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1

Axillary lymph node treatment in breast cancer: an update.  

PubMed

Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNbx) is the standard of care for staging of breast cancer. Patients with a negative sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNbx) do not undergo axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) or regional nodal irradiation (RNI). However, if a patient has a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNbx), then axillary lymph nodal dissection (ALND) is the standard treatment. Recent studies, notably the Z-0011 and MA-20 trials, have demonstrated that omission of axillary lymph nodal dissection (ALND) did not decrease overall survival. MA-20 demonstrated that inclusion of regional nodal irradiation (RNI) in addition to axillary lymph nodal dissection (ALND) did increase survival when compared to axillary lymph nodal dissection (ALND) without regional nodal irradiation (RNI). Ongoing studies are randomizing patients to axillary lymph nodal dissection (ALND) or regional nodal irradiation (RNI) after a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNbx). PMID:25112128

Williams, Patrick A; Suggs, Jeanann; Mangana, Sophy H

2014-05-01

2

Axillary lymph node management in breast cancer with positive sentinel lymph node biopsy  

PubMed Central

The surgical treatment of localized breast cancer has become progressively less aggressive over the years. The management of the axillary lymph nodes has been modified by the introduction of sentinel lymph node biopsy. Axillary dissection can be avoided in patients with sentinel lymph node negative biopsies. Based on randomized trials data, it has been proposed that no lymph node dissection should be carried out even in certain patients with sentinel lymph node positive biopsies. This commentary discusses the basis of such recommendations and cautions against a general omission of lymph node dissection in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph node biopsies. Instead, an individualized approach based on axillary tumor burden and biology of the cancer should be considered. PMID:25667909

Voutsadakis, Ioannis A; Spadafora, Silvana

2015-01-01

3

Axillary lymph node management in breast cancer with positive sentinel lymph node biopsy.  

PubMed

The surgical treatment of localized breast cancer has become progressively less aggressive over the years. The management of the axillary lymph nodes has been modified by the introduction of sentinel lymph node biopsy. Axillary dissection can be avoided in patients with sentinel lymph node negative biopsies. Based on randomized trials data, it has been proposed that no lymph node dissection should be carried out even in certain patients with sentinel lymph node positive biopsies. This commentary discusses the basis of such recommendations and cautions against a general omission of lymph node dissection in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph node biopsies. Instead, an individualized approach based on axillary tumor burden and biology of the cancer should be considered. PMID:25667909

Voutsadakis, Ioannis A; Spadafora, Silvana

2015-02-10

4

Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

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5

Lymph node shape in computed tomography imaging as a predictor for axillary lymph node metastasis in patients with breast cancer  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether preoperative computed tomography (CT) is a useful modality for the diagnosis of axillary lymph node metastasis. The axillary lymph node status was examined in patients with primary breast cancer who had undergone surgery. In total, 75 patients were analyzed with preoperative contrast CT images, following which the patients underwent an intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy to determine possible predictors of axillary lymph node metastasis. The lymph node shape was classified into three groups, which included fat-, clear-and obscure-types. Multivariate analysis revealed that clear-type lymph nodes in preoperative contrast CT imaging may be an independent predictor of lymph node metastasis (odds ratio, 15; P=0.003). Therefore, the results indicated that preoperative CT examination is useful to predict axillary lymph node metastasis. PMID:25009640

KUTOMI, GORO; OHMURA, TOUSEI; SATOMI, FUKINO; TAKAMARU, TOMOKO; SHIMA, HIROAKI; SUZUKI, YASUYO; OTOKOZAWA, SEIKO; ZEMBUTSU, HITOSHI; MORI, MITSURU; HIRATA, KOICHI

2014-01-01

6

Women with Breast Cancer Micrometastases in Their Sentinel Lymph Nodes May Not Need Axillary Dissection  

Cancer.gov

Results from a randomized clinical trial showed that women with breast cancer and only micrometastases in their sentinel lymph nodes who received axillary lymph node dissection had more side effects but no improvement in disease-free survival compared with women who had no further lymph node surgery.

7

Axillary sparganosis which was misunderstood lymph node metastasis during neoadjuvant chemotheraphy in a breast cancer patient.  

PubMed

Sparganosis of the breast is an uncommon disease, but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unusual and suspicious breast masses. A history of ingesting contaminated water and direct ingestion of snakes and frogs may help in differential diagnosis of the mass. Complete surgical removal is the treatment of choice and provides a definite diagnosis. We report a case of multiple axillary lymph node sparganosis. It was first considered as an axillary metastasis of breast cancer because a newly axillary mass appeared in follow-up radiologic study after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We performed curative breast cancer surgery and sparganosis was confirmed by extracting the worm during axillary dissection. PMID:25485243

Lee, Eun Kyoung; Yoo, Young Bum

2014-12-01

8

Axillary sparganosis which was misunderstood lymph node metastasis during neoadjuvant chemotheraphy in a breast cancer patient  

PubMed Central

Sparganosis of the breast is an uncommon disease, but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unusual and suspicious breast masses. A history of ingesting contaminated water and direct ingestion of snakes and frogs may help in differential diagnosis of the mass. Complete surgical removal is the treatment of choice and provides a definite diagnosis. We report a case of multiple axillary lymph node sparganosis. It was first considered as an axillary metastasis of breast cancer because a newly axillary mass appeared in follow-up radiologic study after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We performed curative breast cancer surgery and sparganosis was confirmed by extracting the worm during axillary dissection. PMID:25485243

Lee, Eun Kyoung

2014-01-01

9

Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer: Predictors of Axillary and Non-Sentinel Lymph Node Involvement  

PubMed Central

Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a standard method for the evaluation of axillary status in patients with T1-2N0M0 breast cancers. Aims: To determine the prognostic significance of primary tumour-related clinico-histopathological factors on axillary and non-sentinel lymph node involvement of patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy. Study design: Retrospective clinical study. Methods: In the present study, 157 sentinel lymph node biopsies were performed in 151 consecutive patients with early stage breast cancer between June 2008 and December 2011. Results: Successful lymphatic mapping was obtained in 157 of 158 procedures (99.4%). The incidence of larger tumour size (2.543±1.21 vs. 1.974±1.04), lymphatic vessel invasion (70.6% vs. 29.4%), blood vessel invasion (84.2% vs. 15.8%), and invasive lobular carcinoma subtype (72.7% vs. 27.3%) were statistically significantly higher in patients with positive SLNs. Logistic stepwise regression analysis disclosed tumour size (odds ratio: 1.51, p=0.0021) and lymphatic vessel invasion (odds ratio: 4.68, p=0.001) as significant primary tumour-related prognostic determinants of SLN metastasis. Conclusion: A close relationship was identified between tumour size and lymphatic vessel invasion of the primary tumour and axillary lymph node involvement. However, the positive predictive value of these two independent variables is low and there is no compelling evidence to recommend their use in routine clinical practice. PMID:25207151

Postac?, Hakan; Zengel, Baha; Yararba?, Ülkem; Uslu, Adam; Eliyatk?n, Nuket; Akp?nar, Göksever; Cengiz, Fevzi; Durusoy, Raika

2013-01-01

10

Is axillary lymph node clearance required in node-positive breast cancer?  

PubMed

Although the majority of patients with breast cancer have clinically negative axillary nodes at preoperative assessment, around 15-20% of these women will have metastatic disease within the lymph nodes at operative sentinel node biopsy, and additional selective treatment to the axilla might be required. Local treatment to the axilla can include axillary node clearance or axillary radiotherapy. The recent results of the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0011 trial suggested that some women would be safe from recurrence without further axillary treatment if they have less than three involved sentinel nodes, with no extracapsular spread. We review the evidence base for management of the axilla after detection of a positive sentinel node, discuss the evidence for why micrometastatic disease requires systemic but not axillary therapy, and present data suggesting that axillary irradiation for macrometastases gives equivalent control to axillary node clearance, but causes less morbidity such as lymphoedema. Ongoing trials will confirm whether any further therapy can be omitted for all patients with low volume, sentinel-node macrometastases. PMID:25367714

Bundred, Nigel J; Barnes, Nicola L P; Rutgers, Emiel; Donker, Mila

2015-01-01

11

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer significantly reduces number of yielded lymph nodes by axillary dissection  

PubMed Central

Background Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC) is an established therapy in breast cancer, able to downstage positive axillary lymph nodes, but might hamper their detectibility. Even if clinical observations suggest lower lymph node yield (LNY) after NC, data are inconclusive and it is unclear whether NC dependent parameters influence detection rates by axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Methods We analyzed retrospectively the LNY in 182 patients with ALND after NC and 351 patients with primary ALND. Impact of surgery or pathological examination and specific histomorphological alterations were evaluated. Outcome analyses regarding recurrence rates, disease free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were performed. Results Axillary LNY was significantly lower in the NC in comparison to the primary surgery group (median 13 vs. 16; p?axillary staging was four times higher in the NC group (14.8% vs. 3.4%, p?lymph nodes. The current recommendations for a minimum removal of 10 lymph nodes by ALND are clearly compromised by the clinically already established concept of NC. The LNY of less than 10 by ALND after NC might not be indicative for an insufficient axillary staging. PMID:24386929

2014-01-01

12

Diagnostic value of full-dose FDG PET\\/CT for axillary lymph node staging in breast cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate FDG PET\\/CT and CT for the detection of axillary lymph node metastases in breast\\u000a cancer (BC) patients and (2) to evaluate FDG PET\\/CT as a pre-test for the triage to sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) versus\\u000a axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value (PPV, NPV),

Till A. Heusner; Sherko Kuemmel; Steffen Hahn; Angela Koeninger; Friedrich Otterbach; Monia E. Hamami; Klaus R. Kimmig; Michael Forsting; Andreas Bockisch; Gerald Antoch; Alexander Stahl

2009-01-01

13

Lymph-node staining with activated carbon CH40: a new method for axillary lymph-node dissection in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective To demonstrate the usefulness of activated carbon particles (CH40) as a vital staining dye for visualizing lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes in breast cancer. Design A retrospective evaluation. Setting Department of Surgery in Sendai National Hospital, Japan, a 716-bed teaching hospital. Methods To identify as many lymph nodes as possible in the axillary fat, by which we might decrease the possibility of the presence of undetected metastatic nodes, an emulsion of activated carbon particles (CH40) was injected into the centre of the mammary gland, close to the tumour site, 3 days before radical surgery. Main outcome measure The number of lymph nodes found by the traditional method and by the CH40-injection method were recorded. Results After injection, the CH40 was readily adsorbed into regional lymphatics and streamed along with the lymph flow to blacken regional lymph nodes. The CH40-guided method increased the mean number of nodes per case found in the axilla from 8.4, by the traditional method, to 14.0 nodes per case. Conclusions The use of the CH40 technique has two technical advantages; one is that it allows surgeons to locate the blackened lymph nodes at the time of surgery and the other is that it allows pathologists to look for the nodes in fatty tissue. Lymph-node dissection with the aid of activated carbon particles is inexpensive, easy to perform and enables the smallest lymph nodes to be easily recognized. CH40 is the technique of choice for the detection of axillary lymph nodes in cases where the number of lymph nodes detected by the traditional method is too small for accurate surgery. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that CH40 could be an appropriate tool for more accurate staging of breast cancer axillary specimens. PMID:10851412

Yokota, Takashi; Saito, Toshihiro; Narushima, Yoichi; Iwamoto, Kazutsugu; Iizuka, Masashi; Hagiwara, Akeo; Sawai, Kiyoshi; Kikuchi, Shu; Kunii, Yasuo; Yamauchi, Hidemi

2000-01-01

14

Immunohistochemical investigation of axillary lymph nodes for micrometastases in patients with breast cancer using E29.  

PubMed

The axillary lymph nodes from 31 mammary carcinoma patients who had undergone radical mastectomy and were negative for metastases at routine histologic examination of hilar sections, were investigated with E29, an anti-epithelial monoclonal antibody, to detect the presence of neoplastic epithelial cells. In 4 of 433 lymph nodes examined (0.9%) this antibody revealed the presence of epithelial metastatic foci which had not been observed at routine histological examination or interpreted as histiocytes. The 4 lymph nodes belonged to 4 different patients. PMID:2617701

Cavaliere, A; Falini, B; Antonini, G

1989-12-31

15

Spontaneous regression of breast cancer with axillary lymph node metastasis: a case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous regression (SR) of cancer is a rare but well-documented biological phenomenon. However, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. We herein report a case of the SR of breast cancer at both the primary site and metastatic axillary lymph node with spontaneously-induced T cell-mediated immunological responses. A 52-year-old female with a lump in the left axilla was diagnosed to have a small breast carcinoma with a distinct axillary lymph node metastasis. During the preoperative systemic examination, she was diagnosed to have severe type 2 diabetes mellitus, was treated with insulin, and the hyperglycemia was normalized after one month. Surgery for left breast cancer was then performed. The postoperative histopathological examination revealed the SR of breast cancer at both the primary site and metastatic axillary lymph node. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that estrogen receptor positive, AE1/AE3-positive ductal carcinoma completely underwent necrosis associated with extensive infiltration of CD3-positive T cells in the tumor nodule in the lymph node. In addition, primary ductal carcinoma cells also underwent single cell necrosis with infiltration of T cells with lymph follicle-like organization of B cells in the mammary gland. The features were suggestive that the tumor eradication in the metastatic lymph node and regression of the primary ductal carcinoma could be due to host T cell response to the ductal carcinoma. As far as we know it is the first report that shows the spontaneous regression of breast cancer, probably due to the spontaneously-induced T cell response. PMID:25120822

Tokunaga, Eriko; Okano, Shinji; Nakashima, Yuichiro; Yamashita, Nami; Tanaka, Kimihiro; Akiyoshi, Sauri; Taketani, Kenji; Shirouzu, Mitsunori; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Morita, Masaru; Maehara, Yoshihiko

2014-01-01

16

Population-Based Analysis of Occult Primary Breast Cancer With Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Single-institution data suggest that treatment with radiation and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) may be an appropriate alternative to mastectomy for T0N+ breast cancer. Population-based multi-institutional data supporting this approach are lacking. METHODS The cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) of women with T0N+M0 ductal, lobular, or mixed breast cancer in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database from 1983 to 2006 were analyzed. Groups were defined as: 1) no ALND, mastectomy, or RT (observation); 2) ALND only; 3) mastectomy plus ALND with or without postmastectomy radiation (Mast); and 4) breast-conserving therapy (BCT) with ALND and radiation (BCT). RESULTS In total, 750 of 770,030 patients with breast cancer had T0N+ M0 disease (incidence, 0.10%), and 596 of those patients underwent ALND (79.5%). Patients who underwent Mast or BCT (n = 470) had a 10-year OS rate of 64.9% compared with 58.5% for patients who underwent ALND only (n = 126; P = .02) and 47.5% for patients who underwent observation only (n = 94; P = .04). The 10-year CSS rate was 75.7% for patients who underwent BCT versus 73.9% for patients who underwent Mast (P = .55). In multivariate analysis of CSS for patients who underwent Mast or BCT, the following factors were correlated with an unfavorable outcome: positive estrogen receptor status (hazard ratio [HR], 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24–0.96; P = .04), ?10 positive lymph nodes (HR, 5.7; 95%CI, 2.4–13.4; P ? .01), and <10 resected lymph nodes (HR, 42.9; 95%CI, 1.2–7.1; P = .02). Mast did not improve CSS compared with BCT (HR, 1.09; 95%CI, 0.57–2.1; P = .79). CONCLUSIONS Definitive locoregional treatment with either Mast or BCT improved the outcome of patients with T0N+breast cancer, and no difference in survival was observed between the treatments. PMID:20564117

Walker, Gary V.; Smith, Grace L.; Perkins, George H.; Oh, Julia L.; Woodward, Wendy; Yu, Tse-Kuan; Hunt, Kelly K.; Hoffman, Karen; Strom, Eric A.; Buchholz, Thomas A.

2011-01-01

17

Aberrant expression of ?-like ligand 4 contributes significantly to axillary lymph node metastasis and predicts postoperative outcome in breast cancer.  

PubMed

?-Like ligand 4 (DLL4), a ligand for the Notch family of receptors, forecasts the prognosis of several human malignancies. However, the expression and role of DLL4 in breast cancer remain largely unknown. In the present study, we first evaluated whether the overexpression of DLL4 could be used as an indicator of axillary lymph node metastasis and postoperative prognosis in breast cancer. The amount of DLL4 protein was assessed in 204 tumor specimens by immunohistochemical staining. Overexpression was detected in 142 (69.6%) and significantly associated with advanced TNM stage (III versus I, P = .031; III versus II, P = .038), axillary lymph node metastasis (P = .001), and postoperative recurrence (P = .007). Moreover, using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found that DLL4 overexpression was strongly associated with axillary lymph node metastasis (odds ratio, 3.036; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.561, 5.902; P = .001). Lastly, survival analysis showed that patients with low DLL4 expression had a significantly better overall survival and disease-free survival than patients with high DLL4 expression. Furthermore, in multivariate analysis, DLL4 overexpression was an independent risk factor for unfavorable overall survival (hazard ratio, 2.662; 95% CI, 1.300, 5.452; P = .007) and disease-free survival (hazard ratio, 2.568; 95% CI, 1.353, 4.876; P = .004). Taken together, these results suggest that high expression of DLL4 is associated with axillary lymph node metastasis and a poor prognosis in breast cancer, suggesting its value as a diagnostic marker for breast cancer. PMID:25260720

Xiao, Min; Yang, ShanShan; Ning, XiaoMing; Huang, YuanXi

2014-11-01

18

The use of Raman spectroscopy for the intra-operative assessment of axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breast cancer remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Assessment of the axillary lymph nodes is part of the staging of the disease. Advances in surgical management of breast cancer have seen a move towards intra-operative lymph node assessment that facilitates an immediate axillary clearance if it is indicated. Raman spectroscopy, a technique based on the inelastic scattering of light, has previously been shown to be capable of differentiating between normal and malignant tissue. These results, based on the biochemical composition of the tissue, potentially allow for this technique to be utilised in this clinical context. The aim of this study was to evaluate the facility of Raman spectroscopy to both assess axillary lymph node tissue within the theatre setting and to achieve results that were comparable to other intra-operative techniques within a clinically relevant time frame. Initial experiments demonstrated that these aims were feasible within the context of both the theatre environment and current surgical techniques. A laboratory based feasibility study involving 17 patients and 38 lymph node samples achieved sensivities and specificities of >90% in unsupervised testing. 339 lymph node samples from 66 patients were subsequently assessed within the theatre environment. Chemometric analysis of this data demonstrated sensitivities of up to 94% and specificities of up to 99% in unsupervised testing. The best results were achieved when comparing negative nodes from N0 patients and nodes containing macrometastases. Spectral analysis revealed increased levels of lipid in the negative nodes and increased DNA and protein levels in the positive nodes. Further studies highlighted the reproducibility of these results using different equipment, users and time from excision. This study uses Raman spectroscopy for the first time in an operating theatre and demonstrates that the results obtained, in real-time, are comparable, if not superior, to current intra-operative techniques of lymph nodes assessment.

Horsnell, Jonathan

19

Re-emphasizing the concept of adequacy of intraoperative assessment of the axillary sentinel lymph nodes for identifying nodal positivity during breast cancer surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is a standard of care for the evaluation of the axillary lymph nodes during breast cancer surgery, a substantial degree of variation exists among individual surgeons as to what represents an adequate assessment. The aim of the current study was to assess when metastatic disease was first identified within consecutively harvested SLN candidates

Stephen P Povoski; Donn C Young; Michael J Walker; William E Carson; Lisa D Yee; Doreen M Agnese; William B Farrar

2007-01-01

20

Molecular Detection of Micrometastatic Breast Cancer in Histopathology-Negative Axillary Lymph Nodes Correlates With Traditional Predictors of Prognosis  

PubMed Central

Objective: We sought to establish the clinical relevance of micrometastatic disease detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in axillary lymph nodes (ALN) of breast cancer patients. Background: The presence of ALN metastases remains one of the most valuable prognostic indicators in women with breast cancer. However, the clinical relevance of molecular detection of micrometastatic breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) and nonsentinel ALN has not been established. Methods: Four hundred eighty-nine patients with T1–T3 primary breast cancers were analyzed in a prospective, multi-institutional cohort study. ALN were analyzed by standard histopathology (H&E staining) and by multimarker, real-time RT-PCR analysis (mam, mamB, muc1, CEA, PSE, CK19, and PIP) designed to detect breast cancer micrometastases. Results: A positive marker signal was observed in 126 (87%) of 145 subjects with pathology-positive ALN, and in 112 (33%) of 344 subjects with pathology-negative ALN. In subjects with pathology-negative ALN, a positive marker signal was significantly associated with traditional indicators of prognosis, such as histologic grade (P = 0.0255) and St. Gallen risk category (P = 0.022). Mammaglobin was the most informative marker in the panel. Conclusion: This is the first report to show that overexpression of breast cancer–associated genes in breast cancer subjects with pathology-negative ALN correlates with traditional indicators of disease prognosis. These interim results provide strong evidence that molecular markers could serve as valid surrogates for the detection of occult micrometastases in ALN. Correlation of real-time RT-PCR analyses with disease-free survival in this patient cohort will help to define the clinical relevance of micrometastatic disease in this patient population. PMID:15166962

Gillanders, William E.; Mikhitarian, Kaidi; Hebert, Renee; Mauldin, Patrick D.; Palesch, Yuko; Walters, Christian; Urist, Marshall M.; Mann, G Bruce; Doherty, Gerard; Herrmann, Virginia M.; Hill, Arnold D.; Eremin, Oleg; El-Sheemy, Mohamed; Orr, Richard K.; Valle, Alvaro A.; Henderson, Michael A.; Dewitty, Robert L.; Sugg, Sonia L.; Frykberg, Eric; Yeh, Karen; Bell, Richard M.; Metcalf, John S.; Elliott, Bruce M.; Brothers, Thomas; Robison, Jay; Mitas, Michael; Cole, David J.

2004-01-01

21

Prospective Evaluation of the Feasibility of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer Patients with Negative Axillary Conversion after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) may adversely affect the identification and accuracy rate of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of SLNB in node-positive breast cancer patients with negative axillary conversion after NAC. Materials and Methods Ninety-six patients with positive nodes at presentation were prospectively enrolled. 18Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) and ultrasonography were performed before and after NAC. A metastatic axillary lymph node was defined as positive if it was positive upon both 18F-FDG PET and ultrasonography, while it was considered negative if it was negative upon both 18F-FDG PET and ultrasonography. Results After NAC, 55 cases (57.3%) became clinically node-negative, while 41 cases (42.7%) remained node-positive. In the entire cohort, the sentinel lymph node (SLN) identification and false-negative rates were 84.3% (81/96) and 18.4% (9/49), respectively. In the negative axillary conversion group, the results of SLNB showed an 85.7% (48/55) identification rate and 16.7% (4/24) false-negative rate. Conclusion For breast cancer patients with clinically positive nodes at presentation, it is difficult to conclude whether the SLN accurately represents the metastatic status of all axillary lymph nodes, even after clinically negative node conversion following NAC. PMID:25327493

Lee, Hy-De; Ahn, Sung Gwe; Lee, Seung Ah; Lee, Hak Min; Jeong, Joon

2015-01-01

22

The routine histological investigation of axillary lymph nodes for metastatic breast cancer.  

PubMed

A simple method of preparing axillary nodes from breast cancer patients for routine histology is presented. It is based on appreciation of nodal anatomy and the pathophysiology of tumour growth in them. Current methods assume that the latter is a random process, but this is not so. It has long been known that tumour cells enter via the afferent lymphatics. They may also exit by the efferent. It has not been generally realized that these vessels enter/leave the node in the same plane of section, or that a section in this plane, a hilar section, is theoretically the one of choice for the identification of tumour cells in the node. It is shown here that use of hilar sections alone allows the identification of tumour-free and tumour-bearing nodes, as well as the tumour status of the efferent vessels, with considerable certainty. The use of random sections, in contrast, carries a high risk of false negative reporting. PMID:6379134

Hartveit, F

1984-07-01

23

A histomorphologic predictive model for axillary lymph node metastasis in preoperative breast cancer core needle biopsy according to intrinsic subtypes.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is construction of a pathologic nomogram that can predict axillary lymph node metastasis (LNM) for each intrinsic subtype of breast cancer with regard to histologic characteristics in breast core needle biopsy (CNB) for use in routine practice. A total of 534 CNBs with invasive ductal carcinoma classified into 5 intrinsic subtypes were enrolled. Eighteen clinicopathological characteristics and 8 molecular markers used in CNB were evaluated for construction of the best predictive model of LNM. In addition to conventional parameters including tumor multiplicity (P < .001), tumor size (P < .001), high histologic grade (P = .035), and lymphatic invasion (P = .017), micropapillary structure (P < .001), the presence of small cell-like crush artifact (P = .001), and overexpression of HER2 (P = .090) and p53 (P = .087) were proven to be independent predictive factors for LNM. A combination of 8 statistically independent parameters yielded the strongest predictive performance with an area under the curve of 0.760 for LNM. A combination of 6 independent variables, including tumor number, tumor size, histologic grade, lymphatic invasion, micropapillary structure, and small cell-like crush artifact produced the best predictive performance for LNM in luminal A intrinsic subtype (area under the curve, 0.791). Thus, adding these combinations of clinical and morphologic parameters in preoperative CNB is expected to enhance the accuracy of prediction of LNM in breast cancer, which might serve as another valuable tool in determining optimal surgical strategies for breast cancer patients. PMID:25496835

Yoo, Su Hyun; Park, In Ae; Chung, Yul Ri; Kim, Hyojin; Lee, Keehwan; Noh, Dong-Young; Im, Seock-Ah; Han, Wonshik; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Ryu, Han Suk

2015-02-01

24

Assessment of Axillary Lymph Node Involvement in Breast Cancer Patients With Positron Emission Tomography Using Radiolabeled 2-(Fluorine18)- fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The presence of metastatic tumor cells in the axillary lymph nodes is an important factor when deciding whether or not to treat breast cancer patients with adjuvant therapy. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with the radiolabeled glucose analogue 2-(fluorine-18)-fluoro-2- deoxy-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) has been used to visualize primary breast tumors as well as bone and soft-tissue metas- tases. Purpose:

Norbert Avril; Jorg Dose; Fritz Jdnicke; Sibylle Ziegler; Wolfgang Romer; Wolfgang Weber; Michael Herz; Walter Nathrath; Henner Graejf; Markus Schwaiger

25

Detection of sentinel lymph node in breast cancer recurrence may change adjuvant treatment decision in patients with breast cancer recurrence and previous axillary surgery.  

PubMed

Use of sentinel lymph node dissection in patients with ipsilateral breast cancer recurrence is still controversial. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer recurrence (SLNBR) and whether the positivity had impact in the adjuvant treatment. Between 2008 and 2012 we performed SLNBR in patients with ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence. We included 53 patients in a prospective study. Forty-three patients (81%) had a previous axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and ten (19%) had a previous sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). Identification rate after SLNB was 50% and after ALND was 60.5% (p = 0.4). Nine patients (26%) had a positive SLNBR. Adjuvant systemic treatment was given to all the patients with a positive SLNBR and to 23 (85%) with a negative SLNBR (p = 0.29). Six patients (66%) with positive SLNBR and 4 patients (14%) with negative SLNBR underwent radiation therapy (p < 0.01). As conclusions of our study we conclude that sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast tumor recurrence is feasible and significant differences were found in the use of radiation therapy in patients with a positive SLNBR. PMID:24726837

Cordoba, Octavi; Perez-Ceresuela, Francesc; Espinosa-Bravo, Martin; Cortadellas, Tomas; Esgueva, Antonio; Rodriguez-Revuelto, Robert; Peg, Vicente; Reyes, Victoria; Xercavins, Jordi; Rubio, Isabel T

2014-08-01

26

Feasibility of FDG PET\\/CT to monitor the response of axillary lymph node metastases to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)\\/CT to visualize lymph node metastases before the start of neoadjuvant\\u000a chemotherapy and to determine how often the visualization is sufficiently prominent to allow monitoring of the axillary response.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Thirty-eight patients with invasive breast cancer of >3 cm and\\/or lymph node metastasis underwent FDG PET\\/CT

Marieke E. Straver; Tjeerd S. Aukema; Renato A. Valdes Olmos; Emiel J. T. Rutgers; Kenneth G. A. Gilhuijs; Margaret E. Schot; Wouter V. Vogel; Marie-Jeanne T. F. D. Vrancken Peeters

2010-01-01

27

A 10-year follow-up of treatment outcomes in patients with early stage breast cancer and clinically negative axillary nodes treated with tangential breast irradiation following sentinel lymph node dissection or axillary clearance  

PubMed Central

We compare long-term outcomes in patients with node negative early stage breast cancer treated with breast radiotherapy (RT) without the axillary RT field after sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). We hypothesize that though tangential RT was delivered to the breast tissue, it at least partially sterilized occult axillary nodal metastases thus providing low nodal failure rates. Between 1995 and 2001, 265 patients with AJCC stages I–II breast cancer were treated with lumpectomy and either SLND (cohort SLND) or SLND and ALND (cohort ALND). Median follow-up was 9.9 years (range 8.3–15.3 years). RT was administered to the whole breast to the median dose of 48.2 Gy (range 46.0–50.4 Gy) plus boost without axillary RT. Chi-square tests were employed in comparing outcomes of two groups for axillary and supraclavicular failure rates, ipsilateral in-breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), distant metastases (DM), and chronic complications. Progression-free survival (PFS) was compared using log-rank test. There were 136/265 (51%) and 129/265 (49%) patients in the SLND and ALND cohorts, respectively. The median number of axillary lymph nodes assessed was 2 (range 1–5) in cohort SLND and 18 (range 7–36) in cohort ALND (P < 0.0001). Incidence of AFR and SFR in both cohorts was 0%. The rates of IBTR and DM in both cohorts were not significantly different. Median PFS in the SLND cohort is 14.6 years and 10-year PFS is 88.2%. Median PFS in the ALND group is 15.0 years and 10-year PFS is 85.7%. At a 10-year follow-up chronic lymphedema occurred in 5/108 (4.6%) and 40/115 (34.8%) in cohorts SLND and ALND, respectively (P = 0.0001). This study provides mature evidence that patients with negative nodes, treated with tangential breast RT and SLND alone, experience low AFR or SFR. Our findings, while awaiting mature long-term data from NSABP B-32, support that in patients with negative axillary nodal status such treatment provides excellent long-term cure rates while avoiding morbidities associated with ALND or addition of axillary RT field. PMID:20853176

Goodman, Robert L.; Turner, Bruce C.; Komarnicky, Lydia T.; Curran, Walter J.; Christos, Paul J.; Khan, Imraan; Vandris, Katherine; Parashar, Bhupesh; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chao, K. S. Clifford

2013-01-01

28

Molecular Detection of Micrometastatic Breast Cancer in Histopathology—Negative Axillary Lymph Nodes Fails to Predict Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Final Analysis of a Prospective Multi-Institutional Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  To address the clinical relevance of molecular detection of occult breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes and nonsentinel axillary\\u000a lymph nodes (ALN), we initiated the Minimally Invasive Molecular Staging of Breast Cancer (MIMS) trial, a multi-institutional\\u000a prospective cohort study. This trial represents the first prospective cohort study in which a multimarker, real-time reverse\\u000a transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was

Carla Suzanne Fisher; David J. Cole; Michael Mitas; Elizabeth Garrett-Meyer; John S. Metcalf; William E. Gillanders; Kaidi Mikhitarian; Marshall M. Urist; G. Bruce Mann; Gerard Doherty; Virginia M. Herrmann; Arnold D. Hill; Oleg Eremin; Mohamed El-Sheemy; Richard K. Orr; Alvaro A. Valle; Michael A. Henderson; Robert L. Dewitty; Sonia L. Sugg; Eric Frykberg; Karen Yeh; Richard M. Bell; Megan K. Baker

2010-01-01

29

Development of Web tools to predict axillary lymph node metastasis and pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.  

PubMed

Nomograms are a standard computational tool to predict the likelihood of an outcome using multiple available patient features. We have developed a more powerful data mining methodology, to predict axillary lymph node (AxLN) metastasis and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in primary breast cancer patients. We developed websites to use these tools. The tools calculate the probability of AxLN metastasis (AxLN model) and pathological complete response to NAC (NAC model). As a calculation algorithm, we employed a decision tree-based prediction model known as the alternative decision tree (ADTree), which is an analog development of if-then type decision trees. An ensemble technique was used to combine multiple ADTree predictions, resulting in higher generalization abilities and robustness against missing values. The AxLN model was developed with training datasets (n=148) and test datasets (n=143), and validated using an independent cohort (n=174), yielding an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.768. The NAC model was developed and validated with n=150 and n=173 datasets from a randomized controlled trial, yielding an AUC of 0.787. AxLN and NAC models require users to input up to 17 and 16 variables, respectively. These include pathological features, including human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status and imaging findings. Each input variable has an option of "unknown," to facilitate prediction for cases with missing values. The websites developed facilitate the use of these tools, and serve as a database for accumulating new datasets. PMID:25096734

Sugimoto, Masahiro; Takada, Masahiro; Toi, Masakazu

2014-01-01

30

Comparison of Mastoscopic and Conventional Axillary Lymph Node Dissection in Breast Cancer: Long-term Results From a Randomized, Multicenter Trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the long-term results of mastoscopic axillary lymph node dissection (MALND) and conventional axillary lymph node dissection (CALND). Patients and Methods From January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2005, a group of 1027 consecutive patients with operable breast cancer were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 study groups: MALND and CALND. The median follow-up was 63 months. The primary end points of the study were operative outcomes, complication reduction, function conservation, and cosmetics. The secondary end points were disease-free and overall survival. Results The mean operative blood loss in the MALND group was less than in the CALND group (P<.001). The patients who underwent MALND had less axillary pain, numbness or paresthesias, and arm swelling (P<.001). The aesthetic appearance of the axilla in the MALND group was much better than that in the CALND group (P=.001 at 6 months and P=.002 at 24 months). A significant difference was found between the 2 groups in distant metastasis (P=.04). The disease-free survival rate was 64.5% in the MALND group and 60.8% in the CALND group (P=.88). The overall survival rate was 81.7% in the MALND group and 78.6% in the CALND group (P=.95). Conclusion Compared with CALND, MALND has advantages in operative outcomes, complication reduction, function conservation, and cosmetics. PMID:23146657

Luo, Chengyu; Guo, Wenbin; Yang, Jie; Sun, Qiuru; Wei, Wei; Wu, Suhua; Fang, Shubing; Zeng, Qingliang; Zhao, Zhensheng; Meng, Fanjie; Huang, Xuandong; Zhang, Xianlan; Li, Ruihua; Ma, Xiufeng; Luo, Chaoying; Yang, Yun

2012-01-01

31

Survival Outcomes of Different Treatment Methods for the Ipsilateral Breast of Occult Breast Cancer Patients with Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis: A Single Center Experience  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study compared the survival outcomes of different treatment methods for the ipsilateral breast of occult breast cancer (OBC) patients with axillary lymph node metastasis. Methods A retrospective study was conducted in which forty OBC patients with axillary lymph node metastasis were identified out of 15,029 patients who had been diagnosed with a primary breast cancer at between 1992 and 2010. The patients were categorized into three treatment groups based on ipsilateral breast management: breast-conserving surgery (BCS) (n=17), mastectomy (n=12), and nonsurgical intervention with or without radiation therapy (No surgery with or without radiation therapy [No Op±RT]) (n=11). All patients underwent axillary lymph node dissection. Cases were evaluated based on treatment and potential prognostic factors with respect to overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Results During the follow-up period (median follow-up of 71.5 months), the overall OS and DFS were 76.9% and 74.9%, respectively. The 5-year treatment-specific OS was 72.0% for the BCS group, 74.0% for the mastectomy group, and 87.5% for the No Op±RT group (log-rank p=0.49). The 5-year DFS was 70.6% for the BCS group, 66.7% for the mastectomy group, and 90.9% for the No Op±RT group (log-rank p=0.36). Recurrence rates for the BCS and No Op±RT groups were 5.9% and 18.2%, respectively. Histologic grade and lymph node status were inversely correlated with DFS (log-rank p=0.04 and p<0.01, respectively). Conclusion There was no difference in survival outcomes between the three treatment methods for the ipsilateral breast (mastectomy, BCS, and No Op±RT) of OBC patients with axillary lymph node metastasis. A large-scale multicenter study is needed to validate the results from this small retrospective study. PMID:24454463

Woo, Sang Min; Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Hee Jeong; Yu, Jong Han; Ko, Beom Seok; Sohn, Guiyun; Lee, Yu Ra; Kim, Hanna; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Baek, Seung Hee

2013-01-01

32

Postoperative radiation for women with cancer of the breast and positive axillary lymph nodes  

SciTech Connect

The author states his belief that further studies of routine radiation therapy of women with Stage II breast cancer are not waranted and further use of this treatment is not justified. He has not been able to find any systematic discussion within the medical community about what criteria will be used to reach some conclusion about the efficacy of radiation therapy in the large group of women with Stage II disease. (DAD)

Lipsett, M.B.

1981-01-08

33

Overexpression of Bmi1 oncoprotein correlates with axillary lymph node metastases in invasive ductal breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modulation of Bmi-1 is observed in several tumor tissues, and its heightened protein level is suspected to be involved in tumorigenesis by acting as a transcriptional repressor in the INK4a\\/ARF locus. To elucidate the modulation of Bmi-1 in invasive ductal breast cancers, we examined its transcript and protein levels. The bmi-1 mRNA level by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)

Joo Heon Kim; Sun Young Yoon; Seong-Hoo Jeong; Soo Young Kim; Sang Kyoung Moon; Joung Hyuck Joo; Younghee Lee; In Seong Choe; Jae Wha Kim

2004-01-01

34

The value of preoperative ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of radiologically suspicious axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: Preoperative ultrasound (US) and eventually US-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of suspicious axillary lymph nodes (ALN) is a standard procedure in the work-up of suspicious breast lesions. Preoperative US FNAC may prevent sentinel node biopsy (SNB) procedure in 24-30% of patients with early stage breast carcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the institutional results of this preoperative diagnostic procedure. Materials and Methods: A total of 182 cases of preoperative FNAC of suspicious ALN where retrieved from the pathology files. The results were compared with the final histology and staging. False negative (FN) FNAC cases were reviewed and possibly missed metastatic cases (2) were immunostained with the epithelial marker AE1/AE3. Results: There were no false positives, whereas 16 cases were FN. In all but one case the FN's represented sampling error. Half of the 16 FN cases in this series were macrometastases. Discussion: About 83% of the preoperatively aspirated cases were N+, indicating that a radiologically suspicious ALN has a very high risk of being metastatic. Preoperative US guided FNAC from radiologically suspicious ALN is highly efficient in detecting metastases. Depending on national guidelines, a preoperative, positive ALN FNAC might help to stratify the patients as to SNB and/or ALN dissection. PMID:25317197

Sauer, Torill; Kåresen, Rolf

2014-01-01

35

Breast Cancer Patients With 10 or More Involved Axillary Lymph Nodes Treated by Multimodality Therapy: Influence of Clinical Presentation on Outcome  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze tumor control and survival for breast cancer patients with 10 or more positive lymph nodes without systemic disease, treated by adjuvant radiation alone or combined-modality therapy. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 309 consecutive patients with these characteristics who received locoregional radiotherapy (RT) at our institution. The majority of patients had clinical Stage II or IIIA-B disease (43% and 48%, respectively). The median number of positive axillary lymph nodes was 15 (range, 10-78). Adjuvant therapy consisted of RT alone, with or without chemotherapy, tamoxifen, and/or ovarian castration. Results: The overall 5-year and 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 20% and 7%, respectively. Median DFS was higher for patients with Stage I-II compared with those with Stage IIIABC (28 vs. 19 months; p = 0.006). Median DFS for patients aged {<=}35 years was lower than that of older patients (12 vs. 24 months; p < 0.0001). Patients treated with a combination therapy had a higher 5-year DFS rate compared with those treated by RT alone (26% vs. 11%; p 0.03). In multivariate analysis, clinical stage (III vs. I, II; relative risk = 1.8, p = 0.002) and age ({<=}35 vs. others; relative risk = 2.6, p <0.001) were found to be independent variables for DFS. Conclusion: This retrospective data analysis identified young age and advanced clinical stage as pertinent and independent clinical prognostic factors for breast cancer patients with advanced axillary disease (10 or more involved nodes). These factors can be used for further prognostic classification.

