?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article explains how Earth's atmosphere scatters the light from the sun, thereby creating the blue color we typically associate with our sky. Supplementing this article is an explanation of the importance of scattering sunlight. The article is targeted to children ages 10-12.

372

Raman spectroscopy of blue gel pen inks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raman spectroscopy is becoming a tool of major importance in forensic science. It is a non-invasive, non-destructive analytical method allowing samples to be examined without any preparation. This paper demonstrates the use of the technique as a general tool for gel pen inks analysis. For this purpose, 55 blue gel pen inks, of different brands and models representative of gel

Williams David Mazzella; Patrick Buzzini

2005-01-01

373

Blue beetle-killed pine park  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Stripped bark from a dead pine tree reveals the tell-tale blue streaks of a mountain pine beetle attack. Mountain pine beetle outbreaks can result in the loss of millions of pine trees throughout western North America. The beetles lay eggs and develop in the bark of mountain trees, especially lodge...

374

Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood. PMID:22393434

Melcón, Mariana L; Cummins, Amanda J; Kerosky, Sara M; Roche, Lauren K; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

2012-01-01

375

Extracellular Products of Blue Green Algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY An examination was made of soluble extracellular materials produced by Anabaena cylindrica and some other species of blue-green algae, to exasmine whether they have any functional importance. Organisms of all the 15 species (representing 10 genera) examined produced extracellular pigment; with at least 10 of these species part of this pigment was not dif- fusible on dialysis, though the

B. A. WHITTON

1965-01-01

376

Correlation between Agar Plate Screening and Solid-State Fermentation for the Prediction of Cellulase Production by Trichoderma Strains  

PubMed Central

The viability of converting biomass into biofuels and chemicals still requires further development towards the reduction of the enzyme production costs. Thus, there is a growing demand for the development of efficient procedures for selection of cellulase-producing microorganisms. This work correlates qualitative screening using agar plate assays with quantitative measurements of cellulase production during cultivation under solid-state fermentation (SSF). The initial screening step consisted of observation of the growth of 78 preselected strains of the genus Trichoderma on plates, using microcrystalline cellulose as carbon source. The 49 strains that were able to grow on this substrate were then subjected to a second screening step using the Congo red test. From this test it was possible to select 10 strains that presented the highest enzymatic indices (EI), with values ranging from 1.51 to 1.90. SSF cultivations using sugarcane bagasse and wheat bran as substrates were performed using selected strains. The CG 104NH strain presented the highest EGase activity (25.93?UI·g?1). The EI results obtained in the screening procedure using plates were compared with cellulase production under SSF. A correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.977 was obtained between the Congo red test and SSF, demonstrating that the two methodologies were in good agreement. PMID:23227312

Florencio, Camila; Couri, Sonia; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez

2012-01-01

377

The antibacterial activity of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis: A review on agar diffusion and direct contact methods  

PubMed Central

Complete debridement and disinfection of the root canal system are fundamental requirements for successful endodontic treatment. Despite the morphological challenges of the internal root anatomy, root canal irrigants play an important role in the optimization of the root canal preparation, which is essentially a chemo-mechanical procedure. Enterococcus faecalis is one of the most resistant microorganisms that dominants the microbial ecosystem of persistent periradicular lesions in retreatment cases. For that reason, many in vitro and in vivo studies evaluated and compared the antibacterial activity of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine at varying concentrations using different experimental models against this microorganism. However, many controversies with regard to the ideal irrigant and concentration do in fact exist. Hence, this review aims to discuss the antibacterial activity of these two main root canal irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis using the agar diffusion and direct contact methods and the possible modulating factors responsible for inconsistent findings among different studies. In addition, the disinfection potential of both chemical agents on gutta percha and Resilon cones are also discussed. The source of this review was conducted through an electronic literature search using PubMed database from December 1997 until December 2011, which analyze the related laboratory investigations of both irrigants, published in major endodontic journals. PMID:23349569

Luddin, Norhayati; Ahmed, Hany Mohamed Aly

2013-01-01

378

The antibacterial activity of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis: A review on agar diffusion and direct contact methods.  

PubMed

Complete debridement and disinfection of the root canal system are fundamental requirements for successful endodontic treatment. Despite the morphological challenges of the internal root anatomy, root canal irrigants play an important role in the optimization of the root canal preparation, which is essentially a chemo-mechanical procedure. Enterococcus faecalis is one of the most resistant microorganisms that dominants the microbial ecosystem of persistent periradicular lesions in retreatment cases. For that reason, many in vitro and in vivo studies evaluated and compared the antibacterial activity of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine at varying concentrations using different experimental models against this microorganism. However, many controversies with regard to the ideal irrigant and concentration do in fact exist. Hence, this review aims to discuss the antibacterial activity of these two main root canal irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis using the agar diffusion and direct contact methods and the possible modulating factors responsible for inconsistent findings among different studies. In addition, the disinfection potential of both chemical agents on gutta percha and Resilon cones are also discussed. The source of this review was conducted through an electronic literature search using PubMed database from December 1997 until December 2011, which analyze the related laboratory investigations of both irrigants, published in major endodontic journals. PMID:23349569

Luddin, Norhayati; Ahmed, Hany Mohamed Aly

2013-01-01

379

Development and Validation of a Successful Microbiological Agar Assay for Determination of Ceftriaxone Sodium in Powder for Injectable Solution  

PubMed Central

Ceftriaxone sodium is a cephalosporin with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and belongs to the third generation of cephalosporins. Regarding the quality control of medicines, a validated microbiological assay for the determination of ceftriaxone sodium in powder for injectable solution has not been reported yet. This paper reports the development and validation of a simple, accurate and reproducible agar diffusion method to quantify ceftriaxone sodium in powder for injectable solution. The assay is based on the inhibitory effect of ceftriaxone sodium on the strain of Bacillus subtilis ATCC 9371 IAL 1027 used as test microorganism. The results were treated statistically by analysis of variance and were found to be linear (r = 0.999) in the selected range of 15.0–60.0 ?g/mL, precise with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of repeatability intraday = 1.40%, accurate (100.46%) and robust with a RSD lower than 1.28%. The results demonstrated the validity of the proposed bioassay, which allows reliable ceftriaxone sodium quantitation in pharmaceutical samples and therefore can be used as a useful alternative methodology for the routine quality control of this medicine. PMID:24300294

Aléssio, Patrícia V.; Salgado, Hérida R. N.

2012-01-01

380

75 FR 53685 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Office...SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (the...

2010-09-01

381

76 FR 71334 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Office...SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (the...

2011-11-17

382

75 FR 67958 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Office...SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (the...

2010-11-04

383

76 FR 2891 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Office...SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (the...

2011-01-18

384

76 FR 23798 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Office...SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (the...

2011-04-28

385

76 FR 4646 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Department...SUMMARY: This notice announces a closed meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (the...

2011-01-26

386

High-throughput screening for cellobiose dehydrogenases by Prussian Blue in situ formation.  

PubMed

Extracellular fungal flavocytochrome cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) is a promising enzyme for both bioelectronics and lignocellulose bioconversion. A selective high-throughput screening assay for CDH in the presence of various fungal oxidoreductases was developed. It is based on Prussian Blue (PB) in situ formation in the presence of cellobiose (<0.25 mM), ferric acetate, and ferricyanide. CDH induces PB formation via both reduction of ferricyanide to ferrocyanide reacting with an excess of Fe³? (pathway 1) and reduction of ferric ions to Fe²? reacting with the excess of ferricyanide (pathway 2). Basidiomycetous and ascomycetous CDH formed PB optimally at pH 3.5 and 4.5, respectively. In contrast to the holoenzyme CDH, its FAD-containing dehydrogenase domain lacking the cytochrome domain formed PB only via pathway 1 and was less active than the parent enzyme. The assay can be applied on active growing cultures on agar plates or on fungal culture supernatants in 96-well plates under aerobic conditions. Neither other carbohydrate oxidoreductases (pyranose dehydrogenase, FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase, glucose oxidase) nor laccase interfered with CDH activity in this assay. Applicability of the developed assay for the selection of new ascomycetous CDH producers as well as possibility of the controlled synthesis of new PB nanocomposites by CDH are discussed. PMID:22294389

Vasilchenko, Liliya G; Ludwig, Roland; Yershevich, Olga P; Haltrich, Dietmar; Rabinovich, Mikhail L

2012-07-01

387

High-Luminosity Blue and Blue-Green Gallium Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compact and efficient sources of blue light for full color display applications and lighting eluded and tantalized researchers for many years. Semiconductor light sources are attractive owing to their reliability and amenability to mass manufacture. However, large band gaps are required to achieve blue color. A class of compound semiconductors formed by metal nitrides, GaN and its allied compounds AlGaN

H. Morkoc; S. N. Mohammad

1995-01-01

388

Developing the urban blue: Comparative health responses to blue and green urban open spaces in Germany.  

PubMed

Recently, new perspectives upon healthy urban open spaces propose that open spaces can be regarded as urban green or blue spaces. However, there has so far been very little research into blue environments and their benefits for mental well-being. Our article focuses on the effects of water in cities, "urban blue" (as compared to "urban green"), on human health and well-being. To assess the mental well-being of visitors, we conducted qualitative semi-standardised interviews (n=113), asking which differences in well-being occur when visiting urban green and blue spaces in high-density areas of the inner city in Dusseldorf and Cologne, Germany. Although we found many similarities, some health-enhancing effects for users turned out to be prominent for urban blue in the four conceptual therapeutic landscape dimensions: experienced, symbolic, social and activity space. These effects include enhanced contemplation, emotional bonding, participation, and physical activity. The results suggest that urban blue as a health-promoting factor needs more detailed and accurate determination and examination of its general and local health-enhancing effects. PMID:25475835

Völker, Sebastian; Kistemann, Thomas

2014-12-01

389

How blue are British tits? Sex, age and environmental effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsule The blue colour of the coverts and crowns of Blue Tits Cyanistes caeruleus and Great Tits Parus major is influenced by sex, age and environmental factors.Aims To quantify the blueness of two species of tits breeding in different habitats in Britain.Methods By manipulating daylength in the laboratory, adult Blue Tits were induced to moult at fast and slow speeds.

Peter N. Ferns; Shelley A. Hinsley

2010-01-01

390

REGISTRATION OF UC66049 TRITICUM AESTIVUM BLUE ALEURONE GENETIC STOCK  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Blue aleurone (ba) is found in the endosperm of several species related to wheat, including Elytrigia (Agropyron). C. A. Suneson’s perennial wheat development program at Davis, CA included some blue aleurone materials which appeared in Wheat Composite Cross I. Blue aleurone wheat plants with 2n=44 w...

391

Recognition of blue movies by fusion of audio and video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along with the explosive growth of the Internet, comes the proliferation of pornography. Compared with the pornographic texts and images, blue movies can do much harm to children, due to the greater realism and voyeurism of blue movies. In this paper, a framework for recognizing blue movies by fusing the audio and video information is described. A one-class Gaussian mixture

Haiqiang Zuo; Ou Wu; Weiming Hu; Bo Xu

2008-01-01

392

14When are there Influxes in Blue Monkey Groups?  

E-print Network

14When are there Influxes in Blue Monkey Groups? MARINA CORDS Introduction An enduring question that explain variation within single groups over time in forest-dwelling blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis). Like most other forest guenons, as well as closely related patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas), blue

Cords, Marina

393

Curiosity-driven `Blue Sky' Research: a threatened vital activity?  

E-print Network

Curiosity-driven `Blue Sky' Research: a threatened vital activity? Sir John Cadogan Inaugural.manchester.ac.uk Page 6: `Cisplatin': By Larry Ostby [Public domain] via Wikipedia Commons #12;Curiosity-driven `Blue............................................... 10 Appendix 3: Comments on the ROPA scheme... ............. 48 #12;1 Curiosity-driven `Blue Sky

Grant, P. W.

394

Methylene blue selectively stains intestinal metaplasia in Barrett's esophagus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Specialized columnar epithelium in Barrett's esophagus resembles gastric intestinal metaplasia, which selectively stains with methylene blue. Methods: We prospectively evaluated the safety, accuracy, reproducibility, cost, and diagnostic yield of methylene blue–directed biopsy in detecting specialized columnar epithelium and dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus. We performed upper endoscopy with methylene blue–directed biopsy and obtained 236 large cup biopsy specimens (145 stained,

Marcia Irene F. Canto; Sebouh Setrakian; Robert E. Petras; Edmond Blades; Amitabh Chak; Michael V. Sivak

1996-01-01

395

36 CFR 7.34 - Blue Ridge Parkway.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blue Ridge Parkway. 7.34 Section 7...OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.34 Blue Ridge Parkway. (a) Snowmobiles...1 of this chapter on the waters of the Blue Ridge Parkway is prohibited except on...

