Sample records for canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue agar

  1. First report on Cryptococcus neoformans in pigeon excreta from public and residential locations in the metropolitan area of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Doracilde Terumi; Lazéra, Márcia dos Santos; Wanke, Bodo; Trilles, Luciana; Dutra, Valéria; Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus de; Nakazato, Luciano; Anzai, Mariana Caselli; Leite Júnior, Diniz Pereira; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues; Hahn, Rosane Christine

    2013-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is a severe systemic mycosis caused by two species of Cryptococcus that affect humans and animals: C. neoformans and C. gattii. Cosmopolitan and emergent, the mycosis results from the interaction between a susceptible host and the environment. The occurrence of C. neoformans was evaluated in 122 samples of dried pigeon excreta collected in 49 locations in the City of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, including public squares (n = 5), churches (n = 4), educational institutions (n = 3), health units (n = 8), open areas covered with asbestos (n = 4), residences (n = 23), factory (n = 1) and a prison (n = 1). Samples collected from July to December of 2010 were seeded on Niger seed agar (NSA). Dark brown colonies were identified by urease test, carbon source assimilation tests and canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium. Polymerase chain reaction primer pairs specific for C. neoformans were also used for identification. Cryptococcus neoformans associated to pigeon excreta was isolated from eight (6.6%) samples corresponding to six (12.2%) locations. Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from urban areas, predominantly in residences, constituting a risk of acquiring the disease by immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. PMID:24213188

  2. Adsorptive removal of methylene blue by agar: effects of NaCl and ethanol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Adsorption of methylene blue (MB) on agar was investigated as a function of temperature (308-328 K), different concentrations of NaCl and HCl and various weight percentages of binary mixtures of ethanol with water. It was observed that the maximum experimental adsorption capacity, qm, exp, in water is up to 50 mg g-1 and decreases with increase in weight percentage of ethanol and NaCl and HCl concentration compared to that of water. Analysis of data using ARIAN model showed that MB adsorbs as monomer and dimer on the surface of agar. Binding constants of MB to agar were calculated using the Temkin isotherm. The process is exothermic in water and other solutions. The mean adsorption energy (E) value indicated binding of MB to agar is chemical adsorption. Kinetics of this interaction obeys from the pseudo-second-order model and diffusion of the MB molecules into the agar is the main rate-controlling step. PMID:22339759

  3. Structure of Agar-Agar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. G. V. Percival; J. Munro; J. C. Somerville

    1937-01-01

    WE now communicate some preliminary results of the investigation on methylated agar prepared from the acetate previously described in NATURE1. By the simultaneous deacetylation and methylation of acetylated agar in chloroform; CH3CO = 38.5 per cent), an apparently homogeneous methylated agar was obtained - 78° in chloroform; OCH3 = 31 per cent), the methoxyl content of which remained constant despite

  4. [The detection of salmonellas using Rambach agar].

    PubMed

    Weber, A; Wachowitz, R

    1994-02-01

    Selective enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis medium of 1595 animal fed samples and of 82 feedstuff and carcass meal was streaked simultaneously onto water-blue-metachrome-yellow-lactose-agar acc. to Gassner, onto brilliant-green-phenol-red-lactose-agar acc. to Kauffmann and onto Rambach agar. Salmonellae were isolated in 34 cases with Rambach agar (sensitivity 94.4%), in 33 cases with water-blue-metachrome-yellow-lactose-agar acc. to Gassner (sensitivity 91.7%) and in 31 cases with brilliant-green-phenol-red-lactose-agar acc. to Kauffmann (sensitivity 86.1%). The high specificity (99.87%) recommends the use of Rambach agar for isolation of Salmonellae from selective enrichment. PMID:7993335

  5. MYPGP-agar; BHIT-agar; Colombia agar with 10% sheep blood; and ordinary blood agar with

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MYPGP-agar; BHIT-agar; Colombia agar with 10% sheep blood; and ordinary blood agar with 5% horse blood. The results revealed that more spores will ger- minate when they are incubated in air/CO2 mix- tures. In 5% CO2, both J-agar and MYPGP-agar yield significantly more colonies per plate com- pared

  6. Hydrogel composition based on carboxymethylcellulose and agar-agar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. T. Satybaldyeva; M. Yu. Mukhamedzhanova; A. A. Sarymsakov; Yu. T. Tashpulatov

    1998-01-01

    The results are given of a study of the rheological properties of concentrated solutions of CNC and agar-agar and the influence of their quantitative ratio on the anomalous flow behavior of their solutions. A hypothesis is put forward of the formation of intermolecular associates from CMC and agar-agar which leads to the formation of a stronger structural network of solutions

  7. Electro-osmosis in gels: Application to Agar-Agar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabien Cherblanc; Jérôme Boscus; Jean-Claude Bénet

    2008-01-01

    Widely used in food- and bio-engineering as a reference material, Agar-Agar gel is the focus of an experimental investigation concerning the electro-osmosis phenomenon. After presenting the experimental methods, one trial is discussed in detail. A fair reproducibility of results is obtained, and the averaged electro-osmotic permeability is provided. This value lies in the range generally measured on various kind of

  8. Evaluation of a new chromogenic agar medium for Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Masafumi; Teramura, Hajime; Kashida, Mitsuaki; Kodaka, Hidemasa

    2013-01-01

    Spoilage of fruit juices by a thermoacidophilic spore-forming bacterium, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, is a big problem for fruit juice industries worldwide. We have developed a novel chromogenic selective agar medium (EAATSM) for the isolation and enumeration of A. acidoterrestris. A. acidoterrestris strains appeared as blue colonies on the EAATSM. Other Alicyclobacillus strains appeared as white colonies or were inhibited. A study comparing EAATSM and YSG agar was carried out using artificially contaminated samples of 50 fruit juice products. The correlation coefficient between EAATSM and YSG was 0.991. PMID:23796641

  9. 48 CFR 401.371 - AGAR Advisories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false AGAR Advisories. 401.371 Section 401.371 ...SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 401.371 AGAR Advisories. The SPE may issue AGAR Advisories, consistent with the policies of...

  10. 48 CFR 401.371 - AGAR Advisories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false AGAR Advisories. 401.371 Section 401.371 ...SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 401.371 AGAR Advisories. The SPE may issue AGAR Advisories, consistent with the policies of...

  11. 48 CFR 401.371 - AGAR Advisories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false AGAR Advisories. 401.371 Section 401.371 ...SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 401.371 AGAR Advisories. The SPE may issue AGAR Advisories, consistent with the policies of...

  12. 48 CFR 401.371 - AGAR Advisories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false AGAR Advisories. 401.371 Section 401.371 ...SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 401.371 AGAR Advisories. The SPE may issue AGAR Advisories, consistent with the policies of...

  13. A novel agar formulation for isolation and direct enumeration of Vibrio vulnificus from oyster tissue.

    PubMed

    Griffitt, Kimberly J; Grimes, D Jay

    2013-08-01

    A new selective and differential medium, Vibrio vulnificus X-Gal (VVX), was developed for direct enumeration of V. vulnificus (Vv) from oyster samples. This agar utilizes cellobiose and lactose as carbon sources, and the antibiotics colistin and polymyxin B as selective agents. Hydrolysis of 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl- beta-d-galactopyranoside (x-gal), used in the agar as a lactose analog, produces an insoluble blue dye that makes lactose positive colonies easily distinguishable from any non-lactose fermenting bacteria. Various bacterial species were spot plated onto thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar (TCBS), and CHROMagar Vibrio, two vibrio-specific selective agars, non-selective agar, and VVX to compare selectivity of VVX to other widely used media. A V. vulnificus pure culture was serially diluted on VVX and non-selective agar to determine the VVX percent recovery. Water and oyster samples were spread plated on VVX agar and allowed to incubate for 16-18 h at 33 °C. Blue and white colonies from VVX agar were picked and screened by end point PCR for the Vv hemolysin vvhA. VVX agar showed a significant improvement over TCBS and CHROMagar at preventing non-target growth. There was an 87.5% recovery compared to non-selective plating and a 98% positivity rate of blue colonies picked from oyster tissue plating. The findings suggest that this new agar is a fast, distinctive, and accurate method for enumeration of V. vulnificus from the environment. PMID:23660708

  14. Influence of agar on in vitro cultures: I. Physicochemical properties of agar and agar gelled media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margherita Beruto; Dario Beruto; Pierre Debergh

    1999-01-01

    Summary  The success of in vitro culture is related to several factors. Beside factors associated with the plant material or the medium\\u000a composition, the physicochemical characteristics of gelled media can play an important role. In this paper, the latter aspect\\u000a has been considered and the nature of agar powders has been investigated. Moreover, the process of gel formation for three\\u000a different

  15. Ultrasonic backscatter coefficients for weakly scattering, agar spheres in agar phantoms

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    Ultrasonic backscatter coefficients for weakly scattering, agar spheres in agar phantoms Michael R and experimental backscatter coefficient BSC results. The phantoms consisted of agar spheres of various diameters nominally between 90 and 212 m , containing ultrafiltered milk, suspended in an agar background. BSC

  16. An agar-agar chamber for study of electromagnetic waves in an inhomogeneous medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Iizuka

    1971-01-01

    A medium for the propagation of electromagnetic waves whose dielectric constant or loss tangent has a prescribed profile was fabricated by using a large quantity of agar-agar in simulation chambers. The dielectric constant of the agar-agar could be changed continuously by means of a controlled diffusion of ethyl alcohol. The loss tangent of the same medium could be changed continuously

  17. Effect of sodium hydroxide pretreatment on the relaxation spectrum of concentrated agar-agar gels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Watase; K. Nishinari

    1981-01-01

    Summary Stress relaxation and ultrasonic absorption measurements were made for agar-agar pretreated by various concentrations of sodium hydroxide, in order to clarify the dominating factors in its rheological properties. Stress relaxation measurements were made up to 30 hours. Relaxation spectra were obtained by the reduced variable method. Gels prepared from agar-agar pretreated by concentrated sodium hydroxide show a larger relaxation

  18. Development of novel agar media for isolating guaiacol producing Alicyclobacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Chang, S S; Park, S H; Kang, D H

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a selective and differential medium (SK2 agar) for isolating guaiacol producing Alicyclobacillus. Forty-one selected dyes and vanillic acid were incorporated in SK agar for screening selective and differential agents. Two guaiacol producing (1016, 1101) and two non-guaiacol producing (19220, C-GD 1-1) Alicyclobacillus isolates were streaked onto media and color differentiation of the isolates was assessed. Among 41 tested dyes, Chrome Azurol S (CAS) allowed color differentiation of the two types of Alicyclobacillus. Colonies of guaiacol producing Alicyclobacillus isolates appeared as dark purple to royal blue color with yellow background, whereas non-guaiacol producing Alicyclobacillus isolates produced cream colored colonies with yellow background. Vanillic acid not only served as a precursor for guaiacol formation but also inhibited non-guaiacol producing Alicyclobacillus. Non-guaiacol producing isolates did not grow on SK agar containing more than 70 ppm vanillic acid, whereas the recovery of guaiacol producing isolates was unaffected. When compared with other Alicyclobacillus isolation media, not only was SK2 agar capable of selectively recovering guaiacol-producing Alicyclobacillus, the degree of growth was also approximately equal if not better than orange serum agar, potato dextrose agar, and K agar. The development of SK2 agar provides the fruit juice industry with an inexpensive, simple to use alternative for the detection of guaiacol producing Alicyclobacillus. PMID:23587706

  19. Preparation of hydroxypropyl agars and their properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Liu, Xin; Cao, Mingzhao; Xia, Kai; Zhang, Yuqiao

    2015-09-20

    A series of hydroxypropyl agars (HPAs) with different hydroxypropyl molar substitution (MS) were prepared and their physicochemical properties were characterized. After hydroxypropylation, the dissolving temperature, the gelling temperature, the gel melting temperature, the gel strength, and the thermal stability of agar all decreased except that its hygroscopicity increased. The gel skeleton structures of raw agar and HPAs were all of the porous network structures, but the pores of gel skeleton structure of HPAs became smaller and denser. PMID:26050892

  20. Eine verbesserte Methode zur quantitativen Hochspannungselektrophorese in Agar-Agar-Schichten

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Dose; S. Risi

    1964-01-01

    Es wurde ein Schnellverfahren zur quantitativen Hochspannungselektrophorese in Agar-Schichten ausgearbeitet. Nach der elektrophoretischen Trennung werden die Agar-Agar-Schichten zu transparenten Filmen getrocknet und die einzelnen Fraktionen in situ spektroskopisch analysiert. Als Anwendungsbeispiele werden die Trennung und analytische Bestimmung von Nucleinsäurebausteinen gezeigt.

  1. Studies on irradiation of agar–agar in the solid state: On the changes of melting point of the agar–agar hydrogel and setting point of the agar–agar hydrosol produced by irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mizuho Nisizawa

    1975-01-01

    The effects of radiation on the formation of the cross-links of the agar-agar hydrogel were studied by measuring the melting point and setting point, and by calculating the heats of reaction for the cross-linking processes at different radiation doses, times after irradiation and concentrations of added substances (sugar and starch). The empirical equations for the melting point and the setting

  2. Columbia Anaerobe 5% Sheep Blood Agar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Columbia Agars; EP ISO; Columbia Agar Base; Fildes Enrichment

    1 , using Columbia Agar Base, formulated reducible anaerobic media designed to improve recovery of anaerobes with minimal difficulty. The reducing agents used were cysteine, palladium chloride and dithiothreitol. The presence of \\

  3. DRYING OF WATER GELS: DETERMINATION OF THE CHARACTERISTIC CURVE OF AGAR-AGAR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Iglesias; A. Garcia; M. Roques; J. L. Bueno

    1993-01-01

    Agar-agar is a polysaccharide extracted as a hydrocolloid from red seaweed, whose gels are homogeneous, stable and transparent. The characterization of ternary equilibrium and mass transfer kinetics in the agar-water-air system is essential for designing operations in the extractive process as well as for ascertaining the behaviour of these gels and sols during evaporation. humectation and swelling.In this work, the

  4. Light Blue - Dark Blue

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This problem provides students the opportunity to explore fractions in a practical context as well as identify and explain patterns and justify their ideas. Solvers are shown a sequence of five squares shaded light blue and dark blue and are asked to find what fraction of the total area of each square is covered by light blue. They are also asked to work out what the next two squares would look like if they followed the pattern. The Teachers' Notes page offers rationale, suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, and ideas for extension and support.

  5. A triple stain technique to evaluate monocyte, neutrophil, and eosinophil proliferation in soft agar cultures.

    PubMed

    Phillips, P G; Chikkappa, G; Brinson, P S

    1983-01-01

    A useful cytochemical technique has been developed which facilitates the identification of the types of cell aggregates which proliferate in soft agar cultures of hematopoietic stem cells. Staining of fixed agar discs for alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE), naphthol AS-D chloroacetate esterase (CAE) and with Luxol fast blue (LFB) in sequence results in permanent preparations in which monocytic, neutrophilic and eosinophilic aggregates can readily be distinguished on the same slide. This represents an improvement over the currently used technique which relies on the removal of a representative sample of aggregates from the agar discs for cell typing. Whole plate staining results in more accurate estimates of eosinophil growth since the frequency of occurrence of these cell aggregates is low under many of the culturing conditions used. The technique provides a useful tool for studying normal and abnormal hematopoiesis. PMID:6187590

  6. Room-temperature phosphorescence of pyrene in agar-agar solid matrix doped with lead acetate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. V. Melnikov; A. N. Salnikov; A. V. Spivack

    2001-01-01

    Luminescence analysis, involving electronic recombination of the pyrene molecules, introduced into agar-agar solid-matrix was carried out. For the first time, room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) of pyrene, activated with lead acetate, was observed. It was established that increased lead acetate concentration resulted in weakened luminosity of pyrene excimers and emergence of phosphorescence.

  7. Extraction of agar from Gelidium sesquipedale (Rhodopyta) and surface characterization of agar based films.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, P; Etxabide, A; Leceta, I; Peñalba, M; de la Caba, K

    2014-01-01

    The chemical structure of the agar obtained from Gelidium sesquipedale (Rhodophyta) has been determined by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Agar (AG) films with different amounts of soy protein isolate (SPI) were prepared using a thermo-moulding method, and transparent and hydrophobic films were obtained and characterized. FTIR analysis provided a detailed description of the binding groups present in the films, such as carboxylic, hydroxyl and sulfonate groups, while the surface composition was examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The changes observed by FTIR and XPS spectra suggested interactions between functional groups of agar and SPI. This is a novel approach to the characterization of agar-based films and provides knowledge about the compatibility of agar and soy protein for further investigation of the functional properties of biodegradable films based on these biopolymers. PMID:24274535

  8. Electro-osmosis in gel -Application to Agar-Agar Fabien Cherblanc, Jer^ome Boscus, Jean-Claude Benet

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Electro-osmosis in gel - Application to Agar-Agar Fabien Cherblanc, J´er^ome Boscus, Jean-Claude B-engineering as a reference material, Agar-Agar gel is the focus of an experimental investigation concerning the electro-osmosis from liquid phase transport phenomena that take place in porous media (osmosis, electro-osmosis

  9. Use of agar agar stabilized milled zero-valent iron particles for in situ groundwater remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Doris; Velimirovi?, Milica; Wagner, Stephan; Mici? Batka, Vesna; von der Kammer, Frank; Hofmann, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    A major obstacle for use of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles as a nontoxic material for effective in situ degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) is the high production cost. For that reason, submicro-scale milled zero-valent iron particles were recently developed (milled ZVI, UVR-FIA, Germany) by grinding macroscopic raw materials of elementary iron as a cheaper alternative to products produced by solid-state reduction. However, milled ZVI particles tend to aggregate and due to the rather large particle size (d50= 11.9 µm) also rapidly sediment. To prevent aggregation and consequently sedimentation of milled ZVI particles and therefore improve the mobility after in situ application, the use of a stabilizer is considered in literature as a most promising option. In this study, milled ZVI particles (1 g L-1 of particle concentration) were stabilized by environmentally friendly polymer agar agar (>0.5 g L-1), which had a positive impact on the milled ZVI stability. Sedimentation rate was significantly decreased by increasing the suspension viscosity. Column transport experiments were performed for bare and agar agar stabilized milled ZVI particles in commercially available fine grained quartz sand (DORSILIT® Nr.8, Gebrüder Dorfner GmbH Co, Germany) and different porous media collected from brownfields. The experiments were carried out under field relevant injection conditions of 100 m d-1. The maximal travel distance (LT) of less than 10 cm was determined for non-stabilized suspension in fine grained quartz sand, while agar agar (1 g L-1) stabilized milled ZVI suspension revealed LT of 12 m. Similar results were observed for porous media from brownfields showing that mobility of agar agar stabilized particle suspensions was significantly improved compared to bare particles. Based on the mobility data, agar agar stabilized milled zero-valent iron particles could be used for in situ application. Finally, lab-scale batch degradation experiments were performed to determine the impact of agar agar on the reactivity of milled ZVI and investigate the apparent corrosion rate of particles by quantifying the hydrogen gas generated by anaerobic corrosion of milled ZVI. The results indicate that agar agar had a positive impact on the milled ZVI stability and mobility, however adverse impact on the reactivity towards trichloroethene (TCE) was observed compared to the non-stabilized material. On the other hand, this study shows that the apparent corrosion rate of non-stabilized and agar agar stabilized milled ZVI particles is in the same order of magnitude. These data indicate that the dechlorination pathway of TCE by agar agar stabilized milled ZVI particles is possibly impacted by blocking of the reactive sites and not hydrogen revealed during particles corrosion. Finally, calculated longevity of the particles based on the apparent corrosion rate is significantly prolonged compared to the longevity of the nZVI particles reported in previous studies. This research receives funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement n°309517.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates determined by the agar dilution, disk diffusion and Etest methods: comparison of results using GC agar and chocolate agar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Hsing Liao; Chih-Cheng Lai; Meng-Shuian Hsu; Fang-Yeh Chu; Mei-Yu Wu; Yu-Tsung Huang; Po-Ren Hsueh

    2010-01-01

    Although the use of GC agar for determining Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibilities is suggested by Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines, chocolate agar is still used in some regions owing to its low cost and availability. To determine the differences in susceptibilities determined using GC and chocolate agars, 163 non-duplicate N. gonorrhoeae isolates were tested. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs)

  11. Luminescent DNA- and agar-based membranes.

    PubMed

    Leones, R; Fernandes, M; Ferreira, R A S; Cesarino, I; Lima, J F; Carlos, L D; Bermudez, V de Zea; Magon, C J; Donoso, J P; Silva, M M; Pawlicka, A

    2014-09-01

    Luminescent materials containing europium ions are investigated for different optical applications. They can be obtained using bio-macromolecules, which are promising alternatives to synthetic polymers based on the decreasing oil resources. This paper describes studies of the DNA- and Agar-europium triflate luminescent membranes and its potential technological applications are expanded to electroluminescent devices. Polarized optical microscopy demonstrated that the samples are birefringent with submicrometer anisotropy. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed predominantly amorphous nature of the samples and the atomic force microscopy images showed a roughness of the membranes of 409.0 and 136.1 nm for the samples of DNA10Eu and Agar1.11Eu, respectively. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of the DNA(n)Eu membranes with the principal lines at g ? 2.0 and g ? 4.8 confirmed uniform distribution of rare earth ions in a disordered matrix. Moreover, these strong and narrow resonance lines for the samples of DNA(n)Eu when compared to the Agar(n)Eu suggested a presence of paramagnetic radicals arising from the DNA matrix. The emission spectra suggested that the Eu3+ ions occupy a single local environment in both matrices and the excitation spectra monitored around the Eu emission lines pointed out that the Eu3+ ions in the Agar host were mainly excited via the broad band component rather than by direct intra-4f(6) excitation, whereas the opposite case occurred for the DNA-based sample. PMID:25924317

  12. Highly stable Ag nanoparticles in agar-agar matrix as inorganic–organic hybrid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elayaraja Muthuswamy; S. Sree Ramadevi; H. N. Vasan; Cécile Garcia; Laure Noé; Marc Verelst

    2007-01-01

    A novel synthesis of inorganic–organic hybrid films containing well dispersed and almost uniform size Ag nanoparticles in\\u000a agar-agar matrix has been reported. The films are found to be highly stable for more than a year. The colloidal particles\\u000a of Ag can be obtained in large quantities in the form of a film or in the gel form when dispersed in

  13. Periodic crystallisation of magnesium hydroxide in agar-agar gel. Influence of temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ambrose; F. D. Gnanam; P. Ramasamy

    1983-01-01

    The influence of temperature on periodic crystallisation of magnesium hydroxide in agar-agar gel has been studied. The increase\\u000a in velocity constant with temperature is attributed to the increase in the diffusion constant with temperature. The activation\\u000a energy for diffusion of aqueous ammonia is calculated from the temperature — velocity constant correlation. The solubility\\u000a of Mg(OH)2 decreases with temperature. The decrease

  14. Troubleshooting in the Analysis of Hexachlorocyclohexane Isomers in Agar-Agar Culture Media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Barriada-Pereira; M. J. González-Castro; S. Muniategui-Lorenzo; P. López-MahÍa; D. Prada-RodrÍguez; E. Fernández-Fernández

    2007-01-01

    A method to determine hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) in agar-agar culture media was developed in order to study the bioremediation potential of these compounds. Spiked culture medium samples (0.5 g) were finely chopped and then extracted with 20 ml of hexane:ethyl acetate (80:20) in an ultrasonic bath during 30 min and analyzed by gas chromatography and electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Analytical

  15. Automatic surface inoculation of agar trays.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M.; Boykin, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Description of a machine and technique for the automatic inoculation of a plastic tray containing agar media with a culture, using either a conventional inoculation loop or a cotton swab. The design of the machine is simple, it is easy to use, and it relieves the operator from the manual task of streaking cultures. The described technique makes possible the visualization of the overall qualitative and, to some extent, quantitative relationships of various bacterial types in a sample tested.

  16. Evaluation of growth characteristics on blood agar and eosin methylene blue agar for the identification of Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha J. Bale; Carol Yang; Michael A. Pfaller

    1997-01-01

    Candida albicans and Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata are the most common species of yeast encountered in the clinical laboratory. In this study, we sought to evaluate simple means of screening cultures for the presence or absence of C. glabrata. Twelve thousand five hundred (12,500) consecutive cultures were evaluated for sufficient yeast growth to warrant identification. When detected (369 isolates), the amount

  17. Blue Pork

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi; Boyd, David

    2011-05-29

    . Yes. Blue. Shanghai supermarket shoppers were surprised when the pork they brought home recently glowed a faint blue under dim light. An investigation determined that the blue pork wasn't from alien pigs or a genetic modification gone terribly wrong...

  18. Antimicrobial activity of highly stable silver nanoparticles embedded in agar–agar matrix as a thin film

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ghosh; R. Kaushik; K. Nagalakshmi; S. L. Hoti; G. A. Menezes; B. N. Harish; H. N. Vasan

    2010-01-01

    Highly stable silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in agar–agar (Ag\\/agar) as inorganic–organic hybrid were obtained as free-standing film by in situ reduction of silver nitrate by ethanol. The antimicrobial activity of Ag\\/agar film on Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Candida albicans (C. albicans) was evaluated in a nutrient broth and also in saline solution. In particular, films

  19. Bordetellae and Charcoal Horse Blood Agar: Inactivation of Antibiotics in Agar during Prolonged Incubation for Susceptibility Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jörg E. Hoppe; Anton Haug; Konrad Botzenhart

    1988-01-01

    We examined the degree of inactivation of 22 antibiotics caused by prolonged incubation at 36 °C of agar plates during agar dilution susceptibility testing of Bordetellae. Fresh antibiotic-containing plates of charcoal horse blood agar and plates which had been held at 36 °C for 2 or 3 days prior to inoculation were inoculated with strains of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella

  20. Syneresis and delayed detachment in agar plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divoux, Thibaut; Mao, Bosi; Snabre, Patrick

    Biogels made of crosslinked polymers such as proteins or polysaccharides behave as porous soft solids and store large amount of solvent. These gels undergo spontaneous aging, called syneresis that consists in the shrinkage of the gel matrix and the progressive expulsion of the solvent. As a result, a biogel originally casted in a container often lose contact with the container sidewalls, and the detachment time is a priori difficult to anticipate since it may occur over variable time spans (from hours to days). Here we report on the syneresis phenomena in agar plates that consist in Petri dishes filled with a gel mainly composed of agar. Direct observations and speckle pattern correlation analysis allow us to rationalize the delayed detachment of the gel from the sidewall of the Petri dish. The detachment time $t^*$ is surprisingly not controlled by the mass loss as one would intuitively expect. Instead, $t^*$ is strongly correlated to the gel minimum thickness $e_{min}$ measured along the sidewall of the plate, and increases as a robust function of $e_{min}$ independently of the prior mass-loss history. Time-resolved correlation spectroscopy atypically applied to such weakly diffusive media gives access to the local thinning rate of the gel. This technique also allows us to detect the gel micro-displacements that are triggered by the water evaporation prior to the detachment, and even to anticipate the latter from a few hours. Our work provides observables to predict the detachment time of agar gels in dishes, and highlights the relevance of speckle pattern correlation analysis for the quantitative investigation of the syneresis dynamics in biopolymer gels.

  1. A comparison of blood agar supplemented with NAD with plain blood agar and chocolated blood agar in the isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae from sputum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. NYE; D. FALLON; B. GEE; S. MESSER; R. E. WARREN; N. ANDREWS

    1999-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae grows well and generally exhibits typical morphology on Columbia blood agar, whereas Haemophilus influenzae requires a more complex medium to meet its growth requirements - usually chocolated blood agar - on which S. pneumoniae is less easily recognisable. Therefore, a single medium that produces typical morphology of S. pneumoniae and facilitates the growth of H. influenzae would have

  2. Automatic Surface Inoculation of Agar Trays1

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Judd R.; Mills, Stacey M.; Boykin, Elizabeth H.

    1972-01-01

    A machine is described which automatically inoculates a plastic tray containing agar media with a culture by use of either a conventional inoculating loop or a cotton swab. Isolated colonies were obtained with an inoculating loop when a heavy inoculum (109 cells/ml) was used or with a cotton swab when a light inoculum (ca. 104 cells/ml) was used. Trays containing combinations of differential or selective media were used to (i) separate mixtures of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, (ii) facilitate isolation of organisms from clinical specimens, and (iii) compare colony growth characteristics of pure cultures. The design of the machine is simple, it is easy to use, and it relieves the operator from the manual task of streaking cultures. Images PMID:16349943

  3. Growth of Microorganisms from Supragingival Dental Plaque on Saliva Agar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. De Jong; J. S. Van Der Hoeven; J. H. Van Os

    1986-01-01

    The role of saliva in supporting the growth of dental plaque has scarcely been investigated. We have studied the growth and recovery of micro-organisms from dental plaque samples on saliva-agar plates, prepared from filter-sterilized wax-stimulated whole saliva. Under optimal conditions, the mean recovery of plaque samples on saliva agar was about 50% (range, 22-77) of the recovery on blood agar.

  4. Cell Growth on Soft Agar Plates Buffers Needed

    E-print Network

    Pike, Linda J.

    Cell Growth on Soft Agar Plates Buffers Needed: 2x DME (for 250 ml of 2x) 6.7 g Powdered DME 1.85 g (for 200 ml) 40 ml calf serum (use OLD Gibco serum) 4 ml glutamine 160 ml 2x DME 1.2% agar, sterilized 0.6% agar, sterilized Procedure: 1. Trypsinize cells and stop trypsinization by addition of serum

  5. 21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4600 Ouchterlony agar plate. (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4600 Ouchterlony agar plate. (a)...

  7. Blue Bonnet 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    Blue copper proteins have long held the interest of inorganic chemists, partially because of the interesting spectroscopic properties of the proteins and partially because of the difficulty in synthesizing an inorganic model complex that mimics...

  8. Application of an agar-agar chamber for the study of electromagnetic waves in an inhomogeneous medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Iizuka

    1972-01-01

    A detailed description of techniques developed to control and measure the inhomogeneity of the electrical properties of agar-agar has been reported previously. Various physical problems occur when one attempts to reproduce on a larger scale tests which had been successful on the smaller scale. The actual application of these techniques to the construction of the medium on a large scale

  9. The Blues

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Noted bluesman Willie Dixon once said, "The blues are the roots; everything else is the fruits". Wise words indeed, and the quote informs the spirit of Martin Scorsese's PBS documentary series "The Blues". This interactive website provides users with some great material about this seven part series, which features segments by Clint Eastwood, Wim Wenders, and of course, Mr. Scorsese. On the site, visitors can watch previews of each segment and learn more about the artists profiled in each one. In "The Songs & the Artists" area, visitors can read musician biographies and even check out the accompanying radio series which was released in conjunction with the documentary. Those who like to travel should click on the "Blues Road Trip" area. Here they will have the opportunity to take a musical journey from the Deep South to Memphis, St. Louis, and Chicago via song, photographs, and maps. The site is rounded out by the "Blues Classroom" area, which is designed for educators. Interested parties can view lesson plans, look over a blues glossary, and read several background essays.

  10. As a Bacterial Culture Medium, Citrated Sheep Blood Agar Is a Practical Alternative to Citrated Human Blood Agar in Laboratories of Developing Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. M. Russell; S. S. N. Biribo; G. Selvaraj; F. Oppedisano; S. Warren; A. Seduadua; E. K. Mulholland; J. R. Carapetis

    2006-01-01

    Human blood agar (HuBA) is widely used in developing countries for the isolation of bacteria from clinical specimens. This study compared citrated sheep blood agar (CSBA) and HuBA with defibrinated horse blood agar and defibrinated sheep blood agar (DSBA) for the isolation and antibiotic susceptibility testing of reference and clinical strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Reference

  11. Direct Protocol for Ambient Mass Spectrometry Imaging on Agar Culture.

    PubMed

    Angolini, Célio Fernando F; Vendramini, Pedro Henrique; Araújo, Francisca D S; Araújo, Welington L; Augusti, Rodinei; Eberlin, Marcos N; de Oliveira, Luciana Gonzaga

    2015-07-01

    Herein we describe a new protocol that allows direct mass spectrometry imaging (IMS) of agar cultures. A simple sample dehydration leads to a thin solid agar, which enables the direct use of spray-based ambient mass spectrometry techniques. To demonstrate its applicability, metal scavengers siderophores were imaged directly from agar culture of S. wadayamensis, and well resolved and intense images were obtained using both desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and easy ambient sonic-spray ionization (EASI) with well-defined selective spatial distributions for the free and the metal-bound molecules, providing clues for their roles in cellular metabolism. PMID:26067682

  12. Accepted Manuscript Frequent circumarctic and rare transequatorial dispersals in the lichenised agaric

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Lee

    agaric genus Lichenomphalia (Hygrophoraceae, Basidiomycota) József Geml, Frank Kauff, Christian Brochmann circumarctic and rare transequatorial dispersals in the lichenised agaric genus Lichenomphalia (Hygrophoraceae dispersals in the lichenised agaric genus1 Lichenomphalia (Hygrophoraceae, Basidiomycota)2 3 4 József Geml1

  13. Acanthocibium solanderi--see Wahoo Agar, Juan J.--see Tonioli and Agar

    E-print Network

    benjamini--see Stichaeidae Alopias vulpinus--see Shark, common thresher Alopias superciliosus--see Shark--see Whale, Bryde's Balaenoptera novaeangliae--see Whale, blue Balaenoptera physalus--see Whale, fin.--see Morgan et al. Bycatch Pacific Ocean shrimp, 2:10­11 shark bottom longline, 1:35­36 C Calamus bajonado

  14. 21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4600 Ouchterlony agar plate. (a)...

  15. 21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4600 Ouchterlony agar plate. (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 866.4600 - Ouchterlony agar plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4600 Ouchterlony agar plate. (a)...

  17. Blue gods, blue oil, and blue people.

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, V F

    1994-09-01

    Studies of the composition of coal tar, which began in Prussia in 1834, profoundly affected the economies of Germany, Great Britain, India, and the rest of the world, as well as medicine and surgery. Such effects include the collapse of the profits of the British indigo monopoly, the growth in economic power of Germany based on coal tar chemistry, and an economic crisis in India that led to more humane tax laws and, ultimately, the independence of India and the end of the British Empire. Additional consequences were the development of antiseptic surgery and the synthesis of a wide variety of useful drugs that have eradicated infections and alleviated pain. Many of these drugs, particularly the commonly used analgesics, sulfonamides, sulfones, and local anesthetics, are derivatives of aniline, originally called "blue oil" or "kyanol." Some of these aniline derivatives, however, have also caused aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, and methemoglobinemia (that is, "blue people"). Exposure to aniline drugs, particularly when two or three aniline drugs are taken concurrently, seems to be the commonest cause of methemoglobinemia today. PMID:8065194

  18. Blue Water

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent has a mechanical system that creates bubbles that rise to the surface and push ice away from the ship's hull. It also happens to churn the water into an amazing shade of blue....

  19. BLUE HONEYSUCKLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-four blue honeysuckle, Lonicera caerulea L., cultivars available to North America are described. The origin, description and uses of the cultivars are presented. The majority of the cultivars were released from Russia but two were released from Canada. These cultivars have fruits which look l...

  20. Blood Agar and Mycobacterium tuberculosis: the End of a Dogma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Drancourt; P. Carrieri; M.-J. Gevaudan; D. Raoult

    2003-01-01

    Incidental blood agar-based recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis led us to further investigate this routine medium for primary isolation and culture of M. tuberculosis. Fifteen respiratory tract and eight lymph node Ziehl-Neelsen-positive specimens were inoculated in parallel into tubes containing egg-based medium and 5% sheep blood agar. Colonies appeared sooner on this medium than on the egg-based medium, but this difference

  1. Enhanced degradation of caffeine by immobilized cells of Pseudomonas sp. in agar–agar matrix using statistical approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sathyanarayana N. Gummadi; K. B. Ganesh; Devarai Santhosh

    2009-01-01

    Previously, we isolated caffeine degrading Pseudomonas strain from soil of coffee plantation area, which could utilize caffeine as sole carbon and nitrogen source and could tolerate caffeine up to 20g\\/L. In this study, caffeine degradation by immobilized cells of this strain was investigated. Various matrices were considered and agar–agar was chosen based on degradation rate (0.08g\\/(Lh)), bead stability and reusability.

  2. Immobilization of pectin degrading enzyme from Bacillus licheniformis KIBGE IB-21 using agar-agar as a support.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Haneef Ur; Aman, Afsheen; Zohra, Raheela Rahmat; Qader, Shah Ali Ul

    2014-02-15

    Pectinase from Bacillus licheniformis KIBGE IB-21 was immobilized in agar-agar matrix using entrapment technique. Effect of different concentrations of agar-agar on pectinase immobilization was investigated and it was found that maximum immobilization was achieved at 3.0% agar-agar with 80% enzyme activity. After immobilization, the optimum temperature of enzyme increased from 45 to 50 °C and reaction time from 5 to 10 minutes as compared to free enzyme. Due to the limited diffusion of high molecular weight substrate, K(m) of immobilized enzyme slightly increased from 1.017 to 1.055 mg ml(-1), while Vmax decreased from 23,800 to 19,392 ?M min(-1) as compared to free enzyme. After 120 h entrapped pectinase retained their activity up to 82% and 71% at 30 °C and 40 °C, respectively. The entrapped pectinase showed activity until 10th cycle and maintain 69.21% activity even after third cycle. PMID:24507327

  3. Hyperspectral imaging for detecting pathogens grown on agar plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seung Chul; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Siragusa, Gregory R.; Line, John E.; Park, Bosoon; Windham, William R.

    2007-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of a hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting and identifying one of the most common foodborne pathogens, Campylobacter. Direct plating using agars is an effective tool for laboratory tests and analyses of microorganisms. The morphology (size, growth pattern, color, etc.) of colonies grown on agar plates has been widely used to tentatively differentiate organisms. However, it is sometimes difficult to differentiate target organisms like Campylobacters from other contaminants grown together on the same agar plates. A hyperspectral imaging system operating at the visible and near infrared (VNIR) spectral region from 400 nm to 900 nm was set up to measure spectral signatures of 17 different Campylobacter and non-Campylobacter subspecies. Protocols for culturing, imaging samples and for calibrating measured data were developed. The VNIR spectral library of all 17 organisms commonly encountered in poultry was established from calibrated hyperspectral images. A classification algorithm was developed to locate and identify Campylobacters, non-Campylobacter contaminants, and background agars with 99.29% accuracy. This research has a potential to be expanded to detect other pathogens grown on agar media.

  4. Photopyroelectric method using a thermal wave resonator cavity for detection of phase transitions in agar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Medina-Esquivel; J. M. Yanez-Limon; Juan J. Alvarado-Gil

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the Photopyroelectric (PPE) technique using a Thermal Wave Resonator Cavity (TWRC) is used to measure the thermal diffusivity of agar. We, determine the liquid to gel phase transition temperature as a function of agar concentration, detecting a shift in that temperature. As agar concentration decreases, the phase transition temperatures get lower. The thermal diffusivity of agar as

  5. Photothermal characterization of the gelation process in Gelidium robustum Agar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freile-Pelegrín, Y.; Bante, J.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Yánez-Limón, J. M.

    2005-06-01

    Agar is a hydrophilic colloid formed by polysaccharides, whose ability to form reversible gels simply by cooling hot aqueous solutions is the most important property and can be regarded as the prototype and model for all gelling systems. In this paper the evolution of the gelation process of agar obtained from algae of the species Gelidium robustum, using the photopyroelectric technique is reported. It is shown that thermal effusivity increase when the agar is cooled, reaching a maximum value around 37°C. The increase in thermal effusivity can be related to the increasing of the bondings in the gel as temperature decreases, reaching the maximum at the gelation point. The decrease of the thermal effusivity at lower temperature could be due to the syneresis process involving a gradual release of water after gelation.

  6. Blue Sky

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Exploratorium

    2011-12-07

    In this optics activity, learners explore why the sky is blue and the sunset is red, using a simple setup comprising a transparent plastic box, water, and powdered milk. Learners use a flashlight to shine a beam of light through the container. Learners look at the beam from the side of the container and then from the end of the tank, and compare the colors that they see. Learners also examine a narrower beam of light. Use this activity to introduce learners to the light spectrum, wavelengths, frequency, scattering, and how all this effects what we see in the sky at different times of the day.

  7. Blue Whales

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this two-minute sound segment, a professor of physics and astronomy describes the communication ability of the blue whale. He says that pitch discrimination with whales is incredibly accurate. The whales produce this call always at exactly four octaves below middle C, based on measurements of 6,000 whale calls. This site is from an archive of a daily radio program called Pulse of the Planet, which provides its listeners with a portrait of Planet Earth, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. The site also provides a written transcript of the broadcast.

  8. Blue Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    This Web site is a companion to the Discovery Channel/ BBC television series Blue Planet: Seas of Life. The Web site includes images, games, and expeditions all related to oceanography and marine biology. One feature that is particularly interesting is Ocean Alert, an interactive, current events feature where users can identify the topics that most interest them. News headlines, with links to more complete stories, are organized into twelve topics; users select the topics and area of the world of interest from a rotating map. This site is fun to use and informative, and users may appreciate the options to explore only as in-depth as they choose.

  9. Comparative study of bio-ethanol production from mahula ( Madhuca latifolia L.) flowers by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized in agar agar and Ca-alginate matrices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuvashish Behera; Shaktimay Kar; Rama Chandra Mohanty; Ramesh Chandra Ray

    2010-01-01

    Batch fermentation of mahula (Madhuca latifolia L., a tree commonly found in tropical rain forest) flowers was carried out using immobilized cells (in agar agar and calcium alginate) and free cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ethanol yields were 151.2, 154.5 and 149.1gkg?1 flowers using immobilized (in agar agar and calcium alginate) and free cells, respectively. Cell entrapment in calcium alginate

  10. GELRITE as an Agar Substitute in Bacteriological Media

    PubMed Central

    Shungu, Daniel; Valiant, Mary; Tutlane, Vicki; Weinberg, Ellen; Weissberger, Barbara; Koupal, Larry; Gadebusch, Hans; Stapley, Edward

    1983-01-01

    GELRITE gellan gum (formerly known as PS-60 and S-60) is a new naturally derived, highly purified polysaccharide which displays several interesting properties, including selfgelling. The suitability of GELRITE as an agar substitute was tested by evaluating the performance of several media selected from among those most commonly used in the isolation, identification, and enumeration of microorganisms in clinical laboratories. Fifty different bacterial species previously implicated in human infections served as test strains. On the basis of the various parameters considered, namely, colony characteristics, biochemical reactions, hemolytic patterns, and plating efficiency, media gelled by agar and by GELRITE compared quite favorably. Images PMID:16346398

  11. Charcoal-Yeast Extract Agar: Primary Isolation Mediumfor Legionella pneumophila

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES C. FEELEY; ROBERT J. GIBSON; GEORGE W. GORMAN; NANCY C. LANGFORD; J. KAMILE RASHEED; DON C. MACKEL; WILLIAM B. BAINE

    1979-01-01

    Charcoal-yeast extract agar isa new bacteriological mediumthatsupports excellent growth oftheLegionella pneumophila. Itresults frommodifications madeinan existing L.pneumophila medium,F-Gagar.Yeastextract, instead of an acidhydrolysate ofcasein, servesastheprotein source.Beefextractives and starch are notadded. Activated charcoal (Norit A or Norit SG)isincluded at 0.20%(wt\\/vol). Comparison ofcharcoal-yeast extract andF-Gagars showedthat a greater numberofcolony-forming units ofL.pneumophila was recovered from astandardized tissue inoculum on charcoal-yeast extract agar(4.35 x 106colony- forning

  12. Bluefield Blue Jays Internships

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Bluefield Blue Jays Internships General Internship Start Date: Mid May 2014 JOB DESCRIPTION: The Bluefield Blue Jays, Appalachian League Affiliate of the Toronto Blue Jays is looking for an individual: #12;The Bluefield Blue Jays, Appalachian League Affiliate of the Toronto Blue Jays is looking

  13. Plaque Formation in Agar by Single Antibody-Producing Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niels K. Jerne; Albert A. Nordin

    1963-01-01

    Distinct plaques, each of which is due to the release of hemolysin by a single antibody-forming cell, are revealed by complement after incubation, in an agar layer, of a mixture of sheep red cells and lymphoid cells from a rabbit immunized with sheep red cells.