Geara, Fady B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon)]. E-mail: fg00@aub.edu.lb; Nasr, Elie [Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Tucker, Susan L. [Department of Biomathematics, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Charafeddine, Maya [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Dabaja, Bouthaina [Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Eid, Toufic [Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Abbas, Jaber [Department of General Surgery, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Salem, Ziad [Department of Medical Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Shamseddine, Ali [Department of Medical Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Issa, Philip [Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); El Saghir, Nagi [Department of Medical Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon)

2007-06-01

36

Intradermal administration of fluorescent contrast agents for delivery to axillary lymph nodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this proof-of-concept study we seek to demonstrate the delivery of fluorescent contrast agent to the tumor-draining lymph node basin following intraparenchymal breast injections and intradermal arm injection of micrograms of indocyanine green in 20 breast cancer patients undergoing complete axillary lymph node dissection. Individual lymph nodes were assessed ex vivo for presence of fluorescent signal. In all, 88% of tumor-negative lymph nodes and 81% of tumor-positive lymph nodes were fluorescent. These results indicate that future studies utilizing targeted fluorescent contrast agents may demonstrate improved surgical and therapeutic intervention.

Rasmussen, John C.; Meric-Berstam, Funda; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Tan, I.-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Wagner, Jamie L.; Babiera, Gildy V.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

2014-05-01

37

Trends in and Outcomes from Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLNB) Alone vs. SLNB with Axillary Lymph Node Dissection for Node-Positive Breast Cancer Patients: Experience from the SEER Database  

PubMed Central

Background Complete axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) after a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) remains the standard practice. As nodal surgery has long been considered a staging procedure without a clear survival benefit, the need for ALND in all patients is debatable. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in survival for patients undergoing SLNB alone versus SLNB with complete ALND. Methods Patients with breast cancer who underwent SLNB and were found to have nodal metastases were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1998–2004). Clinicopathologic and outcomes data were examined for patients who underwent SLNB alone versus SLNB with ALND. Results We identified 26,986 patients with disease-positive lymph nodes; 4,425 (16.4%) underwent SLNB alone, and 22,561 (83.6%) underwent SLNB with ALND. Patients were significantly more likely to undergo SLNB alone if they were older (median 59 years old) or if the tumor was low grade and estrogen receptor positive. From 1998 to 2004, the proportion of patients with micrometastasis in the sentinel lymph nodes who underwent SLNB alone increased from 21.0 to 37.8% (P < 0.001). At a median follow-up of 50 months, there were no statistically significant differences in overall survival (OS) between patients who underwent SLNB alone versus complete ALND. Conclusions There is an increasing trend toward omitting ALND in patients with micrometastatic nodal disease identified by SLNB. Compared with SLNB alone, completion ALND does not seem to be associated with improved survival for breast cancer patients with micrometastasis in the sentinel lymph nodes. PMID:20853057

Yi, Min; Giordano, Sharon Hermes; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Kuerer, Henry M.; Hwang, Rosa F.; Bedrosian, Isabelle; Rourke, Loren; Hunt, Kelly K.

2015-01-01

38

Efficiency of a Preoperative Axillary Ultrasound and Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology to Detect Patients with Extensive Axillary Lymph Node Involvement  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have demonstrated that axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) does not affect patient survival, even in those with one or two positive sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). On the other hand, patients with 3 or more metastatic lymph nodes are eligible for chemotherapy. Therefore, it is crucial to identify a priori patients at risk of having a high number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes for their surgical and/or clinical management. Ultrasound (US) guided Fine-Needle Aspiration (FNA) has been proven to be a useful and highly specific method for detecting metastatic axillary lymph nodes. However, only one recent study has evaluated the efficiency of this method in identifying patients with high metastatic nodal involvement. Our aim was to validate US-guided FNA as a reliable method to discriminate a priori patients with >3 metastatic lymph nodes. Methods A retrospective series of 1287 breast cancer patients who underwent a simultaneous preoperative breast and axillary US to stage their axilla was collected. A total of 365 patients, with either positive SLNs (278) or positive axillary lymph nodes detected via US-guided FNA (87), underwent ALND. In these two subgroups, we compared the number of metastatic lymph nodes in the axilla. Results The number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes in patients who underwent US-guided FNA was significantly higher (63% had >3 metastatic lymph nodes) than that in patients with SLNs positive for micro- or macrometastases (3% and 27%, respectively) (P<0.001, ?2?=?117.897). Conclusions Preoperative axillary US-guided FNA could act as a reliable tool in identifying breast cancer patients with extensive nodal involvement. PMID:25207643

Castellano, Isabella; Deambrogio, Cristina; Muscarà, Francesca; Chiusa, Luigi; Mariscotti, Giovanna; Bussone, Riccardo; Gazzetta, Guglielmo; Macrì, Luigia; Cassoni, Paola; Sapino, Anna

2014-01-01

39

Primary ovarian serous adenocarcinoma with ipsilateral axillary lymph node metastasis: a case report.  

PubMed

Axillary lymph node metastasis from primary ovarian cancer is rare. Here, we reporting a unique case of 45 years old who presented with axillary lymph node metastasis which was thought from breast carcinoma but it turned out to be due to ovarian serous adenocarcinoma confirmed by histopathology & immunohistochemistry. Staging laparotomy (IIIc) with hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was done. Post-operatively, the patient was given adjuvant chemotherapy. No local or systemic recurrence was noted during 1 year follow up period. PMID:25419072

Saxena, Avanish Kumar; Goyal, Nitin; Singhal, Juhi; Kumar, Parveen

2014-09-01

40

Axillary lymph node uptake of technetium-99m-MDP  

SciTech Connect

We sought to determine the frequency and significance of axillary lymph node visualization on bone scans performed with diphosphonates. Consecutive {sup 99m}Tc-methylene diphosphonate ({sup 99m}Tc-MDP) bone scans (2435) were inspected for axillary soft-tissue uptake. In positive cases, the results of physical examination, correlative imaging studies and serial bone scans were recorded, as was the site of venipuncture. Forty-eight studies (2%) showed axillary uptake ipsilateral to the injection site. Extravasation of tracer, documented by focal activity near the injection site, was present in every case. There was no association with axillary adenopathy, mass, induration of radiographically visible calcification. On some images, foci adjacent to the axilla were superimposed on the rib, scapula, or humerus. The bone-to-background ratio was frequently reduced; repeat imaging after 1-2 hr usually improved osseous detail. Ipsilateral axillary lymph node visualization due to extravasation of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP is frequently associated with additional foci superimposed on osseous structures simulating pathology. Delayed skeletal uptake is common in such cases and necessitates a greater time interval between injection and imaging. 7 refs., 3 figs.

Ongseng, F.; Goldfarb, C.R.; Finestone, H. [Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

1995-10-01

41

The impact of axillary lymph nodes removed in staging of node-positive breast carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Number of positive lymph nodes in the axilla and pathologic lymph node status (pN) have a great impact on staging according to the current American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system of breast carcinoma. Our aim was to define whether the total number of removed axillary lymph nodes influences the pN and thus the staging. Methods and Materials: The records of 798 consecutive invasive breast cancer patients with T1-3 tumors and positive axillary lymph nodes who underwent modified radical mastectomy between 1999 and 2005 in our hospital were reviewed. The total number of removed nodes were grouped, and compared with the patient and tumor characteristics and the influence of the number of nodes removed on the staging was analyzed. Results: The proportion of patients with {>=}4 positive nodes (59%), and pN3 status (51%) were the highest in the group with 21-25 nodes removed. Compared with patients with 1-20 nodes removed, the proportion of patients with {>=}4 positive nodes (52%), and pN3 status (46%) were significantly higher in those with more than 20 nodes removed. Although the proportion of Stage IIA and IIB decreased, the proportion of Stage IIIA and IIIC increased in patients with >20 nodes removed compared with those with 1-20 nodes removed. Conclusions: In patients with axillary node-positive breast carcinoma, staging is highly influenced by total number of removed nodes. Levels I-III axillary dissection with more than 20 axillary lymph nodes removed could lead to more effective adjuvant chemotherapy and increases substantially the proportion of patients to receive radiotherapy.

Kuru, Bekir [Department of General Surgery, Ankara Oncology Education and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: bekirkuru@hotmail.com; Bozgul, Mustafa [Department of General Surgery, Ankara Oncology Education and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey)

2006-12-01

42

Endocervicosis involving axillary lymph nodes: first case report.  

PubMed

The occurence of Mullerian epithelial inclusions, especially endosalpingiosis, in pelvic and other subdiaphragmatic lymph nodes is well known. In contrast, Mullerian inclusions involving lymph nodes above the diaphragm is uncommon, although occasional cases of endosalpingiosis have been reported. We report a case of benign Mullerian inclusions of mucinous endocervical type (endocervicosis) coexistent with metastatic breast-infiltrating ductal carcinoma in 2 axillary lymph nodes. The inclusions exhibited diffuse positive staining with CK7, PAX8, CA125, and estrogen receptor and were WT1 negative. To our knowledge, this is the first report of endocervicosis involving supradiaphragmatic lymph nodes. Close morphologic examination and immunohistochemistry assists in distinguishing Mullerian inclusions from metastatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:25272302

Mukonoweshuro, Pinias; McCluggage, W Glenn

2014-11-01

43

Cost comparison of axillary sentinel lymph node detection and axillary lymphadenectomy in early breast cancer. A national study based on a prospective multi-institutional series of 985 patients ‘on behalf of the Group of Surgeons from the French Unicancer Federation’  

PubMed Central

Background: Our objective was to assess the global cost of the sentinel lymph node detection [axillary sentinel lymph node detection (ASLND)] compared with standard axillary lymphadenectomy [axillary lymph node dissection (ALND)] for early breast cancer patients. Patients and methods: We conducted a prospective, multi-institutional, observational, cost comparative analysis. Cost calculations were realized with the micro-costing method from the diagnosis until 1 month after the last surgery. Results: Eight hundred and thirty nine patients were included in the ASLND group and 146 in the ALND group. The cost generated for a patient with an ASLND, with one preoperative scintigraphy, a combined method for sentinel node detection, an intraoperative pathological analysis without lymphadenectomy, was lower than the cost generated for a patient with lymphadenectomy [€2947 (? = 580) versus €3331 (? = 902); P = 0.0001]. Conclusion: ASLND, involving expensive techniques, was finally less expensive than ALND. The length of hospital stay was the cost driver of these procedures. The current observational study points the heterogeneous practices for this validated and largely diffused technique. Several technical choices have an impact on the cost of ASLND, as intraoperative analysis allowing to reduce rehospitalization rate for secondary lymphadenectomy or preoperative scintigraphy, suggesting possible savings on hospital resources. PMID:21896543

Classe, J. M.; Baffert, S.; Sigal-Zafrani, B.; Fall, M.; Rousseau, C.; Alran, S.; Rouanet, P.; Belichard, C.; Mignotte, H.; Ferron, G.; Marchal, F.; Giard, S.; Tunon de Lara, C.; Le Bouedec, G.; Cuisenier, J.; Werner, R.; Raoust, I.; Rodier, J.-F.; Laki, F.; Colombo, P.-E.; Lasry, S.; Faure, C.; Charitansky, H.; Olivier, J.-B.; Chauvet, M.-P.; Bussières, E.; Gimbergues, P.; Flipo, B.; Houvenaeghel, G.; Dravet, F.; Livartowski, A.

2012-01-01

44

Predicting axillary lymph node metastasis from kinetic statistics of DCE-MRI breast images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of axillary lymph node metastases is the most important prognostic factor in breast cancer and can influence the selection of adjuvant therapy, both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this work we present a set of kinetic statistics derived from DCE-MRI for predicting axillary node status. Breast DCE-MRI images from 69 women with known nodal status were analyzed retrospectively under HIPAA and IRB approval. Axillary lymph nodes were positive in 12 patients while 57 patients had no axillary lymph node involvement. Kinetic curves for each pixel were computed and a pixel-wise map of time-to-peak (TTP) was obtained. Pixels were first partitioned according to the similarity of their kinetic behavior, based on TTP values. For every kinetic curve, the following pixel-wise features were computed: peak enhancement (PE), wash-in-slope (WIS), wash-out-slope (WOS). Partition-wise statistics for every feature map were calculated, resulting in a total of 21 kinetic statistic features. ANOVA analysis was done to select features that differ significantly between node positive and node negative women. Using the computed kinetic statistic features a leave-one-out SVM classifier was learned that performs with AUC=0.77 under the ROC curve, outperforming the conventional kinetic measures, including maximum peak enhancement (MPE) and signal enhancement ratio (SER), (AUCs of 0.61 and 0.57 respectively). These findings suggest that our DCE-MRI kinetic statistic features can be used to improve the prediction of axillary node status in breast cancer patients. Such features could ultimately be used as imaging biomarkers to guide personalized treatment choices for women diagnosed with breast cancer.

Ashraf, Ahmed B.; Lin, Lilie; Gavenonis, Sara C.; Mies, Carolyn; Xanthopoulos, Eric; Kontos, Despina

2012-03-01

45

Axillary staging of breast cancer: what the radiologist should know.  

PubMed

Identifying the presence of axillary node and internal mammary node metastases in patients with invasive breast cancer is critical for determining prognosis and for deciding on appropriate treatment. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the definitive method to exclude axillary metastases. Patients with positive SLNB results generally undergo axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). The benefit of preoperative identification of axillary metastases is that it allows the surgeon to proceed directly to ALND and to avoid an unnecessary SLNB and the need for a second surgical procedure involving the axillary nodes. Knowledge of the important anatomic landmarks of the axilla is important in finding and accurately reporting suspicious lymph nodes. The pathologic features of nodal metastases illuminate the imaging appearances of these nodes, as depicted with all modalities. Ultrasonography (US) is the primary imaging modality for evaluating axillary nodes. Morphologic criteria, such as cortical thickening, hilar effacement, and nonhilar cortical blood flow, are more important than size criteria in the identification of metastases. US-guided lymph node sampling, especially with core biopsy, is invaluable in confirming the presence of a metastasis in a suspicious node. Core biopsy has been shown to be equal in safety to fine needle aspiration and has a significantly lower false-negative rate. Magnetic resonance imaging is also useful, with the added benefit of providing a global view of both axillae. Computed tomography and radionuclide imaging play a lesser role in imaging the axilla. Preoperative image-based identification and sampling of abnormal lymph nodes that have a high positive predictive value for metastases is an extremely important component in the management of patients with invasive breast cancer. PMID:24108553

Ecanow, Jacob S; Abe, Hiroyuki; Newstead, Gillian M; Ecanow, David B; Jeske, Jan M

2013-10-01

46

99mTc-labelled SM3 in the preoperative evaluation of axillary lymph nodes and primary breast cancer with change detection statistical processing as an aid to tumour detection.  

PubMed Central

The extent of primary surgery for breast cancer could be tailored to the patient if previous information on the presence or absence of lymph node involvement could be reliably determined. Prospective radioimmunoscintigraphy in 29 patients with primary breast cancer that was found on screening has been undertaken with 555 MBq (15 mCi) 99mTc SM3, an Imperial Cancer Research Fund (ICRF) murine monoclonal antibody, 0.5 mg with images at 10 min and 22 h, and analysis using a change detection algorithm. Sites of significant change between the early and later images were displayed as a map of probabilities. Image-positive and -negative axillary lymph nodes were compared by histology in the 28 evaluable patients. The correct identification of the presence or absence of node involvement, even if impalpable, has been shown in 24 out of 28 patients (29 lymph node groups). Sensitivity was 90% (nine out of ten), specificity 84% (16 out of 19) and accuracy 86%. These results encourage further assessment of this technique. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9459158

Biassoni, L.; Granowska, M.; Carroll, M. J.; Mather, S. J.; Howell, R.; Ellison, D.; MacNeill, F. A.; Wells, C. A.; Carpenter, R.; Britton, K. E.

1998-01-01

47

Pathology Case Study: Enlarged Right Axillary Lymph Node  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 40-year-old man was found to have an enlarged right axillary lymph node. Visitors are given the patient history, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical immunology.

Fung, Mark

2009-02-18

48

Infiltrating ductal carcinoma breast, metastatic to ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes harbouring primary tuberculous lymphadenitis: a case report  

PubMed Central

The coexistence of breast cancer and tuberculosis has been described in over 100 cases; however its coexistence in the axillary lymph node is rare with only a handful cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the left breast, metastatic to ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes harbouring tuberculous lymphadenitis without primary mammary or pulmonary tuberculosis. The case is presented for its rarity and illustrates that the simultaneous occurrence of tuberculosis and carcinoma can create a dilemma in the diagnosis and treatment, so surgeons and pathologists should keep such a combination on the back of their mind, especially in endemic areas. PMID:25422685

Pandey, Pinki; Dixit, Alok; Tanwar, Aparna; Mahajan, NC

2014-01-01

49

Factors associated with involvement of four or more axillary nodes for sentinel lymph node-positive patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Sentinel lymph node-positive (SLN+) patients who are unlikely to have 4 or more involved axillary nodes might be treated with less extensive regional nodal radiation. The purpose of this study was to define possible predictors of having 4 or more involved axillary nodes. Methods and Materials: The records of 224 patients with breast cancer and 1 to 3 involved SLNs, who underwent completion axillary dissection without neoadjuvant chemotherapy or hormonal therapy were reviewed. Factors associated with the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes (SLNs plus non-SLNs) were evaluated by Pearson chi-square test of association and by simple and multiple logistic-regression analysis. Results: Of 224 patients, 42 had involvement of 4 or more axillary nodes. On univariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes was positively associated with increased tumor size, lobular histology, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), increased number of involved SLNs, decreased number of uninvolved SLNs, and increased size of SLN metastasis. On multivariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes was associated with LVSI, increased number of involved SLNs, increased size of SLN metastasis, and lobular histology. Conclusions: Patients with 1 or more involved SLN, LVSI, or SLN macrometastasis should be treated to the supraclavicular fossa/axillary apex if they do not undergo completion axillary dissection. Other SLN+ patients might be adequately treated with less extensive radiation fields.

Katz, Angela [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail: abkatz@partners.org; Niemierko, Andrzej [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Gage, Irene [Breast Cancer Treatment Group, Sibley Memorial Hospital, Washington, DC (United States); Evans, Sheila [Breast Cancer Treatment Group, Sibley Memorial Hospital, Washington, DC (United States); Shaffer, Margaret [Breast Cancer Treatment Group, Sibley Memorial Hospital, Washington, DC (United States); Smith, Frederick P. [Breast Cancer Treatment Group, Sibley Memorial Hospital, Washington, DC (United States); Taghian, Alphonse [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Magnant, Colette [Breast Cancer Treatment Group, Sibley Memorial Hospital, Washington, DC (United States)

2006-05-01

50

Toxoplasmosis presenting as a swelling in the axillary tail of the breast and a palpable axillary lymph node mimicking malignancy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Lymphadenopathy is a common finding in toxoplasmosis. A breast mass due to toxoplasmosis is very rare, and only a few cases have been reported. We present a case of toxoplasmosis that presented as a swelling in the axillary tail of the breast with a palpable axillary lymph node which mimicked breast cancer. Case presentation A 45-year-old otherwise healthy Caucasian woman presented with a lump on the lateral aspect of her left breast. Her mother had breast cancer that was diagnosed at the age of 66 years. During an examination, we discovered that our patient had a discrete, firm lump in the axillary tail of her left breast and an enlarged, palpable lymph node in her left axilla. Her right breast and axilla were normal. The clinical diagnosis was malignancy in the left breast. Ultrasound and mammographic examinations of her breast suggested a pathological process but were not conclusive. She had targeted fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core biopsy of the lesions. FNAC was indeterminate (C3) but suggested a possibility of toxoplasmosis. The core biopsy was not suggestive of malignancy but showed granulomatous inflammation. She had a wide local excision of the breast lump and an axillary lymph node biopsy. Histopathology and immunohistochemical studies excluded carcinoma or lymphoma but suggested the possibility of intramammary and axillary toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy. The results of Toxoplasma gondii IgM and IgG serology tests were positive, supporting a diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Conclusions Toxoplasmosis rarely presents as a pseudotumor of the breast. FNAC and histology are valuable tools for a diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, and serology is an important adjunct for confirmation. PMID:21816047

2011-01-01

51

Sentinel-lymph-node-based management or routine axillary clearance? One-year outcomes of sentinel node biopsy versus axillary clearance (SNAC): a randomized controlled surgical trial.  

PubMed

We sought the extent to which arm morbidity could be reduced by using sentinel-lymph-node-based management in women with clinically node-negative early breast cancer. One thousand eighty-eight women were randomly allocated to sentinel-lymph-node biopsy followed by axillary clearance if the sentinel node was positive or not detected (SNBM) or routine axillary clearance (RAC, sentinel-lymph-node biopsy followed immediately by axillary clearance). Sentinel nodes were located using blue dye, alone or with technetium-labeled antimony sulfide colloid. The primary endpoint was increase in arm volume from baseline to the average of measurements at 6 and 12 months. Secondary endpoints were the proportions of women with at least 15% increase in arm volume or early axillary morbidity, and average scores for arm symptoms, dysfunctions, and disabilities assessed at 6 and 12 months by patients with the SNAC Study-Specific Scales and other quality-of-life instruments. Sensitivity, false-negative rates, and negative predictive values for sentinel-lymph-node biopsy were estimated in the RAC group. The average increase in arm volume was 2.8% in the SNBM group and 4.2% in the RAC group (P = 0.002). Patients in the SNBM group gave lower ratings for arm swelling (P < 0.001), symptoms (P < 0.001), and dysfunctions (P = 0.02), but not disabilities (P = 0.5). Sentinel nodes were found in 95% of the SNBM group (29% positive) and 93% of the RAC group (25% positive). SNB had sensitivity 94.5%, false-negative rate 5.5%, and negative predictive value 98%. SNBM was successfully undertaken in a wide range of surgical centers and caused significantly less morbidity than RAC. PMID:19050973

Gill, Grantley

2009-02-01

52

Axillary lymph node dose with tangential whole breast radiation in the prone versus supine position: a dosimetric study  

PubMed Central

Background Prone breast positioning reduces skin reaction and heart and lung dose, but may also reduce radiation dose to axillary lymph nodes (ALNs). Methods Women with early stage breast cancer treated with whole breast irradiation (WBI) in the prone position were identified. Patients treated in the supine position were matched for treating physician, laterality, and fractionation. Ipsilateral breast, tumor bed, and Level I, II, and III ALNs were contoured according to the RTOG breast atlas. Clips marking surgically removed sentinel lymph nodes (SLN)s were contoured. Treatment plans developed for each patient were retrospectively analyzed. V90% and V95% was calculated for each axillary level. When present, dose to axillary surgical clips was calculated. Results Treatment plans for 46 women (23 prone and 23 supine) were reviewed. The mean V90% and V95% of ALN Level I was significantly lower for patients treated in the prone position (21% and 14%, respectively) than in the supine position (50% and 37%, respectively) (p?axillary Level I. The mean V95% of SLN clips was 47% for patients treated in the supine position and 0% for patients treated in the prone position (p?axillary coverage is indicated such as those with positive sentinel lymph node biopsy who do not undergo completion axillary dissection, treatment in the prone position may be inappropriate. PMID:22607612

2012-01-01

53

Contralateral axillary node metastasis from recurrence after conservative breast cancer surgery.  

PubMed

Sentinel lymph node detection (SLND) with radiocolloid has become widely used for evaluation of nodal metastasis in primary breast cancer. However, the procedure for recurrent breast cancer is not well established. Contralateral axillary node metastasis is uncommon. We report 2 cases of contralateral axillary node metastasis with recurrent breast cancer. In the first case, contralateral node metastasis was found by SLND. In the other case without SLND, contralateral node metastasis developed after resection of local recurrence. FDG-avid contralateral node was pathologically diagnosed as metastasis. The SLND might be useful in patients with local recurrence after conservative breast cancer surgery. PMID:24368539

Nishimura, Satoko; Koizumi, Mitsuru; Kawakami, Junko; Koyama, Masamichi

2014-02-01

54

Histiocytic necrotising lymphadenitis (Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease) of axillary lymph nodes.  

PubMed

Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) or histiocytic necrotising lymphadenitis is a rare entity, occurring most commonly in young Asian adults. KFD is characterised by fever with tender lymph node enlargement. The cervical group of lymph nodes is most commonly involved, and the diagnosis is conclusively made by lymph node biopsy and histopathology. KFD is a self-limiting condition, which usually resolves over 1-4?months. Symptomatic treatment with antipyretics and/or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is recommended. Here we describe an uncommon presentation of KFD in a young woman in which only the axillary lymph nodes were enlarged. PMID:25564582

Nagaraju, Santosh; Vaishnav, Sakshi; Burke, Leandra H; Norman, Earl M

2015-01-01

55

Tattoo pigment mimicking metastatic malignant melanoma in an axillary sentinel lymph node  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case of a 37-year-old man with a Clarkes level III, Breslow thickness 1.2 mm superficial spreading melanoma of his forearm is described. Intraoperatively, a black-pigmented ipsilateral axillary sentinel lymph node, highly suspicious for metastatic disease, was harvested. The patient had a faded tattoo in the vicinity of the malignant melanoma. Histological examination of the lymph node demonstrated normal lymphoid

A McDermott; G T ODonoghue; M Kerin

2010-01-01

56

COMPLICATION RATES IN PATIENTS WITH NEGATVE AXILLARY NODES 10-YEARS AFTER LOCAL BREAST RADIOTHERAPY FOLLOWING EITHER SENTINEL LYMPH NODE DISSECTION OR AXILLARY CLEARANCE  

PubMed Central

Background We assess complication rates in node negative breast cancer patients treated with breast radiotherapy (RT) only after sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Materials and Methods Between 1995 and 2001, 226 women with AJCC stage I-II breast cancer were treated with lumpectomy, either SLND or SLND+ALND, and had available toxicities in follow-up: 111/136 (82%) and 115/129 (89%) in SLND and ALND groups, respectively. RT targeted the breast to median dose of 48.2Gy (range, 46.0-50.4Gy) without axillary RT. Chi-square tests compared complication rates of two groups for axillary web syndrome (AWS), seroma, wound infection, decreased range of motion (ROM) of the ipsilateral shoulder, paresthesia, and lymphedema. Results Median follow-up was 9.9 years (range, 8.3 -15.3 years). Median number of nodes assessed was 2 (range, 1-5) in SLND and 18 (range, 7-36) in ALND (p<0.0001). Acute complications occurred during the first 2 years and were AWS, seroma, and wound infection. Incidences of seroma 5/111 (4.5%) in SLND and 16/115 (13.9%) in ALND (p<0.02, respectively) and wound infection 3/111 (2.7%) in SLND and 10/115 (8.7%) in ALND (p<0.05, respectively) differed significantly. AWS was not statistically different between the groups. At 10-years, the only chronic complications were decreased ROM of the shoulder 46/111 (41.4%) in SLND and 92/115 (80.0%) in ALND (p<0.0001), paresthesia 12/111 (10.8%) in SLND and 39/115 (33.9%) in ALND (p<0.0001), and lymphedema assessed by patients 10/111 (10.0%) in SLND and 39/115 (33.9%) in ALND (p<0.0001). Chronic lymphedema, assessed by clinicians, occurred in 6/111 (5.4%) in SLND and 21/115 (18.3%) in ALND cohorts, respectively (p<0.0001). Conclusion Our mature findings support that in patients with negative axillary nodal status SLND and breast RT provide excellent long-term cure rates while avoiding morbidities associated with ALND or addition of axillary RT field. PMID:22134519

Wernicke, A.Gabriella; Shamis, Michael; K.Sidhu, Kulbir; Turner, Bruce C.; Goltser, Yevgenyia; Khan, Imraan; Christos, Paul J.; Komarnicky-Kocher, Lydia T.

2014-01-01

57

Less-Invasive Lymph Node Surgery Safe for Women with Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Breast cancer patients who had sentinel lymph node biopsy followed by axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) only if cancer cells were detected in the sentinel nodes had the same overall survival as those  who underwent ALND regardless of sentinel node status, according to a randomized trial published online September 20, 2010, in Lancet Oncology.

58

Axillary node metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma with hürthle and signet ring cell differentiation. A case of disseminated thyroid cancer with peculiar histologic findings  

PubMed Central

Background Differentiated thyroid cancer is usually associated with an excellent prognosis and indolent course. Distant metastases are rare events at the onset of thyroid cancer. Among these presentations, metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes is even more unusual: only few cases were previously reported in the literature; there has been no report of axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. Axillary lymph node metastasis generally arises in the context of disseminated disease and carries an ominous prognosis. Case presentation Here we present a case of axillary lymph node metastasis in the context of disseminated differentiated thyroid cancer. The patient underwent near total thyroidectomy and neck and axillary lymph node dissection. A histopathological diagnosis of poorly differentiated follicular carcinoma with "signet ring cells" and Hürthle cell features was established. The patient received radioactive iodine therapy and TSH suppression therapy. Subsequently his serum thyroglobulin level decreased to 44.000 ng/ml from over 100.000 ng/ml. Discussion and Conclusion Currently there are only few reported cases of axillary node metastases from thyroid cancer, and to our knowledge, this is the first report on axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. "Signet ring cell" is a morphologic feature shared by both benign and, more rarely, malignant follicular thyroid neoplasm, and it generally correlates with an arrest in folliculogenesis. Our case is one of the rare "signet ring cells" carcinomas so far described. PMID:22304797

2012-01-01

59

Outcome of axillary staging in early breast cancer: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is associated with significant morbidity, whilst sentinel node biopsy (SNB) has the\\u000a potential to minimize complications in the management of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to systematically appraise\\u000a the outcome of SNB when compared to ALND. A comprehensive search for published trials examining outcomes after SNB for breast\\u000a cancer was performed using

Malcolm R. KellJohn; John P. Burke; Mitchel Barry; Monica Morrow

2010-01-01

60

Observation of the Primo Vessel Approaching the Axillary Lymph Node with the Fluorescent Dye, DiI  

PubMed Central

The primo vascular system (PVS) floating in lymph fluid has mostly been observed in large caliber ducts around the caudal vena cava and the thoracic duct of rabbits, rats, and mice. But the PVS has not been traced up to the lymph nodes. It has not been established whether the PVS leaves the lymph vessel through the lymph vessel wall or it enters the lymph nodes. Therefore, observing the PVS entering a lymph node, for example, the axillary node, is desirable. In the current work, we traced the PVS approaching up to the surface of axillary node of a rat. The method used for this study was based upon a method that was recently developed to detect the PVS in the lymph duct from the inguinal to the axillary nodes in the skin of a rat by injecting Alcian blue into the inguinal node. However, the Alcian blue blurred near the lymph nodes and tracing the PVS up to the lymph nodes has not been possible. The current method clearly showed the PVS approaching the axillary node. PMID:25477989

Park, Su Youn; Chang, Byung-Soo; Lee, Seung Hwan; Yoon, Ju Hwan; Kim, Sungchul

2014-01-01

61

Does the Metastatic Lymph Node Ratio Influence the Disease-Free Survival of Patients with Breast Cancer: Single-Center Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) are the most important prognostic factor for survival in breast cancer. Pathological evaluation can affect the number of involved lymph nodes. In the current study, we evaluated whether the metastatic lymph node ratio (n ratio) is important in predicting disease-free survival (DFS) for breast cancer patients. Material and Methods: From 802 breast cancer cases, 427

Bala Basak Oven Ustaalioglu; Ahmet Bilici; Umut Kefeli; Emre Yildirim; Taflan Salepci; Mustafa Oncel; Metin Kement; Mahmut Gumus

2010-01-01

62

Large Axillary Defect after Lymph Node Dissection Directly Closed by Suturing the Pectoralis Major to the Latissimus Dorsi  

PubMed Central

Summary: In 2009, the Union for International Cancer Control defined lymph node (LN) metastasis ?6 cm in diameter as stage 4 in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. Lesions from such LNs become ulcerated and infected and bleed without treatment. A 67-year-old man suffered from skin cancer on his right back and a 7-cm-diameter LN metastasis. After axillary LN dissection, a large skin and soft tissue defect was apparent. To rectify the defect, we simply sutured the pectoralis major muscle to the latissimus dorsi muscle and covered the suture with a split-skin mesh graft. After the surgery, the range of motion of the upper limb on the side where surgery was performed remained in good condition. PMID:25289196

Konno, Takayuki; Suzuki, Tamio

2013-01-01

63

[Sentinel node invasion: is it necessary to perform axillary lymph node dissection? Randomized trial SERC].  

PubMed

Contribution of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is questioned for positive sentinel node (SN), micro-metastasis and isolated tumor cells but also for macro-metastasis. The aim of this work is to precise why a prospective randomized trial is necessary and the design of this trial. Why? For positive SN, the scientific level evidence appears insufficient for validation of ALND omission as a new standard. Rational is presented with non-sentinel node involved rate and number of NSL involved at complementary ALND, axillary recurrence rate, disease free survival rate and adjuvant treatment decision impact. How? The proposed Sentinelle Envahi et Randomisation du Curage (SERC) trial will randomly assign to observation only or complementary ALND with positive SN. The aim is to demonstrate the non-inferiority of ALND omission versus ALND. PMID:24793627

Houvenaeghel, Gilles; Resbeut, Michel; Boher, Jean-Marie

2014-04-01

64

[Loss of appetite, night sweats, eczema, and axillary and inguinal lymph node swelling in a 28-year-old man].  

PubMed

A 28-year-old man presented with loss of appetite, night sweats, eczema, and axillary and inguinal lymph node swelling. The tentative diagnosis of malignant lymphoma was made. To confirm the diagnosis, extirpation of a lymph node and a skin biopsy were performed. Systemic treatment with methylprednisolone resulted in an improvement of eczema and lymph node swelling. Because of the histological findings and clinical course, we diagnosed dermatopathic lymphadenopathy, also known as Pautrier-Woringer syndrome. PMID:24522559

Wahl, U; Stranzenbach, R; Tischoff, I; Tannapfel, A; Stadler, R; Ernst, F

2014-03-01

65

Tagging sentinel lymph nodes: a study of 100 patients with breast cancer.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate in breast cancer patients the feasibility of sentinel lymph node (SLN) identification and the sensitivity of this technique to detect node metastases. Between January and July 1997, SLNs were tracked with Evans Blue dye in 100 patients with breast cancer who then underwent complete level I/II axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). All SLNs were examined by haematoxylin-phloxin-saffron (HPS) staining and immunohistochemistry (IHC) of multiple sections. The findings for the SLNs were compared with results on ANLD. Axillary SLNs were identified in 83 patients (detection rate = 83%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 74-90%). Axillary SLNs were detected in 58/83 cases (70%) at level I only, and in 69/83 (83%) at levels including level I. Histologically positive axillary SLNs were found in 45% (37/83) of patients, including 2 patients with malignancy (micro-metastases) detected by IHC only. The sensitivity of axillary SLN to detect axillary lymph nodes metastases was 37/39 = 95% (95% CI 83-99%). SLNs of the internal mammary chain (IMC) were dissected for 33 tumours of the median or inner quadrants and detected in 26/33 = 79% of cases (95% CI 61-91%). In our experience, the overall sensitivity of SLN identification as a predictor of node (axillary or IMC) metastases was 41/43 = 95% (95% CI 84-99%), confirming the usefulness of the procedure. PMID:10492629

Bobin, J Y; Zinzindohoue, C; Isaac, S; Saadat, M; Roy, P

1999-04-01

66

Can mammographic and sonographic imaging features predict the Oncotype DX™ recurrence score in T1 and T2, hormone receptor positive, HER2 negative and axillary lymph node negative breast cancers?  

PubMed

To determine whether mammographic or sonographic features can predict the Oncotype DX™ recurrence scores (RS) in patients with TI-II, hormone receptor (HR) positive, HER2/neu negative and node negative breast cancers. Institutional board review was obtained and informed consent was waived for this retrospective study. Seventy-eight patients with stage I-II invasive breast cancer that was HR positive, HER2 negative, and lymph node negative for whom mammographic and or sonographic imaging and Oncotype DX™ assay scores were available were included in the study Four breast dedicated radiologists blinded to the RS retrospectively described the lesions according to BI-RADS lexicon descriptors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test for significant independent predictors of low (<18) versus intermediate to high range (?18). Two imaging features reached statistical significance in predicting low from intermediate or high risk RS: pleomorphic microcalcifications within a mass (P = 0.017); OR 8.37, 95 % CI (1.47-47.79) on mammography and posterior acoustic enhancement in a mass on ultrasound (P = 0.048); OR 4.35, 95 % CI (1.01-18.73) on multivariable logistic regression. A mass with pleomorphic microcalcifications on mammography or the presence of posterior acoustic enhancement on ultrasound may predict an intermediate to high RS as determined by the Oncotype DX(TM) assay in patients with stage I-II HR positive, HER2 negative, and lymph node negative invasive breast cancer. PMID:25262341

Yepes, Monica Maria; Romilly, Ada Pat; Collado-Mesa, Fernando; Net, Jose Miguel; Kiszonas, Richard; Arheart, Kristopher L; Young, Daniel; Glück, Stefan

2014-11-01

67

Utility of 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose emission tomography\\/computed tomography fusion imaging (18F-FDG PET\\/CT) in combination with ultrasonography for axillary staging in primary breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Accurate evaluation of axillary lymph node (ALN) involvement is mandatory before treatment of primary breast cancer. The aim of this study is to compare preoperative diagnostic accuracy between positron emission tomography\\/computed tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG PET\\/CT) and axillary ultrasonography (AUS) for detecting ALN metastasis in patients having operable breast cancer, and to assess the clinical management of axillary 18F-FDG

Shigeto Ueda; Hitoshi Tsuda; Hideki Asakawa; Jiro Omata; Kazuhiko Fukatsu; Nobuo Kondo; Tadaharu Kondo; Yukihiro Hama; Katsumi Tamura; Jiro Ishida; Yoshiyuki Abe; Hidetaka Mochizuki

2008-01-01

68

Sentinel node detection in pre-operative axillary staging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer surgery is based on the fact that the tumour drains in a logical way via the lymphatic system, from the first to upper levels. Since axillary node dissection does not improve the prognosis of patients with breast cancer, sentinel lymph node biopsy might replace complete axillary dissection for staging of

Giuseppe Trifirò; Giuseppe Viale; Oreste Gentilini; LauraLavinia Travaini; Giovanni Paganelli

2004-01-01

69

The role of contrast enchanced axillary ultrasonography in early breast cancer patients.  

PubMed

The most important prognostic factor for the patients with breast cancer are metastases to axillary lymph nodes (ALNs). Preoperative ultrasound (US) combined with fine needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNAB) has been proved to be the most reliable method to detect nonpalpable axillary metastases in patients with breast cancer. Our study was aimed to examine the value of US contrast agent (CA) SonoVue in the US examination of the axilla for the detection of axillary lymph node (ALN) metastases in breast cancer patients. Therefore, two studies were performed. The first study included 27/70 patients with breast cancer who had an indeterminate result of the standard US examination of the axilla (L/T < 1.2 or MCT > 3 mm or predominantly non-hilar vessel signal) and underwent US examination with CA. In the second study, 26 breast cancer patients underwent standard axillary US examination performed independently by two skilled operators. The patients with indeterminate or malignant ALN underwent US- guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNAB). For macrometastases, the sensitivity, specificity, NPV and PPV of US-FNAB were 91%, 93%, 100% and 100%, respectively. The reproducibility of the standard US examination (the second study) was 85% (22/26 patients), and for the metastases larger than 5 mm, it was 100%. Moreover, our second study proved that the same results as with CA can be achieved by two skilled operators performing a standard US examination. The sensitivity of both operators was 92%. In the case of metastases larger than 5 mm, the reproducibility was 100%. Micrometastases remain a problem also in the hands of very experienced operators even if using CA. PMID:21661352

Podkrajsek, Maja; Hocevar, Marko

2011-03-01

70

Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer: Guidelines and Pitfalls of Lymphoscintigraphy and Gamma Probe Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Sentinel node (SN) biopsy appears to offer an alternative to routine axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for staging patients with breast cancer. Various techniques have been studied for identifying the SN, using vital blue dye or radioactive colloid, and initial reports are promising. The inherent limitations and pitfalls must be clearly understood before SN biopsy can be implemented in

Paul J Borgstein; Rik Pijpers; Emile F Comans; Paul J van Diest; Rob P Boom; Sybren Meijer

1998-01-01

71

Tamoxifen and Chemotherapy for Lymph Node-Negative, Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The B-20 study of the National Surgical Adju- vant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) was conducted to determine whether chemotherapy plus tamoxifen would be of greater benefit than tamoxifen alone in the treatment of patients with axillary lymph node-negative, estrogen recep- tor-positive breast cancer. Methods: Eligible patients (n = 2306) were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups

Bernard Fisher; James Dignam; Norman Wolmark; Arthur DeCillis; Birol Emir; D. Lawrence Wickerham; John Bryant; Nikolay V. Dimitrov; Neil Abramson; James N. Atkins; Henry Shibata; Luc Deschenes; Richard G. Margolese

1997-01-01

72

Status of sentinel lymph node for breast cancer.  

