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1

Adsorptive removal of methylene blue by agar: effects of NaCl and ethanol  

PubMed Central

Adsorption of methylene blue (MB) on agar was investigated as a function of temperature (308-328 K), different concentrations of NaCl and HCl and various weight percentages of binary mixtures of ethanol with water. It was observed that the maximum experimental adsorption capacity, qm, exp, in water is up to 50 mg g-1 and decreases with increase in weight percentage of ethanol and NaCl and HCl concentration compared to that of water. Analysis of data using ARIAN model showed that MB adsorbs as monomer and dimer on the surface of agar. Binding constants of MB to agar were calculated using the Temkin isotherm. The process is exothermic in water and other solutions. The mean adsorption energy (E) value indicated binding of MB to agar is chemical adsorption. Kinetics of this interaction obeys from the pseudo-second-order model and diffusion of the MB molecules into the agar is the main rate-controlling step. PMID:22339759

2012-01-01

2

ACINETOBACTER SPP.: DISTINCT MORPHOLOGY ON EOSIN METHYLENE BLUE AGAR AS AN AID TO IDENTIFICATION IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

'Acinetobacter calcoaceticus', frequently found in drinking waters and implicated in nosocomial infections, was presumptively identified by its tiny, blue colonial appearance on Levine eosin methylene blue agar. All of the 33 isolates from drinking water showing this distinctive ...

3

FIRST REPORT ON Cryptococcus neoformans IN PIGEON EXCRETA FROM PUBLIC AND RESIDENTIAL LOCATIONS IN THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF CUIAB?, STATE OF MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Cryptococcosis is a severe systemic mycosis caused by two species of Cryptococcus that affect humans and animals: C. neoformans and C. gattii. Cosmopolitan and emergent, the mycosis results from the interaction between a susceptible host and the environment. The occurrence of C. neoformans was evaluated in 122 samples of dried pigeon excreta collected in 49 locations in the City of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, including public squares (n = 5), churches (n = 4), educational institutions (n = 3), health units (n = 8), open areas covered with asbestos (n = 4), residences (n = 23), factory (n = 1) and a prison (n = 1). Samples collected from July to December of 2010 were seeded on Niger seed agar (NSA). Dark brown colonies were identified by urease test, carbon source assimilation tests and canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium. Polymerase chain reaction primer pairs specific for C. neoformans were also used for identification. Cryptococcus neoformans associated to pigeon excreta was isolated from eight (6.6%) samples corresponding to six (12.2%) locations. Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from urban areas, predominantly in residences, constituting a risk of acquiring the disease by immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. PMID:24213188

Takahara, Doracilde Terumi; Lazera, Marcia dos Santos; Wanke, Bodo; Trilles, Luciana; Dutra, Valeria; de Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus; Nakazato, Luciano; Anzai, Mariana Caselli; Leite, Diniz Pereira; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues; Hahn, Rosane Christine

2013-01-01

4

Cryptococcosis in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) caused by Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii.  

PubMed

We describe the first case of cryptococcosis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii in a male Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). The dolphin showed clinical signs of tachypnea, transient dyspnea, and mild tachycardia and developed multiple hyperechoic nodules, parenchymal consolidation, and thickening of pleura. A diagnosis of bronchopneumonia with pleuritis was made. Itraconazole therapy was implemented for 120 days, and trough levels in serum were within or above the suggested therapeutic range. Titers of cryptococcal antigen in serum increased eightfold during therapy, and the case had a fatal outcome. Necropsy examination findings included enlarged pulmonary lymph nodes and extensive coalescing granulomatous lesions throughout both lungs. Histologic examination revealed numerous, spherical to ellipsoidal, mucicarmine-positive, 3- to 14-microm, encapsulated, budding cells consistent with C. neoformans. Culture of the lung tissue yielded colonies of C. neoformans. The isolate was urease positive and nitrate negative and exhibited phenoloxidase activity. It was positive on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue agar. When tested by the Iatron serodiagnostic reagent kit (Iatron Laboratories, Inc.), it was shown to belong to serotype B. PMID:11826007

Miller, W George; Padhye, Arvind A; van Bonn, William; Jensen, Eric; Brandt, Mary E; Ridgway, Sam H

2002-02-01

5

Cryptococcus spp isolated from dust microhabitat in Brazilian libraries  

PubMed Central

Background The Cryptococcus spp is currently composed of encapsulated yeasts of cosmopolitan distribution, including the etiological agents of cryptococcosis. The fungus are found mainly in substrates of animal and plant origin. Human infection occurs through inhalation of spores present in the environment. Methods Eighty-four swab collections were performed on dust found on books in three libraries in the city of Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The material was seeded in Sabouraud agar and then observed for characteristics compatible with colonies with a creamy to mucous aspect; the material was then isolated in birdseed (Niger) agar and cultivated at a temperature of 37°C for 5 to 7?days. Identification of isolated colonies was performed by microscopic observation in fresh preparations dyed with India ink, additional tests performed on CGB (L-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue), urea broth, and carbohydrate assimilation tests (auxanogram). Results Of the 84 samples collected from book dust, 18 (21.4%) were positive for Cryptococcus spp totalizing 41 UFC’s. The most frequently isolated species was C. gattii 15 (36.6%); followed by C. terreus, 12 (29.3%); C. luteolus 4 (9.8%); C. neoformans, and C. uniguttulatus 3 (7.3%), and C. albidus and C. humiculus with 2 (4.6%) of the isolates. Conclusion The high biodiversity of the yeasts of the Cryptococcus genus, isolated from different environmental sources in urban areas of Brazil suggests the possibility of individuals whose immune systems have been compromised or even healthy individuals coming into sources of fungal propagules on a daily bases throughout their lives. This study demonstrates the acquisition possible of cryptococcosis infection from dust in libraries. PMID:22682392

2012-01-01

6

Human Immunodefeciency Virus Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis at a Tertiary Care Centre: Diagnostic Tools and Antifungal Susceptibility Testing  

PubMed Central

Context: Cryptococcal meningitis has emerged as a leading cause of the infectious morbidity and mortality in HIV sero-reactive subjects and it is the second most common cause of the opportunistic neuroinfections in it. As this is a indistinguishable from other causes of meningitis, its early diagnosis is the key to the therapeutic success. Objectives: This study was undertaken to know the incidence of Cryptococcal meningitis in HIV sero–reactive individuals and to assess the role of the microbiological parameters in its specific diagnosis, with a perspective of evaluating the anti–fungal resistance. Material and Methods: A total of 66 CSF samples from suspected cases of meningoencephalitis were subjected to standard microbiological procedures. The Cryptococcal isolates were identified by microscopy, the cultural characteristics, melanin production on Niger Seed agar, urea hydrolysis, the Nitrate assimilation test and by capsular antigen detection by latex agglutination. The Cryptoccal isolates were further biotyped by using Canavanine–Glycine–Bromothymol blue agar. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of Amphotericin B and Fluconazole for the isolates were detected. Results: The incidence of Cryptococcal meningitis in our study group was 18.2% (12/66). The Cryptococcal antigen was detected in all the 12 cases, whereas microscopy was positive only in 9 cases and Cryptococcus was isolated by culture in 10 cases. All the isolates were sensitive to Amphotericin B and 90% of the isolates were sensitive to Fluconazole. The CD4counts ranged between 22-138 cells /?l. Conclusion: A high incidence of Cryptococcal meningitis in HIV sero-reactive subjects necessitates the importance of a precise and an early microbiological diagnosis for better management of such subjects. Due to the growing concern of emerging drug resistance, the testing for the anti–fungal susceptibility has to be encouraged in all the cases. PMID:24086857

Munivenkataswamy, Rashmi; Gopi, Anjana; Usman, Shaik Mohammed; Jagadeesh

2013-01-01

7

Genotypic diversity of environmental Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from Northern Portugal.  

PubMed

The Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex members are the main agents of systemic cryptococcosis. This disease is believed to be acquired from the environment via fungal cell inhalation. Often, isolates recovered from environmental and clinical sources have proven to be genotypically similar. We assessed the occurrence of C. neoformans and C. gattii in environmental substrates collected in a Portuguese region. Twenty-eight isolates were identified as C. neoformans - five from decaying Eucalyptus leaves and 23 from domestic pigeon droppings. The isolates were genotyped using a URA5-RFLP approach. The C. neoformans VNIV (53.6%, n = 15) and VNI (32.1%, n = 9) genotypes were abundantly present among environmental isolates. The hybrid VNIII (14.3%, n = 4) genotype was underrepresented and the VNII was not found. Cryptococcus gattii was also not found although some isolates yielded a positive canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue test. PMID:23848429

Ferreira, Ana Sofia; Sampaio, Ana; Maduro, Ana Paula; Silva, Inês; Teles, Fernando; Martins, Maria da Luz; Inácio, João

2014-02-01

8

First Identification of Autochthonous Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii Isolated from Goats with Predominantly Severe Pulmonary Disease in Spain  

PubMed Central

Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii is associated with Eucalyptus trees growing in various tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The identification of 13 autochthonous strains of C. neoformans var. gattii in Spain is reported. These strains were isolated from lung (10 samples), liver (1 sample), and brain (2 samples) tissue specimens from six goats suffering from predominantly severe pulmonary disease that were autopsied. The animals were members of five different herds of goats grazing in rural areas of the province of Cáceres (Extremadura, Spain). Between 1990 and 1994, there were five outbreaks, in which between 2.5 and 12% of the goats were affected. Although respiratory symptoms (pneumonia) associated with cachexia were the predominant clinical picture in all outbreaks, brain and liver involvement was also documented in three of the five outbreaks. Biotyping was performed by culturing the isolates on l-canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium and testing them for the assimilation of d-proline and d-tryptophan. Serotyping by agglutination tests confirmed the characterization of all strains as C. neoformans var. gattii serotype B. This is the first confirmation of the presence of this variety in Spain, with a peculiar ability to produce severe pulmonary and systemic disease in normal goats, particularly in the form of outbreaks of pneumonia in association with cachexia. PMID:9466758

Baro, Teresa; Torres-Rodriguez, Josep M.; De Mendoza, Miguel Hermoso; Morera, Yolanda; Alia, Concepcion

1998-01-01

9

Hektoen Enteric Agar Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hektoen enteric agar is a selective and differential media for the recovery of enteric gram-negative rods from mixed microbiota.  The growth of gram-positive organisms and nonpathogenic enteric coliforms is inhibited through the use of bile salts and dyes, allowing intestinal pathogens, such as Salmonella and Shigella, to be more easily recovered.  The media can also differentiate between organisms that produce H2S and those that do not due to the presence of an iron-containing compound.  The use and interpretation of growth on this media is discussed in this protocol.

American Society For Microbiology;

2010-11-11

10

Fastidious anaerobe agar compared with Wilkins-Chalgren agar, brain heart infusion agar, and brucella agar for susceptibility testing of Fusobacterium species.  

PubMed Central

Fastidious anaerobe agar supported the growth of 82 strains of fusobacteria better than brain heart infusion agar, brucella agar, and Wilkins-Chalgren agar. Fastidious anaerobe agar showed less hazing and fewer tailing endpoints with beta-lactam antibiotics. Whole-blood supplementation improved the performance of all media. Wilkins-Chalgren agar without blood failed to support the growth of 17% of the strains. All Fusobacterium ulcerans strains were resistant to clindamycin. PMID:2073122

Brazier, J S; Goldstein, E J; Citron, D M; Ostovari, M I

1990-01-01

11

Fastidious anaerobe agar compared with Wilkins-Chalgren agar, brain heart infusion agar, and brucella agar for susceptibility testing of Fusobacterium species.  

PubMed

Fastidious anaerobe agar supported the growth of 82 strains of fusobacteria better than brain heart infusion agar, brucella agar, and Wilkins-Chalgren agar. Fastidious anaerobe agar showed less hazing and fewer tailing endpoints with beta-lactam antibiotics. Whole-blood supplementation improved the performance of all media. Wilkins-Chalgren agar without blood failed to support the growth of 17% of the strains. All Fusobacterium ulcerans strains were resistant to clindamycin. PMID:2073122

Brazier, J S; Goldstein, E J; Citron, D M; Ostovari, M I

1990-11-01

12

Agar degradation by microorganisms and agar-degrading enzymes.  

PubMed

Agar is a mixture of heterogeneous galactans, mainly composed of 3,6-anhydro-L-galactoses (or L-galactose-6-sulfates) D-galactoses and L-galactoses (routinely in the forms of 3,6-anhydro-L-galactoses or L-galactose-6-sulfates) alternately linked by ?-(1,4) and ?-(1,3) linkages. It is a major component of the cell walls of red algae and has been used in a variety of laboratory and industrial applications, owing to its jellifying properties. Many microorganisms that can hydrolyze and metabolize agar as a carbon and energy source have been identified in seawater and marine sediments. Agarolytic microorganisms commonly produce agarases, which catalyze the hydrolysis of agar. Numerous agarases have been identified in microorganisms of various genera. They are classified according to their cleavage pattern into three types-?-agarase, ?-agarase, and ?-porphyranase. Although, in a broad sense, many other agarases are involved in complete hydrolysis of agar, most of those identified are ?-agarases. In this article we review agarolytic microorganisms and their agar-hydrolyzing systems, covering ?-agarases as well as ?-agarases, ?-neoagarobiose hydrolases, and ?-porphyranases, with emphasis on the recent discoveries. We also present an overview of the biochemical and structural characteristics of the various types of agarases. Further, we summarize and compare the agar-hydrolyzing systems of two specific microorganisms: Gram-negative Saccharophagus degradans 2-40 and Gram-positive Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). We conclude with a brief discussion of the importance of agarases and their possible future application in producing oligosaccharides with various nutraceutical activities and in sustainably generating stock chemicals for biorefinement and bioenergy. PMID:22526785

Chi, Won-Jae; Chang, Yong-Keun; Hong, Soon-Kwang

2012-05-01

13

A novel agar formulation for isolation and direct enumeration of Vibrio vulnificus from oyster tissue.  

PubMed

A new selective and differential medium, Vibrio vulnificus X-Gal (VVX), was developed for direct enumeration of V. vulnificus (Vv) from oyster samples. This agar utilizes cellobiose and lactose as carbon sources, and the antibiotics colistin and polymyxin B as selective agents. Hydrolysis of 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl- beta-d-galactopyranoside (x-gal), used in the agar as a lactose analog, produces an insoluble blue dye that makes lactose positive colonies easily distinguishable from any non-lactose fermenting bacteria. Various bacterial species were spot plated onto thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar (TCBS), and CHROMagar Vibrio, two vibrio-specific selective agars, non-selective agar, and VVX to compare selectivity of VVX to other widely used media. A V. vulnificus pure culture was serially diluted on VVX and non-selective agar to determine the VVX percent recovery. Water and oyster samples were spread plated on VVX agar and allowed to incubate for 16-18 h at 33 °C. Blue and white colonies from VVX agar were picked and screened by end point PCR for the Vv hemolysin vvhA. VVX agar showed a significant improvement over TCBS and CHROMagar at preventing non-target growth. There was an 87.5% recovery compared to non-selective plating and a 98% positivity rate of blue colonies picked from oyster tissue plating. The findings suggest that this new agar is a fast, distinctive, and accurate method for enumeration of V. vulnificus from the environment. PMID:23660708

Griffitt, Kimberly J; Grimes, D Jay

2013-08-01

14

Evaluation of eight agar media for the isolation of shiga toxin-Producing Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The growth characteristics of 96 shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains representing 36 different O-types (including priority O types O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145 and O157) on commercial and in-house agar media were studied. The ability of the strains to grow on agar media with varying selective supplement formulations was evaluated using MacConkey Agar (MAC); Rainbow® Agar O157 (RBA); Rainbow® Agar O157 with manufacturer-recommended selective supplements (RBA-NT); Rainbow® Agar O157 with USDA-recommended selective supplements (RBA-USDA); CHROMagar STEC™ (CH STEC); Tryptone Bile agar containing cefixime and tellurite (TBA-CT); Tryptone Bile agar containing cefixime, tellurite, eosin and methylene blue (TBA-EM); and VTEC agar. All of the strains were able to grow on MAC, RBA and VTEC agar, whereas a number of strains (including some non-O157 priority O types) were unable to grow on the highly selective media CH STEC, RBA-NT, RBA-USDA, TBA-EM and TBA-CT. Only RBA-NT and CH STEC exhibited significant inhibition of background flora from ground beef enrichment. Significant inhibition of background flora from beef trim enrichment was observed with RBA-NT, RBA-USDA, CH STEC, TBA-EM and VTEC agar. With exception of E. coli O157, several different colony morphologies were observed on the differential plating media among strains of the same O type, indicating that this colony morphology is not a reliable means of identifying target STEC. These results suggest that an approach to maximize the recovery of target STEC from beef enrichment cultures is dual plating on lesser (RBA, MAC, VTEC agar) and more highly (RBA-NT, CH STEC) selective agars. PMID:24211606

Gill, Alexander; Huszczynski, George; Gauthier, Martine; Blais, Burton

2014-01-01

15

Primary isolation of Mycobacterium avium complex-serotype 6 on blood agar.  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium complex-serotype 6 was isolated in pure culture on blood agar plates from inocula taken from the heart blood, lungs, liver, kidneys, and spleen of a naturally infected captive female opossum (Didelphis marsupialis virginiana). Repeat cultures from stored tissues and transfer of colonies from original blood agar plates revealed that the mycobacterium grew on tryptose, brilliant green, eosin-methylene blue. Sabouraud glucose, and mycobiotic agar plates and in Fletcher leptospira medium. The cultural, biochemical, and serological characteristics of the test isolate were compared with other mycobacteria. This is the first report to describe the primary isolation of a serotype from the M. avium complex from an animal species on blood agar or in Fletcher broth. In addition, this is the second documented report describing the isolation and identification of a mycobacterial species from the American opossum. PMID:972192

Thigpen, J E; Thierry, V L; Gupta, B N

1976-01-01

16

Agar Disk Diffusion (Bauer-Kirby) Tests with Various Fastidious and Nonfastidious Reference (ATCC) Strains: Comparison of Several Agar Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several agar media (Mueller-Hinton agar, MHA; diagnostic sensitivity test agar, DSTA; Schaedler agar, SchA; Todd-Hewitt agar with added yeast extract, THYA; Wilkins-Chalgren agar, WCA) were compared using the Bauer-Kirby agar disk diffusion test against six nonfastidious quality control strains: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and ATCC 35218, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and Enterococcus faecalis

Walter H. Traub; Birgit Leonhard

1994-01-01

17

Effect of gaseous conditions on isolation and growth of Ureaplasma urealyticum on agar.  

PubMed Central

Five laboratory-adapted strains of Ureaplasma urealyticum showed comparable colony counts when incubated in eight gaseous environments including air, in different concentrations of carbon dioxide, and under anaerobiosis. For primary isolation on genital mycoplasma agar 95% N2-5% CO2 gave 100% correlation with growth in bromothymol blue broth, whereas certain strains failed to grow on agar incubated in air, the TABCO2 system (Lab-Tek Division, Miles Laboratories, Ltd., Rexdale, Canada), 100% CO2, or under anaerobiosis. PMID:7040444

Robertson, J A

1982-01-01

18

Morpho blue Morpho blue  

E-print Network

reproduce nature's highly relective structures3; that is, the wing structure of a Morpho blue butterly of visible-light PCs is to structure materials in all three dimen- sions with spatial period smaller than- tured light is limited only by intrinsic absorption in the underlying material. Sub-100 nm structuring

John, Sajeev

19

Electro-osmosis in gel -Application to Agar-Agar Fabien Cherblanc, Jer^ome Boscus, Jean-Claude Benet  

E-print Network

Electro-osmosis in gel - Application to Agar-Agar Fabien Cherblanc, J´er^ome Boscus, Jean-Claude B-engineering as a reference material, Agar-Agar gel is the focus of an experimental investigation concerning the electro-osmosis from liquid phase transport phenomena that take place in porous media (osmosis, electro-osmosis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

20

Syneresis and delayed detachment in agar plates  

E-print Network

Biogels made of crosslinked polymers such as proteins or polysaccharides behave as porous soft solids and store large amount of solvent. These gels undergo spontaneous aging, called syneresis that consists in the shrinkage of the gel matrix and the progressive expulsion of the solvent, which eventually leads to the gel detachment from its container. Here we report on the syneresis phenomena in agar plates that consist in Petri dishes filled with a gel mainly composed of agar. Direct observations and speckle pattern correlation analyses allow us to rationalize the delayed detachment of the gel from the sidewall of the Petri dish. The detachment time $t^*$ is mainly controlled by the gel minimum thickness $e_{min}$ along the periphery of the plate: $t^*$ increases as a robust function of $e_{min}$ that neither depends on the age of the gel nor on any previous mass loss. Time-resolved correlation spectroscopy reveals that the speckle decorrelation rate increases a few hours before $t^*$ and that the gel detachment can be anticipated. This work provides quantitative observables to predict the shelf life of agar plates and highlights the key role of the competition between the syneresis and the gel adhesion to the wall in the detachment process.

Thibaut Divoux; Bosi Mao; Patrick Snabre

2014-10-30

21

Ultrasonic backscatter coefficients for weakly scattering, agar spheres in agar phantoms  

PubMed Central

Applicability of ultrasound phantoms to biological tissue has been limited because most phantoms have generally used strong scatterers. The objective was to develop very weakly scattering phantoms, whose acoustic scattering properties are likely closer to those of tissues and then compare theoretical simulations and experimental backscatter coefficient (BSC) results. The phantoms consisted of agar spheres of various diameters (nominally between 90 and 212 ?m), containing ultrafiltered milk, suspended in an agar background. BSC estimates were performed at two institutions over the frequency range 1–13 MHz, and compared to three models. Excellent agreement was shown between the two laboratory results as well as with the three models. PMID:20707460

King, Michael R.; Anderson, Janelle J.; Herd, Maria-Teresa; Ma, Darryl; Haak, Alexander; Wirtzfeld, Lauren A.; Madsen, Ernest L.; Zagzebski, James A.; Oelze, Michael L.; Hall, Timothy J.; O’Brien, William D.

2010-01-01

22

Blue Note  

SciTech Connect

Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

Murray Gibson

2007-04-27

23

Agar medium for gas-liquid chromatography of anaerobes.  

PubMed

This study evaluates a method of performing gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) by direct extraction of fatty acids from agar for identification of clinically significant anaerobic bacteria. The potential use of agar cultures for GLC was studied by comparing chromatograms of 117 clinically isolated anaerobes grown in peptone yeast glucose broth and chopped meat carbohydrate broth, and on enriched brucella blood agar. For 98 of 117 anaerobes, fatty acid patterns from agar cultures were similar to those in broth. Significant differences were only found with Streptococcus intermedius, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium tertium, and Actinomyces species, which produced less of certain fatty acids on agar than in broth. Results of this study indicate that GLC of short chain fatty acids produced on agar medium by anaerobes, combined with simple tests such as Gram's stain and colonial morphology, may allow fir direct presumptive genus identification from an initial pure agar culture. PMID:3940426

Pankuch, G A; Appelbaum, P C

1986-01-01

24

Recovery of spores of Clostridium botulinum in yeast extract agar and pork infusion agar after heat treatment.  

PubMed Central

Yeast extract agar, pork infusion agar, and modifications of these media were used to recover heated Clostridium botulinum spores. The D- and z-values were determined. Two type A strains and one type B strain of C. botulinum were studied. In all cases the D-values were largest when the spores were recovered in yeast extract agar, compared to the D-values for spores recovered in pork infusion agar. The z-values for strains 62A and A16037 were largest when the spores were recovered in pork infusion agar. The addition of sodium bicarbonate and sodium thioglycolate to pork infusion agar resulted in D-values for C. botulinum 62A spores similar to those for the same spores recovered in yeast extract agar. The results suggest that sodium bicarbonate and sodium thioglycolate should be added to recovery media for heated C. botulinum spores to obtain maximum plate counts. PMID:335970

Odlaug, T E; Pflug, I J

1977-01-01

25

Acanthocibium solanderi--see Wahoo Agar, Juan J.--see Tonioli and Agar  

E-print Network

--see Whale, Bryde's Balaenoptera novaeangliae--see Whale, blue Balaenoptera physalus--see Whale, fin:67, 108 Baker, C. Scott--see Clapham et al. Balaenoptera borealis--see Whale, sei Balaenoptera edeni--see Callio- nymidae Callionymus variegatus--see Callionymidae Caranx crysos--see Runner, blue Caranx hippos

26

Chicago blues  

Microsoft Academic Search

I was at STOC this year. At least part of the time. Chicago is a remarkable city, especially so when the Blues Festival is underway. What a contrast! The Chicago Hilton on South Michigan Avenue was the venue of STOC; Grant Park across from the hotel on the shores of Lake Michigan was the site of the Blues Festival---a seething

Rocky Ross

2004-01-01

27

Chocolate agar, a differential medium for gram-positive cocci.  

PubMed Central

Reactions incurred on chocolate agar by gram-positive cocci were correlated with species identity. Darkening and clearing of the medium was usually associated with the species Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus simulans, and Streptococcus faecalis. Yellowing of chocolate agar was associated with alpha-hemolytic species of Streptococcus. The study demonstrated that reactions occurring on chocolate agar are useful in identifying gram-positive cocci. PMID:6490866

Gunn, B A

1984-01-01

28

Blue Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity provides instructions for using a flashlight and aquarium (or other container of water) to explain why the sky is blue and sunsets are red. When the white light from the sun shines through the earth's atmosphere, it collides with gas molecules with the blue light scattering more than the other colors, leaving a dominant yellow-orange hue to the transmitted light. The scattered light makes the sky blue; the transmitted light makes the sunset reddish orange. The section entitled What's Going On? explains this phenomena.

2010-01-01

29

Sol state formation and melting of agar gels rheological study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of temperature and molecular weight, on the conformational properties of agar aqueous solutions is reported. Equations of the viscosity agar solutions for different concentrations, and molecular weight, are given. The thermoreversible sol gel transition in agar gel is studied by small deformation oscillatory measurements of storage G? and loss modulus G?. The gelation and melting temperatures are given for different concentrations and molecular weights. Gelation enthalpies are calculated by the Ferry-Eldrige model, effect of nature and molecular weight of agar are discussed.

Lahrech, Kh.; Safouane, A.; Peyrellasse, J.

2005-12-01

30

21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4600 Ouchterlony agar plate. (a)...

2010-04-01

31

21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4600 Ouchterlony agar plate. (a)...

2013-04-01

32

The Blues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Noted bluesman Willie Dixon once said, "The blues are the roots; everything else is the fruits". Wise words indeed, and the quote informs the spirit of Martin Scorsese's PBS documentary series "The Blues". This interactive website provides users with some great material about this seven part series, which features segments by Clint Eastwood, Wim Wenders, and of course, Mr. Scorsese. On the site, visitors can watch previews of each segment and learn more about the artists profiled in each one. In "The Songs & the Artists" area, visitors can read musician biographies and even check out the accompanying radio series which was released in conjunction with the documentary. Those who like to travel should click on the "Blues Road Trip" area. Here they will have the opportunity to take a musical journey from the Deep South to Memphis, St. Louis, and Chicago via song, photographs, and maps. The site is rounded out by the "Blues Classroom" area, which is designed for educators. Interested parties can view lesson plans, look over a blues glossary, and read several background essays.

33

Suspended Blue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Driving in the deep plains, surrounded by a boundless plane of land and a sky that demands awe, I am aware of a profound feeling of endlessness. At the transitional moments between day and night, when the sky is filled with such a deep, bright blue that all of the air appears saturated with it, and the uninterrupted horizon turns

Rose Heydt

2012-01-01

34

Blue Pork  

E-print Network

. The blue glow was an uncommon byproduct of bacterial contamination. Although the health department said the pork was safe to eat after cooking, no one wanted to try. Can you blame them? While westerners will gladly eat Day-Glo orange sweet-and-sour pork...

Hacker, Randi; Boyd, David

2011-05-29

35

Comparison of Supplemented Brucella Agar and Modified Clostridium difficile Agar for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Clostridium difficile  

PubMed Central

Background Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of Clostridium difficile is increasingly important because of the rise in resistant strains. The standard medium for the AST of C. difficile is supplemented Brucella agar (sBA), but we found that the growth of C. difficile on sBA was not optimal. Because active growth is critical for reliable AST, we developed a new, modified C. difficile (mCD) agar. C. difficile grew better on mCD agar than on sBA. Methods C. difficile isolates were collected from patients with healthcare-associated diarrhea. sBA medium was prepared according to the CLSI guidelines. Homemade mCD agar containing taurocholate, L-cysteine hydrochloride, and 7% horse blood was used. For 171 C. difficile isolates, we compared the agar dilution AST results from mCD agar with those from sBA. Results No significant differences were observed in the 50% minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC50) and 90% minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC90) of clindamycin (CLI), metronidazole (MTZ), moxifloxacin (MXF), piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ), and rifaximin (RIX), but the values for vancomycin (VAN) were two-fold higher on mCD agar than on sBA. The MICs of CLI, MXF, and RIX were in 100% agreement within two-fold dilutions, but for MTZ, VAN, and PTZ, 13.7%, 0.6%, and 3.1% of the isolates, respectively, were outside the acceptable range. Conclusions The MIC ranges, MIC50 and MIC90, were acceptable when AST was performed on mCD agar. Thus, mCD agar could be used as a substitute medium for the AST of C. difficile. PMID:25368819

Kim, Gye Hyeong; Kim, Jieun; Pai, Hyunjoo

2014-01-01

36

Characterization of the proteolytic activity of starter cultures of Penicillium roqueforti for production of blue veined cheeses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty strains of Penicillium roqueforti used for the production of blue cheeses were examined for proteolytic activity by agar diffusion on casein agar, by the azocasein test and by capillary zone electrophoresis (CE). Distinct differences were seen between the strains by all three methods applied and the 30 strains could be subdivided in three groups being significantly different in their

Mette Dines Larsen; Kristian Rotvig Kristiansen; Tine Kronborg Hansen

1998-01-01

37

Thermal characterization of magnetically aligned carbonyl iron/agar composites.  

PubMed

Composites of magnetic particles into polymeric matrices have received increasing research interest due to their capacity to respond to external magnetic or electromagnetic fields. In this study, agar from Gelidium robustum has been chosen as natural biocompatible polymer to build the matrix of the magnetic carbonyl iron particles (CIP) for their uses in biomedical fields. Heat transfer behavior of the CIP-agar composites containing different concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% w/w) of magnetically aligned and non-aligned CIP in the agar matrix was studied using photothermal radiometry (PTR) in the back-propagation emission configuration. The morphology of the CIP-agar composites with aligned and non-aligned CIP under magnetic field was also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results revealed a dominant effect of CIP concentration over the alignment patterns induced by the magnetic field, which agrees with the behavior of the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity. Agar served as a perfect matrix to be used with CIP, and CIP-agar composites magnetically aligned at 20% CIP concentration can be considered as promising 'smart' material for hyperthermia treatments in the biomedical field. PMID:24274482

Diaz-Bleis, D; Vales-Pinzón, C; Freile-Pelegrín, Y; Alvarado-Gil, J J

2014-01-01

38

Diffusion of sucrose and dextran through agar gel membranes.  

PubMed

Mass transfer limitations severely impede the performance of bioreactions involving large molecules by gel-entrapped microorganisms. This paper describes a quantitative investigation of such diffusional limitations in agar gel membranes. Sucrose and commercial dextran fractions with (weight-average) molecular weights ranging from 10,000 to 2,000,000 Da were used as standard diffusants. For all tested solutes but sucrose, the values of the agar/water partition coefficients highlighted steric hindrance at the entrance of the membrane pores. The effective diffusivity of sucrose in agar was similar to that in water. All dextran fractions, however, displayed restricted diffusion in the agar membranes. Their effective diffusivities were a decreasing function of the agar content of the gel membrane (0.5, 1.0, or 1.5% w/v). The effective diffusivity in a given membrane decreased as the molecular weight of the diffusing molecule increased. T500 (Mw = 470,000 Da) and T2000 (Mw = 1,950,000 Da) fractions were unable to diffuse through 1.0 or 1.5% agar membranes. The diffusion data did not agree with the classical (Renkin) model for a hard sphere diffusing through a cylindrical pore. These results are discussed in terms of gel and diffusant characteristics. PMID:7505595

Lebrun, L; Junter, G A

1993-12-01

39

Development of an eco-friendly agar extraction technique from the red seaweed Gracilaria lemaneiformis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The red seaweed, Gracilaria lemaneiformis growing as an aquaculture bioremediator along the coasts of Liaodong Peninsula, China, was investigated for the agar production. An eco-friendly method called agar photobleaching extraction process was developed for the benefit of workers’ health and safety of the environment. The native agar (NA), alkali-modified agar (AA), chemical-bleached agar (CA) and photobleached agar (PA), which were

Haiyan Li; Xingju Yu; Yan Jin; Wei Zhang; Yuanling Liu

2008-01-01

40

Blue Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this optics activity, learners explore why the sky is blue and the sunset is red, using a simple setup comprising a transparent plastic box, water, and powdered milk. Learners use a flashlight to shine a beam of light through the container. Learners look at the beam from the side of the container and then from the end of the tank, and compare the colors that they see. Learners also examine a narrower beam of light. Use this activity to introduce learners to the light spectrum, wavelengths, frequency, scattering, and how all this effects what we see in the sky at different times of the day.

Exploratorium, The

2011-12-07

41

Hyperspectral imaging for detecting pathogens grown on agar plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with the development of a hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting and identifying one of the most common foodborne pathogens, Campylobacter. Direct plating using agars is an effective tool for laboratory tests and analyses of microorganisms. The morphology (size, growth pattern, color, etc.) of colonies grown on agar plates has been widely used to tentatively differentiate organisms. However, it is sometimes difficult to differentiate target organisms like Campylobacters from other contaminants grown together on the same agar plates. A hyperspectral imaging system operating at the visible and near infrared (VNIR) spectral region from 400 nm to 900 nm was set up to measure spectral signatures of 17 different Campylobacter and non-Campylobacter subspecies. Protocols for culturing, imaging samples and for calibrating measured data were developed. The VNIR spectral library of all 17 organisms commonly encountered in poultry was established from calibrated hyperspectral images. A classification algorithm was developed to locate and identify Campylobacters, non-Campylobacter contaminants, and background agars with 99.29% accuracy. This research has a potential to be expanded to detect other pathogens grown on agar media.

Yoon, Seung Chul; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Siragusa, Gregory R.; Line, John E.; Park, Bosoon; Windham, William R.

2007-09-01

42

Blue light (470 nm) effectively inhibits bacterial and fungal growth.  

PubMed

Blue light (470 nm) LED antimicrobial properties were studied alone against bacteria and with or without the food grade photosensitizer, erythrosine (ERY) against filamentous fungi. Leuconostoc mesenteroides (LM), Bacillus atrophaeus (BA) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) aliquots were exposed on nutrient agar plates to Array 1 (AR1, 0·2 mW cm(-2) ) or Array 2 (AR2, 80 mW cm(-2) ), which emitted impure or pure blue light (0-300 J cm(-2) ), respectively. Inoculated control (room light only) plates were incubated (48 h) and colonies enumerated. The antifungal properties of blue light combined with ERY (11·4 and 22·8 ?mol l(-1) ) on Penicillium digitatum (PD) and Fusarium graminearum (FG) conidia were determined. Conidial controls consisted of: no light, room light-treated conidia and ERY plus room light. Light-treated (ERY + blue light) conidial samples were exposed only to AR2 (0-100 J cm(-2) ), aliquots spread on potato dextrose agar plates, incubated (48 h, 30°C) and colonies counted. Blue light alone significantly reduced bacterial and FG viability. Combined with ERY, it significantly reduced PD viability. Blue light is lethal to bacteria and filamentous fungi although effectiveness is dependent on light purity, energy levels and microbial genus. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Light from two arrays of different blue LEDs significantly reduced bacterial (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Bacillus atrophaeus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) viabilities. Significant in vitro viability loss was observed for the filamentous fungi, Penicillium digitatum and Fusarium graminearum when exposed to pure blue light only plus a photosensitizer. F.graminearum viability was significantly reduced by blue light alone. Results suggest that (i) the amount of significant loss in bacterial viability observed for blue light that is pure or with traces of other wavelengths is genus dependent and (ii) depending on fungal genera, pure blue light is fungicidal with or without a photosensitizer. PMID:23009190

De Lucca, A J; Carter-Wientjes, C; Williams, K A; Bhatnagar, D

2012-09-25

43

Photothermal characterization of the gelation process in Gelidium robustum Agar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agar is a hydrophilic colloid formed by polysaccharides, whose ability to form reversible gels simply by cooling hot aqueous solutions is the most important property and can be regarded as the prototype and model for all gelling systems. In this paper the evolution of the gelation process of agar obtained from algae of the species Gelidium robustum, using the photopyroelectric technique is reported. It is shown that thermal effusivity increase when the agar is cooled, reaching a maximum value around 37°C. The increase in thermal effusivity can be related to the increasing of the bondings in the gel as temperature decreases, reaching the maximum at the gelation point. The decrease of the thermal effusivity at lower temperature could be due to the syneresis process involving a gradual release of water after gelation.

Freile-Pelegrín, Y.; Bante, J.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Yánez-Limón, J. M.

2005-06-01

44

Charcoal-Yeast Extract Agar: Primary Isolation Mediumfor Legionella pneumophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal-yeast extract agar isa new bacteriological mediumthatsupports excellent growth oftheLegionella pneumophila. Itresults frommodifications madeinan existing L.pneumophila medium,F-Gagar.Yeastextract, instead of an acidhydrolysate ofcasein, servesastheprotein source.Beefextractives and starch are notadded. Activated charcoal (Norit A or Norit SG)isincluded at 0.20%(wt\\/vol). Comparison ofcharcoal-yeast extract andF-Gagars showedthat a greater numberofcolony-forming units ofL.pneumophila was recovered from astandardized tissue inoculum on charcoal-yeast extract agar(4.35 x 106colony- forning

JAMES C. FEELEY; ROBERT J. GIBSON; GEORGE W. GORMAN; NANCY C. LANGFORD; J. KAMILE RASHEED; DON C. MACKEL; WILLIAM B. BAINE

1979-01-01

45

Stability of Antibiotics and Chemotherapeutics in Agar Plates  

PubMed Central

The stability of chemotherapeutic agents incorporated into agar plates was studied by comparison of minimum inhibitory concentrations on fresh and stored plates and by direct bioassay of the chemotherapeutic agar plates. Plates were stored in sealed bags at 4 C. No loss of bioactivity was demonstrated after 30 days of storage in plates containing methicillin, erythromycin, cephalothin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, streptomycin, polymyxin B, or nalidixic acid. Penicillin G, ampicillin, and nitrofurantoin showed statistically significant losses of activity after 4 weeks. None of the chemotherapeutics tested showed significant loss in activity after 1 week. PMID:5485725

Ryan, Kenneth J.; Needham, Gerald M.; Dunsmoor, Carol L.; Sherris, John C.

1970-01-01

46

Preparation of Agar-Agar from the Red Seaweed Pterocladia capillacea off the Coast of Alexandria, Egypt  

PubMed Central

The effect of different treatments on the quality of agar produced from Pterocladia has been studied, and the conditions for the production of material of good quality have been standardized. In the modified process, sun-bleached seaweed was washed well in water, soaked for 24 h, and then ground to a pulp and rinsed again in water. The pulp was then extracted with water (weed-to-water ratio, 1:30) under pressure for 2 h after adjusting the pH to 6 by the addition of acetic acid. The agar gel, after freeze thawing, was bleached with NaClO before drying in a current of hot air. Pretreatment of the seaweed with alkali at 80°C for 2 h prior to extraction was found to improve the quality of agar to a very great extent. PMID:16345175

Rao, A. V.; Bekheet, Inaam A.

1976-01-01

47

Blue nightshade poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Blue nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This is for information only and ... The poison is found in the blue nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) plant, especially in the fruit and leaves.

48

Mongolian blue spots  

MedlinePLUS

Mongolian spots are flat, blue, or blue-gray skin markings near the buttocks that appear at birth or shortly thereafter. ... Mongolian blue spots are common among persons who are of Asian, East Indian, and African descent.

49

The Blue Bottle Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a modification of the classic Blue Bottle demonstration that involves the alkaline glucose reduction of methylene blue. Uses other indicators in the classic Blue Bottle to produce a rainbow of colors. (JRH)

Vandaveer, Walter R., IV; Mosher, Mel

1997-01-01

50

Maintenance of leptospira species in leptospira vanaporn wuthiekanun agar.  

PubMed

The maintenance of Leptospira species in liquid or semisolid medium is time-consuming and at risk of contamination due to the needs of routine subculture and dark field microscopy. Using Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) agar, we maintained 100 pathogenic Leptospira isolates for 12 months without the need for subculture and confirmed the viability of all isolates by the naked eye. PMID:25253789

Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Langla, Sayan; Oyuchua, Malinee; Day, Nicholas P J; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

2014-12-01

51

[Poisoning with deadly agaric (Amanita virosa). Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment].  

PubMed

Amatoxin poisonings are uncommon in Norway. We describe a case where a young couple was poisoned after accidental ingestion of Amanita virosa (deadly agaric). After hospital treatment they recovered without serious damage to the liver. We briefly review the biological actions of amatoxins, discuss the symptoms and signs of amatoxin poisoning in detail, and outline current recommendations on therapy. PMID:2363148

Madsen, S; Jenssen, K M

1990-05-30

52

Usefulness of Candida ID2 agar for the presumptive identification of Candida dubliniensis.  

PubMed

CHROMagar Candida and Candida ID2 are widely used for the isolation and presumptive identification of Candida spp. based on the color of the colonies on these two media. We have studied the usefulness of these chromogenic media for differentiating Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans isolates. One hundred isolates of C. dubliniensis and 100 C. albicans isolates were tested on Candida ID2, CHROMagar Candida (CHROMagar), and CHROMagar Candida reformulated by BBL. CHROMagar Candida and CHROMagar Candida BBL did not allow a clear differentiation of the two species based upon the shade of the green color of C. dubliniensis colonies. However, on Candida ID2, all C. dubliniensis isolates produced turquoise blue colonies whereas 91% of C. albicans colonies were cobalt blue. The sensitivity and the specificity for differentiating between C. dubliniensis fromC. albicans on Candida ID2 were 100% and 91%, respectively; whereas on CHROMagar Candida these values were 63% and 89% and on CHROMagar Candida BBL they were 18% and 98%. Candida ID2 agar provides a simple and accurate laboratory approach for the identification and differentiation of C. dubliniensis on the basis of the colony color. PMID:17071554

Eraso, Elena; Sahand, Ismail H; Villar-Vidal, María; Marcos, Cristina; Dolores Moragues, María; Madariaga, Lucila; Pontón, José; Quindós, Guillermo

2006-11-01

53

The soft agar clonogenicity and characterization of cells obtained from human solid tumors by mechanical and enzymatic means.  

PubMed

A two-step procedure for releasing cells from solid tumors has been applied to specimens of human melanoma, sarcoma, lung, colon, and breast carcinoma. The first population released mechanically has been compared with the population subsequently released enzymatically in tests of dye exclusion, ribonucleoside triphosphate pool sizes, intactness of DNA, and clonogenicity in soft agar. While greater numbers of dye-excluding cells are released in the enzymatic step, and these cells have higher ribonucleoside triphosphate pools and more intact DNA, both populations contain clonogenic cells in approximately equal numbers. Several semisolid media were employed in tests of clonogenicity, and all methods employing an agar underlayer appeared satisfactory and approximately equivalent in cloning efficiency. The methyl cellulose upper layer system facilitated implanting of pooled colonies into nude mice, which resulted in growth in the nude host and marked increase in cloning efficiency when the cells were replanted into soft agar-methyl cellulose plates. A comparison of four different areas of individual tumor specimens was made with cells released enzymatically and measuring cell yield, dye exclusion, ATP pool size, and uptake and metabolism of 5-fluoropyrimidines. Only relatively small variations were seen from one area to the next, with trypan blue exclusion exhibiting the least variation, and metabolism of fluorinated pyrimidines showing the most. PMID:7032739

Slocum, H K; Pavelic, Z P; Kanter, P M; Nowak, N J; Rustum, Y M

1981-01-01

54

Development of a selective agar plate for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to develop a selective medium for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. Campylobacter spp. (n=4), non-Campylobacter (showing positive results on Campylobacter selective agar) strains (n=49) isolated from fresh produce, indicator bacteria (n=13), and spoilage bacteria isolated from fresh produce (n=15) were plated on four Campylobacter selective media. Bolton agar and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) exhibited higher sensitivity for Campylobacter spp. than did Preston agar and Hunt agar, although certain non-Campylobacter strains isolated from fresh produce by using a selective agar isolation method, were still able to grow on Bolton agar and mCCDA. To inhibit the growth of non-Campylobacter strains, Bolton agar and mCCDA were supplemented with 5 antibiotics (rifampicin, polymyxin B, sodium metabisulfite, sodium pyruvate, ferrous sulfate) and the growth of Campylobacter spp. (n=7) and non-Campylobacter strains (n=44) was evaluated. Although Bolton agar supplemented with rifampicin (BR agar) exhibited a higher selectivity for Campylobacter spp. than did mCCDA supplemented with antibiotics, certain non-Campylobacter strains were still able to grow on BR agar (18.8%). When BR agar with various concentrations of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were tested with Campylobacter spp. (n=8) and non-Campylobacter (n=7), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was inhibitory against 3 of 7 non-Campylobacter strains. Finally, we validated the use of BR agar containing 50mg/L sulfamethoxazole (BRS agar) or 0.5mg/L ciprofloxacin (BRCS agar) and other selective agars for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and fresh produce. All chicken samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. when tested on mCCDA, BR agar, and BRS agar. In fresh produce samples, BRS agar exhibited the highest selectivity for Campylobacter spp., demonstrating its suitability for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. PMID:25126968

Yoo, Jin-Hee; Choi, Na-Young; Bae, Young-Min; Lee, Jung-Su; Lee, Sun-Young

2014-10-17

55

Water vapor adsorption isotherms of agar-based nanocomposite films.  