  14. Maintenance of Leptospira Species in Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun Agar

    PubMed Central

    Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Langla, Sayan; Oyuchua, Malinee; Day, Nicholas P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of Leptospira species in liquid or semisolid medium is time-consuming and at risk of contamination due to the needs of routine subculture and dark field microscopy. Using Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) agar, we maintained 100 pathogenic Leptospira isolates for 12 months without the need for subculture and confirmed the viability of all isolates by the naked eye. PMID:25253789

  15. Direct Cloning of Human Ovarian Carcinoma Cells in Agar1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne W. Hamburger; Sydney E. Salmon; Mary B. Kim; Jeff M. Trent; Barbara J. Soehnlen

    We have recently developed an in vitro assay for human tumor stem cells that permits cloning of human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells in soft agar. Tumor colonies grew from both effusions and biopsies from 85% of 31 ovarian cancer patients. The cloning efficiency did not vary with the histology of the tumor. Growth was induced with medium conditioned by the adherent

  16. Hyperspectral Imaging for Detecting Pathogens Grown on Agar Plates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper is concerned with the development of a hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting and identifying one of the most common foodborne pathogens, Campylobacter. Direct plating using agars is an effective tool for laboratory tests and analyses of microorganisms. The morphology (size, growth...

  17. Recovery of Sublethally Injured Bacteria Using Selective Agar Overlays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKillip, John L.

    2001-01-01

    This experiment subjects bacteria in a food sample and an environmental sample to conditions of sublethal stress in order to assess the effectiveness of the agar overlay method to recover sublethally injured cells compared to direct plating onto the appropriate selective medium. (SAH)

  18. Growth kinetics of three species of Tetrahymena on solid agar

    SciTech Connect

    Dobra, K.W.; McArdle, E.W.; Ehret, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    A nutrient-agar method without liquid overlay has been developed for cultivation of ciliates. Three species of Tetrahymena-T. pyriformis strain W, T. rostrata strain UNI, and T. vorax strain V/sub 2/S, representing the 3 main groups of Tetrahymena species, were used; however the method should apply to other ciliates. Growth on the surface of the agar was facilitated by an optimal surface-to-volume ratio yielding a high density of ciliates and short generation times. At the highest density achieved, the cells became irregularly hexagonal and formed a monolayer tissue on the agar. Ciliates grown on agar were like those in liquid culture, typical oral ciliature, food-vacuole formation, and typical cortical patterns being retained. Advantages of this method include high cell density, easy recovery, and optimal O/sub 2/ supply. The organisms can also be cultivated on the surface of sterile cellulose-nitrate filters, facilitating in situ fixation and staining as well as transfer into different media by transfer of filters with cells, without prior centrifugation and resuspension.

  19. Agar Ingestion Combined with Phototherapy in Jaundiced Newborn Infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Finn Ebbesen; Jørn Møller

    1977-01-01

    49 jaundiced, nonimmunized newborn infants with a birth weight of more than 2,000 g were given phototherapy with white light for more than 36 h. The average period of treatment was 61 h. 24 infants received 250 mg agar at the beginning of each meal at 3-hour intervals during phototherapy. 25 infants received phototherapy only. Serum bilirubin levels were decreased

  20. Mongolian blue spots

    MedlinePLUS

    Mongolian spots are flat, blue, or blue-gray skin markings near the buttocks that appear at birth or shortly thereafter. ... Mongolian blue spots are common among persons who are of Asian, East Indian, and African descent.

  1. Blue nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Blue nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This is for information only and ... The poison is found in the blue nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) plant, especially in the fruit and leaves.

  2. The Blue Bottle Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandaveer, Walter R., IV; Mosher, Mel

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of the classic Blue Bottle demonstration that involves the alkaline glucose reduction of methylene blue. Uses other indicators in the classic Blue Bottle to produce a rainbow of colors. (JRH)

  3. Combination cellulose plate (non-agar solid support) and agar plate method improves isolation of fungi from soil.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Kenichi; Todaka, Nemuri; ?mura, Satoshi; Masuma, Rokuro

    2014-11-01

    This is the first report describing the improved isolation of common filamentous fungi via a method combining cellulose plate and agar plate system. A cellulose plate is a porous plate made of nanofibrous crystaline cellulose. Isolating fungi from soils using these types of media separately resulted in the number of fungal colonies appearing on cellulose plates being lower than that on agar plates. However, the number of actual fungal species isolated using cellulose plates alone was more or less the same as that found using agar plates. Significantly, the diversity of isolates using a combination of the two media was greater than using each media individually. As a result, numerous new or rare fungal species with potential, including previously proposed new species, were isolated successfully in this way. All fungal colonies, including the Penicillium species, that appeared on the cellulose plate penetrated in potato dextrose were either white or yellow. Cultivation on cellulose plates with added copper ion overcomes the change in coloration, the colonies appearing as they do following cultivation on potato dextrose agar. PMID:24849537

  4. In vitro antibacterial activity of minocycline and effect of agar medium utilized in its susceptibility testing.

    PubMed

    Washington, J A; Yu, P K; Martin, W J

    1970-02-01

    The in vitro activity of minocycline against 1,028 bacterial strains was determined in parallel in Mueller Hinton Agar and Trypticase Soy Agar. The broad antibacterial effect of minocycline against gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli is confirmed. Minimal inhibitory concentrations for gram-positive bacteria in Mueller Hinton Agar were at least twofold less than in Trypticase Soy Agar. Minimal inhibitory concentrations for gram-negative bacilli in Mueller Hinton Agar were usually fourfold less than in Trypticase Soy Agar. PMID:4392357

  5. Correlation of Neo-Sensitabs Tablet Diffusion Assay Results on Three Different Agar Media with CLSI Broth Microdilution M27-A2 and Disk Diffusion M44-A Results for Testing Susceptibilities of Candida spp. and Cryptococcus neoformans to Amphotericin B, Caspofungin, Fluconazole, Itraconazole, and Voriconazole

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Espinel-Ingroff; E. Canton; D. Gibbs; A. Wang

    2007-01-01

    We compared the Neo-Sensitabs tablet assay to both reference M27-A2 broth microdilution and M44-A disk diffusion methods for testing susceptibilities of 110 isolates of Candida spp. and Cryptococcus neoformans to amphotericin B, caspofungin, fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole. Neo-Sensitabs assay inhibition zone diameters in millimeters on three agars (Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 2% dextrose and 0.5 g\\/ml methylene blue (MGM), Shadomy

  6. Detection of bacterioplankton in immersed cadavers using selective agar plates.

    PubMed

    Kakizaki, Eiji; Kozawa, Shuji; Tashiro, Noriko; Sakai, Masahiro; Yukawa, Nobuhiro

    2009-04-01

    We measured bacterioplankton in blood from cadavers retrieved from the sea (n=12), near estuaries (n=4), rivers (fresh water, n=8) and from bathtubs (n=4) as well as from non-drowned victims (n=10) discovered near aquatic environments. Blood from 11 victims drowned in seawater developed bioluminescent and/or blue colonies (oxidase test positive) on selective media containing 2-4% NaCl. Homology analyses of the 16S rRNA gene showed that all of them were marine bacteria (genera: Photobacterium, Vibrio, Shewanella, Psychrobacter). Blood from all victims drowned in rivers generated blue colonies on plates containing 3%, but not 4% NaCl. Homology analyses showed that the blue colonies were generated from bacteria that inhabit fresh water (Aeromonas). None of the blood samples from victims that drowned in bathtubs generated bioluminescent and blue colonies. However, all cadavers contained bacteria that produced unstained colonies (Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Escherichia, etc.). Among non-drowned victims, blood from two gave rise to blue colonies on plates containing < or =3% NaCl (Pseudomonas). Of the cadavers found near estuaries, bioluminescent and blue colonies developed from two of them on media containing 2-4% NaCl (Photobacterium, Vibrio, Listonella), but not from two others on plates containing 4% NaCl (at < or =3%; blue colonies, Aeromonas; unstained colonies, Citrobacter, Vagococcus, Proteus, Enterobacter). These results suggested that the presence of numerous bacterioplankton in immersed cadavers could support a conclusion of death by drowning. PMID:19261520

  7. Laboratory 1: Bacterial Abundance Method 1: SERIAL DILUTION-AGAR PLATING TO QUANTITATE VIABLE CELLS

    E-print Network

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Laboratory 1: Bacterial Abundance Method 1: SERIAL DILUTION- AGAR PLATING TO QUANTITATE VIABLE) and spread with an ethanol-flamed glass rod. Cool glass rod on agar plat before spreading. Incubate the five

  8. [Anaphylaxis to blue dyes].

    PubMed

    Langner-Viviani, F; Chappuis, S; Bergmann, M M; Ribi, C

    2014-04-16

    In medicine, vital blue dyes are mainly used for the evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in oncologic surgery. Perioperative anaphylaxis to blue dyes is a rare but significant complication. Allergic reactions to blue dyes are supposedly IgE-mediated and mainly caused by triarylmethanes (patent blue and isosulfane blue) and less frequently by methylene blue. These substances usually do not feature on the anesthesia record and should not be omitted from the list of suspects having caused the perioperative reaction, in the same manner as latex and chlorhexidine. The diagnosis of hypersensitivity to vital blue dyes can be established by skin test. We illustrate this topic with three clinical cases. PMID:24834647

  9. A new selective blood agar medium for Streptococcus pyogenes and other haemolytic streptococci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. L. Lowbury; A. Kidson; H. A. Lilly

    1964-01-01

    Horse blood agar containing polymyxin B sulphate, neomycin sulphate, and fusidic acid inhibited the growth of Staph. aureus, Ps. pyocyanea, Proteus mirabilis, E. coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae but allowed good growth of, and haemolysis by, Str. pyogenes.In a comparison with blood agar, blood 4% agar, and gentian violet blood agar, the selective medium (P.N.F.) yielded a significantly higher proportion of

  10. Electrospinning of agar/PVA aqueous solutions and its relation with rheological properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work, we report the successful fabrication of agar-based nanofibers by an electrospinning technique using water as the solvent media. A tubeless spinneret was attached inside the electrospinning chamber, operated at 50 deg C, to avoid agar gelation. Pure agar solution 1% (w/w) showed inadequ...

  11. Agar Underlay Method for Recovery of Sublethally Heat-Injured Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kang, D. H.; Siragusa, G. R.

    1999-01-01

    A method of recovering sublethally heat-injured bacteria was developed. The procedure (termed the agar underlay method) uses a nonselective agar underlaid with a selective medium. In a two-chambered petri dish, the Lutri plate (LP), a nonselective agar is inoculated with a population of sublethally heat-injured bacteria. After a 2-h repair incubation period, selective agar is added to the bottom chamber of the LP and incubated. By diffusing through the nonselective top agar, selective agents from the underlay medium impart selectivity to the system. By the agar underlay method, recovery rates of the heat-injured food-borne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium were not different (P > 0.05) from recovery rates determined with nonselective media. Sublethally heat-injured cells (60°C for 1.5 min in buffer or 80°C for 30 s on meat surfaces) grew and produced a typical colony morphology and color reaction when the agar underlay procedure was used with the appropriate respective selective agars. Unlike agar overlay methods for injury repair, the agar underlay procedure allows the typical selective-medium colony morphology to develop and allows colonies to be more easily picked for further characterization. Higher recovery rates of heat-injured fecal enterococci from bovine fecal samples and total coliforms from animal waste lagoons were obtained by the agar underlay method with selective agars than by direct plating on the respective selective media. PMID:10583985

  12. Activity staining method of chitinase on chitin agar plate through polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vipul Gohel; Pranav Vyas; H. S. Chhatpar

    2005-01-01

    A method for detection of chitinase activity on chitin agar plate after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is described. Different staining dyes such as calcofluor white M2R, fluorescein isothiocyanate, rhodamine B, ruthenium red and congo red were separately incorporated in chitin agar plates. After running polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the gel was transferred onto chitin agar plate containing different dyes for the activity

  13. Biology and agar composition of Gelidium sesquipedale harvested along the Atlantic coast of Morocco

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aziza Mouradi-Givernaud; Lalla Amina Hassani; Thierry Givernaud; Yves Lemoine; Oumaima Benharbet

    1999-01-01

    Gelidium sesquipedale (Clem.) Bornet et Thuret is the main raw material used for agar production in Morocco. The biology and biochemistry of this slow growing alga collected monthly over one year has been studied. The agar content varied around 40% of algal dry weight and reached a maximum of 44.5% in November. Agar gel strength was maximum in May and

  14. Mechanical response of agar gel irradiated with Nd:YAG nanosecond laser pulses.

    E-print Network

    Aguilar, Guillermo

    Mechanical response of agar gel irradiated with Nd:YAG nanosecond laser pulses. Francisco G. Pérez transients originated when 6 ns laser pulses are incident on agar gels with varying linear absorption to mechanical effects in agar gel. Real time pressure transients are recorded with PVDF piezoelectric sensors

  15. Adverse reaction; patent blue turning patient blue.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Meera; Hart, Matthew; Ahmed, Farid; McPherson, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    The authors report a severe anaphylactic reaction to Patent Blue V dye used in sentinel node biopsy for lymphatic mapping during breast cancer surgery to stage the axilla. Patent Blue dye is the most widely used in the UK; however, adverse reactions have been reported with the blue dye previously. This case highlights that reactions may not always be immediately evident and to be vigilant in all patients that have undergone procedures using blue dye. If the patients are not responding appropriately particularly during an anaesthetic, one must always think of a possible adverse reaction to the dye. All surgical patients should give consent for adverse reactions to patent blue dye preoperatively. Alternative agents such as methylene blue are considered. PMID:23203181

  16. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Alabama

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Alabama BlueCross and BlueShield Medical Information Server, located and developed by the University of Alabama at Birmingham Department of Computer and Information Sciences, through a grant from Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Alabama for the express purpose of providing Internet access to medical information for all physicians and other health care providers in the state of Alabama. It provides links to a broad range of medical information resources located throughout the Internet. Menus provide information on diseases and disorders, patient care and medical practice, medical specialties, journals and newsletters, health care reform, and other medical information.

  17. A selective chromogenic agar that distinguishes Bacillus anthracis from Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Juergensmeyer, Margaret A; Gingras, Bruce A; Restaino, Lawrence; Frampton, Elon W

    2006-08-01

    A selective and differential plating medium, R & F anthracis chromogenic agar (ACA), has been developed for isolating and identifying presumptive colonies of Bacillus anthracis. ACA contains the chromogenic substrate 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl-choline phosphate that upon hydrolysis yields teal (blue green) colonies indicating the presence of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) activity. Among seven Bacillus species tested on ACA, only members of the Bacillus cereus group (B. anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis) produced teal colonies (PC-PLC positive) having cream rings. Examination of colony morphology in 18 pure culture strains of B. anthracis (15 ATCC strains plus AMES-1-RIID, ANR-1, and AMED-RIID), with one exception, required 48 h at 35 to 37 degrees C for significant color production, whereas only 24 h was required for B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. This differential rate of PC-PLC synthesis in B. anthracis (due to the truncated plcR gene and PlcR regulator in B. anthracis) allowed for the rapid differentiation on ACA of presumptive colonies of B. anthracis from B. cereus and B. thuringiensis in both pure and mixed cultures. Effective recovery of B. anthracis from a variety of matrices having both high (soil and sewage) and low microbial backgrounds (cloth, paper, and blood) spiked with B. anthracis ANR-1 spores suggests the probable utility of ACA plating for B. anthracis recovery in a diversity of applications. PMID:16924932

  18. Growth characteristics of Bacillus anthracis compared to other Bacillus spp. on the selective nutrient media Anthrax Blood Agar ® and Cereus Ident Agar ®

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert Tomaso; Carsten Bartling; Sascha Al Dahouk; Ralf M. Hagen; Holger C. Scholz; Wolfgang Beyer; Heinrich Neubauer

    2006-01-01

    Anthrax Blood Agar® (ABA) and Cereus Ident Agar® (CEI) were evaluated as selective growth media for the isolation of Bacillus anthracis using 92 B. anthracis and 132 other Bacillus strains from 30 species. The positive predictive values for the identification of B. anthracis on ABA, CEI, and the combination of both were 72%, 71%, and 90%, respectively. Thus, less than

  19. Comparison of Oxford Agar, PALCAM and Listeria monocytogenes Blood Agar for the recovery of L. monocytogenes from foods and environmental samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marlene Pinto; Solange Burri; Cristina Mena; Gonçalo Almeida; Lu??sa Carneiro; Paula Teixeira; Paul A Gibbs

    2001-01-01

    This work had as the main objective a comparison between Listeria monocytogenes Blood Agar (LMBA) and the conventional selective agar media, Oxford and PALCAM, relative to its efficacy in the detection of L. monocytogenes in naturally contaminated food and environmental samples. 173 environmental samples and 272 samples of foods were analysed. A higher sensitivity for detection of L. monocytogenes was

  20. Embryo Staining Protocol. 1. Keep the flies for egg laying on agar sucrose plates (1.5% agar, 1.5% sucrose)

    E-print Network

    Embryo Staining Protocol. 1. Keep the flies for egg laying on agar sucrose plates (1.5% agar, 1. With a brush and distilled water transfer the embryos into an egg basket. (egg baskets can be made by cutting the embryos in distilled water. 5. Soak in 50% bleach for 2 minutes. This removes the chorion. Look under

  1. Blue-green algae

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lac Klamath, Anabaena, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Arthrospira maxima, Arthrospira platensis, BGA, Blue Green Algae, Blue-Green Micro-Algae, Cyanobacteria, Cyanobactérie, Cyanophycée, Dihe, Espirulina, Hawaiian Spirulina, Klamath, Klamath Lake Algae, Lyngbya wollei, Microcystis aeruginosa, ...

  2. Greening the Blue Bottle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Whitney E.; Noble, Mark E.

    2003-01-01

    Compares the revised Blue Bottle formulation to the classical Blue Bottle. Indicates that the revised formulation gives a somewhat bluer solution, but initially slower reduction when compared to the classical formulation. (Author/KHR)

  3. Methylene blue test

    MedlinePLUS

    The methylene blue test is a test to determine the type of methemoglobinemia (a blood disorder). ... are removed. A dark green powder called methylene blue goes through the tube into your vein. The ...

  4. Improved agar diffusion method for detecting residual antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Tsai, C E; Kondo, F

    2001-03-01

    The improved agar diffusion method for determination of residual antimicrobial agents was investigated, and the sensitivities of various combinations of test organisms and assay media were determined using 7 organisms, 5 media, and 31 antimicrobial agents. Bacillus stearothermophilus and synthetic assay medium (SAM) showed the greatest sensitivity for screening penicillins (penicillin G and ampicillin). The combination of Bacillus subtilis and minimum medium (MM) was the most sensitive for tetracyclines (oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline), B. stearothermophilus and SAM or Micrococcus luteus and Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) for detecting tylosin and erythromycin, B. subtilis and MHA for aminoglycosides (streptomycin, kanamycin, gentamicin, and dihydrostreptomycin), B. stearothermophilus and SAM for polyethers (salinomycin and lasalocid), and B. subtilis and MM or Clostridium perfringens and GAM for polypeptides (thiopeptin, enramycin, virginiamycin, and bacitracin). However, gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli ATCC 27166 and MM were better for screening for colistin and polymixin-B. For detecting the synthetic drugs tested, the best combination was B. subtilis and MM for sulfonamides, E. coli 27166 and MM for quinolones (oxolinic acid and nalidixic acid), B. subtilis and MM for furans (furazolidone), and the bioluminescent bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum and luminescence assay medium for chloramphenicol and oxolinic acid. The results showed that the use of four assay plates, B. stearothermophilus and SAM, B. subtilis and MM, M. luteus and MHA, and E. coli 27166 and MM, was superior to the currently available techniques for screening for residual antimicrobial agents in edible animal tissues. PMID:11252480

  5. Comparison of microbial adherence to antiseptic and antibiotic central venous catheters using a novel agar subcutaneous infection model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trupti A. Gaonkar; Shanta M. Modak

    An agar subcutaneous infection model (agar model), which simulates the rat subcutaneous infection model (rat model), was developed to assess the ability of antimicrobial catheters to resist microbial colonization. The catheters were implanted in the agar and rat models and the insertion sites were infected immediately or on day 7, 14 or 21 post-implantation. The catheters implanted in the agar

  6. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Florida is now Florida Blue State Employees' PPO Plan health insurance provider Blue Cross and Blue Shield of

    E-print Network

    Ronquist, Fredrik

    Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Florida is now Florida Blue State Employees' PPO Plan health insurance provider Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Florida has recently changed its name to Florida Blue Resources Benefits Office at (850) 6444015, or insben@admin.fsu.edu. RELATED LINKS ­ Florida Blue

  7. CAS agar diffusion assay for the measurement of siderophores in biological fluids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung Heui Shin; Yong Lim; Shee Eun Lee; Nam Woong Yang; Joon Haeng Rhee

    2001-01-01

    We developed a simple and universal method, by modifying the universal CAS (Chrome azurol S) assay, measuring siderophores in various biological fluids. We named the assay as CAS agar diffusion (CASAD) assay. CAS plate devoid of nutrients was prepared by using Bacto-agar (1.5%, w\\/v) as a matrix. Holes with 5-mm-diameter were punched on the CAS agar plate. Each hole was

  8. Optochin Revisited: Defining the Optimal Type of Blood Agar for Presumptive Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. GARDAM; M. A. MILLER; B. Davis-Jewish

    1998-01-01

    To determine the optimal media for optochin susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae, we measured inhibition zones for 72 S. pneumoniae and 22 Streptococcus viridans isolates on three blood-containing media. Because 15.3, 0, and 22.2% of S. pneumoniae organisms were misidentified on Columbia agar, Trypticase soy agar (TSA), and Mueller-Hinton agar, respectively, each containing sheep blood, we recommend that TSA- sheep

  9. Detection of luxol-fast-blue positive cells in human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60.

    PubMed

    Lu, L; Broxmeyer, H E; Pelus, L M; Andreeff, M; Moore, M A

    1981-10-01

    Differentiation of HL-60 cells toward the eosinophilic series has not been reported previously. Eosinophil granule specific staining with Luxol-fast-blue was used to determine if HL-60 cells could differentiate into the eosinophilic lineage. The specificity of the Luxol-fast-blue stain for cells of the eosinophilic series was substantiated by comparison of the staining of cells from a patient with an eosinophilic syndrome by Wright-Giemsa and Luxol-fast-blue. Luxol-fast-blue positivity was most notable in cells found in colonies formed from HL-60 clonogenic cells in semisolid agar medium. Colony and cluster formation was spontaneous but in the presence of medium conditioned by either human placental cells or the human monocyte-like cell line, GCT, Luxol-fast-blue positive colonies and clusters were detected at a higher frequency. PMID:6175532

  10. Strain Storage Typically, mycobacteria can be stored as lyophilized stocks, agar slants, or frozen stocks.

    E-print Network

    Strain Storage Typically, mycobacteria can be stored as lyophilized stocks, agar slants, or frozen stocks. Since lyophilization is not a cost-effective product storage alternative for virulent M. tuberculosis and agar slants can take up considerable BSL3 storage space, the best alternative for strain

  11. Ceftibuten-containing agar plate for detecting group B streptococci with reduced penicillin susceptibility (PRGBS).

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Chitose; Kimura, Kouji; Doyama, Yo; Miyazaki, Akira; Morimoto, Makiko; Banno, Hirotsugu; Nagano, Noriyuki; Jin, Wanchun; Wachino, Jun-Ichi; Yamada, Keiko; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2015-08-01

    Penicillins remain first-line agents for treatment of group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae; GBS) infections; however, several reports have confirmed the existence of GBS with reduced penicillin susceptibility (PRGBS). Because no selective agar plates for detection of PRGBS are available to date, in this investigation, we developed the selective agar plate for detection of PRGBS. We used 19 genetically well-confirmed PRGBS isolates and 38 penicillin-susceptible GBS isolates identified in Japan. For preparation of trial PRGBS-selective agar plates, we added 1 of antimicrobial agents (among oxacillin, ceftizoxime, and ceftibuten) to a well-established GBS-selective agar plate. Among 12 trial PRGBS-selective agar plates, Muller-Hinton agar containing 128?g/mL ceftibuten with 5% sheep blood, 8?g/mL gentamicin, and 12?g/mL nalidixic acid was the most appropriate selective agar for PRGBS, showing 100% sensitivity and 81.6% specificity. In cases of potential nosocomial spread of PRGBS, the selective agar plate could be useful and reliable. PMID:25959629

  12. Susceptibilities of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Isoniazid and Rifampin on Blood Agar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmet Yilmaz Coban; Kemal Bilgin; Meltem Uzun; Nuriye Tasdelen Fisgin; Alper Akgunes; Cigdem Cekic Cihan; Asuman Birinci; Belma Durupinar

    2005-01-01

    In this study, blood agar was used instead of 7H10 agar for the susceptibility testing of 34 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF) in accordance with the NCCLS. The BACTEC 460 TB system (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, Md.) was used as a \\

  13. Effect of Activated Charcoal in Agar on the Culture of Lower Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Berthold Klein; Martin Bopp

    1971-01-01

    Proskauer and Berman1 have described a technique for culturing green organisms such as filamentous algae and moss protonema on an agar substrate containing activated charcoal which may simulate conditions found in nature. They ascribed the resulting morphological changes primarily to a decrease in the amount of light transmitted by the blackened agar, and considered their technique a simulation of natural

  14. Physicochemical and morphological properties of plasticized poly(vinyl alcohol)-agar biodegradable films.

    PubMed

    Madera-Santana, T J; Freile-Pelegrín, Y; Azamar-Barrios, J A

    2014-08-01

    The effects of the addition of glycerol (GLY) on the physicochemical and morphological properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-agar films were reported. PVA-agar films were prepared by solution cast method, and the addition of GLY in PVA-agar films altered the optical properties, resulting in a decrease in opacity values and in the color difference (?E) of the films. Structural characterization using Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the presence of GLY altered the intensity of the bands (from 1200 to 800cm(-1)) and crystallinity. The characterization of the thermal properties indicated that an increase in the agar content produces a decrease in the melting temperature and augments the heat of fusion. Similar tendencies were observed in plasticized films, but at different magnification. The formulation that demonstrated the lowest mechanical properties contained 25wt.% agar, whereas the formulation that contained 75wt.% agar demonstrated a significant improvement. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and surface morphology analysis demonstrated that the structure of PVA-agar films is reorganized upon GLY addition. The physicochemical properties of PVA-agar films using GLY as a plasticizer provide information for the application of this formulation as packaging material for specific food applications. PMID:24875313

  15. Caprylate-thallous agar medium for selectively isolating Serratia and its utility in the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed Central

    Starr, M P; Grimont, P A; Grimont, F; Starr, P B

    1976-01-01

    A defined agar medium (hereinafter designated caprylate-thallous [CT5 agar) containing 0.01% yeast extract, 0.1% caprylic (n-octanoic) acid, and 0.025% thallous sulfate is highly selective for all Serratia species and effectively discriminates against most non-Serratia strains likely to be in the same habitats. The selectivity of CT agar is demonstrated by the very high efficiency of colony formation (mean, 80.7% of that on a nonselective complex medium) on CT agar by known Serratia strains and the very low efficiency of colony formation (close to zero) on CT agar by bacterial strains known not to be Serratia. The utility of this medium in actual clinical laboratory practice is demonstrated by the more rapid and higher recovery of Serratia on this selective medium as compared to conventional procedures of in-tandem runs of 513 consecutive urine, feces, and sputum specimens. Pigmented and nonpigmented Serratia strains deliberately added to fecal specimens can be selectively and quantitatively recovered on CT agar. CT agar compares favorably with, or in some cases is an improvement over, other selective media which have been recommended for isolating Serratia. This selective CT agar medium could be quite useful in ecological surveys, especially those related to hospital-acquired infections. PMID:972193

  16. Improved agar bottle plate for isolation of methanogens or other anaerobes in a defined gas atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, M.; Noll, K.M.; Wolfe, R.S.

    1986-05-01

    A bottle plate for the cultivation of methanogens or other organisms in a defined pressurized-gas atmosphere was developed. The bottle provides the convenience of an agar streak plate, solves the problem of the water exudate from agar medium, and provides a convenient way of adding or sampling a defined gas atmosphere.

  17. Application of thin agar layer method for recovery of injured Salmonella typhimurium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong-Hyun Kang; Daniel Y. C Fung

    2000-01-01

    Xylose lysine decarboxylase (XLD) medium, a selective plating medium, can inhibit heat-injured Salmonella typhimurium from growing, whereas tryptic soy agar (TSA), a nonselective medium, does not. To facilitate recovery of heat-injured S. typhimurium cells while providing selectivity of isolation of S. typhimurium from other bacteria in the sample, a thin agar layer (TAL) procedure was developed by overlaying 14 ml

  18. How selective are agar cultures for malignant transformation?

    PubMed

    Klein, J C

    1981-01-01

    In vitro assays that permit cloning of tumour cells in soft agar have been improved during the last 5 years. Two of them (2, 10) are claimed to be useful as test systems for the screening of new anticancer drugs and even for drug sensitivity testing of individual human tumours in the devicing of individualized cancer chemotherapy regimens. Three assays were investigated for this report: those of Toshio Kuroki (TK) (11) and Hamburger and Salmon (HS) (5, 10) and that in use for bone marrow cell cultures (BM) (3). Cells of various origins were tested for their growth capacity and colony formation in these three assays. Included were cells of 10 established lines classified as malignant or nonmalignant according to the in vivo malignancy test (6). Cells freshly derived from two tumours ans those from five tumours after 2-10 passages in monolayer culture were also used as test cells. The BM assay gave the best results. Up to now, a 100 per cent correlation has been found between the in vivo and in vitro test. Investigations are under way to determine whether this assay can also be used as a transformation assay using cells with a low transformation rate. PMID:7259442

  19. Pulsed photothermal temperature profiling of agar tissue phantoms.

    PubMed

    Milanic, Matija; Majaron, Boris; Nelson, J Stuart

    2007-11-01

    We determine experimentally the accuracy of pulsed photothermal radiometric (PPTR) temperature depth profiling in water-based samples. We use custom tissue phantoms composed of agar gel layers separated by very thin absorbing layers. Two configurations of the acquisition system are compared, one using the customary spectral band of the InSb radiation detector (3.0-5.5 microm) and the other with a spectrally narrowed acquisition band (4.5-5.5 microm). The laser-induced temperature depth profiles are reconstructed from measured radiometric signals using a custom minimization algorithm. The results correlate very well with phantom geometry as determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and histology in all evaluated samples. Determination of the absorbing layer depth shows good repeatability with spatial resolution decreasing with depth. Spectral filtering improves the accuracy and resolution, especially for shallow absorption layers (~120 microm) and more complex structures (e.g., with two absorbing layers). The average full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the temperature peaks equals 23% of the layer depth. PMID:17522951

  20. Rheological and structural characterization of agar/whey proteins insoluble complexes.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Cristina M R; Souza, Hiléia K S; Magalhães, Natália F; Andrade, Cristina T; Gonçalves, Maria Pilar

    2014-09-22

    Complex coacervation between whey proteins and carboxylated or highly sulphated polysaccharides has been widely studied. The aim of this work was to characterise a slightly sulphated polysaccharide (agar) and whey protein insoluble complexes in terms of yield, composition and physicochemical properties as well as to study their rheological behaviour for better understanding their structure. Unlike other sulphated polysaccharides, complexation of agar and whey protein at pH 3 in the absence of a buffering agent resulted in a coacervate that was a gel at 20°C with rheological properties and structure similar to those of simple agar gels, reinforced by proteins electrostatically aggregated to the agar network. The behaviour towards heat treatment was similar to that of agar alone, with a high thermal hysteresis and almost full reversibility. In the presence of citrate buffer, the result was a "flocculated solid", with low water content (75-81%), whose properties were governed by protein behaviour. PMID:24906765

  1. Preparation and characterization of agar/clay nanocomposite films: the effect of clay type.

    PubMed

    Rhim, Jong-Whan; Lee, Soo-Bin; Hong, Seok-In

    2011-04-01

    Agar-based nanocomposite films with different types of nanoclays, such as Cloisite Na+, Cloisite 30B, and Cloisite 20A, were prepared using a solvent casting method, and their tensile, water vapor barrier, and antimicrobial properties were tested. Tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (E), and water vapor permeability (WVP) of control agar film were 29.7±1.7 MPa, 45.3±9.6%, and (2.22±0.19)×10(-9) g·m/m2·s·Pa, respectively. All the film properties tested, including transmittance, tensile properties, WVP, and X-ray diffraction patterns, indicated that Cloisite Na+ was the most compatible with agar matrix. TS of the nanocomposite films prepared with 5% Cloisite Na+ increased by 18%, while WVP of the nanocomposite films decreased by 24% through nanoclay compounding. Among the agar/clay nanocomposite films tested, only agar/Cloisite 30B nanocomposite film showed a bacteriostatic function against?Listeria monocytogenes. PMID:21535851

  2. Migration of chemotactic bacteria in soft agar: role of gel concentration

    E-print Network

    Croze, O A; Cates, M E; Poon, W C K

    2011-01-01

    We study the migration of chemotactic wild type Escherichia coli populations in semi-solid (`soft') agar in the concentration range C = 0.15-0.5% (w/v). For C agar and have not been previously reported experimentally. For C=0.4-0.5% expanding colonies do not span the depth of the agar and develop pronounced front instabilities. The rate of increase of the colony radius (front speed) v_F, is weakly dependent of agar concentration below C = 0.25%, but decreases sharply above this value. We discuss these observations in terms of an extended Keller-Segel model for which we derived novel expressions for transport parameters accounting for perturbations of the chemotactic response by collisions with the agar. The observed front speed decay could be well fitted with the model i...

  3. Comparison of agar versus broth dilution techniques for determining antibiotic susceptibilities of Ureaplasma urealyticum.

    PubMed

    Waites, K B; Figarola, T A; Schmid, T; Crabb, D M; Duffy, L B; Simecka, J W

    1991-01-01

    We determined minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for tetracycline and erythromycin for 72 clinical isolates using broth and agar dilution methods. Erythromycin MIC ranges were less than 0.125-8 micrograms/ml and 1-64 micrograms/ml in broth and agar, respectively. The erythromycin MIC50 and MIC90 as determined by broth were two dilutions (fourfold) lower than those for agar. Tetracycline MIC ranges in broth and agar were less than 0.125-greater than 64 and 0.25-greater than 64 micrograms/ml, respectively. The tetracycline broth MIC50 was one dilution lower than that for agar. The tetracycline broth MIC90 was 64 micrograms/ml and that for agar was greater than 64 micrograms/ml. Of the strains tested, 98.6% using broth were susceptible or moderately susceptible to erythromycin as compared with 75% using agar, representing a significant difference (p less than 0.001). For tetracycline, 80.6% of strains were susceptible or moderately susceptible using broth and 73.6% using agar. MICs were determined by agar dilution after 72 and 96 hr of incubation in 32 strains. There was an increase in the erythromycin MIC by one dilution in 16 strains and two dilutions in one strain with the longer incubation. The tetracycline MIC increased by one dilution in nine strains between readings. Broth MICs were reproducible with one dilution for both drugs in 10 of 12 strains tested twice. Agar MICs were reproducible within a maximum of two dilutions (fourfold). Different interpretations of susceptibility versus resistance may be made depending on which assay is utilized, thus influencing conclusions regarding spectrum of activity of investigational drugs as well as treatment options. The technique employed should always be considered whenever apparently differing drug susceptibility patterns are reported. PMID:1889178

  4. E. coli swimming over agar in a thin aqueous film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Howard

    2010-11-01

    When cells of Escherichia coli are grown in a rich medium over somewhat soft agar (0.45%) they elongate, produce more flagella, and swarm (or flock). Their behavior is dominated by collisions: an individual cell's velocity is randomized in about 0.2 s [1]. However, cells do not swim in spirals, as they do when in a thick layer of fluid near a solid boundary [2]. This suggests that the surface of the swarm is stationary, i.e., that the cells swim in a thin film of fluid between two fixed surfaces. We showed that this is the case by following the motion of MgO smoke particles deposited at the fluid-air interface [3]. By visualizing flagella of cells in swarms, we found that cells can escape from a confined environment by swimming back through the flagellar bundle, without changing the orientation of the cell body. This maneuver involves normal-to-curly and curly-to-normal polymorphic transformations [4]. These phenomena will be illustrated.[4pt] [1] Darnton NC, Turner L, Rojevsky S, & Berg HC (2010) Dynamics of bacterial swarming. Biophys. J. 98:2082-2090.[0pt] [2] Lauga E, DiLuzio WR, Whitesides GM, & Stone HA (2006) Swimming in circles: motion of bacteria near solid boundaries. Biophys. J. 90:400-412.[0pt] [3] Zhang R, Turner L, & Berg HC (2010) The upper surface of an Escherichia coli swarm is stationary. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107:288-290.[0pt] [4] Turner L, Zhang R, Darnton NC, & Berg HC (2010) Visualization of flagella during bacterial swarming. J. Bacteriol. 192:3259-3267.

  5. Continuous degradation of maltose: improvement in stability and catalytic properties of maltase (?-glucosidase) through immobilization using agar-agar gel as a support.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Muhammad Asif; Karim, Asad; Aman, Afsheen; Marchetti, Roberta; Qader, Shah Ali Ul; Molinaro, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Maltose degrading enzyme was immobilized within agar-agar support via entrapment method due to its industrial utilization. The maximum immobilization efficiency (82.77%) was achieved using 4.0% agar-agar keeping the diameter of bead up to 3.0 mm. The matrix entrapment showed maximum catalytic activity at pH 7.0 and temperature 65 °C. Substrate saturation kinetics showed that the K m of immobilized enzyme increased from 1.717 to 2.117 mM ml(-1) where as Vmax decreased from 8,411 to 7,450 U ml(-1 )min(-1) as compared to free enzyme. The immobilization significantly increased the stability of maltase against various temperatures and immobilized maltase retain 100% of its original activity after 2 h at 50 °C, whereas the free maltase only showed 60% residual activity under same condition. The reusability of entrapped maltase showed activity up to 12 cycles and retained 50% of activity even after 5th cycle. Storage stability of agar entrapped maltase retain 73% of its initial activity even after 2 months when stored at 30 °C while free enzyme showed only 37% activity at same storage conditions. PMID:25326060

  6. Blue ocean strategy.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades. PMID:15559577

  7. Agar-screew specimen carrier for bulk processing of biopsy material for electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tio, F O; Cowley, L H; Garber, M C

    1975-03-01

    A specimen carrier for processing large numbers of biopsy materials for epoxy embedding and electron microscopy is described. Commercially available 18-mesh stainless steel or 16-mesh aluminum wire screening is used. The screening is cut into 1 x 3-inch strips. One corner is snipped off for orientation purposes. Four drops of warm 4% agar is placed on a prewarmed standard microscopic glass slide. A thin agar support film is formed on the bottom side of the horizontally held wire screen by lightly running it against the agar. Tissue blocks trimmed to 1 mm-3 are blotted on filter paper and placed in a prearranged order on the top surface of the support film. A thin top coating of agar is applied on the specimen by touching it with the tip of a pasteur pipette containing warm 4% agar. The agar-screen unit with the mounted specimens is stabilized in 4% buffered formalin and rinsed with Sorenson's phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, with 6.8% sucrose. It is then processed as a unit through routine osmium tetroxide postfixation, alcohol dehydration, and Epon 812 filtration. The tissue blocks are plucked off the agar support film with fine-tipped tweezers and embedded in individual capsules. No difficulty in thin sectioning was encountered and examination of the sections under the electron microscope showed good infiltration by the epoxy resin. PMID:1096371

  8. Detection of Agar, by Analysis of Sugar Markers, Associated with Bacillus Anthracis Spores, After Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Wunschel, David S.; Colburn, Heather A.; Fox, Alvin; Fox, Karen F.; Harley, William M.; Wahl, Jon H.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2008-08-01

    Detection of small quantities of agar associated with spores of Bacillus anthracis could provide key information regarding its source or growth characteristics. Agar, widely used in growth of bacteria on solid surfaces, consists primarily of repeating polysaccharide units of 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose (AGal) and galactose (Gal) with sulfated and O-methylated galactoses present as minor constituents. Two variants of the alditol acetate procedure were evaluated for detection of potential agar markers associated with spores. The first method employed a reductive hydrolysis step, to stabilize labile anhydrogalactose, by converting to anhydrogalactitol. The second eliminated the reductive hydrolysis step simplifying the procedure. Anhydrogalactitol, derived from agar, was detected using both derivatization methods followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. However, challenges with artefactual background (reductive hydrolysis) or marker destruction (hydrolysis) lead to the search for alternative sugar markers. A minor agar component, 6-O-methyl galactose (6-O-M gal), was readily detected in agar-grown but not broth-grown bacteria. Detection was optimized by the use of gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). With appropriate choice of sugar marker and analytical procedure, detection of sugar markers for agar has considerable potential in microbial forensics.

  9. A Hidden Pitfall in the Preparation of Agar Media Undermines Microorganism Cultivability

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Tomohiro; Kawasaki, Kosei; Daimon, Serina; Kitagawa, Wataru; Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Michiko; Nakatsu, Cindy H.

    2014-01-01

    Microbiologists have been using agar growth medium for over 120 years. It revolutionized microbiology in the 1890s when microbiologists were seeking effective methods to isolate microorganisms, which led to the successful cultivation of microorganisms as single clones. But there has been a disparity between total cell counts and cultivable cell counts on plates, often referred to as the “great plate count anomaly,” that has long been a phenomenon that still remains unsolved. Here, we report that a common practice microbiologists have employed to prepare agar medium has a hidden pitfall: when phosphate was autoclaved together with agar to prepare solid growth media (PT medium), total colony counts were remarkably lower than those grown on agar plates in which phosphate and agar were separately autoclaved and mixed right before solidification (PS medium). We used a pure culture of Gemmatimonas aurantiaca T-27T and three representative sources of environmental samples, soil, sediment, and water, as inocula and compared colony counts between PT and PS agar plates. There were higher numbers of CFU on PS medium than on PT medium using G. aurantiaca or any of the environmental samples. Chemical analysis of PT agar plates suggested that hydrogen peroxide was contributing to growth inhibition. Comparison of 454 pyrosequences of the environmental samples to the isolates revealed that taxa grown on PS medium were more reflective of the original community structure than those grown on PT medium. Moreover, more hitherto-uncultivated microbes grew on PS than on PT medium. PMID:25281372

  10. Beautiful Blue Nile

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson students learn about the Blue Nile and compare it to rivers in the United States. They discuss their experiences with rivers and what they think it would be like to travel down a river that rapidly descends from the mountains to the plains. After looking at a map of Ethiopia, students describe what they would see in the area around the Blue Nile. They will witness a demonstration of a river running over flat versus mountainous terrain and view photos of the Blue Nile to describe the terrain.