PubMed

Long-awaited results from randomized clinical trials designed to test the validity of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) as replacement of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in management of early breast cancer have recently been published. All the trials conclude SLNB has survival rates comparable to those of ALND (up to 10 years in one study) and conclude SLNB has less morbidity than ALND. All the trials support replacing ALND with SLNB for staging in early breast cancer; all support SLNB as the standard of care for such cancer. The SLNB protocols used in the trials varied, and no consensus that would suggest a standard protocol exists. The results of the trials and of other peer-reviewed research do, however, suggest a framework for including some specific methodologies in accepted practice. This article highlights the overall survival and disease-free survival data as reported from the clinical trials. This article also reviews the status of SLN procedures and the following: male breast cancer, the roles of various imaging modalities (single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography, positron emission tomography/computed tomography, and ultrasound), ductal carcinoma in situ, extra-axillary SLNs, SLNB after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, radiation exposure to patients and medical personnel, and a new radiotracer that is the first to label SLNs not by particle trapping but by specific macrophage receptor binding. The proper Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code for lymphoscintigraphy and SLN localization prior to surgery is 78195. PMID:23725990

Moncayo, Valeria M; Aarsvold, John N; Grant, Sandra F; Bartley, Scott C; Alazraki, Naomi P

2013-07-01

73

Volume-Based Parameters of {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Improve Disease Recurrence Prediction in Postmastectomy Breast Cancer Patients With 1 to 3 Positive Axillary Lymph Nodes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether volume-based parameters on pretreatment {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy without adjuvant radiation therapy are predictive of recurrence. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 93 patients with 1 to 3 positive axillary nodes after surgery, who were studied with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography for initial staging. We evaluated the relationship between positron emission tomography parameters, including the maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and clinical outcomes. Results: The median follow-up duration was 45 months. Recurrence was observed in 11 patients. Metabolic tumor volume and TLG were significantly related to tumor size, number of involved nodes, nodal ratio, nuclear grade, estrogen receptor (ER) status, and triple negativity (TN) (all P values were <.05). In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, MTV and TLG showed better predictive performance than tumor size, ER status, or TN (area under the curve: 0.85, 0.86, 0.79, 0.74, and 0.74, respectively). On multivariate analysis, MTV was an independent prognostic factor of locoregional recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio 34.42, 95% confidence interval 3.94-882.71, P=.0008) and disease-free survival (DFS) (hazard ratio 13.92, 95% confidence interval 2.65-103.78, P=.0018). The 3-year DFS rate was 93.8% for the lower MTV group (<53.1; n=85) and 25.0% for the higher MTV group (?53.1; n=8; P<.0001, log–rank test). The 3-year DFS rate for patients with both ER-positive status and MTV <53.1 was 98.2%; and for those with ER-negative status and MTV ?53.1 it was 25.0% (P<.0001). Conclusions: Volume-based parameters improve recurrence prediction in postmastectomy breast cancer patients with 1 to 3 positive nodes. The addition of MTV to ER status or TN has potential benefits to identify a subgroup at higher risk for recurrence.

Nakajima, Naomi, E-mail: haruhi0321@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Hospital Organization Shikoku Cancer Center, Ehime (Japan); Department of Radiology, Ehime University, Ehime (Japan); Kataoka, Masaaki [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Hospital Organization Shikoku Cancer Center, Ehime (Japan); Sugawara, Yoshifumi [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Hospital Organization Shikoku Cancer Center, Ehime (Japan); Ochi, Takashi [Department of Radiology, Ehime University, Ehime (Japan); Kiyoto, Sachiko; Ohsumi, Shozo [Department of Breast Oncology, National Hospital Organization Shikoku Cancer Center, Ehime (Japan); Mochizuki, Teruhito [Department of Radiology, Ehime University, Ehime (Japan)

2013-11-15

74

Sentinel Node Biopsy Alone versus Completion Axillary Node Dissection in Node Positive Breast Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction. There has been recent interest in validity of completion axillary node dissection after a positive sentinel node. This systematic review aims to ascertain if sentinel lymph node dissection alone was noninferior to axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer patients who have a positive sentinel node. Method. A systematic review of the electronic databases Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials was carried out. Only randomised trials that had patients with positive sentinel node as the study sample were included in the meta-analysis using the reported hazard ratios with a fixed effect model. Results. Three randomised controlled trials and five retrospective studies were identified. The pooled effect for overall survival was HR 0.94, 95% CI [0.79, 1.19], and for disease free survival was HR 0.83, 95% CI [0.60, 1.14]. The reported rates for locoregional recurrence were similar in both groups. The surgical morbidity was found to be significantly more in patients who had underwent axillary dissection. Conclusion. Amongst patients with micrometastasis in the sentinel node, no further axillary dissection is necessary. For patients with macrometastasis in the sentinel node, it is reasonable to consider omitting axillary dissection to avoid the morbidity of the procedure. PMID:25383226

Singh, Jasprit; McCaig, Eddie

2014-01-01

75

The Microanatomic Location of Metastatic Breast Cancer in Sentinel Lymph Nodes Predicts Nonsentinel Lymph Node Involvement  

PubMed Central

Background The majority of sentinel node (SN) positive breast cancer patients do not have additional non-SN involvement and may not benefit from axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Previous studies in melanoma have suggested that microanatomic localization of SN metastases may predict non-SN involvement. The present study was designed to assess whether these criteria might also be used to be more restrictive in selecting breast cancer patients who would benefit from an ALND. Methods A consecutive series of 357 patients with invasive breast cancer and a tumor-positive axillary SN, followed by an ALND, was reviewed. Microanatomic SN tumor features (subcapsular, combined subcapsular and parenchymal, parenchymal, extensive localization, multifocality, and the penetrative depth from the SN capsule) were evaluated for their predictive value for non-SN involvement. Results Non-SN metastases were found in 136/357 cases (38%). Microanatomic location and penetrative depth of SN metastases were significant predictors for non-SN involvement (<0.001); limited penetrative depth was associated with a low frequency of non-SN involvement with a minimal of 10%. Conclusions Microanatomic location and penetrative depth of breast cancer SN metastases predict non-SN involvement. However, based on these features no subgroup of patients could be selected with less than 10% non-SN involvement. PMID:18253802

van Deurzen, Carolien H. M.; Seldenrijk, Cees A.; Koelemij, Ron; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Hobbelink, Monique G. G.

2008-01-01

76

Multi-modality computer-aided diagnosis system for axillary lymph node (ALN) staging: segmentation of ALN on ultrasound images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our goal was to develop and evaluate a reliable segmentation method to delineate axillary lymph node (ALN) from surrounding tissues on US images as the first step of building a multi-modality CADx system for staging ALN. Ultrasound images of 24 ALN from 18 breast cancer patients were used. An elliptical model algorithm was used to fit ALNs boundaries using the following steps: reduce image noise, extract image edges using the Canny edge detector, select edge pixels and fit an ellipse by minimizing the quadratic error, Find the best fitting ellipse based on RANSAC. The segmentation was qualitatively evaluated by 3 expert readers using 4 aspects: Orientation of long axis (OLA): within +- 45 degrees, or off by +-45 degrees, overlap (OV): the fitted ellipse completely included ALN, partially included ALN, or missed the ALN, size (SZ): too small, good within 20% error margin, or too large, and aspect ratio (AR): correct or wrong. Nightly six % of ALNs were correctly evaluated by all readers in terms of OLA and AR, 90.2% in terms of OV and 86.11 in terms of SZ. Readers agreed that the segmentation was correct in 70% of the cases in all aspects. Due to small sample size and small variation among readers, we don't have power to show the accuracy of them is different.

Arbash Meinel, Lina; Bergtholdt, Martin; Abe, Hiroyuki; Huo, D.; Buelow, Thomas; Carlsen, Ingwer; Newstead, Gillian

2009-02-01

77

Parametric imaging of the local attenuation coefficient in human axillary lymph nodes assessed using optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

We report the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to determine spatially localized optical attenuation coefficients of human axillary lymph nodes and their use to generate parametric images of lymphoid tissue. 3D-OCT images were obtained from excised lymph nodes and optical attenuation coefficients were extracted assuming a single scattering model of OCT. We present the measured attenuation coefficients for several tissue regions in benign and reactive lymph nodes, as identified by histopathology. We show parametric images of the measured attenuation coefficients as well as segmented images of tissue type based on thresholding of the attenuation coefficient values. Comparison to histology demonstrates the enhancement of contrast in parametric images relative to OCT images. This enhancement is a step towards the use of OCT for in situ assessment of lymph nodes. PMID:22312589

Scolaro, Loretta; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Klyen, Blake R.; Wood, Benjamin A.; Robbins, Peter D.; Saunders, Christobel M.; Jacques, Steven L.; Sampson, David D.

2012-01-01

78

Case Report Visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed by biopsy of an axillary lymph node: case report and literature review.  

PubMed

A 56-year-old man presented with fevers up to 40°C and acute pain in the left upper quadrant. Full blood count was normal and biochemical tests revealed increased serum globulin. Abdominal ultrasound revealed hepatomegaly and splenomegaly with multiple enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, axilla, and inguinal regions. The bone marrow smear was negative. Splenectomy was performed and the pathology revealed splenic ischemic infarcts. Biopsy of one of the axillary lymph nodes revealed macrophages filled with leishmanias. The patient tested positive by the rk39 dipstick test. He was treated with sodium stibogluconate and showed full recovery. PMID:25501207

Liu, Z Z; Lv, X J

2014-01-01

79

Ultrasound Guided Core Biopsy versus Fine Needle Aspiration for Evaluation of Axillary Lymphadenopathy in Patients with Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Rationale and Objectives. To compare the sensitivities of ultrasound guided core biopsy and fine needle aspiration (FNA) for detection of axillary lymph node metastases in patients with a current diagnosis of ipsilateral breast cancer. Materials and Methods. From December 2008 to December 2010, 105 patients with breast cancer and abnormal appearing lymph nodes in the ipsilateral axilla consented to undergo FNA of an axillary node immediately followed by core biopsy of the same node, both with ultrasound guidance. Experienced pathologists evaluated the aspirate cytology without knowledge of the core histology. Cytology and core biopsy results were compared to sentinel node excision or axillary dissection pathology. Sensitivities were compared using McNemar's test. Results. Of 70 patients with axillary node metastases, FNA was positive in 55/70 (78.6%) and core was positive in 61/70 (87.1%) (P = 0.18). The FNA and core results were discordant in 14/70 (20%) patients. Ten cases were FNA negative/core positive. Four cases were FNA positive/core negative. Conclusion. Core biopsy detected six (8.6%) more cases of metastatic lymphadenopathy than FNA but the difference in sensitivities was not statistically significant. Core biopsy should be considered if the node is clearly imaged and readily accessible. FNA is a good alternative when a smaller needle is desired due to node location or other patient factors. This trial is registered with NCT01920139. PMID:24649373

Ganott, Marie A.; Zuley, Margarita L.; Abrams, Gordon S.; Lu, Amy H.; Kelly, Amy E.; Chivukula, Mamatha; Carter, Gloria; Austin, R. Marshall; Bandos, Andriy I.

2014-01-01

80

Outcomes of Sentinel Lymph Node Dissection Alone vs. Axillary Lymph Node Dissection in Early Stage Invasive Lobular Carcinoma: A Retrospective Study of the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Database  

PubMed Central

Background The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Z0011 trial demonstrated no difference in local-regional recurrence (LRR), disease-specific survival (DSS) or overall survival (OS) for sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) and completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) among patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy for clinical T1–T2, N0 breast cancer with 1 or 2 positive SLNs. However, Only 7% of study participants had invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). Because ILC has a different pattern of metastases, frequently presenting as small foci requiring immunohistochemistry for detection, the applicability of ACOSOG Z0011 trial data to ILC patients is unclear. Study Design We identified all ILC patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (1998–2009) who met the ACOSOG Z0011 eligibility criteria. Patients were evaluated on the basis of the extent of axillary surgery (SLND alone or ALND), and the clinical outcomes of these 2 groups were compared. Results 1269 patients (393 SLND and 876 ALND) were identified from the SEER database. At a median follow-up time of 71 months, there were no differences in OS or disease-specific survival between the two groups. Conclusion SLND alone may result in outcomes comparable to those achieved with ALND for patients with early-stage ILC who meet the ACOSOG Z0011 eligibility criteria. PMID:24587029

Wang, Jun; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Sahin, Aysegul A.; Yi, Min; Caudle, Abigail; Hunt, Kelly K.; Wu, Yun

2014-01-01

81

Evaluation of a single-isocenter technique for axillary radiotherapy in breast cancer.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a technique for axillary radiotherapy that minimizes the risk of radiation-induced damage to the surrounding normal tissue (i.e., arm, shoulder, lung, esophagus, and spinal cord) while keeping the risk of a nodal recurrence to a minimum. A planning study was performed in 20 breast cancer patients. The target volume of the axillary treatment encompassed the periclavicular and axillary lymph node areas. The 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) information in this study was used to outline the lymph node areas and the organs at risk (i.e., the esophagus, spinal cord, brachial plexus, and lung). A conventional AP-PA technique (with a transmission plate placed in the AP beam) was evaluated. In addition, a new single-isocenter technique consisting of AP/PA fields using a gantry rotation of +/-20 degrees and a medial AP segment was developed. Both techniques were compared by evaluation of the calculated dose distributions and the dose-volume histograms of the target volume and surrounding organs at risk. The field borders and humeral shielding were redefined based on the 3D anatomical references. Adapting the humeral shielding reduced the irradiated volume by 19% and might contribute to a reduction of the incidence of arm edema and impairment of shoulder function. The maximum radiation dose in the esophagus and spinal cord was reduced by more than 50% using the single-isocenter technique. The difference between both techniques with respect to the mean doses in the target volume and lung, and the maximum dose in brachial plexus, was not statistically significant. Moreover, the single-isocenter technique allowed a fast and easy treatment preparation and reduced the execution time considerably (with approximately 10 minutes per fraction). PMID:18674683

van Beek, Suzanne; De Jaeger, Katrien; Mijnheer, Ben; van Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine

2008-01-01

82

Role of axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with pure ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast  

PubMed Central

Background Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is an effective tool for axillary staging in patients with invasive breast cancer. This procedure has been recently proposed as part of the treatment for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), because cases of undetected invasive foci and nodal metastases occasionally occur. However, the indications for SLN biopsy in DCIS patients are controversial. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess the incidence of SLN metastases in a series of patients with a diagnosis of pure DCIS. Methods A retrospective evaluation was made of a series of 102 patients who underwent SLN biopsy, and had a final histologic diagnosis of pure DCIS. Patients with microinvasion were excluded from the analysis. The patients were operated on in five Institutions between 1999 and 2004. Subdermal or subareolar injection of 30–50 MBq of 99 m-Tc colloidal albumin was used for SLN identification. All sentinel nodes were evaluated with serial sectioning, haematoxylin and eosin staining, and immunohistochemical analysis for cytocheratin. Results Only one patient (0.98%) was SLN positive. The primary tumour was a small micropapillary intermediate-grade DCIS and the SLN harboured a micrometastasis. At pathologic revision of the specimen, no detectable focus of microinvasion was found. Conclusion Our findings indicate that SLN metastases in pure DCIS are a very rare occurrence. SLN biopsy should not therefore be routinely performed in patients who undergo resection for DCIS. SLN mapping can be performed, as a second operation, in cases in which an invasive component is identified in the specimen. Only DCIS patients who require a mastectomy should have SLN biopsy performed at the time of breast operation, since in these cases subsequent node mapping is not feasible. PMID:15762990

Zavagno, Giorgio; Carcoforo, Paolo; Marconato, Renato; Franchini, Zeno; Scalco, Giuliano; Burelli, Paolo; Pietrarota, Paolo; Lise, Mario; Mencarelli, Roberto; Capitanio, Giovanni; Ballarin, Andrea; Pierobon, Maria Elena; Marconato, Giorgia; Nitti, Donato

2005-01-01

83

Axillary metastasis in breast cancer: when, how, and why?  

PubMed

Axillary metastasis in breast cancer is a time-dependent phenomenon that varies greatly from tumour to tumour. It is discussed in relation to tumour diameter and the growth rate of the tumour cells. It parallels the former but is not directly related to either. A tumour age coefficient (Tac) is presented that demonstrates this lack of interrelationship. Tumour growth in the axillary nodes is progressive and in general mimics the potential tumour load elsewhere in the body. Qualitative rather than quantitative assessment is needed. This can be provided by simple means, using hilar nodal sections from standardised nodal samples. There is, however, as yet no definitive method of predicting the presence/absence of occult distant metastatic spread in either node-negative or node-positive cases. Treatment is thus based on statistical probability, which may or may not be relevant in the individual case. PMID:2657972

Hartveit, F

1989-01-01

84

Familial Blood and Lymph Node Cancers Study  

Cancer.gov

A study of a group of familial blood and lymph node cancers (also called "lymphoproliferative disorders"), including: chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, and multiple myeloma

85

Breast cancer metastasis to intramammary lymph nodes.  

PubMed

Metastatic disease to the intramammary lymph nodes from breast cancer may be seen mammographically. In the four cases reviewed, the affected intramammary lymph nodes were enlarged (1 cm or greater in diameter), homogeneous, and well circumscribed. All lacked the lucent center or hilar notch characteristic of benign intramammary nodes. Differentiation of malignant from benign causes of intramammary lymph node enlargement, such as inflammation or hyperplasia, is impossible by mammography. Biopsy is recommended for all intramammary lymph nodes of 1 cm or greater that are not fat infiltrated unless the patient clearly has an associated dermatitis or mastitis. Metastatic disease to the intramammary lymph nodes may be the first clinical and/or mammographic sign of breast cancer and may significantly affect prognosis. PMID:3000154

Lindfors, K K; Kopans, D B; Googe, P B; McCarthy, K A; Koerner, F C; Meyer, J E

1986-01-01

86

The Role of Combined Assessment in Preoperative Axillary Staging  

PubMed Central

Background Axillary lymph node status is the most significant single prognostic factor in breast cancer, and preoperative axillary staging is essential in determining lymph node status. Axillary ultrasound scan (AUS) is the gold standard modality in preoperative staging. However, triple assessment—including clinical examination and radiological assessment with fine needle aspiration (FNA) with or without core biopsy—ensures high sensitivity. Methods Our study included 219 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 2009 and 2010. All patients underwent a preoperative staging AUS that was graded from normal (U1) to malignant (U5). All patients with ultrasound scans graded U3 (indeterminate) and above underwent FNA that was graded from C1 (inadequate for diagnosis) to C5 (malignant). Patients diagnosed preoperatively with metastatic lymph nodes were offered axillary lymph node clearance. The rest of the patients were offered sentinel lymph node biopsy. Results The 219 women were diagnosed with 228 invasive breast cancers. The mean age was 60 years (range 29-90 years). The final histology report showed metastatic axillary lymph nodes in 49 (21.5%) cases. Of these 49 cases, 22 were diagnosed preoperatively with metastatic axillary lymph node and were elected for axillary lymph node clearance, and 27 were elected for sentinel lymph node biopsy that revealed metastatic lymph nodes. AUS showed abnormal (U3/U4/U5) axillary lymph nodes in 30 of 49 (61.2%) cancer cases with an overall accuracy of 91.6%. Conclusion Combined triple assessment increases the sensitivity, negative predictive value, and overall accuracy of preoperative staging of the axilla. PMID:24357995

Khout, Hazem; Richardson, Catherine; Toghyan, Hamid; Fasih, Tarannum

2013-01-01

87

ER-Poor and HER2-Positive: A Potential Subtype of Breast Cancer to Avoid Axillary Dissection in Node Positive Patients after Neoadjuvant Chemo-Trastuzumab Therapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose The study was to estimate the likelihood of axillary downstaging and to identify the factors predicting a pathologically node negative status after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) with or without trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer. Methods Patients with HER2-positive, stage IIa-IIIc breast cancer were enrolled. Axillary status was evaluated by palpation and fine needle aspiration (FNA) before NAC. All patients received 4–6 cycles of PCrb (paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 and carboplatin AUC?=?2 d1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle, or paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 and carboplatin AUC?=?6 every-3-week) and were non-randomly administered trastuzumab (2 mg/kg weekly or 6 mg/kg every-3-week) or not. After NAC, each patient underwent standard axillary lymph node dissection and breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy. And some patients received sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) before axillary dissection. Results Between November-2007 and June-2013, 255 patients were enrolled. Of them, 157 were confirmed as axillary node positive by FNA (group-A) and 98 as axillary node negative either by FNA or impalpable (group-B). After axillary dissection, the overall pathologically node negative rates (pNNR) were 52.9% in group-A and 69.4% in group-B. The ER-poor/HER2-positive subtype acquired the highest pNNR (79.6% in group-A and 87.9% in group-B, respectively) and the lowest rate of residual with ?4 nodes involvement (1.9% and 3%, respectively) after PCrb plus trastuzumab. In multivariate analysis, trastuzumab added and ER-poor status were independent factors in predicting a higher pNNR in HER2-positive breast cancer. Forty-six tested patients showed that the ER-poor/HER2-positive subtype acquired a considerable high pNNR and axillary status with SLNB was well macthed with the axillary dissection. Conclusions ER-poor/HER2-positive subtype of breast cancer is a potential candidate for undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy instead of regional node dissection for accurate axillary evaluation after effective downstaging by neoadjuvant chemo-trastuzumab therapy. PMID:25504233

Chen, Can-ming; Hu, Zhen; Hou, Yi-feng; Di, Gen-hong; Wu, Jiong; Shen, Zhen-zhou; Shao, Zhi-ming; Liu, Guang-yu

2014-01-01

88

Optimization of a gamma imaging probe for axillary sentinel lymph mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping is a technique for assessing whether early-stage invasive breast cancer has metastasized, thus determining prognosis and treatment options. SLN identification is achieved using the blue-dye and radioactive colloids techniques, which are sometimes combined with lymphoscintigraphy. Furthermore, intra-operative gamma acoustic probes, as well as gamma imaging probes are used during surgery. The purpose of this study is the construction of a gamma probe for sentinel lymph node imaging and its optimization in terms of sensitivity with respect to spatial resolution. The reference probe has small field of view (2.5 × 2.5 cm2) and is based on a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) coupled to a pixellated CsI(Tl) scintillator. Following experimental validation, we simulated the system using the GATE Monte Carlo toolkit (GATE v6.1) and modeled various collimator geometries, in order to evaluate their performance and propose the optimal configuration. The constraints of the proposed gamma imaging probe are i) sensitivity close to 2 cps/kBq and ii) spatial resolution equal to 6 mm at 2 cm source-to-collimator distance and ~ 10 mm at 5 cm. An integrated structure that achieves those requirements is a tungsten collimator with 2 × 2 mm2square holes, 16 mm thickness, 0.15 mm septa, where each CsI(Tl) 2 × 2 × 5 mm3 crystal pixel is placed inside the collimator.

Georgiou, M.; Loudos, G.; Stratos, D.; Papadimitroulas, P.; Liakou, P.; Georgoulias, P.

2012-09-01

89

Utility of 18 F-fluoro-deoxyglucose emission tomography\\/computed tomography fusion imaging ( 18 F-FDG PET\\/CT) in combination with ultrasonography for axillary staging in primary breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Accurate evaluation of axillary lymph node (ALN) involvement is mandatory before treatment of primary breast cancer. The aim\\u000a of this study is to compare preoperative diagnostic accuracy between positron emission tomography\\/computed tomography with18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG PET\\/CT) and axillary ultrasonography (AUS) for detecting ALN metastasis in patients having operable breast cancer, and\\u000a to assess the clinical management of axillary18F-FDG PET\\/CT for therapeutic

Shigeto Ueda; Hitoshi Tsuda; Hideki Asakawa; Jiro Omata; Kazuhiko Fukatsu; Nobuo Kondo; Tadaharu Kondo; Yukihiro Hama; Katsumi Tamura; Jiro Ishida; Yoshiyuki Abe; Hidetaka Mochizuki

2008-01-01

90

Detection efficiency for measuring 241Am in axillary lymph nodes using different types and sizes of detectors.  

PubMed

The detection efficiency and interference susceptibility of four different types of low energy photon detectors, each with a unique geometric arrangement, were compared for direct measurement of Am deposited in the axillary lymph nodes. Although the most efficient detector was a single large 23,226 mm square phoswich detector, it was also the most susceptible to confounding depositions from activity deposited in adjacent organs. The array of two 2,800 mm high purity germanium detectors exhibited the highest efficiency per unit detector area with some resistance to confounding from activity deposited in the lungs. The array of two 4,560 mm NaI(Tl) detectors was the least susceptible to confounding and nearly as efficient per square millimeter as the high purity germanium detector array. Thus, selection of a detector system for in vivo measurement of activity deposited in the axillary lymph nodes should consider whether there is a likelihood for activity deposited in other organs, such as the lungs, skeleton, or liver, to create an interference that will confound the measurement result. PMID:22850233

Lobaugh, Megan L; Spitz, Henry B; Glover, Samuel E

2012-09-01

91

The levels of Ki-67 positive are positively associated with lymph node metastasis in invasive ductal breast cancer.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. In this study, we evaluate the potential risk factors for lymph node metastasis in invasive breast cancer patients with axillary dissection. 147 patients were included into this prospective study. The prognostic biomarkers including Ki-67, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), hormone receptor status, p53, and lymph node involvement were determined by immunohistochemistry. The association between lymph node metastasis and these biomarkers was analyzed. Lymph node metastasis was found in 62 patients out of 147 patients. The high levels of Ki-67 positive (greater than 20 %) were positively correlated with a higher incidence of lymph node metastasis, including the numbers of lymph nodes that contain tumor cells and the lymph node metastatic rate. The high rate of positive lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is associated with lymph node metastasis. However, the levels of Ki-67 positive were not correlated with the positive rate of LVI. There was also no association between lymph node metastasis and other prognostic biomarkers, such as HER-2, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and p53. In addition, apart from p53, the levels of Ki-67 positive were correlated with other prognostic biomarkers. Our data suggest that Ki-67 positivity has value as a prognostic and predictive biomarker in breast cancer and may be a valuable proliferation marker in routine diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:24879617

Yin, Yongxiang; Zeng, Ke; Wu, Man; Ding, Yun; Zhao, Min; Chen, Qi

2014-11-01

92

Methylation signature of lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background Invasion and metastasis are two important hallmarks of malignant tumors caused by complex genetic and epigenetic alterations. The present study investigated the contribution of aberrant methylation profiles of cancer related genes, APC, BIN1, BMP6, BRCA1, CST6, ESR-b, GSTP1, P14 (ARF), P16 (CDKN2A), P21 (CDKN1A), PTEN, and TIMP3, in the matched axillary lymph node metastasis in comparison to the primary tumor tissue and the adjacent normal tissue from the same breast cancer patients to identify the potential of candidate genes methylation as metastatic markers. Methods The quantitative methylation analysis was performed using the SEQUENOM’s EpiTYPER™ assay which relies on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Results The quantitative DNA methylation analysis of the candidate genes showed higher methylation proportion in the primary tumor tissue than that of the matched normal tissue and the differences were significant for the APC, BIN1, BMP6, BRCA1, CST6, ESR-b, P16, PTEN and TIMP3 promoter regions (P<0.05). Among those candidate methylated genes, APC, BMP6, BRCA1 and P16 displayed higher methylation proportion in the matched lymph node metastasis than that found in the normal tissue (P<0.05). The pathway analysis revealed that BMP6, BRCA1 and P16 have a role in prevention of neoplasm metastasis. Conclusions The results of the present study showed methylation heterogeneity between primary tumors and metastatic lesion. The contribution of aberrant methylation alterations of BMP6, BRCA1 and P16 genes in lymph node metastasis might provide a further clue to establish useful biomarkers for screening metastasis. PMID:22695536

2012-01-01

93

PRECLINICAL STUDY Prediction of lymph node involvement in breast cancer  

E-print Network

PRECLINICAL STUDY Prediction of lymph node involvement in breast cancer from primary tumor tissue- ther lymph node involvement in breast cancer is influenced by gene or miRNA expression of the primary tissue from a group of 96 breast cancer patients balanced for lymph node involvement using Affymetrix

94

Rosai-Dorfman disease presenting as a breast mass and enlarged axillary lymph node mimicking malignancy: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Rosai-Dorfman disease (also called sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy) involves lymph nodes or lymph nodes with extranodal sites. We present a unique case of a patient presenting with a breast mass and axillary lymphadenopathy, mimicking malignancy clinically and radiographically. Core needle biopsies of the breast and axillary lymph node showed histologic features concerning the lymphoma. However, excisional biopsy specimen demonstrated characteristic features of Rosai-Dorfman disease. The disease recurred locally 6 months later in the same breast, 1 month later in the contralateral breast, and 11 month later in the subcutaneous tissue of left flank. A review of the literature of Rosai-Dorfman disease involving the breast is also presented. PMID:21762247

Tenny, Steven O; McGinness, Marilee; Zhang, Da; Damjanov, Ivan; Fan, Fang

2011-01-01

95

[Lymph nodes of esophagus cancer: radiological approach].  

PubMed

The cervico-thoracic-abdominal-pelvic CT-scan is a key examination of the staging of esophagus cancers. Anatomical and pathophysiological knowledge of the lymph nodes is an essential tool to establish a precise mapping. Imaging tests (such endoscopic ultrasound and PET scanning) will be very useful to determine clinical options and clinical target volume delineation for the radiotherapy of esophagus cancers. PMID:25205427

Aubert, E; Servois, V

2014-10-01

96

Gastric Metastasis of Ectopic Breast Cancer Mimicking Axillary Metastasis of Primary Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

Ectopic breast tissue has the ability to undergo all the pathological changes of the normal breast, including breast cancer. Gastrointestinal metastasis of breast cancer is rarely observed and it is very difficult to differentiate gastric metastases from primary gastric cancer. We present a case of 52-year-old female, who suffered from abdominal pain. Physical examination showed a palpable mass in the left anterior axilla and computerized tomography revealed gastric wall thickening with linitis plastica. When gastroscopic biopsy showed no signs of malignancy, excisional biopsy was performed in the left axilla. Histological examination revealed invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast, consistent with ectopic breast cancer. Further gastroscopic submucosal biopsies and immunohistochemical studies revealed gastric metastases of invasive lobular carcinoma. Axillary ectopic breast tissue carcinomas can mimic axillary lymphadenopathies. Additionally, gastric metastasis of breast cancer is an uncommon but possible condition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of ectopic breast cancer with gastric metastasis.

Kay?l?o?lu, Selami Ilgaz; Akyol, Cihangir; Esen, Ebru; Cans?z-Ersöz, Cevriye; Kocaay, Ak?n F?rat; Genç, Volkan; Kepenekçi, ?lknur; Demirer, Seher

2014-01-01

97

Risk Factors for Regional Nodal Relapse in Breast Cancer Patients With One to Three Positive Axillary Nodes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In many centers, supraclavicular fossa radiotherapy (SCF RT) is not routinely offered to breast cancer patients with one to three positive lymph nodes. We aimed to identify a subgroup of these patients who are at high risk of supra or infraclavicular fossa relapse (SCFR) such that they can be offered SCFRT at the time of diagnosis to improve long term locoregional control. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective analysis of the pathological features of 1,065 cases of invasive breast cancer with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes. Patients underwent radical breast conserving surgery or mastectomy. A total of 45% of patients received adjuvant chest wall/breast RT. No patients received adjuvant SCFRT. The primary outcome was SCFR. Secondary outcomes were chest wall/breast recurrence, distant metastasis, all death, and breast-cancer specific death. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to calculate actuarial event rates and survival functions compared using log-rank tests. Multivariate analyses (MVA) of factors associated with outcome were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Median follow-up was 9.7 years. SCFR rate was 9.2%. Median time from primary diagnosis to SCFR was 3.4 years (range, 0.7-14.4 years). SCFR was associated with significantly lower 10-year survival (18% vs. 65%; p < 0.001). Higher grade and number of positive lymph nodes were the most significant predictors of SCFR on MVA (p < 0.001). 10 year SCFR rates were less than 1% in all patients with Grade 1 cancers compared with 30% in those having Grade 3 cancers with three positive lymph nodes. Additional factors associated with SCFR on univariate analysis but not on MVA included larger nodal deposits (p = 0.002) and proportion of positive nodes (p = 0.003). Conclusions: Breast cancer patients with one to three positive lymph nodes have a heterogenous risk of SCFR. Patients with two to three positive axillary nodes and/or high-grade disease may warrant consideration of SCFRT.

Yates, Lucy, E-mail: lucy.yates@gstt.nhs.uk [Guy's, King's, St Thomas' Cancer Centre, Guy's Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Kirby, Anna [Guy's, King's, St Thomas' Cancer Centre, Guy's Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Department of Clinical Oncology, Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (United Kingdom); Crichton, Siobhan [Department of Statistics, Kings College London (United Kingdom); Gillett, Cheryl [Breast Pathology, Kings College London (United Kingdom); Cane, Paul [Department of Histopathology, Guy's and St Thomas' Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Fentiman, Ian; Sawyer, Elinor [Guy's, King's, St Thomas' Cancer Centre, Guy's Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

2012-04-01

98

Breast cancer and sentinel lymph node micrometastases: indications for lymphadenectomy and literature review  

PubMed Central

An increasingly early diagnosis for discovering breast cancer, an improvement of surgical procedures with refining techniques for research and study of sentinel node, currently allow a more conservative surgical approach. Association with suitable chemo-radiotherapy allows a good control of breast disease. Our study, although modest, was carried out on 63 patients suffering from breast cancer, who underwent surgical treatment with assessment of sentinel lymph node. Aim of study was to establish the most correct strategy in the presence of isolated tumor cells (ITC) and/or micro-metastases of sentinel lymph node. Many studies have been carried out to find which was the most appropriate treatment, nevertheless, in the absence of univocal guidelines, we prefer to proceed to axillary dissection, though the topic is very debated and controversial. Following this strategy we obtained quite satisfactory results. PMID:25644726

ZANGHÌ, G.; DI STEFANO, G.; CAPONNETTO, A.; VECCHIO, R.; LANAIA, A.; LA TERRA, A.; LEANZA, V.; BASILE, F.

2014-01-01

99

Observational study of axilla treatment for breast cancer patients with 1-3 positive micrometastases or macrometastases in sentinel lymph nodes.  

PubMed

Sentinel node biopsy is a standard procedure in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients. It has eliminated unnecessary axillary lymph node dissection in more than half of the early breast cancers. However, one of the unresolved issues in sentinel node biopsy is how to manage axilla surgery for sentinel node-positive patients and clinically node-negative patients. To evaluate the outcome of no axillary lymph node dissection in sentinel node-positive breast cancer, a prospective cohort study registering early breast cancer patients with positive sentinel nodes has been conducted (UMIN 000011782). Patients with 1-3 positive micrometastases or macrometastases in sentinel lymph nodes are eligible for the study. The primary endpoint is the recurrence rate of regional lymph nodes in patients treated with sentinel node biopsy. Patients treated with sentinel node biopsy followed by axillary lymph node dissection are also registered simultaneously to compare the prognosis. The propensity score matching is used to make the distributions of baseline risk factors comparable. PMID:25030214

Oba, Mari S; Imoto, Shigeru; Toh, Uhi; Wada, Noriaki; Kawada, Masaya; Kitada, Masahiro; Masuda, Norikazu; Taguchi, Tetsuya; Minami, Shigeki; Jinno, Hiromitsu; Sakamoto, Junichi; Morita, Satoshi

2014-09-01

100

Imaging findings of variable axillary mass and axillary lymphadenopathy.  

PubMed

The axilla is a triangular space that contains mesenchymal tissues such as fat, vessels, nerves and lymph nodes, from which various diseases can develop. This article describes axillary masses and axillary lymphadenopathies using imaging findings from techniques such as ultrasonography, mammography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Awareness of the characteristic imaging findings of disease entities that cause axillary masses and various axillary lymphadenopathies will help in the accurate diagnosis of axillary lesions. PMID:24948395

Park, Sung Hee; Jeong, Yu Mi; Cho, So Hyun; Jung, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Soo Jin; Ryu, Han Suk

2014-09-01

101

Morphometry and breast cancer. II. Characterisation of breast cancer cells with high malignant potential in patients with spread to lymph nodes: preliminary results.  

PubMed Central

The prognostic value of clinical, quantitative, and qualitative microscopical features of both the primary tumour and also of the affected lymph nodes were investigated in 71 patients with breast cancer with spread to lymph nodes (T X N + M0). Age, tumour size, and localisation of the tumour comprised the clinical features; morphometry included assessment of the cellularity index, the mitotic activity index, and seven nuclear indices; the qualitative features investigated were histological type and grade, nuclear grade, oestrogen receptor content, number of lymph nodes affected, capsule infiltration of the nodes, presence of metastatic deposits in the efferent lymph vessels, percentage area of lymph node occupied by tumour. Immunohistochemistry was performed to show the presence of carcinoembryonic antigen and peanut agglutinin. All the patients had a minimum follow up of 24 months (maximum 48 months, mean 36 months). Analysis of the results showed that the combined results of morphometry (of the primary tumour and the axillary lymph node metastatic deposits) yielded more information than analysis of axillary lymph node state, or morphometry of the primary tumour, or the lymph node metastases alone. Patients with a nuclear axes ratio of greater than 1.41 in the primary tumour and greater than 1.36 in the lymph node metastatic deposits were less likely to develop distant metastases than patients with values below any of these thresholds (recurrence rates 5.2% and 46%, respectively). Thus the preliminary results of this prospective study indicate that morphometry provides important prognostic information in patients with breast cancer that has spread to lymph nodes. Images PMID:3722413

van der Linden, H C; Baak, J P; Lindeman, J; Hermans, J; Meyer, C J

1986-01-01

102

Mediastinal lymph node size in lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

Using a size criterion of 1 cm or greater as evidence for abnormality, the size of mediastinal lymph nodes identified by computed tomography (CT) was a poor predictor of mediastinal lymph node metastases in a series of 86 patients who had surgery for bronchogenic carcinoma. The surgery included full nodal sampling in all patients. Of the 86 patients, 36 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm identified by CT. Of the 21 patients with mediastinal metastases proven at surgery, 14 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm (sensitivity = 67%). Of the 65 patients without mediastinal metastases, 22 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm. Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse distal to the cancer was present in 39 patients (45%). Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse is a common occurrence in bronchogenic carcinoma, but mediastinal nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm in this circumstance cannot be presumed to represent metastatic disease. Metastatic mediastinal lymph node involvement was related to nodal size also in patients with evidence of prior granulomatous disease and in patients with no putative benign cause for nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm.

Libshitz, H.I.; McKenna, R.J. Jr.