PubMed

Adsorption isotherms of agar and agar/clay nanocomposite films prepared with different types of nanoclays, that is, a natural montmorillonite (Cloisite Na(+) ) and 2 organically modified montmorillonites (Cloisite 30B and Cloisite 20A), were determined at 3 different temperatures (10, 25, and 40 °C). The water vapor adsorption behavior of the nanocomposite films was found to be greatly influenced with the type of clay. The Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) isotherm model parameters were estimated by using both polynomial regression and nonlinear regression methods and it was found that the GAB model fitted adequately for describing experimental adsorption isotherm data for the film samples. The monolayer moisture content (m(o) ) of the film samples was also greatly affected by the type of nanoclay used, that is, m(o) of nanocomposite films was significantly lower than that of the neat agar film. Nanocomposite films prepared with hydrophobic nanoclays (Cloisite 30B and Cloisite 20A) exhibited lower m(o) values than those prepared with hydrophilic nanoclay (Cloisite Na(+) ). PMID:22417601

Rhim, Jong-Whan

2011-10-01

56

Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (Agar Disk Diffusion and Agar Dilution) of Clinical Isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium: Comparison of Mueller-Hinton, Iso-Sensitest, and Wilkins-Chalgren Agar Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-two isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and 56 isolates of Enterococcus faecium, including 8 vancomycin-resistant strains, were examined for comparative susceptibility to 27 antimicrobial drugs with the agar dilution method, employing Mueller-Hinton (MHA), Iso-Sensitest (ISTA), and Wilkins-Chalgren (WCA) agar. The Bauer-Kirby agar disk diffusion method was used to comparatively test 24 of the agents in parallel. The enterococci yielded better growth

Walter H. Traub; Udo Geipel; Birgit Leonhard

1998-01-01

57

THE DIFFERENTIATION OF PATHOGENIC AND NON PATHOGENIC STAPHYLOCOCCI BY ESTIMATION OF THE REDUCTION OF AMIDO-BLUE-BLACK AND METHYLENE BLUE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The m ethylene blue reduction of pathogenic and nonpathogenic staphylococci was t ested in t he culture m edium, r ecom- mended by the IAMS Subcommittee for Staph- ylococci and Micrococci, for differentiating staphylococci a nd micrococci; the medium was used without the addition of agar or sugar. C o a g ula s e-p o s it i ve

K. Dirr

1967-01-01

58

Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Alabama  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Alabama BlueCross and BlueShield Medical Information Server, located and developed by the University of Alabama at Birmingham Department of Computer and Information Sciences, through a grant from Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Alabama for the express purpose of providing Internet access to medical information for all physicians and other health care providers in the state of Alabama. It provides links to a broad range of medical information resources located throughout the Internet. Menus provide information on diseases and disorders, patient care and medical practice, medical specialties, journals and newsletters, health care reform, and other medical information.

1997-01-01

59

Fabrication of agar-gel microelectrodes and their application in the study of ion transfer across the agar–water ? 1,2-dichloroethane interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a simple procedure to make agar-gel microelectrodes by filling micropipettes. These microelectrodes were used to study K+ transfer across the agar–water?1,2-dichloroethane interface facilitated by dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6), and the transfer of tetraethylammonium (TEA+). The results observed were similar to those obtained at micro-liquid?liquid interfaces. The effect of various amounts of agar in the aqueous phase was

Yuehong Tong; Peng Sun; Zhiquan Zhang; Yuanhua Shao

2001-01-01

60

Which is Better for Disc Diffusion Assays of Essential Oils—IsoSensitest or Nutrient Agar?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disc diffusion assay is often used for screening of essential oils for antimicrobial activity. In this paper we describe an investigation into whether differences exist in the zone of inhibition obtained with two agar types; IsoSensitest and nutrient agar. Standard disc diffusion assay was performed using both agar types using three essential oils against two bacteria and one yeast.

Therese Moon; Heather Ma Cavanagh; Jenny M. Wilkinson

2006-01-01

61

Author's personal copy Agar chemical hydrogel electrode binder for fuel-electrolyte-fed  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Agar chemical hydrogel electrode binder for fuel-electrolyte-fed fuel cells­acid direct ethanol fuel cell Agar chemical hydrogel Electrode binder a b s t r a c t This work reports on the synthesis and application of a novel, cost-effective and environmentally friendly agar chemical hydrogel

Zhao, Tianshou

62

Agar Underlay Method for Recovery of Sublethally Heat-Injured Bacteria  

PubMed Central

A method of recovering sublethally heat-injured bacteria was developed. The procedure (termed the agar underlay method) uses a nonselective agar underlaid with a selective medium. In a two-chambered petri dish, the Lutri plate (LP), a nonselective agar is inoculated with a population of sublethally heat-injured bacteria. After a 2-h repair incubation period, selective agar is added to the bottom chamber of the LP and incubated. By diffusing through the nonselective top agar, selective agents from the underlay medium impart selectivity to the system. By the agar underlay method, recovery rates of the heat-injured food-borne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium were not different (P > 0.05) from recovery rates determined with nonselective media. Sublethally heat-injured cells (60°C for 1.5 min in buffer or 80°C for 30 s on meat surfaces) grew and produced a typical colony morphology and color reaction when the agar underlay procedure was used with the appropriate respective selective agars. Unlike agar overlay methods for injury repair, the agar underlay procedure allows the typical selective-medium colony morphology to develop and allows colonies to be more easily picked for further characterization. Higher recovery rates of heat-injured fecal enterococci from bovine fecal samples and total coliforms from animal waste lagoons were obtained by the agar underlay method with selective agars than by direct plating on the respective selective media. PMID:10583985

Kang, D. H.; Siragusa, G. R.

1999-01-01

63

Agar Medium for Differential Enumeration of Lactic Streptococci1  

PubMed Central

An agar medium containing arginine and calcium citrate as specific substrates, diffusible (K2HPO4) and undiffusible (CaCO3) buffer systems, and bromocresol purple as the pH indicator was developed to differentiate among lactic streptococci in pure and mixed cultures. Milk was added as the sole source of carbohydrate (lactose) and to provide growth-stimulating factors. Production of acid from lactose caused developing bacterial colonies to seem yellow. Subsequent arginine utilization by Streptococcus lactis and S. diacetilactis liberated ammonia, resulting in a localized pH shift back toward neutrality and a return of the original purple indicator hue. The effects of production of acid from lactose and ammonia were fixed around individual colonies by the buffering capacity of CaCO3. After 36 hr at 32 C in a candle oats jar, colonies of S. cremoris were yellow, whereas colonies of S. lactis and S. diacetilactis were white. S. diacetilactis, on further incubation, utilized suspended calcium citrate, and, after 6 days, the citrate-degrading colonies exhibited clear zoning against a turbid background, making them easily distinguishable from the colonies of the other two species. The medium proved suitable for quantitative differential enumeration when compared with another widely used general agar medium for lactic streptococci. Images PMID:16349952

Reddy, M. S.; Vedamuthu, E. R.; Washam, C. J.; Reinbold, G. W.

1972-01-01

64

Gellan gum as a substitute for agar in leptospiral media.  

PubMed Central

An albumin polysorbate semisolid medium (Ellinghausen McCullough Johnson Harris medium) gelled with gellan gum (Gelrite; Kelco Div., Merck & Co., Inc.) compared favorably with conventional agar media for the cultivation of both pathogenic and saprophytic leptospires. The gellan gum medium supported the growth of all 18 leptospiral strains studied which included an array of serovars with various fastidious growth characteristics. Gellan gum medium was also used advantageously as a long-term maintenance medium; 9- to 12-month-old cultures still contained viable organisms. The colonial growth in gellan gum plating medium of six representative strains was consistent with previously described colonial growth on agar plating media. In addition, gellan gum medium appeared to be an excellent medium for the recovery of leptospires from the blood, liver, and kidneys of hamsters experimentally infected with a virulent Leptospira interrogans serovar bataviae strain. As few as 1 to 10 organisms in the infective tissue could be recovered in semisolid Ellinghausen McCullough Johnson Harris-gellan gum medium. The antigenicity did not appear to be affected by growth in gellan gum medium. The hamster-virulent strain of L. interrogans serovar bataviae isolated from a moribund hamster maintained its virulence after 10 sequential passages in gellan gum medium. Gellan gum medium can be a valuable adjunct to currently used cultural procedures. Images PMID:3754265

Rule, P L; Alexander, A D

1986-01-01

65

Enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria in water for dialysis: Comparison of the efficiency of reasoner'2 agar and plate count agar.  

PubMed

Due to the fact the incubation conditions may influence the microbiological evaluation of water for dialysis, the objective of the present study was the comparison of the efficiency of R2A and PCA media in the enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria in 193 samples of water collected in dialysis clinics from 12 cities in São Paulo, between October and December 2007. Results showed counts significantly greater in R2A, suggesting that enumeration should be carried out in R2A, suggesting that enumeration should be carried out in R2A agar associated with longer incubation times, because of the greater sensitivity. PMID:24031456

Bugno, Adriana; Almodóvar, Adriana Aparecida Buzzo; Pereira, Tatiana Caldas

2010-01-01

66

Remazol Brilliant Blue R decolourisation by the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus and its oxidative enzymatic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decolourisation of the recalcitrant dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) by the fungus basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus was investigated. P. ostreatus is able to decolourise RBBR on agar plate. When grow in liquid media supplemented with veratryl alcohol, the fungus completely decolourises RBBR in 3 days. In these conditions, P. ostreatus produces among other enzymes, laccases, veratryl alcohol oxidase and dye-decolourising

G. Palmieri; G. Cennamo; G. Sannia

2005-01-01

67

Ligninolytic enzymes production and Remazol brilliant blue R decolorization by tropical brazilian basidiomycetes fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) dye was used as substrate ,to evaluate ,ligninolytic activity in 125 basidiomycetous fungi isolated from tropical ecosystems. The extracellular RBBR decolorizing activity produced when,selected fungi were grown in solid media and in soil contaminated,with organochlorines was also evaluated. A total of 106 fungi decolorized the RBBR during the growth in malt extract agar (MEA,

Kátia M. G. Machado; Dácio R. Matheus; Vera L. R. Bononi

2005-01-01

68

The Pennsylvania State University Marching Blue Band Blue Band Office  

E-print Network

The Pennsylvania State University Marching Blue Band Press Kit Blue Band Office 101 Blue Band Director vcc2@psu.edu orb1@psu.edu gad157@psu.edu (814) 865 - 3982 #12;History of the Blue Band The Marching Blue Band numbers 310 members which includes: 260 instrumentalists, 34 silks, 14 Touch of Blue

Maroncelli, Mark

69

The Blue Flame Cafe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online biographical encyclopedia of the blues contains entries on almost all of the "great blues singers and singers of the blues." Entries include the pioneers and foundational figures such as Bessie Smith, Robert Johnson, and T-Bone Walker; their lesser-known (outside the Blues community) contemporaries; and their more recent musical heirs such as Stevie Ray Vaughan and Eric Clapton. Each singer's entry includes a concise overview of their influences, career, and musical legacy. Most are also accompanied by a tantalizingly short (only ten seconds) song excerpt in .wav format. A collection of blues links and an internal search engine round out the site.

70

Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Florida is now Florida Blue State Employees' PPO Plan health insurance provider Blue Cross and Blue Shield of  

E-print Network

Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Florida is now Florida Blue State Employees' PPO Plan health insurance provider Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Florida has recently changed its name to Florida Blue Resources Benefits Office at (850) 6444015, or insben@admin.fsu.edu. RELATED LINKS ­ Florida Blue

Ronquist, Fredrik

71

Bacterial pathogens of otitis media and sinusitis: detection in the nasopharynx with selective agar media.  

PubMed

Carriage rates for the bacterial pathogens associated with otitis media (Streptococcus pneumoniae [SP], Hemophilus influenzae [HI], and Moraxella catarrhalis [MC]) are of interest. Culture on three selective agars was compared with culture on two standard agars to determine the more accurate method for detection of these species in the nasopharynx of healthy children. Weekly samples were obtained in winter from 18 healthy children (ages 1 through 9 years) as part of a longitudinal study. A 0.1-mL sample of 116 nasopharyngeal aspirate/washes was inoculated onto each of five agars. Two were standard (sheep blood and chocolate), and three were selective (blood with gentamicin for SP; chocolate with vancomycin, bacitracin, and clindamycin for HI; blood with amphotericin B, vancomycin, trimethoprim, and acetazolamide for MC). One technician read the standard plates and another the selective; both were blinded to the results of the other. SP was found in 44% of samples with selective agar versus 25% with standard agar; HI was found in 31% with selective versus 9% with standard; MC was found in 56% with selective versus 37% with standard. Overall, 80% of samples had one or more pathogens detected with selective agars as compared with 58% with standard agars (P =.0004). Selective agars were more accurate than standard agars for detecting otitis pathogens in the nasopharynx, where they are a common part of normal flora in healthy children. PMID:11709658

Dudley, S; Ashe, K; Winther, B; Hendley, J O

2001-11-01

72

Blue Crab Fisheries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A comprehensive resource on the commercial and recreational blue crab fishery in the Maryland and Virginia waters of the Chesapeake Bay. Explore regulation information for both states, as well as the different gear and methods for catching blue crabs. Though most information pertains to MD and VA, there is an abundance of links to additional information that is not area-specific.

2010-12-01

73

Agar and broth dilution methods to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antimicrobial substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of broth and agar dilution methods is to determine the lowest concentration of the assayed antimicrobial agent (minimal inhibitory concentration, MIC) that, under defined test conditions, inhibits the visible growth of the bacterium being investigated. MIC values are used to determine susceptibilities of bacteria to drugs and also to evaluate the activity of new antimicrobial agents. Agar dilution

Irith Wiegand; Kai Hilpert; Robert E W Hancock

2008-01-01

74

Detection of cellulase activity in polyacrylamide gels using Congo red-stained agar replicas.  

PubMed

Bands that have cellulolytic activity are visualized after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis by laying the slab gel on top of a thin sheet of 2% agar containing 0.1% carboxymethylcellulose. After a suitable incubation time, zones of carboxymethylcellulose hydrolysis are revealed by staining the agar replica with Congo red. PMID:6193735

Béguin, P

1983-06-01

75

Evaluation of a chromogenic agar for detection of group B streptococcus in pregnant women.  

PubMed

We compared ChromID Strepto B agar (STRB; bioMérieux, Inc.), a selective and differential medium for group B streptococcus, with culture using neomycin-nalidixic acid agar (NNA) and LIM broth. STRB alone was more sensitive (87.7%) than NNA alone (79.0%), while each had a sensitivity of 100% when used in conjunction with LIM broth. PMID:20592154

Craven, Robin R; Weber, Carol J; Jennemann, Rebecca A; Dunne, W Michael

2010-09-01

76

Caprylate-thallous agar medium for selectively isolating Serratia and its utility in the clinical laboratory.  

PubMed Central

A defined agar medium (hereinafter designated caprylate-thallous [CT5 agar) containing 0.01% yeast extract, 0.1% caprylic (n-octanoic) acid, and 0.025% thallous sulfate is highly selective for all Serratia species and effectively discriminates against most non-Serratia strains likely to be in the same habitats. The selectivity of CT agar is demonstrated by the very high efficiency of colony formation (mean, 80.7% of that on a nonselective complex medium) on CT agar by known Serratia strains and the very low efficiency of colony formation (close to zero) on CT agar by bacterial strains known not to be Serratia. The utility of this medium in actual clinical laboratory practice is demonstrated by the more rapid and higher recovery of Serratia on this selective medium as compared to conventional procedures of in-tandem runs of 513 consecutive urine, feces, and sputum specimens. Pigmented and nonpigmented Serratia strains deliberately added to fecal specimens can be selectively and quantitatively recovered on CT agar. CT agar compares favorably with, or in some cases is an improvement over, other selective media which have been recommended for isolating Serratia. This selective CT agar medium could be quite useful in ecological surveys, especially those related to hospital-acquired infections. PMID:972193

Starr, M P; Grimont, P A; Grimont, F; Starr, P B

1976-01-01

77

Evaluation of interpretive criteria of agar dilution and disk diffusion susceptibility tests for Neisseria gonorrhoeae.  

PubMed

Using strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from Western New York, the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards' (NCCLS) interpretive criteria for disk diffusion susceptibility testing was evaluated on chocolate-Mueller-Hinton agar (CMH) and GC agar. The reference method for comparison was the NCCLS agar dilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. Even though the zone sizes were significantly smaller on the CMH agar, the interpretations were not significantly different on either GC or CMH agars except for tetracycline. On the CMH agar, the number of tetracycline-resistant strains was greater than on GC agar: 3% of the strains failed to grow on CMH agar and 4% did not produce interpretable zone sizes for ceftriaxone. Therefore, the use of CMH is not recommended. There was a significant difference between the interpretative criteria of the MIC and the disk diffusion method only for tetracycline. Therefore, the NCCLS zone-diameter interpretation criteria for tetracycline does not seem applicable for N. gonorrhoeae isolates in the Buffalo, New York, area. PMID:7924210

Altaie, S S; Moore, L S; Dryja, D; Furness, K

1994-03-01

78

Physicochemical and morphological properties of plasticized poly(vinyl alcohol)-agar biodegradable films.  

PubMed

The effects of the addition of glycerol (GLY) on the physicochemical and morphological properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-agar films were reported. PVA-agar films were prepared by solution cast method, and the addition of GLY in PVA-agar films altered the optical properties, resulting in a decrease in opacity values and in the color difference (?E) of the films. Structural characterization using Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the presence of GLY altered the intensity of the bands (from 1200 to 800cm(-1)) and crystallinity. The characterization of the thermal properties indicated that an increase in the agar content produces a decrease in the melting temperature and augments the heat of fusion. Similar tendencies were observed in plasticized films, but at different magnification. The formulation that demonstrated the lowest mechanical properties contained 25wt.% agar, whereas the formulation that contained 75wt.% agar demonstrated a significant improvement. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and surface morphology analysis demonstrated that the structure of PVA-agar films is reorganized upon GLY addition. The physicochemical properties of PVA-agar films using GLY as a plasticizer provide information for the application of this formulation as packaging material for specific food applications. PMID:24875313

Madera-Santana, T J; Freile-Pelegrín, Y; Azamar-Barrios, J A

2014-08-01

79

An extension of the Coconut Cream Agar method to screen Penicillium citrinum isolates for citrinin production.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid screening method was developed for the detection of citrinin in fungal cultures using Coconut Cream Agar (CCA) described previously for detecting aflatoxin and ochratoxin A. Fifteen isolates of Penicillium citrinum were inoculated onto CCA and incubated at 25 and 30°C for 10 days. All isolates produced a distinct yellow green fluorescence on CCA when the reverse side of the agar plates were viewed under long wavelength UV light. Detection was optimal at 25°C after four to 5 days of incubation. Isolates positive by the CCA method also tested positive for citrinin production by the TLC agar plug method after growth on CCA, Czapek yeast extract agar and yeast extract sucrose agar. Control cultures were negative by both methods, indicating that the CCA Petri dish method was suitable for screening cultures for citrinin production. PMID:23682683

Mohamed, S; Flint, S; Palmer, J; Fletcher, G C; Pitt, J I

2013-09-01

80

Physical-mechanical properties of agar/?-carrageenan blend film and derived clay nanocomposite film.  

PubMed

Binary blend films with different mixing ratio of agar and ?-carrageenan were prepared using a solution casting method with and without nanoclay and the effect of their composition on the mechanical, water vapor barrier, and water resistance properties was tested. The tensile strength (TS) of the ?-carrageenan film was greater than that of agar film. The water vapor permeability (WVP) of the agar film was lower than that of ?-carrageenan film, the swelling ratio (SR) and water solubility (WS) of ?-carrageenan film were higher than those of agar film. Each property of the binary blend films varied proportionately depending on the mixing ratio of each component. The XRD result indicated that the nanocomposite with agar/?-carrageenan/clay (Cloisite(®) Na(+)) was intercalated. Consequently, the mechanical strength, water vapor barrier properties, and water contact angle (CA) were significantly (P < 0.05) improved through nanocomposite formation. PMID:23170836

Rhim, Jong-Whan

2012-12-01

81

Rheological and structural characterization of agar/whey proteins insoluble complexes.  

PubMed

Complex coacervation between whey proteins and carboxylated or highly sulphated polysaccharides has been widely studied. The aim of this work was to characterise a slightly sulphated polysaccharide (agar) and whey protein insoluble complexes in terms of yield, composition and physicochemical properties as well as to study their rheological behaviour for better understanding their structure. Unlike other sulphated polysaccharides, complexation of agar and whey protein at pH 3 in the absence of a buffering agent resulted in a coacervate that was a gel at 20°C with rheological properties and structure similar to those of simple agar gels, reinforced by proteins electrostatically aggregated to the agar network. The behaviour towards heat treatment was similar to that of agar alone, with a high thermal hysteresis and almost full reversibility. In the presence of citrate buffer, the result was a "flocculated solid", with low water content (75-81%), whose properties were governed by protein behaviour. PMID:24906765

Rocha, Cristina M R; Souza, Hiléia K S; Magalhães, Natália F; Andrade, Cristina T; Gonçalves, Maria Pilar

2014-09-22

82

Orange G and Remazol Brilliant Blue R decolorization by white rot fungi Dichomitus squalens, Ischnoderma resinosum and Pleurotus calyptratus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty different white rot strains were screened for Orange G and Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) decolorization on agar plates. Three promising strains, Dichomitus squalens, Ischnoderma resinosum and Pleurotus calyptratus, selected on the basis of this screening, were used for decolorization study in liquid media. All three strains efficiently decolorized both Orange G and RBBR, but they differed in decolorization

Ivana Eichlerová; Ladislav Homolka; Ludmila Lisá; František Nerud

2005-01-01

83

Beautiful Blue Nile  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students learn about the Blue Nile and compare it to rivers in the United States. They discuss their experiences with rivers and what they think it would be like to travel down a river that rapidly descends from the mountains to the plains. After looking at a map of Ethiopia, students describe what they would see in the area around the Blue Nile. They will witness a demonstration of a river running over flat versus mountainous terrain and view photos of the Blue Nile to describe the terrain.

84

Blue Shark Adventure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, Jonathan joins Charlie Donilon on his shark charter boat in Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and learns about how shark tagging has shed light on the biology of and behavior of Blue sharks. Tagging has shown that these incredible swimmers actually migrate completely across the Atlantic ocean. Jonathan tries his hand at tagging a shark and then swims with Blue sharks. We also learn that Blue sharks are not nearly as vicious as they have been reputed to be, and the divers are actually able to pet the sharks! Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2007-03-01

85

Thermodynamically Stable Blue Phases  

E-print Network

We show theoretically that flexoelectricity stabilizes blue phases in chiral liquid crystals. Induced internal polarization reduces the elastic energy cost of splay and bend deformations surrounding singular lines in the director field. The energy of regions of double twist is unchanged. This in turn reduces the free energy of the blue phase with respect to that of the chiral nematic phase, leading to stability over a wider temperature range. The theory explains the discovery of large temperature range blue phases in highly flexoelectric "bimesogenic" and "bent-core" materials, and predicts how this range may be increased further.

F. Castles; S. M. Morris; E. M. Terentjev; H. J. Coles

2011-01-28

86

Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts is an Independent Licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association Expanded Coverage for Preventive Care Under  

E-print Network

Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts is an Independent Licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue. Effect the New Rules Will Have on Members and Accounts Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts. Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts will offer the following services with no member cost share

Aalberts, Daniel P.

87

Development of glucosidase agar for the confirmation of water-borne Enterococcus.  

PubMed

Analysis of 56 river water samples by the Enterolert defined substrate technique, and standard m-Enterococcus agar isolation followed by confirmation, indicated that after 24 h incubation. Enterolert significantly underestimated the true numbers of enterococci. Extending Enterolert incubatioin to 36 h improved detection but also revealed false positives. These findings prompted the development of a novel confirmation medium we have termed glucosidase agar, which was prepared by dissolving Enterolert substrate in 2% (w/v) bacteriological agar. Analysis of 1,043 colonies arising on m-Enterococcus agar from 280 freshwater, marine and sewage effluent samples, demonstrated that 2-4 h incubation on glucosidase agar was a rapid and accurate means of confirming presumptive enterococci, when compared to standard confirmation procedures that take 48 h. The combination of primary isolation on m-Enterococcus agar followed by confirmation on glucosidase agar permits maximum recovery of Enteroccus whilst effectively eliminating false positives/negatives and provides a reliable alternative use of the Enterolert defined substrate technology. PMID:11791856

Adcock, P W; Saint, C P

2001-12-01

88

A hidden pitfall in the preparation of agar media undermines microorganism cultivability.  

PubMed

Microbiologists have been using agar growth medium for over 120 years. It revolutionized microbiology in the 1890s when microbiologists were seeking effective methods to isolate microorganisms, which led to the successful cultivation of microorganisms as single clones. But there has been a disparity between total cell counts and cultivable cell counts on plates, often referred to as the "great plate count anomaly," that has long been a phenomenon that still remains unsolved. Here, we report that a common practice microbiologists have employed to prepare agar medium has a hidden pitfall: when phosphate was autoclaved together with agar to prepare solid growth media (PT medium), total colony counts were remarkably lower than those grown on agar plates in which phosphate and agar were separately autoclaved and mixed right before solidification (PS medium). We used a pure culture of Gemmatimonas aurantiaca T-27(T) and three representative sources of environmental samples, soil, sediment, and water, as inocula and compared colony counts between PT and PS agar plates. There were higher numbers of CFU on PS medium than on PT medium using G. aurantiaca or any of the environmental samples. Chemical analysis of PT agar plates suggested that hydrogen peroxide was contributing to growth inhibition. Comparison of 454 pyrosequences of the environmental samples to the isolates revealed that taxa grown on PS medium were more reflective of the original community structure than those grown on PT medium. Moreover, more hitherto-uncultivated microbes grew on PS than on PT medium. PMID:25281372

Tanaka, Tomohiro; Kawasaki, Kosei; Daimon, Serina; Kitagawa, Wataru; Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Michiko; Nakatsu, Cindy H; Kamagata, Yoichi

2014-12-15

89

Choosing between Blue Cross plans...  

E-print Network

Choosing between Blue Cross plans... ...when you have Medicare PresentedPresented By Glenn. Medicare and UC II. Medicare and Anthem Blue Cross III. Plan Comparisons · Pros/Cons · Medical coverage will automatically be enrolled in Part D by Blue Cross No additional Part D premium · Blue Cross members have

Burke, Peter

90

Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolating From Blue Mouldy Tulum Cheese Produced With Penicillium Roqueforti  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 228 lactic acid bacteria colonies were isolated from blue moldy Tulum cheese inoculated withPenicillium roquefortialong with the ripening (4 months). Three different medias (PCA, MRS or M17 agar) were used for isolation, while two API tests were used for identification of LAB. As a result, Enterococcussp. (53.3%) andLactobacillus sp.(26.7%) was found as dominant flora at end of

Ahmet Erdogan; Mustafa Gurses

2005-01-01

91

Proton beam writing of microstructures in Agar gel for patterned cell growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rather useful prerequisite for many biological and biophysical studies, e.g., for cell-cell communication or neuronal networks, is confined cell growth on micro-structured surfaces. Solidified Agar layers have smooth surfaces which are electrically neutral and thus inhibit receptor binding and cell adhesion. For the first time, Agar microstructures have been manufactured using proton beam writing (PBW). In the irradiated Agar material the polysaccharides are split into oligosaccharides which can easily be washed off leaving Agar-free areas for cell adhesion. The beam diameter of 1 ?m allows the fabrication of compartments accommodating single cells which are connected by micrometer-sized channels. Using the external beam the production process is very fast. Up to 50 Petri dishes can be produced per day which makes this technique very suitable for biological investigations which require large throughputs.

Larisch, Wolfgang; Koal, Torsten; Werner, Ronald; Hohlweg, Marcus; Reinert, Tilo; Butz, Tilman

2011-10-01

92

A fresh liver agar substrate for rearing small numbers of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).  

PubMed

Forensically important calliphorids can be reared on a mixture of beef liver and agar. Small pieces of meat, especially fresh or frozen beef liver, will desiccate in 2-6 h, but this simple-to-make feeding substrate remains moist for at least 12 h at 25 and 30 degrees C without desiccation, even in small (5 g) amounts. We determined the survivorship of small numbers of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (first-instar larvae to adult eclosion) raised on 5 g of liver agar and fresh beef liver. We found that all larvae raised on 5 g of liver died due to desiccation, but survivorship on 5 g of liver agar was equivalent to that on larger (50 g) pieces of either liver agar or beef liver. PMID:24897867

Gruner, Susan V; Slone, Daniel H

2014-05-01

93

Production and properties of agar from the invasive marine alga, Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization potential, in terms of agar production, of the invasive alga, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, collected at Ria de Aveiro, northwestern Portugal was investigated. The agar yield ranged from 15% to 33%, with pre-extraction\\u000a treatment with alkali generally increasing the yield. The gel quality (gel strength and apparent Young’s modulus) was best\\u000a (>600 g cm?2 and >1,000 kPa, respectively) when alkali treatment with

R. D. Villanueva; A. M. M. Sousa; M. P. Gonçalves; M. Nilsson; L. Hilliou

2010-01-01

94

Genome Sequence of the Agar-Degrading Marine Bacterium Alteromonadaceae sp. Strain G7  

PubMed Central

Here, we present the high-quality draft genome sequence of the agar-degrading marine gammaproteobacterium Alteromonadaceae sp. strain G7, which was isolated from coastal seawater to be utilized as a bioresource for production of agar-derived biofuels. The 3.91-Mb genome contains a number of genes encoding algal polysaccharide-degrading enzymes such as agarases and sulfatases. PMID:23209220

Kwak, Min-Jung; Song, Ju Yeon; Kim, Byung Kwon; Chi, Won-Jae; Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Choi, Soobeom; Chang, Yong-Keun

2012-01-01

95

An inter-laboratory evaluation of selective media for the detection and enumeration of yeasts from blue-veined cheese.  

PubMed

Five countries representative of laboratories 1-5 evaluated 11 different selective media, designed to suppress mould and bacterial growth and support yeasts growth, for the recovery of yeast populations from blue veined cheeses. In addition, qualitative results were also incorporated. The yeast enumeration values were subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test. With the exception of Laboratory 3, none of the other laboratories was successful in recovering yeasts on all the media. Six of the media proved inadequate for the enumeration of yeasts in the mould invested environment and were therefore omitted from statistical analysis. No significant differences in quantitative data obtained on Rose-Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (RBCA), Dichloran Rose-Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC), Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG18), and Malt extract agar supplemented with NaCl and oxytetracycline (MES) were detected by four of the collaborating laboratories whereas one laboratory found RBCA to be superior for yeast enumeration. DG18 and Malt Extract Agar with Biphenyl (MEB), however, were ranked superior based on qualitative results compared to the other media, attributed to distinctive individual yeast colonies and mould inhibition. RBCA, DRBC, DG18, and MES on the other hand, all proved to be adequate in supporting yeast colony development for quantitative analysis in samples obtained from blue veined cheeses. PMID:15172480

Viljoen, B C; Knox, A; Beuchat, L R; Deak, T; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Hansen, T K; Hugo, A; Jakobsen, M; Loureiro, V; Lourens-Hattingh, A; Vasdinnyei, R

2004-07-01

96

Growth of coagulase-negative staphylococci on colistin-nalidixic acid agar and susceptibility to polymyxins.  

PubMed Central

Colistin-nalidixic acid agar, although recently recommended as a replacement for blood agar for primary plating of urine specimens ( Fung et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 16:632-636, 1982), has also been reported to suppress the growth of some strains of staphylococci that are susceptible to colistin (polymyxin E). The susceptibility of 11 species of staphylococci to polymyxins was determined, and the ability of these species to grow on colistin-nalidixic acid agar was examined. Although the MICs for most of the strains tested were 8 micrograms/ml or less, only a few coagulase-negative staphylococci grew on or were inhibited by colistin-nalidixic acid agar. This descrepancy was explained by the antagonistic effects that medium components, such as physiological concentrations of magnesium and calcium and 5% sheep blood, had on the activity of polymyxin. Colistin-nalidixic acid agar is still recommended for routine urine processing; however, the poor growth of 13% of the Staphylococcus saprophyticus strains tested suggests that blood agar should be included in the primary plating battery of urine specimens obtained from female outpatients. PMID:6330170

Fung, J C; McKinley, G; Tyburski, M B; Berman, M; Goldstein, J

1984-01-01

97

The Blue Tube.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Blue Tube" is a 2-part academic package developed at the U.S. Air Force Academy consisting of an English course in communication and writing skills and a management course in advertising and marketing; the two courses are interrelated through student assignments in television production. The first part of the package includes training of…

Wallisch, Bill; Taylor, Bob

98

Greening of Blue Mountain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the revegetation of Blue Mountain in Palmertown, Pennsylvania, which was biologically destroyed by a zinc smelting operation. After application of industrial fly ash and a municipal sludge mixture, grasses and microbes and some tree seedlings are present. The article outlines in detail the processes of testing and experimentation with the soils and the plants.

W. E. Sopper; J. M. McMahon

1987-01-01

99

Large Blue Butterflies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page deals with research being done on the parasitism of the "blue butterfly" group Maculinea. These species are well known for taking advantage of ants by chemically convincing ants that they are one of their own larvae. This page has some lovely photos, and a nice generalized life history table. Other links deal with aspects of the research including population genetics and communication.

0002-11-30

100

Great Blue Heron  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Great Blue Herons are found throughout much of North America, but are always associated with water. Because they fish by sight, they need relatively shallow water. Release of too much water through the canals north of the Everglades can interfere with their ability to find food....

2009-12-11

101

Blue light emitting polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer light emitting diodes have a good chance to become the main display system in the near future since diodes have many advantages concerning preparation and operation over other display systems. This review focuses on blue light emitting polymers introduced in the literature during the last 10 years. The characteristics of the photoluminescence and electroluminescence of these polymers is reviewed.

D. Y Kim; H. N Cho; C. Y Kim

2000-01-01

102

Blue Crab Education Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Information compiled by the Virginia Institute of Marine Science on the anatomy, life cycle, ecology, and fisheries of the blue crab. Data, research reports, and instructions on eating crabs are all available. Educational resources include lesson plans, teaching tools, and access to online publications. Site serves as an exceptional resource for both beginners and experts.

2010-09-21

103

Susceptibility of Candida albicans to photodynamic therapy using methylene blue and toluidine blue as photosensitizing dyes.  

PubMed

The increased resistance of Candida albicans to antibiotic therapy indicates the need for alternative treatments for oral candidiasis. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been researched as an alternative tool to inactivate pathogenic microorganisms. It uses a combination of a photosensitizer and a visible light source. This study evaluated the susceptibility of C. albicans to PDT and compared the efficacy of 100 microg/mL methylene blue (MB) and toluidine blue (TB) as photosensitizers. The light source was Indium-Gallium-Aluminum Phosphide (InGaAIP) laser at 53 J/cm2. Suspensions of 108 cells/mL of C. albicans were subject to PDT for 5 minutes in 96-well plates, then decimal dilutions were plated on Sabouraud Dextrose agar After 48h incubation at 37 degreesC, the number of CFU/mL were obtained and submitted to statistical analysis using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, ANOVA (p<0.0001) and Tukey tests. The results showed that MB or laser irradiation alone did not have statistically significant antifungal activity compared to the positive control group (p> 0. 05). Conversely, the number of viable C. albicans cells was reduced significantly after PDT using MB or mainly TB associated to diode laser irradiation. The data proved the efficacy of PDT against C. albicans cells, regardless of the photosensitizer used. PMID:22165318

Pupo, Yasmine M; Gomes, Giovana M; Santos, Elizabete B; Chaves, Luzia; Michel, Milton D; Kozlowski, Vitoldo A; Gomes, Osnara M M; Gomes, Joãdo Carlos

2011-01-01

104

Characterization of the proteolytic activity of starter cultures of Penicillium roqueforti for production of blue veined cheeses.  

PubMed

Thirty strains of Penicillium roqueforti used for the production of blue cheeses were examined for proteolytic activity by agar diffusion on casein agar, by the azocasein test and by capillary zone electrophoresis (CE). Distinct differences were seen between the strains by all three methods applied and the 30 strains could be subdivided in three groups being significantly different in their proteolytic activity as measured by the agar diffusion test. The quantitative differences seen in the agar diffusion test were confirmed by the azocasein test. However, a negative result on casein agar, i.e., no clearing of the agar was observed for one strain while it showed low proteolytic activity in the azocasein test. CE proved to be a valuable method for revealing qualitative differences between strains of P. roqueforti in the breakdown of casein. Three strongly proteolytic strains broke down the specific casein fractions differently: one strain broke down betaA1-casein faster than betaA2-casein, the second preferred alpha s1-casein while the last strain broke down the casein fractions at equal rates. For a strain with medium proteolytic activity, the degradation of casein was seen by the appearance of a peak with migration time similar to alpha s1-I casein, a peptide normally produced by chymosin. PMID:9801197

Larsen, M D; Kristiansen, K R; Hansen, T K

1998-09-01

105

Evaluation of CP Chromo Select Agar for the enumeration of Clostridium perfringens from water.  

PubMed

The European Directive on drinking water quality has included mCP agar as the reference method for recovering Clostridium perfringens from drinking waters. In the present study, three media (mCP, TSCF and CP Chromo Select Agar) were evaluated for recovery of C. perfringens in different surface water samples. Out of 139 water samples, using a membrane filtration technique, 131 samples (94.2%) were found to be presumptively positive for C. perfringens in at least one of the culture media. Green colored colonies on CP Chromo Select Agar (CCP agar) were counted as presumptive C. perfringens isolates. Out of 483 green colonies on CCP agar, 96.3% (465 strains, indole negative) were identified as C. perfringens, and 15 strains (3.1%) were indole positive and were identified as Clostridium sordellii, Clostridium bifermentans or Clostridium tetani. Only 3 strains (0.6%) gave false positive results and were identified as Clostridium fallax, Clostridium botulinum, and Clostridium tertium. Variance analysis of the data obtained shows statistically no significant differences in the counts obtained between media employed in this work. The mCP method is very onerous for routine screening and bacterial colonies could not be used for further biochemical testing. The colonies on CCP and TSCF were easy to count and subculture for confirmation tests. TSCF detects sulfite-reducing clostridia, including species other than C. perfringens, and in some cases excessive blackening of the agar frustrated counting of the colonies. If the contamination was too high, TSCF did not consistently produce black colonies and as a consequence, the colonies were white and gave false negative results. On the other hand, the identification of typical and atypical colonies isolated from all media demonstrated that CCP agar was the most useful medium for C. perfringens recovery in water samples. PMID:23816139

Manafi, Mammad; Waldherr, Kerstin; Kundi, Michael

2013-10-01

106

Mass production of spores of lactic acid-producing Rhizopus oryzae NBRC 5384 on agar plate.  

PubMed

Mass production of sporangiospores (spores) of Rhizopus oryzae NBRC 5384 (identical to NRRL 395 and ATCC 9363) on potato-dextrose-agar medium was studied aiming at starting its L(+)-lactic acid fermentation directly from spore inoculation. Various parameters including harvest time, sowed spore density, size of agar plate, height of air space, and incubation mode of plate (agar-on-bottom or agar-on-top) were studied. Ordinarily used shallow Petri dishes were found out to be unsuitable for the full growth of R. oryzae sporangiophores. In a very wide range of the sowed spore density, the smaller it was, the greater the number of the harvested spores was. It was also interesting to find out that R. oryzae grown downward vertically with a deep air space in an agar-on-top mode gave larger amount of spores than in an agar-on-bottom mode at 30°C for 7-day cultivation. Scale-up of the agar plate culture from 26.4 to 292 cm(2) was studied, resulting in the proportional relationship between the number of the harvested spores/plate and the plate area in the deep Petri dishes. The number of plates of 50 cm in diameter needed for 100 m(3) industrial submerged fermentation started directly from 2 × 10(5) spores/mL inoculum size was estimated as about 6, from which it was inferred that such a fermentation would be feasible. Designing a 50 cm plate and a method of spreading and collecting the spores were suggested. Bioprocess technological significance of the "full-scale industrial submerged fermentation started directly from spore inoculation omitting pre-culture" has been discussed. PMID:23658025

Yamane, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Ryosuke

2013-01-01

107

Production of microbial medium from defatted brebra (Milletia ferruginea) seed flour to substitute commercial peptone agar  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate and optimize microbial media that substitute peptone agar using brebra seed defatted flour. Methods 'Defatted process, inoculums preparation, evaluation of bacterial growth, preparation of cooked and hydrolyzed media and growth turbidity of tested bacteria were determined. Results Two percent defatted flour was found to be suitable concentration for the growth of pathogenic bacteria: Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Salmonella (NCTC 8385) and Shigella flexneri (ATCC 12022) (S. flexneri), while 3% defatted flour was suitable for Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) (S. aureus). E. coli (93±1) and S. flexneri (524±1) colony count were significantly (P?0.05) greater in defatted flour without supplement than in supplemented medium. E. coli [(3.72×109±2) CFU/mL], S. aureus [(7.4×109±2) CFU/mL], S. flexneri [(4.03×109±2) CFU/mL] and Salmonella [(2.37×109±1) CFU/mL] in non-hydrolyzed sample were statistically (P?0.05) greater than hydrolyzed one and commercial peptone agar. Colony count of Salmonella [(4.55×109±3) CFU/mL], S. flexneri [(5.40×109±3) CFU/mL] and Lyesria moncytogenes (ATCC 19116) [(5.4×109±3) CFU/mL] on raw defatted flour agar was significantly (P?0.05) greater than cooked defatted flour and commercial peptone agar. Biomass of E. coli, S. aureus, Salmonella and Enterococcus faecalis in non-hydrolyzed defatted flour is highly increased over hydrolyzed defatted flour and commercial peptone broth. Conclusions The defatted flour agar was found to be better microbial media or comparable with peptone agar. The substances in it can serve as sources of carbon, nitrogen, vitamins and minerals that are essential to support the growth of microorganisms without any supplements. Currently, all supplements of peptone agar are very expensive in the market. PMID:24075344

Andualem, Berhanu; Gessesse, Amare

2013-01-01

108

The Blue Whale, Balaenoptera musculus  

E-print Network

The Blue Whale, Balaenoptera musculus SALLY A. MIZROCH, DALE W. RICE, and JEFFREY M. BREIWICK Introduction The blue whale, Balaenoptera mus- culus (Linnaeus, 1758), is not only the largest of the whales

109

The Blues Machine M. Cicconet  

E-print Network

for mu- sically untrained people. On the other hand, using computer software to simulate traditional still can not play them, in the sense we play the guitar, for example. 2 Playing Blues The 12-bar blues and harmonized by just three chords. That's why normaly the guitar student starts improvising on the blues scale

110

Comparison of agar based media for primary isolation of Helicobacter pylori.  

PubMed Central

AIMS--To determine the best medium for the primary isolation of Helicobacter pylori. METHODS--Sixty six gastric mucosal biopsy specimens frozen in 1 ml Cysteine Albimi media with 20% glycerol from 22 histologically proven H pylori infected patients were cultured on brain heart infusion agar (BHIA) with 7% fresh whole defibrinated horse blood, egg yolk agar (EYA), Columbia blood agar-cyclodextrin agar (CBA-Cd), and commercial trypticase soy agar (TSA) supplemented with 5% sheep blood. RESULTS--Successful primary isolation of H pylori was 96% with BHIA, 78% with TSA, 64% for EYA, and 32% with CBA-Cd. Colonies appeared earlier on BHIA (4.7 +/- 0.1 days, 5.3 +/- 0.4 days, 5.3 +/- 0.4 days, and 7.1 +/- 0.9 days for BHIA, TSA, EYA, and CBA-Cd) and there were more colonies on BHIA than on CBA-Cd, EYA or TSA (599 +/- 88, 104 +/- 66, 260 +/- 107, and 358 +/- 89, respectively). CONCLUSIONS--Success of a medium for passage of isolates apparently does not reliably predict usefulness for primary isolation. Freshly made BHIA with 7% horse blood medium is recommended for primary isolation. However, the easily obtainable TSA media would be the best alternative for routine clinical laboratories with no access to BHIA. Images PMID:7560195

Hachem, C Y; Clarridge, J E; Evans, D G; Graham, D Y

1995-01-01

111

Preparation and characterization of bio-nanocomposite films of agar and silver nanoparticles: laser ablation method.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared by a laser ablation method and composite films with the AgNPs and agar were prepared by solvent casting method. UV-vis absorbance test and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis results revealed that non-agglomerated spherical AgNPs were formed by the laser ablation method. The surface color of the resulting agar/AgNPs films exhibited the characteristic plasmonic effect of the AgNPs with the maximum absorption peaks of 400-407 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) test results also exhibited characteristic AgNPs crystals with diffraction peaks observed at 2? values of 38.39°, 44.49°, and 64.45°, which were corresponding to (111), (200), and (220) crystallographic planes of face-centered cubic (fcc) silver crystals, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results showed that thermal stability of the agar/AgNPs composite films was increased by the inclusion of metallic silver. Water vapor barrier properties and surface hydrophobicity of the agar/AgNPs films increased slightly with the increase in AgNPs content but they were not statistically significant (p>0.05), while mechanical strength and stiffness of the composite films decreased slightly (p<0.05). The agar/AgNPs films exhibited distinctive antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli O157:H7) bacterial pathogens. PMID:24528754

Rhim, Jong-Whan; Wang, Long-Feng; Lee, Yonghoon; Hong, Seok-In

2014-03-15

112

Migration of chemotactic bacteria in soft agar: role of gel concentration  

E-print Network

We study the migration of chemotactic wild-type Escherichia coli populations in semisolid (soft) agar in the concentration range C = 0.15-0.5% (w/v). For C migrate as broad circular bands rather than sharp rings. These are growth/diffusion waves arising because of suppression of chemotaxis by the agar and have not been previously reported experimentally to our knowledge. For C = 0.4-0.5%, expanding colonies do not span the depth of the agar and develop pronounced front instabilities. The migration front speed is weakly dependent on agar concentration at C < 0.25%, but decreases sharply above this value. We discuss these observations in terms of an extended Keller-Segel model for which we derived novel transport parameter expressions accounting for perturbations of the chemotactic response by collisions with the agar. The model makes it possible to fit the observed front speed decay in the range C = 0.15-0.35%, and its solutions qualitatively reproduce the observed transition from chemotactic to growth/diffusion bands. We discuss the implications of our results for the study of bacteria in porous media and for the design of improved bacteriological chemotaxis assays.