  11. Blue Shark Adventure

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-09

    In this video, Jonathan joins Charlie Donilon on his shark charter boat in Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and learns about how shark tagging has shed light on the biology of and behavior of Blue sharks. Tagging has shown that these incredible swimmers actually migrate completely across the Atlantic ocean. Jonathan tries his hand at tagging a shark and then swims with Blue sharks. We also learn that Blue sharks are not nearly as vicious as they have been reputed to be, and the divers are actually able to pet the sharks! Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

  12. Thermodynamically Stable Blue Phases

    E-print Network

    F. Castles; S. M. Morris; E. M. Terentjev; H. J. Coles

    2011-01-28

    We show theoretically that flexoelectricity stabilizes blue phases in chiral liquid crystals. Induced internal polarization reduces the elastic energy cost of splay and bend deformations surrounding singular lines in the director field. The energy of regions of double twist is unchanged. This in turn reduces the free energy of the blue phase with respect to that of the chiral nematic phase, leading to stability over a wider temperature range. The theory explains the discovery of large temperature range blue phases in highly flexoelectric "bimesogenic" and "bent-core" materials, and predicts how this range may be increased further.

  13. Algicidal effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid on blue-green alga Cylindrospermum sp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Singh

    1974-01-01

    The effect of the herbicide 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid generally used in agriculture was studied on the nitrogen fixing blue-green alga Cylindrospermum sp. The alga could tolerate up to 150 µg per ml in liquid culture and 100 µg per ml on agar plates without any inhibitory effect on growth and survival. The maximum tolerance was up to 800 µg per

  14. Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts is an Independent Licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association Expanded Coverage for Preventive Care Under

    E-print Network

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts is an Independent Licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue. Effect the New Rules Will Have on Members and Accounts Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts. Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts will offer the following services with no member cost share

  15. Methylene blue unresponsive methemoglobinemia

    PubMed Central

    Patnaik, Sibabratta; Natarajan, Manivachagan Muthappa; James, Ebor Jacob; Ebenezer, Kala

    2014-01-01

    Acquired methemoglobinemia is an uncommon blood disorder induced by exposure to certain oxidizing agents and drugs. Although parents may not give any history of toxin ingestion; with the aid of pulse-oximetry and blood gas analysis, we can diagnose methemoglobinemia. Prompt recognition of this condition is required in emergency situations to institute early methylene blue therapy. We report an unusual case of severe toxic methemoglobinemia, which did not respond to methylene blue, but was successfully managed with exchange transfusion. PMID:24872659

  16. Blue Light Emitting Diode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Kwei Lee; Min-Yen Yeh; Hon-Da Huang; Chih-Wei Hong

    1995-01-01

    An n-ZnSe\\/p-ZnSe\\/p+-GaAs blue light emitting diode was prepared by low pressure organometallic chemical vapor deposition. Its electroluminescence wavelength was 461 nm with a full width at half maximum 52 meV at 300 K. It shows that a pure blue ZnSe light emitting diode can be prepared under Zn-rich growth condition for n-type ZnSe epilayer doped with aluminum and under Se-rich

  17. Productivity Change in U.S. Catch Share Fisheries John Walden, Juan Agar, Ron Felthoven, Abigail Harley, Stephen Kasperski,

    E-print Network

    Productivity Change in U.S. Catch Share Fisheries John Walden, Juan Agar, Ron Felthoven, Abigail.S. Catch Share Fisheries John Walden, Juan Agar, Ron Felthoven, Abigail Harley, Stephen Kasperski, Jean Lee, Assistant Administrator for Fisheries #12;ii Recommended citation: Walden, J., J. Agar, R. Felthoven, A

  18. Webb & Agar (1991). The Application of Machine Learning to the Diagnosis of Glomerular Disease. Page 1 of 7

    E-print Network

    Webb, Geoff

    1991-01-01

    Webb & Agar (1991). The Application of Machine Learning to the Diagnosis of Glomerular Disease and John W. M. Agar Deakin University and Geelong Hospital, Geelong, Victoria, Australia. Abstract A pilot undergone diagnostic renal biopsy (Agar & Webb, in preparation). The results of this study lead us

  19. Choosing between Blue Cross plans...

    E-print Network

    Burke, Peter

    Choosing between Blue Cross plans... ...when you have Medicare PresentedPresented By Glenn. Medicare and UC II. Medicare and Anthem Blue Cross III. Plan Comparisons · Pros/Cons · Medical coverage will automatically be enrolled in Part D by Blue Cross No additional Part D premium · Blue Cross members have

  20. A fresh liver agar substrate for rearing small numbers of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gruner, Susan V.; Slone, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Forensically important calliphorids can be reared on a mixture of beef liver and agar. Small pieces of meat, especially fresh or frozen beef liver, will desiccate in 2–6 h, but this simple-to-make feeding substrate remains moist for at least 12 h at 25 and 30°C without desiccation, even in small (5 g) amounts. We determined the survivorship of small numbers of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (first-instar larvae to adult eclosion) raised on 5 g of liver agar and fresh beef liver. We found that all larvae raised on 5 g of liver died due to desiccation, but survivorship on 5 g of liver agar was equivalent to that on larger (50 g) pieces of either liver agar or beef liver.

  1. Proton beam writing of microstructures in Agar gel for patterned cell growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larisch, Wolfgang; Koal, Torsten; Werner, Ronald; Hohlweg, Marcus; Reinert, Tilo; Butz, Tilman

    2011-10-01

    A rather useful prerequisite for many biological and biophysical studies, e.g., for cell-cell communication or neuronal networks, is confined cell growth on micro-structured surfaces. Solidified Agar layers have smooth surfaces which are electrically neutral and thus inhibit receptor binding and cell adhesion. For the first time, Agar microstructures have been manufactured using proton beam writing (PBW). In the irradiated Agar material the polysaccharides are split into oligosaccharides which can easily be washed off leaving Agar-free areas for cell adhesion. The beam diameter of 1 ?m allows the fabrication of compartments accommodating single cells which are connected by micrometer-sized channels. Using the external beam the production process is very fast. Up to 50 Petri dishes can be produced per day which makes this technique very suitable for biological investigations which require large throughputs.

  2. Xanthan gum: an economical partial substitute for agar in microbial culture media.

    PubMed

    Babbar, Shashi B; Jain, Ruchi

    2006-04-01

    Xanthan gum, microbial desiccation-resistant polysaccharide prepared commercially by aerobic submerged fermentation from Xanthomonas campestris, has been successfully used alone and in combination with agar for microbial culture media. As illustrative examples, eight bacteria and eight fungi were grown on media solidified with either agar (A, 1.5%), xanthan gum (X, 1%), or combinations of both (0.9% X + 0.1% A, 0.8% X + 0.2% A, 0.7% X + 0.3% A, 0.6% X + 0.4% A). All fungi and bacteria exhibited normal growth and differentiation in all these treatments. Rather, growth of most of the fungi was better on xanthan (alone) and xanthan + agar media than agar medium. As the media gelled with xanthan gum alone flow, it was not possible to incubate Petri plates in inverted position. Moreover, because of the softness, streaking of bacteria was difficult on such media. However, these problems could be overcome by partially replacing xanthan gum with 0.3% agar. Bacterial enumeration studies carried out for Serratia sp. and Pseudomonas sp. by serial dilution and pour-plate method on agar (1.5%), 0.7%/0.6% X + 0.3%/0.4% A yielded similar counts. Selective media, succinate medium for Pseudomonas sp., and MacConkey broth medium for Escherichia coli gelled with 0.7%/0.6% X + 0.3%/0.4% A did not support growth of other bacteria when inoculated along with the above-mentioned bacteria. Likewise, differential medium, CRMA (Congo red mannitol agar) gelled with xanthan-agar combination could differentiate between Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhizobium sp. PMID:16550465

  3. Influence of agar gel properties on the in vitro micropropagation of different clones of Thuja plicata.

    PubMed

    Pochet, B; Scoman, V; Mestdagh, M M; Moreau, B; Andre, P

    1991-10-01

    The influence of four agar-type polysaccharides, used as solidifying agents for culture media and differing in their sulfate content (0.14 to 10.95 % w/w), was tested on the budding and the elongation of five clones of Thuja plicata. Budding is reduced on the most sulfated polysaccharide and the differences observed between clones in elongation are as important as those observed between agar types. PMID:24221734

  4. Complex impedance and conductivity of agar-based ion-conducting polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwanya, A. C.; Amaechi, C. I.; Udounwa, A. E.; Osuji, R. U.; Maaza, M.; Ezema, F. I.

    2015-04-01

    Agar-based electrolyte standing films with different salts and weak acids as ion and proton conductors were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectrophotometry, photoluminescence emission spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The salts used are lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) and potassium perchlorate (KClO4), while the weak acids used are acetic acid (CH3COOH) and lactic acid (C3H6O3). The values of the ion conductivity obtained for the agar-based polymer films are 6.54 × 10-8, 9.12 × 10-8, 3.53 × 10-8, 2.24 × 10-8 S/cm for the agar/acetic acid, agar/lactic acid, agar/LiClO4 and agar/KClO4 polymer films, respectively. As a function of temperature, the ion conductivity exhibits an Arrhenius behavior and the estimated activation energy is ?0.1 eV for all the samples. The samples depicted high values of dielectric permittivity toward low frequencies which is due mostly to electrode polarization effect. The samples showed very high transparency (85-98 %) in the visible region, and this high transparency is one of the major requirements for application in electrochromic devices (ECD). The values of conductivity and activation energy obtained indicate that the electrolytes are good materials for application in ECD.

  5. IBM Research: Blue Gene

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the home page of an IBM research and development project that is designing a supercomputer, called Blue Gene/L, capable of 200 trillion floating point operations per second. According to the Web site, this specification "is larger than the total computing power of the top 500 supercomputers in the world today." Working in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, IBM expects the project to be completed by 2005. There are a few publications and presentations given about the status of the project and its uses. There is also a fact sheet and several industry links about protein folding, which is the main application of Blue Gene/L.

  6. Blue honeysuckle list 47

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript summarizes descriptions for two newly released Lonicera caerulea L., blue honeysuckle, cultivars released for northern production. This fruit is popular in Russia and in Japan, particularly Hokkaido. It has possibility as a new fruit cultivar for North America. The University of Sask...

  7. Great Blue Heron

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Great Blue Herons are found throughout much of North America, but are always associated with water. Because they fish by sight, they need relatively shallow water. Release of too much water through the canals north of the Everglades can interfere with their ability to find food....

  8. Synthesis of agar microparticles using temperature-controlled microfluidic devices for Cordyceps militaris cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yung-Sheng; Yang, Chih-Hui; Lu, Kang; Huang, Keng-Shiang; Zheng, Ying-Zhen

    2011-11-01

    A temperature-controlled microfluidic approach was developed for fabricating monodispersed agar beads with the potential to be a brand-new strategy for cultivating Cordyceps militaris. The proposed microfluidic system features a circulating water bath with precise temperature control (temperature deviation ?T<0.1°C). This device holds the promise of allowing us to develop a temperature-controlled system, characterized as simple, low cost, and easy to set up and use. The size-controllable agar beads were achieved by utilizing microfluidic emulsification in the cross-junction channel under temperature-controlled conditions. The flow conditions of the dispersed/continuous phases were adjusted to generate various sizes of agar beads. Our results show that the microparticles produced are as small as 176 ??m with a 95% particle size distribution within 5? ?m. The prepared agar microparticles performed well as a substrate for the cultivation of C. militaris. The proposed method could also be applied for encapsulating biomaterials, enzymes, drugs, catalysts, and nanoparticles into agar beads for biomedical applications. PMID:22012813

  9. Effects of shape and size of agar gels on heating uniformity during pulsed microwave treatment.

    PubMed

    Soto-Reyes, Nohemí; Temis-Pérez, Ana L; López-Malo, Aurelio; Rojas-Laguna, Roberto; Sosa-Morales, María Elena

    2015-05-01

    Model gel systems with different shape (sphere, cylinder, and slab) and size (180 and 290 g) were prepared with agar (5%) and sucrose (5%). Dielectric constant (?'), loss factor (??), thermophysical properties, and temperature distribution of the model system were measured. Each agar model system was immersed and suspended in water, and then, heated in a microwave oven with intermittent heating until the core temperature reached 50 °C. The ?' and ?? of agar gels decreased when frequency increased. The density and thermal conductivity values of the agar gels were 1033 kg/m(3) and 0.55 W/m °C, respectively. The temperature distribution of sphere, cylinder, and slab was different when similar power doses were applied. The slab reached 50 °C in less time (10 min) and showed a more uniform heating than spheres and cylinders in both sizes. Agar model systems of 180 g heated faster than those of 290 g. The coldest point was the center of the model systems in all studied cases. Shape and size are critical food factors that affect the heating uniformity during microwave heating processes. PMID:25827444

  10. Characterization of bionanocomposite films prepared with agar and paper-mulberry pulp nanocellulose.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Jeevan Prasad; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-09-22

    Crystallized nanocellulose (CNC) was separated from paper-mulberry (Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold) bast pulp by sulfuric acid hydrolysis method and they were blended with agar to prepare bionanocomposite films. The effect of CNC content (1, 3, 5 and 10 wt% based on agar) on the mechanical, water vapor permeability (WVP), and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were studied. Changes of the cellulose fibers in structure, morphology, crystallinity, and thermal properties of the films were evaluated using FT-IR, TEM, SEM, XRD, and TGA analysis methods. The CNC was composed of fibrous and spherical or elliptic granules of nano-cellulose with sizes of 50-60 nm. Properties of agar film such as mechanical and water vapor barrier properties were improved significantly (p<0.05) by blending with the CNC. The tensile modulus and tensile strength of agar film increased by 40% and 25%, respectively, in the composite film with 5 wt% of CNC, and the WVP of agar film decreased by 25% after formation of nanocomposite with 3 wt% of CNC. The CNC obtained from the paper-mulberry bast pulp can be used as a reinforcing agent for the preparation of bio-nanocomposites, and they have a high potential for the development of completely biodegradable food packaging materials. PMID:24906782

  11. Effect of agar—gelatin compositions on the release of salbutamol tablets

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Anita; Tahir, Abu; Kaloti, Mandeep; Ali, Javed; Bohidar, Himadri B

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed for the development of salbutamol-modified release tablet using various polymer composition of agar, gelatin A and gelatin B. The purpose is to observe the role of polymer composition on the modified dissolution rate of salbutamol. Pre-formulation trials were initiated by comprising different ratios of polymer blend in the tablets. Formulations were optimized based on their invitro release performed in enzyme free simulated gastric fluid (0.1 N HCl, pH 1.2). Dissolution profiles of tablets were compared among the tablets made of agar, gelatin A, gelatin B and their blends agar-gelatin A, agar-gelatin B, gelatin A-gelatin B and agar-gelatin A-gelatin B in 1:1 ratio. Polymer compositions were fixed based on our desired sustaining activity of the tablet which showed a biphasic release profile with immediate release followed by sustained release. Polymer blends were more effective in controlling drug release. The better controlling behavior of polymer blends was explained by specific interaction between polymer components, their network structure and polymer–drug interaction. PMID:23071927

  12. Migration of chemotactic bacteria in soft agar: role of gel concentration

    E-print Network

    O. A. Croze; G. P. Ferguson; M. E. Cates; W. C. K. Poon

    2011-08-06

    We study the migration of chemotactic wild-type Escherichia coli populations in semisolid (soft) agar in the concentration range C = 0.15-0.5% (w/v). For C migrate as broad circular bands rather than sharp rings. These are growth/diffusion waves arising because of suppression of chemotaxis by the agar and have not been previously reported experimentally to our knowledge. For C = 0.4-0.5%, expanding colonies do not span the depth of the agar and develop pronounced front instabilities. The migration front speed is weakly dependent on agar concentration at C < 0.25%, but decreases sharply above this value. We discuss these observations in terms of an extended Keller-Segel model for which we derived novel transport parameter expressions accounting for perturbations of the chemotactic response by collisions with the agar. The model makes it possible to fit the observed front speed decay in the range C = 0.15-0.35%, and its solutions qualitatively reproduce the observed transition from chemotactic to growth/diffusion bands. We discuss the implications of our results for the study of bacteria in porous media and for the design of improved bacteriological chemotaxis assays.

  13. Why is the Sky Blue?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This hands on lab helps explain why the color of our sky/upper atmosphere appears blue in color. Students will be able to simulate how light from the sun is scattered by our atmosphere to create blue light.

  14. [Blue light and eye health].

    PubMed

    Zou, Leilei; Dai, Jinhui

    2015-01-01

    Blue light, with the wavelength between 400 nm and 500 nm, has caused public concern because of the injury to the retinal cells. Meanwhile, it is important in circadian rhythm regulation, scotopic vision and ocular growth. Is the blue light safe? Should it be eliminated from the daily life? Here we review the effect and safety of the blue light. PMID:25877712

  15. Crater Lake Blue Through Time

    E-print Network

    Torgersen, Christian

    trout, both introduced Lake Facts U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service Partnership funded scientific surveys of the lake, which encouraged President Roosevelt to sign a bill in 1902 givingCrater Lake Blue Through Time Blue is the color of constancy, hence the term true blue

  16. Blood agar to detect virulence factors in tap water heterotrophic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Payment, P; Coffin, E; Paquette, G

    1994-01-01

    Cytolytic colonies were found in 57% of tap water samples, and up to 6% of samples were found to contain bacteria having three or more virulence factors. The factors evaluated were cytotoxicity, hemolysis, cell adherence, and cell invasiveness. Overall, 17% of the samples contained cytolytic colonies that were adherent and hemolytic. Among the media tested, tryptic soy agar with sheep blood (incubated at 35 degrees C for 48 h) was the best medium for the detection of cytolytic colonies. Of the colonies growing on this medium, 13% were cytolytic, whereas on medium R2A, less than 3% were cytolytic. Furthermore, when tryptic soy agar with blood was used, 24% of the samples contained colonies with at least three virulence factors whereas only 5% were positive with R2A. Routine monitoring by using tryptic soy agar with sheep blood is suggested as an appropriate procedure for the detection of bacteria with pathogenic potential in drinking water. PMID:8017913

  17. Growth and plating efficiency of methanococci on agar media. [Methanococcus maripaludis and M. voltae

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.W.; Whitman, W.B.; Fields, R.D.; Wolfe, R.S.

    1983-07-01

    Plating techniques for cultivation of methanogenic bacteria have been optimized for two members of the genus Methanococcus. Methanococcus maripaludis and Methanococcus voltae were cultivated on aerobically and anaerobically prepared agar media. Maintenance of O/sub 2/ levels below 5 mu l/liter within an anaerobic glove box was necessary during plating and incubation for 90% recovery of plated cells. Under an atmosphere of H/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/S (79:20:1), 2 to 3 days of incubation at 37 degrees C were sufficient for the formation of visible colonies. The viability of plated cells was significantly affected by the growth phase of the culture, H/sub 2/S concentration, and the volume of medium per plate. In addition, colony size of methanococci was affected by agar type, as well as by the concentrations of agar, H/sub 2/S, and bicarbonate. 12 references

  18. Double-layer agar cell cultures as a method of studying cell growth factors

    SciTech Connect

    Cherepantseva, E.A.; Shevlyagin, V.Ya.; Al'tshtein, A.D.

    1986-12-01

    This paper describes the development of a method of double-layer agar cell cultures which can be conveniently used to study the ability of some donor cells to produce tumor growth factors for other recipient or test cells. The donor and recipient cells are placed in different layers of agar, separated by an intermediate layer. Under a microscope, the two cell layers can be distinguished and assessed in relation to colony formation. Hamster cells were used in the experiments. The role of proliferation in manifestation of the donor properties of the cells was assessed, using donor cells seeded in different amounts of agar and also cells irradiated with gamma-rays and which had lost their ability to divide. The cells were compared and results are presented.

  19. Agar plate method for rapid screening of rhizobium for tolerance to acid-aluminum stress

    SciTech Connect

    Ayanaba, A.; Asanuma, S.; Munns, D.N.

    1983-01-01

    An agar plate method has been developed for the rapid, preliminary screening of large numbers of rhizobia for tolerance to acidity and aluminum (acid-Al). Media containing pH indicators are used, and distinguish true tolerance from cases where growth depends on a previous pH shift. Strains which were highly tolerant or sensitive to acid Al on agar behaved similarly in defined liquid media. Strains that formed dry, pinpoint colonies were more sensitive to acid-Al than those that formed large, gummy colonies.

  20. Stabilising the Blue Phases

    E-print Network

    G. P. Alexander; J. M. Yeomans

    2006-09-22

    We present an investigation of the phase diagram of cholesteric liquid crystals within the framework of Landau - de Gennes theory. The free energy is modified to incorporate all three Frank elastic constants and to allow for a temperature dependent pitch in the cholesteric phase. It is found that the region of stability of the cubic blue phases depends significantly on the value of the elastic constants, being reduced when the bend elastic constant is larger than splay and when twist is smaller than the other two. Most dramatically we find a large increase in the region of stability of blue phase I, and a qualitative change in the phase diagram, in a system where the cholesteric phase displays helix inversion.

  1. The Blue Emu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Descalzi, Doug; Gillett, John; Gordon, Carlton; Keener, ED; Novak, Ken; Puente, Laura

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal in designing the Blue Emu was to provide an airline with a cost efficient and profitable means of transporting passengers between the major cities in Aeroworld. The design attacks the market where a demand for inexpensive transportation exists and for this reason the Blue Emu is an attractive investment for any airline. In order to provide a profitable aircraft, special attention was paid to cost and economics. For example, in manufacturing, simplicity was stressed in structural design to reduce construction time and cost. Aerodynamic design employed a tapered wing which reduced the induced drag coefficient while also reducing the weight of the wing. Even the propulsion system was selected with cost effectiveness in mind, yet also to maintain the marketability of the aircraft. Thus, in every aspect of the design, consideration was given to economics and marketability of the final product.

  2. Application of lipovitellin-salt-mannitol agar for screening, isolation, and presumptive identification of Staphylococcus aureus in a teaching hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Merlino, J; Gill, R; Robertson, G J

    1996-01-01

    Lipovitellin-salt-mannitol (LSM) plate medium was examined for its ability to directly isolate, recover, and presumptively identify Staphylococcus aureus from 418 clinical specimens. The criteria for medium evaluation included colony morphology reactions, selectivity, and ease of isolation. For 298 specimens used for screening, LSM agar medium was compared with the other conventional media used, mannitol salt agar (MSA), 5% horse blood agar (HBA), and phenolphthalein phosphate agar (PPA), to detect and recover S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The results indicated that LSM agar is more effective than MSA, HBA, or PPA for the recovery and isolation of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus. On a replicator multipoint inoculation system, we compared the reactions on LSM agar, MSA, and DNase agar of 227 different strains of staphylococci, which included 178 different strains of S. aureus and 49 different strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from clinical specimens. By using the lipovitellin precipitation activity and mannitol fermentation characteristics, LSM agar gave a 100% correlation in presumptively identifying S. aureus. LSM agar may be an alternative plate medium for large hospital extensive screening for the detection and isolation of S. aureus. PMID:8940440

  3. Best Linear Unbiased Estimate Motivation for BLUE

    E-print Network

    Fowler, Mark

    1 Chapter 6 Best Linear Unbiased Estimate (BLUE) #12;2 Motivation for BLUE Except for Linear Model to a sub-optimal estimate BLUE is one such sub-optimal estimate Idea for BLUE: 1. Restrict estimate) Advantage of BLUE:Needs only 1st and 2nd moments of PDF Mean & Covariance Disadvantages of BLUE: 1. Sub

  4. Blue native PAGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilka Wittig; Hans-Peter Braun; Hermann Schägger

    2006-01-01

    Blue native PAGE (BN-PAGE) can be used for one-step isolation of protein complexes from biological membranes and total cell and tissue homogenates. It can also be used to determine native protein masses and oligomeric states and to identify physiological protein–protein interactions. Native complexes are recovered from gels by electroelution or diffusion and are used for 2D crystallization and electron microscopy

  5. The blue brain project.

    PubMed

    Markram, Henry

    2006-02-01

    IBM's Blue Gene supercomputer allows a quantum leap in the level of detail at which the brain can be modelled. I argue that the time is right to begin assimilating the wealth of data that has been accumulated over the past century and start building biologically accurate models of the brain from first principles to aid our understanding of brain function and dysfunction. PMID:16429124

  6. Author's personal copy Agar chemical hydrogel electrode binder for fuel-electrolyte-fed

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Tianshou

    . All rights reserved. 1. Introduction In preparing low-temperature solid-electrolyte fuel cell elec concept of electrodes borrowed di- rectly from solid-electrolyte fuel cells [7,8]. As shown in Fig. 1aAuthor's personal copy Agar chemical hydrogel electrode binder for fuel-electrolyte-fed fuel cells

  7. Development and Evaluation of a Chromogenic Agar Medium for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Perry; Amie Davies; Lynne A. Butterworth; Andrew L. J. Hopley; Audrey Nicholson; F. Kate Gould

    2004-01-01

    We describe here the development and evaluation of MRSA ID, a new chromogenic agar medium for the specific isolation and identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We used S. aureus ID (bioMerieux, La Balme Les Grottes, France) and supplemented it with various antimicrobials, including cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, oxacillin, and methicillin. Cefoxitin proved to be superior to the other antimicrobials for the

  8. Growth of Certain Organisms of Importance to the Dairy Industry on New Standard Milk Agar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. D. Foltz; L. D. Bushnell

    1940-01-01

    The medium used for making counts on milk and other dairy products, which became official July 1, 1939, has created considerable interest as to the effect it Will have on dairy control practices. This paper deals with the relative amount of growth of certain pure cultures of bacteria on the old and new standard agars together with the total number

  9. Alternative plasticizers for the production of thermo-compressed agar films

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One percent agar (% wt) was dissolved in the deep eutectic solvent (DES), (2-hydroxyethyl) trimethylammonium chloride/urea at a 1:2 molar ratio, and successfully Electrospun into nanofibers. An existing electrospinning set-up, operated at 50 deg C, was adapted for use with an ethanol bath to collect...

  10. Analysis of beta-hemolysis in human blood agars by Streptococcus pyogenes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamiar Zomorodian; Mohammad Javad Rahimi; Akbar Safaei; Abdollah Bazargani; Marjan Motamadi; Mahboobeh Kharazi; Setareh Mostaghni; Keyvan Pakshir; Hamid Ghaedi; Mohammad Hossein Afsarian

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the reliability of human blood agar media (HuBA) in identifying Streptococcus pyogenes by hemolysis analysis. We analyze several factors that might affect the accuracy of HuBA media for microbial analysis, including incubation time, blood group, Rh factor and presence of antistreptolysin-o.

  11. Primary isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on blood agar during the diagnostic process for cat scratch disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Arvand; M. E. A. Mielke; T. Regnath; H. Hahn; T. Weinke

    1998-01-01

    We here present a case of necrotizing lymphadenitis from which we isolated Mycobacreriunr tuberculosis on blood agar within 13 days during the diagnostic process for cat scratch disease. A 82-year-old woman was admitted with a 4-month history of enlarged right supraclavicular lymph nodes. Ultrasonography revealed three enlarged, partially suppurated nodes. An incision biopsy was performed and yielded pus which remained

  12. Neomycin blood agar as a selective medium for vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P R Chadwick; B A Oppenheim

    1995-01-01

    Neomycin blood agar is commonly used as a selective medium for the isolation of vancomycin resistant enterococci from faeces; however, not all isolates are recovered using this medium, perhaps because the neomycin concentrations are too high. To test this hypothesis, the neomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 27 vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates, 14 from patients with leukaemia

  13. Laboratory diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis using buffered charcoal-yeast extract agar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca L. Penland; Kirk R. Wilhelmus

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of buffered charcoal-yeast extract agar for the isolation of Acanthamoeba from clinical specimens.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed laboratory records of patients with ocular acanthamebic infection from October 1993 to September 1997 to compare the recovery of Acanthamoeba from clinical specimens inoculated onto various media. We then compared the experimental recovery of 10 corneal isolates of Acanthamoeba

  14. The presence of embedded bacterial pure cultures in agar plates stimulate the culturability of soil bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mette Burmølle; Kaare Johnsen; Waleed Abu Al-Soud; Lars Hestbjerg Hansen; Søren Johannes Sørensen

    2009-01-01

    Traditional methods for bacterial cultivation recover only a small fraction of bacteria from all sorts of natural environments, and attempts have been made to improve the bacterial culturability. Here we describe the development of a cultivation method, based on the embedment of pure bacterial cultures in between two layers of agar. Plates containing either embedded Pseudomonas putida or Arthrobacter globiformis

  15. EFFECT OF IMPACT STRESS ON MICROBIAL RECOVERY ON AN AGAR SURFACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial stress due to the impaction of microorganisms onto an agar collection surface was studied experimentally. he relative recovery rates of aerosolized Pseudomonas fluorescens and Micrococcus luteus were determined as a function of the impaction velocity by using a moving a...

  16. Influence of different Mueller-Hinton agars and media age on Etest susceptibility testing of tigecycline.

    PubMed

    Tan, Thean Yen; Ng, Lily Siew Yong; Chen, Dorene Mei Mei

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of different Mueller-Hinton agars and media age on tigecycline MICs, obtained by Etest. Variations in MIC values on different Mueller-Hinton were noted, which may result in changes in categoric susceptibility. The use of stored Mueller-Hinton media had minimal effect on MIC values. PMID:20727479

  17. Pump probe imaging of nanosecond laser induced bubbles in agar gel

    E-print Network

    Aguilar, Guillermo

    dynamics by nanosecond optical breakdown in a tissue phantom," J. Fluid Mech. 558, 281-308 (2006). 2. K. R. The melting point of agar gel is very close to the boiling point of water, and the point of cellular damage, minimizing heating of the gel before the beam is focused, and also keeping the energy to a reasonably low

  18. Improved Method for the Determination of Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils in Agar Medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adnane Remmal; Touria Bouchikhi; Khadija Rhayour; Mohamed Ettayebi; Abdelrhafour Tantaoui-Elaraki

    1993-01-01

    The influence of the number of bacterial cells inoculated and the emulsifying agent used to disperse essential oils (EO) into the culture media on the measurement of the antibacterial activity of EO in an agar medium was determined. The results showed that EO (oregano, thyme and clove) were most effective as antimicrobial agents when the bacterial load was low. Minimum

  19. Development of hyperspectral imaging technique for salmonella enteritidis and typhimurium on agar plates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella is a common cause of foodborne disease resulting from the consumption of contaminated food products. Although a direct plating method is widely used for presumptive positive screening of pathogenic Salmonella colonies on agar plates, it is labor-intensive, time-consuming and also prone to...

  20. EVALUATION OF M-T7 AGAR AS A FECAL COLIFORM MEDIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The m-T/7 agar, designed to improve recoveries of injured total coliforms, was evaluated for its effectiveness as a fecal coliform medium. The time and temperature of preincubation were found to be crucial to the optimal recovery of fetal coliforms. Isolation rates for fecal coli...

  1. THE MICROGARDENING COOKBOOK, DIRECTIONS FOR PREPARING DISHES AND TUBES OF STERILE NUTRIENT AGAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHANDLER, MARION N.

    THIS BOOKLET WAS PREPARED FOR TEACHER USE IN ASSOCIATION WITH THE ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT "MICROGARDENING." IT CONTAINS DIRECTIONS FOR PREPARING CULTURE DISHES AND TUBES OF NUTRIENT STERILE AGAR FOR FUNGAL AND/OR BACTERIAL GROWTH. IT INCLUDES (1) LISTS OF NEEDED SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT, (2) DIRECTIONS FOR THE PREPARATION AND STERILIZATION OF…

  2. Formation of atypical fruiting structures in Ganoderma lucidum isolates on a nutrient agar medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geon Sik Seo; Gwan Chull Shin; Hiroshi Otani; Motoichiro Kodama; Keisuke Kohmoto

    1995-01-01

    Effects of light and ventilation on the formation of atypical fruiting structures (AFSs) and fruit body primordia (FBPs) ofGanoderma lucidum on nutrient agar media were investigated. Although the mycelial growth was inhibited by illumination and ventilation, brown AFSs appeared on the white mycelial colony, and basidia and basidiospores were produced on the AFSs. On the other hand, FBPs were induced

  3. MODIFIED AGAR MEDIUM FOR DETECTING ENVIRONMENTAL SALMONELLAE BY THE MOST-PROBABLE-NUMBER METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmonellae in the environment remain a potential source of disease. Low numbers of salmonellae have been detected and enumerated from environmental samples by most probable number methods that require careful colony selection from plated agar medium. A modified xylose lysine bri...

  4. Hydrogen production from tofu wastewater by Rhodobacter sphaeroides immobilized in agar gels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heguang Zhu; Tomoo Suzuki; Anatoly A Tsygankov; Yasuo Asada; Jun Miyake

    1999-01-01

    Hydrogen production from the wastewater of tofu factory was examined by using anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides immobilized in agar gels. The maximum rate of hydrogen production observed from the wastewater was 2.1 l h?1 m2 gel which was even slightly higher than that from a glucose medium (as control). The hydrogen production lasted up to 50 h. The yield

  5. Performance of CHROMAGAR candida and BIGGY agar for identification of yeast species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mine Yücesoy; Serhat Marol

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The importance of identifying the pathogenic fungi rapidly has encouraged the development of differential media for the presumptive identification of yeasts. In this study two differential media, CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar, were evaluated for the presumptive identification of yeast species. METHODS: A total number of 270 yeast strains including 169 Candida albicans, 33 C.

  6. Preliminary Evaluation of a Semisolid Agar Antifungal Susceptibility Test for Yeasts and Molds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HARRIET PROVINE; SUSAN HADLEY

    2000-01-01

    This report presents a semisolid agar antifungal susceptibility (SAAS) method for the rapid susceptibility screening of yeasts and molds. The reproducibility and accuracy of the SAAS method were assessed by com- paring the MICs of amphotericin B and fluconazole obtained for 10 candidate quality control (QC) American Type Culture Collection yeast strains in >15 replicates with those found by six

  7. The Blue Marble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This spectacular Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 'blue marble' image is based on the most detailed collection of true-color imagery of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Most of the information contained in this image came from MODIS, illustrating MODIS' outstanding capacity to act as an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of this image is based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the satellite's view on any single day. Global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data was used to simulate the ocean surface. MODIS doesn't measure 3-D features of the Earth, so the surface observations were draped over topographic data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center. MODIS observations of polar sea ice were combined with observations of Antarctica made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's AVHRR sensor-the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The cloud image is a composite of two days of MODIS imagery collected in visible light wavelengths and a third day of thermal infra-red imagery over the poles. A large collection of imagery based on the blue marble in a variety of sizes and formats, including animations and the full (1 km) resolution imagery, is available at the Blue Marble page. Image by Reto Stockli, Render by Robert Simmon. Based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  8. Incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in two milk processing environments, and assessment of Listeria monocytogenes blood agar for isolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kells; A. Gilmour

    2004-01-01

    A year-long survey of two Northern Ireland milk processing plants for Listeria monocytogenes was carried out. Sample sites included the milk processing environment (walls, floors, drains, and steps), processing equipment, raw and pasteurised milk. The FDA listeria-selective enrichment procedure was used to process samples and an additional agar medium, L. monocytogenes Blood Agar (LMBA), was utilized as part of the

  9. Differentiating non-0157:H7 STEC serogroups from ground beef plated on agar media by hyperspetral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: The development of an assay to detect and confirm a positive non-O157:H7 isolate is challenging when mixed morphologically results are obtained from the serogroups growing on Rainbow agar. Rainbow agar is only claimed by the manufacturer to be very specific for E.coli O157:H7 strain...

  10. Flexoelectric blue phases

    E-print Network

    G P Alexander; J M Yeomans

    2007-07-01

    We describe the occurence and properties of liquid crystal phases showing two dimensional splay and bend distortions which are stabilised by flexoelectric interactions. These phases are characterised by regions of locally double splayed order separated by topological defects and are thus highly analogous to the blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals. We present a mean field analysis based upon the Landau--de Gennes Q-tensor theory and construct a phase diagram for flexoelectric structures using analytic and numerical results. We stress the similarities and discrepancies between the cholesteric and flexoelectric cases.

  11. Laser Induced Blue Luminescence Phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Haiyong; Duan, Yanmin; Zhang, Ge; Zhang, Yaoju; Yang, Fugui

    2011-09-01

    Laser induced strange blue luminescence in several Raman crystals has been investigated. The blue luminescence at about 473 nm has the characteristic of no orientation and only produced in the crystal where the fundament laser oscillated. The experimental results show that the blue luminescence must result from the fundamental laser around 1.0 µm rather than Stokes-shifting. The spectrum detected is similar for different crystals. This blue luminescence is obviously strange and inconsistent with traditional luminescence theories, which maybe a brand-new luminescence theory.

  12. Project Blue Revolution

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, P.K. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Hawaii Natural Energy Inst.

    1996-12-01

    In June of 1992, the National Science Foundation and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration sponsored a strategic planning workshop, involving 35 ocean technologists representing the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific marine communities, to develop a proactive plan for the commercialization of national Exclusive Economic Zone resources. This meeting was the culmination of a series of gatherings held over the past decade, each treating specific ocean applications. The blue-ribbon panel recommended the consolidation of all ocean resource development activities within the federal government,a nd named the Department of Commerce as the ideal agency to manage this office, congressional oversight hearings to reestablish ocean priorities,a nd a broad spectrum of major ocean enterprises for the 21st century. During this same period, an international workshop was held in Hawaii with 50 invited specialists from six countries to discuss the merits of a cooperative program identified as Project Blue Revolution. The attendees determined that a 1 ha (100,000 sq ft) floating platform powered by ocean thermal energy conversion and at a projected cost of $500,000,000 to serve as an incubator for facilitating the commercialization of ocean resources and supporting marine science research, was a feasible venture.

  13. Performance of chromID Clostridium difficile Agar Compared with BBL C. difficile Selective Agar for Detection of C. difficile in Stool Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang Bong; Chang, Jiyoung; Shin, Sang Hyun; Park, Kang Gyun; Lee, Gun Dong; Park, Yong Gyu

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of a new chromogenic medium for detection of Clostridium difficile, chromID C. difficile agar (CDIF; bioMérieux, France), by comparison with BBL C. difficile Selective Agar (CDSA; Becton Dickinson and Company, USA). After heat pre-treatment (80?, 5 min), 185 diarrheal stool samples were inoculated onto the two media types and incubated anaerobically for 24 hr and 48 hr for CDIF and for 48 hr and 72 hr for CDSA. All typical colonies on each medium were examined by Gram staining, and the gram-positive rods confirmed to contain the tpi gene by PCR were identified as C. difficile. C. difficile was recovered from 36 samples by using a combination of the two media. The sensitivity with CDIF 48 hr was highest (100%) and was significantly higher than that with CDIF 24 hr (58.3%; P<0.001), because samples with a low burden of C. difficile tended to require prolonged incubation up to 48 hr (P<0.001). The specificity of CDIF 24 hr and CDIF 48 hr (99.3% and 90.6%, respectively) was significantly higher than that of CDSA 48 hr and CDSA 72 hr (72.5% and 67.1%, respectively; P<0.001). CDIF was effective for detecting C. difficile in heat-pretreated stool specimens, thus reducing unnecessary testing for toxin production in non-C. difficile isolates and turnaround time. PMID:25187891

  14. DENTAL INSURANCE ANTHEM BLUE CROSS AND BLUE SHIELD

    E-print Network

    , you will receive a combined medical/dental membership card. It will be mailed to your home. Premium ­ Medical, Dental and Term Life Benefits". You may select from two separate dental care plans to meet your- 28 - DENTAL INSURANCE ANTHEM BLUE CROSS AND BLUE SHIELD Your two choices are: After enrollment

  15. Blue Care Elect Enhanced Value (PPO)

    E-print Network

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    Blue Care Elect SM Enhanced Value (PPO) Summary of Benefits Williams College An Association of Independent Blue Cross and Blue Shield Plans This health plan meets Minimum Creditable Coverage Standards of your directory, call Member Service at the number on your ID card. ·Visit the Blue Cross Blue Shield

  16. 75 FR 65525 - Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ...Training Administration [TA-W-74,327] Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations...applicable to workers and former workers of Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services,...

  17. Flow cytometric analysis of E. coli on agar plates: implications for recombinant protein production.

    PubMed

    Wyre, Chris; Overton, Tim W

    2014-07-01

    Recombinant protein production in bacterial hosts is a commercially important process in the pharmaceutical industry. Optimisation of such processes is of critical importance for process productivity and reproducibility. Here, flow cytometry methods were developed to assess characteristics of bacteria during two process steps that are infrequently studied: agar plate culture and liquid culture set-up. During storage on agar plates, three discrete populations of varying green fluorescence intensity were observed along with a progressive shift of cells from the high green fluorescence population to an intermediate green fluorescence population, observed to be due formation of amyloid inclusion bodies. The dynamics of cellular fluorescence and scatter properties upon setup of liquid cultures were also assessed. These methods have the potential to improve the development of fermentation set-up, a currently little-understood area. PMID:24652548

  18. Compatibilization of HDPE/agar biocomposites with eutectic-based ionic liquid containing surfactant

    E-print Network

    Shamsuri, AA; Zainudin, ES; Tahir, PM

    2014-01-01

    In this research, eutectic-based ionic liquid specifically choline chloride/glycerol was prepared at a 1:2 mole ratio. The choline chloride/glycerol was added with the different content of surfactant (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide). The choline chloride/glycerol-hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide was introduced into high-density polyethylene/agar biocomposites through melt mixing. The mechanical testing results indicated that the impact strength and tensile extension of the biocomposites increased with the introduction of the choline chloride/glycerol-hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. The scanning electron microscope, differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analysis results exhibited that significant decrease in the number of agar fillers pull-out, melting point and thermal decomposition temperatures of the biocomposites are also due to the choline chloride/glycerol-hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. The Fourier transform infrared spectra and X-ray diffractometer patterns of the bioc...

  19. A colony-forming assay for human tumour xenografts using agar in diffusion chambers.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, I. E.; Courtenay, V. D.; Gordon, M. Y.