1984-10-01

103

Ultrastaging of lymph node in uterine cancers  

PubMed Central

Background Lymph node status is an important prognostic factor and a criterion for adjuvant therapy in uterine cancers. While detection of micrometastases by ultrastaging techniques is correlated to prognosis in several other cancers, this remains a matter of debate for uterine cancers. The objective of this review on sentinel nodes (SN) in uterine cancers was to determine the contribution of ultrastaging to detect micrometastases. Methods Review of the English literature on SN procedure in cervical and endometrial cancers and histological techniques including hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, serial sectioning, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and molecular techniques to detect micrometastases. Results In both cervical and endometrial cancers, H&E and IHC appeared insufficient to detect micrometastases. In cervical cancer, using H&E, serial sectioning and IHC, the rate of macrometastases varied between 7.1% and 36.3% with a mean value of 25.8%. The percentage of women with micrometastases ranged from 0% and 47.4% with a mean value of 28.3%. In endometrial cancer, the rate of macrometastases varied from 0% to 22%. Using H&E, serial sectioning and IHC, the rate of micrometastases varied from 0% to 15% with a mean value of 5.8%. In both cervical and endometrial cancers, data on the contribution of molecular techniques to detect micrometastases are insufficient to clarify their role in SN ultrastaging. Conclusion In uterine cancers, H&E, serial sectioning and IHC appears the best histological combined technique to detect micrometastases. Although accumulating data have proved the relation between the risk of recurrence and the presence of micrometastases, their clinical implications on indications for adjuvant therapy has to be clarified. PMID:20092644

2010-01-01

104

A Randomized Comparison of Sentinel-Node Biopsy with Routine Axillary Dissection in Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Although numerous studies have shown that the status of the sentinel node is an accu- rate predictor of the status of the axillary nodes in breast cancer, the efficacy and safety of sentinel-node biopsy require validation. methods From March 1998 to December 1999, we randomly assigned 516 patients with primary breast cancer in whom the tumor was less than

Umberto Veronesi; Giovanni Paganelli; Giuseppe Viale; Alberto Luini; Stefano Zurrida; Viviana Galimberti; Mattia Intra; Paolo Veronesi; Chris Robertson; Patrick Maisonneuve; Giuseppe Renne; Concetta De Cicco; Francesca De Lucia; Roberto Gennari

2010-01-01

105

Clinical significance of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer, one of the most common malignancies in the world, frequently reveals lymph node, peritoneum, and liver metastases. Most of gastric cancer patients present with lymph node metastasis when they were initially diagnosed or underwent surgical resection, which results in poor prognosis. Both the depth of tumor invasion and lymph node involvement are considered as the most important prognostic predictors of gastric cancer. Although extended lymphadenectomy was not considered a survival benefit procedure and was reported to be associated with high mortality and morbidity in two randomized controlled European trials, it showed significant superiority in terms of lower locoregional recurrence and disease related deaths compared to limited lymphadenectomy in a 15-year follow-up study. Almost all clinical investigators have reached a consensus that the predictive efficiency of the number of metastatic lymph nodes is far better than the extent of lymph node metastasis for the prognosis of gastric cancer worldwide, but other nodal metastatic classifications of gastric cancer have been proposed as alternatives to the number of metastatic lymph nodes for improving the predictive efficiency for patient prognosis. It is still controversial over whether the ratio between metastatic and examined lymph nodes is superior to the number of metastatic lymph nodes in prognostic evaluation of gastric cancer. Besides, the negative lymph node count has been increasingly recognized to be an important factor significantly associated with prognosis of gastric cancer. PMID:24744586

Deng, Jing-Yu; Liang, Han

2014-01-01

106

A prospective comparative study to assess the contribution of radioisotope tracer method to dye-only method in the detection of sentinel lymph node in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Metastasis in the axillary lymph nodes is the most important known prognostic factor for breast cancer. We aimed to investigate the contribution of the radioisotope tracer method to the dye-only method by performing sentinel lymph node biopsy on the same patient group during a single surgical session. Methods Forty-two patients who underwent operations in our clinic from February 2010 to October 2011 and with masses of <5 cm and clinically and radiologicallly negative axilla (T1-2 N0) were prospectively included in this study. After paraffin examination results were obtained, the numbers and metastatic states of the lymph nodes that were unidentifiable during surgery (although they were stained) but were detected by a gamma probe, lymph nodes that were only stained, lymph nodes that were only radioactive (hot), and lymph nodes that were both stained and radioactive (stained-hot) were determined in all patients. In patients who underwent axillary lymph node dissection, the total numbers of lymph nodes removed and their metastatic states were determined separately. Results At least one blue-stained sentinel lymph node was identified in all patients during the blue-stained lymph node detection stage. The average number of sentinel nodes removed at this stage was 2.1?±?1.1. In the second surgical stage (the stage in which nodes with axillary counts were investigated with the gamma probe) in these 41 patients, at least one additional hot node was removed, or at least one of the nodes that was removed because it was blue was also hot. In addition to the lymph nodes removed in the dye stage, 34 hot lymph nodes were excised from 21 patients. Overall, the average number of hot lymph nodes removed was 2.9?±?1.5. In all patients, subsequent frozen sections and histopathological examinations were 100% concordant with the sentinel lymph nodes that were removed; the stained sentinel lymph nodes that were removed first did not affect the decision to perform axillary dissection. Conclusion The results of our study indicate that performing sentinel lymph node biopsy with dye only is sufficient and as effective as the combined method. PMID:23617459

2013-01-01

107

Comparison of Treatment Outcome Between Breast-Conservation Surgery With Radiation and Total Mastectomy Without Radiation in Patients With One to Three Positive Axillary Lymph Nodes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To test the difference in treatment outcome between breast-conservation surgery with radiation and total mastectomy without radiation, to evaluate the benefits of adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: Using the Severance Hospital Breast Cancer Registry, we divided the study population of T1, T2 and one to three axillary node-positive patients into two groups: breast-conservation surgery with radiation (BCS/RT) and total mastectomy without radiation (TM/no-RT). Data related to locoregional recurrence, distant recurrence, and death were collected, and survival rates were calculated. Results: The study population consisted of 125 patients treated with BCS/RT and 365 patients treated with TM/no-RT. With a median follow-up of 68.4 months, the 10-year locoregional recurrence-free survival rate with BCS/RT and TM/no-RT was 90.5% and 79.2%, respectively (p = 0.056). The 10-year distant recurrence-free survival rate was 78.8% for patients treated with BCS/RT vs. 68.0% for those treated with TM/no-RT (p = 0.012). The 10-years overall survival rate for patients treated with BCT/RT and TM/no-RT was 87.5% and 73.9%, respectively (p = 0.035). After multivariate analysis, patients treated with BCT/RT had better distant recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.527; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.297-0.934; p = 0.028), with improving locoregional recurrence-free survival (HR, 0.491; 95% CI, 0.231-1.041; p = 0.064) and overall survival trend (HR, 0.544; 95% CI, 0.277-1.067; p = 0.076). Conclusions: This study provides additional evidence that adjuvant radiation substantially reduces local recurrence, distant recurrence, and mortality for patients with one to three involved nodes.

Kim, Seung Il; Park, Seho; Park, Hyung Seok [Department of Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Bae; Suh, Chang Ok [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byeong-Woo, E-mail: bwpark@yuhs.ac [Department of Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2011-08-01

108

Tangential Radiotherapy Without Axillary Surgery in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Results of a Prospective Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the risk of regional-nodal recurrence in patients with early-stage, invasive breast cancer, with clinically negative axillary nodes, who were treated with breast-conserving surgery, 'high tangential' breast radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery or the use of a separate nodal radiation field. Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and November 2003, 74 patients who were {>=}55 years of age with Stage I-II clinically node-negative, hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer underwent tumor excision to negative margins without axillary surgery as a part of a multi-institutional prospective study. Postoperatively, all underwent high-tangential, whole-breast radiotherapy with a boost to the tumor bed, followed by 5 years of hormonal therapy. Results: For the 74 patients enrolled, the median age was 74.5 years, and the median pathologic tumor size was 1.2 cm. Lymphatic vessel invasion was present in 5 patients (7%). At a median follow-up of 52 months, no regional-nodal failures or ipsilateral breast recurrences had been identified (95% confidence interval, 0-4%). Eight patients died, one of metastatic disease and seven of other causes. Conclusion: In this select group of mainly older patients with early-stage hormone-responsive breast cancer and clinically negative axillary nodes, treatment with high-tangential breast radiotherapy and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery, yielded a low regional recurrence rate. Such patients might be spared more extensive axillary treatment (axillary surgery, including sentinel node biopsy, or a separate nodal radiation field), with its associated time, expense, and morbidity.

Wong, Julia S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: jwong@lroc.harvard.edu; Taghian, Alphonse G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Bellon, Jennifer R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Keshaviah, Aparna [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Smith, Barbara L. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Winer, Eric P. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Silver, Barbara; Harris, Jay R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)

2008-11-01

109

(99m)Tc-dextran lymphoscintigraphy can detect sentinel lymph node in breast cancer patients.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to retrospectively determine the accuracy and feasibility of using (99m)Tc-dextran (DX) lymphoscintigraphy for the localization of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in breast cancer patients. The relevant factors affecting lymphoscintigraphy were also investigated. In this study, 235 breast cancer patients underwent (99m)Tc-DX lymphoscintigraphic imaging and examination by a ?-probe method in combination with blue dye staining to detect SLNs. The detection results were considered in combination with rapid frozen pathology results to determine whether SLN metastasis was positive or negative. SLNs were identified in 191 patients by ?-probe detection among the 202 patients that tested positive by lymphoscintigraphic imaging, a coincidence rate of 94.6%. This suggested that lymph node metastasis had occurred and could be detected using lymphoscintigraphy. The axillary status of the breast cancer patients was also predicted using lymphoscintigraphy and the false-negative rate, sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value were 13.3% (4/30), 90.7% (39/43), 23.4% (45/192) and 13.5% (21/155), respectively. The age of the patient, menstrual status, tumor location, tumor size, pathological type, preoperative biopsy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy were unrelated to the success of lymphoscintigraphy (P>0.05). (99m)Tc-DX lymphoscintigraphy is able to exactly determine the location of SLN in breast cancer patients, and can be used for guiding ?-probe methods and sentinel lymph node biopsy. PMID:25452784

Wei, Linlin; Chen, Fangni; Zhang, Xuehui; Li, Dangsheng; Yao, Zhongqiang; Deng, Liyan; Xiao, Guoyou

2015-01-01

110

Association between molecular subtypes and lymph node status in invasive breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: The predictors for the involvement of lymph node (LN) have been widely studied. But the implication of the molecular type has not been well studied. Using the database of our institution, we investigated this relation. Methods: Patients with T1 and T2 primary breast cancer without distant metastasis were included in our study from 2012 Jan to 2013 Dec. All patients undertook the resection of the primary and the axillary lymph nodes (ALNs). We collected the clinical data including age at diagnosis, the status of ER, PR and HER2, tumor size, nodal status, and histological type. The relationship between demographic, tumor characteristics and lymph node status was evaluated. Results: 814 patients were included in our study. The number and the percentage (in parentheses) of each type of breast cancer is as follows: Luminal A 230 (28.3%), Luminal Her2- 284 (34.9%), Luminal Her2+ 104 (12.8%), HER2+ 72 (8.8%), TNBC 124 (15.2%). On univariate and multivariate analysis, tumor size and tumor subtype show statistical significance with LN involvement. Using TNBC as a reference, both Luminal B type (Luminal HER2-, Luminal HER2+) shows significant higher probability of LN involvement. Conclusions: LN involvement is an intrinsic characteristic for molecular subtype of breast cancer. Triple positive and triple negative breast cancer accounts the most and least possibility of LN involvement. PMID:25400761

Si, Chengshuai; Jin, Yiting; Wang, Hongying; Zou, Qiang

2014-01-01

111

Post-operative arm morbidity and quality of life. Results of the ALMANAC randomised trial comparing sentinel node biopsy with standard axillary treatment in the management of patients with early breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This study is the first large prospective RCT of sentinel node biopsy (SNB) compared with standard axillary treatment (level\\u000a I-III axillary lymph node dissection or four node sampling), which includes comprehensive and repeated quality of life (QOL)\\u000a assessments over 18 months. Patients (n=829) completed the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy?–?Breast (FACT-B+4) and the Spielberger State\\/Trait Anxiety Inventory\\u000a (STAI) at baseline (pre-surgery)

Anne Fleissig; Lesley J. Fallowfield; Carolyn I. Langridge; Leigh Johnson; Robert G. Newcombe; J. Michael Dixon; Mark Kissin; Robert E. Mansel

2006-01-01

112

Sarcoid reactions in regional lymph nodes of primary lung cancer.  

PubMed

A 66-year-old woman diagnosed as having primary lung cancer with an enlargement of the mediastinal, subcarinal and bilateral hilar lymph nodes underwent a thoracotomy after preoperative chemotherapy. The histological examination showed a moderately differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma in the left upper lobe without any metastases to the regional lymph nodes; however, non-caseous epithelioid granulomas without necrosis were observed in the nodes. These changes were considered to be sarcoid reactions, since no other physiological and laboratory findings compatible with systemic sarcoidosis were observed. The histological findings suggested the possibility that the regional lymph nodes were not involved with the tumor cells at the time of lung cancer diagnosis. Despite the rarity of this condition, sarcoid reactions in the regional lymph nodes must be kept in mind when an enlargement of bilateral hilar lymph nodes is detected in patients with lung cancer, and a good prognosis may be expected in cases with sarcoid reactions in the regional lymph nodes. PMID:8341856

Sugio, K; Inoue, T; Yokoyama, H; Ishida, T; Nakano, S; Sugimachi, K

1993-01-01

113

Optimization of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer using an operative gamma camera  

PubMed Central

Background Sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure is now a widely accepted method of LN staging in selected invasive breast cancers (unifocal, size ? 2 cm, clinically N0, without previous treatment). Complete axillary clearance is no longer needed if the SLN is negative. However, the oncological safety of this procedure remains to be addressed in randomized clinical trials. One main pitfall is the failure to visualize SLN, resulting in incorrect tumor staging, leading to suboptimal treatment or axillary recurrence. Operative gamma cameras have therefore been developed to optimize the SLN visualization and the quality control of surgery. Case presentation A 44-year-old female patient with a 14-mm infiltrative ductal carcinoma underwent the SLN procedure. An operative gamma camera was used during and after the surgery. The conventional lymphoscintigraphy showed only one SLN, which was also detected by the operative gamma camera, then removed and measured (9.6 kBq). It was analyzed by frozen sections, showing no cancer cells. During this analysis, the exploration of the axillary area with the operative gamma camera enabled the identification of a second SLN with low activity (0.5 kBq) that conventional lymphoscintigraphy, surgical probe and blue staining had failed to visualize. Histological examination revealed a macrometastasis. Axillary clearance was then performed, followed by a postoperative image proving that no SLN remained. Therefore, the use of the operative gamma camera prevented an under-estimation of staging which would have resulted in a suboptimal treatment for this patient. Conclusion This case report illustrates that an efficient operative gamma camera may be able to decrease the risk of false negative rate of the SLN procedure, and could be an additional tool to control the quality of the surgery. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00357487 PMID:18021418

Mathelin, Carole; Salvador, Samuel; Croce, Sabrina; Andriamisandratsoa, Norosoa; Huss, Daniel; Guyonnet, Jean-Louis

2007-01-01

114

Lateral lymph node dissection for lower rectal cancer.  

PubMed

The mainstay of surgical therapy for rectal cancer is colectomy (including lesions) with lymph node dissection. The lymphatic spread of rectal cancer can proceed in two directions: medially toward the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery or laterally toward the pelvis aslong the internal iliac artery. To prevent postoperative recurrence, lymph nodes situated along these two axes should be adequately dissected, leaving no residual cancer cells. In Japan, the standard procedure for advanced lower rectal cancer is mesorectal excision and lateral lymph node dissection with autonomic nerve preservation. In Europe and North America, lateral lymph node dissection used to be performed, but it led to increased blood loss, complications, and dysfunction, with no improvement in survival. Lateral lymph node dissection is thus no longer performed. Instead, multidisciplinary therapy combining mesorectal excision with preoperative chemoradiotherapy is now the standard treatment for advanced rectal cancer. Although lateral lymph node dissection decreases the rate of local recurrence similar to preoperative chemoradiotherapy, whether it contributes to improved survival remains unclear. In addition, it is unlikely that prophylactic lateral lymph node dissection is required in all patients with rectal cancer. Definition of the indications for lateral lymph node dissection is thus an important concern. PMID:23703637

Nakamura, T; Watanabe, M

2013-08-01

115

Lymphoscintigraphy and Radioguided Biopsy of the Sentinel Axillary Node in Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphoscintigraphy associated with radioguided biopsy of the sentinel node (SN) is well established in clinical practice for mela noma. In breast cancer, the SN concept is similarly valid, and lymphoscintigraphy is a useful method for localizing the axillary SN. The aim of this study was to optimize the lymphoscintigraphy technique in association with a gamma ray detecting probe (GDP) for

Concetta De Cicco; Marta Cremonesi; Alberto Luini; Mirco Bartolomei; Chiara Grana; Gennaro Prisco; Viviana Galimberti; Paolo Calza; Giuseppe Viale; Umberto Veronesi; Giovanni Paganelli

116

Adequate Lymph Node Recovery Improves Survival in Colorectal Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction Current recommendations suggest recovery of 12 lymph nodes during surgical resection for colorectal cancer (CRC) for proper staging and prognostication. Adequate lymph node recovery has been associated with improved patient survival, with results inconsistent. Methods We examined factors for association with adequate lymph node recovery and used findings to adjust survival analyses to clarify whether adequate lymph node examination is associated with CRC survival or associated with a subset of characteristics that biases lymph node recovery. Results In 74% of subjects (1036/1397) adequate number of lymph nodes were examined. A stepwise multivariate regression analysis showed procedure year, cancer stage, tumor size, and age at diagnosis were significantly associated with lymph node recovery. These and other factors associated with survival status were adjusted for in further analyses, revealing no difference in unadjusted overall survival by adequacy of lymph node recovery (HR=0.90, 95% CI 0.75–1.08, P=0.239). However, in adjusted Cox proportional hazards analysis, adequate lymph node recovery was associated with reduced risk for death (HR=0.71, 95% CI 0.57–0.89, P=0.002). Conclusion The current recommendation for retrieval and examination of at least 12 lymph nodes is appropriate for proper treatment and prognostication in patients undergoing surgical resection for CRC. PMID:23592545

ONITILO, ADEDAYO A.; STANKOWSKI, RACHEL V.; ENGEL, JESSICA M.; DOI, SUHAIL A. R.

2013-01-01

117

Prognostic role of lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective To clarify the relationship between clinicopathological features and lymph node metastasis and to propose the potential indications of lymph node metastasis for prognosis in early gastric cancer (EGC) patients. Methods We retrospectively observed 226 EGC patients with lymph node resection, and analyzed the associations between lymph node metastasis and clinicopathological parameters using the chi-square test in univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis in multivariate analysis. Overall survival analysis was determined using the Kaplan-Meier and log-rank test. We conducted multivariate prognosis analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results Of all the EGC patients, 7.5% (17/226) were histologically shown to have lymph node metastasis. The differentiation, lymphovascular invasion and depth of invasion were independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis in EGC. The 5- and 10-year survival rates were significantly lower in patients with lymph node metastasis than in those without and the patients also had shorter progress-free survival time. Lymph node metastasis and tumor size were independent prognostic factors for EGC. The status of the lymph nodes was a significant factor in predicting recurrence or metastasis after surgery. Conclusions The undifferentiated carcinoma and lymphovascular and/or submucosal invasion were associated with a higher incidence of lymph node metastasis in EGC patients, whom need to perform subsequent D2 lymphadenectomy or laparoscopic lymph node dissection and more rigorous follow-up or additional chemotherapy/radiation after D2 gastrectomy for poor prognosis and high recurrence/metastasis rate. PMID:24826060

Zheng, Zhixue; Liu, Yiqiang; Bu, Zhaode; Zhang, Lianhai; Li, Ziyu; Du, Hong

2014-01-01

118

Intraoperative analysis of sentinel lymph nodes by imprint cytology for cancer of the breast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:The utilization of lymphatic mapping techniques for breast carcinoma has made intraoperative evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) attractive, because axillary lymph node dissection can be performed during the initial surgery if the SLN is positive. The optimal technique for rapid SLN assessment has not been determined. Both frozen sectioning and imprint cytology are used for rapid intraoperative SLN evaluation.

Stephen A Shiver; Andrew J Creager; Kim Geisinger; Nancy D Perrier; Perry Shen; Edward A Levine

2002-01-01

119

Whole Genome Sequence Analysis Suggests Intratumoral Heterogeneity in Dissemination of Breast Cancer to Lymph Nodes  

PubMed Central

Background Intratumoral heterogeneity may help drive resistance to targeted therapies in cancer. In breast cancer, the presence of nodal metastases is a key indicator of poorer overall survival. The aim of this study was to identify somatic genetic alterations in early dissemination of breast cancer by whole genome next generation sequencing (NGS) of a primary breast tumor, a matched locally-involved axillary lymph node and healthy normal DNA from blood. Methods Whole genome NGS was performed on 12 µg (range 11.1–13.3 µg) of DNA isolated from fresh-frozen primary breast tumor, axillary lymph node and peripheral blood following the DNA nanoball sequencing protocol. Single nucleotide variants, insertions, deletions, and substitutions were identified through a bioinformatic pipeline and compared to CIN25, a key set of genes associated with tumor metastasis. Results Whole genome sequencing revealed overlapping variants between the tumor and node, but also variants that were unique to each. Novel mutations unique to the node included those found in two CIN25 targets, TGIF2 and CCNB2, which are related to transcription cyclin activity and chromosomal stability, respectively, and a unique frameshift in PDS5B, which is required for accurate sister chromatid segregation during cell division. We also identified dominant clonal variants that progressed from tumor to node, including SNVs in TP53 and ARAP3, which mediates rearrangements to the cytoskeleton and cell shape, and an insertion in TOP2A, the expression of which is significantly associated with tumor proliferation and can segregate breast cancers by outcome. Conclusion This case study provides preliminary evidence that primary tumor and early nodal metastasis have largely overlapping somatic genetic alterations. There were very few mutations unique to the involved node. However, significant conclusions regarding early dissemination needs analysis of a larger number of patient samples. PMID:25546409

Blighe, Kevin; Kenny, Laura; Patel, Naina; Guttery, David S.; Page, Karen; Gronau, Julian H.; Golshani, Cyrus; Stebbing, Justin; Coombes, R. Charles; Shaw, Jacqueline A.

2014-01-01

120

Clinical outcomes after sentinel lymph node biopsy in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate non-sentinel lymph node (LN) status after sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) in patients with breast cancer and to identify the predictive factors for disease failure. Materials and Methods From January 2006 to December 2007, axillary lymph node (ALN) dissection after SNB was performed for patients with primary invasive breast cancer who had no clinical evidence of LN metastasis. A total of 320 patients were treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy. Results The median age of patients was 48 years, and the median follow-up time was 72.8 months. Close resection margin (RM) was observed in 13 patients. The median number of dissected SNB was two, and that of total retrieved ALNs was 11. Sentinel node accuracy was 94.7%, and the overall false negative rate (FNR) was 5.3%. Eleven patients experienced treatment failure. Local recurrence, regional LN recurrence, and distant metastasis were identified in 0.9%, 1.9%, and 2.8% of these patients, respectively. Sentinel LN status were not associated with locoregional recurrence (p > 0.05). Close RM was the only significant factor for disease-free survival (DFS) in univariate and multivariate analysis. The 5-year overall survival, DFS, and locoregional DFS were 100%, 96.8%, and 98.1%, respectively. Conclusion In this study, SNB was performed with high accuracy and low FNR and high locoregional control was achieved. PMID:25324984

Han, Hee Ji; Kim, Ju Ree; Nam, Hee Rim; Keum, Ki Chang; Suh, Chang Ok

2014-01-01

121

Diagnosis of axillary nodal metastases by ultrasound-guided core biopsy in primary operable breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the use of ultrasound (US)-guided core biopsy of axillary nodes in patients with operable breast cancer. The ipsilateral axillae of 187 patients with suspected primary operable breast cancer were scanned. Nodes were classified based on their shape and cortical morphology. Abnormal nodes underwent US-guided core biopsy\\/fine needle aspiration (FNA), and the results

A Damera; A J Evans; E J Cornford; A R M Wilson; H C Burrell; J J James; S E Pinder; I O Ellis; A H S Lee; R D Macmillan

2003-01-01

122

Accuracy of individual descriptors and grading of nodal involvement by axillary ultrasound in patients of breast cancer.  

PubMed

Background. Four-node sampling is a useful substitute for sentinel node biopsy in low resource settings. USG is being increasingly used as a preoperative tool to evaluate axilla. We conducted this study to assess the accuracy of different descriptors of axillary ultrasound and to formulate a model on grading of axillary involvement. Material and Methods. Thirty-four patients with clinically negative axilla underwent preoperative axillary ultrasound. The suspicious nodes were marked and details of various descriptors were noted. These nodes were sampled during axillary dissection and correlation of ultrasonographic findings with histopathological report was done to calculate accuracy of different descriptors. Based on this, a grading system of axillary lymph nodes involvement was formulated. Results. Based on the presence of various descriptors, five grades of nodal involvement could be defined. The most accurate descriptors to indicate nodal involvement were loss of hilar fat and hypoechoic internal echoes with specificity of 83% and positive predictive value of 92% each. The combination of descriptors of round shape with loss of hilar fat and hypoechoic internal echos had 100% specificity and positive predictive value. Conclusions. Grading of nodal involvement on axillary USG can be useful for selecting the most suspicious nodes for sampling during axillary dissection. PMID:24455284

Kaur, Navneet; Sharma, Pradeep; Garg, Akhil; Tandon, Anupama

2013-01-01

123

Pathological lymph node involvement at surgery is a significant predictive factor of recurrence in locally advanced breast cancer treated with concomitant epirubicin–docetaxel neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is the standard therapy for locally advanced breast cancer. Recently, several studies have\\u000a revealed that clearance of axillary lymph node involvement is an independent factor for survival irrespective of the response\\u000a of the primary lesion. However, in daily practice, it is difficult to fully examine every lymph node that has been surgically\\u000a sampled, in view of pathology

Kazuharu Kai; Nobuyuki Arima; Haruhiko Miyayama; Yutaka Yamamoto; Hirotaka Iwase; Reiki Nishimura

2009-01-01

124

[Analysis of sentinel lymph node in early breast cancer patient - Clinical Hospital Center Rijeka].  

PubMed

Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is an accurate method for the detection of axillary metastases in early breast cancer patients and is of value as a replacement for axillary dissection. However, variations in the methods and protocols used for the pathological evaluation of SLN exist in everyday practice. Therefore, standardization how to detect, dissect, process, stain, assess and report SNL is required in order to stratify patients into adequate prognostic groups. The aim of this study was to present our experience in SLN analysis in patients with early breast cancer and clinical stage T1-2 and N0. In the period between 2003 and 2011, 1071 consecutive patients or 1915 SLN were analyzed. The protocol included intraoperative analysis of histological frozen sections and cytological imprint, followed by analysis of paraffin sections according to the protocol that included sections of whole SLN with the interval of 250 prm. According to the accepted protocol 75% of SLN were negative. The obtained results were correlated with literature data. PMID:23991488

Jonji?, Nives; Musta?, Elvira; Bekafigo, Irena Seili; Molek, Koraljka Rajkovi?; Lovasi?, Franjo; Lukanovi?, Miljenko; Ivankovi?, Svjetlana Grbac; Girotto, Neva; Lovasi?, Ingrid Belac; Petkovi?, Marija

2013-01-01

125

Breast cancer: post-mastectomy radiotherapy reduces recurrence and mortality.  

PubMed

The recent results of the Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Cooperative Group meta-analysis have demonstrated that post-mastectomy radiotherapy reduces breast cancer recurrence and mortality in women with positive axillary lymph nodes—independently from the number of the lymph nodes involved—with no significant effect in patients with node-negative axillary status. PMID:24889766

Orecchia, Roberto

2014-07-01

126

Axillary reverse mapping using fluorescence imaging is useful for identifying the risk group of postoperative lymphedema in breast cancer patients undergoing sentinel node biopsies  

PubMed Central

Background Axillary reverse mapping (ARM) is a novel technique for preserving the upper extremity lymphatic pathways during axillary lymph node surgery. However, there is no evidence of the usefulness of ARM for patients undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB). Methods Between August 2009 and July 2012, 372 patients who underwent the SNB procedure for breast cancer were enrolled in this study. Using the indocyanine green fluorescence technique and indigocarmine blue dye method, we studied the relationship between the upper extremity lymphatic flow and breast sentinel node (SN). Our aim of this study was the probability of postoperative lymphedema with respect to whether the upper extremity lymphatics corresponded to the breast SN. Results Among the 327 patients who underwent the SNB procedure, the upper extremity lymphatics drainage into the breast SN in 76 (23.2%; corresponding group), and only 5 patients in this group developed lymphedema. In contrast, none of the patients in the noncorresponding group developed lymphedema. Conclusions ARM during SN biopsy can identify the group of patients who are at high risk for developing lymphedema. More risk-focused guidance should be used for these patients. J. Surg. Oncol. 2014 109:612–615. PMID:24310418

Sakurai, Takashi; Endo, Mariko; Shimizu, Ken; Yoshimizu, Nobunari; Nakajima, Kenichirou; Nosaka, Kaori; Dai, Yuuko; Iwao, Akiko; Jinnai, Yuki

2014-01-01

127

Axillary ultrasound scanning in the follow-up of breast cancer patients undergoing sentinel node biopsy.  

PubMed

In breast cancer patients with negative sentinel node biopsy (SNB), surveillance of the unremoved nodes is recommended. Clinical examination has poor sensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of axillary ultrasound scan (AUS) in the follow-up of these patients. AUS was performed every 12 months in a series of 165 patients with negative SNB. During the follow-up (median 45.6 months), in 154 patients, the AUS was carried out as a routine examination and in three cases (1.9%) it showed suspicious nodes, which underwent core biopsy. No evidence of axillary recurrence was found. Conversely, in 11 patients, AUS was performed to clarify a palpable lymphadenopathy; none of them was suspicious at US. We conclude that routine AUS to follow-up patients who have had a negative SNB is unnecessary. However, AUS may be useful in the presence of palpable nodes, to select those patients who do not require biopsy. PMID:17140793

Susini, Tommaso; Nori, Jacopo; Vanzi, Ermanno; Livi, Lorenzo; Pecchioni, Silvia; Bazzocchi, Massimo; Mangialavori, Giuseppe; Branconi, Francesco; Scarselli, Gianfranco

2007-04-01

128

Sentinel lymph node biopsy and nodal ultrastaging in colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

The tumor status of the regional lymph nodes is the most important prognostic indicator in colorectal cancer (CRC), as it is in other solid tumors. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), which has profoundly impacted the treatment of melanoma and breast cancer, has been applied in CRC in an attempt to improve nodal staging accuracy. The challenge lies in identifying patients who have tumor-negative nodes but are at high risk of regional or distant failure and therefore may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Because standard pathological analysis of lymph nodes may incorrectly stage colon cancer, multiple studies have investigated nodal ultrastaging based on identification and immunohistochemical and/or molecular assessment of the sentinel node. This review focuses on the technique of SNLB, its feasibility and validity, and the controversies that remain regarding the clinical significance of nodal ultrastaging in CRC. PMID:25611774

Huynh, Kelly T; Bilchik, Anton J

2015-01-01

129

Inguinal lymph node metastasis of colon cancer  

PubMed Central

We present a case of adenocarcinoma of colon with unusual metastasis to inguinal lymph nodes. Our patient is a young male with bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy, bone pains, and jaundice who presented as carcinoma of unknown primary. He was diagnosed as widely metastatic adenocarcinoma of colon for which he received chemotherapy and has had a good response to the treatment. PMID:22557787

McGraw, Sloane; Thakkar, Jigisha; Mehta, Divyesh

2011-01-01

130

Number of Negative Lymph Nodes Can Predict Survival after Postmastectomy Radiotherapy According to Different Breast Cancer Subtypes  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To assess the prognostic value of the number of negative lymph nodes (NLNs) in breast cancer patients with positive axillary lymph nodes after mastectomy and its predictive value for radiotherapy efficacy of different breast cancer subtypes (BCS). Methods: The records of 1,260 breast cancer patients with positive axillary lymph nodes who received mastectomy between January 1998 and December 2007 were reviewed. The prognostic impact and predictive value of the number of NLNs with respect to locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Results: The median follow-up time was 58 months, and 444 patients (35.2%) received postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT). Univariate and multivariate Cox survival analysis indicated the number of NLNs was an independent prognostic factor of LRFS, DFS, and OS. Patients with a higher number of NLNs had better survival. PMRT improved the LRFS of patients with ? 8 NLNs ( p < 0.001), while failing to improve the LRFS of patients with > 8 NLNs (p = 0.075). In patients with luminal A subtype, PMRT improved the LRFS, DFS, and OS of patients with ? 8 NLNs, but in patients with > 8 NLNs only the LRFS was improved. For patients with luminal B subtype, PMRT only improved the LRFS of patients with ? 8 NLNs. The number of NLNs had no predictive value for the efficacy with PMRT in Her2+ and triple-negative subtypes. Conclusions: The number of NLNs is a prognostic indicator in patients with node-positive breast cancer, and it can predict the efficacy of PMRT according to different BCS.

Wu, San-Gang; Peng, Fang; Zhou, Juan; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Li, Feng-Yan; Lin, Qin; Lin, Huan-Xin; Bao, Yong; He, Zhen-Yu

2015-01-01

131

The role of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis of breast cancer and lymph nodes metastases and micrometastases may be limited.  

PubMed

Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) in detecting primary invasive breast cancer (IBC) including invasive ductal breast cancer, invasive lobular breast cancer and axillary, internal mammary and supraclavicular lymph nodes. One hundred and sixty four patients with operable IBC and clinically negative lymph nodes were recruited and analyzed retrospectively. All patients underwent (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan, the results of which were compared with histopathology of dissected axillary lymph nodes (ALN). All patients were followed-up annually by ultrasonography, mammography and/or CT or MRI for relapse and distant metastases. Results showed that the (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans were positive in 141/164 (86%) patients and negative in 23/164 (14%) patients. The sensitivity of (18)F-FDG PET was 86% (141/164). Diagnostic performance of PET was significantly correlated with primary tumor grades and size (P:0.003 and P:0.0007, respectively). The sensitivity, specificity, overall accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in ALN staging (SUVmax cutoff at 2.0) were 46.3%, 91.1%, 79.8%, 63.3%, and 83.6%, respectively. The false negative and false positive rate was 54% (22/41) and 9% (11/123), respectively. No relapse and metastases were found in a follow-up period of 2.42±2.56 months in patients with FN micrometastases in (18)F-FDG PET scan. In conclusion, (18)F-FDG PET/CT was useful in detecting the primary invasive breast cancer and its distant metastases but had a limited value in the axillary, internal mammary and supraclavicular lymph nodes. False negative (18)F-FDG PET scan in case of micrometastases and of metastases in ALN indicated good prognosis. PMID:25526754

Zhang, Xuemei; Wu, Fengyu; Han, Ping

2014-01-01

132

Evolution of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer, in and out of vogue?  

PubMed

Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) was introduced 2 decades ago and thereafter validated for routine surgical management of breast cancer, including cases treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. As the number of lymph nodes for staging has decreased, pathologists have scrutinized SLN with a combination of standard hematoxylin and eosin, levels, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and molecular methods. An epidemic of small-volume metastases thereby arose, leading to modifications in the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging to accommodate findings such as isolated tumor cells (ITC) and micrometastases. With the goal of determining the significance of these findings, retrospective followed by prospective trials were performed, showing mixed results. The ACOSOG Z10 and NSABP B-32 trials both independently showed that ITC and micrometastases were not significant and thus discouraged the use of levels and IHC for detecting them. However, the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database showed that patients with micrometastases had an overall decreased survival. In addition, the MIRROR (Micrometastases and ITC: Relevant and Robust or Rubbish?) trial, showed that patients with ITC and micrometastases treated with adjuvant therapy had lower hazard ratios compared with untreated patients. Subsequently, the ACOSOG Z0011 trial randomized patients with up to 2 positive SLN to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) or not, all treated with radiation and chemotherapy, showing no difference in survival or recurrence rates between the 2 groups and causing a shift from ALND. As the rate of ALND has declined, the necessity of performing levels, IHC, frozen section, and molecular studies on SLN needs to be revisited. PMID:25299312

Jaffer, Shabnam; Bleiweiss, Ira J

2014-11-01

133

Conservative treatment of early breast cancer. Long-term results of 1232 cases treated with quadrantectomy, axillary dissection, and radiotherapy.  

PubMed Central

One thousand two hundred and thirty-two women with invasive breast cancer lesions measuring less than 2 cm in diameter, clinically assessed as T1N0-1M0, were treated from 1970 to 1983 at the National Cancer Institute of Milan with quadrantectomy, axillary dissection, and radiotherapy (QUART). Pathologic evidence of lymph-nodes metastases was found in 32% of the patients. Overall survival at 5 and 10 years from surgery was 91% and 78%, respectively. The cumulative probability of survival tends to decrease with increasing tumor size: the 7-year survival rate was 84% in cases in which lesions measured from 1.6 to 2.0 cm, and 94% in cases in which the lesions were less than 0.5 cm. Tumor site in the treated breast did not affect distant outcome. No difference was found between the patients without node metastases and patients with one node involved, whereas the patients with more than one node showed a lower probability of survival. The survival curves of 352 cases treated inside a randomized trial and that of 880 cases routinely treated appear to be superimposable. Local recurrences and new primary ipsilateral tumors were, respectively, 35 (2.8%) and 19 (1.6%); 56 women with local recurrences or second tumors underwent second surgery (total mastectomy, 43; wide resection, 11). Five of them died from distant spread of breast cancer, while 49 are alive and well. In the contralateral breasts 45 carcinomas were recorded during the follow-up time. The results of the present analysis of a large number of T1 cases reconfirm the safety of integrated radiosurgical conservative treatments. PMID:2106841

Veronesi, U; Salvadori, B; Luini, A; Banfi, A; Zucali, R; Del Vecchio, M; Saccozzi, R; Beretta, E; Boracchi, P; Farante, G

1990-01-01

134

Thymectomy in central lymph node dissection for papillary thyroid cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: Central lymph node dissection (CND) has been proposed in the treatment of patients affected by papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) with clinically negative neck lymph nodes. The procedure allows pathologic staging of lymph nodes of the central compartment and treatment of the micrometastases. By comparing bilateral and unilateral thymectomy during total thyroidectomy with central lymph node dissection for postoperative complications in sonographically node-negative papillary thyroid carcinomas, we aimed to determine the optimal extent of prophylactic central lymph node dissection. Methods: Patients were divided into two study groups: Group 1, total thyroidectomy plus unilateral thymectomy during the CND; Group 2, total thyroidectomy associated with bilateral thymectomy (both upper poles) during the CND. Primary endpoints of the study were evaluated by comparing the postoperative complications between the two groups. Results: The only significant result found when comparing the two groups was the rate of transient hypocalcemia. (Group 1: 13.7%, Group 2: 52.4%, p<0.01). A total of five cases of papillary thymic metastases were found in this study. And final pathology confirmed that all cases of thymic metastases were lymph node micrometastases of PTC, only situated in the ipsilateral thymus upper pole. Conclusions: Bilateral thymectomy during the CND did not provide a better carcinologic resection, as no contralateral thymic metastases were found. The unilateral thymectomy with total thyroidectomy during the CND may represent an effective strategy for reducing the rate of postoperative hypocalcemia. PMID:24955195

Huang, Du-Ping; Ye, Xiao-He; Xiang, You-Qun; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

2014-01-01

135

Subtype Is a Predictive Factor of Nonsentinel Lymph Node Involvement in Sentinel Node-Positive Breast Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study aimed to identify the effect of breast cancer subtype on nonsentinel lymph node (NSLN) metastasis in patients with a positive sentinel lymph node (SLN). Methods The records of 104 early breast cancer patients with a positive SLN between April 2009 and September 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. All patients underwent axillary lymph node dissection. The effects of the tumor subtype (luminal A, luminal/HER2+, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [HER2] overexpression, and triple-negative) and other clinicopathological factors on NSLN metastasis were examined by univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Results Fifty of 104 patients (48%) exhibited NSLN metastasis. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that tumor size and the ratio of positive SLNs were significant risk factors of NSLN metastasis in patients with a positive SLN. The rate of NSLN metastasis was higher in patients with luminal/HER2+ and HER2 overexpression subtypes than that in patients with other subtypes in the univariate analysis (p<0.001). In the multivariate analysis, both patients with luminal/HER2+ (p<0.006) and patients with HER2 overexpression (p<0.031) subtypes had a higher risk of NSLN metastasis than patients with the luminal A subtype. Conclusion Subtype classification should be considered as an independent factor when evaluating the risk of NSLN metastasis in patients with a positive SLN. This result supports the development of new nomograms including breast cancer subtype to increase predictive accuracy. PMID:25548586

Berbero?lu, U?ur; Aydo?an, Ogün; K?na?, Volkan

2014-01-01

136

Evaluation of the Benefit of Routine Intraoperative Frozen Section Analysis of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Aims. Intraoperative analysis of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) by frozen section (FS) allows for immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in case of metastatic disease in patients with breast cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the benefit of intraoperative FS, with regard to false negative rate (FNR) and influence on operation time. Materials and Methods. Intraoperative analysis of the SLN by FS was performed on 628 patients between January 2005 and October 2009. Patients were retrospectively studied. Results. FS accurately predicted axillary status in 525 patients (83.6%). There were 78 true positive findings (12.4%), of which there are 66 macrometastases (84.6%), 2 false positive findings (0.3%), and 101 false negative findings (16.1%), of which there are 65 micrometastases and isolated tumour cells (64.4%) resulting in an FNR of 56.4%. Additional operation time of a secondary ALND after wide local excision and SLNB is 17 minutes, in case of ablative surgery 35 minutes. The SLN was negative in 449 patients (71.5%), making their scheduled operation time unnecessary. Conclusions. FS was associated with a high false negative rate (FNR) in our population, and the use of telepathology caused an increase in this rate. Only 12.4% of the patients benefited from intraoperative FS, as secondary ALND could be avoided, so FS may be indicated for a selected group of patients. PMID:24167745

Francissen, C. M. T. P.; van la Parra, R. F. D.; Mulder, A. H.; Bosch, A. M.; de Roos, W. K.