O. A. Croze; G. P. Ferguson; M. E. Cates; W. C. K. Poon

2011-01-26

113

National Geographic: Blue Whales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a cameraman leans in to get a shot of a blue whale, this massive creature glides through the water off of Costa Rica. That's the opening photograph that visitors to this interactive article from National Geographic are presented with, and it's a rather amazing image. This interactive article and feature is derived from a March 2009 feature in the print edition of National Geographic magazine, and it features the photography of Flip Nicklin and the writing of Ken Brower. The article offers an in-depth look into the recovery of the blue whale population off the coast of Costa Rica in recent years, and along the way visitors can stop off to take a look at a special photo gallery, take a quiz on these remarkable creatures, and also watch a video the provides the story behind one of Nicklin's photographs.

Brower, Ken; Nicklin, Flip

114

Blue Sky Innovation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chicago Tribune has broken new ground with this ambitious initiative to gather news, analysis, and events related to innovation and entrepreneurship. As the site indicates, "Blue Sky informs, inspires and connects an audience that looks at businessâ¦in new ways." Visitors can get started by looking over the short-form news stories on the homepage. Recent pieces have covered the curious barge built by Google, the financial stability of Groupon, and the transformation of event planning via mobile apps. Visitors can look over the event calendar, which brings together information about ongoing activities such as mobile app contests and networking events. The Innovation Hub area is a good place to look around, as it features content gathered from organizations recognized for expertise in the field of innovation. Finally, visitors can sign up to receive updates from Blue Sky via Facebook, Google+, or email.

115

Stabilising the Blue Phases  

E-print Network

We present an investigation of the phase diagram of cholesteric liquid crystals within the framework of Landau - de Gennes theory. The free energy is modified to incorporate all three Frank elastic constants and to allow for a temperature dependent pitch in the cholesteric phase. It is found that the region of stability of the cubic blue phases depends significantly on the value of the elastic constants, being reduced when the bend elastic constant is larger than splay and when twist is smaller than the other two. Most dramatically we find a large increase in the region of stability of blue phase I, and a qualitative change in the phase diagram, in a system where the cholesteric phase displays helix inversion.

G. P. Alexander; J. M. Yeomans

2006-09-22

116

Jonathan Bird's Blue World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Jonathan Bird's Blue World Collection is based on a public television science adventure series and offers science curriculum based videos, lesson plans, activities and the capacity to search by topic, NSES, and geography. These materials illustrate topics such as sound, osmosis and pH with videos of sperm whales, mangroves and coral reefs. These resources can be used by learners of all ages in formal and informal settings.

2012-08-06

117

Blue emitting undecaplatinum clusters.  

PubMed

A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents. PMID:24975972

Chakraborty, Indranath; Bhuin, Radha Gobinda; Bhat, Shridevi; Pradeep, T

2014-08-01

118

Voyager 1 'Blue Movie'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the original Voyager 'Blue Movie' (so named because it was built from Blue filter images). It records the approach of Voyager 1 during a period of over 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storms shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

2000-01-01

119

Improvement of Karmali agar by addition of polymyxin B for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in whole-chicken carcass rinse.  

PubMed

The Karmali agar was modified by supplementation with a high concentration of polymyxin B. The goal of the study was to evaluate the effect of a high concentration of polymyxin B on the ability and selectivity of the modified Karmali agar to isolate Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from whole chicken carcass rinse. A total of 80 whole chickens were rinsed with 400 mL of buffer peptone water. The rinsed samples were incubated with 2× blood-free modified Bolton enrichment broth for 48 h, and then streaked onto unmodified Karmali agar and modified Karmali agar supplemented with 100000 IU/L polymixin B (P-Karmali agar). The suspected colonies were finally confirmed by colony PCR. The P-Karmali agar exhibited a significantly better (P < 0.05) isolation rate than the unmodified Karmali agar (P-Karmali agar, 73.8%; unmodified Karmali agar, 33.8%). Moreover, the selectivity of the P-Karmali agar was also better (P < 0.05) than that of the other selective agar when comparing the number of contaminated plates (P-Karmali agar, 68.8%; unmodified Karmali agar, 87.5%) and growth index of competing flora (P-Karmali agar, 1.4; unmodified Karmali agar, 2.7). The improved selective agar excluded competing flora resistant to antibiotic agents in unmodified Karmali agar, increasing isolation rate and selectivity for C. jejuni and C. coli. PMID:23550907

Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Hyunsook; Yim, Jin-Hyeok; Song, Kwang-Young; Moon, Jin-San; Kim, Young-Jo; Seo, Kun-Ho

2013-05-01

120

Assessment of Etest as an Alternative to Agar Dilution for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae  

PubMed Central

We studied whether the Etest can be used as an alternative to agar dilution to determine antimicrobial susceptibilities of ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime in Neisseria gonorrhoeae surveillance. One hundred fifteen clinical and laboratory isolates of N. gonorrhoeae were tested following the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-approved CLSI standard agar dilution method and, separately, by the Etest according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The MICs were determined and compared. Ten laboratory-generated mutants were used to simulate substantially nonsusceptible specimens. The Etest and agar dilution methods were well correlated. Statistical tests produced regression R2 values of 88%, 82%, and 85% and Pearson correlation coefficients of 92%, 91%, and 92% for ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime, respectively. When paired comparisons were made, the two tests were 88.7%, 80%, and 87% within 1 log2 dilution from each other for ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime, respectively. The within-2-log2 agreements were 99.1%, 98.3%, and 94.8% for ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime, respectively. Notwithstanding the good correlations and the within-2-log2 general agreement, the Etest results produced slightly lower MICs than the agar dilution results. In conclusion, we found that the Etest can be effectively used as an alternative to agar dilution testing to determine the susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae to ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime, although we recommend further research into extremely resistant isolates. For isolates within the typical range of clinical MICs, reexamination of the Etest interpretation of susceptible and nonsusceptible categories would likely allow for successful transition from agar dilution to the Etest. PMID:24554750

Taylor, Thomas H.; Pettus, Kevin; Trees, David

2014-01-01

121

Best Linear Unbiased Estimate Motivation for BLUE  

E-print Network

1 Chapter 6 Best Linear Unbiased Estimate (BLUE) #12;2 Motivation for BLUE Except for Linear Model to a sub-optimal estimate BLUE is one such sub-optimal estimate Idea for BLUE: 1. Restrict estimate) Advantage of BLUE:Needs only 1st and 2nd moments of PDF Mean & Covariance Disadvantages of BLUE: 1. Sub

Fowler, Mark

122

Radiation effects on agar, alginates and carrageenan to be used as food additives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agar, alginates and carrageenan are hydrocolloids that induce stabilization of physical properties of the food product during shelf life and prevention of undesirable changes such as moisture migration, gas cell coalescence or textural profile changes. In this work, agar, alginates and carrageenan was irradiated as powder with different doses (0-10 kGy) of Co-60 and the rheological functional performance of water solutions of these irradiated additives was studied. The results are analyzed taking in account the future applications of those additives in irradiated foods.

Aliste, A. J. A. J.; Vieira, F. F. F. F.; Del Mastro, N. L. N. L.

2000-03-01

123

Antileishmanial activity of drug infused mini-agar plates on Leishmania donovani promastigotes.  

PubMed

Drug infused mini agar plates were found to be a better alternative of broth dilution method in the determination of antileishmanial susceptibility of two commonly used drugs, Sodium antimony gluconate and Amphotericin B against Leishmania donovani promastigotes. These two drugs were used here as models for antileishmanial compounds. The stability of the drugs in the stored agar plates was also tested for six months and found that they were same as fresh plates. Determination of antileishmanial susceptibility of Leishmania donovani promastigotes to compounds of screening by this method is quite inexpensive, simple to perform even in under-sophisticated laboratories of developing countries where the disease is endemic. PMID:21399608

Muniaraj, M; Sinha, P K; Das, P

2010-12-01

124

Comparative evaluation of chromogenic agar medium and conventional culture system for isolation and presumptive identification of uropathogens  

PubMed Central

Objective: Urine is the most frequent specimen received for culture/sensitivity by clinical laboratories. The microbiological performance of HiCrome UTI agar medium was compared with Blood agar and MacConkey agar for isolation and presumptive identification of bacteria from urine culture. Methods: A total of 443 consecutively collected midstream and/or catheter-catch urine samples from patients attending the Islami Bank Medical College Hospital, Rajshahi, Bangladesh during January to December, 2012 were cultured. Urine samples showing pus cells ? 5/HPF were inoculated on to Blood agar (BA), MacConkey agar (MAC) and HiCrome UTI agar (CA) media simultaneously and incubated overnight aerobically at 370C. Rate of isolation and presumptive identification of bacterial species were compared for different media. Results: Culture yielded a total of 199 bacterial isolates from 189 (42.67%) positive plates including 179 (40.40%) unimicrobial and 10 (2.26%) polymicrobial (mixed growth of pair of bacteria) growths. Both HiCrome UTI agar and Blood agar media supported 100% growths while 151 (75.88%) growths were observed on MacConkey agar. The rate of presumptive identification was found significantly higher on HiCrome UTI agar (97.49%) than MAC agar (67.34%) (P<0.001) as primary urine culture medium. Of 199 isolates, E. coli was found to be the leading uropathogen isolated from 118 (59.30%) samples with its presumptive identification rate of 95.76%, 93.22% and 5.93% on CA, MAC and BA respectively. All 10 (100%) polymicrobial growths were demonstrated distinctly on CA against only 01(10%) on each BA and MAC. Conclusion: HiCrome UTI agar was found to be more useful as primary urine culture medium in both higher rate of isolation and presumptive identification of uropathogens in comparison to conventional media. Its inherent characteristics in demonstrating polymicrobial growth and ease of rapid identification by distinct colony colour are unique.

Akter, Laila; Haque, Rezwana; Salam, Md. Abdus

2014-01-01

125

Blue semiconductor nanocrystal laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate tunable room-temperature amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from blue-emitting core-shell CdS /ZnS nanocrystals (NCs) stabilized in a sol-gel derived silica matrix. Variable stripe length measurements show that these NC-silica composites have a modal gain of ˜100cm-1 at room temperature. Coating microspheres with a NC-silica composite film via a facile process resulted in uniform resonators that exhibit room-temperature lasing over long periods of continuous excitation. This work opens up a spectral window for emission tunable, microscale NC-based lasers.

Chan, Yinthai; Steckel, Jonathan S.; Snee, Preston T.; Caruge, J.-Michel; Hodgkiss, Justin M.; Nocera, Daniel G.; Bawendi, Moungi G.

2005-02-01

126

Flexoelectric blue phases  

E-print Network

We describe the occurence and properties of liquid crystal phases showing two dimensional splay and bend distortions which are stabilised by flexoelectric interactions. These phases are characterised by regions of locally double splayed order separated by topological defects and are thus highly analogous to the blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals. We present a mean field analysis based upon the Landau--de Gennes Q-tensor theory and construct a phase diagram for flexoelectric structures using analytic and numerical results. We stress the similarities and discrepancies between the cholesteric and flexoelectric cases.

G P Alexander; J M Yeomans

2007-07-01

127

Bioactivity auantification of a novel antimicrobial peptide by agar diffusion bioassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, antimicrobial peptides (AMP) produced by bacteria, called bacteriocins, have attracted a great deal of attention as biopreservatives in the application of agri-food industry. Extensive industrial uses and research studies require an accurate and precise method for the quantification of novel AMP in food samples, fermentation broth and other media. In this work, an agar diffusion bioassay was developed for

Li Xingfeng; Wang Zhixin; Dong Xinying; Wang Guangxian; Jia Yingmin

2011-01-01

128

Identification of 'T' Mycoplasmas in Primary Agar Cultures by Means of a Direct Test for Urease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A direct test for urease has been described that can be applied directly to colonies of T mycoplasmas in agar cultures. The test is specific for T mycoplasmas, since these are the only members of the mycoplasma group known to possess a urease enzyme syste...

M. C. Shepard, D. R. Howard

1970-01-01

129

Pump probe imaging of nanosecond laser induced bubbles in agar gel  

E-print Network

value; which should be used for eye and skin surgery. The bubble continues to grow long after the laserPump probe imaging of nanosecond laser induced bubbles in agar gel R. Evans and S. Camacho lysis: Time-resolved imaging and analysis of hydrodynamic effects," Biophysical Journal 91

Aguilar, Guillermo

130

One-week 96-well soft agar growth assay for cancer target validation.  

PubMed

Soft agar growth, used to measure cell anchorage-independent proliferation potential, is one of the most important and most commonly used assays to detect cell transformation. However, the traditional soft agar assay is time-consuming, labor-intensive, and plagued with inconsistencies due to individual subjectivity. It does not, therefore, meet the increasing demands of today's oncology drug target screening or validation processes. This report describes an alternative 96-well soft agar growth assay that can function as a replacement for the traditional method and overcomes the aforementioned limitations. It offers the following advantages: a shortened assay duration (1 week instead of 4 weeks) that makes transient transfection or treatment possible; plate reader quantification of soft agar growth (measuring cloning efficiency and colony size); and a significant reduction in required labor. Higher throughput also makes it possible to process large numbers of samples and treatments simultaneously and in a much more efficient manner, while saving precious workspace and overall cost. PMID:15152603

Ke, Ning; Albers, Aaron; Claassen, Gisela; Yu, De-hua; Chatterton, Jon E; Hu, Xiuyuan; Meyhack, Bernd; Wong-Staal, Flossie; Li, Qi-Xiang

2004-05-01

131

Hydrogen production from tofu wastewater by Rhodobacter sphaeroides immobilized in agar gels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen production from the wastewater of tofu factory was examined by using anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides immobilized in agar gels. The maximum rate of hydrogen production observed from the wastewater was 2.1 l h?1 m2 gel which was even slightly higher than that from a glucose medium (as control). The hydrogen production lasted up to 50 h. The yield

Heguang Zhu; Tomoo Suzuki; Anatoly A Tsygankov; Yasuo Asada; Jun Miyake

1999-01-01

132

[Preparation of agar-paraffin double-embedded longitudinal sections of Schistosoma japonicum].  

PubMed

Schistosoma japonicum adults are pre-embedded in a double-layer agar and made the block, then dehydrated with alcohol, isobutyl alcohol and n-butyl alcohol. Various staining procedures can be conducted after conventional sectioning and dewaxing. Complete longitudinal serial sections of the pre-embedded worms can be obtained, and the desired sections can be easily located accurately. PMID:23484288

Wang, Ke-Geng; Zeng, Qing-Ren; Zhang, Yu-Kuai; Zhou, Jun; Cai, Li-Ting; Liang, Yu; Liu, Yan

2012-10-30

133

Growth and sporulation stoichiometry and kinetics of coniothyrium minitans on agar media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coniothyrium minitans was cultivated on agar media with different concentrations of starch, urea, and trace elements. By means of elemental balances, the stoichiometry of growth and sporulation was established. C. minitans produced byproducts on all media, especially in the medium with high urea concentrations, where 30?f the starch was converted into byproducts. Simple empirical models were used to describe the

L. P. Ooijkaas; R. M. Buitelaar; J. Tramper; A. Rinzema

2000-01-01

134

Is inclusion of Sabouraud dextrose agar essential for the laboratory diagnosis of fungal keratitis?  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To determine whether the inclusion of Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) is essential in the diagnosis of fungal keratitis. Materials and Methods: Corneal scrapings of 141 patients with microbial keratitis were smeared and cultured. Sheep blood agar (BA), chocolate agar (CA), SDA, non-nutrient agar (NNA) with Escherichia coli overlay, and brain heart infusion broth (BHI) were evaluated for time taken for growth and cost. The media were also evaluated experimentally for rate of growth and time taken for identification. Results: Twenty-six of 39 patients positive for fungus in corneal scrapings by microscopy were culture-positive. Fungus grew on BA in 22/39, on CA in 18/39, on SDA in 17/39, on NNA in 17/39, and on BHI in 13/39 cases. Growth on SDA was higher in ulcers with larger infiltrate (6/18 versus 9/13, P = 0.04). Estimated saving with inclusion of only BA/CA was Rs. 600 per patient. Performance of all media was similar in in vitro experiment although the characteristic spores and color were seen earlier on SDA. Conclusion: Fungal keratitis can be reliably confirmed on BA or CA, which support growth of both bacteria and fungus. PMID:20534916

Das, Sujata; Sharma, Savitri; Kar, Sarita; K Sahu, Srikant; Samal, Bikash; Mallick, Aparajita

2010-01-01

135

IPsec Modulation for Quality of Security Service Evdoxia Spyropoulou Chris Agar Timothy Levin Cynthia Irvine  

E-print Network

IPsec Modulation for Quality of Security Service Evdoxia Spyropoulou Chris Agar Timothy Levin with respect to IPsec. 1. Introduction Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms can be beneficial to both the user to the users. IPsec is a security mechanism that offers choices for the characteristics of the security

Irvine, Cynthia E.

136

Plant blue-light receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants have several blue-light receptors, which regulate different aspects of growth and development. Recent studies have identified three such receptors: cryptochrome 1, cryptochrome 2 and phototropin. Cryptochromes 1 and 2 are photolyase-like receptors that regulate hypocotyl growth and flowering time; phototropin mediates phototropism in response to blue light. In addition, phytochrome A has also been found to mediate various blue-light

Chentao Lin

2000-01-01

137

Blue emitting undecaplatinum clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents.A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of experimental procedures, instrumentation, chromatogram of the crude cluster; SEM/EDAX, DLS, PXRD, TEM, FT-IR, and XPS of the isolated Pt11 cluster; UV/Vis, MALDI MS and SEM/EDAX of isolated 2 and 3; and 195Pt NMR of the K2PtCl6 standard. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02778g

Chakraborty, Indranath; Bhuin, Radha Gobinda; Bhat, Shridevi; Pradeep, T.

2014-07-01

138

Inhibition of Histoplasma capsulatum by Candida albicans and Other Yeasts on Sabouraud's Agar Media  

PubMed Central

The inhibition of growth of Histoplasma capsulatum by Candida albicans and other yeasts on Sabouraud's agar was investigated. Histoplasma (yeast-phase inoculum) was grown alone and in mixtures with yeasts at 25 C for 4-week periods. As few as 10 colonies of C. albicans completely inhibited the growth of approximately 50,000 potential colonies of Histoplasma. The pH was determined in cultures of 36 colonies of Candida on media containing 1, 2, and 4% glucose by spotting the agar with pH indicators. A drop in the pH became noticeable in all three media about the 3rd day of incubation, and a pH of 3.5 was reached in about 7 days. Subsequently, the pH remained almost stationary in the 4% glucose-agar, rose slowly in the 2% glucose-agar, and rose sharply in the 1% glucose-agar. The growth of Histoplasma was inhibited completely at pH 4 and below. When the pH was controlled in mixed cultures, some growth of Histoplasma was obtained. Substitution of maltose for glucose delayed the development of acidity and allowed the appearance of numerous mycelial colonies in the presence of Candida. This growth was arrested as soon as the medium became acid. Four other species which also acidified the Sabouraud's medium effected similar inhibition. It was thus shown that severe and prolonged acidity produced by some yeasts in the sugar-rich Sabouraud's media is alone sufficient to completely inhibit Histoplasma during the standard 4-week incubation of specimens such as sputum. Images PMID:5669894

Kapica, L.; Shaw, C. E.; Bartlett, G. W.

1968-01-01

139

Plant blue-light receptors.  

PubMed

Plants have several blue-light receptors, which regulate different aspects of growth and development. Recent studies have identified three such receptors: cryptochrome 1, cryptochrome 2 and phototropin. Cryptochromes 1 and 2 are photolyase-like receptors that regulate hypocotyl growth and flowering time; phototropin mediates phototropism in response to blue light. In addition, phytochrome A has also been found to mediate various blue-light responses. Although the signal-transduction mechanisms of blue-light receptors remain largely unclear, phototropin is probably a protein kinase that regulates cytoplasmic calcium concentrations, whereas the cryptochromes might regulate anion-channel activity and changes in gene expression. PMID:10908878

Lin, C

2000-08-01

140

Performance of chromID Clostridium difficile agar compared with BBL C. difficile selective agar for detection of C. difficile in stool specimens.  

PubMed

We evaluated the performance of a new chromogenic medium for detection of Clostridium difficile, chromID C. difficile agar (CDIF; bioMérieux, France), by comparison with BBL C. difficile Selective Agar (CDSA; Becton Dickinson and Company, USA). After heat pre-treatment (80?, 5 min), 185 diarrheal stool samples were inoculated onto the two media types and incubated anaerobically for 24 hr and 48 hr for CDIF and for 48 hr and 72 hr for CDSA. All typical colonies on each medium were examined by Gram staining, and the gram-positive rods confirmed to contain the tpi gene by PCR were identified as C. difficile. C. difficile was recovered from 36 samples by using a combination of the two media. The sensitivity with CDIF 48 hr was highest (100%) and was significantly higher than that with CDIF 24 hr (58.3%; P<0.001), because samples with a low burden of C. difficile tended to require prolonged incubation up to 48 hr (P<0.001). The specificity of CDIF 24 hr and CDIF 48 hr (99.3% and 90.6%, respectively) was significantly higher than that of CDSA 48 hr and CDSA 72 hr (72.5% and 67.1%, respectively; P<0.001). CDIF was effective for detecting C. difficile in heat-pretreated stool specimens, thus reducing unnecessary testing for toxin production in non-C. difficile isolates and turnaround time. PMID:25187891

Han, Sang Bong; Chang, Jiyoung; Shin, Sang Hyun; Park, Kang Gyun; Lee, Gun Dong; Park, Yong Gyu; Park, Yeon-Joon

2014-09-01

141

Susceptibilities of 201 Anaerobes to Erythromycin, Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, and Roxithromycin by Oxyrase Agar Dilution and E test Methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibility of 201 anaerobes to erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin was tested by agar dilution and E test methods by using a commercially available plate and dish system (OxyDish) to provide anaerobic conditions. Plates were incubated for 48 h. MICs for 50% of strains tested and MICs for 90% of strains tested by agar dilution and E test methods

S. K. SPANGLER; M. R. JACOBS; C. APPELBAUM

1995-01-01

142

Blue Care Elect Enhanced Value (PPO)  

E-print Network

Blue Care Elect SM Enhanced Value (PPO) Summary of Benefits Williams College An Association of Independent Blue Cross and Blue Shield Plans This health plan meets Minimum Creditable Coverage Standards of your directory, call Member Service at the number on your ID card. ·Visit the Blue Cross Blue Shield

Aalberts, Daniel P.

143

Agar-Block Microcosms for Controlled Plant Tissue Decomposition by Aerobic Fungi  

PubMed Central

The two principal methods for studying fungal biodegradation of lignocellulosic plant tissues were developed for wood preservative testing (soil-block; agar-block). It is well-accepted that soil-block microcosms yield higher decay rates, fewer moisture issues, lower variability among studies, and higher thresholds of preservative toxicity. Soil-block testing is thus the more utilized technique and has been standardized by American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) (method D 1413-07). The soil-block design has drawbacks, however, using locally-variable soil sources and in limiting the control of nutrients external (exogenous) to the decaying tissues. These drawbacks have emerged as a problem in applying this method to other, increasingly popular research aims. These modern aims include degrading lignocellulosics for bioenergy research, testing bioremediation of co-metabolized toxics, evaluating oxidative mechanisms, and tracking translocated elements along hyphal networks. Soil-blocks do not lend enough control in these applications. A refined agar-block approach is necessary. Here, we use the brown rot wood-degrading fungus Serpula lacrymans to degrade wood in agar-block microcosms, using deep Petri dishes with low-calcium agar. We test the role of exogenous gypsum on decay in a time-series, to demonstrate the utility and expected variability. Blocks from a single board rip (longitudinal cut) are conditioned, weighed, autoclaved, and introduced aseptically atop plastic mesh. Fungal inoculations are at each block face, with exogenous gypsum added at interfaces. Harvests are aseptic until the final destructive harvest. These microcosms are designed to avoid block contact with agar or Petri dish walls. Condensation is minimized during plate pours and during incubation. Finally, inoculum/gypsum/wood spacing is minimized but without allowing contact. These less technical aspects of agar-block design are also the most common causes of failure and the key source of variability among studies. Video publication is therefore useful in this case, and we demonstrate low-variability, high-quality results. PMID:21339715

Schilling, Jonathan S.

2011-01-01

144

Agar-block microcosms for controlled plant tissue decomposition by aerobic fungi.  

PubMed

The two principal methods for studying fungal biodegradation of lignocellulosic plant tissues were developed for wood preservative testing (soil-block; agar-block). It is well-accepted that soil-block microcosms yield higher decay rates, fewer moisture issues, lower variability among studies, and higher thresholds of preservative toxicity. Soil-block testing is thus the more utilized technique and has been standardized by American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) (method D 1413-07). The soil-block design has drawbacks, however, using locally-variable soil sources and in limiting the control of nutrients external (exogenous) to the decaying tissues. These drawbacks have emerged as a problem in applying this method to other, increasingly popular research aims. These modern aims include degrading lignocellulosics for bioenergy research, testing bioremediation of co-metabolized toxics, evaluating oxidative mechanisms, and tracking translocated elements along hyphal networks. Soil-blocks do not lend enough control in these applications. A refined agar-block approach is necessary. Here, we use the brown rot wood-degrading fungus Serpula lacrymans to degrade wood in agar-block microcosms, using deep Petri dishes with low-calcium agar. We test the role of exogenous gypsum on decay in a time-series, to demonstrate the utility and expected variability. Blocks from a single board rip (longitudinal cut) are conditioned, weighed, autoclaved, and introduced aseptically atop plastic mesh. Fungal inoculations are at each block face, with exogenous gypsum added at interfaces. Harvests are aseptic until the final destructive harvest. These microcosms are designed to avoid block contact with agar or Petri dish walls. Condensation is minimized during plate pours and during incubation. Finally, inoculum/gypsum/wood spacing is minimized but without allowing contact. These less technical aspects of agar-block design are also the most common causes of failure and the key source of variability among studies. Video publication is therefore useful in this case, and we demonstrate low-variability, high-quality results. PMID:21339715

Schilling, Jonathan S; Jacobson, K Brook

2011-01-01

145

Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to increasing profits. The authors conclude that the blue-ocean strategy or innovation approach is sustainable.

A. E. Burke; Stel van A. J; A. R. Thurik

2010-01-01

146

Melanoma and satellite blue papule  

PubMed Central

The colors that are seen in dermoscopy depend on the anatomic level of the skin at which the chromophores are seen. Blue color can be found in a variety of melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions. An 89-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of a slow-growing, hyperpigmented patch located on the distal third of the right arm. Dermoscopy showed an atypical network, irregularly distributed globules, pigmented internal streaks and a milky-red area. Based on these findings a diagnosis of slow-growing malignant melanoma was made. Simultaneously, a well-defined blue papule was seen on the proximal third of the same arm. Dermoscopy disclosed a homogeneous blue pattern. After clinical and dermoscopic correlation our differential diagnosis for this blue lesion included cutaneous melanoma metastasis, blue nevus and foreign body reaction. The patient recalled its onset 75 years ago after a grenade explosion. We also discuss the blue lesion appearance under reflectance confocal microscopy and high-definition optical coherence tomography. Histopathological examination after excision of the hyperpigmented patch and blue papule revealed a melanoma in situ and a foreign body reaction, respectively. The diagnostic evaluation of a blue lesion should always rely on the integration of all data, especially clinical and dermoscopic features. Other non-invasive techniques, like reflectance confocal microscopy and high-definition optical coherence tomography can also be important aids for its differential diagnosis. PMID:25126462

Oliveira, Andre; Arzberger, Edith; Massone, Cesare; Zalaudek, Iris; Fink-Puches, Regina; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer

2014-01-01

147

Melanoma and satellite blue papule.  

PubMed

The colors that are seen in dermoscopy depend on the anatomic level of the skin at which the chromophores are seen. Blue color can be found in a variety of melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions. An 89-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of a slow-growing, hyperpigmented patch located on the distal third of the right arm. Dermoscopy showed an atypical network, irregularly distributed globules, pigmented internal streaks and a milky-red area. Based on these findings a diagnosis of slow-growing malignant melanoma was made. Simultaneously, a well-defined blue papule was seen on the proximal third of the same arm. Dermoscopy disclosed a homogeneous blue pattern. After clinical and dermoscopic correlation our differential diagnosis for this blue lesion included cutaneous melanoma metastasis, blue nevus and foreign body reaction. The patient recalled its onset 75 years ago after a grenade explosion. We also discuss the blue lesion appearance under reflectance confocal microscopy and high-definition optical coherence tomography. Histopathological examination after excision of the hyperpigmented patch and blue papule revealed a melanoma in situ and a foreign body reaction, respectively. The diagnostic evaluation of a blue lesion should always rely on the integration of all data, especially clinical and dermoscopic features. Other non-invasive techniques, like reflectance confocal microscopy and high-definition optical coherence tomography can also be important aids for its differential diagnosis. PMID:25126462

Oliveira, André; Arzberger, Edith; Massone, Cesare; Zalaudek, Iris; Fink-Puches, Regina; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer

2014-07-01

148

Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The WebWare molecules of the month for May are featured in several articles in this issue. "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?" discusses the pharmaceutical uses of methylene blue and its development as the first synthetic drug used against a specific disease. The JCE Classroom Activity "Out of the Blue" and the article "Greening the Blue Bottle" feature methylene blue and ascorbic acid as two key ingredients in the formulation of the blue bottle. You can also see a colorful example of these two molecules in action on the cover. "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist" describes an experiment to determine the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of citrus fruits and challenges students, as eighteenth-century sea captains, to decide the best fruit to take on a long voyage.

149

Compatibilization of HDPE/agar biocomposites with eutectic-based ionic liquid containing surfactant  

E-print Network

In this research, eutectic-based ionic liquid specifically choline chloride/glycerol was prepared at a 1:2 mole ratio. The choline chloride/glycerol was added with the different content of surfactant (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide). The choline chloride/glycerol-hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide was introduced into high-density polyethylene/agar biocomposites through melt mixing. The mechanical testing results indicated that the impact strength and tensile extension of the biocomposites increased with the introduction of the choline chloride/glycerol-hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. The scanning electron microscope, differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analysis results exhibited that significant decrease in the number of agar fillers pull-out, melting point and thermal decomposition temperatures of the biocomposites are also due to the choline chloride/glycerol-hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. The Fourier transform infrared spectra and X-ray diffractometer patterns of the bioc...

Shamsuri, AA; Zainudin, ES; Tahir, PM

2014-01-01

150

Colony morphotype on Sabouraud-triphenyltetrazolium agar: a simple and inexpensive method for Candida subspecies discrimination.  

PubMed Central

A new method of Candida subspecies discrimination on Sabouraud-triphenyltetrazolium agar is reported. Five hundred sixty-two strains of Candida and Torulopsis glabrata, previously identified by conventional mycological methods, were studied. Each strain received a three-letter code and a number based on its colonial morphology. Sixteen morphotypes were found for Candida albicans, 6 were found for Candida parapsilosis, 4 were found for both Candida guilliermondii and Candida krusei, and 12 were found for Candida tropicalis. None of the 56 T. glabrata strains studied grew on this agar. A reproducibility of 95% was found for C. albicans. The simplicity and low cost could make this method useful for typing Candida spp. Images PMID:1400981

Quindos, G; Fernandez-Rodriguez, M; Burgos, A; Tellaetxe, M; Cisterna, R; Ponton, J

1992-01-01

151

Synthesis and applications of poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) grafted agar: a microwave based approach.  

PubMed

Synthesis of graft copolymers under the influence of microwave radiation alone is a rapid, efficient, clean, cheap, convenient, energy-saving and green method. Grafting of poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) on agar backbone was carried out under the influence of microwave radiation. The synthesis is optimized in terms of percentage grafting and intrinsic viscosity, by varying the microwave irradiation time and monomer (2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) concentration. The synthesized graft copolymers have been characterized by intrinsic viscosity measurement, FTIR spectroscopy, UV-spectroscopy, elemental analysis (C, H, N, & S), thermal studies and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flocculation efficacy of the synthesized graft copolymers was studied in 0.25% kaolin and 1% coal fine suspension, through 'jar test' procedure. Further, flocculation efficacy of the best grade, coagulant (alum) and agar were studied for possible application in remediation of metals from river water. PMID:23850679

Rani, G Usha; Mishra, Sumit; Pathak, Gopal; Jha, Usha; Sen, Gautam

2013-10-01

152

PCR associated with agar gel immunodiffusion assay improve caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAEV) control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) is a multi-systemic viral syndrome in goats caused by small ruminant lentivirus (CAEV). The control measures prescribed for CAEV control are based on the identification of infected animals through a suitable serological test. The aim of this work was to improve the CAE control measures through the association of indirect (agar gel immunodiffusion—AGID) and direct (PCR) assays

J. R. Modolo; A. V. M. Stachissini; C. R. Padovani; J ARAUJOJUNIOR; R. S. Castro; A. P. Ravazzolo; B. L. S. Leite

2009-01-01

153

Screening for antimicrobial activity of some essential oils by the agar overlay technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-three essential oils were tested against five micro-organisms (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans) using the agar overlay technique. The essential oils were randomly selected and not on the basis of a supposed activity. It was found that all oils showed an activity against at least one micro-organism, and that substantial activities againstP. aeruginosa were scarce.

A. M. Janssen; N. L. J. Chin; J. J. C. Scheffer; A. Baerheim Svendsen

1986-01-01

154

Rapid Isolation and Susceptibility Testing of Leptospira spp. Using a New Solid Medium, LVW Agar  

PubMed Central

Pathogenic Leptospira spp., the causative agents of leptospirosis, are slow-growing Gram-negative spirochetes. Isolation of Leptospira from clinical samples and testing of antimicrobial susceptibility are difficult and time-consuming. Here, we describe the development of a new solid medium that facilitates more-rapid growth of Leptospira spp. and the use of this medium to evaluate the Etest's performance in determining antimicrobial MICs to drugs in common use for leptospirosis. The medium was developed by evaluating the effects of numerous factors on the growth rate of Leptospira interrogans strain NR-20157. These included the type of base agar, the concentration of rabbit serum (RS), and the concentration and duration of CO2 incubation during the initial period of culture. The highest growth rate of NR-20157 was achieved using a Noble agar base supplemented with 10% RS (named LVW agar), with an initial incubation at 30°C in 5% CO2 for 2 days prior to continuous culture in air at 30°C. These conditions were used to develop the Etest for three species, L. interrogans (NR-20161), L. kirschnerii (NR-20327), and L. borgpetersenii (NR-20151). The MICs were read on day 7 for all samples. The Etest was then performed on 109 isolates of pathogenic Leptospira spp. The MIC90 values for penicillin G, doxycycline, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and chloramphenicol were 0.64 units/ml and 0.19, 0.047, 0.5, and 2 ?g/ml, respectively. The use of LVW agar, which enables rapid growth, isolation of single colonies, and simple antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Leptospira spp., provides an opportunity for new areas of fundamental and applied research. PMID:23114772

Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Paris, Daniel H.; Langla, Sayan; Thaipadunpanit, Janjira; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Smythe, Lee D.; White, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Peacock, Sharon J.

2013-01-01

155

Co-precipitation with PVP and Agar to Improve Physicomechanical Properties of Ibuprofen  

PubMed Central

Objective(s) : Ibuprofen is a problematic drug in tableting due to its viscoelastic properties. Additionally its high cohesivity results in low flowability. In this study, co-precipitation of ibuprofen with varying concentration of agar and PVP to optimize properties of Ibuprofen was carried out. Materials and Methods: Co-precipitates of ibuprofen- PVP or agar were prepared by solvent evaporation technique under vacuum condition. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X -ray diffraction of powder (XRDP) and FT-IR spectroscopy were used to investigate the solid state characteristics of the co-precipitates. The dissolution behavior, flowability, particle size and compaction properties of various batches were also studied. Results: Co-precipitation of drug with agar led to a change in habit from needle to plate shape crystals, while drug –PVP co-precipitates had agglomerated structure and consisted of numerous crystals which had been aggregated together. The co-precipitates showed improved flow properties compared with ibuprofen alone. Precipitation of ibuprofen with these additives led to modification in the dissolution of the drug. Agar in 1% w/w improved slightly the dissolution rate of drug while PVP had a negative impact and led to reduction in the dissolution rate of drug to less than that of pure drug. The all obtained co-precipitates exhibited significantly improved tableting behavior compared with drug crystals alone. This may be due to this fact that, the polymer covering the drug particles increases and changes the nature of the surface area available for interparticulate bonds between particles. DSC, XRDP and FT-IR experiments showed that drug particles, in co-precipitates samples, did not undergo polymorphic modifications. Conclusion: The study highlights the influence of polymeric additives on crystallization process leading to modified performance. PMID:24250936

Maghsoodi, Maryam; Kiafar, Farhad

2013-01-01

156

Co-precipitation with PVP and Agar to Improve Physicomechanical Properties of Ibuprofen  

PubMed Central

Objective(s) : Ibuprofen is a problematic drug in tableting due to its viscoelastic properties. Additionally its high cohesivity results in low flowability. In this study, co-precipitation of ibuprofen with varying concentration of agar and PVP to optimize properties of Ibuprofen was carried out. Materials and Methods: Co-precipitates of ibuprofen- PVP or agar were prepared by solvent evaporation technique under vacuum condition. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X -ray diffraction of powder (XRDP) and FT-IR spectroscopy were used to investigate the solid state characteristics of the co-precipitates. The dissolution behavior, flowability, particle size and compaction properties of various batches were also studied. Results: Co-precipitation of drug with agar led to a change in habit from needle to plate shape crystals, while drug –PVP co-precipitates had agglomerated structure and consisted of numerous crystals which had been aggregated together. The co-precipitates showed improved flow properties compared with ibuprofen alone. Precipitation of ibuprofen with these additives led to modification in the dissolution of the drug. Agar in 1% w/w improved slightly the dissolution rate of drug while PVP had a negative impact and led to reduction in the dissolution rate of drug to less than that of pure drug. The all obtained co-precipitates exhibited significantly improved tableting behavior compared with drug crystals alone. This may be due to this fact that, the polymer covering the drug particles increases and changes the nature of the surface area available for interparticulate bonds between particles. DSC, XRDP and FT-IR experiments showed that drug particles, in co-precipitates samples, did not undergo polymorphic modifications. Conclusion: The study highlights the influence of polymeric additives on crystallization process leading to modified performance. PMID:24250942

Maghsoodi, Maryam; Kiafar, Farhad

2013-01-01

157

A supplemented soft agar chemotaxis assay demonstrates the Helicobacter pylori chemotactic response to zinc and nickel  

PubMed Central

Directed motility, or chemotaxis, is required for Helicobacter pylori to establish infection in the stomach, although the full repertoire of this bacterium’s chemotactic responses is not yet known. Here we report that H. pylori responds to zinc as an attractant and nickel as a repellent. To reach this conclusion, we employed both a temporal chemotaxis assay based on bacterial reversals and a supplemented soft agar spatial assay. We refined the temporal assay using a previously described chemorepellent, acid, and found that H. pylori requires rich media with serum to maintain optimal swimming motility. Surprisingly, we found that some strains respond to acid as an attractant, and that the TlpC chemoreceptor correlated with whether acid was sensed as an attractant or repellent. Using this same assay, we detected weak repellent responses to nickel and copper, and a varied response to zinc. We thus developed an alternative spatial chemotactic assay called the supplemented soft agar assay, which utilizes soft agar medium supplemented with the test compound. With Escherichia coli, the attractant serine slowed overall bacterial migration, while the repellent nickel increased the speed of overall migration. In H. pylori we detected slowed migration with doubled tryptone media, as well as zinc, consistent with an attractant response. In contrast, nickel increased migration, consistent with repulsion. PMID:23139399

Sanders, Lisa; Andermann, Tessa M.

2013-01-01

158

An image analysis system: an objective and accurate alternative for reading the agar diffusion test.  

PubMed

A computerized image analysis system (IAS) has been used to develop a new method for reading the agar diffusion test automatically. In four experiments a total of 88 porcine plasma and 95 urine samples were screened for oxytetracycline by the agar diffusion test. The inhibition zones were measured by hand and by the IAS directly from the bioassay plate and by the IAS from the photo-negative taken from the plate. Both methods were positively correlated with the hand method for plasma (0.9716, 0.9669) and urine (0.9878, 0.9731) in the range tested for 0.1 to 2.0 micrograms/ml. Moreover, the coefficient of variation and the day-to-day-variation amounted to 1.72% and 1.47% respectively, for the method by hand and 1.10, 1.54% and 0.27, 0.38% respectively, for the IAS methods. It is concluded that the IAS method is an objective and accurate alternative for reading the agar diffusion test. PMID:8196092

Schoevers, E J; Terlou, M; Pijpers, A; Verheijden, J H

1994-02-01

159

ABC Medium, a New Chromogenic Agar for Selective Isolation of Salmonella spp.  

PubMed Central

We describe a new chromogenic agar medium, ABC medium (??-chromogenic medium), which includes two substrates, 3,4-cyclohexenoesculetin-?-d-galactoside and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-?-d-galactopyranoside, to facilitate the selective isolation of Salmonella spp. This medium exploits the fact that Salmonella spp. may be distinguished from other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae by the presence of ?-galactosidase activity in the absence of ?-galactosidase activity. A total of 1,022 strains of Salmonella spp. and 300 other gram-negative strains were inoculated onto this medium. Of these, 1,019 (99.7%) strains of Salmonella spp. produced a characteristic green colony, whereas only 1 strain (0.33%) of non-Salmonella produced a green colony. A total of 283 stool samples were cultured onto desoxycholate citrate (DC) agar and ABC medium by direct inoculation and after selective enrichment in selenite broth. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity were superior for ABC medium (100 and 90.5%, respectively) than for DC agar (88 and 26.9%, respectively). We conclude that ABC medium offers a high degree of specificity for the detection of Salmonella spp. in stool samples. PMID:9986848

Perry, John D.; Ford, Michael; Taylor, Jeffrey; Jones, Amanda L.; Freeman, Roger; Gould, Frances K.

1999-01-01

160

CAS agar diffusion assay for the measurement of siderophores in biological fluids.  

PubMed

We developed a simple and universal method, by modifying the universal CAS (Chrome azurol S) assay, measuring siderophores in various biological fluids. We named the assay as CAS agar diffusion (CASAD) assay. CAS plate devoid of nutrients was prepared by using Bacto-agar (1.5%, w/v) as a matrix. Holes with 5-mm-diameter were punched on the CAS agar plate. Each hole was added by 35 microl of the test fluids containing Desferal that was twofold serially diluted. After incubating at 37 degrees C or room temperature for 4-8 h, the size of orange haloes formed around the holes was measured. The size of orange haloes correlated well with the concentration of Desferal in all the biological fluids tested in this study. CASAD assay showed consistent results in wide pH range from 5 to 9. Addition of iron to the test fluids containing Desferal decreased the size of orange haloes in a dose-dependent manner, which suggests that the CASAD assay detects only iron non-bound siderophore. These results suggest that CASAD assay would serve as a simple, stable, and highly reproducible test for screening and quantitative siderophore analysis in biological fluids. PMID:11166103

Shin, S H; Lim, Y; Lee, S E; Yang, N W; Rhee, J H

2001-02-01

161

Application of solid-phase extraction to agar-supported fermentation.  

PubMed

Agar-supported fermentation (Ag-SF), a variant of solid-state fermentation, has recently been improved by the development of a dedicated 2 m(2) scale pilot facility, Platotex. We investigated the application of solid-phase extraction (SPE) to Ag-SF in order to increase yields and minimize the contamination of the extracts with agar constituents. The selection of the appropriate resin was conducted on liquid-state fermentation and Diaion HP-20 exhibited the highest recovery yield and selectivity for the metabolites of the model fungal strains Phomopsis sp. and Fusarium sp. SPE applied to Ag-SF resulted in a particular compartmentalization of the culture. The mycelium that requires oxygen to grow migrates to the top layer and formed a thick biofilm. The resin beads intercalate between the agar surface and the mycelium layer, and trap directly the compounds secreted by the mycelium through a "solid-solid extraction" (SSE) process. The resin/mycelium layer is easily recovered by scraping the surface and the target metabolites extracted by methanol. Ag-SF associated to SSE represents an ideal compromise for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites with limited economic and environmental impact. PMID:23263569

Le Goff, Géraldine; Adelin, Emilie; Cortial, Sylvie; Servy, Claudine; Ouazzani, Jamal

2013-09-01

162

Selective isolation of Pseudomonas stutzeri from vertebrate faeces on Rambach agar.  

