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1

Natural occurrence and growth reaction on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue agar of non-neoformans Cryptococcus spp. in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii were the predominant non-neoformans cryptococci isolated during an environmental sampling study for C. gattii at Klang Valley, Malaysia. Cryptococcus gattii was not isolated from any of the environmental samples. Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii were isolated mainly from vegetative samples of Eucalyptus trees and bird droppings. Upon testing on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue (CGB) agar, all the C. albidus isolates remained unchanged. Interestingly, a total of 29 (76.3%) C. laurentii isolates formed blue colours on the CGB agar. Sequence analysis of ITS1-5.8rDNA-ITS2 gene sequences (468 bp) of four CGB-blue C. laurentii isolates demonstrated the closest match (99%) with that of C. laurentii CBS 7140. This study demonstrated the diverse environmental niche of C. albidus and C. laurentii in Malaysia. PMID:18498307

Tay, S T; Na, S L; Tajuddin, T H

2008-11-01

2

Identification of Cryptococcus gattii by use of L-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue medium and DNA sequencing.  

PubMed

Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are closely related pathogenic fungi. Cryptococcus neoformans is ecologically widespread and affects primarily immunocompromised patients, while C. gattii is traditionally found in tropical climates and has been reported to cause disease in immunocompetent patients. l-Canavanine glycine bromothymol blue (CGB) agar can be used to differentiate C. neoformans and C. gattii, but there are few reports of its performance in routine clinical practice. Growth of C. gattii on CGB agar produces a blue color, indicating the assimilation of glycine, while C. neoformans fails to cause a color change. Using reference and clinical strains, we evaluated the ability of CGB agar and D2 large ribosomal subunit DNA sequencing (D2 LSU) to differentiate C. neoformans and C. gattii. One hundred two yeast isolates were screened for urease activity, melanin production, and glycine assimilation on CGB agar as well as by D2 sequencing. Seventeen of 17 (100%) C. gattii isolates were CGB positive, and 54 of 54 C. neoformans isolates were CGB negative. Several yeast isolates other than the C. gattii isolates were CGB agar positive, indicating that CGB agar cannot be used alone for identification of C. gattii. D2 correctly identified and differentiated all C. gattii and C. neoformans isolates. This study demonstrates that the use of CGB agar, in conjunction with urea hydrolysis and Niger seed agar, or D2 LSU sequencing can be reliably used in the clinical laboratory to distinguish C. gattii from C. neoformans. We describe how CGB agar and D2 sequencing have been incorporated into the yeast identification algorithm in our laboratory. PMID:19794048

Klein, K R; Hall, L; Deml, S M; Rysavy, J M; Wohlfiel, S L; Wengenack, N L

2009-11-01

3

Serotypes of Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from patients prior to and during the AIDS era in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and eighty-seven strains of Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from patients in Thailand were charcterized by biochemical varieties relating to serogroups. Canavanine-glycine-bromothymol\\u000a blue (CGB) agar was used for differentiating the varieties of C. neoformans. Slide agglutination tests were performed with Crypto Check (Iatron, Inc., Tokyo) to determine their serotypes. Fifty-five\\u000a percent (10 out of 18) of the pre-AIDS isolates were

Samaniya Sukroongreung I; Churairatana Nilakull; Orawan Ruangsomboon; Wongsatit Chuakul; Boonchuay Eampokalap

1996-01-01

4

Serotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans Isolates from Clinical and Environmental Sources in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast that is re- sponsible for life-threatening infections, particularly in immu- nocompromised patients (7, 21). C. neoformans exists in two varieties, C. neoformans var. neoformans and C. neoformans var. gattii (4, 32). These two varieties of C. neoformans (4, 32) are easily differentiated by their growth in L-canavanine-glycine- bromothymol blue agar (CGB) (19, 20) and

TERESA BARO ´; JOSEP M. TORRES-RODRIGUEZ; YOLANDA MORERA; CONCEPCION ALIA; OLGA LOPEZ; RAUL MENDEZ

1999-01-01

5

The isolation, characterization and antifungal susceptibilities of Cryptococcus neoformans from bird excreta in Klang Valley, Malaysia.  

PubMed

The occurrence of Cryptococcus neoformans in bird excreta in Klang valley, Malaysia was determined in this study. Of 544 samples of bird excreta collected from a local zoo, pet shops and public areas, 20 strains of C. neoformans were isolated. All C. neoformans strains were serotype A and thus identified as C. neoformans variety grubii. All did not produce color changes on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue agar. All were of alpha-mating types, as determined by a pheromone-specific PCR assay. The antifungal susceptibility testing using agar diffusion method Neo-sensitabs showed that all were susceptible to amphotericin B, fluconazole and itraconazole. PMID:15983736

Tay, S T; Chai, H C; Na, S L; Hamimah, H; Rohani, M Y; Soo-Hoo, T S

2005-06-01

6

Histopathology, serology and cultures in the diagnosis of cryptococcosis.  

PubMed

Cryptococcosis is one of the most common opportunistic fungal infections in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report 13 cases of cryptococcal infection based on histopathology, serology and cultures. Epidemiological analysis, histochemical techniques of hematoxilin and eosin (HE) and Grocot's silver (GMS), as well special histochemical techniques such as Mayer's mucicarmine (MM) and Fontana-Masson (FM), cryptococcal antigen test (CrAg) and isolation on fungal media: Sabouraud's (SAB), brain-heart infusion agar (BHI) and canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue (CGB) agar were analyzed. Unsatisfactory staining results by MM stain associated to negative titers by CrAg test, which FM stain confirmed that capsule-deficient Cryptococcus infections were observed in four cases. Eight isolated cases were identified as follows: six cases were infection with Cryptococcus neoformans and two cases were Cryptococcus gattii. PMID:19893977

Gazzoni, Alexandra Flávia; Severo, Cecília Bittencourt; Salles, Emily Ferreira; Severo, Luiz Carlos

2009-01-01

7

Adsorptive removal of methylene blue by agar: effects of NaCl and ethanol  

PubMed Central

Adsorption of methylene blue (MB) on agar was investigated as a function of temperature (308-328 K), different concentrations of NaCl and HCl and various weight percentages of binary mixtures of ethanol with water. It was observed that the maximum experimental adsorption capacity, qm, exp, in water is up to 50 mg g-1 and decreases with increase in weight percentage of ethanol and NaCl and HCl concentration compared to that of water. Analysis of data using ARIAN model showed that MB adsorbs as monomer and dimer on the surface of agar. Binding constants of MB to agar were calculated using the Temkin isotherm. The process is exothermic in water and other solutions. The mean adsorption energy (E) value indicated binding of MB to agar is chemical adsorption. Kinetics of this interaction obeys from the pseudo-second-order model and diffusion of the MB molecules into the agar is the main rate-controlling step. PMID:22339759

2012-01-01

8

ACINETOBACTER SPP.: DISTINCT MORPHOLOGY ON EOSIN METHYLENE BLUE AGAR AS AN AID TO IDENTIFICATION IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

'Acinetobacter calcoaceticus', frequently found in drinking waters and implicated in nosocomial infections, was presumptively identified by its tiny, blue colonial appearance on Levine eosin methylene blue agar. All of the 33 isolates from drinking water showing this distinctive ...

9

Fluconazole Disk Diffusion Test with Methylene Blue and Glucose Enriched Mueller-Hinton Agar for Determining Susceptibility of Candida Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 25-mg fluconazole disk diffusion test using a Mueller-Hinton agar plate containing 2% glucose and 5 mg of methylene blue\\/ml (GM-MH) was compared to the macrodilution reference method for 210 Candida species. The GM-MH agar plate was read at 24 h. The predictive values of disks with susceptible, intermediate, and resistant results on the GM-MH agar plate at 24 h

SAI-CHEONG LEE; NING LEE; LAI-CHU SEE; JEN-SENG HUANG; CHI-JEN TSAI; KUO-SU CHEN; WEN-BEN SHIEH

2001-01-01

10

FIRST REPORT ON Cryptococcus neoformans IN PIGEON EXCRETA FROM PUBLIC AND RESIDENTIAL LOCATIONS IN THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF CUIABÁ, STATE OF MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Cryptococcosis is a severe systemic mycosis caused by two species of Cryptococcus that affect humans and animals: C. neoformans and C. gattii. Cosmopolitan and emergent, the mycosis results from the interaction between a susceptible host and the environment. The occurrence of C. neoformans was evaluated in 122 samples of dried pigeon excreta collected in 49 locations in the City of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, including public squares (n = 5), churches (n = 4), educational institutions (n = 3), health units (n = 8), open areas covered with asbestos (n = 4), residences (n = 23), factory (n = 1) and a prison (n = 1). Samples collected from July to December of 2010 were seeded on Niger seed agar (NSA). Dark brown colonies were identified by urease test, carbon source assimilation tests and canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium. Polymerase chain reaction primer pairs specific for C. neoformans were also used for identification. Cryptococcus neoformans associated to pigeon excreta was isolated from eight (6.6%) samples corresponding to six (12.2%) locations. Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from urban areas, predominantly in residences, constituting a risk of acquiring the disease by immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. PMID:24213188

Takahara, Doracilde Terumi; Lazéra, Márcia dos Santos; Wanke, Bodo; Trilles, Luciana; Dutra, Valéria; de Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus; Nakazato, Luciano; Anzai, Mariana Caselli; Leite, Diniz Pereira; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues; Hahn, Rosane Christine

2013-01-01

11

Cryptococcosis in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) caused by Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii.  

PubMed

We describe the first case of cryptococcosis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii in a male Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). The dolphin showed clinical signs of tachypnea, transient dyspnea, and mild tachycardia and developed multiple hyperechoic nodules, parenchymal consolidation, and thickening of pleura. A diagnosis of bronchopneumonia with pleuritis was made. Itraconazole therapy was implemented for 120 days, and trough levels in serum were within or above the suggested therapeutic range. Titers of cryptococcal antigen in serum increased eightfold during therapy, and the case had a fatal outcome. Necropsy examination findings included enlarged pulmonary lymph nodes and extensive coalescing granulomatous lesions throughout both lungs. Histologic examination revealed numerous, spherical to ellipsoidal, mucicarmine-positive, 3- to 14-microm, encapsulated, budding cells consistent with C. neoformans. Culture of the lung tissue yielded colonies of C. neoformans. The isolate was urease positive and nitrate negative and exhibited phenoloxidase activity. It was positive on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue agar. When tested by the Iatron serodiagnostic reagent kit (Iatron Laboratories, Inc.), it was shown to belong to serotype B. PMID:11826007

Miller, W George; Padhye, Arvind A; van Bonn, William; Jensen, Eric; Brandt, Mary E; Ridgway, Sam H

2002-02-01

12

Cryptococcus species identification by multiplex PCR.  

PubMed

Members of the Cryptococcus species complex are encapsulated basidiomycetous yeasts, which can affect the central nervous system (CNS) and if untreated may cause meningitis. Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogen causing infections mainly in immunocompromised individuals. Cryptococcus gattii is a primary pathogen responsible for a high incidence of cryptococcomas in the lung and brain and shows a delayed response to antifungal therapy. The differentiation between the two species is primarily based on their growth on and color change of canavanine - glycine-bromothymol blue agar (CGB). Since this test is not always reliable, a multiplex PCR to identify both Cryptococcus species using more than 130 samples was standardized and the results obtained compared to those with the CGB test, using the Crypto Check serotyping kit as the standard. The multiplex PCR was shown to be more specific than the CGB test, in that results obtained with it were in agreement with those from serotyping all the samples, while the data from the CGB test disagreed with 6 out of 131 samples. PMID:18415847

Leal, Ana Lusia; Faganello, Josiane; Bassanesi, Maria Cristina; Vainstein, Marilene H

2008-06-01

13

First report on Cryptococcus neoformans in pigeon excreta from public and residential locations in the metropolitan area of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil.  

PubMed

Cryptococcosis is a severe systemic mycosis caused by two species of Cryptococcus that affect humans and animals: C. neoformans and C. gattii. Cosmopolitan and emergent, the mycosis results from the interaction between a susceptible host and the environment. The occurrence of C. neoformans was evaluated in 122 samples of dried pigeon excreta collected in 49 locations in the City of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, including public squares (n = 5), churches (n = 4), educational institutions (n = 3), health units (n = 8), open areas covered with asbestos (n = 4), residences (n = 23), factory (n = 1) and a prison (n = 1). Samples collected from July to December of 2010 were seeded on Niger seed agar (NSA). Dark brown colonies were identified by urease test, carbon source assimilation tests and canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium. Polymerase chain reaction primer pairs specific for C. neoformans were also used for identification. Cryptococcus neoformans associated to pigeon excreta was isolated from eight (6.6%) samples corresponding to six (12.2%) locations. Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from urban areas, predominantly in residences, constituting a risk of acquiring the disease by immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. PMID:24213188

Takahara, Doracilde Terumi; Lazéra, Márcia dos Santos; Wanke, Bodo; Trilles, Luciana; Dutra, Valéria; Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus de; Nakazato, Luciano; Anzai, Mariana Caselli; Leite Júnior, Diniz Pereira; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues; Hahn, Rosane Christine

2013-01-01

14

Rapid identification of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, C. neoformans var. neoformans, and C. gattii by use of rapid biochemical tests, differential media, and DNA sequencing.  

PubMed

Rapid identification of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans, and Cryptococcus gattii is imperative for facilitation of prompt treatment of cryptococcosis and for understanding the epidemiology of the disease. Our purpose was to evaluate a test algorithm incorporating commercial rapid biochemical tests, differential media, and DNA sequence analysis that will allow us to differentiate these taxa rapidly and accurately. We assessed 147 type, reference, and clinical isolates, including 6 other Cryptococcus spp. (10 isolates) and 14 other yeast species (24 isolates), using a 4-hour urea broth test (Remel), a 24-hour urea broth test (Becton Dickinson), a 4-hour caffeic acid disk test (Hardy Diagnostics and Remel), 40- to 44-hour growth assessment on l-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue (CGB) agar, and intergenic spacer (IGS) sequence analysis. All 123 Cryptococcus isolates hydrolyzed urea, along with 7 isolates of Rhodotorula and Trichosporon. Eighty-five of 86 C. neoformans (99%) and 26 of 27 C. gattii (96%) isolates had positive caffeic acid results, unlike the other cryptococci (0/10) and yeast species (0/24). Together, these two tests positively identified virtually all C. neoformans/C. gattii isolates (98%) within 4 h. CGB agar or IGS sequencing further differentiated these isolates within 48 h. On CGB, 25 of 27 (93%) C. gattii strains induced a blue color change, in contrast to 0 of 86 C. neoformans isolates. Neighbor-joining cluster analysis of IGS sequences differentiated C. neoformans var. grubii, C. neoformans var. neoformans, and C. gattii. Based on these results, we describe a rapid identification algorithm for use in a microbiology laboratory to distinguish clinically relevant Cryptococcus spp. PMID:21593254

McTaggart, Lisa; Richardson, Susan E; Seah, Christine; Hoang, Linda; Fothergill, Annette; Zhang, Sean X

2011-07-01

15

Cryptococcus spp isolated from dust microhabitat in Brazilian libraries  

PubMed Central

Background The Cryptococcus spp is currently composed of encapsulated yeasts of cosmopolitan distribution, including the etiological agents of cryptococcosis. The fungus are found mainly in substrates of animal and plant origin. Human infection occurs through inhalation of spores present in the environment. Methods Eighty-four swab collections were performed on dust found on books in three libraries in the city of Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The material was seeded in Sabouraud agar and then observed for characteristics compatible with colonies with a creamy to mucous aspect; the material was then isolated in birdseed (Niger) agar and cultivated at a temperature of 37°C for 5 to 7?days. Identification of isolated colonies was performed by microscopic observation in fresh preparations dyed with India ink, additional tests performed on CGB (L-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue), urea broth, and carbohydrate assimilation tests (auxanogram). Results Of the 84 samples collected from book dust, 18 (21.4%) were positive for Cryptococcus spp totalizing 41 UFC’s. The most frequently isolated species was C. gattii 15 (36.6%); followed by C. terreus, 12 (29.3%); C. luteolus 4 (9.8%); C. neoformans, and C. uniguttulatus 3 (7.3%), and C. albidus and C. humiculus with 2 (4.6%) of the isolates. Conclusion The high biodiversity of the yeasts of the Cryptococcus genus, isolated from different environmental sources in urban areas of Brazil suggests the possibility of individuals whose immune systems have been compromised or even healthy individuals coming into sources of fungal propagules on a daily bases throughout their lives. This study demonstrates the acquisition possible of cryptococcosis infection from dust in libraries. PMID:22682392

2012-01-01

16

Human Immunodefeciency Virus Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis at a Tertiary Care Centre: Diagnostic Tools and Antifungal Susceptibility Testing  

PubMed Central

Context: Cryptococcal meningitis has emerged as a leading cause of the infectious morbidity and mortality in HIV sero-reactive subjects and it is the second most common cause of the opportunistic neuroinfections in it. As this is a indistinguishable from other causes of meningitis, its early diagnosis is the key to the therapeutic success. Objectives: This study was undertaken to know the incidence of Cryptococcal meningitis in HIV sero–reactive individuals and to assess the role of the microbiological parameters in its specific diagnosis, with a perspective of evaluating the anti–fungal resistance. Material and Methods: A total of 66 CSF samples from suspected cases of meningoencephalitis were subjected to standard microbiological procedures. The Cryptococcal isolates were identified by microscopy, the cultural characteristics, melanin production on Niger Seed agar, urea hydrolysis, the Nitrate assimilation test and by capsular antigen detection by latex agglutination. The Cryptoccal isolates were further biotyped by using Canavanine–Glycine–Bromothymol blue agar. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of Amphotericin B and Fluconazole for the isolates were detected. Results: The incidence of Cryptococcal meningitis in our study group was 18.2% (12/66). The Cryptococcal antigen was detected in all the 12 cases, whereas microscopy was positive only in 9 cases and Cryptococcus was isolated by culture in 10 cases. All the isolates were sensitive to Amphotericin B and 90% of the isolates were sensitive to Fluconazole. The CD4counts ranged between 22-138 cells /?l. Conclusion: A high incidence of Cryptococcal meningitis in HIV sero-reactive subjects necessitates the importance of a precise and an early microbiological diagnosis for better management of such subjects. Due to the growing concern of emerging drug resistance, the testing for the anti–fungal susceptibility has to be encouraged in all the cases. PMID:24086857

Munivenkataswamy, Rashmi; Gopi, Anjana; Usman, Shaik Mohammed; Jagadeesh

2013-01-01

17

[Usefulness of D-proline in the differentiation of varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans].  

PubMed

A comparative study was conducted between the assimilation of D-proline and the growth on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue (CGB) medium used for the classification of the varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans. In the 86 studied strains, 100% of coincidence between both methods allowed to affirm that 95.34% corresponded to the neoformans var. and the rest (4.65%) to the gattii var. The results obtained corroborated that all the autoctonous clinical isolations up to the present correspond to the. neoformans var. and made possible to suggest the use of D-proline for the initial evaluation of strains, as an alternative and simple method that presented under these conditions high coincidence with the reference method (growth in CGB). PMID:15849915

Martínez Machín, Gerardo; Barrial de la Rosa, Lisset; Illnait Zaragozi, María T; Valdés Hernández, Iliana del C; Fernindez Andreu, Carlos M; Perurena Lancha, Mayda R; Polo Leal, Jorge L; Mendoza Llanes, Dianeya

2004-01-01

18

Genotypic diversity of environmental Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from Northern Portugal.  

PubMed

The Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex members are the main agents of systemic cryptococcosis. This disease is believed to be acquired from the environment via fungal cell inhalation. Often, isolates recovered from environmental and clinical sources have proven to be genotypically similar. We assessed the occurrence of C. neoformans and C. gattii in environmental substrates collected in a Portuguese region. Twenty-eight isolates were identified as C. neoformans - five from decaying Eucalyptus leaves and 23 from domestic pigeon droppings. The isolates were genotyped using a URA5-RFLP approach. The C. neoformans VNIV (53.6%, n = 15) and VNI (32.1%, n = 9) genotypes were abundantly present among environmental isolates. The hybrid VNIII (14.3%, n = 4) genotype was underrepresented and the VNII was not found. Cryptococcus gattii was also not found although some isolates yielded a positive canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue test. PMID:23848429

Ferreira, Ana Sofia; Sampaio, Ana; Maduro, Ana Paula; Silva, Inês; Teles, Fernando; Martins, Maria da Luz; Inácio, João

2014-02-01

19

Antifungal susceptibilities of Cryptococcus neoformans cerebrospinal fluid isolates from AIDS patients in Kenya.  

PubMed

Poor susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans to fluconazole (FLC) is a matter of concern among clinicians in Africa. The emergence of resistance to FLC was recently reported in Kenya, but it is not known whether it is widespread. Thus, there is need for more antifungal drug susceptibility studies in Kenya. The aim of this study was to measure the in vitro antifungal drug susceptibilities of incident C. neoformans isolates from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients in Kenya. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed in 67 C. neoformans isolates by broth microdilution method as outlined in the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute document M27-A3 using FLC, amphotericin B (AMB), voriconazole (VOR), ravuconazole (RAV) and flucytosine (5-FC). Isolates were grown on l-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue medium for serotype identification. Six per cent of the isolates were identified as C. neoformans var. gattii serotype B or C and 94% as C. neoformans var. neoformans. All isolates tested were susceptible to AMB, VOR and RAV (100%), and high susceptibilities were seen to FLC (97%), and 5-FC (90%). Only 3% and 10% of the isolates' susceptibility to FLC and 5-FC, respectively, was dose-dependent or intermediate. These results demonstrate high susceptibilities of incident C. neoformans isolates to FLC and AMB, antifungals used for treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in Kenya. PMID:21535451

Mdodo, Rennatus; Moser, Stephen A; Jaoko, Walter; Baddley, John; Pappas, Peter; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Aban, Inmaculada; Odera, Susan; Jolly, Pauline

2011-09-01

20

Genotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from captive birds in Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil.  

PubMed

To evaluate Cryptococcus spp. molecular types isolated from captive birds' droppings, an epidemiological survey was carried out in Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil, from December 2006 to September 2008. A total of 253 samples of bird excreta (120 fresh and 133 dry) were collected from pet shop cages and houses in different neighbourhoods. Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated in 19 (14.28%) dry samples and one fresh sample (0.84%). Cryptococcus laurentii was recovered from seven (5.26%) dry samples, but not in the fresh samples. The canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue test was positive in all but one of the C. laurentii isolates. Cryptococcus neoformans molecular typing was performed using URA5-RFLP and the mating type locus using mating type specific PCR. Nineteen (95.0%) presented genotype VNI and one VNII (5.0%). In addition, all isolates presented mating type ?. Thus, the genotype of the environmental C. neoformans isolates observed in this study is in accordance with others already reported around the world and adds information about its distribution in Brazil. Cryptococcus laurentii strains were typed using URA5-RFLP and M13 fingerprinting, which showed similar profiles among them. Thus, despite the low number of C. laurentii isolates analysed, their molecular profile is different from another already reported. PMID:20492533

Ferreira-Paim, Kennio; Andrade-Silva, Leonardo; Mora, Delio Jose; Pedrosa, André Luiz; Rodrigues, Virmondes; Silva-Vergara, Mario León

2011-09-01

21

Evaluation of a new chromogenic agar medium for Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris.  

PubMed

Spoilage of fruit juices by a thermoacidophilic spore-forming bacterium, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, is a big problem for fruit juice industries worldwide. We have developed a novel chromogenic selective agar medium (EAATSM) for the isolation and enumeration of A. acidoterrestris. A. acidoterrestris strains appeared as blue colonies on the EAATSM. Other Alicyclobacillus strains appeared as white colonies or were inhibited. A study comparing EAATSM and YSG agar was carried out using artificially contaminated samples of 50 fruit juice products. The correlation coefficient between EAATSM and YSG was 0.991. PMID:23796641

Uchida, Masafumi; Teramura, Hajime; Kashida, Mitsuaki; Kodaka, Hidemasa

2013-01-01

22

Development of novel agar media for isolating guaiacol producing Alicyclobacillus spp.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to develop a selective and differential medium (SK2 agar) for isolating guaiacol producing Alicyclobacillus. Forty-one selected dyes and vanillic acid were incorporated in SK agar for screening selective and differential agents. Two guaiacol producing (1016, 1101) and two non-guaiacol producing (19220, C-GD 1-1) Alicyclobacillus isolates were streaked onto media and color differentiation of the isolates was assessed. Among 41 tested dyes, Chrome Azurol S (CAS) allowed color differentiation of the two types of Alicyclobacillus. Colonies of guaiacol producing Alicyclobacillus isolates appeared as dark purple to royal blue color with yellow background, whereas non-guaiacol producing Alicyclobacillus isolates produced cream colored colonies with yellow background. Vanillic acid not only served as a precursor for guaiacol formation but also inhibited non-guaiacol producing Alicyclobacillus. Non-guaiacol producing isolates did not grow on SK agar containing more than 70 ppm vanillic acid, whereas the recovery of guaiacol producing isolates was unaffected. When compared with other Alicyclobacillus isolation media, not only was SK2 agar capable of selectively recovering guaiacol-producing Alicyclobacillus, the degree of growth was also approximately equal if not better than orange serum agar, potato dextrose agar, and K agar. The development of SK2 agar provides the fruit juice industry with an inexpensive, simple to use alternative for the detection of guaiacol producing Alicyclobacillus. PMID:23587706

Chang, S S; Park, S H; Kang, D H

2013-06-01

23

Continuous marennin production by agar-entrapped Haslea ostrearia using a tubular photobioreactor with internal illumination.  

PubMed

The marine diatom Haslea ostrearia was immobilized in a tubular agar gel layer introduced into a photobioreactor of original design with internal illumination for the continuous synthesis of marennin, a blue-green pigment of biotechnological interest. Marennin was produced for a long-term period (27-43 days) and the volumetric productivity was maximum (18.7 mg day(-1) l(-1) gel) at the highest dilution rate (0.25 day(-1)) and lowest agar layer thickness (3 mm). Heterogeneous cell distribution in the agar layer revealed diffusional limitation of light and nutrients. However, the 3 mm gel thickness led to a more homogeneous cell distribution during incubation and to an increase of the whole biomass in the agar gel layer. PMID:11131387

Lebeau, T; Gaudin, P; Junter, G A; Mignot, L; Robert, J M

2000-11-01

24

Prussian Blue  

MedlinePLUS

... Tools CDC Response, Japan 2011 Specific Hazards Prussian Blue Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir What is ... can I get Prussian blue? What is Prussian blue? Prussian blue is a pill that can help ...

25

Automated annotation removal in agar plates.  

PubMed

Agar plates are widely used in the biomedical field as a medium in which to artificially grow bacteria, algae or fungi. Agar plates (Petri dishes) are used routinely in microbiology laboratories in order to identify the type of micro-organism responsible for infections. Such diagnoses are based on counting the number and type of bacterial colonies growing in the Petri dish. The count of bacterial colonies is a time consuming task prone to human error, so interest in automated counting systems has increased in the recent years. One of the difficulties of automatizing the counting process is the presence of markers and annotations made in the lower part of the agar plate. Efficient removal of such markers can increase the accuracy of the bacterial counting system. This article introduces a fast method for detection, segmentation and removal of annotations in agar plates that improves the results of existing bacterial colony counting algorithms. PMID:24110362

Vera, Sergio; Perez, Frederic; Lara, Laura; Ceresa, Mario; Carranza, Noemi; Herrero Jover, Javier; Gonzalez Ballester, Miguel A

2013-01-01

26

Ultrasonic backscatter coefficients for weakly scattering, agar spheres in agar phantoms  

E-print Network

Ultrasonic backscatter coefficients for weakly scattering, agar spheres in agar phantoms Michael R estimates were performed at two institutions over the frequency range 1­13 MHz, and compared to three models: 903­908 I. INTRODUCTION This work investigates ultrasonic scattering from ho- mogenous media

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

27

Pigments of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria).  

PubMed

The complex pigment pattern of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) cap skins has been studied by LC-DAD and mass spectrometry. Among the betaxanthins the corresponding derivatives of serine, threonine, ethanolamine, alanine, Dopa, phenylalanine and tryptophan are reported for the first time to contribute to the pigment pattern of fly agarics. Betalamic acid, the chromophoric precursor of betaxanthins and betacyanins, muscaflavin and seco-dopas were also detected. Furthermore, the red-purple muscapurpurin and the red muscarubrin were tentatively assigned while further six betacyanin-like components could not be structurally allocated. Stability studies indicated a high susceptibility of pigment extracts to degradation which led to rapid colour loss thus rendering a complete characterization of betacyanin-like compounds impossible at present. Taking into account these difficulties the presented results may be a starting point for a comprehensive characterization of the pigment composition of fly agarics. PMID:18274277

Stintzing, Florian; Schliemann, Willibald

2007-01-01

28

Electro-osmosis in gel -Application to Agar-Agar Fabien Cherblanc, Jer^ome Boscus, Jean-Claude Benet  

E-print Network

Electro-osmosis in gel - Application to Agar-Agar Fabien Cherblanc, J´er^ome Boscus, Jean-Claude B-engineering as a reference material, Agar-Agar gel is the focus of an experimental investigation concerning the electro-osmosis from liquid phase transport phenomena that take place in porous media (osmosis, electro-osmosis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

29

Breathing Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this demonstration of chemical change, the presenter blows breath into a methylene blue solution releasing carbon dioxide which acidifies the water and changes it from a bright blue color to green.

2009-08-16

30

Violet red bile 2 agar for stressed coliforms.  

PubMed

Counts on a new, autoclave-sterilizable violet red bile (VRB-2) agar were compared with counts on freshly boiled VRB agar. Yields on VRB-2 agar averaged 217, 180, 130, and 112% of counts obtained on the control medium for samples of water, cottage cheese, frozen vegetables, and raw milk, respectively. The general principle used for the development of VRB-2 agar could be applied to many other kinds of selective plating media. PMID:1092265

Hartman, P A; Hartman, P S; Lanz, W W

1975-04-01

31

Blue Note  

ScienceCinema

Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

Murray Gibson

2010-01-08

32

Blue Note  

SciTech Connect

Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

Murray Gibson

2007-04-27

33

Antimicrobial activity of seven root canal sealers. Results of agar diffusion and agar dilution tests.  

PubMed

A comparative study of the antimicrobial action of seven root canal sealers: Traitement Spad, Endométhasone, N2 Universal, Diaket-A, AH26 with silver, Tubli Seal, and Sealapex was done with 120 strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Two antimicrobial susceptibility tests were used: the agar dilution test and the agar diffusion test. The Diaket-A and Traitement Spad sealer cements showed the highest efficiency in the dilution test, whereas Diaket-A was in fourth place in the diffusion test, only better than the antimicrobial activity of the Tubli Seal and Sealapex sealers. PMID:1508532

Pumarola, J; Berastegui, E; Brau, E; Canalda, C; Jiménez de Anta, M T

1992-08-01

34

Agar medium for gas-liquid chromatography of anaerobes.  

PubMed

This study evaluates a method of performing gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) by direct extraction of fatty acids from agar for identification of clinically significant anaerobic bacteria. The potential use of agar cultures for GLC was studied by comparing chromatograms of 117 clinically isolated anaerobes grown in peptone yeast glucose broth and chopped meat carbohydrate broth, and on enriched brucella blood agar. For 98 of 117 anaerobes, fatty acid patterns from agar cultures were similar to those in broth. Significant differences were only found with Streptococcus intermedius, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium tertium, and Actinomyces species, which produced less of certain fatty acids on agar than in broth. Results of this study indicate that GLC of short chain fatty acids produced on agar medium by anaerobes, combined with simple tests such as Gram's stain and colonial morphology, may allow fir direct presumptive genus identification from an initial pure agar culture. PMID:3940426

Pankuch, G A; Appelbaum, P C

1986-01-01

35

Screening fungicides for use in fish culture: Evaluation of the agar plug transfer, cellophane transfer, and agar dilution methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The reliability, reproducibility, and usefulness of three screening methods -- the cellophane transfer, the agar plug transfer, and the agar dilution -- to screen aquatic fungicides were evaluated. Achlya flagellata and Saprolegnia hypogyna were exposed to 1, 10, and 100 mg/L of malachite green to test each method. The cellophane transfer and agar plug transfer techniques had similar reliability and reproducibility in rating fungicidal activity, and were both superior to the agar dilution technique. The agar plug transfer and agar dilution techniques adequately projected in vivo activity of malachite green, but the cellophane transfer technique overestimated its activity. Overall, the agar plug transfer technique most accurately rated the activity of malachite green and was the easiest test to perform. It therefore appears to be the method of choice for testing aquatic fungicides.

Bailey, Tom A.

1983-01-01

36

Recovery of spores of Clostridium botulinum in yeast extract agar and pork infusion agar after heat treatment.  

PubMed Central

Yeast extract agar, pork infusion agar, and modifications of these media were used to recover heated Clostridium botulinum spores. The D- and z-values were determined. Two type A strains and one type B strain of C. botulinum were studied. In all cases the D-values were largest when the spores were recovered in yeast extract agar, compared to the D-values for spores recovered in pork infusion agar. The z-values for strains 62A and A16037 were largest when the spores were recovered in pork infusion agar. The addition of sodium bicarbonate and sodium thioglycolate to pork infusion agar resulted in D-values for C. botulinum 62A spores similar to those for the same spores recovered in yeast extract agar. The results suggest that sodium bicarbonate and sodium thioglycolate should be added to recovery media for heated C. botulinum spores to obtain maximum plate counts. PMID:335970

Odlaug, T E; Pflug, I J

1977-01-01

37

Acanthocibium solanderi--see Wahoo Agar, Juan J.--see Tonioli and Agar  

E-print Network

--see Whale, Bryde's Balaenoptera novaeangliae--see Whale, blue Balaenoptera physalus--see Whale, fin:67, 108 Baker, C. Scott--see Clapham et al. Balaenoptera borealis--see Whale, sei Balaenoptera edeni--see Callio- nymidae Callionymus variegatus--see Callionymidae Caranx crysos--see Runner, blue Caranx hippos

38

Evaluation of the chromogenic agar chromID C. difficile.  

PubMed

Three selective media (chromID C. difficile agar, taurocholate cycloserine cefoxitin agar [TCCA; homemade], and CLO medium) were compared from 406 stool samples of patients suspected of having Clostridium difficile infection. The sensitivities of chromID C. difficile agar at 24 h and 48 h, CLO medium, and TCCA were 74.1%, 87%, 85.2%, and 70.4%, respectively. PMID:23269743

Eckert, Catherine; Burghoffer, Béatrice; Lalande, Valérie; Barbut, Frederic

2013-03-01

39

Evaluation of the Chromogenic Agar chromID C. difficile  

PubMed Central

Three selective media (chromID C. difficile agar, taurocholate cycloserine cefoxitin agar [TCCA; homemade], and CLO medium) were compared from 406 stool samples of patients suspected of having Clostridium difficile infection. The sensitivities of chromID C. difficile agar at 24 h and 48 h, CLO medium, and TCCA were 74.1%, 87%, 85.2%, and 70.4%, respectively. PMID:23269743

Burghoffer, Béatrice; Lalande, Valérie; Barbut, Frederic

2013-01-01

40

Chocolate agar, a differential medium for gram-positive cocci.  

PubMed Central

Reactions incurred on chocolate agar by gram-positive cocci were correlated with species identity. Darkening and clearing of the medium was usually associated with the species Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus simulans, and Streptococcus faecalis. Yellowing of chocolate agar was associated with alpha-hemolytic species of Streptococcus. The study demonstrated that reactions occurring on chocolate agar are useful in identifying gram-positive cocci. PMID:6490866

Gunn, B A

1984-01-01

41

21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4600 Ouchterlony agar plate. (a)...

2013-04-01

42

21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4600 Ouchterlony agar plate. (a)...

2014-04-01

43

21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4600 Ouchterlony agar plate. (a)...

2012-04-01

44

21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4600 Ouchterlony agar plate. (a)...

2010-04-01

45

21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4600 Ouchterlony agar plate. (a)...

2011-04-01

46

Cost-effective nanoporous Agar-Agar polymer/Nickel powder composite particle for effective bio-products adsorption by expanded bed chromatography.  

PubMed

In the present work a novel kind of dense nanoporous composite matrix for expanded bed application has been successfully first prepared with Nickel powder as a densifier and was covered with Agar-Agar layer as a skeleton, through the method of water-in-oil emulsification. Agar-Agar is a porous and inexpensive polymer. In order to fabricate cost-effective adsorbent with favorable qualities Agar-Agar polymer was used. Thereafter, the customized composite particle was modified by pseudo-affinity dye-ligand, Reactive Blue 4 (RB4), aimed at preparing a pseudo-affinity adsorbent (RB4-Agar-Ni) for bioprodut adsorption from aqueous solution. Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) was selected as a model protein to investigate the adsorption behavior in batchwise and expanded bed chromatography, and the obtained results were evaluated with that of Streamline™ (Amersham-Pharmacia Biotech, Sweden). Spherical appearance and porous structure of composite particles were observed by the optical microscope (OM) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The results suggested that the matrices followed the logarithmic normal size distribution with the range of 65-300 ?m and average diameter of 126.81-151.47 ?m, proper wet density of 1.64-2.78 g/ml, water content of 62.74-34%, porosity of 98-90% and pore size of about 38-130 nm. For better comprehension of the impact of solid phase properties on the performance of the expanded bed, the expansion and hydrodynamic properties of a composite matrix with a series of densities was evaluated and estimated by the retention time distribution method (RTD) in an expanded bed and was compared with that of other matrices. According to obtained results the expansion factors under the same fluid velocity decreased by increasing the matrix density. Moreover, the axial dispersion coefficient (Dax) is the most appropriate parameter for evaluating the stability of expanded bed, on various operating conditions, such as different flow velocity, bed expansion degree, viscosity of the liquid phase and the density of adsorbent. It was observed that the application of matrix with high density was proper for high operation, fluid velocity, since the addition of densifier improves the rigidity of the matrix. Three momentous factors, pH, ionic strength and initial concentration of BSA were analyzed. The best results showed that the adsorption equilibrium isotherms seems to follow a typical Langmuir isotherm and also the maximum adsorption capacity (qm) of BSA on RB4-Agar-Ni (64.01 mg/ml adsorbent) was higher than that on RB4-Streamline commercial adsorbent (about 54 mg.ml adsorbent). Additionally kinetic adsorption processes were characterized by the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics equations. The experimental data followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic equation. Also the breakthrough curves were investigated. It was found that dynamic binding capacity (DBC) decreased with increasing the flow rate and the values of DBC decreased from 21.08 to 11.15 mg/ml adsorbent when the density of composite beads increased from 1.64 to 2.78 g/ml. All results indicate that the prepared composite is promising for efficient bioproduct adsorption with good hydrodynamic characteristics, high stability and it is suitable for expanded bed usage as a cost-effective adsorbent. PMID:25152492

Asgari, Setareh; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Rahimpour, Ahmad

2014-09-26

47

The Blues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Noted bluesman Willie Dixon once said, "The blues are the roots; everything else is the fruits". Wise words indeed, and the quote informs the spirit of Martin Scorsese's PBS documentary series "The Blues". This interactive website provides users with some great material about this seven part series, which features segments by Clint Eastwood, Wim Wenders, and of course, Mr. Scorsese. On the site, visitors can watch previews of each segment and learn more about the artists profiled in each one. In "The Songs & the Artists" area, visitors can read musician biographies and even check out the accompanying radio series which was released in conjunction with the documentary. Those who like to travel should click on the "Blues Road Trip" area. Here they will have the opportunity to take a musical journey from the Deep South to Memphis, St. Louis, and Chicago via song, photographs, and maps. The site is rounded out by the "Blues Classroom" area, which is designed for educators. Interested parties can view lesson plans, look over a blues glossary, and read several background essays.

48

Blue Pork  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: The Chinese have a centuries-old love affair with pork. It constitutes 70% of the meat in their diet. Mao Zedong even called pork a "national treasure." However, that pork was the "the other white meat," not phosphorescent blue...

Hacker, Randi; Boyd, David

2011-05-29

49

Cost-Effectiveness of Blood Agar for Isolation of Mycobacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Mycobacterium species are grown using specific media that increase laboratory cost, thus hampering their diffusion in resource-limited countries. Preliminary data suggested that versatile blood agar may be also used for mycobacterial culture. Methodology We examined the growth of 41 different Mycobacterium species on 5% blood agar. Over a 24-month period we analysed isolation of mycobacteria after parallel inoculation of clinical specimens into both a reference automated system (BACTEC 9000 MB broth) and 5% blood agar slant tubes, after NaOH decontamination, and compared the cost of performing 1,000 analyses using these two techniques. Conclusions Mycobacterium reference species cultured on blood agar, with the exception of Mycobacterium ulcerans. Inoculation of 1,634 specimens yielded 95 Mycobacterium isolates. Blood agar performed significantly more efficiently than BACTEC 9000 MB broth (94 vs 88 isolates, P?=?0.03). Decontamination of Candida albicans in 5 specimens by addition of amphotericin B in blood agar yielded one more M. tuberculosis isolate that could not be isolated in BACTEC broth. Uneven distribution of time to culture positivity for M. tuberculosis had a median (range) of 19±5 days using blood agar and 26±6 days using BACTEC 9000 MB broth. Cost for 1,000 analyses in France was estimated to be of 1,913 euros using the blood agar method and 8,990 euros using the BACTEC 9000 MB method. Blood agar should be regarded as a first-line medium for culturing Mycobacterium species. It saves time, is cost-effective, is more sensitive than, and at least as rapid as the automated method. This is of particular importance for resource-limited countries in which the prevalence of tuberculosis is high. PMID:18060087

Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier

2007-01-01

50

A Novel Chromogenic Ester Agar Medium for Detection of Salmonellae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel agar medium, chromogenic Salmonella esterase (CSE) agar, for the differentiation of salmonellae is described. The agar contains peptones and nutrient extracts together with the following (grams per liter unless otherwise specified): 4-(2-(4-octanoyloxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-vinyl)-quinolinium-1-(propan-3-yl carboxylic acid) bromide (SLPA-octanoate; bromide form), 0.3223; lactose, 14.65; trisodium citrate dihydrate, 0.5; Tween 20, 3.0; ethyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate, 0.035% (wt\\/vol), novobiocin, 70 mg liter 21 .

VENITIA M. COOKE; R. J. MILES; R. G. PRICE; A. C. RICHARDSON

1999-01-01

51

Comparison of Supplemented Brucella Agar and Modified Clostridium difficile Agar for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Clostridium difficile  

PubMed Central

Background Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of Clostridium difficile is increasingly important because of the rise in resistant strains. The standard medium for the AST of C. difficile is supplemented Brucella agar (sBA), but we found that the growth of C. difficile on sBA was not optimal. Because active growth is critical for reliable AST, we developed a new, modified C. difficile (mCD) agar. C. difficile grew better on mCD agar than on sBA. Methods C. difficile isolates were collected from patients with healthcare-associated diarrhea. sBA medium was prepared according to the CLSI guidelines. Homemade mCD agar containing taurocholate, L-cysteine hydrochloride, and 7% horse blood was used. For 171 C. difficile isolates, we compared the agar dilution AST results from mCD agar with those from sBA. Results No significant differences were observed in the 50% minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC50) and 90% minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC90) of clindamycin (CLI), metronidazole (MTZ), moxifloxacin (MXF), piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ), and rifaximin (RIX), but the values for vancomycin (VAN) were two-fold higher on mCD agar than on sBA. The MICs of CLI, MXF, and RIX were in 100% agreement within two-fold dilutions, but for MTZ, VAN, and PTZ, 13.7%, 0.6%, and 3.1% of the isolates, respectively, were outside the acceptable range. Conclusions The MIC ranges, MIC50 and MIC90, were acceptable when AST was performed on mCD agar. Thus, mCD agar could be used as a substitute medium for the AST of C. difficile. PMID:25368819

Kim, Gye Hyeong; Kim, Jieun; Pai, Hyunjoo

2014-01-01

52

Thermal characterization of magnetically aligned carbonyl iron/agar composites.  

PubMed

Composites of magnetic particles into polymeric matrices have received increasing research interest due to their capacity to respond to external magnetic or electromagnetic fields. In this study, agar from Gelidium robustum has been chosen as natural biocompatible polymer to build the matrix of the magnetic carbonyl iron particles (CIP) for their uses in biomedical fields. Heat transfer behavior of the CIP-agar composites containing different concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% w/w) of magnetically aligned and non-aligned CIP in the agar matrix was studied using photothermal radiometry (PTR) in the back-propagation emission configuration. The morphology of the CIP-agar composites with aligned and non-aligned CIP under magnetic field was also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results revealed a dominant effect of CIP concentration over the alignment patterns induced by the magnetic field, which agrees with the behavior of the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity. Agar served as a perfect matrix to be used with CIP, and CIP-agar composites magnetically aligned at 20% CIP concentration can be considered as promising 'smart' material for hyperthermia treatments in the biomedical field. PMID:24274482

Diaz-Bleis, D; Vales-Pinzón, C; Freile-Pelegrín, Y; Alvarado-Gil, J J

2014-01-01

53

Diffusion of sucrose and dextran through agar gel membranes.  

PubMed

Mass transfer limitations severely impede the performance of bioreactions involving large molecules by gel-entrapped microorganisms. This paper describes a quantitative investigation of such diffusional limitations in agar gel membranes. Sucrose and commercial dextran fractions with (weight-average) molecular weights ranging from 10,000 to 2,000,000 Da were used as standard diffusants. For all tested solutes but sucrose, the values of the agar/water partition coefficients highlighted steric hindrance at the entrance of the membrane pores. The effective diffusivity of sucrose in agar was similar to that in water. All dextran fractions, however, displayed restricted diffusion in the agar membranes. Their effective diffusivities were a decreasing function of the agar content of the gel membrane (0.5, 1.0, or 1.5% w/v). The effective diffusivity in a given membrane decreased as the molecular weight of the diffusing molecule increased. T500 (Mw = 470,000 Da) and T2000 (Mw = 1,950,000 Da) fractions were unable to diffuse through 1.0 or 1.5% agar membranes. The diffusion data did not agree with the classical (Renkin) model for a hard sphere diffusing through a cylindrical pore. These results are discussed in terms of gel and diffusant characteristics. PMID:7505595

Lebrun, L; Junter, G A

1993-12-01

54

Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) poisoning, case report and review.  

PubMed

Gathering and eating mushrooms and other plants containing psychoactive substances has become increasingly popular among young people experimenting with drugs. Dried fly agaric Amanita muscaria fruiting bodies were eaten by five young persons (18-21 years of age) at a party in order to evoke hallucinations. Visual and auditory hallucinations occurred in four of them, whereas a 18-year-old girl lost consciousness. The following morning, she went to the Clinic of Toxicology. Due to the fact that not all the active substances present in the fly agaric have been identified, and some of them have an effect after a period of latency, the patient was admitted for several days of observation during which check-up examinations were performed. After four days without any problems, she was discharged. The poisoning regressed with no organ complications. The remaining persons who had eaten the fly agaric were free from any complaints. PMID:15904689

Satora, Leszek; Pach, Dorota; Butryn, Beata; Hydzik, Piotr; Balicka-Slusarczyk, Barbara

2005-06-01

55

Mongolian blue spots  

MedlinePLUS

Mongolian spots are flat, blue, or blue-gray skin markings near the buttocks that appear at birth or shortly thereafter. ... Mongolian blue spots are common among persons who are of Asian, East Indian, and African descent.