2013-01-01

137

Sentinel lymph node mapping in breast cancer: a critical reappraisal of the internal mammary chain issue.  

PubMed

Although, like the axilla, the internal mammary nodes (IMNs) are a first-echelon nodal drainage site in breast cancer, the importance of their treatment has long been debated. Seminal randomized trials have failed to demonstrate a survival benefit from surgical IMN dissection, and several retrospective studies have shown that IMNs are rarely the first site of recurrence. However, the recent widespread adoption of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has stimulated a critical reappraisal of such early results. Furthermore, the higher proportion of screening-detected cancers, improved imaging and techniques (i.e., lymphoscintigraphy for radioguided SLN biopsy) make it possible to visualize lymphatic drainage to the IMNs. The virtually systematic application of adjuvant systemic and/or loco-regional radiotherapy encourages re-examination of the significance of IMN metastases. Moreover, randomized trials testing the value of postmastectomy irradiation and a meta-analysis of 78 randomized trials have provided high levels of evidence that local-regional tumor control is associated with long-term survival improvements. This benefit was limited to trials that used systemic chemotherapy, which was not routinely administered in the earlier studies. However, the contribution from IMN treatment is unclear. Lymphoscintigraphic studies have shown that a significant proportion of breast cancers have primary drainage to the IMNs, including approximately 30% of medial tumors and 15% of lateral tumors. In the few studies where IMN biopsy was performed, 20% of sentinel IMNs were metastatic. The risk of IMN involvement is higher in patients with medial tumors and positive axillary nodes. IMN metastasis has prognostic significance, as recognized by its inclusion in the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging criteria, and seems to have similar prognostic importance as axillary nodal involvement. Although routine IMN evaluation might be indicated, it has not been routinely performed, perhaps because IMN drainage with lymphoscintigraphy is more difficult to demonstrate than axillary drainage. This difference is due to technical reasons and not the absence of lymphatics to the IMN. Recent anatomical studies have confirmed a model of breast lymphatic drainage that comprises superficial, deep and perforating systems. The superficial system drains to the axilla, usually to a lymph node posterior to the pectoralis minor muscle. The deep system drains to the axilla and also anastomoses with the perforating system which drains to the IMNs. The perforating system does not connect with the superficial system. The prevalence of IMN drainage tends to reflect the method of lymphoscintigraphy, where peritumoral (deep lymphatic system) injections have a much higher likelihood of IMN drainage than subareolar or subdermal (superficial lymphatic system) injections. The fused SPECT/CT images represent a further technical solution to increase the identification of IMNs and consequently can significantly reduce the false negative rate of sentinel lymph node biopsy. Before mature results from current and future randomized trials assessing the benefit of IMN irradiation become available, lymphoscintigraphy and IMNs biopsy may be used to guide decisions regarding systemic and local-regional treatment. However, even in patients with visualized primary IMN drainage, the potential benefit of treatment should be balanced against the risk of added morbidity. PMID:24835288

Manca, G; Volterrani, D; Mazzarri, S; Duce, V; Svirydenka, A; Giuliano, A; Mariani, G

2014-06-01

138

Pulmonary Hilar Lymph Node Metastasis of Breast Cancer Induced Bronchopleural Fistula and Superior Vena Cava Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 56 Final Diagnosis: Broncho-pleural fistula • empyema • supra-vena cava syndrome Symptoms: Dyspnea • fever • facial edema Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Oncology and Pulmonology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: It is extremely rare for pulmonary hilar lymph node metastasis (PHLNM) of a cancer to be independently lethal. Here, we report an exceedingly rare case of cavitation in PHLNM from breast cancer triggering bronchopleural fistula and empyema (BPFE), complicated with superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). Case Report: A 56-year-old woman who had undergone left segmental mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection due to left breast cancer was then treated for 1 year with postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Recurrence of right PHLNM was observed 2 years after the operation, for which 3 courses of bevacizumab (BEV) and paclitaxel combination chemotherapy were administered. The woman had dyspnea and fever during the washout period, and CT examination revealed fistula formation between the right PHLNM cavitation and right main bronchus, so she was admitted for further treatment. This fistula rapidly progressed to BPFE, and contralateral aspiration was observed to cause pneumonia of the left lung. In addition, edema of both upper limbs and head and neck were observed, and CT examination revealed SVCS caused by re-enlargement of PHLNM. Active treatment was performed, but the recommencement of chemotherapy was not possible, and she died on Day 150 of admission. Conclusions: We think that PHLNM deteriorated to central necrosis due to chemotherapy with BEV taking effect, leading to formation of BPFE. The case was also made more difficult due to the complication of SVCS caused by the re-enlarged PHLNM. PMID:25399335

Nishinari, Yutaka; Kashiwaba, Masahiro; Umemura, Akira; Komatsu, Hideaki; Sasaki, Akira; Wakabayashi, Go

2014-01-01

139

A Long-Term Study of Radiation Therapy in T1-2 Node-Negative Breast Cancer Patients in Relation to the Number of Axillary Nodes Examined  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The optimal number of axillary nodes to be resected is controversial. This large series investigated the effect of surgery with or without adjuvant radiotherapy among node-negative breast cancer patients in relation to the number of nodes examined. Methods and Materials: Node-negative patients from the Saskatchewan registry of 1981-1995 were studied. Because nodal status may be more reliable with more number of nodes examined, we analyzed T1-2 age < 90 patients with < 10 nodes examined treated with surgery alone (Group A{sub S}, n = 509) vs. surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy (Group A{sub S}+R, n = 342); and T1-2 age < 90 patients with {>=} 10 nodes examined treated with surgery alone (Group B{sub S}, n = 902) vs. surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy (Group B{sub S}+R, n = 596). Results: For the two radiotherapy groups, patients with < 10 nodes (Group A{sub S}+R) vs. {>=} 10 nodes (Group B{sub S}+R), there was no difference in overall survival (p = 0.14). In the two nonradiotherapy groups (A{sub S} and B{sub S}), there is a statistically significant decrease in overall survival for patients with < 10 nodes removed (p < 0.001, log-rank test). The optimal number of axillary nodes examined could be 8 nodes with adjuvant radiotherapy (p = 0.05, logrank test) and 12 nodes without adjuvant radiotherapy (p = 0.02, log-rank test). Conclusions: The poorer prognosis of a lesser number of nodes resected was overcome partly by the use of radiotherapy, raising the possibility of micrometastases in lymph nodes not removed. The optimal number of axillary nodes examined could be 8 nodes with adjuvant radiotherapy and 12 nodes without adjuvant radiotherapy.

Tai, Patricia [Department of Oncology, Allan Blair Cancer Center, University of Saskatchewan (Canada)], E-mail: ptai2@yahoo.com; Yu, Edward [Radiation Oncology Division, Department of Oncology, University of Western Ontario (Canada); Sadikov, Evgeny [Department of Oncology, Allan Blair Cancer Center, University of Saskatchewan (Canada); Joseph, Kurian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta (Canada)

2009-06-01

140

Staging lymph node metastases from lung cancer in the mediastinum  

PubMed Central

Background The presence of tumor metastases in the mediastinum is one of the most important elements in determining the optimal treatment strategy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. This review is aimed at examining the current strategies for investigating lymph node metastases corresponding to an “N2” classification delineated by The International Staging Committee of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC). Methods Extensive review of the existing scientific literature related to the investigation of mediastinal lymph node metastases was undertaken in order to summarize and report current best practices. Conclusions N2 disease is very heterogeneous requiring multiple modalities for thorough investigation. New research is now focusing on better identifying, defining, and classifying lymph node metastases in the mediastinum. Molecular staging and sub-classifying mediastinal lymph node metastases are being actively researched in order to provide better prognostic value and to optimize treatment strategies. Non-invasive imaging, such as PET/CT and minimally invasive techniques such as endobronchial and endoscopic ultrasound guided biopsy, are now the lead investigative methods in evaluating the mediastinum for metastatic presence. PMID:24624287

Terán, Mario D.

2014-01-01

141

High-Frequency Quantitative Ultrasound Imaging of Cancerous Lymph Nodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-frequency ultrasound (HFU) offers a means of investigating biological tissue at the microscopic level. High-frequency, quantitative-ultrasound (QUS) methods were developed to characterize freshly-dissected lymph nodes of cancer patients. Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound data were acquired from lymph nodes using a 25.6-MHz center-frequency transducer. Each node was inked prior to 3D histological fixation to recover orientation after sectioning. Backscattered echo signals were processed to yield two QUS estimates associated with tissue microstructure: scatterer size and acoustic concentration. The QUS estimates were computed following established methods using a Gaussian scattering model. Four lymph nodes from a patient with stage-3 colon cancer were evaluated as an illustrative case. QUS images were generated for this patient by expressing QUS estimates as color-encoded pixels and overlaying them on conventional gray-scale B-mode images. The single metastatic node had an average scatterer size that was significantly larger than the average scatterer size of the other nodes, and the statistics of both QUS estimates in the metastatic node showed greater variance than the statistics of the other nodes. Results indicate that the methods may provide a useful means of identifying small metastatic foci in dissected lymph nodes that might not be detectable using current standard pathology procedures.

Mamou, Jonathan; Coron, Alain; Hata, Masaki; Machi, Junji; Yanagihara, Eugene; Laugier, Pascal; Feleppa, Ernest J.

2009-07-01

142

Molecular analysis of sentinel lymph nodes and search for molecular signatures of the metastatic potential of breast cancer.  

PubMed

Molecular assays are a new and invaluable tool in the assessment of axillary lymph node status and metastatic potential of breast cancer. Many protocols for assessing the sentinel lymph node (SLN) status have been developed based on cytology and/or histology, showing that the rate of detection of metastasis increases with the number of histologic sections examined and with use of immunohistochemical staining in addition to conventional Hematoxylin & Eosin staining. However, full standardization of protocols for this procedure has not been achieved. Further attempts to increase sensitivity and specificity of sentinel node analysis include molecular biology-based techniques such as the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and, more recently, one step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA). The latter technique, that has sensitivity close to 100% and extremely high specificity along with good reproducibility, allows analysis of the SLN in full with an intraoperative procedure in approximately 30 minutes. This highly standardized method permits to compare results between groups and predicts the probability of involvement of the remaining axillary lymph nodes based on the total tumor load of the SLN(s). Results of multicenter clinical trials suggest that OSNA allows a better personalization of patients' care based on the results of SLN analysis, because it offers criteria to select patient with metastatic SLN who will not receive additional benefit from axillary clearance. Due to the current controversy on the best treatment of the axilla after a positive SLN, the SLN copy number of CK19 mRNA can have a high impact on therapeutic decisions in this group of patients. Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous group of diseases, characterized by remarkable differences in the histopathological features, response to treatment and clinical outcome. Most of the clinical and translational research efforts during the last decades aimed at identifying markers that would allow to predict the metastatic potential of early breast cancer, and hence to assess accurately its prognosis and to inform the choice of adjuvant systemic treatments. It is now clear that neoplastic transformation, tumor progression and response to treatment are driven and accompanied by the deregulated expression of hundred or thousand genes, whose status cannot be assessed by the currently established histopathological and immunohistochemical approach. The new molecular assays have elicited a great deal of expectations, and for the most part they have been enthusiastically welcomed as potentially offering new chances for a better and more personalized care of the patients. Many, however, are still reluctant to consider these assays ready for use in the clinical practice, and keep waiting for a confirmatory evidence of their utility when the results of ongoing clinical trials will be mature. PMID:24835292

Hoon, D S; Bernet, L; Cano, R; Viale, G

2014-06-01

143

False Positive 18F-FDG Uptake in Mediastinal Lymph Nodes Detected with Positron Emission Tomography in Breast Cancer: A Case Report.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among females. It is accepted that lymph node involvement with metastatic tumor and the presence of distant metastasis are the most important prognostic factors. Accurate staging is important in determining prognosis and appropriate treatment. Positron emission tomography with computed tomography detects malignancies using 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (18F-FDG PET CT) with high accuracy and they contribute to decisions regarding diagnosis, staging, recurrence, and treatment response. Here, we report a case of false positive metastatic mediastinal lymph nodes that were diagnosed by 18F-FDG PET CT in a 40-year-old breast cancer patient who had undergone preoperative evaluation. Right paratracheal, prevascular, aorticopulmonary, precarinal, subcarinal, hilar, and subhilar multiple conglomerated mediastinal lymph nodes were revealed in addition to left breast mass and axillary lymph nodes. Mediastinoscopy was performed with biopsy and pathology was reported as granulomatous lymphadenitis. In conclusion, any abnormal FDG accumulation in unusual lymph nodes must be evaluated carefully and confirmed histopathologically. PMID:23533427

U?urluer, Gamze; Kibar, Mustafa; Yavuz, Sinan; Kuzucu, Akin; Serin, Meltem

2013-01-01

144

False Positive 18F-FDG Uptake in Mediastinal Lymph Nodes Detected with Positron Emission Tomography in Breast Cancer: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among females. It is accepted that lymph node involvement with metastatic tumor and the presence of distant metastasis are the most important prognostic factors. Accurate staging is important in determining prognosis and appropriate treatment. Positron emission tomography with computed tomography detects malignancies using 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (18F-FDG PET CT) with high accuracy and they contribute to decisions regarding diagnosis, staging, recurrence, and treatment response. Here, we report a case of false positive metastatic mediastinal lymph nodes that were diagnosed by 18F-FDG PET CT in a 40-year-old breast cancer patient who had undergone preoperative evaluation. Right paratracheal, prevascular, aorticopulmonary, precarinal, subcarinal, hilar, and subhilar multiple conglomerated mediastinal lymph nodes were revealed in addition to left breast mass and axillary lymph nodes. Mediastinoscopy was performed with biopsy and pathology was reported as granulomatous lymphadenitis. In conclusion, any abnormal FDG accumulation in unusual lymph nodes must be evaluated carefully and confirmed histopathologically. PMID:23533427

U?urluer, Gamze; Kibar, Mustafa; Yavuz, Sinan; Kuzucu, Akin; Serin, Meltem

2013-01-01

145

Detection of parasternal metastatic lymph nodes by sentinel lymph node methods in a patient with recurrence in the conserved breast.  

PubMed

We herein report a case of second sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). A 57-year-old woman underwent breast-conserving surgery including axillary clearance at Aichi Cancer Center on October 20, 2003. Recurrent tumor in the conserved breast was diagnosed in March 2006. She received SLNB using radioactive tracer. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy detected 2 parasternal lymph nodes as hot spots. No abnormal lymph nodes were revealed on preoperative computed tomography. Salvage mastectomy was performed along with dissection of the Rotter and infraclavicular lymph nodes and biopsy of the detected parasternal lymph nodes. Micrometastases were discovered in both parasternal lymph nodes detected as sentinel lymph nodes. No more metastases were seen in the other lymph nodes. Reoperative SLNB offers the possibility of detecting metastasis in residual lymph nodes and determining whether chemotherapy should be used. PMID:21213080

Yamashita, Toshinari; Fujita, Takashi; Hayashi, Hironori; Ando, Yoshiaki; Hato, Yukari; Horio, Akiyo; Toyoshima, Chieko; Yamada, Mai; Iwata, Hiroji

2014-03-01

146

[Prospect and guideline update of sentinel lymph node biopsy for patients with early-stage breast carcinoma].  

PubMed

Axillary lymph nodes are the most common and initial site of metastasis of breast carcinoma. Precise axillary staging of breast carcinoma before initial treatment is crucial as it allows efficient identification for local and systemic treatment options, and provides prognostic information. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is an accurate minimally invasive technology for axillary staging. Although top evidence of high-quality clinical trials showed that SLNB could safely and effectively replace axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for axillary negative patients with decrease in complications and improvement in quality of life, there are specific indications and contraindications for SLNB. Clinicians should balance the compliance of guideline and native clinical practice, especially for the circumstance of multifocal/multicentric lesion, breast biopsy history, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. With the accumulation of clinical practice and new results of clinical trials, axillary therapy has changed from unique surgery to patient-tailored multi-disciplinary intervention, although ALND should be recommended traditionally if SLNB is positive. Intensive and accurate preoperative axillary staging is gradually valued by clinicians. Development of imaging modality especially ultrasonography and ultrasound-guided biopsy can identify some extra lymph node positive patients directly to ALND with avoidance of unnecessary SLNB. Thus, the positive rate of SLNB will decline significantly. It seems possible that axillary management will step into a noninvasive era abandoning SLNB in some patients with small breast cancer. In this article we review the prospect and guideline update of SLNB for patients with early-stage breast cancer. PMID:25187451

Zhou, Mei-qi; Chen, Hai-long; Hu, Yue; Deng, Yong-chuan; Zheng, Shu

2014-07-01

147

Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery for early stage gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

We attempted to evaluate the history of sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS), technical aspects, tracers, and clinical applications of SNNS using Infrared Ray Electronic Endoscopes (IREE) combined with Indocyanine Green (ICG). The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as a first lymph node (LN) which receives cancer cells from a primary tumor. Reports on clinical application of SNNS for gastric cancers started to appear since early 2000s. Two prospective multicenter trials of SNNS for gastric cancer have also been accomplished in Japan. Kitagawa et al reported that the endoscopic dual (dye and radioisotope) tracer method for SN biopsy was confirmed acceptable and effective when applied to the early-stage gastric cancer (EGC). We have previously reported the usefulness of SNNS in gastrointestinal cancer using ICG as a tracer, combined with IREE (Olympus Optical, Tokyo, Japan) to detect SLN. LN metastasis rate of EGC is low. Hence, clinical application of SNNS for EGC might lead us to avoid unnecessary LN dissection, which could preserve the patient’s quality of life after operation. The most ideal method of SNNS should allow secure and accurate detection of SLN, and real time observation of lymphatic flow during operation. PMID:24914329

Mitsumori, Norio; Nimura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Naoto; Kawamura, Masahiko; Aoki, Hiroaki; Shida, Atsuo; Omura, Nobuo; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

2014-01-01

148

Ljubljana nomograms for predicting the likelihood of non-sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients with a positive sentinel lymph node.  

PubMed

Several tools for predicting the likelihood of non-sentinel lymph node (non-SLN) involvement in SLN positive breast cancer patients have been created so far.The aim of our study was to create and validate different nomograms for predicting the likelihood of non-SLN involvement that would be applicable in different institutions and that would also include the results of the preoperative US examination of the axilla. From January 2000 to January 2009, 534 breast cancer patients underwent axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) due to metastatic SLN at our institution. Using logistic regression results three nomograms differing in the inclusion of the results of intraoperative examination of SLN were created. The nomograms were validated using bootstrap methods. In all three nomograms, US examination of the axilla was a powerful independent variable. Other variables included(different in different nomograms) were tumor size, lymphovascular invasion, metastasis size in SLN, number of negative and number of positive SLNs. Mean absolute error and mean area under the ROC curve equals to 0.016 and 0.77 for the first, 0.023 and 0.75 for the second and 0.014 and 0.79 for the third nomogram. Three nomograms for predicting the likelihood of non-SLN metastases including the results of the preoperative US examination of the axilla were created at our institution. They differ in the inclusion of the results of intraoperative examination of SLNs and are thus applicable in different institutions. The validation results seem promising and omission of completion ALND might be considered in patients with the probability of having non-SLN metastases of 10% or less. PMID:19787449

Perhavec, Andraz; Perme, Maja Pohar; Hocevar, Marko; Besi?, Nikola; Zgajnar, Janez

2010-01-01

149

Mayo Clinic study finds less invasive surgery detects residual breast cancer in lymph nodes after chemotherapy  

Cancer.gov

Most patients whose breast cancer has spread to their lymph nodes have most of the lymph nodes in their armpit area removed after chemotherapy to see if any cancer remains. A study conducted through the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group and led by the Mayo Clinic shows that a less invasive procedure known as sentinel lymph node surgery successfully identified whether cancer remained in lymph nodes in 91 percent of patients with node-positive breast cancer who received chemotherapy before their surgery. In sentinel lymph node surgery, only a few lymph nodes, the ones most likely to contain cancer, are removed. The findings are being presented at the 2012 CTRC-AACR San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.

150

Predicting Likelihood of Having Four or More Positive Nodes in Patient With Sentinel Lymph Node-Positive Breast Cancer: A Nomogram Validation Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Katz suggested a nomogram for predicting having four or more positive nodes in sentinel lymph node (SLN)-positive breast cancer patients. The findings from this formula might influence adjuvant radiotherapy decisions. Our goal was to validate the accuracy of the Katz nomogram. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 309 patients with breast cancer who had undergone completion axillary lymph node dissection. The factors associated with the likelihood of having four or more positive axillary nodes were evaluated in patients with one to three positive SLNs. The nomogram developed by Katz was applied to our data set. The area under the curve of the corresponding receiver operating characteristics curve was calculated for the nomogram. Results: Of the 309 patients, 80 (25.9%) had four or more positive axillary lymph nodes. On multivariate analysis, the number of positive SLNs (p < .0001), overall metastasis size (p = .019), primary tumor size (p = .0001), and extracapsular extension (p = .01) were significant factors predicting for four or more positive nodes. For patients with <5% probability, 90.3% had fewer than four positive nodes and 9.7% had four or more positive nodes. The negative predictive value was 91.7%, and sensitivity was 80%. The nomogram was accurate and discriminating (area under the curve, .801). Conclusion: The probability of four or more involved nodes is significantly greater in patients who have an increased number of positive SLNs, increased overall metastasis size, increased tumor size, and extracapsular extension. The Katz nomogram was validated in our patients. This nomogram will be helpful to clinicians making adjuvant treatment recommendations to their patients.

Unal, Bulent; Gur, Akif Serhat [Department of Surgical Oncology, Magee-Womens Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Beriwal, Sushil [Department of Radiation Oncology, Magee-Womens Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tang Gong [Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Johnson, Ronald; Ahrendt, Gretchen; Bonaventura, Marguerite [Department of Surgical Oncology, Magee-Womens Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Soran, Atilla, E-mail: asoran@magee.ed [Department of Surgical Oncology, Magee-Womens Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

2009-11-15

151

Scanning elastic scattering spectroscopy detects metastatic breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes  

E-print Network

Scanning elastic scattering spectroscopy detects metastatic breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes of Medicine London, United Kingdom Abstract. A novel method for rapidly detecting metastatic breast cancer; breast cancer; sentinel lymph node biopsy. Paper 09556RR received Dec. 15, 2009; revised manuscript

Bigio, Irving J.

152

Can methylene blue dye be used as an alternative to patent blue dye to find the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer surgery?  

PubMed Central

Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is standard care to evaluate axillary involvement in early breast cancer. It has fewer complications than complete lymph node dissection; however, using blue dye in SLNB is controversial. We have evaluated the detection rate and local complications associated with methylene blue dye (MBD) used in SLNB in early breast cancer patients and compared these results to patent blue dye (PBD). Materials and Methods: In a cohort prospective study, 312 patients with early breast cancer without axillary lymph node involvement were divided into two groups according to dye type. All of the patients received radiotracer and one type of blue dye. We filled out a checklist for the patients that contained demographic data, size of tumor, stage, detection of sentinel lymph node, and complications and then analyzed the data. Results: Demographic and histopathologic characteristics were not significantly different in both groups. Mean (standard deviation [SD]) tumor size in all patients was 2.4 (0.8) cm. Detection rate in the MBD group was 77.5% with dye alone and 94.2% with dye and radioisotope; and in the PBD group it was 80.1% and 92.9% respectively (P > 0.05). We had blue discoloration of the skin in 23.7% in the PBD and 14.1% in the MBD group (P < 0.05) local inflammation was detected in one patient in the PBD and five in the MBD group (P < 0.05). Skin necrosis and systemic complications were not observed. Conclusion: Methylene blue has an acceptable detection rate, which may be a good alternative in SLNB. Complication such as blue discoloration of the skin was also lower with MBD. PMID:25538772

Fattahi, Asieh Sadat; Tavassoli, Alireza; Rohbakhshfar, Omid; Sadeghi, Ramin; Abdollahi, Abbas; Forghani, Mohammad Naser

2014-01-01

153

Randomized Multicenter Trial of Sentinel Node Biopsy Versus Standard Axillary Treatment in Operable Breast Cancer: The ALMANAC Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy in women with operable breast cancer is routinely used in some countries for staging the axilla despite limited data from randomized trials on morbidity and mortality outcomes. We conducted a multi- center randomized trial to compare quality-of-life outcomes between patients with clinically node-negative invasive breast cancer who received sentinel lymph node biopsy and patients who

Robert E. Mansel; Amit Goyal; Robert G. Newcombe; J. Michael Dixon; Constantinos Yiangou; Kieran Horgan; Nigel Bundred; Ian Monypenny; David England; Mark Sibbering; Tholkifl I. Abdullah; Lester Barr; Dudley H. Sinnett; Anne Fleissig; Dayalan Clarke; Peter J. Ell

2006-01-01

154

Risk Factors of Lymph Edema in Breast Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Background. Lymphedema secondary to breast cancer treatment is a common and serious problem for disease survivors. The objective of the current study was to identify the risk factors of secondary lymphedema after breast carcinoma treatment. Materials & Methods. The breast cancer patients who were followed up in three centers in Tehran and Mashhad in 2010 were recruited in the study. The circumference measurement was used for defining lymphedema. Results. Among 410 breast cancer patients, 123 cases (30%) developed lymphedema. Variables such as low educational level, body mass index (BMI), higher stage of disease, number of involved lymph nodes, comorbid diseases, trauma, infection, and the time after surgery showed significant correlation with the development of lymphedema. In logistic regression analysis, increase of 1?kg/m2 in BMI (OR?=?1.09; 95%??CI 1.05–1.15), each number increase in lymph node involvement (OR?=?1.15; 95%??CI 1.08–1.21) and the increase of every 1 month after surgery (OR?=?1.01; 95%??CI 1.01–1.02) significantly increased the risk of lymphedema. Conclusion. The results of this study demonstrated that preserving a fitted BMI, emphasis on self-care, and educating preventive activities may have important roles in decreasing the lymphedema incidence and improving the patients' quality of life. PMID:23862068

Shahpar, Haghighat; Atieh, Akbari; Maryam, Ansari; Fatemeh, Homaei Shandiz; Massoome, Najafi; Mandana, Ebrahimi; Masud, Yunesian; Hamid Reza, Mirzaei; Mohammad Esmaeil, Akbari

2013-01-01

155

Sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) in breast cancer may be used in place of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) if SNB accurately\\u000a stages the axilla. This study assessed the success and accuracy of axillary SNB with isosulfan blue (ISB) and technetium-99\\u000a sulfur colloid (TSC) compared to ALND.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Forty-two women with T1 or T2 breast cancer underwent SNB and

John M. Barnwell; Mark A. Arredondo; Daniel Kollmorgen; John F. Gibbs; Dominick Lamonica; William Carson; Paul Zhang; Janet Winston; Stephen B. Edge

1998-01-01

156

Characterization of lymph node metastasis and its clinical significance in the surgical treatment of gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to characterize lymph node metastasis and determine its clinical significance in the surgical treatment of gastric cancer. The medical charts of 920 gastric cancer patients who underwent radical surgical resection between March, 2010 and March, 2013, were retrospectively reviewed and statistically analyzed. Lymphatic metastasis was observed in 69.6% of the patients (640/920). The frequency of lymph node metastasis in patients with early-stage gastric cancer was 21.4% (18/84). Lymph node metastasis was observed in all the patients with stage IIIC-IV gastric cancer. The incidence of lymph node metastasis was higher among patients with tumors >7 cm in size. The most frequently affected lymph nodes in patients with proximal, central and distal gastric cancer were station no. 1 (34.2%), no. 3 (33.8%) and no. 6 (34.3%) lymph nodes, respectively. The frequency of lymph node metastasis in patients with Borrmann type IV cancer was significantly higher compared to that in patients with other Borrmann type cancers. Our study further demonstrated that lymphatic metastasis is closely correlated with TNM stage, location, depth of invasion and size of gastric tumors. Therefore, we recommend that a sufficient number of lymph nodes be examined from each patient to determine the extent of lymph node dissection based on Borrmann type, location, size, depth of invasion and histology of the cancer. PMID:25054052

ZUO, CHAO-HUI; XIE, HAILONG; LIU, JINGSHI; QIU, XIAO-XIN; LIN, JIN-GUAN; HUA, XIAO; QIN, ANG

2014-01-01

157

Effects of local phenytoin on seroma formation after mastectomy and Axillary lymph node dissection: an experimental study on mice  

PubMed Central

Background Seroma formation is the most common complication after breast cancer surgery. It is an important complication since it prolongs therapy duration, increases cost, and negatively affects patient psychology. Currently, there is no widely accepted method that prevents seroma formation. We tried to investigate impact of local phenytoin application on seroma formation following an experimental mastectomy model created in rats. Methods Two groups including eight rats in each were randomized. Saline injection was applied in the first group, whereas 1% phenytoin was locally used in the second group. Ten days after the surgery, seroma formation and wound-healing processes were evaluated using histopathological and biochemical examinations. Results Phenytoin significantly decreased seroma formation. Fibrosis was significantly increased and angiogenesis was significantly reduced in the phenytoin group (P?

2012-01-01

158

Rationale for extent of lymph node dissection for right colon cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The extent of lymph node dissection optimal for the prognosis of right colon cancer is investigated. METHODS: Between 1946 and 1991, 275 patients had curative operation for right colon cancer. A retrospective analysis of rate and degree of lymph node metastasis was performed in each of the 275 patients, and survival rate was estimated in 197 patients who could

S. Toyota; H. Ohta; S. Anazawa

1995-01-01

159

Lymph node staging in colorectal cancer: old controversies and recent advances.  

PubMed

Outcome prediction based on tumor stage reflected by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)/Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) tumor node metastasis (TNM) system is currently regarded as the strongest prognostic parameter for patients with colorectal cancer. For affected patients, the indication for adjuvant therapy is mainly guided by the presence of regional lymph node metastasis. In addition to the extent of surgical lymph node removal and the thoroughness of the pathologist in dissecting the resection specimen, several parameters that are related to the pathological work-up of the dissected nodes may affect the clinical significance of lymph node staging. These include changing definitions of lymph nodes, involved lymph nodes, and tumor deposits in different editions of the AJCC/UICC TNM system as well as the minimum number of nodes to be dissected. Methods to increase the lymph node yield in the fatty tissue include methylene blue injection and acetone compression. Outcome prediction based on the lymph node ratio, defined as the number of positive lymph nodes divided by the total number of retrieved nodes, may be superior to the absolute numbers of involved nodes. Extracapsular invasion has been identified as additional prognostic factor. Adding step sectioning and immunohistochemistry to the pathological work-up may result in higher accuracy of histological diagnosis. The clinical value of more recent technical advances, such as sentinel lymph node biopsy and molecular analysis of lymph nodes tissue still remains to be defined. PMID:24379568

Resch, Annika; Langner, Cord

2013-12-14

160

Lymph node staging in colorectal cancer: Old controversies and recent advances  

PubMed Central

Outcome prediction based on tumor stage reflected by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)/Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) tumor node metastasis (TNM) system is currently regarded as the strongest prognostic parameter for patients with colorectal cancer. For affected patients, the indication for adjuvant therapy is mainly guided by the presence of regional lymph node metastasis. In addition to the extent of surgical lymph node removal and the thoroughness of the pathologist in dissecting the resection specimen, several parameters that are related to the pathological work-up of the dissected nodes may affect the clinical significance of lymph node staging. These include changing definitions of lymph nodes, involved lymph nodes, and tumor deposits in different editions of the AJCC/UICC TNM system as well as the minimum number of nodes to be dissected. Methods to increase the lymph node yield in the fatty tissue include methylene blue injection and acetone compression. Outcome prediction based on the lymph node ratio, defined as the number of positive lymph nodes divided by the total number of retrieved nodes, may be superior to the absolute numbers of involved nodes. Extracapsular invasion has been identified as additional prognostic factor. Adding step sectioning and immunohistochemistry to the pathological work-up may result in higher accuracy of histological diagnosis. The clinical value of more recent technical advances, such as sentinel lymph node biopsy and molecular analysis of lymph nodes tissue still remains to be defined. PMID:24379568

Resch, Annika; Langner, Cord

2013-01-01

161

Change in blood flow velocity demonstrated by Doppler ultrasound in upper limb after axillary dissection surgery for the treatment of breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the arterial and venous blood flow in women who underwent upper limb axillary dissection\\u000a surgery for the treatment of breast cancer. Sixty women were divided into two groups: group 1 (G1)—30 women who underwent\\u000a breast surgery with axillary dissection level II or III (55.6 ± 8.6 years); group 2 (G2)—control, 30 women with no breast

Carolina Nascimben Matheus; Elaine Caldeira de Oliveira Guirro

2011-01-01

162

Molecular and Functional Imaging for Detection of Lymph Node Metastases in Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Knowledge on lymph node metastases is crucial for the prognosis and treatment of prostate cancer patients. Conventional anatomic imaging often fails to differentiate benign from metastatic lymph nodes. Pelvic lymph node dissection is an invasive technique and underestimates the extent of lymph node metastases. Therefore, there is a need for more accurate non-invasive diagnostic techniques. Molecular and functional imaging has been subject of research for the last decades, in this respect. Therefore, in this article the value of imaging techniques to detect lymph node metastases is reviewed. These techniques include scintigraphy, sentinel node imaging, positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI MRI) and magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL). Knowledge on pathway and size of lymph node metastases has increased with molecular and functional imaging. Furthermore, improved detection and localization of lymph node metastases will enable (focal) treatment of the positive nodes only. PMID:23823804

Fortuin, Ansje; de Rooij, Maarten; Zamecnik, Patrik; Haberkorn, Uwe; Barentsz, Jelle

2013-01-01

163

Long-term outcome for lymph node-positive prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the number of men with lymph node-positive prostate cancer has declined, it is still significant and the challenge remains on how best to treat these patients. Only long-term follow-up can give a true indication of the outcome in prostate cancer. We evaluated our experience in treating lymph node-positive prostate cancer with a median follow-up of 10.2 years. The overall

G P Swanson; M W Riggs; M Herman

2008-01-01

164

Lymph node count and prognosis in colorectal cancer: The influence of examination quality.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer guidelines recommend adjuvant chemotherapy in stage II disease when less than 12 lymph nodes are assessed. The recommendation bases on previous studies showing an association of a low lymph node count and adverse outcome. Compared to current standards, however, the quality of lymph node examination in the studies was low. We, therefore, investigated the prognostic role of <12 lymph nodes in cancers diagnosed adherent to current quality measures. Stage I-IV colorectal cancers from 1,899 patients enrolled into a population-based cohort study were investigated for the prognostic impact of a lymph node count <12. The stage specific share of patients diagnosed with ?12 nodes (stage I-IV: 62, 85, 85, 78%, respectively) was used to compare lymph node examination quality to other studies. We found no impact of a lymph node count <12 on overall, cancer-specific or recurrence-free survival for any tumour stage. Compared to studies reporting an adverse prognostic impact of a low lymph node count in stages II and III the stage-specific shares of patients with ?12 nodes were markedly higher in this study (85% vs. 24-58% in previous analyses) and this correlated with increased rates of stage III compared to stage II cancers. In conclusion our data indicate, that the previously reported effect of a low lymph node count on the patients' outcomes is eliminated by improved lymph node examination quality and thus question the general applicability of a 12 lymph node cut off for adjuvant chemotherapy decision making in stage II disease. PMID:25231924

Bläker, Hendrik; Hildebrandt, Bert; Riess, Hanno; von Winterfeld, Moritz; Ingold-Heppner, Barbara; Roth, Wilfried; Kloor, Matthias; Schirmacher, Peter; Dietel, Manfred; Tao, Sha; Jansen, Lina; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Ulrich, Alexis; Brenner, Hermann; Hoffmeister, Michael

2015-04-15

165

Radiotherapy or surgery of the axilla after a positive sentinel node in breast cancer (EORTC 10981-22023 AMAROS):a randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 3 non-inferiority trial  

PubMed Central

Summary Background If treatment of the axilla is indicated in patients with breast cancer who have a positive sentinel node, axillary lymph node dissection is the present standard. Although axillary lymph node dissection provides excellent regional control, it is associated with harmful side-effects. We aimed to assess whether axillary radiotherapy provides comparable regional control with fewer side-effects. Methods Patients with T1–2 primary breast cancer and no palpable lymphadenopathy were enrolled in the randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 3 non-inferiority EORTC 10981-22023 AMAROS trial. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by a computer-generated allocation schedule to receive either axillary lymph node dissection or axillary radiotherapy in case of a positive sentinel node, stratified by institution. The primary endpoint was non-inferiority of 5-year axillary recurrence, considered to be not more than 4% for the axillary radiotherapy group compared with an expected 2% in the axillary lymph node dissection group. Analyses were by intention to treat and per protocol. The AMAROS trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00014612. Findings Between Feb 19, 2001, and April 29, 2010, 4823 patients were enrolled at 34 centres from nine European countries, of whom 4806 were eligible for randomisation. 2402 patients were randomly assigned to receive axillary lymph node dissection and 2404 to receive axillary radiotherapy. Of the 1425 patients with a positive sentinel node, 744 had been randomly assigned to axillary lymph node dissection and 681 to axillary radiotherapy; these patients constituted the intention-to-treat population. Median follow-up was 6·1 years (IQR 4·1–8·0) for the patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes. In the axillary lymph node dissection group, 220 (33%) of 672 patients who underwent axillary lymph node dissection had additional positive nodes. Axillary recurrence occurred in four of 744 patients in the axillary lymph node dissection group and seven of 681 in the axillary radiotherapy group. 5-year axillary recurrence was 0·43% (95% CI 0·00–0·92) after axillary lymph node dissection versus 1·19% (0·31–2·08) after axillary radiotherapy. The planned non-inferiority test was underpowered because of the low number of events. The one-sided 95% CI for the underpowered non-inferiority test on the hazard ratio was 0·00–5·27, with a non-inferiority margin of 2. Lymphoedema in the ipsilateral arm was noted significantly more often after axillary lymph node dissection than after axillary radiotherapy at 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. Interpretation Axillary lymph node dissection and axillary radiotherapy after a positive sentinel node provide excellent and comparable axillary control for patients with T1–2 primary breast cancer and no palpable lymphadenopathy. Axillary radiotherapy results in significantly less morbidity. Funding EORTC Charitable Trust. PMID:25439688

Donker, Mila; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Straver, Marieke E; Meijnen, Philip; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Mansel, Robert E; Cataliotti, Luigi; Westenberg, A Helen; Klinkenbijl, Jean H G; Orzalesi, Lorenzo; Bouma, Willem H; van der Mijle, Huub C J; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; Veltkamp, Sanne C; Slaets, Leen; Duez, Nicole J; de Graaf, Peter W; van Dalen, Thijs; Marinelli, Andreas; Rijna, Herman; Snoj, Marko; Bundred, Nigel J; Merkus, Jos W S; Belkacemi, Yazid; Petignat, Patrick; Schinagl, Dominic A X; Coens, Corneel; Messina, Carlo G M; Bogaerts, Jan; Rutgers, Emiel J T

2014-01-01

166

A Model to Estimate the Risk of Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema: Combinations of Treatment-Related Factors of the Number of Dissected Axillary Nodes, Adjuvant Chemotherapy, and Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The development of breast cancer-related lymphedema (LE) is closely related to the number of dissected axillary lymph nodes (N-ALNs), chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. In this study, we attempted to estimate the risk of LE based on combinations of these treatment-related factors. Methods and Materials: A total of 772 patients with breast cancer, who underwent primary surgery with axillary lymph node dissection from 2004 to 2009, were retrospectively analyzed. Adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) was performed in 677 patients (88%). Among patients who received radiation therapy (n=675), 274 (35%) received supraclavicular radiation therapy (SCRT). Results: At a median follow-up of 5.1 years (range, 3.0-8.3 years), 127 patients had developed LE. The overall 5-year cumulative incidence of LE was 17%. Among the 127 affected patients, LE occurred within 2 years after surgery in 97 (76%) and within 3 years in 115 (91%) patients. Multivariate analysis showed that N-ALN (hazard ratio [HR], 2.81; P<.001), ACT (HR, 4.14; P=.048), and SCRT (HR, 3.24; P<.001) were independent risk factors for LE. The total number of risk factors correlated well with the incidence of LE. Patients with no risk or 1 risk factor showed a significantly lower 5-year probability of LE (3%) than patients with 2 (19%) or 3 risk factors (38%) (P<.001). Conclusions: The risk factors associated with LE were N-ALN, ACT, and SCRT. A simple model using combinations of these factors may help clinicians predict the risk of LE.