2010-07-01

396

49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section 173...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the...

2010-10-01

397

Blue Moon sampling, vectorial reaction coordinates, and unbiased constrained dynamics  

E-print Network

Blue Moon sampling, vectorial reaction coordinates, and unbiased constrained dynamics Giovanni force in terms of a conditional expectation which can be computed by Blue Moon sampling Introduction Fifteen years ago the Blue Moon ensemble method was introduced to sample rare events that occur

Van Den Eijnden, Eric

398

Apprenticeship and Other Blue Collar Job Opportunities for Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to inform individual women and occupational counselors of blue collar jobs and training opportunities for women in construction and industry, this guide attempts to answer the questions: What is blue collar work? What is apprenticeship and are there entrance requirements? How do I go about finding a blue collar job or getting into an…

Wheat, Valerie; Niebel, Christie

399

Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) sounds from the North Atlantic  

E-print Network

Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) sounds from the North Atlantic David K. Mellingera) Bioacoustics 2003 Sounds of blue whales were recorded from U.S. Navy hydrophone arrays in the North Atlantic-duration, very-low-frequency sound units repeated every 1­2 min are typical of blue whale sounds recorded

400

VIDAS Salmonella (SLM) assay method EasySLM with ChromID Salmonella (SM2) Agar. Performance Tested Method 020901.  

PubMed

A method modification study was conducted for the VIDAS Salmonella (SLM) assay (AOAC Performance Tested Method 020901) using the EasySLM method to validate a matrix extension for peanut butter. The VIDAS EasySLM method is a simple enrichment procedure compared to traditional Salmonella methods, requiring only pre-enrichment and a single selective enrichment media, Salmonella Xpress 2 (SX2) broth. SX2 replaces the two selective broths in traditional methods and eliminates the M broth transfer, incubation, and subsequent pooling of M broths prior to VIDAS assay. The validation study was conducted under the AOAC Research Institute Emergency Response Validation program. VIDAS SLM was compared to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) method for detection of S. enterica ser. Typhimurium in peanut butter. All peanut butter samples were prepared, blind-coded, and shipped to the method developers' laboratory by Q Laboratories. In addition, Q Laboratories performed most probable number and reference method analyses on peanut butter samples. The VIDAS EasySLM ChromID Salmonella (SM2) Agar was previously validated in the Performance Tested Methods program for the detection of Salmonella in roast beef, raw ground pork, turkey, pork sausage, raw chicken breast, dry pet food, whole milk, ice cream, bagged spinach, shrimp (raw, peeled), raw cod, spent irrigation water, pecans, peanut butter, dry pasta, cake mix, ground black pepper, nonfat dry milk, liquid eggs, cantaloupe, and orange juice. In the matrix extension study for peanut butter, the VIDAS EasySLM method was shown to be equivalent to the appropriate reference culture procedure using both buffered peptone water pre-enrichment and the FDA-BAM lactose pre-enrichment in the two-step enrichment method with SX2 media. The current study extends the validation to include peanut butter. PMID:20166608

Johnson, Ronald; Mills, John; Colón-Reveles, Judith

2009-01-01

401

Evaluation of agar gel immunodiffusion and indirect fluorescent antibody assays as supplemental tests for dourine in equids.  

PubMed

The agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assays were evaluated as supplemental tests to the complement-fixation (CF) test, the official US importation certification test for dourine in equids. The American stabilate (n = 10 animals) or the Canadian stabilate (n = 6 animals) of Trypanosoma equiperdum cultured in rat blood was administered by catheterization and infusion in the urogenital tract of 16 equids. To assess parasitemia and serologic responses by use of the CF, AGID, and IFA tests, a total of 787 serum and blood samples were obtained from equids before exposure and 3 times a week after exposure to T equiperdum. Results of the IFA and AGID tests were compared with the CF test results. The disease was diagnosed earlier by the IFA test than by the AGID test, regardless of antigen preparation or exposure group. The mean number of days between exposure and positive result by the CF and IFA tests was the same when either homologous or heterologous antigen was used in the IFA test. In general, the IFA test was more sensitive than the AGID test in diagnosing dourine, regardless of the antigen preparation used in the test or exposure group. Differences in test specificity were observed among both groups of exposed equids when either antigen was used (P < 0.05). The AGID test, using the American antigen, was more specific than the IFA test for sera from both groups of equids. When the Canadian antigen was used, the IFA test was a more specific test than the AGID test (P < 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8214884

Hagebock, J M; Chieves, L; Frerichs, W M; Miller, C D

1993-08-01

402

Diagnostic Accuracy Assessment of Sensititre and Agar Disk Diffusion for Determining Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Bovine Clinical Mastitis Pathogens?  

PubMed Central

Determining the accuracy and precision of a measuring instrument is pertinent in antimicrobial susceptibility testing. This study was conducted to predict the diagnostic accuracy of the Sensititre MIC mastitis panel (Sensititre) and agar disk diffusion (ADD) method with reference to the manual broth microdilution test method for antimicrobial resistance profiling of Escherichia coli (n = 156), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 154), streptococcal (n = 116), and enterococcal (n = 31) bovine clinical mastitis isolates. The activities of ampicillin, ceftiofur, cephalothin, erythromycin, oxacillin, penicillin, the penicillin-novobiocin combination, pirlimycin, and tetracycline were tested against the isolates. Diagnostic accuracy was determined by estimating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve; intertest essential and categorical agreements were determined as well. Sensititre and the ADD method demonstrated moderate to highly accurate (71 to 99%) and moderate to perfect (71 to 100%) predictive accuracies for 74 and 76% of the isolate-antimicrobial MIC combinations, respectively. However, the diagnostic accuracy was low for S. aureus-ceftiofur/oxacillin combinations and other streptococcus-ampicillin combinations by either testing method. Essential agreement between Sensititre automatic MIC readings and MIC readings obtained by the broth microdilution test method was 87%. Essential agreement between Sensititre automatic and manual MIC reading methods was 97%. Furthermore, the ADD test method and Sensititre MIC method exhibited 92 and 91% categorical agreement (sensitive, intermediate, resistant) of results, respectively, compared with the reference method. However, both methods demonstrated lower agreement for E. coli-ampicillin/cephalothin combinations than for Gram-positive isolates. In conclusion, the Sensititre and ADD methods had moderate to high diagnostic accuracy and very good essential and categorical agreement for most udder pathogen-antimicrobial combinations and can be readily employed in veterinary diagnostic laboratories. PMID:21270215

Saini, V.; Riekerink, R. G. M. Olde; McClure, J. T.; Barkema, H. W.

2011-01-01

403

Diagnostic accuracy assessment of Sensititre and agar disk diffusion for determining antimicrobial resistance profiles of bovine clinical mastitis pathogens.  

PubMed

Determining the accuracy and precision of a measuring instrument is pertinent in antimicrobial susceptibility testing. This study was conducted to predict the diagnostic accuracy of the Sensititre MIC mastitis panel (Sensititre) and agar disk diffusion (ADD) method with reference to the manual broth microdilution test method for antimicrobial resistance profiling of Escherichia coli (n = 156), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 154), streptococcal (n = 116), and enterococcal (n = 31) bovine clinical mastitis isolates. The activities of ampicillin, ceftiofur, cephalothin, erythromycin, oxacillin, penicillin, the penicillin-novobiocin combination, pirlimycin, and tetracycline were tested against the isolates. Diagnostic accuracy was determined by estimating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve; intertest essential and categorical agreements were determined as well. Sensititre and the ADD method demonstrated moderate to highly accurate (71 to 99%) and moderate to perfect (71 to 100%) predictive accuracies for 74 and 76% of the isolate-antimicrobial MIC combinations, respectively. However, the diagnostic accuracy was low for S. aureus-ceftiofur/oxacillin combinations and other streptococcus-ampicillin combinations by either testing method. Essential agreement between Sensititre automatic MIC readings and MIC readings obtained by the broth microdilution test method was 87%. Essential agreement between Sensititre automatic and manual MIC reading methods was 97%. Furthermore, the ADD test method and Sensititre MIC method exhibited 92 and 91% categorical agreement (sensitive, intermediate, resistant) of results, respectively, compared with the reference method. However, both methods demonstrated lower agreement for E. coli-ampicillin/cephalothin combinations than for Gram-positive isolates. In conclusion, the Sensititre and ADD methods had moderate to high diagnostic accuracy and very good essential and categorical agreement for most udder pathogen-antimicrobial combinations and can be readily employed in veterinary diagnostic laboratories. PMID:21270215

Saini, V; Riekerink, R G M Olde; McClure, J T; Barkema, H W

2011-04-01

404

76 FR 81004 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Woman in Blue, Against...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Woman in Blue, Against Blue Water'' by Edvard Munch SUMMARY: Notice is hereby...I hereby determine that the object ``Woman in Blue, Against Blue Water'' by Edvard Munch,...

2011-12-27

405

Transient reduction of responsiveness of blue-light-mediated hair-whorl morphogenesis in Acetabularia mediterranea induced by blue light  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a prolonged period of red light the formation of a new whorl of lateral hairs can be induced inAcetabularia mediterranea Lamouroux (=A. acetabulum (L.) Silva) by a pulse of blue light. It has previously been shown that the response to blue light obeys the law of reciprocity. In this paper we demonstrate that the responses to blue light are

Rainer Schmid; Martin Tiinncrmann; Evi-Marion Idziak

1988-01-01

406

Experiencing Blues at the Crossroads: A Place-Based Method for Teaching the Geography of Blues Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a pedagogical module that explores the geography of blues culture across the Mississippi Delta. By focusing on blues culture, rather than simply blues music itself, this project provides a forum for understanding the broader geographical conditions from which this musical form emerged. This module utilizes place-based…

Strait, John

2012-01-01

407

Historical sources about diseases, death and embalming regarding the family of Jean Antoine Michel Agar, Minister of Finance of Gioacchino Murat.  

PubMed

Among the mummies preserved in the Basilica of San Domenico Maggiore in Naples, there are the bodies of the wife and three children of Jean Antoine Michel Agar, Minister of Finance of Naple's Kingdom during the Monarchy of Joachim Murat (1808-1815). Between 1983 and 1987 paleopathological analyses were performed; in particular, X-ray examination allowed investigation of the health status of the Agar family members and reconstruction of the embalming processes used to preserve the bodies. In addition, an analysis of the historical and archival documents was carried out, to formulate hypotheses about the causes of death, demonstrating how these sources could become important instruments to obtain diagnoses and pathological histories. PMID:22043603

Marinozzi, S; Gazzaniga, V; Giuffra, V; Fornaciari, G

2011-06-01

408

Evaluation of five chromogenic agar media and the Rosco Rapid Carb screen kit for detection and confirmation of carbapenemase production in Gram-negative bacilli.  

PubMed

An efficient workflow to screen for and confirm the presence of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli was developed by evaluating five chromogenic screening agar media and two confirmatory assays, the Rapid Carb screen test (Rosco Diagnostica A/S, Taastrup, Denmark) and the modified Hodge test. A panel of 150 isolates was used, including 49 carbapenemase-producing isolates representing a variety of ?-lactamase enzyme classes. An evaluation of analytical performance, assay cost, and turnaround time indicated that the preferred workflow (screening test followed by confirmatory testing) was the chromID Carba agar medium (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Étoile, France), followed by the Rapid Carb screen test, yielding a combined sensitivity of 89.8% and a specificity of 100%. As an optional component of the workflow, a determination of carbapenemase gene class via molecular means could be performed subsequent to confirmatory testing. PMID:25355764

Simner, Patricia J; Gilmour, Matthew W; DeGagne, Pat; Nichol, Kim; Karlowsky, James A

2015-01-01

409

Non-polar Flexoelectrooptic Effect in Blue Phase Liquid Crystals  

E-print Network

Blue phase liquid crystals are not usually considered to exhibit a flexoelectrooptic effect, due to the polar nature of flexoelectric switching and the cubic or amorphous structure of blue phases. Here, we derive the form of the flexoelectric contribution to the Kerr constant of blue phases, and experimentally demonstrate and measure the separate contributions to the Kerr constant arising from flexoelectric and dielectric effects. Hence, a non-polar flexoelectrooptic effect is demonstrated in blue phase liquid crystals, which will have consequences for the engineering of novel blue-phase electrooptic technology.