56

Blue nightshade poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Blue nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This is for information only and ... The poison is found in the blue nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) plant, especially in the fruit and leaves.

57

Isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from fresh produce using STEC heart infusion washed blood agar with mitomycin-C.  

PubMed

The ability to detect and isolate Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) remains a major challenge for food microbiologists. Although methods based on nucleic acids and antibodies have improved detection of STECs in foods, isolation of these bacteria remains arduous. STEC isolation is necessary for matching food, environmental, and clinical isolates during outbreak investigations and for distinguishing between pathogenic and nonpathogenic organisms. STEC heart infusion washed blood agar with mitomycin-C (SHIBAM) is a modification of washed sheep blood agar prepared by adding mitomycin-C and optimizing both the washed blood and base agar to better isolate STECs. Most STEC isolates produce a zone of hemolysis on SHIBAM plates and are easily distinguishable from background microbiota. Here, we present data supporting the use of SHIBAM to isolate STECs from fresh produce. SHIBAM was tested for accuracy in identifying STECs (365 of 410 STEC strains were hemolytic, and 63 of 73 E. coli strains that did not produce Shiga toxin were not hemolytic) and for recovery from artificially inoculated fresh produce (11 of 24 romaine lettuce samples and 6 of 24 tomato samples). STEC recovery with SHIBAM agar was greatly improved when compared with recovery on Levine's eosin-methylene blue agar as a reference method. PMID:23127712

Lin, Andrew; Nguyen, Lam; Clotilde, Laurie M; Kase, Julie A; Son, Insook; Lauzon, Carol R

2012-11-01

58

Charcoal-Yeast Extract Agar: Primary Isolation Mediumfor Legionella pneumophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal-yeast extract agar isa new bacteriological mediumthatsupports excellent growth oftheLegionella pneumophila. Itresults frommodifications madeinan existing L.pneumophila medium,F-Gagar.Yeastextract, instead of an acidhydrolysate ofcasein, servesastheprotein source.Beefextractives and starch are notadded. Activated charcoal (Norit A or Norit SG)isincluded at 0.20%(wt\\/vol). Comparison ofcharcoal-yeast extract andF-Gagars showedthat a greater numberofcolony-forming units ofL.pneumophila was recovered from astandardized tissue inoculum on charcoal-yeast extract agar(4.35 x 106colony- forning

JAMES C. FEELEY; ROBERT J. GIBSON; GEORGE W. GORMAN; NANCY C. LANGFORD; J. KAMILE RASHEED; DON C. MACKEL; WILLIAM B. BAINE

1979-01-01

59

Usefulness of Candida ID2 agar for the presumptive identification of Candida dubliniensis.  

PubMed

CHROMagar Candida and Candida ID2 are widely used for the isolation and presumptive identification of Candida spp. based on the color of the colonies on these two media. We have studied the usefulness of these chromogenic media for differentiating Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans isolates. One hundred isolates of C. dubliniensis and 100 C. albicans isolates were tested on Candida ID2, CHROMagar Candida (CHROMagar), and CHROMagar Candida reformulated by BBL. CHROMagar Candida and CHROMagar Candida BBL did not allow a clear differentiation of the two species based upon the shade of the green color of C. dubliniensis colonies. However, on Candida ID2, all C. dubliniensis isolates produced turquoise blue colonies whereas 91% of C. albicans colonies were cobalt blue. The sensitivity and the specificity for differentiating between C. dubliniensis fromC. albicans on Candida ID2 were 100% and 91%, respectively; whereas on CHROMagar Candida these values were 63% and 89% and on CHROMagar Candida BBL they were 18% and 98%. Candida ID2 agar provides a simple and accurate laboratory approach for the identification and differentiation of C. dubliniensis on the basis of the colony color. PMID:17071554

Eraso, Elena; Sahand, Ismail H; Villar-Vidal, María; Marcos, Cristina; Dolores Moragues, María; Madariaga, Lucila; Pontón, José; Quindós, Guillermo

2006-11-01

60

Recovery of Sublethally Injured Bacteria Using Selective Agar Overlays.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment subjects bacteria in a food sample and an environmental sample to conditions of sublethal stress in order to assess the effectiveness of the agar overlay method to recover sublethally injured cells compared to direct plating onto the appropriate selective medium. (SAH)

McKillip, John L.

2001-01-01

61

Maintenance of Leptospira Species in Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun Agar  

PubMed Central

The maintenance of Leptospira species in liquid or semisolid medium is time-consuming and at risk of contamination due to the needs of routine subculture and dark field microscopy. Using Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) agar, we maintained 100 pathogenic Leptospira isolates for 12 months without the need for subculture and confirmed the viability of all isolates by the naked eye. PMID:25253789

Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Langla, Sayan; Oyuchua, Malinee; Day, Nicholas P. J.

2014-01-01

62

Direct Cloning of Human Ovarian Carcinoma Cells in Agar1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently developed an in vitro assay for human tumor stem cells that permits cloning of human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells in soft agar. Tumor colonies grew from both effusions and biopsies from 85% of 31 ovarian cancer patients. The cloning efficiency did not vary with the histology of the tumor. Growth was induced with medium conditioned by the adherent

Anne W. Hamburger; Sydney E. Salmon; Mary B. Kim; Jeff M. Trent; Barbara J. Soehnlen

63

Plating of isolated tobacco mesophyll protoplasts on agar medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique was developed to derive cell and plant clones from isolated mesophyll protoplasts of tobacco. The protoplasts, plated on a fully defined agar medium, divided and grew actively forming visible colonies after one month of culture. Efficiency of colony formation depended on cell density and light condition during incubation. Under standard conditions, 60% of plated protoplasts formed colonies. Upon

Toshiyuki Nagata; Itaru Takebe

1971-01-01

64

Development of a selective agar plate for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to develop a selective medium for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. Campylobacter spp. (n=4), non-Campylobacter (showing positive results on Campylobacter selective agar) strains (n=49) isolated from fresh produce, indicator bacteria (n=13), and spoilage bacteria isolated from fresh produce (n=15) were plated on four Campylobacter selective media. Bolton agar and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) exhibited higher sensitivity for Campylobacter spp. than did Preston agar and Hunt agar, although certain non-Campylobacter strains isolated from fresh produce by using a selective agar isolation method, were still able to grow on Bolton agar and mCCDA. To inhibit the growth of non-Campylobacter strains, Bolton agar and mCCDA were supplemented with 5 antibiotics (rifampicin, polymyxin B, sodium metabisulfite, sodium pyruvate, ferrous sulfate) and the growth of Campylobacter spp. (n=7) and non-Campylobacter strains (n=44) was evaluated. Although Bolton agar supplemented with rifampicin (BR agar) exhibited a higher selectivity for Campylobacter spp. than did mCCDA supplemented with antibiotics, certain non-Campylobacter strains were still able to grow on BR agar (18.8%). When BR agar with various concentrations of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were tested with Campylobacter spp. (n=8) and non-Campylobacter (n=7), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was inhibitory against 3 of 7 non-Campylobacter strains. Finally, we validated the use of BR agar containing 50mg/L sulfamethoxazole (BRS agar) or 0.5mg/L ciprofloxacin (BRCS agar) and other selective agars for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and fresh produce. All chicken samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. when tested on mCCDA, BR agar, and BRS agar. In fresh produce samples, BRS agar exhibited the highest selectivity for Campylobacter spp., demonstrating its suitability for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. PMID:25126968

Yoo, Jin-Hee; Choi, Na-Young; Bae, Young-Min; Lee, Jung-Su; Lee, Sun-Young

2014-10-17

65

[Anaphylaxis to blue dyes].  

PubMed

In medicine, vital blue dyes are mainly used for the evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in oncologic surgery. Perioperative anaphylaxis to blue dyes is a rare but significant complication. Allergic reactions to blue dyes are supposedly IgE-mediated and mainly caused by triarylmethanes (patent blue and isosulfane blue) and less frequently by methylene blue. These substances usually do not feature on the anesthesia record and should not be omitted from the list of suspects having caused the perioperative reaction, in the same manner as latex and chlorhexidine. The diagnosis of hypersensitivity to vital blue dyes can be established by skin test. We illustrate this topic with three clinical cases. PMID:24834647

Langner-Viviani, F; Chappuis, S; Bergmann, M M; Ribi, C

2014-04-16

66

Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Alabama  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Alabama BlueCross and BlueShield Medical Information Server, located and developed by the University of Alabama at Birmingham Department of Computer and Information Sciences, through a grant from Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Alabama for the express purpose of providing Internet access to medical information for all physicians and other health care providers in the state of Alabama. It provides links to a broad range of medical information resources located throughout the Internet. Menus provide information on diseases and disorders, patient care and medical practice, medical specialties, journals and newsletters, health care reform, and other medical information.

1997-01-01

67

Mupirocin-mucin agar for selective enumeration of Bifidobacterium bifidum.  

PubMed

Bifidobacterium bifidum is a bacterial species exclusively found in the human intestinal tract. This species is becoming increasingly popular as a probiotic organism added to lyophilized products. In this study, porcine mucin was used as the sole carbon source for the selective enumeration of B. bifidum in probiotic food additives. Thirty-six bifidobacterial strains were cultivated in broth with mucin. Only 13 strains of B. bifidum utilized the mucin to produce acids. B. bifidum was selectively enumerated in eight probiotic food supplements using agar (MM agar) containing mupirocin (100mg/L) and mucin (20g/L) as the sole carbon source. MM agar was fully selective if the B. bifidum species was presented together with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum species and with lactic acid bacteria (lactobacilli, streptococci). Isolated strains of B. bifidum were identified using biochemical, PCR, MALDI-TOF procedures and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The novel selective medium was also suitable for the isolation of B. bifidum strains from human fecal samples. PMID:25217723

Pechar, Radko; Rada, Vojtech; Parafati, Lucia; Musilova, Sarka; Bunesova, Vera; Vlkova, Eva; Killer, Jiri; Mrazek, Jakub; Kmet, Vladimir; Svejstil, Roman

2014-11-17

68

Blue cures blue but be cautious  

PubMed Central

Methemoglobinemia is a disorder characterized by the presence of >1% methemoglobin (metHb) in the blood. Spontaneous formation of methemoglobin is normally counteracted by protective enzyme systems, for example, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) methemoglobin reductase. Methemoglobinemia is treated with supplemental oxygen and methylene blue (1–2 mg/kg) administered slow intravenously, which acts by providing an artificial electron acceptor for NADPH methemoglobin reductase. But known or suspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a relative contraindication to the use of methylene blue because G6PD is the key enzyme in the formation of NADPH through pentose phosphate pathway and G6PD-deficient individuals generate insufficient NADPH to efficiently reduce methylene blue to leukomethylene blue, which is necessary for the activation of the NADPH-dependent methemoglobin reductase system. So, we should be careful using methylene blue in methemoglobinemia patient before G6PD levels. PMID:22219589

Sikka, Pranav; Bindra, V. K.; Kapoor, Seema; Jain, Vivek; Saxena, K. K.

2011-01-01

69

The Blue Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some of the advantages of an elementary science activity in which students discover that blowing through a straw into a bromthymol blue solution changes the color to yellow. Directions are provided for preparing the bromthymol blue solution. (JR)

Berger, J. Joel

1973-01-01

70

Methylene blue test  

MedlinePLUS

The methylene blue test is a test to determine the type of methemoglobinemia (a blood disorder). ... are removed. A dark green powder called methylene blue goes through the tube into your vein. The ...

71

Greening the Blue Bottle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the revised Blue Bottle formulation to the classical Blue Bottle. Indicates that the revised formulation gives a somewhat bluer solution, but initially slower reduction when compared to the classical formulation. (Author/KHR)

Wellman, Whitney E.; Noble, Mark E.

2003-01-01

72

The Blue Flame Cafe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online biographical encyclopedia of the blues contains entries on almost all of the "great blues singers and singers of the blues." Entries include the pioneers and foundational figures such as Bessie Smith, Robert Johnson, and T-Bone Walker; their lesser-known (outside the Blues community) contemporaries; and their more recent musical heirs such as Stevie Ray Vaughan and Eric Clapton. Each singer's entry includes a concise overview of their influences, career, and musical legacy. Most are also accompanied by a tantalizingly short (only ten seconds) song excerpt in .wav format. A collection of blues links and an internal search engine round out the site.

73

Embryo Staining Protocol. 1. Keep the flies for egg laying on agar sucrose plates (1.5% agar, 1.5% sucrose)  

E-print Network

Embryo Staining Protocol. 1. Keep the flies for egg laying on agar sucrose plates (1.5% agar, 1.5% sucrose) with a drop of yeast paste for the required amount of time. 2. Age as required at 25C. 3. With a brush and distilled water transfer the embryos into an egg basket. (egg baskets can be made by cutting

74

Primer on Agar-Based Microbial Imaging Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) applied directly to microbes on agar-based medium captures global information about microbial molecules, allowing for direct correlation of chemotypes to phenotypes. This tool was developed to investigate metabolic exchange factors of intraspecies, interspecies, and polymicrobial interactions. Based on our experience of the thousands of images we have generated in the laboratory, we present five steps of microbial IMS: culturing, matrix application, dehydration of the sample, data acquisition, and data analysis/interpretation. We also address the common challenges encountered during sample preparation, matrix selection and application, and sample adherence to the MALDI target plate. With the practical guidelines described herein, microbial IMS use can be extended to bio-based agricultural, biofuel, diagnostic, and therapeutic discovery applications. PMID:22821974

Yang, Jane Y.; Phelan, Vanessa V.; Simkovsky, Ryan; Watrous, Jeramie D.; Trial, Rachelle M.; Fleming, Tinya C.; Wenter, Roland; Moore, Bradley S.; Golden, Susan S.; Pogliano, Kit

2012-01-01

75

Wetting dynamics of colloidal dispersions on agar gel surfaces.  

PubMed

The effects of silica particle addition on the wetting velocity on flat and fractal agar gel surfaces were analyzed along with the applicability of such particles for controlling the wetting dynamics of water. The contact angles (?D) of the colloidal dispersions obeyed the power law, i.e., ?D?t(-x), where t is time and x is a constant. Wetting was inhibited by the addition of a suitable amount of 20-nm-diameter silica particles. Specifically, the exponent x reached a minimum value for a silica composition of 0.1wt%. However, such inhibition effects were not observed upon the addition of silica particles with diameters of 100, 550, and, 1000nm. The mechanism of the inhibition of the liquid wetting on gel surfaces may be attributed to a slight increase in local viscosity around the contact line during wetting. PMID:25016539

Seino, Eri; Chida, Shigeki; Mayama, Hiroyuki; Hotta, Jun-ichi; Nonomura, Yoshimune

2014-10-01

76

Improvement of bacterial cellulose production by addition of agar in a jar fermentor.  

PubMed

Bacterial cellulose (BC) was produced by Acetobacter xylinum BPR 2001 and its acetan nonproducing mutant EP1 in corn steep liquor-fructose medium in a 10-l jar fermentor supplemented with different agar concentrations ranging from 0% to 1.0% (w/v). The BC productivity of the two strains was increased by adding agar. The maximum BC production of BPR 2001 at an agar concentration of 0.4% was 12.8 g/l compared with 8 g/l without agar. The mutant EP1 produced 11.6 g/l of BC at an agar concentration of 0.6%, while only 5.5 g/l was produced in the control. Enhanced productivity is associated with an increase in viscosity of the culture, dispersion of BC pellets, and number of free cells due to agar addition, suggesting that acetan produced by BPR 2001 has a critical role in enhanced BC production. PMID:16233586

Bae, Sangok; Sugano, Yasushi; Shoda, Makoto

2004-01-01

77

Optochin Revisited: Defining the Optimal Type of Blood Agar for Presumptive Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the optimal media for optochin susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae, we measured inhibition zones for 72 S. pneumoniae and 22 Streptococcus viridans isolates on three blood-containing media. Because 15.3, 0, and 22.2% of S. pneumoniae organisms were misidentified on Columbia agar, Trypticase soy agar (TSA), and Mueller-Hinton agar, respectively, each containing sheep blood, we recommend that TSA- sheep

M. A. GARDAM; M. A. MILLER; B. Davis-Jewish

1998-01-01

78

Residual Agar Determination in Bacterial Spores by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Presented here is an analytical method to detect residual agar from a bacterial spore sample as an indication of culturing on an agar plate. This method is based on the resolubilization of agar polysaccharide from a bacterial spore sample, enzymatic digestion, followed by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MSn) analysis for detection of a specific agar fragment ion. A range of Bacillus species and strains were selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. The characteristic agar fragment ion was detected in the spores grown on agar that were washed from 1 to 5 times, irradiated or non-irradiated and not in the spores grown in broth. A sample containing approximately 108 spores is currently needed for confident detection of residual agar from culture on agar plates in the presence of bacterial spores with a limit of detection of approximately 1 ppm agar spiked into a broth-grown spore sample. The results of a proficiency test with 42 blinded samples are presented demonstrating the utility of this method with no false positives and only 3 false negatives for samples that were below the detection level of the method as documented.

Wahl, Karen L.; Colburn, Heather A.; Wunschel, David S.; Petersen, Catherine E.; Jarman, Kristin H.; Valentine, Nancy B.

2010-02-15

79

Effect of Different Commerical Agar Preparations on the Inhibitory Activities of Phenols  

PubMed Central

The minimal inhibitory concentrations of 11 phenolic inhibitors were compared in five commercial agars and in nutrient broth. It was found that the brand of agar affected the end point obtained for a particular inhibitor, and that the degree of antagonism varied with each compound studied. The results indicate that there are at least two deleterious factors present in agar, one of which is water-soluble and one which is not. The major portion of the total antagonism was due to the water-soluble factor, which could be removed by washing the agar in warm distilled water prior to use in the test medium. PMID:5959856

Sands, J. G.; Bennett, E. O.

1966-01-01

80

Blue Crab Fisheries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A comprehensive resource on the commercial and recreational blue crab fishery in the Maryland and Virginia waters of the Chesapeake Bay. Explore regulation information for both states, as well as the different gear and methods for catching blue crabs. Though most information pertains to MD and VA, there is an abundance of links to additional information that is not area-specific.

2010-12-01

81

Comparison of ChromID Agar and Clostridium difficile Selective Agar for Effective Isolation of C. difficile from Stool Specimens  

PubMed Central

Background ChromID Clostridium difficile agar (IDCd; bioMérieux SA, France) is a recently developed chromogenic medium for rapid and specific isolation of C. difficile. We compared the performance of IDCd with that of Clostridium difficile Selective Agar (CDSA). Methods A total of 530 fresh stool specimens were collected from patients with clinical signs compatible with C. difficile infection, and cultures for C. difficile were performed on IDCd and CDSA. C. difficile colonies were identified by spore staining, odor, use of an ANI identification test kit (bioMérieux SA), and multiplex PCR for tcdA, tcdB, and tpi. Results The concordance rate between IDCd and CDSA was 90.6% (480/530). The positivity rates on IDCd on days 1 and 2 (55.6% and 85.0%, respectively) were significantly higher than those on CDSA (19.4% and 75.6%, respectively) (P<0.001 for day 1 and P=0.02 for day 2), but the detection rates on IDCd and CDSA on day 3 were not different (89.4% vs. 82.8%, P=0.0914). On day 3, the recovery rates for non-C. difficile isolates on IDCd and CDSA were 30.2% (160/530) and 22.1% (117/530), respectively (P=0.0075). Clostridium spp. other than C. difficile were the most prevalent non-C. difficile isolates on both media. Conclusions The culture positivity rates on IDCd and CDSA were not different on day 3 but IDCd may allow for rapid and sensitive detection of C. difficile within 2 days of cultivation. PMID:24422190

Lee, Eun Joo

2014-01-01

82

[Evaluation of a new medium, eggplant (Solanum melongena) agar as a screening medium for Cryptococcus neoformans in environmental samples].  

PubMed

Cryptococcus neofomans is an encapsulated yeast-like fungus that causes life-threatening infections, especially in immunosuppresive patients. C.neoformans infection is believed to be acquired via inhalation of aerosolized particles from the environment. Avian guano, decaying tree hollows and soil are the related known environmental niches. Brown pigmented yeast growth from the precursors in growth media is an important step for the identification and isolation of C.neoformans. Seeds of plants in nature are preferred owing to easy accessibility and low costs for the preparation of such media. Guizotia abysinicca (Niger seed) as Staib agar, Helianthus annus (Sunflower) as Pal's medium, Brassica nigra (Mustard) agar, tobacco agar, Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) seed agar, Perilla frutescens (Beefsteak plant) seed agar, Rubus fruticosus (Blackberry) agar and ground red hot pepper agar are pigment-based selective media for the differentiation of C.neoformans. The aim of this study was to observe the pigment production of C.neoformans in a new medium based on eggplant (Solanum melongena) and also to compare its performance with the simplified Staib, Pal's and tobacco agar for isolation from the environment. Three different eggplant-based medium (S.melongena Melanzaza viserba, S.melongena Pinstripe F1 and S.ovigerum Ivory F1) were included in the study. Pigment-forming eggplant medium, simplified Staib agar, Pal's agar and tobacco agar were used for the cultivation of the environmental swabbed samples from 19 Eucalyptus camaldulensis trunk hollows in continuous colonization region. While pigment formation were observed with S.melongena Melanzaza viserba and S.melongena Pinstripe F1 containing media, S.ovigerum Ivory F1 medium was found to be non-reactive. In colonization area (Gökova-Akyaka, Turkey), 11 (57.9%) out of 19 E.camaldulensis samples were positive with simplified Staib agar, Pal's agar and eggplant agar while 10 (52.6%) of them are positive with tobacco agar. C.neoformans colony forming unit (cfu) per plate were found as 51, 57 and 48 (median values) on simplified Staib agar, Pal's agar and eggplant agar, respectively, while tobacco agar has lower performance with 33 cfu/petri. No statistically significant difference were found between simplified Staib agar, Pal's agar and eggplant agar's performances for C.neoformans isolations from the nature (p=0.71). In conclusion, easily prepared eggplant agar is as functional as widely used media such as simplified Staib agar and Pal's agar for the isolation of C.neoformans from the natural environment. PMID:24819266

Sengul, Mustafa; Ergin, Ca?r?; Kartal, Tu?ba

2014-04-01

83

Blue Shark Adventure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, Jonathan joins Charlie Donilon on his shark charter boat in Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and learns about how shark tagging has shed light on the biology of and behavior of Blue sharks. Tagging has shown that these incredible swimmers actually migrate completely across the Atlantic ocean. Jonathan tries his hand at tagging a shark and then swims with Blue sharks. We also learn that Blue sharks are not nearly as vicious as they have been reputed to be, and the divers are actually able to pet the sharks! Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2007-03-01

84

Beautiful Blue Nile  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students learn about the Blue Nile and compare it to rivers in the United States. They discuss their experiences with rivers and what they think it would be like to travel down a river that rapidly descends from the mountains to the plains. After looking at a map of Ethiopia, students describe what they would see in the area around the Blue Nile. They will witness a demonstration of a river running over flat versus mountainous terrain and view photos of the Blue Nile to describe the terrain.

85

Caprylate-thallous agar medium for selectively isolating Serratia and its utility in the clinical laboratory.  

PubMed Central

A defined agar medium (hereinafter designated caprylate-thallous [CT5 agar) containing 0.01% yeast extract, 0.1% caprylic (n-octanoic) acid, and 0.025% thallous sulfate is highly selective for all Serratia species and effectively discriminates against most non-Serratia strains likely to be in the same habitats. The selectivity of CT agar is demonstrated by the very high efficiency of colony formation (mean, 80.7% of that on a nonselective complex medium) on CT agar by known Serratia strains and the very low efficiency of colony formation (close to zero) on CT agar by bacterial strains known not to be Serratia. The utility of this medium in actual clinical laboratory practice is demonstrated by the more rapid and higher recovery of Serratia on this selective medium as compared to conventional procedures of in-tandem runs of 513 consecutive urine, feces, and sputum specimens. Pigmented and nonpigmented Serratia strains deliberately added to fecal specimens can be selectively and quantitatively recovered on CT agar. CT agar compares favorably with, or in some cases is an improvement over, other selective media which have been recommended for isolating Serratia. This selective CT agar medium could be quite useful in ecological surveys, especially those related to hospital-acquired infections. PMID:972193

Starr, M P; Grimont, P A; Grimont, F; Starr, P B

1976-01-01

86

Agar and broth dilution methods to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antimicrobial substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of broth and agar dilution methods is to determine the lowest concentration of the assayed antimicrobial agent (minimal inhibitory concentration, MIC) that, under defined test conditions, inhibits the visible growth of the bacterium being investigated. MIC values are used to determine susceptibilities of bacteria to drugs and also to evaluate the activity of new antimicrobial agents. Agar dilution

Irith Wiegand; Kai Hilpert; Robert E W Hancock

2008-01-01

87

Physicochemical and morphological properties of plasticized poly(vinyl alcohol)-agar biodegradable films.  

PubMed

The effects of the addition of glycerol (GLY) on the physicochemical and morphological properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-agar films were reported. PVA-agar films were prepared by solution cast method, and the addition of GLY in PVA-agar films altered the optical properties, resulting in a decrease in opacity values and in the color difference (?E) of the films. Structural characterization using Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the presence of GLY altered the intensity of the bands (from 1200 to 800cm(-1)) and crystallinity. The characterization of the thermal properties indicated that an increase in the agar content produces a decrease in the melting temperature and augments the heat of fusion. Similar tendencies were observed in plasticized films, but at different magnification. The formulation that demonstrated the lowest mechanical properties contained 25wt.% agar, whereas the formulation that contained 75wt.% agar demonstrated a significant improvement. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and surface morphology analysis demonstrated that the structure of PVA-agar films is reorganized upon GLY addition. The physicochemical properties of PVA-agar films using GLY as a plasticizer provide information for the application of this formulation as packaging material for specific food applications. PMID:24875313

Madera-Santana, T J; Freile-Pelegrín, Y; Azamar-Barrios, J A

2014-08-01

88

Electrospinning of agar/PVA aqueous solutions and its relation with rheological properties.  

PubMed

In this work, we report the successful fabrication of agar-based nanofibers by electrospinning technique, using water as solvent media. A tubeless spinneret was attached inside the electrospinning chamber, operating at 50°C, to avoid agar gelation. Agar pure solution (1 wt%) showed inadequate spinnability regardless of the used electrospinning conditions. The addition of a co-blending polymer such as PVA (10 wt% starting solution) improved the solutions viscoelasticity and hence, the solutions spinnability. Agar/PVA solutions were prepared with different mass ratios (100/0, 50/50, 40/60, 30/70, 20/80 and 0/100) and electrospun at various sets of electrospinning conditions. Best nanofibers were obtained with 30/70 and 20/80 agar/PVA blends while samples with higher agar contents (50/50 and 40/60 agar/PVA) were harder to process and led to discontinuous fibrous mats. This first set of encouraging results can open a new window of opportunities for agar-based biomaterials in the form of nanofibers. PMID:25439904

Sousa, Ana M M; Souza, Hiléia K S; Uknalis, Joseph; Liu, Shih-Chuan; Gonçalves, Maria P; Liu, LinShu

2015-01-22

89

Pulsed photothermal temperature profiling of agar tissue phantoms.  

PubMed

We determine experimentally the accuracy of pulsed photothermal radiometric (PPTR) temperature depth profiling in water-based samples. We use custom tissue phantoms composed of agar gel layers separated by very thin absorbing layers. Two configurations of the acquisition system are compared, one using the customary spectral band of the InSb radiation detector (3.0-5.5 microm) and the other with a spectrally narrowed acquisition band (4.5-5.5 microm). The laser-induced temperature depth profiles are reconstructed from measured radiometric signals using a custom minimization algorithm. The results correlate very well with phantom geometry as determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and histology in all evaluated samples. Determination of the absorbing layer depth shows good repeatability with spatial resolution decreasing with depth. Spectral filtering improves the accuracy and resolution, especially for shallow absorption layers (~120 microm) and more complex structures (e.g., with two absorbing layers). The average full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the temperature peaks equals 23% of the layer depth. PMID:17522951

Milanic, Matija; Majaron, Boris; Nelson, J Stuart

2007-11-01

90

Quantification of gentamicin in Mueller-Hinton agar by high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to optimise a method for gentamicin determination in an agar matrix and to investigate if and how agar composition can affect the gentamicin diffusion kinetics during the agar diffusion tests for antibiotics sensitivity. Gentamicin was separated by RP-HPLC and detected at 365 nm after pre-column derivatization with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Recovery (> or = 79%), linearity (r2 > or = 0.997) and sensitivity (1 microg/ml) were assessed using four different agar matrices. The kinetics of gentamicin diffusion tested on BioMerieux and DID manufacturers' products showed in uninoculated agar plates significant differences that were even more pronounced in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa metabolism. PMID:11302440

Arcelloni, C; Comuzzi, B; Vaiani, R; Paroni, R

2001-03-25

91

Rheological and structural characterization of agar/whey proteins insoluble complexes.  

PubMed

Complex coacervation between whey proteins and carboxylated or highly sulphated polysaccharides has been widely studied. The aim of this work was to characterise a slightly sulphated polysaccharide (agar) and whey protein insoluble complexes in terms of yield, composition and physicochemical properties as well as to study their rheological behaviour for better understanding their structure. Unlike other sulphated polysaccharides, complexation of agar and whey protein at pH 3 in the absence of a buffering agent resulted in a coacervate that was a gel at 20°C with rheological properties and structure similar to those of simple agar gels, reinforced by proteins electrostatically aggregated to the agar network. The behaviour towards heat treatment was similar to that of agar alone, with a high thermal hysteresis and almost full reversibility. In the presence of citrate buffer, the result was a "flocculated solid", with low water content (75-81%), whose properties were governed by protein behaviour. PMID:24906765

Rocha, Cristina M R; Souza, Hiléia K S; Magalhães, Natália F; Andrade, Cristina T; Gonçalves, Maria Pilar

2014-09-22

92

Stability of agar in the seaweed Gracilaria eucheumatoides (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) during postharvest storage.  

PubMed

The status of the cell-wall polysaccharide of the red seaweed, Gracilaria eucheumatoides upon postharvest storage was assessed in this study. The yield, chemical composition, physical and textural properties of alkali-treated agar extract was determined at different time intervals within 31 months of storage at dried state after harvest. Minimal fluctuation in agar yield was observed, ranging from 22.9% to 29.0%. The gel strength of agar extracts averaged 318gcm(-2) until the third month of storage but decreased considerably thereafter. The relative viscosity and molecular weight of the extracts varied inversely with storage time. Results indicated that both physical and textural parameters of agar generally decreased with storage time, likely due to depolymerization as indicated by decrease in molecular weight. Agar extracted from seaweeds up to 3 months of storage could be considered to exhibit gel quality suitable for food applications. Prolonged storage of the seaweed harvest is not recommended. PMID:18413284

Romero, Jumelita B; Villanueva, Ronald D; Montaño, Marco Nemesio E

2008-11-01

93

A hidden pitfall in the preparation of agar media undermines microorganism cultivability.  

PubMed

Microbiologists have been using agar growth medium for over 120 years. It revolutionized microbiology in the 1890s when microbiologists were seeking effective methods to isolate microorganisms, which led to the successful cultivation of microorganisms as single clones. But there has been a disparity between total cell counts and cultivable cell counts on plates, often referred to as the "great plate count anomaly," that has long been a phenomenon that still remains unsolved. Here, we report that a common practice microbiologists have employed to prepare agar medium has a hidden pitfall: when phosphate was autoclaved together with agar to prepare solid growth media (PT medium), total colony counts were remarkably lower than those grown on agar plates in which phosphate and agar were separately autoclaved and mixed right before solidification (PS medium). We used a pure culture of Gemmatimonas aurantiaca T-27(T) and three representative sources of environmental samples, soil, sediment, and water, as inocula and compared colony counts between PT and PS agar plates. There were higher numbers of CFU on PS medium than on PT medium using G. aurantiaca or any of the environmental samples. Chemical analysis of PT agar plates suggested that hydrogen peroxide was contributing to growth inhibition. Comparison of 454 pyrosequences of the environmental samples to the isolates revealed that taxa grown on PS medium were more reflective of the original community structure than those grown on PT medium. Moreover, more hitherto-uncultivated microbes grew on PS than on PT medium. PMID:25281372

Tanaka, Tomohiro; Kawasaki, Kosei; Daimon, Serina; Kitagawa, Wataru; Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Michiko; Nakatsu, Cindy H; Kamagata, Yoichi

2014-12-15

94

Universal growth of microdomains and gelation transition in agar hydrogels.  

PubMed

Investigations were carried out on aqueous sols and gels of agar (extracted from red seaweed Gelidiella acerosa) to explore the growth of microdomains en route to gelation. Isothermal frequency sweep studies on gel samples revealed master plots showing power-law dependence of gel elastic modulus, |G*|, on oscillation frequency, omega as |G*| approximately omegan, independent of temperature, with 0.5Tg). The S(q,t) behavior close to the gel transition point (Tg approximately (38+/-3 degrees C determined from rheology) followed a stretched exponential function: S(t)=A exp(-t/ts)beta. The beta factor increased from 0.25 to 1 as the gel temperature approached 25 degrees C from Tg, and relaxation time, ts, showed a peak at T approximately 30 degrees C. The SLS data (in the sol state) suggested the scaling of scattered intensity, Is(q) approximately epsilon(-gamma) (epsilon=(T/Tg-1), T>Tg) with gamma=0.13+/-0.03, and the presence of two distinct domains characterized by a Guinier regime (low q) and a power-law regime (high q). Close to and above Tg (+2 degrees C), IS(q) scaled with q as Is(q) approximately q(-alpha) with alpha=2.2+/-0.2, which decreased to 1.4+/-1 just below Tg (-2 degrees C), implying a coil-helix transition for 0.2% (w/v) and 0.3% (w/v) samples. For a 0.01% sample, alpha=3.5+/-0.5 which indicated the presence of spherical microgels. PMID:18311966

Boral, Shilpi; Saxena, Anita; Bohidar, H B

2008-03-27

95

IBM Research: Blue Gene  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home page of an IBM research and development project that is designing a supercomputer, called Blue Gene/L, capable of 200 trillion floating point operations per second. According to the Web site, this specification "is larger than the total computing power of the top 500 supercomputers in the world today." Working in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, IBM expects the project to be completed by 2005. There are a few publications and presentations given about the status of the project and its uses. There is also a fact sheet and several industry links about protein folding, which is the main application of Blue Gene/L.

1999-01-01

96

Influence of agar gel properties on the in vitro micropropagation of different clones of Thuja plicata.  

PubMed

The influence of four agar-type polysaccharides, used as solidifying agents for culture media and differing in their sulfate content (0.14 to 10.95 % w/w), was tested on the budding and the elongation of five clones of Thuja plicata. Budding is reduced on the most sulfated polysaccharide and the differences observed between clones in elongation are as important as those observed between agar types. PMID:24221734

Pochet, B; Scoman, V; Mestdagh, M M; Moreau, B; Andre, P

1991-10-01

97

Low density, microcellular, dopable, agar/gelatin foams for pulsed power experiments  

SciTech Connect

Low-density, microcellular foams prepared from the natural polymers agar and gelatin have been developed for pulsed-power physics experiments. Numerous experiments were supported with foams having densities at or below 10 mg/cm{sup 3}. For some of the experiments, the agar/gelatin foam was uniformly doped with metallic elements using soluble salts. Depending on the method of preparation, cell sizes were typically below 10 microns and for one process were below 1.0 micron.

McNamara, W.F. [Orion International Technologies, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aubert, J.H. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-04-01

98

Complex impedance and conductivity of agar-based ion-conducting polymer electrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agar-based electrolyte standing films with different salts and weak acids as ion and proton conductors were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectrophotometry, photoluminescence emission spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The salts used are lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) and potassium perchlorate (KClO4), while the weak acids used are acetic acid (CH3COOH) and lactic acid (C3H6O3). The values of the ion conductivity obtained for the agar-based polymer films are 6.54 × 10-8, 9.12 × 10-8, 3.53 × 10-8, 2.24 × 10-8 S/cm for the agar/acetic acid, agar/lactic acid, agar/LiClO4 and agar/KClO4 polymer films, respectively. As a function of temperature, the ion conductivity exhibits an Arrhenius behavior and the estimated activation energy is ?0.1 eV for all the samples. The samples depicted high values of dielectric permittivity toward low frequencies which is due mostly to electrode polarization effect. The samples showed very high transparency (85-98 %) in the visible region, and this high transparency is one of the major requirements for application in electrochromic devices (ECD). The values of conductivity and activation energy obtained indicate that the electrolytes are good materials for application in ECD.

Nwanya, A. C.; Amaechi, C. I.; Udounwa, A. E.; Osuji, R. U.; Maaza, M.; Ezema, F. I.

2015-01-01

99

Blue Mosque Istanbul, Turkey  

E-print Network

· · · · / · #12;V1 Blue Mosque Istanbul, Turkey 156 Cradle Of History V1 PRSRTSTD U Greece, Israel, Cyprus and Turkey. Depart Athens for Agios Nikolaos and admire its rich beauty that island of Rhodes, with its wealth of ancient archaeological monuments. Sail to Turkey and visit the ruins

Liu, Taosheng

100

Blue Crab Education Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Information compiled by the Virginia Institute of Marine Science on the anatomy, life cycle, ecology, and fisheries of the blue crab. Data, research reports, and instructions on eating crabs are all available. Educational resources include lesson plans, teaching tools, and access to online publications. Site serves as an exceptional resource for both beginners and experts.

101

The Blue Whale, Balaenoptera musculus  

E-print Network

The Blue Whale, Balaenoptera musculus SALLY A. MIZROCH, DALE W. RICE, and JEFFREY M. BREIWICK Introduction The blue whale, Balaenoptera mus- culus (Linnaeus, 1758), is not only the largest of the whales

102

Why is the Sky Blue?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This hands on lab helps explain why the color of our sky/upper atmosphere appears blue in color. Students will be able to simulate how light from the sun is scattered by our atmosphere to create blue light.

103

Wood and humus decay strategies by white-rot basidiomycetes correlate with two different dye decolorization and enzyme secretion patterns on agar plates.  

PubMed

During several forays for ligninolytic fungi in different Spanish native forests, 35 white-rot basidiomycetes growing on dead wood (16 species from 12 genera) and leaf litter (19 species from 10 genera) were selected for their ability to decolorize two recalcitrant aromatic dyes (Reactive Blue 38 and Reactive Black 5) added to malt extract agar medium. In this study, two dye decolorization patterns were observed and correlated with two ecophysiological groups (wood and humus white-rot basidiomycetes) and three taxonomical groups (orders Polyporales, Hymenochaetales and Agaricales). Depending on the above groups, different decolorization zones were observed on the dye-containing plates, being restricted to the colony area or extending to the surrounding medium, which suggested two different decay strategies. These two strategies were related to the ability to secrete peroxidases and laccases inside (white-rot wood Polyporales, Hymenochaetales and Agaricales) and outside (white-rot humus Agaricales) of the fungal colony, as revealed by enzymatic tests performed directly on the agar plates. Similar oxidoreductases production patterns were observed when fungi were grown in the absence of dyes, although the set of enzyme released was different. All these results suggest that the decolorization patterns observed could be related with the existence of two decay strategies developed by white-rot basidiomycetes adapted to wood and leaf litter decay in the field. PMID:24726546

Barrasa, José M; Blanco, María N; Esteve-Raventós, Fernando; Altés, Alberto; Checa, Julia; Martínez, Angel T; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J

2014-11-01

104

Performance of CHROMAGAR candida and BIGGY agar for identification of yeast species  

PubMed Central

Background The importance of identifying the pathogenic fungi rapidly has encouraged the development of differential media for the presumptive identification of yeasts. In this study two differential media, CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar, were evaluated for the presumptive identification of yeast species. Methods A total number of 270 yeast strains including 169 Candida albicans, 33 C. tropicalis, 24 C. glabrata, 18 C. parapsilosis, 12 C. krusei, 5 Trichosporon spp., 4 C. kefyr, 2 C. lusitaniae, 1 Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 1 Geotrichum candidum were included. The strains were first identified by germ tube test, morphological characteristics on cornmeal tween 80 agar and Vitek 32 and API 20 C AUX systems. In parallel, they were also streaked onto CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar plates. The results were read according to the color, morphology of the colonies and the existance of halo around them after 48 hours of incubation at 37°C. Results The sensitivity and specificity values for C. albicans strains were found to be 99.4, 100% for CHROMagar Candida and 87.0, 75.2% for BiGGY agar, respectively. The sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida to identify C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. krusei ranged between 90.9 and 100% while the specificity was 100%. The sensitivity rates for BiGGY agar were 66.6 and 100% while the specificity values were found to be 95.4 and 100% for C. tropicalis and C. krusei, respectively. Conclusions It can be concluded that the use of CHROMagar Candida is an easy and reliable method for the presumptive identification of most commonly isolated Candida species especially C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei. The lower sensitivity and specificity of BiGGY agar to identify commonly isolated Candida species potentially limits the clinical usefulness of this agar. PMID:14613587

Yücesoy, Mine; Marol, Serhat

2003-01-01

105

Production of microbial medium from defatted brebra (Milletia ferruginea) seed flour to substitute commercial peptone agar  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate and optimize microbial media that substitute peptone agar using brebra seed defatted flour. Methods 'Defatted process, inoculums preparation, evaluation of bacterial growth, preparation of cooked and hydrolyzed media and growth turbidity of tested bacteria were determined. Results Two percent defatted flour was found to be suitable concentration for the growth of pathogenic bacteria: Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Salmonella (NCTC 8385) and Shigella flexneri (ATCC 12022) (S. flexneri), while 3% defatted flour was suitable for Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) (S. aureus). E. coli (93±1) and S. flexneri (524±1) colony count were significantly (P?0.05) greater in defatted flour without supplement than in supplemented medium. E. coli [(3.72×109±2) CFU/mL], S. aureus [(7.4×109±2) CFU/mL], S. flexneri [(4.03×109±2) CFU/mL] and Salmonella [(2.37×109±1) CFU/mL] in non-hydrolyzed sample were statistically (P?0.05) greater than hydrolyzed one and commercial peptone agar. Colony count of Salmonella [(4.55×109±3) CFU/mL], S. flexneri [(5.40×109±3) CFU/mL] and Lyesria moncytogenes (ATCC 19116) [(5.4×109±3) CFU/mL] on raw defatted flour agar was significantly (P?0.05) greater than cooked defatted flour and commercial peptone agar. Biomass of E. coli, S. aureus, Salmonella and Enterococcus faecalis in non-hydrolyzed defatted flour is highly increased over hydrolyzed defatted flour and commercial peptone broth. Conclusions The defatted flour agar was found to be better microbial media or comparable with peptone agar. The substances in it can serve as sources of carbon, nitrogen, vitamins and minerals that are essential to support the growth of microorganisms without any supplements. Currently, all supplements of peptone agar are very expensive in the market. PMID:24075344

Andualem, Berhanu; Gessesse, Amare

2013-01-01

106

Evaluation of novel agars for the enumeration of Campylobacter spp. in poultry retail samples.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the performance of novel agars for the identification and enumeration of Campylobacter species. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of Campylobacter Selective agar (CASA), Brilliance CampyCount agar (BCCA) and CampyFoodIDagar (CFA) for 84 Campylobacter spp. isolates and 50 non-Campylobacter spp. isolates from 37 distinct genera were of 100% sensitivity, with a 98% specificity for BCCA and CFA, and a 100% specificity for CASA. The application of these selective agars for Campylobacter spp. enumeration in comparison to the conventional agars, modified charcoal cefoperazonedeoxycholate agar (mCCDA) and Campy-Cefex (CCA) was examined using Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli inoculated samples. From C. jejuni inoculated samples, recovery on BCCA was significantly greater than other media (p<0.05). Recovery on CASA was not significantly different from mCCDA and CCA (p>0.05). With C. coli inoculated samples, recovery was significantly greater on BCCA and CASA than with other media (p<0.05). The recovery of both C. jejuni and C. coli from inoculated samples with CFA was significantly less than with other media (P<0.05). CASA was able to effectively inhibit and differentiate Campylobacter spp. from background microflora while false positive organisms occurred with BCCA and CFA. An examination of 483 randomly selected suspect Campylobacter colonies from naturally contaminated samples demonstrated a colony confirmation rate for CCA, CFA, BCCA, mCCDA, and CASA, of 84%, 87%, 88%, 90%, and 100%, respectively. The media evaluated present an alternative to conventional selective agars for the identification and enumeration of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. from samples of poultry origin through the farm to fork continuum. PMID:22226753

Ahmed, R; León-Velarde, C G; Odumeru, J A

2012-02-01

107

Evaluation of CP Chromo Select Agar for the enumeration of Clostridium perfringens from water.  

PubMed

The European Directive on drinking water quality has included mCP agar as the reference method for recovering Clostridium perfringens from drinking waters. In the present study, three media (mCP, TSCF and CP Chromo Select Agar) were evaluated for recovery of C. perfringens in different surface water samples. Out of 139 water samples, using a membrane filtration technique, 131 samples (94.2%) were found to be presumptively positive for C. perfringens in at least one of the culture media. Green colored colonies on CP Chromo Select Agar (CCP agar) were counted as presumptive C. perfringens isolates. Out of 483 green colonies on CCP agar, 96.3% (465 strains, indole negative) were identified as C. perfringens, and 15 strains (3.1%) were indole positive and were identified as Clostridium sordellii, Clostridium bifermentans or Clostridium tetani. Only 3 strains (0.6%) gave false positive results and were identified as Clostridium fallax, Clostridium botulinum, and Clostridium tertium. Variance analysis of the data obtained shows statistically no significant differences in the counts obtained between media employed in this work. The mCP method is very onerous for routine screening and bacterial colonies could not be used for further biochemical testing. The colonies on CCP and TSCF were easy to count and subculture for confirmation tests. TSCF detects sulfite-reducing clostridia, including species other than C. perfringens, and in some cases excessive blackening of the agar frustrated counting of the colonies. If the contamination was too high, TSCF did not consistently produce black colonies and as a consequence, the colonies were white and gave false negative results. On the other hand, the identification of typical and atypical colonies isolated from all media demonstrated that CCP agar was the most useful medium for C. perfringens recovery in water samples. PMID:23816139

Manafi, Mammad; Waldherr, Kerstin; Kundi, Michael

2013-10-01

108

The Blue Emu  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary goal in designing the Blue Emu was to provide an airline with a cost efficient and profitable means of transporting passengers between the major cities in Aeroworld. The design attacks the market where a demand for inexpensive transportation exists and for this reason the Blue Emu is an attractive investment for any airline. In order to provide a profitable aircraft, special attention was paid to cost and economics. For example, in manufacturing, simplicity was stressed in structural design to reduce construction time and cost. Aerodynamic design employed a tapered wing which reduced the induced drag coefficient while also reducing the weight of the wing. Even the propulsion system was selected with cost effectiveness in mind, yet also to maintain the marketability of the aircraft. Thus, in every aspect of the design, consideration was given to economics and marketability of the final product.