Kim, Myungsoo; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Sung Uk; Lee, Nam Kwon; Jung, So-Youn; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Eun Sook; Kang, Han-Sung [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)] [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyung Hwan, E-mail: shin.kyunghwan@gmail.com [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01

167

Eight-year experience with the intraoperative frozen section examination of sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer in a North-Italian university center.  

PubMed

Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) completely changed the impact of breast surgery on patients psycho-physical wellness, reducing morbidity associated with complete axillary lymph node dissection (CALND) while granting an adequate breast cancer staging. We reviewed our experience with the SLNB in a University Clinic. We collected data about all breast cancer patients submitted to SLNB from 2002 to 2010, and analyzed them with R (version 2.15.2), considering significant p<0.05. We performed 615 SLNBs on 607 patients, with a mean age of 59.86 (±10.76). Sentinel node detection rate resulted 99,7%, with a mean number of biopsied nodes of 1.64 (±0.67), axillary localization in 98% of cases, and negative intraoperative histological finding in the 86.2% of cases. Prevalence of ITCs, micrometastasis, macrometastasis and pericapsular metastasis resulted respectively 0.6%, 4.9%, 7.5% and 8.8%. Among women who received CALND, mean number of examined nodes was 16.36 (±6.19) and mean number of metastatic non-sentinel nodes was 0.97 in case of micrometastasis, 2.65 in case of macrometastasis, and up to 9.88 when pericapsular invasion was described. To conclude, our data confirm the role of nodal metastasis size in the prediction of non-sentinel node involvement, but further studies are required in order to better assess the role of ITCs and micrometastasis in the diagnostic and therapeutic management of breast cancer, with the final aim to reduce the surgical complications of axilla demolition when unnecessary. PMID:24427358

Cedolini, Carla; Bertozzi, Serena; Seriau, Luca; Londero, Ambrogio P; Concina, Serena; Cattin, Federico; Geatti, Onelio; Di Loreto, Carla; Risaliti, Andrea

2014-01-01

168

Eight-year experience with the intraoperative frozen section examination of sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer in a North-Italian university center  

PubMed Central

Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) completely changed the impact of breast surgery on patients psycho-physical wellness, reducing morbidity associated with complete axillary lymph node dissection (CALND) while granting an adequate breast cancer staging. We reviewed our experience with the SLNB in a University Clinic. We collected data about all breast cancer patients submitted to SLNB from 2002 to 2010, and analyzed them with R (version 2.15.2), considering significant p<0.05. We performed 615 SLNBs on 607 patients, with a mean age of 59.86 (±10.76). Sentinel node detection rate resulted 99,7%, with a mean number of biopsied nodes of 1.64 (±0.67), axillary localization in 98% of cases, and negative intraoperative histological finding in the 86.2% of cases. Prevalence of ITCs, micrometastasis, macrometastasis and pericapsular metastasis resulted respectively 0.6%, 4.9%, 7.5% and 8.8%. Among women who received CALND, mean number of examined nodes was 16.36 (±6.19) and mean number of metastatic non-sentinel nodes was 0.97 in case of micrometastasis, 2.65 in case of macrometastasis, and up to 9.88 when pericapsular invasion was described. To conclude, our data confirm the role of nodal metastasis size in the prediction of non-sentinel node involvement, but further studies are required in order to better assess the role of ITCs and micrometastasis in the diagnostic and therapeutic management of breast cancer, with the final aim to reduce the surgical complications of axilla demolition when unnecessary. PMID:24427358

Cedolini, Carla; Bertozzi, Serena; Seriau, Luca; Londero, Ambrogio P; Concina, Serena; Cattin, Federico; Geatti, Onelio; Loreto, Carla Di; Risaliti, Andrea

2014-01-01

169

Effect of Tumor Deposits on Overall Survival in Colorectal Cancer Patients with Regional Lymph Node Metastases  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The staging system of the International Union Against Cancer considers tumor deposits to be N1c in patients with no regional lymph node metastasis, but the significance of tumor deposits in patients with regional lymph node metastases is unclear. We investigated the effect of tumor deposits on overall survival in colorectal cancer patients with regional lymph node metastases. Patients and Methods: From 2000 to 2008, 551 patients underwent resections for colorectal cancer at our medical center. We excluded 87 patients who had distant metastases or had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy from our study and statistically analyzed the remaining 464 patients. Results: Stepwise multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis in patients with regional lymph node metastases showed only tumor deposits to be significant for overall survival (hazard ratio: 2.813; P = 0.0002). Recurrence was seen in 49.2% of patients with tumor deposits (30/61) compared with 14.4% of patients without them (58/403; P < 0.0001). Tumor deposits did not show the same effect on overall survival as lymph node metastases. Conclusions: Tumor deposits were significantly associated with poorer overall survival in colorectal cancer patients with regional lymph node metastases. The effect of tumor deposits on overall survival was between that of lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis.

Yabata, Eiichi; Udagawa, Masaru; Okamoto, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

170

A New Formula for Prostate Cancer Lymph Node Risk  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: The successful treatment of prostate cancer depends on the accurate estimation of the risk of regional lymph node (LN) involvement. The Roach formula (RF) has been criticized as overestimating LN risk. A modification of the RF has been attempted by other investigators using simplified adjustment ratios: the Nguyen formula (NF). Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was investigated for patients treated in 2004 through 2006 for whom at least 10 LN were examined at radical prostatectomy, cT1c or cT2 disease, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <26 ng/ml (N = 2,930). The Yale formula (YF) was derived from half of the sample (n = 1,460), and validated in the other half (n = 1,470). Results: We identified 2,930 patients. Only 4.6% of patients had LN+, and 72.6% had cT1c disease. Gleason (GS) 8-10 histology was found in 14.4% of patients. The YF for prediction of %LN+ risk is [GS - 5]x [PSA/3 + 1.5 x T], where T = 0, 1, and 2 for cT1c, cT2a, and cT2b/cT2c. Within each strata of predicted %LN+ risk, the actual %LN+ was closest to the YF. Using a >15% risk as an indicator of high-risk disease, the YF had increased sensitivity (39.0% vs. 13.6%) compared with the NF, without a significant reduction in specificity (94.9% vs. 98.8%). The NF was overly restrictive of the high-risk group, with only 2% of patients having a >15% risk of LN+ by that formula. Conclusion: The YF performed better than the RF and NF and was best at differentiating patients at high risk for LN+ disease.

Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.ed [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, CT (United States); Makarov, Danil V. [Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Section of Urology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Department of Veterans Affairs Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT (United States); Gross, Cary [Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

2011-05-01

171

Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of lymph node metastasis in early colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the role of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and establish imaging criteria of lymph node metastasis in early colorectal cancer. METHODS: One hundred and sixty patients with early colorectal cancer were evaluated for tumor location, clinical history of polypectomy, depth of tumor invasion, and lymph node metastasis. Two radiologists assessed preoperative CT and/or MRI for the primary tumor site detectability, the presence or absence of regional lymph node, and the size of the largest lymph node. Demographic, imaging, and pathologic findings were compared between the two groups of patients based on pathologic lymph node metastasis and optimal size criterion was obtained. RESULTS: The locations of tumor were ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid colon, and rectum. One hundred and sixty early colorectal cancers were classified into 3 groups based on the pathological depth of tumor invasion; mucosa, submucosa, and depth unavailable. A total of 20 (12.5%) cancers with submucosal invasion showed lymph node metastasis. Lymph nodes were detected on CT or MRI in 53 patients. The detection rate and size of lymph nodes were significantly higher (P = 0.000, P = 0.044, respectively) in patients with pathologic nodal metastasis than in patients without nodal metastasis. Receiver operating curve analysis showed that a cut-off value of 4.1 mm is optimal with a sensitivity of 78.6% and specificity of 75%. CONCLUSION: The short diameter size criterion of ? 4.1 mm for metastatic lymph nodes was optimal for nodal staging in early colorectal cancer.

Choi, Joonsung; Oh, Soon Nam; Yeo, Dong-Myung; Kang, Won Kyung; Jung, Chan-Kwon; Kim, Sang Woo; Park, Michael Yong

2015-01-01

172

Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of lymph node metastasis in early colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the role of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and establish imaging criteria of lymph node metastasis in early colorectal cancer. METHODS: One hundred and sixty patients with early colorectal cancer were evaluated for tumor location, clinical history of polypectomy, depth of tumor invasion, and lymph node metastasis. Two radiologists assessed preoperative CT and/or MRI for the primary tumor site detectability, the presence or absence of regional lymph node, and the size of the largest lymph node. Demographic, imaging, and pathologic findings were compared between the two groups of patients based on pathologic lymph node metastasis and optimal size criterion was obtained. RESULTS: The locations of tumor were ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid colon, and rectum. One hundred and sixty early colorectal cancers were classified into 3 groups based on the pathological depth of tumor invasion; mucosa, submucosa, and depth unavailable. A total of 20 (12.5%) cancers with submucosal invasion showed lymph node metastasis. Lymph nodes were detected on CT or MRI in 53 patients. The detection rate and size of lymph nodes were significantly higher (P = 0.000, P = 0.044, respectively) in patients with pathologic nodal metastasis than in patients without nodal metastasis. Receiver operating curve analysis showed that a cut-off value of 4.1 mm is optimal with a sensitivity of 78.6% and specificity of 75%. CONCLUSION: The short diameter size criterion of ? 4.1 mm for metastatic lymph nodes was optimal for nodal staging in early colorectal cancer. PMID:25593474

Choi, Joonsung; Oh, Soon Nam; Yeo, Dong-Myung; Kang, Won Kyung; Jung, Chan-Kwon; Kim, Sang Woo; Park, Michael Yong

2015-01-01

173

Current status of sentinel lymph node mapping in the management of cervical cancer.  

PubMed

The status of regional lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor in early cervical cancer patients. Pelvic lymph node dissections are routinely performed as a part of standard surgical treatment. Systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy is associated with short- and long-term morbidities. This review discusses single components of the sentinel lymph node mapping (SLNM) technique and results of the detection of sentinel lymph nodes. SLNM biopsy performed by an experienced team for small volume tumors (<2 cm) has high specific side detection rate, excellent negative-predictive value and high sensitivity. Uncommon lymphatic drainage has been reported in 15% of cervical cancer patients. There is sufficient data now to suggest that SLNM with 99mTc plus blue dye in the hands of a surgeon with extensive experience should prove to be an important part of individualized cervical cancer surgery and increase the safety of less radical or fertility-sparing surgery. PMID:23875664

Rob, Lukas; Lukas, Rob; Robova, Helena; Helena, Robova; Halaska, Michael Jiri; Jiri, Halaska Michael; Hruda, Martin; Martin, Hruda; Skapa, Petr; Petr, Skapa

2013-07-01

174

Magnetic Resonance Lymphography-Guided Selective High-Dose Lymph Node Irradiation in Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL) -guided delineation of a boost volume and an elective target volume for pelvic lymph node irradiation in patients with prostate cancer. The feasibility of irradiating these volumes with a high-dose boost to the MRL-positive lymph nodes in conjunction with irradiation of the prostate using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was also investigated. Methods and Materials: In 4 prostate cancer patients with a high risk of lymph node involvement but no enlarged lymph nodes on CT and/or MRI, MRL detected pathological lymph nodes in the pelvis. These lymph nodes were identified and delineated on a radiotherapy planning CT to create a boost volume. Based on the location of the MRL-positive lymph nodes, the standard elective pelvic target volume was individualized. An IMRT plan with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) was created with dose prescriptions of 42 Gy to the pelvic target volume, a boost to 60 Gy to the MRL-positive lymph nodes, and 72 Gy to the prostate. Results: All MRL-positive lymph nodes could be identified on the planning CT. This information could be used to delineate a boost volume and to individualize the pelvic target volume for elective irradiation. IMRT planning delivered highly acceptable radiotherapy plans with regard to the prescribed dose levels and the dose to the organs at risk (OARs). Conclusion: MRL can be used to select patients with limited lymph node involvement for pelvic radiotherapy. MRL-guided delineation of a boost volume and an elective pelvic target volume for selective high-dose lymph node irradiation with IMRT is feasible. Whether this approach will result in improved outcome for these patients needs to be investigated in further clinical studies.

Meijer, Hanneke J.M., E-mail: H.Meijer@rther.umcn.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Debats, Oscar A. [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kunze-Busch, Martina; Kollenburg, Peter van; Leer, Jan Willem [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Witjes, J. Alfred [Department of Urology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Barentsz, Jelle O. [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lin, Emile N.J.Th. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

2012-01-01

175

Tumor size of breast invasive ductal cancer measured with contrast-enhanced ultrasound predicts regional lymph node metastasis and N stage  

PubMed Central

Purpose: This study aimed to determine the role of breast invasive ductal cancer (BIDC) size measured with Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) in the prediction of regional lymph node metastasis (LNM) and N stage. Methods: One hundred and six consecutive patients with breast lesions underwent ultrasound imaging within 2 weeks before mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection. The largest transverse (width) and anteroposterior (depth) diameter were measured under CEUS by using calipers. The correlation between tumor size and regional LNM metastasis and N stage was evaluated. Results: Univariate analysis showed the diameters measured with CEUS were associated with lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). The tumor size could distinguish grouped N stage (all P < 0.05). Tumor area (TA) might be an indicator that can differentiate No BIDC from N1-3 BIDC (cutoff = 5.37 cm2), N0-1 BIDC from N2-3 BIDC (cutoff = 6.48 cm2), and N0-2 BIDC from N3 BIDC (cutoff = 8.23 cm2) with the sensitivity of 71%, 72% and 83%, respectively, and the specificity of 79%, 68% and 84%, respectively. Conclusions: The TA of BIDC measured with CEUS may be a predictor of regional LNM and N stage. PMID:25400785

Wang, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Qichang; Liu, Jun; Tang, Shichu; Liang, Xia; Zhou, Zhengyu; He, Ying; Peng, Hui; Xiao, Yuanming

2014-01-01

176

Dose-dense paclitaxel versus docetaxel following FEC as adjuvant chemotherapy in axillary node-positive early breast cancer: a multicenter randomized study of the Hellenic Oncology Research Group (HORG).  

PubMed

Adding a taxane to anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy prolongs survival in node-positive early breast cancer. However, which is the preferable taxane in a dose-dense regimen remains unknown. We conducted a randomized study to compare the efficacy of dose-dense paclitaxel versus docetaxel following 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC) as adjuvant chemotherapy in women with node-positive early breast cancer. Following surgery women with HER2-negative breast cancer and at least one infiltrated axillary lymph node were randomized to receive four cycles of FEC (700/75/700 mg/m(2)) followed by four cycles of either paclitaxel (175 mg/m(2)) or docetaxel (75 mg/m(2)). All cycles were administered every 14 days with G-CSF support. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS) at 3 years. Between 2004 and 2007, 481 women were randomized to paclitaxel (n = 241) and docetaxel (n = 240). After a median follow-up of 6 years, 51 (21%) and 48 (20%) women experienced disease relapse (p = 0.753) and there was no significant difference in DFS between the paclitaxel- and docetaxel-treated groups (3-year DFS 87.4 vs. 88.3%, respectively; median DFS not reached; p = 0.633). Toxicities were manageable, with grade 2-4 neutropenia in 21 versus 31% (p = 0.01), thrombocytopenia 0.8 versus 3.4% (p = 0.06), any grade neurotoxicity 17 versus 7.5% (p = 0.35) and onycholysis 4.9 versus 12.1% (p = 0.03) for patients receiving paclitaxel and docetaxel, respectively. There were no toxic deaths. Dose-dense paclitaxel versus docetaxel after FEC as adjuvant chemotherapy results in a similar 3-year DFS rate in women with axillary node-positive early breast cancer. Due to its more favorable toxicity profile, paclitaxel is the taxane of choice in this setting. PMID:25399229

Saloustros, Emmanouil; Malamos, Nikolaos; Boukovinas, Ioannis; Kakolyris, Stylianos; Kouroussis, Charalampos; Athanasiadis, Athanasios; Ziras, Nikolaos; Kentepozidis, Nikolaos; Makrantonakis, Parisis; Polyzos, Aristidis; Christophyllakis, Charalampos; Georgoulias, Vassilios; Mavroudis, Dimitrios

2014-12-01

177

Association between VEGFR-3 expression and lymph node metastasis in non-small-cell lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-3 is considered to be associated with lymphangiogenesis. The aim of the present study was to identify the clinical significance of VEGFR-3 expression and lymph node metastasis in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Lung tumor tissue samples and 196 lymph nodes from 52 patients with NSCLC were analyzed. In addition, lung tissue samples and 8 lymph nodes from 10 patients with lung diseases other than cancer were included as controls. Semiquantitative multiplex reverse transcription technology was applied to measure the mRNA expression levels of VEGFR-3, while VEGFR-3 protein expression levels were assessed immunohistochemically. The total number of lymphatic vessels was counted and the microlymphatic vessel density (MLVD) was calculated. The results indicated that the VEGFR-3 mRNA expression level in lymph node tissue from the group with lymph node metastasis was significantly lower compared with the group without lymph node metastasis (0.281±0.166 vs. 0.158±0.158; t=4.849; P<0.001). The VEGFR-3 mRNA expression levels in the lung tumor tissue of the NSCLC patients exhibited no statistically significant difference between the lymph node metastasis and lymph node non-metastasis groups (0.139±0.137 vs. 0.142±0.123; t=0.08; P>0.05). In addition, in the lymph node metastasis group, there was no statistically significant difference between the metastasis-positive and -negative lymph nodes (0.158±0.158 vs. 0.123±0.115; t=0.993; P>0.05) with regard to VEGFR-3 mRNA expression. Morphologically, VEGFR-3 immunoreactivity was primarily localized in the cytoplasm of the lymphatic endothelial cells, as well as a number of the cancer cells. MLVD was much higher in the lung tissue surrounding the tumor than in the tumor tissue, and was significantly higher in the lymph node metastasis group than in the lymph node non-metastasis group. VEGFR-3 expression levels were shown to correlate with lymph node metastasis in NSCLC patients, thus, may be a useful biomarker for lymph node metastasis prediction in NSCLC. MLVD is a key indictor of lymphatic vessel metastasis in NSCLC. An enhanced MLVD indicates lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic node metastasis, and may be an important predictor for tumor monitoring and prognosis.

LI, JIE; YI, HAN; LIU, ZHIDONG; ZHANG, HAIQING; ZHANG, DEZONG; YUE, WENTAO; JIA, HONGYAN; XU, SHAOFA; LI, BAOLAN

2015-01-01

178

Frequency and Predictive Factors of Lymph Node Metastasis in Mucosal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose The incidence of lymph node metastasis has been reported to range from 2.6 to 4.8% in early stage gastric cancer with mucosal invasion (T1a cancer). Lymph node metastasis in early stage gastric cancer is known as an important predictive factor. We analyzed the prediction factors of lymph node metastasis in T1a cancer. Materials and Methods A total of 9,912 patients underwent radical gastrectomy due to gastric cancer from October 1994 to July 2006 in the Department Of Surgery at Samsung Medical Center. We did a retrospective analysis of 2,524 patients of these patients, ones for whom the cancer was confined within the mucosa. Results Among the 2,524 patients, 57 (2.2%) were diagnosed with lymph node metastasis, and of these, cancer staging was as follows: 41 were N1, 8 were N2, and 8 were N3a. Univariate analysis of clinicopathological factors showed that the following factors were significant predictors of metastasis: tumor size larger than 4 cm, the presence of middle and lower stomach cancer, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and signet-ring cell carcinoma, diffuse type cancer (by the Lauren classification), and lymphatic invasion. Multivariate analysis showed that lymphatic invasion and tumor larger than 4 cm were significant factors with P<0.001 and P=0.024, respectively. Conclusions The frequency of lymph node metastasis is extremely low in early gastric cancer with mucosal invasion. However, when lymphatic invasion is present or the tumor is larger than 4 cm, there is a greater likelihood of lymph node metastasis. In such cases, surgical treatments should be done to prevent disease recurrence. PMID:22076181

Nam, Myung Jin; Oh, Seung Jong; Oh, Cheong Ah; Kim, Dae Hoon; Bae, Young Sik; Choi, Min Gew; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon; Kim, Sung

2010-01-01

179

Use of Fluorescence Imaging in Combination with Patent Blue Dye versus Patent Blue Dye Alone in Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Near-infrared fluorescence imaging with indocyanine green (ICG) has the potential to improve sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in breast cancer. In this clinical trial, we compared the potential value of ICG combined with blue dye with that of blue dye alone for detecting SLNs. Methods Patients undergoing SLN biopsy (SLNB) between November 2010 and November 2013 were included. Up to December 2011, SLNs were detected by using patent blue (PB) alone, and since January 2012, by using PB in combination with ICG. The patients were divided into the following two groups: group A (ICG-PB; n=96) and group B (PB; n=73), and SLN detection parameters were compared between the groups. All patients underwent level I and II axillary dissections after SLNB. Results In group A, the SLN detection rate was 96.9% (93/96), the accuracy of detection was 98.9% (92/93), and the false-negative rate (FNR) was 3.4% (1/29). In group B, the SLN detection rate was 84.9% (62/73), the accuracy of detection was 96.8% (60/62), and the FNR was 11.1% (2/18). The ICG-PB group showed significantly superior results compared to the PB group for SLN detection (p=0.005) and a greatly improved FNR. Conclusion The combined fluorescence and blue dye-based tracer technique was superior to the use of blue dye alone for identifying SLNs, and for predicting axillary lymph node status in patients with breast cancer; in addition, the combined technique had reduced false-negative results. PMID:25320623

Tong, Meng; Gao, Wei

2014-01-01

180

Depressed-Type of Early Colon Cancer with Extensive Lymph Node Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Early colorectal cancer (ECC) is defined as invasive tumor limited to the colonic and rectal mucosa or submucosa, regardless of the presence or absence of lymph node metastasis. The incidence of lymph node metastasis in ECC ranges from 0 to 15.4%, and risk factors include depth of submucosal invasion, growth patterns (polypoid or non-polypoid), histologic subclassification, and lymphatic invasion. Of non-polypoid growth patterns, the depressed types of colorectal cancer have higher malignant potential than polypoid types, even for small sizes. Unfortunately, this type is also difficult to detect on colonoscopic examination. In this report, we describe a case of depressed type ECC with extensive lymph node metastasis without regional lymph node involvement. PMID:17326258

Kim, Sung Ai; Lee, Jin Hyoung; Park, Soo Young; Kim, Hoguen; Kim, Tae Il

2007-01-01

181

Depressed-type of early colon cancer with extensive lymph node metastasis.  

PubMed

Early colorectal cancer (ECC) is defined as invasive tumor limited to the colonic and rectal mucosa or submucosa, regardless of the presence or absence of lymph node metastasis. The incidence of lymph node metastasis in ECC ranges from 0 to 15.4%, and risk factors include depth of submucosal invasion, growth patterns (polypoid or non-polypoid), histologic subclassification, and lymphatic invasion. Of non-polypoid growth patterns, the depressed types of colorectal cancer have higher malignant potential than polypoid types, even for small sizes. Unfortunately, this type is also difficult to detect on colonoscopic examination. In this report, we describe a case of depressed type ECC with extensive lymph node metastasis without regional lymph node involvement. PMID:17326258

Kim, Sung Ai; Lee, Jin Hyoung; Park, Soo Young; Kim, Hoguen; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho

2007-02-28

182

Molecular Changes in Pre-Metastatic Lymph Nodes of Esophageal Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Lymph node metastasis indicates poor prognosis in esophageal cancer. To understand the underlying mechanisms, most studies so far focused on investigating the tumors themselves and/or invaded lymph nodes. However they neglected the potential events within the metastatic niche, which precede invasion. Here we report the first description of these regulations in patients on transcription level. We determined transcriptomic profiles of still metastasis-free regional lymph nodes for two patient groups: patients classified as pN1 (n?=?9, metastatic nodes exist) or pN0 (n?=?5, no metastatic nodes exist). All investigated lymph nodes, also those from pN1 patients, were still metastasis-free. The results show that regional lymph nodes of pN1 patients differ decisively from those of pN0 patients – even before metastasis has taken place. In the pN0 group distinct immune response patterns were observed. In contrast, lymph nodes of the pN1 group exhibited a clear profile of reduced immune response and reduced proliferation, but increased apoptosis, enhanced hypoplasia and morphological conversion processes. DKK1 was the most significant gene associated with the molecular mechanisms taking place in lymph nodes of patients suffering from metastasis (pN1). We assume that the two molecular profiles observed constitute different stages of a progressive disease. Finally we suggest that DKK1 might play an important role within the mechanisms leading to lymph node metastasis. PMID:25048826

Otto, Benjamin; Koenig, Alexandra M.; Tolstonog, Genrich V.; Jeschke, Anke; Klaetschke, Kristin; Vashist, Yogesh K.; Wicklein, Daniel; Wagener, Christoph; Izbicki, Jakob R.; Streichert, Thomas

2014-01-01

183

Fox Chase study finds age tied to spread of rectal cancer to lymph nodes  

Cancer.gov

Rectal cancer is more likely to spread to the lymph nodes in younger patients, according to new findings that Fox Chase Cancer Center researchers presented on October 29 at the American Society for Radiation Oncology’s 54th Annual Meeting. The results—which are the first of their kind—suggest that doctors should search for spreading more aggressively in these patients.

184

Noninvasive Detection of Clinically Occult LymphNode Metastases in Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Accurate detection of lymph-node metastases in prostate cancer is an essential com- ponent of the approach to treatment. We investigated whether highly lymphotropic superparamagnetic nanoparticles, which gain access to lymph nodes by means of in- terstitial-lymphatic fluid transport, could be used in conjunction with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to reveal small nodal metastases. methods Eighty patients with presurgical

Mukesh G. Harisinghani; Jelle Barentsz; Peter F. Hahn; Willem M. Deserno; Shahin Tabatabaei; Christine Hulsbergen van de Kaa; Jean de la Rosette; Ralph Weissleder

2003-01-01

185

The total number of lymph nodes in resected colon cancer specimens is affected by several factors but the lymph node ratio is independent of these.  

PubMed

The number of lymph nodes retrieved from the specimen may be a surrogate measure of the adequacy of extensive colon cancer surgery, but many variables may influence the total lymph node yield of any specimen. We examined which variables would be influential both for negative and positive node sampling.The combined results from 428 patients from three hospitals A to C treated in 2007-2009 with single colon cancers having R0 segmental resections were analysed. The surgical technique and pathology staining methods were slightly different between the hospitals.The mean number of lymph nodes was 15.8 (range 1-60). Twelve or more lymph nodes were harvested in 78% of the specimens. In the multivariate Poisson regression analysis of all TNM stages, the factors associated with the total lymph node harvest were age, pathology handling, tumour location and size (p < 0.001), whereas for TNM stage III alone the pathology handling (p < 0.001) and a radical operating technique (p = 0.003) were highly significant. The total number of lymph nodes was the only significant factor for the number of positive lymph nodes (Posln) according to the multivariate negative regression analysis (p = 0.02) but the analysis of the lymph node ratio (LNR) detected no statistically significant variable.Several factors, and especially the specimen processing technique, were important for the total number of harvested lymph nodes. The number of Posln varied between segments and increased with the total number of harvested lymph nodes, but for LNR no variable was important. LNR seemed to abolish the combined effect of tumour location and the total lymph node yield in prognosis assessment. PMID:24164093

Stanisavljevi?, Luka; Søndenaa, Karl; Storli, Kristian Eeg; Leh, Sabine; Nesvik, Idunn; Gudlaugsson, Einar; Bukholm, Ida; Eide, Geir Egil

2014-06-01

186

Toxoplasma lymphadenitis mimicking malign axillary lymphadenopathy of a left breast mass.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by the intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Immunocompetent persons with primary infection are usually asymptomatic, but latent infection can persist for the life of the host. There is a risk of reactivating infection at a later time should the individual become immunocompromised, even if infection was asymptomatic or only mildly symptomatic initially. Axillary lymph nodes receive 85% of the lymphatic drainage from the breast. Lymph node metastases are relatively common even with invasive breast cancers ?1 cm in size. Here, we report a case of toxoplasma lymphadenitis in a female adult patient mimicking a malign breast lymphadenopathy of a left breast mass. PMID:22383305

Yildirim, Ali Cihat; Bostanci, Hasan; Yilmaz, Engin Deniz; Kutluer, Nizamettin; Kargici, Hulagu

2013-06-01

187

Does Lymphovascular Invasion Predict Regional Nodal Failure in Breast Cancer Patients With Zero to Three Positive Lymph Nodes Treated With Conserving Surgery and Radiotherapy? Implications for Regional Radiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine the relationship between lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and regional nodal failure (RNF) in breast cancer patients with zero to three positive nodes treated with breast-conservation therapy (BCT). Methods and Materials: The records of 1,257 breast cancer patients with zero to three positive lymph nodes were reviewed. All patients were treated with BCT at Massachusetts General Hospital from 1980 to December 2003. Lymphovascular invasion was diagnosed by hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections and in some cases supported by immunohistochemical stains. Regional nodal failure was defined as recurrence in the ipsilateral supraclavicular, axillary, or internal mammary lymph nodes. Regional nodal failure was diagnosed by clinical and/or radiologic examination. Results: The median follow-up was 8 years (range, 0.1-21 years). Lymphovascular invasion was present in 211 patients (17%). In univariate analysis, patients with LVI had a higher rate of RNF (3.32% vs. 1.15%; p = 0.02). In multivariate analysis, only tumor size, grade, and local failure were significant predictors of RNF (p = 0.049, 0.013, and 0.0001, respectively), whereas LVI did not show a significant relationship with RNF (hazard ratio = 2.07; 95% CI, 0.8-5.5; p = 0.143). The presence of LVI in the T2/3 population did not increase the risk of RNF over that for those with no LVI (p = 0.15). In addition, patients with Grade 3 tumors and positive LVI did not have a higher risk of RNF than those without LVI (p = 0.96). Conclusion: These results suggest that LVI can not be used as a sole indicator for regional nodal irradiation in breast cancer patients with zero to three positive lymph nodes treated with BCT.

Boutrus, Rimoun; Abi-Raad, Rita; Niemierko, Andrzej [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Brachtel, Elena F. [Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Rizk, Levi; Kelada, Alexandra [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G., E-mail: ataghian@partners.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

2010-11-01

188

Clinicopathologic factors and molecular markers related to lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To analyze predictive factors for lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer. METHODS: We analyzed 1104 patients with early gastric cancer (EGC) who underwent a gastrectomy with lymph-node dissection from May 2003 through July 2011. The clinicopathologic factors and molecular markers were assessed as predictors for lymph node metastasis. Molecular markers such as microsatellite instability, human mutL homolog 1, p53, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) were included. The ?2 test and logistic regression analysis were used to determine clinicopathologic parameters. RESULTS: Lymph node metastasis was observed in 104 (9.4%) of 1104 patients. Among 104 cases of lymph node positive patients, 24 patients (3.8%) were mucosal cancers and 80 patients (16.7%) were submucosal. According to histologic evaluation, the number of lymph node metastasis found was 4 (1.7%) for well differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma, 45 (11.3%) for moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma, 36 (14.8%) for poorly differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma, and 19 (8.4%) for signet ring cell carcinoma. Of 690 EGC cases, 77 cases (11.2%) showed EGFR overexpression. HER2 overexpression was present in 110 cases (27.1%) of 406 EGC patients. With multivariate analysis, female gender (OR = 2.281, P = 0.009), presence of lymphovascular invasion (OR = 10.950, P < 0.0001), diameter (? 20 mm, OR = 3.173, P = 0.01), and EGFR overexpression (OR = 2.185, P = 0.044) were independent risk factors for lymph node involvement. CONCLUSION: Female gender, tumor size, lymphovascular invasion and EGFR overexpression were predictive risk factors for lymph node metastasis in EGC. PMID:25593477

Jin, Eun Hyo; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Sung-Ae; Shim, Ki-Nam; Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Nayoung; Shin, Cheol Min; Yoon, Hyuk; Jung, Hyun Chae

2015-01-01

189

SDF-1? G801A Polymorphism Predicts Lymph Node Metastasis in Stage T3 Colorectal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The SDF-1\\/CXCR4 axis plays an important role in cancer metastasis. SDF1? genetic polymorphisms, including SDF1?-G801A, have been associated with increased cancer risk and may be predictive of distant metastasis. The present study compared\\u000a the frequency of 6 SDF1? single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) with and without lymph node (LN) metastasis\\u000a and determined whether fibroblasts with different

Shih-Ching Chang; Pei-Ching Lin; Shung-Haur Yang; Huann-Sheng Wang; Anna Fen-Yau Li; Jen-Kou Lin

2009-01-01

190

Lymphoscintigraphy in Detection of the Regional Lymph Node Involvement in Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Involvement of regional lymph node is a critical sign in prognosis of gastric cancer. Radiological techniques are commonly used to evaluate the extension of gastric cancer. But their sensitivity and specificity are low especially in the early stage. Our aim was to assess the value of gastric lymphoscintigraphy in identifying regional lymph node involvement in patients with gastric cancer, as compared to the abdominal ultrasonography, computed tomography and postoperative histopathological evaluation. PATIENTS AND METHODS 50 patients (12 females) with a median age of 61 years (range, 35–73 years) were included in the study. Pre-operative staging in all cases included upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy, followed by ultrasound, computed tomography and lymphoscintigraphy. 148 MBq Technetium-99m lymphoscint was injected around the tumour during endoscopy and immediately after injection, anterior, lateral and posterior images were taken in 5-min intervals using a gamma camera. Findings were compared to the findings of other tests. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of each test were calculated and compared. RESULTS Histologically, 68% of cases (34/50) had metastasis in regional lymph nodes and all cases were accurately diagnosed by lymphoscintigraphy. Lymphoscintigraphy was significantly more sensitive for detecting lymph node involvement (P < 0.01). Both abdominal ultrasonography and CT had very low sensitivity in identifying lymph nodes. CONCLUSIONS Lymphoscintigraphy is a promising test in the identification of regional lymph nodes pre-operatively in patients with gastric cancer. It might help the surgeon to plan the extent of dissection before surgery which may decrease postoperative complications related to unnecessary extensive lymph node dissection. PMID:17132310

Ozmen, M Mahir; Zulfikaroglu, Baris; Kucuk, N Ozlem; Ozalp, Necdet; Aras, Gulseren; Koseoglu, Tankut; Koç, Mahmut

2006-01-01

191

Implementation of the american college of surgeons oncology group z1071 trial data in clinical practice: is there a way forward for sentinel lymph node dissection in clinically node-positive breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy?  

PubMed

For clinically node-positive breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy, approximately 40 % will be found to be pathologically node negative. The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1071 trial was therefore conducted to evaluate sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) in these patients. The trial's primary end point was to determine the false-negative rate (FNR) among patients with clinical N1 disease in whom at least 2 sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) were identified. The FNR was 12.6 %, which exceeded the prespecified end point of 10.0 %. After data publication, our multidisciplinary team discussed the trial results and how we may incorporate the findings into clinical practice. Patient selection and surgical technique are critical. As an example, when dual tracer technique was used, the FNR was 10.8 %. Data from the trial presented at the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium suggested that the FNR could be improved if a clip was placed in the biopsy-proven positive lymph node and removal of that node during SLND was confirmed. Taking this into consideration, we have proposed an approach to surgical management of the axilla in clinically node-positive patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy termed targeted axillary dissection (TAD). TAD involves placing a clip at the time a lymph node is determined to be positive. After completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the clipped node is localized by using a wire or radioactive seed, and during the SLND procedure, all SLNs and the clipped node are removed. We are currently evaluating the efficacy of TAD in axillary staging after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:24841348

Mittendorf, Elizabeth A; Caudle, Abigail S; Yang, Wei; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Shaitelman, Simona; Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana; Woodward, Wendy A; Bedrosian, Isabelle; Kuerer, Henry M; Hunt, Kelly K

2014-08-01

192

Effect of immune function on lymph node micrometastasis in esophageal cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To explore the effect of immune function on lymph node micrometastasis in esophageal cancer patients by the research on the\\u000a correlation between immune function and micrometastasis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Ratios of T-lymphocyte subsets CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD4+\\/CD8+ in peripheral blood were examined by flow cytometry, but no\\u000a lymph node with metastatic cancer cells was observed in middle thoracic esophageal squamous carcinoma patients

Zimin Qin; Bing Li; Wenguang Wang

2007-01-01

193

Colon cancer metastasis to mediastinal lymph nodes without liver or lung involvement: A case report  

PubMed Central

Colon cancer is the second most common type of cancer in females and the third in males, worldwide. The most common sites of colon cancer metastasis are the regional lymph nodes, liver, lung, bone and brain. In this study, an extremely rare case of colon adenocarcinoma with extensive metastasis to the mediastinal lymph nodes without any other organ involvement is presented. A 44-year-old Caucasian male presented with abdominal pain, a change in bowel habits, melena and weight loss. Colonoscopy revealed a large friable, ulcerated, circumferential mass in the ascending colon. Biopsies were consistent with the diagnosis of invasive moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Subsequently, right colon resection was performed, and pathological analysis revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the right colon with extensive regional lymph node involvement. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest, abdomen and pelvis were performed preoperatively as part of routine staging for colon cancer. No liver or lung pathology was identified; however, multiple pathologically enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes were observed. Endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration of the largest mediastinal lymph node, which measured 5.2×3.5 cm on CT scans, was performed. The pathology was again consistent with the diagnosis of metastatic colorectal primary adenocarcinoma. At present, no optimum treatment has been identified for metastatic colon cancer to the mediastinal lymph nodes. The patient in the current case received chemotherapy with folinic acid, fluorouracil and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX), as well as with bevacizumab. Initial follow-up CT scans of the chest revealed a positive response to treatment. Physicians, in particular, radiologists, must consider the mediastinum during the first evaluation and further follow-up of patients with colorectal carcinoma even in the absence of metastasis. PMID:25289100

EL-HALABI, MUSTAPHA M.; CHAABAN, SAID A.; MEOUCHY, JOSEPH; PAGE, SETH; SALYERS, WILLIAM J.

2014-01-01

194

Colon cancer metastasis to mediastinal lymph nodes without liver or lung involvement: A case report.  

PubMed

Colon cancer is the second most common type of cancer in females and the third in males, worldwide. The most common sites of colon cancer metastasis are the regional lymph nodes, liver, lung, bone and brain. In this study, an extremely rare case of colon adenocarcinoma with extensive metastasis to the mediastinal lymph nodes without any other organ involvement is presented. A 44-year-old Caucasian male presented with abdominal pain, a change in bowel habits, melena and weight loss. Colonoscopy revealed a large friable, ulcerated, circumferential mass in the ascending colon. Biopsies were consistent with the diagnosis of invasive moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Subsequently, right colon resection was performed, and pathological analysis revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the right colon with extensive regional lymph node involvement. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest, abdomen and pelvis were performed preoperatively as part of routine staging for colon cancer. No liver or lung pathology was identified; however, multiple pathologically enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes were observed. Endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration of the largest mediastinal lymph node, which measured 5.2×3.5 cm on CT scans, was performed. The pathology was again consistent with the diagnosis of metastatic colorectal primary adenocarcinoma. At present, no optimum treatment has been identified for metastatic colon cancer to the mediastinal lymph nodes. The patient in the current case received chemotherapy with folinic acid, fluorouracil and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX), as well as with bevacizumab. Initial follow-up CT scans of the chest revealed a positive response to treatment. Physicians, in particular, radiologists, must consider the mediastinum during the first evaluation and further follow-up of patients with colorectal carcinoma even in the absence of metastasis. PMID:25289100

El-Halabi, Mustapha M; Chaaban, Said A; Meouchy, Joseph; Page, Seth; Salyers, William J

2014-11-01

195

What next? Managing lymph nodes in men with penile cancer  

PubMed Central

The management of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the penis is often daunting given its rarity and subsequent lack of high-level evidence to support our decision-making. This culminates in the complex surgical issues involving the management of the regional lymph nodes, which is of critical importance to both quantity and quality of life for these patients. This review aims to highlight the decisive issues surrounding the management of the pelvic and inguinal lymph nodes in the setting of squamous cell carcinoma of the penis, and to spotlight recently published information that adds credence to accepted management strategies of both the clinically positive and negative groin after successful management of the primary lesion. PMID:18953451

Leveridge, Michael; Siemens, D. Robert; Morash, Christopher

2008-01-01

196

Solitary mediastinal lymph node recurrence after curative resection of colon cancer  

PubMed Central

We report two cases of solitary mediastinal lymph node recurrence after colon cancer resection. Both cases had para-aortic lymph node metastasis at the time of initial surgery and received adjuvant chemotherapy for 4 years in case 1 and 18 mo in case 2. The time to recurrence was more than 8 years in both cases. After resection of the recurrent tumor, the patient is doing well with no recurrence for 6 years in case 1 and 4 mo in case 2. Patients should be followed up after colon cancer surgery considering the possibility of solitary mediastinal lymph node recurrence if they had para-aortic node metastasis at the time of initial surgery. PMID:25161766

Matsuda, Yasuhiro; Yano, Masahiko; Miyoshi, Norikatsu; Noura, Shingo; Ohue, Masayuki; Sugimura, Keijiro; Motoori, Masaaki; Kishi, Kentaro; Fujiwara, Yoshiyuki; Gotoh, Kunihito; Marubashi, Shigeru; Akita, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Hidenori; Sakon, Masato

2014-01-01

197

Solitary mediastinal lymph node recurrence after curative resection of colon cancer.  