    1976-01-01

    A technique for growing colonies from single-cell suspensions of human tumour xenografts using agar in diffusion chambers is described. Modified Millipore diffusion chambers containing tumour cells in semi-solid agar-medium were implanted into the peritoneal cavity of pre-irradiated mice and provided standard culture conditions for the study of colony-forming cells. All 11 xenograft tumours so far studied produced colonies. The incubation period for colony growth ranged from 12 to 28 days and the plating efficiency ranged from 0-3% to 16% for different tumours, but both parameters were constant for each individual tumour. The reproducibility of the system provides a colony-forming assay which can be used to study the effects of irradiation and cytotoxic drugs on human tumour clonogenic cells and may therefore have some advantages over similar assays based on experimental animal tumours. Images Fig. 1(b) Fig. 1(c) Fig. 1(a) PMID:999782

  20. Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Burke; Stel van A. J; A. R. Thurik

    2010-01-01

    The article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to increasing profits. The authors conclude that the blue-ocean strategy or innovation approach is sustainable.

  1. Blue Light Perception in Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Braatsch; Gabriele Klug

    2004-01-01

    This review focuses on the blue light responses in bacteria and on the bacterial proteins which have been demonstrated to function as blue light receptors. Results of the previous years reveal that different types of photoreceptors have already evolved in prokaryotes. However, for most of these photoreceptors the exact biological functions and the mechanisms of signaling to downstream components are

  2. Melanoma and satellite blue papule.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, André; Arzberger, Edith; Massone, Cesare; Zalaudek, Iris; Fink-Puches, Regina; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer

    2014-07-01

    The colors that are seen in dermoscopy depend on the anatomic level of the skin at which the chromophores are seen. Blue color can be found in a variety of melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions. An 89-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of a slow-growing, hyperpigmented patch located on the distal third of the right arm. Dermoscopy showed an atypical network, irregularly distributed globules, pigmented internal streaks and a milky-red area. Based on these findings a diagnosis of slow-growing malignant melanoma was made. Simultaneously, a well-defined blue papule was seen on the proximal third of the same arm. Dermoscopy disclosed a homogeneous blue pattern. After clinical and dermoscopic correlation our differential diagnosis for this blue lesion included cutaneous melanoma metastasis, blue nevus and foreign body reaction. The patient recalled its onset 75 years ago after a grenade explosion. We also discuss the blue lesion appearance under reflectance confocal microscopy and high-definition optical coherence tomography. Histopathological examination after excision of the hyperpigmented patch and blue papule revealed a melanoma in situ and a foreign body reaction, respectively. The diagnostic evaluation of a blue lesion should always rely on the integration of all data, especially clinical and dermoscopic features. Other non-invasive techniques, like reflectance confocal microscopy and high-definition optical coherence tomography can also be important aids for its differential diagnosis. PMID:25126462

  3. Detection of a new type of mouse eosinophil colony by Luxol-fast-blue staining.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G R; Metcalf, D

    1980-05-01

    Staining with Luxol-fast-blue was shown to be a satisfactory method for identifying mouse eosinophils. IN agar cultures of mouse marrow stimulated by pokeweed mitogen-stimulated spleen conditioned medium (SCM), 2-10 compact Luxol-fast-blue positive eosinophil colonies varied according to the batch of human plasma used in the culture medium. Similar colony-forming cells were detected in the spleen and peripheral blood but not in the thymus or lymph nodes. Some Luxol-fast-blue positive eosinophil colonies were stimulated to develop by crude mouse lung conditioned medium and by high concentrations of GM-CSF purified from this source. The cells forming Luxol-fast-blue positive eosinophil colonies sedimented more rapidly (5.5-6.5 mm/h) than the cells forming dispersed-eosinophil colonies 94.5 mm/h). Transfer studies using intact colonies or redispersed colony cells failed to demonstrate an interrelationship between the two types of eosinophil colonies and the cells forming Luxol-fast-blue positive eosinophil colonies appear to be a distinct subset of eosinophil percursors. PMID:6161833

  4. PCR associated with agar gel immunodiffusion assay improve caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAEV) control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Modolo; A. V. M. Stachissini; C. R. Padovani; J ARAUJOJUNIOR; R. S. Castro; A. P. Ravazzolo; B. L. S. Leite

    2009-01-01

    Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) is a multi-systemic viral syndrome in goats caused by small ruminant lentivirus (CAEV). The control measures prescribed for CAEV control are based on the identification of infected animals through a suitable serological test. The aim of this work was to improve the CAE control measures through the association of indirect (agar gel immunodiffusion—AGID) and direct (PCR) assays

  5. Tentative Inhibition Zone Criteria (Bauer-Kirby Agar Disk Diffusion Method) for Rifampin against Staphylococci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter H. Traub; Marlene Spohr; Dierk Bauer

    1987-01-01

    Two of 359 (0.6%) clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and 12 of 218 (5.5%) clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci were resistant or of intermediate susceptibility against rifampin as based on minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints obtained with the agar dilution method: MIC ?2 ?g\\/ml = resistant; MIC 0.25–1 ?g\\/ml = intermediate susceptible; MIC ?0.125 ?g\\/ml= susceptible. The following inhibition zone

  6. Interlaboratory variability of disc diffusion and agar dilution susceptibility tests with cefamandole and cephalothin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Barry; F. D. Schoenknecht; S. Shadomy; J. C. Sherris; C. Thornsberry; J. A. Washington; R. B. Kramer

    1978-01-01

    Reproducibility of antimicrobic susceptibility tests was estimated by examining control data accumulated during a multicenter\\u000a study for evaluating cefamandole and cephalothin. The precision of agar dilution minimal inhibitory concentrations was compared\\u000a with the standardized Bauer-Kirby disc method. Regression lines were established for each antimicrobic and were used to calculate\\u000a the range of minimal inhibitory concentration values that corresponded to the

  7. Identification of Acinetobacters on Blood Agar in Presence of D-Glucose by Unique Browning Effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HONG SIAU; KWOK-YUNG YUEN; PAK-LEUNG HO; WEI-KWANG LUK; SAMSON S. Y. WONG; PATRICK C. Y. WOO; RODNEY A. LEE; WAI-TING HUI

    1998-01-01

    A positive phenotypic characteristic of glucose-oxidizing acinetobacters was demonstrated with blood agar containing D-glucose. Glucose-oxidizing Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter genospecies 3, Acinetobacter lwoffii, and Acinetobacter genospecies 13 sensu Tjernberg and Ursing caused a unique brown discoloration of media supplemented with 5% blood (of horse, sheep, or human origin) and an aldose sugar (0.22 M D-glucose, D-galactose, D-mannose, D-xylose, or lactose). The

  8. New insight into kinetics behavor of the structural formation process in Agar gelation

    E-print Network

    Y. Z. Wang; X. F. Zhang; J. X. Zhang

    2011-07-24

    A time-resolved experimental study on the kinetics and relaxation of the structural formation process in gelling Agar-water solutions was carried out using our custom-built torsion resonator. The study was based on measurements of three naturally cooled solutions with agar concentrations of 0.75%, 1.0% and 2.0% w/w. It was found that the natural-cooling agar gelation process could be divided into three stages, sol stage (Stage I), gelation zone (Stage II) and gel stage (Stage III), based on the time/temperature evolutions of the structural development rate (SDR). An interesting fluctuant decaying behavior of SDR was observed in Stage II and III, indicative of a sum of multiple relaxation processes and well described by a multiple-order Gaussisn-like equation: . More interestingly, the temperature dependences of the fitted values of Wn in Stage II and Stage III were found to follow the different Arrhenius laws, with different activation energies of EaII= 39-74 KJ/mol and EaIII~7.0 KJ/mol. The two different Arrhenius-like behaviors respectively suggest that dispersions in Stage II be attributed to the relaxation of the self-assembly of agar molecules or the growth of junction zones en route to gelation, in which the formation or fission of hydrogen bonding interactions plays an important role; and that dispersions in Stage III be attributed to the relaxation dynamics of water released from various size domains close to the domain of the viscous flow of water during the syneresis process.

  9. Rapid Isolation and Susceptibility Testing of Leptospira spp. Using a New Solid Medium, LVW Agar

    PubMed Central

    Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Paris, Daniel H.; Langla, Sayan; Thaipadunpanit, Janjira; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Smythe, Lee D.; White, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira spp., the causative agents of leptospirosis, are slow-growing Gram-negative spirochetes. Isolation of Leptospira from clinical samples and testing of antimicrobial susceptibility are difficult and time-consuming. Here, we describe the development of a new solid medium that facilitates more-rapid growth of Leptospira spp. and the use of this medium to evaluate the Etest's performance in determining antimicrobial MICs to drugs in common use for leptospirosis. The medium was developed by evaluating the effects of numerous factors on the growth rate of Leptospira interrogans strain NR-20157. These included the type of base agar, the concentration of rabbit serum (RS), and the concentration and duration of CO2 incubation during the initial period of culture. The highest growth rate of NR-20157 was achieved using a Noble agar base supplemented with 10% RS (named LVW agar), with an initial incubation at 30°C in 5% CO2 for 2 days prior to continuous culture in air at 30°C. These conditions were used to develop the Etest for three species, L. interrogans (NR-20161), L. kirschnerii (NR-20327), and L. borgpetersenii (NR-20151). The MICs were read on day 7 for all samples. The Etest was then performed on 109 isolates of pathogenic Leptospira spp. The MIC90 values for penicillin G, doxycycline, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and chloramphenicol were 0.64 units/ml and 0.19, 0.047, 0.5, and 2 ?g/ml, respectively. The use of LVW agar, which enables rapid growth, isolation of single colonies, and simple antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Leptospira spp., provides an opportunity for new areas of fundamental and applied research. PMID:23114772

  10. Agar properties of two species of Gracilariaceae from the Gulf of California, Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Javier Orduña-Rojas; Karla Y. García-Camacho; Priscila Orozco-Meyer; Rafael Ríosmena-Rodríguez; Isaí Pacheco-Ruiz; José A. Zertuche-González; Alf E. Meling-López

    2008-01-01

    Agar properties of two potentially commercial important seaweeds from the Gulf of California were studied. Maximum yield in\\u000a Gracilaria vermiculophylla (45.7%) occurred during the summer months, coinciding with high water temperatures (31°C) whereas minimum yields (11.6%)\\u000a were obtained during the coldest months of the year when populations of this species diminish in the bay. Gracilariopsis longissima showed two yield peaks,

  11. Draft genome sequence of an agar-degrading marine bacterium Flammeovirga pacifica WPAGA1.

    PubMed

    Chan, Zhuhua; Wang, Runping; Liu, Shenglong; Zhao, Chungui; Yang, Suping; Zeng, Runying

    2015-04-01

    Flammeovirga pacifica WPAGA1(T), which was isolated from sediment of the west Pacific Ocean in 2009 has the ability to produce agar-oligosaccharides from Gracilaria lemaneiformis directly by enzyme-degradation. The draft genome sequence of this strain was sequenced and annotated. Its draft genome contained 6,507,364 bp with a G+C content of 33.8%. Genome sequence information provided a basis for analyzing the digestion of G. lemaneiformis. PMID:25526668

  12. Influence of agar gel properties on the in vitro micropropagation of different clones of Thuja plicata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Pochet; V. Scoman; M. M. Mestdagh; B. Moreau; P. Andre

    1991-01-01

    The influence of four agar-type polysaccharides, used as solidifying agents for culture media and differing in their sulfate content (0.14 to 10.95 % w\\/w), was tested on the budding and the elongation of five clones of Thuja plicata. Budding is reduced on the most sulfated polysaccharide and the differences observed between clones in elongation are as important as those observed

  13. Enhancing Bioaerosol Sampling by Andersen Impactors Using Mineral-Oil-Spread Agar Plate

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhenqiang; Wei, Kai; Wu, Yan; Shen, Fangxia; Chen, Qi; Li, Mingzhen; Yao, Maosheng

    2013-01-01

    As a bioaerosol sampling standard, Andersen type impactor is widely used since its invention in 1950s, including the investigation of the anthrax attacks in the United States in 2001. However, its related problems such as impaction and desiccation stress as well as particle bounce have not been solved. Here, we improved its biological collection efficiencies by plating a mineral oil layer (100 µL) onto the agar plate. An Andersen six-stage sampler and a BioStage impactor were tested with mineral-oil-spread agar plates in collecting indoor and outdoor bacterial and fungal aerosols. The effects of sampling times (5, 10 and 20 min) were also studied using the BioStage impactor when sampling environmental bioaerosols as well as aerosolized Bacillus subtilis (G+) and Escherichia coli (G-). In addition, particle bounce reduction by mineral-oil-plate was also investigated using an optical particle counter (OPC). Experimental results revealed that use of mineral-oil-spread agar plate can substantially enhance culturable bioaerosol recoveries by Andersen type impactors (p-values<0.05). The recovery enhancement was shown to depend on bioaerosol size, type, sampling time and environment. In general, more enhancements (extra 20%) were observed for last stage of the Andersen six-stage samplers compared to the BioStage impactor for 10 min sampling. When sampling aerosolized B. subtilis, E. coli and environmental aerosols, the enhancement was shown to increase with increasing sampling time, ranging from 50% increase at 5 min to ?100% at 20 min. OPC results indicated that use of mineral oil can effectively reduce the particle bounce with an average of 66% for 10 min sampling. Our work suggests that enhancements for fungal aerosols were primarily attributed to the reduced impaction stress, while for bacterial aerosols reduced impaction, desiccation and particle bounce played major roles. The developed technology can readily enhance the agar-based techniques including those high volume portable samplers for bioaerosol monitoring. PMID:23460818

  14. AgarTrap-mediated genetic transformation using intact gemmae/gemmalings of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L.

    PubMed

    Tsuboyama-Tanaka, Shoko; Kodama, Yutaka

    2015-03-01

    The dioecious liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha L., is an emerging model plant. Various molecular biological techniques have been optimized for M. polymorpha for the past several years, and recently we reported a simplified Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method using sporelings (immature thalli from spores) of M. polymorpha. This method, termed AgarTrap (Agar-utilized Transformation with Pouring Solutions), completed by exchanging appropriate solutions on a single Petri dish to produce a sufficient number of independent transgenic sporelings. However, because spores are produced by crosses between males and females, the genetic backgrounds of resulting transgenic sporelings are not uniform. To easily produce transgenic liverworts with a uniform genetic background using AgarTrap, we developed an AgarTrap-mediated transformation method using intact gemmae/gemmalings produced by asexual reproduction. Using AgarTrap with male and female gemmae/gemmalings produced a sufficient number of independent transgenic gemmalings with uniform genetic backgrounds. The optimized transformation efficiencies were approximately 30 and 50 % in males and females, respectively. As with AgarTrap using sporelings, AgarTrap using intact gemmae/gemmalings will be useful in promoting studies of the molecular biology of M. polymorpha. PMID:25663453

  15. Colorado Supplement to the Summary of Benefits and Coverage Form Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield

    E-print Network

    Supplement to the Summary of Benefits and Coverage Form Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield CHEIBA Custom Plus Screenings, Prostate Cancer Screenings, and Colorectal Cancer Screenings. Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield Colorado, Inc. Independent licensees of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. ®ANTHEM is a registered

  16. Colorado Supplement to the Summary of Benefits and Coverage Form Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield

    E-print Network

    Supplement to the Summary of Benefits and Coverage Form Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield CHEIBA HMO/POS Plan. Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield is the trade name of Rocky Mountain Hospital and Medical Service, Inc. HMO products underwritten by HMO Colorado, Inc. Independent licensees of the Blue Cross and Blue

  17. Colorado Supplement to the Summary of Benefits and Coverage Form Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield

    E-print Network

    Supplement to the Summary of Benefits and Coverage Form Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield CHEIBA Prime PPO Screenings, Prostate Cancer Screenings, and Colorectal Cancer Screenings. Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield Colorado, Inc. Independent licensees of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. ®ANTHEM is a registered

  18. Company Name: Blue Cross Blue Shield of MA Web Site: www.bluecrossma.com

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Company Name: Blue Cross Blue Shield of MA Web Site: www.bluecrossma.com Industry: Healthcare Brief Company Overview: Headquartered in Boston, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts provides comprehensive-level position: Please visit www.bluecrossma.com/careers. With almost 3 million members, Blue Cross Blue Shield

  19. Analysis of the chemotactic behaviour of Leptospira using microscopic agar-drop assay.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Shafiqul; Takabe, Kyosuke; Kudo, Seishi; Nakamura, Shuichi

    2014-07-01

    Chemotaxis allows bacterial cells to migrate towards or away from chemical compounds. In the present study, we developed a microscopic agar-drop assay (MAA) to investigate the chemotactic behaviour of a coiled spirochete, Leptospira biflexa. An agar drop containing a putative attractant or repellent was placed around the centre of a flow chamber and the behaviour of free-swimming cells was analysed under a microscope. MAA showed that L. biflexa cells gradually accumulated around an agar drop that contained an attractant such as glucose. Leptospira cells often spin without migration by transformation of their cell body. The frequency at which cells showed no net displacement decreased with a higher glucose concentration, suggesting that sensing an attractive chemical allows these cells to swim more smoothly. Investigation of the chemotactic behaviour of these cells in response to different types of sugars showed that fructose and mannitol induced negative chemotactic responses, whereas xylose and lactose were non-chemotactic for L. biflexa. The MAA developed in this study can be used to investigate other chemoattractants and repellents. PMID:24894019

  20. CAS agar diffusion assay for the measurement of siderophores in biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Shin, S H; Lim, Y; Lee, S E; Yang, N W; Rhee, J H

    2001-02-01

    We developed a simple and universal method, by modifying the universal CAS (Chrome azurol S) assay, measuring siderophores in various biological fluids. We named the assay as CAS agar diffusion (CASAD) assay. CAS plate devoid of nutrients was prepared by using Bacto-agar (1.5%, w/v) as a matrix. Holes with 5-mm-diameter were punched on the CAS agar plate. Each hole was added by 35 microl of the test fluids containing Desferal that was twofold serially diluted. After incubating at 37 degrees C or room temperature for 4-8 h, the size of orange haloes formed around the holes was measured. The size of orange haloes correlated well with the concentration of Desferal in all the biological fluids tested in this study. CASAD assay showed consistent results in wide pH range from 5 to 9. Addition of iron to the test fluids containing Desferal decreased the size of orange haloes in a dose-dependent manner, which suggests that the CASAD assay detects only iron non-bound siderophore. These results suggest that CASAD assay would serve as a simple, stable, and highly reproducible test for screening and quantitative siderophore analysis in biological fluids. PMID:11166103

  1. Mongolian Spot (Blue-Gray Spot)

    MedlinePLUS

    newsletter | contact Share | Mongolian Spot (Blue-Gray Spot) A parent's guide for infants and babies A A A Blue-gray spots (Mongolian spots) appear as gray to blue colored, flat, "bruise-like" areas of skin. Overview ...

  2. Evaluation of the effect of agar on the results obtained in the L5178Y mouse lymphoma assay.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M; Brock, K; Lawrence, K; Casto, B; Moore, M M

    1986-01-01

    The L5178Y TK+/- mouse lymphoma assay is widely used in mutagenicity testing. Trifluorothymidine-resistant (TFTr) mutants are quantitated following growth in agar-supplemented cloning medium. In an attempt to evaluate the effect of agar on plating efficiency, we have tested several lots of Difco Noble agar (cat. No. 0142-01-8; normally used in this assay) and compared it with Baltimore Biological Laboratory (BBL) agar (cat No. 11849). We find that BBL agar gives a higher and less variable plating efficiency than any of the Noble lots tested. Colonies plated in BBL agar tend to appear significantly earlier on the plates than those cloned in Noble agar. The absolute mutant number and the induced mutant frequency quantitated from a treated culture is generally higher in BBL compared to Noble agar. To determine if this higher frequency is due to increased mutant recovery rather than "sneak through" of nonmutant cells, we isolated 97 mutants from treated cultures (44 large colonies and 53 small colonies) and 69 mutants from untreated cultures (24 large colonies and 45 small colonies) and tested them for TFT resistance. All but one (a large colony from an untreated culture) were found to be TFTr, indicating that the mutant frequency is due to an increased mutant recovery. The spontaneous mutant frequency was quantitated for 122 untreated cultures. Showing little variation within and between experiments, the spontaneous mutant frequency yielded a mean of 57.7, with a standard deviation of 14.4. Under our laboratory conditions, BBL agar gave reliable results, and we prefer it for use in cloning L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. PMID:3769874

  3. 21073CAMENABC 5/11 Anthem Blue Cross is the trade name of Blue Cross of California. Anthem Blue Cross and Anthem Blue Cross Life and Health Insurance Company are independent licensees of the Blue Cross Association.

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    21073CAMENABC 5/11 Anthem Blue Cross is the trade name of Blue Cross of California. Anthem Blue Cross and Anthem Blue Cross Life and Health Insurance Company are independent licensees of the Blue Cross Association. ® ANTHEM is a registered trademark of Anthem Insurance Companies, Inc. The Blue Cross

  4. R E S E A R C H L E T T E R Copper deciency in potato dextrose agar causes reduced

    E-print Network

    Griffith, Gareth

    R E S E A R C H L E T T E R Copper de¢ciency in potato dextrose agar causes reduced pigmentation; organic farming. Abstract Potato dextrose agar (PDA) is one of the most commonly used media a narrow range of media, of which potato dextrose agar (PDA) is the best known and most widely used (4 18

  5. INTERLABORATORY EVALUATION OF MI AGAR AND THE US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY-APPROVED MEMBRANE FILTER METHOD FOR THE RECOVERY OF TOTAL COLIFORMS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new membrane filter (MF) medium, MI agar, recently validated for use in recovering chlorine-damaged total coloiforms (TC) and Escherichia coli from drinking water, was compared to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved MF method(mEndo agar and nutrient agar suppl...

  6. Variation in capacity for anchorage-independent growth among agar-derived clones of spontaneously transformed BALB/3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Romerdahl, C.A.; Rubin, H.

    1984-12-01

    A subline of cloned spontaneously transformed BALB/3T3 cells had a colony-forming efficiency (CFE) in agar of 5 to 20%. Individual agar colonies isolated and reseeded into agar were not significantly more efficient at initiating colonies than the original unselected subline. Four successive cycles of agar growth and selection also failed to increase the mean CFE in agar. Randomly selected clones isolated on a plastic surface all had the capacity to grow in agar. These results suggest that the failure of the majority of the cells to grow in agar is not the result of an intrinsic or heritable inability to do so. The ability to initiate a colony in agar seems to vary phenotypically from cell to cell. In contrast, agar colonies isolated from some tumor cell lines (originating from related spontaneously transformed 3T3 cells) and reseeded in agar had a higher CFE than the unselected tumor cell lines. In one case, this increased CFE in agar was lost when the cells were passaged on plastic without further selection for agar growth. Thus, expression of the anchorage-independent phenotype may vary, even among related cloned populations of transformed cells. 39 references, 3 tables.

  7. Bromothymol blue broth: improved medium for detection of Ureaplasma urealyticum (T-strain mycoplasma).

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, J A

    1978-01-01

    Bromothymol blue (B) broth for the cultivation, detection, and identification of Ureaplasma urealyticum is described. In this medium, strains Cook and 960 had shorter generation times (60 min or less) and reached higher populations (over 10(8)) than have yet been reported for this species. Furthermore, the indicator changes color before the end of logarithmic growth, and the cultures retain viability for at least 1 day thereafter, greatly simplifying the handling of the organism. When the populations in cultures of these two strains and seven new isolates were determined, growth was detected earlier and proceeded to higher final titers in B broth than in urease test color medium (U-9 broth). The inclusion of antibiotics in B broth for use in clinical laboratories (B/NL broth) made the medium selective, specific, and more sensitive for the isolation of U. urealyticum. Comparison of B/NL broth with genital mycoplasma (GM) agar and U-9 broth for the primary isolation of U. urealyticum was made with 183 urethral swabs. All 70 isolates were detected on B/NL broth, but only 66 and 63 isolates were detected on GM agar and in U-9 broth, respectively. Moreover, the cultures in B/NL broth were pure and at titers that generally showed good correlation with colony counts on GM agar. PMID:632344

  8. “Anting” in Blue Jays

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Thomas; Aneshansley, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Summary Anting, the plumage-dipping behavior to which ants (mostly formicines) are commonly subjected by birds (mostly passerines), is shown in tests with hand-raised Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata) and the ant Formica exsectoides to be instinctive: the birds displayed typical renditions of the behavior on the first occasion that they encountered ants. Evidence is presented supportive of the view that anting is a strategy by which birds render ants fit for ingestion. Formicine ants are ordinarily protected by their formic acid-containing spray. Being wiped into the bird’s plumage causes them to discharge that spray, without harm to the bird, to the point of almost total emptying of the glandular sac in which the secretion is stored. The ants are therefore essentially secretion-free by the time they are swallowed. Further evidence indicates that it is the ant’s possession of the acid sac that triggers the anting behavior in the bird. If F. exsectoides are surgically deprived of their acid sac, they are eaten by the birds without first being subjected to anting. Data are also presented indicating that the ant’s crop, which is especially capacious in formicines (its contents may amount to over 30% of the formicine’s mass), and which appears to survive the anting procedure intact, constitutes, at least when laden, a valuable component of the trophic package that the bird accesses by anting. PMID:19169379

  9. AgarTrap: a simplified Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method for sporelings of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L.

    PubMed

    Tsuboyama, Shoko; Kodama, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. is being developed as an emerging model plant, and several transformation techniques were recently reported. Examples are biolistic- and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methods. Here, we report a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sporelings, and it is termed Agar-utilized Transformation with Pouring Solutions (AgarTrap). The procedure of the AgarTrap was carried out by simply exchanging appropriate solutions in a Petri dish, and completed within a week, successfully yielding sufficient numbers of independent transformants for molecular analysis (e.g. characterization of gene/protein function) in a single experiment. The AgarTrap method will promote future molecular biological study in M. polymorpha. PMID:24259681

  10. Preparation of an agar-silver nanoparticles (A-AgNp) film for increasing the shelf-life of fruits.

    PubMed

    Gudadhe, Janhavi A; Yadav, Alka; Gade, Aniket; Marcato, Priscyla D; Durán, Nelson; Rai, Mahendra

    2014-12-01

    Preparation of protective coating possessing antimicrobial properties is present day need as they increase the shelf life of fruits and vegetables. In the present study, preparation of agar-silver nanoparticle film for increasing the shelf life of fruits is reported. Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) biosynthesised using an extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves, were mixed with agar-agar to prepare an agar-silver nanoparticles (A-AgNp) film. This film was surface-coated over the fruits, Citrus aurantifolium (Thornless lime) and Pyrus malus (Apple), and evaluated for the determination of antimicrobial activity of A-AgNp films using disc diffusion method, weight loss and shelf life of fruits. This study demonstrates that these A-AgNp films possess antimicrobial activity and also increase the shelf life of fruits. PMID:25429496

  11. How do microorganisms influence trace element uptake by plants? Screening in an agar model rhizosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, M.; Robinson, B. H.; Evangelou, M. W. H.; Vachey, A.; Schwitzguebel, J. P.; Bernier-Latmani, R.; Schulin, R.

    2009-04-01

    Trace elements (TE) are essential for humans and plants, but they may be toxic if their concentration is too high. For this reason, the management of TE in soils is very important. In some cases it may be necessary to increase the uptake of nutrients or TE by plants, for example in a biofortification perspective. Conversely, in some other cases TE uptake by plants should be decreased, for instance to avoid heavy metals entering the food chain via edible crops. Microorganisms living in the rhizosphere affect trace element (TE) uptake by plants. However, due to the complexity of this space and the variety of microorganisms that occur there, it is difficult to isolate the effect of any particular strain. To overcome this hurdle, we developed a system in which we grew plants under sterile conditions in agar and inoculated their rhizosphere with a single, well-defined microbial strain. For many years, agar has been used as a growth substrate for microorganisms and plant tissues. It is cheap, easy to use, and can be autoclaved to ensure its sterility. Because of its widespread use, an experiment conducted using this substrate can be reproduced under the same conditions in any laboratory. In contrast to soil, there is little interaction between the trace elements and the agar matrix. There are many studies investigating the influence of microorganisms on TE uptake by plants. However, so far only a small variety of microorganisms has been tested on few plant species. Therefore, the first objective of our research was to develop a method to rapidly screen a large variety of microorganisms on various plant species. Once this goal was achieved, we sought to study the effect of single, well-defined microbial strains on TE uptake by sunflower and wheat. The substrate for plants growth was a 10% agar solution prepared with modified Hoagland's solution and a TE solution containing 1 mg/kg Pb and molar equivalents of Cu, Ni and Zn. The agar solution was autoclaved and poured into sterile, transparent plastic boxes, whose lid was equipped with a filter allowing gas exchanges without contamination by external microorganisms. The seed surface was sterilised and the plants grew one week in agar before their rhizosphere was inoculated with LB broth containing a pure bacterial strain or agar plugs colonized by fungal hyphae. We tested 14 strains, with 5 replicates per treatment and a control where the system was inoculated with sterile LB broth. The plants grew for 2 weeks in a climate chamber and their shoots were analysed for their TEs by ICP-OES. Samples of agar and roots were collected to confirm microbial colonization of the rhizosphere, respectively sterile conditions in the control treatments. Concerning the method development, the plants grew without visible toxicity in all the boxes, and the analysis of root and agar samples indicated that the controls were sterile and the strains inoculated were growing along the roots. More than 90% of the TE and nutrients added to the system were in the liquid fraction of the agar medium, thus available for root uptake. The screening showed that the microorganisms in general decreased TE uptake by wheat and sunflower, although some of them had an opposite effect on the plants. However, with the same plant species, the microorganisms had a consistent effect on all TE tested, i.e. a given single strain caused the same effect (increase or decrease of TE uptake) on all TE tested. In sunflower, 3 microorganisms (Paenibacillus polymyxa, Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani) decreased Cu and Zn uptake by 50% compared to the control treatment. These three species are common soil microorganisms. All three are known to exude auxin, a phytohormone. This hormone can modify root morphology and physiology and thus may affect TE uptake by plants. R. solani and P. ultimum are root pathogens. Their effect was opposite to what we expected. If roots are damaged, TE should have flooded into the plant and accumulate in the tissues, but this was not the case. One explanation could be the biosorption of TE by these mi

  12. In-Gel Determination of L-Amino Acid Oxidase Activity Based on the Visualization of Prussian Blue-Forming Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ning; Zhao, Chuntian

    2013-01-01

    L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) is attracting increasing attention due to its important functions. Diverse detection methods with their own properties have been developed for characterization of LAAO. In the present study, a simple, rapid, sensitive, cost-effective and reproducible method for quantitative in-gel determination of LAAO activity based on the visualization of Prussian blue-forming reaction is described. Coupled with SDS-PAGE, this Prussian blue agar assay can be directly used to determine the numbers and approximate molecular weights of LAAO in one step, allowing straightforward application for purification and sequence identification of LAAO from diverse samples. PMID:23383337

  13. Comparison of the Cobas-Bact five-hour susceptibility testing system with the NCCLS agar diffusion and dilution methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Wrist I; W. Heizmann; U. Hardegger; B. Manncke

    1988-01-01

    The results of susceptibility tests performed by the Cobas-Bact system were compared with those of the NCCLS agar diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) and NCCLS agar dilution methods. A total of 998 clinical isolates were tested against 10 to 18 antimicrobial agents. Essential agreement (comprising full agreement and minor discrepancies) varied from 90.5 % to 99.2 % on comparison of Cobas-Bact with Kirby-Bauer

  14. Synthesis and applications of polyacrylamide grafted agar as a matrix for controlled drug release of 5-ASA.

    PubMed

    Usha Rani, G; Konreddy, Ananda Kumar; Mishra, Sumit; Sen, Gautam

    2014-04-01

    Agar has been modified by microwave assisted grafting with acrylamide monomer, resulting in poly acrylamide grafted agar (Ag-g-PAM). The synthesized grades of Ag-g-PAM were characterized by standard physico-chemical characterization techniques (FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)) to ascertain the intended grafting. The synthesized graft copolymer (Ag-g-PAM) has been investigated (in vitro) for controlled and colon targeted release of 5-amino salicylic acid (5-ASA). PMID:24508089

  15. Amino acid mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and preparation of antimicrobial agar/silver nanoparticles composite films.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Shiv; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2015-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using amino acids (tyrosine and tryptophan) as reducing and capping agents, and they were incorporated into the agar to prepare antimicrobial composite films. The AgNPs solutions exhibited characteristic absorption peak at 420nm that showed a red shift to ?434nm after forming composite with agar. XRD data demonstrated the crystalline structure of AgNPs with dominant (111) facet. Apparent surface color and transmittance of agar films were greatly influenced by the AgNPs. The incorporation of AgNPs into agar did not exhibit any change in chemical structure, thermal stability, moisture content, and water vapor permeability. The water contact angle, tensile strength, and modulus decreased slightly, but elongation at break increased after AgNPs incorporation. The agar/AgNPs nanocomposite films possessed strong antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli. The agar/AgNPs film could be applied to the active food packaging by controlling the food-borne pathogens. PMID:26076636

  16. Cavitation-enhanced delivery of insulin in agar and porcine models of human skin.

    PubMed

    Feiszthuber, Helga; Bhatnagar, Sunali; Gyöngy, Miklós; Coussios, Constantin-C

    2015-03-21

    Ultrasound-assisted transdermal insulin delivery offers a less painful and less invasive alternative to subcutaneous insulin injections. However, ultrasound-based drug delivery, otherwise known as sonophoresis, is a highly variable phenomenon, in part dependent on cavitation. The aim of the current work is to investigate the role of cavitation in transdermal insulin delivery. Fluorescently stained, soluble Actrapid insulin was placed on the surface of human skin-mimicking materials subjected to 265?kHz, 10% duty cycle focused ultrasound. A confocally and coaxially aligned 5?MHz broadband ultrasound transducer was used to detect cavitation. Two different skin models were used. The first model, 3% agar hydrogel, was insonated with a range of pressures (0.25-1.40?MPa peak rarefactional focal pressure-PRFP), with and without cavitation nuclei embedded within the agar at a concentration of 0.05% w/v. The second, porcine skin was insonated at 1.00 and 1.40?MPa PRFP. In both models, fluorescence measurements were used to determine penetration depth and concentration of delivered insulin. Results show that in agar gel, both insulin penetration depth and concentration only increased significantly in the presence of inertial cavitation, with up to a 40% enhancement. In porcine skin the amount of fluorescent insulin was higher in the epidermis of those samples that were exposed to ultrasound compared to the control samples, but there was no significant increase in penetration distance. The results underline the importance of instigating and monitoring inertial cavitation during transdermal insulin delivery. PMID:25716689

  17. Sequence Analysis of a 101-Kilobase Plasmid Required for Agar Degradation by a Microscilla Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Zhenping; Toukdarian, Aresa; Helinski, Donald; Knauf, Vic; Sykes, Sean; Wilkinson, Jane E.; O'Bryne, Colleen; Shea, Terry; DeLoughery, Craig; Caspi, Ron

    2001-01-01

    An agar-degrading marine bacterium identified as a Microscilla species was isolated from coastal California marine sediment. This organism harbored a single 101-kb circular DNA plasmid designated pSD15. The complete nucleotide sequence of pSD15 was obtained, and sequence analysis indicated a number of genes putatively encoding a variety of enzymes involved in polysaccharide utilization. The most striking feature was the occurrence of five putative agarase genes. Loss of the plasmid, which occurred at a surprisingly high frequency, was associated with loss of agarase activity, supporting the sequence analysis results. PMID:11722934

  18. Energy response of agar-alanine phantom dosimeter to gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ciesielski, B.; Wielopolski, L.; Reinstein, L.E.

    1988-05-01

    Calculations of the energy response of an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal induced by gamma radiation in an agar-alanine phantom dosimeter are presented. Theoretically calculated slopes of the EPR signal calibration lines are comparable with those obtained experimentally for low-(50 kVp), medium-(662 keV), and high-(15 MVp) energy photons. The sensitivity of the phantom dosimeter (EPR signal amplitude/Gray) varies less than 2% within the 150- to 20-MeV energy range. For energies above 150 keV, the influence of variations in the size of alanine crystals is negligible.

  19. Energy response of agar-alanine free radical dosimetry to therapeutic electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ciesielski, B.; Reinstein, L.E.; Meek, A.G.; Wielopolski, L. (Brookhaven National Laboratory, SUNY-SB, Radiation Therapy Facility, Bldg. 490, Upton, New York 11973 (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Calculations of the energy response of an agar-alanine phantom dosimeter (AAPD) to electrons in the energy range of 0.15--20 MeV together with experimental results at 16 MeV are presented. It is shown that the sensitivity of the EPR dosimeter (EPR signal/Gray) is independent of alanine crystal size and varies less than 2%, in the electron energy range indicated. Thus, the measured free radical density distribution may be used directly as an indication of the absorbed dose distribution in an irradiated phantom.

  20. BLUE WHALE-SIZED MOUTHFULS MAKE FORAGING

    E-print Network

    Martin, Paul R.

    Inside JEB i BLUE WHALE-SIZED MOUTHFULS MAKE FORAGING SUPER EFFICIENT When a blue whale dives from the University of British Columbia, Canada, explains that blue whales may be able to dive, measuring the energetics of blue whale lunges at depth seemed almost impossible until Shadwick and his

  1. Columbia Blue Furnald MathematicsLewisohn

    E-print Network

    Hone, James

    Columbia Blue #12;Furnald MathematicsLewisohn Dodge Miller Theatre Kent International Affairs Columbia Blue Blue View: Part I 4 Exponential Education 10 Columbia Days 26 Common Core, 44 Uncommon 72 Columbia Engineering 78 Community, Columbia Style 84 Columbia Moments: 100 Tried and True Blue

  2. STOCK ASSESSMENT OF THE BLUE CRAB

    E-print Network

    STOCK ASSESSMENT OF THE BLUE CRAB IN CHESAPEAKE BAY 2011 #12;2011 Stock assessment for blue crab in Chesapeake Bay iii Executive Summary The blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) is an icon for the Chesapeake Bay region. The commercial fisheries for blue crab in the Bay remain one of the most valuable fishery sectors

  3. The Blue Language1 Michael Klling

    E-print Network

    Kent, University of

    1 The Blue Language1 Michael Kölling School of Computer Science and Software Engineering Monash. The system we are about to discuss is named Blue. Blue is an integrated programming environment and an object. In this issue, we discuss the language aspects of Blue. Next month we will continue the discussion by describing

  4. Methylene blue adsorption by algal biomass based materials: biosorbents characterization and process behaviour.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2007-08-17

    Dead algal biomass is a natural material that serves as a basis for developing a new family of sorbent materials potentially suitable for many industrial applications. In this work an algal industrial waste from agar extraction process, algae Gelidium and a composite material obtained by immobilization of the algal waste with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were physical characterized and used as biosorbents for dyes removal using methylene blue as model. The apparent and real densities and the porosity of biosorbents particles were determined by mercury porosimetry and helium picnometry. The methylene blue adsorption in the liquid phase was the method chosen to calculate the specific surface area of biosorbent particles as it seems to reproduce better the surface area accessible to metal ions in the biosorption process than the N2 adsorption-desorption dry method. The porous texture of the biosorbents particles was also studied. Equilibrium isotherms are well described by the Langmuir equation, giving maximum uptake capacities of 171, 104 and 74 mg g(-1), respectively for algae, algal waste and composite material. Kinetic experiments at different initial methylene blue concentrations were performed to evaluate the equilibrium time and the importance of the driving force to overcome mass transfer resistances. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models adequately describe the kinetic data. The biosorbents used in this work proved to be promising materials for removing methylene blue from aqueous solutions. PMID:17240055

  5. Cultivation Media for Bacteria

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Society For Microbiology

    2009-12-08

    Common bacteriological culture media (tryptic soy agar, chocolate agar, Thayer-Martin agar, MacConkey agar, eosin-methylene blue agar, hektoen agar, mannitol salt agar, and sheep blood agar) are shown uninoculated and inoculated with bacteria.

  6. Starch-Ampicillin Agar for the Quantitative Detection of Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, Samuel A.; Maxino, Felicisima; Williams, Aaron C.; Buchanan, Robert L.; Thayer, Donald W.

    1985-01-01

    Interest in Aeromonas hydrophila as a food-borne and human pathogen is increasing. Isolation media from the clinical laboratory were evaluated for food use and either did not give quantitative recovery of A. hydrophila or did not permit ready differentiation of A. hydrophila from the background microflora. A new medium was developed which permitted quantitative recovery of A. hydrophila from foods. The medium consisted of phenol red agar base (Difco Laboratories), soluble starch (10 g/liter), and ampicillin (10 mg/liter). All foods surveyed contained A. hydrophila. Foods sampled included red meats, chicken, raw milk, and seafood (fish, shrimp, scallops, crab, and oysters). The count of A. hydrophila at the time of purchase ranged from 1 × 102/g (lower limit of detection) to 5 × 105/g. In most instances, the count of A. hydrophila increased during 1 week of storage at 5°C. The starch-ampicillin agar developed permitted rapid quantitative recovery of A. hydrophila from foods in the presence of very large numbers of competing microflora. PMID:16346899

  7. Agar films containing silver nanoparticles as new supports for electromembrane extraction.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Cristina Román; Ramos-Payán, María; Ocaña-González, Juan Antonio; Martín-Valero, María Jesús; Bello-López, Miguel Ángel

    2015-02-01

    A new support containing silver nanoparticles to assist electromembrane extraction (EME) procedures is proposed. For the first time, synthesized agar films containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as a support for liquid membranes in EME. Agarose films of 20 ?m thickness containing 107.9 mg Ag/g agar were synthesized and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), showing isolated spherical silver nanoparticles of 20-30 nm diameter with homogeneous distribution. Nanometallic films were cut and glued to narrow bore glass tubes and used as supports for a dihexyl ether liquid membrane for use in an EME procedure. EME conditions were optimized and applied to the extraction of selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The results were compared to those using polypropylene membranes (450 ?m and 100 ?m thickness), achieving 10- to 70-fold higher extraction efficiency. This article opens a new line of research into electrically assisted microextraction systems by combining other possible kinds of nanometallic films, including different metals, film functionalization through metallic NPs, and the use of low polarity solvents. Also, very low currents are obtained during the extraction process, which lead to high electromigration of the analytes. PMID:25519723

  8. Evaluation of a Modified Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin Agar for Isolation of Yersinia spp

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Lai Kuan; Ooi, Peck Toung; Carniel, Elisabeth; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2014-01-01

    Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis are important food borne pathogens. However, the presence of competitive microbiota makes the isolation of Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis from naturally contaminated foods difficult. We attempted to evaluate the performance of a modified Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin (CIN) agar in the differentiation of Y. enterocolitica from non-Yersinia species, particularly the natural intestinal microbiota. The modified CIN enabled the growth of Y. enterocolitica colonies with the same efficiency as CIN and Luria-Bertani agar. The detection limits of the modified CIN for Y. enterocolitica in culture medium (10 cfu/ml) and in artificially contaminated pork (104 cfu/ml) were also comparable to those of CIN. However, the modified CIN provided a better discrimination of Yersinia colonies from other bacteria exhibiting Yersinia-like colonies on CIN (H2S-producing Citrobacter freundii, C. braakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Aeromonas hydrophila, Providencia rettgeri, and Morganella morganii). The modified CIN exhibited a higher recovery rate of Y. enterocolitica from artificially prepared bacterial cultures and naturally contaminated samples compared with CIN. Our results thus demonstrated that the use of modified CIN may be a valuable means to increase the recovery rate of food borne Yersinia from natural samples, which are usually contaminated by multiple types of bacteria. PMID:25170941

  9. Susceptibility of a polycaprolactone-based root canal filling material to degradation using an agar-well diffusion assay

    PubMed Central

    Hiraishi, Noriko; Sadek, Fernanda T.; King, Nigel M.; Ferrari, Marco; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Cholesterol esterase is both a component of salivary hydrolases as well as an inflammatory cell-derived enzyme and has been shown to cause biodegradation of methacrylate-based resin composites. This study examined whether Resilon, a polycaprolactone-based thermoplastic root filling material is susceptible to biodegradation by cholesterol esterase using agar-well diffusion assay of serially-diluted aqueous Resilon emulsions that were dispersed in agar. Materials and methods Emulsions of Resilon and polycaprolactone were prepared and dispersed in agar on culture plates. Two different concentrations of a cholesterol esterase (0.3 and 1.2 U/mL) were prepared and fed to wells prepared in the agar plates using an agar-well diffusion assay for examination the degradation of polymeric materials. Results Degradation of the emulsified Resilon was manifested as the formation of clear zones of different sizes around the agar wells. No clear zones were observed in agar wells that contain sterile distilled water as the negative control. Clinical significance Although dispersion Resilon into an emulsion is not the way in which this material is employed as a root filling material, the potential for Resilon to be degraded by cholesterol esterase is of potential concern as one cannot limit the degradation of extruded Resilon from a root apex by monocyte-derived macrophages to just the anatomical root apex. As the present study employed a high concentration of cholesterol esterase, further studies should be directed to examining the degradation of Resilon using macrophage cell cultures. PMID:18578181

  10. The Blue-Collar Brain

    PubMed Central

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body’s tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  11. The blue-collar brain.