Descalzi, Doug; Gillett, John; Gordon, Carlton; Keener, ED; Novak, Ken; Puente, Laura

1993-01-01

109

National Geographic: Blue Whales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a cameraman leans in to get a shot of a blue whale, this massive creature glides through the water off of Costa Rica. That's the opening photograph that visitors to this interactive article from National Geographic are presented with, and it's a rather amazing image. This interactive article and feature is derived from a March 2009 feature in the print edition of National Geographic magazine, and it features the photography of Flip Nicklin and the writing of Ken Brower. The article offers an in-depth look into the recovery of the blue whale population off the coast of Costa Rica in recent years, and along the way visitors can stop off to take a look at a special photo gallery, take a quiz on these remarkable creatures, and also watch a video the provides the story behind one of Nicklin's photographs.

Brower, Ken

110

Blue Sky Innovation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chicago Tribune has broken new ground with this ambitious initiative to gather news, analysis, and events related to innovation and entrepreneurship. As the site indicates, "Blue Sky informs, inspires and connects an audience that looks at businessâ¦in new ways." Visitors can get started by looking over the short-form news stories on the homepage. Recent pieces have covered the curious barge built by Google, the financial stability of Groupon, and the transformation of event planning via mobile apps. Visitors can look over the event calendar, which brings together information about ongoing activities such as mobile app contests and networking events. The Innovation Hub area is a good place to look around, as it features content gathered from organizations recognized for expertise in the field of innovation. Finally, visitors can sign up to receive updates from Blue Sky via Facebook, Google+, or email.

111

Blue emitting undecaplatinum clusters.  

PubMed

A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents. PMID:24975972

Chakraborty, Indranath; Bhuin, Radha Gobinda; Bhat, Shridevi; Pradeep, T

2014-08-01

112

Blue Crab Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This easy to navigate and well-written site is packed with information and excellent photos about the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) and its fishery. Biology section covers: species profile, anatomy, life cycle, reproduction, larval development, life cycle and more. Industry and trade section includes recipes and tips for catching or buying hard and soft shell crabs, and fishery information. Also offers news, discussion forum, links, a glossary, and reference lists.

113

Voyager 1 'Blue Movie'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the original Voyager 'Blue Movie' (so named because it was built from Blue filter images). It records the approach of Voyager 1 during a period of over 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storms shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

2000-01-01

114

Production of a Blue Pigment (Glaukothalin) by Marine Rheinheimera spp.  

PubMed Central

Two ?-Proteobacteria strains, that is, HP1 and HP9, which both produce a diffusible deep blue pigment, were isolated from the German Wadden Sea and from the Øresund, Denmark, respectively. Both strains affiliate with the genus Rheinheimera. Small amounts of the pigment could be extracted from HP1 grown in a 50 L fermenter and were purified chromatographically. Chemical analysis of the pigment including NMR and mass spectrometry led to a molecular formula of C34H56N4O4 (m.w. 584.85) which has not yet been reported in literature. The molecule is highly symmetrically and consists of two heterocyclic halves to which aliphatic side chains are attached. The pigment has been named glaukothalin due to its blue color and its marine origin (glaukos, gr. = blue, thalatta, gr. = sea). Production of glaukothalin on MB2216 agar plates by our Rheinheimera strains is affected in the presence of other bacterial strains either increasing or decreasing pigment production. The addition of a single amino acid, arginine (5 gl?1), greatly increases pigment production by our Rheinheimera strains. Even though the production of glaukothalin leads to inhibitory activity against three bacterial strains from marine particles, our Rheinheimera isolates are inhibited by various bacteria of different phylogenetic groups. The ecological role of glaukothalin production by Rheinheimera strains, however, remains largely unknown. PMID:20016676

Grossart, Hans-Peter; Thorwest, Marc; Plitzko, Inken; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Simon, Meinhard; Zeeck, Axel

2009-01-01

115

Antimicrobial and physical-mechanical properties of agar-based films incorporated with grapefruit seed extract.  

PubMed

The use of synthetic petroleum based packaging films caused serious environmental problems due to their difficulty in recycling and poor biodegradability. Therefore, present study was aimed to develop natural biopolymer-based antimicrobial packaging films as an alternative for the synthetic packaging films. As a natural antimicrobial agent, grapefruit seed extract (GSE) has been incorporated into agar to prepare antimicrobial packaging film. The films with different concentrations of GSE were prepared by a solvent casting method and the resulting composite films were examined physically and mechanically. In addition, the films were characterized by FE-SEM, XRD, FT-IR and TGA. The incorporation of GSE caused increase in color, UV barrier, moisture content, water solubility and water vapor permeability, while decrease in surface hydrophobicity, tensile strength and elastic modulus of the films. As the concentration of GSE increased from 0.6 to 13.3 ?g/mL, the physical and mechanical properties of the films were affected significantly. The addition of GSE changed film microstructure of the film, but did not influence the crystallinity of agar and thermal stability of the agar-based films. The agar/GSE films exhibited distinctive antimicrobial activity against three test food pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. These results suggest that agar/GSE films have potential to be used in an active food packaging systems for maintaining food safety and extending the shelf-life of the packaged food. PMID:24507339

Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

2014-02-15

116

Preparation and characterization of bio-nanocomposite films of agar and silver nanoparticles: laser ablation method.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared by a laser ablation method and composite films with the AgNPs and agar were prepared by solvent casting method. UV-vis absorbance test and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis results revealed that non-agglomerated spherical AgNPs were formed by the laser ablation method. The surface color of the resulting agar/AgNPs films exhibited the characteristic plasmonic effect of the AgNPs with the maximum absorption peaks of 400-407 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) test results also exhibited characteristic AgNPs crystals with diffraction peaks observed at 2? values of 38.39°, 44.49°, and 64.45°, which were corresponding to (111), (200), and (220) crystallographic planes of face-centered cubic (fcc) silver crystals, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results showed that thermal stability of the agar/AgNPs composite films was increased by the inclusion of metallic silver. Water vapor barrier properties and surface hydrophobicity of the agar/AgNPs films increased slightly with the increase in AgNPs content but they were not statistically significant (p>0.05), while mechanical strength and stiffness of the composite films decreased slightly (p<0.05). The agar/AgNPs films exhibited distinctive antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli O157:H7) bacterial pathogens. PMID:24528754

Rhim, Jong-Whan; Wang, Long-Feng; Lee, Yonghoon; Hong, Seok-In

2014-03-15

117

Migration of Chemotactic Bacteria in Soft Agar: Role of Gel Concentration  

PubMed Central

We study the migration of chemotactic wild-type Escherichia coli populations in semisolid (soft) agar in the concentration range C = 0.15–0.5% (w/v). For C?0.35%, expanding bacterial colonies display characteristic chemotactic rings. At C = 0.35%, however, bacteria migrate as broad circular bands rather than sharp rings. These are growth/diffusion waves arising because of suppression of chemotaxis by the agar and have not been previously reported experimentally to our knowledge. For C = 0.4–0.5%, expanding colonies do not span the depth of the agar and develop pronounced front instabilities. The migration front speed is weakly dependent on agar concentration at C < 0.25%, but decreases sharply above this value. We discuss these observations in terms of an extended Keller-Segel model for which we derived novel transport parameter expressions accounting for perturbations of the chemotactic response by collisions with the agar. The model makes it possible to fit the observed front speed decay in the range C = 0.15–0.35%, and its solutions qualitatively reproduce the observed transition from chemotactic to growth/diffusion bands. We discuss the implications of our results for the study of bacteria in porous media and for the design of improved bacteriological chemotaxis assays. PMID:21806920

Croze, Ottavio A.; Ferguson, Gail P.; Cates, Michael E.; Poon, Wilson C.K.

2011-01-01

118

Characterization of bionanocomposite films prepared with agar and paper-mulberry pulp nanocellulose.  

PubMed

Crystallized nanocellulose (CNC) was separated from paper-mulberry (Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold) bast pulp by sulfuric acid hydrolysis method and they were blended with agar to prepare bionanocomposite films. The effect of CNC content (1, 3, 5 and 10 wt% based on agar) on the mechanical, water vapor permeability (WVP), and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were studied. Changes of the cellulose fibers in structure, morphology, crystallinity, and thermal properties of the films were evaluated using FT-IR, TEM, SEM, XRD, and TGA analysis methods. The CNC was composed of fibrous and spherical or elliptic granules of nano-cellulose with sizes of 50-60 nm. Properties of agar film such as mechanical and water vapor barrier properties were improved significantly (p<0.05) by blending with the CNC. The tensile modulus and tensile strength of agar film increased by 40% and 25%, respectively, in the composite film with 5 wt% of CNC, and the WVP of agar film decreased by 25% after formation of nanocomposite with 3 wt% of CNC. The CNC obtained from the paper-mulberry bast pulp can be used as a reinforcing agent for the preparation of bio-nanocomposites, and they have a high potential for the development of completely biodegradable food packaging materials. PMID:24906782

Reddy, Jeevan Prasad; Rhim, Jong-Whan

2014-09-22

119

Evaluation of commercial vancomycin agar screen plates for detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci.  

PubMed Central

Brain heart infusion-6-micrograms/ml vancomycin agar plates obtained from five commercial sources (B-D Microbiology Systems, Carr-Scarborough Microbiologicals, MicroBio Products, PML Microbiologicals, and REMEL) were evaluated with 714 enterococci for detection of vancomycin resistance. All 465 (100%) vancomycin-resistant enterococci (MIC > or = 32 micrograms/ml) were detected by each manufacturer's agar screen plate, and each manufacturer's agar screen plate detected at least 99% of the 177 vancomycin-susceptible enterococci (MIC < or = 4 micrograms/ml). Detection of the 72 vancomycin-intermediate enterococci (MIC = 6 to 16 micrograms/ml) ranged from 94% for B-D Microbiology Systems to 99% for PML Microbiologicals. PMID:8818911

Van Horn, K G; Gedris, C A; Rodney, K M; Mitchell, J B

1996-01-01

120

[Presumptive identification of Candida spp. and other clinically important yeasts: usefulness of Brilliance Candida Agar].  

PubMed

Fungal infections caused by yeasts have increased during the last decades and invasive forms represent a serious problem for human health. Candida albicans is the species most frequently isolated from clinical samples. However, other emerging yeast pathogens are increasingly responsible for mycotic infections, and some of them are resistant to some antifungal drugs. Consequently, it is necessary to have methods that can provide a rapid presumptive identification at species level. Numerous chromogenic agar media have been shown to be of value as diagnostic tools. We have compared a chromogenic medium, Brilliance Candida Agar, with CHROMagar Candida, the chromogenic medium most used in our country. A multicentre study was conducted in 16 Hospitals belonging to the Mycology Net of Buenos Aires City Government. A total of 240 yeast isolates were included in this research. The new chromogenic agar showed results very similar to those obtained with CHROMagar Candida. PMID:20346288

Alfonso, Claudia; López, Mónica; Arechavala, Alicia; Perrone, María Del Carmen; Guelfand, Liliana; Bianchi, Mario

2010-06-30

121

[Dissolution behaviors of tablet and capsule covered with oblate or agar jelly for taking medicine easily].  

PubMed

Drugs are sometimes covered with oblate or agar jelly. It is said that the medicinal effect of drugs covered with oblate is slow, but no studies have reported results confirming this. Therefore, we examined the dissolution behavior when the drug was covered with oblate or agar jelly. Three types of commercially available formulations of benzodiazepine were used: medazepam sugarcoated tablets, prazepam uncoated tablets, and clorazepate dipotassium capsules. Dissolution tests were performed using solutions of pH 1.2 and 5.6 to simulate normal gastric juice and gastric anacidity, respectively. Drugs covered with oblate were tested by the paddle method, and those covered with agar jelly were tested using the rotating basket method. Dissolution of clorazepate capsules not covered with oblate increased by approximately 10% when the pH was adjusted from 1.2 to 5.6, while those of medazepam and prazepam tablets decreased by approximately 40-60%. In contrast, the dissolution decreased significantly at both pH values for each drug covered with oblate. Dissolution further decreased when the amount of oblate was doubled. No detectable dissolution of medazepam tablets or of clorazepate capsules occurred when the drug was covered with agar jelly. Dissolution of prazepam tablets covered with agar jelly was only about 10% at the end of the test. These results indicate that dissolution is slowed and prolonged when a drug is covered with oblate or agar jelly, permitting sustained release of the drug. But, it is necessary to improve a suitable method for the dissolution. PMID:21212625

Hayase, Nobumasa; Iwayama, Kuninori; Ohtaki, Ko-Ichi; Yamashita, Yasunori; Awaya, Toshio; Matsubara, Kazuo

2011-01-01

122

Assessment of Etest as an Alternative to Agar Dilution for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae  

PubMed Central

We studied whether the Etest can be used as an alternative to agar dilution to determine antimicrobial susceptibilities of ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime in Neisseria gonorrhoeae surveillance. One hundred fifteen clinical and laboratory isolates of N. gonorrhoeae were tested following the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-approved CLSI standard agar dilution method and, separately, by the Etest according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The MICs were determined and compared. Ten laboratory-generated mutants were used to simulate substantially nonsusceptible specimens. The Etest and agar dilution methods were well correlated. Statistical tests produced regression R2 values of 88%, 82%, and 85% and Pearson correlation coefficients of 92%, 91%, and 92% for ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime, respectively. When paired comparisons were made, the two tests were 88.7%, 80%, and 87% within 1 log2 dilution from each other for ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime, respectively. The within-2-log2 agreements were 99.1%, 98.3%, and 94.8% for ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime, respectively. Notwithstanding the good correlations and the within-2-log2 general agreement, the Etest results produced slightly lower MICs than the agar dilution results. In conclusion, we found that the Etest can be effectively used as an alternative to agar dilution testing to determine the susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae to ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime, although we recommend further research into extremely resistant isolates. For isolates within the typical range of clinical MICs, reexamination of the Etest interpretation of susceptible and nonsusceptible categories would likely allow for successful transition from agar dilution to the Etest. PMID:24554750

Taylor, Thomas H.; Pettus, Kevin; Trees, David

2014-01-01

123

The Blue Marble  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This spectacular Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 'blue marble' image is based on the most detailed collection of true-color imagery of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Most of the information contained in this image came from MODIS, illustrating MODIS' outstanding capacity to act as an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of this image is based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the satellite's view on any single day. Global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data was used to simulate the ocean surface. MODIS doesn't measure 3-D features of the Earth, so the surface observations were draped over topographic data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center. MODIS observations of polar sea ice were combined with observations of Antarctica made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's AVHRR sensor-the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The cloud image is a composite of two days of MODIS imagery collected in visible light wavelengths and a third day of thermal infra-red imagery over the poles. A large collection of imagery based on the blue marble in a variety of sizes and formats, including animations and the full (1 km) resolution imagery, is available at the Blue Marble page. Image by Reto Stockli, Render by Robert Simmon. Based on data from the MODIS Science Team

2002-01-01

124

Blue ocean leadership.  

PubMed

Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets. PMID:24956870

Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

2014-05-01

125

DENTAL INSURANCE ANTHEM BLUE CROSS AND BLUE SHIELD  

E-print Network

Payments To assist in reducing your insurance premium costs, your share of dental insurance premiums can be paid with pre-tax dollars under the CHEIBA Trust Pre-Tax Insurance Premium Payments Account under- 28 - DENTAL INSURANCE ANTHEM BLUE CROSS AND BLUE SHIELD Your two choices are: After enrollment

126

The Pennsylvania State University Marching Blue Band Blue Band Office  

E-print Network

Director vcc2@psu.edu orb1@psu.edu gad157@psu.edu (814) 865 - 3982 #12;History of the Blue Band uniforms were issued on the basis of ability and rank. Photos from 1924 show a select group of blue in photo spreads published in Vogue and W magazines during Fall 2005, including a photo by world

Maroncelli, Mark

127

USE OF MUELLER-HINTON BROTH AND AGAR IN THE GERM TUBE TEST  

PubMed Central

Candida albicans is often isolated from clinical samples, thus its presumptive differentiation from other species of the same genus can be based on its ability to form the germ tube in human serum. Nevertheless, there are two other species that share this characteristic: C. dubliniensis and C. africana. The aim of this study was to compare four different substrates to perform the germ tube (GT) test. The Candida spp. isolates were identified using a manual system (135 C. albicans, 24 C. tropicalis and one C. dubliniensis). The germ tube test was performed with fresh, previously frozen serum and Mueller-Hinton (MH) broth and agar. GT was observed in 96% (130/136) of the isolates through the fresh serum technique, 94% (128/136) through previously frozen serum, 92% (125/136) in MH agar, and 90% (122/136) in MH broth. The sensitivity of each test was higher than 90%, with 100% specificity. Both the MH agar and broth were able to identify the true positives, and false positives were not found. However, some C. albicans isolates were not identified. MH agar and broth may be used in laboratory for the rapid presumptive identification of C. albicans, as an alternative method for germ tube test. PMID:25351541

Mattei, Antonella Souza; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Severo, Cecília Bittencourt; Guazzelli, Luciana da Silva; Oliveira, Flávio de Mattos; Severo, Luiz Carlos

2014-01-01

128

Pump probe imaging of nanosecond laser induced bubbles in agar gel  

E-print Network

. The melting point of agar gel is very close to the boiling point of water, and the point of cellular damage nonlinearly with applied laser energy. We think that these last two facts point to the role that laser of femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in water from femtoseconds to microseconds," Optics Express 3

Aguilar, Guillermo

129

Structural, physical, and chemical modifications induced by microwave heating on native agar-like galactans.  

PubMed

Native agars from Gracilaria vermiculophylla produced in sustainable aquaculture systems (IMTA) were extracted under conventional (TWE) and microwave (MAE) heating. The optimal extracts from both processes were compared in terms of their properties. The agars' structure was further investigated through Fourier transform infrared and NMR spectroscopy. Both samples showed a regular structure with an identical backbone, ?-d-galactose (G) and 3,6-anhydro-?-l-galactose (LA) units; a considerable degree of methylation was found at C6 of the G units and, to a lesser extent, at C2 of the LA residues. The methylation degree in the G units was lower for MAE(opt) agar; the sulfate content was also reduced. MAE led to higher agar recoveries with drastic extraction time and solvent volume reductions. Two times lower values of [?] and M(v) obtained for the MAE(opt) sample indicate substantial depolymerization of the polysaccharide backbone; this was reflected in its gelling properties; yet it was clearly appropriate for commercial application in soft-texture food products. PMID:22540146

Sousa, Ana M M; Morais, Simone; Abreu, Maria H; Pereira, Rui; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel; Cabrita, Eurico J; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Gonçalves, Maria Pilar

2012-05-16

130

THE MICROGARDENING COOKBOOK, DIRECTIONS FOR PREPARING DISHES AND TUBES OF STERILE NUTRIENT AGAR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS BOOKLET WAS PREPARED FOR TEACHER USE IN ASSOCIATION WITH THE ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT "MICROGARDENING." IT CONTAINS DIRECTIONS FOR PREPARING CULTURE DISHES AND TUBES OF NUTRIENT STERILE AGAR FOR FUNGAL AND/OR BACTERIAL GROWTH. IT INCLUDES (1) LISTS OF NEEDED SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT, (2) DIRECTIONS FOR THE PREPARATION AND STERILIZATION OF…

CHANDLER, MARION N.

131

Development and Evaluation of a Chromogenic Agar Medium for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe here the development and evaluation of MRSA ID, a new chromogenic agar medium for the specific isolation and identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We used S. aureus ID (bioMerieux, La Balme Les Grottes, France) and supplemented it with various antimicrobials, including cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, oxacillin, and methicillin. Cefoxitin proved to be superior to the other antimicrobials for the

John D. Perry; Amie Davies; Lynne A. Butterworth; Andrew L. J. Hopley; Audrey Nicholson; F. Kate Gould

2004-01-01

132

Identification of an agar constituent responsible for hydric control in micropropagation of radiata pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue cultured Pinus radiata grown on media containing agar as the gelling agent display toxic symptoms and poor long-term shoot survival, however it does have the attribute of hydric control, through a mechanism which, until now, has not been elucidated. Gelrite as an alternative gelling agent is clearly non-toxic but results in hyperhydric (vitrified) tissues. In an effort to overcome

Beverley J. Nairn; Richard H. Furneaux; Thomas T. Stevenson

1995-01-01

133

The use of Agar as a novel filler for monolithic matrices produced using hot melt extrusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of filler materials in an extended release monolithic polymer matrix can lead to a vastly altered release profile for the active pharmaceutical ingredient. A range of excipients for use in monolithic matrices have been discussed in the literature. The body of work described in this research paper outlines the use of agar as a novel filler material in

John G. Lyons; Declan M. Devine; James E. Kennedy; Luke M. Geever; Patrick O’Sullivan; Clement L. Higginbotham

2006-01-01

134

Author's personal copy Agar chemical hydrogel electrode binder for fuel-electrolyte-fed  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Agar chemical hydrogel electrode binder for fuel-electrolyte-fed fuel cells i g h t s A novel ACH binder is synthesized for fuel-electrolyte-fed fuel cells. The ACH is achieved with the ACH-based electrode. The ACH binder can replace the Nafion ionomers in fuel-electrolyte

Zhao, Tianshou

135

Hyperspectral image reconstruction using RGB color for foodborne pathogen detection on agar plates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper reports the latest development of a color vision technique for detecting colonies of foodborne pathogens grown on agar plates with a hyperspectral image classification model that was developed using full hyperspectral data. The hyperspectral classification model depended on reflectance sp...

136

EVALUATION OF M-T7 AGAR AS A FECAL COLIFORM MEDIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

The m-T/7 agar, designed to improve recoveries of injured total coliforms, was evaluated for its effectiveness as a fecal coliform medium. The time and temperature of preincubation were found to be crucial to the optimal recovery of fetal coliforms. Isolation rates for fecal coli...

137

Hyperspectral image reconstruction using RGB color for foodborne pathogen detection on agar plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the latest development of a color vision technique for detecting colonies of foodborne pathogens grown on agar plates with a hyperspectral image classification model that was developed using full hyperspectral data. The hyperspectral classification model depended on reflectance spectra measured in the visible and near-infrared spectral range from 400 and 1,000 nm (473 narrow spectral bands). Multivariate regression methods were used to estimate and predict hyperspectral data from RGB color values. The six representative non-O157 Shiga-toxin producing Eschetichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) were grown on Rainbow agar plates. A line-scan pushbroom hyperspectral image sensor was used to scan 36 agar plates grown with pure STEC colonies at each plate. The 36 hyperspectral images of the agar plates were divided in half to create training and test sets. The mean Rsquared value for hyperspectral image estimation was about 0.98 in the spectral range between 400 and 700 nm for linear, quadratic and cubic polynomial regression models and the detection accuracy of the hyperspectral image classification model with the principal component analysis and k-nearest neighbors for the test set was up to 92% (99% with the original hyperspectral images). Thus, the results of the study suggested that color-based detection may be viable as a multispectral imaging solution without much loss of prediction accuracy compared to hyperspectral imaging.

Yoon, Seung-Chul; Shin, Tae-Sung; Park, Bosoon; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Heitschmidt, Gerald W.

2014-03-01

138

Reliability of VRB agar and BGLB broth for enumeration of 44 degrees C coliforms in food.  

PubMed

This study shows that colony diameter exceeding 0.5 mm and presence of a surrounding precipitation zone are not unconditional criteria for 44 degrees C coliforms (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species) grown on violet red bile agar. Confirmatory studies in brilliant green lactose bile broth will add to the numbers of coliforms which are missed if these criteria are adhered to. PMID:7015268

Tham, W; Danielsson, M L

1980-01-01

139

Long-term maintenance of fungal cultures on perlite in cryovials - an alternative for agar slants.  

PubMed

Cultures of 33 basidiomycete strains out of 35 tested were viable with unchanged characteristics after four years of maintenance on perlite in cryovials. These cultures can be a good substitute for agar cultures in long-term maintenance of fungi. For comparison, the storage under oil was evaluated but it turned out to be unsuitable for the majority of our cultures. PMID:19381480

Homolka, L; Lisá, L

2008-01-01

140

75 FR 65525 - Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Training Administration [TA-W-74,327] Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations...applicable to workers and former workers of Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services,...

2010-10-25

141

Blue Mountain Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at Princeton University, the Blue Mountain Project encompasses the work of scholars, librarians, curators, and digital humanities researchers whose "mission is to create a freely available digital repository of important, rare, and fragile texts that both chronicle and embody the emergence of cultural modernity in the West." The materials here are contained within 5 sections, including The Archive, The Journals, and Our Partners. Within The Journals area, visitors can make their way through over 35 selected works, including "Dada," "Broom: An International Magazine of the Arts," and "Bruno's Weekly." Moving along, The Archive provides a brief overview of the digital guidelines for creating and maintaing the project's collection. Users can learn more about its recent work via their blog or by signing up for the project's newsletter.

142

Melanoma and satellite blue papule  

PubMed Central

The colors that are seen in dermoscopy depend on the anatomic level of the skin at which the chromophores are seen. Blue color can be found in a variety of melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions. An 89-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of a slow-growing, hyperpigmented patch located on the distal third of the right arm. Dermoscopy showed an atypical network, irregularly distributed globules, pigmented internal streaks and a milky-red area. Based on these findings a diagnosis of slow-growing malignant melanoma was made. Simultaneously, a well-defined blue papule was seen on the proximal third of the same arm. Dermoscopy disclosed a homogeneous blue pattern. After clinical and dermoscopic correlation our differential diagnosis for this blue lesion included cutaneous melanoma metastasis, blue nevus and foreign body reaction. The patient recalled its onset 75 years ago after a grenade explosion. We also discuss the blue lesion appearance under reflectance confocal microscopy and high-definition optical coherence tomography. Histopathological examination after excision of the hyperpigmented patch and blue papule revealed a melanoma in situ and a foreign body reaction, respectively. The diagnostic evaluation of a blue lesion should always rely on the integration of all data, especially clinical and dermoscopic features. Other non-invasive techniques, like reflectance confocal microscopy and high-definition optical coherence tomography can also be important aids for its differential diagnosis. PMID:25126462

Oliveira, André; Arzberger, Edith; Massone, Cesare; Zalaudek, Iris; Fink-Puches, Regina; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer

2014-01-01

143

Influence of pH, ionic strength and temperature on lead biosorption by Gelidium and agar extraction algal waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algal industrial waste from an agar extraction process was used as an inexpensive and efficient biosorbent for Pb2+ removal from aqueous solutions. This biosorbent was compared with the alga Gelidium, the raw material for agar extraction. The effects of various physico-chemical parameters on Pb2+ biosorption were investigated in a batch contactor in order to explain the adsorption mechanism. Kinetic

Vítor J. P. Vilar; Cidália M. S. Botelho; Rui A. R. Boaventura

2005-01-01

144

Differentiating non-0157:H7 STEC serogroups from ground beef plated on agar media by hyperspetral imaging  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction: The development of an assay to detect and confirm a positive non-O157:H7 isolate is challenging when mixed morphologically results are obtained from the serogroups growing on Rainbow agar. Rainbow agar is only claimed by the manufacturer to be very specific for E.coli O157:H7 strain...

145

Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The WebWare molecules of the month for May are featured in several articles in this issue. "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?" discusses the pharmaceutical uses of methylene blue and its development as the first synthetic drug used against a specific disease. The JCE Classroom Activity "Out of the Blue" and the article "Greening the Blue Bottle" feature methylene blue and ascorbic acid as two key ingredients in the formulation of the blue bottle. You can also see a colorful example of these two molecules in action on the cover. "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist" describes an experiment to determine the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of citrus fruits and challenges students, as eighteenth-century sea captains, to decide the best fruit to take on a long voyage.

146

Mongolian Spot (Blue-Gray Spot)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Mongolian Spot (Blue-Gray Spot) A parent's guide for infants and babies A A A Blue-gray spots (Mongolian spots) appear as gray to blue colored, flat, "bruise-like" areas of skin. Overview ...

147

Performance of chromID Clostridium difficile agar compared with BBL C. difficile selective agar for detection of C. difficile in stool specimens.  

PubMed

We evaluated the performance of a new chromogenic medium for detection of Clostridium difficile, chromID C. difficile agar (CDIF; bioMérieux, France), by comparison with BBL C. difficile Selective Agar (CDSA; Becton Dickinson and Company, USA). After heat pre-treatment (80?, 5 min), 185 diarrheal stool samples were inoculated onto the two media types and incubated anaerobically for 24 hr and 48 hr for CDIF and for 48 hr and 72 hr for CDSA. All typical colonies on each medium were examined by Gram staining, and the gram-positive rods confirmed to contain the tpi gene by PCR were identified as C. difficile. C. difficile was recovered from 36 samples by using a combination of the two media. The sensitivity with CDIF 48 hr was highest (100%) and was significantly higher than that with CDIF 24 hr (58.3%; P<0.001), because samples with a low burden of C. difficile tended to require prolonged incubation up to 48 hr (P<0.001). The specificity of CDIF 24 hr and CDIF 48 hr (99.3% and 90.6%, respectively) was significantly higher than that of CDSA 48 hr and CDSA 72 hr (72.5% and 67.1%, respectively; P<0.001). CDIF was effective for detecting C. difficile in heat-pretreated stool specimens, thus reducing unnecessary testing for toxin production in non-C. difficile isolates and turnaround time. PMID:25187891

Han, Sang Bong; Chang, Jiyoung; Shin, Sang Hyun; Park, Kang Gyun; Lee, Gun Dong; Park, Yong Gyu; Park, Yeon-Joon

2014-09-01

148

Performance of chromID Clostridium difficile Agar Compared with BBL C. difficile Selective Agar for Detection of C. difficile in Stool Specimens  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the performance of a new chromogenic medium for detection of Clostridium difficile, chromID C. difficile agar (CDIF; bioMérieux, France), by comparison with BBL C. difficile Selective Agar (CDSA; Becton Dickinson and Company, USA). After heat pre-treatment (80?, 5 min), 185 diarrheal stool samples were inoculated onto the two media types and incubated anaerobically for 24 hr and 48 hr for CDIF and for 48 hr and 72 hr for CDSA. All typical colonies on each medium were examined by Gram staining, and the gram-positive rods confirmed to contain the tpi gene by PCR were identified as C. difficile. C. difficile was recovered from 36 samples by using a combination of the two media. The sensitivity with CDIF 48 hr was highest (100%) and was significantly higher than that with CDIF 24 hr (58.3%; P<0.001), because samples with a low burden of C. difficile tended to require prolonged incubation up to 48 hr (P<0.001). The specificity of CDIF 24 hr and CDIF 48 hr (99.3% and 90.6%, respectively) was significantly higher than that of CDSA 48 hr and CDSA 72 hr (72.5% and 67.1%, respectively; P<0.001). CDIF was effective for detecting C. difficile in heat-pretreated stool specimens, thus reducing unnecessary testing for toxin production in non-C. difficile isolates and turnaround time. PMID:25187891

Han, Sang Bong; Chang, Jiyoung; Shin, Sang Hyun; Park, Kang Gyun; Lee, Gun Dong; Park, Yong Gyu

2014-01-01

149

2012 BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee. BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee, Inc., an Independent Licensee of the BlueCross BlueShield Association.  

E-print Network

© 2012 BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee. BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee, Inc., an Independent and individual rates must be filed and approved by Tennessee Department of Commerce and Insurance. Minimum loss ratio requirements in Tennessee prior to health care reform: None for group 55% for most Individual

Hong, Don

150

Blue-Fluorescent Antibodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forte of catalytic antibodies has resided in the control of the ground-state reaction coordinate. A principle and method are now described in which antibodies can direct the outcome of photophysical and photochemical events that take place on excited-state potential energy surfaces. The key component is a chemically reactive optical sensor that provides a direct report of the dynamic interplay between protein and ligand at the active site. To illustrate the concept, we used a trans-stilbene hapten to elicit a panel of monoclonal antibodies that displayed a range of fluorescent spectral behavior when bound to a trans-stilbene substrate. Several antibodies yielded a blue fluorescence indicative of an excited-state complex or ``exciplex'' between trans-stilbene and the antibody. The antibodies controlled the isomerization coordinate of trans-stilbene and dynamically coupled this manifold with an active-site residue. A step was taken toward the use of antibody-based photochemical sensors for diagnostic and clinical applications.

Simeonov, Anton; Matsushita, Masayuki; Juban, Eric A.; Thompson, Elizabeth H. Z.; Hoffman, Timothy Z.; Beuscher, Albert E.; Taylor, Matthew J.; Wirsching, Peter; Rettig, Wolfgang; McCusker, James K.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Millar, David P.; Schultz, Peter G.; Lerner, Richard A.; Janda, Kim D.

2000-10-01

151

“Anting” in Blue Jays  

PubMed Central

Summary Anting, the plumage-dipping behavior to which ants (mostly formicines) are commonly subjected by birds (mostly passerines), is shown in tests with hand-raised Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata) and the ant Formica exsectoides to be instinctive: the birds displayed typical renditions of the behavior on the first occasion that they encountered ants. Evidence is presented supportive of the view that anting is a strategy by which birds render ants fit for ingestion. Formicine ants are ordinarily protected by their formic acid-containing spray. Being wiped into the bird’s plumage causes them to discharge that spray, without harm to the bird, to the point of almost total emptying of the glandular sac in which the secretion is stored. The ants are therefore essentially secretion-free by the time they are swallowed. Further evidence indicates that it is the ant’s possession of the acid sac that triggers the anting behavior in the bird. If F. exsectoides are surgically deprived of their acid sac, they are eaten by the birds without first being subjected to anting. Data are also presented indicating that the ant’s crop, which is especially capacious in formicines (its contents may amount to over 30% of the formicine’s mass), and which appears to survive the anting procedure intact, constitutes, at least when laden, a valuable component of the trophic package that the bird accesses by anting. PMID:19169379

Eisner, Thomas; Aneshansley, Daniel

2008-01-01

152

Theory of Polar Blue Phases  

E-print Network

In liquid crystals, if flexoelectric couplings between polar order and director gradients are strong enough, the uniform nematic phase can become unstable to formation of a modulated polar phase. Previous theories have predicted two types of modulation, twist-bend and splay-bend; the twist-bend phase has been found in recent experiments. Here, we investigate other types of modulation, using lattice simulations and Landau theory. In addition to twist-bend and splay-bend, we also find polar blue phases, with 2D or 3D modulations of both director and polar order. We compare polar blue phases with chiral blue phases, and discuss opportunities for observing them experimentally.

Shaikh M. Shamid; David W. Allender; Jonathan V. Selinger

2014-05-22

153

Colony morphotype on Sabouraud-triphenyltetrazolium agar: a simple and inexpensive method for Candida subspecies discrimination.  

PubMed Central

A new method of Candida subspecies discrimination on Sabouraud-triphenyltetrazolium agar is reported. Five hundred sixty-two strains of Candida and Torulopsis glabrata, previously identified by conventional mycological methods, were studied. Each strain received a three-letter code and a number based on its colonial morphology. Sixteen morphotypes were found for Candida albicans, 6 were found for Candida parapsilosis, 4 were found for both Candida guilliermondii and Candida krusei, and 12 were found for Candida tropicalis. None of the 56 T. glabrata strains studied grew on this agar. A reproducibility of 95% was found for C. albicans. The simplicity and low cost could make this method useful for typing Candida spp. Images PMID:1400981

Quindós, G; Fernández-Rodríguez, M; Burgos, A; Tellaetxe, M; Cisterna, R; Pontón, J

1992-01-01

154

Enhancing Bioaerosol Sampling by Andersen Impactors Using Mineral-Oil-Spread Agar Plate  

PubMed Central

As a bioaerosol sampling standard, Andersen type impactor is widely used since its invention in 1950s, including the investigation of the anthrax attacks in the United States in 2001. However, its related problems such as impaction and desiccation stress as well as particle bounce have not been solved. Here, we improved its biological collection efficiencies by plating a mineral oil layer (100 µL) onto the agar plate. An Andersen six-stage sampler and a BioStage impactor were tested with mineral-oil-spread agar plates in collecting indoor and outdoor bacterial and fungal aerosols. The effects of sampling times (5, 10 and 20 min) were also studied using the BioStage impactor when sampling environmental bioaerosols as well as aerosolized Bacillus subtilis (G+) and Escherichia coli (G-). In addition, particle bounce reduction by mineral-oil-plate was also investigated using an optical particle counter (OPC). Experimental results revealed that use of mineral-oil-spread agar plate can substantially enhance culturable bioaerosol recoveries by Andersen type impactors (p-values<0.05). The recovery enhancement was shown to depend on bioaerosol size, type, sampling time and environment. In general, more enhancements (extra 20%) were observed for last stage of the Andersen six-stage samplers compared to the BioStage impactor for 10 min sampling. When sampling aerosolized B. subtilis, E. coli and environmental aerosols, the enhancement was shown to increase with increasing sampling time, ranging from 50% increase at 5 min to ?100% at 20 min. OPC results indicated that use of mineral oil can effectively reduce the particle bounce with an average of 66% for 10 min sampling. Our work suggests that enhancements for fungal aerosols were primarily attributed to the reduced impaction stress, while for bacterial aerosols reduced impaction, desiccation and particle bounce played major roles. The developed technology can readily enhance the agar-based techniques including those high volume portable samplers for bioaerosol monitoring. PMID:23460818

Xu, Zhenqiang; Wei, Kai; Wu, Yan; Shen, Fangxia; Chen, Qi; Li, Mingzhen; Yao, Maosheng

2013-01-01

155

Co-precipitation with PVP and Agar to Improve Physicomechanical Properties of Ibuprofen  

PubMed Central

Objective(s) : Ibuprofen is a problematic drug in tableting due to its viscoelastic properties. Additionally its high cohesivity results in low flowability. In this study, co-precipitation of ibuprofen with varying concentration of agar and PVP to optimize properties of Ibuprofen was carried out. Materials and Methods: Co-precipitates of ibuprofen- PVP or agar were prepared by solvent evaporation technique under vacuum condition. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X -ray diffraction of powder (XRDP) and FT-IR spectroscopy were used to investigate the solid state characteristics of the co-precipitates. The dissolution behavior, flowability, particle size and compaction properties of various batches were also studied. Results: Co-precipitation of drug with agar led to a change in habit from needle to plate shape crystals, while drug –PVP co-precipitates had agglomerated structure and consisted of numerous crystals which had been aggregated together. The co-precipitates showed improved flow properties compared with ibuprofen alone. Precipitation of ibuprofen with these additives led to modification in the dissolution of the drug. Agar in 1% w/w improved slightly the dissolution rate of drug while PVP had a negative impact and led to reduction in the dissolution rate of drug to less than that of pure drug. The all obtained co-precipitates exhibited significantly improved tableting behavior compared with drug crystals alone. This may be due to this fact that, the polymer covering the drug particles increases and changes the nature of the surface area available for interparticulate bonds between particles. DSC, XRDP and FT-IR experiments showed that drug particles, in co-precipitates samples, did not undergo polymorphic modifications. Conclusion: The study highlights the influence of polymeric additives on crystallization process leading to modified performance. PMID:24250942

Maghsoodi, Maryam; Kiafar, Farhad

2013-01-01

156

Co-precipitation with PVP and Agar to Improve Physicomechanical Properties of Ibuprofen  

PubMed Central

Objective(s) : Ibuprofen is a problematic drug in tableting due to its viscoelastic properties. Additionally its high cohesivity results in low flowability. In this study, co-precipitation of ibuprofen with varying concentration of agar and PVP to optimize properties of Ibuprofen was carried out. Materials and Methods: Co-precipitates of ibuprofen- PVP or agar were prepared by solvent evaporation technique under vacuum condition. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X -ray diffraction of powder (XRDP) and FT-IR spectroscopy were used to investigate the solid state characteristics of the co-precipitates. The dissolution behavior, flowability, particle size and compaction properties of various batches were also studied. Results: Co-precipitation of drug with agar led to a change in habit from needle to plate shape crystals, while drug –PVP co-precipitates had agglomerated structure and consisted of numerous crystals which had been aggregated together. The co-precipitates showed improved flow properties compared with ibuprofen alone. Precipitation of ibuprofen with these additives led to modification in the dissolution of the drug. Agar in 1% w/w improved slightly the dissolution rate of drug while PVP had a negative impact and led to reduction in the dissolution rate of drug to less than that of pure drug. The all obtained co-precipitates exhibited significantly improved tableting behavior compared with drug crystals alone. This may be due to this fact that, the polymer covering the drug particles increases and changes the nature of the surface area available for interparticulate bonds between particles. DSC, XRDP and FT-IR experiments showed that drug particles, in co-precipitates samples, did not undergo polymorphic modifications. Conclusion: The study highlights the influence of polymeric additives on crystallization process leading to modified performance. PMID:24250936

Maghsoodi, Maryam; Kiafar, Farhad

2013-01-01

157

Influence of agar gel properties on the in vitro micropropagation of different clones of Thuja plicata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of four agar-type polysaccharides, used as solidifying agents for culture media and differing in their sulfate content (0.14 to 10.95 % w\\/w), was tested on the budding and the elongation of five clones of Thuja plicata. Budding is reduced on the most sulfated polysaccharide and the differences observed between clones in elongation are as important as those observed

B. Pochet; V. Scoman; M. M. Mestdagh; B. Moreau; P. Andre

1991-01-01

158

Identification of Acinetobacters on Blood Agar in Presence of D-Glucose by Unique Browning Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

A positive phenotypic characteristic of glucose-oxidizing acinetobacters was demonstrated with blood agar containing D-glucose. Glucose-oxidizing Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter genospecies 3, Acinetobacter lwoffii, and Acinetobacter genospecies 13 sensu Tjernberg and Ursing caused a unique brown discoloration of media supplemented with 5% blood (of horse, sheep, or human origin) and an aldose sugar (0.22 M D-glucose, D-galactose, D-mannose, D-xylose, or lactose). The

HONG SIAU; KWOK-YUNG YUEN; PAK-LEUNG HO; WEI-KWANG LUK; SAMSON S. Y. WONG; PATRICK C. Y. WOO; RODNEY A. LEE; WAI-TING HUI

1998-01-01

159

New insight into kinetics behavor of the structural formation process in Agar gelation  

E-print Network

A time-resolved experimental study on the kinetics and relaxation of the structural formation process in gelling Agar-water solutions was carried out using our custom-built torsion resonator. The study was based on measurements of three naturally cooled solutions with agar concentrations of 0.75%, 1.0% and 2.0% w/w. It was found that the natural-cooling agar gelation process could be divided into three stages, sol stage (Stage I), gelation zone (Stage II) and gel stage (Stage III), based on the time/temperature evolutions of the structural development rate (SDR). An interesting fluctuant decaying behavior of SDR was observed in Stage II and III, indicative of a sum of multiple relaxation processes and well described by a multiple-order Gaussisn-like equation: . More interestingly, the temperature dependences of the fitted values of Wn in Stage II and Stage III were found to follow the different Arrhenius laws, with different activation energies of EaII= 39-74 KJ/mol and EaIII~7.0 KJ/mol. The two different Arrhenius-like behaviors respectively suggest that dispersions in Stage II be attributed to the relaxation of the self-assembly of agar molecules or the growth of junction zones en route to gelation, in which the formation or fission of hydrogen bonding interactions plays an important role; and that dispersions in Stage III be attributed to the relaxation dynamics of water released from various size domains close to the domain of the viscous flow of water during the syneresis process.

Y. Z. Wang; X. F. Zhang; J. X. Zhang

2011-07-20

160

Rapid Isolation and Susceptibility Testing of Leptospira spp. Using a New Solid Medium, LVW Agar  

PubMed Central

Pathogenic Leptospira spp., the causative agents of leptospirosis, are slow-growing Gram-negative spirochetes. Isolation of Leptospira from clinical samples and testing of antimicrobial susceptibility are difficult and time-consuming. Here, we describe the development of a new solid medium that facilitates more-rapid growth of Leptospira spp. and the use of this medium to evaluate the Etest's performance in determining antimicrobial MICs to drugs in common use for leptospirosis. The medium was developed by evaluating the effects of numerous factors on the growth rate of Leptospira interrogans strain NR-20157. These included the type of base agar, the concentration of rabbit serum (RS), and the concentration and duration of CO2 incubation during the initial period of culture. The highest growth rate of NR-20157 was achieved using a Noble agar base supplemented with 10% RS (named LVW agar), with an initial incubation at 30°C in 5% CO2 for 2 days prior to continuous culture in air at 30°C. These conditions were used to develop the Etest for three species, L. interrogans (NR-20161), L. kirschnerii (NR-20327), and L. borgpetersenii (NR-20151). The MICs were read on day 7 for all samples. The Etest was then performed on 109 isolates of pathogenic Leptospira spp. The MIC90 values for penicillin G, doxycycline, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and chloramphenicol were 0.64 units/ml and 0.19, 0.047, 0.5, and 2 ?g/ml, respectively. The use of LVW agar, which enables rapid growth, isolation of single colonies, and simple antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Leptospira spp., provides an opportunity for new areas of fundamental and applied research. PMID:23114772

Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Paris, Daniel H.; Langla, Sayan; Thaipadunpanit, Janjira; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Smythe, Lee D.; White, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Peacock, Sharon J.

2013-01-01

161

Studies on ?-amylase and trypsin inhibitors in legume seeds using agar diffusion and isoelectric focusing techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amylolytic and tryptic inhibitors of faba bean extracts were determined by an agar diffusion test. The amylolytic inhibitor had protein characters. Furthermore, water-soluble trypsin inhibitors ofCicer arietinum, Lens esculenta, Lupinus termis, Phaseolus vulgaris, Pisum sativum, Trigonella foenum-graecum andVicia faba which were separated by polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing (PAGIF) in thin-layers, showed species specific patterns. Negative staining showed 10 bands for

Mahmoud A. Hamza; Ahmed M. El-Tabey Shehata; Hermann Stegemann

1986-01-01

162

Selective isolation of Pseudomonas stutzeri from vertebrate faeces on Rambach agar.  