PubMed

We report two cases of solitary mediastinal lymph node recurrence after colon cancer resection. Both cases had para-aortic lymph node metastasis at the time of initial surgery and received adjuvant chemotherapy for 4 years in case 1 and 18 mo in case 2. The time to recurrence was more than 8 years in both cases. After resection of the recurrent tumor, the patient is doing well with no recurrence for 6 years in case 1 and 4 mo in case 2. Patients should be followed up after colon cancer surgery considering the possibility of solitary mediastinal lymph node recurrence if they had para-aortic node metastasis at the time of initial surgery. PMID:25161766

Matsuda, Yasuhiro; Yano, Masahiko; Miyoshi, Norikatsu; Noura, Shingo; Ohue, Masayuki; Sugimura, Keijiro; Motoori, Masaaki; Kishi, Kentaro; Fujiwara, Yoshiyuki; Gotoh, Kunihito; Marubashi, Shigeru; Akita, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Hidenori; Sakon, Masato

2014-08-27

198

SEER Lymph Node Fields  

Cancer.gov

1 1 SEER Lymph Node Codes www.seer.cancer.gov SEER Lymph Node Codes Revisited SEER Program Training Materials October 2002 2 SEER Lymph Node Codes www.seer.cancer.gov EOD Lymph Node Involvement Number of Regional Nodes Positive Number of Regional

199

Landmark Trials Affecting the Surgical Management of Invasive Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Significant progress has been made in the surgical management of breast cancer. Historically, women with invasive breast cancer underwent a Halsted radical mastectomy; morbid procedure removing the breast, underlying muscle and regional lymph nodes. In contemporary practice, the majority of women diagnosed with early stage invasive breast cancer can now be managed with breast conserving therapy to include a segmental mastectomy followed by radiation. Axillary lymph nodes are routinely assessed by sentinel lymph node biopsy. Axillary lymph node dissection is reserved for patients with documented nodal metastasis, however, here too progress has been made as a population of low risk patients has been identified in whom a complete dissection is not required even in the setting of a positive sentinel lymph node. This chapter details the landmark clinical trials that have guided the surgical management of breast cancer. PMID:23464699

Black, Dalliah M.

2014-01-01

200

Cervical bronchogenic cysts mimic metastatic lymph nodes during thyroid cancer surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose Although congenital bronchogenic cysts in the cervical region, especially in the thyroid or perithyroidal area, are rare, distinguishing them from other cervical cystic lesions (e.g., thyroglossal duct and branchial cleft cysts) and metastatic cervical lymph nodes is difficult preoperatively. Additionally, cystic degeneration of metastatic lymph nodes is common in patients with thyroid cancer. We investigated the clinical characteristics and proper treatment for individuals with cervical bronchogenic cysts. Methods Of the 18,900 patients treated for thyroid cancer, 18 patients with pathologically confirmed bronchogenic cysts were retrospectively reviewed. Bilateral total thyroidectomy or less than total thyroidectomy with central compartment node dissection, including cystic mass excision was done and cystic mass was confirmed by postoperative pathologic examination. Results All cervical bronchogenic cysts were asymptomatic. Their mean size was 1.2 cm (range, 0.3 to 3 cm). Of these 18 patients, 15 did not have any abnormal radiological findings, except for lymphadenopathy during preoperative evaluations. Most bronchogenic cysts were detected around the thyroid and paratracheal areas. On preoperative imaging and intraoperatively, most were indistinguishable from metastatic cervical lymph nodes or other cystic lesions. Conclusion Although cervical bronchogenic cysts are rare and benign, they should be distinguished from other cystic cervical masses, especially metastatic cervical lymph nodes associated with thyroid cancer. Possible cervical bronchogenic cysts found during thyroid cancer evaluation or surgery should be surgically excised. PMID:24851222

Jun, Hak Hoon; Kim, Seok Mo; Lee, Yong Sang; Hong, Soon Won; Park, Cheong Soo

2014-01-01

201

Rate of para-aortic lymph node micrometastasis in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective Patients with micrometastasis to para-aortic lymph nodes may benefit from extended field chemoradiation. To determine the rate of para-aortic node micrometastasis in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer undergoing laparoscopic extraperitoneal para-aortic lymphadenectomy Methods We prospectively identified consecutive patients diagnosed with stage IB2-IVA biopsy-proven cervical cancer. Eligible patients included those who were candidates for treatment with radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy and had no evidence of para-aortic lymphadenopathy (all lymph nodes < 2 cm in diameter) by preoperative computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. All patients underwent preoperative positron emission tomography/computed tomography and laparoscopic extraperitoneal para-aortic lymphadenectomy. All lymph nodes were assessed for metastasis by routine hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining. Ultrastaging (serial sectioning) and immunohistochemical analysis were performed in H&E-negative specimens. Results Thirteen (22%) of 60 consecutive patients had para-aortic lymph node metastases detected on routine H&E staining. Of the remaining 47 patients, one (2.1%) had evidence of micrometastasis, which was detected by ultrastaging. This patient completed whole pelvic radiotherapy and chemotherapy but had a recurrence 27 months after completion of therapy. Conclusions The rate of para-aortic node micrometastasis in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer is low. The role of routine ultrastaging and immunohistochemical analysis in such patients remains uncertain. Future studies are needed to determine the clinical impact of para-aortic node micrometastasis in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. PMID:20837355

Zand, Behrouz; Euscher, Elizabeth D.; Soliman, Pamela T.; Schmeler, Kathleen M.; Coleman, Robert L.; Frumovitz, Michael; Jhingran, Anuja; Ramondetta, Lois M.; Ramirez, Pedro T.

2014-01-01

202

Sentinel Lymph Node Occult Metastases Have Minimal Survival Effect in Node-Negative Breast Cancer Patients  

Cancer.gov

Detailed examination of sentinel lymph node tissue from breast cancer patients revealed previously unidentified metastases in about 16% of the samples, but the difference in 5-year survival between patients with and without these metastases was very small and likely not clinically meaningful. The results were published in the February 3, 2011 New England Journal of Medicine.

203

Expression of Activation-Related Molecules on Regional Lymph Node Lymphocytes in Human Lung Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using two- and three-color flow cytometry, we investigated the surface makers of regional lymph node lymphocytes (RLNL) in 54 patients with primary lung cancer in order to determine whether or not RLNL are in an activation state when compared with the corresponding peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) for the purpose of clarifying the characteristics of RLNL. RLNL showed a cell composition

Mitsuhiro Takenoyama; Kosei Yasumoto; Mamoru Harada; Goro Matsuzaki; Teruyoshi Ishida; Keizo Sugimachi; Kikuo Nomoto

1996-01-01

204

Importance of sentinel lymph nodes in colorectal cancer: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Accurate identification of lymph nodes involved in metastases is vitally important for predicting survival, and it facilitates decision making with regard to adjuvant therapy. The study described here, which was undertaken to evaluate the role of sentinel lymph node mapping in refining the staging of colorectal cancer, was performed prospectively in 19 patients with colorectal cancer who underwent surgery from January to July 2005. Sentinel lymph node sampling was performed during each operation with isosulfan blue dye. Additional immunohistochemical staining was performed only if the sentinel nodes were negative for metastasis. In 18 of 19 patients, at least 1 sentinel node was identified. In 5 of 18 patients, sentinel nodes were positive for metastasis, and in 3 of 5, the sentinel node was the only node containing metastasis that was detected by immunohistochemical staining. In 3 patients, metastases in nonsentinel lymph nodes were detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining; these were determined to be false-negative results. Upstaging associated with sentinel lymph node mapping may reveal disease that might otherwise remain undetected by conventional methods. Patients who are upstaged may benefit from adjuvant therapies that have been shown to improve survival. PMID:17660167

Köksal, Hande; Bostanci, Hasan; Mentes, B Bülent

2007-01-01

205

ZEB1 Expression in Endometrial Biopsy Predicts Lymph Node Metastases in Patient with Endometrial Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to analyze the expression of zinc-finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) in endometrial biopsy and its correlation with preoperative characteristics, including lymph node metastases in patient with endometrial cancer. Methods. Using quantitative RT-PCR, ZEB1 expressions in endometrial biopsy from 452 patients were measured. The relationship between ZEB1 expression and preoperative characteristics was analyzed. Results. ZEB1 expressions were significantly associated with subtype, grade, myometrial invasion, and lymph node metastases. Lymph node metastases could be identified with a sensitivity of 57.8% at specificity of 74.1% by ZEB1 expression in endometrial biopsy. Based on combination of preoperative characteristics and ZEB1 expression, lymph node metastases could be identified with a sensitivity of 62.1% at specificity of 96.2% prior to hysterectomy. Conclusion. ZEB1 expression in endometrial biopsy could help physicians to better predict the lymph node metastasis in patients with endometrial cancer prior to hysterectomy. PMID:25544793

Feng, Gang; Wang, Xiangming; Cao, Xiaozhi; Shen, Lijuan; Zhu, Jiansheng

2014-01-01

206

Adenoid Cystic Breast Carcinoma: Is Axillary Staging Necessary in All Cases? Results from the California Cancer Registry  

PubMed Central

Introduction Adenoid cystic carcinoma is an uncommon type of breast cancer. There are limited data about its epidemiology, tumor characteristics, and outcomes. Using a large, population-based database, this study aims to identify specific characteristics of patients with adenoid cystic breast cancer, investigate its natural history, and determine its long-term prognosis. Methods The California Cancer Registry (CCR), a population-based registry, was reviewed from the years 1988 to 2006. The data were analyzed with relation to patient age, tumor size and stage, and overall survival. Relative cumulative actuarial survival was determined using the Berkson-Gage life table method. Results A total of 244 cases of invasive adenoid cystic cancer were identified in women during this time period. The patients’ median age was 61.9 years. Most cases were diagnosed in non-Hispanic White women (82%, n=200), followed by African-American (6%, n=15), Asian/Pacific-Islander (5.7%, n=14) and Hispanic women (4.4%, n=12). The remainder of the patients was of unknown or other ethnicity. Tumors were between 1 and 140 mm in size. At the time of diagnosis, 92% (n=225) of patients had localized disease, 5% (n=12) of patients had regional disease, and even fewer (n=7) had either distant or unknown staged disease. Lymph node involvement was not present in any tumors smaller than 1.4 cm. The relative cumulative survival of patients with adenoid cystic breast carcinoma was 95.6% at 5 years and 94.9% at 10 years. Conclusion Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast is a rare disease with an overall good prognosis. Knowing that this cancer usually presents as localized disease, with lymph node involvement seen only with larger tumors, can help clinicians plan the operative management of these tumors. PMID:21790841

Thompson, K.; Grabowski, J.; Saltzstein, S. L; Sadler, G. R.; Blair, S.

2011-01-01

207

Sentinel node staging for breast cancer: intraoperative molecular pathology overcomes conventional histologic sampling errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWhen sentinel node dissection reveals breast cancer metastasis, completion axillary lymph node dissection is ideally performed during the same operation. Intraoperative histologic techniques have low and variable sensitivity. A new intraoperative molecular assay (GeneSearch BLN Assay; Veridex, LLC, Warren, NJ) was evaluated to determine its efficiency in identifying significant sentinel lymph node metastases (>.2 mm).

Peter Blumencranz; Pat W. Whitworth; Kenneth Deck; Anne Rosenberg; Douglas Reintgen; Peter Beitsch; Anees Chagpar; Thomas Julian; Sukamal Saha; Eleftherios Mamounas; Armando Giuliano; Rache Simmons

2007-01-01

208

Results of optical Monte Carlo simulations of a compact ? camera for the detection of sentinel lymph nodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breast cancer is most often treatable when detected in the early stages, before the primary disease spreads to sentinel lymph nodes in the axilla and supraclavicular region. A sentinel lymph node is the closest adjacent lymph node to receive lymphatic drainage from a primary breast tumour. It is from these nodes that cancer cells metastasise throughout the lymphatic system, spreading the disease. This work details the optical Monte Carlo modelling of an ultra compact, nuclear medicine ? camera that will be used intra-operatively to detect malignant sentinel lymph nodes. This development will improve the identification and localisation of these sentinel nodes, thereby facilitating improved techniques for axillary lymph node dissection, and sentinel lymph node biopsy.

Lowe, Dean; Truman, Andrew; Kwok, Harry; Bergman, Alanah

2001-07-01

209

Lymph Nodes  

MedlinePLUS

... Anatomy & Physiology » Lymphatic System » Components of the Lymphatic System » Lymph Nodes Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

210

RTOG GU Radiation Oncology Specialists Reach Consensus on Pelvic Lymph Node Volumes for High-Risk Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiation therapy to the pelvic lymph nodes in high-risk prostate cancer is required on several Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) clinical trials. Based on a prior lymph node contouring project, we have shown significant disagreement in the definition of pelvic lymph node volumes among genitourinary radiation oncology specialists involved in developing and executing current RTOG trials. Materials and Methods: A consensus meeting was held on October 3, 2007, to reach agreement on pelvic lymph node volumes. Data were presented to address the lymph node drainage of the prostate. Extensive discussion ensued to develop clinical target volume (CTV) pelvic lymph node consensus. Results: Consensus was obtained resulting in computed tomography image-based pelvic lymph node CTVs. Based on this consensus, the pelvic lymph node volumes to be irradiated include: distal common iliac, presacral lymph nodes (S{sub 1}-S{sub 3}), external iliac lymph nodes, internal iliac lymph nodes, and obturator lymph nodes. Lymph node CTVs include the vessels (artery and vein) and a 7-mm radial margin being careful to 'carve out' bowel, bladder, bone, and muscle. Volumes begin at the L5/S1 interspace and end at the superior aspect of the pubic bone. Consensus on dose-volume histogram constraints for OARs was also attained. Conclusions: Consensus on pelvic lymph node CTVs for radiation therapy to address high-risk prostate cancer was attained and is available as web-based computed tomography images as well as a descriptive format through the RTOG. This will allow for uniformity in evaluating the benefit and risk of such treatment.

Lawton, Colleen A.F. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee WI (United States)], E-mail: clawton@mcw.edu; Michalski, Jeff [Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); El-Naqa, Issam [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Buyyounouski, Mark K. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Lee, W. Robert [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Menard, Cynthia [PMH-UHN University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); O'Meara, Elizabeth [American College of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Rosenthal, Seth A. [Radiation Oncology Center, Radiological Associates of Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (United States); Ritter, Mark [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Seider, Michael [Akron City Hospital, Akron, OH (United States)

2009-06-01

211

Evaluation of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Accurate lymph nodal staging of lung cancer is critical for determining the treatment options. With the help of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computer tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT), the clinician can rule out/in the regional lymph nodes positive for metastasis in the patients with lung cancer in a majority of cases. However, a small proportion of cases with false positivity of metastasis have been reported. Transbronchial needle aspirations and mediastinoscopic biopsies are still necessary to determine whether enlarged hypermetabolic mediastinal lymph nodes are positive for lung cancer metastasis. Here we report three intricate cases showing hypermetabolic activity in the mediastinal lymph nodes in the patients with pathologically diagnosed lung cancer on PET/CT. The first patient had squamous cell carcinoma in the left upper lobe of the lung with surrounding necrotizing granulomas and concurrent with silicosis and granulomatous inflammation in the lymph nodes; the second presented with symptoms of viral pneumonia, which was pathologically diagnosed as a lung adenocarcinoma, stage IA, concurrent with sarcoidosis involving the lymph nodes; the last case was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma in the right upper lobe of the lung, but lymph nodes showed reactive hyperplasia. These cases suggest that some cases are so complex that avid 18F-FDG uptake in the mediastinal lymph nodes in the patients with pathologically diagnosed lung cancer should be carefully analyzed based on individual patients’ clinical background.

Ji, Cheng; Zhang, Bin; Zhu, Weidong; Ling, Chunhua; Hu, Xudong; Chen, Yanbin; Huang, Jianan; Guo, Lingchun; Xu, Haodong

2014-01-01

212

The Prognosis of T3N0 Colon Cancer Is Dependent on the Number of Lymph Nodes Examined  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: T3N0 colon cancer is the target of many adjuvant studies. Very few studies have examined the relationship of the number of lymph nodes examined to the prognosis of this stage. We examined data from the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) to determine whether the number of examined lymph nodes is prognostic for T3N0 colon cancer.Methods: A total of 35,787

Richard S. Swanson; Carolyn C. Compton; Andrew K. Stewart; Kirby I. Bland

2003-01-01

213

Colon cancer lymph node evaluation among Military Health System beneficiaries: An analysis by race/ethnicity  

PubMed Central

Background The number of lymph nodes examined during colon cancer surgery falls below nationally recommended guidelines in the general population, with blacks and Hispanics less likely to have adequate nodal evaluation in comparison to whites. The Department of Defense’s (DoD’s) Military Health System (MHS) provides equal access to medical care for its beneficiaries, regardless of racial/ethnic background. This study aimed to investigate whether racial/ethnic treatment differences exist in the MHS, an equal access medical care system. Methods Linked data from the DoD cancer registry and administrative claims databases were used and included 2,155 colon cancer cases. Multivariate logistic regression assessed the association between race/ethnicity and the number of lymph nodes examined (<12 and ? 12) overall and for stratified analyses. Results No overall racial/ethnic difference in the number of lymph nodes examined was identified. Further stratified analyses yielded similar results, except potential racial/ethnic differences were found among persons with poorly differentiated tumors, where non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs) tended to be less likely to have ?12 lymph nodes dissected (OR: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.14-0.80, p-value: 0.01) compared to non-Hispanic whites. Conclusion Racial/ethnic disparities in the number of lymph nodes evaluated among patients with colon cancer were not apparent in an equal-access healthcare system. However, among poorly differentiated tumors, there might be racial/ethnic differences in nodal yield, suggesting the possible effects of factors other than access to healthcare. PMID:25059789

Gill, Abegail A.; Zahm, Shelia H.; Shriver, Craig D.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; McGlynn, Katherine A.; Zhu, Kangmin

2014-01-01

214

Collagen I fiber density increases in lymph node positive breast cancers: pilot study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collagen I (Col1) fibers are a major structural component in the extracellular matrix of human breast cancers. In a preliminary pilot study, we explored the link between Col1 fiber density in primary human breast cancers and the occurrence of lymph node metastasis. Col1 fibers were detected by second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy in primary human breast cancers from patients presenting with lymph node metastasis (LN+) versus those without lymph node metastasis (LN-). Col1 fiber density, which was quantified using our in-house SHG image analysis software, was significantly higher in the primary human breast cancers of LN+ (fiber volume=29.22%±4.72%, inter-fiber distance=2.25±0.45 ?m) versus LN- (fiber volume=20.33%±5.56%, inter-fiber distance=2.88±1.07 ?m) patients. Texture analysis by evaluating the co-occurrence matrix and the Fourier transform of the Col1 fibers proved to be significantly different for the parameters of co-relation and energy, as well as aspect ratio and eccentricity, for LN+ versus LN- cases. We also demonstrated that tissue fixation and paraffin embedding had negligible effect on SHG Col1 fiber detection and quantification. High Col1 fiber density in primary breast tumors is associated with breast cancer metastasis and may serve as an imaging biomarker of metastasis.

Kakkad, Samata M.; Solaiyappan, Meiyappan; Argani, Pedram; Sukumar, Saraswati; Jacobs, Lisa K.; Leibfritz, Dieter; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.; Glunde, Kristine

2012-11-01

215

Incidence and clinical characteristics of prelaryngeal lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid cancer.  

PubMed

There is little data that determine the clinical characteristics of prelaryngeal lymph nodes (PLN) metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The aims of this prospective study were to evaluate the incidence and the clinical characteristics of metastasis to the PLN for PTC patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and prophylactic central neck dissection. Sixty-seven patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and prophylactic bilateral central lymph node neck dissection for PTC were enrolled. Central neck compartment was further divided into prelaryngeal, ipsilateral/contralateral paratracheal, and pretracheal regions. Clinicopathologic factors including age, sex, tumor size and location, extrathyroidal extension, and central and lateral nodal metastasis were evaluated. Of the 67 patients who underwent PLN dissection, 13 (19.4 %) had evidence of PLN metastasis. Tumor size was significantly larger in patients with PLN involvement (2.28 versus 1.12 cm; p = 0.020). Additionally, primary tumors larger than 1 cm, extrathyroidal extension, and isthmus involvement were more prevalent in PLN-positive patients. Patients with positive PLNs were also more frequently found to have lateral lymph node metastasis (23.1 vs. 1.9 %; p = 0.021), pretracheal lymph node metastasis (76.9 vs. 27.8 %; p = 0.003), and bilateral central lymph node metastasis (38.5 vs. 11.1 %; p = 0.031) than PTC patients without PLN involvement. The incidence of PLN metastasis in PTC patients who underwent prophylactic central lymph node neck dissection was 19.4 %. PLN metastasis was associated with tumor size, extrathyroidal extension, isthmus involvement, and other compartment lymph node metastasis. PMID:23553243

Lee, Young Chan; Shin, Seung Youp; Kwon, Kee Hwan; Eun, Young Gyu

2013-09-01

216

Near infrared imaging to identify sentinel lymph nodes in invasive urinary bladder cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximately 12,000 people are diagnosed with invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (InvTCC) each year in the United States. Surgical removal of the bladder (cystectomy) and regional lymph node dissection are considered frontline therapy. Cystectomy causes extensive acute morbidity, and 50% of patients with InvTCC have occult metastases at the time of diagnosis. Better staging procedures for InvTCC are greatly needed. This study was performed to evaluate an intra-operative near infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF) system (Frangioni laboratory) for identifying sentinel lymph nodes draining InvTCC. NIRF imaging was used to map lymph node drainage from specific quadrants of the urinary bladder in normal dogs and pigs, and to map lymph node drainage from naturally-occurring InvTCC in pet dogs where the disease closely mimics the human condition. Briefly, during surgery NIR fluorophores (human serum albumen-fluorophore complex, or quantum dots) were injected directly into the bladder wall, and fluorescence observed in lymphatics and regional nodes. Conditions studied to optimize the procedure including: type of fluorophore, depth of injection, volume of fluorophore injected, and degree of bladder distention at the time of injection. Optimal imaging occurred with very superficial injection of the fluorophore in the serosal surface of the moderately distended bladder. Considerable variability was noted from dog to dog in the pattern of lymph node drainage. NIR fluorescence was noted in lymph nodes with metastases in dogs with InvTCC. In conclusion, intra-operative NIRF imaging is a promising approach to improve sentinel lymph node mapping in invasive urinary bladder cancer.

Knapp, Deborah W.; Adams, Larry G.; Niles, Jacqueline D.; Lucroy, Michael D.; Ramos-Vara, Jose; Bonney, Patty L.; deGortari, Amalia E.; Frangioni, John V.

2006-02-01

217

A New Model for Predicting Non-Sentinel Lymph Node Status in Chinese Sentinel Lymph Node Positive Breast Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Our goal is to validate the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) nomogram and Stanford Online Calculator (SOC) for predicting non-sentinel lymph node (NSLN) metastasis in Chinese patients, and develop a new model for better prediction of NSLN metastasis. Methods The MSKCC nomogram and SOC were used to calculate the probability of NSLN metastasis in 120 breast cancer patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between NSLN metastasis and clinicopathologic factors, using the medical records of the first 80 breast cancer patients. A new model predicting NSLN metastasis was developed from the 80 patients. Results The MSKCC and SOC predicted NSLN metastasis in a series of 120 patients with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.688 and 0.734, respectively. For predicted probability cut-off points of 10%, the false-negative (FN) rates of MSKCC and SOC were both 4.4%, and the negative predictive value (NPV) 75.0% and 90.0%, respectively. Tumor size, Kiss-1 expression in positive SLN and size of SLN metastasis were independently associated with NSLN metastasis (p<0.05). A new model (Peking University People's Hospital, PKUPH) was developed using these three variables. The MSKCC, SOC and PKUPH predicted NSLN metastasis in the second 40 patients from the 120 patients with an AUC of 0.624, 0.679 and 0.795, respectively. Conclusion MSKCC nomogram and SOC did not perform as well as their original researches in Chinese patients. As a new predictor, Kiss-1 expression in positive SLN correlated independently with NSLN metastasis strongly. PKUPH model achieved higher accuracy than MSKCC and SOC in predicting NSLN metastasis in Chinese patients. PMID:25111296

Liu, Miao; Wang, Shu; Pan, Lu; Yang, Deqi; Xie, Fei; Liu, Peng; Guo, Jiajia; Zhang, Jiaqing; Zhou, Bo

2014-01-01

218

Cytokine/Chemokine Responses in Activated CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells Isolated from Peripheral Blood, Bone Marrow, and Axillary Lymph Nodes during Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Understanding the cytokine/chemokine networks in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells during the acute phase of infection is crucial to design therapies for the control of early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication. Here, we measured early changes in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the peripheral blood (PB), bone marrow (BM), and axillary lymph node (ALN) tissue of rhesus macaques infected with SIVMAC251. At 21 days after infection, all tissues showed a statistically significant loss of CD4+ T cells along with immune activation of CD8+ T cells in PB and ALN tissue. Twenty-eight different cytokines/chemokines were quantified in either anti-CD3/28 antibody- or staphylococcal enterotoxin B-stimulated single-positive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. PB CD4+ T cells produced predominantly interleukin-2 (IL-2), whereas CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in tissues produced ?-chemokines both before and 21 days after SIV infection. Tissues generally exhibited massive upregulation of many cytokines/chemokines following infection, possibly in an attempt to mitigate the loss of CD4+ T cells. There was no evidence of a T-helper 1 (TH1)-to-TH2 shift in CD4+ T cells or a T-cytotoxic 1 (TC1)-to-TC2 cytokine shift in CD8+ T cells in PB, BM, and ALN T-cell subsets during the acute phase of SIV infection. Despite the upregulation of several important effector cytokines/chemokines (IL-2, IL-12, IL-17, gamma interferon, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor) by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, upregulation of ?-chemokines (CCL2 and CCL22), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-basic), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and migration inhibition factor (MIF) may provide a poor prognosis either by inducing increased virus replication or by other unknown mechanisms. Therefore, drugs targeting ?-chemokines (CCL2 and CCL22), FGF-basic, HGF, or MIF might be important for developing effective vaccines and therapeutics against HIV. IMPORTANCE Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection results in early depletion of CD4+ T cells and dysregulation of protective immune responses. Therefore, understanding the cytokine/chemokine networks in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in different tissues during the acute phase of infection is crucial to the design of therapies for the control of early viral replication. Here, we measured early changes in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood (PB), bone marrow (BM), and axillary lymph node (ALN) tissue of rhesus macaques infected with SIVMAC251. There was no evidence of a T-helper 1 (TH1)-to-TH2 shift in CD4+ T cells or a T-cytotoxic 1 (TC1)-to-TC2 cytokine shift in CD8+ T cells in PB, BM, and ALN T-cell subsets during the acute phase of SIV infection. Despite the upregulation of several important effector cytokines/chemokines by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, upregulation of ?-chemokines, fibroblast growth factor-basic, hepatocyte growth factor, and migration inhibition factor may provide a poor prognosis. PMID:24920807

Kenway-Lynch, Carys S.; Das, Arpita; Lackner, Andrew A.

2014-01-01

219

Open cervical lymph node biopsy for head and neck cancers: any benefit?  

PubMed Central

Background Most patients with head and neck cancers in our environment present late and usually first to the general surgeons whose practice is to subject these patients to open cervical lymph node biopsy without a prior examination under anesthesia and endoscopic biopsy from the primary tumor site in order to obtain a histological diagnosis. This paper presents the influence of open cervical lymph node biopsy on the clinical outcome of patients with head and neck cancers in our environment. Methods This is a ten-year retrospective review of patients with head and neck cancers in the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria. Results Eighty nine patients aged between 23 and 78 years had head and neck cancers with 38/89 (42.7%) patients having cervical lymphadenopathy at presentation and these initially presented to the general surgeons. Twenty six (68.4%) patients had open cervical lymph node biopsy and 12/38 (31.6%) patients had FNAB. Eleven (28.9%) patients presented to the otolaryngology unit 6 months after they presented to the general surgeons and 27 (71.1%) patients beyond 6 months. Nine deaths were recorded. Ten patients were lost to follow-up. Conclusion All patients with head and neck lymphadenopathy who present to any physician for diagnostic examination should undergo formal ENT staging and FNAB to avoid the problems of tumor spread and the reduction in consequent prognosis. PMID:19402902

Adoga, Adeyi A; Silas, Olugbenga A; Nimkur, Tonga L

2009-01-01

220

Adding Taxol to Initial Chemotherapy May Be New Option When Breast Cancer Has Spread to Lymph Nodes  

Cancer.gov

Early findings from a large, multicenter trial suggest that the drug Taxol (paclitaxel), in combination with other standard chemotherapy agents, may have a small but significant benefit for breast cancer patients whose disease has spread to nearby lymph nodes.

221

Splicing mutation analysis reveals previously unrecognized pathways in lymph node-invasive breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Somatic mutations reported in large-scale breast cancer (BC) sequencing studies primarily consist of protein coding mutations. mRNA splicing mutation analyses have been limited in scope, despite their prevalence in Mendelian genetic disorders. We predicted splicing mutations in 442 BC tumour and matched normal exomes from The Cancer Genome Atlas Consortium (TCGA). These splicing defects were validated by abnormal expression changes in these tumours. Of the 5,206 putative mutations identified, exon skipping, leaky or cryptic splicing was confirmed for 988 variants. Pathway enrichment analysis of the mutated genes revealed mutations in 9 NCAM1-related pathways, which were significantly increased in samples with evidence of lymph node metastasis, but not in lymph node-negative tumours. We suggest that comprehensive reporting of DNA sequencing data should include non-trivial splicing analyses to avoid missing clinically-significant deleterious splicing mutations, which may reveal novel mutated pathways present in genetic disorders. PMID:25394353

Dorman, Stephanie N.; Viner, Coby; Rogan, Peter K.

2014-01-01

222

Mode of lymph node metastases in esophageal cancer induced in rabbits with Vx2 carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We carried out experimental studies in which Vx2 carcinoma was inoculated submucosally into the esophagi of 57 rabbits. The\\u000a purpose was to clarify the mode of tumor growth and lymph node metastasis of esophageal cancer. The inoculation was given\\u000a into five different segments of the esophagus and the cardia in six different groups of rabbits: the cervical (Ce), the cervicothoracic

Hiroyuki Mine; Teruhisa Nakamura

1983-01-01

223

Radiation safety of the sentinel lymph node technique in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Many publications attest to the potential of the sentinel lymph node technique in advancing the clinical management of melanoma\\u000a and, more recently, breast cancer. Whilst not yet universally regarded as the standard of care, the technique is gaining wide\\u000a acceptance. Use of a radiolabelled colloidal tracer is central to optimising sensitivity, and this brings with it the need\\u000a to

W. A. Waddington; M. R. S. Keshtgar; I. Taylor; S. R. Lakhani; M. D. Short; P. J. Eli

2000-01-01

224

Screening of lymph nodes metastasis associated lncRNAs in colorectal cancer patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To screen lymph nodes metastasis associated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in colorectal cancer through microarray analysis. METHODS: Metastatic lymph node (MLN), normal lymph node (NLN) and tumor tissues of 3 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients were collected during the operation and validated by pathological examinations. RNAs were extracted from MLN, NLN, and cancer tissues separately. RNA quantity and quality were measured with a NanoDrop ND-1000 spectrophotometer and RNA integrity was assessed by standard denaturing agarose electrophoresis. Agilent Feature Extraction Software (Version 11.0.1.1) was used to analyze acquired array images. Four differently expressed lncRNAs were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in 26 subsets of MLN, NLN, and tumor tissues. RESULTS: Of 33045 lncRNAs, 1133 were differentially expressed in MLN compared with NLN, of which 260 were up-regulated and 873 down-regulated (? 2 fold-change). Five hundred and forty-five lncRNAs were differentially expressed in MLN compared with tumor tissues, of which 460 were up-regulated and 85 down-regulated (? 2 fold-change). Compared with NLN and cancer tissues, 14 lncRNAs were specifically up-regulated and 5 specifically down-regulated in MLN. AK307796, ENST00000425785, and AK021444 were confirmed to be specifically up-regulated in MLN and ENST00000465846 specifically down-regulated in MLN by qRT-PCR in 26 CRC patients. CONCLUSION: The specifically expressed lncRNAs in MLN may exert a partial or key role in the progress of lymph nodes metastasis of CRC. PMID:25009386

Han, Jun; Rong, Long-Fei; Shi, Chuan-Bin; Dong, Xiao-Gang; Wang, Jie; Wang, Bao-Lin; Wen, Hao; He, Zhen-Yu

2014-01-01

225

Cranial location of level II lymph nodes in laryngeal cancer: Implications for elective nodal target volume delineation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze the cranial distribution of level II lymph nodes in patients with laryngeal cancer to optimize the elective radiation nodal target volume delineation. Methods and Materials: The most cranially located metastatic lymph node was delineated in 67 diagnostic CT data sets. The minimum distance from the base of the skull (BOS) to the lymph node was determined. Results: A total of 98 lymph nodes were delineated including 62 ipsilateral and 36 contralateral lymph nodes. The mean ipsilateral and contralateral distance from the top of the most cranial metastatic lymph node to the BOS was 36 mm (range, -9-120; standard deviation [SD], 17.9) and 35 mm (range, 14-78; SD 15.0), respectively. Only 5% and 12% of the ipsilateral and 3% and 9% of the contralateral metastatic lymph nodes were located within 15 mm and 20 mm below the BOS, respectively. No significant differences were found between patients with only ipsilateral metastatic lymph nodes and patients with bilateral metastatic lymph nodes. Between tumors that do cross the midline and those that do not, no significant difference was found in the distance of the most cranial lymph node to the BOS and the occurrence ipsilateral or contralateral. Conclusions: Setting the cranial border of the nodal target volume 1.5 cm below the base of the skull covers 95% of the lymph nodes and should be considered in elective nodal irradiation for laryngeal cancer. Bilateral neck irradiation is mandatory, including patients with unilateral laryngeal cancer, when elective irradiation is advised.

Braam, Petra M. [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: P.M.Braam@umcutrecht.nl; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J. [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Terhaard, Chris [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

2007-02-01

226

Biomarkers in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers among women in the western world. Due to the aggressive behaviour\\u000a of some specific types and the possibility of an early diagnosis, breast cancer has been constantly studied. Tumour size,\\u000a histological type, cellular and nuclear characteristics, mitotic index, vascular invasion, hormonal receptors and axillary\\u000a lymph node status are biomarkers routinely

Graciela Laguens; Silvia Coronato; Wanda Di Girolamo

2006-01-01

227

Support vector machine model for diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer with multidetector computed tomography: a preliminary study  

PubMed Central

Background Lymph node metastasis (LNM) of gastric cancer is an important prognostic factor regarding long-term survival. But several imaging techniques which are commonly used in stomach cannot satisfactorily assess the gastric cancer lymph node status. They can not achieve both high sensitivity and specificity. As a kind of machine-learning methods, Support Vector Machine has the potential to solve this complex issue. Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective study. 175 consecutive patients with gastric cancer who underwent MDCT before surgery were included. We evaluated the tumor and lymph node indicators on CT images including serosal invasion, tumor classification, tumor maximum diameter, number of lymph nodes, maximum lymph node size and lymph nodes station, which reflected the biological behavior of gastric cancer. Univariate analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the six image indicators with LNM. A SVM model was built with these indicators above as input index. The output index was that lymph node metastasis of the patient was positive or negative. It was confirmed by the surgery and histopathology. A standard machine-learning technique called k-fold cross-validation (5-fold in our study) was used to train and test SVM models. We evaluated the diagnostic capability of the SVM models in lymph node metastasis with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. And the radiologist classified the lymph node metastasis of patients by using maximum lymph node size on CT images as criterion. We compared the areas under ROC curves (AUC) of the radiologist and SVM models. Results In 175 cases, the cases of lymph node metastasis were 134 and 41 cases were not. The six image indicators all had statistically significant differences between the LNM negative and positive groups. The means of the sensitivity, specificity and AUC of SVM models with 5-fold cross-validation were 88.5%, 78.5% and 0.876, respectively. While the diagnostic power of the radiologist classifying lymph node metastasis by maximum lymph node size were only 63.4%, 75.6% and 0.757. Each SVM model of the 5-fold cross-validation performed significantly better than the radiologist. Conclusions Based on biological behavior information of gastric cancer on MDCT images, SVM model can help diagnose the lymph node metastasis preoperatively. PMID:21223564

2011-01-01

228

Contrast-Enhanced MR Imaging of Lymph Nodes in Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

The accurate identification and characterization of lymph nodes by modern imaging modalities has important therapeutic and prognostic significance for patients with newly diagnosed cancers. The presence of nodal metastases limits the therapeutic options, and it generally indicates a worse prognosis for the patients with nodal metastases. Yet anatomic imaging (CT and MR imaging) is of limited value for depicting small metastatic deposits in normal-sized nodes, and nodal size is a poor criterion when there is no extracapsular extension or focal nodal necrosis to rely on for diagnosing nodal metastases. Thus, there is a need for functional methods that can be reliably used to identify small metastases. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging of lymph nodes is a non-invasive method for the analysis of the lymphatic system after the interstitial or intravenous administration of contrast media. Moreover, some lymphotrophic contrast media have been developed and used for detecting lymph node metastases, and this detection is independent of the nodal size. This article will review the basic principles, the imaging protocols, the interpretation and the accuracies of contrast-enhanced MR imaging of lymph nodes in patients with malignancies, and we also focus on the recent issues cited in the literature. In addition, we discuss the results of several pre-clinical studies and animal studies that were conducted in our institution. PMID:20592922

Choi, Seung Hong

2010-01-01

229

250 Years of Advances Against Cancer - 1930s  

Cancer.gov

David H. Patey develops the modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer. This surgical procedure, which involves removal of the entire breast, the axillary lymph nodes under the adjacent arm, and the pectoralis minor muscle behind the breast, is less disfiguring than the radical mastectomy and would eventually replace it as the standard surgical treatment for breast cancer.

230

A comparative analysis of endoscopic thyroidectomy versus conventional thyroidectomy in clinically lymph node negative thyroid cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Differentiated thyroid cancer has a good prognosis and high incidence in young women. Since endoscopic techniques were first recorded in 1996, surgical indications of endoscopic thyroidectomy have broadened. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the usefulness of endoscopic thyroidectomy in clinically lymph node negative (cN0) thyroid cancer patients, based on oncologic completeness and safety, considering cosmetic outcomes. Methods From July 2009 to June 2011, a total of 166 cases had undergone endoscopic thyroidectomy using the BABA (bilateral axillo-breast approach) method or conventional open thyroidectomy by one surgeon. Finally, excluding 72 patients, 94 patients with cN0 thyroid cancer were divided into two groups according to operative methods and analyzed to compare differences between the two methods retrospectively (endoscopic group, n = 49; conventional open group, n = 45). Results We practiced comparative analysis for clinicopathologic characteristics, surgical outcomes including postoperative complications, and recurred cases during follow-up periods of each group. The results showed there was a tendency for patients, young, women rather than men, and having small size of thyroid cancer, to prefer endoscopic surgery to open surgery. Meanwhile, in postoperative complications, there were no statistically significant differences. During short follow-up periods, no recurrence or mortality case was observed. Conclusion Endoscopic thyroidectomy is a feasible and safe method for the treatment of clinically lymph node negative (cN0) thyroid cancer.