B. I. Outram; S. J. Elston; F. Castles; M. M. Qasim; H. Coles; H. -Y. Chen; S. -F. Lu

2014-06-12

410

Methylene blue promotes quiescence of rat neural progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

Neural stem cell-based treatment holds a new therapeutic opportunity for neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we investigated the effect of methylene blue on proliferation and differentiation of rat neural progenitor cells (NPCs) both in vitro and in vivo. We found that methylene blue inhibited proliferation and promoted quiescence of NPCs in vitro without affecting committed neuronal differentiation. Consistently, intracerebroventricular infusion of methylene blue significantly inhibited NPC proliferation at the subventricular zone (SVZ). Methylene blue inhibited mTOR signaling along with down-regulation of cyclins in NPCs in vitro and in vivo. In summary, our study indicates that methylene blue may delay NPC senescence through enhancing NPCs quiescence. PMID:25339866

Xie, Luokun; Choudhury, Gourav R.; Wang, Jixian; Park, Yong; Liu, Ran; Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Chun-Li; Yorio, Thomas; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Shao-Hua

2014-01-01

411

Nature's palette: the search for natural blue colorants.  

PubMed

The food and beverage industry is seeking to broaden the palette of naturally derived colorants. Although considerable effort has been devoted to the search for new blue colorants in fruits and vegetables, less attention has been directed toward blue compounds from other sources such as bacteria and fungi. The current work reviews known organic blue compounds from natural plant, animal, fungal, and microbial sources. The scarcity of blue-colored metabolites in the natural world relative to metabolites of other colors is discussed, and structural trends common among natural blue compounds are identified. These compounds are grouped into seven structural classes and evaluated for their potential as new color additives. PMID:24930897

Newsome, Andrew G; Culver, Catherine A; van Breemen, Richard B

2014-07-16

412

AUDIBILITY THRESHOLDS OF THE BLUE JAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The audibility thresholds of two Blue Jays were measured behaviorally using operant conditioning and psychophysical techniques. The jays responded to pure tones between 0.25 and 10 kHz. Their thresholds are similar to those reported for seven other passerines. This indicates that passerines are somewhat less sensitive than man in the detection of sounds in the 1 to 4 kHz range

STEVEN M. COHEN; WILLIAM C. STEBBINS; DAVID B. MOODY

1978-01-01

413

Technology Teacher: Singing the Black and Blues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gives simple, yet authoritative answers to the questions "Why is the sky blue?" and "Why is the sky black at night?" Combines technology with its application to Earth science, astronomy, and cosmology, and does so via language arts and music! This article was originally written for and published by the International Technology Education Association in its journal 'The Technology Teacher.' It is now archived on The Space Place Web site.

414

Accidental mydriasis from blue nightshade "lipstick".  

PubMed

A 7-year-old girl presented with bilaterally dilated pupils, nausea, and vomiting 2 days after head trauma. Pilocarpine pupil testing led to the correct diagnosis of pharmacologic pupillary dilation from an unexpected and unusual source of plant poisoning, Solanum dulcamara (blue nightshade). In patients with internal ophthalmoplegia, awareness of the possibility of pharmacologic mydriasis and correct use of topical pilocarpine testing can preclude the necessity for neuroradiologic and invasive diagnostic studies, even in cases with atypical or complex presentations. PMID:2952678

Rubinfeld, R S; Currie, J N

1987-03-01

415

Photophysics properties of blue-emitting polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on an extensive spectroscopic study of thin films of two blue-emitting ?-conjugated polymers (PCP), namely ladder-type poly-para-phenylene (mLPPP) and polyfluorene (PFO). In our work, we employed several continuous-wave (cw) spectroscopic techniques, such as absorption, photoluminescence (PL), photoinduced absorption (PA) and PA detected magnetic resonance (PADMR). We have obtained PA spectra measured over a very broad spectral range from

M. Wohlgenannt; Z. Valy Vardeny

2001-01-01

416

Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using blue-emitting GaN/6HSiC chips as primary light sources, we have fabricated green, yellow, red and white emitting LEDs. The generation of mixed colors, as turquoise and magenta is also demonstrated. The underlying physical principle is that of luminescence down-conversion (Stokes shift), as typical for organic luminescent dye molecules. A white emitting LED, using an inorganic converter, Y3Al5O12:Ce3+( ), has also been realized.

Schlotter, P.; Schmidt, R.; Schneider, J.

417

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Blue Grouse  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Schroeder, Richard L.

1984-01-01

418

Eta Carinae and Other Luminous Blue Variables  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) are believed to be evolved, extremely massive stars close to the Eddington Limit and hence prone to bouts of large-scale, unstable mass loss. I discuss current understanding of the evolutionary state of these objects, the role duplicity may play and known physical characteristics of these stars using the X-ray luminous LBVs Eta Carinae and HD 5980 as test cases.

Corcoran, M. F.

2006-01-01

419

the Blue Gene\\/L double FPU  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents vectorization techniques tailored to meet the specifics of the two-way single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) double-precision floating-point unit (FPU), which is a core element of the node application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips of the IBM 360-teraflops Blue Genet\\/L supercomputer. This paper focuses on the general-purpose basic-block vectorization and optimization methods as they are incorporated in the Vienna MAP vectorizer

J. Lorenz; S. Kral; F. Franchetti; C. W. Ueberhuber

420

Cryptotrichosporon anacardii gen. nov., sp. nov., a new trichosporonoid capsulate basidiomycetous yeast from Nigeria that is able to form melanin on niger seed agar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five yeast isolates obtained from cashew tree flowers in Nigeria resembled Cryptococcus neoformans phenotypically by producing brown pigmented colonies on niger seed agar, expressing a capsule, and being able to grow at 371C. However, rRNA gene sequences, including the 18S rRNA gene, the D1\\/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene and the ITS112 regions, suggested that these yeasts form a

Ikechukwu Okoli; Christie A. Oyeka; Kyung J. Kwon-Chung; Bart Theelen; Vincent Robert; Johannes Z. Groenewald; Diane C. McFadden; Arturo Casadevall; Teun Boekhout

2007-01-01

421

Comparison of a novel MPN method against the yeast extract agar (YEA) pour plate method for the enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria from drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the Quanti-Disc™ most probable number (MPN) test for heterotrophic bacteria from drinking water with the widely used yeast extract agar (YEA) pour plate method. The Quanti-Disc™ test module contains 50 reaction wells in which a medium has been pre-deposited. The medium contains a suite of three fluorogenic enzyme substrates selected for the detection of enzymes expressed widely

David P. Sartory; Haoyi Gu; Chun-Ming Chen

2008-01-01

422

The Acoustic Properties, Centered on 20 MHZ, of an IEC Agar-Based Tissue-Mimicking Material and its Temperature, Frequency and Age Dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to characterize the ultrasonic properties of agar-based tissue-mimicking materials (TMMs) at ultrasound frequencies centered around 20 MHz. The TMM acoustic properties measured are the amplitude attenuation coefficient ? (dB cm–1MHz–1), the speed of sound (ms–1) and the backscattered power spectral density (distribution of power per unit frequency normalized to the total received power) characteristics

M. P. Brewin; L. C. Pike; D. E. Rowland; M. J. Birch

2008-01-01

423

PhysicoChemical Characterization of Agar-Type Polysaccharides Used as Aqueous Gels in in vitro Micropropagation of Several Clones of Thuja plicata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of four agar-type polysaccharides on the budding and the elongation of five clones of Thuja plicata was tested. The polysac charides were used as solidifying agents for culture media and differed in their sulfate content (0.14 to 10.95% W\\/W). Budding was reduced on the most highly sulfated polysaccharide, and the differences observed between clones in elonga tion were

B. Pochet; V. Rouxhet; M. M. Mestdagh; J. François

1993-01-01

424

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Helicobacter pylori isolates from Brazilian children and adolescents: Comparing agar dilution, E-test, and disk diffusion  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Helicobacter pylori is increasingly important due to resistance to the most used antimicrobials agents. Only agar dilution method is approved by CLSI, but it is difficult to perform routinely. We evaluated the reliability of E-test and disk diffusion comparing to agar dilution method on Helicobacter pylori antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Susceptibility testing was performed for amoxicillin, clarithromycin, furazolidone, metronidazole and tetracycline using E-test, disk-diffusion and agar dilution method in 77 consecutive Helicobacter pylori strains from dyspeptic children and adolescents. Resistance rates were: amoxicillin - 10.4%, 9% and 68.8%; clarithromycin - 19.5%, 20.8%, 36.3%; metronidazole - 40.2%33.7%, 38.9%, respectively by agar dilution, E-test and disk diffusion method. Furazolidone and tetracycline showed no resistance rates. Metronidazole presented strong correlation to E-test (r = 0.7992, p < 0.0001) and disk diffusion method (r=-0.6962, p < 0.0001). Clarithromycin presented moderate correlation to E-test (r = 0.6369, p < 0.0001) and disk diffusion method (r=?0.5656, p < 0.0001). Amoxicillin presented weak correlation to E-test (r = 0.3565, p = 0.0015) and disk diffusion (r=?0.3565, p = 0.0015). Tetracycline presented weak correlation with E-test (r = 0.2346, p = 0.04) and furazolidone to disk diffusion (r=?0.0288, p = 0.8038). E-test presented better agreement with gold standard. It is an easy and reliable method for Helicobacter pylori susceptibility testing. Disk diffusion method presented high disagreement and high rates of major errors. PMID:25763052

Ogata, Silvio Kazuo; Gales, Ana Cristina; Kawakami, Elisabete

2014-01-01

425

Detection of slime production by means of an optimised Congo red agar plate test based on a colourimetric scale in Staphylococcus epidermidis clinical isolates genotyped for ica locus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation was conduced on a collection of 113 S. epidermidis strains isolated from biomaterial-associated infections. All strains were examined both for the presence of icaA and icaD genes responsible for slime synthesis by a PCR method and for the in vitro slime production ability by the Congo red agar (CRA) plate test. In the present study, the original CRA

Carla Renata Arciola; Davide Campoccia; Simonetta Gamberini; Marina Cervellati; Elena Donati; Lucio Montanaro

2002-01-01

426

Moisture barrier, wetting and mechanical properties of shellac\\/agar or shellac\\/cassava starch bilayer bio-membrane for food applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edible bilayer membrane composed of agar (AG) or cassava starch (CAS) as a cohesive structural layer and ethanol-cast shellac layer as a moisture barrier are investigated for their potential use in food preservation as bio-packaging film, membrane or coating. Bilayer membranes containing non-plasticized shellac exhibit low water vapor permeability (WVP), from 0.89 to 1.03×10?11gm?1s?1Pa?1. A high value of contact angle

D. Phan The; F. Debeaufort; D. Luu; A. Voilley

2008-01-01

427

Interlaboratory Evaluation of Etest Method for Testing Antifungal Susceptibilities of Pathogenic Yeasts to Five Antifungal Agents by Using Casitone Agar and Solidified RPMI 1640 Medium with 2% Glucose  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interlaboratory evaluation (two centers) of the Etest method was conducted for testing the antifungal susceptibilities of yeasts. The MICs of amphotericin B,fluconazole,flucytosine, itraconazole, and ketoconazole were determined for 83 isolates ofCandidaspp.,Cryptococcus neoformans, andTorulopsis glabrata. Two buffered (phosphate buffer) culture media were evaluated: solidified RPMI 1640 medium with 2% glucose and Casitone agar. MIC endpoints were determined after both 24

A. ESPINEL-INGROFF; M. PFALLER; M. E. ERWIN; N. JONES

1996-01-01

428

QCD and the BlueGene  

SciTech Connect

Quantum Chromodynamics is the theory of nuclear and sub-nuclear physics. It is a celebrated theory and one of its inventors, F. Wilczek, has termed it as '... our most perfect physical theory'. Part of this is related to the fact that QCD can be numerically simulated from first principles using the methods of lattice gauge theory. The computational demands of QCD are enormous and have not only played a role in the history of supercomputers but are also helping define their future. Here I will discuss the intimate relation of QCD and massively parallel supercomputers with focus on the Blue Gene supercomputer and QCD thermodynamics. I will present results on the performance of QCD on the Blue Gene as well as physics simulation results of QCD at temperatures high enough that sub-nuclear matter transitions to a plasma state of elementary particles, the quark gluon plasma. This state of matter is thought to have existed at around 10 microseconds after the big bang. Current heavy ion experiments are in the quest of reproducing it for the first time since then. And numerical simulations of QCD on the Blue Gene systems are calculating the theoretical values of fundamental parameters so that comparisons of experiment and theory can be made.