PubMed

Faecal samples collected from 308 wild birds of 25 species and 19 rodents of 3 species in South Moravia (Czechland) were pre-incubated in Müller-Kauffmann tetrathionate broth at 42 degrees C for 24 h and then streaked onto Rambach agar plates which were incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 h. Seventeen out of 22 isolates forming orange-red colonies on Rambach agar were identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri, the rest as Pseudomonas sp. and Alcaligenes sp. The colonies of P. stutzeri were either dry, wrinkled and adherent to the agar (resembling Bacillus) or smooth, less adherent (mimicking Salmonella). P. stutzeri was recovered from five species of vertebrates caught in farmland habitats: the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), the tree sparrow (P. montanus), the great warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus), the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and the common vole (Microtus arvalis). The overall isolation rate was 4.5% in birds (12.6% in house sparrows) and 15.8% in rodents. The procedure can be useful for the isolation of P. stutzeri in clinical and environmental studies. PMID:9861678

Hubálek, Z; Pácová, Z; Halouzka, J; Sedlácek, I; Dlouhý, M; Honza, M

1998-11-01

163

New agar microspheres for the separation and purification of natural products.  

PubMed

A new type of agar chromatography media has been prepared with a yield over 80% using a water-in-oil emulsion technique. These microspheres have regular spherical shapes and particle diameters in the range 40-165 ?m (average ?90 ?m). Cross-linking of the resulting agar microspheres with epichlorohydrin and 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether enhanced their mechanical and thermal stability. The alkaline conditions used during the cross-linking reaction also decreased the content of ionized sulfate groups of the polysaccharide, thus reducing the nonspecific adsorption of positively charged molecules. The cross-linked agar microspheres were functionalized with (i) branched poly(ethyleneimine) to obtain a stationary phase useful for the separation of proteins in an anion-exchange mode and (ii) with poly-?-cyclodextrin enabling direct isolation and purification of puerarin from a crude extract of Radix puerariae. Using a 23.5 mL column loaded with 20 mg extract (0.85 mg/mL gel), puerarin with a purity of 96% was recovered with a yield of 86%. PMID:25156195

Ge, Chunling; Hu, Yu; Zhang, Fan; Lv, Yongqin; Tan, Tianwei

2014-11-01

164

Mode of Action of an Inhibitor from Agar on Growth and Hemagglutination of Group A Arboviruses.  

PubMed

Colón, Julio I. (Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.), Jane B. Idoine, Orville M. Brand, and Richard D. Costlow. Mode of action of an inhibitor from agar on growth and hemagglutination of group A arboviruses. J. Bacteriol. 90:172-179. 1965.-A polysaccharide obtained from agar, and having properties similar to a previously described sulfated polysaccharide, was observed to inhibit growth and hemagglutination of some group A arboviruses. The evidence presented confirms that the inhibitory activity, in part, is the result of direct interaction between the agar polysaccharide (AP) and free virus particles. Additional evidence indicates that inhibition of viral growth also occurs as the result of interaction between AP and the chick-fibroblast cells used for propagation of the virus. The possibility was considered, therefore, that at least two different inhibitors could be present in AP-one that reacts directly with the virus particle and another that reacts with host cells. AP does not induce the production of interferon in the test system used. PMID:16562015

Colón, J I; Idoine, J B; Brand, O M; Costlow, R D

1965-07-01

165

Pig and Goat Blood as Substitutes for Sheep Blood in Blood-Supplemented Agar Media  

PubMed Central

In many developing countries sheep and horse blood, the recommended blood supplements in bacteriological media, are not readily available, whereas pig and goat blood are. Therefore, this study examined the use of pig and goat blood as potential substitutes for sheep blood in blood-supplemented bacteriologic media commonly used in clinical microbiology laboratories. In general, the growth characteristics and colony morphologies of a wide range of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and Candida albicans were similar on media containing pig, goat, and sheep blood, although differences were found. Enterococcus sp. uniformly produced alpha-hemolysis when incubated in CO2, but in anaerobic conditions the hemolysis varied. In contrast, beta-hemolytic streptococci produced identical hemolytic reactions on all three media. Synergistic hemolysis was not observed on pig blood agar in the CAMP test nor on goat blood agar in the reverse CAMP test. The preparation of chocolate agar (heated) with pig blood required heating to a higher temperature than with sheep or goat blood to yield suitable growth of Haemophilus species. In general, we conclude that pig and goat blood are suitable alternatives to sheep blood for use in bacteriological media in settings where sheep and horse blood are not readily available. PMID:10655351

Anand, Chandar; Gordon, Rhonda; Shaw, Helene; Fonseca, Kevin; Olsen, Merle

2000-01-01

166

Isolation and characterization of agar-degrading endophytic bacteria from plants.  

PubMed

Agar is a polysaccharide extracted from the cell walls of some macro-algaes. Among the reported agarases, most of them come from marine environment. In order to better understand different sources of agarases, it is important to search new non-marine native ones. In this study, seven agar-degrading bacteria were first isolated from the tissues of plants, belonging to three genera, i.e., Paenibacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Klebsiella sp. Among them, the genus Klebsiella was first reported to have agarolytic ability and the genus Pseudomonas was first isolated from non-marine environment with agarase activity. Besides, seven strains were characterized by investigating the growth and agarase production in the presence of various polysaccharides. The results showed that they could grow on several polysaccharides such as araban, carrageenan, chitin, starch, and xylan. Besides, they could also produce agarase in the presence of different polysaccharides other than agar. Extracellular agarases from seven strains were further analyzed by SDS-PAGE combined with activity staining and estimated to be 75 kDa which has great difference from most reported agarases. PMID:25331792

Song, Tao; Zhang, Weijia; Wei, Congchong; Jiang, Tengfei; Xu, Hui; Cao, Yi; Cao, Yu; Qiao, Dairong

2015-02-01

167

Application of solid-phase extraction to agar-supported fermentation.  

PubMed

Agar-supported fermentation (Ag-SF), a variant of solid-state fermentation, has recently been improved by the development of a dedicated 2 m(2) scale pilot facility, Platotex. We investigated the application of solid-phase extraction (SPE) to Ag-SF in order to increase yields and minimize the contamination of the extracts with agar constituents. The selection of the appropriate resin was conducted on liquid-state fermentation and Diaion HP-20 exhibited the highest recovery yield and selectivity for the metabolites of the model fungal strains Phomopsis sp. and Fusarium sp. SPE applied to Ag-SF resulted in a particular compartmentalization of the culture. The mycelium that requires oxygen to grow migrates to the top layer and formed a thick biofilm. The resin beads intercalate between the agar surface and the mycelium layer, and trap directly the compounds secreted by the mycelium through a "solid-solid extraction" (SSE) process. The resin/mycelium layer is easily recovered by scraping the surface and the target metabolites extracted by methanol. Ag-SF associated to SSE represents an ideal compromise for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites with limited economic and environmental impact. PMID:23263569

Le Goff, Géraldine; Adelin, Emilie; Cortial, Sylvie; Servy, Claudine; Ouazzani, Jamal

2013-09-01

168

Blue Crabs in the Chesapeake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classroom unit and data activity focusing on juvenile and adult blue crab distribution in the Chesapeake Bay. Includes background on crab biology, anatomy, life cycle, and fisheries. Authentic data tables provided for in-class analysis, discussion questions guide inquiry.

169

Rapid Direct Testing of Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Isoniazid and Rifampin on Nutrient and Blood Agar in Resource-Starved Settings  

PubMed Central

In this study, we evaluated the performance of blood agar (by macroscopic growth) and nutrient agar (by a microcolony detection method) for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis against rifampin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH), using 67 smear-positive sputum specimens. The direct proportion method on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium was used as the “gold standard.” Compared with LJ medium, results for both media were in 100% agreement for RIF, while for INH the agreement levels for blood agar and nutrient agar were 98% and 95%, respectively. Within 2 weeks, 100% of specimens yielded results on blood agar, while 96.8% of specimens yielded results on nutrient agar. Our study showed that blood agar and nutrient agar can be used as alternative media for direct susceptibility testing of RIF and INH, especially in resource-poor settings. PMID:22357498

Ikram, Aamer; Coban, Ahmet Yilmaz; Martin, Anandi

2012-01-01

170

Comparative evaluation of chromogenic agar medium and conventional culture system for isolation and presumptive identification of uropathogens  

PubMed Central

Objective: Urine is the most frequent specimen received for culture/sensitivity by clinical laboratories. The microbiological performance of HiCrome UTI agar medium was compared with Blood agar and MacConkey agar for isolation and presumptive identification of bacteria from urine culture. Methods: A total of 443 consecutively collected midstream and/or catheter-catch urine samples from patients attending the Islami Bank Medical College Hospital, Rajshahi, Bangladesh during January to December, 2012 were cultured. Urine samples showing pus cells ? 5/HPF were inoculated on to Blood agar (BA), MacConkey agar (MAC) and HiCrome UTI agar (CA) media simultaneously and incubated overnight aerobically at 370C. Rate of isolation and presumptive identification of bacterial species were compared for different media. Results: Culture yielded a total of 199 bacterial isolates from 189 (42.67%) positive plates including 179 (40.40%) unimicrobial and 10 (2.26%) polymicrobial (mixed growth of pair of bacteria) growths. Both HiCrome UTI agar and Blood agar media supported 100% growths while 151 (75.88%) growths were observed on MacConkey agar. The rate of presumptive identification was found significantly higher on HiCrome UTI agar (97.49%) than MAC agar (67.34%) (P<0.001) as primary urine culture medium. Of 199 isolates, E. coli was found to be the leading uropathogen isolated from 118 (59.30%) samples with its presumptive identification rate of 95.76%, 93.22% and 5.93% on CA, MAC and BA respectively. All 10 (100%) polymicrobial growths were demonstrated distinctly on CA against only 01(10%) on each BA and MAC. Conclusion: HiCrome UTI agar was found to be more useful as primary urine culture medium in both higher rate of isolation and presumptive identification of uropathogens in comparison to conventional media. Its inherent characteristics in demonstrating polymicrobial growth and ease of rapid identification by distinct colony colour are unique. PMID:25225521

Akter, Laila; Haque, Rezwana; Salam, Md. Abdus

2014-01-01

171

Isolation of Clostridium difficile from faecal specimens--a comparison of chromID C. difficile agar and cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose agar.  

PubMed

The culture of toxigenic Clostridium difficile from stool specimens is still seen as the gold standard for the laboratory diagnosis of C. difficile infection (CDI). bioMérieux have released ChromID Cdiff chromogenic agar (CDIF) for the isolation and identification of C. difficile in 24 h. In this study, we compared CDIF to pre-reduced cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose agar with sodium taurocholate (TCCFA) in the examination of glutamate dehydrogenase-positive faecal specimens that were either GeneOhm positive or negative, using direct culture or culture following alcohol shock. Direct culture on CDIF had a sensitivity of 100 % and recovery of 94 % while for TCCFA these were 87 % and 82 %, respectively. For GeneOhm-positive alcohol-shocked faecal samples, sensitivity and recovery on CDIF was similar to direct culture while on TCCFA they were about 10 % higher. For direct culture, there was a significant difference between growth on CDIF at 24 h and TCCFA at 48 h (P = 0.001) and between the two media at 48 h (P<0.001). A total of 142 strains of C. difficile were recovered in pure culture from all GeneOhm-positive samples used in this study and 11 (7.7 %) of these were A(-)B(-)CDT(-) and may represent mixed infections of toxigenic and non-toxigenic C. difficile. The most dominant ribotype was UK 014 (14.7 %) followed by 002 (11.9 %) and 020 (11.9 %), and 36 % of toxigenic isolates, including an A(-)B(+)CDT(-) strain, could not be assigned a UK ribotype. CDIF outperformed pre-reduced TCCFA by negating the need for alcohol shock treatment and by giving a time saving of 24 h in the isolation of C. difficile. CDIF plates were also more selective than TCCFA and C. difficile colonies were easy to identify and subculture prior to strain typing. PMID:23579394

Carson, Kerry C; Boseiwaqa, Lusiana V; Thean, Sara K; Foster, Niki F; Riley, Thomas V

2013-09-01

172

BLUE WHALE-SIZED MOUTHFULS MAKE FORAGING  

E-print Network

Inside JEB i BLUE WHALE-SIZED MOUTHFULS MAKE FORAGING SUPER EFFICIENT When a blue whale dives from the University of British Columbia, Canada, explains that blue whales may be able to dive, measuring the energetics of blue whale lunges at depth seemed almost impossible until Shadwick and his

Martin, Paul R.

173

21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultramarine blue. 73.50 Section 73.50 Food and...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.50 Ultramarine blue. (a) Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by...

2010-04-01

174

Comparison of Performance of the Novel Chromogenic Spectra VRE Agar to That of Bile Esculin Azide and Campylobacter Agars for Detection of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Fecal Samples ?  

PubMed Central

A total of 142 stool specimens were evaluated for vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE). Twenty-four-hour sensitivities and specificities, respectively, were 98% and 95% for Spectra VRE chromogenic agar (Remel, Lenexa, KS), 86% and 92% for bile esculin azide with vancomycin (BEAV; Remel), and 96.5% and 92% for Campylobacter agar (CAMPY; Remel). Spectra VRE and CAMPY are significantly more sensitive at 24 h than BEAV. PMID:21880967

Jenkins, S. G.; Raskoshina, L.; Schuetz, A. N.

2011-01-01

175

How do microorganisms influence trace element uptake by plants? Screening in an agar model rhizosphere.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace elements (TE) are essential for humans and plants, but they may be toxic if their concentration is too high. For this reason, the management of TE in soils is very important. In some cases it may be necessary to increase the uptake of nutrients or TE by plants, for example in a biofortification perspective. Conversely, in some other cases TE uptake by plants should be decreased, for instance to avoid heavy metals entering the food chain via edible crops. Microorganisms living in the rhizosphere affect trace element (TE) uptake by plants. However, due to the complexity of this space and the variety of microorganisms that occur there, it is difficult to isolate the effect of any particular strain. To overcome this hurdle, we developed a system in which we grew plants under sterile conditions in agar and inoculated their rhizosphere with a single, well-defined microbial strain. For many years, agar has been used as a growth substrate for microorganisms and plant tissues. It is cheap, easy to use, and can be autoclaved to ensure its sterility. Because of its widespread use, an experiment conducted using this substrate can be reproduced under the same conditions in any laboratory. In contrast to soil, there is little interaction between the trace elements and the agar matrix. There are many studies investigating the influence of microorganisms on TE uptake by plants. However, so far only a small variety of microorganisms has been tested on few plant species. Therefore, the first objective of our research was to develop a method to rapidly screen a large variety of microorganisms on various plant species. Once this goal was achieved, we sought to study the effect of single, well-defined microbial strains on TE uptake by sunflower and wheat. The substrate for plants growth was a 10% agar solution prepared with modified Hoagland's solution and a TE solution containing 1 mg/kg Pb and molar equivalents of Cu, Ni and Zn. The agar solution was autoclaved and poured into sterile, transparent plastic boxes, whose lid was equipped with a filter allowing gas exchanges without contamination by external microorganisms. The seed surface was sterilised and the plants grew one week in agar before their rhizosphere was inoculated with LB broth containing a pure bacterial strain or agar plugs colonized by fungal hyphae. We tested 14 strains, with 5 replicates per treatment and a control where the system was inoculated with sterile LB broth. The plants grew for 2 weeks in a climate chamber and their shoots were analysed for their TEs by ICP-OES. Samples of agar and roots were collected to confirm microbial colonization of the rhizosphere, respectively sterile conditions in the control treatments. Concerning the method development, the plants grew without visible toxicity in all the boxes, and the analysis of root and agar samples indicated that the controls were sterile and the strains inoculated were growing along the roots. More than 90% of the TE and nutrients added to the system were in the liquid fraction of the agar medium, thus available for root uptake. The screening showed that the microorganisms in general decreased TE uptake by wheat and sunflower, although some of them had an opposite effect on the plants. However, with the same plant species, the microorganisms had a consistent effect on all TE tested, i.e. a given single strain caused the same effect (increase or decrease of TE uptake) on all TE tested. In sunflower, 3 microorganisms (Paenibacillus polymyxa, Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani) decreased Cu and Zn uptake by 50% compared to the control treatment. These three species are common soil microorganisms. All three are known to exude auxin, a phytohormone. This hormone can modify root morphology and physiology and thus may affect TE uptake by plants. R. solani and P. ultimum are root pathogens. Their effect was opposite to what we expected. If roots are damaged, TE should have flooded into the plant and accumulate in the tissues, but this was not the case. One explanation could be the biosorption of TE by these mi

Marchetti, M.; Robinson, B. H.; Evangelou, M. W. H.; Vachey, A.; Schwitzguebel, J. P.; Bernier-Latmani, R.; Schulin, R.

2009-04-01

176

A quick screening method to identify ?-glucosidase activity in native wine yeast strains: application of Esculin Glycerol Agar (EGA) medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and fifty-four yeast strains were isolated from grapes and musts of Uruguayan vineyards and wineries. Only thirty\\u000a strains showed ?-glucosidase activity in Esculin Glycerol Agar (EGA) solid medium. Twenty-one were non-Saccharomyces and nine were Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of Esculin Glycerol Agar (EGA) solid medium for screening\\u000a ?-glucosidase activity

Gabriel PerezLaura; Laura Fariña; Marianne Barquet; Eduardo Boido; Carina Gaggero; Eduardo Dellacassa; Francisco Carrau

2011-01-01

177

Synthesis and applications of polyacrylamide grafted agar as a matrix for controlled drug release of 5-ASA.  

PubMed

Agar has been modified by microwave assisted grafting with acrylamide monomer, resulting in poly acrylamide grafted agar (Ag-g-PAM). The synthesized grades of Ag-g-PAM were characterized by standard physico-chemical characterization techniques (FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)) to ascertain the intended grafting. The synthesized graft copolymer (Ag-g-PAM) has been investigated (in vitro) for controlled and colon targeted release of 5-amino salicylic acid (5-ASA). PMID:24508089

Usha Rani, G; Konreddy, Ananda Kumar; Mishra, Sumit; Sen, Gautam

2014-04-01

178

Comparative Study for Determination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Susceptibility to First- and Second-Line Antituberculosis Drugs by the Etest Using 7H11, Blood, and Chocolate Agar?  

PubMed Central

We investigated the performance of blood and chocolate agar as alternatives to Middlebrook 7H11 agar for testing the susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to first-and second-line drugs by the Etest method. A total of 39 strains of M. tuberculosis including 22 multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains and 17 susceptible strains were tested. In conclusion, our results showed that chocolate agar gave insufficient growth, needing up to 21 days of incubation, while results on blood agar were comparable to those on Middlebrook 7H11 agar and can be further explored as an alternative for Etest-based susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis. PMID:18945843

Coban, Ahmet Yilmaz; Bilgin, Kemal; Uzun, Meltem; Akgunes, Alper; Yusof, Anne; Durupinar, Belma

2008-01-01

179

Bacterial interference in vitro. Comparison between a quantitative kinetic and a cocultivation blood agar test method.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to compare two methods for estimation of bacterial growth interference between various bacteria using a Bioscreen robot analyzer, allowing kinetic documentation, and a cocultivation test on blood agar plates. Six laboratory strains with different virulence and growth requirements were used: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mitis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The interference activity was correlated with a reference system of Streptococcus sanguis (strain alpha 89) and Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci, GAS serotypes T 9 and T 22). The methods used and results obtained were as follows: 1. Estimation of synergistic and antagonistic bacterial interferences using a Bioscreen robot analyzer. Suspensions of viable bacteria were added to microtiter plates with different concentrations of UV light-killed bacteria in liquid media. The Bioscreen analyzer monitored bacterial growth every 10 min for 24 h giving kinetic data during the growth period. Synergisms as well as antagonisms were demonstrated between the tested bacterial strains which have not earlier been reported in the literature. However, the antagonistic effect observed between the six strains was less than that induced by the S. sanguis strain on the two strains of S. pyogenes. 2. Cocultivation of bacterial strains on blood agar surface with precultivated or simultaneously stamped interfering bacteria indicated no detectable interference between the six tested bacterial strains, while the S. sanguis strain inhibited the growth of S. pyogenes strains as well as the hemolysis around the colonies. The Bioscreen method was found more sensitive for testing bacterial interference compared to the commonly used blood agar test. PMID:7833000

Johansson, A; Bergenholtz, A; Holm, S E

1994-11-01

180

Energy response of agar-alanine free radical dosimetry to therapeutic electron beams  

SciTech Connect

Calculations of the energy response of an agar-alanine phantom dosimeter (AAPD) to electrons in the energy range of 0.15--20 MeV together with experimental results at 16 MeV are presented. It is shown that the sensitivity of the EPR dosimeter (EPR signal/Gray) is independent of alanine crystal size and varies less than 2%, in the electron energy range indicated. Thus, the measured free radical density distribution may be used directly as an indication of the absorbed dose distribution in an irradiated phantom.

Ciesielski, B.; Reinstein, L.E.; Meek, A.G.; Wielopolski, L. (Brookhaven National Laboratory, SUNY-SB, Radiation Therapy Facility, Bldg. 490, Upton, New York 11973 (United States))

1993-09-01

181

Three-dimensional characterization of bacterial microcolonies on solid agar-based culture media.  

PubMed

For the last century, in vitro diagnostic process in microbiology has mainly relied on the growth of bacteria on the surface of a solid agar medium. Nevertheless, few studies focused in the past on the dynamics of microcolonies growth on agar surface before 8 to 10h of incubation. In this article, chromatic confocal microscopy has been applied to characterize the early development of a bacterial colony. This technology relies on a differential focusing depth of the white light. It allows one to fully measure the tridimensional shape of microcolonies more quickly than classical confocal microscopy but with the same spatial resolution. Placing the device in an incubator, the method was able to individually track colonies growing on an agar plate, and to follow the evolution of their surface or volume. Using an appropriate statistical modeling framework, for a given microorganism, the doubling time has been estimated for each individual colony, as well as its variability between colonies, both within and between agar plates. A proof of concept led on four bacterial strains of four distinct species demonstrated the feasibility and the interest of the approach. It showed in particular that doubling times derived from early tri-dimensional measurements on microcolonies differed from classical measurements in micro-dilutions based on optical diffusion. Such a precise characterization of the tri-dimensional shape of microcolonies in their late-lag to early-exponential phase could be beneficial in terms of in vitro diagnostics. Indeed, real-time monitoring of the biomass available in a colony could allow to run well established microbial identification workflows like, for instance, MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry, as soon as a sufficient quantity of material is available, thereby reducing the time needed to provide a diagnostic. Moreover, as done for pre-identification of macro-colonies, morphological indicators such as three-dimensional growth profiles derived from microcolonies could be used to perform a first pre-identification step, but in a shorten time. PMID:25533218

Drazek, Laurent; Tournoud, Maud; Derepas, Frédéric; Guicherd, Maryse; Mahé, Pierre; Pinston, Frédéric; Veyrieras, Jean-Baptiste; Chatellier, Sonia

2015-02-01

182

Energy response of agar-alanine phantom dosimeter to gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

Calculations of the energy response of an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal induced by gamma radiation in an agar-alanine phantom dosimeter are presented. Theoretically calculated slopes of the EPR signal calibration lines are comparable with those obtained experimentally for low-(50 kVp), medium-(662 keV), and high-(15 MVp) energy photons. The sensitivity of the phantom dosimeter (EPR signal amplitude/Gray) varies less than 2% within the 150- to 20-MeV energy range. For energies above 150 keV, the influence of variations in the size of alanine crystals is negligible.

Ciesielski, B.; Wielopolski, L.; Reinstein, L.E.

1988-05-01

183

Crater Lake: blue through time  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Blue is the color of constancy, hence the term true blue. The unearthly blueness of Crater Lake reflects its pristine character and gives scientists a focal point for studying human impacts on aquatic environments over long periods of time. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Park Service, and Oregon State University have systematically studied the lake for the last two decades. Long-term monitoring of this lake is a priority of Crater Lake National Park and will continue far into the future.

Larson, Gary L.; Buktenica, Mark; Collier, Robert

2003-01-01

184

The blue-collar brain.  

PubMed

Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

2012-01-01

185

Blue-green upconversion laser  

DOEpatents

A blue-green laser (450--550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm[sup 3+]. The Tm[sup 3+] is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP. 3 figs.

Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.

1990-08-14

186

Blue-green upconversion laser  

DOEpatents

A blue-green laser (450-550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm.sup.3+. The Tm.sup.+ is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP.

Nguyen, Dinh C. (Los Alamos, NM); Faulkner, George E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01

187

Blue light emitting thiogallate phosphor  

DOEpatents

A crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor of the formula RGa.sub.2 S.sub.4 :Ce.sub.x where R is selected from the group consisting of calcium, strontium, barium and zinc, and x is from about 1 to 10 atomic percent, the phosphor characterized as having a crystalline microstructure on the size order of from about 100 .ANG. to about 10,000 .ANG. is provided together with a process of preparing a crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor by depositing on a substrate by CVD and resultant thin film electroluminescent devices including a layer of such deposited phosphor on an ordinary glass substrate.

Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); King, Christopher N. (Portland, OR); Tuenge, Richard T. (Hillsboro, OR)

1998-01-01

188

The Blue-Collar Brain  

PubMed Central

Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body’s tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

2012-01-01

189

Starch-Ampicillin Agar for the Quantitative Detection of Aeromonas hydrophila  

PubMed Central

Interest in Aeromonas hydrophila as a food-borne and human pathogen is increasing. Isolation media from the clinical laboratory were evaluated for food use and either did not give quantitative recovery of A. hydrophila or did not permit ready differentiation of A. hydrophila from the background microflora. A new medium was developed which permitted quantitative recovery of A. hydrophila from foods. The medium consisted of phenol red agar base (Difco Laboratories), soluble starch (10 g/liter), and ampicillin (10 mg/liter). All foods surveyed contained A. hydrophila. Foods sampled included red meats, chicken, raw milk, and seafood (fish, shrimp, scallops, crab, and oysters). The count of A. hydrophila at the time of purchase ranged from 1 × 102/g (lower limit of detection) to 5 × 105/g. In most instances, the count of A. hydrophila increased during 1 week of storage at 5°C. The starch-ampicillin agar developed permitted rapid quantitative recovery of A. hydrophila from foods in the presence of very large numbers of competing microflora. PMID:16346899

Palumbo, Samuel A.; Maxino, Felicisima; Williams, Aaron C.; Buchanan, Robert L.; Thayer, Donald W.

1985-01-01

190

Evaluation of a modified Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin agar for isolation of Yersinia spp.  

PubMed

Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis are important food borne pathogens. However, the presence of competitive microbiota makes the isolation of Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis from naturally contaminated foods difficult. We attempted to evaluate the performance of a modified Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin (CIN) agar in the differentiation of Y. enterocolitica from non-Yersinia species, particularly the natural intestinal microbiota. The modified CIN enabled the growth of Y. enterocolitica colonies with the same efficiency as CIN and Luria-Bertani agar. The detection limits of the modified CIN for Y. enterocolitica in culture medium (10 cfu/ml) and in artificially contaminated pork (10(4) cfu/ml) were also comparable to those of CIN. However, the modified CIN provided a better discrimination of Yersinia colonies from other bacteria exhibiting Yersinia-like colonies on CIN (H2S-producing Citrobacter freundii, C. braakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Aeromonas hydrophila, Providencia rettgeri, and Morganella morganii). The modified CIN exhibited a higher recovery rate of Y. enterocolitica from artificially prepared bacterial cultures and naturally contaminated samples compared with CIN. Our results thus demonstrated that the use of modified CIN may be a valuable means to increase the recovery rate of food borne Yersinia from natural samples, which are usually contaminated by multiple types of bacteria. PMID:25170941

Tan, Lai Kuan; Ooi, Peck Toung; Carniel, Elisabeth; Thong, Kwai Lin

2014-01-01

191

Preparation and characterization agar-based nanocomposite film reinforced by nanocrystalline cellulose.  

PubMed

Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was prepared from microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) with particle size of 24.7 ?m using sulfuric acid hydrolysis technique. The obtained NCC revealed size of 0-100 nm, which the major part of them was about 30 nm. Then different contents (2.5, 5 and 10 wt%) of these NCC incorporated in agar film solution and the morphology, structure, and properties of the nanocomposite films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), mechanical, physical and optical testing. Results showed that the water vapor permeability (WVP) and water solubility (WS) of the agar-based nanocomposite films significantly (P<0.05) decreased about 13% and 21%, respectively, upon increasing the NCC content to 10%. Tensile strength (TS) and Young's modulus (YM) values of nanocomposite films significantly increased (P?0.05) with addition of NCC, whereas the elongation percent (E%) decreased not significantly (P>0.05). In addition, swelling percentage, transparency and light transmission of the films were decreased by incorporating NCC into polymer matrix. PMID:25036597

Atef, Maryam; Rezaei, Masoud; Behrooz, Rabi

2014-09-01

192

[Development of chromogenic agar medium for isolation of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O26].  

PubMed

Agar media for isolation of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) have been developed primarily for E. coli O157, because this bacterium has most frequently caused EHEC infection. However, there have been few studies for isolation of other serotypes of EHEC, and media appropriate for isolation of such organisms, especially from food samples, are not yet available. Among such serotypes, E. coli O26 has often been isolated from clinical specimens from patients and animals, but not from food samples in outbreaks, because of lack of an appropriate method for isolation. In this study, we tried to develop a new chromogenic agar medium for selective isolation of E. coli O26 using the characteristics of E. coli O26. Fifteen strains of E. coli O26, 11 strains of E. coli O157 and 36 strains of other sero-types E. coli were tested for fermentation of rhamnose, cellobiose, dulcitol, salicin, raffinose, sorbitol, sucrose, lactose, mannitol, arabinose, maltose, xylose and glucose. Rhamnose was fermented by all E. coli strains except for E. coli O26. The other substrates were not effective for differentiating E. coli O26 from the other strains of E. coli. Thus the medium containing rhamnose and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, which is a substrate of beta-galactosidase specific to coliforms, produced a color of E. coli O26 colonies different from colors of the other bacteria. Furthermore, cefixime and sodium tellulite were added to the composition of the medium for gaining higher selectivity. PMID:11357319

Ikedo, M; Komatsu, O; Hara-Kudo, Y; Yamamoto, S; Kumagai, S

2001-04-01

193

Susceptibility of a polycaprolactone-based root canal filling material to degradation using an agar-well diffusion assay  

PubMed Central

Purpose Cholesterol esterase is both a component of salivary hydrolases as well as an inflammatory cell-derived enzyme and has been shown to cause biodegradation of methacrylate-based resin composites. This study examined whether Resilon, a polycaprolactone-based thermoplastic root filling material is susceptible to biodegradation by cholesterol esterase using agar-well diffusion assay of serially-diluted aqueous Resilon emulsions that were dispersed in agar. Materials and methods Emulsions of Resilon and polycaprolactone were prepared and dispersed in agar on culture plates. Two different concentrations of a cholesterol esterase (0.3 and 1.2 U/mL) were prepared and fed to wells prepared in the agar plates using an agar-well diffusion assay for examination the degradation of polymeric materials. Results Degradation of the emulsified Resilon was manifested as the formation of clear zones of different sizes around the agar wells. No clear zones were observed in agar wells that contain sterile distilled water as the negative control. Clinical significance Although dispersion Resilon into an emulsion is not the way in which this material is employed as a root filling material, the potential for Resilon to be degraded by cholesterol esterase is of potential concern as one cannot limit the degradation of extruded Resilon from a root apex by monocyte-derived macrophages to just the anatomical root apex. As the present study employed a high concentration of cholesterol esterase, further studies should be directed to examining the degradation of Resilon using macrophage cell cultures. PMID:18578181

Hiraishi, Noriko; Sadek, Fernanda T.; King, Nigel M.; Ferrari, Marco; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R

2013-01-01

194

Roughness-Controlled Self-Assembly of Mannitol/LB Agar Microparticles by Polymorphic Transformation for Pulmonary Drug Delivery.  

PubMed

Novel roughness-controlled mannitol/LB Agar microparticles were synthesized by polymorphic transformation and self-assembly method using hexane as the polymorphic transformation reagent and spray-dried mannitol/LB Agar microparticles as the starting material. As-prepared microparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI). The XRD and DSC results indicate that after immersing spray-dried mannitol/LB Agar microparticles in hexane, ?-mannitol was completely transformed to ?-mannitol in 1 h, and all the ?-mannitol was transformed to ? form after 14 days. SEM shows that during the transformation the nanobelts on the spray-dried mannitol/LB Agar microparticles become more dispersed and the contour of the individual nanobelts becomes more noticeable. Afterward, the nanobelts self-assemble to nanorods and result in rod-covered mannitol/LB Agar microparticles. FTIR indicates new hydrogen bonds were formed among mannitol, LB Agar, and hexane. SEM images coupled with image analysis software reveal that different surface morphology of the microparticles have different drug adhesion mechanisms. Comparison of ACI results and image analysis of SEM images shows that an increase in the particle surface roughness can increase the fine particle fractions (FPFs) using the rod-covered mannitol microparticles as drug carriers. Transformed microparticles show higher FPFs than commercially available lactose carriers. An FPF of 28.6 ± 2.4% was achieved by microparticles transformed from spray-dried microparticles using 2% mannitol(w/v)/LB Agar as feed solution. It is comparable to the highest FPF reported in the literature using lactose and spray-dried mannitol as carriers. PMID:25423614

Zhang, Fengying; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Quynh; Tay, Bao Hui; Mendyk, Aleksander; Shao, Yu-Hsuan; Lau, Raymond

2015-01-01

195

Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) is a rare disease characterized by the presence of cutaneous and gastrointestinal (GI) hemangiomas. These BRBNS-associated hemangiomas, possibly numbering into the hundreds, may also be identified in multiple visceral locations.Although the presence of benign cutaneous lesions is of small concern, GI lesions are cause for bleeding. Heavy visceral organ involvement can lead to intravascular

Karen Having; Stephani Bullock

2008-01-01

196

Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case and the family pedigree with the dominant genodermatosis blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) are described. It is shown that the mode of inheritance is autosomal dominant with good penetrance and that the affected individuals examined all are healthy apart from the skin disease.Copyright © 1989 S. Karger AG, Basel

M. Munkvad

1983-01-01

197

Blue Crabs in the Chesapeake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a classroom unit and data activity focusing on juvenile and adult blue crab distribution in the Chesapeake Bay. The pdf includes background on crab biology, anatomy, life cycle, and fisheries. Authentic data tables are provided for in-class analysis and discussion questions guide inquiry.

Clark, Vicki P.; Lawrence, Lisa; Musick, Susanna; Van Montfrans, Jacques

2011-06-13

198

Singing' the Black and Blues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is so obvious that the sky is blue in the daytime and black at night, but it took the smartest humans thousands of years of observation, thought, discussion, conjecture, and analysis to finally come up with answers that make scientific sense as to why the sky is these colors. This article discusses light and the scientific research…

Fisher, Diane

2004-01-01

199

Blue light hazard and aniridia.  

PubMed Central

The fundi of three patients with aniridia were photographed with a 470 nm illuminating light source. No apparent change in contrast was observable throughout the macular region. This would suggest an absence of the macular pigment. The likelihood of aniridics being more susceptible than normal persons to blue light damage is discussed. Images PMID:3978071

Abadi, R. V.; Dickinson, C. M.

1985-01-01

200

The Next Generation Blue Marble  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomena is a full year?s worth of NASA satellite data of Earth's land surface, coastal oceans, sea ice, and clouds that has been organized into a seamless, photo-like mosaic of our planet The image beneath the title "The Next Generation Blue Marble" features an animation. Click the image to begin the animation.

201

Optically Modulatable Blue Fluorescent Proteins  

PubMed Central

Blue fluorescent proteins (BFPs) offer visualization of protein location and behavior, but often suffer from high autofluorescent background and poor signal discrimination. Through dual-laser excitation of bright and photoinduced dark states, mutations to the residues surrounding the BFP chromophore enable long-wavelength optical modulation of BFP emission. Such dark state engineering enables violet-excited blue emission to be increased upon lower energy, green co-illumination. Turning this green co-illumination on and off at a specific frequency dynamically modulates collected blue fluorescence without generating additional background. Interpreted as transient photoconversion between neutral cis- and anionic trans- chromophoric forms, mutations tune photoisomerization and ground state tautomerizations to enable long-wavelength depopulation of the millisecond-lived, spectrally shifted dark states. Single mutations to the tyrosine-based blue fluorescent protein T203V/S205V exhibit enhanced modulation depth and varied frequency. Importantly, analogous single point mutations in the non-modulatable BFP, mKalama1, creates a modulatable variant. Building modulatable BFPs offers opportunities for improved BFP signal discrimination vs. background, greatly enhancing their utility. PMID:24099419

Jablonski, Amy E.; Vegh, Russell B.; Hsiang, Jung-Cheng; Bommarius, Bettina; Chen, Yen-Cheng; Solntsev, Kyril M.; Bommarius, Andreas S.; Tolbert, Laren M.; Dickson, Robert M.

2014-01-01

202

Blue Sky and Rayleigh Scattering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Georgia State University explains why we see the sky as blue. It describes Rayleigh scattering, which refers to the scattering of light off of the molecules of the air, and Mie scattering, which refers to the scattering of light by larger particles.

Carl R. (Rod) Nave

203

Baby T (Blue) (Size: Medium)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

1900-01-01

204

Baby T (Blue) (Size: Small)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

1900-01-01

205

Baby T (Blue) (Size: Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

1900-01-01

206

Why is the Sky Blue?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a flashlight, a glass of water, and some milk to examine why the sky is blue and sunsets are red. Learners will discover that the sky appears a different color depending on the position of the sun as well as molecules and particles in the air that cause the scattering of light.

Csiro

2006-01-01

207

A novel method to estimate the contribution of the vapor activity of essential oils in agar diffusion assay.  

PubMed

By the combined use of agar diffusion, agar vapor and agar vapor-inhibitory assays, contribution of the vapor activity of essential oils was quantitatively estimated. The test organisms were Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Aspergillus fumigatus. Agar vapor assay was used to confirm the vapor activity of the oils. The parameter delta defined as a contribution index of the vapor activity was calculated by (1 - b-c/a-c) x 100, where a is inhibitory diameter in the diffusion assay, b is inhibitory diameter in the vapor-inhibitory assay and c is diameter of the sealed ring in the vapor-inhibitory assay (21 mm). Many of the essential oils examined showed a delta value near 100, thus providing the major contribution of the vapor activity to the inhibitory diameter. Essential oils containing aldehyde as major constituent showed low delta value, indicating the major inhibition was due to agar diffusion. Major essential oil components behaved similarly; the delta value was increased in the following order: aldehyde < phenol < alcohol < ester, oxide, hydrocarbon, indicating the enhanced contribution of the vapor activity in that order. PMID:16699489

Inouye, Shigeharu; Uchida, Katsuhisa; Maruyama, Naho; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

2006-01-01

208

Fabrication of agar-gelatin hybrid scaffolds using a novel entrapment method for in vitro tissue engineering applications.  

PubMed

Scaffolds of agar and gelatin were developed using a novel entrapment method where agar and gelatin molecules mutually entrapped one another forming stable cell adhesive matrices. Glutaraldehyde was used as a crosslinking agent for gelatin. Three types of hybrid matrices were prepared using agar and gelatin in different proportions in the weight ratio of 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1. Surface characterization of dry scaffolds was carried out by scanning electron microscope. Swelling studies were carried out in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at physiological pH 7.4. The integral stability of the scaffolds was evaluated by estimating the released disintegrated gelatin from them in PBS at pH 7.4. The attachment kinetics of the cells was evaluated by culturing mouse fibroblast cell line NIH 3T3 on films. The cytocompatibility of these matrices was determined by studying growth kinetics of NIH 3T3 cells on them and morphology of cells was observed through optical photographs taken at various days of culture. It was found that the matrices containing agar and gelatin in 2:1 weight ratio exhibited best growth kinetics. The results obtained from these studies have suggested that the above-described method is a cheap and easy way to fabricate agar-gelatin hybrid scaffolds to grow cells which can be used in various in vitro tissue engineering applications like screening of drugs. PMID:16850454

Verma, Vipin; Verma, Poonam; Kar, Santosh; Ray, Pratima; Ray, Alok R

2007-02-01

209

On Seeing Reddish Green and Yellowish Blue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stabilization of the retinal image of the boundary between a pair of red/green or yellow/blue stripes, but not their outer edges, results in the entire region being perceived simultaneously as both red/green or yellow/blue. This suggests that the percepts of reddish-green/yellowish-blue apparently are possible in corticocortical color vision…

Crane, Hewitt D.; Piantanida, Thomas P.

1983-01-01

210

William Blue College of Hospitality Management  

E-print Network

William Blue College of Hospitality Management UAC 2013­14 Guide 441UAC 2013­14 Guide 441 NORTH SYDNEY CAMPUS CRICOS provider number 00246M postal enquiries William Blue College of Hospitality Management Level 9, 171 Pacific Highway North Sydney NSW 2060 in person William Blue College of Hospitality

New South Wales, University of

211

Inside JetBlue's Privacy Policy Violations  

Microsoft Academic Search

JetBlue Airways (JetBlue) gave five million customers' travel records to a USA Department of Defense contractor. The authors' analysis reveals that JetBlue's privacy policy might pose additional significant threats to customer privacy and that the USA Department of Homeland Security anti-terrorism exercise has adversely affected personal privacy.

Annie I. Antón; Qingfeng He; David L. Baumer

2004-01-01

212

Blue Lobster Bowl 2013: Team Intent Form Preparations are underway for the Blue Lobster Bowl  

E-print Network

Blue Lobster Bowl 2013: Team Intent Form Preparations are underway for the Blue Lobster Bowl Forms will be requested at a later date. Up to 24 student teams can compete in the Blue Lobster Lobster Bowl The Blue Lobster Bowl is an annual academic competition that encourages high school

Entekhabi, Dara

213

49 CFR 218.23 - Blue signal display.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blue signal display. 218.23 Section 218...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Blue Signal Protection of Workers § 218.23 Blue signal display. (a) Blue signals...

2010-10-01

214

Staphylococcus aureus identification: thermonuclease agar for direct testing of blood isolates and a new slide agglutination test.  

PubMed

Simulated blood cultures were used to evaluate Thermonuclease agar (Remel) for distinguishing Staphylococcus aureus from coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) without subculture to agar media, and a new slide agglutination test (Staphylochrome; Innovative Diagnostic Systems) was evaluated for its ability to distinguish S. aureus from CNS after growth on blood agar. A total of 125 S. aureus and 124 CNS isolates were tested by each method. Reference identification methods included tube coagulase, thermonuclease detection from solid media, and biochemical characterization. Direct thermonuclease testing with simulated blood cultures correctly identified all 249 isolates. Staphylochrome correctly identified 121 of 125 S. aureus and all CNS isolates. S. aureus was reliably distinguished from CNS by both tests evaluated in this study. PMID:10149420

McDowell, B; Papasian, C J

1991-01-01

215

Inhibition of Aspergillus flavus on agar media and brown rice cereal bars using cold atmospheric plasma treatment.  

PubMed

This study aimed to optimize the operating parameters of cold atmospheric plasma treatment to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus flavus on agar media and brown rice cereal bars. The effects of argon plasma jet treatment on the growth of A. flavus on malt extract agar (MEA) at powers of 20 W and 40 W with exposure times at 5, 15 and 25 min were studied using response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite face-centered (CCF) design. Multiple regression analysis indicated that plasma treatment at 40 W for 25 min is most effective for inhibiting growth of A. flavus on the agar medium. On brown rice cereal bars, plasma powered at 40 W for 20 min was capable of giving protection against A. flavus growth for up to 20 days under storage conditions of 25°C and 100% RH. These results demonstrated the potential of cold atmospheric plasma jet treatment to control mold growth on various food products. PMID:23279819

Suhem, Kitiya; Matan, Narumol; Nisoa, Mudtorlep; Matan, Nirundorn

2013-02-01

216

Stimulating growth and xylindein production of Chlorociboria aeruginascens in agar-based systems.  

PubMed

Four isolates of Chlorociboria aeruginascens were tested for possible stimulatory effects when grown on malt agar media containing wood additives. The addition of any of the four types of test wood (Acer saccharum, Populus tremuloides, spalted P. tremuloides, and Ailanthus altissima), stimulated colony growth and xylindein production in C. aeruginascens. Addition of any amount of wood produced more growth than no wood additions, while ground wood produced more growth than chopped wood. Of the wood types tested, A. saccharum wood stimulated all four isolates, while spalted Populus tremuloides stimulated three of the four isolates. High glucose and sucrose amounts may be partially responsible for the greater stimulatory affect of some woods over others. The development of this simple and reliable method for growth and pigment stimulation of C. aeruginascens in laboratory conditions will allow for further development of this fungus for decorative and commercial use. PMID:22409931

Robinson, Sara C; Tudor, Daniela; Snider, Hilary; Cooper, Paul A

2012-01-01

217

Granulopoiesis in infantile genetic agranulocytosis. In vitro cloning of marrow cells in agar culture.  

PubMed

A 3-year-old boy and a 2-year-old girl with infantile genetic agranulocytosis have been studied by in vitro cloning of bone marrow cells in agar culture. The patients display a normal concentration of colony forming cells and the morphological maturation is identical with that of control marrow cultured in vitro. The marrow cells of the patients show some degree of auto-stimulation indicating that endogenous production of colony stimulating factor is operating. As an inverse relationship is expected between the peripheral neutrophil count and the percentage of marrow colony forming cells in S-phase a high percentage was expected. On the contrary, we find that the percentage of colony forming cells in S-phase is extremely low indicating a genetic unresponsiveness of granulopoietic precursor cells to feed back regulation in infantile genetic agranulocytosis. PMID:1082629

Olofsson, T; Olsson, I; Kostmann, R; Malmström, S; Thilen, A

1976-01-01

218

Stimulating growth and xylindein production of Chlorociboria aeruginascens in agar-based systems  

PubMed Central

Four isolates of Chlorociboria aeruginascens were tested for possible stimulatory effects when grown on malt agar media containing wood additives. The addition of any of the four types of test wood (Acer saccharum, Populus tremuloides, spalted P. tremuloides, and Ailanthus altissima), stimulated colony growth and xylindein production in C. aeruginascens. Addition of any amount of wood produced more growth than no wood additions, while ground wood produced more growth than chopped wood. Of the wood types tested, A. saccharum wood stimulated all four isolates, while spalted Populus tremuloides stimulated three of the four isolates. High glucose and sucrose amounts may be partially responsible for the greater stimulatory affect of some woods over others. The development of this simple and reliable method for growth and pigment stimulation of C. aeruginascens in laboratory conditions will allow for further development of this fungus for decorative and commercial use. PMID:22409931

2012-01-01

219

Growth of Bacillus cereus on solid media as affected by agar, sodium chloride, and potassium sorbate.  

PubMed

The effect of two independent variables: microstructure, as modified by the agar content (1.0, 4.0, 7.0%), and water activity (a(w)), as modified by the NaCl content (0.5, 2.5, 4.5%), in the absence or in the presence of potassium sorbate (0.0; 2,000 ppm) on Bacillus cereus growth on solid media was studied. The time to visible growth (TVG) and the radial growth rate (RGR) of colonies were evaluated. TVG was not affected by microstructure and K-sorbate, although when a(w) was reduced, TVG tended to increase. RGR depended on linear effects of microstructure and a(w) variables and their interaction. When K-sorbate was added to cultural media, RGR was reduced significantly. However, in the presence of K-sorbate, RGR was found to change only when a(w) vas varied. PMID:10914662

Stecchini, M L; Del Torre, M; Donda, S; Maltini, E

2000-07-01

220

Comparison of 2 types of broths and 3 selective agars for the detection of Campylobacter species in whole-chicken carcass-rinse samples.  