    PubMed

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  12. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.

    1990-08-14

    A blue-green laser (450--550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm[sup 3+]. The Tm[sup 3+] is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP. 3 figs.

  13. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Dinh C. (Los Alamos, NM); Faulkner, George E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A blue-green laser (450-550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm.sup.3+. The Tm.sup.+ is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP.

  14. The Pennsylvania State University Marching Blue Band Blue Band Office

    E-print Network

    Maroncelli, Mark

    band to perform at a major fashion show when 100 students marched down the catwalk of the 2005 Marc Jacobs event during Fashion Week in New York City, October 2005. Members of the Blue Band appeared in photo spreads published in Vogue and W magazines during Fall 2005, including a photo by world

  15. Stimulating growth and xylindein production of Chlorociboria aeruginascens in agar-based systems.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sara C; Tudor, Daniela; Snider, Hilary; Cooper, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    Four isolates of Chlorociboria aeruginascens were tested for possible stimulatory effects when grown on malt agar media containing wood additives. The addition of any of the four types of test wood (Acer saccharum, Populus tremuloides, spalted P. tremuloides, and Ailanthus altissima), stimulated colony growth and xylindein production in C. aeruginascens. Addition of any amount of wood produced more growth than no wood additions, while ground wood produced more growth than chopped wood. Of the wood types tested, A. saccharum wood stimulated all four isolates, while spalted Populus tremuloides stimulated three of the four isolates. High glucose and sucrose amounts may be partially responsible for the greater stimulatory affect of some woods over others. The development of this simple and reliable method for growth and pigment stimulation of C. aeruginascens in laboratory conditions will allow for further development of this fungus for decorative and commercial use. PMID:22409931

  16. Laboratory evaluation of different agar media for isolation of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Moran-Gilad, J; Adler, A; Schwartz, D; Navon-Venezia, S; Carmeli, Y

    2014-11-01

    The optimal method for surveillance of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. (CRAB) is unknown. A collection of CRAB strains (n?=?42), carbapenem-susceptible strains (CSAB), and non-Acinetobacter strains (n?=?18) was used to evaluate six laboratory surveillance methods: MacConkey (MAC), MAC?+?1 ?g/ml imipenem (MAC-IPM), minimal salts agar?+?1 % acetate (MSA), MSA with IPM disk (MSA-IPM), CHROMagarKPC, and CHROMagar Acinetobacter with CR102 (CHROMAcineto). CHROMAcineto was 100 % sensitive and specific. CHROMagarKPC and MAC-IPM were highly sensitive (>95 %), but their specificity was substantially hampered by the breakthrough growth of CSAB. MSA was unsuitable for CRAB detection. CHROMAcineto is a promising medium for CRAB detection and warrants further clinical evaluation. PMID:24865248

  17. Sheep poxvirus identification from clinical specimens by PCR, cell culture, immunofluorescence and agar gel immunoprecipitation assay.

    PubMed

    Mangana-Vougiouka, O; Markoulatos, P; Koptopoulos, G; Nomikou, K; Bakandritsos, N; Papadopoulos, P

    2000-10-01

    Some 40 clinical specimens of skin lesions from sheep pox suspected cases were investigated by four different diagnostic assays: PCR, virus isolation in lamb testis cell cultures, direct immunofluorescent assay (DIFA) and antigen detecting agar gel immune precipitation test (AGIPT). All the specimens were positive by PCR and virus isolation, 29 were positive by DIFA and 16 by AGIPT. Using virus isolation on cell cultures as the gold standard, the PCR sensitivity was 100%, while that of DIFA and AGIPT was 73% and 40%, respectively. Skin samples with orf lesions or normal skin biopsies were PCR-negative. Cross-reactions with orf virus were observed in three samples only in the AGIPT assay. The PCR described combines high specificity and sensitivity with speed. PCR was therefore shown to be the method of choice for sheep poxvirus diagnosis directly from clinical specimens. PMID:11040094

  18. Agar-Like Polysaccharide Produced by a Pseudomonas Species: Production and Basic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kenneth S.; Veeder, George T.; Mirrasoul, Peter J.; Kaneko, Tatsuo; Cottrell, Ian W.

    1982-01-01

    A new species of Pseudomonas was isolated that produced copious amounts of an exocellular heteropolysaccharide (PS-60) after incubation for 3 days at 30°C in media containing 3% glucose as a carbon source. The polysaccharide was composed of approximately 46% glucose and 30% rhamnose and, in addition, contained 21% uronic acid and 3% O-acetyl. Upon deacetylation by a mild alkaline treatment, PS-60 produced a brittle, firm, and optically clear gel. This gelling property was thermoreversible. The PS-60 gel exhibited excellent heat stability that withstood autoclaving (i.e., 121°C for 15 min) for several cycles. The gel strength, melting point, and setting point of the polysaccharide were controlled primarily by the concentration of cations. PS-60 was not affected by a variety of enzymes. The results of tests involving various culture media and biochemical test media indicate that PS-60 is an excellent alternative gelling agent to agar. PMID:16346007

  19. Characteristics of rat megakaryocyte colonies and their progenitors in agar culture

    SciTech Connect

    Kellar, K.L.; Rolovic, Z.; Evatt, B.L.; Sewell, E.T.

    1985-11-01

    The characteristics of megakaryocyte colonies that develop from megakaryocyte progenitors of rat bone marrow stimulated by rat spleen-conditioned medium (SCM) in agar culture were investigated. Colony frequency was optimal on day 7 and increased relative to both the number of cells plated and the concentration of SCM used. Colonies were categorized as small cell and big cell. Small-cell colonies had a greater proliferative potential, with a mean of 25 cells/colony. Big-cell colonies averaged 15 cells/colony. The ratio of big-cell to small-cell colonies was 0.69 +/- 0.29. Granulocyte-macrophage colonies, which were also stimulated by SCM, accounted for 70% +/- 15% of the total colonies in the cultures. Cytocidal experiments with tritiated thymidine reduced megakaryocyte colony formation by 45% and granulocyte-macrophage colony formation by 21%. The properties of rat, mouse, and human megakaryocyte progenitors as assayed in vitro are compared.

  20. Towards automated high-throughput screening of C. elegans on agar

    E-print Network

    Kabra, Mayank; O'Rourke, Eyleen J; Xie, Xin; Ljosa, Vebjorn; Jones, Thouis R; Ausubel, Frederick M; Ruvkun, Gary; Carpenter, Anne E; Freund, Yoav

    2010-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) using model organisms is a promising method to identify a small number of genes or drugs potentially relevant to human biology or disease. In HTS experiments, robots and computers do a significant portion of the experimental work. However, one remaining major bottleneck is the manual analysis of experimental results, which is commonly in the form of microscopy images. This manual inspection is labor intensive, slow and subjective. Here we report our progress towards applying computer vision and machine learning methods to analyze HTS experiments that use Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) worms grown on agar. Our main contribution is a robust segmentation algorithm for separating the worms from the background using brightfield images. We also show that by combining the output of this segmentation algorithm with an algorithm to detect the fluorescent dye, Nile Red, we can reliably distinguish different fluorescence-based phenotypes even though the visual differences are subtle....

  1. Agar gel immunodiffusion assay to detect antibodies to Type A influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Jenson, Terra A

    2014-01-01

    The agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test is used to detect antibodies to Type A influenza group-specific antigens, i.e., the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) and matrix (M) proteins. Therefore, this test will detect antibodies to all influenza A virus subtypes. AGID is commonly used to screen poultry flocks for avian influenza virus infection. The AGID is a simple and economical serological test. All serological testing has its advantages and disadvantages which should be considered before choosing the optimal test for the laboratory needs. Each laboratory must evaluate the laboratory's resources, the volume of testing, the goal of testing, how the test results are used and what types of samples are being tested in order to select the optimal test. PMID:24899427

  2. Copper removal by algae Gelidium, agar extraction algal waste and granulated algal waste: kinetics and equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-03-01

    Biosorption of copper ions by an industrial algal waste, from agar extraction industry has been studied in a batch system. This biosorbent was compared with the algae Gelidium itself, which is the raw material for agar extraction, and the industrial waste immobilized with polyacrylonitrile (composite material). The effects of contact time, pH, ionic strength (IS) and temperature on the biosorption process have been studied. Equilibrium data follow both Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich models. The parameters of Langmuir equilibrium model were: q(max)=33.0mgg(-1), K(L)=0.015mgl(-1); q(max)=16.7mgg(-1), K(L)=0.028mgl(-1) and q(max)=10.3mgg(-1), K(L)=0.160mgl(-1) respectively for Gelidium, algal waste and composite material at pH=5.3, T=20 degrees C and IS=0.001M. Increasing the pH, the number of deprotonated active sites increases and so the uptake capacity of copper ions. In the case of high ionic strengths, the contribution of the electrostatic component to the overall binding decreases, and so the uptake capacity. The temperature has little influence on the uptake capacity principally for low equilibrium copper concentrations. Changes in standard enthalpy, Gibbs energy and entropy during biosorption were determined. Kinetic data at different solution pH (3, 4 and 5.3) were fitted to pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The adsorptive behaviour of biosorbent particles was modelled using a batch reactor mass transfer kinetic model, which successfully predicts Cu(II) concentration profiles. PMID:17376672

  3. Impaction onto a Glass Slide or Agar versus Impingement into a Liquid for the Collection and Recovery of Airborne Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Juozaitis, Arvydas; Willeke, Klaus; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Donnelly, Jean

    1994-01-01

    To study impaction versus impingement for the collection and recovery of viable airborne microorganisms, three new bioaerosol samplers have been designed and built. They differ from each other by the medium onto which the bioaerosol particles are collected (glass, agar, and liquid) but have the same inlet and collection geometries and the same sampling flow rate. The bioaerosol concentrations recorded by three different collection techniques have been compared with each other: impaction onto a glass slide, impaction onto an agar medium, and impingement into a liquid. It was found that the particle collection efficiency of agar slide impaction depends on the concentration of agar in the collection medium and on the sampling time, when samples are collected on a nonmoving agar slide. Impingement into a liquid showed anomalous behavior with respect to the sampling flow rate. Optimal sampling conditions in which all three new samplers exhibit the same overall sampling efficiency for nonbiological particles have been established. Inlet and collection efficiencies of about 100% have been achieved for all three devices at a sampling flow rate of 10 liters/min. The new agar slide impactor and the new impinger were then used to study the biological factors affecting the overall sampling efficiency. Laboratory experiments on the total recovery of a typical environmental microorganism, Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525, showed that both sampling methods, impaction and impingement, provided essentially the same total recovery when relatively nonstressed microorganisms were sampled under optimal sampling conditions. Comparison tests of the newly developed bioaerosol samplers with those commercially available showed that the incorporation of our research findings into the design of the new samplers yields better performance data than data from currently available samplers. PMID:16349217

  4. Enhanced chlorine resistance of tap water-adapted Legionella pneumophila as compared with agar medium-passaged strains.

    PubMed Central

    Kuchta, J M; States, S J; McGlaughlin, J E; Overmeyer, J H; Wadowsky, R M; McNamara, A M; Wolford, R S; Yee, R B

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that bacteria maintained in a low-nutrient "natural" environment such as swimming pool water are much more resistant to disinfection by various chemical agents than strains maintained on rich media. In the present study a comparison was made of the chlorine (Cl2) susceptibility of hot-water tank isolates of Legionella pneumophila maintained in tap water and strains passaged on either nonselective buffered charcoal-yeast extract or selective differential glycine-vancomycin-polymyxin agar medium. Our earlier work has shown that environmental and clinical isolates of L. pneumophila maintained on agar medium are much more resistant to Cl2 than coliforms are. Under the present experimental conditions (21 degrees C, pH 7.6 to 8.0, and 0.25 mg of free residual Cl2 per liter, we found the tap water-maintained L. pneumophila strains to be even more resistant than the agar-passaged isolates. Under these conditions, 99% kill of tap water-maintained strains of L. pneumophila was usually achieved within 60 to 90 min compared with 10 min for agar-passaged strains. Samples from plumbing fixtures in a hospital yielded legionellae which were "super"-chlorine resistant when assayed under natural conditions. After one agar passage their resistance dropped to levels of comparable strains which had not been previously exposed to additional chlorination. These studies more closely approximate natural conditions than our previous work and show that tap water-maintained L. pneumophila is even more resistant to Cl2 than its already resistant agar medium-passaged counterpart. PMID:3896142

  5. Determination of O-isopropyl methylphosphonic acid in living microorganism-agar matrixes using ion chromatography conductivity detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Nassar, Alaa F. (BCO); Lucas, Samuel V. (BCO); Thomas, Susan A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    1999-01-01

    A direct an anion exchange, ion chromatography (IC)-based method for the detection of the chemical warfare agent surrogate O-isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA) in agar medium has been developed. This is the first report of the systematic development and validation of an IC-based method for the analysis of the chemical warfare agent degradation product, IMPA, in Petri dishes containing the agar medium with 10, 100 and 1000 mg/mL IMPA. Samples were prepared by dilution of the agar medium with deionized water followed by sonication and then filtration before the analysis by IC/conductivity detection. Using this method, the amount of IMPA in the Petri dishes was measured. Excellent separation efficiency and freedom from interference due to common anions such as phosphate and sulfate was obtained in the developed methods. Retention time precision is less than 1.0% relative standard deviation (%RSD) and the detection limit is 0.1 mg/mL. Three calibration curves were performed over the range 1-100 mg/mL using blank agar matrices spiked with five IMPA concentrations; with correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}) of 0.993, 0.991, and 0.992 for the calibration standard without dilution of agar matrix, at 4-times dilution and at 40-times dilution, respectively. Using three different samples at three IMPA spike levels, analysis accuracy was assessed by spiking the actual agar samples with IMPA. Average recoveries were 76, 79, and 84% for 10, 100, and 1000 mg/mL, respectively.

  6. Striatal neuroprotection with methylene blue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Rojas; N. Simola; B. A. Kermath; J. R. Kane; T. Schallert; F. Gonzalez-Lima

    2009-01-01

    Recent literature indicates that low-dose Methylene Blue (MB), an autoxidizable dye with powerful antioxidant and metabolic enhancing properties, might prevent neurotoxin-induced neural damage and associated functional deficits. This study evaluated whether local MB may counteract the anatomical and functional effects of the intrastriatal infusion of the neurotoxin rotenone (Rot) in the rat. To this end, stereological analyses of striatal lesion

  7. Blue Sky and Rayleigh Scattering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carl R. (Rod) Nave

    This site from Georgia State University explains why we see the sky as blue. It describes Rayleigh scattering, which refers to the scattering of light off of the molecules of the air, and Mie scattering, which refers to the scattering of light by larger particles.

  8. The Blue Whale, Balaenoptera musculus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SALLY A. MIZROCH; DALE W. RICE; JEFFREY M. BREIWICK

    pers. They are members of the family Balaenopteridae, all of which have fringed baleen plates rather than teeth. Baleen whales graze through swarms of small crustaceans known as krill, and capture the krill in their baleen as water is filtered through. Like most balaenopterids, blue whales exhibit no well defined social or schooling structure, and in most of their range

  9. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-05-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  10. BLUE MUSTARD IN CHEATGRASS COMMUNITIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until very recently, the exotic, invasive species of the mustard family (Brassicaceae) that occurred in cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) communities on former big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)/bunchgrass rangelands had yellow or white flowers. In the Great Basin, the “blue” flowered species Chorispo...

  11. Baby T (Blue) (Size: Small)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

  12. Baby T (Blue) (Size: Large)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

  13. Baby T (Blue) (Size: Medium)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

  14. The Next Generation Blue Marble

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The phenomena is a full year?s worth of NASA satellite data of Earth's land surface, coastal oceans, sea ice, and clouds that has been organized into a seamless, photo-like mosaic of our planet The image beneath the title "The Next Generation Blue Marble" features an animation. Click the image to begin the animation.

  15. Why is the Sky Blue?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    CSIRO

    2006-01-01

    In this activity, learners use a flashlight, a glass of water, and some milk to examine why the sky is blue and sunsets are red. Learners will discover that the sky appears a different color depending on the position of the sun as well as molecules and particles in the air that cause the scattering of light.

  16. Optically Modulatable Blue Fluorescent Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Amy E.; Vegh, Russell B.; Hsiang, Jung-Cheng; Bommarius, Bettina; Chen, Yen-Cheng; Solntsev, Kyril M.; Bommarius, Andreas S.; Tolbert, Laren M.; Dickson, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Blue fluorescent proteins (BFPs) offer visualization of protein location and behavior, but often suffer from high autofluorescent background and poor signal discrimination. Through dual-laser excitation of bright and photoinduced dark states, mutations to the residues surrounding the BFP chromophore enable long-wavelength optical modulation of BFP emission. Such dark state engineering enables violet-excited blue emission to be increased upon lower energy, green co-illumination. Turning this green co-illumination on and off at a specific frequency dynamically modulates collected blue fluorescence without generating additional background. Interpreted as transient photoconversion between neutral cis- and anionic trans- chromophoric forms, mutations tune photoisomerization and ground state tautomerizations to enable long-wavelength depopulation of the millisecond-lived, spectrally shifted dark states. Single mutations to the tyrosine-based blue fluorescent protein T203V/S205V exhibit enhanced modulation depth and varied frequency. Importantly, analogous single point mutations in the non-modulatable BFP, mKalama1, creates a modulatable variant. Building modulatable BFPs offers opportunities for improved BFP signal discrimination vs. background, greatly enhancing their utility. PMID:24099419

  17. Blue Crabs in the Chesapeake

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Clark, Vicki P.

    2011-06-13

    This resource is a classroom unit and data activity focusing on juvenile and adult blue crab distribution in the Chesapeake Bay. The pdf includes background on crab biology, anatomy, life cycle, and fisheries. Authentic data tables are provided for in-class analysis and discussion questions guide inquiry.

  18. Singing' the Black and Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Diane

    2004-01-01

    It is so obvious that the sky is blue in the daytime and black at night, but it took the smartest humans thousands of years of observation, thought, discussion, conjecture, and analysis to finally come up with answers that make scientific sense as to why the sky is these colors. This article discusses light and the scientific research…

  19. Why is the Sky Blue?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site provides a brief description of the scattering of light rays from the sun in the atmosphere of the Earth. It provides an explanation of why the sky is blue and sunsets are red. The discussion avoids the use of numbers.

  20. Optically modulatable blue fluorescent proteins.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, Amy E; Vegh, Russell B; Hsiang, Jung-Cheng; Bommarius, Bettina; Chen, Yen-Cheng; Solntsev, Kyril M; Bommarius, Andreas S; Tolbert, Laren M; Dickson, Robert M

    2013-11-01

    Blue fluorescent proteins (BFPs) offer visualization of protein location and behavior, but often suffer from high autofluorescent background and poor signal discrimination. Through dual-laser excitation of bright and photoinduced dark states, mutations to the residues surrounding the BFP chromophore enable long-wavelength optical modulation of BFP emission. Such dark state engineering enables violet-excited blue emission to be increased upon lower energy, green coillumination. Turning this green coillumination on and off at a specific frequency dynamically modulates collected blue fluorescence without generating additional background. Interpreted as transient photoconversion between neutral cis and anionic trans chromophoric forms, mutations tune photoisomerization and ground state tautomerizations to enable long-wavelength depopulation of the millisecond-lived, spectrally shifted dark states. Single mutations to the tyrosine-based blue fluorescent protein T203V/S205V exhibit enhanced modulation depth and varied frequency. Importantly, analogous single point mutations in the nonmodulatable BFP, mKalama1, creates a modulatable variant. Building modulatable BFPs offers opportunities for improved BFP signal discrimination vs background, greatly enhancing their utility. PMID:24099419

  1. Evaluation of a New Agar in Uricult-Trio for Rapid Detection ofEscherichia coliin Urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. DALET

    1995-01-01

    A new commercial agar (Uricult-Trio) with 8-hydroxyquinoline-b-glucuronide was used to assess 2,536 uropathogens for b-glucuronidase activity typical ofEscherichia coli. Included in the study were 1,807 strains of the familyEnterobacteriaceae, 284 strains of nonfermentative bacilli, 345 strains of gram-positive cocci, and 100 yeast strains. In identifyingE. coli, the test agar gave a sensitivity of 95.5% and a specificity of 97.2%. Fifty

  2. Could Blue Eyes Raise Odds for Alcoholism?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_153398.html Could Blue Eyes Raise Odds for Alcoholism? Study finds genes ... THURSDAY, July 2, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- People with blue eyes may be more likely to become alcoholics, ...

  3. The Blues Poetry of Langston Hughes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Edward E.

    1971-01-01

    The author discusses the criteria of the blues as an American art form. He then shows how Langston Hughes captures the mood, the feeling, the rhythm and the impact of the blues in his poetry. (Author/LF)

  4. Evaluation of a new agar medium containing cetrimide, kanamycin and nalidixic acid for isolation and enhancement of pigment production of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Kodaka, Hidemasa; Iwata, Morihiro; Yumoto, Shigeo; Kashitani, Fusako

    2003-01-01

    A new selective agar medium (CKNA), containing cetrimide 0.3 g/l, kanamycin sulfate 50 mg/l, and nalidixic acid 5 mg/l, was developed for the isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It was compared to Nalidixic Acid Cetrimide agar (NAC), Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Selective Agar (PASA) and Pseudosel(TM) agar (CET) using 1,148 clinical specimens. The sensitivities rates of P. aeruginosa with CKNA, NAC, PASA, and CET were 88.2%, 81.3%, 79.2%, and 84.0%, respectively. The specificities of CKNA, NAC, PASA, and CET were 99.2%, 98.4%, 99.2%, and 99.7%, respectively. PMID:12964184

  5. Original article Blue-stain fungi associated

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Blue-stain fungi associated with Tomicus piniperda in Sweden and preliminary to determine the development of blue-staining of sapwood. Fungi were isolated from samples of inner bark and blue-stained sapwood in connection with galleries of T piniperda. Samples were also taken from beetle

  6. Blue Waters: An Extraordinary Research Capability for

    E-print Network

    Blue Waters: An Extraordinary Research Capability for Ad ancing Science & Engineering Frontiers will talk about the new supercomputer Blue Waters and its proposed use by the science and engineering of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. This system, called Blue Waters, is based on the latest computing

  7. Accessibility Application Blue Badge Car Park UK

    E-print Network

    Painter, Kevin

    i Accessibility Application Blue Badge Car Park UK Konstantinos Grassos H00113751 August 2012. In this project, Blue Badge Car Park (BBCP) is presented which is actually a mobile-based park finder application. It specifically focuses on finding parking spaces for wheelchair users, which are indicated by the blue badge

  8. 49 CFR 218.23 - Blue signal display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Blue signal display. 218.23 Section 218.23 ...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Blue Signal Protection of Workers § 218.23 Blue signal display. (a) Blue signals...

  9. 49 CFR 218.23 - Blue signal display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blue signal display. 218.23 Section 218.23 ...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Blue Signal Protection of Workers § 218.23 Blue signal display. (a) Blue signals...

  10. 49 CFR 218.23 - Blue signal display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Blue signal display. 218.23 Section 218.23 ...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Blue Signal Protection of Workers § 218.23 Blue signal display. (a) Blue signals...

  11. 49 CFR 218.23 - Blue signal display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Blue signal display. 218.23 Section 218.23 ...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Blue Signal Protection of Workers § 218.23 Blue signal display. (a) Blue signals...

  12. 49 CFR 218.23 - Blue signal display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Blue signal display. 218.23 Section 218.23 ...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Blue Signal Protection of Workers § 218.23 Blue signal display. (a) Blue signals...

  13. Evaluation of the Granada Agar Plate for Detection of Vaginal and Rectal Group B Streptococci in Pregnant Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. GARCIA GIL; M. C. RODRIGUEZ; R. BARTOLOME; B. BERJANO; L. CABERO; A. ANDREU

    1999-01-01

    Granada medium was evaluated for the detection of group B streptococci (GBS) in vaginal and rectal swabs compared with selective Columbia blood agar and selective Lim broth. From May 1996 to March 1998, 702 pregnant women (35 to 37 weeks of gestation) participated in this three-phase study; 103 (14.7%) of these women carried GBS. In the first phase of the

  14. Hydrogen-bond-mediated in situ fabrication of AgNPs/agar/PAN electrospun nanofibers as reproducible SERS substrates.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tong; Yang, Hui; Zhen, Shu Jun; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2015-01-28

    Reproducibility in surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurements is a challenge. This work developed a facile way to make highly dispersed uniform silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) loaded in the agar/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers by the coupling the electrospinning technology from metal complex-containing polymer solution and in situ photoreductive technique. Agar, as hydrophilic component, was introduced into the electrospinning solution considering that its abundant hydroxyl group sites could greatly improve the contents of silver ions in the polymers because of the rich silver ion chelated with the hydroxyl group, whereas hydrophilic agar was integrated with hydrophobic PAN by -OH···N?C- hydrogen bonds as a bridge. Meanwhile, the in situ photoreductive reaction was made under different light irradiations such as desk lamp, 365 nm UV-lamp, and 254 nm UV-lamp. High yield of stable AgNPs with highly uniform and dispersion are available in the agar/PAN nanofibers after the in situ photoreductive reaction, supplying the possibility of reproducible SERS signals. To identify that concept of proof, a facile approach for the determination of malachite green (MG) in three environmental practical samples was demonstrated by using the composite nanofibrous material irradiated by 365 nm UV-lamp, giving the minimum detection concentration of MG as low as 0.1 ?mol/L with a good linear response ranging from 0.1-100 ?mol/L (R(2) = 0.9960). PMID:25546719

  15. Properties and characterization of agar/CuNP bionanocomposite films prepared with different copper salts and reducing agents.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Shiv; Teng, Xinnan; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-12-19

    Various types of agar-based bio-nanocomposite (BNC) films were prepared by blending agar and six different copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) with different shapes and sizes obtained from three different sources of copper salts and two different reducing agents. The BNC films were characterized by UV-visible, FE-SEM, FT-IR, and XRD. The thermogravimetric study showed that the melting point of BNC films was increased when ascorbic acid was used as a reducing agent for CuNPs synthesis. Apparent surface color and transmittance of agar film was greatly influenced by the reinforcement of CuNPs. However, mechanical and water vapor barrier properties did not change significantly (p>0.05) by blending with CuNPs. Tensile modulus and tensile strength decreased slightly for all types of CuNPs reinforced while elongation at break slightly increased when CuNPs produced by ascorbic acid were blended. The agar bio-nanocomposite films showed profound antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative food-borne pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25263917

  16. Gelidium robustum agar: quality characteristics from exploited beds and seasonality from an unexploited bed at Southern Baja California, México

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Freile-Pelegrín; D. Robledo; E. Serviere-Zaragoza

    1999-01-01

    The yield and gel properties of agar from Gelidium robustum, harvested in Baja California for industrial production is affected by season of collection and epiphyte loading. The alga is epiphytized to various extents by the bryozoan Membraniphora tuberculata ('conchilla') and the resulting calcareous crust on the alga diminishes the price of the seaweed biomass. Classification of the algal biomass quality

  17. CCMR: Sisal Fiber Reinforced Green Composite Using Soy Flour Resin Modified With Sorbitol, Agar and NB416 Microfibers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Khalsa, Amrit

    2009-08-15

    Fully biodegradable green composites were prepared using natural sisal fiber and soy flour (SF) resin modified with sorbitol, agar, and NB416 microfiber. The SF resin modified with agar and NB416 microfibers had a higher Tensile Stress and Young’s Modulus, 8.73 + 0.60 MPa, 232.61 + 25.44 MPa, and 12.15 + 1.53 MPa, 327.87 + 27.62 respectively, compared to the Tensile Stress and Young’s Modulus of the sorbitol modified SF resin. The composites fabricated with sorbitol modified SF resin showed the highest Tensile Stress of 141.45 + 16.72 MPa which was significantly greater than the Tensile Stress of the pure SF resin. Problems arose in preparing the composites with the resins modified with agar and NB416. The method for coating the fibers with the more viscous resin solutions was not an adequate way to prepare the composite. The mechanical properties of the SF resins modified with agar and NB416 microfibers suggests that if the resin was equally dispersed in the composites then the composite properties would be very high. These composites are very useful in replacing some of the petroleum based composites in use today and reducing the amount of plastics in the landfills.

  18. Morphometric and Colorimetrie Analyses of Human Tumor Cell Line Growth and Drug Sensitivity in Soft Agar Culture1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Alle; C. M. Pacula-Co; M. L. Hursey; L. R. Rubinstein; M. R. Boy

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the suitability of image analysis of tetrazolium-stained colonies to assess growth and drug sensitivity of human tumor cells cultivated in soft agar culture. In the present study, the potential utility of colorimetrie analysis to expedite experimental drug evaluations using human tumor cell lines was investigated. The same culture dishes were assessed by image analysis and by

  19. Characterisation of the enigmatic, endemic red alga Gelidium allanii (Gelidiales) from northern New Zealand — morphology, distribution, agar chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Nelson; G. A. Knight; R. Falshaw; R. H. Furneaux; A. Falshaw; S. M. Lynds

    1994-01-01

    Gelidium allanii Chapman is endemic to northern New Zealand with a highly localised distribution. This species has remained little known, having been collected from only one locality for more than 40 years. We compare this species with other New Zealand members of the Gelidiaceae, in particularGelidium caulacantheum andPterocladia capillacea, presenting new data on morphology, distribution and agar chemistry to more

  20. Alternative Use for Spectra MRSA Chromogenic Agar in Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Positive Blood Cultures ?

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jess F.; Dionisio, Alexander A.; Riebe, Katherine M.; Hall, Gerri S.; Wilson, Deborah A.; Whittier, Susan; DiPersio, Joseph R.; Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2010-01-01

    Spectra MRSA agar (Remel, Lenexa, KS), a novel chromogenic medium originally developed to detect methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from nasal swabs, was evaluated in this multicenter study for the detection of MRSA from positive blood cultures exhibiting Gram-positive cocci upon initial Gram staining. PMID:20392925

  1. Confined Cubic Blue Phases under Shear

    E-print Network

    O. Henrich; K. Stratford; D. Marenduzzo; P. V. Coveney; M. E. Cates

    2012-03-14

    We study the behaviour of confined cubic blue phases under shear flow via lattice Boltzmann simulations. We focus on the two experimentally observed phases, blue phase I and blue phase II. The disinclination network of blue phase II continuously breaks and reforms under shear, leading to an oscillatory stress response in time. The oscillations are only regular for very thin samples. For thicker samples, the shear leads to a "stick-slip" motion of part of the network along the vorticity direction. Blue phase I responds very differently: its defect network undergoes seemingly chaotic rearrangements under shear, irrespective of system size.

  2. 76 FR 71355 - United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et al.; Proposed Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ...OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive...Montana, Billings Division, in United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of...

  3. 76 FR 19466 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, et al.; Amended Certification Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ...895, et al.] Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, et al.; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility...TA-W-74,895 Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data...

  4. Maternity blues in Brazilian women.

    PubMed

    Rohde, L A; Busnello, E; Wolf, A; Zomer, A; Shansis, F; Martins, S; Tramontina, S

    1997-03-01

    In this prospective study, a sample of 86 postpartum women was compared with a sample of 75 women from a random period of 8 consecutive days out of puerperium. Symptoms were evaluated each day using the Blues Questionnaire. Postpartum women and women out of puerperium showed a different distribution of percentile scores on the scale on the third, fourth and fifth days. The postpartum symptom peak occurred on the fifth day. Symptoms more significantly associated with the third, fourth and fifth postpartum days were overemotionalism and oversensitivity. It is concluded that maternity blues in Brazilian women appear to be characterized by maternal mental state alterations occurring on the third, fourth and fifth days postpartum. MB seems to be better defined as an emotional oversensitivity syndrome of cross-cultural dimension than as depression. PMID:9111856

  5. Rheology of cholesteric blue phases

    E-print Network

    A. Dupuis; D. Marenduzzo; E. Orlandini; J. M. Yeomans

    2006-05-11

    Blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals offer a spectacular example of naturally occurring disclination line networks. Here we numerically solve the hydrodynamic equations of motion to investigate the response of three types of blue phases to an imposed Poiseuille flow. We show that shear forces bend and twist and can unzip the disclination lines. Under gentle forcing the network opposes the flow and the apparent viscosity is significantly higher than that of an isotropic liquid. With increased forcing we find strong shear thinning corresponding to the disruption of the defect network. As the viscosity starts to drop, the imposed flow sets the network into motion. Disclinations break-up and re-form with their neighbours in the flow direction. This gives rise to oscillations in the time-dependent measurement of the average stress.

  6. The Physics of the Blues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2009-03-01

    In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

  7. HYDROLOGY OF WATLING'S BLUE HOLE: SAN SALVADOR, BAHAMAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Vermette; Rebecca Hudson

    Watling's blue hole is a karst feature located on the Bahamian island of San Salvador. The blue hole's physiography and hydrology were studied in April 2001. Watling '.I' blue hole was compared with other Bahamian inland blue holes. Unlike typical blue holes, Watling '.I' blue hole did not have a fresh water lens, and therefore did not exhibit a halocline.

  8. Polish Terms for "Blue" in the Perspective of Vantage Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanulewicz, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    The Polish set of terms for blue includes, inter alia, the following adjectives: "niebieski" "blue", "blekitny" "(sky) blue", "granatowy" "navy blue", "lazurowy" "azure", "modry" "(intense) blue" and "siny" "(grey) violet-blue". The adjective "niebieski" is the basic term; however, it shares some of its functions with "blekitny", which is…

  9. 1370 Rev. (3/03) An independent licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield is the trade name of Anthem Health Plans of New Hampshire, Inc.

    E-print Network

    Myers, Lawrence C.

    1370 Rev. (3/03) An independent licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield is the trade name of Anthem Health Plans of New Hampshire, Inc. ® Registered marks of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. Request for Certification for a Mentally or Physically

  10. Halophilic-blue-green algae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas D. Brock

    1976-01-01

    The isolation of a halophilic blue-green alga, Aphanothece halophytica, from Great Salt Lake is described. The organism was cultured from waters with salinities up to saturated NaCl (about 30% w\\/v). It has an optimum salinity for growth of about 16% NaCl, but can grow very slowly even in saturated NaCl. Based on the study of the Great Salt Lake organism,

  11. Inflation and alternatives with blue tensor spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Xue, Wei

    2014-10-01

    We study the tilt of the primordial gravitational waves spectrum. A hint of blue tilt is shown from analyzing the BICEP2 and POLARBEAR data. Motivated by this, we explore the possibilities of blue tensor spectra from the very early universe cosmology models, including null energy condition violating inflation, inflation with general initial conditions, and string gas cosmology, etc. For the simplest G-inflation, blue tensor spectrum also implies blue scalar spectrum. In general, the inflation models with blue tensor spectra indicate large non-Gaussianities. On the other hand, string gas cosmology predicts blue tensor spectrum with highly Gaussian fluctuations. If further experiments do confirm the blue tensor spectrum, non-Gaussianity becomes a distinguishing test between inflation and alternatives.

  12. Inflation and Alternatives with Blue Tensor Spectra

    E-print Network

    Yi Wang; Wei Xue

    2014-10-20

    We study the tilt of the primordial gravitational waves spectrum. A hint of blue tilt is shown from analyzing the BICEP2 and POLARBEAR data. Motivated by this, we explore the possibilities of blue tensor spectra from the very early universe cosmology models, including null energy condition violating inflation, inflation with general initial conditions, and string gas cosmology, etc. For the simplest G-inflation, blue tensor spectrum also implies blue scalar spectrum. In general, the inflation models with blue tensor spectra indicate large non-Gaussianities. On the other hand, string gas cosmology predicts blue tensor spectrum with highly Gaussian fluctuations. If further experiments do confirm the blue tensor spectrum, non-Gaussianity becomes a distinguishing test between inflation and alternatives.

  13. The Cryptochrome Blue Light Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xuhong; Liu, Hongtao; Klejnot, John; Lin, Chentao

    2010-01-01

    Cryptochromes are photolyase-like blue light receptors originally discovered in Arabidopsis but later found in other plants, microbes, and animals. Arabidopsis has two cryptochromes, CRY1 and CRY2, which mediate primarily blue light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and photoperiodic control of floral initiation, respectively. In addition, cryptochromes also regulate over a dozen other light responses, including circadian rhythms, tropic growth, stomata opening, guard cell development, root development, bacterial and viral pathogen responses, abiotic stress responses, cell cycles, programmed cell death, apical dominance, fruit and ovule development, seed dormancy, and magnetoreception. Cryptochromes have two domains, the N-terminal PHR (Photolyase-Homologous Region) domain that bind the chromophore FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), and the CCE (CRY C-terminal Extension) domain that appears intrinsically unstructured but critical to the function and regulation of cryptochromes. Most cryptochromes accumulate in the nucleus, and they undergo blue light-dependent phosphorylation or ubiquitination. It is hypothesized that photons excite electrons of the flavin molecule, resulting in redox reaction or circular electron shuttle and conformational changes of the photoreceptors. The photoexcited cryptochrome are phosphorylated to adopt an open conformation, which interacts with signaling partner proteins to alter gene expression at both transcriptional and posttranslational levels and consequently the metabolic and developmental programs of plants. PMID:21841916

  14. Models of Individual Blue Stragglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, Alison

    This chapter describes the current state of models of individual blue stragglers. Stellar collisions, binary mergers (or coalescence), and partial or ongoing mass transfer have all been studied in some detail. The products of stellar collisions retain memory of their parent stars and are not fully mixed. Very high initial rotation rates must be reduced by an unknown process to allow the stars to collapse to the main sequence. The more massive collision products have shorter lifetimes than normal stars of the same mass, while products between low mass stars are long-lived and look very much like normal stars of their mass. Mass transfer can result in a merger, or can produce another binary system with a blue straggler and the remnant of the original primary. The products of binary mass transfer cover a larger portion of the colour-magnitude diagram than collision products for two reasons: there are more possible configurations which produce blue stragglers, and there are differing contributions to the blended light of the system. The effects of rotation may be substantial in both collision and merger products, and could result in significant mixing unless angular momentum is lost shortly after the formation event. Surface abundances may provide ways to distinguish between the formation mechanisms, but care must be taken to model the various mixing mechanisms properly before drawing strong conclusions. Avenues for future work are outlined.

  15. Agar masks locomotion related phenotypes Stefano Berri1, Jordan H. Boyle1, Ian A. Hope2 and Netta Cohen1,3

    E-print Network

    with increasing stiffness of the medium. · Specifically, unc-8(e49) and vab-7(e1562) worms look nearly wild type et al. (2009) to be submitted; Abstract 183. Wild Type Surface unc-8 Water Gelatin Agar vab-7 Water) and vab-7(e1562) worms have only subtle locomotion phenotypes on agar but are almost completely incapable

  16. Comparison of Six Chromogenic Agar Media for the Isolation of a Broad Variety of Non-O157 Shigatoxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC) Serogroups

    PubMed Central

    Verhaegen, Bavo; De Reu, Koen; Heyndrickx, Marc; De Zutter, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    The isolation of non-O157 STEC from food samples has proved to be challenging. The selection of a suitable selective isolation agar remains problematic. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate six chromogenic agar media for the isolation of STEC: Tryptone Bile X-glucuronide agar (TBX), Rainbow® Agar O157 (RB), Rapid E. coli O157:H7 (RE), Modified MacConkey Agar (mMac), CHROMagarTM STEC (Chr ST) and chromIDTM EHEC (Chr ID). During this study, 45 E. coli strains were used, including 39 STEC strains belonging to 16 different O serogroups and 6 non-STEC E. coli. All E. coli strains were able to grow on TBX and RB, whereas one STEC strain was unable to grow on Chr ID and a number of other STEC strains did not grow on mMac, CHROMagar STEC and Rapid E. coli O157:H7. However, only the latter three agars were selective enough to completely inhibit the growth of the non-STEC E. coli. Our conclusion was that paired use of a more selective agar such as CHROMagar STEC together with a less selective agar like TBX or Chr ID might be the best solution for isolating non-O157 STEC from food. PMID:26090610

  17. Comparison of Six Chromogenic Agar Media for the Isolation of a Broad Variety of Non-O157 Shigatoxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC) Serogroups.

    PubMed

    Verhaegen, Bavo; De Reu, Koen; Heyndrickx, Marc; De Zutter, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    The isolation of non-O157 STEC from food samples has proved to be challenging. The selection of a suitable selective isolation agar remains problematic. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate six chromogenic agar media for the isolation of STEC: Tryptone Bile X-glucuronide agar (TBX), Rainbow® Agar O157 (RB), Rapid E. coli O157:H7 (RE), Modified MacConkey Agar (mMac), CHROMagarTM STEC (Chr ST) and chromIDTM EHEC (Chr ID). During this study, 45 E. coli strains were used, including 39 STEC strains belonging to 16 different O serogroups and 6 non-STEC E. coli. All E. coli strains were able to grow on TBX and RB, whereas one STEC strain was unable to grow on Chr ID and a number of other STEC strains did not grow on mMac, CHROMagar STEC and Rapid E. coli O157:H7. However, only the latter three agars were selective enough to completely inhibit the growth of the non-STEC E. coli. Our conclusion was that paired use of a more selective agar such as CHROMagar STEC together with a less selective agar like TBX or Chr ID might be the best solution for isolating non-O157 STEC from food. PMID:26090610

  18. Use of agar diffusion assay to evaluate bactericidal activity of formulations of alkaline salts of fatty acids against bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids (FA). Wells in agar media seeded with bacteria were filled with FA-potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions, plates were incubated, and zones of inhibition were measured. The relationship between bacteric...