Vranas, P

2007-06-18

429

The Blue Comet: A Railroad's Astronomical Heritage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 1929 February 21 and 1941 September 27, the Central New Jersey Railroad operated a luxury passenger train between Jersey City and Atlantic City. Named The Blue Comet, the locomotive, tender, and coaches sported a unique royal blue paint scheme designed to evoke images of celestial bodies speeding through space. Inside each car were etched window panes and lampshades featuring stars and comets. And each coach sported the name of a famous comet on its side; these comets were of course named for their discoverers. Some of the astronomers honored in this unique fashion remain famous to this day, or at least their comets do. The names D'Arrest, Barnard, Encke, Faye, Giacobini, Halley, Olbers, Temple, Tuttle, and Westphal are familiar ones. But Biela, Brorsen, deVico, Spitaler, and Winnecke have now largely faded into obscurity; their stories are recounted here. Although more than sixty years have elapsed since its last run, The Blue Comet, perhaps the most famous passenger train in American history, lives on in the memories of millions of passengers and railfans. This famous train returned to the attention of millions of television viewers on the evening of 2007 June 3, in an episode of the HBO series The Sopranos. This work was supported by a faculty development grant from Valdosta State University.

Rumstay, Kenneth S.

2009-01-01

430

Isolation and identification procedure for Staphylococcus aureus in laboratory mice and rats by combined use of chromogenic X-SA agar and specific polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

Generally, a conventional culture-based examination procedure (detection by egg-yolk salt agar and subsequent identification by phenotypic tests) for confirmation of the presence of S. aureus (SA) in laboratory mice and rats requires approximately 4 days. To improve the culture-based examination procedure for SA in terms of rapidity and reliability, combined use of chromogenic X-SA agar (XSA) and PCR using newly designed specific primers for SA (XSA-PCR) that can shorten the examination time (25.5 hr) was compared with the conventional procedure for SA. In 425 samples from mice and rats, 193 suspected isolates were detected by egg-yolk salt agar (EYSA), and 216 suspected isolates were detected by XSA. In the subsequent identification, 189 of 193 suspected isolates detected by EYSA were identified as SA by phenotypic tests (97.9%), and all 216 suspected isolates detected by XSA were identified as SA by PCR (100%). All SA-positive samples by the conventional procedure were included in the SA-positive samples by XSA-PCR. As a result, XSA-PCR was superior to the conventional procedure in detection rate and identification rate of SA. Therefore, XSA-PCR appears to be an effective tool for examination of SA in laboratory mice and rats that improves precision and shortens the examination time. PMID:19194073

Hayashimoto, Nobuhito; Goto, Kazuo; Takakura, Akira; Itoh, Toshio

2009-01-01

431

Controlled comparison of a new Becton Dickinson agar slant blood culture system with Roche Septi-Chek for the detection of bacteremia and fungemia.  

PubMed Central

Two commercially available agar slide blood culture systems, Septi-Chek (Roche Diagnostics, Div. Hoffmann-La Roche Inc., Nutley, N.J.) and VACUTAINER agar slant (Becton Dickinson [BD] Vacutainer Systems, Rutherford, N.J.), were compared in 5,628 paired blood cultures from adult patients. The systems were inoculated with equal volumes (5 ml) of blood. There was no statistically significant difference between the two systems in the overall recovery of clinically important microorganisms; however, significantly more Escherichia coli (P less than 0.05) organisms were detected in the Septi-Chek system. Concurrently, significantly more contaminants (P less than 0.001) also were present in Septi-Chek bottles. When microorganisms grew in both systems, there was no significant difference in the time to recovery of important organisms, except that anaerobes were detected more quickly in the BD system. This study suggests that the BD VACUTAINER agar slant is an acceptable alternative to the Septi-Chek system for routine blood cultures. PMID:2687314

Reimer, L G; Reller, L B; Mirrett, S

1989-01-01

432

Effects of co-culture and salinity on the growth and agar yield of Gracilaria tenuistipitata var liui Zhang et Xia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gracilaria tenuistipitata var Liui were mono-cultivated and co-cultivated with Pinctada martensii under high (33) and low (21) salinity conditions in laboratory. The daily growth rate of the alga was determined. Tissue carbon and nitrogen contents, the yield and fractional composition of agar were analyzed. Results showed that: 1. Gracilaria grew better under low salinity conditions, the daily growth rate was twice that under high salinity conditions. Co-cultivated algae grew faster than mono-cultivated algae under low salinity conditions, the daily growth rate was about 37.6% higher. 2. Compared with mono-cultivated algae, tissue nitrogen contents of co-cultivated algae were higher, while the C:N ratios were much lower. 3. The agar yields of co-cultivated algae were much lower than those of mono-cultivated algae. Agar yield was found to be negatively correlated to the tissue nitrogen contents, and positively correlated to the C:N ratios. 4. The highest fractional yields obtained from co-cultivated algae were extracted with 40% ethanol, while from mono-cultivated algae, the highest fractional yields obtained were extracted with distilled water at room temperature.

He, Li-Hong; Wu, Madeline; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Zhu, Ming-Yuan

2002-12-01

433

A modified MacConkey agar for selective enumeration of necrotoxigenic E. coli O55 and probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917.  

PubMed

An agar selective enumeration of necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli O55 (NTEC2) and probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917, using modified MacConkey agar, was developed to study bacterial interference between these E. coli strains in a gnotobiotic piglet model. Replacement of lactose with saccharose in the agar enables the direct visual enumeration of red colonies of E. coli O55 and yellow colonies of E. coli Nissle 1917 that are co-cultured in the same Petri dish. A total of 336 colonies (168 for each color) were subjected to strain-specific PCR identification with LNA probes. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 96.43%, 95.83%, 95.86% and 96.41% respectively in E. coli O55, and 98.21%, 97.02%, 97.06% and 98.19% respectively in E. coli Nissle 1917. Color-based enumeration of both E. coli strains in colonic contents and mesenteric lymph nodes homogenates of gnotobiotic piglets demonstrated the applicability of this method for the gnotobiotic piglet model of enteric diseases. PMID:25008462

Splichalova, Alla; Splichal, Igor; Sonnenborn, Ulrich; Rada, Vojtech

2014-09-01

434

Quality issues in blue noise halftoning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The blue noise mask (BNM) is a halftone screen that produces unstructured visually pleasing dot patterns. The BNM combines the blue-noise characteristics of error diffusion and the simplicity of ordered dither. A BNM is constructed by designing a set of interdependent binary patterns for individual gray levels. In this paper, we investigate the quality issues in blue-noise binary pattern design and mask generation as well as in application to color reproduction. Using a global filtering technique and a local 'force' process for rearranging black and white pixels, we are able to generate a series of binary patterns, all representing a certain gray level, ranging from white-noise pattern to highly structured pattern. The quality of these individual patterns are studied in terms of low-frequency structure and graininess. Typically, the low-frequency structure (LF) is identified with a measurement of the energy around dc in the spatial frequency domain, while the graininess is quantified by a measurement of the average minimum distance (AMD) between minority dots as well as the kurtosis of the local kurtosis distribution (KLK) for minority pixels of the binary pattern. A set of partial BNMs are generated by using the different patterns as unique starting 'seeds.' In this way, we are able to study the quality of binary patterns over a range of gray levels. We observe that the optimality of a binary pattern for mask generation is related to its own quality mertirc values as well as the transition smoothness of those quality metric values over neighboring levels. Several schemes have been developed to apply blue-noise halftoning to color reproduction. Different schemes generate halftone patterns with different textures. In a previous paper, a human visual system (HVS) model was used to study the color halftone quality in terms of luminance and chrominance error in CIELAB color space. In this paper, a new series of psycho-visual experiments address the 'preferred' color rendering among four different blue noise halftoning schemes. The experimental results will be interpreted with respect to the proposed halftone quality metrics.

Yu, Qing; Parker, Kevin J.

1998-01-01

435

Improvement of Modified Charcoal-Cefoperazone-Deoxycholate Agar by Supplementation with a High Concentration of Polymyxin B for Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in Chicken Carcass Rinses  

PubMed Central

Modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) was improved by supplementation with a high concentration of polymyxin B. The ability of the supplemented medium to isolate Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli from chicken carcass rinses was compared to that of Campy-Cefex agar and mCCDA. Modification of mCCDA with increased polymyxin B yielded a significantly (P < 0.05) higher isolation rate and greater selectivity than those achieved using Campy-Cefex agar and mCCDA. PMID:22210208

Chon, Jung-Whan; Hyeon, Ji-Yeon; Yim, Jin-Hyuk; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Song, Kwang-Young

2012-01-01

436

Excited state electric dipole moment of nile blue and brilliant cresyl blue: A comparative study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solvatochromic study on the photophysical properties of two cationic oxazine dyes (brilliant cresyl blue and nile blue) was carried out. The electronic absorption and emission spectra of the dyes were recorded in various organic solvents with different polarity. The ground and the excited state dipole moments of the dyes were estimated from solvatochromic shift method. The solvent dependent spectral shifts in absorption and fluorescence spectra were analyzed by the Katritzky and Kamlet-Taft multi-parameter scales. This work is characterized by detailed quantitative studies on the nature and extent of solvent-solute interactions.

Ghanadzadeh Gilani, A.; Hosseini, S. E.; Moghadam, M.; Alizadeh, E.

2012-04-01

437

Excited state electric dipole moment of nile blue and brilliant cresyl blue: a comparative study.  

PubMed

A solvatochromic study on the photophysical properties of two cationic oxazine dyes (brilliant cresyl blue and nile blue) was carried out. The electronic absorption and emission spectra of the dyes were recorded in various organic solvents with different polarity. The ground and the excited state dipole moments of the dyes were estimated from solvatochromic shift method. The solvent dependent spectral shifts in absorption and fluorescence spectra were analyzed by the Katritzky and Kamlet-Taft multi-parameter scales. This work is characterized by detailed quantitative studies on the nature and extent of solvent-solute interactions. PMID:22261111

Gilani, A Ghanadzadeh; Hosseini, S E; Moghadam, M; Alizadeh, E

2012-04-01

438

Compensation of blue phase I by blue phase II in optoeletronic device.  

PubMed

Compensation effect of blue phase I (BP I) with blue phase II (BP II) liquid crystal was demonstrated. BP I and BP II were co-exist in the optoeletronic device by polymer stabilization. Consequently, disadvantages of BP I and BP II were greatly improved by compensation effect and resulted in high contrast ratio, low hysteresis and fast falling time. Mechanism of compensation effect was explained by relaxation ability of lattice structure under electrical field and compensation structure was well confirmed by Bragg's reflectance spectrum and Commission International de l'Éclairage chromaticity diagram. PMID:23482036

Lan, Yi-Fen; Tsai, Cheng-Yeh; Lu, Jen-Kuei; Sugiura, Norio

2013-02-25

439

Pulsational Mass Loss in Luminous Blue Variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Luminous Blue Variables are evolved stars which experience periods of enhanced mass loss and outbursts. During these outbursts, the star stays at constant luminosity, but appears to become cooler. The S Doradus type variability, unlike the more extreme eruptions seen in ? Car, occur on timescales of years to decades. The origin of the variability is still not understood, nor is the connection to extreme objects such as ? Car. In this work, we examine hydrodynamic models of radial pulsation including time-dependent convection in massive stars, looking for the conditions necessary to trigger S Doradus type variability.

Lovekin, C. C.; Guzik, J. A.

2012-12-01

440

Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser  

DOEpatents

A laser for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr.sup.3+ ions and Yb.sup.3+ ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output.

Xie, Ping (San Jose, CA); Gosnell, Timothy R. (Sante Fe, NM)

1998-01-01

441

Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser  

DOEpatents

A laser is disclosed for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr{sup 3+} ions and Yb{sup 3+} ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output. 11 figs.

Xie, P.; Gosnell, T.R.