PubMed

In this study, we compared the effectiveness of 2 types of Bolton broths and 3 selective media for isolating Campylobacter spp. from naturally contaminated whole-chicken carcass-rinse samples. One hundred chickens were rinsed with buffered peptone water, and the rinses were added to 2× Bolton broth (with or without blood supplementation). The samples were incubated and then streaked onto Preston agar, modified cefoperazone charcoal deoxycholate agar (mCCDA), and Campy-Cefex agar, which was followed by incubation under microaerobic conditions. No statistical differences were observed (P > 0.05) in isolation rate and selectivity between the 2 types of Bolton broths. Among the 3 selective agars, Preston agar yielded a significantly (P < 0.05) better isolation rate and selectivity. The Campy-Cefex agar, which is recommended by many food authorities for its high quantitative detection ability, showed extensive contamination with competing microorganisms and exhibited the lowest isolation rate and selectivity. PMID:22912477

Chon, J-W; Hyeon, J-Y; Park, J-H; Song, K-Y; Seo, K-H

2012-09-01

221

Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

Not Available

1990-09-01

222

Food habits of blue grouse  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The food habits of Blue Grouse vary from a simple winter diet that is made up predominantly of coniferous needles to a complex diet during the summer months, characterized by great variety of foods including green leaves, fruits and seeds, flowers, animal matter and coniferous needles. The spring and fall, which represent the transition periods between these two, are characterized by feeding habits that are generally intermediate. The diets of the two species of Blue Grouse, Dendrugapus obscurus and Dendragapus juliginosus, are quite similar as far as major types of food are concerned, but they differ considerably in the species that are taken. Such differences reflect differences in the vegetation within the ecologic and geographic ranges occupied by the two species.

Stewart, R.E.

1944-01-01

223

The Physics of the Blues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

Gibson, J. Murray

2009-03-01

224

Uncovering Blue Diffuse Dwarf Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) and the star-formation within their chemically pristine environments are fundamental to our understanding of the galaxy formation process at early times. However, traditional emission-line surveys detect only the brightest metal-poor galaxies where star-formation occurs in compact, starbursting environments, and thereby give us only a partial view of the dwarf galaxy population. To avoid such biases, we have developed a new search algorithm based on the morphological, rather then spectral, properties of XMPs and have applied to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database of images. Using this novel approach, we have discovered ~100 previously undetected, faint blue galaxies, each with isolated HII regions embedded in a diffuse continuum. In this talk I will present the first results from follow-up optical spectroscopy of this sample, which reveals these blue diffuse dwarfs (BDDs) to be young, very metal-poor and actively forming stars despite their intrinsically low luminosities. I will present evidence showing that BDDs appear to bridge the gap between quiescent dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies and blue compact galaxies (BCDs) and as such offer an ideal opportunity to assess how star-formation occurs in more `normal' metal-poor systems.

James, Bethan; Koposov, Sergey; Stark, Daniel; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W.

2015-01-01

225

Models of Individual Blue Stragglers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter describes the current state of models of individual blue stragglers. Stellar collisions, binary mergers (or coalescence), and partial or ongoing mass transfer have all been studied in some detail. The products of stellar collisions retain memory of their parent stars and are not fully mixed. Very high initial rotation rates must be reduced by an unknown process to allow the stars to collapse to the main sequence. The more massive collision products have shorter lifetimes than normal stars of the same mass, while products between low mass stars are long-lived and look very much like normal stars of their mass. Mass transfer can result in a merger, or can produce another binary system with a blue straggler and the remnant of the original primary. The products of binary mass transfer cover a larger portion of the colour-magnitude diagram than collision products for two reasons: there are more possible configurations which produce blue stragglers, and there are differing contributions to the blended light of the system. The effects of rotation may be substantial in both collision and merger products, and could result in significant mixing unless angular momentum is lost shortly after the formation event. Surface abundances may provide ways to distinguish between the formation mechanisms, but care must be taken to model the various mixing mechanisms properly before drawing strong conclusions. Avenues for future work are outlined.

Sills, Alison

226

Evaluation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice with Cornus fruit ( Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.) extract by conventional media and thin agar layer method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival in apple juice supplemented with Cornus fruit (Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.) extract was studied. Inoculated samples with or without Cornus fruit extract were kept at 21 and 7°C. Microbial analysis was conducted on days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7. MacConkey sorbitol agar (MSA), tryptic soy agar (TSA), and thin agar layer (TAL) medium were

Vivian C. H. Wu; Xujian Qiu; Y.-H. Peggy Hsieh

2008-01-01

227

Evaluation of Agar-Based Medium with Sheep Sera for Testing of Drug Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Isoniazid, Rifampin, Ethambutol, and Streptomycin  

PubMed Central

The performance of sheep sera instead of sheep blood in agar-based media was investigated for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis against primary drugs. The levels of agreement between agar-based medium supplemented with sheep sera and the proportion method on Middlebrook 7H11 agar as the reference method for determining susceptibility to isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), ethambutol (EMB), and streptomycin (STR) were 98.4, 98.4, 95.3, and 100%, respectively. PMID:24131699

Uzun, Meltem; Bozdogan, Bulent

2013-01-01

228

76 FR 22923 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...895, et al.] Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team Including...TA-W-74,895 Wellpoint, Inc., D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, Enterprise Provider Data...

2011-04-25

229

76 FR 19466 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, et al.; Amended Certification Regarding...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...895, et al.] Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, et al.; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility...TA-W-74,895 Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data...

2011-04-07

230

Polish Terms for "Blue" in the Perspective of Vantage Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Polish set of terms for blue includes, inter alia, the following adjectives: "niebieski" "blue", "blekitny" "(sky) blue", "granatowy" "navy blue", "lazurowy" "azure", "modry" "(intense) blue" and "siny" "(grey) violet-blue". The adjective "niebieski" is the basic term; however, it shares some of its functions with "blekitny", which is…

Stanulewicz, Danuta

2010-01-01

231

BLUE STRAGGLERS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER 47 TUCANAE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The core of globular cluster 47 Tucanae is home to many blue stragglers, rejuvenated stars that glow with the blue light of young stars. A ground-based telescope image (on the left) shows the entire crowded core of 47 Tucanae, located 15,000 light-years away in the constellation Tucana. Peering into the heart of the globular cluster's bright core, the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 separated the dense clump of stars into many individual stars (image on right). Some of these stars shine with the light of old stars; others with the blue light of blue stragglers. The yellow circles in the Hubble telescope image highlight several of the cluster's blue stragglers. Analysis for this observation centered on one massive blue straggler. Astronomers theorize that blue stragglers are formed either by the slow merger of stars in a double-star system or by the collision of two unrelated stars. For the blue straggler in 47 Tucanae, astronomers favor the slow merger scenario. This image is a 3-color composite of archival Hubble Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 images in the ultraviolet (blue), blue (green), and violet (red) filters. Color tables were assigned and scaled so that the red giant stars appear orange, main-sequence stars are white/green, and blue stragglers are appropriately blue. The ultraviolet images were taken on Oct. 25, 1995, and the blue and violet images were taken on Sept. 1, 1995. Credit: Rex Saffer (Villanova University) and Dave Zurek (STScI), and NASA

2002-01-01

232

Hydrogen-Bond-Mediated in Situ Fabrication of AgNPs/Agar/PAN Electrospun Nanofibers as Reproducible SERS Substrates.  

PubMed

Reproducibility in surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurements is a challenge. This work developed a facile way to make highly dispersed uniform silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) loaded in the agar/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers by the coupling the electrospinning technology from metal complex-containing polymer solution and in situ photoreductive technique. Agar, as hydrophilic component, was introduced into the electrospinning solution considering that its abundant hydroxyl group sites could greatly improve the contents of silver ions in the polymers because of the rich silver ion chelated with the hydroxyl group, whereas hydrophilic agar was integrated with hydrophobic PAN by -OH···N?C- hydrogen bonds as a bridge. Meanwhile, the in situ photoreductive reaction was made under different light irradiations such as desk lamp, 365 nm UV-lamp, and 254 nm UV-lamp. High yield of stable AgNPs with highly uniform and dispersion are available in the agar/PAN nanofibers after the in situ photoreductive reaction, supplying the possibility of reproducible SERS signals. To identify that concept of proof, a facile approach for the determination of malachite green (MG) in three environmental practical samples was demonstrated by using the composite nanofibrous material irradiated by 365 nm UV-lamp, giving the minimum detection concentration of MG as low as 0.1 ?mol/L with a good linear response ranging from 0.1-100 ?mol/L (R(2) = 0.9960). PMID:25546719

Yang, Tong; Yang, Hui; Zhen, Shu Jun; Huang, Cheng Zhi

2015-01-28

233

Comparison of Broth Microdilution, E Test, and Agar Dilution Methods for Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

A standardized broth microdilution method was compared to the E test and an agar dilution method for the antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolates. A group of 47 human clinical isolates, 37 isolates from retail poultry, and 29 isolates from living turkeys (total, 113 isolates) was included in the study. These encompassed 92 C. jejuni and

Petra Luber; Edda Bartelt; Elke Genschow; Jutta Wagner; Helmut Hahn

2003-01-01

234

Comparison of Neisseria gonorrhoeae MICs Obtained by Etest and Agar Dilution for Ceftriaxone, Cefpodoxime, Cefixime and Azithromycin.  

PubMed

We evaluated Neisseria gonorrhoeae Etest minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) relative to agar dilution MICs for 664 urethral isolates for ceftriaxone (CRO) and azithromycin (AZM), 351 isolates for cefpodoxime (CPD) and 315 isolates for cefixime (CFM). Etest accurately determined CPD, CFM and AZM MICs, but resulted in higher CRO MICs. PMID:24513503

Gose, Severin; Kong, Carol J; Lee, Yer; Samuel, Michael C; Bauer, Heidi M; Dixon, Paula; Soge, Olusegun O; Lei, John; Pandori, Mark

2013-10-24

235

Comparison of Neisseria gonorrhoeae MICs obtained by Etest and agar dilution for ceftriaxone, cefpodoxime, cefixime and azithromycin.  

PubMed

We evaluated Neisseria gonorrhoeae Etest minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) relative to agar dilution MICs for 664 urethral isolates for ceftriaxone (CRO) and azithromycin (AZM), 351 isolates for cefpodoxime (CPD) and 315 isolates for cefixime (CFM). Etest accurately determined CPD, CFM and AZM MICs, but resulted in higher CRO MICs. PMID:24455772

Gose, Severin; Kong, Carol J; Lee, Yer; Samuel, Michael C; Bauer, Heidi M; Dixon, Paula; Soge, Olusegun O; Lei, John; Pandori, Mark

2013-12-01

236

The soft agar clonogenicity and characterization of cells obtained from human solid tumors by mechanical and enzymatic means  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-step procedure for releasing cells from solid tumors has been applied to specimens of human melanoma, sarcoma, lung, colon, and breast carcinoma. The first population released mechanically has been compared with the population subsequently released enzymatically in tests of dye exclusion, ribonucleoside triposphate pool sizes, intactness of DNA, and clonogenicity in soft agar. While greater numbers of dye-excluding cells

Harry K. Slocum; Zlatko P. Pavelic; Peter M. Kanter; Norma J. Nowak; Youcef M. Rustum

1981-01-01

237

Screening for ligninolytic enzymes from autochthonous fungi and applications for decolorization of Remazole Marine Blue  

PubMed Central

This study presents new and alternative fungal strains for the production of ligninolytic enzymes which have great potential to use in industrial and biotechnological processes. Thirty autochthonous fungal strains were harvested from Bornova-Izmir in Turkiye. In the fresh fruitbody extracts laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase activities, which are the principal enzymes responsible for ligninocellulose degradation by Basidiomycetes, were screened. Spores of some of the basidiomycetes species such as Cortinarius sp., Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Abortiporus biennis, Lyophyllum subglobisporium, Ramaria stricta, Ganoderma carnosum, Lactarius delicious ve Lepista nuda were isolated and investigated optimum cultivation conditions in submerged fermentation for high yields of ligninolytic enzyme production. In addition, isolated fungal strains were monitored on agar plates whether having the capability of decolorization of a textile dye Remazol Marine Blue. PMID:24031371

Erden, Emre; Ucar, M. Cigdem; Gezer, Tekin; Pazarlioglu, Nurdan Kasikara

2009-01-01

238

Lair of the Blue Falcon  

E-print Network

to attract the best." Vader's voice deepened. "And the worst." "A...a...description, My Lord?" Pactella stammered. "The ship is Corellian," The breath screen hissed. "Post the pilot as a Corellian national. 1.8 meters. 79.6 kilograms. Brown hair. Brown eyes..., to free the galaxy of the vile Imperial network which was strangling the very existence of a free universe. His pale, blue eyes reflecting the anger within, he thought of the two fine people who had taken him in and raised him as their own. He would avenge...

Berger, J.A.

1995-01-01

239

Blue and UV Semiconductor Lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite many technological difficulties the group III nitrides: GaN, AlN and InN and their alloys are primary candidates for electro-optical coherent light sources. In the recent years the research and technology of the nitride based continuous wave (CW) laser diodes (LDs) led to creation of blue-violet coherent light sources of power up to 200 mW. The progress has been attained by using various ways to attack the main obstacles in the technology of these devices such as insufficient size of high quality lattice matched substrates, low p-doping efficiency of Mg acceptor, poor contact to p-type semiconductor and low efficiency of radiative recombination. The two different approaches were used to overcome the substrate problem: hetero-epitaxy and homoepitaxy. Homoepitaxy used high pressure GaN high quality crystals. Heteroepitaxy used sapphire, SiC or GaAs substrates and very sophisticated techniques of reduction of the dislocation density. The low p-doping efficiency by using Mg acceptor is related to creation of Mg--H complexes due to hydrogen presence during the growth of laser diode quantum structures. In addition, Mg acceptor has low efficiency due to its high energy. High Mg concentrations can be obtained by using either MOCVD or ammonia source MBE growth. An alternative route is to use hydrogen-free plasma activated MBE (PA-MBE) method. The recent advances and the prospects of both approaches will be discussed. Solid AlGaInN solution offers a possibility to cover wide spectral range, starting from near UV to blue, green and red. Arsenide based laser diodes (LDs) are efficient coherent red light sources. Therefore, nitride based LDs are considered to be devices of choice for green, blue and UV spectral range. So far only blue and violet laser has been realized. The progress toward green and UV lasers is far less spectacular. The results in all these areas and future prospects will be discussed.

Krukowski, S.; Skierbiszewski, C.; Perlin, P.; Leszczynski, M.; Bockowski, M.; Porowski, S.

2006-04-01

240

[Variations in hyperbilirrubinemia in low birth weight newborns under phototherapy and continous or discontinous agar oral administration (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Therapeutic attitude in hyperbilirrubinemia is always worth because other infrequent complications but not for this, less important. Phototherapy innocuousness, largely demonstrated, fosters its profilactic use at beginning and not only for those babies with serum bilirrubin over 10 mg % in the first day of life. Previously we have reported positive results with agar oral administration without collateral effects. On this grounds we have planned the following experience in a homogenous group of L.B.W.: one group was fed with agar previously to each formula administration; other group received the same amount of agar but divided in only three administrations in 24 hours; the last group received continuous phototherapy for 96 hours with a white cold fluorescent light from a source of 8-Vita-lite lamp of 40 watts with a intensity of 500 foot candle and 30 lumens. All of these babies weighed less than 2.500 g. and were between 10 and 90 percentil of Lubschenko diagram. They were fed with the same formula and same time table with no infusions, rejecting all that presented any type of pathology. Obstetric conditions were basically identical. This population was randomly divided in four groups. 1) Control group with no profilaxis, but with identical bilirrubin andhematocrit determinations. 2) Group with continuous agar oral administration, 125 mg. before each of the seven formula feeding. 3) Group with discontinuous agar administration, 250 mg. before three of the seven formula feeding. 4) Group with continuous phototherapy for 96 hours. These is initial identification of the groups with statistic signification, and after that a quantitative and sequential evolution of bilirrubin is analized in each group. PMID:1155873

Colomer, J; Moya, M; Marco, V; De Paredes, C; Escrivá, F; Vila, R

1975-06-01

241

Comparison of Agar Dilution, Broth Dilution, Cylinder Plate and Disk Diffusion Methods for Evaluation of Anti-leishmanial Drugs on Leishmania promastigotes  

PubMed Central

Background Leishmaniases are a group of diseases caused by Leishmania parasites. Growing of drug unresponsiveness in leishmaniasis patients necessitates the development of new drugs and accordingly a suitable assay is needed for evaluation of any modalities. The aim of this study was to compare four drug assays methods, agar dilution, broth dilution, cylinder plate and disk diffusion, for evaluation of anti-leishmanial drugs on Leishmania promastigotes, using glucantime as a currently available drug for treatment of leishmaniasis. Methods For broth dilution method, different concentration of glucantime was added to the parasite culture (promastigotes of Leishmania), while in cylinder plate method wells were punched in agar gel and filled with different concentration of drug and zone of inhibition was measured in each well. In disk diffusion method, the parasites were cultivated on the surface of agar; filter paper disks were enriched with various concentration of glucantime and were placed on the surface of agar. In agar dilution method, various concentrations of drug were incorporated onto blood agar and the parasites were cultivated on the surface of the agar. Results A direct correlation was found between the drug concentration and size of inhibitory zones in cylinder plate and disk diffusion methods. These two drug assays methods provided much better performance in comparison with broth and agar dilution methods. Conclusion Cylinder plate and disk diffusion methods seem to be acceptable methods for susceptibility testing of anti-leishmanial compounds on Leishmania promastigotes. PMID:23109961

Mohammadzadeh, T; Sadjjadi, SM; Habibi, P; Sarkari, B

2012-01-01

242

THE PRODUCTION OF SUBSTANCES WITH HIGH INACTIVATION AND WITH A PROTECTIVE EFFECT AGAINST DIRECT IRRADIATION IN AGAR BY X-RAYS, ALPHA RAYS AND ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irradiation of agar by x rays, alpha rays, or ultraviolet light produces ; inactivation substances in the agar. This can be demonstrated by culturing ; bacteria e.g., B. Coli. The mean life time of these substances has a value ; between 7 and 20 sec. They are produced by at least two elementary processes. ; The substances produced by x

1962-01-01

243

Equivalency testing of TTC Tergitol 7 agar (ISO 9308-1:2000) with five culture media for the detection of E. coli in water samples in Greece.  

PubMed

In this study ten laboratories in Greece compared the performance of reference method TTC Tergitol 7 Agar (with the additional test of beta-glucuronidase production) with five alternative methods, to detect E. coli in water, in line with European Water Directive recommendations. The samples were prepared by spiking drinking water with sewage effluent following a standard protocol. Chlorinated and non-chlorinated samples were used. The statistical analysis was based on the mean relative difference of confirmed counts and was performed in line with ISO 17994. The results showed that in total, three of the alternative methods (Chromocult Coliform agar, Membrane Lauryl Sulfate agar and Trypton Bilex-glucuronidase medium) were not different from TTC Tergitol 7 agar (TTC Tergitol 7 agar vs Chromocult Coliform agar, 294 samples, mean RD% 5.55; vs MLSA, 302 samples, mean RD% 1; vs TBX, 297 samples, mean RD% -2.78). The other two alternative methods (Membrane Faecal coliform medium and Colilert 18/ Quantitray) gave significantly higher counts than TTC Tergitol 7 agar (TTC Tergitol 7 agar vs MFc, 303 samples, mean RD% 8.81; vs Colilert-18/Quantitray, 76 samples, mean RD% 18.91). In other words, the alternative methods generated performance that was as reliable as, or even better than, the reference method. This study will help laboratories in Greece overcome culture and counting problems deriving from the EU reference method for E. coli counts in water samples. PMID:20057092

Mavridou, A; Smeti, E; Mandilara, G; Mandilara, G; Boufa, P; Vagiona-Arvanitidou, M; Vantarakis, A; Vassilandonopoulou, G; Pappa, O; Roussia, V; Tzouanopoulos, A; Livadara, M; Aisopou, I; Maraka, V; Nikolaou, E; Mandilara, G

2010-01-01

244

Copper deficiency in potato dextrose agar causes reduced pigmentation in cultures of various fungi.  

PubMed

Potato dextrose agar (PDA) is one of the most commonly used media for the isolation and cultivation of fungi, with morphological features and pigmentation in culture often being important for identification of cultures. Cultivation of various fungi on different brands and batches of powdered (commercial) potato dextrose media revealed deficient pigmentation in five of 10 media tested. Reduced pigmentation on these media was correlated with low levels of copper and colony colour was restored by the addition of copper. Deficient pigmentation was most pronounced when copper levels in the medium were below 50 ng mL(-1) (50 p.p.b.; 0.8 microM). Differences in pigmentation and laccase activity of spore and mycelial preparations were quantified for representative species belonging to the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium, Trichoderma, Cladosporium and Penicillium grown on PDA containing different amounts of copper. A strong positive correlation between laccase activity and copper levels was observed. Differences were also found between batches of raw potatoes, with organically cultivated tubers having higher copper levels than those grown by conventional methods, possibly because of the use of copper-based fungicides in the former case. Routine addition of 1000 ng mL(-1) copper (or standard trace element solutions) to PDA and other undefined media is advised to avoid atypical culture pigmentation and possibly other consequences of reduced activity of copper-requiring enzymes. PMID:17956422

Griffith, Garth W; Easton, Gary L; Detheridge, Andrew; Roderick, Kevin; Edwards, Arwyn; Worgan, Hilary J; Nicholson, Jean; Perkins, William T

2007-11-01

245

Agaribacter marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., an agar-degrading bacterium from surface seawater.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-negative, motile, mesophilic, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, strain 8-8(T), was isolated from surface seawater at Muroto, Kochi, Japan. The strain exhibited agar-degrading activity. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain fell within the family Alteromonadaceae and clustered distantly with members of the genus Glaciecola (? 94.0% similarity). The DNA G+C content was 41.8 mol%. The major fatty acids were C16 : 1?7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH, C16?:?0 and C18 : 1?7c and the major hydroxy fatty acid was C12 : 0 3-OH. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified polar lipid; lysophosphatidylethanolamine and unidentified polar lipids were found as minor components. The major quinone was Q-8. On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic data, strain 8-8(T) represents a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Agaribacter marinus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Agaribacter marinus is 8-8(T) (?= NBRC 110023(T)?= LMG 28167(T)). PMID:24763604

Teramoto, Maki; Nishijima, Miyuki

2014-07-01

246

Potato carrot agar with manganese as an isolation medium for Alternaria, Epicoccum and Phoma.  

PubMed

A semi-selective medium for isolation of Alternaria spp., Epicoccum sp. and Phoma spp. from soil and plant samples was developed. The basal medium was a modified potato carrot agar (PCA), containing 10 g/L of potato and carrot. It is known that the target genera sporulate well on standard PCA when grown at 25 degrees C with an alternating light/dark cycle consisting of 8 h of cool-white daylight followed by 16 h darkness. Addition of 1.5% MnCl(2) 4 H(2)O (w/v) inhibited most other fungi than Alternaria, Epicoccum and Phoma species when tested on pure cultures. The mycobiota of two soil samples and eight grain samples were examined using PCA-Mn and three commonly used isolation media, DRYES, DG18 and V8. On the three conventional media growth of several genera was observed with the predominant being Aspergillus, Eurotium, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium and Rhizopus. Of these only F. oxysporum and F. verticillioides were able to grow on PCA-Mn. Alternaria infectoria and Epicoccum nigrum were present in three cereal grain samples, but emerged to a far lower degree on the three conventional media compared to PCA-Mn. Three black spored fungi, identified as Phoma eupyrena, Paraconiothyrium minitan and one unknown species, were isolated from the two soil samples when incubated on PCA-Mn but were absent on the three conventional media. PMID:19185378

Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Thrane, Ulf; Andersen, Birgitte

2009-03-15

247

Spectral filtering for improved pulsed photothermal temperature profiling in agar tissue phantoms  

PubMed Central

We present a systematic experimental comparison of pulsed photothermal temperature profiling utilizing the customary spectral band of the InSb radiation detector (?=3.0 to 5.6 ?m) and a narrowed acquisition band (4.5 to 5.6 ?m). We use custom tissue phantoms composed of agar gel layers separated by thin absorbing layers. The laser-induced temperature profiles are reconstructed within the customary monochromatic approximation, using a custom minimization algorithm. In a detailed numerical simulation of the experimental procedure, we consider several acquisition spectral bands with the lower wavelength limit varied between 3.0 and 5.0 ?m (imitating application of different long-pass filters). The simulated PPTR signals contain noise with amplitude and spectral characteristics consistent with our experimental system. Both experimental and numerical results indicate that spectral filtering reduces reconstruction error and broadening of temperature peaks, especially for shallower and more complex absorbing structures. For the simulated PPTR system and watery tissues, numerical results indicate an optimal lower wavelength limit of 3.8 to 4.2 ?m. PMID:19123649

Milani?, Matija; Majaron, Boris; Nelson, J. Stuart

2009-01-01

248

Agar-encapsulated adsorbent based on leaf of platanus sp. to adsorb cadmium ion in water.  

PubMed

A low cost and environmentally friendly adsorbent was developed based on leaf of platanus sp. to adsorb cadmium ion in water. The adsorbent was modified with citric acid and then also encapsulated in agar for easy separation after the adsorption process. Parameters such as adsorbent dose, stirring time, solution pH and modification of the adsorbent with citric acid were investigated in a batch experiment in order to determine the optimum condition for Cd (II) adsorption. Based on the Langmuir isotherm adsorption model, the adsorption capacity of cadmium ion for raw adsorbent, modified adsorbent with citric acid and encapsulated adsorbent were 3.69, 15.31 and 6.89 mg/g, respectively. The high adsorption capacity after treatment with citric acid may be due to the increase in carboxylic content of the adsorbent surface and also the increase of surface area and pore volume of the adsorbent. With this high adsorption capacity for cadmium ion and an abundance of raw materials, this bio-adsorbent could be considered as a low cost adsorbent in the near future. PMID:25026584

Siswoyo, Eko; Endo, Nozomi; Mihara, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Shunitz

2014-01-01

249

Morphological responses of wheat to blue light  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blue light significantly increased tillering in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown at the same photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). Plants were grown under two levels of blue light (400-500 nm) in a controlled environment with continuous irradiation. Plants received either 50 micromoles m-2 s-1 of blue light or 2 micromoles m-2 s-1 blue light from filtered metal halide lamps at a total irradiance of 200 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPF (400-700 nm). Plants tillered an average of 25% more under the higher level of blue light. Blue light also caused a small, but consistent, increase in main culm development, measured as Haun stage. Leaf length was reduced by higher levels of blue light, while plant dry-mass was not significantly affected by blue light. Applying the principle of equivalent light action, the results suggest that tillering and leaf elongation are mediated by the blue-UV light receptor(s) because phytochrome photoequilibrium for each treatment were nearly identical.

Barnes, C.; Bugbee, B.

1992-01-01

250

1) Anthem Blue Dental PPO Plus 2) Anthem Blue Dental PPO  

E-print Network

your insurance premium costs, your share of dental insurance premiums can be paid with pre-tax dollars under the CHEIBA Trust Pre-Tax Insurance Premium Payments Account under the Flexible Benefit Plan- 35 - 1) Anthem Blue Dental PPO Plus 2) Anthem Blue Dental PPO DENTAL INSURANCE ANTHEM BLUE CROSS

251

Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Venous malformations of blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) may involve any area of the gastrointestinal tract.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Gastrointestinal blood loss and anemia brings these patients to the attention of gastroenterologists.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Effective treatment of these malformations throughout the gastrointestinal tract requires aggressive management to ultimately\\u000a decrease blood loss and restore the patient’s hemoglobin to a near-normal

John M. Andersen

2001-01-01

252

Methylthymol blue in Fricke gels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The initial trial of methylthymol blue (MTB) as a chelator for ferric iron in Fricke gel dosimeters, used for three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry in cancer radiotherapy, is reported. MTB is a structural analogue of the conventionally used xylenol orange (XO); however, the absorbance spectrum of the ferric-MTB complex is shifted to higher wavelengths, which should allow for lower amount of light scattering during gel scanning. In this study, two gelatin substrates, two sources of XO and one source of MTB have been compared. The MTB- containing gels exhibited similar dose response and diffusion coefficient to the XO-containing gels at their wavelengths of maximum absorption (620 and 585 nm, respectively). In addition, the MTB gels gave an excellent dose response at 633 nm, which is an important wavelength that is already used with other 3D dosimeters.

Penev, K. I.; Mequanint, K.

2015-01-01

253

Long-persistence blue phosphors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates to phosphors including long-persistence blue phosphors. Phosphors of the invention are represented by the general formula: MO . mAl.sub.2 O.sub.3 :Eu.sup.2+,R.sup.3+ wherein m is a number ranging from about 1.6 to about 2.2, M is Sr or a combination of Sr with Ca and Ba or both, R.sup.3+ is a trivalent metal ion or trivalent Bi or a mixture of these trivalent ions, Eu.sup.2+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M, and R.sup.3+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M. Phosphors of this invention include powders, ceramics, single crystals and single crystal fibers. A method of manufacturing improved phosphors and a method of manufacturing single crystal phosphors are also provided.

Yen, William M. (Inventor); Jia, Weiyi (Inventor); Lu, Lizhu (Inventor); Yuan, Huabiao (Inventor)

2000-01-01

254

Why is the sky blue? (Tyndall Effect)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides an answer to the common question of âWhy is the sky blue?â The page uses drawings and images to explain how Tyndall Effect causes the blue color we see. Similar topics like Sunsets and âWhy is Mars sky red?â are also addressed.

2007-06-22

255

21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium...incorporated in the mixture in order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

2012-04-01

256

21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium...incorporated in the mixture in order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

2014-04-01

257

21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium...incorporated in the mixture in order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

2011-04-01

258

21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium...incorporated in the mixture in order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

2013-04-01

259

Original article Blue-stain fungi associated  

E-print Network

Original article Blue-stain fungi associated with Tomicus piniperda in Sweden and preliminary to determine the development of blue-staining of sapwood. Fungi were isolated from samples of inner bark isolated from trees attacked by T piniperda. Three species of fungi were rather frequent- ly isolated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

260

Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

Liebl, Michael

2010-01-01

261

Morpho-blue reproduced by nanocasting lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The brilliant metallic blue in wings of Morpho butterflies has a mysterious feature. The blue luster is produced from the butterfly's scale, which does not contain a blue pigment at all. The origin of the coloration is then attributed to a microscopic structure that can also explain its high reflectivity. However, its optical characteristics on the scattered wavelength contradicts obviously the grating or multilayer, because it appears blue from wide angle. The mystery of the lack of multi-coloration has recently been explained using a model with a peculiar optical structure, and experimentally proven by fabricating the optical film by controlling the parameters in nanoscale. The reproduced Morpho-blue was found to be important from viewpoint of a wide variety of applications. However, the fabrication process of the nano- structure is too costly due to conventional lithography method. To solve the problem, nano-casting lithography (NCL) was newly applied using UV curable polymer to replicate the nanostructure and improve heat-resistance for the following process of deposition. After fabrication of the nano-patterned polymer structure by the NCL, TiO II and SiO II layers were deposited and the Morpho-blue structure was successfully replicated in low cost. The reflective characteristic of the replicated structure was found to reproduce the basic properties of the natural Morpho-blue, as well as the originally fabricated Morpho-blue.

Saito, Akira; Nakajima, Masaki; Miyamura, Yusuke; Sogo, Kenji; Ishikawa, Yoko; Hirai, Yoshihiko

2006-08-01

262

In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of Scopulariopsis brevicaulis strains using agar diffusion method.  

PubMed

The genus Scopulariopsis is a common soil saprotroph and has been isolated from air, organic waste and also from plant, animal and human tissues. Scopulariopsis has mainly been associated in humans with superficial mycoses, but it has also been described as the cause of subcutaneous and invasive infections. The most common aetiological agent of infections in humans is Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. This species has been reported to be resistant in vitro to broad-spectrum antifungal agents available today. The aim of the study was to establish in vitro antifungal susceptibility of 35 S. brevicaulis strains against amphotericin B (AMB), flucytosine (FC), caspofungin (CAS), terbinafine (TER), ciclopirox (CIC), voriconazole (VOR), clotrimazole (CTR), miconazole (MCZ), econazole (ECO), ketoconazole (KET), itraconazole (ITR), and fluconazole (FLU). Antifungal susceptibility tests were evaluated by an agar diffusion method (Neo-Sensitabs, Rosco, Denmark). AMB, FC, CAS, ITR and FLU showed no antifungal activity against S. brevicaulis. TER, CIC, CTR, KET, VOR, ECO, and MCZ revealed inhibitory activity for S. brevicaulis, but it varied for each of the drugs. The best antifungal effect was observed for TER and CIC. All isolates had large inhibition zones for TER and CIC. CTR was also inhibitory for all tested S. brevicaulis isolates, but the diameters of inhibition zones were smaller than for TER and CIC. Nearly 89% isolates showed inhibition zones for KET and the mean diameter of the inhibition zone was comparable to CTR. The least antifungal activity exhibited VQR, ECO and MCZ. Because of the multiresistance of S. brevicaulis, infections due to this species may not respond to particular antifungal treatment and other therapeutic approaches should be considered, e.g., combined therapy and/or surgery. PMID:21682097

Skóra, Magdalena; Macura, Anna B

2011-01-01

263

Ammoniibacillus agariperforans gen. nov., sp. nov., a new thermophilic agar-degrading bacterium isolated from compost.  

PubMed

A thermophilic agar-degrading bacterium, strain FAB2T, was isolated from sewage sludge compost. According to the phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain FAB2T belonged to the family Paenibacillaceae within division Firmicutes. However, FAB2T was different enough in the genus level from closely related species. The percentages of 16S rRNA gene similarity were 90.4% for Thermobacillus xylanilyticus, 91.8% for Paenibacillus barengoltzii, 89.4% for Cohnella lupini, 90.1% for Fontibacillus aquaticus, and 89.0% for Saccharibacillus sacchari. Morphological and physiological analyses revealed that the strain was motile, rod-shaped, gram-positive, and aerobic, able to form oval endospores in swollen sporangia. Ammonium was required as a nitrogen source while nitrate, nitrite, urea and glutamate were not utilized. Catalase and oxidase activities were weakly positive and positive, respectively. The bacterium grew in the temperature range of 50-65 °C and in media with pH values between 7.5 and 9.0. Optimal growth occurred at 60 °C and pH 8.0-8.6. Growth was inhibited at pH ? 7.0 and NaCl concentration ? 2.5%. In chemotaxonomic characters, MK-7 was identified as the dominant menaquinone. Major fatty acids are iso-C16:0 and C16:0. Dominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Phosphatidylcholine (PC) was present as moderate amount. The diamino acid in the cell wall was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 49.5 mol% in nucleic acid study. On the basis of genetic and phenotypic characteristics, strain FAB2T (= NBRC 109510T = KCTC 33130T) showed the characteristics suitable for novel genus in family Paenibacillaceae, for which the name Ammoniibacillus agariperforans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:25404482

Sakai, Masao; Deguchi, Daigo; Hosoda, Akifumi; Kawauchi, Tomohiro; Ikenaga, Makoto

2014-11-17

264

Effect of EDTA on Pb(II) Uptake and Translocation by Tumbleweed (Salsola Kali): Agar and Hydroponics Studies  

SciTech Connect

Environmental accumulation of Pb represents a worldwide health hazard. While conventional cleanup techniques are generally expensive and soil disturbing, phytoremediation represents an inexpensive friendly option for the removal of contaminants from soil and water. In this research, tumbleweed (Salsola kali) plants exposed for 15 days to Pb(NO3)2 at 80 and 125 ppm in hydroponics and agar media, demonstrated a high capacity to uptake lead. The results showed that the plants cultivated in agar accumulated 25563, 5534 and 2185 mg Pb kg-1 DW in roots, stems and leaves, respectively. Moreover, Pb concentrations found in hydroponically grown tumbleweed plants tissues were 30744, 1511 and 1421 mg kg-1 DW in roots, stems and leaves, respectively. It was observed that EDTA enhanced Pb translocation. No Pb phytotoxic effects were observed during the experimental time period. Cellular structural features were also observed using TEM.

de la Rosa, Guadalupe; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Aldrich, Mary

2004-03-31

265

Featured Molecules: Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The WebWare molecules of the month for May are featured in several articles in this issue. "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?" discusses the pharmaceutical uses of methylene blue and its development as the first synthetic drug used against a specific disease. The JCE Classroom Activity "Out of the Blue" and the article "Greening the Blue Bottle" feature methylene blue and ascorbic acid as two key ingredients in the formulation of the blue bottle. You can also see a colorful example of these two molecules in action on the cover. "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist" describes an experiment to determine the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of citrus fruits and challenges students, as eighteenth-century sea captains, to decide the best fruit to take on a long voyage. Fully manipulable (Chime) versions of these and other molecules are available at Only@JCE Online.

Coleman, William F.; Wildman, Randall J.

2003-05-01

266

Liofilchem® O.A. Listeria agar and direct CAMP test provided sooner Listeria monocytogenes identification from neonatal bacteremia  

PubMed Central

Listeria monocytogenes infection in pregnant women and newborns is a cause for serious concern, and invasive disease outcome strongly depends on prompt antibiotic therapy. To provide sooner identification from neonatal bacteremia we performed a CAMP test directly on positive blood aliquots and inoculated the Liofilchem® O.A. Listeria chromogenic agar as well, thus providing a 24-h turn-around time for response. PMID:24695762

Savini, Vincenzo; Marrollo, Roberta; Serio, Annalisa; Paparella, Antonello; Argentieri, Angela Valentina; D’Antonio, Marianna; Coclite, Eleonora; Fusilli, Paola; Fazii, Paolo

2014-01-01

267

Comparison of agar and microcrystal cellulose as gelling agents for in vitro culture of Nicotiana tabacum stem expiants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation was made on a use of microcrystal cellulose as a new and inexpensive gelling agent instead of agar. Microcrystal\\u000a cellulose in concentration 20 % forms a suitable structure of nutrient medium for in vitro cultivation. The higher humidity\\u000a in the culture container with microcrystal cellulose causes partial vitrification of Nicotiana tabacum L. plants, cv. Zlatna\\u000a arda. It is proved

N. Gorinova; A. Atanasov; K. Alexandrova; R. Velkova; A. Kasachka

1993-01-01

268

Diffusion in immobilized-cell agar layers: influence of bacterial growth on the diffusivity of potassium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diffusitivity of potassium chloride in composite agar slab\\/microporous membrane structures loaded with various amounts of Escherichia coli whole cells was determined using both time-lag and steady-state methods. The diffusion coefficient of KCl decreased linearly with the logarithm of the immobilized-cells content. The effect exerted by bacterial growth inside the immobilization matrices on KCl diffusivity was then investigated. The diffusion

Laurent Mignot; Guy-Alain Junter

1990-01-01

269

Nutrient limitation leads to penetrative growth into agar and affects aroma formation in Pichia fabianii, P. kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Among fermentative yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is most frequently used as a model organism, although other yeast species may have special features that make them interesting candidates to apply in food-fermentation processes. In this study, we used three yeast species isolated from fermented masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruit, S. cerevisiae 131, Pichia fabianii 65 and Pichia kudriavzevii 129, and determined the impact of nitrogen and/or glucose limitation on surface growth mode and the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All three species displayed significant changes in growth mode in all nutrient-limited conditions, signified by the formation of metafilaments or pseudohyphae. The timing of the transition was found to be species-specific. Transition in growth mode is suggested to be linked to the production of certain fusel alcohols, such as phenylethyl alcohol, which serve as quorum-sensing molecules. Interestingly, we did not observe concomitant increased production of phenylethyl alcohol and filamentous growth. Notably, a broader range of esters was found only for the Pichia spp. grown on nitrogen-limited agar for 21?days compared to nutrient-rich agar, and when grown on glucose- and glucose- plus nitrogen-limited agar. Our data suggest that for the Pichia spp., the formation of esters may play an important role in the switch in growth mode upon nitrogen limitation. Further biological or ecological implications of ester formation are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25308873

van Rijswijck, Irma M H; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Wolkers-Rooijackers, Judith C M; Abee, Tjakko; Smid, Eddy J

2015-01-01

270

Irradiation of silver and agar/silver nanoparticles with argon, oxygen glow discharge plasma, and mercury lamp.  

PubMed

The irradiation effect of argon, oxygen glow discharge plasma, and mercury lamp on silver and agar/silver nanoparticle samples is studied. The irradiation time dependence of the synthesized silver and agar/silver nanoparticle absorption spectra and their antibacterial effect are studied and compared. In the agar/silver nanoparticle sample, as the irradiation time of argon glow discharge plasma or mercury lamp increases, the peak intensity and the full width at half maximum, FWHM, of the surface plasmon resonance absorption band is increased, however a decrease of the peak intensity with oxygen glow plasma has been observed. In the silver nanoparticle sample, as the irradiation time of argon, oxygen glow discharge plasma or mercury lamp increases, the peak intensity of the surface plasmon resonance absorption band is increased, however, there is no significant change in the FWHM of the surface plasmon resonance absorption band. The SEM results for both samples showed nanoparticle formation with mean size about 50 nm and 40 nm respectively. Throughout the irradiation time with the argon, oxygen glow discharge plasma or mercury lamp, the antibacterial activity of several kinds of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria has been examined. PMID:25184109

Ahmad, Mahmoud M; Abdel-Wahab, Essam A; El-Maaref, A A; Rawway, Mohammed; Shaaban, Essam R

2014-01-01

271

Choline chloride based ionic liquid analogues as tool for the fabrication of agar films with improved mechanical properties.  

PubMed

In the present paper, we test the suitability of ChCl/urea (DES-U) and ChCl/glycerol (DES-G) eutectic mixtures, each one prepared at 1:2 molar ratio, for the production of agar films. A three-step process is proposed: pre-solubilization of polymer in DES followed by compression-molding and subsequent drying. The mechanical properties, water resistance and microstructure of the films were evaluated at different polymer concentrations (i.e. 2-6%, w/w). DES-U showed by far, the best film forming ability. Agreeing with the diffusion and SEM data, films with the best mechanical properties were found at the lowest and highest agar concentrations (tensile strengths of 24.2-42 MPa and elongations of 15.4-38.9%). The water sorption and contact angle studies suggested increased hydrophilicity for the film containing the lowest concentration of agar. The use of choline chloride based ionic liquid analogues as solvent and plasticizer might be a promising tool for the development of new non-aqueous materials based on seaweed polysaccharides. PMID:25037344

Sousa, Ana M M; Souza, Hiléia K S; Latona, Nicholas; Liu, Cheng-Kung; Gonçalves, Maria P; Liu, LinShu

2014-10-13

272

76 FR 1608 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...Background: The President directed that the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's...

2011-01-11

273

76 FR 1607 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...Background: The President directed that the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's...

2011-01-11

274

76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...2410-OYC] Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway AGENCY: National Park Service...award of temporary concession contracts for Blue Ridge Parkway, NC/VA...of certain visitor services within the Blue Ridge Parkway, North Carolina and...

2011-06-20

275

75 FR 36647 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...Background: The President directed that the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's...

2010-06-28

276

75 FR 81592 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...Background: The President directed that the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's...

2010-12-28

277

75 FR 25850 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...Background: The President directed that the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's...

2010-05-10

278

77 FR 55895 - Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Notice of permanent closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ...it was permanently closing Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ), Cincinnati,...

2012-09-11

279

Optimization of reproduced Morpho-blue coloration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morpho butterfly's metallic blue luster, which is produced from the butterfly's scale, has a mysterious feature. Since the scale does not contain a blue pigment, the origin of the coloration is attributed to a microscopic structure that can also explain its high reflectivity. However, it appears blue from wide angular range, which contradicts obviously the grating or multilayer. The mystery of the lack of multi-coloration has recently been explained with a peculiar nano-structure, and experimentally proven by fabricating the optical film by controlling the parameters in nanoscale. The reproduced Morpho-blue was found to be important from viewpoint of a wide variety of applications. However, optical properties of the fabricated film were found to contain still some differences with that of the Morpho-butterfly, although the basic characteristics of the Morpho-blue itself was reproduced. In order to make the artificial Morpho-blue closer to the natural one than the prototype, we attempted to optimize the artificial film structure by controlling fabrication parameters. In this process, optical simulations and micro-structural observations were taken in account. By comparing a series of films fabricated with different nano-patterns, optimized parameters were semi-empirically obtained. Also the relationship between the structural parameters and the optical properties was analyzed. The reflective characteristics of the optimized film were found to reproduce the optical properties more closely to the natural Morpho-blue than the prototypes.

Saito, Akira; Ishikawa, Yoko; Miyamura, Yusuke; Akai-Kasaya, Megumi; Kuwahara, Yuji

2007-09-01

280

Blue jets, blue starters and other blue luminous events observed by ISUAL payload on the FORMOSAT-2 satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blue jets and blue starters were first discovered in 1994 (Wescott, et. al. GRL, 22, 1209, 1995; GRL, 23, 2153, 1996). During 2000 STEPS campaign, other blue luminous events were also observed to emerge directly from cloud-top and were named gnomes and pixies (Lyons, et. al. BAMS, 445, 2003). The spectroscopic properties of blue starters were investigated in EXL98 campaign and no 2PN2 emission was detected. However using 1NN2+ images at 427.8nm and color TV images, the degree of ionization was estimated to be 3% (Wescott, et. al. JGR, 106, 21549, 2001). Among the thousands of TLEs registered by ISUAL payload onboard the FORMOSAT-2 (Chern et. al. JASTP 65, 647, 2003), more than two hundreds of them were identified as blue luminous events. These events have significant blue channel (370-450nm) signals in the ISUAL array photometer (AP), but have no red channel (530-650nm) emission. In the ISUAL spectrophotometer (SP), they also have strong 2PN2 (337nm) and 1NN2+ (391.4nm) emissions; but only a few also have N2-LBH (150-290nm) or N2 1PG (608.9-753.4nm) emissions and none has SP#5 channel (777.4nm) signal. The AP and SP spectrophometric data indicates that these blue luminous events are not related to lightning. The ISUAL ICCD images, which were taken through the red filter (633-750nm), show that some dim red emissions are emitted from the bottom of these blue luminous events near the cloud-top elevation; for some events the dim red emission can extend for >10km. Based the current spectroscopic information and their luminous duration (<200ms), these events are very similar to the blue jets, blue starters, gnomes or pixies. In this paper, the brightness, the characteristic and average electron energies of these events will be presented. The meteorological conditions for these blue luminous events to occur will also be discussed.

Su, H.; Hsu, R.; Kuo, C.; Chen, A. B.; Lee, Y.; Chiang, P.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.; Takahashi, Y.; Fukunishi, H.; Lee, L.