  19. NOTA TÉCNICA PREPARACIÓN DE AGAR A PARTIR DE MOSTO DE DESTILERÍA Y HARINA DE SOYA PARA DETECTAR CONTAMINANTES MICROBIANOS EN CULTIVO DE TEJIDOS VEGETALES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Misterbino Borges; Joel Vázquez; Aracelis Rodríguez

    2003-01-01

    Agar preparation from distillery must and soybeam meal for microbial contaminant detection in plant tissue culture environment The early detection of the microbial contamination is essential to prevent losses and successfully achieve a plant propagation process by biotechnology. In the present experiment the complementary effect of the distillery must agar (DMA) at 40 % with soybean meal (SM) for efficient

  20. Spectral filtering for improved pulsed photothermal temperature profiling in agar tissue phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Milani?, Matija; Majaron, Boris; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2009-01-01

    We present a systematic experimental comparison of pulsed photothermal temperature profiling utilizing the customary spectral band of the InSb radiation detector (?=3.0 to 5.6 ?m) and a narrowed acquisition band (4.5 to 5.6 ?m). We use custom tissue phantoms composed of agar gel layers separated by thin absorbing layers. The laser-induced temperature profiles are reconstructed within the customary monochromatic approximation, using a custom minimization algorithm. In a detailed numerical simulation of the experimental procedure, we consider several acquisition spectral bands with the lower wavelength limit varied between 3.0 and 5.0 ?m (imitating application of different long-pass filters). The simulated PPTR signals contain noise with amplitude and spectral characteristics consistent with our experimental system. Both experimental and numerical results indicate that spectral filtering reduces reconstruction error and broadening of temperature peaks, especially for shallower and more complex absorbing structures. For the simulated PPTR system and watery tissues, numerical results indicate an optimal lower wavelength limit of 3.8 to 4.2 ?m. PMID:19123649

  1. Spectral filtering for improved pulsed photothermal temperature profiling in agar tissue phantoms.

    PubMed

    Milanic, Matija; Majaron, Boris; Nelson, J Stuart

    2008-01-01

    We present a systematic experimental comparison of pulsed photothermal temperature profiling utilizing the customary spectral band of the InSb radiation detector (lambda=3.0 to 5.6 microm) and a narrowed acquisition band (4.5 to 5.6 microm). We use custom tissue phantoms composed of agar gel layers separated by thin absorbing layers. The laser-induced temperature profiles are reconstructed within the customary monochromatic approximation, using a custom minimization algorithm. In a detailed numerical simulation of the experimental procedure, we consider several acquisition spectral bands with the lower wavelength limit varied between 3.0 and 5.0 microm (imitating application of different long-pass filters). The simulated PPTR signals contain noise with amplitude and spectral characteristics consistent with our experimental system. Both experimental and numerical results indicate that spectral filtering reduces reconstruction error and broadening of temperature peaks, especially for shallower and more complex absorbing structures. For the simulated PPTR system and watery tissues, numerical results indicate an optimal lower wavelength limit of 3.8 to 4.2 microm. PMID:19123649

  2. Dichromated agar: a promising doped biocopolymer for real time holographic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolte, Michèle; Israëli, Yaël; Rivaton, Agnès; Lessard, Roger A.

    2006-09-01

    Agar is a natural polysaccharide which, when doped with dichromate ammonium, can be considered as a promising light sensitive material used for real time hologram recording. The volume transmission gratings were recorded with a Kypton laser at 413 nm and they were read in real-time with a He/Ne laser at 632.8 nm contrary to dichromated gelatin. The so obtained holograms formed were phase holograms due to a refraction index modulation. The optimisation of chemical and physical parameters was investigated in order to form high quality holograms. It was demonstrated the crucial role played by the remaining water in the final film on the value of the diffraction efficiency. In the optimal conditions, a maximum diffraction efficiency of 37 % was attained. Both on-off experiments and the storage of the exposed materials at room temperature and in the dark reveal that the holograms were stable. An attempt to rationalize the set of results in terms of chemical structure of the polymeric matrix and of its ability to stabilize chromium (V) is presented.

  3. Susceptibilities of genital mycoplasmas to the newer quinolones as determined by the agar dilution method.

    PubMed

    Kenny, G E; Hooton, T M; Roberts, M C; Cartwright, F D; Hoyt, J

    1989-01-01

    The increasing resistance of genital mycoplasmas to tetracycline poses a problem because tetracycline is one of the few antimicrobial agents active against Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, chlamydiae, gonococci, and other agents of genitourinary-tract disease. Since the quinolones are a promising group of antimicrobial agents, the susceptibilities of M. hominis and U. urealyticum to the newer 6-fluoroquinolones were determined by the agar dilution method. Ciprofloxacin, difloxacin, and ofloxacin had good activity against M. hominis, with the MIC for 50% of isolates tested (MIC50) being 1 microgram/ml. Fleroxacin, lomefloxacin, pefloxacin, and rosoxacin had MIC50s of 2 micrograms/ml. Enoxacin, norfloxacin, and amifloxacin had MIC50s of 8 to 16 micrograms/ml, and cinoxacin and nalidixic acid were inactive (MIC50, greater than or equal to 256 micrograms/ml). Overall, the activities of 6-fluoroquinolones for ureaplasmas were similar to those for M. hominis, with MICs being the same or twofold greater. The most active 6-fluoroquinolones against ureaplasmas were difloxacin, ofloxacin, and pefloxacin, with MIC50s of 1 to 2 micrograms/ml. Ciprofloxacin was unusual in that the MIC50 for M. hominis was 1 microgram/ml, whereas the MIC50 for ureaplasmas was 8 micrograms/ml. Since the MIC50s for the most active quinolones approximate achievable concentrations in blood and urine, quinolones have promise in treating mycoplasmal infections. PMID:2712541

  4. Screening for ligninolytic enzymes from autochthonous fungi and applications for decolorization of Remazole Marine Blue.

    PubMed

    Erden, Emre; Ucar, M Cigdem; Gezer, Tekin; Pazarlioglu, Nurdan Kasikara

    2009-04-01

    This study presents new and alternative fungal strains for the production of ligninolytic enzymes which have great potential to use in industrial and biotechnological processes. Thirty autochthonous fungal strains were harvested from Bornova-Izmir in Turkiye. In the fresh fruitbody extracts laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase activities, which are the principal enzymes responsible for ligninocellulose degradation by Basidiomycetes, were screened. Spores of some of the basidiomycetes species such as Cortinarius sp., Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Abortiporus biennis, Lyophyllum subglobisporium, Ramaria stricta, Ganoderma carnosum, Lactarius delicious ve Lepista nuda were isolated and investigated optimum cultivation conditions in submerged fermentation for high yields of ligninolytic enzyme production. In addition, isolated fungal strains were monitored on agar plates whether having the capability of decolorization of a textile dye Remazol Marine Blue. PMID:24031371

  5. BLUE STRAGGLERS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER 47 TUCANAE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The core of globular cluster 47 Tucanae is home to many blue stragglers, rejuvenated stars that glow with the blue light of young stars. A ground-based telescope image (on the left) shows the entire crowded core of 47 Tucanae, located 15,000 light-years away in the constellation Tucana. Peering into the heart of the globular cluster's bright core, the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 separated the dense clump of stars into many individual stars (image on right). Some of these stars shine with the light of old stars; others with the blue light of blue stragglers. The yellow circles in the Hubble telescope image highlight several of the cluster's blue stragglers. Analysis for this observation centered on one massive blue straggler. Astronomers theorize that blue stragglers are formed either by the slow merger of stars in a double-star system or by the collision of two unrelated stars. For the blue straggler in 47 Tucanae, astronomers favor the slow merger scenario. This image is a 3-color composite of archival Hubble Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 images in the ultraviolet (blue), blue (green), and violet (red) filters. Color tables were assigned and scaled so that the red giant stars appear orange, main-sequence stars are white/green, and blue stragglers are appropriately blue. The ultraviolet images were taken on Oct. 25, 1995, and the blue and violet images were taken on Sept. 1, 1995. Credit: Rex Saffer (Villanova University) and Dave Zurek (STScI), and NASA

  6. Comparison of growth rate in culture, dry matter content, agar content and agar quality of two New Zealand red seaweeds, Gracilaria chilensis Bird, McLachlan et Oliveira and Gracilaria truncata Kraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. D. Pickering; V. H. Sladden; R. H. Furneaux; J. A. Hemmingson; P. Redfearn

    1993-01-01

    Plant growth rates and agar characteristics were compared for two agarophytes,Gracilaria chilensis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) andG. truncata, so that the suitability ofG. truncata for mariculture could be assessed.G. chilensis plants grew steadily in the laboratory culture system at rates of 5–8% day-1 (mean Relative Growth Rate) throughout the 6 week experimental period, with no decline in health.G. truncata plants grew at

  7. Uncovering blue diffuse dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Bethan L.; Koposov, Sergey; Stark, Daniel P.; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W.

    2015-04-01

    Extremely metal poor (XMP) galaxies are known to be very rare, despite the large numbers of low-mass galaxies predicted by the local galaxy luminosity function. This paper presents a subsample of galaxies that were selected via a morphology-based search on Sloan Digital Sky Survey images with the aim of finding these elusive XMP galaxies. By using the recently discovered XMP galaxy, Leo P, as a guide, we obtained a collection of faint, blue systems, each with isolated H II regions embedded in a diffuse continuum, that have remained optically undetected until now. Here we show the first results from optical spectroscopic follow-up observations of 12 of ˜100 of these blue diffuse dwarf (BDD) galaxies yielded by our search algorithm. Oxygen abundances were obtained via the direct method for eight galaxies, and found to be in the range 7.45 < 12 + log (O/H) < 8.0, with two galaxies being classified as XMPs. All BDDs were found to currently have a young star-forming population (<10 Myr) and relatively high ionization parameters of their H II regions. Despite their low luminosities (-11 ? MB ? -18) and low surface brightnesses (˜23-25 mag arcsec-2), the galaxies were found to be actively star forming, with current star formation rates between 0.0003 and 0.078 M? yr-1. From our current subsample, BDD galaxies appear to be a population of non-quiescent dwarf irregular galaxies, or the diffuse counterparts to blue compact galaxies and as such may bridge the gap between these two populations. Our search algorithm demonstrates that morphology-based searches are successful in uncovering more diffuse metal-poor star-forming galaxies, which traditional emission-line-based searches overlook.

  8. Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Michele M.; Jamieson, Christopher G.; Lal, Geeta

    1996-01-01

    Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, an uncommon condition, is manifested by gastrointestinal and skin hemangiomas and gastrointestinal hemorrhage causing anemia. The authors report a unique case of the syndrome in association with a congenital cardiac malformation. A 26-year-old woman presented with iron-deficiency anemia after the birth of her first child. She had a history of skin and gastrointestinal hemangiomas and tetralogy of Fallot. Endoscopy revealed multiple new intestinal hemangiomas, which were removed through enterotomies with resolution of the anemia. Iron therapy was prescribed, and her condition was stable at follow-up 5 years later. PMID:8599795

  9. Chromium and zinc uptake by algae Gelidium and agar extraction algal waste: kinetics and equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2007-11-19

    Biosorption of chromium and zinc ions by an industrial algal waste, from agar extraction industry has been studied in a batch system. This biosorbent was compared with the algae Gelidium itself, which is the raw material for agar extraction, and the industrial waste immobilized with polyacrylonitrile (composite material). Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich equilibrium models describe well the equilibrium data. The parameters of Langmuir equilibrium model at pH 5.3 and 20 degrees C were for the algae, q(L)=18 mg Cr(III)g(-1) and 13 mgZn(II)g(-1), K(L) = 0.021l mg(-1)Cr(III) and 0.026l mg(-1) Zn(II); for the algal waste, q(L)=12 mgCr(III)g(-1) and 7mgZn(II)g(-1), K(L)=0.033lmg(-1) Cr(III) and 0.042l mg(-1) Zn(II); for the composite material, q(L) = 9 mgCr(III)g(-1) and 6 mgZn(II)g(-1), K(L)=0.032l mg(-1)Cr(III) and 0.034l mg(-1)Zn(II). The biosorbents exhibited a higher preference for Cr(III) ions and algae Gelidium is the best one. The pseudo-first-order Lagergren and pseudo-second-order models fitted well the kinetic data for the two metal ions. Kinetic constants and equilibrium uptake concentrations given by the pseudo-second-order model for an initial Cr(III) and Zn(II) concentration of approximately 100 mgl(-1), at pH 5.3 and 20 degrees C were k(2,ads)=0.04 g mg(-1)Cr(III)min(-1) and 0.07 g mg(-1)Zn(II)min(-1), q(eq)=11.9 mgCr(III)g(-1) and 9.5 mgZn(II)g(-1) for algae; k(2,ads)=0.17 g mg(-1)Cr(III)min(-1) and 0.19 g mg(-1)Zn(II)min(-1), q(eq)=8.3 mgCr(III)g(-1) and 5.6 mgZn(II)g(-1) for algal waste; k(2,ads)=0.01 g mg(-1)Cr(III)min(-1) and 0.18 g mg(-1)Zn(II)min(-1), q(eq)=8.0 mgCr(III)g(-1) and 4.4 mgZn(II)g(-1) for composite material. Biosorption was modelled using a batch adsorber mass transfer kinetic model, which successfully predicts Cr(III) and Zn(II) concentration profiles. The calculated average homogeneous diffusivities, D(h), were 4.2 x 10(-8), 8.3 x 10(-8) and 1.4 x 10(-8)cm(2)s(-1) for Cr(III) and 4.8 x 10(-8), 9.7 x 10(-8) and 6.2 x 10(-8)cm(2)s(-1) for Zn(II), respectively, for Gelidium, algal waste and composite material. The algal waste has the lower intraparticle resistance. PMID:17507158

  10. Serological Typing of Ureaplasma urealyticum Isolates from Urethritis Patients by an Agar Growth Inhibition Method

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Maurice C.; Lunceford, Carl D.

    1978-01-01

    An agar growth inhibition method for serotyping Ureaplasma urealyticum is described, and the results of applying this method to serotyping 338 strains of the organism are presented. The serotyped strains consisted of cloned isolates from male patients with primary and recurrent nongonococcal urethritis (NGU), isolates from symptomatic patients with other genitourinary tract infections and disorders, and isolates from asymptomatic carriers of U. urealyticum in the genitourinary tract (controls). Among 122 male patients with NGU, serotype 4 was associated most frequently (52%) with this disease at Camp Lejeune, N.C. Seventeen percent of the isolates were type 2. The remaining isolates consisted of types 1, 3, 6, and 8 and accounted for 6 to 9% each of the serotypes isolated from the NGU group. Types 5 and 7 were not isolated. Among 91 symptomatic patients with other genitourinary tract infections and disorders, U. urealyticum type 4 also was associated most frequently (37%) with these disorders. The remaining isolates, represented by types 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8, accounted for 9 to 15% each of the types isolated from this group. Type 5 was not isolated. Among 125 symptomfree carriers of U. urealyticum in the genitourinary tract, type 8 was recovered most frequently (30%), whereas type 4 was isolated next most frequently (24%). The remaining isolates consisted of types 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 and accounted for 2 to 15% each in this asymptomatic control group. Type 7 was not isolated. Of the present eight serotypes of U. urealyticum studied in this investigation, type 4 was associated most frequently with disease (NGU) and certain other disorders of the genitourinary tract at Camp Lejeune. A previously unknown association of U. urealyticum with frequently abacteriuric, unexplained pyuria (with or without urethral pruritis and dysuria) is reported, suggesting the existence of asymptomatic Ureaplasma urethritis. Images PMID:730828

  11. Thermodynamics of Blue Phases In Electric Fields

    E-print Network

    O. Henrich; D. Marenduzzo; K. Stratford; M. E. Cates

    2010-03-04

    We present extensive numerical studies to determine the phase diagrams of cubic and hexagonal blue phases in an electric field. We confirm the earlier prediction that hexagonal phases, both 2 and 3 dimensional, are stabilized by a field, but we significantly refine the phase boundaries, which were previously estimated by means of a semi-analytical approximation. In particular, our simulations show that the blue phase I -- blue phase II transition at fixed chirality is largely unaffected by electric field, as observed experimentally.

  12. Development of a selective myclobutanil agar (MBA) medium for the isolation of Fusarium species from asparagus fields.

    PubMed

    Vujanovic, Vladimir; Hamel, Chantal; Jabaji-Hare, Suha; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2002-09-01

    A new selective myclobutanil agar medium for the detection of Fusarium, species is proposed. Ten media formulations based on various selective agents (pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB), Rose Bengal, malachite green, sodium hypochlorite, captan, benomyl, chlorotalonil, myclobutanil, thiram, and cupric sulfate) were compared. First, mycelium growth and colony appearance of Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum, Fusarium sp., Fuisarium solani, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi, Penicillium sp., and Trichoderma viride isolates were compared. Second, the ability of the different media to isolate and enumerate fusaria from asparagus fields was evaluated. The myclobutanil-based medium showed the highest selectivity to Fusarium spp. growth but required a slightly longer incubation time (>5 d) than peptone-pentachloronitrobenzene-based agar (PPA) (< 5 d). PPA allowed a faster fusaria growth but also permited the growth of other moulds. The other media were less selective and did not allow to isolate fusaria or to differenciate them from other growing fungi. PMID:12455616

  13. [Clinical symptoms and circumastances of acute poisonings with fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and panther cap (Amanita pantherina)].

    PubMed

    ?ukasik-G?ebocka, Magdalena; Druzdz, Artur; Naskret, Maciej

    2011-01-01

    Mushroom poisonings in Poland are quite common, especially in summer and autumn, but fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and panther cap (Amanita pantherina) are rather rare cause of these intoxications. Fly agaric is a cause of deliberate poisoning, whereas panther cap poisoning also happens accidentally. The main toxins of these two mushrooms are ibotenic acid (pantherine, agarine), muscimol, muscazone and muscaridine. The other bioactive substances are stizolobic and stizolobinic acids and aminodicarboxyethylthiopropanoic acids. All these compounds are responsible for diverse picture of intoxication. An analysis of patients with Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina poisoning hospitalized in the Poznan Departament of Toxicology revealed that symptoms occurred after 30 minutes to 2 hours with vomiting, hallucinations, restlessness, increased psychomotor drive and central nervous system depression. Other antycholinergic symptoms like tachycardia and increased blood pressure, mydriasis, dry and red skin were seen only in a few cases. Acute respiratory failure was the most dangerous symptom observed in the course of poisoning. PMID:22010435

  14. Use of hydrogen peroxide treatment and crystal violet agar plates for selective recovery of bacteriophages from natural environments

    SciTech Connect

    Asghari, A.; Farrah, S.R.; Bitton, G. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States))

    1992-04-01

    Hydrogen peroxide inactivated bacteriophages and bacteria at different rates. A concentration of 0.1% hydrogen peroxide reduced the numbers of several bacteria by an average of 94% but caused an average of 25% inactivation in the numbers of bacteriophages tested. Treating natural samples with hydrogen peroxide selectively reduced the indigenous bacterial flora and permitted better visualization of plaques of lawns of Escherichia coli C-3000. In some cases indigenous gram-positive bacteria were relatively resistant to hydrogen peroxide, but their growth could be limited by incorporation of crystal violet into the bottom agar used for plaque assays. The use of hydrogen peroxide treatment and crystal violet-containing plates permitted recovery of more phages from natural samples than did other procedures, such as chloroform pretreatment or the use of selective plating agar such as EC medium.

  15. Use of the Chrome Azurol S Agar Plate Technique To Differentiate Strains and Field Isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii

    PubMed Central

    Ames-Gottfred, N. P.; Christie, B. R.; Jordan, D. C.

    1989-01-01

    Identification of Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium strains and especially of indigenous isolates continues to be one of the major difficulties associated with competition studies. Because there is no universally accepted method, the method of choice depends on preference, experience, and equipment. Here, an agar plate technique was used to distinguish strains and field isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii to provide a basis for identifying nodule occupants in further competition studies. A rapid plate technique, based on differential growth characteristics, complements other techniques such as serological reactions, particularly when antisera cross-react with nonhomologous strains. The technique involves culturing strains and isolates on chrome azurol S agar. Although similar responses were observed among some strains, the response was highly reproducible and was considered an ideal complementary technique used in conjunction with serological procedures. Strains with similar responses could often be differentiated by varying media components, such as the source of carbon. Images PMID:16347877

  16. Morphological responses of wheat to blue light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C.; Bugbee, B.

    1992-01-01

    Blue light significantly increased tillering in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown at the same photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). Plants were grown under two levels of blue light (400-500 nm) in a controlled environment with continuous irradiation. Plants received either 50 micromoles m-2 s-1 of blue light or 2 micromoles m-2 s-1 blue light from filtered metal halide lamps at a total irradiance of 200 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPF (400-700 nm). Plants tillered an average of 25% more under the higher level of blue light. Blue light also caused a small, but consistent, increase in main culm development, measured as Haun stage. Leaf length was reduced by higher levels of blue light, while plant dry-mass was not significantly affected by blue light. Applying the principle of equivalent light action, the results suggest that tillering and leaf elongation are mediated by the blue-UV light receptor(s) because phytochrome photoequilibrium for each treatment were nearly identical.

  17. Liofilchem® O.A. Listeria agar and direct CAMP test provided sooner Listeria monocytogenes identification from neonatal bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Savini, Vincenzo; Marrollo, Roberta; Serio, Annalisa; Paparella, Antonello; Argentieri, Angela Valentina; D’Antonio, Marianna; Coclite, Eleonora; Fusilli, Paola; Fazii, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes infection in pregnant women and newborns is a cause for serious concern, and invasive disease outcome strongly depends on prompt antibiotic therapy. To provide sooner identification from neonatal bacteremia we performed a CAMP test directly on positive blood aliquots and inoculated the Liofilchem® O.A. Listeria chromogenic agar as well, thus providing a 24-h turn-around time for response. PMID:24695762

  18. Comparison of disc diffusion & E test methods with agar dilution for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Haemophilus influenzae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anand Manoharan; Rekha Pai; V. Shankar; Kurien Thomas; M. K. Lalitha

    2003-01-01

    Methods: A total of 46 isolates of H. influenzae from various invasive sites were included as test strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method for ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) and cefotaxime. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) determination was performed by E test and agar dilution for the same set of antimicrobials. All tests were performed on Haemophilus

  19. A new locus in Cytophaga hutchinsonii involved in colony spreading on agar surfaces and individual cell gliding.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhe; Zhang, Cong; Wang, Sen; Cao, Jing; Zhang, Weican; Lu, Xuemei

    2015-07-01

    Cytophaga hutchinsonii glides rapidly over surfaces by an unknown mechanism without flagella and type IV pili and it can degrade crystalline cellulose efficiently by a novel mechanism. Tn4351 transposon mutagenesis was used to identify a new gene, CHU_1798, essential for colony spreading on agar surfaces. Further study showed that disruption of CHU_1798 caused non-spreading colonies on both soft and hard agar surfaces and individual cells were partially deficient in gliding on glass surfaces. The CHU_1798 mutant could digest cellulose as long as the cells were in direct contact with the cellulose, but it could not degrade cellulose powder buried in the agar plate. Scanning electron microscopy showed that individual mutant cells arranged irregularly on the cellulose fiber surface at an early stage of incubation, but later showed a regular parallel arrangement when there were plenty of cells and could spread along the cellulose fibers. These results suggest that CHU_1798 plays an important role in the motility of C. hutchinsonii and provide insight into the relation between cell motility and cellulose degradation. PMID:26066317

  20. PART A: TYPE OF COVERAGE HMO Colorado/Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield

    E-print Network

    PART A: TYPE OF COVERAGE HMO Colorado/Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield Colorado Higher Education PRIME PPO Health Plan Custom Plus (Traditional) TYPE OF PLAN Point of Service Preferred Provider Plan and copayment options reflect the amount the covered person will pay. BlueAdvantage HMO

  1. Convergence history & Costs. Krylov (light blue) versus nested Krylov (dark blue + red area).

    E-print Network

    Sleijpen, Gerard

    Convergence history & Costs. Krylov (light blue) versus nested Krylov (dark blue + red area). Costs are proportional to the shaded area: blue for inner, red for outer steps. Relaxation strategies for nested Krylov analysis will be illustrated with an example that models global ocean circulation. 1 Introduction

  2. Nicole Hudson Sillerman Center Summer Internship at the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts Foundation

    E-print Network

    Snider, Barry B.

    Foundation Reflection Paper As a result of the generosity of the Sillerman Center for the Advancement of Philanthropy, I had the privilege of interning at The Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts Foundation (the Foundation) during the summer of 2011. The Foundation was founded in 2001 with an endowment from Blue Cross

  3. Characterization and optimization of hydrogen production by a salt water blue-green alga Oscillatoria sp. Miami BG 7. II - Use of immobilization for enhancement of hydrogen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phlips, E. J.; Mitsui, A.

    1986-01-01

    The technique of cellular immobilization was applied to the process of hydrogen photoproduction of nonheterocystous, filamentous marine blue-green alga, Oscillatoria sp. Miami BG 7. Immobilization with agar significantly improved the rate and longevity of hydrogen production, compared to free cell suspensions. Rates of H2 production in excess of 13 microliters H2 mg dry/wt h were observed and hydrogen production was sustained for three weeks. Immobilization also provided some stabilization to environmental variability and was adaptable to outdoor light conditions. In general, immobilization provides significant advantages for the production and maintenance of hydrogen photoproduction for this strain.

  4. Painting Your Home Blue David Cypher

    E-print Network

    Painting Your Home Blue David Cypher Advanced Network Technologies Division (ANTD) / ITL / NIST (301) 975-4855, Fax: (301) 590 0932 david.cypher@nist.gov When looking to network devices in the home;Painting Your Home Blue David Cypher Information Technology Laboratory #12;BluetoothTM Wireless Networking

  5. Phytochemistry: Structure of the blue cornflower pigment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaaki Shiono; Naohiro Matsugaki; Kosaku Takeda

    2005-01-01

    The same anthocyanin pigment makes roses red but cornflowers blue, a phenomenon that has so far not been entirely explained. Here we describe the X-ray crystal structure of the cornflower pigment, which reveals that its blue colour arises from a complex of six molecules each of anthocyanin and flavone, with one ferric iron, one magnesium and two calcium ions. We

  6. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium...incorporated in the mixture in order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  7. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium...incorporated in the mixture in order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  8. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium...incorporated in the mixture in order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  9. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium...incorporated in the mixture in order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  10. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium...incorporated in the mixture in order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  11. Blue enhanced light sources: opportunities and risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Dieter

    2012-03-01

    Natural daylight is characterized by high proportions of blue light. By proof of a third type of photoreceptor in the human eye which is only sensitive in this spectral region and by subsequent studies it has become obvious that these blue proportions are essential for human health and well being. In various studies beneficial effects of indoor lighting with higher blue spectral proportions have been proven. On the other hand with increasing use of light sources having enhanced blue light for indoor illumination questions are arising about potential health risks attributed to blue light. Especially LED are showing distinct emission characteristics in the blue. Recently the French agency for food, environmental and occupational health & safety ANSES have raised the question on health issues related to LED light sources and have claimed to avoid use of LED for lighting in schools. In this paper parameters which are relevant for potential health risks will be shown and their contribution to risk factors will quantitatively be discussed. It will be shown how to differentiate between photometric parameters for assessment of beneficial as well as hazardous effects. Guidelines will be discussed how blue enhanced light sources can be used in applications to optimally support human health and well being and simultaneously avoid any risks attributed to blue light by a proper design of lighting parameters. In the conclusion it will be shown that no inherent health risks are related to LED lighting with a proper lighting design.

  12. Instituting code blue drills in the OR.

    PubMed

    Lanfranchi, Joy A

    2013-04-01

    A code blue in the OR is a low-volume, high-risk event. To be effective during a code blue event, perioperative personnel must be able to properly execute a response plan and perform seldom-used skills and procedures. I developed and implemented a code blue drill educational experience for OR staff members that included a review of code blue policy, how to use a defibrillator, and simulated code blue scenarios. In addition, I worked with educational facilitators to provide an assessment of the personnel who performed the simulated code blue drills to identify key learning opportunities, such as gaps in communication, poor performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, ineffective delegation skills, and lack of assertiveness. One month after the educational experience, all team members passed an observed competency for responding to a code blue in a simulation laboratory. These results show the effectiveness of the educational experience as part of the code blue drills program in the hospital's main OR. PMID:23531309

  13. Long-persistence blue phosphors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, William M. (Inventor); Jia, Weiyi (Inventor); Lu, Lizhu (Inventor); Yuan, Huabiao (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to phosphors including long-persistence blue phosphors. Phosphors of the invention are represented by the general formula: MO . mAl.sub.2 O.sub.3 :Eu.sup.2+,R.sup.3+ wherein m is a number ranging from about 1.6 to about 2.2, M is Sr or a combination of Sr with Ca and Ba or both, R.sup.3+ is a trivalent metal ion or trivalent Bi or a mixture of these trivalent ions, Eu.sup.2+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M, and R.sup.3+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M. Phosphors of this invention include powders, ceramics, single crystals and single crystal fibers. A method of manufacturing improved phosphors and a method of manufacturing single crystal phosphors are also provided.

  14. Methylthymol blue in Fricke gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penev, K. I.; Mequanint, K.

    2015-01-01

    The initial trial of methylthymol blue (MTB) as a chelator for ferric iron in Fricke gel dosimeters, used for three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry in cancer radiotherapy, is reported. MTB is a structural analogue of the conventionally used xylenol orange (XO); however, the absorbance spectrum of the ferric-MTB complex is shifted to higher wavelengths, which should allow for lower amount of light scattering during gel scanning. In this study, two gelatin substrates, two sources of XO and one source of MTB have been compared. The MTB- containing gels exhibited similar dose response and diffusion coefficient to the XO-containing gels at their wavelengths of maximum absorption (620 and 585 nm, respectively). In addition, the MTB gels gave an excellent dose response at 633 nm, which is an important wavelength that is already used with other 3D dosimeters.

  15. Elementary theorems regarding blue isocurvature perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Yoo, Hojin

    2015-04-01

    Blue CDM-photon isocurvature perturbations are attractive in terms of observability and may be typical from the perspective of generic mass relations in supergravity. We present and apply three theorems useful for blue isocurvature perturbations arising from linear spectator scalar fields. In the process, we give a more precise formula for the blue spectrum associated with the axion model of Kasuya and Kawasaki [Axion Isocurvature Fluctuations with Extremely Blue Spectrum, Phys. Rev. D 80, 023516 (2009).], which can in a parametric corner give a factor of O (10 ) correction. We explain how a conserved current associated with Peccei-Quinn symmetry plays a crucial role and explicitly plot several example spectra including the breaks in the spectra. We also resolve a little puzzle arising from a naive multiplication of isocurvature expression that sheds light on the gravitational imprint of the adiabatic perturbations on the fields responsible for blue isocurvature fluctuations.

  16. Flexoelectric switching in cholesteric blue phases

    E-print Network

    A. Tiribocchi; M. E. Cates; G. Gonnella; D. Marenduzzo; E. Orlandini

    2013-03-25

    We present computer simulations of the response of a flexoelectric blue phase network, either in bulk or under confinement, to an applied field. We find a transition in the bulk between the blue phase I disclination network and a parallel array of disclinations along the direction of the applied field. Upon switching off the field, the system is unable to reconstruct the original blue phase but gets stuck in a metastable phase. Blue phase II is comparatively much less affected by the field. In confined samples, the anchoring at the walls and the geometry of the device lead to the stabilisation of further structures, including field-aligned disclination loops, splayed nematic patterns, and yet more metastable states. Our results are relevant to the understanding of the switching dynamics for a class of new, "superstable", blue phases which are composed of bimesogenic liquid crystals, as these materials combine anomalously large flexoelectric coefficients, and low or near-zero dielectric anisotropy.

  17. Blue Stragglers After the Main Sequence

    E-print Network

    Alison Sills; Amanda Karakas; John Lattanzio

    2008-11-18

    We study the post-main sequence evolution of products of collisions between main sequence stars (blue stragglers), with particular interest paid to the horizontal branch and asymptotic giant branch phases. We found that the blue straggler progeny populate the colour-magnitude diagram slightly blueward of the red giant branch and between 0.2 and 1 magnitudes brighter than the horizontal branch. We also found that the lifetimes of collision products on the horizontal branch is consistent with the numbers of so-called "evolved blue straggler stars" (E-BSS) identified by various authors in a number of globular clusters, and is almost independent of mass or initial composition profile. The observed ratio of the number of E-BSS to blue stragglers points to a main sequence lifetime for blue stragglers of approximately 1-2 Gyr on average.

  18. Featured Molecules: Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, William F.; Wildman, Randall J.

    2003-05-01

    The WebWare molecules of the month for May are featured in several articles in this issue. "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?" discusses the pharmaceutical uses of methylene blue and its development as the first synthetic drug used against a specific disease. The JCE Classroom Activity "Out of the Blue" and the article "Greening the Blue Bottle" feature methylene blue and ascorbic acid as two key ingredients in the formulation of the blue bottle. You can also see a colorful example of these two molecules in action on the cover. "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist" describes an experiment to determine the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of citrus fruits and challenges students, as eighteenth-century sea captains, to decide the best fruit to take on a long voyage. Fully manipulable (Chime) versions of these and other molecules are available at Only@JCE Online.

  19. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BLUE RIDGE TUNNEL (LEFT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BLUE RIDGE TUNNEL (LEFT) FROM SOUTHEAST. ORIGINAL BLUE RIDGE R.R. (CROZET) TUNNEL IS VISIBLE AT RIGHT. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Blue Ridge Tunnel, Highway 250 at Rockfish Gap, Afton, Nelson County, VA

  20. 7 CFR 1217.2 - Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC. 1217.2 Section...Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.2 Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC. Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC means the...

  1. 77 FR 55895 - Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ...Administration Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Notice of permanent closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ...it was permanently closing Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ), Cincinnati,...

  2. 7 CFR 1217.2 - Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC. 1217.2 Section...Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.2 Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC. Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC means the...

  3. 75 FR 25850 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...Background: The President directed that the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's...

  4. 76 FR 1608 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...Background: The President directed that the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's...

  5. 7 CFR 1217.2 - Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC. 1217.2 Section...Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.2 Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC. Blue Ribbon Commission or BRC means the...

  6. 75 FR 81592 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...Background: The President directed that the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's...

  7. 75 FR 36647 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear...Background: The President directed that the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's...

  8. Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci: Comparison of Phenotypic and Genotypic Oxacillin Susceptibility Tests and Evaluation of the Agar Screening Test by Using Different Concentrations of Oxacillin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosana B. R. Ferreira; Natalia L. P. Iorio; Karoline L. Malvar; Ana Paula; F. Nunes; Leila S. Fonseca; Carla C. R. Bastos; Katia R. N. Santos

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the oxacillin susceptibilities of 152 coagulase-negative staphylococcal (CoNS) strains of 12 species by disk diffusion; agar dilution; E-test; the slide latex agglutination test (Slidex MRSA Detection test; bioMerieux S\\/A, Paris, France); the agar screening test with 1, 2, 4, or 6 g of oxacillin per ml and incubation for 24 or 48 h; and detection of the

  9. Optimization of modified Middlebrook 7H11 agar for isolation of Mycobacterium bovis from raw milk cheese.

    PubMed

    Forgrave, R; Donaghy, J A; Fisher, A; Rowe, M T

    2014-10-01

    Reports have highlighted the absence of contemporary peer reviewed publications pertaining to Mycobacterium bovis culture from raw milk and cheese. By replicating traditional methods, cheese-making methodology and equipment were devised to produce Cheddar (n = 6) and Caerphilly (n = 3) artificially contaminated with M. bovis (three genotypes) under stringent laboratory-containment guidelines for handling hazardous microbiological material. Middlebrook 7H11, modified for M. bovis isolation, was assessed for capacity to enumerate M. bovis despite changing cheese microflora and prolonged M. bovis exposure to the cheese matrix using maturing cheese test portions (n = 63; up to 16 weeks). Malachite green (MG) containing media isolated M. bovis at significantly (P < 0·05) lower levels than unmodified Middlebrook 7H11 agar despite MG being a common adjunct of Middlebrook 7H11 agar modified for M. bovis growth. Subsequently, a selective MG-free Middlebrook 7H11 agar modified using haemolysed red cells and calf serum was demonstrated as the best performing (P < 0·05) medium for recovery of M. bovis from typical UK cheese types, Cheddar and Caerphilly. Significance and impact of the study: Following increased M. bovis infection of UK cattle, the risk posed to consumers from consumption of unpasteurized milk and dairy products has changed. Furthermore, published methods for the culture and molecular detection of M. bovis in raw milk products are limited. Cheese-making protocols and M. bovis culture media reported here provide tools for further investigation of M. bovis survival during all stages of cheese manufacture and could inform future assessment of the risk to consumers from M. bovis contamination of unpasteurized dairy products. PMID:24888395

  10. Performance of an Agar Dilution Method and a Vitek 2 Card for Detection of Inducible Clindamycin Resistance in Staphylococcus spp.?

    PubMed Central

    Lavallée, Christian; Rouleau, Danielle; Gaudreau, Christiane; Roger, Michel; Tsimiklis, Catherine; Locas, Marie-Claude; Gagnon, Simon; Delorme, Jocelyn; Labbé, Annie-Claude

    2010-01-01

    The D-zone test detects inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus spp. Two other methods not described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) are available to test for this resistance mechanism: an agar dilution method and new Vitek 2 cards. This study evaluated the performance of both methods in detecting inducible clindamycin resistance. Nonduplicate clinical strains of Staphylococcus spp. (111 Staphylococcus aureus and 52 coagulase-negative staphylococcus strains), intermediate or resistant to erythromycin but susceptible to clindamycin, were obtained from three hospitals in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Molecular analysis to detect resistance genes was conducted on all strains. A Mueller-Hinton agar containing 1 mg of erythromycin and 0.5 mg of clindamycin/liter was used for the dilution method, and two inocula were tested: 104 and 105 CFU per spot. Plates were read at 24 and 48 h. The Vitek 2 AST-P580 card was used according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The results were compared to those of the D-zone test. The D-zone test was positive in 134 of 163 (82%) strains. With the 104 CFU inoculum, the sensitivities were 84 and 99% at 24 and 48 h, respectively. The 105 CFU inoculum increased the sensitivities at 24 and 48 h to 91 and 100%, respectively. The specificity was 100% for the 104 CFU inoculum at 24 h and 97% for the other combinations. The sensitivity and specificity for the Vitek 2 card were 93 and 100%, respectively. The performance of both the agar dilution method and the Vitek 2 card was good, but these methods were not as sensitive as the D-zone test at 24 h. PMID:20164285

  11. Retinal Effects Of Blue Light Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, William T.; Mueller, Harold A.; Ruffolo, J. J.

    1980-10-01

    Recent research has shown that blue light exposure is an important factor in certain types of retinal injury. The mammalian ocular media transmits the spectral band 400-1400 nm to the retina. The short wavelengths (400-550 nm) produce a photochemical or actinic type of damage, while the longer wavelengths (550-1400 nm) produce thermal damage. Distinction between the two types of retinal damage are discussed briefly and the importance of the blue light effect for solar retinitis and eclipse blindness is emphasized. The significance of blue light retinal injury is summarized for various environmental and occupational exposures.

  12. Blue jets, blue starters and other blue luminous events observed by ISUAL payload on the FORMOSAT-2 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, H.; Hsu, R.; Kuo, C.; Chen, A. B.; Lee, Y.; Chiang, P.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.; Takahashi, Y.; Fukunishi, H.; Lee, L.

    2005-12-01

    Blue jets and blue starters were first discovered in 1994 (Wescott, et. al. GRL, 22, 1209, 1995; GRL, 23, 2153, 1996). During 2000 STEPS campaign, other blue luminous events were also observed to emerge directly from cloud-top and were named gnomes and pixies (Lyons, et. al. BAMS, 445, 2003). The spectroscopic properties of blue starters were investigated in EXL98 campaign and no 2PN2 emission was detected. However using 1NN2+ images at 427.8nm and color TV images, the degree of ionization was estimated to be 3% (Wescott, et. al. JGR, 106, 21549, 2001). Among the thousands of TLEs registered by ISUAL payload onboard the FORMOSAT-2 (Chern et. al. JASTP 65, 647, 2003), more than two hundreds of them were identified as blue luminous events. These events have significant blue channel (370-450nm) signals in the ISUAL array photometer (AP), but have no red channel (530-650nm) emission. In the ISUAL spectrophotometer (SP), they also have strong 2PN2 (337nm) and 1NN2+ (391.4nm) emissions; but only a few also have N2-LBH (150-290nm) or N2 1PG (608.9-753.4nm) emissions and none has SP#5 channel (777.4nm) signal. The AP and SP spectrophometric data indicates that these blue luminous events are not related to lightning. The ISUAL ICCD images, which were taken through the red filter (633-750nm), show that some dim red emissions are emitted from the bottom of these blue luminous events near the cloud-top elevation; for some events the dim red emission can extend for >10km. Based the current spectroscopic information and their luminous duration (<200ms), these events are very similar to the blue jets, blue starters, gnomes or pixies. In this paper, the brightness, the characteristic and average electron energies of these events will be presented. The meteorological conditions for these blue luminous events to occur will also be discussed.

  13. Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site

    ScienceCinema

    Paul Saueressig

    2010-09-01

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.

  14. Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Saueressig

    2010-07-14

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.

  15. Elementary Theorems Regarding Blue Isocurvature Perturbations

    E-print Network

    Daniel J. H. Chung; Hojin Yoo

    2015-01-23

    Blue CDM-photon isocurvature perturbations are attractive in terms of observability and may be typical from the perspective of generic mass relations in supergravity. We present and apply three theorems useful for blue isocurvature perturbations arising from linear spectator scalar fields. In the process, we give a more precise formula for the blue spectrum associated with the axion model of 0904.3800, which can in a parametric corner give a factor of O(10) correction. We explain how a conserved current associated with Peccei-Quinn symmetry plays a crucial role and explicitly plot several example spectra including the breaks in the spectra. We also resolve a little puzzle arising from a naive multiplication of isocurvature expression that sheds light on the gravitational imprint of the adiabatic perturbations on the fields responsible for blue isocurvature fluctuations.

  16. Elementary Theorems Regarding Blue Isocurvature Perturbations

    E-print Network

    Chung, Daniel J H

    2015-01-01

    Blue CDM-photon isocurvature perturbations are attractive in terms of observability and may be typical from the perspective of generic mass relations in supergravity. We present and apply three theorems useful for blue isocurvature perturbations arising from linear spectator scalar fields. In the process, we give a more precise formula for the blue spectrum associated with the work of 0904.3800, which can in a parametric corner give a factor of O(10) correction. We explain how a conserved current associated with Peccei-Quinn symmetry plays a crucial role and explicitly plot several example spectra including the breaks in the spectra. We also resolve a little puzzle arising from a naive multiplication of isocurvature expression that sheds light on the gravitational imprint of the adiabatic perturbations on the fields responsible for blue isocurvature fluctuations.