PubMed

Faecal samples collected from 308 wild birds of 25 species and 19 rodents of 3 species in South Moravia (Czechland) were pre-incubated in Müller-Kauffmann tetrathionate broth at 42 degrees C for 24 h and then streaked onto Rambach agar plates which were incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 h. Seventeen out of 22 isolates forming orange-red colonies on Rambach agar were identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri, the rest as Pseudomonas sp. and Alcaligenes sp. The colonies of P. stutzeri were either dry, wrinkled and adherent to the agar (resembling Bacillus) or smooth, less adherent (mimicking Salmonella). P. stutzeri was recovered from five species of vertebrates caught in farmland habitats: the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), the tree sparrow (P. montanus), the great warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus), the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and the common vole (Microtus arvalis). The overall isolation rate was 4.5% in birds (12.6% in house sparrows) and 15.8% in rodents. The procedure can be useful for the isolation of P. stutzeri in clinical and environmental studies. PMID:9861678

Hubálek, Z; Pácová, Z; Halouzka, J; Sedlácek, I; Dlouhý, M; Honza, M

1998-11-01

163

A simple and rapid semiquantitative method for measuring cellulase activity in agar media.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid semiquantitative technique for the determination of fungal cellulytic activities in solid (agar slant) media has been developed. This method is a combination of Congo-red staining widely used for qualitative cellulase detection and common cellulase activity tests. Previous investigation on the adsorptive effect of cellulose content of media showed that the real enzyme activity values can be measured with minimum loss by means of agar discs cut from the most active zones of slants visualized by Congo-red staining. Different cellulase activity tests (FPase, CMCase and beta-glucosidase by PNPG-method) of seven cellulolytic fungal strains were investigated by this technique. Data give information on the different enzyme profiles of the species. The method can be regarded as very simple and suitable for simultaneous rapid comparison of cellulase components of greater series of fungal strains from agar slant cultures. It can also be used in the case of fungi unable to grow in liquid cultures. PMID:7542535

Jakucs, E; Várallyay, E

1995-01-01

164

TETRANITRO-BLUE TETRAZOLIUM  

E-print Network

In Bacillus subtilis the reduction of potassium tellurite and of tetranitro-blue tetrazolium (TNBT) give comparable results: reduced products appear deposited in particular membranous organelles. For this reason these specialized organelles are considered to be chondrioids (1-3). In the Gram-negative Proteus vulgaris similar membranous structures were never observed by us (4, 5). Therefore it is a challenging problem to investigate the location of the respiratory chain in this organism. With potassium tellurite applied to Proteus (2, 4, 5) in a manner similar to that for Bacillus subtilis (1, 2, 5), we observe deposition of reduced product in a rather restricted cytoplasmic area contiguous to the plasma membrane. In view of modern ideas that enzymes belonging to the oxidative phosphorylation process would be located in elementary particles forming part of the cristae mitochondriales, it was considered essential to determine upon what cell structures in this organism the products of tetranitro-blue tetrazolium reduction are deposited. B R I E F N O T E S 241MATERIALS AND METHODS Proteus vulgaris, a strain obtained from Dr. E. Klieneberger-Nobel, was cultivated under vigorous agitation in Difco hcart infusion broth. To cells in the early logarithmic phase of growth washed with S6rensen buffer was added a solution of 0.05 per cent TNBT in the SSrensen buffer together with either one of the following substrates: 0.5 M sodium succinate, sodium formate, sodium pyruvate, or sodium lactate. The incubation media containing TNBT were supplemerited with 0.004 ~ calcium chloride, and incubation was carried out for 1 hour at room temperature. After incubation the cells were washed in acetate-Vcronal buffer and fixed overnight, in the usual way of Ryter and Kellenberger, and subsequently embedded in Vestopal W. For reasons of comparison some embeddings were made in Epon. Thin sections were cut with glass knives on LKB ultrotomes. The electron micrograpsh were made with a Philips EM 200, using the double condenser lens system and the 25 # objective aperture.

Reduction In; Proteus Vulgaris; W. Leene; Woutera Van Iterson

165

21073CAMENABC 5/11 Anthem Blue Cross is the trade name of Blue Cross of California. Anthem Blue Cross and Anthem Blue Cross Life and Health Insurance Company are independent licensees of the Blue Cross Association.  

E-print Network

21073CAMENABC 5/11 Anthem Blue Cross is the trade name of Blue Cross of California. Anthem Blue Cross and Anthem Blue Cross Life and Health Insurance Company are independent licensees of the Blue Cross Association. ® ANTHEM is a registered trademark of Anthem Insurance Companies, Inc. The Blue Cross

Rose, Michael R.

166

Theory of Polar Blue Phases  

E-print Network

In liquid crystals, if flexoelectric couplings between polar order and director gradients are strong enough, the uniform nematic phase can become unstable to formation of a modulated polar phase. Previous theories have predicted two types of modulation, twist-bend and splay-bend; the twist-bend phase has been found in recent experiments. Here, we investigate other types of modulation, using lattice simulations and Landau theory. In addition to twist-bend and splay-bend, we also find polar blue phases, with 2D or 3D modulations of both director and polar order. We compare polar blue phases with chiral blue phases, and discuss opportunities for observing them experimentally.

Shaikh M. Shamid; David W. Allender; Jonathan V. Selinger

2014-05-22

167

Development of a Colony Lift Immunoassay To Facilitate Rapid Detection and Quantification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Agar Plates and Filter Monitor Membranes  

PubMed Central

E. coli O157:H7 is a food-borne adulterant that can cause hemorrhagic ulcerative colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Faced with an increasing risk of foods contaminated with E. coli O157:H7, food safety officials are seeking improved methods to detect and isolate E. coli O157:H7 in hazard analysis and critical control point systems in meat- and poultry-processing plants. A colony lift immunoassay was developed to facilitate the positive identification and quantification of E. coli O157:H7 by incorporating a simple colony lift enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with filter monitors and traditional culture methods. Polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes (Millipore, Bedford, Mass.) were prewet with methanol and were used to make replicates of every bacterial colony on agar plates or filter monitor membranes that were then reincubated for 15 to 18 h at 36 ± 1°C, during which the colonies not only remained viable but were reestablished. The membranes were dried, blocked with blocking buffer (Kirkegaard and Perry Laboratories [KPL], Gaithersburg, Md.), and exposed for 7 min to an affinity-purified horseradish peroxidase-labeled goat anti-E. coli O157 antibody (KPL). The membranes were washed, exposed to a 3,3?,5,5?-tetramethylbenzidine membrane substrate (TMB; KPL) or aminoethyl carbazole (AEC; Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, Mo.), rinsed in deionized water, and air dried. Colonies of E. coli O157:H7 were identified by either a blue (via TMB) or a red (via AEC) color reaction. The colored spots on the PVDF lift membrane were then matched to their respective parent colonies on the agar plates or filter monitor membranes. The colony lift immunoassay was tested with a wide range of genera in the family Enterobacteriaceae as well as different serotypes within the E. coli genus. The colony lift immunoassay provided a simple, rapid, and accurate method for confirming the presence of E. coli O157:H7 colonies isolated on filter monitors or spread plates by traditional culture methods. An advantage of using the colony lift immunoassay is the ability to test every colony serologically on an agar plate or filter monitor membrane simultaneously for the presence of the E. coli O157 antigen. This colony lift immunoassay has recently been successfully incorporated into a rapid-detection, isolation, and quantification system for E. coli O157:H7, developed in our laboratories for retail meat sampling. PMID:9665968

Ingram, David T.; Lamichhane, Chinta M.; Rollins, David M.; Carr, Lewis E.; Mallinson, Edward T.; Joseph, Sam W.

1998-01-01

168

Taxonomical and technological characteristics of Saccharomyces spp. associated with blue veined cheese.  

PubMed

In blue veined cheeses, the dominant yeast species in most cases is Debaryomyces hansenii. Saccharomyces spp. occurs less frequently, but they can be found in some blue veined cheeses. In the present study, the taxonomy of Saccharomyces spp. associated to blue veined cheeses was studied and comparisons made to type strains of Saccharomyces spp. and starter cultures of Saccharomyces spp. used in other food fermentations. Phenotypically, the cheese strains were referred to the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex and were further identified as S. cerevisiae. Genotypically, the Saccharomyces spp. investigated were similar although chromosomal polymorphism were observed. Concerning the technological characteristics, they were similar in assimilation and fermentation of the residual sugars and organic acids naturally found in cheese. The investigated yeasts were also similar in their lipolytic activity being able to hydrolyse tributyrin and low chain (C:8), but not C:14 fatty acids. However, they differed in their tolerance to NaCl with the blue cheese strains showing a higher tolerance. The cheese strain S. cerevisiae FB 7 was the only yeast capable of degrading casein. It mainly degraded the alpha(s1)-casein and the beta(alpha2)-casein components. It was also the only isolate stimulating the development of Penicillium roqueforti in cheese agar imitating the conditions in blue veined cheese. The stimulation of P. roqueforti was most pronounced for the least proteolytic strain of P. roqueforti examined. PMID:11589561

Hansen, T K; Jakobsen, M

2001-09-19

169

Hazards of solar blue light  

SciTech Connect

Short-wavelength visible light (blue light) of the Sun has caused retinal damage in people who have stared fixedly at the Sun without adequate protection. The author quantified the blue-light hazard of the Sun according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines by measuring the spectral radiance of the Sun. The results showed that the exposure limit for blue light can be easily exceeded when people view the Sun and that the solar blue-light hazard generally increases with solar elevation, which is in accordance with a model of the atmospheric extinction of sunlight. Viewing the Sun can be very hazardous and therefore should be avoided except at very low solar elevations.

Okuno, Tsutomu

2008-06-01

170

Laponite blue: dissolving the insoluble.  

PubMed

The neutral organic dye indigo forms an inorganic-organic hybrid material with nanoclays (see picture; blue circles on disks symbolizing indigo, spheres indicating liberated cations) and can thus be transferred into aqueous solution. Solids recovered from these solutions resemble the ancient Maya Blue pigment. The method can also be applied to other hydrophobic species and may open the gate for novel solution chemistry, including photonic and catalytic applications. PMID:22952053

Lezhnina, Marina M; Grewe, Tobias; Stoehr, Hardo; Kynast, Ulrich

2012-10-15

171

Effect of Red Seaweed Polysaccharides Agar (Gracilaria changii) on Thermal Properties and Microstructure of Wheat Starch (Kesan Polisakarida Agar daripada Rumpai Laut Merah (Gracilaria changii) ke atas Sifat Terma dan Mikrostruktur Kanji Gandum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has been carried out on the mixture of Gracilaria changii agar (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8%) with wheat starch. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed for morphology observation, and starch thermal analysis were carried out to determine the properties of gelatinization and retrogradation. Proximate analysis has been determined for isolated wheat starch and agar. Through SEM, interaction was

P. KHAIRUL FAIZAL; H. ROHASMIZAH; B. ABDUL SALAM

2009-01-01

172

STOCK ASSESSMENT OF THE BLUE CRAB  

E-print Network

STOCK ASSESSMENT OF THE BLUE CRAB IN CHESAPEAKE BAY 2011 #12;2011 Stock assessment for blue crab in Chesapeake Bay iii Executive Summary The blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) is an icon for the Chesapeake Bay region. The commercial fisheries for blue crab in the Bay remain one of the most valuable fishery sectors

173

Press Release No Blue Skies for Mice  

E-print Network

Seite 1/2 Press Release No Blue Skies for Mice Scientists at the University of Tübingen study to make intuitive sense: blue light from the sky is detected by the blue cones, while the greenish light the animals no advantage. "The green cones would `see' the light in the sky just like the blue cones

Tübingen, Universität

174

BLUE WHALE-SIZED MOUTHFULS MAKE FORAGING  

E-print Network

Inside JEB i BLUE WHALE-SIZED MOUTHFULS MAKE FORAGING SUPER EFFICIENT When a blue whale dives from the University of British Columbia, Canada, explains that blue whales may be able to dive, measuring the energetics of blue whale lunges at depth seemed almost impossible until Shadwick and his

Martin, Paul R.

175

The Blue Language1 Michael Klling  

E-print Network

1 The Blue Language1 Michael K�lling School of Computer Science and Software Engineering Monash. The system we are about to discuss is named Blue. Blue is an integrated programming environment and an object. In this issue, we discuss the language aspects of Blue. Next month we will continue the discussion by describing

Kent, University of

176

Draft Genome Sequence of the Agar-Degrading Bacterium Catenovulum sp. Strain DS-2, Isolated from Intestines of Haliotis diversicolor  

PubMed Central

Catenovulum sp. strain DS-2, isolated from intestines of Haliotis diversicolor, is able to degrade agar and produce agaro-oligosaccharides. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Catenovulum sp. strain DS-2. PMID:24604650

Shan, Dapeng; Li, Xu; Gu, Zheng; Wei, Guangshan; Gao, Zheng

2014-01-01

177

Determination of O-Isopropyl Methylphosphonic Acid in Living Microorganism-Agar Matrixes using ION Chromatography\\/Conductivity Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A direct anion exchange ion chromatography (IC)-based method for the detection of the chemical warfare (CW) agent degradation product, O-isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA) in agar medium has been developed. This is the first report of the development and validation of an IC-based method for the analysis of IMPA in a microorganism and agar matrix. In these experiments, IMPA served as

Alaa-Eldin F. Nassar; Samuel V. Lucas; Susan A. Thomas

1999-01-01

178

Trace Amounts of Furan-2-Carboxylic Acids Determine the Quality of Solid Agar Plates for Bacterial Culture  

PubMed Central

Background Many investigators have recognised that a significant proportion of environmental bacteria exist in a viable but non-culturable state on agar plates, and some researchers have also noticed that some of such bacteria clearly recover their growth on matrices other than agar. However, the reason why agar is unsuitable for the growth of some bacteria has not been addressed. Methodology/Principal Findings According to the guide of a bioassay for swarming inhibition, we identified 5-hydroxymethylfuran-2-carboxylic acid (5-HMFA) and furan-2-carboxylic acid (FA) as factors that inhibit bacterial swarming and likely inhibit extracellular polysaccharide production on agar. The furan-2-carboxylic acids 5-HMFA and FA effectively inhibited the swarming and swimming of several environmental bacteria at concentrations of 1.8 and 2.3 µg L?1 (13 and 21 nmol L?1), respectively, which are equivalent to the concentrations of these compounds in 0.3% agar. On Luria-Bertani (LB) plates containing 1.0% agar that had been previously washed with MeOH, a mixture of 5-HMFA and FA in amounts equivalent to their original concentrations in the unwashed agar repressed the swarming of Escherichia coli K12 strain W3110, a representative swarming bacterium. Conclusions/Significance Agar that contains trace amounts of 5-HMFA and FA inhibits the proliferation of some slow-growing or difficult-to-culture bacteria on the plates, but it is useful for single colony isolation due to the ease of identification of swarmable bacteria as the non-swarmed colonies. PMID:22848437

Hara, Shintaro; Isoda, Reika; Tahvanainen, Teemu; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki

2012-01-01

179

Characteristics of 0\\/129-sensitive motile Aeromonas strains isolated from freshwater on starch-ampicillin agar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motile Aeromonas hydrophila strains were recovered from several freshwater sources by spread-plating water samples on starch-ampicillin agar, originally described as a medium for recovering Aeromonas hydrophila quantitatively from foods. Starch-ampicillin agar was compared with membrane Aeromonas medium and Rimler-Shotts medium for selectivity for, and recovery of, Aeromonas strains from freshwater. Thirty-four Aeromonas strains thus isolated were identified to species level

Marian M. Cahill; I. C. MacRae

1992-01-01

180

Detection and differentiation of iron-responsive avirulent mutants on Congo red agar.  

PubMed Central

Agar medium containing Congo red dye differentiates virulent and avirulent colonies of Shigella, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, and Neisseria meningitidis. Like virulent plague bacilli, wild-type cells of these species absorb the dye and produce red colonies. Mutants or colonial variants have been isolated that fail to absorb the dye and produce colorless colonies. These mutants exhibit reduced virulence in the chicken embryo model, but their virulence is enhanced by supplementation with iron. Of those species tested, only Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates failed to grow in the presence of this dye. Inhibition of growth by Congo red may thus provide a simple means for differentiating gonococci from other Neisseria. Images PMID:409688

Payne, S M; Finkelstein, R A

1977-01-01

181

Use of Sodium Polyanethol Sulfonate in the Preparation of 5% Sheep Blood Agar Plates  

PubMed Central

An alternative method to defibrinating sheep blood for use in bacteriological media is described. The new procedure incorporates sodium polyanethol sulfonate in a concentration of 0.05% (vol/vol). In testing 117 bacterial and fungal isolates, no significant differences were found with respect to adequate growth, pigment production, hemolytic reactions, and other physical attributes. Further tests demonstrate that the sodium polyanethol sulfonate in sheep blood agar plates does not cause any aberrations in zone sizes around disks used in antibiotic susceptibility tests. Consequently, the method represents a suitable alternative to the use of defibrinated sheep blood in the preparation of bacteriological media. PMID:4210729

Wasilauskas, Benedict L.; Floyd, Julia; Roberts, T. Richard

1974-01-01

182

Nicole Hudson Sillerman Center Summer Internship at the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts Foundation  

E-print Network

Nicole Hudson Sillerman Center Summer Internship at the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts of Philanthropy, I had the privilege of interning at The Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts Foundation (the Blue Shield of Massachusetts. The Foundation's mission is to expand access to health care services

Snider, Barry B.

183

Water Resource Value Monitoring for Blue Spring and Blue Spring Run, Volusia County, Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The St. Johns River Water Management District (District) has adopted by rule a minimum flow regime (MFR) for Blue Spring and Blue Spring Run (Blue Spring MFR) in Volusia County, Florida. The Blue Spring MFR will support the protection of the use of Blue S...

2009-01-01

184

Comparative Study for Determination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Susceptibility to First- and Second-Line Antituberculosis Drugs by the Etest Using 7H11, Blood, and Chocolate Agar?  

PubMed Central

We investigated the performance of blood and chocolate agar as alternatives to Middlebrook 7H11 agar for testing the susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to first-and second-line drugs by the Etest method. A total of 39 strains of M. tuberculosis including 22 multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains and 17 susceptible strains were tested. In conclusion, our results showed that chocolate agar gave insufficient growth, needing up to 21 days of incubation, while results on blood agar were comparable to those on Middlebrook 7H11 agar and can be further explored as an alternative for Etest-based susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis. PMID:18945843

Coban, Ahmet Yilmaz; Bilgin, Kemal; Uzun, Meltem; Akgunes, Alper; Yusof, Anne; Durupinar, Belma

2008-01-01

185

Mechanical response of agar gel irradiated with Nd:YAG nanosecond laser pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanosecond long laser pulses are used in medical applications where precise tissue ablation with minimal thermal and mechanical collateral damage is required. When a laser pulse is incident on a material, optical energy will be absorbed by a combination of linear and nonlinear absorption according to both: laser light intensity and material properties. In the case of water or gels, the first results in heat generation and thermoelastic expansion; while the second results in an expanding plasma formation that launches a shock wave and a cavitation/boiling bubble. Plasma formation due to nonlinear absorption of nanosecond laser pulses is originated by a combination of multiphoton ionization and thermionic emission of free electrons, which is enhanced when the material has high linear absorption coefficient. In this work, we present measurements of pressure transients originated when 6 ns laser pulses are incident on agar gels with varying linear absorption coefficient, mechanical properties and irradiation geometry using laser radiant exposures above threshold for bubble formation. The underlying hypothesis is that pressure transients are composed of the superposition of both: shock wave originated by hot expanding plasma resulting from nonlinear absorption of optical energy and, thermoelastic expansion originated by heat generation due to linear absorption of optical energy. The objective of this work is to evaluate the relative contribution of each absorption mechanism to mechanical effects in agar gel. Real time pressure transients are recorded with PVDF piezoelectric sensors and time-resilved imaging from 50 ?m to 10 mm away from focal point.

Pérez-Gutiérrez, Francisco G.; Evans, Rodger; Camacho-López, Santiago; Aguilar, Guillermo

2010-02-01

186

Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on agar and processed meat surfaces by atmospheric pressure plasma jets.  

PubMed

An apparatus for generating atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) jet was used to investigate the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of agar plates and slices of cooked chicken breast and ham. He, N? (both 7 L/min), and mixtures of each with O? (0.07 L/min) were used to produce the plasma jets. After treatment for 2 min with APP jets of He, He + O?, N?, or N? + O?, the numbers of L. monocytogenes on agar plates were reduced by 0.87, 4.19, 4.26, and 7.59 log units, respectively. Similar treatments reduced the L. monocytogenes inoculated onto sliced chicken breast and ham by 1.37 to 4.73 and 1.94 to 6.52 log units, respectively, according to the input gas used with the N? + O? mixture being the most effective. Most APP jets reduced the numbers of aerobic bacteria on the meat surfaces to <10² CFU/g, and the numbers remained below that level of detection after storage at 10 °C for 7 days. The results indicate that APP jets are effective for the inactivation of L. monocytogenes on sliced meats and for prolonging the shelf-life of such foods. PMID:21925030

Lee, Hyun Jung; Jung, Heesoo; Choe, Wonho; Ham, Jun Sang; Lee, Jun Heon; Jo, Cheorun

2011-12-01

187

The blue-collar brain.  

PubMed

Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

2012-01-01

188

Blue-green upconversion laser  

DOEpatents

A blue-green laser (450-550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm.sup.3+. The Tm.sup.+ is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP.

Nguyen, Dinh C. (Los Alamos, NM); Faulkner, George E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01

189

Blue light emitting thiogallate phosphor  

DOEpatents

A crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor of the formula RGa.sub.2 S.sub.4 :Ce.sub.x where R is selected from the group consisting of calcium, strontium, barium and zinc, and x is from about 1 to 10 atomic percent, the phosphor characterized as having a crystalline microstructure on the size order of from about 100 .ANG. to about 10,000 .ANG. is provided together with a process of preparing a crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor by depositing on a substrate by CVD and resultant thin film electroluminescent devices including a layer of such deposited phosphor on an ordinary glass substrate.

Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); King, Christopher N. (Portland, OR); Tuenge, Richard T. (Hillsboro, OR)

1998-01-01

190

The Blue-Collar Brain  

PubMed Central

Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body’s tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

2012-01-01

191

Blues and the Blues Committee Some historical notes  

E-print Network

ever sporting match between Oxford and Cambridge was at cricket, held on 4 June 1827 of the Cambridge Blue is often posed, but does not have a simple answer. Sport at Oxford and Cambridge, as we now developed their own sports clubs, of course, and these again had their own colours and regalia. The first

Travis, Adrian

192

Evaluation of the Granada Agar Plate for Detection of Vaginal and Rectal Group B Streptococci in Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Granada medium was evaluated for the detection of group B streptococci (GBS) in vaginal and rectal swabs compared with selective Columbia blood agar and selective Lim broth. From May 1996 to March 1998, 702 pregnant women (35 to 37 weeks of gestation) participated in this three-phase study; 103 (14.7%) of these women carried GBS. In the first phase of the experiment (n = 273 women), vaginorectal specimens were collected on the same swab; the sensitivities of Granada tube, selective Columbia blood agar, and Lim broth were 31.4, 94.3, and 74.3%, respectively. In the second and third phases (n = 429 women), vaginal and rectal specimens were collected separately; the sensitivities of Granada plate, selective Columbia blood agar, and Lim broth (subcultured at 4 h on selective Columbia agar in the second phase and at 18 to 24 h in Granada plate in the third phase) were 91.1, 83.9, and 75%, respectively, in the second phase and 88.5, 90.4, and 63.5%, respectively, in the third phase. There were no statistically significant differences in GBS recovery between the Granada agar plate and selective Columbia blood agar, but the Granada plate provided a clear advantage; the characteristic red-orange colonies produced overnight by GBS can be identified by the naked eye and is so specific that further identification is unnecessary. The use of the Granada tube and Lim broth did not result in increased isolation of GBS. In conclusion, the Granada agar plate is highly sensitive for detecting GBS in vaginal and rectal swabs from pregnant women and can provide results in 18 to 24 h. PMID:10405415

Gil, E. García; Rodríguez, M. C.; Bartolomé, R.; Berjano, B.; Cabero, L.; Andreu, A.

1999-01-01

193

Singing' the Black and Blues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is so obvious that the sky is blue in the daytime and black at night, but it took the smartest humans thousands of years of observation, thought, discussion, conjecture, and analysis to finally come up with answers that make scientific sense as to why the sky is these colors. This article discusses light and the scientific research…

Fisher, Diane

2004-01-01

194

Blue Sky and Rayleigh Scattering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Georgia State University explains why we see the sky as blue. It describes Rayleigh scattering, which refers to the scattering of light off of the molecules of the air, and Mie scattering, which refers to the scattering of light by larger particles.

Carl R. (Rod) Nave; University, Georgia S.

195

The Taos Blue Lake Ceremony.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Blue Lake Ceremony of the Taos Pueblo Indians of New Mexico. Reproduces the 1906 account of the ceremony by anthropologist Matilda Coxe Stevenson and notes modern verification and change. Discusses the importance of this annual August pilgrimage and initiation rite to the preservation of Taos culture. (SV)

Bodine, John J.

1988-01-01

196

Blue Crabs in the Chesapeake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a classroom unit and data activity focusing on juvenile and adult blue crab distribution in the Chesapeake Bay. The pdf includes background on crab biology, anatomy, life cycle, and fisheries. Authentic data tables are provided for in-class analysis and discussion questions guide inquiry.

Clark, Vicki P.; Lawrence, Lisa; Musick, Susanna; Van Montfrans, Jacques

2011-06-13

197

Teaching Sherman Alexie's "Reservation Blues."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A college teacher discusses his experiences of departing from the established literary canon to teach Sherman Alexie's "Reservation Blues" as part of an upper-level American literature survey class. Students reacted to the novel and its characters, evaluated Alexie's writing techniques, and discussed their personal experiences with Native…

McFarland, Ronald E.

2001-01-01

198

Why is the Sky Blue?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides a brief description of the scattering of light rays from the sun in the atmosphere of the Earth. It provides an explanation of why the sky is blue and sunsets are red. The discussion avoids the use of numbers.

199

Effect of solvent transfer in agar gels on stress relaxation under large deformation.  

PubMed

We measured stress relaxation, volume of exuded water, and spatial distribution of stress in agar gels under large deformation. Gels with smaller sample size and lower concentration exuded water faster and had shorter stress relaxation time. Gels with the storage time of 3 days exuded more water and had shorter stress relaxation time than gels with the storage time of 1 day, and this tendency was remarkable for low-concentration gels. Examination of the spatial distribution of stress in a cylindrical gel under large deformation showed that the outer part of the gel had smaller stress than the inner part at an early stage, and the area with small stress gradually extended into the inner part. This result indicates that the inhomogeneity of water content caused by water exudation from the gel surface induces the stress distribution in the gel. PMID:24815413

Matsukawa, Shingo; Ding, Yichun; Zhao, Qiuhua; Mogi, Akiko; Tashiro, Yuri; Ogawa, Hiroo

2014-08-30

200

Cell cytotoxicity and mycotoxin and secondary metabolite production by common penicillia on cheese agar.  

PubMed

Known or potential new fungal starter culture species such as Penicillium camemberti, P. roqueforti, P. nalgiovense, P. caseifulvum, and P. solitum have been cultivated on a cheese agar medium together with the common cheese contaminants P. commune, P. crustosum, P. discolor, P. atramentosum, and P. nordicum. Secondary metabolites were extracted and analyzed by HPLC-DAD and tested for cytotoxicity by using the MTT-cell culture assay. Metabolites such as cyclopiazonic acid, roquefortine C, and penitrem A, previously reported from cheese, were detected together with sclerotigenin, solistatin, meleagrin, oxaline, compactins, diaportins, chaetoglobosins, rugulovasines, verrucolones, anacines, verrucines, cyclopeptines, viridicatins, and viridic acid, all metabolites not previously reported from cheese. The two P. nalgiovense extracts were the most toxic in the MTT-cell culture test. These extracts contained diaportines together with a number of unknown compounds. P. roqueforti extracts were not toxic at all. Fungal extracts from the rest of the studied penicillia were toxic at levels between these two extremes. PMID:12358494

Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Gareis, Manfred; Frisvad, Jens Christian

2002-10-01

201

Is the micro-agar larval development test reliable enough to detect ivermectin resistance?  

PubMed

To aid the diagnosis of anthelmintic resistance, a range of in vivo and in vitro techniques have been developed. Amongst in vitro techniques, the larval development test is the most widely employed. Six lambs were infected with susceptible (three) and ivermectin-resistant (three) isolates of Haemonchus contortus. The micro-agar larval development test (MALDT) was able to easily distinguish between susceptible and resistant isolates. Different proportions of resistant and susceptible eggs were subsequently incubated, i.e. development to the third larval stage occurred only in the resistant isolate. The percentage of resistant eggs ranged from 2 to 20.0 % of all eggs in the wells. In all cases, the MALDT was able to detect the presence of a minimum of 10 % of resistant worms amongst a susceptible background population. The probability was approximately 87 % of positively diagnosing a proportion of resistant worms of only 2-4 % within the population. PMID:22581298

Dolinská, Michaela; Königová, Alžbeta; Várady, Marián

2012-11-01

202

Visualization of Thermal Distribution Caused by Focused Ultrasound Field in an Agar Phantom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasound waves have been widely used not only in medical diagnostic systems but also in medical treatment. There has been increasing interest in the thermal distribution caused by ultrasound waves. In this study, using thermochromic particles, a visualization method was suggested in a mimic phantom for organic materials. By blending various thermochromic particles with different critical temperatures, the thermal field distribution in the phantom could be observed. The effect of a concave-type ultrasound transducer on the temperature distribution in an agar phantom mixed with thermochromic particles was observed. The temperature distribution corresponded to changes in the brightness distribution of gray. It was confirmed that the thermal distribution pattern in the vicinity of the focal area varies with the time exposure to ultrasound waves.

Kim, Jungsoon; Kim, Moojoon; Ha, Kanglyeol

2011-07-01

203

Injection of Acanthaster planci with thiosulfate-citrate-bile-sucrose agar (TCBS). I. Disease induction.  

PubMed

This is the first report of the successful induction of a transmissible disease in the coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci (COTS). Injection of thiosulfate-citrate-bile-sucrose agar (TCBS) culture medium into COTS induced a disease characterized by discoloured and necrotic skin, ulcerations, loss of body turgor, accumulation of colourless mucus on many spines especially at their tip, and loss of spines. Blisters on the dorsal integument broke through the skin surface and resulted in large, open sores that exposed the internal organs. Oedema and reddened digestive tissues and destruction of connective fibers were common. Moreover, healthy COTS in contact with these infected animals also displayed signs of disease and died within 24 h. TCBS induced 100% mortality in injected starfish. There was no introduction of new pathogens into the marine environment. TCBS promoted the growth of COTS' naturally occurring Vibrionales to high densities with subsequent symbiont imbalance followed by disease and death. PMID:22303625

Rivera-Posada, J A; Pratchett, M; Cano-Gómez, A; Arango-Gómez, J D; Owens, L

2011-12-01

204

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of dermatophytes--comparison of the agar macrodilution and broth microdilution tests.  

PubMed

Fifty dermatophyte strains, recently obtained from clinical material, belonging to 4 different species were examined for their susceptibility to 5 systemic or topical antimycotic agents using both an agar macrodilution and a broth microdilution test. Antimycotics compared were griseofulvin, itraconazole, sertaconazole, terbinafine and ciclopiroxolamine. A comparison of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) clearly showed differences between the two test methods applied. For all 5 antimycotics, MIC data were three- to seventy-fold lower in the microdilution test system. These differences, depending on the test method, have to be taken into account when comparing MIC data in the literature or when relating the in vitro data to the tissue concentrations determined in vivo. PMID:9444406

Niewerth, M; Splanemann, V; Korting, H C; Ring, J; Abeck, D

1998-01-01

205

Laboratory evaluation of different agar media for isolation of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp.  

PubMed

The optimal method for surveillance of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. (CRAB) is unknown. A collection of CRAB strains (n?=?42), carbapenem-susceptible strains (CSAB), and non-Acinetobacter strains (n?=?18) was used to evaluate six laboratory surveillance methods: MacConkey (MAC), MAC?+?1 ?g/ml imipenem (MAC-IPM), minimal salts agar?+?1 % acetate (MSA), MSA with IPM disk (MSA-IPM), CHROMagarKPC, and CHROMagar Acinetobacter with CR102 (CHROMAcineto). CHROMAcineto was 100 % sensitive and specific. CHROMagarKPC and MAC-IPM were highly sensitive (>95 %), but their specificity was substantially hampered by the breakthrough growth of CSAB. MSA was unsuitable for CRAB detection. CHROMAcineto is a promising medium for CRAB detection and warrants further clinical evaluation. PMID:24865248

Moran-Gilad, J; Adler, A; Schwartz, D; Navon-Venezia, S; Carmeli, Y

2014-11-01

206

Hair Sheep Blood, Citrated or Defibrinated, Fulfills All Requirements of Blood Agar for Diagnostic Microbiology Laboratory Tests  

PubMed Central

Background Blood agar is used for the identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of many bacterial pathogens. In the developing world, microbiologists use human blood agar because of the high cost and inhospitable conditions for raising wool sheep or horses to supply blood. Many pathogens either fail to grow entirely or exhibit morphologies and hemolytic patterns on human blood agar that confound colony recognition. Furthermore, human blood can be hazardous to handle due to HIV and hepatitis [1], [2]. This study investigated whether blood from hair sheep, a hardy, low-maintenance variety of sheep adapted for hot climates, was suitable for routine clinical microbiology studies. Methods and Findings Hair sheep blood obtained by jugular venipuncture was anticoagulated by either manual defibrination or collection in human blood bank bags containing citrate-phosphate-dextrose. Trypticase soy 5% blood agar was made from both forms of hair sheep blood and commercial defibrinated wool sheep blood. Growth characteristics, colony morphologies, and hemolytic patterns of selected human pathogens, including several streptococcal species, were evaluated. Specialized identification tests, including CAMP test, reverse CAMP test, and satellite colony formation with Haemophilus influenzae and Abiotrophia defectiva were also performed. Mueller-Hinton blood agar plates prepared from the three blood types were compared in antibiotic susceptibility tests by disk diffusion and E-test. Conclusions The results of all studies showed that blood agar prepared from citrated hair sheep blood is suitable for microbiological tests used in routine identification and susceptibility profiling of human pathogens. The validation of citrated hair sheep blood eliminates the labor-intensive and equipment-requiring process of manual defibrination. Use of hair sheep blood, in lieu of human blood currently used by many developing world laboratories and as an alternative to cost-prohibitive commercial sheep blood, offers the opportunity to dramatically improve the safety and accuracy of laboratory diagnosis of pathogenic bacteria in resource-poor countries. PMID:19578541

Yeh, Ellen; Pinsky, Benjamin A.; Banaei, Niaz; Baron, Ellen Jo

2009-01-01

207

Impaction onto a Glass Slide or Agar versus Impingement into a Liquid for the Collection and Recovery of Airborne Microorganisms  

PubMed Central

To study impaction versus impingement for the collection and recovery of viable airborne microorganisms, three new bioaerosol samplers have been designed and built. They differ from each other by the medium onto which the bioaerosol particles are collected (glass, agar, and liquid) but have the same inlet and collection geometries and the same sampling flow rate. The bioaerosol concentrations recorded by three different collection techniques have been compared with each other: impaction onto a glass slide, impaction onto an agar medium, and impingement into a liquid. It was found that the particle collection efficiency of agar slide impaction depends on the concentration of agar in the collection medium and on the sampling time, when samples are collected on a nonmoving agar slide. Impingement into a liquid showed anomalous behavior with respect to the sampling flow rate. Optimal sampling conditions in which all three new samplers exhibit the same overall sampling efficiency for nonbiological particles have been established. Inlet and collection efficiencies of about 100% have been achieved for all three devices at a sampling flow rate of 10 liters/min. The new agar slide impactor and the new impinger were then used to study the biological factors affecting the overall sampling efficiency. Laboratory experiments on the total recovery of a typical environmental microorganism, Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525, showed that both sampling methods, impaction and impingement, provided essentially the same total recovery when relatively nonstressed microorganisms were sampled under optimal sampling conditions. Comparison tests of the newly developed bioaerosol samplers with those commercially available showed that the incorporation of our research findings into the design of the new samplers yields better performance data than data from currently available samplers. PMID:16349217

Juozaitis, Arvydas; Willeke, Klaus; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Donnelly, Jean

1994-01-01

208

William Blue College of Hospitality Management  

E-print Network

and dinner. William Blue Dining gives our students a hands-on learning experience in a comfortableWilliam Blue College of Hospitality Management UAC 2013­14 Guide 441UAC 2013­14 Guide 441 NORTH SYDNEY CAMPUS CRICOS provider number 00246M postal enquiries William Blue College of Hospitality

New South Wales, University of

209

`blue-sky' science Spending review  

E-print Network

CONTENTS Sea 2 Sky `blue-sky' science Spending review Mighty microbe Blackford investment Talking. Cooling Towers Fiddlers Ferry #12;What are the benefits of `blue-sky' science? At a time where every penny counts, the STFC is making the case that fundamental or blue-sky research yields long term benefits

210

Original article Blue-stain fungi associated  

E-print Network

Original article Blue-stain fungi associated with Tomicus piniperda in Sweden and preliminary to determine the development of blue-staining of sapwood. Fungi were isolated from samples of inner bark and blue-stained sapwood in connection with galleries of T piniperda. Samples were also taken from beetle

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

211

Blue Waters: An Extraordinary Research Capability for  

E-print Network

Blue Waters: An Extraordinary Research Capability for Ad ancing Science & Engineering Frontiers will talk about the new supercomputer Blue Waters and its proposed use by the science and engineering of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. This system, called Blue Waters, is based on the latest computing

212

1) Anthem Blue Dental PPO Plus 2) Anthem Blue Dental PPO  

E-print Network

- 35 - 1) Anthem Blue Dental PPO Plus 2) Anthem Blue Dental PPO DENTAL INSURANCE ANTHEM BLUE CROSS AND BLUE SHIELD You may select from two separate dental care plans to meet your individual needs. Premium with comprehensive dental care benefits. However, each plan has special features and a variety of ways to manage your

213

Why is the ocean blue? One of these misconceptions is that the ocean is blue  

E-print Network

Why is the ocean blue? One of these misconceptions is that the ocean is blue because the sky owed its color to the sky, it would be a lighter shade of blue and it would be white on cloudy days transparent not turquoise blue, as it is observed even in indoor pools, where there's no sky to be reflected

Cruz-Pol, Sandra L.

214

The riddle of the blue-straggler stars Die Blauen Nachz uglersterne (blue-straggler  

E-print Network

The riddle of the blue-straggler stars Die Blauen Nachz uglersterne (blue-straggler stars) sind sequence beyond the turn o#11;. These so- called blue-straggler stars (BS) are quite common, they occur systems. Fig. 1 provides an example of an intermediate old open cluster with a rich blue

215

SEROLOGY OF THE SOLUBLE ANTIGENS OF CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS TYPES A-F BY AGAR-GEL DIFFUSION  

PubMed Central

Ellner, Paul D. (University of Vermont, Burlington) and Carolyn D. Bohan. Serology of the soluble antigens of Clostridium perfringens types A–F by agar-gel diffusion. J. Bacteriol. 83:284–296. 1962.—A serological study by agar-gel diffusion of the soluble antigens of 39 strains of the Clostridium perfringens group has shown them to be extremely heterogeneous. Strain variation occurred within the six types, and common antigens shared among the six types were frequently observed. Attempts to produce type-specific sera by absorption were unsuccessful, due to incomplete removal of common antibodies. Images PMID:13890020

Ellner, Paul D.; Bohan, Carolyn D.

1962-01-01

216

49 CFR 218.23 - Blue signal display.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Blue signal display. 218.23 Section 218...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Blue Signal Protection of Workers § 218.23 Blue signal display. (a) Blue signals...

2013-10-01

217

49 CFR 218.23 - Blue signal display.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Blue signal display. 218.23 Section 218...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Blue Signal Protection of Workers § 218.23 Blue signal display. (a) Blue signals...

2012-10-01

218

Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

Not Available

1990-09-01

219

Once in a Blue Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will demonstrate an understanding of the moon's features by creating an art or writing project about it. They will learn the concept of a "Blue Moon", which occurs in months with two full moons. They will also understand that the moon is smaller than the Earth, has no light of its own, has no air or water, and has a dusty brown surface marked with craters.

1998-01-01

220

Showcase of Blue Sky Catastrophes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let a system of differential equations possess a saddle-node periodic orbit such that every orbit in its unstable manifold is homoclinic, i.e. the unstable manifold is a subset of the (global) stable manifold. We study several bifurcation cases where the splitting of such a homoclinic connection causes the Blue Sky Catastrophe, including the onset of complex dynamics. The birth of an invariant torus or a Klein bottle is also described.

Shilnikov, Leonid Pavlovich; Shilnikov, Andrey L.; Turaev, Dmitry V.

2014-08-01

221

Rooting of blue honeysuckle microshoots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rooting of axillary shoots of two blue honeysuckle forms, Lonicera caerulea f. caerulea and L. caerulea f. edulis, was studied.\\u000a Both in vitro and ex vitro rooting procedures were used, and the effects of mineral and auxin concentrations of the rooting\\u000a media were tested. Reduced mineral nutrient concentrations of modified MS medium allowed more root elongation but did not\\u000a affect

Saila T. Karhu

1997-01-01

222

Confined Cubic Blue Phases under Shear  

E-print Network

We study the behaviour of confined cubic blue phases under shear flow via lattice Boltzmann simulations. We focus on the two experimentally observed phases, blue phase I and blue phase II. The disinclination network of blue phase II continuously breaks and reforms under shear, leading to an oscillatory stress response in time. The oscillations are only regular for very thin samples. For thicker samples, the shear leads to a "stick-slip" motion of part of the network along the vorticity direction. Blue phase I responds very differently: its defect network undergoes seemingly chaotic rearrangements under shear, irrespective of system size.

O. Henrich; K. Stratford; D. Marenduzzo; P. V. Coveney; M. E. Cates

2011-11-23

223

Confined cubic blue phases under shear.  

PubMed

We study the behaviour of confined cubic blue phases under shear flow via lattice Boltzmann simulations. We focus on the two experimentally observed phases, blue phase I and blue phase II. The disclination network of blue phase II continuously breaks and reforms under shear, leading to an oscillatory stress response in time. The oscillations are only regular for very thin samples. For thicker samples, the shear leads to a 'stick-slip' motion of part of the network along the vorticity direction. Blue phase I responds very differently: its defect network undergoes seemingly chaotic rearrangements under shear, irrespective of system size. PMID:22738991

Henrich, O; Stratford, K; Marenduzzo, D; Coveney, P V; Cates, M E

2012-07-18

224

The Cryptochrome Blue Light Receptors  

PubMed Central

Cryptochromes are photolyase-like blue light receptors originally discovered in Arabidopsis but later found in other plants, microbes, and animals. Arabidopsis has two cryptochromes, CRY1 and CRY2, which mediate primarily blue light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and photoperiodic control of floral initiation, respectively. In addition, cryptochromes also regulate over a dozen other light responses, including circadian rhythms, tropic growth, stomata opening, guard cell development, root development, bacterial and viral pathogen responses, abiotic stress responses, cell cycles, programmed cell death, apical dominance, fruit and ovule development, seed dormancy, and magnetoreception. Cryptochromes have two domains, the N-terminal PHR (Photolyase-Homologous Region) domain that bind the chromophore FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), and the CCE (CRY C-terminal Extension) domain that appears intrinsically unstructured but critical to the function and regulation of cryptochromes. Most cryptochromes accumulate in the nucleus, and they undergo blue light-dependent phosphorylation or ubiquitination. It is hypothesized that photons excite electrons of the flavin molecule, resulting in redox reaction or circular electron shuttle and conformational changes of the photoreceptors. The photoexcited cryptochrome are phosphorylated to adopt an open conformation, which interacts with signaling partner proteins to alter gene expression at both transcriptional and posttranslational levels and consequently the metabolic and developmental programs of plants. PMID:21841916

Yu, Xuhong; Liu, Hongtao; Klejnot, John; Lin, Chentao

2010-01-01

225

Models of Individual Blue Stragglers  

E-print Network

This chapter describes the current state of models of individual blue stragglers. Stellar collisions, binary mergers (or coalescence), and partial or ongoing mass transfer have all been studied in some detail. The products of stellar collisions retain memory of their parent stars and are not fully mixed. Very high initial rotation rates must be reduced by an unknown process to allow the stars to collapse to the main sequence. The more massive collision products have shorter lifetimes than normal stars of the same mass, while products between low mass stars are long-lived and look very much like normal stars of their mass. Mass transfer can result in a merger, or can produce another binary system with a blue straggler and the remnant of the original primary. The products of binary mass transfer cover a larger portion of the colour-magnitude diagram than collision products for two reasons: there are more possible configurations which produce blue stragglers, and there are differing contributions to the blended ...

Sills, Alison

2014-01-01

226

Inflation and alternatives with blue tensor spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the tilt of the primordial gravitational waves spectrum. A hint of blue tilt is shown from analyzing the BICEP2 and POLARBEAR data. Motivated by this, we explore the possibilities of blue tensor spectra from the very early universe cosmology models, including null energy condition violating inflation, inflation with general initial conditions, and string gas cosmology, etc. For the simplest G-inflation, blue tensor spectrum also implies blue scalar spectrum. In general, the inflation models with blue tensor spectra indicate large non-Gaussianities. On the other hand, string gas cosmology predicts blue tensor spectrum with highly Gaussian fluctuations. If further experiments do confirm the blue tensor spectrum, non-Gaussianity becomes a distinguishing test between inflation and alternatives.

Wang, Yi; Xue, Wei

2014-10-01

227

Inflation and Alternatives with Blue Tensor Spectra  

E-print Network

We study the tilt of the primordial gravitational waves spectrum. A hint of blue tilt is shown from analyzing the BICEP2 and POLARBEAR data. Motivated by this, we explore the possibilities of blue tensor spectra from the very early universe cosmology models, including null energy condition violating inflation, inflation with general initial conditions, and string gas cosmology, etc. For the simplest G-inflation, blue tensor spectrum also implies blue scalar spectrum. In general, the inflation models with blue tensor spectra indicate large non-Gaussianities. On the other hand, string gas cosmology predicts blue tensor spectrum with highly Gaussian fluctuations. If further experiments do confirm the blue tensor spectrum, non-Gaussianity becomes a distinguishing test between inflation and alternatives.