2005-12-01

281

Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.

Paul Saueressig

2010-07-14

282

A Clock Reaction Based on Molybdenum Blue  

E-print Network

Clock reactions are rare kinetic phenomena, so far limited mostly to systems with ionic oxoacids and oxoanions in water. We report a new clock reaction in cyclohexanol that forms molybdenum blue from a noncharged, yellow ...

Neuenschwander, Ulrich

283

Heparin sensing: Blue-chip binding  

E-print Network

Heparin is an anionic polysaccharide that has tremendous clinical importance as an anticoagulant. Several dyes have been developed that can detect heparin, and the latest example — named Mallard Blue — has now been shown ...

Shriver, Zachary H.

284

Phototherapy with turquoise versus blue light  

PubMed Central

Preterm jaundiced infants were treated by phototherapy with a new turquoise fluorescent lamp. This was more effective in reducing plasma total bilirubin in relation to light irradiance than the ubiquitously used blue fluorescent lamp. PMID:12937051

Ebbesen, F; Agati, G; Pratesi, R

2003-01-01

285

Subungual and periungual congenital blue naevus.  

PubMed

Subungual pigmented lesions should raise concern about malignant melanoma. Blue naevus of the nail apparatus is a rare entity, with only ten cases described in the literature. We report a 21-year-old Hispanic woman with a slowly enlarging 1.7 x 2.3-cm subungual and periungual pigmented plaque present since birth on her right second toe. Initial biopsy was consistent with a blue naevus of the cellular type and, given the recent clinical change and periungual extension, complete excision was recommended. The entire nail unit was resected down to periosteum with prior avulsion of the nail plate. Reconstruction was performed with a full-thickness skin graft. Follow up at 1 year revealed well-healed graft and donor sites with complete return of function. We present a case of a congenital subungual and periungual blue naevus of the cellular type and review the literature on this rare presentation of a congenital blue naevus. PMID:19397572

Gershtenson, Platina Coy; Krunic, Aleksandar; Chen, Helen; Konanahalli, Madhuri; Worobec, Sophie

2009-05-01

286

Phototherapy with turquoise versus blue light  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preterm jaundiced infants were treated by phototherapy with a new turquoise fluorescent lamp. This was more effective in reducing plasma total bilirubin in relation to light irradiance than the ubiquitously used blue fluorescent lamp.

F Ebbesen; G Agati; R Pratesi

2003-01-01

287

Cryptographic Hash Function BLUE MIDNIGHT WISH  

E-print Network

224 and BMW256 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 BWM384 and BMW512224 and BMW256 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 BWM384 and BMW512 for all variants of the BLUE MIDNIGHT WISH . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.1.1 BMW224 and BMW256

Kaminsky, Alan

288

Elementary Theorems Regarding Blue Isocurvature Perturbations  

E-print Network

Blue CDM-photon isocurvature perturbations are attractive in terms of observability and may be typical from the perspective of generic mass relations in supergravity. We present and apply three theorems useful for blue isocurvature perturbations arising from linear spectator scalar fields. In the process, we give a more precise formula for the blue spectrum associated with the axion model of 0904.3800, which can in a parametric corner give a factor of O(10) correction. We explain how a conserved current associated with Peccei-Quinn symmetry plays a crucial role and explicitly plot several example spectra including the breaks in the spectra. We also resolve a little puzzle arising from a naive multiplication of isocurvature expression that sheds light on the gravitational imprint of the adiabatic perturbations on the fields responsible for blue isocurvature fluctuations.

Daniel J. H. Chung; Hojin Yoo

2015-01-23

289

Painting Your Home Blue David Cypher  

E-print Network

;Painting Your Home Blue David Cypher Information Technology Laboratory #12;BluetoothTM Wireless Networking · 1250 µseconds TX/RX period · Channels (Asynchronous Connection-Less (ACL) and Synchronous-Oriented (SCO

290

Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site  

ScienceCinema

The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.

Paul Saueressig

2010-09-01

291

Partial unilateral lentiginosis associated with blue naevi.  

PubMed

We report a patient with unilateral lentiginosis and blue naevi. This association has not been reported previously. Additional clinical features included right bundle branch block and lateral popliteal nerve palsy. PMID:8148284

Holder, J E; Graham-Brown, R A; Camp, R D

1994-03-01

292

MitoBlue: A Nontoxic and Photostable Blue-Emitting Dye That Selectively Labels Functional Mitochondria  

PubMed Central

We report the discovery of a fluorogenic dye, N1,N3-di(2-aminidonaphthalen-6-yl) propane-1,3-diamine, MitoBlue, which selectively stains functional mitochondria while displaying low toxicity, bright blue emission, and high resistance to photobleaching. Additionally, we show that a biotin-labeled MitoBlue derivative can be used as a handle for the delivery of streptavidin-tagged species to the mitochondria. PMID:25325672

2014-01-01

293

MitoBlue: A Nontoxic and Photostable Blue-Emitting Dye That Selectively Labels Functional Mitochondria.  

PubMed

We report the discovery of a fluorogenic dye, N(1),N(3)-di(2-aminidonaphthalen-6-yl) propane-1,3-diamine, MitoBlue, which selectively stains functional mitochondria while displaying low toxicity, bright blue emission, and high resistance to photobleaching. Additionally, we show that a biotin-labeled MitoBlue derivative can be used as a handle for the delivery of streptavidin-tagged species to the mitochondria. PMID:25325672

Sánchez, Mateo I; Martínez-Costas, José; Mascareñas, José L; Vázquez, M Eugenio

2014-12-19

294

Science Shorts: Nothing But Blue Skies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Why is the sky blue? Why are sunsets orange and red? These are some of children's favorite questions to ask, but answering them at a level appropriate for primary students' level of understanding can be tricky, even for veteran teachers. In order to understand why the sky is blue and other related questions, we need to know a bit about the makeup of Earth's atmosphere and the effects of light. This month's Science Shorts can help.

Adams, Barbara

2006-12-01

295

The Blue Obelisk - Interoperability in Chemical Informatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Blue Obelisk Movement (http:\\/\\/www.blueobelisk.org\\/) is the name used by a diverse Internet group promoting reusable chemistry via open source software development, consistent and complimentary chemoinformatics research, open data, and open standards. We outline recent examples of cooperation in the Blue Obelisk group:  a shared dictionary of algorithms and implementations in chemoinformatics algorithms drawing from our various software projects; a

Rajarshi Guha; Michael T. Howard; Geoffrey R. Hutchison; Peter Murray-rust; Henry S. Rzepa; Christoph Steinbeck; Jörg K. Wegner; Egon L. Willighagen

2006-01-01

296

A high-temperature blue LED  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of efficient high-temperature luminescence has made it possible to develop blue LED based on SiC-6H with an operating temperature of 500 C. The growth of epitaxial SiC-6H layers is described, and the high-temperature photoluminescence of the epitaxial layers is compared with the electroluminescence of p-n structures. Measurements of the parameters and characteristics of the high-temperature blue LED in

V. A. Dmitriev; I. Iu. Lin'kov; Ia. V. Morozenko; V. E. Chelnokov

1992-01-01

297

A List of New Blue Galaxies, 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new list of thirty-nine blue galaxies identified in spectroscopic emulsion 103aD, with filters UBV centered at R.A. Oh48m and Dec. +0 deg 30 min (1950) obtained with the 48" Schmidt Camera of Mount Palomar is presented. These plates were originally taken for the observational program of faint blue stars in the regions to the South Galactic Pole, by Haro and Luyten (1965).

Chavira, Enrique

1996-10-01

298

Hexagonal symmetry for smectic blue phases  

PubMed

Smectic blue phases are liquid crystalline phases which exhibit both three-dimensional-orientational order and smectic positional order. X-ray scattering experiments reveal that at least one of these phases is not cubic, as classical blue phases, but offers a hexagonal symmetry. A comparison of the experimental patterns with the scattering patterns given by smectic double twist tubes sketched by Kamien is proposed. PMID:11088502

Pansu; Grelet; Li; Nguyen

2000-07-01

299

Stylish or safe blue-block eyewear  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject of modern, save and stylish eyewear is entertaining not only to people with unwell eyesight. Many people use glasses with anti-UV or blue-block coatings, glasses for driving or working with a computer. There were investigated the blue-block eyewear. There were analyzed reflected radiation at 300 - 400 nm wavelengths with cross- incidence. The traditional eyewear with classical or stylish frame may not protect sight against the UV radiation.

Ciosek, Jerzy

1998-10-01

300

Blue irradiance intercomparison in the medical field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the results of a blue irradiance intercomparison among industrial laboratories of medical devices companies. This intercomparison aims to support the metrological issues of medical equipment manufactures regarding the blue irradiance infant phototherapy equipment requirements on the international standard IEC 60601-2-50:2000. The results showed a low agreement of participants' measurements according to normalized error criterion. The major explanation for this result is associated to an incorrect equipment choice and long recalibration period.

Ferreira, Antonio F. G.

2012-10-01

301

Blue code: Is it a real emergency?  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrests in hospital areas are common, and hospitals have rapid response teams or “blue code teams” to reduce preventable in-hospital deaths. Education about the rapid response team has been provided in all hospitals in Turkey, but true “blue code” activation is rare, and it is abused by medical personnel in practice. This study aimed to determine the cases of wrong blue codes and reasons of misuse. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed the blue code reports issued by our hospital between January 1 and June 1 2012. A total of 89 “blue code” activations were recorded in 5 months. A “blue code” was defined as any patient with an unexpected cardiac or respiratory arrest requiring resuscitation and activation of a hospital alert. Adherence to this definition, each physician classified their collected activation forms as either a true or a wrong code. Then, patient data entered a database (Microsoft Excel 2007 software) which was pooled for analysis. The data were analyzed by using frequencies and the Chi-square test on SPSSv16.0. RESULTS: The patients were diagnosed with cardiopulmonary arrest (8), change in mental status (18), presyncope (11), chest pain (12), conversive disorder (18), and worry of the staff for the patient (22). Code activation was done by physicians in 76% of the patients; the most common reason for blue code was concern of staff for the patient. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show that more research is needed to establish the overall effectiveness and optimal implementation of blue code teams. PMID:25215142

Eroglu, Serkan E.; Onur, Ozge; Urgan, O?uz; Denizbasi, Arzu; Akoglu, Haldun

2014-01-01

302

Red, White and Blue II Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry demonstration, learners investigate the rule "likes dissolve likes" by combining three, immiscible liquids to create a colorful density column. Learners are asked, "What color will result from mixing red, white, and blue?" They will be surprised by the answer as a beaker is revealed with red syrup on the bottom, white milk over the syrup and blue lamp oil on top. This is a perfect activity to use to demonstrate density and polarity, especially around the 4th of July.

House, The S.

2014-02-03

303

Barium Enhancement in NGC 6819 Blue Stragglers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Possible formation pathways for blue straggler stars include mergers in hierarchical triple systems, stellar collisions during dynamical encounters, and mass transfer from a giant companion. Extensive work on the blue stragglers in the old open cluster NGC 188 (7 Gyr) has led to exciting discoveries including a binary secondary mass distribution peaked at 0.5 MSolar and the detection of three young white dwarf binary companions. These indicate that mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch star is the dominant mechanism for blue straggler formation in open clusters. Such mass transfer events should pollute the surface abundance of the blue straggler with nucleosynthesis products from the evolved donor. The other formation pathways, mergers and collisions, are predicted to produce no such enhancements. In an effort to move beyond NGC 188 and into other open clusters we present the first results of a surface abundance study of the blue stragglers in the intermediate-aged open cluster NGC 6819 (2.5 Gyr) using the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope. This part of our study centers on the s-process element barium as a tracer of formation via mass transfer. We compare the blue straggler surface abundance of barium to that of a sample of main-sequence stars in NGC 6819 and find multiple blue stragglers with anomalous abundances. Surprising, most of the blue stragglers with barium anomalies show no radial-velocity evidence for a companion. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the National Science Foundation under grant AST- 0908082 and the Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium.

Milliman, Katelyn; Mathieu, Robert D.; Schuler, Simon C.

2015-01-01

304

Optimization of modified Middlebrook 7H11 agar for isolation of Mycobacterium bovis from raw milk cheese.  

PubMed

Reports have highlighted the absence of contemporary peer reviewed publications pertaining to Mycobacterium bovis culture from raw milk and cheese. By replicating traditional methods, cheese-making methodology and equipment were devised to produce Cheddar (n = 6) and Caerphilly (n = 3) artificially contaminated with M. bovis (three genotypes) under stringent laboratory-containment guidelines for handling hazardous microbiological material. Middlebrook 7H11, modified for M. bovis isolation, was assessed for capacity to enumerate M. bovis despite changing cheese microflora and prolonged M. bovis exposure to the cheese matrix using maturing cheese test portions (n = 63; up to 16 weeks). Malachite green (MG) containing media isolated M. bovis at significantly (P < 0·05) lower levels than unmodified Middlebrook 7H11 agar despite MG being a common adjunct of Middlebrook 7H11 agar modified for M. bovis growth. Subsequently, a selective MG-free Middlebrook 7H11 agar modified using haemolysed red cells and calf serum was demonstrated as the best performing (P < 0·05) medium for recovery of M. bovis from typical UK cheese types, Cheddar and Caerphilly. Significance and impact of the study: Following increased M. bovis infection of UK cattle, the risk posed to consumers from consumption of unpasteurized milk and dairy products has changed. Furthermore, published methods for the culture and molecular detection of M. bovis in raw milk products are limited. Cheese-making protocols and M. bovis culture media reported here provide tools for further investigation of M. bovis survival during all stages of cheese manufacture and could inform future assessment of the risk to consumers from M. bovis contamination of unpasteurized dairy products. PMID:24888395

Forgrave, R; Donaghy, J A; Fisher, A; Rowe, M T

2014-10-01

305

BLUE VIEW VISION INSIGHT! Good news--your vision plan  

E-print Network

WELCOME TO BLUE VIEW VISION INSIGHT! Good news--your vision plan is flexible and easy to use, your discounts, and much more! Blue View Vision InsightSM University of California Student Health Insurance Plan (UC SHIP) 2013/14 Your Blue View Vision Insight Network Blue View Vision Insight offers you

California at Santa Cruz, University of

306

BLUE VIEW VISION INSIGHT! Good news--your vision plan  

E-print Network

WELCOME TO BLUE VIEW VISION INSIGHT! Good news--your vision plan is flexible and easy to use, your discounts, and much more! Blue View Vision InsightSM University of California Student Health Insurance Plan (UC SHIP) 2012/13 Your Blue View Vision Insight Network Blue View Vision Insight offers you

Barrett, Jeffrey A.

307

Petascale Debugging via Allinea DDT for IBM Blue Gene /P  

E-print Network

Petascale Debugging via Allinea DDT for IBM Blue Gene /P and IBM Blue Gene /Q Ian Lumb petascaling Allinea DDT Petascaling Allinea DDT for IBM Blue Gene /x Getting Started with Allinea DDT #12 for each core ­ No tree to help here: not fast within one I/O node! ­ The bottleneck of IBM Blue Gene /P

Kemner, Ken

308

Inhomogeneous problems Q. How do you kill a blue elephant?  

E-print Network

Inhomogeneous problems Q. How do you kill a blue elephant? A. With a blue elephant gun Q. How do you kill a pink elephant? A. Squeeze its trunk until it turns blue, and then shoot it with a blue elephant gun. Q. How do you kill a white elephant? A. Tickle it pink, then squeeze its trunk until it turns

DeTurck, Dennis

309

78 FR 42451 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247 Copolymers; Confirmation of Effective Date...2-methyl-2-propenoic)ester (C.I. Reactive Blue 247) and additional copolymers of 1,4-bis...corrected the nomenclature for Reactive Blue 247 by inserting ``2- methyl''...

2013-07-16

310

78 FR 37962 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247 Copolymers; Confirmation of Effective Date...2-methyl-2-propenoic)ester (C.I. Reactive Blue 247) as color additives in contact lenses...Regarding CAP 1C0292 (C.I. Reactive Blue 247): Teresa Croce, Center for Food...

2013-06-25

311

76 FR 71355 - United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et al.; Proposed Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et al.; Proposed Final Judgment...Montana, Billings Division, in United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et al.,...

2011-11-17

312

Dependence of ablative ability of high-intensity focused ultrasound cavitation-based histotripsy on mechanical properties of agar.  

PubMed

Cavitation-based histotripsy uses high-intensity focused ultrasound at low duty factor to create bubble clouds inside tissue to liquefy a region, and provides better fidelity to planned lesion coordinates and the ability to perform real-time monitoring. The goal of this study was to identify the most important mechanical properties for predicting lesion dimensions, among these three: Young's modulus, bending strength, and fracture toughness. Lesions were generated inside tissue-mimicking agar, and correlations were examined between the mechanical properties and the lesion dimensions, quantified by lesion volume and by the width and length of the equivalent bubble cluster. Histotripsy was applied to agar samples with varied properties. A cuboid of 4.5?mm width (lateral to focal plane) and 6?mm depth (along beam axis) was scanned in a raster pattern with respective step sizes of 0.75 and 3?mm. The exposure at each treatment location was either 15, 30, or 60?s. Results showed that only Young's modulus influenced histotripsy's ablative ability and was significantly correlated with lesion volume and bubble cluster dimensions. The other two properties had negligible effects on lesion formation. Also, exposure time differentially affected the width and depth of the bubble cluster volume. PMID:25480051

Xu, Jin; Bigelow, Timothy A; Davis, Gabriel; Avendano, Alex; Shrotriya, Pranav; Bergler, Kevin; Hu, Zhong

2014-12-01

313

Internal structures of agar-gelatin co-hydrogels by light scattering, small-angle neutron scattering and rheology.  

PubMed

Internal structures of agar-gelatin co-hydrogels were investigated as a function of their volumetric mixing ratio, [Formula: see text] , 1.0 and 2.0 using dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and rheology. The degree of non-ergodicity ( X = 0.2 ± 0.02) , which was extracted as a heterodyne contribution from the measured dynamic structure factor data remained less than that of homogeneous solutions where ergodicity is expected (X = 10. The static structure factor, I(q) , results obtained from SANS were interpreted in the Guinier regime (low-q , which implied the existence of ? 250 nm long rod-like structures (double-helix bundles), and the power law (intermediate-q regions) yielded I (q) ~ q(??) with ? = 2.3 , 1.8 and 1.6 for r = 0.5 , 1.0 and 2.0. This is indicative of the presence of Gaussian chains at low r , while at r = 2 there was a propensity of rod-shaped structures. The gel strength and transition temperatures measured from frequency sweep and temperature ramp studies were suggestive of the presence of a stronger association between the two biopolymer networks at higher r . The results indicate that the internal structures of agar-gelatin co-hydrogels were highly dependent on the volumetric mixing ratio. PMID:21706280

Santinath Singh, S; Aswal, V K; Bohidar, H B

2011-06-01

314

Agar-Silica-Gel Heating Phantom May Be Suitable for Long-Term Quality Assurance of MRgHIFU  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In MRgHIFU, the purpose of frequent quality assurance is to detect changes in system performance to prevent adverse effects during treatments. Due to high ultrasound intensities in MRgHIFU, it is essential to assure that the procedure is safe and efficacious and that image-based guidance of the treatment is reliable. We aimed to develop a guideline for MRgHIFU QA by acquiring MR temperature maps during ultrasonic heating of an agar-silica-gel phantom over a four month-period using three separate MRgHIFU uterine leiomyoma treatment systems. From this data, the stability of the maximum temperature elevation, the targeting accuracy, and the dimensions of the heated volume were analyzed. Additionally, we studied the sensitivity of these parameters to reveal hypothetical decrease in HIFU performance. After calibration, the mean targeting offsets of the heated volume were observed to be less than 2 mm in the three orthogonal directions. The measured maximum temperature elevation and the length and the width of the heated volume remained consistent throughout the four-month period. Furthermore, it was found that the parameters under investigation were sensitive to reveal the decreased HIFU performance. We conclude that an agar-silica -based phantom is suitable for targeting accuracy and heating properties QA of MRgHIFU system even in long-term use. Moreover, this simple QA method may be used to reveal small changes in HIFU performance assuring consistent functionality and safety of the MRgHIFU system.

Partanen, Ari

2009-04-01

315

Biological and chemical detection of fumonisins produced on agar medium by Fusarium verticillioides isolates collected from corn in Sohag, Egypt.  

PubMed

Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg is among the most common Fusarium species corn pathogens worldwide, and has been recognized as a fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) producer. In the present work, extracts of 58 F. verticillioides isolates from corn samples collected from Sohag Governorate, Egypt, were tested for their biotoxicity and production of fumonisin toxins. Forty-four Fusarium verticillioides isolates out of 58 tested produced FB1 or FB1 and FB2 (15 and 29 isolates, respectively) on potato-sucrose agar medium, detected by TLC, whereas the other 14 isolates did not produce fumonisin toxins. HPLC crude extract analysis confirmed the results from TLC plates. Brine shrimp larvae as well as the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeuroginosa showed low bio-sensitivity towards the F. verticillioides crude extract toxicity, whereas the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis, especially B. subtilis, showed higher sensitivity towards the tested Fusarium crude extracts. These results enabled us to bio-evaluate and chemically detect fumonisin mycotoxins using a simple agar medium technique. PMID:23760819

Aboul-Nasr, M B; Obied-Allah, M R A

2013-08-01

316

Coomassie Brilliant Blue G is a more potent antagonist of P2 purinergic responses than Reactive Blue 2 (Cibacron Blue 3GA) in rat parotid acinar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Brilliant Blue G (Coomassie Brilliant Blue G) and Reactive Blue 2 (Cibacron Blue 3GA) to block the effects of extracellular ATP on rat parotid acinar cells was examined by evaluating their effects on ATP-stimulated 45Ca{sup 2+} entry and the elevation of (Ca{sup 2+})i (Fura 2 fluorescence). ATP (300 microM) increased the rate of Ca{sup 2+} entry to

S. P. Soltoff; M. K. McMillian; B. R. Talamo

1989-01-01

317

77 FR 12617 - United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc., et al.; Public Comments and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc., et al.; Public Comments...proposed Final Judgment in United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et al.,...

2012-03-01

318

Blue stragglers and the OBN phenomenon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observational data for the hottest stars in five OB associations are reported to show that blue stragglers exhibit nitrogen overabundances. The coude spectra were taken in the ranges 3500-5400 A and 3800-4900 A at ESO and Observatoire de Haute Provence, respectively. The survey covered the objects HD 34656, HD 42088, HD 96715, HD 151804, HD 152233, HD 192639, HD 193524 and HD 254755, the hottest members of the Aur OB1, Gem OB1, Car OB2, Sco OB2 and Cyg OB1 associations. Five of the blue stragglers in the associations displayed nitrogen abundances. It is suggested that the massive blue stragglers experience rotation-induced extra-mixing that brings nitrogen enhancement to the surface and keeps the stars close to the main sequence. The rotationally-induced effects could also explain the bimodal rotational velocity distribution of main sequence O stars, whose lifetimes are extended by the extra mixing.

Schild, H.; Berthet, S.

1986-07-01

319

Is Cosmology Compatible with Blue Gravity Waves ?  

E-print Network

A primordial gravitational wave background with positive(blue) spectral index is expected in several non-standard inflationary cosmologies where the stress-energy tensor violates the null energy condition. Here we show that a sizable amount of blue gravitational waves is compatible with current cosmological and astrophysical data. So far most of the works on parameter estimation from cosmic microwave background data have assumed a negative or negligible spectral index. The present limits on cosmological parameters, especially on the scalar spectral index, widen up considerably when one allows also for blue tilts of the tensor spectrum. Since the amplitude of the CMB B-mode polarization is larger in these models, future data from Planck are likely to provide crucial measurements.

Roberta Camerini; Ruth Durrer; Alessandro Melchiorri; Antonio Riotto

2008-02-11

320

WhaleNet Blue Whale Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive educational Web site from WhaleNet provides a study guide to use with blue whale satellite tag data. WhaleNet is sponsored by Wheelock College, and the blue whale data set comes from the Mingan Island Cetacean Study, a "non-profit research organization dedicated to ecological studies of marine mammals." The study guide consists of a series of questions that guide students in analyzing and interpreting data. In the larger context, these questions uncover how satellite tag data provides valuable insight "into the natural history of the whales and will enable more intelligent and meaningful decisions which will increase the potential for recovery and for an improved existence in the shared marine environments around the world." Users of the Web site may also view blue whale tagging and biopsy movie clips. Links to a bibliography and additional resources are provided.

321

Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy on Streptococcus mutans using curcumin and toluidine blue activated by a novel LED device.  

PubMed

Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is an antimicrobial approach that uses photosensitizers (PS) in combination with light sources at specific wavelengths aiming the production of reactive oxygen species. The long illumination time necessary to active PS is a challenge in PACT. Thus, this study investigated the antimicrobial effect of a novel single source of light-emitting diode (LED) light that covers the entire spectrum of visible light beyond interchangeable probes at high power intensity. Blue and red LED probes were used into different exposure times to active different concentrations of curcumin (C) and toluidine blue (T) on planktonic suspensions of Streptococcus mutans UA 159 (S. mutans). S. mutans were standardized and submitted to (1) PACT treatment at three concentrations of C and T exposure at three radiant exposures of a blue LED (BL) (C+BL+) and a red LED (RL) (T+RL+), (2) C (C+BL-) or T alone (T+RL-), (3) both LED lights (C-BL+ and T-RL+), and (4) neither PS nor LED illumination (control group: C-BL- and T-RL-). Aliquots of the suspensions were diluted and cultured on blood agar plates. The number of colony-forming units was calculated after 48 h. The groups submitted to PACT presented a lethal photokilling rate to all PS concentrations at tested dosimetries. The comparison to control group when PS and LED lights used alone demonstrated no decrease in the number of viable bacterial counts. The novel LED device in combination with curcumin and toluidine blue promoted an effective photoinactivation of S. mutans suspensions at ultrashort light illumination times. PMID:24249357

Paschoal, Marco Aurelio; Lin, Meng; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; Duarte, Simone

2015-02-01

322

Anomalously Blue Ellipticals in the Sloan Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, we identified two extremely isolated early-type galaxies with unusually blue optical colors (Marcum etal, AJ 127, 3213), indicating current or recent massive star formation. Merger-induced star formation is the most likely mechanism for the odd photometric properties of these systems, yet, interestingly, they do not show the strong morphological scars (tidal tails, shells) generally attributed to merger activity. We concluded that these systems are late stage mergers, in which those morphological scars have largely dissipated, but photometric anomalies remain. In a separate investigation, we are exploring the properties of a large sample of luminous blue compact galaxies (Fanelli etal, 2004), many of which exhibit blue colors and an elliptical-like morphology. While the luminous blue compacts exist in a variety of environments, both samples may represent the same phenomena - the assembly of a spheroidal stellar system from the merger of multiple smaller gas-rich systems. To further explore the evolutionary paths which lead to isolated early-type galaxies, we are "mining" the Sloan Digital Sky Survey for anomalously blue ellipticals. These systems exhibit blue colors within the Sloan bands, and also show radial light profiles largely consistent with an r(1/4) law. We will present and describe representative objects. The importance of identifying local universe analogues to distant young galaxies comes from the ability to explore these systems at many wavelengths with excellent spatial and spectral resolution, in contrast to high-redshift systems. The latter are faint and subtend a few arcseconds, requiring substantial integration times with 4-10m class telescopes. This research was supported by NASA ADP grant NNG05GC53G, and the Texas Advanced Research Program.

Fanelli, M. N.; Marcum, P. M.; Mitchell, C.

2005-12-01

323

Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available.2-5 Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of classroom demonstrations have been described for showing the effects.6-11 This paper describes how these demonstrations can be enhanced by using a spectrometer to measure the preferential scattering of the shorter wavelength light.

Liebl, Michael

2010-05-01

324

[Analysis of bactericidal material generated by electrical devices advertising bactericidal ability against bacteria on the agar gel plates].  

PubMed

Several Japanese companies sell electrical devices advertised as effective in inactivating viruses and killing bacteria by releasing special materials, e.g., Plasmacluster ions, Nanoe particle and minus ions, into the air. These companies claim that their devices killed bacteria on plates in their own experiments. We tested device effectiveness using the same experiments from the Plasmacluster ioniser SHARP Co., Japan, the Nanoe generator Panasonic Co., Japan, and the Vion KING JIM Co., Japan, to test their advertising claims. Bactericidal ability on agar plate was tested, using Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, and Enterococcus faecalis as follows: the medium containing a certain amount of each bacterium was put onto an agar plate and smeared. Plates were kept in a closed chamber (inner volume 14.4 m3) or a glove box (inner volume 0.2 m), with one of the devices run for 2 hours. Plates not exposed to any device were used as controls. Each plate was retrieved and put in an incubator to count the number of bacterial colonies formed on the plate. There was no significant difference in the number of colonies on plates exposed to devices compared to control, in the number for all devices, or in all bacteria tested in experiments in the 14.4 m3 chamber. These results strongly suggest that these devices have almost no bactericidal effect, at least in space exceeding this volume. Colony formation was suppressed in the glove box in all devices and in all bacteria tested except P. aeruginosa, although the degree of suppression differed among experiments. The colony formation suppression mechanism was analyzed, and indicated that:colony formation did not change even after the removal of Plasmacluster ions, Nanoe particles, or negative ions from the air, while colony formation was decreased drastically by the removal of ozone from space, which was revealed to be generated inevitably during device operation. These results strongly suggest that the bactericidal effect seen only on the agar plate in narrow space was explained by ozone released in space as a by-product, not by special materials as advertising claimed. It is thus important to analyze the effect of special materials such as those done in this study and to suggest the involvement of ozone as the true cause, as have been done in this study, in evaluating bactericidal effect or viral inactivation as advertised by these companies. PMID:23367847

Nishimura, Hidekazu

2012-11-01

325

Coomassie Brilliant Blue G is a more potent antagonist of P2 purinergic responses than Reactive Blue 2 (Cibacron Blue 3GA) in rat parotid acinar cells  

SciTech Connect

The ability of Brilliant Blue G (Coomassie Brilliant Blue G) and Reactive Blue 2 (Cibacron Blue 3GA) to block the effects of extracellular ATP on rat parotid acinar cells was examined by evaluating their effects on ATP-stimulated 45Ca{sup 2+} entry and the elevation of (Ca{sup 2+})i (Fura 2 fluorescence). ATP (300 microM) increased the rate of Ca{sup 2+} entry to more than 25-times the basal rate and elevated (Ca{sup 2+})i to levels more than three times the basal value. Brilliant Blue G and Reactive Blue 2 greatly reduced the entry of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} into parotid cells, but the potency of Brilliant Blue G (IC50 approximately 0.4 microM) was about 100-times that of Reactive Blue 2. Fura 2 studies demonstrated that inhibitory concentrations of these compounds did not block the cholinergic response of these cells, thus demonstrating the selectivity of the dye compounds for purinergic receptors. Unlike Reactive Blue 2, effective concentrations of Brilliant Blue G did not substantially quench Fura 2 fluorescence. The greater potency of Brilliant Blue G suggests that it may be very useful in identifying P2-type purinergic receptors, especially in studies which utilize fluorescent probes.

Soltoff, S.P.; McMillian, M.K.; Talamo, B.R. (Tufts Univ., Boston, MA (USA))

1989-12-29

326

Recombinant envelope protein (rgp90) ELISA for equine infectious anemia virus provides comparable results to the agar gel immunodiffusion.  

PubMed

Equine infectious anemia (EIA) is an important viral infection affecting horses worldwide. The course of infection is accompanied generally by three characteristic stages: acute, chronic and inapparent. There is no effective EIA vaccine or treatment, and the control of the disease is based currently on identification of EIAV inapparent carriers by laboratory tests. Recombinant envelope protein (rgp90) was expressed in Escherichia coli and evaluated via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). There was an excellent agreement (95.42%) between the ELISA results using rgp90 and agar gel immunodiffusion test results. AGID is considered the "gold-standard" serologic test for equine infectious anemia (EIA). After 1160 serum samples were tested, the relative sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA were 96.1% and 96.4%, respectively. Moreover, analysis diagnostic accuracy of the ELISA was performed. The ELISA proved robust. Furthermore, good reproducibility was observed for the negative controls and, positive controls for all plates tested. PMID:22227617

Reis, Jenner K P; Diniz, Rejane S; Haddad, João P A; Ferraz, Isabella B F; Carvalho, Alex F; Kroon, Erna G; Ferreira, Paulo C P; Leite, Rômulo C

2012-03-01

327

Blue Whales Respond to Anthropogenic Noise  

PubMed Central

Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood. PMID:22393434

Melcón, Mariana L.; Cummins, Amanda J.; Kerosky, Sara M.; Roche, Lauren K.; Wiggins, Sean M.; Hildebrand, John A.

2012-01-01

328

Practices of Blue Ribbon Catholic Schools, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For almost 20 years, the U.S. Department of Education has invited schools to seek the Blue Ribbon School Award. A large number of Catholic schools have received this award. For this publication, the Department of Elementary Schools Executive Committee requested principals of awarded schools to write a short article on an exemplary school program…

Kealey, Robert J., Comp.

329

Quirks of dye nomenclature. 3. Trypan blue.  

PubMed

Trypan blue is colorant from the 19(th) century that has an association with Africa as a chemotherapeutic agent against protozoan (Trypanosomal) infections, which cause sleeping sickness. The dye still is used for staining biopsies, living cells and organisms, and it also has been used as a colorant for textiles. PMID:24867494

Cooksey, C J

2014-11-01

330

Corruption and the Blue Code of Silence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the 'Blue Code of Silence' and its contribution to police corruption. After offering evidence for the existence of such a code, the paper locates the origins of the code in the work and culture of policing. The paper also examines cases, commission reports and an original case study to understand how the code is reinforced. Based on

Jerome H. Skolnick

2002-01-01

331

Blue beetle-killed pine park  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Stripped bark from a dead pine tree reveals the tell-tale blue streaks of a mountain pine beetle attack. Mountain pine beetle outbreaks can result in the loss of millions of pine trees throughout western North America. The beetles lay eggs and develop in the bark of mountain trees, especially lodge...

332

Red, White and Blue I Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry demonstration, learners observe a chemical reaction that produces a colorful effect. Learners will be surprised to see the colors change to red, white, and blue when ammonia is added to three beakers with different chemicals. This is a perfect activity to use to demonstrate chemical reactions, especially around the 4th of July.

House, The S.

2014-01-28

333

Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood. PMID:22393434

Melcón, Mariana L; Cummins, Amanda J; Kerosky, Sara M; Roche, Lauren K; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

2012-01-01

334

Quantum mechanical model for Maya Blue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is about Maya Blue (MB), a pigment developed by Mesoamerican civilizations between the 5th and 16th centuries from an aluminosilicate mineral (palygorskite) and an organic dye (indigo). Two different supramolecular quantum-mechanical models afford explanations for the unusual stability of MB based on the oxidation of the indigo molecule during the heating process and its interaction with palygorskite. A

María E. Fuentes; Brisa Peña; César Contreras; Ana L. Montero; Russell Chianelli; Manuel Alvarado; Ramón Olivas; Luz M. Rodríguez; Héctor Camacho; Luis A. Montero-Cabrera

2008-01-01

335

Raman spectroscopy of blue gel pen inks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raman spectroscopy is becoming a tool of major importance in forensic science. It is a non-invasive, non-destructive analytical method allowing samples to be examined without any preparation. This paper demonstrates the use of the technique as a general tool for gel pen inks analysis. For this purpose, 55 blue gel pen inks, of different brands and models representative of gel

Williams David Mazzella; Patrick Buzzini

2005-01-01

336

Visualising DNA in Classrooms Using Nile Blue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Giving students the opportunity to extract, manipulate and visualise DNA molecules enhances a constructivist approach to learning about modern techniques in biology and biotechnology Visualisation usually requires agarose gel electrophoresis and staining. In this article, we report on an alternative DNA stain, Nile Blue A, that may be used in the…

Milne, Christine; Roche, Scott; McKay, David

2008-01-01

337

African Retentions in Blues and Jazz.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The perseverance of African musical characteristics among American Blacks is an historic reality. African retentions have been recorded in Black music of the antebellum period. Various African scales and rhythms permeate Black American music today as evidenced in the retentions found in blues and jazz. (RLV)

Meadows, Eddie S.

1979-01-01

338

KEPONE: TOXICITY AND BIOACCUMULATION IN BLUE CRABS  

EPA Science Inventory

Two long-term studies were conducted to determine toxicity, uptake and duration of Kepone in blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus). In the first, Kepone was administered to crabs in seawater 0.03 or 0.3 micrograms Kepone/l or food (eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, containing 0.2...

339

Charlie Patton and his Mississippi Boweavil Blues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides a short article, in PDF format, about the legendary American blues artist, Charley Patton, and his famous song about the notorious cotton boll pest, the boll weevil. The article, by R. K. D. Peterson, was scanned from a 2007 issue of the American Entomologist magazine.

0002-11-30

340

2011 OHIO SHEEP DAY Blue Heron Farm  

E-print Network

2011 OHIO SHEEP DAY Blue Heron Farm 33068 Teegarden Road Lisbon, OH 44432 SATURDAY, JULY 16, 2011 9 A.M. - 3:30 P.M. All programs will be repeated twice during the day: · Rebuilding the Ohio Sheep Industry. · Increasing productivity of the sheep flock. · Watering Systems. · Grazing Systems

Jones, Michelle

341

Technology Teacher: Singin' the Black and Blues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an article about the color of the sky. Learners will read about and discuss the colors of the day- and night-time skies. They may sing the Top-down Black and Blues, a song about the sky; or they may write a poem, essay, or song about the bluest sky or blackest night they have ever experienced.

342

Great Blue Heron and Great Egret  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A great blue heron and great egret in the parking lot by the Big Cypress Bend boardwalk at Fakahatchee Strand State Preserve. The heron is enjoying a fish dinner thanks to the hunting skills of the egret. While the egret had initially held a fish in it's beak, the heron's squabbling caused the...

343

Table of Contents Blue Ribbon Panel 1  

E-print Network

and is on the Alumni Association Board of Directors. The pediatric dentistry barbecue was sponsored by the American Student Dental Association. (ASDA). Blue Ribbon Panel to Chart Dental Education Dental School Graduates 90 of Directors also spoke, about students' good decision to attend OHSU. Oregon Dental Association (ODA

Chapman, Michael S.

344

Baby T (Blue) (Size: X Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

1900-01-01

345

Baby T (Blue) (Size: XXX Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

1900-01-01

346

Baby T (Blue) (Size: XX Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

1900-01-01

347

Molecular Genetics of Human Blue Cone Monochromacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue cone monochromacy is a rare X-linked disorder of color vision characterized by the absence of both red and green cone sensitivities. In 12 of 12 families carrying this trait, alterations are observed in the red and green visual pigment gene cluster. The alterations fall into two classes. One class arose from the wild type by a two-step pathway consisting

Jeremy Nathans; Carol M. Davenport; Irene H. Maumenee; Richard Alan Lewis; J. Fielding Hejtmancik; Michael Litt; Everett Lovrien; Richard Weleber; Brian Bachynski; Fred Zwas; Roger Klingaman; Gerald Fishman

1989-01-01

348

Blue Gene/Q Overview and Update  

E-print Network

Packaging & Cooling Paul Coteus Software Architecture Robert Wisniewski Applications & Configurations Jim Sexton #12;© 2011 IBM Corporation IBM System Technology Group 3 Industrial Design BQC DD2.0 Blue Gene/Q 4-rack system 5D torus 32 Node Board #12;© 2011 IBM Corporation IBM System Technology Group 1. Ultra

Kemner, Ken

349

Heparin sensing: Blue-chip binding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heparin is an anionic polysaccharide that has tremendous clinical importance as an anticoagulant. Several dyes have been developed that can detect heparin, and the latest example -- named Mallard Blue -- has now been shown to have excellent sensing properties under biologically relevant conditions.

Shriver, Zachary; Sasisekharan, Ram

2013-08-01

350

Blue Waters: An Extraordinary Research Capability for  

E-print Network

will talk about the new supercomputer Blue Waters and its proposed use by the science and engineering materials at the atomic level, predicting changes in the earth's climate and ecosystems, and designing new supercomputing system at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) on the campus

351

A Code Blue Answer to Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Code Blue addresses the capacity challenges in healthcare training. This pilot, grant funded project, focuses on a holistic approach to selecting and educating career ready and capable students and training them to be confident and competent healthcare workers. Lessons learned from this project will be assessed and reviewed for replication.

Huneycutt, Richy; Callahan, Barbara; Welch, Alexis

2008-01-01

352

Space Place: Why Is the Sky Blue?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article explains how Earth's atmosphere scatters the light from the sun, thereby creating the blue color we typically associate with our sky. Supplementing this article is an explanation of the importance of scattering sunlight. The article is targeted to children ages 10-12.

353

Blue nano titania made in diffusion flames.  

PubMed

Blue titanium suboxide nanoparticles (including Magneli phases) were formed directly without any post-processing or addition of dopants by combustion of titanium-tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) vapor at atmospheric pressure. Particle size, phase composition, rutile and anatase crystal sizes as well as the blue coloration were controlled by rapid quenching of the flame with a critical flow nozzle placed at various heights above the burner. The particles showed a broad absorption in the near-infrared region and retained their blue color upon storage in ambient atmosphere. A high concentration of paramagnetic Ti3+ centres was found in the substoichiometric particles by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Furthermore particles with controlled band gap energy from 3.2 to 3.6 eV were made by controlling the burner-nozzle-distance from 10 to 1 cm, respectively. The color robustness and extent of suboxidation could be further enhanced by co-oxidation of TTIP with hexamethyldisiloxane in the flame resulting in SiO2-coated titanium suboxide particles. The process is cost-effective and green while the particles produced can replace traditional blue colored, cobalt-containing pigments. PMID:19421486

Teleki, Alexandra; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

2009-05-21

354

Effects of extracellular matrix proteins on macrophage differentiation, growth, and function: comparison of liquid and agar culture systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both spaceflight and skeletal unloading suppress the haematopoietic differentiation of macrophages (Sonnenfeld et al., Aviat. Space Environ. Med., 61:648-653, 1990; Armstrong et al., J. Appl. Physiol., 75:2734-2739, 1993). The mechanism behind this reduction in haematopoiesis has yet to be elucidated. However, changes in bone marrow extracellular matrix (ECM) may be involved. To further understand the role of ECM products in macrophage differentiation, we have performed experiments evaluating the effects of fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I, and collagen type IV on macrophage development and function. Bone marrow-derived macrophages cultured on four different ECM substrates in liquid culture medium showed less growth than those cultured on plastic. Significant morphological differences were seen on each of the substrates used. Phenotypically and functionally, as measured by class II major histocompatibility molecule (MHCII) expression, MAC-2 expression, and the secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), these macrophages were similar. In contrast, bone marrow-derived macrophages cultured in suspension, using agar, showed no difference in growth when exposed to ECM proteins. However, IL-6 and TNF-alpha secretion was affected by fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I, and collagen type IV in a concentration-dependent manner. We conclude that the ECM products fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I, and collagen type IV have profound effects on macrophage development and function. Additionally, we suggest that an ECM-supplemented agar culture system provides an environment more analogous to in vivo bone marrow than does a traditional liquid culture system.

Armstrong, J. W.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

1994-01-01

355

Enumeration of sublethally injured Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895 and Escherichia coli strain B-41560 using selective agar overlays versus commercial methods.  

PubMed

Quality control procedures during food processing may involve direct inoculation of food samples onto appropriate selective media for subsequent enumeration. However, sublethally injured bacteria often fail to grow, enabling them to evade detection and intervention measures and ultimately threaten the health of consumers. This study compares traditional selective and nonselective agar-based overlays versus two commercial systems (Petrifilm and Easygel) for recovery of injured E. coli B-41560 and O157:H7 strains. Bacteria were propagated in tryptic soy broth (TSB), ground beef slurry, and infant milk formula to a density of 10(6) to 10(8) CFU/ml and then were stressed for 6 min either in lactic acid (pH 4.5) or heat shocked for 3 min at 60°C. Samples were pour plated in basal layers of either tryptic soy agar (TSA), sorbitol MacConkey agar (SMAC), or violet red bile agar (VRB) and were resuscitated for 4 h prior to addition of agar overlays. Other stressed bacteria were plated directly onto Petrifilm and Easygel. Results indicate that selective and nonselective agar overlays recovered significantly higher numbers (greater than 1 log) of acid- and heat-injured E. coli O157:H7 from TSB, ground beef, and infant milk formula compared with direct plating onto selective media, Petrifilm, or Easygel, while no significant differences among these media combinations were observed for stressed E. coli B-41560. Nonstressed bacteria from TSB and ground beef were also recovered at densities significantly higher in nonselective TSA-TSA and in VRB-VRB and SMAC-SMAC compared with Petrifilm and Easygel. These data underscore the need to implement food safety measures that address sublethally injured pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7 in order to avoid underestimation of true densities for target pathogens. PMID:23575132

Smith, Amanda R; Ellison, Alysha L; Robinson, Amanda L; Drake, Maryanne; McDowell, Susan A; Mitchell, James K; Gerard, Patrick D; Heckler, Rachel A; McKillip, John L

2013-04-01

356

[Differential diagnosis: blue gastric mucosa. Post-mortem staining of the gastric mucosa with methylene blue].  

PubMed

An intense discoloration of the gastric mucosa or the gastrointestinal tract found at autopsy gives rise to the question of its cause. Such discolorations are mostly described in the context of intoxications. However, traditional foods and diagnostic procedures using indicator dyes can also lead to an unusual discoloration of the mucous membranes. The authors report on the autopsy findings in a man who died from a bleeding gastric ulcer and whose gastric mucosa showed intense blue discoloration. Experimental postmortem examinations (on stomachs) were performed with methylene blue, a dye used in gastroenterology, resulting in a blue discoloration resembling the appearance of the stomach in the autopsy case. Together with the outcome of the toxicological analyses, the experiments pointed to a diagnostic procedure using methylene blue (chromoendoscopy). PMID:22924277

Osterwald, Anna; Scholz, Jula; Gehl, Axel; Püschel, Klaus

2012-01-01

357

Beat the Winter Blues: Shedding Light on Seasonal Sadness  

MedlinePLUS

... Issue This Issue Features Beat the Winter Blues Radon Risk Health Capsules Trust Rises With Age Salivary ... and improving.” search Features Beat the Winter Blues Radon Risk Wise Choices Links Lift Your Mood These “ ...

358

76 FR 71334 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Office...SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (the...

2011-11-17

359

76 FR 2891 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Office...SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (the...

2011-01-18

360

75 FR 53685 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Office...SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (the...

2010-09-01

361

76 FR 23798 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Office...SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (the...

2011-04-28

362

75 FR 67958 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Office...SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (the...