  17. Biological and chemical detection of fumonisins produced on agar medium by Fusarium verticillioides isolates collected from corn in Sohag, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Aboul-Nasr, M B; Obied-Allah, M R A

    2013-08-01

    Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg is among the most common Fusarium species corn pathogens worldwide, and has been recognized as a fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) producer. In the present work, extracts of 58 F. verticillioides isolates from corn samples collected from Sohag Governorate, Egypt, were tested for their biotoxicity and production of fumonisin toxins. Forty-four Fusarium verticillioides isolates out of 58 tested produced FB1 or FB1 and FB2 (15 and 29 isolates, respectively) on potato-sucrose agar medium, detected by TLC, whereas the other 14 isolates did not produce fumonisin toxins. HPLC crude extract analysis confirmed the results from TLC plates. Brine shrimp larvae as well as the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeuroginosa showed low bio-sensitivity towards the F. verticillioides crude extract toxicity, whereas the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis, especially B. subtilis, showed higher sensitivity towards the tested Fusarium crude extracts. These results enabled us to bio-evaluate and chemically detect fumonisin mycotoxins using a simple agar medium technique. PMID:23760819

  18. In vitro fermentation and prebiotic potential of novel low molecular weight polysaccharides derived from agar and alginate seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Ramnani, Priya; Chitarrari, Roberto; Tuohy, Kieran; Grant, John; Hotchkiss, Sarah; Philp, Kevin; Campbell, Ross; Gill, Chris; Rowland, Ian

    2012-02-01

    Fermentation properties and prebiotic potential of novel low molecular weight polysaccharides (LMWPs) derived from agar and alginate bearing seaweeds was investigated. Ten LMWPs were supplemented to pH, temperature controlled anaerobic batch cultures inoculated with human feces from three donors, in triplicate. Microbiota changes were monitored using Fluorescent in-situ hybridization and short chain fatty acids, the fermentation end products were analysed using gas chromatography. Of the ten LMWPs tested, Gelidium seaweed CC2253 of molecular weight 64.64 KDa showed a significant increase in bifidobacterial populations from log(10) 8.06 at 0 h to log(10) 8.55 at 24 h (p = 0.018). For total bacterial populations, alginate powder CC2238 produced a significant increase from log(10) 9.01 at 0 h to log(10) 9.58 at 24 h (p = 0.032). No changes were observed in the other bacterial groups tested viz. Bacteroides, Lactobacilli/Enterococci, Eubacterium rectale/Clostridium coccoides and Clostridium histolyticum. The polysaccharides also showed significant increases in total SCFA production, particularly acetic and propionic acids, indicating that they were readily fermented. In conclusion, some LMWPs derived from agar and alginate bearing seaweeds were fermented by gut bacteria and exhibited potential to be used a novel source of prebiotics. PMID:21924371

  19. The Blue Obelisk - Interoperability in Chemical Informatics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajarshi Guha; Michael T. Howard; Geoffrey R. Hutchison; Peter Murray-rust; Henry S. Rzepa; Christoph Steinbeck; Jörg K. Wegner; Egon L. Willighagen

    2006-01-01

    The Blue Obelisk Movement (http:\\/\\/www.blueobelisk.org\\/) is the name used by a diverse Internet group promoting reusable chemistry via open source software development, consistent and complimentary chemoinformatics research, open data, and open standards. We outline recent examples of cooperation in the Blue Obelisk group:  a shared dictionary of algorithms and implementations in chemoinformatics algorithms drawing from our various software projects; a

  20. Axion isocurvature fluctuations with extremely blue spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Kasuya, Shinta [Department of Information Science, Kanagawa University, Kanagawa 259-1293 (Japan); Kawasaki, Masahiro [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    We construct an axion model for generating isocurvature fluctuations with blue spectrum, n{sub iso}=2-4, which is suggested by recent analyses of admixture of adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations with independent spectral indices, n{sub ad}{ne}n{sub iso}. The distinctive feature of the model is that the spectrum is blue at large scales while scale invariant at small scales. This is naturally realized by the dynamics of the Peccei-Quinn scalar field.

  1. Barium Enhancement in NGC 6819 Blue Stragglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliman, Katelyn; Mathieu, Robert D.; Schuler, Simon C.

    2015-01-01

    Possible formation pathways for blue straggler stars include mergers in hierarchical triple systems, stellar collisions during dynamical encounters, and mass transfer from a giant companion. Extensive work on the blue stragglers in the old open cluster NGC 188 (7 Gyr) has led to exciting discoveries including a binary secondary mass distribution peaked at 0.5 MSolar and the detection of three young white dwarf binary companions. These indicate that mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch star is the dominant mechanism for blue straggler formation in open clusters. Such mass transfer events should pollute the surface abundance of the blue straggler with nucleosynthesis products from the evolved donor. The other formation pathways, mergers and collisions, are predicted to produce no such enhancements. In an effort to move beyond NGC 188 and into other open clusters we present the first results of a surface abundance study of the blue stragglers in the intermediate-aged open cluster NGC 6819 (2.5 Gyr) using the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope. This part of our study centers on the s-process element barium as a tracer of formation via mass transfer. We compare the blue straggler surface abundance of barium to that of a sample of main-sequence stars in NGC 6819 and find multiple blue stragglers with anomalous abundances. Surprising, most of the blue stragglers with barium anomalies show no radial-velocity evidence for a companion. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the National Science Foundation under grant AST- 0908082 and the Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium.

  2. Phytochemistry: structure of the blue cornflower pigment.

    PubMed

    Shiono, Masaaki; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Takeda, Kosaku

    2005-08-11

    The same anthocyanin pigment makes roses red but cornflowers blue, a phenomenon that has so far not been entirely explained. Here we describe the X-ray crystal structure of the cornflower pigment, which reveals that its blue colour arises from a complex of six molecules each of anthocyanin and flavone, with one ferric iron, one magnesium and two calcium ions. We believe that this tetrametal complex may represent a previously undiscovered type of supermolecular pigment. PMID:16094358

  3. Science Shorts: Nothing But Blue Skies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barbara Adams

    2006-12-01

    Why is the sky blue? Why are sunsets orange and red? These are some of children's favorite questions to ask, but answering them at a level appropriate for primary students' level of understanding can be tricky, even for veteran teachers. In order to understand why the sky is blue and other related questions, we need to know a bit about the makeup of Earth's atmosphere and the effects of light. This month's Science Shorts can help.

  4. Red, White and Blue II Demonstration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Science House

    2014-02-03

    In this chemistry demonstration, learners investigate the rule "likes dissolve likes" by combining three, immiscible liquids to create a colorful density column. Learners are asked, "What color will result from mixing red, white, and blue?" They will be surprised by the answer as a beaker is revealed with red syrup on the bottom, white milk over the syrup and blue lamp oil on top. This is a perfect activity to use to demonstrate density and polarity, especially around the 4th of July.

  5. Eye damage control by reduced blue illumination.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Toshihiko; Nakanishi-Ueda, Takako; Yasuhara, Hajime; Koide, Ryohei; Dawson, William W

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate that a blue light and ultraviolet cut-off filter (blue filter) could reduce short-wavelength retina/RPE damage threshold by a continuous spectrum source. Sixteen normal eyes of two rhesus monkeys and six cynomolgus monkeys were subjected to macular irradiation of 20, 24, 27.4, 30, 35, 45, 50 and 60 J/cm(2) energy densities. The values of energy density were measured before the blue filter. Lesions were measured before and at 2 and 30 days after irradiation of a 2.8 mm diameter region within the macular arcade. Measures were fundoscopy, fluorescein angiography and long wavelength scanning by the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph (HRT) unit. The lesions, which were produced, were scored and compared to irradiant energy density of the blue LED (NSPB500S, Nichia, Tokushima, Japan). The exposure at the 20 J/cm(2) produced no detectable result at 2 or 30 days. Exposure at 35 J/cm(2) showed definite lesion production without blue filter. With the filter added there was one indication of minor change. At 60 J/cm(2) there was extensive heavy, enduring damage without the filter and with the filter damage was present but was significantly attenuated. These results strongly support the conclusion that the blue filter attenuation reduces the frequency of damage by exposure. This experimental system is a useful model for normal human eye aging and continuous spectrum environment irradiance. PMID:19660452

  6. STRIATAL NEUROPROTECTION WITH METHYLENE BLUE

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Julio C.; Simola, Nicola; Kermath, Bailey A.; Kane, Jacqueline R.; Schallert, Timothy; Gonzalez-Lima, F.

    2009-01-01

    Recent literature indicates that low-dose methylene blue (MB), an autoxidizable dye with powerful antioxidant and metabolic enhancing properties, might prevent neurotoxin-induced neural damage and associated functional deficits. This study evaluated whether local MB may counteract the anatomical and functional effects of the intrastriatal infusion of the neurotoxin rotenone in the rat. To this end, stereological analyses of striatal lesion volumes were performed and changes in oxidative energy metabolism in the striatum and related motor regions were mapped using cytochrome oxidase histochemistry. The influence of MB on striatal levels of oxidative stress induced by rotenone was determined, and behavioral tests were used to investigate the effect of unilateral MB co-administration on motor asymmetry. Rotenone induced large anatomical lesions resembling “metabolic strokes”, whose size was greatly reduced in MB-treated rats. Moreover, MB prevented the decrease in cytochrome oxidase activity and the perilesional increase in oxidative stress associated with rotenone infusion in the striatum. MB also prevented the indirect effects of the rotenone-induced lesion on cytochrome oxidase activity in related motor regions, such as the striatal regions rostral and caudal to the lesion, the substantia nigra compacta and reticulata, and the pedunculopontine nucleus. At a network level, MB maintained a global strengthening of functional connectivity in basal ganglia-thalamocortical motor circuits, as opposed to the functional decoupling observed in rotenone-alone subjects. Finally, MB partially prevented the behavioral sensorimotor asymmetries elicited by rotenone. These results are consistent with protective effects of MB against neurotoxic damage in the brain parenchyma. This study provides the first demonstration of the anatomical, metabolic and behavioral neuroprotective effects of MB in the striatum in vivo, and supports the notion that MB could be a valuable intervention against neural damage associated with oxidative stress and energy hypometabolism. PMID:19596056

  7. Inhomogeneous problems Q. How do you kill a blue elephant?

    E-print Network

    DeTurck, Dennis

    Inhomogeneous problems Q. How do you kill a blue elephant? A. With a blue elephant gun Q. How do you kill a pink elephant? A. Squeeze its trunk until it turns blue, and then shoot it with a blue elephant gun. Q. How do you kill a white elephant? A. Tickle it pink, then squeeze its trunk until it turns

  8. Blue Choice New EnglandSM Summary of Benefits

    E-print Network

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    Blue Choice New EnglandSM Summary of Benefits Williams College An Association of Independent Blue Cross and Blue Shield Plans This health plan meets Minimum Creditable Coverage Standards Reform Law. #12;Your Care Your Primary Care Provider. When you enroll in Blue Choice New England, you

  9. New aniline blue dye medium for rapid identification and isolation of Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, M C; Fung, D Y; Grant, R; White, J; Brown, T

    1991-01-01

    Organic dyes have long been used in diagnostic microbiology to differentiate species by color reactions. We studied the ability of a new noninhibitory medium, YM agar containing 0.01% aniline blue WS dye, Colour Index 42780 (YMAB), to identify Candida albicans among 1,554 yeast specimens obtained from seven clinical laboratories. Appropriate American Type Culture Collection and other characterized strains served as controls. A total of 487 of the clinical strains were identified as C. albicans. The remainder were other Candida species and non-Candida yeasts. Clinical isolates and controls were grown on Sabouraud agar for 18 h at 30 degrees C and then transferred to YMAB. Plates were incubated for 12 to 18 h at 30 degrees C, and colonies were observed for yellow-green fluorescence under long-wave UV light (A365). All control strains of C. albicans and Candida stellatoidea fluoresced, as did 480 of the 490 isolates designated as C. albicans (which included 3 strains of C. stellatoidea). Cells of C. albicans grown on YMAB produced germ tubes in serum. Only five of the other 1,062 non-C. albicans yeasts fluoresced. The sensitivity and specificity were 98.0 and 99.5%, respectively, with a predictive value of 99.1%. A fluorescent metabolite was found in cell wall particulate fractions of C. albicans sonic extracts grown on YMAB but not in non-C. albicans yeasts. This metabolite showed the same spectral curve as those of metabolites from whole cells in a recording spectrofluorometer when it was excited at 400 nm and scanned from 420 to 550 nm. Thus, growth on YMAB generates the production of a fluorescent moiety that can be used to specifically identify C. albicans within 12 to 18 h. Images PMID:1864924

  10. The Arabidopsis blue light receptor cryptochrome 2 is a nuclear protein regulated by a blue light-dependent post-

    E-print Network

    Lin, Chentao

    The Arabidopsis blue light receptor cryptochrome 2 is a nuclear protein regulated by a blue light Charles E. Young Dr. South, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1606, USA Summary Cryptochrome 2 is a ¯avin-type blue light receptor mediating ¯oral induction in response to photoperiod and a blue light-induced hypocotyl

  11. Pollinia-borne chemicals that induce early postpollination effects in Dendrobium flowers move rapidly into agar blocks and include ACC and compounds with auxin activity.

    PubMed

    Promyou, Surassawadee; Ketsa, Saichol; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2014-11-15

    The early visible effects of pollination in orchids are likely due to pollinia-borne chemicals. In Dendrobium we tested whether such compounds were water soluble and would diffuse in solid-aqueous phase, and determined both 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) concentrations and auxin activity. Following pollination, the flower peduncle showed epinastic movement, followed by yellowing of the flower lip, flower senescence and ovary growth. Placing pollinia on agar blocks for 3, 6, 9 or 12h, prior to transferring them to the stigma, increased the time to these early postpollination effects or prevented them. Placing agar blocks that had been used for contact with the pollinia on the stigma also induced the early postpollination effects. The concentrations of ACC, the direct precursor of ethylene, in pollinia was lower the longer the pollinia had been in contact with the agar blocks, whilst the ACC content in the agar blocks increased with the period of contact. The auxin activity of the agar blocks also increased with the time of contact with pollinia. It is concluded that chemicals in the pollinia are responsible for the early visible postpollination effects, and that these (a) rapidly diffuse in aqueous media, and (b) comprise at least ACC and compounds with auxin activity. The idea is discussed that ACC plus auxin is adequate for the production of the early postpollination effects. PMID:25240156

  12. The fitness and weight-loss benefits are administered by Blue Cross Blue Shield of

    E-print Network

    Polz, Martin

    and strength training exercise equipment qualifies you for this benefit. Examples of qualifying memberships, exercise equipment, or clothing. Weight-Loss Benefit The Weight-Loss Benefit allows you or any coveredThe fitness and weight-loss benefits are administered by Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts

  13. Use of big data by Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Helm-Murtagh, Susan C

    2014-01-01

    The health care industry is grappling with the challenges of working with and analyzing large, complex, diverse data sets. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina provides several promising examples of how big data can be used to reduce the cost of care, to predict and manage health risks, and to improve clinical outcomes. PMID:24830494

  14. The conversion and settlement of Georgia Blue: are consumer groups still singing the blues?

    PubMed

    Starr, N J

    1999-01-01

    As more Blue Cross/Blue Shield Organizations employ various means to convert to for-profit status, myriad issues arise concerning the proper treatment of assets that were accumulated during the not-for-profit years of such organizations. Moreover, state officials face pressure from all sides to assure that the conversion process is "fair." In the following Article, the author examines the conversion of Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Georgia to demonstrate the various conversion issues that arise under traditional legal principles--as well as the means by which that Blue employed newly enacted legislation to avoid many of the requirements that otherwise would have attended its conversion. PMID:10569845

  15. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy on Streptococcus mutans using curcumin and toluidine blue activated by a novel LED device.

    PubMed

    Paschoal, Marco Aurelio; Lin, Meng; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; Duarte, Simone

    2015-02-01

    Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is an antimicrobial approach that uses photosensitizers (PS) in combination with light sources at specific wavelengths aiming the production of reactive oxygen species. The long illumination time necessary to active PS is a challenge in PACT. Thus, this study investigated the antimicrobial effect of a novel single source of light-emitting diode (LED) light that covers the entire spectrum of visible light beyond interchangeable probes at high power intensity. Blue and red LED probes were used into different exposure times to active different concentrations of curcumin (C) and toluidine blue (T) on planktonic suspensions of Streptococcus mutans UA 159 (S. mutans). S. mutans were standardized and submitted to (1) PACT treatment at three concentrations of C and T exposure at three radiant exposures of a blue LED (BL) (C+BL+) and a red LED (RL) (T+RL+), (2) C (C+BL-) or T alone (T+RL-), (3) both LED lights (C-BL+ and T-RL+), and (4) neither PS nor LED illumination (control group: C-BL- and T-RL-). Aliquots of the suspensions were diluted and cultured on blood agar plates. The number of colony-forming units was calculated after 48 h. The groups submitted to PACT presented a lethal photokilling rate to all PS concentrations at tested dosimetries. The comparison to control group when PS and LED lights used alone demonstrated no decrease in the number of viable bacterial counts. The novel LED device in combination with curcumin and toluidine blue promoted an effective photoinactivation of S. mutans suspensions at ultrashort light illumination times. PMID:24249357

  16. Formation Channels for Blue Straggler Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Melvyn B.

    In this chapter we consider two formation channels for blue straggler stars: (1) the merger of two single stars via a collision, and (2) those produced via mass transfer within a binary. We review how computer simulations show that stellar collisions are likely to lead to relatively little mass loss and are thus effective in producing a young population of more-massive stars. The number of blue straggler stars produced by collisions will tend to increase with cluster mass. We review how the current population of blue straggler stars produced from primordial binaries decreases with increasing cluster mass. This is because exchange encounters with third, single stars in the most massive clusters tend to reduce the fraction of binaries containing a primary close to the current turn-off mass. Rather, their primaries tend to be somewhat more massive and have evolved off the main sequence, filling their Roche lobes in the past, often converting their secondaries into blue straggler stars (but more than 1 Gyr or so ago and thus they are no longer visible today as blue straggler stars).

  17. Some observations on the three-dimensional growth of L5178Y cell colonies in soft agar culture.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalen, H.; Burki, H. J.

    1971-01-01

    The three-dimensional organization of spherical colonies formed by L5178Y cells grown in soft agar cultures was investigated by light and scanning electron microscopy. Visible colonies were formed after 7 days of incubation and increased in size for more than 2 weeks. At this time the colonies contained a central core of necrotic cells surrounded by an outer shell of normal-looking cells in loose contact with each other. Cross sectional radioautographs revealed that tritiated precursors were incorporated only into those cells in the ?viable cell' shell and not in the necrotic center of the colony. It is pointed out that increased knowledge of the factors leading to this type of three-dimensional organization is of particular interest, since it is similar to the conditions found in certain types of solid tumors (Thomlinson and Gray, 1955).

  18. Complexation between carrageenan and methylene blue for sensor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Yew Pei; Heng, Lee Yook

    2013-11-01

    Theoretical studies on the methylene blue (MB)-carrageenans complexation at solution and solid states have been carried out via ultraviolet spectrophotoscopy and reflectometry methods. The equilibrium constant (Ka) of the MBcarrageenans complexation follows the order of Iota > Lambda > Kappa carrageenans, which indicated Iota-carrageenan forms a stable complex. MB-carrageenan complexation reaction showed decrease in Ka value from 210.71 ppm-1 to 114.57 ppm-1 when the reaction temperature increased from 298 K to 323 K. Le Chatelier's principle and mass action law explained that the MB-carrageenan complexation was an exothermic reaction (?H=-18.54 kJmol-1) that release heat. Thus MB-carrageenan complex was less stable at high temperature and tend to dissociate into free MB and carrageenan molecules. It was also supported by the van't Hoff equation. The reaction is a spontaneous process (?G=-13.23 kJmol-1) where the randomness of the molecules reduced (?S=-17.83 Jmol-1K-1) due to complexation. Besides, linear regression of the concentration and absorption of the MB-carrageenan reaction obeys the Beer Lambert law, which elucidated that the complexation process was not affected by any concentration dependent factors such as aggregation and self-quenching. Moreover, linear Benesi Hilderbrend plot revealed that the interaction between MB and carrageenan was a reversible and stoichiometric reaction with 1:1 ratio. However, the molar extinction coefficient (?) and molar adsorption coefficient (?a) of the MB-carrageenan complex were lower compared to free MB, described that the complex was less adsorptive. The sensor constructed based on these theoretical investigations showed response behavior that was similar with solution test as both have attraction for carrageenans in the sequence of Iota-, Lambda-, Kappa- carrageenans. Likewise, carrageenan sensor was more selective towards Iota-carrageenan than to Lambda- and Kappa-carrageenans, and no response observed when tested with agar, alginate and glucose. Therefore the sensor is able to detect carrageenans specifically and offers rapid detection without the need of sample pretreatment when compared to conventional methods.

  19. Effects of extracellular matrix proteins on macrophage differentiation, growth, and function: comparison of liquid and agar culture systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Both spaceflight and skeletal unloading suppress the haematopoietic differentiation of macrophages (Sonnenfeld et al., Aviat. Space Environ. Med., 61:648-653, 1990; Armstrong et al., J. Appl. Physiol., 75:2734-2739, 1993). The mechanism behind this reduction in haematopoiesis has yet to be elucidated. However, changes in bone marrow extracellular matrix (ECM) may be involved. To further understand the role of ECM products in macrophage differentiation, we have performed experiments evaluating the effects of fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I, and collagen type IV on macrophage development and function. Bone marrow-derived macrophages cultured on four different ECM substrates in liquid culture medium showed less growth than those cultured on plastic. Significant morphological differences were seen on each of the substrates used. Phenotypically and functionally, as measured by class II major histocompatibility molecule (MHCII) expression, MAC-2 expression, and the secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), these macrophages were similar. In contrast, bone marrow-derived macrophages cultured in suspension, using agar, showed no difference in growth when exposed to ECM proteins. However, IL-6 and TNF-alpha secretion was affected by fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I, and collagen type IV in a concentration-dependent manner. We conclude that the ECM products fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I, and collagen type IV have profound effects on macrophage development and function. Additionally, we suggest that an ECM-supplemented agar culture system provides an environment more analogous to in vivo bone marrow than does a traditional liquid culture system.

  20. Equilibrium and kinetic modelling of Cd(II) biosorption by algae Gelidium and agar extraction algal waste.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2006-01-01

    In this study an industrial algal waste from agar extraction has been used as an inexpensive and effective biosorbent for cadmium (II) removal from aqueous solutions. This biosorbent was compared with the algae Gelidium itself, which is the raw material for agar extraction. Equilibrium data follow both Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson models. The parameters of Langmuir equilibrium model are q(max)=18.0 mgg(-1), b=0.19 mgl(-1) and q(max)=9.7 mgg(-1), b=0.16 mgl(-1), respectively for Gelidium and the algal waste. Kinetic experiments were conducted at initial Cd(II) concentrations in the range 6-91 mgl(-1). Data were fitted to pseudo-first- and second-order Lagergren models. For an initial Cd(II) concentration of 91 mgl(-1) the parameters of the pseudo-first-order Lagergren model are k(1,ads)=0.17 and 0.87 min(-1); q(eq)=16.3 and 8.7 mgg(-1), respectively, for Gelidium and algal waste. Kinetic constants vary with the initial metal concentration. The adsorptive behaviour of biosorbent particles was modelled using a batch reactor mass transfer kinetic model. The model successfully predicts Cd(II) concentration profiles and provides significant insights on the biosorbents performance. The homogeneous diffusivity, D(h), is in the range 0.5-2.2 x10(-8) and 2.1-10.4 x10(-8)cm(2)s(-1), respectively, for Gelidium and algal waste. PMID:16380148

  1. Bacterial differentiation within Moraxella bovis colonies growing at the interface of the agar medium with the Petri dish.

    PubMed

    McMichael, J C

    1992-12-01

    Moraxella bovis was found to colonize the interface between agar and the polystyrene Petri dish, producing circular colonies when the inoculum was stabbed at a single point. The bacteria occurred in a thin layer of nearly uniform thickness, and colonial expansion occurred in at least two temporal phases. In the first phase, the radial colonial expansion was slow and non-linear. In the second phase, the radial expansion was linear. The interfacial colonies possessed three characteristic concentric growth zones. At the periphery was a narrow ring zone that enclosed another wider ring zone, which, in turn, surrounded a central circular zone. Different bacterial phase variants were recovered from these zones. The two outer ring zones yielded bacteria that formed agar surface colonies of spreading-corroding morphology, while cells from the innermost zone always yielded colonies with a different morphology. The uniform thickness of the colonies implied that replication was restricted to the outermost ring, and that the bacteria within the inner ring and inner circle had entered a quiescent state. The inner ring appeared to represent the lag in time needed for the replicative form to differentiate into the quiescent form. A different kind of variant was associated with wedge-shaped sectors within the colonies. The greatest number of these clonal variants appeared shortly after inoculation and their frequency decreased after the onset of linear growth. The period of slowest colonization coincided with highest frequency of clonal variant expression. It is proposed that the proliferative rate of the parental bacterial population exerted selective pressure on the expression of new clonal variants. PMID:1362585

  2. Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci: Comparison of Phenotypic and Genotypic Oxacillin Susceptibility Tests and Evaluation of the Agar Screening Test by Using Different Concentrations of Oxacillin

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Rosana B. R.; Iorio, Natalia L. P.; Malvar, Karoline L.; Nunes, Ana Paula F.; Fonseca, Leila S.; Bastos, Carla C. R.; Santos, Kátia R. N.

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the oxacillin susceptibilities of 152 coagulase-negative staphylococcal (CoNS) strains of 12 species by disk diffusion; agar dilution; E-test; the slide latex agglutination test (Slidex MRSA Detection test; bioMérieux S/A, Paris, France); the agar screening test with 1, 2, 4, or 6 ?g of oxacillin per ml and incubation for 24 or 48 h; and detection of the mecA gene by PCR. The results revealed that the agar screening test with 4 ?g of oxacillin per ml and incubation for 48 h was superior to any single phenotype-based susceptibility assay, presenting a sensitivity and a specificity of 100% each. For the different methods evaluated, the sensitivities and specificities were as follows: for disk diffusion, 94.2 and 91.8%, respectively; for the agar dilution test 100 and 73.5%, respectively; for E-test, 100 and 71.4%, respectively; and for the slide latex agglutination test, 97.1 and 98%, respectively. A good correlation was observed between oxacillin susceptibility testing results and PCR results for Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis subsp. hominis, and all mecA-positive strains. However, at least 60% of the mecA-negative isolates of the species S. saprophyticus, S. cohnii subsp. urealyticum, S. lugdunensis, and S. sciuri were erroneously classified as oxacillin resistant by the agar dilution test. Conversely, the slide latex agglutination test presented a high sensitivity (97.1%) and a high specificity (98%) for all CoNS species. Our results demonstrated the accuracy of the agar screening test with 4 ?g of oxacillin per ml and incubation for 48 h and the slide latex agglutination test for the appropriate detection of the oxacillin susceptibilities of CoNS isolates. Both assays are technically simple and can be easier to perform in routine laboratories than PCR. PMID:12904363

  3. Is Cosmology Compatible with Blue Gravity Waves ?

    E-print Network

    Roberta Camerini; Ruth Durrer; Alessandro Melchiorri; Antonio Riotto

    2008-02-11

    A primordial gravitational wave background with positive(blue) spectral index is expected in several non-standard inflationary cosmologies where the stress-energy tensor violates the null energy condition. Here we show that a sizable amount of blue gravitational waves is compatible with current cosmological and astrophysical data. So far most of the works on parameter estimation from cosmic microwave background data have assumed a negative or negligible spectral index. The present limits on cosmological parameters, especially on the scalar spectral index, widen up considerably when one allows also for blue tilts of the tensor spectrum. Since the amplitude of the CMB B-mode polarization is larger in these models, future data from Planck are likely to provide crucial measurements.

  4. WhaleNet Blue Whale Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive educational Web site from WhaleNet provides a study guide to use with blue whale satellite tag data. WhaleNet is sponsored by Wheelock College, and the blue whale data set comes from the Mingan Island Cetacean Study, a "non-profit research organization dedicated to ecological studies of marine mammals." The study guide consists of a series of questions that guide students in analyzing and interpreting data. In the larger context, these questions uncover how satellite tag data provides valuable insight "into the natural history of the whales and will enable more intelligent and meaningful decisions which will increase the potential for recovery and for an improved existence in the shared marine environments around the world." Users of the Web site may also view blue whale tagging and biopsy movie clips. Links to a bibliography and additional resources are provided.

  5. ``Amarna blue'' painted on ancient Egyptian pottery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uda, M.; Nakamura, M.; Yoshimura, S.; Kondo, J.; Saito, M.; Shirai, Y.; Hasegawa, S.; Baba, Y.; Ikeda, K.; Ban, Y.; Matsuo, A.; Tamada, M.; Sunaga, H.; Oshio, H.; Yamashita, D.; Nakajima, Y.; Utaka, T.

    2002-04-01

    "Amarna blue" pigments (18 Dynasty, c. 1400 BC) painted on pottery fragments were investigated using the PIXE, XRF and XRD methods in laboratories and also using a portable type of X-ray spectrometer at the sites of excavation. On the blue-colored part enrichment of Na, Al, S, Cl, Ca, Mn, Co, Ni and Zn was found using X-ray spectroscopy, and CaSO 4, NaCl and Co(M)Al 2O 4, M denoting Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn, were found by the help of X-ray diffraction. This means that Amarna blue is a mixture of CaSO 4 and Co(M)Al 2O 4, at least in part.

  6. If you have a Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts health plan, we've got a healthy incentive for you.

    E-print Network

    Stoiciu, Mihai

    If you have a Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts health plan, we've got a healthy incentive for you. As a subscriber to Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts, your Weight Loss Benefit can save you the qualified program in which you enroll. Receipts must show the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts member

  7. If you have a Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts health plan, we've got a healthy incentive for you.

    E-print Network

    Stoiciu, Mihai

    If you have a Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts health plan, we've got a healthy incentive for you. As a Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts subscriber your Fitness Benefit can save you or your Benefit after you've belonged to your health club and been a Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts

  8. Comparison of eight different agars for the recovery of clinically relevant non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from baby spinach, cilantro, alfalfa sprouts and raw milk.

    PubMed

    Kase, Julie A; Maounounen-Laasri, Anna; Son, Insook; Lin, Andrew; Hammack, Thomas S

    2015-04-01

    The FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Chapter 4a recommends several agars for isolating non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC); not all have been thoroughly tested for recovering STECs from food. Using E. coli strains representing ten clinically relevant O serogroups (O26, O45, O91, O103, O104, O111, O113, O121, O128, O145) in artificially-contaminated fresh produce--bagged baby spinach, alfalfa sprouts, cilantro, and raw milk--we evaluated the performance of 8 different agars. Performance was highly dependent upon strain used and the presence of inhibitors, but not necessarily dependent on food matrix. Tellurite resistant-negative strains, O91:-, O103:H6, O104:H21, O113:H21, and O128, grew poorly on CHROMagar STEC, Rainbow agar O157, and a modified Rainbow O157 (mRB) agar. Although adding washed sheep's blood to CHROMagar STEC and mRB agars improved overall performance; however, this also reversed the inhibition of non-target bacteria provided by original formulations. Variable colony coloration made selecting colonies from Rainbow agar O157 and mRB agars difficult. Study results support a strategy using inclusive agars (e.g. L-EMB, SHIBAM) in combination with selective agars (R & F E. coli O157:H7, CHROMagar STEC) to allow for recovery of the most STECs while increasing the probability of recovering STEC in high bacterial count matrices. PMID:25475297

  9. Blue Shield of California outpatient payment program.

    PubMed

    Roughan, J F

    1994-01-01

    Faced with major increases in the cost of outpatient medical care, Blue Shield of California initiated an effort to develop and implement a prospective payment system that could be used for contracting with hospitals and freestanding facilities. Utilizing an outpatient classification system designed to categorize outpatient visits with similar clinical characteristics as well as similar resource consumption, Blue Shield introduced a negotiated case rate system of payment for outpatient surgical care. This article will review the background of the project, the methodology used to implement the system, and the results achieved from its implementation. PMID:10136812

  10. Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-05-01

    The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available.2-5 Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of classroom demonstrations have been described for showing the effects.6-11 This paper describes how these demonstrations can be enhanced by using a spectrometer to measure the preferential scattering of the shorter wavelength light.

  11. Extragalactic Stellar Astronomy with Blue Supergiants

    E-print Network

    N. Przybilla; F. Bresolin; K. Butler; R. P. Kudritzki; M. A. Urbaneja; K. A. Venn

    2007-03-14

    The present generation of large telescopes facilitates spectroscopy of blue supergiants in galaxies out to distances beyond the Local Group. Recent developments in NLTE spectrum synthesis techniques allow for an accurate determination of stellar parameters and chemical abundances. Quantitative analyses of blue supergiants in different galactic environments can provide tight observational constraints on: I) the evolution of massive stars over a wide range of metallicities, II) the chemical evolution of different galaxy types, using stars as tracers of abundance gradients, III) the extragalactic distance scale. The current status of the field is summarised.

  12. THE CAUSE OF BLUE COLOR AS FOUND IN THE BLUE BIRD (SIALIA SIALIS) AND THE BLUE JAY (CYANOCITTA CRISTATA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CARL GOWER

    ALL the colors which one observes in bird feathers are due to one of two things: either to a pigment, or to some modification in the structure of the barb, producing what is known as structural color. The pigment colors are black, brown, red, yellow, and in a few cases green, while the blues, whites, some of the greens and

  13. 2011 OHIO SHEEP DAY Blue Heron Farm

    E-print Network

    Jones, Michelle

    2011 OHIO SHEEP DAY Blue Heron Farm 33068 Teegarden Road Lisbon, OH 44432 SATURDAY, JULY 16, 2011 9 A.M. - 3:30 P.M. All programs will be repeated twice during the day: · Rebuilding the Ohio Sheep EQUIP funding. · Lamb carcass evaluation. Sponsors Ohio Sheep Improvement Association Ohio Sheep

  14. [A woman with a blue coloured skin].

    PubMed

    Blokker, Ruud S; Asselbergs, Céline P E

    2010-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman with carcinoma of the breast developed a blue-grey colouring of the skin, after injection of patentblue for sentinel node procedure. This is a rare hypersensitivity reaction on patentblue, with the risk of depression of oxygen saturation or anaphylactic shock. PMID:20699024

  15. THE CASE OF BLUE NILE RIVER BASIN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abebe Sine; Semu Ayalew

    Blue Nile River Basin has been regionalized into similar flood producing characteristics based on statistical values of at site data. The basin was delineated in to five homogeneous regions. Accordingly, region one comprises the widest portion of the basin, covering 37.6 % of the area. It includes the upper Guder catchment, middle and lower Didesa, lower part of the main

  16. KEPONE: TOXICITY AND BIOACCUMULATION IN BLUE CRABS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two long-term studies were conducted to determine toxicity, uptake and duration of Kepone in blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus). In the first, Kepone was administered to crabs in seawater 0.03 or 0.3 micrograms Kepone/l or food (eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, containing 0.2...

  17. Blue Light: A Fascinating Journey (Nobel Lecture).

    PubMed

    Akasaki, Isamu

    2015-06-26

    In the beginning there was light: Mankind has pursued light sources since ancient times, starting with flames, then the development of electric light bulbs much later, and most recently the production of light-emitting diodes. Isami Akasaki describes the historical progress that led to the invention of the first blue LED and related optical devices. PMID:26012383

  18. Blue Variables from the MOA Database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Noda; M. Takeuti; I. A. Bond; N. J. Rattenbury; F. Abe; B. S. Carter; R. J. Dodd; J. B. Hearnshaw; M. Honda; J. Jugaku; S. Kabe; P. M. Kilmartin; K. Masuda; Y. Matsubara; Y. Muraki; T. Nakamura; M. Reid; N. J. Rumsey; To. Saito; H. Sato; M. Sekiguchi; D. J. Sullivan; T. Sumi; Y. Watase; T. Yanagisawa; P. C. M. Yock; M. Yoshizawa

    2000-01-01

    A large database of CCD photometry for 1.4 million stars towards both the LMC and the SMC, which has been established by the MOA project, is a useful resource to study variable stars. In our preliminary study, variables identified as beta Lyrae type stars and Herbig Ae\\/Be stars have been found amongst blue stars.

  19. Crystalline lens capsule staining with trypan blue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph San Laureano; Minas T. Coroneo

    2004-01-01

    A 1-step method for staining the anterior lens capsule with trypan blue is described. The dye is instilled via a paracentesis port at the start of cataract extraction. As aqueous humor is allowed to exit the anterior chamber (AC), which consequently shallows, the resulting pupil block confines the dye to the AC. An ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD) is used to

  20. Blue Electroluminescent Diodes Utilizing Poly(alkylfluorene)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yutaka Ohmori; Masao Uchida; Keiro Muro; Katsumi Yoshino

    1991-01-01

    Blue electroluminescent diodes utilizing poly(alkylfluorene) have been demonstrated for the first time. A Schottky-type electroluminescent diode of poly(9,9-dihexylfluorene) is driven at ˜ 10 V and has a peak emission wavelength of 470 nm at room temperature.

  1. Baby T (Blue) (Size: X Large)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

  2. Baby T (Blue) (Size: XXX Large)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

  3. Baby T (Blue) (Size: XX Large)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Blue sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Pink.

  4. Charlie Patton and his Mississippi Boweavil Blues

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    This site provides a short article, in PDF format, about the legendary American blues artist, Charley Patton, and his famous song about the notorious cotton boll pest, the boll weevil. The article, by R. K. D. Peterson, was scanned from a 2007 issue of the American Entomologist magazine.

  5. Musa hybrid cv. Blue Java (Cultivated) 

    E-print Network

    James R. Manhart

    2011-08-10

    on the foraging ecology of the crane and population ecology of the blue crab, a documented crane food. During winters 2004-2005 and 2005-2006, I examined diets and optimal foraging patterns of territorial adult cranes at Aransas National Wildlife Refuge, Texas...

  6. Blue-green solid state upconversion lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. MACFARLANE

    1994-01-01

    We review the progress which has been made in the last scvcr;ll years on the development of upconversion lasers operating in the blue-green spectral region in terms of the nonlinear pumping mechanism.; involved. Roth single crystal and glass fiber systems are discussed. TJpconversiorl lasers use a nonlinear pumping scheme to excite a high lying electronic state which then produces laser

  7. Characterizing Dicyanin, a novel Blue Copper Protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Spenser Smith

    2006-01-01

    Blue Copper Binding (BCB) Proteins are an important family of proteins found in every kingdom of life with a bewildering diversity of functions. Important examples of BCB protein function include pollen tube growth in angiosperm fertilization, signal transduction, and participation in myriad redox reactions throughout the domains of life (especially electron transport chains). Phylogenetic analysis of known BCB proteins in

  8. Numerical Results for the Blue Phases

    E-print Network

    G. P. Alexander; J. M. Yeomans

    2009-06-04

    We review recent numerical work investigating the equilibrium phase diagram, and the dynamics, of the cholesteric blue phases. In equilibrium numerical results confirm the predictions of the classic analytical theories, and extend them to incorporate different values of the elastic constants, or the effects of an applied electric field. There is a striking increase in the stability of blue phase I in systems where the cholesteric undergoes helical sense inversion, and the anomalous electrostriction observed in this phase is reproduced. Solving the equations of motion allows us to present results for the phase transition kinetics of blue phase I under dielectric or flexoelectric coupling to an applied electric field. We also present simulations of the blue phases in a flow field, showing how the disclination network acts to oppose the flow. The results are based on the Landau-de Gennes exapnsion of the liquid crystal free energy: that such a simple and elegant theory can predict such complex and subtle physical behaviour is remarkable.

  9. Switching dynamics in cholesteric blue phases

    E-print Network

    A. Tiribocchi; G. Gonnella; D. Marenduzzo; E. Orlandini

    2011-03-30

    Blue phases are networks of disclination lines, which occur in cholesteric liquid crystals near the transition to the isotropic phase. They have recently been used for the new generation of fast switching liquid crystal displays. Here we study numerically the steady states and switching hydrodynamics of blue phase I (BPI) and blue phase II (BPII) cells subjected to an electric field. When the field is on, there are three regimes: for very weak fields (and strong anchoring at the boundaries) the blue phases are almost unaffected, for intermediate fields the disclinations twist (for BPI) and unzip (for BPII), whereas for very large voltages the network dissolves in the bulk of the cell. Interestingly, we find that a BPII cell can recover its original structure when the field is switched off, whereas a BPI cell is found to be trapped more easily into metastable configurations. The kinetic pathways followed during switching on and off entails dramatic reorganisation of the disclination networks. We also discuss the effect of changing the director field anchoring at the boundary planes and of varying the direction of the applied field.

  10. A Code Blue Answer to Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huneycutt, Richy; Callahan, Barbara; Welch, Alexis

    2008-01-01

    Code Blue addresses the capacity challenges in healthcare training. This pilot, grant funded project, focuses on a holistic approach to selecting and educating career ready and capable students and training them to be confident and competent healthcare workers. Lessons learned from this project will be assessed and reviewed for replication.

  11. Singing the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Blues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil S. Cherniack

    2002-01-01

    Because little progress has been made in devising interventions that reverse or slow the progressive destruction of lung tissue in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) we can treat only its secondary effects such as hypoxemia. Long-term oxygen therapy directed at overcoming chronic hypoxemia in COPD (the COPD blues) prolongs the life of patients whose arterial PO2 is less than 55

  12. Practices of Blue Ribbon Catholic Schools, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kealey, Robert J., Comp.

    For almost 20 years, the U.S. Department of Education has invited schools to seek the Blue Ribbon School Award. A large number of Catholic schools have received this award. For this publication, the Department of Elementary Schools Executive Committee requested principals of awarded schools to write a short article on an exemplary school program…

  13. The taxonomy of blue-green algae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Whitton

    1969-01-01

    The conventions at present used in the classification of blue-green algae frequently prove unsatisfactory. A solution is suggested which requires the simultaneous use of two different approaches. When a binomial is essential the flora of Geitler (1932) should be adequate for most purposes, but any long term attempt to sort out the present chaos will require the use of numerical

  14. Red, White and Blue I Demonstration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Science House

    2014-01-28

    In this chemistry demonstration, learners observe a chemical reaction that produces a colorful effect. Learners will be surprised to see the colors change to red, white, and blue when ammonia is added to three beakers with different chemicals. This is a perfect activity to use to demonstrate chemical reactions, especially around the 4th of July.

  15. Screening of tannin acyl hydrolase (E.C.3.1.1.20) producing tannery effluent fungal isolates using simple agar plate and SmF process.