Yi Wang; Wei Xue

2014-03-23

228

1370 Rev. (3/03) An independent licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield is the trade name of Anthem Health Plans of New Hampshire, Inc.  

E-print Network

1370 Rev. (3/03) An independent licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield is the trade name of Anthem Health Plans of New Hampshire, Inc. ® Registered marks of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. Request for Certification for a Mentally or Physically

Myers, Lawrence C.

229

The soft agar clonogenicity and characterization of cells obtained from human solid tumors by mechanical and enzymatic means  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-step procedure for releasing cells from solid tumors has been applied to specimens of human melanoma, sarcoma, lung, colon, and breast carcinoma. The first population released mechanically has been compared with the population subsequently released enzymatically in tests of dye exclusion, ribonucleoside triposphate pool sizes, intactness of DNA, and clonogenicity in soft agar. While greater numbers of dye-excluding cells

Harry K. Slocum; Zlatko P. Pavelic; Peter M. Kanter; Norma J. Nowak; Youcef M. Rustum

1981-01-01

230

Bacterial differentiation within Moraxella bovis colonies growing at the interface of the agar medium with the Petri dish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moraxella bouis was found to colonize the interface between agar and the polystyrene Petri dish, producing circular colonies when the inoculum was stabbed at a single point. The bacteria occurred in a thin layer of nearly uniform thickness, and colonial expansion occurred in at least two temporal phases. In the first phase, the radial colonial expansion was slow and non-linear.

JOHN C. MCMICHAEL

1992-01-01

231

Properties and characterization of agar/CuNP bionanocomposite films prepared with different copper salts and reducing agents.  

PubMed

Various types of agar-based bio-nanocomposite (BNC) films were prepared by blending agar and six different copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) with different shapes and sizes obtained from three different sources of copper salts and two different reducing agents. The BNC films were characterized by UV-visible, FE-SEM, FT-IR, and XRD. The thermogravimetric study showed that the melting point of BNC films was increased when ascorbic acid was used as a reducing agent for CuNPs synthesis. Apparent surface color and transmittance of agar film was greatly influenced by the reinforcement of CuNPs. However, mechanical and water vapor barrier properties did not change significantly (p>0.05) by blending with CuNPs. Tensile modulus and tensile strength decreased slightly for all types of CuNPs reinforced while elongation at break slightly increased when CuNPs produced by ascorbic acid were blended. The agar bio-nanocomposite films showed profound antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative food-borne pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25263917

Shankar, Shiv; Teng, Xinnan; Rhim, Jong-Whan

2014-12-19

232

Cultivation Media for Bacteria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Common bacteriological culture media (tryptic soy agar, chocolate agar, Thayer-Martin agar, MacConkey agar, eosin-methylene blue agar, hektoen agar, mannitol salt agar, and sheep blood agar) are shown uninoculated and inoculated with bacteria.

American Society For Microbiology;

2009-12-08

233

Dichromated agar: a promising doped biocopolymer for real time holographic recording  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agar is a natural polysaccharide which, when doped with dichromate ammonium, can be considered as a promising light sensitive material used for real time hologram recording. The volume transmission gratings were recorded with a Kypton laser at 413 nm and they were read in real-time with a He/Ne laser at 632.8 nm contrary to dichromated gelatin. The so obtained holograms formed were phase holograms due to a refraction index modulation. The optimisation of chemical and physical parameters was investigated in order to form high quality holograms. It was demonstrated the crucial role played by the remaining water in the final film on the value of the diffraction efficiency. In the optimal conditions, a maximum diffraction efficiency of 37 % was attained. Both on-off experiments and the storage of the exposed materials at room temperature and in the dark reveal that the holograms were stable. An attempt to rationalize the set of results in terms of chemical structure of the polymeric matrix and of its ability to stabilize chromium (V) is presented.

Bolte, Michèle; Israëli, Yaël; Rivaton, Agnès; Lessard, Roger A.

2006-09-01

234

Injection of Acanthaster planci with thiosulfate-citrate-bile-sucrose agar (TCBS). II. Histopathological changes.  

PubMed

We assessed histological changes in the tissues of the crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci (COTS) after injection of thiosulfate-citrate-bile-sucrose agar (TCBS) which was used as a disease inducer (potential outbreak control method), by conventional and scanning electron microscopy. Digestive glands were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin to describe the histological architecture of the intestinal epithelium. Subsequently comparison of healthy versus infected tissues and Gram stains were carried out to confirm bacterial occurrence on infected tissues, characterize the structural changes induced by bacterial communities in COTS tissues, and to determine if the histopathological changes of intestinal tissues were consistent with vibrio infection. TCBS injections induced marked epithelial desquamation, hypertrophy and hypersecretion of glandular cells, epithelial cell destruction, pyknosis, reduction of thickness and disorganization of connective tissue and associated nerve plexus, presence of bacterial colonies, irregular eosinophilic foci in glandular cells, brush border disruption, atrophy and detachment of intestinal microvilli and cell debris in the lumen. All these changes were attributed to a fulminating systemic dysbiosis and were consistent with vibrio infections. PMID:22303626

Rivera-Posada, J A; Pratchett, M; Owens, L

2011-12-01

235

Chemosensitivity testing of human neoplasms using the soft agar colony assay.  

PubMed

An in vitro soft agar assay for cloning of primary human tumour cells and sensitivity testing to anticancer agents has been developed by Hamburger and Salmon (human tumour stem cell assay, HTSCA). Based on the stem cell model, this assay may predict chemosensitivity for a defined tumour cell subpopulation of human solid neoplasms. But, methodological problems like the representative quality of a tumour sample, the disaggregation as well as the limited plating efficiency have to be solved before the clinical value of this test can be evaluated. Depending on the histological tumour type a sufficient colony growth for chemosensitivity testing can only be obtained in about 1/3 of all cases. Because of the limited biopsy material, more than five anticancer agents can only be tested in half of all assays. Paradoxical dose-response relationships for cytostatic agents or radiation in vitro point to artifacts. In vivo pharmacokinetics can only be partly imitated by in vitro conditions. Quality-control trials using an established cell line reveal a variability of the in vitro test conditions for certain agents. In addition, the testing of different tumour biopsy samples of the same patient yields variable results. In spite of the methodological problems, large in vivo-in vitro trials show sufficient correlations. The results reflect the high proportion of resistance of human solid tumours. Further development and improvement of the assay promises application of the test system in preclinical testing of anticancer agents. PMID:6733715

Schlag, P; Flentje, D

1984-03-01

236

Cation Concentration Variability of Four Distinct Mueller-Hinton Agar Brands Influences Polymyxin B Susceptibility Results  

PubMed Central

Polymyxins have been the only alternative therapeutic option for the treatment of serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii or Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. For this reason, it is of crucial importance that susceptibility tests provide accurate results when testing these drug-pathogen combinations. In this study, the effect of cation concentration variability found on different commercial brands of Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) for testing polymyxin B susceptibility was evaluated. The polymyxin B susceptibilities determined using Etest and disk diffusion were compared to those determined by the CLSI reference broth microdilution method. In general, the polymyxin B MIC values were higher when determined by Etest than when determined by broth microdilution against both A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa isolates. A high very major error rate (10%) was observed, as well as a trend toward lower MICs, compared to those determined by broth microdilution when the Merck MHA was tested by Etest. Poor essential agreement rates (10 to 70%) were observed for P. aeruginosa when all MHA brands were tested by Etest. Although an excellent categorical agreement rate (100%) was seen between the disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods for P. aeruginosa, larger zones of inhibition were shown obtained using the Merck MHA. The high cation concentration variability found for the MHA brands tested correlated to the low accuracy, and discrepancies in the polymyxin B MICs were determined by Etest method, particularly for P. aeruginosa isolates. PMID:22553247

Bispo, Paulo J. M.; Yamanaka, Tiago M.; Gales, Ana C.

2012-01-01

237

Elemental composition of Physarum compressum Alb. et Schw. sporocarps and their structures cultivated on rabbit dung and agar substrates.  

PubMed

The elemental composition of spores, peridium walls, and lime nodes of Physarum compressum sporocarps, cultivated on rabbit dung as a natural growing environment for the slime mold and on artificial agar medium, was compared to evaluate differences that may be dependent on substrates. Whole fruiting bodies and samples of both experimental media were extracted with nitric acid or Parr digest bomb, respectively, and analyzed by means of total X-ray reflection fluorescence (TXRF). Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of spores, peridium walls, and lime nodes structure was carried out with the scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive spectrometer. Because of minute sizes and roughness of investigated structures, Monte Carlo simulations were utilized to establish analytical conditions of EPMA. Biological and geological standards were used in the quantification of element concentrations. According to TXRF, the fruiting bodies from agar medium revealed lower concentrations of K, Ca, Cr, Mn, and Fe in relation to fruiting bodies from the dung, reflecting elemental relationships in the experimental media. According to EPMA, the highest Ca concentration was found in the lime nodes followed by the peridium and the spores. Culturing of the slime molds on the rabbit dung indicated higher concentration of Ca in the lime nodes and peridium walls when compared with those obtained from the sporocarps grown on agar media. The opposite relation was found for the spores. The concentration of Na, Mg, P, S, and Cl was generally lower in all structures of the sporocarps harvested from the dung than from the agar medium. K was in higher concentration in analyzed structures from dung than from agar. Different element uptake (except for Ca and K) was revealed by the two methods: TXRF and EPMA. PMID:20981759

Janik, Paulina; Tylko, Grzegorz; Ostachowicz, Beata; Turnau, Katarzyna

2010-12-01

238

Modeling Blue Horizontal Branch Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stars of the Blue Horizontal Branch (BHB) are characterized by having being through most of their evolutionary process and lost part of their external layers, leaving only a thin layer of hydrogen and a burning Helium nucleus. This makes these stars very blue and hot, although old. They are present in many stellar population systems (e.g. stellar clusters and elliptical galaxies), and their presence can induce errors in the age determination of these objects using integrated spectra. The stellar population analysis technique using integrated spectra is a very powerful tool nowadays, however stellar population models do not account for the BHB stars. Because of that, the presence of these stars induces to the determination of younger ages than expected for these systems. In this project we will create synthetic spectra for the BHB stars that can be incorporated to the stellar population models to be used in spectral synthesis. Here we present a study of the atmospheric parameters of these stars that will be used to create the synthetic spectra.

Santos, R. G.; Martins, L. P.

2014-10-01

239

Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates an optically switchable band gap of photonic crystal that is based on an azobenzene-doped liquid crystal blue phase. The trans-cis photoisomerization of azobenzene deforms the cubic unit cell of the blue phase and shifts the photonic band gap. The fast back-isomerization of azobenzene was induced by irradiation with different wavelengths light. The crystal structure is verified using Kossel diffraction diagram. An optically addressable blue phase display, based on Bragg reflection from the photonic band gap, is also demonstrated. The tunable ranges are around red, green, and blue wavelengths and exhibit a bright saturated color.

Liu, H.-Y.; Wang, C.-T.; Hsu, C.-Y.; Lin, T.-H. [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Liu, J.-H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

2010-03-22

240

Screening for ligninolytic enzymes from autochthonous fungi and applications for decolorization of Remazole Marine Blue  

PubMed Central

This study presents new and alternative fungal strains for the production of ligninolytic enzymes which have great potential to use in industrial and biotechnological processes. Thirty autochthonous fungal strains were harvested from Bornova-Izmir in Turkiye. In the fresh fruitbody extracts laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase activities, which are the principal enzymes responsible for ligninocellulose degradation by Basidiomycetes, were screened. Spores of some of the basidiomycetes species such as Cortinarius sp., Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Abortiporus biennis, Lyophyllum subglobisporium, Ramaria stricta, Ganoderma carnosum, Lactarius delicious ve Lepista nuda were isolated and investigated optimum cultivation conditions in submerged fermentation for high yields of ligninolytic enzyme production. In addition, isolated fungal strains were monitored on agar plates whether having the capability of decolorization of a textile dye Remazol Marine Blue. PMID:24031371

Erden, Emre; Ucar, M. Cigdem; Gezer, Tekin; Pazarlioglu, Nurdan Kasikara

2009-01-01

241

[Bone marrow culture, cytochemistry and electron microscopy in agar in patients with preleukemic syndrome and aplastic anemia].  

PubMed

Thirty-seven patients with chronic cytopenia were studied using a CFU-c assay in agar. On the basis of the growth pattern three types of preleukaemic syndrome (PL) and two types of aplastic anaemia were distinguished. Further evaluation of the bone marrow dysfunction was attempted with a combined application of cytochemistry and electron microscopy for the morphologic study of cells proliferating in vitro. Well-defined maturation defects in the growing cells from the bone marrow of patients with PL were demonstrated with cytochemical stainings performed in agar. These results were supported by electron microscopic findings of Auer-body-like inclusions in "statu nascendi" in the vacuoles of preleukaemic cells. On the basis of our results a high risk group of PL for development of overt leukaemia and a group of patients with a grave prognosis in aplastic anaemia were distinguished. The data obtained are relevant for the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of patients with cytopenias. PMID:6293234

Konwalinka, G; Peschel, C; Geissler, D; Tomaschek, B; Schuler, G; Schmalzl, F; Schaefer, H; Huber, H; Odavic, R; Braunsteiner, H

1982-01-01

242

Use of the Chrome Azurol S Agar Plate Technique To Differentiate Strains and Field Isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii.  

PubMed

Identification of Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium strains and especially of indigenous isolates continues to be one of the major difficulties associated with competition studies. Because there is no universally accepted method, the method of choice depends on preference, experience, and equipment. Here, an agar plate technique was used to distinguish strains and field isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii to provide a basis for identifying nodule occupants in further competition studies. A rapid plate technique, based on differential growth characteristics, complements other techniques such as serological reactions, particularly when antisera cross-react with nonhomologous strains. The technique involves culturing strains and isolates on chrome azurol S agar. Although similar responses were observed among some strains, the response was highly reproducible and was considered an ideal complementary technique used in conjunction with serological procedures. Strains with similar responses could often be differentiated by varying media components, such as the source of carbon. PMID:16347877

Ames-Gottfred, N P; Christie, B R; Jordan, D C

1989-03-01

243

Comparison of disc diffusion & E test methods with agar dilution for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Haemophilus influenzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods: A total of 46 isolates of H. influenzae from various invasive sites were included as test strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method for ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) and cefotaxime. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) determination was performed by E test and agar dilution for the same set of antimicrobials. All tests were performed on Haemophilus

Anand Manoharan; Rekha Pai; V. Shankar; Kurien Thomas; M. K. Lalitha

2003-01-01

244

Epidemiology of Klebsiella oxytoca-associated diarrhea detected by Simmons citrate agar supplemented with inositol, tryptophan, and bile salts.  

PubMed

We studied the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of Klebsiella oxytoca-associated diarrhea in hospitalized patients in Hong Kong. Between 1 November 2009 and 30 April 2011, all inositol-fermenting colonies found on Simmons citrate agar supplemented with inositol, tryptophan, and bile salts (SCITB agar) used for the culturing of diarrheal stool samples were screened by a spot indole test for K. oxytoca. The overall sensitivity of SCITB agar plus the spot indole test (93.3%) for the detection of K. oxytoca in stool samples was superior to that of MacConkey agar (63.3%), while the specificities were 100% and 60.4%, respectively. The former achieved a 23-fold reduction in the workload and cost of subsequent standard biochemical identifications. Cytotoxin production and the clonality of K. oxytoca were determined by a cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay using HEp-2 cells and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), respectively. Of 5,581 stool samples from 3,537 patients, K. oxytoca was cultured from 117/5,581 (2.1%) stool samples from 104/3,537 (2.9%) patients. Seventy-six of 104 (73.1%) patients with K. oxytoca had no copathogens in their diarrheal stool samples. Twenty-four (31.6%) of 76 patients carried cytotoxin-producing strains, which were significantly associated with antibiotic therapy after hospital admission (50% versus 21.2%; P = 0.01). Health care-associated diarrhea was found in 44 (42%) of 104 patients with K. oxytoca, but there was no epidemiological linkage suggestive of a nosocomial outbreak, and PFGE showed a diverse pattern. None of the patients with cytotoxin-producing K. oxytoca developed antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis, suggesting that K. oxytoca can cause a mild disease manifesting as uncomplicated antibiotic-associated diarrhea with winter seasonality. PMID:22357507

Cheng, Vincent C C; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Tsang, Lee-Lee; Yau, Miranda C Y; Siu, Gilman K H; Wong, Sally C Y; Chan, Jasper F W; To, Kelvin K W; Tse, Herman; Hung, Ivan F N; Tai, Josepha W M; Ho, Pak-Leung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2012-05-01

245

Ecology of Blue Straggler Stars  

E-print Network

The existence of blue straggler stars (BSS), which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution, as such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. As such, BSS could just be some quirks but in fact their understanding requires a deep knowledge of many different areas in astronomy, from stellar evolution through cluster dynamics, from chemical abundances to stellar populations. In November 2012, a workshop on this important topic took place at the ESO Chilean headquarters in Santiago. The many topics covered at this workshop were introduced by very comprehensive invited reviews, providing a unique and insightful view on the field. These reviews have now become chapters of the first ever book on BSS.

Boffin, H M J; Beccari, G

2014-01-01

246

Metronidazole susceptibility testing for Helicobacter pylori: comparison of disk, broth, and agar dilution methods and their clinical relevance.  

PubMed Central

Since the methods for metronidazole susceptibility testing of Helicobacter pylori have not been standardized or validated, we compared three methods that are used to test the metronidazole susceptibilities of 25 isolates of H. pylori. Specifically, we examined the methods of Steer's replicator agar dilution, tube broth microdilution, and modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion. The metronidazole disk zone sizes obtained by the disk diffusion method correlated well (r = 0.74) with the MICs obtained by the agar dilution method. Afterward, the disk diffusion method was used to characterize the metronidazole susceptibilities of 44 isolates of H. pylori. Dual therapy (bismuth and metronidazole) proved to be highly effective against metronidazole-susceptible strains (81.6% eradication rate) but fared poorly against resistant strains (16.7% eradication rate; P < 0.01). Using agar dilution testing, we validated the modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method for metronidazole susceptibility testing of H. pylori and conclude that it is practical, accurate, and clinically applicable. PMID:8370723

DeCross, A J; Marshall, B J; McCallum, R W; Hoffman, S R; Barrett, L J; Guerrant, R L

1993-01-01

247

Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

Liebl, Michael

2010-01-01

248

Ostracoda (Myodocopina) from Bahamian Blue Holes  

E-print Network

an account of the new discoveries in science, and of the changes made from year to year in all branches Myodocopida are reported from eight oceanic blue holes in the vicinity of Exuma Cays and Andros Island ostracodes have been collected in oceanic blue holes, nor have they been reported from shallow open waters

Iliffe, Thomas M.

249

Quirks of dye nomenclature. 1. Evans blue.  

PubMed

The history, origin, identity, chemistry and use of Evans blue dye are described along with the first application to staining by Herbert McLean Evans in 1914. In the 1930s, the dye was marketed under the name, Evans blue dye, which was profoundly more acceptable than the ponderous chemical name. PMID:23957706

Cooksey, C J

2014-02-01

250

Why is the sky blue? (Tyndall Effect)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides an answer to the common question of âWhy is the sky blue?â The page uses drawings and images to explain how Tyndall Effect causes the blue color we see. Similar topics like Sunsets and âWhy is Mars sky red?â are also addressed.

2007-06-22

251

Nile Blue derivatives as lysosomotropic photosensitizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benzophenoxazines, including several Nile blue analogues, are a unique group of dyes that localize selectively in animal tumors. Chemical modifications of Nile blue A can yield derivatives with high 1O2 quantum yields. These derivatives represent a group of potentially effective photosensitizers for selective phototherapy of malignant tumors. In vitro evaluation of these derivatives has indicated that those with high

Chi-Wei Lin; Janine R. Shulok; S. D. Kirley; Louis Cincotta; James W. Foley

1991-01-01

252

Featured Molecules: Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The WebWare molecules of the month for May are featured in several articles in this issue. "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?" discusses the pharmaceutical uses of methylene blue and its development as the first synthetic drug used against a specific disease. The JCE Classroom Activity "Out of the Blue" and the article "Greening the Blue Bottle" feature methylene blue and ascorbic acid as two key ingredients in the formulation of the blue bottle. You can also see a colorful example of these two molecules in action on the cover. "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist" describes an experiment to determine the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of citrus fruits and challenges students, as eighteenth-century sea captains, to decide the best fruit to take on a long voyage. Fully manipulable (Chime) versions of these and other molecules are available at Only@JCE Online.

Coleman, William F.; Wildman, Randall J.

2003-05-01

253

Blue Stragglers After the Main Sequence  

E-print Network

We study the post-main sequence evolution of products of collisions between main sequence stars (blue stragglers), with particular interest paid to the horizontal branch and asymptotic giant branch phases. We found that the blue straggler progeny populate the colour-magnitude diagram slightly blueward of the red giant branch and between 0.2 and 1 magnitudes brighter than the horizontal branch. We also found that the lifetimes of collision products on the horizontal branch is consistent with the numbers of so-called "evolved blue straggler stars" (E-BSS) identified by various authors in a number of globular clusters, and is almost independent of mass or initial composition profile. The observed ratio of the number of E-BSS to blue stragglers points to a main sequence lifetime for blue stragglers of approximately 1-2 Gyr on average.

Alison Sills; Amanda Karakas; John Lattanzio

2008-11-18

254

Evaluation of enrichment, storage, and age of blood agar medium in relation to its ability to support growth of anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

By measuring the colony size of a variety of anaerobic bacteria isolated from clinical specimens, an evaluation was made of the benefits derived from the addition of several enrichments to blood agar medium commonly used for the growth of anaerobes. Similar methods were used to study the effects of various storage conditions and age of the medium. The results were compared with those obtained on freshly prepared and enriched blood agar plates as well as commercially available blood agar plates. Freshly prepared and enriched blood agar was found to give substantially larger colonies than could be grown on commercially obtained blood agar plates when both were inoculated and incubated under identical conditions. Storage of plating media under CO2 for periods of up to 72 h had only a minor effect on the growth of the anaerobic bacteria studied, but longer periods of storage under CO2 resulted in a less efficient plating medium. Nonenriched brain heart infusion (BHI) was found to be a better basal medium than Trypticase soy agar (TSA) medium. Colony size on fully enriched BHI blood agar plates was greater than nonenriched BHI greater than nonenriched TSA greater than commercially prepared nonenriched TSA plates. The data suggest that freshness of the plates may be as important as using rich media. PMID:11226

Hanson, C W; Martin, W J

1976-11-01

255

1. GENERAL VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BLUE RIDGE TUNNEL (LEFT) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BLUE RIDGE TUNNEL (LEFT) FROM SOUTHEAST. ORIGINAL BLUE RIDGE R.R. (CROZET) TUNNEL IS VISIBLE AT RIGHT. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Blue Ridge Tunnel, Highway 250 at Rockfish Gap, Afton, Nelson County, VA

256

7 CFR 1217.2 - Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC.  

... 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC. 1217.2 Section...Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.2 Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC. Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC means the...

2014-01-01

257

7 CFR 1217.2 - Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC. 1217.2 Section...Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.2 Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC. Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC means the...

2013-01-01

258

7 CFR 1217.2 - Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC. 1217.2 Section...Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.2 Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC. Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC means the...

2012-01-01

259

Methylene blue and Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The relationship between methylene blue (MB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has recently attracted increasing scientific attention since it has been suggested that MB may slow down the progression of this disease. In fact, MB, in addition to its well characterized inhibitory actions on the cGMP pathway, affects numerous cellular and molecular events closely related to the progression of AD. Currently, MB has been shown to attenuate the formations of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, and to partially repair impairments in mitochondrial function and cellular metabolism. Furthermore, various neurotransmitter systems (cholinergic, serotonergic and glutamatergic), believed to play important roles in the pathogenesis of AD and other cognitive disorders, are also influenced by MB. Recent studies suggest that the combination of diverse actions of MB on these cellular functions is likely to mediate potential beneficial effects of MB. This has lead to attempts to develop novel MB-based treatment modalities for AD. In this review article, actions of MB on neurotransmitter systems and multiple cellular and molecular targets are summarized with regard to their relevance to AD. PMID:19433072

Oz, Murat; Lorke, Dietrich E; Petroianu, George A

2009-10-15

260

Semiconducting layered blue phosphorus: a computational study.  

PubMed

We investigate a previously unknown phase of phosphorus that shares its layered structure and high stability with the black phosphorus allotrope. We find the in-plane hexagonal structure and bulk layer stacking of this structure, which we call "blue phosphorus," to be related to graphite. Unlike graphite and black phosphorus, blue phosphorus displays a wide fundamental band gap. Still, it should exfoliate easily to form quasi-two-dimensional structures suitable for electronic applications. We study a likely transformation pathway from black to blue phosphorus and discuss possible ways to synthesize the new structure. PMID:24836265

Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

2014-05-01

261

Semiconducting Layered Blue Phosphorus: A Computational Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate a previously unknown phase of phosphorus that shares its layered structure and high stability with the black phosphorus allotrope. We find the in-plane hexagonal structure and bulk layer stacking of this structure, which we call "blue phosphorus," to be related to graphite. Unlike graphite and black phosphorus, blue phosphorus displays a wide fundamental band gap. Still, it should exfoliate easily to form quasi-two-dimensional structures suitable for electronic applications. We study a likely transformation pathway from black to blue phosphorus and discuss possible ways to synthesize the new structure.

Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

2014-05-01

262

Optimization of modified Middlebrook 7H11 agar for isolation of Mycobacterium bovis from raw milk cheese.  

PubMed

Reports have highlighted the absence of contemporary peer reviewed publications pertaining to Mycobacterium bovis culture from raw milk and cheese. By replicating traditional methods, cheese-making methodology and equipment were devised to produce Cheddar (n = 6) and Caerphilly (n = 3) artificially contaminated with M. bovis (three genotypes) under stringent laboratory-containment guidelines for handling hazardous microbiological material. Middlebrook 7H11, modified for M. bovis isolation, was assessed for capacity to enumerate M. bovis despite changing cheese microflora and prolonged M. bovis exposure to the cheese matrix using maturing cheese test portions (n = 63; up to 16 weeks). Malachite green (MG) containing media isolated M. bovis at significantly (P < 0·05) lower levels than unmodified Middlebrook 7H11 agar despite MG being a common adjunct of Middlebrook 7H11 agar modified for M. bovis growth. Subsequently, a selective MG-free Middlebrook 7H11 agar modified using haemolysed red cells and calf serum was demonstrated as the best performing (P < 0·05) medium for recovery of M. bovis from typical UK cheese types, Cheddar and Caerphilly. Significance and impact of the study: Following increased M. bovis infection of UK cattle, the risk posed to consumers from consumption of unpasteurized milk and dairy products has changed. Furthermore, published methods for the culture and molecular detection of M. bovis in raw milk products are limited. Cheese-making protocols and M. bovis culture media reported here provide tools for further investigation of M. bovis survival during all stages of cheese manufacture and could inform future assessment of the risk to consumers from M. bovis contamination of unpasteurized dairy products. PMID:24888395

Forgrave, R; Donaghy, J A; Fisher, A; Rowe, M T

2014-10-01

263

Metronidazole and Clarithromycin Resistance inHelicobacter pylori Determined by Measuring MICs of Antimicrobial Agents in Color Indicator Egg Yolk Agar in a Miniwell Format  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance ofHelicobacter pylorito metronidazole often causes failure of commonly used combination drug treatmentregimens.WedeterminedtheMICsofmetronidazoleandclarithromycinagainst18H.pyloristrains from Peru using tetrazolium egg yolk (TEY) agar. The MIC results obtained by agar dilution with petri dishes were compared with the results found through a miniwell format. The results of the two protocols for measuringdrugsusceptibilitydifferedbynomorethan1dilutioninallcases.OnTEYagar,bright-redH.pylori colonies were easy to identify against a yellow background. Sixty-one percent

A. VASQUEZ; Y. VALDEZ; R. H. GILMAN; J. J. MCDONALD; T. U. WESTBLOM; D. BERG; H. MAYTA; V. GUTIERREZ; ANDTHE GASTROINTESTINAL; CAYETANO HEREDIA

1996-01-01

264

Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci: Comparison of Phenotypic and Genotypic Oxacillin Susceptibility Tests and Evaluation of the Agar Screening Test by Using Different Concentrations of Oxacillin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the oxacillin susceptibilities of 152 coagulase-negative staphylococcal (CoNS) strains of 12 species by disk diffusion; agar dilution; E-test; the slide latex agglutination test (Slidex MRSA Detection test; bioMerieux S\\/A, Paris, France); the agar screening test with 1, 2, 4, or 6 g of oxacillin per ml and incubation for 24 or 48 h; and detection of the

Rosana B. R. Ferreira; Natalia L. P. Iorio; Karoline L. Malvar; Ana Paula; F. Nunes; Leila S. Fonseca; Carla C. R. Bastos; Katia R. N. Santos

2003-01-01

265

High internal phase agar hydrogel dispersions in cocoa butter and chocolate as a route towards reducing fat content.  

PubMed

Reducing the fat content of chocolate formulations is a major challenge for the confectionery industry. We report the suspension of aqueous microgel agar particles of up to 80% v/v within sunflower oil, cocoa butter, and ultimately chocolate. The optimised emulsification process involves a shear-cooling step. We demonstrate the versatility of our method when applied to white, milk, and dark chocolate formulations, whilst preserving the desired polymorph V of the cocoa butter matrix. In addition, we show that this technology can be used as a strategy to disperse alcoholic beverages into chocolate confectionery. PMID:23799607

Skelhon, Thomas S; Olsson, Patrik K A; Morgan, Adam R; Bon, Stefan A F

2013-09-01

266

Phototherapy with turquoise versus blue light  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preterm jaundiced infants were treated by phototherapy with a new turquoise fluorescent lamp. This was more effective in reducing plasma total bilirubin in relation to light irradiance than the ubiquitously used blue fluorescent lamp.

F Ebbesen; G Agati; R Pratesi

2003-01-01

267

Blue Origin Conducts Pad Escape Test  

NASA Video Gallery

Blue Origin conducted a successful pad escape test Oct. 19 at the company's West Texas launch site, firing its pusher escape motor and launching a full-scale suborbital crew capsule from a simulate...

268

Subungual and periungual congenital blue naevus.  

PubMed

Subungual pigmented lesions should raise concern about malignant melanoma. Blue naevus of the nail apparatus is a rare entity, with only ten cases described in the literature. We report a 21-year-old Hispanic woman with a slowly enlarging 1.7 x 2.3-cm subungual and periungual pigmented plaque present since birth on her right second toe. Initial biopsy was consistent with a blue naevus of the cellular type and, given the recent clinical change and periungual extension, complete excision was recommended. The entire nail unit was resected down to periosteum with prior avulsion of the nail plate. Reconstruction was performed with a full-thickness skin graft. Follow up at 1 year revealed well-healed graft and donor sites with complete return of function. We present a case of a congenital subungual and periungual blue naevus of the cellular type and review the literature on this rare presentation of a congenital blue naevus. PMID:19397572

Gershtenson, Platina Coy; Krunic, Aleksandar; Chen, Helen; Konanahalli, Madhuri; Worobec, Sophie

2009-05-01

269

Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.

Paul Saueressig

2010-07-14

270

Blue Origin Tests BE-3 Engine  

NASA Video Gallery

Blue Origin successfully fires the thrust chamber assembly for its new 100,000 pound thrust BE-3 liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen rocket engine. As part of the company's Reusable Booster System (RBS)...

271

Heparin sensing: Blue-chip binding  

E-print Network

Heparin is an anionic polysaccharide that has tremendous clinical importance as an anticoagulant. Several dyes have been developed that can detect heparin, and the latest example — named Mallard Blue — has now been shown ...

Shriver, Zachary H.

272

Blue emission in tetraethoxysilane and silica gels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), a well-known SiO2 precursor, and silica gels prepared with it were characterized in terms of their optical properties in the 200–800 nm range. A distinctive blue emission is detected not only in the gels but also in the TEOS itself. Further heat treatments of the gels allowed the evolution of the blue signal to be followed; the origin

J. M. García; M. A. Mondragón; C. S. Téllez; A. Campero; V. M. Castaño

1995-01-01

273

A Blue Organic Light Emitting Diode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A blue organic light emitting diode (OLED) which has a structure like an SH-B type diode has been developed. The blue OLED consists of a hole-injection layer (m-MTDATA), a hole-transporting emissive layer, a hole-blocking layer and an electron-injection layer (Alq3) formed on an ITO anode by vacuum vapor deposition. alpha-NPD was used for the hole-transporting emissive layer, which has an

Yasunori Kijima; Nobutoshi Asai; Shin-ichiro Tamura

1999-01-01

274

Science Shorts: Nothing But Blue Skies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Why is the sky blue? Why are sunsets orange and red? These are some of children's favorite questions to ask, but answering them at a level appropriate for primary students' level of understanding can be tricky, even for veteran teachers. In order to understand why the sky is blue and other related questions, we need to know a bit about the makeup of Earth's atmosphere and the effects of light. This month's Science Shorts can help.

Adams, Barbara

2006-12-01

275

Red, White and Blue II Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry demonstration, learners investigate the rule "likes dissolve likes" by combining three, immiscible liquids to create a colorful density column. Learners are asked, "What color will result from mixing red, white, and blue?" They will be surprised by the answer as a beaker is revealed with red syrup on the bottom, white milk over the syrup and blue lamp oil on top. This is a perfect activity to use to demonstrate density and polarity, especially around the 4th of July.

House, The S.

2014-02-03

276

Quantitative dual-probe microdialysis: evaluation of [3H]mannitol diffusion in agar and rat striatum.  

PubMed

Dual-probe microdialysis was used to study interstitial diffusion in the rat brain. A radiolabelled tracer, (3H]mannitol, was continuously infused at different concentrations via a probe acutely implanted into the striatum of an anaesthetized male rat or into a dilute agar gel. Samples were collected by a second probe placed 1 mm away from the first, and the recovered [3H]mannitol was measured by liquid scintillation counting. In the striatum, the delivery of [3H]mannitol was counteracted by its removal from the extracellular space by passive uptake into cells and clearance into the microcirculation, causing the diffusion profile to approach quasi steady-state levels within 2 h. Diffusion data from brain and agar were analysed using a mathematical model. The apparent (effective) diffusion coefficient for [3H]mannitol was D* = 2.9 x 10(-6) cm2/s, the effective volume fraction alpha* = 0.30 and the clearance rate constant kappa= 2.3 x 10(-5)/s. A tortuosity, lambda = 1.81, and penetration distance r = 4.2 mm, were calculated. We conclude that, using dual-probe microdialysis, parameters reflecting geometric and dynamic tissue properties may be obtained using appropriate mathematical analysis. Quantitative dual-probe microdialysis will be valuable in characterizing interstitial diffusion and the clearance processes underpinning volume transmission in the brain. PMID:12067240

Höistad, Malin; Chen, Kevin C; Nicholson, Charles; Fuxe, Kjell; Kehr, Jan

2002-04-01

277

Comparison of sensititre dried microtitration trays with a standard agar method for determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents.  

PubMed Central

A total of 222 clinical isolates were used to test the accuracy of Sensititre dried microtitration trays for determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimicrobial agents. In comparison with an agar dilution technique, 89.5% of all the pairs of results were within one doubling dilution. The 2,420 pairs of MIC results with finite values gave a corresponding figure of 86.8%. Exclusion of sulfisoxazole results, which demonstrated a significant interlaboratory variation in accuracy, raised this value to 89.1%. Very good differentiation of beta-lactamase-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus (24 of 24 giving an MIC greater than or equal to 0.25 micrograms/ml) and Haemophilus influenzae (3 of 3 giving an MIC greater than or equal to 32 micrograms/ml) was obtained with the Sensititre system. This method also clearly distinguished erythromycin-resistant S. aureus strains (7 of 7 giving an MIC greater than 32 micrograms/ml) from the susceptible strains (26 of 28 giving an MIC less than or equal to 0.5 microgram/ml plus 1 strain at 1.0 microgram/ml and 1 at 2.0 micrograms/ml). Sensititre offers an accurate and convenient method of determining MICs comparable to those obtained with the agar dilution procedure, with the advantage of an extended shelf life when stored at room temperature. PMID:6972192

Reeves, D S; Holt, A; Bywater, M J; Wise, R; Logan, M N; Andrews, J M; Broughall, J M

1980-01-01

278

CFU-gm assay, cytochemical and electron microscopic studies in agar in patients with preleukemic syndrome and aplastic anemia.  

PubMed

Thirty-seven patients with chronic cytopenia were studied using a CFU-gm assay in agar. Cell proliferation was evaluated on days 2, 3, 5, 7, and 10 of incubation. Growth patterns were different in cultures of hematologically healthy persons versus patients with preleukemic syndrome (PL) and aplastic anemia (AA). Three types of PL syndrome and two types of AA (C1 and C2) were distinguished. Bone marrow dysfunction was evaluated further using cytochemistry and electron microscopy to morphologically study cell proliferation in vitro. Cytochemical staining performed in agar demonstrated well-defined maturation defects in myelopoietic precursor cells from the bone marrow of PL patients. Electron microscopic findings of Auer-body-like inclusions in "statu nascendi" in the vacuoles of preleukemic cells supported our results. PL patient groups at high risk for development of overt leukemia and patients with grave prognosis in AA were distinguished. Our results are relevant for the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of patients with cytopenia. PMID:4067359

Konwalinka, G; Peschel, C; Schmalzl, F; Schaefer, H E; Geissler, D; Schuler, G; Huber, H; Tomaschek, B; Odavic, R; Braunsteiner, H

1985-11-01

279

Blue Choice New EnglandSM Summary of Benefits  

E-print Network

Blue Choice New EnglandSM Summary of Benefits Williams College An Association of Independent Blue Cross and Blue Shield Plans This health plan meets Minimum Creditable Coverage Standards Reform Law. #12;Your Care Your Primary Care Provider. When you enroll in Blue Choice New England, you

Aalberts, Daniel P.

280

The Arabidopsis blue light receptor cryptochrome 2 is a nuclear protein regulated by a blue light-dependent post-  

E-print Network

The Arabidopsis blue light receptor cryptochrome 2 is a nuclear protein regulated by a blue light Charles E. Young Dr. South, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1606, USA Summary Cryptochrome 2 is a ¯avin-type blue light receptor mediating ¯oral induction in response to photoperiod and a blue light-induced hypocotyl

Lin, Chentao

281

The BlueJ system and its pedagogy The BlueJ system and its pedagogy1  

E-print Network

The BlueJ system and its pedagogy 1 The BlueJ system and its pedagogy1 Michael Kölling , Bruce Quig discuss each of these in some more detail. #12;The BlueJ system and its pedagogy 2 Figure 1. The Blue

Kent, University of

282

Use of big data by Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina.  

PubMed

The health care industry is grappling with the challenges of working with and analyzing large, complex, diverse data sets. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina provides several promising examples of how big data can be used to reduce the cost of care, to predict and manage health risks, and to improve clinical outcomes. PMID:24830494

Helm-Murtagh, Susan C

2014-01-01

283

Room-Temperature Liquid Crystal Blue Phases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ``blue phases'' of a highly chiral liquid crystal are defect-studded structures of double-twist cylinders that are laced together. The three phases, BPI*, BPII* and BPIII* differ only in the packing of the double-twist cylinders. Until recently, blue phases were of limited practical use because they appeared for only a very narrow temperature range. Mixtures that show BPI* and BPII* phases for wide temperature ranges at or around room temperature are now available [1]. Relatively wide temperature BPIII (the blue fog) phase so far was available only at very high temperatures [2]. Here we present mixtures with room-temperature wide range BPIII* phase and compare the ability of chiral dopants to form the different blue phases in a base nematic mixture. PDLC films cast with blue-phase material are also examined.[3pt] [1] H. Coles and M. Pivnenko, Nature 2005 436-18 997-1000 [0pt] [2] C. V. Yelamaggad, I. S. Shashikala, G. Liao, D.S. Shankar Rao, S. K. Prasad , Q. Li A. Jakli, Chem. Mater Comm, 2006, 18, 6100-6102

Taushanoff, Stefanie; van Le, Khoa; Twieg, Robert; Jakli, Antal

2009-03-01

284

Collaborative investigation of broth microdilution and semisolid agar dilution for in vitro susceptibility testing of Candida albicans.  

PubMed Central

A study was performed in two laboratories to evaluate the effect of growth medium and test methodology on inter- and intralaboratory variations in the MICs of amphotericin B (AMB), flucytosine (5FC), fluconazole (FLU), itraconazole (ITRA), and the triazole Sch 39304 (SCH) against 14 isolates of Candida albicans. Testing was performed by broth microdilution and semisolid agar dilution with the following media, buffered to pH 7.0 with morpholinepropanesulfonic acid (MOPS): buffered yeast nitrogen base (BYNB), Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM), RPMI 1640 medium (RPMI), and synthetic amino acid medium for fungi (SAAMF). Inocula were standardized spectrophotometrically, and endpoints were defined by the complete absence of growth for AMB and by no more than 25% of the growth in the drug-free control for all other agents. Comparative analyses of median MICs, as determined by each test method, were made for all drug-medium combinations. Both methods yielded similar (+/- 1 twofold dilution) median MICs for AMB in EMEM and RPMI, 5FC in all media, and FLU in EMEM, RPMI, and SAAMF. In contrast, substantial between-method variations in median MICs were seen for AMB in BYNB and SAAMF, FLU In BYNB, and ITRA and SCH in all media. Interlaboratory concordance of median MICs was good for AMB, 5FC, and FLU but poor for ITRA and SCH in all media. Endpoint determinations were analyzed by use of kappa statistical analyses for evaluating the strength of observer agreement. Moderate to almost perfect interlaboratory agreement occurred with AMB and 5FC in all media and with FLU in EMEM, RPMI, and SAAMF, irrespective of the test method. Slight to almost perfect interlaboratory agreement occurred with ITRA and SCH in EMEM, RPMI, and SAAMF when tested by semisolid agar dilution but not broth microdilution. Kappa values assessing intralaboratory agreement between methods were high for 5FC in all media, for AMB in BYNB, ENEM, and RPMI, and for FLU in EMEM, RPMI, and SAAMF. One laboratory, but not the other, reported substantial to almost perfect agreement between methods for ITRA, and SCH in EMEM, RPMI, and SAAMF. Both laboratories reported poor agreement between methods for the azoles in BYNB. Discrepancies noted in azole-BYNB combinations were largely due to the greater inhibitory effect of these agents in BYNB than in other media. These results indicate that the semisolid agar dilution and broth microdilution methods with EMEM or RPMI yield equivalent and reproducible MICs for AMB, 5FC, and FLU but not ITRA and SCH. PMID:1500502

Shawar, R; Paetznick, V; Witte, Z; Ensign, L G; Anaissie, E; LaRocco, M

1992-01-01

285

Collaborative investigation of broth microdilution and semisolid agar dilution for in vitro susceptibility testing of Candida albicans.  

PubMed

A study was performed in two laboratories to evaluate the effect of growth medium and test methodology on inter- and intralaboratory variations in the MICs of amphotericin B (AMB), flucytosine (5FC), fluconazole (FLU), itraconazole (ITRA), and the triazole Sch 39304 (SCH) against 14 isolates of Candida albicans. Testing was performed by broth microdilution and semisolid agar dilution with the following media, buffered to pH 7.0 with morpholinepropanesulfonic acid (MOPS): buffered yeast nitrogen base (BYNB), Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM), RPMI 1640 medium (RPMI), and synthetic amino acid medium for fungi (SAAMF). Inocula were standardized spectrophotometrically, and endpoints were defined by the complete absence of growth for AMB and by no more than 25% of the growth in the drug-free control for all other agents. Comparative analyses of median MICs, as determined by each test method, were made for all drug-medium combinations. Both methods yielded similar (+/- 1 twofold dilution) median MICs for AMB in EMEM and RPMI, 5FC in all media, and FLU in EMEM, RPMI, and SAAMF. In contrast, substantial between-method variations in median MICs were seen for AMB in BYNB and SAAMF, FLU In BYNB, and ITRA and SCH in all media. Interlaboratory concordance of median MICs was good for AMB, 5FC, and FLU but poor for ITRA and SCH in all media. Endpoint determinations were analyzed by use of kappa statistical analyses for evaluating the strength of observer agreement. Moderate to almost perfect interlaboratory agreement occurred with AMB and 5FC in all media and with FLU in EMEM, RPMI, and SAAMF, irrespective of the test method. Slight to almost perfect interlaboratory agreement occurred with ITRA and SCH in EMEM, RPMI, and SAAMF when tested by semisolid agar dilution but not broth microdilution. Kappa values assessing intralaboratory agreement between methods were high for 5FC in all media, for AMB in BYNB, ENEM, and RPMI, and for FLU in EMEM, RPMI, and SAAMF. One laboratory, but not the other, reported substantial to almost perfect agreement between methods for ITRA, and SCH in EMEM, RPMI, and SAAMF. Both laboratories reported poor agreement between methods for the azoles in BYNB. Discrepancies noted in azole-BYNB combinations were largely due to the greater inhibitory effect of these agents in BYNB than in other media. These results indicate that the semisolid agar dilution and broth microdilution methods with EMEM or RPMI yield equivalent and reproducible MICs for AMB, 5FC, and FLU but not ITRA and SCH. PMID:1500502

Shawar, R; Paetznick, V; Witte, Z; Ensign, L G; Anaissie, E; LaRocco, M

1992-08-01

286

Coomassie Brilliant Blue G is a more potent antagonist of P2 purinergic responses than Reactive Blue 2 (Cibacron Blue 3GA) in rat parotid acinar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Brilliant Blue G (Coomassie Brilliant Blue G) and Reactive Blue 2 (Cibacron Blue 3GA) to block the effects of extracellular ATP on rat parotid acinar cells was examined by evaluating their effects on ATP-stimulated 45Ca{sup 2+} entry and the elevation of (Ca{sup 2+})i (Fura 2 fluorescence). ATP (300 microM) increased the rate of Ca{sup 2+} entry to

S. P. Soltoff; M. K. McMillian; B. R. Talamo

1989-01-01

287

Comparative evaluation of the E test, agar dilution, and broth microdilution for testing susceptibilities of Helicobacter pylori strains to 20 antimicrobial agents.  