2010-11-04

363

Spectrophotometric determination of 6-aminopenicillanic acid using bromophenol blue and bromothymol blue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two simple, selective and sensitive spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA). The methods are based on the reaction of 6-APA with either bromophenol blue (BPB) or bromothymol blue (BTB), to give orange-red and green species, respectively. The coloured products are quantified spectrophotometrically at 625 and 616 nm for BPB and BTB, respectively. The optimization of

Alaa S. Amin; Yousry M. Issa

1995-01-01

364

Extraction-spectrophotometric determination of amprolium hydrochloride using bromocresol green, bromophenol blue and bromothymol blue  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new procedure for the determination of amprolium hydrochloride by reaction with bromocresol green (BCG), bromophenol blue (BPB) and bromothymol blue (BTB) has been developed. The method consists of extracting the yellow ion-pair formed into chloroform from aqueous medium. The ion-pairs have absorption maxima at 420, 410 and 415 nm with molar absorptivities of 3.64 × 104, 3.12 × 104

Adel F. Shoukry; Mahmoud S. Rizk; Yousry M. Issa; Ehab M. Atia

1997-01-01

365

Developing the urban blue: Comparative health responses to blue and green urban open spaces in Germany.  

PubMed

Recently, new perspectives upon healthy urban open spaces propose that open spaces can be regarded as urban green or blue spaces. However, there has so far been very little research into blue environments and their benefits for mental well-being. Our article focuses on the effects of water in cities, "urban blue" (as compared to "urban green"), on human health and well-being. To assess the mental well-being of visitors, we conducted qualitative semi-standardised interviews (n=113), asking which differences in well-being occur when visiting urban green and blue spaces in high-density areas of the inner city in Dusseldorf and Cologne, Germany. Although we found many similarities, some health-enhancing effects for users turned out to be prominent for urban blue in the four conceptual therapeutic landscape dimensions: experienced, symbolic, social and activity space. These effects include enhanced contemplation, emotional bonding, participation, and physical activity. The results suggest that urban blue as a health-promoting factor needs more detailed and accurate determination and examination of its general and local health-enhancing effects. PMID:25475835

Völker, Sebastian; Kistemann, Thomas

2014-12-01

366

Comparative Swimming Performance of Juvenile Blue Catfish and Hybrid Catfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the swimming performance of juvenile blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus and hybrid catfish (female channel catfish I. punctatus × male blue catfish) using a protocol in which fish were forced to swim at a fixed velocity and their time to fatigue recorded at speeds of 30–120 cm\\/s. Hybrid catfish swam significantly longer than blue catfish at all of the

Rachel Venn Beecham; C. Douglas Minchew; Glenn R. Parsons; Susan B. LaBarre

2009-01-01

367

Blue And Gigantic Jets From Taiwan 2007 TLE Campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue and gigantic jets are believed to be blue luminous phenomena. In Taiwan 2007 TLE campaign, a multi- wavelength imaging system was deployed with the aim to elucidate the physical and chemical characteristics of TLEs. On 22 July 2007, twenty blue\\/gigantic jets and four sprites were observed to occur over a frontal system in Fujian province of China, about 400km

J. Chou; L. Tsai; C. Kuo; Y. Lee; Y. Chen; C. Hu; A. B. Chen; H. Su; R. Hsu; L. Lee

2007-01-01

368

Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) sounds from the North Atlantic  

E-print Network

Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) sounds from the North Atlantic David K. Mellingera) Bioacoustics 2003 Sounds of blue whales were recorded from U.S. Navy hydrophone arrays in the North Atlantic-duration, very-low-frequency sound units repeated every 1­2 min are typical of blue whale sounds recorded

369

Recognition of blue movies by fusion of audio and video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along with the explosive growth of the Internet, comes the proliferation of pornography. Compared with the pornographic texts and images, blue movies can do much harm to children, due to the greater realism and voyeurism of blue movies. In this paper, a framework for recognizing blue movies by fusing the audio and video information is described. A one-class Gaussian mixture

Haiqiang Zuo; Ou Wu; Weiming Hu; Bo Xu

2008-01-01

370

Optical isotropy and iridescence in a smectic `blue phase'  

Microsoft Academic Search

When liquid crystal molecules are chiral, the twisted structure competes with spatially uniform liquid crystalline orders, resulting in a variety of modulated liquid crystal phases, such as the cholesteric blue phase, twist grain boundary and smectic blue phases. Here we report a liquid crystal smectic blue phase (SmBPiso), formed from a two-component mixture containing a chiral monomer and a `twin'

Jun Yamamoto; Isa Nishiyama; Miyoshi Inoue; Hiroshi Yokoyama

2005-01-01

371

Methylene blue selectively stains intestinal metaplasia in Barrett's esophagus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Specialized columnar epithelium in Barrett's esophagus resembles gastric intestinal metaplasia, which selectively stains with methylene blue. Methods: We prospectively evaluated the safety, accuracy, reproducibility, cost, and diagnostic yield of methylene blue–directed biopsy in detecting specialized columnar epithelium and dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus. We performed upper endoscopy with methylene blue–directed biopsy and obtained 236 large cup biopsy specimens (145 stained,

Marcia Irene F. Canto; Sebouh Setrakian; Robert E. Petras; Edmond Blades; Amitabh Chak; Michael V. Sivak

1996-01-01

372

Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals: a tutorial [Invited  

E-print Network

. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, "Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue crystal `blue phases' with a wide temperature range," Nature 436(7053), 997­1000 (2005). 14. H. Kikuchi. Porsch, "Electric field effect on phase transitions in liquid-crystalline blue-phase systems," Phys. Rev

Wu, Shin-Tson

373

49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section 173...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the...

2010-10-01

374

Blue Moon sampling, vectorial reaction coordinates, and unbiased constrained dynamics  

E-print Network

Blue Moon sampling, vectorial reaction coordinates, and unbiased constrained dynamics Giovanni force in terms of a conditional expectation which can be computed by Blue Moon sampling Introduction Fifteen years ago the Blue Moon ensemble method was introduced to sample rare events that occur

Van Den Eijnden, Eric

375

Experiencing Blues at the Crossroads: A Place-Based Method for Teaching the Geography of Blues Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a pedagogical module that explores the geography of blues culture across the Mississippi Delta. By focusing on blues culture, rather than simply blues music itself, this project provides a forum for understanding the broader geographical conditions from which this musical form emerged. This module utilizes place-based…

Strait, John

2012-01-01

376

Novel Method for Rapid Assessment of Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolates from Environmental Waters by Use of a Modified Chromogenic Agar  

Microsoft Academic Search

We validated a novel method for screening Escherichia coli resistance to antibiotics in environmental samples using modified Difco MI agar (Becton Dickinson) impregnated with selected antibiotics (tetracycline, ampi- cillin, cephalexin, and sulfamethoxazole), termed MI-R. This method combines an existing rapid assessment technique for E. coli enumeration with clinical reference data for breakpoint analysis of antibiotic resistance and was developed to

A. J. Watkinson; G. R. Micalizzi; J. R. Bates; S. D. Costanzo

2007-01-01

377

Screening of tannin acyl hydrolase (E.C.3.1.1.20) producing tannery effluent fungal isolates using simple agar plate and SmF process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrially important tannase producing fungi were isolated from tannery effluent using simple agar plate method. The isolates were screened by submerged fermentation using auto-controlled bioreactor. The colony diameter on the solid surface media shows high correlation with quantitative production of tannase. The isolate Aspergillus niger shows maximum production of both extracellular and intracellular enzyme.

K. Murugan; S. Saravanababu; M. Arunachalam

2007-01-01

378

Screening of tannin acyl hydrolase (E.C.3.1.1.20) producing tannery effluent fungal isolates using simple agar plate and SmF process.  

PubMed

Industrially important tannase producing fungi were isolated from tannery effluent using simple agar plate method. The isolates were screened by submerged fermentation using auto-controlled bioreactor. The colony diameter on the solid surface media shows high correlation with quantitative production of tannase. The isolate Aspergillus niger shows maximum production of both extracellular and intracellular enzyme. PMID:16839759

Murugan, K; Saravanababu, S; Arunachalam, M

2007-03-01

379

Methylene blue promotes quiescence of rat neural progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

Neural stem cell-based treatment holds a new therapeutic opportunity for neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we investigated the effect of methylene blue on proliferation and differentiation of rat neural progenitor cells (NPCs) both in vitro and in vivo. We found that methylene blue inhibited proliferation and promoted quiescence of NPCs in vitro without affecting committed neuronal differentiation. Consistently, intracerebroventricular infusion of methylene blue significantly inhibited NPC proliferation at the subventricular zone (SVZ). Methylene blue inhibited mTOR signaling along with down-regulation of cyclins in NPCs in vitro and in vivo. In summary, our study indicates that methylene blue may delay NPC senescence through enhancing NPCs quiescence. PMID:25339866

Xie, Luokun; Choudhury, Gourav R.; Wang, Jixian; Park, Yong; Liu, Ran; Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Chun-Li; Yorio, Thomas; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Shao-Hua

2014-01-01

380

Spectral Effects of Pulsations in Blue Supergiants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been spectroscopically monitoring a number of blue supergiants, focusing on several strategic photospheric and wind lines. Our aim is to detect line profile variability, and to determine its origin. Here, we present preliminary results for ? Leo and ? Ori. We conduct an asteroseismic analysis of Hei ?6678. We find in each star multiple periods raging from hours to several days. In addition, we observe strong, night to night variability in H?.

Tomi?, S.; Kraus, M.; Oksala, M. E.

2015-01-01

381

Blue rubber-bleb nevus syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 22-year-old man with blue rubber-bleb nevus syndrome is reported on. This is a rare syndrome. This patient is of particular\\u000a interest because he had a combination of rare features: (1) five ileo-ileal intussusceptions each with a hemangioma acting\\u000a as the lead point, were present during operation; (2) there was an angiomatous lesion of the glans penis; (3) this is

S. H. Wong; W. Y. Lau

1982-01-01

382

Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome (Brbns)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) is a rare congenital disorder (OMIM # 112200) characterized by multifocal venous malformations\\u000a mainly of the skin, soft tissue and gastrointestinal tract which may occur however in any tissue including the nervous system\\u000a (Enjolras and Mulliken 1997, Fretzin and Potter 1965, Moodley and Ramdial 1993, Mulliken and Glowacki 1982, Munkvad 1983, Nahm et al.

María del Carmen Boente; Maria Rosa Cordisco

383

Eta Carinae and Other Luminous Blue Variables  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) are believed to be evolved, extremely massive stars close to the Eddington Limit and hence prone to bouts of large-scale, unstable mass loss. I discuss current understanding of the evolutionary state of these objects, the role duplicity may play and known physical characteristics of these stars using the X-ray luminous LBVs Eta Carinae and HD 5980 as test cases.

Corcoran, M. F.

2006-01-01

384

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Blue Grouse  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Schroeder, Richard L.

1984-01-01

385

Lake Tana: Source of the Blue Nile  

Microsoft Academic Search

At 1,830 m altitude, Lake Tana is situated on the basaltic Plateau of the north-western highlands of Ethiopia covering an\\u000a area of ca 3,050 km2. It is poor in nutrients and the source of the Blue Nile River (Great Abbay), with a catchment area of ca 16,500 km2. The Lake has been formed by volcanic activity, blocking the course of

Jacobus Vijverberg; Ferdinand A. Sibbing; Eshete Dejen

2009-01-01

386

Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescent organic compounds are of significant importance to the development of low-cost opto-electronic devices. Blue fluorescence from aromatic or olefinic molecules and their derivatives is particularly important for display and lighting applications. Thin film deposition of low-molecular-weight fluorescent organic compounds typically requires costly vacuum evaporation systems. On the other hand, solution-processable polymeric counterparts generally luminesce at longer wavelengths due to

Goki Eda; Yun-Yue Lin; Cecilia Mattevi; Hisato Yamaguchi; Hsin-An Chen; I-Sheng Chen; Chun-Wei Chen; Manish Chhowalla

2009-01-01

387

Combined Cellular Blue Nevus and Trichoepithelioma  

PubMed Central

Biphasic lesions composed of melanocytic and epithelial components are not uncommon. Combined trichoepithelioma and cellular blue naevus is a rare lesion that may mimic melanoma clinically. The authors describe what they believe to be the fourth case of this rare tumor and review the literature. Recent descriptions of malignant basomelanocytic tumors have raised interesting questions surrounding the pathogenesis of lesions composed of these cell lineages. PMID:24003350

Martin, Richard; Emanuel, Patrick

2013-01-01

388

Tried and True: The blue bottle demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The abilities to propose experiments, make observations, and use data to justify conclusions are critical to the scientific process (NRC 1996; NRC 2000). The Blue Bottle Demonstration provides an excellent platform for introducing these skills. The demonstration process allows the teacher to maintain control while guiding an inquiry into the chemical system. This involves students in an investigation early, even on the first day of class if the teacher chooses, before they have any experience in hands-on group activities.

Cox, Cathi; Ramsey, Linda; Deese, William C.

2007-12-01

389

Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using blue-emitting GaN/6HSiC chips as primary light sources, we have fabricated green, yellow, red and white emitting LEDs. The generation of mixed colors, as turquoise and magenta is also demonstrated. The underlying physical principle is that of luminescence down-conversion (Stokes shift), as typical for organic luminescent dye molecules. A white emitting LED, using an inorganic converter, Y3Al5O12:Ce3+( ), has also been realized.

Schlotter, P.; Schmidt, R.; Schneider, J.

390

A SCIENTIFIC APPROACH TO BREEDING BLUE ORCHIDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flower color results from the interaction of a pigment (anthocyanin) with a co-pigment (usually a flavonone or flavonol) at a specific pH. At more alkaline pH’s (pH 5 to 6), an anthocyanin / co-pigment complex is blue; while at more acidic pH’s (pH 3-4), the same anthocyanin / co-pigment complex is...

391

Blue Rose perimeter defense and security system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An in-ground perimeter security system has been developed by the Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport based upon fiber optic sensor technology. The system, called Blue Rose, exploits the physical phenomenon of Rayleigh optical scattering, which occurs naturally in optical fibers used traditionally for Optical Time Domain Reflectometry techniques to detect sound and vibration transmitted by intruders such as people walking or running and moving vehicles near the sensor. The actual sensor is a single-mode optical fiber with an elastomeric coating that is buried in the ground. A long coherence length laser is used to transmit encoded light down the fiber. Minute changes in the fiber in response to the intrusion produce phase changes to the returning backscattered light signal. The return light signal contains both the actual intrusion sound and the location information of where along the fiber the intrusion has occurred. A digital, in-ground, Blue Rose system has been built and is now operational at NUWC. Due to the low cost of the optical fiber sensor and unique benefits of the system, the Blue Rose system provides an advantage in long perimeter or border security applications and also reduces security manning requirements and therefore overall cost for security.

Blackmon, F.; Pollock, J.

2006-05-01

392

QCD and the BlueGene  

SciTech Connect

Quantum Chromodynamics is the theory of nuclear and sub-nuclear physics. It is a celebrated theory and one of its inventors, F. Wilczek, has termed it as '... our most perfect physical theory'. Part of this is related to the fact that QCD can be numerically simulated from first principles using the methods of lattice gauge theory. The computational demands of QCD are enormous and have not only played a role in the history of supercomputers but are also helping define their future. Here I will discuss the intimate relation of QCD and massively parallel supercomputers with focus on the Blue Gene supercomputer and QCD thermodynamics. I will present results on the performance of QCD on the Blue Gene as well as physics simulation results of QCD at temperatures high enough that sub-nuclear matter transitions to a plasma state of elementary particles, the quark gluon plasma. This state of matter is thought to have existed at around 10 microseconds after the big bang. Current heavy ion experiments are in the quest of reproducing it for the first time since then. And numerical simulations of QCD on the Blue Gene systems are calculating the theoretical values of fundamental parameters so that comparisons of experiment and theory can be made.

Vranas, P

2007-06-18

393

Beauveria bassiana yeast phase on agar medium and its pathogenicity against Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).  

PubMed

Beauveria bassiana colonizes insect hosts initially through a yeast phase, which is common in some artificial liquid cultures, but not reported on artificial solid media. We describe a yeast-like phase for B. bassiana isolate 447 (ATCC 20872) on MacConkey agar and its virulence toward Diatraea saccharalis and Tetranychus urticae. The yeast-like cells of B. bassiana developed by budding from germinating conidia after 24-h incubation. Cells were typically 5-10 microm and fungal colonies were initially circular and mucoid, but later were covered with mycelia and conidia. Ability to produce yeast-like cells on MacConkey medium was relatively common among different B. bassiana isolates, but growth rate and timing of yeast-like cell production also varied. Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces spp. isolates did not grow as yeast-like cells on MacConkey medium. Yeast-like cells of B. bassiana 447 were more virulent against D. saccharalis than conidia when 10(7)cells/ml were used. At 10(8)cells/ml, the estimated mean survival time was 5.4 days for the yeast suspension and 7.7 days for the conidial suspension, perhaps due to faster germination. The LC(50) was also lower for yeast than conidial suspensions. Yeast-like cells and conidia had similar virulence against T. urticae; the average mortalities with yeast-like cells and conidia were, respectively, 42.8 and 45.0%, with 10(7)cells/ml, and 77.8 and 74.4%, with 10(8)cells/ml. The estimated mean survival times were 3.6 and 3.9 for yeast and conidial suspensions, respectively. The bioassay results demonstrate the yeast-like structures produced on MacConkey agar are effective as inoculum for B. bassiana applications against arthropod pests, and possibly superior to conidia against some species. Obtaining well-defined yeast phase cultures of entomopathogenic hyphomycetes may be an important step in studies of the biology and nutrition, pathogenesis, and the genetic manipulation of these fungi. PMID:12445790

Alves, Sérgio Batista; Rossi, Luciana Savoi; Lopes, Rogério Biaggioni; Tamai, Marco Antonio; Pereira, Roberto M

2002-10-01

394

Development and Validation of a Successful Microbiological Agar Assay for Determination of Ceftriaxone Sodium in Powder for Injectable Solution  

PubMed Central

Ceftriaxone sodium is a cephalosporin with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and belongs to the third generation of cephalosporins. Regarding the quality control of medicines, a validated microbiological assay for the determination of ceftriaxone sodium in powder for injectable solution has not been reported yet. This paper reports the development and validation of a simple, accurate and reproducible agar diffusion method to quantify ceftriaxone sodium in powder for injectable solution. The assay is based on the inhibitory effect of ceftriaxone sodium on the strain of Bacillus subtilis ATCC 9371 IAL 1027 used as test microorganism. The results were treated statistically by analysis of variance and were found to be linear (r = 0.999) in the selected range of 15.0–60.0 ?g/mL, precise with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of repeatability intraday = 1.40%, accurate (100.46%) and robust with a RSD lower than 1.28%. The results demonstrated the validity of the proposed bioassay, which allows reliable ceftriaxone sodium quantitation in pharmaceutical samples and therefore can be used as a useful alternative methodology for the routine quality control of this medicine. PMID:24300294

Aléssio, Patrícia V.; Salgado, Hérida R. N.

2012-01-01

395

Analysis of Keystone Enzyme in Agar Hydrolysis Provides Insight into the Degradation (of a Polysaccharide from) Red Seaweeds*  

PubMed Central

Agars are abundant polysaccharides from marine red algae, and their chemical structure consists of alternating d-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose residues, the latter of which are presumed to make the polymer recalcitrant to degradation by most terrestrial bacteria. Here we study a family 117 glycoside hydrolase (BpGH117) encoded within a recently discovered locus from the human gut bacterium Bacteroides plebeius. Consistent with this locus being involved in agarocolloid degradation, we show that BpGH117 is an exo-acting 3,6-anhydro-?-(1,3)-l-galactosidase that removes the 3,6-anhydrogalactose from the non-reducing end of neoagaro-oligosaccharides. A Michaelis complex of BpGH117 with neoagarobiose reveals the distortion of the constrained 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose into a conformation that favors catalysis. Furthermore, this complex, supported by analysis of site-directed mutants, provides evidence for an organization of the active site and positioning of the catalytic residues that are consistent with an inverting mechanism of catalysis and suggests that a histidine residue acts as the general acid. This latter feature differs from the vast majority of glycoside hydrolases, which use a carboxylic acid, highlighting the alternative strategies that enzymes may utilize in catalyzing the cleavage of glycosidic bonds. PMID:22393053

Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik; Smyth, Leo; Yadav, Anuj; Vocadlo, David J.; Boraston, Alisdair B.

2012-01-01

396

Use of the agar-gel precipitin test to evaluate broiler breeder and commercial layer flocks for Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection.  

PubMed

In the absence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) isolation, the importance of agar-gel precipitin (AGP) tests along with microhemagglutination-inhibition (mHI) and serum plate agglutination (SPA) tests for the evaluation of poultry flocks for MG infection was demonstrated. A good correlation between AGP, mHI, and SPA tests for the early confirmation of MG in a flock was observed, except for the breeder flocks from which WVU 907 was isolated. The serums of such breeder flocks were positive for SPA and AGP test but negative for the mHI test. Isolation of MG for confirmation of the status of the flock was unsatisfactory in the later stages of infection or when nonpathogenic organisms were present in appreciable numbers. In the absence of MG or M. synoviae (MS) isolation, demonstration of agglutinin, precipitin, and/or mHI antibodies in the serums of such flocks were confirmatory for MG or MS infection. The new isolate WVU 907 gave positive reactions on the SPA and AGP tests with MG antiserum. The isolate hemagglutinated chicken red blood cells (RBC) and induced low HI antibody levels (less than or equal to 1:20) when inoculated into chickens. Like MG, WVU 907 precipitin antigen was partially denatured by urea, Triton x-100, and sodium dodecyl sulfate treatment. PMID:822817

Sahu, S P; Olson, N O

1976-01-01

397

Evaluation of 3 different agar media for rapid detection of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae from surveillance samples.  

PubMed

Rapid detection of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram-negative bacilli in surveillance samples of high-risk patients allows early optimization of antimicrobial therapy and timely introduction of infection control procedures. This study evaluated the BLSE (AES Chemunex), chromID ESBL (bioMérieux), and Brilliance ESBL agar (Oxoid) for rapid detection of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae from surveillance samples. A total of 139 perineal and nose samples were processed. Isolated bacterial strains were identified by mass spectrometry. ESBL confirmation was performed by phenotypical and molecular tests. Overall, 16 ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were recovered. The sensitivities after 24 h of incubation were comparable (BLSE, 87.5%; Brilliance ESBL, 87.5%; and chromID, 81.3%). The specificity of chromogenic media (80.7-82.1%) was significantly higher compared to BLSE (60.8%). All 3 media are reliable to screen for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae from surveillance samples. Yet, the main advantages of chromogenic media over BLSE reside in their chromogenic character and higher specificity, reducing the total number of isolates that require further identification and ESBL confirmation testing. PMID:23608349

Willems, Elise; Cartuyvels, Reinoud; Magerman, Koen; Verhaegen, Jan

2013-05-01

398

Mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana genes involved in the tryptophan biosynthesis pathway affect root waving on tilted agar surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arabidopsis thaliana roots grow in a wavy pattern upon a slanted surface. A novel mutation in the anthranilate synthase alpha 1 (ASA1) gene, named trp5-2wvc1, and mutations in the tryptophan synthase alpha and beta 1 genes (trp3-1 and trp2-1, respectively) confer a compressed root wave phenotype on tilted agar surfaces. When trp5-2wvc1 seedlings are grown on media supplemented with anthranilate metabolites, their roots wave like wild type. Genetic and pharmacological experiments argue that the compressed root wave phenotypes of trp5-2wvc1, trp2-1 and trp3-1 seedlings are not due to reduced IAA biosynthetic potential, but rather to a deficiency in L-tryptophan (L-Trp), or in a L-Trp derivative. Although the roots of 7-day-old seedlings possess higher concentrations of free L-Trp than the shoot as a whole, trp5-2wvc1 mutants show no detectable alteration in L-Trp levels in either tissue type, suggesting that a very localized shortage of L-Trp, or of a L-Trp-derived compound, is responsible for the observed phenotype.

Rutherford, R.; Gallois, P.; Masson, P. H.

1998-01-01

399

Compensation of blue phase I by blue phase II in optoeletronic device.  

PubMed

Compensation effect of blue phase I (BP I) with blue phase II (BP II) liquid crystal was demonstrated. BP I and BP II were co-exist in the optoeletronic device by polymer stabilization. Consequently, disadvantages of BP I and BP II were greatly improved by compensation effect and resulted in high contrast ratio, low hysteresis and fast falling time. Mechanism of compensation effect was explained by relaxation ability of lattice structure under electrical field and compensation structure was well confirmed by Bragg's reflectance spectrum and Commission International de l'Éclairage chromaticity diagram. PMID:23482036

Lan, Yi-Fen; Tsai, Cheng-Yeh; Lu, Jen-Kuei; Sugiura, Norio

2013-02-25

400

MOCK OBSERVATIONS OF BLUE STRAGGLERS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER MODELS  

SciTech Connect

We created artificial color-magnitude diagrams of Monte Carlo dynamical models of globular clusters and then used observational methods to determine the number of blue stragglers in those clusters. We compared these blue stragglers to various cluster properties, mimicking work that has been done for blue stragglers in Milky Way globular clusters to determine the dominant formation mechanism(s) of this unusual stellar population. We find that a mass-based prescription for selecting blue stragglers will select approximately twice as many blue stragglers than a selection criterion that was developed for observations of real clusters. However, the two numbers of blue stragglers are well-correlated, so either selection criterion can be used to characterize the blue straggler population of a cluster. We confirm previous results that the simplified prescription for the evolution of a collision or merger product in the BSE code overestimates their lifetimes. We show that our model blue stragglers follow similar trends with cluster properties (core mass, binary fraction, total mass, collision rate) as the true Milky Way blue stragglers as long as we restrict ourselves to model clusters with an initial binary fraction higher than 5%. We also show that, in contrast to earlier work, the number of blue stragglers in the cluster core does have a weak dependence on the collisional parameter ? in both our models and in Milky Way globular clusters.

Sills, Alison; Glebbeek, Evert [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Chatterjee, Sourav [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Rasio, Frederic A., E-mail: asills@mcmaster.ca, E-mail: e.glebbeek@astro.ru.nl, E-mail: s.chatterjee@astro.ufl.edu, E-mail: rasio@northwestern.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

2013-11-10

401

Slow-blue PanSTARRS transients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photometric and spectroscopic monitoring of 50 blue, nuclear "transients" in PanSTARRS-1 has revealed different types of extremely variable AGN. The majority show a gradual brightening by ~2 mag from the SDSS observation a decade ago and may represent a new class of AGN microlensed by foreground galaxies. Spectra from the William Herschel Telescope identify these as z~1 AGN with atypical spectroscopic properties. We present an analysis of their photometric and spectroscopic variability in an effort to constrain the detailed structure of the source AGN.

MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Bruce, Alastair; Lawrence, Andy; Ward, Martin; Collinson, James; Elvis, Martin; Gezari, Suvi; Smartt, Steven; Smith, Ken; Wright, Darryl; Fraser, Morgan

2015-01-01

402

2.OA Red and Blue Tiles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Lin wants to put some red and blue tiles on a wall for decoration. She is thinking about several different patterns of tiles she could create. She want...

403

7.SP Red, Green, or Blue?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: This is a game for two people. You have three dice; one is red, one is green, and one is blue. These dice are different than regular six-sided dice, wh...

404

Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser  

DOEpatents

A laser is disclosed for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr{sup 3+} ions and Yb{sup 3+} ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output. 11 figs.

Xie, P.; Gosnell, T.R.

1998-09-08

405

Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser  

DOEpatents

A laser for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr.sup.3+ ions and Yb.sup.3+ ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output.

Xie, Ping (San Jose, CA); Gosnell, Timothy R. (Sante Fe, NM)

1998-01-01

406

Measuring star formation rates in blue galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problems associated with measurements of star formation rates in galaxies are briefly reviewed, and specific models are presented for determinations of current star formation rates from H alpha and Far Infrared (FIR) luminosities. The models are applied to a sample of optically blue irregular galaxies, and the results are discussed in terms of star forming histories. It appears likely that typical irregular galaxies are forming stars at nearly constant rates, although a few examples of systems with enhanced star forming activity are found among HII regions and luminous irregular galaxies.

Gallagher, John S., III; Hunter, Deidre A.

1987-01-01

407

Fuzzy logic color detection: Blue areas in melanoma dermoscopy images.  

PubMed

Fuzzy logic image analysis techniques were used to analyze three shades of blue (lavender blue, light blue, and dark blue) in dermoscopic images for melanoma detection. A logistic regression model provided up to 82.7% accuracy for melanoma discrimination for 866 images. With a support vector machines (SVM) classifier, lower accuracy was obtained for individual shades (79.9-80.1%) compared with up to 81.4% accuracy with multiple shades. All fuzzy blue logic alpha cuts scored higher than the crisp case. Fuzzy logic techniques applied to multiple shades of blue can assist in melanoma detection. These vector-based fuzzy logic techniques can be extended to other image analysis problems involving multiple colors or color shades. PMID:24786720

Lingala, Mounika; Stanley, R Joe; Rader, Ryan K; Hagerty, Jason; Rabinovitz, Harold S; Oliviero, Margaret; Choudhry, Iqra; Stoecker, William V

2014-07-01

408

Development and characterization of novel agar and gelatin injectable hydrogel as filler for peripheral nerve guidance channels.  

PubMed

Injectable hydrogels are becoming of increasing interest in the field of tissue engineering thanks to their versatile properties and to the possibility of being injected into tissues or devices during surgery. In peripheral nerve tissue engineering, injectable hydrogels having shear-thinning properties are advantageous as filler of nerve guidance channels (NGCs) to improve the regeneration process. In the present work, gelatin-based hydrogels were developed and specifically designed for the insertion into the lumen of hollow NGCs through a syringe during surgery. Injectable hydrogels were obtained using an agar-gelatin 20:80 weight ratio, (wt/wt) blend crosslinked by the addition of genipin (A/GL_GP). The physicochemical properties of the A/GL_GP hydrogels were analysed, including their injectability, rheological, swelling and dissolution behaviour, and their mechanical properties under compression. The hydrogel developed showed shear-thinning properties and was applied as filler of NGCs. The A/GL_GP hydrogel was tested in vitro using different cell lines, among them Schwann cells which have been used because they have an important role in peripheral nerve regeneration. Viability assays demonstrated the lack of cytotoxicity. In vitro experiments showed that the hydrogel is able to promote cell adhesion and proliferation. Two- and three-dimensional migration assays confirmed the capability of the cells to migrate both on the surface and within the internal framework of the hydrogel. These data show that A/GL_GP hydrogel has characteristics that make it a promising scaffold material for tissue engineering and nerve regeneration. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24737714

Tonda-Turo, C; Gnavi, S; Ruini, F; Gambarotta, G; Gioffredi, E; Chiono, V; Perroteau, I; Ciardelli, G

2014-04-16

409

Gilvimarinus polysaccharolyticus sp. nov., an agar-digesting bacterium isolated from seaweed, and emended description of the genus Gilvimarinus.  

PubMed

A taxonomic study was carried out on strain YN3T, which was isolated from a seaweed sample on the coast of Weihai, China. The bacterium was Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, and could grow at pH 5.0-10.0 and 4-32 °C in presence of 0-9.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain YN3T was positive for hydrolysis of polysaccharides, such as agar, starch and xylan. The predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-8. The major fatty acids were C16:1?7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH, C16:0 and C18:1?7c. The main polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine, and two unidentified glycolipids. The genomic DNA G + C content was 49.4 mol %. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain YN3T should be assigned to the genus Gilvimarinus. 'Gilvimarinus agarilyticus' KCTC 23325T and Gilvimarinus chinensis QM42T had the closest phylogenetic relationship with strain YN3T, and showed 97.9 % and 95.8 % sequence similarities, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic data and DNA-DNA hybridization studies, we propose that strain YN3T represents a novel species of the genus Gilvimarinus, for which the name Gilvimarinus polysaccharolyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YN3T (= KCTC 32438T = JCM 19198T). An emended description of the genus Gilvimarinus is also presented. PMID:25392347

Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Shun; Huo, Ying-Yi; Jiang, Xia-Wei; Zhang, Xin-Qi; Pan, Jie; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Wu, Min

2014-11-12

410

VIDAS Salmonella (SLM) assay method EasySLM with ChromID Salmonella (SM2) Agar. Performance Tested Method 020901.  

PubMed

A method modification study was conducted for the VIDAS Salmonella (SLM) assay (AOAC Performance Tested Method 020901) using the EasySLM method to validate a matrix extension for peanut butter. The VIDAS EasySLM method is a simple enrichment procedure compared to traditional Salmonella methods, requiring only pre-enrichment and a single selective enrichment media, Salmonella Xpress 2 (SX2) broth. SX2 replaces the two selective broths in traditional methods and eliminates the M broth transfer, incubation, and subsequent pooling of M broths prior to VIDAS assay. The validation study was conducted under the AOAC Research Institute Emergency Response Validation program. VIDAS SLM was compared to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) method for detection of S. enterica ser. Typhimurium in peanut butter. All peanut butter samples were prepared, blind-coded, and shipped to the method developers' laboratory by Q Laboratories. In addition, Q Laboratories performed most probable number and reference method analyses on peanut butter samples. The VIDAS EasySLM ChromID Salmonella (SM2) Agar was previously validated in the Performance Tested Methods program for the detection of Salmonella in roast beef, raw ground pork, turkey, pork sausage, raw chicken breast, dry pet food, whole milk, ice cream, bagged spinach, shrimp (raw, peeled), raw cod, spent irrigation water, pecans, peanut butter, dry pasta, cake mix, ground black pepper, nonfat dry milk, liquid eggs, cantaloupe, and orange juice. In the matrix extension study for peanut butter, the VIDAS EasySLM method was shown to be equivalent to the appropriate reference culture procedure using both buffered peptone water pre-enrichment and the FDA-BAM lactose pre-enrichment in the two-step enrichment method with SX2 media. The current study extends the validation to include peanut butter. PMID:20166608

Johnson, Ronald; Mills, John; Colón-Reveles, Judith

2009-01-01

411

Unusual histopathological diagnosis of prostatic blue nevus: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Prostatic blue nevus was first described as a benign lesion of uncertain and controversial histogenesis by Nogogosyan in 1963. Currently, 30 cases have been reported in the world literature. Case presentation A 63-year-old Hispanic man presented with prostatism of several months’ evolution. Histopathological examination revealed a blue nevus associated with nodular hyperplasia and acute inflammation. Conclusion Prostatic blue nevus is a rare and unusual, histologically benign prostatic lesion with limited clinical significance and a favorable prognosis. PMID:24377954

2013-01-01

412

Observations of blue whales feeding in Antarctic waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are no published accounts of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) feeding in Antarctic waters. This note describes the behaviour of two groups of blue whales feeding in Antarctic pelagic\\u000a waters. Whales were observed during the 18th IWC\\/IDCR southern hemisphere minke whale assessment cruise. Feeding behaviour\\u000a in both cases resembled those described previously for both northern hemisphere blue whales and fin

Peter J. Corkeron; Paul Ensor; Koji Matsuoka

1999-01-01

413

Blue And Gigantic Jets From Taiwan 2007 TLE Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blue and gigantic jets are believed to be blue luminous phenomena. In Taiwan 2007 TLE campaign, a multi- wavelength imaging system was deployed with the aim to elucidate the physical and chemical characteristics of TLEs. On 22 July 2007, twenty blue/gigantic jets and four sprites were observed to occur over a frontal system in Fujian province of China, about 400km away from our observation site at Lulin Observatory, Taiwan. All the observed jets showed little blue band (380-510nm) emissions but had easily recognizable signals in red band (570-2700nm). This result indicates that jets observed from ground are reddish and most of the blue emissions are extinct. One of the jets was observed to propagate upward to ~75km elevation, thus it can be identified as a GJ and is similar to the GJ-event observed by Pasko et al (2001). This GJ was launched 200ms after a small jet from the same cloud top. This implies that the smaller jet could be regarded as the leader of this GJ, similar to the stepped/dart leader in a CG flash. Since the blue luminous events in ISUAL data (Su, et. al. 2005 AGU) have similar features as the jets in this ground observation. Thus, we can conclude that the ISUAL blue luminous events also are blue jets or blue starters. Even though blue jets and blue starter have different ISUAL SP2 (N2 2P, 337.0nm), SP3 (N2 1N, 391.4nm) and SP6 (250-390nm) intensities, but the peak ratio between SP2 and SP6 are ~ 0.5 and the peak ratio between SP3 and SP2 are ~ 0.07. This means blue jets and starters possess the same spectral properties and the same degree of ionization. Finally, the relation between jets and the nearby lightning will also be addressed.

Chou, J.; Tsai, L.; Kuo, C.; Lee, Y.; Chen, Y.; Hu, C.; Chen, A. B.; Su, H.; Hsu, R.; Lee, L.

2007-12-01

414

Anthracene derivatives for stable blue-emitting organic electroluminescence devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A class of anthracene derivative which is suitable used as emitting materials for producing efficient and stable blue emission for full color organic electroluminescence (EL) devices has been developed. Multilayer organic EL devices using these fluorescent materials as an emitting layer produced blue emissions with good chromaticity and luminous efficiency as high as 3.5 cd/A. The half life of 4000 h of blue emission EL device with initial light output 700 cd/m2 has been achieved.

Shi, Jianmin; Tang, Ching W.

2002-04-01

415

Blue-light imagery and photometry of sprites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have obtained blue (350–475 nm) video images and simultaneous high-time resolution narrow-band blue (415–435 nm) photometry records of four sprite events. The brightest blue images show a sustained tendril geometry and a nearly constant intensity of emission over the entire vertical extent of the sprite (from 35–90 km altitude). Photometer light curves display an exponential decay with a 0.3

David M. Suszcynsky; Robert Roussel-Dupré; Walter A. Lyons; Russell A. Armstrong

1998-01-01

416

Azatryptophans endow proteins with intrinsic blue fluorescence  

PubMed Central

Our long-term goal is the in vivo expression of intrinsically colored proteins without the need for further posttranslational modification or chemical functionalization by externally added reagents. Biocompatible (Aza)Indoles (Inds)/(Aza)Tryptophans (Trp) as optical probes represent almost ideal isosteric substitutes for natural Trp in cellular proteins. To overcome the limits of the traditionally used (7-Aza)Ind/(7-Aza)Trp, we substituted the single Trp residue in human annexin A5 (anxA5) by (4-Aza)Trp and (5-Aza)Trp in Trp-auxotrophic Escherichia coli cells. Both cells and proteins with these fluorophores possess intrinsic blue fluorescence detectable on routine UV irradiations. We identified (4-Aza)Ind as a superior optical probe due to its pronounced Stokes shift of ?130 nm, its significantly higher quantum yield (QY) in aqueous buffers and its enhanced quenching resistance. Intracellular metabolic transformation of (4-Aza)Ind into (4-Aza)Trp coupled with high yield incorporation into proteins is the most straightforward method for the conversion of naturally colorless proteins and cells into their blue counterparts from amino acid precursors. PMID:18854410

Lepthien, Sandra; Hoesl, Michael G.; Merkel, Lars; Budisa, Nediljko

2008-01-01

417

Differential migration of Blue Grouse in Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined migration of adult Blue Grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) in north-central Colorado by radio tracking 13 males and 19 females. Elevational changes associated with movements to winter areas were greater for males (median = 488 m, range = 183-671 m) than females (median = 122 m, range = -61-760 m). Males (median = 10.5 km, range = 1.0-29.4 km) also moved farther than females (median = 1.0 km, range = 0.1-28.0 km), resulting in partial segregation of sexes during winter. Directional orientation of movements to wintering areas was nonrandom for long-distance (>3 km) migrants. Median elevational change (122 m) and distance (0.6 km) between the first-winter and first-breeding areas for seven juvenile females were similar to movements of adult females. Males (median = 7 July) departed breeding areas earlier than females (median = 11 August), but arrived (median = 14 October) on winter areas about the same time as females (median = 23 October). Both sexes exhibited fidelity to winter areas. The average distance between winter locations ranged from 94 to 312 m (median = 135 m) for 11 radio-marked adults, suggesting Blue Grouse were sedentary on their winter ranges.

Cade, Brian S.; Hoffman, Richard W.

1993-01-01

418

The Return of the Blue Butterfly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Return of the Blue Butterfly The English writer Charles Dickens once wrote: "I only ask to be free. The butterflies are free". But are they really? The work that I performed with a group of students from 8th grade, had a starting point of climate change and the implications it has on ecosystems. Joining the passion I have for butterflies, I realized that they are also in danger of extinction due to these climatic effects. Thus, it was easy to seduce my students wanting to know more. Luckily I found Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo, a researcher at the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, who has worked on butterflies and precisely investigated this issue. Portugal is the southern limit of butterfly-blue (Phengaris alcon), and has been many years in the red book of endangered species. Butterfly-blue is very demanding of their habitat, and disappears very easily if ideal conditions are not satisfied. Increased fragmentation of landscapes and degradation of suitable habitats, are considered the greatest challenges of the conservation of Phengaris butterfly in Portugal. In recent decades, climate change has also changed butterfly-blue spatial distribution with a movement of the species northward to colder locations, and dispersion in latitude. Butterflies of Europe must escape to the North because of the heat. Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo and her research team began a project, completed in December 2013, wanted to preserve and restore priority habitats recognized by the European Union to help species in danger of disappearing with increasing temperature. The blue butterfly is extremely important because it is a key indicator of the quality of these habitats. In the field, the butterflies are monitored to collect all possible data in order to identify the key species. Butterflies start flying in early July and cease in late August. Mating takes about an hour and occurs in the first days of life. The gentian-peat (Gentiana pneumonanthe) serves as the host plant for laying eggs. Each female lays an average of 60 eggs. Larva must grow in a plant near an anthill of Myrmica aloba species. This is important because butterfly larvae are myrmecophilous, living with ants that feed the butterfly larvae for 11 months, because the ants think the butterfly larvae are ant larvae. In early summer the larvae pupate in the nest of ants. Before expanding their wings, they have to leave quickly to avoid being killed by ants when the ants discover have been deceived. My students became aware of this research; we studied and prepared in order to carry out fieldwork. Thus students learn the content and curricular in a scientifically fun way, first with group work in the classroom with my guidance and in a second stage carry knowledge to the field under the guidance of Dra Paula Seixas Arnaldo. We know where we started ... where we arrives is success!

Santos, Anabela

2014-05-01

419

Comparative evaluation of agar gel precipitation, counterimmunoelectrophoresis and passive haemagglutination tests for the diagnosis of Dicrocoelium dendriticum infection in sheep and goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity and specificity of the agar gel precipitation test (AGPT), counter immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) and passive haemagglutination test (PHT) were evaluated for the diagnosis of Dicrocoelium dendriticum infection in naturally infected sheep and goats. Two hundred and forty five sheep and goat sera samples were tested using phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.2 extracted adult fluke antigen. CIEP detected 69.8% of

K. P. Jithendran; J. Vaid; L. Krishna

1996-01-01

420

Interspecific interactions between the rare tooth fungi Creolophus cirrhatus, Hericium erinaceus and H. coralloides and other wood decay species in agar and wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creolophus cirrhatus, Hericium erinaceus and H. coralloides were paired against over 20 other wood decay fungi from beech (Fagus sylvatica) covering a range of ecological strategies, on 2 % malt agar (MA), 0.5 % MA, 0.5 % MA adjusted to x1.25 MPa by addition of KCl, 0.5 % MA adjusted to pH 4 with KOH\\/H3PO4 and 0.5 % MA under

Paul Wald; Sini Pitkkänen; Lynne Boddy

2004-01-01

421

PhysicoChemical Characterization of Agar-Type Polysaccharides Used as Aqueous Gels in in vitro Micropropagation of Several Clones of Thuja plicata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of four agar-type polysaccharides on the budding and the elongation of five clones of Thuja plicata was tested. The polysac charides were used as solidifying agents for culture media and differed in their sulfate content (0.14 to 10.95% W\\/W). Budding was reduced on the most highly sulfated polysaccharide, and the differences observed between clones in elonga tion were

B. Pochet; V. Rouxhet; M. M. Mestdagh; J. François

1993-01-01

422

Comparative Evaluation of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards Broth Macrodilution and Agar Dilution Screening Methods for Testing Fluconazole Susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple screening method for fluconazole susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans using 2% dextrose Sabouraud dextrose agar (SabDex) with fluconazole was compared to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) broth macrodilution method. By this method, fluconazole-susceptible C. neoformans isolates are significantly smaller on medium with fluconazole than on fluconazole-free medium. Isolates with decreased susceptibility have normal-size colonies on medium

WILLIAM R. KIRKPATRICK; ROBERT K. MCATEE; SANJAY G. REVANKAR; ANNETTE W. FOTHERGILL; DORA I. MCCARTHY; MICHAEL G. RINALDI; THOMAS F. PATTERSON

1998-01-01

423

Biostimulation of estuarine microbiota on substrate coated agar slides: a novel approach to study diversity of autochthonous Bdellovibrio- and like organisms.  

PubMed

Characterization of Bdellovibrio- and like organisms (BALOs) from environmental samples involves growing them in the presence of Gram-negative prey bacteria and isolation of BALO plaques. This labor-intensive enrichment and isolation procedure may impede the detection and phylogenetic characterization of uncultivable BALOs. In this article, we describe a simple slide biofilm assay to improve detection and characterization of BALO microbiota. Agar spiked with biostimulants such as yeast extract (YE), casamino acids (CA), or concentrated cells of Vibrio parahaemolyticus P5 (most widely used prey bacteria for isolation of halophilic BALOs) was plated onto buffed glass slides and exposed to water samples collected from Apalachicola Bay, Florida. After incubating for a week, diversity of the biofilm bacterial community was studied by culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular methods. The results revealed that most probable numbers (MPNs) of BALOs and total culturable bacteria recovered from YE agar slide were significantly higher than the numbers on CA- or P5-spiked agar slides. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism followed by 16S rDNA sequencing of clones from different biostimulants resulted in identification of a plethora of Gram-negative bacteria predominantly from the alpha, gamma, delta-proteobacteria, and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group. Corresponding to the higher biomass on the YE agar slide, the BALO clone library from YE was most diverse, consisting of Bacteriovorax spp. and a novel clade representing Peredibacter spp. Microbiota from all three biostimulated biofilms were exclusively Gram-negative, and each bacterial guild represented potential prey for BALOs. We propose the use of this simple yet novel slide biofilm assay to study oligotrophic aquatic bacterial diversity which could also potentially be utilized to isolate marine bacteria with novel traits. PMID:17968612

Chauhan, Ashvini; Williams, Henry N

2008-05-01

424

Growth of Pseudomonas aureofaciens PGS12 and the dynamics of HHL and phenazine production in liquid culture, on nutrient agar, and on plant roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of Pseudomonas aureofaciens PGS12 was followed in nutrient broth (NB), on nutrient agar (NA), and on plant roots by monitoring cell numbers, the production\\u000a of the autoinducer hexanoyl-homoserine lactone (HHL), and the antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). In NB, as the\\u000a growth rate declined in transition phase, HHL synthesis increased rapidly, shortly followed by PCA production. During stationary\\u000a phase,

N. A. Séveno; J. A. W. Morgan; E. M. H. Wellington

2001-01-01

425

Cryptotrichosporon anacardii gen. nov., sp. nov., a new trichosporonoid capsulate basidiomycetous yeast from Nigeria that is able to form melanin on niger seed agar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five yeast isolates obtained from cashew tree flowers in Nigeria resembled Cryptococcus neoformans phenotypically by producing brown pigmented colonies on niger seed agar, expressing a capsule, and being able to grow at 371C. However, rRNA gene sequences, including the 18S rRNA gene, the D1\\/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene and the ITS112 regions, suggested that these yeasts form a

Ikechukwu Okoli; Christie A. Oyeka; Kyung J. Kwon-Chung; Bart Theelen; Vincent Robert; Johannes Z. Groenewald; Diane C. McFadden; Arturo Casadevall; Teun Boekhout

2007-01-01

426

Chronic effects of agar, guar gum, gum arabic, locust-bean gum, or tara gum in F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice.  