    PubMed

    Murugan, K; Saravanababu, S; Arunachalam, M

    2007-03-01

    Industrially important tannase producing fungi were isolated from tannery effluent using simple agar plate method. The isolates were screened by submerged fermentation using auto-controlled bioreactor. The colony diameter on the solid surface media shows high correlation with quantitative production of tannase. The isolate Aspergillus niger shows maximum production of both extracellular and intracellular enzyme. PMID:16839759

  16. Oral Actinomyces Isolates Forming Red Colonies on Brain Heart Blood Agar Can Be Unambiguously Classified as A. odontolyticus by Macroscopic Examination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Kaetzke; Henrike Korner; Susanne Kneist; Klaus Eschrich

    2003-01-01

    The accurate classification of oral Actinomyces isolates as one species is difficult. Out of 18 Actinomyces isolates forming red colonies on brain heart blood agar, 12 could be straightforwardly assigned as Actinomyces odontolyticus by biochemical, morphological, and chemotaxonomic characteristics. For the remaining six isolates, the results of the different identification methods were inconsistent. By sequencing a 16S ribosomal DNA fragment

  17. Preparation, Optimization, and Screening of the Effect of Processing Variables on Agar Nanospheres Loaded with Bupropion HCl by a D-Optimal Design

    PubMed Central

    Varshosaz, Jaleh; Zaki, Mohammad Reza; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Banoozadeh, Jaafar

    2015-01-01

    Bupropion is an atypical antidepressant drug. Fluctuating in its serum levels following oral administration of immediate release dosage forms leads to occasional seizure. The aim of the present work was designing of sustained release bupropion HCl nanospheres suited for pulmonary delivery. Agar nanospheres were prepared by transferring the w/o emulsion to solid in oil (s/o) suspension. Calcium chloride was used as cross-linking agent and hydroxypropyl ?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD) was used as permeability enhancer. A response surface D-optimal design was used for optimization of nanospheres. Independent factors included in the design were calcium chloride percent, speed of homogenization, agar percent, and HP?CD percent. Optimum condition was predicted to be achieved when the calcium chloride was set at 7.19%, homogenization speed at 8500?rpm, agar content at 2%, and HP?CD at 0.12%. The optimized nanoparticles showed particle size of 587?nm, zeta potential of ?30.9?mV, drug loading efficiency of 38.6%, and release efficiency of 51% until 5?h. The nanospheres showed high degree of bioadhesiveness. D-optimal response surface method is a satisfactory design to optimize the fabrication of bupropion HCl loaded agar nanospheres and these nanospheres can be successively exploited to deliver bupropion in a controlled manner for a sufficiently extended period.

  18. Evaluation of enhanced haemolysis agar for detection of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes from production lines of fresh to cold-smoked fish.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Velho, M; Duarte, G; Gibbs, P

    2001-08-01

    Enhanced haemolysis agar (EHA) was compared to the two conventional Listeria isolation agars Oxford and PALCAM for its ability to detect Listeria spp. from production lines of fresh to cold-smoked fish. The ability of EHA for distinguishing L. monocytogenes colonies from other Listeria spp. was also evaluated.A total of 243 fish and environmental samples were analysed. Overall, 42 samples were found to contain Listeria spp. Only 34 samples were positive simultaneously by the three plating media. Two samples considered to be negative by the two conventional agars were found to be positive after isolation on EHA. All three selective agars were shown to be less effective in recovering Listeria spp. after primary enrichment in half-Fraser broth, compared to secondary enrichment in Fraser broth after 24 and 48 h. From 79 Listeria but presumptive negative L. monocytogenes colonies, EHA identified correctly 76 Listeria spp. and presented three false-negative results_three colonies further identified as L. monocytogenes but showing no noticeable haemolysis on EHA. Twenty-three of the thirty-three L. monocytogenes presumptive positive colonies, were confirmed positive and ten were identified as L. seeligeri. Despite its ability of distinguishing L. monocytogenes from the other Listeria spp., unless it is produced as a commercial medium, EHA cannot be an alternative to time-consuming classical identification because the preparation of this medium is both time and labour intensive. PMID:11412926

  19. A comparison of a new centrifuge sugar flotation technique with the agar method for the extraction of immature Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) life stages from salt marsh soils.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two sampling techniques, agar extraction (AE) and centrifuge sugar flotation extraction (CSFE) were compared to determine their relative efficacy to recover immature stages of Culicoides spp from salt marsh substrates. Three types of samples (seeded with known numbers of larvae, homogenized field s...

  20. Production of volatile metabolites from streptomyces albidoflavus cultivated on gypsum board and tryptone glucose extract agar-influence of temperature, oxygen and carbon dioxide levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna-Lena Sunesson; Carl-Axel Nilsson; Rolf Carlson; Göran Blomquist; Barbro Andersson

    1997-01-01

    Streptomyces albidoflavui was cultivated on tryptone glucose extract agar (TGEA) and gypsum board in culture flasks. The medium, the cultivation temperature, and the oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in the supplied air were varied multivariately. Air samples from the cultures were adsorbed on Tenax TA, analysed with the use of thermal desorption-cold trap injection gas chromatography, and identified by mass

  1. Accurate, precise modeling of cell proliferation kinetics from time-lapse imaging and automated image analysis of agar yeast culture arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Najaf A Shah; Richard J Laws; Bradley Wardman; Lue Ping Zhao; John L Hartman IV

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genome-wide mutant strain collections have increased demand for high throughput cellular phenotyping (HTCP). For example, investigators use HTCP to investigate interactions between gene deletion mutations and additional chemical or genetic perturbations by assessing differences in cell proliferation among the collection of 5000 S. cerevisiae gene deletion strains. Such studies have thus far been predominantly qualitative, using agar cell arrays

  2. Stable Isotope Ratios as a Tool in Microbial Forensics—Part 3. Effect of Culturing on Agar-containing Growth Media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen W. Kreuzer-Martin; Lesley A. Chesson; Michael J. Lott; James R. Ehleringer

    2005-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen in microbes have been shown to be functions of the corresponding isotope ratios of the water with which the culture medium was prepared, and thus to contain a potential geographic signal. Water can evaporate from agar (solid) media during culturing, changing its isotope ratios. Here we describe the effect of drying on the

  3. Statistical evaluation of a quality control method for isolation of pathogenic Vibrio species on selected thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agars.

    PubMed Central

    West, P A; Russek, E; Brayton, P R; Colwell, R R

    1982-01-01

    The recovery of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus, employing eight strains of each species, was studied by using four brands of thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) agar prepared according to manufacturers' instructions and following a standardized procedure. A standardized broth inoculum of each strain was placed on duplicate plates of each brand of TCBS agar and also on tryptic soy agar (Difco Laboratories) containing 1% (wt/vol) NaCl, the latter serving as the control. Plates were inoculated in a sequence designed to compensate for bias associated with multiplication of the bacteria during the inoculation procedure. Colony counts and quality of growth were recorded after incubation for 18 h at 35 degrees C. The comparison procedure was repeated four times at weekly intervals. Data were analyzed by using an analysis of variance model. The recovery and quality of growth of each species varied significantly on the different brands of TCBS agar. Significant variability was also identified for some components of the inoculation procedure. Modifications of the inoculation procedure are suggested to minimize sources of variance. A simplified statistical procedure, based on the t test, is described for media quality control for laboratories routinely isolating pathogenic Vibrio spp. PMID:6761362

  4. WHEN THE BLUE-GREEN WATERS TURN RED

    E-print Network

    WHEN THE BLUE-GREEN WATERS TURN RED Historical Flooding in Havasu Creek, Arizona U.S. GEOLOGICAL OF RECLAMATION #12;WHEN THE BLUE-GREEN WATERS TURN RED Historical Flooding in Havasu Creek, Arizona By THEODORE S

  5. 75 FR 53685 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Office...SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (the...

  6. 76 FR 71334 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Office...SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (the...

  7. 76 FR 2891 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Office...SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (the...

  8. Beauveria bassiana yeast phase on agar medium and its pathogenicity against Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Alves, Sérgio Batista; Rossi, Luciana Savoi; Lopes, Rogério Biaggioni; Tamai, Marco Antonio; Pereira, Roberto M

    2002-10-01

    Beauveria bassiana colonizes insect hosts initially through a yeast phase, which is common in some artificial liquid cultures, but not reported on artificial solid media. We describe a yeast-like phase for B. bassiana isolate 447 (ATCC 20872) on MacConkey agar and its virulence toward Diatraea saccharalis and Tetranychus urticae. The yeast-like cells of B. bassiana developed by budding from germinating conidia after 24-h incubation. Cells were typically 5-10 microm and fungal colonies were initially circular and mucoid, but later were covered with mycelia and conidia. Ability to produce yeast-like cells on MacConkey medium was relatively common among different B. bassiana isolates, but growth rate and timing of yeast-like cell production also varied. Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces spp. isolates did not grow as yeast-like cells on MacConkey medium. Yeast-like cells of B. bassiana 447 were more virulent against D. saccharalis than conidia when 10(7)cells/ml were used. At 10(8)cells/ml, the estimated mean survival time was 5.4 days for the yeast suspension and 7.7 days for the conidial suspension, perhaps due to faster germination. The LC(50) was also lower for yeast than conidial suspensions. Yeast-like cells and conidia had similar virulence against T. urticae; the average mortalities with yeast-like cells and conidia were, respectively, 42.8 and 45.0%, with 10(7)cells/ml, and 77.8 and 74.4%, with 10(8)cells/ml. The estimated mean survival times were 3.6 and 3.9 for yeast and conidial suspensions, respectively. The bioassay results demonstrate the yeast-like structures produced on MacConkey agar are effective as inoculum for B. bassiana applications against arthropod pests, and possibly superior to conidia against some species. Obtaining well-defined yeast phase cultures of entomopathogenic hyphomycetes may be an important step in studies of the biology and nutrition, pathogenesis, and the genetic manipulation of these fungi. PMID:12445790

  9. Comparison of culture screening protocols for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using a chromogenic agar (MRSA-Select).

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungok; Park, Yeon-Joon; Yoo, Jin-Hong; Kahng, Jimin; Jeong, In-Hee; Kwon, Young-Mi; Han, Kyungja

    2008-01-01

    To compare the culture screening protocols for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a total of 300 duplicate nasal swabs (233 initial cultures and 67 weekly follow-up cultures) were collected consecutively from 233 patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). One swab was plated directly on MRSA-Select agar (D-MRSA-Select) and observed at 24 hr. The duplicate swab was incubated in tryptic soy broth (TSB) with 6.5% NaCl for 24 hr, and then subcultured on MRSA-Select (B-MRSA-Select), BAP (B-BAP), and mannitol salt agar with 4 mg/L oxacillin (B-MSA(OXA)), and observed at 24 hr. MRSA was detected in 13.7% (32/233) of the initial and 22.4% (15/67) of the follow-up specimens. A patient was classified as MRSA-positive if any of the media grew colonies that were tested and confirmed to be MRSA. In the initial screening samples, the sensitivities of D-MRSA-Select, B-MRSA-Select, B-BAP, and B-MSA(OXA) were 78.1%, 84.4%, 78.1%, and 65.6%, respectively, and the specificities were 100%, 98.0%, 83.1%, and 93.5%, respectively. The sensitivities of all but the B-MRSA-Select protocol were significantly lower (p <0.05). In follow-up screening, the sensitivities of D-MRSA-Select, B-MRSA-Select, B-BAP, and B-MSA(OXA) were 66.7%, 86.7%, 66.7%, and 53.3%, respectively, and the specificities were 100%, 98.1%, 90.4%, and 90.4%, respectively. D-MRSA-Select protocol was considered useful in screening for MRSA because it was fast, highly specific, and showed sensitivity comparable to B-BAP. Salt-containing enrichment broth in conjunction with MRSA-Select (B-MRSA-Select) provides a promising way to increase sensitivity in initial and follow-up screening for MRSA. PMID:18715854

  10. Lipopolysaccharide Containing l-Acofriose in the Filamentous Blue-Green Alga Anabaena variabilis

    PubMed Central

    Weckesser, J.; Katz, A.; Drews, G.; Mayer, H.; Fromme, I.

    1974-01-01

    For the first time, an O-antigenic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been isolated from a filamentous blue-green alga (Anabaena variabilis). It was extractable with phenol-water, resulting in extraction of the bulk of the LPS into the phenol phase. The polysaccharide moiety of this LPS consists of l-rhamnose, its 3-O-methyl ether l-acofriose, d-mannose, d-glucose, and d-galactose. l-Glycero-d-mannoheptose and 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate, the two characteristic sugar components of enteric LPS, and phosphate groups are absent from the A. variabilis O antigen. The only amino sugar present is d-glucosamine. Three hydroxy fatty acids were identified, namely, ?-hydroxymyristic, ?-hydroxypalmitic and ?-hydroxystearic acids, in addition to palmitic and unidentified fatty acid. The LPS of A. variabilis is localized in the outermost cell wall layer and behaves like a bacterial O antigen in serological tests. The passive hemagglutination yielded high titers with isolated LPS (pretreated by heat or by alkali) and rabbit antisera prepared against living or heat-killed cells. The position of the precipitation arcs after immunoelectrophoresis of the O antigen indicates the lack of charged groups. The water phase of the phenol-water extract contains, in high yield, a glucose polymer. It is serologically inactive as shown by the passive hemagglutination test and by agar-gel precipitation. PMID:4218229

  11. Synthesis and characterization of high-surface-area millimeter-sized silica beads with hierarchical multi-modal pore structure by the addition of agar

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Yosep; Choi, Junhyun [Department of Mineral Resources and Energy Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju-si, Jeollabuk-do 561–756 (Korea, Republic of); Tong, Meiping, E-mail: tongmeiping@iee.pku.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Kim, Hyunjung, E-mail: kshjkim@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Mineral Resources and Energy Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju-si, Jeollabuk-do 561–756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    Millimeter-sized spherical silica foams (SSFs) with hierarchical multi-modal pore structure featuring high specific surface area and ordered mesoporous frameworks were successfully prepared using aqueous agar addition, foaming and drop-in-oil processes. The pore-related properties of the prepared spherical silica (SSs) and SSFs were systematically characterized by field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXRD), Hg intrusion porosimetry, and N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherm measurements. Improvements in the BET surface area and total pore volume were observed at 504 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1} and 5.45 cm{sup 3} g{sup ?1}, respectively, after an agar addition and foaming process. Despite the increase in the BET surface area, the mesopore wall thickness and the pore size of the mesopores generated from the block copolymer with agar addition were unchanged based on the SAXRD, TEM, and BJH methods. The SSFs prepared in the present study were confirmed to have improved BET surface area and micropore volume through the agar loading, and to exhibit interconnected 3-dimensional network macropore structure leading to the enhancement of total porosity and BET surface area via the foaming process. - Highlights: • Millimeter-sized spherical silica foams (SSFs) are successfully prepared. • SSFs exhibit high BET surface area and ordered hierarchical pore structure. • Agar addition improves BET surface area and micropore volume of SSFs. • Foaming process generates interconnected 3-D network macropore structure of SSFs.

  12. Plaque-Type Blue Nevus of the Oral Cavity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanna K. Fistarol; Peter H. Itin

    2005-01-01

    Background: The blue nevus of the oral cavity is a rare lesion with important differential diagnoses. The plaque-type blue nevus is an uncommon variant of the blue nevus. Because of its particular clinical appearance, it can easily be confused with satellite metastases from malignant melanoma. The diagnosis usually requires a biopsy. Objectives: To describe the clinical and histological features of

  13. Ostracoda (Myodocopa) from Anchialine Caves and Ocean Blue Holes

    E-print Network

    Iliffe, Thomas M.

    ZOOTAXA Ostracoda (Myodocopa) from Anchialine Caves and Ocean Blue Holes LOUIS S. KORNICKER, THOMAS-Nelson Ostracoda (Myodocopa) from Anchialine Caves and Ocean Blue Holes (Zootaxa 1565) 151 pp.; 30 cm. 31 August.mapress.com/zootaxa/ Ostracoda (Myodocopa) from Anchialine Caves and Ocean Blue Holes LOUIS S. KORNICKER1 , THOMAS M. ILIFFE2

  14. Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) sounds from the North Atlantic

    E-print Network

    Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) sounds from the North Atlantic David K. Mellingera) Bioacoustics 2003 Sounds of blue whales were recorded from U.S. Navy hydrophone arrays in the North Atlantic-duration, very-low-frequency sound units repeated every 1­2 min are typical of blue whale sounds recorded

  15. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section...Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes...

  16. THE SIZE AT SEXUAL MATURITY OF BLUE KING CRAB, PARAUTHODES

    E-print Network

    NOTES THE SIZE AT SEXUAL MATURITY OF BLUE KING CRAB, PARAUTHODES PLATYPUS, IN ALASKAI The blue king of a male 3 yr after reaching sexual maturity in an attempt to assure that each male will have at least one 1981). For blue king crab, however, the size at maturity is not well known, and in some areas

  17. Synthesis and acid-resistance of Maya blue pigment

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Synthesis and acid-resistance of Maya blue pigment M. Sánchez del Río[1], P. Martinetto [2], C, Departamento de Geología, E-37008 Salamanca, Spain Abstract Maya blue is an organo-clay artificial pigment proposed to produce a synthetic pigment with the characteristics of the ancient Maya blue. The stability

  18. Recognition of blue movies by fusion of audio and video

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haiqiang Zuo; Ou Wu; Weiming Hu; Bo Xu

    2008-01-01

    Along with the explosive growth of the Internet, comes the proliferation of pornography. Compared with the pornographic texts and images, blue movies can do much harm to children, due to the greater realism and voyeurism of blue movies. In this paper, a framework for recognizing blue movies by fusing the audio and video information is described. A one-class Gaussian mixture

  19. Blue Lacuna: Lessons Learned Writing the World's Longest Interactive Fiction

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    1 Blue Lacuna: Lessons Learned Writing the World's Longest Interactive Fiction Aaron A. Reed Abstract--Blue Lacuna is a new long form interactive fic- tion comprising nearly 400,000 words of prose play time of fifteen to twenty hours. In development between 2006 and 2009, Blue Lacuna fea- tures

  20. ANCHIALINE ECOSYSTEMS Microbial hotspots in anchialine blue holes

    E-print Network

    Iliffe, Thomas M.

    ANCHIALINE ECOSYSTEMS Microbial hotspots in anchialine blue holes: initial discoveries from+Business Media B.V. 2011 Abstract Inland blue holes of the Bahamas are anchialine ecosystems with distinct fresh and geomicrobiology exploration of blue holes are providing a first glimpse of the geochemistry and microbial life

  1. BLUE: An Interactive Visualization System for Categorical Data Technical Note

    E-print Network

    Kerbs, R. W.

    BLUE: An Interactive Visualization System for Categorical Data Technical Note Robert W. Kerbs. This paper introduces a prototype data visualization system, BLUE, to help induce meaningful decision trees from databases that contain primarily categorical attributes. BLUE is an interactive model creation

  2. Blue Moon sampling, vectorial reaction coordinates, and unbiased constrained dynamics

    E-print Network

    Van Den Eijnden, Eric

    Blue Moon sampling, vectorial reaction coordinates, and unbiased constrained dynamics Giovanni force in terms of a conditional expectation which can be computed by Blue Moon sampling Introduction Fifteen years ago the Blue Moon ensemble method was introduced to sample rare events that occur

  3. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section 173...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the...

  4. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section 173...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the...

  5. Blue oak seedlings may be older than they look

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Blue oak seedlings may be older than they look Ralph L. Phillips u Neil K. McDougald o Richard B. Standiford William E.Frost A 4-year study indicates that na- tive blue oak seedlings are prob- ably much the year of above- average rainfall. Blue oak (Quercusdouglasii)trees are a valuable economic and aesthetic

  6. Blue Solid-State Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence from Novel

    E-print Network

    Myrick, Michael Lenn

    Blue Solid-State Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence from Novel Poly copolymers give rise to efficient ( ) 0.16-0.76) blue solid-state emission (max ) 422-443 nm) which can-PPE (max 500-520 nm). The effective and blue-shifted solid-state emission is a result of disrupting

  7. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section 173...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the...

  8. Alcian Blue Alizarin Red Skeletal Staining October 2003

    E-print Network

    De Robertis, Eddy M.

    Alcian Blue ­ Alizarin Red Skeletal Staining October 2003 Eddy M. De Robertis 1. Dissect mice damage. 3. Replace 95% ethanol with Alcian blue staining solution for 1-3 days slowly rocking at room days. 4. Replace Alcian blue solution with 95% ethanol for 6 hours slowly rocking at room temperature

  9. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section 173...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the...

  10. Blue Noise through Optimal Transport Fernando de Goes

    E-print Network

    Desbrun, Mathieu

    Blue Noise through Optimal Transport Fernando de Goes Caltech Katherine Breeden Stanford Victor high-quality blue noise point distributions of arbitrary density functions. At its core is a novel diagrams. Our mathematical, algorithmic, and practical contributions lead to high-quality blue noise point

  11. Methylene blue selectively stains intestinal metaplasia in Barrett's esophagus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcia Irene F. Canto; Sebouh Setrakian; Robert E. Petras; Edmond Blades; Amitabh Chak; Michael V. Sivak

    1996-01-01

    Background: Specialized columnar epithelium in Barrett's esophagus resembles gastric intestinal metaplasia, which selectively stains with methylene blue. Methods: We prospectively evaluated the safety, accuracy, reproducibility, cost, and diagnostic yield of methylene blue–directed biopsy in detecting specialized columnar epithelium and dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus. We performed upper endoscopy with methylene blue–directed biopsy and obtained 236 large cup biopsy specimens (145 stained,

  12. Blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) are widely distributed throughout the

    E-print Network

    waters of the Pacific and Indian oceans (Nakamura, 1985). In the Pacific, blue marlin are harvested data (Kleiber et al., 2003) indicate that there is a single stock of blue marlin in the Pacific Ocean- ies for the stock of blue marlin in the Pacific Ocean, there have been few published studies

  13. The antibacterial activity of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis: A review on agar diffusion and direct contact methods.

    PubMed

    Luddin, Norhayati; Ahmed, Hany Mohamed Aly

    2013-01-01

    Complete debridement and disinfection of the root canal system are fundamental requirements for successful endodontic treatment. Despite the morphological challenges of the internal root anatomy, root canal irrigants play an important role in the optimization of the root canal preparation, which is essentially a chemo-mechanical procedure. Enterococcus faecalis is one of the most resistant microorganisms that dominants the microbial ecosystem of persistent periradicular lesions in retreatment cases. For that reason, many in vitro and in vivo studies evaluated and compared the antibacterial activity of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine at varying concentrations using different experimental models against this microorganism. However, many controversies with regard to the ideal irrigant and concentration do in fact exist. Hence, this review aims to discuss the antibacterial activity of these two main root canal irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis using the agar diffusion and direct contact methods and the possible modulating factors responsible for inconsistent findings among different studies. In addition, the disinfection potential of both chemical agents on gutta percha and Resilon cones are also discussed. The source of this review was conducted through an electronic literature search using PubMed database from December 1997 until December 2011, which analyze the related laboratory investigations of both irrigants, published in major endodontic journals. PMID:23349569

  14. Restoring the selectivity of modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar for the isolation of Campylobacter species using tazobactam, a ?-lactamase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shaun; Meade, Joseph; McGill, Kevina; Gibbons, James; Bolton, Declan; Whyte, Paul

    2015-10-01

    Extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli have emerged as a contaminant on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) when attempting to selectively isolate Campylobacter spp. from poultry. E. coli are particularly problematic given their ability to grow under microaerophilic conditions and have been shown to outcompete Campylobacter species making Campylobacter detection or enumeration difficult. This paper recommends a novel method for restoring the selectivity of mCCDA using tazobactam, a ?-lactamase inhibitor. The method significantly inhibited ESBL E. coli growth in spiked or naturally contaminated broiler caecal samples (p?0.01) when compared to conventional mCCDA. This effect was seen at concentrations as low as 1mg/L tazobactam. TmCCDA(1) was found to inhibit up to 8log10CFU/mL of ESBL E. coli in mixed pure cultures and 7.5log10CFU/mL in caecal samples. Furthermore TmCCDA concentrations up to 10mg/L had no statistically significant inhibitory effect (p?0.05) on the recovery of a panel of 27 Campylobacter jejuni and 5 Campylobacter coli isolates when compared to conventional mCCDA. From this study it is suggested that tazobactam, which is more chemically stable than clavulanic acid or sulbactam, is more suitable for restoring the selectivity of mCCDA for the detection or isolation of campylobacters. PMID:26119190

  15. Correlation between Agar Plate Screening and Solid-State Fermentation for the Prediction of Cellulase Production by Trichoderma Strains.

    PubMed

    Florencio, Camila; Couri, Sonia; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez

    2012-01-01

    The viability of converting biomass into biofuels and chemicals still requires further development towards the reduction of the enzyme production costs. Thus, there is a growing demand for the development of efficient procedures for selection of cellulase-producing microorganisms. This work correlates qualitative screening using agar plate assays with quantitative measurements of cellulase production during cultivation under solid-state fermentation (SSF). The initial screening step consisted of observation of the growth of 78 preselected strains of the genus Trichoderma on plates, using microcrystalline cellulose as carbon source. The 49 strains that were able to grow on this substrate were then subjected to a second screening step using the Congo red test. From this test it was possible to select 10 strains that presented the highest enzymatic indices (EI), with values ranging from 1.51 to 1.90. SSF cultivations using sugarcane bagasse and wheat bran as substrates were performed using selected strains. The CG 104NH strain presented the highest EGase activity (25.93?UI·g(-1)). The EI results obtained in the screening procedure using plates were compared with cellulase production under SSF. A correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.977 was obtained between the Congo red test and SSF, demonstrating that the two methodologies were in good agreement. PMID:23227312

  16. Kinetics and equilibrium modelling of lead uptake by algae Gelidium and algal waste from agar extraction industry.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2007-05-01

    Pb(II) biosorption onto algae Gelidium, algal waste from agar extraction industry and a composite material was studied. Discrete and continuous site distribution models were used to describe the biosorption equilibrium at different pH (5.3, 4 and 3), considering competition among Pb(II) ions and protons. The affinity distribution function of Pb(II) on the active sites was calculated by the Sips distribution. The Langmuir equilibrium constant was compared with the apparent affinity calculated by the discrete model, showing higher affinity for lead ions at higher pH values. Kinetic experiments were conducted at initial Pb(II) concentrations of 29-104 mgl(-1) and data fitted to pseudo-first Lagergren and second-order models. The adsorptive behaviour of biosorbent particles was modelled using a batch mass transfer kinetic model, which successfully predicts Pb(II) concentration profiles at different initial lead concentration and pH, and provides significant insights on the biosorbents performance. Average values of homogeneous diffusivity, D(h), are 3.6 x 10(-8); 6.1 x 10(-8) and 2.4 x 10(-8)cm(2)s(-1), respectively, for Gelidium, algal waste and composite material. The concentration of lead inside biosorbent particles follows a parabolic profile that becomes linear near equilibrium. PMID:17049738

  17. Quantitative assessment of the mechanical properties of tissue-mimicking agar phantoms by optical coherence elastography and numerical analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhaolong; Li, Jiasong; Singh, Manmohan; Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-Hao; Wang, Shang; Idugboe, Rita; Raghunathan, Raksha; Sudheendran, Narendran; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Twa, Michael D.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2015-03-01

    A systematic investigation was conducted on the accuracies of four analytical methods for obtaining the elasticity of soft samples by using optical coherence elastography (OCE). The results were compared to the elasticity measured by uniaxial mechanical testing. OCE has emerged as a noninvasive method for quantifying tissue biomechanical properties with spatial resolution of a few micrometers. A proper mechanical model is required for extracting the biomechanical parameters accurately from OCE measurements. In this work, tissuemimicking agar phantoms were utilized to analyze the accuracy and feasibility of four methods for reconstructing the Young's modulus from OCE-measured elastic wave which were induced by a focused airpulse. These reconstruction methods are: the shear wave equation (SWE), the surface wave equation (SuWE), the Rayleigh-Lamb frequency equation (RLFE), and the finite element method (FEM). The reconstructed elasticity values were also compared with uniaxial mechanical testing results. It was shown that the RLFE and the FEM are more robust in quantifying elasticity than the other simplified models. This work may provide a reference for reconstructing the biomechanical properties of tissues based on OCE measurements. Accurate reconstruction of biomechanical properties is an important issue for further developing noninvasive elastography methods.

  18. Model of Blue Jet Formation and Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milikh, Gennadiy; Shneider, Mikhail; Mokrov, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    Upward-propagating luminous flashes above thunderstorms were discovered two decades ago. They were named blue jets (BJ) due to primarily blue color. It is broadly accepted that BJ are produced by a lightning leader running upward in the nonuniform atmosphere. It is also suggested that formation of a leader is governed by the contraction of the current of a streamer flash into a small radius channel. The paper presents results of simulations of the current contraction in the air as a function of the pressure, and convective heat removal time. It was shown that transition to the contracted state occurs in hysteresis mode in which contracted and diffusive stable states exist simultaneously. The critical current for the phase transition was obtained. Similarity methods were applied to the simulations of the critical contraction current, along with chosen observations of BJ, to study BJ formation and propagation in the atmosphere.

  19. Reactive evaporation of anomalous blue VO(2).

    PubMed

    Case, F C

    1987-04-15

    Thin films of vanadium dioxide exhibit a thermally induced semiconductor-to-metal phase transition near 67 degrees C. In most deposition conditions, the transition is accompanied by large changes in optical properties at infrared wavelengths, but with only slight visible contrast. Recently, reactive evaporation at high temperatures and in stringent process conditions of so-called blue VO(2) has been reported [G. A. Nyberg and R. A. Buhrman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 301 (1984)]. These films exhibit a striking blue-to-red transition in transmitted light. In this paper, a new technique for thin-film growth of anomalous vanadium dioxide will be presented. The primary steps in the process are the reactive evaporation of vanadium oxide at ambient temperature followed by anneal in flowing oxygen. Optical and microstructural data for material deposited on sapphire and fused quartz substrates will be compared to standard vanadium dioxide. PMID:20454358

  20. Spectral Effects of Pulsations in Blue Supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomi?, S.; Kraus, M.; Oksala, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    We have been spectroscopically monitoring a number of blue supergiants, focusing on several strategic photospheric and wind lines. Our aim is to detect line profile variability, and to determine its origin. Here, we present preliminary results for ? Leo and ? Ori. We conduct an asteroseismic analysis of Hei ?6678. We find in each star multiple periods raging from hours to several days. In addition, we observe strong, night to night variability in H?.

  1. Technology Teacher: Singing the Black and Blues

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gives simple, yet authoritative answers to the questions "Why is the sky blue?" and "Why is the sky black at night?" Combines technology with its application to Earth science, astronomy, and cosmology, and does so via language arts and music! This article was originally written for and published by the International Technology Education Association in its journal 'The Technology Teacher.' It is now archived on The Space Place Web site.

  2. Eta Carinae and Other Luminous Blue Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M. F.

    2006-01-01

    Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) are believed to be evolved, extremely massive stars close to the Eddington Limit and hence prone to bouts of large-scale, unstable mass loss. I discuss current understanding of the evolutionary state of these objects, the role duplicity may play and known physical characteristics of these stars using the X-ray luminous LBVs Eta Carinae and HD 5980 as test cases.

  3. Reactive evaporation of anomalous blue VOâ

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francine C. Case

    1987-01-01

    Thin films of vanadium dioxide exhibit a thermally induced semiconductor-to-metal phase transition near 67° C. In most deposition conditions, the transition is accompanied by large changes in optical properties at infrared wavelengths, but with only slight visible contrast. Recently, reactive evaporation at high temperatures and in stringent process conditions of so-called blue VOâ has been reported (G. A. Nyberg and

  4. Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome (Brbns)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María del Carmen Boente; Maria Rosa Cordisco

    Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) is a rare congenital disorder (OMIM # 112200) characterized by multifocal venous malformations\\u000a mainly of the skin, soft tissue and gastrointestinal tract which may occur however in any tissue including the nervous system\\u000a (Enjolras and Mulliken 1997, Fretzin and Potter 1965, Moodley and Ramdial 1993, Mulliken and Glowacki 1982, Munkvad 1983, Nahm et al.

  5. AUDIBILITY THRESHOLDS OF THE BLUE JAY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEVEN M. COHEN; WILLIAM C. STEBBINS; DAVID B. MOODY

    1978-01-01

    The audibility thresholds of two Blue Jays were measured behaviorally using operant conditioning and psychophysical techniques. The jays responded to pure tones between 0.25 and 10 kHz. Their thresholds are similar to those reported for seven other passerines. This indicates that passerines are somewhat less sensitive than man in the detection of sounds in the 1 to 4 kHz range

  6. Starbursts in blue compact dwarf galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thuan, Trinh Xuan

    1987-01-01

    All the arguments for a bursting mode of star formation in blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCD) are summarized. It is shown that spectral synthesis of far-ultraviolet spectra of BCDs constitutes a powerful way to study the star formation history in these galaxies. BCD luminosity functions show jumps and discontinuities. These jumps act like fossil records of the star-forming bursts, aiding in the counting and dating of the bursts.

  7. Accidental mydriasis from blue nightshade "lipstick".

    PubMed

    Rubinfeld, R S; Currie, J N

    1987-03-01

    A 7-year-old girl presented with bilaterally dilated pupils, nausea, and vomiting 2 days after head trauma. Pilocarpine pupil testing led to the correct diagnosis of pharmacologic pupillary dilation from an unexpected and unusual source of plant poisoning, Solanum dulcamara (blue nightshade). In patients with internal ophthalmoplegia, awareness of the possibility of pharmacologic mydriasis and correct use of topical pilocarpine testing can preclude the necessity for neuroradiologic and invasive diagnostic studies, even in cases with atypical or complex presentations. PMID:2952678

  8. Ammonia assimilation in blue-green algae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Neilson; M. Doudoroff

    1973-01-01

    The occurrence of alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), and 2-ketoglutarate: glutamine amidotransferase (GGAT), has been surveyed in a number of blue-green algae. Among nine unicellular strains grown with nitrate, and belonging to five of the major typological groups, AlaDH was present in seven, and GDH in all eight that were assayed. In ten filamentous strains grown with nitrate, and

  9. The Blue Comet: A Railroad's Astronomical Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    Between 1929 February 21 and 1941 September 27, the Central New Jersey Railroad operated a luxury passenger train between Jersey City and Atlantic City. Named The Blue Comet, the locomotive, tender, and coaches sported a unique royal blue paint scheme designed to evoke images of celestial bodies speeding through space. Inside each car were etched window panes and lampshades featuring stars and comets. And each coach sported the name of a famous comet on its side; these comets were of course named for their discoverers. Some of the astronomers honored in this unique fashion remain famous to this day, or at least their comets do. The names D'Arrest, Barnard, Encke, Faye, Giacobini, Halley, Olbers, Temple, Tuttle, and Westphal are familiar ones. But Biela, Brorsen, deVico, Spitaler, and Winnecke have now largely faded into obscurity; their stories are recounted here. Although more than sixty years have elapsed since its last run, The Blue Comet, perhaps the most famous passenger train in American history, lives on in the memories of millions of passengers and railfans. This famous train returned to the attention of millions of television viewers on the evening of 2007 June 3, in an episode of the HBO series The Sopranos. This work was supported by a faculty development grant from Valdosta State University.

  10. Red, Green, and Blue Astro-combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, David; Glenday, Alex; Li, Chih-Hao; Korzennik, Sylvain; Noah Chang, Guoqing; Chen, Li-Jin; Benedick, Andrew; Kaertner, Franz; Sasselov, Dimitar; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Walsworth, Ronald

    2011-06-01

    Searches for extrasolar planets using the periodic Doppler shift of stellar lines are approaching Earth-like planet sensitivity. Astro-combs, a combination of an octave spanning femtosecond laser and a mode-filtering cavity provide a likely route to increased calibration precision and accuracy. We present results from three astro-combs operating in the red/near-IR, green and blue spectral ranges. Light from a 1-GHz, octave-spanning Ti:Sapphire laser is filtered by a Fabry-Perot Cavity (FPC) constructed from Doubly-Chirped Mirrors to produce a red astro-comb with 100 nm of optical bandwidth. This astro-comb has calibrated an astrophysical spectrograph at the 1 m/s level. In the blue astro-comb, Ti:Sapphire comb light, doubled in a BBO crystal is filtered to 50 GHz mode spacing with an FPC. The blue astro-comb has performed 50 cm/s calibrations. In the ``green'' astro-comb, light from the 1 GHz Ti:Sapphire comb laser is broadened in a photonic crystal fiber optimized to produce light in the green. This 1-GHz spaced green light is then filtered to roughly 40 GHz via an FPC with zero group delay dispersion mirrors, providing approximately 50 nm of astro-comb light centered near 550 nm.

  11. QCD and the BlueGene

    SciTech Connect

    Vranas, P

    2007-06-18

    Quantum Chromodynamics is the theory of nuclear and sub-nuclear physics. It is a celebrated theory and one of its inventors, F. Wilczek, has termed it as '... our most perfect physical theory'. Part of this is related to the fact that QCD can be numerically simulated from first principles using the methods of lattice gauge theory. The computational demands of QCD are enormous and have not only played a role in the history of supercomputers but are also helping define their future. Here I will discuss the intimate relation of QCD and massively parallel supercomputers with focus on the Blue Gene supercomputer and QCD thermodynamics. I will present results on the performance of QCD on the Blue Gene as well as physics simulation results of QCD at temperatures high enough that sub-nuclear matter transitions to a plasma state of elementary particles, the quark gluon plasma. This state of matter is thought to have existed at around 10 microseconds after the big bang. Current heavy ion experiments are in the quest of reproducing it for the first time since then. And numerical simulations of QCD on the Blue Gene systems are calculating the theoretical values of fundamental parameters so that comparisons of experiment and theory can be made.

  12. ANTHEM BLUE CROSS AND BLUE SHIELD You may select from two separate dental care plans to meet your individual needs. Premium cost

    E-print Network

    - 34 - ANTHEM BLUE CROSS AND BLUE SHIELD You may select from two separate dental care plans to meet two choices are: Anthem Blue Dental PPO Plus Anthem Blue Dental PPO NOTE: Children are eligible in retirement. PERA retirement benefits are based on your highest three years of earnings. Anthem Blue Dental

  13. Gilvimarinus polysaccharolyticus sp. nov., an agar-digesting bacterium isolated from seaweed, and emended description of the genus Gilvimarinus.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Shun; Huo, Ying-Yi; Jiang, Xia-Wei; Zhang, Xin-Qi; Pan, Jie; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Wu, Min

    2015-02-01

    A taxonomic study was carried out on strain YN3(T), which was isolated from a seaweed sample taken from the coast of Weihai, China. The bacterium was Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, and could grow at pH 5.0-10.0 and 4-32 °C in the presence of 0-9.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain YN3(T) was positive for the hydrolysis of polysaccharides, such as agar, starch and xylan. The predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-8. The major fatty acids were C16 : 1?7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH, C16 : 0 and C18 : 1?7c. The main polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine, and two unidentified glycolipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 49.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain YN3(T) should be assigned to the genus Gilvimarinus. 'Gilvimarinus agarilyticus' KCTC 23325 and Gilvimarinus chinensis QM42(T) had the closest phylogenetic relationship to strain YN3(T), and showed 97.9 % and 95.8 % sequence similarities, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic data and DNA-DNA hybridization studies, we propose that strain YN3(T) represents a novel species of the genus Gilvimarinus, for which the name Gilvimarinus polysaccharolyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YN3(T) (?= KCTC 32438(T)?= JCM 19198(T)). An emended description of the genus Gilvimarinus is also presented. PMID:25392347

  14. The detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in diagnostic bovine faecal samples using vancomycin-cefixime-cefsulodin blood agar and PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A Hornitzky; Karl A Bettelheim; Steven P Djordjevic

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of complex Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), i.e. STEC containing accessory virulence factors intimin (eaeA) and\\/or enterohaemorrhagic E. coli haemolysin (ehxA) and their serotypes were determined in diagnostic bovine faecal samples processed during a 3 months period. The presence of complex STEC was determined using PCR and vancomycin-cefixime-cefsulodin blood agar (BVCCA) using a dual approach which involved (i)

  15. Volatile metabolite production of spoilage micro-organisms on a mixed-lettuce agar during storage at 7 °C in air and low oxygen atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Ragaert; F. Devlieghere; E. Devuyst; J. Dewulf; H. Van Langenhove; J. Debevere

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the volatile metabolite production of spoilage bacteria (Pantoea agglomerans and Rahnella aquatilis) and spoilage yeasts (Pichia fermentans and Cryptococcus laurentii), previously isolated from mixed lettuce, on a simulation medium of shredded mixed lettuce (mixed-lettuce agar) both under air conditions and modified atmosphere (MA)-conditions at 7 °C. These latter conditions simulated the equilibrium modified atmosphere packaging, which is used

  16. Comparison of selective agar media and enrichment broths for recovering heat-stressed Escherichia coli O157:H7 from ground beef

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J Taormina; M Rocelle; S Clavero; L. R Beuchat

    1998-01-01

    Media for detecting and enumerating healthy as well as heat-injured cells ofEscherichia coliO157:H7 in foods are highly desired. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of eight selective and two non-selective direct plating agar media for their ability to recoverE. coliO157:H7 cells from unheated and heated ground beef, and to compare the ability of five enrichment broths to recoverE.

  17. Interspecific interactions between the rare tooth fungi Creolophus cirrhatus, Hericium erinaceus and H. coralloides and other wood decay species in agar and wood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Wald; Sini Pitkkänen; Lynne Boddy

    2004-01-01

    Creolophus cirrhatus, Hericium erinaceus and H. coralloides were paired against over 20 other wood decay fungi from beech (Fagus sylvatica) covering a range of ecological strategies, on 2 % malt agar (MA), 0.5 % MA, 0.5 % MA adjusted to x1.25 MPa by addition of KCl, 0.5 % MA adjusted to pH 4 with KOH\\/H3PO4 and 0.5 % MA under

  18. Cultivation characteristics and gene expression profiles of Aspergillus oryzae by membrane-surface liquid culture, shaking-flask culture, and agar-plate culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Imanaka; Soukichi Tanaka; Bin Feng; Koreyoshi Imamura; Kazuhiro Nakanishi

    2010-01-01

    We cultivated a filamentous fungus, Aspergillus oryzae IAM 2706 by three different cultivation methods, i.e., shaking-flask culture (SFC), agar-plate culture (APC), and membrane-surface liquid culture (MSLC), to elucidate the differences of its behaviors by different cultivation methods under the same media, by measuring the growth, secretion of proteases and ?-amylase, secreted protein level, and gene transcriptional profile by the DNA

  19. PhysicoChemical Characterization of Agar-Type Polysaccharides Used as Aqueous Gels in in vitro Micropropagation of Several Clones of Thuja plicata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Pochet; V. Rouxhet; M. M. Mestdagh; J. François

    1993-01-01

    The influence of four agar-type polysaccharides on the budding and the elongation of five clones of Thuja plicata was tested. The polysac charides were used as solidifying agents for culture media and differed in their sulfate content (0.14 to 10.95% W\\/W). Budding was reduced on the most highly sulfated polysaccharide, and the differences observed between clones in elonga tion were

  20. Anaphylactic response to blue dye during sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Bézu, Corinne; Coutant, Charles; Salengro, Anne; Daraï, Emile; Rouzier, Roman; Uzan, Serge

    2011-03-01

    The sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure is now used routinely for the staging of clinically node-negative patients with early breast cancer. Two identification techniques exist: colorimetric and isotopic. These can be used alone or in combination. The combined method is associated with an increased identification rate. However, allergic and adverse reactions to blue dyes have been reported. The objective of this review was to determine the incidence of such events and to discuss alternative approaches. The authors conducted a search of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for reports of anaphylactic responses to isosulfan blue dye and patent blue V dye. Allergic reaction to the dyes isosulfan blue and patent blue V is rare and the reported incidence varies between 0.07% and 2.7%. Methylene blue dye appears to be safer, with no cases of allergic events having been reported. However, allergy tests in some patients have proven that there is cross-reactivity between isosulfan blue dye and methylene blue dye. Even though the risk of an anaphylactic response is low, this raises questions about the usefulness of colorimetric detection of SLN and whether alternatives to the use of the isosulfan and patent blue V dyes, such as methylene blue, exist. PMID:21074413