PubMed Central

The Epsilometer test (E test; AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden), a new quantitative technique for the determination of antimicrobial susceptibility, was compared to reference methods (agar dilution and broth microdilution) for the antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Helicobacter pylori. Seventy-one H. pylori strains isolated from patients with duodenal ulcers were tested against 20 antimicrobial agents. The E test and the agar dilution method were carried out on Mueller-Hinton agar; the broth microdilution method was performed with Mueller-Hinton broth. The E-test results showed excellent correlation with the agar dilution results, with 91.3 and 98.8% agreement within 1 and 2 log2 dilution steps, respectively, in a total of 1,350 tests. The correlation between the E-test results and the broth microdilution results was slightly higher, with 91.6 and 99.1% agreement within 1 and 2 log2 dilution steps, respectively, in a total of 1,317 tests. There were six major errors and two very major errors by the metronidazole E test compared to the results obtained by reference methods. Excellent agreement between E-test, agar dilution, and broth microdilution results was found for resistance to erythromycin (8%), clarithromycin (6%), and tetracycline (6%). Our results confirm that the E test is comparable to standardized methods for susceptibility testing. Therefore, the E test is a reliable and alternative method for testing H. pylori susceptibility to a wide range of antimicrobial agents in clinical practice. PMID:9196205

Piccolomini, R; Di Bonaventura, G; Catamo, G; Carbone, F; Neri, M

1997-01-01

288

Evaluation of Mueller-Hinton-agar as a simple medium for the germ tube production of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis.  

PubMed

Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated yeast species from clinical specimens. A classical rapid presumptive differentiation from non-albicans species is based on its ability to produce germ tubes after incubation in human serum. The only non-albicans Candida species producing germ tubes is Candida dubliniensis. In this study, we evaluated Mueller-Hinton-agar (MH-agar) as a medium for germ tube formation of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis. A total of 859 yeast isolates from stool samples, including 632 strains of C. albicans, 10 C. dubliniensis and 217 other yeast strains from 20 different species, were grown on Sabouraud glucose (2%) agar at 37 degrees C for 24-72 h. Species were identified by standard methods. For the germ tube test (GTT), an inoculum from a single colony was streaked onto a MH-agar plate and covered by a sterile coverslip. After incubation at 37 degrees C for 2 h, the MH plates were examined using a light microscope at x200. The GTT was positive in 578 of 632 C. albicans strains (sensitivity 91.5%), in six of 10 C. dubliniensis strains (sensitivity 60.0%), and in none of the other yeast strains. MH-agar is a suitable medium for the GTT and the presumptive identification of C. albicans. It is safer to use than human serum and is widely available in microbiology laboratories. PMID:18399901

Rimek, Dagmar; Fehse, Brigitte; Göpel, Petra

2008-05-01

289

WhaleNet Blue Whale Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive educational Web site from WhaleNet provides a study guide to use with blue whale satellite tag data. WhaleNet is sponsored by Wheelock College, and the blue whale data set comes from the Mingan Island Cetacean Study, a "non-profit research organization dedicated to ecological studies of marine mammals." The study guide consists of a series of questions that guide students in analyzing and interpreting data. In the larger context, these questions uncover how satellite tag data provides valuable insight "into the natural history of the whales and will enable more intelligent and meaningful decisions which will increase the potential for recovery and for an improved existence in the shared marine environments around the world." Users of the Web site may also view blue whale tagging and biopsy movie clips. Links to a bibliography and additional resources are provided.

290

The detection of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus antigen by agar gel precipitation test and counter-immunoelectrophoresis.  

PubMed Central

The detectability of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) viral antigen in both ante-mortem secretions and necropsy samples from experimentally infected goats was investigated by both the agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) and counter-immunoelectrophoresis (CIE). Viral antigen was detected from 42.6% of the samples tested by the AGPT and 80.3% by CIE. The detection of viral antigen in a high proportion of the ocular and nasal secretions as well as the faeces and buccal scrapings, particularly from those collected within seven days of the onset of fever, by both techniques, would seem to obviate the need for lymph node biopsies or post-mortem samples in order to make a diagnosis of PPRV infection. PMID:6512258

Obi, T. U.; Patrick, D.

1984-01-01

291

Recombinant envelope protein (rgp90) ELISA for equine infectious anemia virus provides comparable results to the agar gel immunodiffusion.  

PubMed

Equine infectious anemia (EIA) is an important viral infection affecting horses worldwide. The course of infection is accompanied generally by three characteristic stages: acute, chronic and inapparent. There is no effective EIA vaccine or treatment, and the control of the disease is based currently on identification of EIAV inapparent carriers by laboratory tests. Recombinant envelope protein (rgp90) was expressed in Escherichia coli and evaluated via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). There was an excellent agreement (95.42%) between the ELISA results using rgp90 and agar gel immunodiffusion test results. AGID is considered the "gold-standard" serologic test for equine infectious anemia (EIA). After 1160 serum samples were tested, the relative sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA were 96.1% and 96.4%, respectively. Moreover, analysis diagnostic accuracy of the ELISA was performed. The ELISA proved robust. Furthermore, good reproducibility was observed for the negative controls and, positive controls for all plates tested. PMID:22227617

Reis, Jenner K P; Diniz, Rejane S; Haddad, João P A; Ferraz, Isabella B F; Carvalho, Alex F; Kroon, Erna G; Ferreira, Paulo C P; Leite, Rômulo C

2012-03-01

292

Identification of non-mutans streptococci organisms in dental plaques recovering on mitis-salivarius bacitracin agar medium.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to both isolate and identify non-mutans streptococci organisms (non-MSO) from dental plaques recovered on mitis-salivarius sucrose bacitracin agar (MSB) plates. The dental plaque samples, which had been collected from 63 human subjects, were diluted and plated on MSB. The bacteria growing on the MSB plates were then identified with biochemical tests, as well as with 16S rDNA cloning and sequencing techniques. Our data indicated that bacteria from 30 subjects had been recovered on the MSB plates. Among the 21 typical colonies selected from the 30 subjects, 12 colonies, derived from 10 subjects, were identified as non-MSO. These 12 colonies were determined to be Streptococcus anginosus (8 colonies), S. sanguinis (1 colony), and Pantoea agglomerans (3 colonies). These results strongly suggest that a new selective medium will be required for the reliable isolation of mutans streptococci. PMID:15880098

Yoo, So Young; Kim, Pyung Sik; Hwang, Ho-Keel; Lim, Seong-Hoon; Kim, Kwang-Won; Choe, Son-Jin; Min, Byung-Moo; Kook, Joong-Ki

2005-04-01

293

Evaluation of the thin agar layer method for the recovery of pressure-injured and heat-injured Listeria monocytogenes.  

PubMed

A sublethally injured bacterial cell has been defined as a cell that survives a stress such as heating, freezing, acid treatment, or other antimicrobial intervention but can repair the cellular damage exerted by the stressor and later regain its original ability to grow. Consequently, sublethally injured cells are not likely to be included in conventional enumeration procedures, which could result in unrealistically low counts unless efforts are made to encourage recovery of the injured cells before enumeration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the thin agar layer (TAL) method for the recovery of pressure-injured and heat-injured Listeria monocytogenes in a tryptic soy broth with 0.6% yeast extract system. Pressure injury consisted of treatment of a culture of mixed L. monocytogenes strains with high hydrostatic pressure at 400 or 600 MPa for 1 s, 2 min, 4 min, or 6 min at a process temperature of 12±2 °C. Heat injury consisted of treatment of a culture of mixed L. monocytogenes strains at 60±1 °C for 3, 6, or 9 min. Growth media were tryptic soy agar (TSA) with 0.6% yeast extract, modified Oxford medium (MOX), and TAL, which consisted of a 7-ml layer of TSA overlaid onto solidified MOX. Counts of viable L. monocytogenes on TAL were higher than those on MOX in the heat-injury experiment but not in the pressure-injury experiment. Therefore, the effectiveness of the TAL method may be specific to the type of injury applied to the microorganism and should be investigated in a variety of cellular injury scenarios. PMID:24780340

Lavieri, Nicolas A; Sebranek, Joseph G; Cordray, Joseph C; Dickson, James S; Jung, Stephanie; Manu, David K; Mendonça, Aubrey F; Brehm-Stecher, Byron F; Stock, Joseph; Stalder, Kenneth J

2014-05-01

294

Effects of extracellular matrix proteins on macrophage differentiation, growth, and function: comparison of liquid and agar culture systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both spaceflight and skeletal unloading suppress the haematopoietic differentiation of macrophages (Sonnenfeld et al., Aviat. Space Environ. Med., 61:648-653, 1990; Armstrong et al., J. Appl. Physiol., 75:2734-2739, 1993). The mechanism behind this reduction in haematopoiesis has yet to be elucidated. However, changes in bone marrow extracellular matrix (ECM) may be involved. To further understand the role of ECM products in macrophage differentiation, we have performed experiments evaluating the effects of fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I, and collagen type IV on macrophage development and function. Bone marrow-derived macrophages cultured on four different ECM substrates in liquid culture medium showed less growth than those cultured on plastic. Significant morphological differences were seen on each of the substrates used. Phenotypically and functionally, as measured by class II major histocompatibility molecule (MHCII) expression, MAC-2 expression, and the secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), these macrophages were similar. In contrast, bone marrow-derived macrophages cultured in suspension, using agar, showed no difference in growth when exposed to ECM proteins. However, IL-6 and TNF-alpha secretion was affected by fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I, and collagen type IV in a concentration-dependent manner. We conclude that the ECM products fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I, and collagen type IV have profound effects on macrophage development and function. Additionally, we suggest that an ECM-supplemented agar culture system provides an environment more analogous to in vivo bone marrow than does a traditional liquid culture system.

Armstrong, J. W.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

1994-01-01

295

Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available.2-5 Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of classroom demonstrations have been described for showing the effects.6-11 This paper describes how these demonstrations can be enhanced by using a spectrometer to measure the preferential scattering of the shorter wavelength light.

Liebl, Michael

2010-05-01

296

THE CAUSE OF BLUE COLOR AS FOUND IN THE BLUE BIRD (SIALIA SIALIS) AND THE BLUE JAY (CYANOCITTA CRISTATA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALL the colors which one observes in bird feathers are due to one of two things: either to a pigment, or to some modification in the structure of the barb, producing what is known as structural color. The pigment colors are black, brown, red, yellow, and in a few cases green, while the blues, whites, some of the greens and

CARL GOWER

297

Comparison of growth characteristics and roquefortin C production ofPenicillium roqueforti from blue-veined cheese.  

PubMed

The properties of 21 isolates ofPenicillium roqueforti from just as many commercial blue-veined cheeses, purchased from the Argentinean market (domestic and imported products) were comparatively examined. Isolates were investigated for their ability to grow at different temperatures, pH values and concentration of NaCl, as well as for their proteolytic and lipolytic activities, respectively. The potential of these strains to produce roquefortin in vitro, and the actual levels of roquefortin in 10 of these cheeses were analysed by TLC. All strains showed similar growth properties in aspects of salt concentration and pH-value of the medium, and all grew well at 10 °C. Only four strains showed proteolytic activity on casein agar, while all strains were lipolytic on trybutirin agar. After incubation at 25 °C for 16 days, all strains produced roquefortin in Yeast Extract Sucrose (25.6-426.7 ?g/g) and in reconstituted (10%) sterile skim milk (26.9-488 ?g/g). Roquefortin at >0.1 ?g/g was also found in 9 out of 10 analysed samples of blue-veined cheeses (8 from Argentine, 1 from Spain), with a maximum value 3.6 ?g/g. During the ripening process of blueveined cheese, production of roquefortin seems to be unavoidable. Care should be taken to select strains with low toxin production characteristics, to minimize potential health risks. Roquefortin C production byP. roqueforti in vitro was not correlated with roquefortin C levels found in cheese. PMID:23605989

Pose, G; Ludemann, V; Gómez, A; Segura, J

2007-09-01

298

If you have a Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts health plan, we've got a healthy incentive for you.  

E-print Network

If you have a Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts health plan, we've got a healthy incentive for you. As a subscriber to Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts, your Weight Loss Benefit can save you the qualified program in which you enroll. Receipts must show the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts member

Stoiciu, Mihai

299

If you have a Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts health plan, we've got a healthy incentive for you.  

E-print Network

If you have a Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts health plan, we've got a healthy incentive for you. As a Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts subscriber your Fitness Benefit can save you or your Benefit after you've belonged to your health club and been a Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts

Stoiciu, Mihai

300

Detection of group B streptococci in Lim broth by use of group B streptococcus peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization and selective and nonselective agars.  

PubMed

The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the detection of group B streptococci from Lim enrichment broth with sheep blood agar (SBA), with selective Streptococcus agar (SSA), and by a peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) assay were as follows: for culture on SBA, 68.4%, 100%, 100%, and 87.9%, respectively; for culture on SSA, 85.5%, 100%, 100%, and 94.1%, respectively; and for the PNA FISH assay, 97.4%, 98.3%, 96.1%, and 98.9%, respectively. PMID:18667597

Montague, Naomi S; Cleary, Timothy J; Martinez, Octavio V; Procop, Gary W

2008-10-01

301

Implementation of the blue moon ensemble method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blue moon ensemble method (Carter et al., 1989, Chem. Phys. Lett. 156, 472; Sprik & Ciccotti, 1998, J. Chem. Phys. 109, 7737) calculates the free energy profile of a chemical reaction along a specified reaction coordinate. The explicit algorithms for two simple reaction coordinates (\\

Yuto Komeiji

2007-01-01

302

Heparin sensing: Blue-chip binding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heparin is an anionic polysaccharide that has tremendous clinical importance as an anticoagulant. Several dyes have been developed that can detect heparin, and the latest example -- named Mallard Blue -- has now been shown to have excellent sensing properties under biologically relevant conditions.

Shriver, Zachary; Sasisekharan, Ram

2013-08-01

303

Quirks of dye nomenclature. 3. Trypan blue.  

PubMed

Abstract Trypan blue is colorant from the 19(th) century that has an association with Africa as a chemotherapeutic agent against protozoan (Trypanosomal) infections, which cause sleeping sickness. The dye still is used for staining biopsies, living cells and organisms, and it also has been used as a colorant for textiles. PMID:24867494

Cooksey, Cj

2014-11-01

304

Blue Mountain Community College Chemeketa Community College  

E-print Network

Blue Mountain Community College Chemeketa Community College Clackamas Community College Clatsop Program, you can be jointly admitted and eligible to enroll concurrently at Oregon State University State University is committed to affirmative action and equal opportunity and complies with Section 504

Escher, Christine

305

The University of Montana's Blue Mountain Observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Montana's Department of Physics and Astronomy runs the state of Montana's only professional astronomical observatory. The Observatory, located on nearby Blue Mountain, houses a 16 inch Boller and Chivens Cassegrain reflector (purchased in 1970), in an Ash dome. The Observatory sits just below the summit ridge, at an elevation of approximately 6300 feet. Our instrumentation includes an

D. B. Friend

2004-01-01

306

REPRODUCTION IN THE BLUE SHARK, PRIONACE GLAUCA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the male blue shark, PrioTUlce glauca, paired testes produce spermatozoa year round which are stored first in the epididymides, then as spermatophores in the lower ductus deferentia. Spermatazoa are transferred to the female through paired claspers employed singly. Spermatozoa are injected into the upper vagina and pass through the uterus and isthmus into the shell (oviducal) gland, where they

HAROLD L. PRA

307

Multiple ring nebulae around blue supergiants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: In the course of the life of a massive star, wind-wind interaction can give rise to the formation of circumstellar nebulae which are both predicted and observed in nature. Aims: We present generic model calculations to predict the properties of such nebulae for blue supergiants. Methods: From stellar evolution calculations including rotation, we obtain the time dependence of the

S. M. Chita; N. Langer; A. J. van Marle; G. García-Segura; A. Heger

2008-01-01

308

Practices of Blue Ribbon Catholic Schools, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For almost 20 years, the U.S. Department of Education has invited schools to seek the Blue Ribbon School Award. A large number of Catholic schools have received this award. For this publication, the Department of Elementary Schools Executive Committee requested principals of awarded schools to write a short article on an exemplary school program…

Kealey, Robert J., Comp.

309

THE BLUE ROUTE: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines onefacet ofthe transportation system in the Philadelphia region. The aspect I will study is the development ofInterstate 476, better known as the Blue Route. 1nterstate 476 is a part ofthe Interstate Highway System. It connects the Pennsylvania Turnpike System in the northern suburbs with Interstate 95 near Chester. Since its completion severalyears ago, it has become a

Kenneth W Reynolds

1997-01-01

310

Charlie Patton and his Mississippi Boweavil Blues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides a short article, in PDF format, about the legendary American blues artist, Charley Patton, and his famous song about the notorious cotton boll pest, the boll weevil. The article, by R. K. D. Peterson, was scanned from a 2007 issue of the American Entomologist magazine.

0002-11-30

311

Space Place: Why Is the Sky Blue?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article explains how Earth's atmosphere scatters the light from the sun, thereby creating the blue color we typically associate with our sky. Supplementing this article is an explanation of the importance of scattering sunlight. The article is targeted to children ages 10-12.

312

“Lest we forget you — methylene blue?…”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylene blue (MB), the first synthetic drug, has a 120-year-long history of diverse applications, both in medical treatments and as a staining reagent. In recent years there was a surge of interest in MB as an antimalarial agent and as a potential treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), possibly through its inhibition of the aggregation of tau

R. Heiner Schirmer; Heike Adler; Marcus Pickhardt; Eckhard Mandelkow

2011-01-01

313

Geographical Study of American Blues Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Music is not often utilized in teaching geography, despite the fact that many scholars orient their research around analyzing both the historical and spatial dimensions of musical expression. This article reports on the use of a teaching module that utilizes blues culture as a lens to understand the geographical history of the United States. The…

Strait, John B.

2010-01-01

314

The luminous blue variables: Astrophysical geysers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the most luminous stars have sporadic, violent mass-loss events whose causes are not understood. These evolved hot stars are called luminous blue variables (LBVs), and their instability may shape the appearance of the upper Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. LBV eruptions are interestingly reminiscent of geysers or even volcanos. They have received considerable observational attention since 1980, but theoretical work

Roberta M. Humphreys; Kris Davidson

1994-01-01

315

Columbia Blue Furnald MathematicsLewisohn  

E-print Network

Columbia Blue #12;Furnald MathematicsLewisohn Dodge Miller Theatre Kent International Affairs that the first student in every new class to find the hidden owl on the statue will be the class valedictorian Education Giants Among Us 54 High Impact and Hands On: 64 Science and Engineering Research Columbia College

Hone, James

316

Reduction of methylene blue by bacillus sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylene Blue (MB) was specifically decolorized by growing cells of Bacillus subtilis IFO 13719, B. pumilus IFO 12092, B. licheniformis IFO 12200 and B. circulans IFO 13626, although it was not decolorized by B. subtilis IFO 3022. A reaction product of MB was identified as leuco MB by TLC. The product was ultimately oxidized by air since it was not

C. Yatome; T. Ogawa

1995-01-01

317

Adsorption of brilliant blue FCF by soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess the extent of Brilliant Blue FCF adsorption in soils and to identify soil properties that play a predominant role in adsorption of the dye. Additionally the adsorption kinetics of the dyestuff were investigated. With increasing equilibrium concentration the adsorption converged to a maximum and Langmuir isotherms were fitted to the data. The

Hark Ketelsen; Sigrid Meyer-Windel

1999-01-01

318

Great Blue Heron and Great Egret  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A great blue heron and great egret in the parking lot by the Big Cypress Bend boardwalk at Fakahatchee Strand State Preserve. The heron is enjoying a fish dinner thanks to the hunting skills of the egret. While the egret had initially held a fish in it's beak, the heron's squabbling caused the...

2009-06-17

319

Blue Whales Respond to Anthropogenic Noise  

PubMed Central

Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood. PMID:22393434

Melcon, Mariana L.; Cummins, Amanda J.; Kerosky, Sara M.; Roche, Lauren K.; Wiggins, Sean M.; Hildebrand, John A.

2012-01-01

320

draft 7/20/06 Truest Blue  

E-print Network

misperception of fine-grained shades. According to Tye (2006), and Cohen, Hardin, and McLaughlin (2006) and McLaughlin (2003) claim that both Jane and John have the colour of the chip right. Our opening that there really is a puzzle of true blue; do Cohen, Hardin, and McLaughlin do any better? In their paper

Hilber, David

321

The 1991-1992 Blue Ribbon Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The distinctive banners flying over the 227 public and private institutions selected as 1991-92 Blue Ribbon Schools signal a two-fold achievement: national recognition for educational excellence and continuation of the award program itself. The selection process began belatedly after former Secretary of Education Lamar Alexander restored $885,000…

Mercure, Christine

1993-01-01

322

Blue nano titania made in diffusion flames.  

PubMed

Blue titanium suboxide nanoparticles (including Magneli phases) were formed directly without any post-processing or addition of dopants by combustion of titanium-tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) vapor at atmospheric pressure. Particle size, phase composition, rutile and anatase crystal sizes as well as the blue coloration were controlled by rapid quenching of the flame with a critical flow nozzle placed at various heights above the burner. The particles showed a broad absorption in the near-infrared region and retained their blue color upon storage in ambient atmosphere. A high concentration of paramagnetic Ti3+ centres was found in the substoichiometric particles by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Furthermore particles with controlled band gap energy from 3.2 to 3.6 eV were made by controlling the burner-nozzle-distance from 10 to 1 cm, respectively. The color robustness and extent of suboxidation could be further enhanced by co-oxidation of TTIP with hexamethyldisiloxane in the flame resulting in SiO2-coated titanium suboxide particles. The process is cost-effective and green while the particles produced can replace traditional blue colored, cobalt-containing pigments. PMID:19421486

Teleki, Alexandra; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

2009-05-21

323

Quantum mechanical model for Maya Blue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is about Maya Blue (MB), a pigment developed by Mesoamerican civilizations between the 5th and 16th centuries from an aluminosilicate mineral (palygorskite) and an organic dye (indigo). Two different supramolecular quantum-mechanical models afford explanations for the unusual stability of MB based on the oxidation of the indigo molecule during the heating process and its interaction with palygorskite. A

María E. Fuentes; Brisa Peña; César Contreras; Ana L. Montero; Russell Chianelli; Manuel Alvarado; Ramón Olivas; Luz M. Rodríguez; Héctor Camacho; Luis A. Montero-Cabrera

2008-01-01

324

Technology Teacher: Singin' the Black and Blues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an article about the color of the sky. Learners will read about and discuss the colors of the day- and night-time skies. They may sing the Top-down Black and Blues, a song about the sky; or they may write a poem, essay, or song about the bluest sky or blackest night they have ever experienced.

325

Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood. PMID:22393434

Melcón, Mariana L; Cummins, Amanda J; Kerosky, Sara M; Roche, Lauren K; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

2012-01-01

326

Switching dynamics in cholesteric blue phases  

E-print Network

Blue phases are networks of disclination lines, which occur in cholesteric liquid crystals near the transition to the isotropic phase. They have recently been used for the new generation of fast switching liquid crystal displays. Here we study numerically the steady states and switching hydrodynamics of blue phase I (BPI) and blue phase II (BPII) cells subjected to an electric field. When the field is on, there are three regimes: for very weak fields (and strong anchoring at the boundaries) the blue phases are almost unaffected, for intermediate fields the disclinations twist (for BPI) and unzip (for BPII), whereas for very large voltages the network dissolves in the bulk of the cell. Interestingly, we find that a BPII cell can recover its original structure when the field is switched off, whereas a BPI cell is found to be trapped more easily into metastable configurations. The kinetic pathways followed during switching on and off entails dramatic reorganisation of the disclination networks. We also discuss the effect of changing the director field anchoring at the boundary planes and of varying the direction of the applied field.

A. Tiribocchi; G. Gonnella; D. Marenduzzo; E. Orlandini

2011-03-30

327

Visualising DNA in Classrooms Using Nile Blue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Giving students the opportunity to extract, manipulate and visualise DNA molecules enhances a constructivist approach to learning about modern techniques in biology and biotechnology Visualisation usually requires agarose gel electrophoresis and staining. In this article, we report on an alternative DNA stain, Nile Blue A, that may be used in the…

Milne, Christine; Roche, Scott; McKay, David

2008-01-01

328

Multiple ring nebulae around blue supergiants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: In the course of the life of a massive star, wind-wind interaction can give rise to the formation of circumstellar nebulae which are both predicted and observed in nature. Aims: We present generic model calculations to predict the properties of such nebulae for blue supergiants. Methods: From stellar evolution calculations including rotation, we obtain the time dependence of the stellar wind properties and of the stellar radiation field. These are used as input for hydro-calculations of the circumstellar medium throughout the star's life. Results: Here, we present the results for a rapidly rotating 12 {M}_? single star. This star forms a blue loop during its post main sequence evolution, at the onset of which its contraction spins it up close to critical rotation. Due to the consequent anisotropic mass loss, the blue supergiant wind sweeps up the preceding slow wind into an hourglass structure. Its collision with the previously formed spherical red supergiant wind shell forms a short-lived luminous nebula consisting of two polar caps and a central inner ring. With time, the polar caps evolve into mid-latitude rings which gradually move toward the equatorial plane while the central ring fades. These structures are reminiscent of the observed nebulae around the blue supergiant Sher 25 and the supernova 1987A. Conclusions: The simple model of an hourglass colliding with a spherical shell reproduces most of the intriguing nebula geometries discovered around blue supergiants, and suggests that they form an evolutionary sequence. Our results indicate that a binary system is not required to obtain them. Appendix A is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Chita, S. M.; Langer, N.; van Marle, A. J.; García-Segura, G.; Heger, A.

2008-09-01

329

On the properties of Calcein Blue.  

PubMed

A satisfactory method for the preparation of Calcein Blue has been devised. Elemental analysis, equivalent weight by neutralization, and the NMR spectrum show the compound to be 4-methylumbelliferone-8-methyleneiminodiacetic acid.0.25H(2)O. The ultraviolet absorbance and fluorescence have been studied as a function of pH and, combined with potentiometric titration and solubility date, have yielded for the acid dissociation constants the values pK(1) = 3.0, pK(2) = 6.9, and pK(3) = 11.3. These acid functions are identified respectively as carboxyl, phenol, and ammonium ion, the free Calcein Blue being a zwitter-ion. Calcein Blue fluoresces in both acidic and basic solution when excited at a suitable wavelength. The fluorescence of the doubly-charged anion formed on the neutralization of the phenol group, when excited at 360 nm, reaches a maximum at pH 9, and decreases to zero with the neutralization of the ammonium ion; the wavelength of maximum emission is 455 nm. In the presence of calcium, the fluorescence increases with alkalinity up to pH 9 and then remains constant. The calcium derivative is a 1:1 compound, formation constant 10(7.1). The fluorescence of Calcein Blue at all pH values is quenched by copper(II). The calcium derivative is changed on standing in highly alkaline solution, presumably by ring opening, to another fluorescent material; thus Calcein Blue, although satisfactory as an indicator, is not useful for the direct fluorometric determination of calcium. PMID:18961591

Huitink, G M; Poe, D P; Diehl, H

1974-12-01

330

High-Luminosity Blue and Blue-Green Gallium Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compact and efficient sources of blue light for full color display applications and lighting eluded and tantalized researchers for many years. Semiconductor light sources are attractive owing to their reliability and amenability to mass manufacture. However, large band gaps are required to achieve blue color. A class of compound semiconductors formed by metal nitrides, GaN and its allied compounds AlGaN

H. Morkoc; S. N. Mohammad

1995-01-01

331

Components of protocyanin, a blue pigment from the blue flowers of Centaurea cyanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The components involved in the formation of protocyanin, a stable blue complex pigment from the blue cornflower, Centaurea cyanus, were investigated. Reconstruction experiments using highly purified anthocyanin [centaurocyanin, cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-succinylglucoside)-5-O-glucoside], flavone glycoside [apigenin 7-O-glucuronide-4?-O-(6-O-malonylglucoside)] and metals, Fe and Mg, showed the presence of another factor essential for the formation of protocyanin. The unknown factor was revealed to be Ca. Reconstructed

Kosaku Takeda; Akiko Osakabe; Shinomi Saito; Daisuke Furuyama; Atsuko Tomita; Yumi Kojima; Mayumi Yamadera; Masaaki Sakuta

2005-01-01

332

Report of Blue-Ribbon Advisory Panel on Cyberinfrastructure  

NSF Publications Database

... Science Foundation Blue-Ribbon Advisory Panel on Cyberinfrastructure Report (PDF 3.2 MB) TABLE OF ... Testimony to the Panel Appendix E: Charge to the Blue Ribbon Advisory Panel on Infrastructure To ...

333

Blue Eyes, Red Hair and Skin Cancer Risk  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... of the player. Blue Eyes, Red Hair and Skin Cancer Risk HealthDay November 20, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Children's Health Moles Skin Cancer Transcript Children with blue eyes or red hair ...

334

WHEN THE BLUE-GREEN WATERS TURN RED  

E-print Network

WHEN THE BLUE-GREEN WATERS TURN RED Historical Flooding in Havasu Creek, Arizona U.S. GEOLOGICAL OF RECLAMATION #12;WHEN THE BLUE-GREEN WATERS TURN RED Historical Flooding in Havasu Creek, Arizona By THEODORE S

335

Alcian Blue Cartilage Staining Beatrice Jegalian & Eddy M. De Robertis  

E-print Network

Alcian Blue Cartilage Staining Beatrice Jegalian & Eddy M. De Robertis (Cell 71, 901-910, 1992) 1 will require more time) in 0.05% Alcian blue 8GX (Fisher) in 5% acetic acid. 6. Wash embryos in 5% acetic acid Alcian Blue 8 g NaCl 0.05% Alcian blue 8GX .2 g KCl 5% acetic acid 1.44 g Na2HPO4 water .24 g KH2PO4 800

De Robertis, Eddy M.

336

49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.  

... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section...Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes...

2014-10-01

337

Formation of nanoparticles of blue haze enhanced by anthropogenic pollution  

E-print Network

Formation of nanoparticles of blue haze enhanced by anthropogenic pollution Renyi Zhanga,1 , Lin for review May 4, 2009) The molecular processes leading to formation of nanoparticles of blue haze over the phenomenon of blue haze over forests, and attributed its for- mation to biogenic plant emissions

338

Amphibolite and blueschistgreenschist facies metamorphism, Blue Mountain inlier, eastern Jamaica  

E-print Network

Amphibolite and blueschist­greenschist facies metamorphism, Blue Mountain inlier, eastern Jamaica Cretaceous (possibly older) metamorphic rock occurs mainly in the Blue Mountain inlier in eastern Jamaica studied, metamorphic rock is exposed in the Blue Mountain inlier (Figure 1) in eastern Jamaica

Abbott Jr., Richard N.

339

Blue Moon sampling, vectorial reaction coordinates, and unbiased constrained dynamics  

E-print Network

Blue Moon sampling, vectorial reaction coordinates, and unbiased constrained dynamics Giovanni force in terms of a conditional expectation which can be computed by Blue Moon sampling Introduction Fifteen years ago the Blue Moon ensemble method was introduced to sample rare events that occur

Van Den Eijnden, Eric

340

ANCHIALINE ECOSYSTEMS Microbial hotspots in anchialine blue holes  

E-print Network

ANCHIALINE ECOSYSTEMS Microbial hotspots in anchialine blue holes: initial discoveries from for stratified and sulfidic oceans present early in Earth's history. Keywords Blue holes Á Anchialine caves Á 16S and in their role as analogs for stratified ocean conditions prevalent earlier in Earth's history. Inland blue holes

Iliffe, Thomas M.

341

Recognition of blue movies by fusion of audio and video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along with the explosive growth of the Internet, comes the proliferation of pornography. Compared with the pornographic texts and images, blue movies can do much harm to children, due to the greater realism and voyeurism of blue movies. In this paper, a framework for recognizing blue movies by fusing the audio and video information is described. A one-class Gaussian mixture

Haiqiang Zuo; Ou Wu; Weiming Hu; Bo Xu

2008-01-01

342

Methylene Blue as a Cerebral Metabolic and Hemodynamic Enhancer  

E-print Network

Methylene Blue as a Cerebral Metabolic and Hemodynamic Enhancer Ai-Ling Lin1,2 *, Ethan Poteet3, methylene blue (MB) is an effective neuroprotectant in many neurological disorders (e.g., Parkinson, Liu R, et al. (2012) Methylene Blue as a Cerebral Metabolic and Hemodynamic Enhancer. PLoS ONE 7

Duong, Timothy Q.

343

Photoacoustic lifetime contrast between methylene blue monomers and self-  

E-print Network

Photoacoustic lifetime contrast between methylene blue monomers and self- quenched dimers/03/2013 Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms #12;Photoacoustic lifetime contrast between methylene blue-state lifetime of methylene blue (MB), a fluorophore widely used in clinical therapeutic and diagnostic

Thomas, David D.

344

REFERENCE: The Blue Planet An Introduction to Earth System  

E-print Network

more easily than longer red and yellow wavelengths. The scattered blue wavelengths make the sky appear blue in all directions. If there were no scattering by air molecules, the sky would appear pitch blackREFERENCE: The Blue Planet An Introduction to Earth System Science. Brian J. Skinner and Barbara W

Gilbes, Fernando

345

Curiosity-driven `Blue Sky' Research: a threatened vital activity?  

E-print Network

Curiosity-driven `Blue Sky' Research: a threatened vital activity? Sir John Cadogan Inaugural............................................... 10 Appendix 3: Comments on the ROPA scheme... ............. 48 #12;1 Curiosity-driven `Blue Sky.manchester.ac.uk Page 6: `Cisplatin': By Larry Ostby [Public domain] via Wikipedia Commons #12;Curiosity-driven `Blue

Grant, P. W.

346

THE BLUE SKY CATASTROPHE ON THE KLEIN BOTTLE  

E-print Network

THE BLUE SKY CATASTROPHE ON THE KLEIN BOTTLE Weigu Li and Meirong Zhang Department of Mathematics orbit, the so-called blue sky catastrophe. Let's begin with the definition. Definition 1 One-parameter family of vector fields on a compact manifold has a blue sky catastrophe if for all parameter values from

Zhang, Meirong

347

Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) sounds from the North Atlantic  

E-print Network

Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) sounds from the North Atlantic David K. Mellingera) Bioacoustics 2003 Sounds of blue whales were recorded from U.S. Navy hydrophone arrays in the North Atlantic-duration, very-low-frequency sound units repeated every 1­2 min are typical of blue whale sounds recorded

348

BLUE: An Interactive Visualization System for Categorical Data Technical Note  

E-print Network

BLUE: An Interactive Visualization System for Categorical Data Technical Note Robert W. Kerbs. This paper introduces a prototype data visualization system, BLUE, to help induce meaningful decision trees from databases that contain primarily categorical attributes. BLUE is an interactive model creation

Kerbs, R. W.

349

Blue Noise through Optimal Transport Fernando de Goes  

E-print Network

Blue Noise through Optimal Transport Fernando de Goes Caltech Katherine Breeden Stanford Victor high-quality blue noise point distributions of arbitrary density functions. At its core is a novel diagrams. Our mathematical, algorithmic, and practical contributions lead to high-quality blue noise point

Desbrun, Mathieu

350

Alcian Blue Alizarin Red Skeletal Staining October 2003  

E-print Network

Alcian Blue ­ Alizarin Red Skeletal Staining October 2003 Eddy M. De Robertis 1. Dissect mice damage. 3. Replace 95% ethanol with Alcian blue staining solution for 1-3 days slowly rocking at room days. 4. Replace Alcian blue solution with 95% ethanol for 6 hours slowly rocking at room temperature

De Robertis, Eddy M.

351

Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, Trap Selectivity Studies: Mesh Size  

E-print Network

Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, Trap Selectivity Studies: Mesh Size VINCENT GUILLORY and PAUL had replaced drop nets and trot lines as the dominant gear in the commercial blue crab, Callinectes, LA 70343. ABSTRACT-Catch rates and sizes of blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, were com pared in traps

352

Blue Solid-State Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence from Novel  

E-print Network

Blue Solid-State Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence from Novel Poly copolymers give rise to efficient ( ) 0.16-0.76) blue solid-state emission (max ) 422-443 nm) which can-PPE (max 500-520 nm). The effective and blue-shifted solid-state emission is a result of disrupting

Myrick, Michael Lenn

353

Blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) are widely distributed throughout the  

E-print Network

420 Blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) are widely distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical waters of the Pacific and Indian oceans (Nakamura, 1985). In the Pacific, blue marlin are harvested data (Kleiber et al., 2003) indicate that there is a single stock of blue marlin in the Pacific Ocean

354

Blue Lacuna: Lessons Learned Writing the World's Longest Interactive Fiction  

E-print Network

1 Blue Lacuna: Lessons Learned Writing the World's Longest Interactive Fiction Aaron A. Reed Abstract--Blue Lacuna is a new long form interactive fic- tion comprising nearly 400,000 words of prose play time of fifteen to twenty hours. In development between 2006 and 2009, Blue Lacuna fea- tures

California at Santa Cruz, University of

355

Blue oak seedlings may be older than they look  

E-print Network

Blue oak seedlings may be older than they look Ralph L. Phillips u Neil K. McDougald o Richard B. Standiford William E.Frost A 4-year study indicates that na- tive blue oak seedlings are prob- ably much the year of above- average rainfall. Blue oak (Quercusdouglasii)trees are a valuable economic and aesthetic

Standiford, Richard B.

356

21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS...

2010-04-01

357

Novel Method for Rapid Assessment of Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolates from Environmental Waters by Use of a Modified Chromogenic Agar  

Microsoft Academic Search

We validated a novel method for screening Escherichia coli resistance to antibiotics in environmental samples using modified Difco MI agar (Becton Dickinson) impregnated with selected antibiotics (tetracycline, ampi- cillin, cephalexin, and sulfamethoxazole), termed MI-R. This method combines an existing rapid assessment technique for E. coli enumeration with clinical reference data for breakpoint analysis of antibiotic resistance and was developed to

A. J. Watkinson; G. R. Micalizzi; J. R. Bates; S. D. Costanzo

2007-01-01

358

Multicenter Evaluation of a New Disk Agar Diffusion Method for Susceptibility Testing of Filamentous Fungi with Voriconazole, Posaconazole, Itraconazole, Amphotericin B, and Caspofungin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to correlate inhibition zone diameters, in millimeters (agar diffusion disk method), with the broth dilution MICs or minimum effective concentrations (MECs) (CLSI M38-A method) of five antifungal agents to identify optimal testing guidelines for disk mold testing. The following disk diffusion testing parameters were evaluated for 555 isolates of the molds Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus

A. Espinel-Ingroff; B. Arthington-Skaggs; N. Iqbal; D. Ellis; M. A. Pfaller; S. Messer; M. Rinaldi; A. Fothergill; D. L. Gibbs; A. Wang

2007-01-01

359

Comparison of Microscan Broth Microdilution, Synergy Quad Plate Agar Dilution, and Disk Diffusion Screening Methods for Detection of High-Level Aminoglycoside Resistance in Enterococcus Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the dried MicroScan microdilution panel, Synergy Quad plate agar dilution, and high-potency disk diffusion screening methods for the detection of high-level aminoglycoside resistance in 815 enterococcal bloodstream isolates. Agreement between the three methods was 99% when testing for high-level gentamicin resistance and 96% when testing for high-level streptomycin resistance.

David R. Murdoch; Lizzie J. Harrell; Susan M. Donabedian; Marcus J. Zervos; L. Barth Reller

2003-01-01

360

Carbapenem Disks on MacConkey Agar in Screening Methods for Detection of Carbapenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Rods in Stools  

PubMed Central

Direct plating of simulated stool specimens on MacConkey agar (MCA) with 10-?g ertapenem, meropenem, and imipenem disks allowed the establishment of optimal zone diameters for the screening of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative rods (CRGNR) of ?24 mm (ertapenem), ?34 mm (meropenem), and ?32 mm (imipenem). PMID:23135936

Blackburn, Julie; Tsimiklis, Catherine; Lavergne, Valery; Pilotte, Josee; Grenier, Sophie; Gilbert, Andree; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Tremblay, Cecile; Bourgault, Anne-Marie

2013-01-01

361

Correlation between Agar Plate Screening and Solid-State Fermentation for the Prediction of Cellulase Production by Trichoderma Strains  

PubMed Central

The viability of converting biomass into biofuels and chemicals still requires further development towards the reduction of the enzyme production costs. Thus, there is a growing demand for the development of efficient procedures for selection of cellulase-producing microorganisms. This work correlates qualitative screening using agar plate assays with quantitative measurements of cellulase production during cultivation under solid-state fermentation (SSF). The initial screening step consisted of observation of the growth of 78 preselected strains of the genus Trichoderma on plates, using microcrystalline cellulose as carbon source. The 49 strains that were able to grow on this substrate were then subjected to a second screening step using the Congo red test. From this test it was possible to select 10 strains that presented the highest enzymatic indices (EI), with values ranging from 1.51 to 1.90. SSF cultivations using sugarcane bagasse and wheat bran as substrates were performed using selected strains. The CG 104NH strain presented the highest EGase activity (25.93?UI·g?1). The EI results obtained in the screening procedure using plates were compared with cellulase production under SSF. A correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.977 was obtained between the Congo red test and SSF, demonstrating that the two methodologies were in good agreement. PMID:23227312

Florencio, Camila; Couri, Sonia; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez

2012-01-01

362

Analysis of Keystone Enzyme in Agar Hydrolysis Provides Insight into the Degradation (of a Polysaccharide from) Red Seaweeds*  

PubMed Central

Agars are abundant polysaccharides from marine red algae, and their chemical structure consists of alternating d-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose residues, the latter of which are presumed to make the polymer recalcitrant to degradation by most terrestrial bacteria. Here we study a family 117 glycoside hydrolase (BpGH117) encoded within a recently discovered locus from the human gut bacterium Bacteroides plebeius. Consistent with this locus being involved in agarocolloid degradation, we show that BpGH117 is an exo-acting 3,6-anhydro-?-(1,3)-l-galactosidase that removes the 3,6-anhydrogalactose from the non-reducing end of neoagaro-oligosaccharides. A Michaelis complex of BpGH117 with neoagarobiose reveals the distortion of the constrained 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose into a conformation that favors catalysis. Furthermore, this complex, supported by analysis of site-directed mutants, provides evidence for an organization of the active site and positioning of the catalytic residues that are consistent with an inverting mechanism of catalysis and suggests that a histidine residue acts as the general acid. This latter feature differs from the vast majority of glycoside hydrolases, which use a carboxylic acid, highlighting the alternative strategies that enzymes may utilize in catalyzing the cleavage of glycosidic bonds. PMID:22393053

Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik; Smyth, Leo; Yadav, Anuj; Vocadlo, David J.; Boraston, Alisdair B.

2012-01-01

363

76 FR 81004 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Woman in Blue, Against...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Woman in Blue, Against Blue Water'' by Edvard Munch SUMMARY: Notice...of April 15, 2003), I hereby determine that the object ``Woman in Blue, Against Blue Water'' by Edvard Munch,...

2011-12-27

364

Transient reduction of responsiveness of blue-light-mediated hair-whorl morphogenesis in Acetabularia mediterranea induced by blue light  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a prolonged period of red light the formation of a new whorl of lateral hairs can be induced inAcetabularia mediterranea Lamouroux (=A. acetabulum (L.) Silva) by a pulse of blue light. It has previously been shown that the response to blue light obeys the law of reciprocity. In this paper we demonstrate that the responses to blue light are

Rainer Schmid; Martin Tiinncrmann; Evi-Marion Idziak

1988-01-01

365

A new mechanism in blue cone monochromatism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue cone monochromatism (BCM) is a rare X-linked colour vision disorder characterized by the absence of both red and green\\u000a cone sensitivity. Most mutations leading to BCM fall into two classes of alterations in the red and green pigment gene array\\u000a at Xq28. In one class the red and green pigment genes are inactivated by deletion in the locus control

A.-S. Ladekjær-Mikkelsen; T. Rosenberg; A. L. Jørgensen

1996-01-01

366

Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using blue-emitting GaN/6HSiC chips as primary light sources, we have fabricated green, yellow, red and white emitting LEDs. The generation of mixed colors, as turquoise and magenta is also demonstrated. The underlying physical principle is that of luminescence down-conversion (Stokes shift), as typical for organic luminescent dye molecules. A white emitting LED, using an inorganic converter, Y3Al5O12:Ce3+( ), has also been realized.

Schlotter, P.; Schmidt, R.; Schneider, J.

367

AUDIBILITY THRESHOLDS OF THE BLUE JAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The audibility thresholds of two Blue Jays were measured behaviorally using operant conditioning and psychophysical techniques. The jays responded to pure tones between 0.25 and 10 kHz. Their thresholds are similar to those reported for seven other passerines. This indicates that passerines are somewhat less sensitive than man in the detection of sounds in the 1 to 4 kHz range

STEVEN M. COHEN; WILLIAM C. STEBBINS; DAVID B. MOODY

1978-01-01

368

"Lest we forget you--methylene blue...".  