PubMed

Diets containing 25,000 (2.5%) or 50,000 ppm (5.0%) agar, guar gum, gum arabic, locust-bean gum or tara gum were fed to groups of 50 male and 50 female F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice for 103 wk. Separate groups of 50 rats and 50 mice of each sex served as controls for each study. There were no significant differences in survival between any of the dosed groups of rats or mice and their respective control groups. Depressions in body-weight gain greater than 10% for dosed groups relative to their respective control groups were observed for male (low dose only) and female mice fed diets containing agar, female mice fed diets containing guar gum (high dose only), male mice fed diets containing locust-bean gum (high dose only) and male and female mice fed diets containing tara gum (high dose only). Depressions in body-weight gain greater than 5% were observed for female rats fed diets containing agar, guar gum or gum arabic. There were no histopathological effects associated with the administration of the test materials. Under the conditions of these bioassays, none of the five polysaccharides was carcinogenic for F344 rats or B6C3F1 mice of either sex. PMID:6683227

Melnick, R L; Huff, J; Haseman, J K; Dieter, M P; Grieshaber, C K; Wyand, D S; Russfield, A B; Murthy, A S; Fleischman, R W; Lilja, H S

1983-06-01

427

On kinetics of the structural formation process in the gelation of a naturally cooled Agar-water system by using torsion resonator  

E-print Network

A time-resolved experimental study on the kinetics and relaxation of the structural formation process in gelling Agar-water solutions was carried out using our custom-built torsion resonator. The study was based on measurements of three naturally cooled solutions with agar concentrations of 0.75%, 1.0% and 2.0% w/w. It was found that the natural-cooling agar gelation process could be divided into three stages, sol stage (Stage I), gelation zone (Stage II) and gel stage (Stage III), based on the time/temperature evolutions of the structural development rate (SDR). An interesting fluctuant decaying behavior of SDR was observed in Stage II and III, indicative of a sum of multiple relaxation processes and well described by a multiple-order Gaussisn-like equation: . More interestingly, the temperature dependences of the fitted values of Wn in Stage II and Stage III were found to follow the different Arrhenius laws, with different activation energies of EaII= 39-74 KJ/mol and EaIII~7.0 KJ/mol. The two different Arr...

Wang, Y Z; Zhang, J X

2011-01-01

428

Evaluation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice with Cornus fruit (Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.) extract by conventional media and thin agar layer method.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival in apple juice supplemented with Cornus fruit (Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.) extract was studied. Inoculated samples with or without Cornus fruit extract were kept at 21 and 7 degrees C. Microbial analysis was conducted on days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7. MacConkey sorbitol agar (MSA), tryptic soy agar (TSA), and thin agar layer (TAL) medium were used to compare the recovery of bacteria stressed under combination treatment. Influence of temperature, storage time, and Cornus fruit on survival of cells was evaluated. The most dramatic reduction of E. coli O157:H7 was observed in apple juice with Cornus fruit extract at 21 degrees C. At 7 degrees C, E. coli O157:H7 was reduced by 2.3logcfu/ml in the apple juice with Cornus fruit extract compared to the control sample on day 7. TAL and TSA were more efficient than MSA. Cornus fruit extract can be used in combination with temperature and storage time controls to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice. This study has shown that TAL is a viable method of recovering and differentiating injured microorganisms and apple juice supplemented with Cornus fruit has potential as a value-added beverage with antimicrobial effects and potential health benefits. PMID:17993394

Wu, Vivian C H; Qiu, Xujian; Peggy Hsieh, Y-H

2008-02-01

429

Comparison of agar-based methods for the isolation and enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria with the new multidose IDEXX SimPlate method.  

PubMed

Pour and spread plates are the conventional methods of choice for the isolation and enumeration of heterotrophic microorganisms in treated water supplies. The tests are performed at 22 degrees C and 37 degrees C for 72 h and 48 h respectively. Counts at 22 degrees C are associated with pollution of water systems from external sources, while counts at 37 degrees C are used as an indication of treatment plant performance and the deterioration of the general quality of water. Conventional methods using Yeast Extract Agar for a pour plate and R2A agar for a spread plate were compared with the multidose IDEXX SimPlate method for the isolation and enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria in water. SimPlate gave a significantly higher count on average than the conventional methods. The R2A method showed the next highest count, being significantly higher than Yeast Extract Agar. In addition, unlike the pour and spread plate methods, SimPlate was easier to use, reduced labour, and the test results were far easier to read. PMID:15318522

Vulindlu, M; Charlett, A; Surman, S; Lee, J V

2004-01-01

430

Distribution assessment comparing continuous and periodic wound instillation in conjunction with negative pressure wound therapy using an agar-based model.  

PubMed

Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a widely accepted and effective treatment for various wound types, including complex wounds. Negative pressure with instillation was initially used as a gravity-fed system whereby reticulated, open-cell foam in the wound bed was periodically exposed to cycles of soaking with instillation solution followed by NPWT. Recent publications have alluded to positive outcomes with continuous instillation, where fluid is delivered simultaneously with negative pressure. To evaluate the distribution of instillation solutions to wound beds in conjunction with negative pressure, agar-based models were developed and exposed to coloured instillation solutions to identify exposure intensity via agar staining. This model allowed comparison of continuous- versus periodic-instillation therapy with negative pressure. Continuous instillation at a rate of 30 cc/hour with negative pressure showed isolated exposure of instillation fluid to wound beds in agar wound models with and without undermining and tunnelling. In contrast, periodic instillation illustrated uniform exposure of the additive to the entire wound bed including undermined and tunnel areas, with increased staining with each instillation cycle. These findings suggest that periodic instillation facilitates more uniform exposure throughout the wound, including tunnels and undermining, to instillation solutions, thereby providing therapy consistent with the clinician-ordered treatment. PMID:22487428

Rycerz, Anthony M; Slack, Paul; McNulty, Amy K

2013-04-01

431

Optimal levels of S9 fraction in the Ames and fluctuation tests: apparent importance of diffusion of metabolites from top agar.  

PubMed

For activation of 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) there is an optimal level of rat liver S9 fraction which is considerably lower in the fluctuation test than in the Ames test. The optimal level of S9 is not markedly affected by the dose of AAF used, nor by the ratio of S9 to bacteria, nor by the presence of soft agar. The difference between Ames and fluctuation tests appears to be due to diffusion of some substance or substances from the top agar layer in the Ames test. Diffusion of the co-factors NADP and glucose-6-phosphate is not responsible for the difference in S9 optima, nor is diffusion of soluble S9 constituents although this may considerably affect the performance of the S9 mix. We present evidence that diffusion of non-mutagenic metabolites of AAF from the Ames test top agar may be responsible for the difference in S9 optima. Our results are consistent with a model whereby lipophilic non-mutagenic metabolites accumulate in the microsomes and inhibit further activation. When the metabolites are able to diffuse away, a higher level of S9 will be optimal. The model is consistent with some other phenomena of S9 activation. PMID:7023716

Forster, R; Green, M H; Priestley, A

1980-04-01

432

Comparison of M.I.C.E. and Etest with CLSI Agar Dilution for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing against Oxacillin-Resistant Staphylococcus spp  

PubMed Central

Objective The main objective of this study was to comparatively evaluate the performance of M.I.C.E. and Etest methodologies to that of agar dilution for determining the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. Methods A total of 100 oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. isolates were collected from hospitalized patients at a teaching hospital. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid was performed using the reference CLSI agar dilution method (2009), Etest and M.I.C.E. methodologies. The MIC values were interpreted according to CLSI susceptibility breakpoints and compared by regression analysis. Results In general, the essential agreement (±1-log2) between M.I.C.E. and CLSI agar dilution was 93.0%, 84.0% and 77.0% for linezolid, teicoplanin and vancomycin, respectively. Essential agreement rates between M.I.C.E. and Etest were excellent (>90.0%) for all antibiotics tested. Both strips (M.I.C.E. and Etest) yielded two very major errors for linezolid. Unacceptable minor rates were observed for teicoplanin against CoNS and for vancomycin against S. aureus. Conclusions According to our results, linezolid and teicoplanin MICs against all staphylococci and S. aureus, respectively, were more accurately predicted by M.I.C.E. strips. However, the Etest showed better performance than M.I.C.E. for predicting vancomycin MICs against all staphylococci. Thus, microbiologists must be aware of the different performance of commercially available gradient strips against staphylococci. PMID:24732297

Campana, Eloiza H.; Carvalhaes, Cecilia G.; Nonato, Bruna; Machado, Antonia M. de. O.; Gales, Ana C.

2014-01-01

433

Purification and properties of Sandercyanin, a blue protein secreted in the mucus of blue forms of walleye, Sander vitreus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A blue protein present in the mucus coating blue forms of walleye, Sander vitreus, was purified to homogeneity by a combination of ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The purified protein\\u000a has a molecular mass of 87,850 and is a homotetramer with a subunit molecular mass of 21,836. Solutions of the protein are\\u000a deep blue in color and show absorbance

Chi-Li Yu; Daniel Ferraro; S. Ramaswamy; Mark H. Schmitz; Wayne F. Schaefer; David T. Gibson

2008-01-01

434

FIrpic: archetypal blue phosphorescent emitter for electroluminescence.  

PubMed

FIrpic is the most investigated bis-cyclometallated iridium complex in particular in the context of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) because of its attractive sky-blue emission, high emission efficiency, and suitable energy levels. In this Perspective we review the synthesis, structural characterisations, and key properties of this emitter. We also survey the theoretical studies and summarise a series of selected monochromatic electroluminescent devices using FIrpic as the emitting dopant. Finally we highlight important shortcomings of FIrpic as an emitter for OLEDs. Despite the large body of work dedicated to this material, it is manifest that the understanding of photophysical and electrochemical processes are only broadly understood mainly because of the different environment in which these properties are measured, i.e., isolated molecules in solvent vs. device. PMID:25388935

Baranoff, Etienne; Curchod, Basile F E

2014-11-12

435

What are the Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies?  

E-print Network

Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs) are common at z~1, contributing significantly to the total star formation rate density. By z~0, they are a factor of ten rarer. While we know that LCBGs evolve rapidly, we do not know what drives their evolution nor into what types of galaxies they evolve. We present the results of a single-dish HI survey of local LCBGs undertaken to address these questions. Our results indicate that LCBGs have M(HI) and M(DYN) consistent with low-mass spirals, but typically exhaust their gas reservoirs in less than 2 Gyr. Overall, the properties of LCBGs are consistent with them evolving into high-mass dwarf elliptical or dwarf irregular galaxies or low-mass, late-type spiral galaxies.

D. J. Pisano; C. A. Garland; R. Guzman; J. Perez Gallego; F. J. Castander; N. Gruel

2007-12-07

436

Evolution of local luminous compact blue galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs) are a type of very blue, very compact star-forming galaxy that was common at z~1 but is rare in the local universe. While it is clear from this discrepancy that LCBGs must be a rapidly-evolving class of galaxy, it is not clear what type(s) of galaxy they become. Fortunately, since they are bright and nearby, the rare examples of z~0 LCBGs are easily studied across a large range of wavelengths. We have conducted a study of z~0 analogs to the z~1 LCBGs to investigate their galaxy-wide internal properties in order to determine what is triggering their current episode of star formation, for how long the star formation can continue, and what the galaxies may become once their star formation rates decrease from current levels. We have taken resolved H I observations of nine LCBGs and unresolved radio continuum observations of 35 LCBGs and combined this data with archival broad-band data to probe their global properties. We conclude that LCBGs are rotationally-supported, star-forming disk galaxies that, while they may be forming small central bulges or bars, are highly unlikely to evolve into dwarf elliptical, dwarf spheroidal, or elliptical galaxies on their own due to their masses and rotation velocities. LCBGs will likely fade to be spiral galaxies with lower surface brightnesses once their current episodes of star formation conclude. In addition, we have modeled the SEDs of the LCBGs in our sample to determine whether LCBGs' star formation is ramping up or winding down, and for how much longer their current active phase of star formation will last. We have begun to put together a picture of the current evolutionary stage of this class of galaxies, and have better constrained their future evolutionary paths.

Rabidoux, Katherine; Pisano, Daniel J.

2015-01-01

437

No effect of blue on winning contests in judo  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study by Rowe et al. reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white one during the 2004 Olympics. It was suggested that blue is associated with a higher likelihood of winning through differential effects of colour on opponent visibility and\\/or an intimidating effect on the opponent. However, we argue that

Peter D. Dijkstra; Paul T. Y. Preenen

2008-01-01

438

Stump Sprouting of Blue Oaks Ten Years after Harvest1  

E-print Network

Stump Sprouting of Blue Oaks Ten Years after Harvest1 Douglas McCreary,2 William D. Tietje,3 the sprouting of harvested blue oak (Quercus douglasii) is affected by the date the trees are cut down percent of the stumps had viable sprouts. The greatest effects were from fencing. Four times as many

Standiford, Richard B.

439

Stump Sprouting of Blue Oaks 19 Years After Harvest1  

E-print Network

333 Stump Sprouting of Blue Oaks 19 Years After Harvest1 Doug McCreary,2 Bill Tietje,2 and Bill Frost3 Abstract In 1987, a study was initiated to determine how the sprouting of harvested blue oak viable sprouts. The greatest differences among treatments were between stumps protected with fencing

Standiford, Richard B.

440

Supplemental on-line material for Semiconducting layered blue phosphorus  

E-print Network

. A very similar behavior oc- curs in graphite, where the 1 eV band dispersion along the K -H line the LDA value of 38 meV/atom. S2. BULK BAND STRUCTURE OF BLACK AND BLUE PHOSPHORUS The calculated bulk band structures of black and blue phosphorus are presented in Fig. S1. There is a strong band

Tománek, David

441

49 CFR 218.23 - Blue signal display.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...a) Blue signals displayed in accordance with § 218.25, 218.27, or 218.29 signify that workers are on, under...Blue signals must be displayed in accordance with § 218.25, 218.27, or 218.29 by each craft or group of workers...

2013-10-01

442

49 CFR 218.23 - Blue signal display.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...a) Blue signals displayed in accordance with § 218.25, 218.27, or 218.29 signify that workers are on, under...Blue signals must be displayed in accordance with § 218.25, 218.27, or 218.29 by each craft or group of workers...

2011-10-01

443

49 CFR 218.23 - Blue signal display.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...a) Blue signals displayed in accordance with § 218.25, 218.27, or 218.29 signify that workers are on, under...Blue signals must be displayed in accordance with § 218.25, 218.27, or 218.29 by each craft or group of workers...

2012-10-01

444

Using the Blue Gourami in Ethological and Embryological Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists advantages in the use of the blue gourami in laboratory experiments on reproduction and embryogenesis. Materials and procedures for maintaining and spawning blue gouramis are provided. Also includes details on microscopic examination of developing embryos and histological techniques for microscope slide preparation. (CS)

Thompson, Theresa; Pollak, Edward I.

1981-01-01

445

Revisiting Maya Blue and Designing Hybrid Pigments by Archaeomimetism**  

E-print Network

1 Revisiting Maya Blue and Designing Hybrid Pigments by Archaeomimetism** Catherine Dejoie, Eric led several past civilizations to develop artificial pigments. Maya Blue (MB), manufactured in pre an archaeoinspired pigment, here indigo in a zeolite host, which satisfactorily reproduces the colour and chemical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

446

Summer Enrollment Blue=Old Program, Red=New Program  

E-print Network

Summer Enrollment Blue=Old Program, Red=New Program 1559 14181358 1304 1166 1245 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Summer - 4th Week Data NumberofStudents #12;Summer Sections Offered Blue=Old Program, Red=New Program 142 135 160158 180 200 0 50 100 150 200 250

Gering, Jon C.

447

'Kind of Blue' and the Economy of Modal Jazz  

E-print Network

Kind of Blue has been misrepresented by its promoters. The roots in the blues of the best-selling jazz album have repeatedly been obscured in favour of modal features whose associations are less problematic for those coping with the realities...

Barrett, Samuel

2006-05-09

448

Dynamics of the Root System of Blue Grama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highlight: Field experiments were conducted to determine dynamics of the root system of blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) during the 19 73 growing season at the US\\/IBP Pawnee Site in northern Colorado. Differentiation and growth of blue grama roots were recorded in field conditions by means of windows in excavations. Roots began to grow and differentiate a short time before leaf

JORGE ARES

1976-01-01

449

Conservation Reasoning Ability and Performance on BSCS Blue Version Examinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-three high school biology students using the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) Blue Textbook were administered a weight conservation and two volume conservation tasks. A majority performed below formal-operational level, indicating that these students would be likely to encounter difficuluty with BSCS Blue Version materials. (MLH)

Lawson, Anton E.; Nordland, Floyd H.

1977-01-01

450

The Blue Stragglers of the Old Open Cluster NGC 188  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The old (7 Gyr) open cluster NGC 188 has yielded a wealth of astrophysical insight into its rich blue straggler population. Specifically, the NGC 188 blue stragglers are characterised by: A binary frequency of 80 % for orbital periods less than 104 days;

Mathieu, Robert D.; Geller, Aaron M.

451

Phylogeny and palaeoecology of Polyommatus blue butterflies show  

E-print Network

Phylogeny and palaeoecology of Polyommatus blue butterflies show Beringia was a climate of Neotropical Polyommatus blue butterflies, and show that Beringia has served as a biological corridor con- ditions in Beringia acted as a decisive filter in determining which taxa crossed into the New

Childress, Michael J.

452

33 CFR 100.910 - Southland Regatta; Blue Island, IL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Southland Regatta; Blue Island, IL. 100.910 Section 100.910 Navigation and...OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.910 Southland Regatta; Blue Island, IL. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is...

2010-07-01

453

Blue laser diode (LD) and light emitting diode (LED) applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The family of blue LEDs, edge emitting and surface emitting lasers, enable a number of applications. Blue lasers are used in digital applications such as optical storage in high density DVDs. The resolution of the spot size and hence the storage density is diffraction limited and is inversely proportional to the square of the wavelength of the laser. Other applications

Arpad A. Bergh

2004-01-01

454

Rosin with bromophenol blue ® dye as holographic material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bromophenol blue® (BPB) dyed with the rosin and isopropyl alcohol produces a film with a uniform yellow appearance, which can be deposited on glass plates by simple technique. This mixture shows good photosensitivity in the blue light (?=457 nm line) employing argon-ion laser and presents high resolution for holographic application. Consequently, it is possible to obtain holographic elements, e.g., gratings.

J. Ibarra-Torres; A. Olivares-Perez; T. J Ibarra; D. Luna-Moreno

2001-01-01

455

Rosin with bromophenol blue ® dye as holographic material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bromophenol blue ® (BPB) dyed with the rosin and isopropyl alcohol produces a film with a uniform yellow appearance, which can be deposited on glass plates by simple technique. This mixture shows good photosensitivity in the blue light ( ?=457 nm line) employing argon-ion laser and presents high resolution for holographic application. Consequently, it is possible to obtain holographic elements, e.g., gratings.

Ibarra-Torres, J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Ibarra, T. J.; Luna-Moreno, D.

2001-04-01

456

BLUE JOINT WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA, AND BLUE JOINT ROADLESS AREA, IDAHO.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During field studies of the Blue Joint Wilderness Study Area, Montana, and the Blue Joint Roadless Area, Idaho, areas of substantiated resource potential for epithermal precious-metal vein deposits were identified in areas of hydrothermal alteration and fossil hot springs activity in the Eocene volcanic rocks. Areas with substantiated resource potential for cobalt, copper, silver, and barite resources of the sediment-hosted type were identified in the Proterozoic quartz schist of the eastern part of the area. Probable potential exists for molybdenum in a prophyry system; anomalously high molybdenum values are coincident with high values for precious and base metals and uranium in some places. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources.

Lund, Karen; Benham, John R.

1984-01-01

457

How does the blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena lunulata) flash its blue rings?  

PubMed

The blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena lunulata), one of the world's most venomous animals, has long captivated and endangered a large audience: children playing at the beach, divers turning over rocks, and biologists researching neurotoxins. These small animals spend much of their time in hiding, showing effective camouflage patterns. When disturbed, the octopus will flash around 60 iridescent blue rings and, when strongly harassed, bite and deliver a neurotoxin that can kill a human. Here, we describe the flashing mechanism and optical properties of these rings. The rings contain physiologically inert multilayer reflectors, arranged to reflect blue-green light in a broad viewing direction. Dark pigmented chromatophores are found beneath and around each ring to enhance contrast. No chromatophores are above the ring; this is unusual for cephalopods, which typically use chromatophores to cover or spectrally modify iridescence. The fast flashes are achieved using muscles under direct neural control. The ring is hidden by contraction of muscles above the iridophores; relaxation of these muscles and contraction of muscles outside the ring expose the iridescence. This mechanism of producing iridescent signals has not previously been reported in cephalopods and we suggest that it is an exceptionally effective way to create a fast and conspicuous warning display. PMID:23053367

Mäthger, Lydia M; Bell, George R R; Kuzirian, Alan M; Allen, Justine J; Hanlon, Roger T

2012-11-01

458

Color-by-blue display using blue quantum dot light-emitting diodes and green/red color converting phosphors.  

PubMed

We report a novel full-color display based on the generation of full-color by a highly efficient blue QD-LED light approach, or so called color-by-blue QD-LED display. This newly proposed color-by-blue QD-LED display combines a blue CdZnS/ZnS QD-LED blue subpixel and excitation source with front-emitting green/red phosphor subpixels. It is carefully estimated that the detailed display characteristics as well as full color-conversion and reasonable device efficiency of blue, green, and red satisfy the minimum requirements for display application. Also, we would like to emphasize that the proposed blue, green, and red device shows maximum luminance of 1570, 12920, and 3120 cd/m², respectively, luminous efficiency of 1.5, 12.1, and 2.5 cd/A, respectively, and external quantum efficiency of 6.8, 2.8, and 2.0%, respectively. It is expected that full color generation by color-by-blue QD-LED will lead to further technological advancements in the area of efficient and facile display applications. PMID:24922260

Oh, Ji Hye; Lee, Ki-Heon; Yoon, Hee Chang; Yang, Heesun; Do, Young Rag

2014-03-10

459

78 FR 19413 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Reactive Blue 247) as color additives in contact lenses. This action is in response to...Rockville, MD 20852. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Regarding CAP 1C0291 (C.I. Reactive...Reactive Blue 246) as color additives in contact lenses. The color additives are...

2013-04-01

460

Extractive spectrophotometric methods for determination of diltiazem HCl in pharmaceutical formulations using bromothymol blue, bromophenol blue and bromocresol green  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three simple and sensitive extractive spectrophotometric methods have been described for the assay of diltiazem hydrochloride either in pure form or in pharmaceutical formulations. The developed methods involve formation of coloured chloroform extractable ion-pair complexes of the drug with bromothymol blue (BTB), bromophenol blue (BPB) and bromocresol green (BCG) in acidic medium. The extracted complexes showed absorbance maxima at 415

Nafisur Rahman; Syed Najmul Hejaz-Azmi

2000-01-01

461

75 FR 20859 - Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway, NC/VA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Service Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway, NC/VA AGENCY: National...Award of temporary concession contract for Blue Ridge Parkway...conduct of certain visitor services within Blue Ridge Parkway, North Carolina and...

2010-04-21

462

75 FR 43518 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Transportation and Storage Subcommittee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...S Subcommittee is a subcommittee of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...Background: The President directed that the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's...

2010-07-26

463

75 FR 45608 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Transportation and Storage Subcommittee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...S Subcommittee is a subcommittee of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...Background: The President directed that the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's...

2010-08-03

464

40 CFR 1048.140 - What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines? 1048.140 Section... What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines? This section defines...emission control for engines designated as “Blue Sky Series” engines. If you...

2010-07-01

465

78 FR 3028 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for General Management Plan, Blue Ridge Parkway, Virginia...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Statement for General Management Plan, Blue Ridge Parkway, Virginia and North Carolina...the General Management Plan (GMP) for Blue Ridge Parkway (parkway). Consistent...contact Superintendent Phil Francis, Blue Ridge Parkway, 199 Hemphill Knob...

2013-01-15

466

75 FR 10309 - Wisconsin Statewide Habitat Conservation Plan for Karner Blue Butterfly  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Statewide Habitat Conservation Plan for Karner Blue Butterfly AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service...incidental take of the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis...incidental take of the Federally listed Karner blue butterfly to the maximum extent...

2010-03-05

467

40 CFR 408.30 - Applicability; description of the mechanized blue crab processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the mechanized blue crab processing subcategory. 408.30...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mechanized Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.30...Applicability; description of the mechanized blue crab processing subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

468

75 FR 35000 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Disposal Subcommittee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...Disposal Subcommittee is a subcommittee of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...Background: The President directed that the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's...

2010-06-21

469

76 FR 25234 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 69  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 69 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...70209-99-3), also known as Reactive Blue 69, as a color additive in contact lenses...10-dioxoanthracene-2-sulphonate (Reactive Blue 69) (CAS Reg. No....

2011-05-04

470

77 FR 44470 - Safety Zone; Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle...safety hazards associated with the Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance which include...regulation associated with the Seafair Blue Angels Air Show performance (33 CFR...

2012-07-30

471

Is a diagnostic system based exclusively on agar gel immunodiffusion adequate for controlling the spread of equine infectious anaemia?  

PubMed

To improve the efficiency of the National equine infectious anaemia (EIA) surveillance program in Italy, a three-tiered diagnostic system has been adopted. This procedure involves initial screening by ELISA (Tier 1) with test-positive samples confirmed by the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGIDT) (Tier 2) and, in the case of ELISA positive/AGIDT negative results, final determination by immunoblot (IB) (Tier 3). During this evaluation, 74,880 samples, principally collected from two Regions of Central Italy (Latium and Abruzzo) were examined, with 44 identified as negative in AGIDT but positive in both ELISA and IB. As the majority of these reactions occurred in mules, an observational study was conducted in this hybrid equid species to investigate if there is a correlation between plasma-associated viral loads and serological reactivity, to test the hypothesis that false-negative or very weak positive AGIDT results are associated with elite control of EIA virus (EIAV) replication accompanied by reduced transmission risks. The study animals consisted of 5 mules with positive AGIDT readings, along with another 5 giving negative or very weak positive results in this test. All mules were seropositive in Elisa and IB. Samples were collected routinely during an initial 56-day observation period, prior to dexamethasone treatment lasting 10 days, to determine the effect of immune suppression (IS) on clinical, humoral and virological responses. All mules were monitored for a further 28 days from day 0 of IS. None of the animals experienced relevant clinical responses before IS and there were no significant changes in antibody levels in ELISA, IB or AGIDT. However, plasma-associated viral-RNA (vRNA) loads, as determined using TaqMan(®) based RT-PCR, showed unexpectedly high sample to sample variation in all mules, demonstrating host-mediated control of viral replication is not constant over time. Furthermore, there was no apparent correlation between vRNA loads and antibody reactivity in serological tests. Analysis of PCR products established all mules were infected with viruses possessing nucleotide sequence similarity, varying from 77 to 96%, to previously identified European EIAV strains. Following IS, all mules showed increases in plasma-associated vRNA loads, suggesting control of EIAV replication is mediated by immune responses in this hybrid species. However, only three mules showed anamnestic humoral responses to rises in viral loads, as defined by at least a four-fold increase in ELISA titre, while two remained AGIDT-negative. This study demonstrates that viral loads in equids with consistent ELISA/IB positive-AGIDT negative to very weak positive test results (Group N) can be equivalent to those that produce clearly positive results in all three serologic tests (Group P). Therefore, such animals do not pose inherently lower risks for the transmission of EIAV. Consequently, the exclusive use of the AGIDT, as prescribed by the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE) for diagnosis of EIA prior to the international movement of horses, can report as negative some EIAV-infected equids. These results dramatically underscore the necessity of combining the specificity of AGIDT with tests with higher sensitivity, such as the ELISA and the power of the IB to enhance the accuracy of EIA diagnosis. PMID:23618837

Scicluna, Maria Teresa; Issel, Charles J; Cook, Frank R; Manna, Giuseppe; Cersini, Antonella; Rosone, Francesca; Frontoso, Raffaele; Caprioli, Andrea; Antognetti, Valeria; Antonetti, Valeria; Autorino, Gian Luca

2013-07-26

472

Blue glass: A new impactite variety from Zhamanshin crater, USSR  

SciTech Connect

A new variety of impact glass has been discovered at Zhamanshin impact crater (USSR). The crater has been known as the source of different impact glasses such as irghizites and Si-rich zhamanshinites (Si-rich varieties) and Si-poor (andesitic) zhamanshinites. The newly discovered impact glass is of distinct blue color and shows a layered structure with numerous small vesicles. The blue color ranges between the layers from opaque turquoise to very dark blue. The layers of blue glass are usually connected with layers of greyish or brownish color showing normal Si-rich zhamanshinite composition. The major and trace element chemistry of the blue glass differs from the chemistry of other Si-rich impact glasses from the Zhamanshin crater in several ways. One of the most distinct features is the high CaO content (up to about 7 wt.%), and the different CaO/MgO ratios. Volatile trace elements are generally intermediate between irghizites and Si-rich zhamanshinites, or even higher than in Si-rich zhamanshinites, reflecting the inhomogeneity of the blue glass. REE abundances are slightly larger than in Si-rich zhamanshinites and irghizites and show a less pronounced Eu anomaly. Impact mixing of country rocks present at the crater seems capable of explaining the chemistry of the blue glass.

Koeberl, C. (Univ. of Vienna (Austria))

1988-03-01

473

The Effect of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy with Radachlorin and Toluidine Blue on Streptococcus Mutans: An in Vitro Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Dental caries and periodontal diseases are caused by infection of teeth and supporting tissues due to complex aggregate of bacteria known as biofilm, firstly colonized by streptococci. The main purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of toluidine blue O (TBO) and Radachlorin® in combination with a diode laser on the viability of Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: Bacterial suspensions of Streptococcus mutans were exposed to either 0.1% TBO associated with (20 mW, 633 nm diode laser, continuous mode, 150 s) or 0.1% Radachlorin® and laser irradiation (100 mW, 662 nm diode laser, continuous mode, 120 s). Those in control groups were subjected to laser irradiation alone or TBO/Radachlorin® alone or received neither TBO/Radachlorin® nor laser exposure. The suspensions were then spread over specific agar plates and incubated aerobically at 37°C. Finally, the bactericidal effects were evaluated based on colony formation. Results: Potential bacterial cell killing was only observed following photosensitization with TBO and 3 j/cm2 laser exposure (p<0.05), whereas Radachlorin® showed significant reduction in dark condition compared to laser exposure (p<0.05). Conclusion: TBO-mediated photodynamic therapy seems to be more efficient than Radachlorin® in significantly reducing the viability of Streptococcus mutans in vitro. PMID:21998808

Vahabi, S.; Fekrazad, R.; Ayremlou, S.; Taheri, S.; Zangeneh, N.

2011-01-01

474

Investigation of the effect of power ultrasound on the nucleation of water during freezing of agar gel samples in tubing vials.  

PubMed

Nucleation, as an important stage of freezing process, can be induced by the irradiation of power ultrasound. In this study, the effect of irradiation temperature (-2 °C, -3 °C, -4 °C and -5 °C), irradiation duration (0s, 1s, 3s, 5s, 10s or 15s) and ultrasound intensity (0.07 W cm(-2), 0.14 W cm(-2), 0.25 W cm(-2), 0.35 W cm(-2) and 0.42 W cm(-2)) on the dynamic nucleation of ice in agar gel samples was studied. The samples were frozen in an ethylene glycol-water mixture (-20 °C) in an ultrasonic bath system after putting them into tubing vials. Results indicated that ultrasound irradiation is able to initiate nucleation at different supercooled temperatures (from -5 °C to -2 °C) in agar gel if optimum intensity and duration of ultrasound were chosen. Evaluation of the effect of 0.25 W cm(-2) ultrasound intensity and different durations of ultrasound application on agar gels showed that 1s was not long enough to induce nucleation, 3s induced the nucleation repeatedly but longer irradiation durations resulted in the generation of heat and therefore nucleation was postponed. Investigation of the effect of ultrasound intensity revealed that higher intensities of ultrasound were effective when a shorter period of irradiation was used, while lower intensities only resulted in nucleation when a longer irradiation time was applied. In addition to this, higher intensities were not effective at longer irradiation times due to the heat generated in the samples by the heating effect of ultrasound. In conclusion, the use of ultrasound as a means to control the crystallization process offers promising application in freezing of solid foods, however, optimum conditions should be selected. PMID:22070859

Kiani, Hossein; Sun, Da-Wen; Delgado, Adriana; Zhang, Zhihang

2012-05-01

475

Evaluation of Petrifilm™ Aerobic Count Plates as an Equivalent Alternative to Drop Plating on R2A Agar Plates in a Biofilm Disinfectant Efficacy Test.  

PubMed

This paper compares Petrifilm™ aerobic count (AC) plates to drop plating on R2A agar plates as an alternative method for biofilm bacteria enumeration after application of a disinfectant. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm was grown in a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention biofilm reactor (ASTM E2562) and treated with 123 ppm sodium hypochlorite (as free chlorine) according to the Single Tube Method (ASTM E2871). Aliquots from the same dilution tubes were plated on Petrifilm™ AC plates and drop plated on R2A agar plates. The Petrifilm™ AC and R2A plates were incubated for 48 and 24 h, respectively, at 36 ± 1 °C. After nine experimental runs performed by two technicians, the mean difference in biofilm log densities [log biofilm density (LD) = log10(CFU/cm(2))] between the two methods for control coupons, treated coupons, and log reduction (LR) was 0.052 (p = 0.451), -0.102 (p = 0.303), and 0.152 (p = 0.313). Equivalence testing was used to assess equivalence of the two plating methods. The 90 % confidence intervals for the difference in control and treated mean LDs between methods were (-0.065, 0.170) and (-0.270, 0.064), both of which fall within a (-0.5, +0.5) equivalence criterion. The 90 % confidence interval for the mean LR difference (-0.113, 0.420) also falls within this equivalence criterion. Thus, Petrifilm™ AC plates were shown to be statistically equivalent to drop plating on R2A agar for the determination of control LDs, treated LDs, and LR values in an anti-biofilm efficacy test. These are the first published results that establish equivalency to a traditional plate counting technique for biofilms and for a disinfectant assay. PMID:25471267

Fritz, B G; Walker, D K; Goveia, D E; Parker, A E; Goeres, D M

2015-03-01

476

Comparing Diagnostic Accuracy of Kato-Katz, Koga Agar Plate, Ether-Concentration, and FLOTAC for Schistosoma mansoni and Soil-Transmitted Helminths  

PubMed Central

Background Infections with schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths exert a considerable yet underappreciated economic and public health burden on afflicted populations. Accurate diagnosis is crucial for patient management, drug efficacy evaluations, and monitoring of large-scale community-based control programs. Methods/Principal Findings The diagnostic accuracy of four copromicroscopic techniques (i.e., Kato-Katz, Koga agar plate, ether-concentration, and FLOTAC) for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminth eggs was compared using stool samples from 112 school children in Côte d'Ivoire. Combined results of all four methods served as a diagnostic ‘gold’ standard and revealed prevalences of S. mansoni, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis and Ascaris lumbricoides of 83.0%, 55.4%, 40.2%, 33.9% and 28.6%, respectively. A single FLOTAC from stool samples preserved in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin for 30 or 83 days showed a higher sensitivity for S. mansoni diagnosis (91.4%) than the ether-concentration method on stool samples preserved for 40 days (85.0%) or triplicate Kato-Katz using fresh stool samples (77.4%). Moreover, a single FLOTAC detected hookworm, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections with a higher sensitivity than any of the other methods used, but resulted in lower egg counts. The Koga agar plate method was the most accurate diagnostic assay for S. stercoralis. Conclusion/Significance We have shown that the FLOTAC method holds promise for the diagnosis of S. mansoni. Moreover, our study confirms that FLOTAC is a sensitive technique for detection of common soil-transmitted helminths. For the diagnosis of S. stercoralis, the Koga agar plate method remains the method of choice. PMID:20651931

Glinz, Dominik; Silué, Kigbafori D.; Knopp, Stefanie; Lohourignon, Laurent K.; Yao, Kouassi P.; Steinmann, Peter; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg

2010-01-01

477

Neurometabolic mechanisms for memory enhancement and neuroprotection of methylene blue  

PubMed Central

This paper provides the first review of the memory-enhancing and neuroprotective metabolic mechanisms of action of methylene blue in vivo. These mechanisms have important implications as a new neurobiological approach to improve normal memory and to treat memory impairment and neurodegeneration associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Methylene blue’s action is unique because its neurobiological effects are not determined by regular drug-receptor interactions or drug-response paradigms. Methylene blue shows a hormetic dose-response, with opposite effects at low and high doses. At low doses, methylene blue is an electron cycler in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, with unparalleled antioxidant and cell respiration-enhancing properties that affect the function of the nervous system in a versatile manner. A major role of the respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase on the memory-enhancing effects of methylene blue is supported by available data. The memory-enhancing effects have been associated with improvement of memory consolidation in a network-specific and use-dependent fashion. In addition, low doses of methylene blue have also been used for neuroprotection against mitochondrial dysfunction in humans and experimental models of disease. The unique auto-oxidizing property of methylene blue and its pleiotropic effects on a number of tissue oxidases explain its potent neuroprotective effects at low doses. The evidence reviewed supports a mechanistic role of low-dose methylene blue as a promising and safe intervention for improving memory and for the treatment of acute and chronic conditions characterized by increased oxidative stress, neurodegeneration and memory impairment. PMID:22067440

Rojas, Julio C.; Bruchey, Aleksandra K.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.

2011-01-01

478

Detection by hyperspectral imaging of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 on rainbow agar.  

PubMed

The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service has determined that six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) are adulterants in raw beef. Isolate and phenotypic discrimination of non-O157 STEC is problematic due to the lack of suitable agar media. The lack of distinct phenotypic color variation among non-O157serogroups cultured on chromogenic agar poses a challenge in selecting colonies for confirmation. In this study, visible and near-infrared hyperspectral imaging and chemometrics were used to detect and classify non-O157 STEC serogroups grown on Rainbow agar O157. The method was first developed by building spectral libraries for each serogroup obtained from ground-truth regions of interest representing the true identity of each pixel and thus each pure culture colony in the hyperspectral agar-plate image. The spectral library for the pure-culture non-O157 STEC consisted of 2,171 colonies, with spectra derived from 124,347 of pixels. The classification models for each serogroup were developed with a k nearest-neighbor classifier. The overall classification training accuracy at the colony level was 99%. The classifier was validated with ground beef enrichments artificially inoculated with 10, 50, and 100 CFU/ml STEC. The validation ground-truth regions of interest of the STEC target colonies consisted of 606 colonies, with 3,030 pixels of spectra. The overall classification accuracy was 98%. The average specificity of the method was 98% due to the low false-positive rate of 1.2%. The sensitivity ranged from 78 to 100% due to the false-negative rates of 22, 7, and 8% for O145, O45, and O26, respectively. This study showed the potential of visible and near-infrared hyperspectral imaging for detecting and classifying colonies of the six non-O157 STEC serogroups. The technique needs to be validated with bacterial cultures directly extracted from meat products and positive identification of colonies by using confirmatory tests such as latex agglutination tests or PCR. PMID:23834786

Windham, William R; Yoon, Seung-Chul; Ladely, Scott R; Haley, Jennifer A; Heitschmidt, Jerry W; Lawrence, Kurt C; Park, Bosoon; Narrang, Neelam; Cray, William C

2013-07-01

479

76 FR 49408 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Listing of the Miami Blue Butterfly as...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Listing of the Miami Blue Butterfly as Endangered, and Proposed Listing of the Cassius Blue, Ceraunus Blue, and Nickerbean Blue Butterflies as Threatened Due to Similarity of...

2011-08-10

480

The outlook for blue-phase LCDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal (BPLC) has become an increasingly important technology trend for information display and photonic applications. BPLC exhibits several attractive features, such as reasonably wide temperature range, submillisecond gray-to-gray response time, no need for alignment layer, optically isotropic voltageoff state, and large cell gap tolerance when an in-plane switching (IPS) cell is employed. Fast response time not only suppresses image blurs, improves the overall transmittance but also enables color sequential display without noticeable color breakup. With time sequential RGB LED colors, the spatial color filters can be eliminated so that both optical efficiency and resolution density are tripled. High optical efficiency helps to reduce power consumption while high resolution density is particularly desirable for the future Ultra High Definition Television. However, some bottlenecks such as high operation voltage, hysteresis, low relaxation frequency, residual birefringence, image sticking, charging issue due to the large capacitance, and relatively low transmittance for the IPS mode, remain to be overcome before widespread application of BPLC can be realized. To reduce operation voltage, both new BPLC materials and new device structures have been investigated. In this paper, we highlight some recent advances in large Kerr constant, fast response time BPLC material development, and new device structures. Especially, we will focus on new BP LCDs with low operation voltage, submillisecond response time, high transmittance, and negligible hysteresis and residual birefringence. The sunrise for BP LCD is near.

Chen, Yuan; Wu, Shin-Tson

2014-02-01

481

Brighter yellow blue tits make better parents.  

PubMed Central

Whether or not bird ornaments are a signal for direct (e.g. good parents) or indirect (e.g. good genes) benefits to prospective partners in sexual selection is controversial. Carotene coloration in Parus species is directly related to the ingestion of caterpillars, so that a brightly carotene-coloured tit may be signalling its ability to find caterpillars, a main high-quality food source for good fledgling development, and hence its parental abilities. If carotene-based plumage coloration is related to the good-parent hypothesis, we predict that yellow plumage brightness of tit fathers should be positively correlated to their investment in offspring provisioning. Here, we use cross-fostering experiments in blue tits (Parus caeruleus) to show that chick development (as measured by tarsus length) is related to yellowness of the foster father, but not to that of the genetic parents. Using these data, we were able to measure, for the first time to our knowledge, the separate contribution of genetic and environmental factors (i.e. parental plumage coloration) to chick development, and hence parental investment. Our data, which relate carotenoid coloration to models of good parents, and data from other authors, which relate ultraviolet coloration to good-genes models, stress that different kinds of coloration within an individual may provide different units of information to prospective females. PMID:11839194

Senar, J C; Figuerola, J; Pascual, J

2002-01-01

482

Blue luminescence in porous anodic alumina films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the luminescence property of anodic alumina membranes (AAM) with ordered nanopore arrays prepared by electrochemically anodizing aluminium in oxalic acid, sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid solutions. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity of AAM prepared in C2H2O4 is much higher than that of AAMs prepared in H2SO4 and H3PO4. The PL spectra obtained show that there are two optical centres for the AAMs prepared in H2SO4 and H3PO4, of which the first originates from the F+ centres, and the second is associated with the F centres. It is found that the oxalic impurities incorporated in the AAMs should have important influences on the optical properties of AAM prepared in C2H2O4. The blue emission band in the AAM prepared in C2H2O4 originates from the coactions of the F+ centres, the F centre and the luminescent centres transformed from oxalic impurities.

Li, Zhaojian; Huang, Kelong

2007-05-01

483

Age determination of blue-winged teal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Primary feather length, markings on the greater secondary coverts, and the degree of bill spotting were evaluated as characters for use in the spring to distinguish first-year, blue-winged teal (Anas discors) females from older ones. The length of the 10th primary feather did not prove suitable to separate different aged females. Extreme primary lengths might be used to determine the age of some males. In females that have been through a postnuptial molt the greater secondary coverts have a more symmetrical, and more acutely angled, white, inverted 'V'-marking. Any female with a 'V' subjectively classified as good has gone through at least one postnuptial molt, and a female with no sign of a 'V' on the coverts is a juvenile or yearling before her first postnuptial molt. By measuring the longest bill spot on the upper mandible of each known-age female, it was possible to determine the age of some female teal. Because the spots fade during the breeding season, no lower size limit could be set to delineate first-year females at that time of year, but any nest-trapped hen with a spot longer than 10 mm was considered to be older than 1 year. Upper and lower limits were also established to distinguish some yearlings and 2-year-olds in the fall.

Dane, C.W.

1968-01-01

484

Red and blue shifted hydridic bonds.  

PubMed

By performing MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ ab initio calculations for a large set of dimer systems possessing a R-H hydridic bond involved in diverse types of intermolecular interactions (dihydrogen bonds, hydride halogen bonds, hydride hydrogen bonds, and charge-assisted hydride hydrogen bonds), we show that this is rather an elongation than a shortening that a hydride bond undergoes on interaction. Contrary to what might have been expected on the basis of studies in uniform electric field, this elongation is accompanied by a blue instead of red shift of the R-H stretching vibration frequency. We propose that the "additional" elongation of the R-H hydridic bond results from the significant charge outflow from the sigma bonding orbital of R-H that weakens this bond. The more standard red shift obtained for stronger complexes is explained by means of the Hermansson's formula and the particularly strong electric field produced by the H-acceptor molecule. PMID:25043253

Jab?o?ski, Miros?aw

2014-09-15

485

Contralateral comparison of blue-filtering and non-blue-filtering intraocular lenses: glare disability, heterochromatic contrast, and photostress recovery  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To compare visual performance in eyes with intraocular lenses (IOLs) that filter short-wave blue light versus contralateral eyes with IOLs that do not filter visible blue light. Methods: In this prospective, assessor-masked study that was conducted at five clinics in the US, eligible candidates were at least 12 months postimplantation of a control IOL and a contralateral IOL that filtered blue light. Glare disability was defined as the intensity of a white-light annulus that obscured a subject’s ability to see a central target. Heterochromatic contrast thresholds were defined as the intensity of a blue-light disk that obscured a central target. Photostress recovery time was the duration required to regain sight of the target after a five-second flash of annulus light. Results: Fifty-two subjects were evaluated. Mean glare disability was significantly less (P = 0.04) in the blue-filtering IOL group (1.97 ± 0.44 log ?W/cm2) than in the control group (1.88 ± 0.43 log ?W/cm2). Mean heterochromatic contrast threshold was significantly higher (P = 0.0003) in the blue-filtering IOL group (0.36 ± 0.43 log ?W/cm2) than in the control IOL group (