1998-09-08

442

2.OA Red and Blue Tiles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Lin wants to put some red and blue tiles on a wall for decoration. She is thinking about several different patterns of tiles she could create. She want...

443

7.SP Red, Green, or Blue?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: This is a game for two people. You have three dice; one is red, one is green, and one is blue. These dice are different than regular six-sided dice, wh...

444

Extreme and Intermediate Blue Horizontal Branch Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The blue horizontal branch population consists of extreme horizontal branch (EHB) stars and the cooler intermediate blue horizontal branch (IBHB) stars. EHB stars have very tiny hydrogen envelopes (<= 0.05M_sun) as a result of extreme mass loss during the red giant branch (RGB) phase. They occupy a small range in mass and evolve at high effective temperatures after core He exhaustion. Their prodigious UV emission makes them the leading contenders for the source of the ultraviolet excess phenomenon seen in elliptical galaxies and spiral bulges. Using our stellar evolution code, STEV, we have studied the effects of extreme RGB mass loss on the HB over the metallicity range -2.26 <= [Fe/H] <= +0.37. Mass loss followed Reimers' mass loss formula. Extreme mass loss causes some stars to end their lives as He white dwarfs; the others ignite He at high temperatures and form a ``blue hook'' at the blue end of the canonical Zero-Age HB. We considered the distribution of initial HB masses as a probability distribution in Reimers' mass loss efficiency parameter, etaR, rather than directly as a mass probability distribution. For globular cluster abundances, the range of etaR producing EHB stars was comparable to that producing normal HB stars. As metallicity is increased, the range and magnitude of etaR varies only slightly, whereas the range of etaR producing mid-HB stars becomes very small, implying that the HB will be bimodal provided etaR is large enough. Further details can be found in ApJ, 466, 359 (1996). To determine how etaR might vary with metallicty, we have obtained fiber spectra of IBHB stars in the globular cluster omega Cen using the 3.9m Anglo-Australian telescope. T_eff, log g and [Ca/H] are being determined from the spectra. Our initial analysis indicates that for stars in the 7500 - 8200 K range, the distribution of [Ca/H] in the IBHB stars is different from that of omega Cen's giants and variables. There are comparatively more lower metallicity IBHB stars. This work is still in progress.

D'Cruz, N.; Rood, R.; O'Connell, R.; Dorman, B.; Dickens, R.

1996-12-01

445

The Blue Straggler Population in Dwarf Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this chapter I review the recent developments regarding the study of Blue Stragglers (BSS) in dwarf galaxies. The loose density environment of dwarf galaxies resembles that of the Galactic Halo, hence it is natural to compare their common BSS properties. At the same time, it is unescapable to compare with the BSS properties in Galactic globular clusters, which constitute the reference point for BSS studies. Admittedly, the literature on BSS in dwarf galaxies is not plentiful. The limitation is mostly due to the large distance to even the closest dwarf galaxies. Nevertheless, recent studies have allowed a deeper insight on the BSS photometric properties that are worth examining.

Momany, Yazan

446

Blue Marble Space Institute essay contest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, based in Seattle, Wash., is inviting college students to participate in its essay contest. Essays need to address the question, "In the next 100 years, how can human civilization prepare for the long-term changes to the Earth system that will occur over the coming millennium?" According to the institute, the purpose of the contest is "to stimulate creative thinking relating to space exploration and global issues by exploring how changes in the Earth system will affect humanity's future."

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-04-01

447

Fuzzy logic color detection: Blue areas in melanoma dermoscopy images.  

PubMed

Fuzzy logic image analysis techniques were used to analyze three shades of blue (lavender blue, light blue, and dark blue) in dermoscopic images for melanoma detection. A logistic regression model provided up to 82.7% accuracy for melanoma discrimination for 866 images. With a support vector machines (SVM) classifier, lower accuracy was obtained for individual shades (79.9-80.1%) compared with up to 81.4% accuracy with multiple shades. All fuzzy blue logic alpha cuts scored higher than the crisp case. Fuzzy logic techniques applied to multiple shades of blue can assist in melanoma detection. These vector-based fuzzy logic techniques can be extended to other image analysis problems involving multiple colors or color shades. PMID:24786720

Lingala, Mounika; Stanley, R Joe; Rader, Ryan K; Hagerty, Jason; Rabinovitz, Harold S; Oliviero, Margaret; Choudhry, Iqra; Stoecker, William V

2014-07-01

448

"Big Blue Marble" Fact Sheet and "Big Blue Marble" Program Content (Shows 1 through 78).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet describes the content of 78 programs presented in the "Big Blue Marble" series, an international series of children's television shows sponsored by the International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation. The major sequence of subjects is given, as well as a description of each program's folktale adaptation (a regular feature) and…

International Telephone and Telegraph Corp., New York, NY.

449

Blue-light imagery and photometry of sprites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have obtained blue (350–475 nm) video images and simultaneous high-time resolution narrow-band blue (415–435 nm) photometry records of four sprite events. The brightest blue images show a sustained tendril geometry and a nearly constant intensity of emission over the entire vertical extent of the sprite (from 35–90 km altitude). Photometer light curves display an exponential decay with a 0.3

David M. Suszcynsky; Robert Roussel-Dupré; Walter A. Lyons; Russell A. Armstrong

1998-01-01

450

A continuous curriculum for building code blue competency.  

PubMed

Staff response to a code blue can be cultivated when a continuous curriculum for code blue competency is used. This curriculum details ongoing code blue education yet requires only small increments of time for the inservice classes. The curriculum, adaptable to any unit, consists of three components: a unit-specific orientation to emergency equipment; exercises in critical thinking and doing; and exercises in documentation. PMID:12760002

Jankouskas, T S

2001-01-01

451

BlueFriend: Using Bluetooth technology for mobile social networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present BlueFriend, a novel application for mobile devices that takes advantage of Bluetooth functionalities to create mobile social networks. Our application runs on PDAs and smart phones equipped with a Bluetooth adapter. BlueFriend periodically scans the environment in search of other members of the BlueFriend community; when found, ldquovirtual personal cardsrdquo (VPCs) are exchanged with information

Patricia Tamarit; Carlos T. Calafate; Juan-Carlos Cano; Pietro Manzoni

2009-01-01

452

Unusual histopathological diagnosis of prostatic blue nevus: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Prostatic blue nevus was first described as a benign lesion of uncertain and controversial histogenesis by Nogogosyan in 1963. Currently, 30 cases have been reported in the world literature. Case presentation A 63-year-old Hispanic man presented with prostatism of several months’ evolution. Histopathological examination revealed a blue nevus associated with nodular hyperplasia and acute inflammation. Conclusion Prostatic blue nevus is a rare and unusual, histologically benign prostatic lesion with limited clinical significance and a favorable prognosis. PMID:24377954

2013-01-01

453

Observations of blue whales feeding in Antarctic waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are no published accounts of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) feeding in Antarctic waters. This note describes the behaviour of two groups of blue whales feeding in Antarctic pelagic\\u000a waters. Whales were observed during the 18th IWC\\/IDCR southern hemisphere minke whale assessment cruise. Feeding behaviour\\u000a in both cases resembled those described previously for both northern hemisphere blue whales and fin

Peter J. Corkeron; Paul Ensor; Koji Matsuoka

1999-01-01

454

The non-ischaemic blue finger.  

PubMed Central

Finger discoloration may result from recognized conditions affecting upper limb vasculature. We describe 11 patients who presented with acute pain, swelling and blue/purple discoloration in a finger. This benign condition mimicked digital ischaemia. There were 9 women and 2 men. The episode usually started with an ache/pain in the finger followed 2-3 h later by a blue/purple discoloration primarily on the volar aspect but always sparing the tip. This completely resolved after 4-7 days with no residual deficit. There was no history of trauma. Four patients had had previous episodes--2 had been started on warfarin. There was no family history and only one gave a history of spontaneous bruising of her legs. Examination of all patients--pulse rate, blood pressure, cardiac and subclavian artery auscultation and digital artery Doppler insonation--was normal. All patients had normal full blood counts, CRP, vasculitis screen and clotting (except those on warfarin). Six similar cases, all women, were reported in 1982. There was no common aetiological factor other than sex. Although of no prognostic significance, the condition is likely to concern patients and doctors in primary care. The discoloration is, however, clearly of a different distribution to that in an ischaemic finger where the tip of the digit is involved. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:11432130

Khaira, H. S.; Rittoo, D.; Vohra, R. K.; Smith, S. R.

2001-01-01

455

Magnetic Properties of Prussian Blue Analog Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of magnetization in thin film geometries of Prussian blue analogs, RbjM^'k [M(CN)6]l.nH2O, has shown emergent phenomena compared to bulk-like precursors. One example is the photoinduced decrease in magnetization for M^'=Co, M=Fe materials when the plane of the films is perpendicular to the applied magnetic field, as opposed to the usual increase in magnetization observed in the powder material [1,2]. By studying additional compounds without the photoinduced bistability, such as the M^'=Ni(S=1), M=Cr(S=3/2) ferromagnet with a TC ˜ 75 K and the M^'=Cu(S=1/2), M=Fe(S=1/2) ferromagnet with a TC ˜ 20 K, we have gained insight into the magnetic anisotropy present in the general class of Prussian blue analog thin films. Samples have been characterized by SQUID magnetometry, ESR, AFM, SEM, EDS and FT-IR. [4pt] [1] J.-H. Park, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3797 (2004). [2] F. A. Frye et al., Chem. Mater. 20, 5706 (2008).

Pajerowski, D. M.; Meisel, M. W.; Knowles, E. S.; Andrus, M. J.; Gardner, J. E.; Talham, D. R.; Datta, S.; Ozarowski, A.; Hill, S.

2010-03-01

456

P Cygni: An Extraordinary Luminous Blue Variable  

E-print Network

P Cygni is a prototype for understanding mass loss from massive stars. This textbook star is known first of all because of two great eruptions in the 17th century. In the first half of this century it has given its name to a class of stars which are characterized by spectral lines consisting of nearly undisplaced emissions accompanied by a blue-displaced absorption component. This characteristic P Cygni-type profile betrays the presence of a stellar wind, but P Cygni's wind is quite unlike that of other hot supergiants. P Cygni was the first star that showed the effects of stellar evoluton from a study of its photometric history. It shares some common properties with the so-called Luminous Blue Variables. However, P Cygni is a unique object. This review deals with P Cygni's photometric properties, its circumstellar environment - including infrared and radio observations - and its optical and ultraviolet spectrum. Smaller sections deal with P Cygni's wind structure and evolution.

G. Israelian; M. de Groot

1999-08-27

457

Novel deep-blue emitting phosphorescent emitter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, one of the most challenging applications for OLEDs is the full color display. The most energy-efficient way to realize light generation in OLEDs is by using phosphorescent emitters. Green and red emitters have already been demonstrated, but the search for blue emitting organic phosphorescent emitters with good color purity is still ongoing with arduous effort. Here we present our work with a new material developed at BASF which allows phosphorescent emission in the deep-blue spectral range. The emitter has an emission maximum at 400 nm, which gives CIE color coordinates of x = 0.16 and y = 0.06. An OLED device made with this new material shows a maximum external quantum efficiency of 1.5 %. The OLED was built in a three layer structure, with the emitting zone being a hybrid guest-host system. As host material we used the optically and electronically inert polymer poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA). Because of its lack of charge transport abilities we doped the host material with a high concentration of the triplet emitting material, i.e. the emitter itself is also used as charge transport material.

Schildknecht, C.; Ginev, G.; Kammoun, A.; Riedl, T.; Kowalsky, W.; Johannes, H.-H.; Lennartz, C.; Kahle, K.; Egen, M.; Geßner, T.; Bold, M.; Nord, S.; Erk, P.

2005-10-01

458

Host materials for blue phosphorescent OLEDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PCTrz, a new bipolar host material containing a phenoxy-carbazole separated from a biscarbazolyl-triazine by a non-conjugated ether bond is presented. Computational calculations demonstrated the separation of PCTrz into an oxidation and a reduction site. A phosphorescent OLED with PCTrz as host and FIrpic as blue emitter yielded high current efficiencies of up to 16.2 cd/A. Additionally two electron transporting host materials DBFTaz and DBFTazC, both containing 1,2,4-triazole moieies, were synthesized and characterized. The triazole moiety in DBFTaz was formed by a classical ring closure reaction between a N-benzoylbenzimidate and a hydrazine. For DBFTazC we used another synthetical pathway which involves subsequent coupling of a carbazole and a triazole moiety to a dibenzofuran core. Both triazoles posses high triplet energies of 2.95 eV for DBFTaz and 2.97 eV for DBFTazC, which make the compounds interesting as matrix materials for blue phosphorescent OLEDs.