PubMed

Methylene blue (MB), the first synthetic drug, has a 120-year-long history of diverse applications, both in medical treatments and as a staining reagent. In recent years there was a surge of interest in MB as an antimalarial agent and as a potential treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), possibly through its inhibition of the aggregation of tau protein. Here we review the history and medical applications of MB, with emphasis on recent developments. PMID:21316815

Schirmer, R Heiner; Adler, Heike; Pickhardt, Marcus; Mandelkow, Eckhard

2011-12-01

369

Allergens of Kentucky Blue Grass Pollen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Components with hapten-like properties were isolated from the nondialyzable fraction, i.e. the retentate (R) and the dialyzable fractions of the aqueous extract of Kentucky Blue Grass pollen (KBG aq.ext.), by preparative isoelectrofocussing on Sephadex G-100 gel. These haptenic components could not elicit the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reactions in rats passively sensitized with a murine reaginic antiserum to R, but

S. Chakrabarty; A. K. M. Ekramoddoullah; F. T. Kisil; A. H. Sehon

1980-01-01

370

Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome (Brbns)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) is a rare congenital disorder (OMIM # 112200) characterized by multifocal venous malformations\\u000a mainly of the skin, soft tissue and gastrointestinal tract which may occur however in any tissue including the nervous system\\u000a (Enjolras and Mulliken 1997, Fretzin and Potter 1965, Moodley and Ramdial 1993, Mulliken and Glowacki 1982, Munkvad 1983, Nahm et al.

María del Carmen Boente; Maria Rosa Cordisco

371

Blue Springs ELI Places of Origin  

E-print Network

the Office Manners, Culture, and Grammar TheELIWeekly Blue Springs Outdoor Fun Take part in a unique. Tuesday 6:30pm- 9:30pm Soccer (Bailey) Flavet Field. Free Wednesday 6:30pm- 9:30pm Coffee Talk (Andreina class every day. Manners and Culture Q: Is it OK if I didn't give a tip to the pizza delivery man

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

372

Protozoa from Blue Lake, Raoul Island (note)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protozoan populations of microhabitats in Blue Lake, Raoul Island, Kermadec Group, 28° 30’ S 178° 00’ W are described qualitatively and semi?quantitatively. The in situ and in vitro pH values of the four micro?habitats examined were recorded. After two days in vitro there was a marked drop in the pH of the mud zones, a slight drop in pH

Tim J. Brown; John A. Peart

1973-01-01

373

Technology Teacher: Singing the Black and Blues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gives simple, yet authoritative answers to the questions "Why is the sky blue?" and "Why is the sky black at night?" Combines technology with its application to Earth science, astronomy, and cosmology, and does so via language arts and music! This article was originally written for and published by the International Technology Education Association in its journal 'The Technology Teacher.' It is now archived on The Space Place Web site.

2004-02-01

374

Accidental mydriasis from blue nightshade "lipstick".  

PubMed

A 7-year-old girl presented with bilaterally dilated pupils, nausea, and vomiting 2 days after head trauma. Pilocarpine pupil testing led to the correct diagnosis of pharmacologic pupillary dilation from an unexpected and unusual source of plant poisoning, Solanum dulcamara (blue nightshade). In patients with internal ophthalmoplegia, awareness of the possibility of pharmacologic mydriasis and correct use of topical pilocarpine testing can preclude the necessity for neuroradiologic and invasive diagnostic studies, even in cases with atypical or complex presentations. PMID:2952678

Rubinfeld, R S; Currie, J N

1987-03-01

375

Axillary shoot proliferation of blue honeysuckle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors affecting axillary shoot development of blue honeysuckle in vitro were studied with two genotypes, Lonicera caerulea\\u000a f. caerulea and L. caerulea f. edulis. There was a linear relationship between the concentration of N6-benzyladenine (1.1 to 17.8 ?mol l?1) and the number of axillary branches produced (3 to 13 new shoots), biomass production and callus formation of the form caerulea

Saila T. Karhu

1997-01-01

376

Tried and True: The blue bottle demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The abilities to propose experiments, make observations, and use data to justify conclusions are critical to the scientific process (NRC 1996; NRC 2000). The Blue Bottle Demonstration provides an excellent platform for introducing these skills. The demonstration process allows the teacher to maintain control while guiding an inquiry into the chemical system. This involves students in an investigation early, even on the first day of class if the teacher chooses, before they have any experience in hands-on group activities.

Cox, Cathi; Ramsey, Linda; Deese, William C.

2007-12-01

377

Non-polar Flexoelectrooptic Effect in Blue Phase Liquid Crystals  

E-print Network

Blue phase liquid crystals are not usually considered to exhibit a flexoelectrooptic effect, due to the polar nature of flexoelectric switching and the cubic or amorphous structure of blue phases. Here, we derive the form of the flexoelectric contribution to the Kerr constant of blue phases, and experimentally demonstrate and measure the separate contributions to the Kerr constant arising from flexoelectric and dielectric effects. Hence, a non-polar flexoelectrooptic effect is demonstrated in blue phase liquid crystals, which will have consequences for the engineering of novel blue-phase electrooptic technology.

B. I. Outram; S. J. Elston; F. Castles; M. M. Qasim; H. Coles; H. -Y. Chen; S. -F. Lu

2014-06-12

378

Methylene blue promotes quiescence of rat neural progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

Neural stem cell-based treatment holds a new therapeutic opportunity for neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we investigated the effect of methylene blue on proliferation and differentiation of rat neural progenitor cells (NPCs) both in vitro and in vivo. We found that methylene blue inhibited proliferation and promoted quiescence of NPCs in vitro without affecting committed neuronal differentiation. Consistently, intracerebroventricular infusion of methylene blue significantly inhibited NPC proliferation at the subventricular zone (SVZ). Methylene blue inhibited mTOR signaling along with down-regulation of cyclins in NPCs in vitro and in vivo. In summary, our study indicates that methylene blue may delay NPC senescence through enhancing NPCs quiescence. PMID:25339866

Xie, Luokun; Choudhury, Gourav R.; Wang, Jixian; Park, Yong; Liu, Ran; Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Chun-Li; Yorio, Thomas; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Shao-Hua

2014-01-01

379

Red, Green, and Blue Astro-combs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Searches for extrasolar planets using the periodic Doppler shift of stellar lines are approaching Earth-like planet sensitivity. Astro-combs, a combination of an octave spanning femtosecond laser and a mode-filtering cavity provide a likely route to increased calibration precision and accuracy. We present results from three astro-combs operating in the red/near-IR, green and blue spectral ranges. Light from a 1-GHz, octave-spanning Ti:Sapphire laser is filtered by a Fabry-Perot Cavity (FPC) constructed from Doubly-Chirped Mirrors to produce a red astro-comb with 100 nm of optical bandwidth. This astro-comb has calibrated an astrophysical spectrograph at the 1 m/s level. In the blue astro-comb, Ti:Sapphire comb light, doubled in a BBO crystal is filtered to 50 GHz mode spacing with an FPC. The blue astro-comb has performed 50 cm/s calibrations. In the ``green'' astro-comb, light from the 1 GHz Ti:Sapphire comb laser is broadened in a photonic crystal fiber optimized to produce light in the green. This 1-GHz spaced green light is then filtered to roughly 40 GHz via an FPC with zero group delay dispersion mirrors, providing approximately 50 nm of astro-comb light centered near 550 nm.

Phillips, David; Glenday, Alex; Li, Chih-Hao; Korzennik, Sylvain; Noah Chang, Guoqing; Chen, Li-Jin; Benedick, Andrew; Kaertner, Franz; Sasselov, Dimitar; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Walsworth, Ronald

2011-06-01

380

The Blue Comet: A Railroad's Astronomical Heritage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 1929 February 21 and 1941 September 27, the Central New Jersey Railroad operated a luxury passenger train between Jersey City and Atlantic City. Named The Blue Comet, the locomotive, tender, and coaches sported a unique royal blue paint scheme designed to evoke images of celestial bodies speeding through space. Inside each car were etched window panes and lampshades featuring stars and comets. And each coach sported the name of a famous comet on its side; these comets were of course named for their discoverers. Some of the astronomers honored in this unique fashion remain famous to this day, or at least their comets do. The names D'Arrest, Barnard, Encke, Faye, Giacobini, Halley, Olbers, Temple, Tuttle, and Westphal are familiar ones. But Biela, Brorsen, deVico, Spitaler, and Winnecke have now largely faded into obscurity; their stories are recounted here. Although more than sixty years have elapsed since its last run, The Blue Comet, perhaps the most famous passenger train in American history, lives on in the memories of millions of passengers and railfans. This famous train returned to the attention of millions of television viewers on the evening of 2007 June 3, in an episode of the HBO series The Sopranos. This work was supported by a faculty development grant from Valdosta State University.

Rumstay, Kenneth S.

2009-01-01

381

Blue-green algae toxicosis in cattle.  

PubMed

Twenty-four of 175 heifers died after ingesting water from a stock pond containing blue-green algae (genus Microcystis) in southern Colorado. Affected cattle were found dead or had signs of nervousness, and were recumbent, weak, anorectic, and hypersensitive to noise when first examined. All cattle died within 3 days after the onset of signs. At necropsy, the rumen contained blue-green algae, and the liver was larger than normal, friable, and dark red. The most important histologic lesion was hepatocyte degeneration and necrosis. Intraperitoneal administration of lyophilized cell material from the bloom caused hepatic necrosis and death in mice, and water from the pond had clumps of cells surrounded by a clear calyx, consistent with the appearance of organisms of the genus Microcystis. Samples of pond water were examined by means of high-pressure liquid chromatography; microcystin-LR, one of the hepatotoxins produced by Microcystis spp, was found. Chromatography may be useful in the diagnosis of blue-green algae toxicosis. PMID:9838962

Puschner, B; Galey, F D; Johnson, B; Dickie, C W; Vondy, M; Francis, T; Holstege, D M

1998-12-01

382

QCD and the BlueGene  

SciTech Connect

Quantum Chromodynamics is the theory of nuclear and sub-nuclear physics. It is a celebrated theory and one of its inventors, F. Wilczek, has termed it as '... our most perfect physical theory'. Part of this is related to the fact that QCD can be numerically simulated from first principles using the methods of lattice gauge theory. The computational demands of QCD are enormous and have not only played a role in the history of supercomputers but are also helping define their future. Here I will discuss the intimate relation of QCD and massively parallel supercomputers with focus on the Blue Gene supercomputer and QCD thermodynamics. I will present results on the performance of QCD on the Blue Gene as well as physics simulation results of QCD at temperatures high enough that sub-nuclear matter transitions to a plasma state of elementary particles, the quark gluon plasma. This state of matter is thought to have existed at around 10 microseconds after the big bang. Current heavy ion experiments are in the quest of reproducing it for the first time since then. And numerical simulations of QCD on the Blue Gene systems are calculating the theoretical values of fundamental parameters so that comparisons of experiment and theory can be made.

Vranas, P

2007-06-18

383

ANTHEM BLUE CROSS AND BLUE SHIELD You may select from two separate dental care plans to meet your individual needs. Premium cost  

E-print Network

- 34 - ANTHEM BLUE CROSS AND BLUE SHIELD You may select from two separate dental care plans to meet two choices are: Anthem Blue Dental PPO Plus Anthem Blue Dental PPO NOTE: Children are eligible in retirement. PERA retirement benefits are based on your highest three years of earnings. Anthem Blue Dental

384

VIDAS Salmonella (SLM) assay method EasySLM with ChromID Salmonella (SM2) Agar. Performance Tested Method 020901.  

PubMed

A method modification study was conducted for the VIDAS Salmonella (SLM) assay (AOAC Performance Tested Method 020901) using the EasySLM method to validate a matrix extension for peanut butter. The VIDAS EasySLM method is a simple enrichment procedure compared to traditional Salmonella methods, requiring only pre-enrichment and a single selective enrichment media, Salmonella Xpress 2 (SX2) broth. SX2 replaces the two selective broths in traditional methods and eliminates the M broth transfer, incubation, and subsequent pooling of M broths prior to VIDAS assay. The validation study was conducted under the AOAC Research Institute Emergency Response Validation program. VIDAS SLM was compared to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) method for detection of S. enterica ser. Typhimurium in peanut butter. All peanut butter samples were prepared, blind-coded, and shipped to the method developers' laboratory by Q Laboratories. In addition, Q Laboratories performed most probable number and reference method analyses on peanut butter samples. The VIDAS EasySLM ChromID Salmonella (SM2) Agar was previously validated in the Performance Tested Methods program for the detection of Salmonella in roast beef, raw ground pork, turkey, pork sausage, raw chicken breast, dry pet food, whole milk, ice cream, bagged spinach, shrimp (raw, peeled), raw cod, spent irrigation water, pecans, peanut butter, dry pasta, cake mix, ground black pepper, nonfat dry milk, liquid eggs, cantaloupe, and orange juice. In the matrix extension study for peanut butter, the VIDAS EasySLM method was shown to be equivalent to the appropriate reference culture procedure using both buffered peptone water pre-enrichment and the FDA-BAM lactose pre-enrichment in the two-step enrichment method with SX2 media. The current study extends the validation to include peanut butter. PMID:20166608

Johnson, Ronald; Mills, John; Colón-Reveles, Judith

2009-01-01

385

Excited state electric dipole moment of nile blue and brilliant cresyl blue: A comparative study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solvatochromic study on the photophysical properties of two cationic oxazine dyes (brilliant cresyl blue and nile blue) was carried out. The electronic absorption and emission spectra of the dyes were recorded in various organic solvents with different polarity. The ground and the excited state dipole moments of the dyes were estimated from solvatochromic shift method. The solvent dependent spectral shifts in absorption and fluorescence spectra were analyzed by the Katritzky and Kamlet-Taft multi-parameter scales. This work is characterized by detailed quantitative studies on the nature and extent of solvent-solute interactions.

Ghanadzadeh Gilani, A.; Hosseini, S. E.; Moghadam, M.; Alizadeh, E.

2012-04-01

386

Anaphylactic response to blue dye during sentinel lymph node biopsy.  

PubMed

The sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure is now used routinely for the staging of clinically node-negative patients with early breast cancer. Two identification techniques exist: colorimetric and isotopic. These can be used alone or in combination. The combined method is associated with an increased identification rate. However, allergic and adverse reactions to blue dyes have been reported. The objective of this review was to determine the incidence of such events and to discuss alternative approaches. The authors conducted a search of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for reports of anaphylactic responses to isosulfan blue dye and patent blue V dye. Allergic reaction to the dyes isosulfan blue and patent blue V is rare and the reported incidence varies between 0.07% and 2.7%. Methylene blue dye appears to be safer, with no cases of allergic events having been reported. However, allergy tests in some patients have proven that there is cross-reactivity between isosulfan blue dye and methylene blue dye. Even though the risk of an anaphylactic response is low, this raises questions about the usefulness of colorimetric detection of SLN and whether alternatives to the use of the isosulfan and patent blue V dyes, such as methylene blue, exist. PMID:21074413

Bézu, Corinne; Coutant, Charles; Salengro, Anne; Daraï, Emile; Rouzier, Roman; Uzan, Serge

2011-03-01

387

MOCK OBSERVATIONS OF BLUE STRAGGLERS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER MODELS  

SciTech Connect

We created artificial color-magnitude diagrams of Monte Carlo dynamical models of globular clusters and then used observational methods to determine the number of blue stragglers in those clusters. We compared these blue stragglers to various cluster properties, mimicking work that has been done for blue stragglers in Milky Way globular clusters to determine the dominant formation mechanism(s) of this unusual stellar population. We find that a mass-based prescription for selecting blue stragglers will select approximately twice as many blue stragglers than a selection criterion that was developed for observations of real clusters. However, the two numbers of blue stragglers are well-correlated, so either selection criterion can be used to characterize the blue straggler population of a cluster. We confirm previous results that the simplified prescription for the evolution of a collision or merger product in the BSE code overestimates their lifetimes. We show that our model blue stragglers follow similar trends with cluster properties (core mass, binary fraction, total mass, collision rate) as the true Milky Way blue stragglers as long as we restrict ourselves to model clusters with an initial binary fraction higher than 5%. We also show that, in contrast to earlier work, the number of blue stragglers in the cluster core does have a weak dependence on the collisional parameter ? in both our models and in Milky Way globular clusters.

Sills, Alison; Glebbeek, Evert [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Chatterjee, Sourav [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Rasio, Frederic A., E-mail: asills@mcmaster.ca, E-mail: e.glebbeek@astro.ru.nl, E-mail: s.chatterjee@astro.ufl.edu, E-mail: rasio@northwestern.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

2013-11-10

388

Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser  

DOEpatents

A laser is disclosed for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr{sup 3+} ions and Yb{sup 3+} ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output. 11 figs.

Xie, P.; Gosnell, T.R.

1998-09-08

389

Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser  

DOEpatents

A laser for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr.sup.3+ ions and Yb.sup.3+ ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output.

Xie, Ping (San Jose, CA); Gosnell, Timothy R. (Sante Fe, NM)

1998-01-01

390

Blue running of the primordial tensor spectrum  

E-print Network

We examine the possibility of positive spectral index of the power spectrum of the primordial tensor perturbation produced during inflation in the light of the detection of the B-mode polarization by the BICEP2 collaboration. We find a blue tilt is in general possible when the slow-roll parameter decays rapidly. We present two known examples in which a positive spectral index for the tensor power spectrum can be obtained. We also briefly discuss other consistency tests for further studies on inflationary dynamics.

Jinn-Ouk Gong

2014-03-20

391

Blue Marble Space Institute essay contest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, based in Seattle, Wash., is inviting college students to participate in its essay contest. Essays need to address the question, "In the next 100 years, how can human civilization prepare for the long-term changes to the Earth system that will occur over the coming millennium?" According to the institute, the purpose of the contest is "to stimulate creative thinking relating to space exploration and global issues by exploring how changes in the Earth system will affect humanity's future."

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-04-01

392

Anthem Blue Cross/Anthem Blue Cross Life and Health Insurance Company (P-NP) 6/13/2011 University of California  

E-print Network

Anthem Blue Cross/Anthem Blue Cross Life and Health Insurance Company (P-NP) 6/13/2011 University that all sections of the claim form are completed and mail to: Anthem Blue Cross Prescription Drug Program

Kammen, Daniel M.

393

Novel properties of wave propagations in sonic-crystal wave-guides made of air cylinders in agar-gel - comparison with other sonic crystals and photonic crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the initial buildup characteristics of the wave propagation in waveguides made of sonic crystals or photonic crystals, whose rising time-constant is an important factor for high speed signal processing and also for wave control by such functional wave guides. A sonic crystal made of air circular-cylinders in agar-gel host is shown to have novel and preferable properties for

T. Miyashita

2002-01-01

394

Translocation of cadmium and mercury into the fruiting bodies of Agrocybe aegerita in a model system using agar platelets as substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A model system of 19 agar platelets colonized by the lignocellulolytic fungus,Agrocybe aegerita in which the platelets were exclusively connected by mycelial bridges is reported. The distribution patterns of109CdCl2 and203HgCl2 in the platelets and translocation of the metal ions into the fruiting bodies formed at the periphery of the system have been studied at 3 different concentrations (10, 110,

H. Brunnert; F. Zadražil

1981-01-01

395

Simple Combined Agar-Strip Test for Detection of Enterococcal Susceptibility to Ampicillin, Moderate or High-Level Gentamicin Resistance and Potential Additive Activity of Ampicillin plus Gentamicin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple combined agar-strip test (CAST), involving filter paper strips charged with 20 jxg of ampicillin or 40 ?g of gentamicin, accurately detected high-level gentamicin resistance among 43 of 146 isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and additive activity of ampicillin plus gentamicin against 101 of 103 (98%) isolates of E. faecalis with moderate-level gentamicin resistance (MLGR). All 15 MLGR Enterococcus faecium

Walter H. Traub; Birgit Leonhard

1993-01-01

396

Evaluation of ergosterol and its esters in the pileus, gill, and stipe tissues of agaric fungi and their relative changes in the comminuted fungal tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the rapid determination of\\u000a free ergosterol, ergosteryl esters, and ergocalciferol. The HPLC method was used to evaluate the distribution of ergosterol\\u000a and ergosteryl esters in the different parts (stipe, pileus, and gills) of the agaric fungi, Agrocybe aegerita, Termitomyces albuminosus, and Lentinus edodes, and the relative changes of free

Jian-Ping Yuan; Hui-Cong Kuang; Jiang-Hai Wang; Xin Liu

2008-01-01

397

Periumbilical allergic contact dermatitis: blue jeans or belt buckles?  

PubMed

Nickel is the most ubiquitous contact allergen among children and adolescents. Metal blue jeans buttons and belts have been noted to cause nickel dermatitis around the umbilicus. For these children, traditional teaching is strict avoidance of all pants with metal snaps/buttons, particularly blue jeans. In this study we tested 90 pairs of blue jeans and 47 belts for nickel using the dimethylglyoxime spot test. Only 10% of blue jeans tested positive, while 53% of belts tested positive. Furthermore, 10 pairs of nickel-negative blue jeans remained negative after 10 washings. Overall we found no resistance to testing in clothing stores. From these results, we recommend that patients with allergic contact dermatitis secondary to nickel need not strictly avoid blue jeans and metal belt buckles. Rather, families should be encouraged to use the dimethylglyoxime spot test to test these items for nickel prior to purchase. PMID:15165199

Byer, Tara T; Morrell, Dean S

2004-01-01

398

"Big Blue Marble" Fact Sheet and "Big Blue Marble" Program Content (Shows 1 through 78).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet describes the content of 78 programs presented in the "Big Blue Marble" series, an international series of children's television shows sponsored by the International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation. The major sequence of subjects is given, as well as a description of each program's folktale adaptation (a regular feature) and…

International Telephone and Telegraph Corp., New York, NY.

399

Gelatin-agar lumbosacral spine phantom: a simple model for learning the basic skills required to perform real-time sonographically guided central neuraxial blocks.  

PubMed

This report describes the preparation of a gelatin-agar spine phantom that was used for spinal sonography and to practice the hand-eye coordination skills required to perform sonographically guided central neuraxial blocks. The phantom was prepared by embedding a lumbosacral spine model into a mixture of gelatin and agar in a plastic box. Cellulose powder and chlorhexidine were also added to the mixture, after which it was allowed to solidify. Sonography of the osseous elements of the lumbosacral spine in the phantom was then performed, and their sonographic appearances were compared to those in volunteers. Simulated real-time sonographically guided paramedian spinal needle insertions were also performed in the phantom. The texture and echogenicity of the phantom were subjectively comparable to those of tissue in vivo. The osseous elements of the spine in the phantom were clearly delineated, and their sonographic appearances were comparable to those seen in vivo in the volunteers. During the simulated sonographically guided spinal injections, the needle could be clearly visualized, but the phantom provided little tactile feedback. In conclusion, the gelatin-agar spine phantom is a simple and inexpensive sonographic spine model that has a tissuelike texture and echogenicity. It can be used to study the osseous anatomy of the lumbar spine and practice the skills required to perform sonographically guided central neuraxial blocks. PMID:21266566

Li, Jia Wei; Karmakar, Manoj K; Li, Xiang; Kwok, Wing Hong; Ngan Kee, Warwick Dean

2011-02-01

400

The blue anthocyanin pigments from the blue flowers of Heliophila coronopifolia L. (Brassicaceae).  

PubMed

Six acylated delphinidin glycosides (pigments 1-6) and one acylated kaempferol glycoside (pigment 9) were isolated from the blue flowers of cape stock (Heliophila coronopifolia) in Brassicaceae along with two known acylated cyanidin glycosides (pigments 7 and 8). Pigments 1-8, based on 3-sambubioside-5-glucosides of delphinidin and cyanidin, were acylated with hydroxycinnamic acids at 3-glycosyl residues of anthocyanidins. Using spectroscopic and chemical methods, the structures of pigments 1, 2, 5, and 6 were determined to be: delphinidin 3-O-[2-O-(?-xylopyranosyl)-6-O-(acyl)-?-glucopyranoside]-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-?-glucopyranoside], in which acyl moieties were, respectively, cis-p-coumaric acid for pigment 1, trans-caffeic acid for pigment 2, trans-p-coumaric acid for pigment 5 (a main pigment) and trans-ferulic acid for pigment 6, respectively. Moreover, the structure of pigments 3 and 4 were elucidated, respectively, as a demalonyl pigment 5 and a demalonyl pigment 6. Two known anthocyanins (pigments 7 and 8) were identified to be cyanidin 3-(6-p-coumaroyl-sambubioside)-5-(6-malonyl-glucoside) for pigment 7 and cyanidin 3-(6-feruloyl-sambubioside)-5-(6-malonyl-glucoside) for pigment 8 as minor anthocyanin pigments. A flavonol pigment (pigment 9) was isolated from its flowers and determined to be kaempferol 3-O-[6-O-(trans-feruloyl)-?-glucopyranoside]-7-O-cellobioside-4'-O-glucopyranoside as the main flavonol pigment. On the visible absorption spectral curve of the fresh blue petals of this plant and its petal pressed juice in the pH 5.0 buffer solution, three characteristic absorption maxima were observed at 546, 583 and 635 nm. However, the absorption curve of pigment 5 (a main anthocyanin in its flower) exhibited only one maximum at 569 nm in the pH 5.0 buffer solution, and violet color. The color of pigment 5 was observed to be very unstable in the pH 5.0 solution and soon decayed. In the pH 5.0 solution, the violet color of pigment 5 was restored as pure blue color by addition of pigment 9 (a main flavonol in this flower) like its fresh flower, and its blue solution exhibited the same three maxima at 546, 583 and 635 nm. On the other hand, the violet color of pigment 5 in the pH 5.0 buffer solution was not restored as pure blue color by addition of deacyl pigment 9 or rutin (a typical flower copigment). It is particularly interesting that, a blue anthocyanin-flavonol complex was extracted from the blue flowers of this plant with H(2)O or 5% HOAc solution as a dark blue powder. This complex exhibited the same absorption maxima at 546, 583 and 635 nm in the pH 5.0 buffer solution. Analysis of FAB mass measurement established that this blue anthocyanin-flavonol complex was composed of one molecule each of pigment 5 and pigment 9, exhibiting a molecular ion [M+1] (+) at 2102 m/z (C(93)H(105)O(55) calc. 2101.542). However, this blue complex is extremely unstable in acid solution. It really dissociates into pigment 5 and pigment 9. PMID:21903230

Saito, Norio; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Toki, Kenjiro; Shinoda, Koichi; Shigihara, Atsushi; Honda, Toshio

2011-12-01

401

Observations of blue whales feeding in Antarctic waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are no published accounts of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) feeding in Antarctic waters. This note describes the behaviour of two groups of blue whales feeding in Antarctic pelagic\\u000a waters. Whales were observed during the 18th IWC\\/IDCR southern hemisphere minke whale assessment cruise. Feeding behaviour\\u000a in both cases resembled those described previously for both northern hemisphere blue whales and fin

Peter J. Corkeron; Paul Ensor; Koji Matsuoka

1999-01-01

402

Polychlorinated biphenyls in blue crabs from South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blue crab (Callinectes sapidus Rathbun) is one of the most valuable fishery resources in South Carolina. Blue crabs ranked fifth (1984) and fourth (1985) in economic value behind shrimp, swordfish, oysters (1985) and hard clams (1984), but first in term S of total weight both years. Total landings have exceeded 2xlO kg\\/yr. Blue crabs are important members of the

James M. Marcus; Thomas D. Mathews

1987-01-01

403

Raphael Meldola, his blue and his times.  

PubMed

Raphael Meldola (1849-1915), English industrial and academic chemist, spectroscopist, naturalist, educator and lobbyist for science, is today almost a forgotten scientist whose life is celebrated only with a medal awarded by the Royal Society of Chemistry that honors achievement by younger chemists. In the 1870-80s, however, he invented a number of important synthetic dyestuffs including the cotton dyes isamine blue and Meldola's blue, and also naphthol green B, all of which have had application in biology and medicine. I describe here the early emergence of the synthetic dye industry, the first science-based industry, Meldola's role in its development, and his own inventions. Meldola's wide ranging achievements in science led to appointments as president of important professional scientific and manufacturers' societies. He was a fervent disciple of natural selection, a correspondent of Charles Darwin, and a prominent 19(th)-century neo-Darwinian. In 1886, drawing on analogies with evolutionary theory, he warned the British that neglect of science, particularly chemistry, would lead to industrial decline and even extinction, though his message generally was ignored, at least until 1914. PMID:22148999

Travis, A S

2012-05-01

404

Molecular gas in blue compact dwarf galaxies  

E-print Network

Blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDGs) are currently undergoing strong bursts of star formation. Nevertheless, only a few of them have been clearly detected in CO, which is thought to trace the "fuel" of star formation: H_2. In this paper, we present a deep search for CO J=1-->0 and J=2-->1 emission lines in a sample of 8 BCDGs and two companions. Only 2 of them (Haro 2 and UM 465) are detected. For the other galaxies we have obtained more stringent upper limits on the CO luminosity than published values. We could not confirm the previously reported ``detection'' of CO for the galaxies UM 456 and UM 462. We analyze a possible relation between metallicity, CO luminosity, and absolute blue magnitude of the galaxies. We use previously determined relations between X = N(H_2)/I_CO and the metallicity to derive molecular cloud masses or upper limits for them. With these ``global'' X_CO values we find that for those galaxies which we detect in CO, the molecular gas mass is similar to the HI mass, whereas for the non-detections, the upper limits on the molecular gas masses are significantly lower than the HI mass. Using an LVG (Large Velocity Gradient) model we show that X_CO depends not only on metallicity, but also on other physical parameters such as volume density and kinetic temperature, which rises the question on the validity of ``global'' X_CO factors.

Luca Tancredi Barone; Andreas Heithausen; Susanne Huettemeister; Thomas Fritz; Ulrich Klein

2000-05-15

405

Host materials for blue phosphorescent OLEDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PCTrz, a new bipolar host material containing a phenoxy-carbazole separated from a biscarbazolyl-triazine by a non-conjugated ether bond is presented. Computational calculations demonstrated the separation of PCTrz into an oxidation and a reduction site. A phosphorescent OLED with PCTrz as host and FIrpic as blue emitter yielded high current efficiencies of up to 16.2 cd/A. Additionally two electron transporting host materials DBFTaz and DBFTazC, both containing 1,2,4-triazole moieies, were synthesized and characterized. The triazole moiety in DBFTaz was formed by a classical ring closure reaction between a N-benzoylbenzimidate and a hydrazine. For DBFTazC we used another synthetical pathway which involves subsequent coupling of a carbazole and a triazole moiety to a dibenzofuran core. Both triazoles posses high triplet energies of 2.95 eV for DBFTaz and 2.97 eV for DBFTazC, which make the compounds interesting as matrix materials for blue phosphorescent OLEDs.

Wagner, Daniel; Rothmann, Michael; Strohriegl, Peter; Lennartz, Christian; Münster, Ingo; Wagenblast, Gerhard; Schildknecht, Christian

2012-09-01

406

Progress towards a ``blue'' potassium MOT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One difficulty when preparing quantum degenerate gases of potassium 40 is the low efficiency of sub-Doppler cooling. In this talk, we discuss how we are attempting to circumvent this problem by implementing a ``blue'' MOT for ^40K on the non-cycling 4S1/2->5P3/2 transition, which has a wavelength of 404.53nm and a decay rate of 1.17MHz. The Doppler temperature should be 27?K, which is a factor of five improvement over the D2 transition at 767nm. This lower temperature would also facilitate in-situ imaging of atoms in optical lattices. The laser setup consists of a cooled diode injection locked to an external cavity diode laser. The master laser is in turn locked to ^39K saturation spectroscopy in a heated vapor cell. The proximity of this 4S-5P transition to the wavelength used in ``Blu-ray'' technology provides a relatively inexpensive source of laser diodes with powers up to 150mW. A dual MOT will be implemented using dichroic mirrors and waveplates for loading and capture with 767nm, followed by a switch to a ``blue'' MOT for late-stage cooling before loading into a magnetic trap. We will also present results on the spectroscopy of the ^40K 5P3/2 hyperfine levels using our setup.

McKay, David; Fine, Dan; Jervis, Dylan; Edge, Graham; Thywissen, Joseph

2011-06-01

407

Differential migration of Blue Grouse in Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined migration of adult Blue Grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) in north-central Colorado by radio tracking 13 males and 19 females. Elevational changes associated with movements to winter areas were greater for males (median = 488 m, range = 183-671 m) than females (median = 122 m, range = -61-760 m). Males (median = 10.5 km, range = 1.0-29.4 km) also moved farther than females (median = 1.0 km, range = 0.1-28.0 km), resulting in partial segregation of sexes during winter. Directional orientation of movements to wintering areas was nonrandom for long-distance (>3 km) migrants. Median elevational change (122 m) and distance (0.6 km) between the first-winter and first-breeding areas for seven juvenile females were similar to movements of adult females. Males (median = 7 July) departed breeding areas earlier than females (median = 11 August), but arrived (median = 14 October) on winter areas about the same time as females (median = 23 October). Both sexes exhibited fidelity to winter areas. The average distance between winter locations ranged from 94 to 312 m (median = 135 m) for 11 radio-marked adults, suggesting Blue Grouse were sedentary on their winter ranges.

Cade, Brian S.; Hoffman, Richard W.

1993-01-01

408

Heterotrophic Growth of Blue-Green Algae in Dim Light  

PubMed Central

A unicellular blue-green alga, Agmenellum quadruplicatum, and a filamentous blue-green alga, Lyngbya lagerheimíi, were grown heterotrophically in dim light with glucose as major source of carbon and possibly energy. The dim-light conditions did not support autotrophic growth. The two blue-green algae appeared to have the same metabolic block, namely an incomplete tricarboxylic acid cycle, as has been found in other obligately phototrophic blue-green algae. Under dim-light conditions, glucose made a greater contribution to cell constituents (amino acids) of A. quadruplicatum and L. lagerheimii than under high-light conditions. PMID:4994034

Van Baalen, Chase; Hoare, Derek S.; Brandt, Ellen

1971-01-01

409

Report from the Blue Sky Committee March 28, 2003  

E-print Network

Report from the Blue Sky Committee March 28, 2003 #12;page 2 Intellectual Engagement.............................................................................10 Overall student satisfaction..................................................................................18 Faculty recruitment and retention ...........................................................19

Farritor, Shane

410

Purification and properties of Sandercyanin, a blue protein secreted in the mucus of blue forms of walleye, Sander vitreus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A blue protein present in the mucus coating blue forms of walleye, Sander vitreus, was purified to homogeneity by a combination of ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The purified protein\\u000a has a molecular mass of 87,850 and is a homotetramer with a subunit molecular mass of 21,836. Solutions of the protein are\\u000a deep blue in color and show absorbance

Chi-Li Yu; Daniel Ferraro; S. Ramaswamy; Mark H. Schmitz; Wayne F. Schaefer; David T. Gibson

2008-01-01

411

Jupiter in blue, ultraviolet and near infrared  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These three images of Jupiter, taken through the narrow angle camera of NASA's Cassini spacecraft from a distance of 77.6 million kilometers (48.2 million miles) on October 8, reveal more than is apparent to the naked eye through a telescope.

The image on the left was taken through the blue filter. The one in the middle was taken in the ultraviolet. The one on the right was taken in the near infrared.

The blue-light filter is within the part of the electromagnetic spectrum detectable by the human eye. The appearance of Jupiter in this image is, consequently, very familiar. The Great Red Spot (below and to the right of center) and the planet's well-known banded cloud lanes are obvious. The brighter bands of clouds are called zones and are probably composed of ammonia ice particles. The darker bands are called belts and are made dark by particles of unknown composition intermixed with the ammonia ice.

Jupiter's appearance changes dramatically in the ultraviolet and near infrared images. These images are near negatives of each other and illustrate the way in which observations in different wavelength regions can reveal different physical regimes on the planet.

All gases scatter sunlight efficiently at short wavelengths; this is why the sky appears blue on Earth. The effect is even more pronounced in the ultraviolet. The gases in Jupiter's atmosphere, above the clouds, are no different. They scatter strongly in the ultraviolet, making the deep banded cloud layers invisible in the middle image. Only the very high altitude haze appears dark against the bright background. The contrast is reversed in the near infrared, where methane gas, abundant on Jupiter but not on Earth, is strongly absorbing and therefore appears dark. Again the deep clouds are invisible, but now the high altitude haze appears relatively bright against the dark background. High altitude haze is seen over the poles and the equator.

The Great Red Spot, prominent in all images, is obviously a feature whose influence extends high in the atmosphere. As the Cassini cameras continue to return images of Jupiter, it will be possible to construct a three-dimensional picture of how clouds form and evolve by watching the changing appearance of Jupiter in different spectral regions.

JPL manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPl is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2000-01-01

412

Violet and blue light blocking intraocular lenses: photoprotection versus photoreception  

PubMed Central

Aim To analyse how intraocular lens (IOL) chromophores affect retinal photoprotection and the sensitivity of scotopic vision, melanopsin photoreception, and melatonin suppression. Methods Transmittance spectra of IOLs, high pass spectral filters, human crystalline lenses, and sunglasses are used with spectral data for acute ultraviolet (UV)?blue photic retinopathy (“blue light hazard” phototoxicity), aphakic scotopic luminous efficiency, melanopsin sensitivity, and melatonin suppression to compute the effect of spectral filters on retinal photoprotection, scotopic sensitivity, and circadian photoentrainment. Results Retinal photoprotection increases and photoreception decreases as high pass filters progressively attenuate additional short wavelength light. Violet blocking IOLs reduce retinal exposure to UV (200–400?nm) radiation and violet (400–440?nm) light. Blue blocking IOLs attenuate blue (440–500?nm) and shorter wavelength optical radiation. Blue blocking IOLs theoretically provide better photoprotection but worse photoreception than conventional UV only blocking IOLs. Violet blocking IOLs offer similar UV?blue photoprotection but better scotopic and melanopsin photoreception than blue blocking IOLs. Sunglasses provide roughly 50% more UV?blue photoprotection than either violet or blue blocking IOLs. Conclusions Action spectra for most retinal photosensitisers increase or peak in the violet part of the spectrum. Melanopsin, melatonin suppression, and rhodopsin sensitivities are all maximal in the blue part of the spectrum. Scotopic sensitivity and circadian photoentrainment decline with ageing. UV blocking IOLs provide older adults with the best possible rhodopsin and melanopsin sensitivity. Blue and violet blocking IOLs provide less photoprotection than middle aged crystalline lenses, which do not prevent age related macular degeneration (AMD). Thus, pseudophakes should wear sunglasses in bright environments if the unproved phototoxicity?AMD hypothesis is valid. PMID:16714268

Mainster, M A

2006-01-01

413

Image vectorization using blue-noise sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current image vectorization techniques mainly deal with images with simple and plain colors. For full-color photographs, many difficulties still exist in object segmentation, feature line extraction, and color distribution reconstruction, etc. In this paper, we propose a high-efficiency image vectorization method based on importance sampling and triangulation. A set of blue-noise sampling points is first generated on the image plane by an improved error-diffusion sampling method. The point set well preserves the features in the image. Then after triangulation on this point set, color information can be recorded on the mesh vertices to form a vector image. After certain image editing, e.g. scaling or transforming, the whole image can be reconstructed by color interpolating inside each triangle. Experiments show that the method has high performing efficiency and abilities in feature-preserving. It will bring benefits to many applications, e.g. image compressing, editing, transmitting and resolution enhancement.

Zhao, Jiaojiao; Feng, Jie; Zhou, Bingfeng

2013-03-01

414

The clumpiness of Luminous Blue Variable winds  

E-print Network

We present the first systematic spectropolarimetric study of Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs), and find that at least half those objects studied display evidence for intrinsic polarization -- a signature of significant inhomogeneity at the base of the wind. Furthermore, multi-epoch observations reveal that the polarization is variable in both strength and position angle. This evidence points away from a simple axi-symmetric wind structure \\`{a} la the B[e] supergiants, and instead suggests a wind consisting of localised density enhancements, or `clumps'. We show with an analytical model that, in order to produce the observed variability, the clumps must be large, produced at or below the photosphere, and ejected on timescales of days. More details of LBV wind-clumping will be determined through further analysis of the model and a polarimetric monitoring campaign.

Ben Davies; Rene D. Oudmaijer; Jorick S. Vink

2005-10-17

415

Brilliant Blue G assisted epiretinal membrane surgery.  

PubMed

We report intensely staining epiretinal membrane (ERM) with Brilliant Blue G (BBG) under air for two minutes. ERM peeling was performed in 21 cases. After removal of posterior hyaloid, 0.2?mL BBG was first applied on the macula, to stain ERM under air conditions for 2 minutes. Internal limiting membrane (ILM) was intensely stained and peeled in all cases following ERM removal. In 4 cases, the ERM was also observed to be intensely stained with BBG and peeled with an ILM forceps. Postoperatively, the ganglion cell layer thickness was lower in three of the cases, however VA improved in all cases and multifocal electroretinogram revealed no toxicity. Light microscopy of ERM revealed masses of cells whereas; the ILM did not. The increased staining characteristics of ERM and ILM may be resulted from longer contact time of BBG under air pressure. PMID:24510005

Totan, Yüksel; Güler, Emre; Dervi?o?ullar?, Mehmet Serdar

2014-01-01

416

Blue Gravity Waves from BICEP2 ?  

E-print Network

We present new constraints on the spectral index n_T of tensor fluctuations from the recent data obtained by the BICEP2 experiment. We found that the BICEP2 data alone slightly prefers a positive, "blue", spectral index with n_T=1.36\\pm0.83 at 68 % c.l.. However, when a TT prior on the tensor amplitude coming from temperature anisotropy measurements is assumed we get n_T=1.67\\pm0.53 at 68 % c.l., ruling out a scale invariant $n_T=0$ spectrum at more than three standard deviations. These results are at odds with current bounds on the tensor spectral index coming from pulsar timing, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, and direct measurements from the LIGO experiment. Considering only the possibility of a "red", n_T -0.76 at 68 % c.l. (n_T>-0.09 when a TT prior is included).

Martina Gerbino; Andrea Marchini; Luca Pagano; Laura Salvati; Eleonora Di Valentino; Alessandro Melchiorri

2014-03-23

417

Novel host materials for blue phosphorescent OLEDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present two classes of host materials for blue phosphors. The first are carbazole substituted biphenyls 1-9. In these CBP-type materials the triplets are confined to one half of the molecules by using either twisted biphenyls or by a metalinkage of the carbazoles to the biphenyl. We obtained high triplet energies of 2.95-2.98 eV and high glass transition temperatures in the range of 100-120 °C. OLEDs were fabricated using the host material 6 and the carbene emitter Ir(dbfmi) with pure blue emission at 450 nm. The devices achieved an external quantum efficiency of 8.7% at 100 cd/m2 and 6.1% at 1000 cd/m2. MBPTRZ with an electron transporting biscarbazolyltriazine that is separated from the hole transporting carbazole by a non-conjugated, meta-linked biphenyl unit is an example for a bipolar matrix material. The excellent glass forming properties and the high Tg of 132 °C ensure morphological stability in OLEDs. The meta-linkage and the additional twist at the biphenyl unit, which is achieved by two methyl groups in the 2- and 2'-position of the biphenyl in MBPTRZ leads to a decoupling of the electron accepting and electron donating part and therefore to a high triplet energy of 2.81 eV. DFT calculations show a clear separation of the electron and hole transporting moieties. A phosphorescent OLED with MBPTRZ as host and FIrpic as emitter reached a maximum external quantum efficiency of 7.0%, a current efficiency of 16.3 cd/A and a power efficiency of 6.3 lm/W.

Strohriegl, Peter; Wagner, Daniel; Schrögel, Pamela; Hoffmann, Sebastian T.; Köhler, Anna; Heinemeyer, Ute; Münster, Ingo

2013-09-01

418

Roquefortine C occurrence in blue cheese.  

PubMed

Several strains of Penicillium are used for the production of mold-ripened cheeses, and some of them are able to produce mycotoxins. The aims of the research were the determination of roquefortine C and PR toxin in domestic and imported blue cheeses, the identification of the penicillia used as starter, and the investigation of their capacity for producing toxins in culture media. Roquefortine C was always found in the cheeses at levels ranging from 0.05 to 1.47 mg/kg, whereas the PR toxin was never found. The identification of the fungal strains present in the domestic cheeses included Penicillium glabrum, Penicillium roqueforti, and Penicillium cyclopium in the Gorgonzola "dolce" and Penicillium roqueforti in the Gorgonzola "naturale"; in one case, the presence of Penicillium crustosum was observed. The strains isolated from the foreign cheeses belonged to P. roqueforti. The strains were able to produce between 0.18 and 8.44 mg/liter of roquefortine in yeast extract sucrose medium and between 0.06 and 3.08 mg/liter and less than 0.05 mg/liter when inoculated in milk at 20 degrees C for 14 days and 4 degrees C for 24 days, respectively. Linear relations between production of roquefortine in culture media and cheeses did not emerge. PR toxin ranged from less than 0.05 to 60.30 mg/liter in yeast extract sucrose medium and was produced in milk at 20 degrees C from only one strain. The low levels and the relatively low toxicity of roquefortine make the consumption of blue cheese safe for the consumer. PMID:11271775

Finoli, C; Vecchio, A; Galli, A; Dragoni, I

2001-02-01

419

Blue Marble: Remote Characterization of Habitable Planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study of the nature and distribution of habitable environments beyond the Solar System is a key area for Astrobiology research. At the present time, our Earth is the only habitable planet that can be characterized in the same way that we might characterize planets beyond the Solar System. Due to limitations in our current and near-future technology, it is likely that extra-solar planets will be observed as single-pixel objects. To understand this data, we must develop skills in analyzing and interpreting the radiation obtained from a single pixel. These skills must include the study of the time variation of the radiation, and the range of its photometric, spectroscopic and polarimetric properties. In addition, to understand whether we are properly analyzing the single pixel data, we need to compare it with a ground truth of modest resolution images in key spectral bands. This paper discusses the concept for a mission called Blue Marble that would obtain data of the Earth using a combination of spectropolarimetry, spectrophotometry, and selected band imaging. To obtain imagery of the proper resolution, it is desirable to place the Blue Marble spacecraft no closer than the outer region of cis-lunar space. This paper explores a conceptual mission design that takes advantage of low-cost launchers, bus designs and mission elements to provide a cost effective observing platform located at one of the stable Earth-moon Lagrangian points (L4, L5). The mission design allows for the development and use of novel technologies, such as a spinning moon sensor for attitude control, and leverages lessons-learned from previous low-cost spacecraft such as Lunar Prospector to yield a low-risk mission concept.

Woolf, Neville; Lewis, Brian; Chartres, James; Genova, Anthony

2009-01-01

420

Is a diagnostic system based exclusively on agar gel immunodiffusion adequate for controlling the spread of equine infectious anaemia?  

PubMed

To improve the efficiency of the National equine infectious anaemia (EIA) surveillance program in Italy, a three-tiered diagnostic system has been adopted. This procedure involves initial screening by ELISA (Tier 1) with test-positive samples confirmed by the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGIDT) (Tier 2) and, in the case of ELISA positive/AGIDT negative results, final determination by immunoblot (IB) (Tier 3). During this evaluation, 74,880 samples, principally collected from two Regions of Central Italy (Latium and Abruzzo) were examined, with 44 identified as negative in AGIDT but positive in both ELISA and IB. As the majority of these reactions occurred in mules, an observational study was conducted in this hybrid equid species to investigate if there is a correlation between plasma-associated viral loads and serological reactivity, to test the hypothesis that false-negative or very weak positive AGIDT results are associated with elite control of EIA virus (EIAV) replication accompanied by reduced transmission risks. The study animals consisted of 5 mules with positive AGIDT readings, along with another 5 giving negative or very weak positive results in this test. All mules were seropositive in Elisa and IB. Samples were collected routinely during an initial 56-day observation period, prior to dexamethasone treatment lasting 10 days, to determine the effect of immune suppression (IS) on clinical, humoral and virological responses. All mules were monitored for a further 28 days from day 0 of IS. None of the animals experienced relevant clinical responses before IS and there were no significant changes in antibody levels in ELISA, IB or AGIDT. However, plasma-associated viral-RNA (vRNA) loads, as determined using TaqMan(®) based RT-PCR, showed unexpectedly high sample to sample variation in all mules, demonstrating host-mediated control of viral replication is not constant over time. Furthermore, there was no apparent correlation between vRNA loads and antibody reactivity in serological tests. Analysis of PCR products established all mules were infected with viruses possessing nucleotide sequence similarity, varying from 77 to 96%, to previously identified European EIAV strains. Following IS, all mules showed increases in plasma-associated vRNA loads, suggesting control of EIAV replication is mediated by immune responses in this hybrid species. However, only three mules showed anamnestic humoral responses to rises in viral loads, as defined by at least a four-fold increase in ELISA titre, while two remained AGIDT-negative. This study demonstrates that viral loads in equids with consistent ELISA/IB positive-AGIDT negative to very weak positive test results (Group N) can be equivalent to those that produce clearly positive results in all three serologic tests (Group P). Therefore, such animals do not pose inherently lower risks for the transmission of EIAV. Consequently, the exclusive use of the AGIDT, as prescribed by the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE) for diagnosis of EIA prior to the international movement of horses, can report as negative some EIAV-infected equids. These results dramatically underscore the necessity of combining the specificity of AGIDT with tests with higher sensitivity, such as the ELISA and the power of the IB to enhance the accuracy of EIA diagnosis. PMID:23618837

Scicluna, Maria Teresa; Issel, Charles J; Cook, Frank R; Manna, Giuseppe; Cersini, Antonella; Rosone, Francesca; Frontoso, Raffaele; Caprioli, Andrea; Antognetti, Valeria; Antonetti, Valeria; Autorino, Gian Luca

2013-07-26

421

Components of protocyanin, a blue pigment from the blue flowers of Centaurea cyanus.  

PubMed

The components involved in the formation of protocyanin, a stable blue complex pigment from the blue cornflower, Centaurea cyanus, were investigated. Reconstruction experiments using highly purified anthocyanin [centaurocyanin, cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-succinylglucoside)-5-O-glucoside], flavone glycoside [apigenin 7-O-glucuronide-4'-O-(6-O-malonylglucoside)] and metals, Fe and Mg, showed the presence of another factor essential for the formation of protocyanin. The unknown factor was revealed to be Ca. Reconstructed protocyanin using anthocyanin, flavone, Fe, Mg, and Ca was identical with protocyanin from nature in UV-Vis and CD spectra, and was isolated as crystals for the first time. In addition, substitution of the metal components in protocyanin with other metals was also examined. PMID:16005311

Takeda, Kosaku; Osakabe, Akiko; Saito, Shinomi; Furuyama, Daisuke; Tomita, Atsuko; Kojima, Yumi; Yamadera, Mayumi; Sakuta, Masaaki

2005-07-01

422

BLUE JOINT WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA, AND BLUE JOINT ROADLESS AREA, IDAHO.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During field studies of the Blue Joint Wilderness Study Area, Montana, and the Blue Joint Roadless Area, Idaho, areas of substantiated resource potential for epithermal precious-metal vein deposits were identified in areas of hydrothermal alteration and fossil hot springs activity in the Eocene volcanic rocks. Areas with substantiated resource potential for cobalt, copper, silver, and barite resources of the sediment-hosted type were identified in the Proterozoic quartz schist of the eastern part of the area. Probable potential exists for molybdenum in a prophyry system; anomalously high molybdenum values are coincident with high values for precious and base metals and uranium in some places. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources.

Lund, Karen; Benham, John R.

1984-01-01

423

Supplemental on-line material for Semiconducting layered blue phosphorus  

E-print Network

en- ergy in black phosphorus is 20 meV/atom according to PBE and 100 meV/atom according to LDA the LDA value of 38 meV/atom. S2. BULK BAND STRUCTURE OF BLACK AND BLUE PHOSPHORUS The calculated bulk band structures of black and blue phosphorus are presented in Fig. S1. There is a strong band

Tománek, David

424

Blue light effects on rose photosynthesis and photomorphogenesis.  

PubMed

Through its impact on photosynthesis and morphogenesis, light is the environmental factor that most affects plant architecture. Using light rather than chemicals to manage plant architecture could reduce the impact on the environment. However, the understanding of how light modulates plant architecture is still poor and further research is needed. To address this question, we examined the development of two rose cultivars, Rosa hybrida'Radrazz' and Rosa chinensis'Old Blush', cultivated under two light qualities. Plants were grown from one-node cuttings for 6 weeks under white or blue light at equal photosynthetic efficiencies. While plant development was totally inhibited in darkness, blue light could sustain full development from bud burst until flowering. Blue light reduced the net CO(2) assimilation rate of fully expanded leaves in both cultivars, despite increasing stomatal conductance and intercellular CO(2) concentrations. In 'Radrazz', the reduction in CO(2) assimilation under blue light was related to a decrease in photosynthetic pigment content, while in both cultivars, the chl a/b ratio increased. Surprisingly, blue light could induce the same organogenetic activity of the shoot apical meristem, growth of the metamers and flower development as white light. The normal development of rose plants under blue light reveals the strong adaptive properties of rose plants to their light environment. It also indicates that photomorphogenetic processes can all be triggered by blue wavelengths and that despite a lower assimilation rate, blue light can provide sufficient energy via photosynthesis to sustain normal growth and development in roses. PMID:22686322

Abidi, F; Girault, T; Douillet, O; Guillemain, G; Sintes, G; Laffaire, M; Ben Ahmed, H; Smiti, S; Huché-Thélier, L; Leduc, N

2013-01-01

425

Eurycea wilderae Dunn, 1920 BLUE RIDGE TWO-LINED SALAMANDER  

E-print Network

division of the Blue Ridge," and Dunn (1926) reported that the distribution is "from White Top Mountain County, Georgia, and Kings Mountain State Park, York County, South Carolina. Howell and Switzer (1953) reEurycea wilderae Dunn, 1920 BLUE RIDGE TWO-LINED SALAMANDER David M. Sever 1. Historical versus

Sever, David M.

426

Methylene Blue Is Neuroprotective against Mild Traumatic Brain Injury  

E-print Network

Methylene Blue Is Neuroprotective against Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Lora Talley Watts,1 of death and disability worldwide. Methylene blue (MB) has known energy-enhancing and antioxidant injury. As such, mitochondria have become an important target for neuroprotection in TBI.2,3 Methylene

Duong, Timothy Q.

427

Beyond "Pink" and "Blue": Gendered Attitudes towards Robots in Society  

E-print Network

survey of women and men's attitudes toward robot development that demonstrates how real-world genderBeyond "Pink" and "Blue": Gendered Attitudes towards Robots in Society Yan Wang University that illustrates potential dangers of "pink" versus "blue" dichotomous over-simplifications of women and men

428

Population dynamics of blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) can be studied  

E-print Network

48 Population dynamics of blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) can be studied by using a variety of fishery depen- dent and independent methods, such as the use of crab pots (Abbe and Stagg, 1996), bottom fisheries data sets provide extensive information on blue crab landings which are related to popula- tion

429

The Microflora of Blue Cheese Slime[1] and [2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cheese slime may be described as an orange-yellow, mucilaginous accumulation of microorganisms and digested cm'd which develops over the outer surface of certain types of cheese. The value of the slime in the ripening of Blue cheese has lint been completely established. There is no question that the ripening of Blue cheese is due largely to the action of the

C. B. Hartley; J. J. Jezeski

1954-01-01

430

33 CFR 100.910 - Southland Regatta; Blue Island, IL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Southland Regatta; Blue Island, IL. 100.910 Section 100.910 Navigation and...OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.910 Southland Regatta; Blue Island, IL. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is...

2012-07-01

431

33 CFR 100.910 - Southland Regatta; Blue Island, IL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Southland Regatta; Blue Island, IL. 100.910 Section 100.910 Navigation and...OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.910 Southland Regatta; Blue Island, IL. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is...

2013-07-01

432

Ozone layer perturbation by a single blue jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was suggested that red sprites and blue jets might create long-lived by-products and thus have long term consequences of their occurrence in the atmosphere [Sentman and Wescott, 1996]. We have numerically evaluated a local perturbation of the ozone layer by a single blue jet, provided the jet is formed by the attachment controlled ionizing wave. The scenario of an

Evgeny Mishin

1997-01-01

433

The blue anthocyanin pigments from the blue flowers of Heliophila coronopifolia L. (Brassicaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six acylated delphinidin glycosides (pigments 1–6) and one acylated kaempferol glycoside (pigment 9) were isolated from the blue flowers of cape stock (Heliophila coronopifolia) in Brassicaceae along with two known acylated cyanidin glycosides (pigments 7 and 8). Pigments 1–8, based on 3-sambubioside-5-glucosides of delphinidin and cyanidin, were acylated with hydroxycinnamic acids at 3-glycosyl residues of anthocyanidins. Using spectroscopic and chemical

Norio Saito; Fumi Tatsuzawa; Kenjiro Toki; Koichi Shinoda; Atsushi Shigihara; Toshio Honda

2011-01-01

434

Conversion of red fluorescent protein into a bright blue probe  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY We utilized a red chromophore formation pathway, in which the anionic red chromophore is formed from the neutral blue intermediate, to suggest a novel rational design strategy to develop blue fluorescent proteins with a tyrosine-based chromophore. The strategy was applied to red fluorescent proteins of the different genetic background such as TagRFP, mCherry, HcRed1, M355NA, and mKeima, which were converted into blue probes. Further improvement of a blue variant of TagRFP using random mutagenesis resulted in an enhanced monomeric protein, mTagBFP, characterized by substantially higher brightness, faster chromophore maturation and higher pH stability than blue fluorescence proteins with a histidine in the chromophore. Detailed biochemical and photochemical analysis indicates mTagBFP is the true monomeric protein tag for multicolor and lifetime imaging as well as the outstanding donor for green fluorescent proteins in FRET applications. PMID:18940671

Subach, Oksana M; Gundorov, Illia S.; Yoshimura, Masami; Subach, Fedor V.; Zhang, Jinghang; Gruenwald, David; Souslova, Ekaterina A.; Chudakov, Dmitriy M.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

2008-01-01

435

The blue plume population in dwarf spheroidal galaxies: genuine blue stragglers or young stellar population?  

E-print Network

Abridged... Blue stragglers (BSS) are thought to be the product of either primordial or collisional binary systems. In the context of dwarf spheroidal galaxies it is hard to firmly disentangle a genuine BSS population from young main sequence (MS) stars tracing a ~1-2 Gyr old star forming episode. Assuming that their blue plume populations are made of BSS, we estimate the BSS frequency for 8 Local Group non star-forming dwarf galaxies, using a compilation of ground and space based photometry. Our results can be summarized as follows: (i) The BSS frequency in dwarf galaxies, at any given Mv, is always higher than that in globular clusters of similar luminosities; (ii) the BSS frequency for the lowest luminosity dwarf galaxies is in excellent agreement with that observed in the Milky Way halo; and most interestingly (iii) derive a statistically significant anti-correlation between the BSS frequency and the galaxy Mv. The low density, almost collision-less, environments of our dwarf galaxy sample allow us to infer (i) their very low dynamical evolution; (ii) a negligible production of collisional BSS; and consequently (iii) that their blue plumes are mainly made of primordial binaries. The dwarf galaxies anti-correlation can be used as a discriminator: galaxies obeying the anti-correlation are more likely to possess genuine primordial BSS rather than young main sequence stars.

Y. Momany; E. V. Held; I. Saviane; S. Zaggia; L. Rizzi; M. Gullieuszik

2007-04-11

436

Anthem Blue Cross/Anthem Blue Cross Life and Health Insurance Company (P-NP) 5/18/2012 Page 1 University of California  

E-print Network

Anthem Blue Cross/Anthem Blue Cross Life and Health Insurance Company (P-NP) 5/18/2012 Page 1 services in detail. Getting a Prescription Filled at an Anthem Blue Cross Participating Pharmacy To get the relation between drug type and your copay amount at Anthem Blue Cross participating pharmacies: FDA

Barrett, Jeffrey A.

437

CHEIBA Multi-Option for 0111.v.10-20-10 1 HMO Colorado/Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield  

E-print Network

CHEIBA Multi-Option for 0111.v.10-20-10 1 HMO Colorado/Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield Colorado Higher Education Insurance Benefits Alliance Effective January 1, 2011 PART A: TYPE OF COVERAGE Blue. Coinsurance and copayment options reflect the amount the covered person will pay. BlueAdvantage HMO

438

Comparing the mannitol-egg yolk-polymyxin agar plating method to the three tube most probable number method for enumeration of bacillus cereus spores in raw and high-temperature-short-time pasteurized milk.  

E-print Network

??The Food and Drug Administration’s Bacteriological Analytical Manual recommends two enumeration methods for Bacillus spp.: 1) standard plating method using mannitol-egg yolk-polymyxin (MYP) agar and… (more)

Harper, Nigel Murray

2009-01-01

439

Global water scarcity: the monthly blue water footprint compared to blue water availability for the world's major river basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional blue water scarcity indicators suffer from four weaknesses: they measure water withdrawal instead of consumptive water use, they compare water use with actual runoff rather than natural (undepleted) runoff, they ignore environmental flow requirements and they evaluate scarcity on an annual rather than a monthly time scale. In the current study, these shortcomings are solved by defining blue water

A. Y. Hoekstra; M. M. Mekonnen

2011-01-01

440

78 FR 19413 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Reactive Blue 247) as color additives in contact lenses. This action is in response to...Rockville, MD 20852. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Regarding CAP 1C0291 (C.I. Reactive...Reactive Blue 246) as color additives in contact lenses. The color additives are...

2013-04-01

441

An Association of Independent Blue Cross and Blue Shield Plans This health plan meets Minimum Creditable Coverage Standards for  

E-print Network

if admitted or for observation stay) Well-child care visits Nothing Routine adult physical exams, including Mental health and substance abuse treatment $20 per visit Office visits $20 per visit ChiropractorAn Association of Independent Blue Cross and Blue Shield Plans This health plan meets Minimum

Aalberts, Daniel P.

442

Light-scattering sensor for real-time identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae colonies on solid agar plate.  

PubMed

The three most common pathogenic species of Vibrio, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus, are of major concerns due to increased incidence of water- and seafood-related outbreaks and illness worldwide. Current methods are lengthy and require biochemical and molecular confirmation. A novel label-free forward light-scattering sensor was developed to detect and identify colonies of these three pathogens in real time in the presence of other vibrios in food or water samples. Vibrio colonies grown on agar plates were illuminated by a 635?nm laser beam and scatter-image signatures were acquired using a CCD (charge-coupled device) camera in an automated BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical light-scattering Technology) system. Although a limited number of Vibrio species was tested, each produced a unique light-scattering signature that is consistent from colony to colony. Subsequently a pattern recognition system analysing the collected light-scatter information provided classification in 1-2?min with an accuracy of 99%. The light-scattering signatures were unaffected by subjecting the bacteria to physiological stressors: osmotic imbalance, acid, heat and recovery from a viable but non-culturable state. Furthermore, employing a standard sample enrichment in alkaline peptone water for 6?h followed by plating on selective thiosulphate citrate bile salts sucrose agar at 30°C for ??12?h, the light-scattering sensor successfully detected V.?cholerae, V.?parahaemolyticus and V.?vulnificus present in oyster or water samples in 18?h even in the presence of other vibrios or other bacteria, indicating the suitability of the sensor as a powerful screening tool for pathogens on agar plates. PMID:22613192

Huff, Karleigh; Aroonnual, Amornrat; Littlejohn, Amy E Fleishman; Rajwa, Bartek; Bae, Euiwon; Banada, Padmapriya P; Patsekin, Valery; Hirleman, E Daniel; Robinson, J Paul; Richards, Gary P; Bhunia, Arun K

2012-09-01

443

40 CFR 408.20 - Applicability; description of the conventional blue crab processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the conventional blue crab processing subcategory. 408.20 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Conventional Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.20 ...Applicability; description of the conventional blue crab processing subcategory. The...

2012-07-01

444

40 CFR 408.20 - Applicability; description of the conventional blue crab processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the conventional blue crab processing subcategory. 408.20 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Conventional Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.20 ...Applicability; description of the conventional blue crab processing subcategory. The...

2013-07-01

445

40 CFR 408.30 - Applicability; description of the mechanized blue crab processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the mechanized blue crab processing subcategory. 408.30 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mechanized Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.30 ...Applicability; description of the mechanized blue crab processing subcategory. The...

2012-07-01

446

40 CFR 408.30 - Applicability; description of the mechanized blue crab processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the mechanized blue crab processing subcategory. 408.30 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mechanized Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.30 ...Applicability; description of the mechanized blue crab processing subcategory. The...

2013-07-01

447

40 CFR 1048.140 - What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines? 1048.140 Section...What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines? This section defines...control for engines designated as “Blue Sky Series” engines. If you...

2013-07-01

448

40 CFR 1048.140 - What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines? 1048.140 Section...What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines? This section defines...control for engines designated as “Blue Sky Series” engines. If you...

2012-07-01

449

40 CFR 408.20 - Applicability; description of the conventional blue crab processing subcategory.  

...Applicability; description of the conventional blue crab processing subcategory. 408.20...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Conventional Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.20...Applicability; description of the conventional blue crab processing subcategory. The...

2014-07-01

450

40 CFR 408.30 - Applicability; description of the mechanized blue crab processing subcategory.  

...Applicability; description of the mechanized blue crab processing subcategory. 408.30...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mechanized Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.30...Applicability; description of the mechanized blue crab processing subcategory. The...

2014-07-01

451

40 CFR 425.60 - Applicability; description of the through-the-blue subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the through-the-blue subcategory. 425.60 Section 425...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Through-the-Blue Subcategory § 425.60 Applicability; description of the through-the-blue subcategory. The provisions of...

2013-07-01

452

40 CFR 425.60 - Applicability; description of the through-the-blue subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the through-the-blue subcategory. 425.60 Section 425...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Through-the-Blue Subcategory § 425.60 Applicability; description of the through-the-blue subcategory. The provisions of...

2012-07-01

453

Rapid identification of positive blood cultures by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry using prewarmed agar plates.  

PubMed

This study describes an inexpensive and straightforward method for identifying bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) directly from positive blood cultures using prewarmed agar plates. Different inoculation methods and incubation times were evaluated to determine the optimal conditions. The two methods using pelleted material from positive culture bottles performed best. In particular, the pellet streak method correctly identified 94% of the Gram negatives following 4 h of incubation and 98% of the Gram positives following 6 h of incubation. PMID:25232166

Bhatti, M M; Boonlayangoor, S; Beavis, K G; Tesic, V

2014-12-01

454

Combined Use of Pastorex Staph-Plus and Either of Two New Chromogenic Agars, MRSA ID and CHROMagar MRSA, for Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus?  

PubMed Central

We describe the search toward a fast and reliable strategy to detect and confirm the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in screening samples. First, we evaluated the sensitivities and specificities of oxacillin resistance screening agar (ORSA) with enrichment (tryptic soy broth [TSB] and ORSA [TSB-ORSA]) and without enrichment (ORSA), MRSA ID (MRSA_ID) plates, and CHROMagar MRSA (C_MRSA) plates, all of which were inoculated with equal volumes of a suspension made by emulsifying screening swabs. Whereas the sensitivities after 48 h were similar for all media tested (77% for MRSA_ID and ORSA; 73% for C_MRSA and ORSA after enrichment [TSB-ORSA]), the specificities of MRSA_ID (98% after 24 h and 94% after 48 h) and C_MRSA (98% after 24 h and 90% after 48 h) were superior to the specificities of ORSAs (92% after 24 h and 83% after 48 h) and TSB-ORSA (86% after 24 h and 81% after 48 h). Subsequently, the performance of the Pastorex Staph-Plus agglutination test with presumptive MRSA isolates taken directly from chromogenic agars (direct_Pastorex agglutination) was compared to that of the Pastorex Staph-Plus agglutination test with isolates from blood agar subcultures (conventional_Pastorex agglutination). When the direct_Pastorex agglutination test on MRSA_ID plates was combined with Gram staining, the direct_Pastorex agglutination test with samples from MRSA_ID plates was as reliable as the conventional_Pastorex agglutination test with samples from blood agar subcultures from MRSA_ID plates. In contrast, the direct_Pastorex agglutination test with samples from C_MRSA plates gave false-negative results. Finally, we calculated the processing times of the four different strategies, namely, (i) enrichment in TSB supplemented with NaCl, subsequent culture on ORSA, and the conventional_Pastorex agglutination test; (ii) direct inoculation of ORSA combined with conventional_Pastorex agglutination test; (iii) direct inoculation of MRSA_ID plates combined with Gram staining and the direct_Pastorex agglutination test; and (iv) direct inoculation of C_MRSA plates combined with Gram staining and the direct_Pastorex agglutination test. We concluded that the use of MRSA_ID in combination with Gram staining and the direct_Pastorex agglutination test is faster and more specific than the other strategies tested. PMID:17093032

Compernolle, Veerle; Verschraegen, Gerda; Claeys, Geert

2007-01-01

455

Comparison of a new gold-immunochromatographic assay for the detection of antibodies against avian influenza virus with hemagglutination inhibition and agar gel immunodiffusion assays.  

PubMed

A gold-immunochromatographic test-strip kit is used for the detection of IgG antibodies against the nucleocapsid protein of Avian Influenza Virus (AIV). Compared with the "gold standard", i.e. hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) assays, the gold-immunochromatographic test strip has many advantages, such as high specificity, high sensitivity, convenience, is rapid and has low cost. The gold-immunochromatographic test strip provides a unique tool for the on-site surveillance and diagnosis of Avian Influenza. PMID:17337303

Peng, DaPeng; Hu, SiShun; Hua, Yan; Xiao, YunCai; Li, Zili; Wang, XiLiang; Bi, DingRen

2007-05-15

456

Abilities of the mCP Agar Method and CRENAME Alpha Toxin-Specific Real-Time PCR Assay To Detect Clostridium perfringens Spores in Drinking Water  

PubMed Central

We first determined the analytical specificity and ubiquity (i.e., the ability to detect all or most strains) of a Clostridium perfringens-specific real-time PCR (rtPCR) assay based on the cpa gene (cpa rtPCR) by using a bacterial strain panel composed of C. perfringens and non-C. perfringens Clostridium strains. All non-C. perfringens Clostridium strains tested negative, whereas all C. perfringens strains tested positive with the cpa rtPCR, for an analytical specificity and ubiquity of 100%. The cpa rtPCR assay was then used to confirm the identity of 116 putative C. perfringens isolates recovered after filtration of water samples and culture on mCP agar. Colonies presenting discordant results between the phenotype on mCP agar and cpa rtPCR were identified by sequencing the 16S rRNA and cpa genes. Four mCP?/rtPCR+ colonies were identified as C. perfringens, whereas 3 mCP+/rtPCR? colonies were identified as non-C. perfringens. The cpa rtPCR was negative with all 51 non-C. perfringens strains and positive with 64 of 65 C. perfringens strains. Finally, we compared mCP agar and a CRENAME (concentration and recovery of microbial particles, extraction of nucleic acids, and molecular enrichment) procedure plus cpa rtPCR (CRENAME + cpa rtPCR) for their abilities to detect C. perfringens spores in drinking water. CRENAME + cpa rtPCR detected as few as one C. perfringens CFU per 100 ml of drinking water sample in less than 5 h, whereas mCP agar took at least 25 h to deliver results. CRENAME + cpa rtPCR also allows the simultaneous and sensitive detection of Escherichia coli and C. perfringens from the same potable water sample. In itself, it could be used to assess the public health risk posed by drinking water potentially contaminated with pathogens more resistant to disinfection. PMID:24077714

Maheux, Andree F.; Berube, Eve; Boudreau, Dominique K.; Villeger, Romain; Cantin, Philippe; Boissinot, Maurice; Bissonnette, Luc

2013-01-01

457

Tunable photonic crystals with partial bandgaps from blue phase colloidal crystals and dielectric-doped blue phases.  

PubMed

Blue phase colloidal crystals and dielectric nanoparticle/polymer doped blue phases are demonstrated to combine multiple components with different symmetries in one photonic material, creating a photonic crystal with variable and micro-controllable photonic band structure. In this composite photonic material, one contribution to the band structure is determined by the 3D periodic birefringent orientational profile of the blue phases, whereas the second contribution emerges from the regular array of the colloidal particles or from the dielectric/nanoparticle-doped defect network. Using the planewave expansion method, optical photonic bands of the blue phase I and II colloidal crystals and related nanoparticle/polymer doped blue phases are calculated, and then compared to blue phases with no particles and to face-centred-cubic and body-centred-cubic colloidal crystals in isotropic background. We find opening of local band gaps at particular points of Brillouin zone for blue phase colloidal crystals, where there were none in blue phases without particles or dopants. Particle size and filling fraction of the blue phase defect network are demonstrated as parameters that can directly tune the optical bands and local band gaps. In the blue phase I colloidal crystal with an additionally doped defect network, interestingly, we find an indirect total band gap (with the exception of one point) at the entire edge of SC irreducible zone. Finally, this work demonstrates the role of combining multiple - by symmetry - differently organised components in one photonic crystal material, which offers a novel approach towards tunable soft matter photonic materials. PMID:25034860

Stimulak, Mitja; Ravnik, Miha

2014-09-01

458

Blue glass: A new impactite variety from Zhamanshin crater, USSR  

SciTech Connect

A new variety of impact glass has been discovered at Zhamanshin impact crater (USSR). The crater has been known as the source of different impact glasses such as irghizites and Si-rich zhamanshinites (Si-rich varieties) and Si-poor (andesitic) zhamanshinites. The newly discovered impact glass is of distinct blue color and shows a layered structure with numerous small vesicles. The blue color ranges between the layers from opaque turquoise to very dark blue. The layers of blue glass are usually connected with layers of greyish or brownish color showing normal Si-rich zhamanshinite composition. The major and trace element chemistry of the blue glass differs from the chemistry of other Si-rich impact glasses from the Zhamanshin crater in several ways. One of the most distinct features is the high CaO content (up to about 7 wt.%), and the different CaO/MgO ratios. Volatile trace elements are generally intermediate between irghizites and Si-rich zhamanshinites, or even higher than in Si-rich zhamanshinites, reflecting the inhomogeneity of the blue glass. REE abundances are slightly larger than in Si-rich zhamanshinites and irghizites and show a less pronounced Eu anomaly. Impact mixing of country rocks present at the crater seems capable of explaining the chemistry of the blue glass.

Koeberl, C. (Univ. of Vienna (Austria))

1988-03-01

459

Preoperative methylene blue staining of galactographically suspicious breast lesions.  

PubMed

Microdochectomy is the standard treatment of galactographically suspicious breast lesions. Precise preoperative marking of the suspicious duct and intraductal lesions facilitates selective minimal-volume microdochectomy. Methylene blue dye staining fulfills this criterion. A retrospective review of our experience of preoperative methylene blue staining in 30 patients with unilateral spontaneous nonlactiferous single duct nipple discharge operated on during 1986-1995 in the Oulu University Hospital for galactographically suspicious breast lesions. Galactography was successful in 29 out of 30 (93.3%) cases. Preoperative methylene blue staining was attempted in all cases on the day of surgery and it was successful in 22 (73.3%) cases making subsequent selective minimal-volume microdochectomy easy to perform. The failure of methylene blue staining led to quadrantectomy in 4 cases and smaller breast resections in the remaining 4 cases. Preoperative methylene blue dye staining crucially facilitates selective minimal-volume microdochectomy. An interval between primary galactography and later methylene blue staining leads to failures in approximately one quarter of the cases. A higher success rate would necessitate scheduling the microdochectomy on the same day as the primary galactography (and the subsequent methylene blue staining in suspicious cases). PMID:9412841

Saarela, A O; Kiviniemi, H O; Rissanen, T J

1997-01-01

460

Blue-blocking IOLs: a complete review of the literature.  

PubMed

Intraocular lenses (IOLs) that block both ultraviolet and blue wavelength light (<500 nm)were introduced in the 1990s. Since then, the potential benefits and harm from blocking blue light has been debated. We report the results of a complete review of all peer-reviewed published studies regarding the impact of blocking the transmission of blue light. Fifty-six published reports on subjects related to blue-blocking lenses including sleep disturbance, visual outcomes, cataract surgery, lens transmittance, sunlight exposure, and macular disease were found in peer reviewed journals from 1962 to 2009. Eleven reports specifically compared visual outcomes between blue-blocking IOLs and nonblue-locking IOLs. Of these, 10 independent studies (10/11, 91%) concluded that there are no significant effects of blue-blocking IOLs on various meters of visual performance including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color perception, and photopic, mesopic, and scotopic sensitivities. Only one group of authors reported that the use of blue-blocking IOLs may have detrimental effects on scotopic vision and circadian rhythms. However, the actual clinical significance of these potential negative effects on scotopic vision and on sleep patterns is uncertain. The benefits of blocking the transmission of blue light to the macula and the relationship between progression of age-related macular degeneration remain unclear. However, the published studies clearly state that the use of blue-blocking IOLs is not detrimental in visual acuity, color perception, and contrast sensitivity. The reported potential negative effects on scotopic vision and sleep disturbance appear to be minimal and may not be clinically relevant. (Surv Ophthalmol 55:284--289, 2010. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.) PMID:20499436

Henderson, Bonnie An; Grimes, Kelly Jun

2010-01-01

461

Neurometabolic mechanisms for memory enhancement and neuroprotection of methylene blue  

PubMed Central

This paper provides the first review of the memory-enhancing and neuroprotective metabolic mechanisms of action of methylene blue in vivo. These mechanisms have important implications as a new neurobiological approach to improve normal memory and to treat memory impairment and neurodegeneration associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Methylene blue’s action is unique because its neurobiological effects are not determined by regular drug-receptor interactions or drug-response paradigms. Methylene blue shows a hormetic dose-response, with opposite effects at low and high doses. At low doses, methylene blue is an electron cycler in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, with unparalleled antioxidant and cell respiration-enhancing properties that affect the function of the nervous system in a versatile manner. A major role of the respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase on the memory-enhancing effects of methylene blue is supported by available data. The memory-enhancing effects have been associated with improvement of memory consolidation in a network-specific and use-dependent fashion. In addition, low doses of methylene blue have also been used for neuroprotection against mitochondrial dysfunction in humans and experimental models of disease. The unique auto-oxidizing property of methylene blue and its pleiotropic effects on a number of tissue oxidases explain its potent neuroprotective effects at low doses. The evidence reviewed supports a mechanistic role of low-dose methylene blue as a promising and safe intervention for improving memory and for the treatment of acute and chronic conditions characterized by increased oxidative stress, neurodegeneration and memory impairment. PMID:22067440

Rojas, Julio C.; Bruchey, Aleksandra K.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.

2011-01-01

462

The discrimination of (non-denim) blue cotton.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine the degree of discrimination obtained between non-denim blue cotton fibres using visible-UV range microspectrophotometry alone. To this end, samples of fibres were taken from 100, nondenim, blue cotton, outer garments, including t-shirts, trousers and jumpers and subjected to analysis by both visible and UV range microspectrophotometry. The results obtained from the samples of each garment were compared to determine if they 'matched' or not. From an initial visual comparison of the garments it was possible to subdivide the samples into two populations consisting of 73 'dark blue' garments and 27 'mid-blue' garments. It was found that of the 73 'dark blue' garments, 22 distinct sub-populations could be distinguished using visible range MSP, this figure being increased to 43 when the analysis was extended into the UVW range. In the case of the 27 'mid-blue' garments, 9 distinct sub-populations were discriminated using visible range MSP, this figure being increased to 17 when the analysis was extended into the UV range. The discriminating power (i.e., the number of discriminated pairs divided by the number of possible pairs) of visible range microspectrophotometry was calculated as 0.89 for 'mid-blue' garments and 0.87 for 'dark blue' garments. Extending microspectrophotometry into the UV range increased discrimination by 7%, giving a discriminating power of 0.96 for both mid and dark blue cotton fibres which was similar to that reported by a previous study where this method was combined with light and fluorescence microscopy. Intra-garment variation was found to be negligible. The implications of this study for casework are discussed and a revised analytical pathway for the comparison of this fibre type/colour combination using microspectrophotometry as a primary screening tool, is proposed. PMID:19418923

Palmer, Ray; Hutchinson, William; Fryer, Verity

2009-03-01

463

Composition and stability of anthocyanins in blue-grained wheat.  

PubMed

Wheat grain is recognized as a good source of potentially health-enhancing components such as dietary fiber, phenolics, tocopherols, and carotenoids. Anthocyanins, another group of bioactive compounds, are found in blue and purple wheat grains. In the present study, a blue aleurone spring wheat line "Purendo 38" with relatively high content of total anthocyanins was used to investigate the composition and stability of anthocyanins over three crop years. Commercial cultivars of purple (Konini) and red (Katepwa) wheats were included in the study. Separation of anthocyanins by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that each wheat had a distinct anthocyanin profile. Four major anthocyanins were separated from blue wheat extracts as compared to five anthocyanins in purple wheat. Cyanidin 3-glucoside was the predominant anthocyanin in purple wheat, whereas it was the second major anthocyanin in blue wheat. The predominant anthocyanin in blue wheat, making up approximately 41% of the total anthocyanin content, remains to be structurally unidentified. Blue wheat anthocyanins were thermally most stable at pH 1. Their degradation was slightly lower at pH 3 as compared to pH 5. Increasing the temperature from 65 to 95 degrees C increased degradation of blue wheat anthocyanins. Addition of SO(2) during heating of blue wheat had a stabilizing effect on anthocyanin pigments. The optimal SO(2) concentrations were 500-1000 ppm for whole meals and 1000-3000 ppm for isolated anthocyanins. Further studies are underway to identify and verify individual anthocyanins in blue wheat and their potential end uses. PMID:12670152

Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Hucl, Pierre

2003-04-01

464

Eta Carinae and the Luminous Blue Variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluate the place of Eta Carinae (? Car) among the class of luminous blue variables (LBVs) and show that the LBV phenomenon is not restricted to extremely luminous objects like ? Car, but extends luminosities as low as log (L / L?) ˜ 5.4 - corresponding to initial masses ˜ 25 M?, and final masses as low as ˜ 10-15 M?. We present a census of S Doradus variability, and discuss basic LBV properties, their mass-loss behavior, and whether at maximum light they form pseudo-photospheres. We suggest that those objects that exhibit giant ? Car-type eruptions are most likely related to the more common type of S Doradus variability. Alternative atmospheric models as well as sub-photospheric models for the instability are presented, but the true nature of the LBV phenomenon remains as yet elusive. We end with a discussion of the evolutionary status of LBVs - highlighting recent indications that some LBVs may be in a direct pre-supernova state, in contradiction to the standard paradigm for massive star evolution.

Vink, Jorick S.

465

Why aye-ayes see blue.  

PubMed

The capacity for cone-mediated color vision varies among nocturnal primates. Some species are colorblind, having lost the functionality of their short-wavelength-sensitive-1 (SWS1) opsin pigment gene. In other species, such as the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), the SWS1 gene remains intact. Recent studies focused on aye-ayes indicate that this gene has been maintained by natural selection and that the pigment has a peak sensitivity (lambda(max)) of 406 nm, which is -20 nm closer to the ultraviolet region of the spectrum than in most primates. The functional significance behind the retention and unusual lambda(max) of this opsin pigment is unknown, and it is perplexing given that all mammals are presumed to be colorblind in the dark. Here we comment on this puzzle and discuss recent findings on the color vision intensity thresholds of terrestrial vertebrates with comparable optics to aye-ayes. We draw attention to the twilight activities of aye-ayes and report that twilight is enriched in short-wavelength (bluish) light. We also show that the intensity of twilight and full moonlight is probably sufficient to support cone-mediated color vision. We speculate that the intact SWS1 opsin pigment gene of aye-ayes is a crepuscular adaptation and we report on the blueness of potential visual targets, such as scent marks and the brilliant blue arils of Ravenala madagascariensis. PMID:24006536

Melin, Amanda D; Moritz, Gillian L; Fosbury, Robert A E; Kawamura, Shoji; Dominy, Nathaniel J

2012-03-01

466

The University of Montana's Blue Mountain Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Montana's Department of Physics and Astronomy runs the state of Montana's only professional astronomical observatory. The Observatory, located on nearby Blue Mountain, houses a 16 inch Boller and Chivens Cassegrain reflector (purchased in 1970), in an Ash dome. The Observatory sits just below the summit ridge, at an elevation of approximately 6300 feet. Our instrumentation includes an Op-Tec SSP-5A photoelectric photometer and an SBIG ST-9E CCD camera. We have the only undergraduate astronomy major in the state (technically a physics major with an astronomy option), so our Observatory is an important component of our students' education. Students have recently carried out observing projects on the photometry of variable stars and color photometry of open clusters and OB associations. In my poster I will show some of the data collected by students in their observing projects. The Observatory is also used for public open houses during the summer months, and these have become very popular: at times we have had 300 visitors in a single night.

Friend, D. B.

2004-12-01

467

The outlook for blue-phase LCDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal (BPLC) has become an increasingly important technology trend for information display and photonic applications. BPLC exhibits several attractive features, such as reasonably wide temperature range, submillisecond gray-to-gray response time, no need for alignment layer, optically isotropic voltageoff state, and large cell gap tolerance when an in-plane switching (IPS) cell is employed. Fast response time not only suppresses image blurs, improves the overall transmittance but also enables color sequential display without noticeable color breakup. With time sequential RGB LED colors, the spatial color filters can be eliminated so that both optical efficiency and resolution density are tripled. High optical efficiency helps to reduce power consumption while high resolution density is particularly desirable for the future Ultra High Definition Television. However, some bottlenecks such as high operation voltage, hysteresis, low relaxation frequency, residual birefringence, image sticking, charging issue due to the large capacitance, and relatively low transmittance for the IPS mode, remain to be overcome before widespread application of BPLC can be realized. To reduce operation voltage, both new BPLC materials and new device structures have been investigated. In this paper, we highlight some recent advances in large Kerr constant, fast response time BPLC material development, and new device structures. Especially, we will focus on new BP LCDs with low operation voltage, submillisecond response time, high transmittance, and negligible hysteresis and residual birefringence. The sunrise for BP LCD is near.

Chen, Yuan; Wu, Shin-Tson

2014-02-01

468

Brighter yellow blue tits make better parents.  

PubMed Central

Whether or not bird ornaments are a signal for direct (e.g. good parents) or indirect (e.g. good genes) benefits to prospective partners in sexual selection is controversial. Carotene coloration in Parus species is directly related to the ingestion of caterpillars, so that a brightly carotene-coloured tit may be signalling its ability to find caterpillars, a main high-quality food source for good fledgling development, and hence its parental abilities. If carotene-based plumage coloration is related to the good-parent hypothesis, we predict that yellow plumage brightness of tit fathers should be positively correlated to their investment in offspring provisioning. Here, we use cross-fostering experiments in blue tits (Parus caeruleus) to show that chick development (as measured by tarsus length) is related to yellowness of the foster father, but not to that of the genetic parents. Using these data, we were able to measure, for the first time to our knowledge, the separate contribution of genetic and environmental factors (i.e. parental plumage coloration) to chick development, and hence parental investment. Our data, which relate carotenoid coloration to models of good parents, and data from other authors, which relate ultraviolet coloration to good-genes models, stress that different kinds of coloration within an individual may provide different units of information to prospective females. PMID:11839194

Senar, J C; Figuerola, J; Pascual, J

2002-01-01

469

Age determination of blue-winged teal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Primary feather length, markings on the greater secondary coverts, and the degree of bill spotting were evaluated as characters for use in the spring to distinguish first-year, blue-winged teal (Anas discors) females from older ones. The length of the 10th primary feather did not prove suitable to separate different aged females. Extreme primary lengths might be used to determine the age of some males. In females that have been through a postnuptial molt the greater secondary coverts have a more symmetrical, and more acutely angled, white, inverted 'V'-marking. Any female with a 'V' subjectively classified as good has gone through at least one postnuptial molt, and a female with no sign of a 'V' on the coverts is a juvenile or yearling before her first postnuptial molt. By measuring the longest bill spot on the upper mandible of each known-age female, it was possible to determine the age of some female teal. Because the spots fade during the breeding season, no lower size limit could be set to delineate first-year females at that time of year, but any nest-trapped hen with a spot longer than 10 mm was considered to be older than 1 year. Upper and lower limits were also established to distinguish some yearlings and 2-year-olds in the fall.

Dane, C.W.

1968-01-01

470

Faint blue galaxies - High or low redshift?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of two new redshift surveys carried out with the Low Dispersion Survey Spectrograph (LDSS) on the Anglo-Austrian Telescope are presented. The first is an extension of the earlier LDSS deep survey, in which two of the original survey zones were reobserved and the 19 percent incompleteness in redshift identifications was reduced to just 4.5 percent. Redshifts for 19 new galaxies were obtained increasing the total number of redshifts to 104. It is concluded that at most 4.5 percent of galaxies brighter than 22.5 can have redshifs greater than 0.7. The second redshift survey studied the population of faint blue galaxies with R between 22 and 23. The redshifts of the six bluest galaxies with B-I less than 1, indicative of a near-flat spectrum in f(nu), were identified. Apart from one QSO, all the identified objects are galaxies with redshifts in the range between 0.3 and 0.9. These results are found to be consistent with both merging-dominated models for galaxy evolution and models postulating bursts of star formation in dwarf galaxies.

Colless, Matthew; Ellis, Richard S.; Broadhurst, T. J.; Taylor, Keith; Peterson, Bruce A.

1993-03-01

471

Microrods based on nanocubes of Prussian blue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a facile dynamic vacuum evaporation method, a novel microrod with diameters of ca. 1-2 ?m and lengths of up to 80 ?m has been constructed using uniform Prussian blue (PB) nanocubes as the building blocks. The PB nanocubes are arranged fairly orderly in the rod-like superstructures. The assembled architecture can be transformed from one-dimensional microrods to two-dimensional layers via a fish-bone-like structure by tuning the evaporation rate. The formation of the PB superstructures follows an oriented-attachment mechanism and this provides a simple approach to fabricate hierarchical nanostructures and self-assembled superstructures using nanosized building blocks. Magnetic studies indicate that the PB microrods have a Curie temperature ( Tc) of 4.9 K and a coercivity of ca. 26 Oe at 1.8 K. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the PB microrods and the dispersed nanocubes show an UV emission band at 358 and 367 nm respectively, suggesting an interesting assembly effect.

Wu, Shikui; Shen, Xiaoping; Xu, Zheng; Wu, Jili; Gao, Cuiling

2009-08-01

472

Ultra fast polymer network blue phase liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer-stabilization of blue phase liquid crystal systems within a host polymer network are reported, which enables ultrafast switching flexible displays. Our newly developed method to stabilize the blue phase in an existing polymer network (e.g., that of a polymer network liquid crystal; PNLC) has shown wide temperature stability and fast response speeds. Systems where the blue phase is stabilized in an already existing polymer network are attractive candidates for ultrafast LCDs. The technology also promises to be applied to flexible PNLC and/or polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) displays using plastic substrate such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET).

Hussain, Zakir; Masutani, Akira; Danner, David; Pleis, Frank; Hollfelder, Nadine; Nelles, Gabriele; Kilickiran, Pinar

2011-06-01

473

Stabilization of cholesteric blue phases using polymerized nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explores the roles of UV-polymerizable silicon-based nanoparticles in polymer-stabilized blue phase (PSBP) liquid crystals. Our analysis reveals that the polymerized polymer leads to widening of the temperature range of the blue phase and stabilization of the reflection wavelength against temperature variations. A polymer morphology study of PSBP reveals the polydomain nature of the blue phase. In practical application, the advantage of the low-surface-energy property of the UV-polymerizable silicon-based nanoparticles leads to a significant reduction in switching voltage from 140 to 40 V.

Kemiklioglu, Emine; Hwang, Jeoung-Yeon; Chien, Liang-Chy

2014-04-01