Wagner, Daniel; Rothmann, Michael; Strohriegl, Peter; Lennartz, Christian; Münster, Ingo; Wagenblast, Gerhard; Schildknecht, Christian

2012-09-01

459

DNA electrochemistry with tethered methylene blue.  

PubMed

Methylene blue (MB'), covalently attached to DNA through a flexible C(12) alkyl linker, provides a sensitive redox reporter in DNA electrochemistry measurements. Tethered, intercalated MB' is reduced through DNA-mediated charge transport; the incorporation of a single base mismatch at position 3, 10, or 14 of a 17-mer causes an attenuation of the signal to 62 ± 3% of the well-matched DNA, irrespective of position in the duplex. The redox signal intensity for MB'-DNA is found to be least 3-fold larger than that of Nile blue (NB)-DNA, indicating that MB' is even more strongly coupled to the ?-stack. The signal attenuation due to an intervening mismatch does, however, depend on DNA film density and the backfilling agent used to passivate the surface. These results highlight two mechanisms for reduction of MB' on the DNA-modified electrode: reduction mediated by the DNA base pair stack and direct surface reduction of MB' at the electrode. These two mechanisms are distinguished by their rates of electron transfer that differ by 20-fold. The extent of direct reduction at the surface can be controlled by assembly and buffer conditions. PMID:22512327

Pheeney, Catrina G; Barton, Jacqueline K

2012-05-01

460

Raphael Meldola, his blue and his times.  

PubMed

Raphael Meldola (1849-1915), English industrial and academic chemist, spectroscopist, naturalist, educator and lobbyist for science, is today almost a forgotten scientist whose life is celebrated only with a medal awarded by the Royal Society of Chemistry that honors achievement by younger chemists. In the 1870-80s, however, he invented a number of important synthetic dyestuffs including the cotton dyes isamine blue and Meldola's blue, and also naphthol green B, all of which have had application in biology and medicine. I describe here the early emergence of the synthetic dye industry, the first science-based industry, Meldola's role in its development, and his own inventions. Meldola's wide ranging achievements in science led to appointments as president of important professional scientific and manufacturers' societies. He was a fervent disciple of natural selection, a correspondent of Charles Darwin, and a prominent 19(th)-century neo-Darwinian. In 1886, drawing on analogies with evolutionary theory, he warned the British that neglect of science, particularly chemistry, would lead to industrial decline and even extinction, though his message generally was ignored, at least until 1914. PMID:22148999

Travis, A S

2012-05-01

461

Progress towards a ``blue'' potassium MOT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One difficulty when preparing quantum degenerate gases of potassium 40 is the low efficiency of sub-Doppler cooling. In this talk, we discuss how we are attempting to circumvent this problem by implementing a ``blue'' MOT for ^40K on the non-cycling 4S1/2->5P3/2 transition, which has a wavelength of 404.53nm and a decay rate of 1.17MHz. The Doppler temperature should be 27?K, which is a factor of five improvement over the D2 transition at 767nm. This lower temperature would also facilitate in-situ imaging of atoms in optical lattices. The laser setup consists of a cooled diode injection locked to an external cavity diode laser. The master laser is in turn locked to ^39K saturation spectroscopy in a heated vapor cell. The proximity of this 4S-5P transition to the wavelength used in ``Blu-ray'' technology provides a relatively inexpensive source of laser diodes with powers up to 150mW. A dual MOT will be implemented using dichroic mirrors and waveplates for loading and capture with 767nm, followed by a switch to a ``blue'' MOT for late-stage cooling before loading into a magnetic trap. We will also present results on the spectroscopy of the ^40K 5P3/2 hyperfine levels using our setup.

McKay, David; Fine, Dan; Jervis, Dylan; Edge, Graham; Thywissen, Joseph

2011-06-01

462

Differential migration of Blue Grouse in Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined migration of adult Blue Grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) in north-central Colorado by radio tracking 13 males and 19 females. Elevational changes associated with movements to winter areas were greater for males (median = 488 m, range = 183-671 m) than females (median = 122 m, range = -61-760 m). Males (median = 10.5 km, range = 1.0-29.4 km) also moved farther than females (median = 1.0 km, range = 0.1-28.0 km), resulting in partial segregation of sexes during winter. Directional orientation of movements to wintering areas was nonrandom for long-distance (>3 km) migrants. Median elevational change (122 m) and distance (0.6 km) between the first-winter and first-breeding areas for seven juvenile females were similar to movements of adult females. Males (median = 7 July) departed breeding areas earlier than females (median = 11 August), but arrived (median = 14 October) on winter areas about the same time as females (median = 23 October). Both sexes exhibited fidelity to winter areas. The average distance between winter locations ranged from 94 to 312 m (median = 135 m) for 11 radio-marked adults, suggesting Blue Grouse were sedentary on their winter ranges.

Cade, Brian S.; Hoffman, Richard W.

1993-01-01

463

Is a diagnostic system based exclusively on agar gel immunodiffusion adequate for controlling the spread of equine infectious anaemia?  

PubMed

To improve the efficiency of the National equine infectious anaemia (EIA) surveillance program in Italy, a three-tiered diagnostic system has been adopted. This procedure involves initial screening by ELISA (Tier 1) with test-positive samples confirmed by the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGIDT) (Tier 2) and, in the case of ELISA positive/AGIDT negative results, final determination by immunoblot (IB) (Tier 3). During this evaluation, 74,880 samples, principally collected from two Regions of Central Italy (Latium and Abruzzo) were examined, with 44 identified as negative in AGIDT but positive in both ELISA and IB. As the majority of these reactions occurred in mules, an observational study was conducted in this hybrid equid species to investigate if there is a correlation between plasma-associated viral loads and serological reactivity, to test the hypothesis that false-negative or very weak positive AGIDT results are associated with elite control of EIA virus (EIAV) replication accompanied by reduced transmission risks. The study animals consisted of 5 mules with positive AGIDT readings, along with another 5 giving negative or very weak positive results in this test. All mules were seropositive in Elisa and IB. Samples were collected routinely during an initial 56-day observation period, prior to dexamethasone treatment lasting 10 days, to determine the effect of immune suppression (IS) on clinical, humoral and virological responses. All mules were monitored for a further 28 days from day 0 of IS. None of the animals experienced relevant clinical responses before IS and there were no significant changes in antibody levels in ELISA, IB or AGIDT. However, plasma-associated viral-RNA (vRNA) loads, as determined using TaqMan(®) based RT-PCR, showed unexpectedly high sample to sample variation in all mules, demonstrating host-mediated control of viral replication is not constant over time. Furthermore, there was no apparent correlation between vRNA loads and antibody reactivity in serological tests. Analysis of PCR products established all mules were infected with viruses possessing nucleotide sequence similarity, varying from 77 to 96%, to previously identified European EIAV strains. Following IS, all mules showed increases in plasma-associated vRNA loads, suggesting control of EIAV replication is mediated by immune responses in this hybrid species. However, only three mules showed anamnestic humoral responses to rises in viral loads, as defined by at least a four-fold increase in ELISA titre, while two remained AGIDT-negative. This study demonstrates that viral loads in equids with consistent ELISA/IB positive-AGIDT negative to very weak positive test results (Group N) can be equivalent to those that produce clearly positive results in all three serologic tests (Group P). Therefore, such animals do not pose inherently lower risks for the transmission of EIAV. Consequently, the exclusive use of the AGIDT, as prescribed by the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE) for diagnosis of EIA prior to the international movement of horses, can report as negative some EIAV-infected equids. These results dramatically underscore the necessity of combining the specificity of AGIDT with tests with higher sensitivity, such as the ELISA and the power of the IB to enhance the accuracy of EIA diagnosis. PMID:23618837

Scicluna, Maria Teresa; Issel, Charles J; Cook, Frank R; Manna, Giuseppe; Cersini, Antonella; Rosone, Francesca; Frontoso, Raffaele; Caprioli, Andrea; Antognetti, Valeria; Antonetti, Valeria; Autorino, Gian Luca

2013-07-26

464

The Return of the Blue Butterfly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Return of the Blue Butterfly The English writer Charles Dickens once wrote: "I only ask to be free. The butterflies are free". But are they really? The work that I performed with a group of students from 8th grade, had a starting point of climate change and the implications it has on ecosystems. Joining the passion I have for butterflies, I realized that they are also in danger of extinction due to these climatic effects. Thus, it was easy to seduce my students wanting to know more. Luckily I found Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo, a researcher at the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, who has worked on butterflies and precisely investigated this issue. Portugal is the southern limit of butterfly-blue (Phengaris alcon), and has been many years in the red book of endangered species. Butterfly-blue is very demanding of their habitat, and disappears very easily if ideal conditions are not satisfied. Increased fragmentation of landscapes and degradation of suitable habitats, are considered the greatest challenges of the conservation of Phengaris butterfly in Portugal. In recent decades, climate change has also changed butterfly-blue spatial distribution with a movement of the species northward to colder locations, and dispersion in latitude. Butterflies of Europe must escape to the North because of the heat. Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo and her research team began a project, completed in December 2013, wanted to preserve and restore priority habitats recognized by the European Union to help species in danger of disappearing with increasing temperature. The blue butterfly is extremely important because it is a key indicator of the quality of these habitats. In the field, the butterflies are monitored to collect all possible data in order to identify the key species. Butterflies start flying in early July and cease in late August. Mating takes about an hour and occurs in the first days of life. The gentian-peat (Gentiana pneumonanthe) serves as the host plant for laying eggs. Each female lays an average of 60 eggs. Larva must grow in a plant near an anthill of Myrmica aloba species. This is important because butterfly larvae are myrmecophilous, living with ants that feed the butterfly larvae for 11 months, because the ants think the butterfly larvae are ant larvae. In early summer the larvae pupate in the nest of ants. Before expanding their wings, they have to leave quickly to avoid being killed by ants when the ants discover have been deceived. My students became aware of this research; we studied and prepared in order to carry out fieldwork. Thus students learn the content and curricular in a scientifically fun way, first with group work in the classroom with my guidance and in a second stage carry knowledge to the field under the guidance of Dra Paula Seixas Arnaldo. We know where we started ... where we arrives is success!

Santos, Anabela

2014-05-01

465

Light?scattering sensor for real?time identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae colonies on solid agar plate  

PubMed Central

Summary The three most common pathogenic species of Vibrio, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus, are of major concerns due to increased incidence of water? and seafood?related outbreaks and illness worldwide. Current methods are lengthy and require biochemical and molecular confirmation. A novel label?free forward light?scattering sensor was developed to detect and identify colonies of these three pathogens in real time in the presence of other vibrios in food or water samples. Vibrio colonies grown on agar plates were illuminated by a 635?nm laser beam and scatter?image signatures were acquired using a CCD (charge?coupled device) camera in an automated BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical light?scattering Technology) system. Although a limited number of Vibrio species was tested, each produced a unique light?scattering signature that is consistent from colony to colony. Subsequently a pattern recognition system analysing the collected light?scatter information provided classification in 1?2?min with an accuracy of 99%. The light?scattering signatures were unaffected by subjecting the bacteria to physiological stressors: osmotic imbalance, acid, heat and recovery from a viable but non?culturable state. Furthermore, employing a standard sample enrichment in alkaline peptone water for 6?h followed by plating on selective thiosulphate citrate bile salts sucrose agar at 30°C for ??12?h, the light?scattering sensor successfully detected V.?cholerae, V.?parahaemolyticus and V.?vulnificus present in oyster or water samples in 18?h even in the presence of other vibrios or other bacteria, indicating the suitability of the sensor as a powerful screening tool for pathogens on agar plates. PMID:22613192

Huff, Karleigh; Aroonnual, Amornrat; Littlejohn, Amy E. Fleishman; Rajwa, Bartek; Bae, Euiwon; Banada, Padmapriya P.; Patsekin, Valery; Hirleman, E. Daniel; Robinson, J. Paul; Richards, Gary P.; Bhunia, Arun K.

2012-01-01

466

Evaluation of Petrifilm™ aerobic count plates as an equivalent alternative to drop plating on R2A agar plates in a biofilm disinfectant efficacy test.  

PubMed

This paper compares Petrifilm™ aerobic count (AC) plates to drop plating on R2A agar plates as an alternative method for biofilm bacteria enumeration after application of a disinfectant. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm was grown in a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention biofilm reactor (ASTM E2562) and treated with 123 ppm sodium hypochlorite (as free chlorine) according to the Single Tube Method (ASTM E2871). Aliquots from the same dilution tubes were plated on Petrifilm™ AC plates and drop plated on R2A agar plates. The Petrifilm™ AC and R2A plates were incubated for 48 and 24 h, respectively, at 36 ± 1 °C. After nine experimental runs performed by two technicians, the mean difference in biofilm log densities [log biofilm density (LD) = log10(CFU/cm(2))] between the two methods for control coupons, treated coupons, and log reduction (LR) was 0.052 (p = 0.451), -0.102 (p = 0.303), and 0.152 (p = 0.313). Equivalence testing was used to assess equivalence of the two plating methods. The 90 % confidence intervals for the difference in control and treated mean LDs between methods were (-0.065, 0.170) and (-0.270, 0.064), both of which fall within a (-0.5, +0.5) equivalence criterion. The 90 % confidence interval for the mean LR difference (-0.113, 0.420) also falls within this equivalence criterion. Thus, Petrifilm™ AC plates were shown to be statistically equivalent to drop plating on R2A agar for the determination of control LDs, treated LDs, and LR values in an anti-biofilm efficacy test. These are the first published results that establish equivalency to a traditional plate counting technique for biofilms and for a disinfectant assay. PMID:25471267

Fritz, B G; Walker, D K; Goveia, D E; Parker, A E; Goeres, D M

2015-03-01

467

Abilities of the mCP Agar method and CRENAME alpha toxin-specific real-time PCR assay to detect Clostridium perfringens spores in drinking water.  

PubMed

We first determined the analytical specificity and ubiquity (i.e., the ability to detect all or most strains) of a Clostridium perfringens-specific real-time PCR (rtPCR) assay based on the cpa gene (cpa rtPCR) by using a bacterial strain panel composed of C. perfringens and non-C. perfringens Clostridium strains. All non-C. perfringens Clostridium strains tested negative, whereas all C. perfringens strains tested positive with the cpa rtPCR, for an analytical specificity and ubiquity of 100%. The cpa rtPCR assay was then used to confirm the identity of 116 putative C. perfringens isolates recovered after filtration of water samples and culture on mCP agar. Colonies presenting discordant results between the phenotype on mCP agar and cpa rtPCR were identified by sequencing the 16S rRNA and cpa genes. Four mCP(-)/rtPCR(+) colonies were identified as C. perfringens, whereas 3 mCP(+)/rtPCR(-) colonies were identified as non-C. perfringens. The cpa rtPCR was negative with all 51 non-C. perfringens strains and positive with 64 of 65 C. perfringens strains. Finally, we compared mCP agar and a CRENAME (concentration and recovery of microbial particles, extraction of nucleic acids, and molecular enrichment) procedure plus cpa rtPCR (CRENAME + cpa rtPCR) for their abilities to detect C. perfringens spores in drinking water. CRENAME + cpa rtPCR detected as few as one C. perfringens CFU per 100 ml of drinking water sample in less than 5 h, whereas mCP agar took at least 25 h to deliver results. CRENAME + cpa rtPCR also allows the simultaneous and sensitive detection of Escherichia coli and C. perfringens from the same potable water sample. In itself, it could be used to assess the public health risk posed by drinking water potentially contaminated with pathogens more resistant to disinfection. PMID:24077714

Maheux, Andrée F; Bérubé, Eve; Boudreau, Dominique K; Villéger, Romain; Cantin, Philippe; Boissinot, Maurice; Bissonnette, Luc; Bergeron, Michel G

2013-12-01

468

Abilities of the mCP Agar Method and CRENAME Alpha Toxin-Specific Real-Time PCR Assay To Detect Clostridium perfringens Spores in Drinking Water  

PubMed Central

We first determined the analytical specificity and ubiquity (i.e., the ability to detect all or most strains) of a Clostridium perfringens-specific real-time PCR (rtPCR) assay based on the cpa gene (cpa rtPCR) by using a bacterial strain panel composed of C. perfringens and non-C. perfringens Clostridium strains. All non-C. perfringens Clostridium strains tested negative, whereas all C. perfringens strains tested positive with the cpa rtPCR, for an analytical specificity and ubiquity of 100%. The cpa rtPCR assay was then used to confirm the identity of 116 putative C. perfringens isolates recovered after filtration of water samples and culture on mCP agar. Colonies presenting discordant results between the phenotype on mCP agar and cpa rtPCR were identified by sequencing the 16S rRNA and cpa genes. Four mCP?/rtPCR+ colonies were identified as C. perfringens, whereas 3 mCP+/rtPCR? colonies were identified as non-C. perfringens. The cpa rtPCR was negative with all 51 non-C. perfringens strains and positive with 64 of 65 C. perfringens strains. Finally, we compared mCP agar and a CRENAME (concentration and recovery of microbial particles, extraction of nucleic acids, and molecular enrichment) procedure plus cpa rtPCR (CRENAME + cpa rtPCR) for their abilities to detect C. perfringens spores in drinking water. CRENAME + cpa rtPCR detected as few as one C. perfringens CFU per 100 ml of drinking water sample in less than 5 h, whereas mCP agar took at least 25 h to deliver results. CRENAME + cpa rtPCR also allows the simultaneous and sensitive detection of Escherichia coli and C. perfringens from the same potable water sample. In itself, it could be used to assess the public health risk posed by drinking water potentially contaminated with pathogens more resistant to disinfection. PMID:24077714

Maheux, Andrée F.; Bérubé, Ève; Boudreau, Dominique K.; Villéger, Romain; Cantin, Philippe; Boissinot, Maurice; Bissonnette, Luc

2013-01-01

469

Comparative in vitro antimicrobial susceptibilities of a special panel of 74 Bacteroides fragilis group isolates in Wilkins-Chalgren agar with and without sheep blood.  

PubMed

Seventy-four cefoxitin-resistant Bacteroides fragilis group isolates were tested by the serial twofold agar dilution method for susceptibility to imipenem and other agents in medium with and without 5% sheep blood. Imipenem (MIC for 90% of strains tested, 1 microgram/ml) and metronidazole (MIC for 90% of strains tested, 2 micrograms/ml) were the two most active agents. The addition of 5% sheep blood to the medium had little or no effect on the activity of the antibiotics tested. PMID:2729933

Gill, C J; Shungu, D L; Ponticas, S

1989-03-01

470

Combined use of Pastorex Staph-Plus and either of two new chromogenic agars, MRSA ID and CHROMagar MRSA, for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

We describe the search toward a fast and reliable strategy to detect and confirm the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in screening samples. First, we evaluated the sensitivities and specificities of oxacillin resistance screening agar (ORSA) with enrichment (tryptic soy broth [TSB] and ORSA [TSB-ORSA]) and without enrichment (ORSA), MRSA ID (MRSA_ID) plates, and CHROMagar MRSA (C_MRSA) plates, all of which were inoculated with equal volumes of a suspension made by emulsifying screening swabs. Whereas the sensitivities after 48 h were similar for all media tested (77% for MRSA_ID and ORSA; 73% for C_MRSA and ORSA after enrichment [TSB-ORSA]), the specificities of MRSA_ID (98% after 24 h and 94% after 48 h) and C_MRSA (98% after 24 h and 90% after 48 h) were superior to the specificities of ORSAs (92% after 24 h and 83% after 48 h) and TSB-ORSA (86% after 24 h and 81% after 48 h). Subsequently, the performance of the Pastorex Staph-Plus agglutination test with presumptive MRSA isolates taken directly from chromogenic agars (direct_Pastorex agglutination) was compared to that of the Pastorex Staph-Plus agglutination test with isolates from blood agar subcultures (conventional_Pastorex agglutination). When the direct_Pastorex agglutination test on MRSA_ID plates was combined with Gram staining, the direct_Pastorex agglutination test with samples from MRSA_ID plates was as reliable as the conventional_Pastorex agglutination test with samples from blood agar subcultures from MRSA_ID plates. In contrast, the direct_Pastorex agglutination test with samples from C_MRSA plates gave false-negative results. Finally, we calculated the processing times of the four different strategies, namely, (i) enrichment in TSB supplemented with NaCl, subsequent culture on ORSA, and the conventional_Pastorex agglutination test; (ii) direct inoculation of ORSA combined with conventional_Pastorex agglutination test; (iii) direct inoculation of MRSA_ID plates combined with Gram staining and the direct_Pastorex agglutination test; and (iv) direct inoculation of C_MRSA plates combined with Gram staining and the direct_Pastorex agglutination test. We concluded that the use of MRSA_ID in combination with Gram staining and the direct_Pastorex agglutination test is faster and more specific than the other strategies tested. PMID:17093032

Compernolle, Veerle; Verschraegen, Gerda; Claeys, Geert

2007-01-01

471

A clock reaction based on molybdenum blue.  

PubMed

Clock reactions are rare kinetic phenomena, so far limited mostly to systems with ionic oxoacids and oxoanions in water. We report a new clock reaction in cyclohexanol that forms molybdenum blue from a noncharged, yellow molybdenum complex as precursor, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Interestingly, the concomitant color change is reversible, enabling multiple clock cycles to be executed consecutively. The kinetics of the clock reaction were experimentally characterized, and by adding insights from quantum chemical calculations, a plausible reaction mechanism was postulated. Key elementary reaction steps comprise sigmatropic rearrangements with five-membered or bicyclo[3.1.0] transition states. Importantly, numerical kinetic modeling demonstrated the mechanism's ability to reproduce the experimental findings. It also revealed that clock behavior is intimately connected to the sudden exhaustion of hydrogen peroxide. Due to the stoichiometric coproduction of ketone, the reaction bears potential for application in alcohol oxidation catalysis. PMID:23634968

Neuenschwander, Ulrich; Negron, Arnaldo; Jensen, Klavs F

2013-05-30

472

Ultrasound promoted synthesis of Nile Blue derivatives.  

PubMed

Ultrasound irradiation was used for the first time towards the synthesis of new Nile Blue related benzo[a]phenoxazinium chlorides possessing isopentylamino, (2-cyclohexylethyl)amino and phenethylamino groups at 5-position of the heterocyclic system. The efficacy of sonochemistry was investigated with some of our earlier reported synthesis of benzo[a]phenoxazinium chlorides. This newer protocol proved competent in terms of reaction times and enhanced yields. Photophysical studies carried out in ethanol, water and simulated physiological conditions, revealed that emission maxima occurred in the range 644-656 nm, with high fluorescent quantum yields. Other attractive feature exhibited by these materials includes good thermal stability. These properties might be useful in the development of fluorescent probes for biotechnology. PMID:23769749

Raju, B Rama; Sampaio, Diogo M F; Silva, M M; Coutinho, Paulo J G; Gonçalves, M Sameiro T

2014-01-01

473

Blue Heron Press Collection: Artists' Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Blue Heron Press is based in Avoca, Nebraska, and over the past several decades they have published a number of exquisite chapbooks and illustrated works. Recently, the University of Nebraska Digital Collections group placed a number of their more recent publications online here. The works include some elaborate pieces that utilize wooden covers with leather spine wraps, and visitors can search the collection for various works. There are a number of "alphabet" themed books that contain colorful images and creative renderings of these 26 letters. Visitors are welcome to view the images in high resolution, and they can also zoom in and out to get a finer appreciation for all of the artistic details.

474

Approaches toward a blue semiconductor laser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Possible approaches for obtaining semiconductor diode laser action in the blue region of the spectrum are surveyed. A discussion of diode lasers is included along with a review of the current status of visible emitters, presently limited to 670 nm. Methods are discussed for shifting laser emission toward shorter wavelengths, including the use of II-IV materials, the increase in the bandgap of III-V materials by addition of nitrogen, and changing the bandstructure from indirect to direct by incorporating interstitial atoms or by constructing superlattices. Non-pn-junction injection methods are surveyed, including avalanche breakdown, Langmuir-Blodgett diodes, heterostructures, carrier accumulation, and Berglund diodes. Prospects of inventing new multinary semiconducting materials are discussed, and a number of novel materials described in the literature are tabulated. New approaches available through the development of quantum wells and superlattices are described, including resonant tunneling and the synthesis of arbitrary bandgap materials through multiple quantum wells.

Ladany, I.

1989-01-01

475

FIrpic: archetypal blue phosphorescent emitter for electroluminescence.  

PubMed

FIrpic is the most investigated bis-cyclometallated iridium complex in particular in the context of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) because of its attractive sky-blue emission, high emission efficiency, and suitable energy levels. In this Perspective we review the synthesis, structural characterisations, and key properties of this emitter. We also survey the theoretical studies and summarise a series of selected monochromatic electroluminescent devices using FIrpic as the emitting dopant. Finally we highlight important shortcomings of FIrpic as an emitter for OLEDs. Despite the large body of work dedicated to this material, it is manifest that the understanding of photophysical and electrochemical processes are only broadly understood mainly because of the different environment in which these properties are measured, i.e., isolated molecules in solvent vs. device. PMID:25388935

Baranoff, Etienne; Curchod, Basile F E

2014-11-12

476

CO 2 entrapment in natural ultramarine blue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultramarine blue pigments (in the form of highly concentrated KBr discs) have been examined by transmission infrared spectroscopy. Evidence of entrapment of carbon dioxide in the natural pigment from Afghanistan was indicated by the absorption band at 2340 cm -1 and a low frequency satellite corresponding to the 13CO 2 isotopologue. The thermal behavior of natural ultramarine, has been studied by FTIR, UV-vis spectroscopy, and XRD, from 300 K to 1120 K. Measurements show that CO 2 and the encapsulated S3- chromophore behave in the same way during the heating experiment, starting to be released only at about 670 K when the apertures of the sodalite ?-cages became larger as an effect of temperature.

Miliani, Costanza; Daveri, Alessia; Brunetti, Brunetto Giovanni; Sgamellotti, Antonio

2008-12-01

477

Blue World Products: Lassoâ?¢ Product Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lasso, a product of Blue World Communications, is a Macintosh-only CGI/WebStar plug-in that enables a FileMaker Pro database to be published on the web using format files. Any HTML editor can be used to create the format files. These HTML documents contain Lasso commands that determine the interaction between FileMaker Pro, the server, and Lasso. FM Link is an included application that allows for easy drag-and-drop of Lasso commands into the format files. Lasso can allow guests to add, delete, update, and search records. It also provides support for relations/portals, conditional replies, repeating fields, remote administration security, forwarding email and much more. Some examples of what can be created online are guest books, discussion forums, and catalogs. A demo version of this commercial product is available, and pricing information is listed at the site.

478

Blue World Email Lists and Archives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Blue World, maker of Lasso (described in the March 14, 1997 Scout Report), is now hosting a variety of email discussion forums, primarily targeted at Web development and publishing applications. Included are forums for Lasso, GoLive (described in the October 23, 1998 Scout Report, Dreamweaver (described in the October 23, 1998 Scout Report), Acrobat (most recently described in the November 22, 1996 Scout Report), PageMill, FileMaker Pro, and FileMaker Home Page (described in the February 2, 1998 Scout Report). Descriptions of how to subscribe, unsubscribe, send messages, and use the Listserver are straight forward and well thought out. The ListSearch archives include searchable postings from these forums as well as from a number of others. Past postings are searchable by subject, message body text, and/or author and can be restricted to specified date ranges.

479

Novel host materials for blue phosphorescent OLEDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present two classes of host materials for blue phosphors. The first are carbazole substituted biphenyls 1-9. In these CBP-type materials the triplets are confined to one half of the molecules by using either twisted biphenyls or by a metalinkage of the carbazoles to the biphenyl. We obtained high triplet energies of 2.95-2.98 eV and high glass transition temperatures in the range of 100-120 °C. OLEDs were fabricated using the host material 6 and the carbene emitter Ir(dbfmi) with pure blue emission at 450 nm. The devices achieved an external quantum efficiency of 8.7% at 100 cd/m2 and 6.1% at 1000 cd/m2. MBPTRZ with an electron transporting biscarbazolyltriazine that is separated from the hole transporting carbazole by a non-conjugated, meta-linked biphenyl unit is an example for a bipolar matrix material. The excellent glass forming properties and the high Tg of 132 °C ensure morphological stability in OLEDs. The meta-linkage and the additional twist at the biphenyl unit, which is achieved by two methyl groups in the 2- and 2'-position of the biphenyl in MBPTRZ leads to a decoupling of the electron accepting and electron donating part and therefore to a high triplet energy of 2.81 eV. DFT calculations show a clear separation of the electron and hole transporting moieties. A phosphorescent OLED with MBPTRZ as host and FIrpic as emitter reached a maximum external quantum efficiency of 7.0%, a current efficiency of 16.3 cd/A and a power efficiency of 6.3 lm/W.

Strohriegl, Peter; Wagner, Daniel; Schrögel, Pamela; Hoffmann, Sebastian T.; Köhler, Anna; Heinemeyer, Ute; Münster, Ingo

2013-09-01

480

Blue Marble: Remote Characterization of Habitable Planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study of the nature and distribution of habitable environments beyond the Solar System is a key area for Astrobiology research. At the present time, our Earth is the only habitable planet that can be characterized in the same way that we might characterize planets beyond the Solar System. Due to limitations in our current and near-future technology, it is likely that extra-solar planets will be observed as single-pixel objects. To understand this data, we must develop skills in analyzing and interpreting the radiation obtained from a single pixel. These skills must include the study of the time variation of the radiation, and the range of its photometric, spectroscopic and polarimetric properties. In addition, to understand whether we are properly analyzing the single pixel data, we need to compare it with a ground truth of modest resolution images in key spectral bands. This paper discusses the concept for a mission called Blue Marble that would obtain data of the Earth using a combination of spectropolarimetry, spectrophotometry, and selected band imaging. To obtain imagery of the proper resolution, it is desirable to place the Blue Marble spacecraft no closer than the outer region of cis-lunar space. This paper explores a conceptual mission design that takes advantage of low-cost launchers, bus designs and mission elements to provide a cost effective observing platform located at one of the stable Earth-moon Lagrangian points (L4, L5). The mission design allows for the development and use of novel technologies, such as a spinning moon sensor for attitude control, and leverages lessons-learned from previous low-cost spacecraft such as Lunar Prospector to yield a low-risk mission concept.

Woolf, Neville; Lewis, Brian; Chartres, James; Genova, Anthony

2009-01-01

481

Evolution of local luminous compact blue galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs) are a type of very blue, very compact star-forming galaxy that was common at z~1 but is rare in the local universe. While it is clear from this discrepancy that LCBGs must be a rapidly-evolving class of galaxy, it is not clear what type(s) of galaxy they become. Fortunately, since they are bright and nearby, the rare examples of z~0 LCBGs are easily studied across a large range of wavelengths. We have conducted a study of z~0 analogs to the z~1 LCBGs to investigate their galaxy-wide internal properties in order to determine what is triggering their current episode of star formation, for how long the star formation can continue, and what the galaxies may become once their star formation rates decrease from current levels. We have taken resolved H I observations of nine LCBGs and unresolved radio continuum observations of 35 LCBGs and combined this data with archival broad-band data to probe their global properties. We conclude that LCBGs are rotationally-supported, star-forming disk galaxies that, while they may be forming small central bulges or bars, are highly unlikely to evolve into dwarf elliptical, dwarf spheroidal, or elliptical galaxies on their own due to their masses and rotation velocities. LCBGs will likely fade to be spiral galaxies with lower surface brightnesses once their current episodes of star formation conclude. In addition, we have modeled the SEDs of the LCBGs in our sample to determine whether LCBGs' star formation is ramping up or winding down, and for how much longer their current active phase of star formation will last. We have begun to put together a picture of the current evolutionary stage of this class of galaxies, and have better constrained their future evolutionary paths.

Rabidoux, Katherine; Pisano, Daniel J.

2015-01-01

482

Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals: a tutorial [Invited  

E-print Network

Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals: a tutorial [Invited] Jin Yan and Shin-Tson Wu, and S. T. Wu, "Polymer-stabilized optically-isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display@mail.ucf.edu Abstract: Blue phase liquid crystals exhibit several attractive features, such as self-assembled three

Wu, Shin-Tson

483

Earth, the blue planet, is shaped and defined by oceanic  

E-print Network

Earth, the blue planet, is shaped and defined by oceanic processes--above and below the water. Oceans cover two- thirds of our planet's surface; Yet much about them remains a mystery. We invite you to meet distin- guished scientists and explorers, and to learn more about our blue planet--in a series

Miami, University of

484

The Generation of Lee Waves by the Blue Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the flow over a low, straight section of the Blue Ridge Mountain in the central Appalachians. Aircraft measurements, laboratory simulation, and mathematical analysis using both the linearized equations and the nonlinear hydrostatic equations, are compared. Aircraft observations of a Blue Ridge lee wave indicate that the linear theory correctly predicts the wavelength but badly under-estimates the

Ronald B. Smith

1976-01-01

485

Synthesis and acid-resistance of Maya blue pigment  

E-print Network

show that Maya blue is an extremely resistant pigment, but it can be destroyed with very intense acid from the Maya area in America. It was widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a wide region Olphen 1966) that Maya Blue consisted of two ingredients: indigo, which was produced in Central America

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

486

Patent Blue: A Novel Vital Dye in Vitreoretinal Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine a novel vital dye (patent blue; Blueron®) for vitreoretinal surgery in a prospective consecutive case series. Methods: Five patients with either idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM; n = 2), proliferative vitreoretinopathy (n = 2), or a macular hole (n = 1) underwent a three-port pars plana vitrectomy. Patent blue assisted staining of the retinal surface followed by a

Stefan Mennel; Carsten H. Meyer; Andreas Tietjen; Eduardo B. Rodrigues; Jörg C. Schmidt

2006-01-01

487

Dynamics of the Root System of Blue Grama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highlight: Field experiments were conducted to determine dynamics of the root system of blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) during the 19 73 growing season at the US\\/IBP Pawnee Site in northern Colorado. Differentiation and growth of blue grama roots were recorded in field conditions by means of windows in excavations. Roots began to grow and differentiate a short time before leaf

JORGE ARES

1976-01-01

488

CodeBlue: Wireless Sensor Networks for Emergency Medical Care  

E-print Network

CodeBlue: Wireless Sensor Networks for Emergency Medical Care David Malan, Thaddeus R.F. Fulford - complete systems in 1 mm3 , MEMS sensors MICA (2002) Speck (2003) CodeBlue for Emergency Medical Triage Moulton, Boston Medical Center Wireless Sensor Networks Family of UC Berkeley "mote" designs WeC (1999

Malan, David J.

489

ELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDIES ON BLUE-GREEN ALGAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several species of blue-green algae were studied in thin sections with the electron microscope. Our electron micrographs confirm the view that the cell of blue-green algae is different and simpler in organization than the typical plant or animal cell. On the other hand, the general pattern of ultrastructure is the same as that found in bacteria and Streptomyces. The cell

HANS RIS; R. N. SINGH

1961-01-01

490

OBSTACLES TO BLUE-COLLAR PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

WITH THE INCREASING LEISURE TIME OF BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS, CONCERN IS GROWING OVER THEIR LOW PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMS. MYTHS ABOUT BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS WHICH STAND IN THEIR WAY INCLUDE--LOWER CLASS APATHY, INCAPABILITY OF SUSTAINED INTELLECTUAL EFFORT, AND LACK OF APPRECIATION OF THE VALUE OF EDUCATION. OBSTACLES INHERING IN SOCIAL…

LONDON, JACK; WENKERT, ROBERT

491

Amphibolite and blueschistgreenschist facies metamorphism, Blue Mountain inlier, eastern Jamaica  

E-print Network

Amphibolite and blueschist­greenschist facies metamorphism, Blue Mountain inlier, eastern Jamaica Cretaceous (possibly older) metamorphic rock occurs mainly in the Blue Mountain inlier in eastern Jamaica. Fault-bounded blocks reveal two styles of metamorphism, Westphalia Schist (upper amphibolite facies

Abbott Jr., Richard N.

492

Using the Blue Gourami in Ethological and Embryological Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists advantages in the use of the blue gourami in laboratory experiments on reproduction and embryogenesis. Materials and procedures for maintaining and spawning blue gouramis are provided. Also includes details on microscopic examination of developing embryos and histological techniques for microscope slide preparation. (CS)

Thompson, Theresa; Pollak, Edward I.

1981-01-01

493