Cho, Min Ji; Cho, Min Jeng; Yoo, Young Bum; Yang, Jung Hyun

2015-01-01

231

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer reduces surgical risks and lymph-vascular space involvement  

PubMed Central

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), which can reduce the size and therefore increase the resectability of tumors, has recently evolved as a treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer. NACT has been reported to decrease the risk of pathologic factors related to prognosis of cervical cancer. To further assess the effects of NACT on surgery and the pathologic characteristics of cervical cancer, we reviewed 110 cases of locally advanced cervical cancer treated with radical hysterectomy with or without NACT at the People's Hospital of Peking University between January 2006 and December 2010. Of 110 patients, 68 underwent platinum-based NACT prior to surgery (NACT group) and 42 underwent primary surgery treatment (PST group). Our results showed 48 of 68 (70.6%) patients achieved a complete response or partial response to NACT. Estimated blood loss, operation time, and number of removed lymph nodes during surgery, as well as complication rates during and after surgery were not significantly different between the NACT group and the PST group. The rates of deep stromal invasion, positive parametria, positive surgical vaginal margins, and lymph node metastasis were not significantly different between the two groups. However, the rate of lymph-vascular space involvement (LVSI) was significantly lower in the NACT group than in the PST group (P = 0.021). In addition, the response rate of NACT was significantly higher in the patients with chemotherapeutic drugs administrated via artery than via vein. Our results suggest that NACT is a safe and effective treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer and significantly decreases the rate of LVSI. PMID:21880186

Wang, Yue; Wang, Guang; Wei, Li-Hui; Huang, Ling-Hui; Wang, Jian-Liu; Wang, Shi-Jun; Li, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Dan-Hua; Bao, Dong-Mei; Gao, Jian

2011-01-01

232

Effect of Gleason scores of lymph node metastases on prognosis of patients with prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

The long-term mortality risk from prostate cancer increases in lymph node (LN) positive patients. This study was done to assess the effect of lymph node Gleason score (LNGS) on prognosis in patients with LN-positive prostate cancer. Among the 1,415 patients who received pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND), 117 (8.4%) patients had a positive LN. The PGS of the prostate specimens and the LNGS of the positive LNs were assessed by uropathologists. The median age of patients at surgery was 67 years (interquartile range [IQR], 62-71 years) and the median follow-up duration was 44.3 months (IQR, 27.0-78.5 months). Pathologic Gleason scores (PGS) of 6-9 included one (0.9%), 53 (49.5%), 22 (20.6%), and 31 (29.0%) patients. The median total number of retrieved LNs was 9.0 (IQR, 5.3-12.8). The median number of positive LNs was one (IQR, 1-2). Cancer architecture with a Gleason pattern and score were observed in LNs as in ordinary prostate specimens. LNGS 6-9 included nine (8.1%), 57 (51.4%), 31 (27.9%), and 14 (12.6%) patients. The speaman’s analysis showed the meaningful correlation between PGS and LNGS (P = 0.249, P = 0.011). The univariate analysis showed that the number of positive LNs and LNGS were significantly associated with prostate cancer-specific survival (P = 0.028; P = 0.005). The same architecture that is seen in the prostate was seen in positive LNs, and LNGS may be a significant prognostic factor in patients with LN-positive prostate cancer. PMID:25337262

Ko, Kyungtae; Jeong, In Gab; Choi, Woo Suk; Lim, Ju Hyun; Suh, Ja Hee; Ku, Ja Hyeon; Park, Yangsoon; Moon, Kyung Cheol; Kim, Hyeon Hoe; Kim, Choung-Soo; Kwak, Cheol

2014-01-01

233

To do or not to do: axillary nodal evaluation after ACOSOG Z0011 Trial.  

PubMed

Methods of axillary evaluation in invasive breast cancer continue to evolve. The recent American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0011 Trial is a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial that compared the survival and locoregional recurrence rates after complete axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) versus sentinel node biopsy (SNB) alone in women with a positive sentinel node in an effort to avoid the complications associated with ALND. As the results of this trial are implemented clinically, affecting surgical management of axillary metastatic disease, radiologists may need to redefine their role in the preoperative assessment of the axilla. Before the Z0011 trial, breast imagers worked to identify axillary metastases preoperatively, allowing appropriate patients to proceed directly to ALND and avoiding the need for SNB. However, the Z0011 trial concluded that ALND may not be necessary in women with metastatic axillary disease who meet the trial criteria. In the Z0011 trial, after 6 years of median follow-up there was no difference in either locoregional recurrence or survival among the women who underwent SNB alone compared with those who underwent ALND, suggesting that ALND is unnecessary in a subset of women with a positive node at SNB. These results raise questions about how aggressively radiologists should pursue percutaneous sampling of axillary nodes, as some practitioners conclude that, in an otherwise eligible woman, positive results from imaging-guided percutaneous biopsy preclude a Z0011 trial-directed pathway. Debate about the best way to implement the results of the Z0011 trial into daily clinical practice exists. It is important for breast imagers to work closely with breast surgeons to provide the most appropriate treatment course for each patient. PMID:25384280

Humphrey, Kathryn L; Saksena, Mansi A; Freer, Phoebe E; Smith, Barbara L; Rafferty, Elizabeth A

2014-01-01

234

Sentinel lymph node detection and accuracy in vulvar cancer: Experience of a tertiary center in Turkey  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the accuracy of sentinel lymph node (SLN) dissection in predicting regional lymph node status by using either only Technetium-99m-labelled (Tc-99m) or in combination with a blue dye in patients with squamous cell cancer of vulva. Material and Methods Twenty-one patients who had T1 (?2 cm) or T2 (>2cm) tumors that did not encroach into the urethra, vagina or anus were included in the study. For the first twelve patients, Tc-99m was used for SLN identification, and the combined technique was used in subsequent patients. Preoperatively, Tc-99m and a blue dye was injected intradermally around the tumor. Following SLN dissection, complete inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy was performed. Results We could detect SLN in all 21 patients (100%) by either Tc-99m or the combined method. SLN was found to be histopathologically negative in 13 groins via Tc-99m and 10 groins via the combined method. Twenty-one of these 23 (91.3%) groin non-SLN were also negative, but in two groins, we detected metastatic non-SLN. Conclusion Although SLN dissection appears promising in vulvar cancer, false negative cases are reported in the literature. Sentinel lymph node dissection without complete lymphadenectomy does not seem appropriate for routine clinical use, since it is known that groin metastasis is fatal. PMID:24592094

Boran, Nurettin; C?r?k, Derya Akda?; I??kdo?an, Zuhal; K?r, Metin; Turan, Taner; Tulunay, Gökhan; Köse, Mehmet Faruk

2013-01-01

235

Fluorescence diagnostics of metastatic lesion of regional lymph nodes upon surgical treatment of breast cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed intraoperative fluorescence diagnostics of 60 patients for metastases of breast cancer to regional lymph nodes. All the patients were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 50 patients, which were surgically treated at the first stage. The second group consisted of ten patients, which underwent combined treatment. At the first stage, they received from two to four courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and, at the second stage, the surgical intervention was performed. The intraoperative fluorescence diagnostics was performed using the preparation alasens (precursor of protoporphyrin IX in the human organism). The occurrence of fluorescence of alasens-induced protoporphyrin IX was determined visually and using the local fluorescence spectroscopy method. Altogether, 498 lymph nodes were examined: 408 in the first group and 90 in the second one. For the first group, the sensitivity of the method was found to be 87.2%, and its specificity, 94.8%; in the second group, these parameters were determined to be 77 and 78%, respectively. The first experience of the application of the intraoperative fluorescence diagnostics of metastatic lesion of lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer has shown its high efficiency and application potential.

Filonenko, E. V.; Pak, D. D.; Yanikova, A. G.

2013-06-01

236

Imaging evaluation of lymphadenopathy and patterns of lymph node spread in head and neck cancer.  

PubMed

Accurate and consistent characterization of metastatic cervical adenopathy is essential for the initial staging, treatment planning and surveillance of head and neck cancer patients. While enlarged superficial nodes may be clinically palpated, imaging allows identification of deeper adenopathy as well as clinically unsuspected pathology and thus imaging has become an integral part of the evaluation of most head and neck cancers patients. This review will focus on the evaluation of cervical adenopathy, summarizing the currently used nomenclature and imaging approach for determining cervical lymph node metastases in head and neck malignancies. The imaging-based classification, which has also been adopted by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, will be presented, the morphologic characteristics used to identify metastatic nodes will be reviewed and the typical nodal spread patterns of the major mucosal cancers of the head and neck will be examined. PMID:25385488

Forghani, Reza; Yu, Eugene; Levental, Mark; Som, Peter M; Curtin, Hugh D

2015-02-01

237

Comparison of different prostatic markers in lymph node and distant metastases of prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer is mostly diagnosed at an early stage; however, some tumors are diagnosed in a metastatic stage as cancer of unknown primary origin. In order to allow specific treatment in the case of prostate cancer presenting as cancer of unknown primary origin, it is important to determine the tumor origin. Prostate-specific antigen is used as a diagnostic marker for prostate cancer but the expression declines with progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer. Aim of this study was to identify the most informative marker constellation, which is able to detect metastatic prostate cancer at high sensitivity. The widely used prostate cancer markers such as prostate-specific antigen, prostate-specific acid phosphatase, androgen receptor, prostate-specific membrane antigen, prostein, and ETS-related gene were investigated for their sensitivity to detect prostatic origin of metastases. Expression of prostate-specific antigen, prostate-specific acid phosphatase, androgen receptor, prostate-specific membrane antigen, prostein, and ETS-related gene was determined on archived tissue specimens consisting of benign prostatic tissue (n=9), primary prostate cancer (n=79), lymph node metastases (n=58), and distant metastases (n=39) using immunohistochemistry. The staining intensity was categorized as negative (0), weak (1), moderate (2), and strong (3). All markers except ETS-related gene were able to detect at least 70% of lymph node metastases and distant metastases, with prostate-specific antigen, androgen receptor, and prostate-specific membrane antigen having the highest sensitivity (97%, 91%, and 94%, respectively). A further increase of the sensitivity up to 98% and 100% could be achieved by the combination of prostate-specific antigen, prostate-specific membrane antigen, or androgen receptor for lymph node metastases and for distant metastases, respectively. The same sensitivity could be reached by combining prostate-specific membrane antigen and prostein. Our data show that a combined staining of at least two prostate markers should be utilized to identify metastases as originating from prostate cancer.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 13 June 2014; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2014.77. PMID:24925052

Queisser, Angela; Hagedorn, Susanne A; Braun, Martin; Vogel, Wenzel; Duensing, Stefan; Perner, Sven

2014-06-13

238

Determination of standard number, size and weight of mediastinal lymph nodes in postmortem examinations: reflection on lung cancer surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Mediastinal lymph node dissection is an essential component of lung cancer surgery. Literature lacks established information regarding the number and size of the healthy lymph nodes. In this postmortem autopsy study, we aim to define the number, size and weight of the lymph nodes in each mediastinal lymph node station. To implement the data for the clinical practice, we analyzed the possible number of nodes to be dissected in a systematic mediastinal lymph node dissection from the right and left sides during lung cancer surgery. Methods Sixty-two samples obtained from cadavers who did not die from chest malignancies, extrathoracic malignancies, any kind of infections or previous hospitalization before the death were included to the study. The locations of the nodes were recorded according to the American Thoracic Society Mediastinal Lymph Node Map. The number, size and weight of the nodes were determined at each station. Results Median age of the cadavers was 39 years. Primary causes of death were asphyxia in 10 (16.1%) subjects, trauma in 29 (46.8%) subjects, cardiovascular problems in 10 (16.1%) subjects, and undetermined in 13 (21%) subjects. The median number of lymph nodes resected from each patient was 23 (range: 11–54). The right sided paratracheal lymph nodes (Station 2R and 4R) were more frequent, heavier and longer than left sided lymph nodes (Station 2L and 4L) at the paratrecheal region. Right sided inferior mediastinal lymph nodes were heavier and longer than the left ones; however, their availability was more often on the left. Conclusions The properties of mediastinal lymph nodes at particular stations are different for number, size and weight. Station 4R and 7 have the highest number of nodes followed by stations 5 and 6. We recommend removing the lymph nodes of these stations completely in lung cancer patients to rule out the possibility of micrometastatic disease. Diameter of normal lymph node may be 1 cm for the stations other than 4R and 7, but the definition of normal diameter of a lymph node at the stations 4R and 7 may be changed as 1,5 cm and 2,0 cm, respectively. Weight of the nodes may be a new subject to study and may be defined as a new modality to define a staging to be more accurate and the issue needs further investigations. PMID:23591054

2013-01-01

239

German, Austrian and Swiss consensus conference on the diagnosis and local treatment of the axilla in breast cancer.  

PubMed

The German, Austrian and Swiss (D.A.CH) Societies of Senology gathered together in 2012 to address dwelling questions regarding axillary clearance in breast cancer patients. The Consensus Panel consisted of 14 members of these societies and included surgical oncologists, gynaecologists, pathologists and radiotherapists. With regard to omitting axillary lymph node dissection in sentinel lymph node macrometastases, the Panel consensually accepted this option for low-risk patients only. A simple majority voted against extending radiotherapy to the axilla after omitting axillary dissection in N1 disease. Consensus was yielded for the use of axillary ultrasound and prospective registers for such patients in the course of follow-up. The questions regarding neoadjuvant therapy and the timing of sentinel lymph node biopsy failed to yield consensus, yet both options (before or after) are possible in clinically node-negative disease. PMID:23490652

Hoffmann, Jürgen; Souchon, Rainer; Lebeau, Annette; Öhlschlegel, Christian; Gruber, Günther; Rageth, Christoph; Weber, Walter; Harbeck, Nadia; Janni, Wolfgang; Kreipe, Hans; Fitzal, Florian; Resch, Alexandra; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Peintinger, Florentia

2013-07-01

240

MD Anderson study finds African American women with breast cancer less likely to have newer, recommended surgical procedure  

Cancer.gov

African American women with early stage, invasive breast cancer were 12 percent less likely than Caucasian women with the same diagnosis to receive a minimally invasive technique, axillary sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy, years after the procedure had become the standard of surgical practice, according to research from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. The study, presented at the 2012 CTRC-AACR San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, also found that those African American women who underwent the older, more invasive procedure, axillary lymph node (ALN) dissection, had higher rates of lymphedema.

241

Management of prostate cancer patients with lymph node involvement: a rapidly evolving paradigm.  

PubMed

Although widespread PSA screening has inevitably led to increased diagnosis of lower risk prostate cancer, the number of patients with nodal involvement at baseline remains high (nearly 40% of high risk patients initially staged cN0). These rates probably do not reflect the true incidence of prostate cancer with lymph node involvement among patients selected for external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), as patients selected for surgery often have more favorable prognostic features. At many institutions, radical treatment directed only at the prostate is considered standard and patients known to have regional disease are often managed palliatively with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for presumed systemic disease. New imaging tools such as MR lymphangiography, choline-based PET imaging or combined SPECT/CT now allow surgeons and radiation oncologists to identify and target nodal metastasis and/or lymph nodes with a high risk of occult involvement. Recent advances in the field of surgery including the advent of extended nodal dissection and sentinel node procedures have suggested that cancer-specific survival might be improved for lymph-node positive patients with a low burden of nodal involvement when managed with aggressive interventions. These new imaging tools can provide radiation oncologists with maps to guide delivery of high dose conformal radiation to a target volume while minimizing radiation toxicity to non-target normal tissue. This review highlights advances in imaging and reports how they may help to define a new paradigm to manage node-positive prostate cancer patients with a curative-intent. PMID:22703831

Créhange, Gilles; Chen, Chien Peter; Hsu, Charles C; Kased, Norbert; Coakley, Fergus V; Kurhanewicz, John; Roach, Mack

2012-12-01

242

Management of prostate cancer patients with lymph node involvement: A rapidly evolving paradigm  

PubMed Central

Although widespread PSA screening has inevitably led to increased diagnosis of lower risk prostate cancer, the number of patients with nodal involvement at baseline remains high (nearly 40% of high risk patients initially staged cN0). These rates probably do not reflect the true incidence of prostate cancer with lymph node involvement among patients selected for external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), as patients selected for surgery often have more favorable prognostic features. At many institutions, radical treatment directed only at the prostate is considered standard and patients known to have regional disease are often managed palliatively with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for presumed systemic disease. New imaging tools such as MR lymphangiography, choline-based PET imaging or combined SPECT/CT now allow surgeons and radiation oncologists to identify and target nodal metastasis and/or lymph nodes with a high risk of occult involvement. Recent advances in the field of surgery including the advent of extended nodal dissection and sentinel node procedures have suggested that cancer-specific survival might be improved for lymph-node positive patients with a low burden of nodal involvement when managed with aggressive interventions. These new imaging tools can provide radiation oncologists with maps to guide delivery of high dose conformal radiation to a target volume while minimizing radiation toxicity to non-target normal tissue. This review highlights advances in imaging and reports how they may help to define a new paradigm to manage node-positive prostate cancer patients with a curative-intent. PMID:22703831

Créhange, Gilles; Chen, Chien Peter; Hsu, Charles C.; Kased, Norbert; Coakley, Fergus V.; Kurhanewicz, John; Roach, Mack

2013-01-01

243

Pathology Case Study: Enlarged Axillary Lymph Node  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 73 year old female who had a history of thyroidectomy for benign nodules who presented with a lump in her thyroidectomy scar. Visitors are given a patient history, microscopic description, and immunohistochemistry, including images. They are also given an opportunity to diagnose the patient before clicking on the "Final Diagnosis" section, which provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopatholgy.

Contis, Lydia C.

244

Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Uterine Cervical Cancer Patients: Ready for Clinical Use? A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been widely studied in a number of cancer types. As far as cervical cancer is concerned, this technique has already been used, revealing both positive results and several issues to be solved. The debate on the role of sentinel lymph node biopsy in cervical cancer is still open although most of the studies have already revealed its superiority over complete lymphadenectomy and the best handling possible of the emerging practical problems. Further research should be made in order to standardize this method and include it in the clinical routine. PMID:24527233

Palla, Viktoria-Varvara; Karaolanis, Georgios; Moris, Demetrios; Antsaklis, Aristides

2014-01-01

245

Is the efficacy of hormonal therapy affected by lymph node status? data from the bicalutamide (Casodex) Early Prostate Cancer program  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo report an exploratory subgroup analysis assessing the extent to which the overall benefit found in the Early Prostate Cancer program is dependent on lymph node status at randomization. The program is ongoing, and the overall survival data are immature. The first combined analysis of the bicalutamide (Casodex) Early Prostate Cancer program at 3 years' median follow-up showed that bicalutamide,

Peter Iversen; Manfred P Wirth; William A See; David G McLeod; Ira Klimberg; Donald Gleason; Gerald Chodak; James Montie; Chris Tyrrell; D. M. A Wallace; Karl P. J Delaere; Per Lundmo; Teuvo L. J Tammela; Jan-Erik Johansson; Tom Morris; Kevin Carroll

2004-01-01

246

Lymph Node Metastasis in Cancer of the Middle-Third Stomach: Criteria for Treatment with a Pylorus-Preserving Gastrectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study was conducted to establish the criteria for performing a pylorus-preserving gastrectomy. This study\\u000a was performed on 491 patients who had cancer of the middle-third stomach and had been curatively treated with a distal gastrectomy.\\u000a The incidence of node metastasis for each lymph node station (the group of regional lymph nodes which have been anatomically\\u000a defined and classified

Yasuhiro Kodera; Yoshitaka Yamamura; Yukihide Kanemitsu; Yasuhiro Shimizu; Takashi Hirai; Kenzo Yasui; Takeshi Morimoto; Tomoyuki Kato

2001-01-01

247

Recursive partitioning analysis of lymph node ratio in breast cancer patients.  

PubMed

Lymph node ratio (LNR) is a powerful prognostic factor for breast cancer. We conducted a recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) of the LNR to identify the prognostic risk groups in breast cancer patients. Records of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients between 2002 and 2006 were searched in the Taiwan Cancer Database. The end of follow-up was December 31, 2009. We excluded patients with distant metastases, inflammatory breast cancer, survival <1 month, no mastectomy, or missing lymph node status. Primary outcome was 5-year overall survival (OS). For univariate significant predictors, RPA were used to determine the risk groups. Among the 11,349 eligible patients, we identified 4 prognostic factors (including LNR) for survival, resulting in 8 terminal nodes. The LNR cutoffs were 0.038, 0.259, and 0.738, which divided LNR into 4 categories: very low (LNR???0.038), low (0.038?cancer patients. PMID:25569639

Chang, Yao-Jen; Chung, Kuo-Piao; Chen, Li-Ju; Chang, Yun-Jau

2015-01-01

248

Magnetic functionalised carbon nanotubes as drug vehicles for cancer lymph node metastasis treatment.  

PubMed

Strategies using carbon-based nanomaterials as carriers for delivering chemotherapeutic drugs to cancers have been described well. Here a novel magnetic lymphatic-targeting drug-delivery system, based on functionalised carbon nanotubes (fCNTs), is presented with the aim of improving the outcome of cancer with lymph node involvement. The potential therapeutic effect of gemcitabine (GEM) loading magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes (mMWNTs) was compared with that of GEM loading magnetic-activated carbon particles (mACs) in vitro and in vivo. mMWNTs-GEM and mACs-GEM both had high anti-tumour activity in vitro similar to free drug. Subcutaneous administration of GEM loading magnetic nanoparticles resulted in successful regression and inhibition of lymph node metastasis under the magnetic field, with mMWNTs-GEM superior to mACs-GEM, and more effectively in the high-dose versus low-dose groups. The successful application of intra-lymphatic delivery of chemotherapeutics using mMWNTs highlights the clinical potential of fCNTs for future cancer metastasis treatment with high efficacy and minimum side-effects. PMID:21493061

Yang, Feng; Jin, Chen; Yang, Dong; Jiang, Yongjian; Li, Ji; Di, Yang; Hu, Jianhua; Wang, Changchun; Ni, Quanxing; Fu, Deliang

2011-08-01

249

Methylation of the DFNA5 increases risk of lymph node metastasis in human breast cancer ?  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of breast cancer involves multiple genetic and epigenetic events. In this study, we report an epigenetic alteration of DFNA5 in human breast cancer. DFNA5 gene was silenced in breast cancer cell lines that were methylated in the DFNA5 promoter, and restored by treatment with the demethylating agent, 5-aza-dC, and gene knock-down of DFNA5 increased cellular invasiveness in vitro. The mRNA expression of DFNA5 in breast cancer tissues was down-regulated as compared to normal tissues. Moreover, the DFNA5 promoter was found to be methylated in primary tumor tissues with high frequency (53%, 18/34). Quantitative methylation-specific PCR of DFNA5 clearly discriminated primary breast cancer tissues from normal breast tissues (15.3%, 2/13). Moreover, methylation status of DFNA5 was correlated with lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients. Our data implicate DFNA5 promoter methylation as a novel molecular biomarker in human breast cancer. PMID:18346456

Kim, Myoung Sook; Lebron, Cinthia; Nagpal, Jatin K.; Chae, Young Kwang; Chang, Xiaofei; Huang, Yiping; Chuang, Tony; Yamashita, Keishi; Trink, Barry; Ratovitski, Edward A.; Califano, Joseph A.; Sidransky, David

2011-01-01

250

Re-sentinel node biopsy after previous breast and axillary surgery.  

PubMed

There is no consensus regarding the strategy for managing the regional lymph nodes in patients with local breast cancer recurrence. This paper reviews the updated data on re-sentinel lymph node biopsy (re-SLNB) after previous surgery. The identification rate of re-SLNB varied from 29 to 100 % (mean 67 %). The success rate of re-SLNB depends on the method used for the previous axillary surgery and the number of lymph nodes harvested. Re-SLNB may be feasible even after mastectomy. A relationship between post-operative radiotherapy and identification of re-SLNB was not seen. A longer disease-free interval may correlate with a lower identification rate, but this finding is not definitive. Based on data regarding back-up dissection after re-SLNB, the accuracy of re-SLNB may be as good as SLNB in primary cases. Altered lymphatic drainage was reported in 2-89 % (mean 32 %) of cases. Because the altered lymphatic drainage can be detected only by lymphoscintigraphy, the radioisotope method, followed by lymphoscintigraphy, should be used. There are not many reported cases of axillary recurrence after re-SLNB, and the follow-up periods have been short. Because re-SLNB cases have a wide variety of backgrounds, it is necessary to accumulate a larger number of cases and to obtain data from longer follow-up period in order to make clear recommendations. PMID:24254062

Ikeda, Tadashi

2014-11-01

251

Ten-Year Locoregional Recurrence Risks in Women With Nodal Micrometastatic Breast Cancer Staged With Axillary Dissection  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare the locoregional recurrence (LRR) rates in patients with nodal mirometastases (pNmic) with those in patients with node-negative (pN0) and macroscopic node-positive (pNmac) breast cancer; and to evaluate the LRR rates according to locoregional treatment of pNmic disease. Methods and Materials: The subjects were 9,616 women diagnosed between 1989 and 1999 with Stage pT1-T2, pN0, pNmic, or pNmac, M0 breast cancer. All women had undergone axillary dissection. The Kaplan-Meier local recurrence, regional recurrence, and LRR rates were compared among those with pN0 (n = 7,977), pNmic (n = 490) and pNmac (n = 1,149) and according to locoregional treatment. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the significant factors associated with LRR. Results: The median follow-up was 11 years. The 10-year Kaplan-Meier recurrence rate in the pN0, pNmic, and pNmac cohorts was 6.1%, 6.8%, and 8.7% for local recurrence; 3.1%, 6.2%, and 10.3% for regional recurrence; and 8.0%, 11.6%, and 15.2% for LRR, respectively (all p < .001). In the pNmic patients, the 10-year regional recurrence rate was 6.4% with breast-conserving surgery plus breast radiotherapy (RT), 5.4% with breast-conserving surgery plus locoregional RT, 4.6% with mastectomy alone, 11.1% with mastectomy plus chest wall RT, and 10.7% with mastectomy plus locoregional RT. In patients with pNmic disease and age <45 years, Grade 3 histologic features, lymphovascular invasion, nodal ratio >0.25, and estrogen receptor-negative disease, the 10-year LRR rates were 15-20%. On multivariate analysis of the entire cohort, pNmic was associated with greater LRR than Stage pN0 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.6; p = .002). On multivariate analysis of pNmic patients only, age <45 years was associated with significantly greater LRR (HR, 1.9; p = .03), and trends for greater LRR were observed with a nodal ratio >0.25 (HR, 2.0; p = .07) and lymphovascular invasion (HR, 1.7; p = .07). Conclusion: Women with pNmic had a greater risk of LRR than those with pN0 disease. Patients with pNmic in association with young age, Grade 3 histologic features, lymphovascular invasion, nodal ratio >0.25, and estrogen receptor-negative disease experienced 10-year LRR rates of {approx}15-20%, warranting consideration of locoregional RT.

Lupe, Krystine [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, BC (Canada); Truong, Pauline T., E-mail: ptruong@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, BC (Canada); Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Victoria, BC (Canada); Alexander, Cheryl; Speers, Caroline [Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, BC (Canada); Tyldesley, Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, BC (Canada); Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Victoria, BC (Canada)

2011-12-01

252

A Prognostic Index for Predicting Lymph Node Metastasis in Minor Salivary Gland Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Large studies examining the clinical and pathological factors associated with nodal metastasis in minor salivary gland cancer are lacking in the literature. Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, we identified 2,667 minor salivary gland cancers with known lymph node status from 1988 to 2004. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with the use of neck dissection, the use of external beam radiation therapy, and the presence of cervical lymph node metastases. Results: Four hundred twenty-six (16.0%) patients had neck nodal involvement. Factors associated with neck nodal involvement on univariate analysis included increasing age, male sex, increasing tumor size, high tumor grade, T3-T4 stage, adenocarcinoma or mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and pharyngeal site of primary malignancy. On multivariate analysis, four statistically significant factors were identified, including male sex, T3-T4 stage, pharyngeal site of primary malignancy, and high-grade adenocarcinoma or high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas. The proportions (and 95% confidence intervals) of patients with lymph node involvement for those with 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 of these prognostic factors were 0.02 (0.01-0.03), 0.09 (0.07-0.11), 0.17 (0.14-0.21), 0.41 (0.33-0.49), and 0.70 (0.54-0.85), respectively. Grade was a significant predictor of metastasis for adenocarcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma but not for adenoid cystic carcinoma. Conclusions: A prognostic index using the four clinicopathological factors listed here can effectively differentiate patients into risk groups of nodal metastasis. The precision of this index is subject to the limitations of SEER data and should be validated in further clinical studies.

Lloyd, Shane; Yu, James B. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Ross, Douglas A. [Department of Surgery, St. Vincent's Medical Center, Bridgeport, CT (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Decker, Roy H., E-mail: roy.decker@yale.ed [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

2010-01-15

253

A computer-aided algorithm to quantitatively predict lymph node status on MRI in rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to demonstrate the principle of supporting radiologists by using a computer algorithm to quantitatively analyse MRI morphological features used by radiologists to predict the presence or absence of metastatic disease in local lymph nodes in rectal cancer. Methods A computer algorithm was developed to extract and quantify the following morphological features from MR images: chemical shift artefact; relative mean signal intensity; signal heterogeneity; and nodal size (volume or maximum diameter). Computed predictions on nodal involvement were generated using quantified features in isolation or in combinations. Accuracies of the predictions were assessed against a set of 43 lymph nodes, determined by radiologists as benign (20 nodes) or malignant (23 nodes). Results Predictions using combinations of quantified features were more accurate than predictions using individual features (0.67–0.86 vs 0.58–0.77, respectively). The algorithm was more accurate when three-dimensional images were used (0.58–0.86) than when only middle image slices (two-dimensional) were used (0.47–0.72). Maximum node diameter was more accurate than node volume in representing the nodal size feature; combinations including maximum node diameter gave accuracies up to 0.91. Conclusion We have developed a computer algorithm that can support radiologists by quantitatively analysing morphological features of lymph nodes on MRI in the context of rectal cancer nodal staging. We have shown that this algorithm can combine these quantitative indices to generate computed predictions of nodal status which closely match radiological assessment. This study provides support for the feasibility of computer-assisted reading in nodal staging, but requires further refinement and validation with larger data sets. PMID:22919008

Tse, D M L; Joshi, N; Anderson, E M; Brady, M; Gleeson, F V

2012-01-01

254

Role of FDG PET-CT in evaluation of locoregional nodal disease for initial staging of breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) is not indicated or recommended in the initial staging of early breast cancer. Although it is valuable for detecting distant metastasis, providing prognostic information, identifying recurrence and evaluating response to chemotherapy, the role of FDG PET/CT in evaluating locoregional nodal status for initial staging of breast cancer has not yet been well-defined in clinical practice. FDG PET/CT has high specificity but compromised sensitivity for identifying axillary nodal disease in breast cancer. Positive axillary FDG PET/CT is a good predictor of axillary disease and correlates well with sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). FDG PET/CT may help to identify patients with high axillary lymph node burden who could then move directly to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and would not require the additional step of SLNB. However, FDG PET/CT cannot replace SLNB or ALND due to unsatisfactory sensitivity. The spatial resolution of PET instruments precludes the detection of small nodal metastases. Although there is still disagreement regarding the management of internal mammary node (IMN) disease in breast cancer, it is known that IMN involvement is of prognostic significance, and IMN metastasis has been associated with higher rates of distant metastasis and lower overall survival rates. Limited clinical observations suggested that FDG PET/CT has advantages over conventional modalities in detecting and uncovering occult extra-axillary especially IMN lesions with upstaging the disease and an impact on the adjuvant management. PMID:25493234

Liu, Yiyan

2014-01-01

255

Role of FDG PET-CT in evaluation of locoregional nodal disease for initial staging of breast cancer.  

PubMed

Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) is not indicated or recommended in the initial staging of early breast cancer. Although it is valuable for detecting distant metastasis, providing prognostic information, identifying recurrence and evaluating response to chemotherapy, the role of FDG PET/CT in evaluating locoregional nodal status for initial staging of breast cancer has not yet been well-defined in clinical practice. FDG PET/CT has high specificity but compromised sensitivity for identifying axillary nodal disease in breast cancer. Positive axillary FDG PET/CT is a good predictor of axillary disease and correlates well with sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). FDG PET/CT may help to identify patients with high axillary lymph node burden who could then move directly to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and would not require the additional step of SLNB. However, FDG PET/CT cannot replace SLNB or ALND due to unsatisfactory sensitivity. The spatial resolution of PET instruments precludes the detection of small nodal metastases. Although there is still disagreement regarding the management of internal mammary node (IMN) disease in breast cancer, it is known that IMN involvement is of prognostic significance, and IMN metastasis has been associated with higher rates of distant metastasis and lower overall survival rates. Limited clinical observations suggested that FDG PET/CT has advantages over conventional modalities in detecting and uncovering occult extra-axillary especially IMN lesions with upstaging the disease and an impact on the adjuvant management. PMID:25493234

Liu, Yiyan

2014-12-10

256

Sentinel lymph node mapping in patients with operable non-small cell lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy and the role of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Material and method This study was carried out on 25 consecutive patients [M/F=23:2, mean age 62.84 (47-81) years] with operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). At thoracotomy, 0.25 mCi of Technecium99m (99mTc) nanocolloid was injected into each quadrant of lung tissue surrounding the tumor. Before resection scintigraphic measurements of lymph nodes were obtained in vivo and ex vivo using a hand-held gamma probe counter and the findings were compared with histological examination. SLN was defined as the node with the highest count rate. Results SLNs were identified in 23 of 25 patients (92%) with a total number of 52 SLNs. Seven of 52 (13%) of these SLNs were positive for metastatic involvement after histological and immunohistochemical examination. In two patients (8%), SLNs could not be found. The sensitivity and specificity were 55% and 86% respectively. Conclusions This technic is a good method for identifying the first site of potential nodal metastases of NSCLC. These preliminary results demonstrate this procedure is feasible, but the detection rate has to be improved. PMID:23825767

Yoruk, Yener; Yanik, Fazli; Sarikaya, Ali

2013-01-01

257

Up-Regulation of MicroRNA-145 Associates with Lymph Node Metastasis in Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Metastasis is the main cause of mortality in patients with solid tumours. Identifying the exact molecules associated with CRC metastasis may be crucial to understand the process, which might also be translated to the diagnosis and treatment of CRC. In this study, we investigate the association of microRNA expression patterns with the lymph node metastasis of colorectal cancer. Among these candidate miRNAs, the expression of miRNA-145 was significantly related to lymph node metastasis of CRC. Both in vitro and in vivo study demonstrated that up-regulation of miR-145 could improve the ability of migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cell, while no effect on proliferation was observed. The mechanism of this promotion is associated with the stabilization of Hsp-27, a protein which plays an important role in the promotion of metastasis. These results may be crucial to understanding CRC metastasis and may be translated to the diagnosis and treatment of CRC. PMID:25019299

Tang, Wanyan; An, Huaying; Ma, Jie

2014-01-01

258

Automatic FDG-PET-based tumor and metastatic lymph node segmentation in cervical cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Treatment of cervical cancer, one of the three most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide, often relies on delineations of the tumour and metastases based on PET imaging using the contrast agent 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). We present a robust automatic algorithm for segmenting the gross tumour volume (GTV) and metastatic lymph nodes in such images. As the cervix is located next to the bladder and FDG is washed out through the urine, the PET-positive GTV and the bladder cannot be easily separated. Our processing pipeline starts with a histogram-based region of interest detection followed by level set segmentation. After that, morphological image operations combined with clustering, region growing, and nearest neighbour labelling allow to remove the bladder and to identify the tumour and metastatic lymph nodes. The proposed method was applied to 125 patients and no failure could be detected by visual inspection. We compared our segmentations with results from manual delineations of corresponding MR and CT images, showing that the detected GTV lays at least 97.5% within the MR/CT delineations. We conclude that the algorithm has a very high potential for substituting the tedious manual delineation of PET positive areas.

Arbonès, Dídac R.; Jensen, Henrik G.; Loft, Annika; Munck af Rosenschöld, Per; Hansen, Anders Elias; Igel, Christian; Darkner, Sune

2014-03-01

259

Sentinel lymph node in oesophageal cancer—a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) have been used to predict regional lymph node metastasis in patients with melanoma and breast cancer. However, the validity of the SLN hypothesis is still controversial for oesophageal cancer. We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of radio-guided SLN mapping for oesophageal cancer. Methods A systematic search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Current Contents Connect, Cochrane library, Google scholar, Science Direct, and Web of Science. Original data was abstracted from each study and used to calculate a pooled event rates and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Results The search identified 23 relevant articles. The overall detection rate was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.894-0.950), sensitivity 0.87 (95% CI: 0.811-0.908), negative predictive value 0.77 (95% CI: 0.568-0.890) and the accuracy was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.817-0.921). In the adenocarcinoma cohort, detection rate was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.923-0.992), sensitivity 0.84 (95% CI: 0.743-0.911) and the accuracy was 0.87(95% CI: 0.796-0.913). In the squamous cell carcinoma group, detection rate was 0.89 (95% CI: 00.792-0.943), sensitivity 0.91 (95% CI: 0.754-0.972) and the accuracy was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.732-0.914). Conclusions It is possible to identify and obtain a SLN before neoadjuvant therapy in oesophageal cancer. However, further work is needed to optimize radiocolloid type, refine the technique and develop a quick and accurate way to determine SLN status intraoperatively. This technique has to be further evaluated before it can be applied widely. PMID:24772341

Nagaraja, Vinayak; Cox, Michael R.

2014-01-01

260

The Correlation between miRNA and Lymph Node Metastasis in Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

Lymph node metastasis (LNM) in gastric cancer is associated with higher rate of cancer recurrence and poor prognosis. As a result, a reliable biomarker for the prediction of LNM is important and would be valuable in the clinical practice. MiRNA microarray revealed that ten miRNAs were expressed significantly different among patients with or without LNM. A total of 46 gastric cancer patients were enrolled and divided into two groups (23 in each group) according to the presence or absence of LNM. RT-PCR of these 10 miRNAs was investigated and compared between the two groups. MiR-1207-5p was significantly upregulated in gastric cancer patients without LNM compared with those with LNM. Patients with upregulated miR-1207-5p had less scirrhous stromal reaction, less lymphovascular invasion, and earlier pathological T category, N category, and TNM stage, compared with those with downregulated or unchanged miR-1207-5p. Multivariate analysis showed that stromal reaction type, lymphovascular invasion, pathological T category and TNM stage, and expression of miR-1207-5p were independent risk factors of LNM. MiR-1207-5p could serve as a useful biomarker in the prediction of LNM in gastric cancer. PMID:25688358

Huang, Kuo-Hung; Lan, Yuan-Tzu; Chen, Jen-Hao; Lo, Su-Shun; Li, Anna Fen-Yau; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Wu, Chew-Wun; Shyr, Yi-Ming

2015-01-01

261

Predicting Pelvic Lymph Node Involvement in Current-Era Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The Roach formula [2/3 Multiplication-Sign prostate-specific antigen + (Gleason score - 6) Multiplication-Sign 10], derived in 1993 during the early prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening era, has been used to predict the risk of pelvic lymph node involvement in patients with prostate cancer. In the current era of widespread PSA screening with a shift to earlier disease stages, there is evidence to suggest that the Roach score overestimates risk of nodal metastasis. This study retrospectively reviews the validity of this formula as a prediction tool. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective institutional review including men with clinical T1c-T3 prostate cancer, with baseline PSA levels and biopsy-obtained Gleason scores who underwent radical prostatectomy with pelvic node dissection from 2001 through 2009 (N = 1,022). The predicted risk of nodal involvement was calculated for each patient using the Roach formula and then compared with actual rates following surgery. Results: The study included 1,022 patients; 99.6% had clinical T1c/T2 disease, with a mean of 10.3 lymph nodes surgically evaluated. Overall, 42 patients (4.1%) had nodal metastasis. For every range of scores, the Roach formula overestimates the risk of nodal involvement. Observed nodal positivity was 1%, 6.3%, 10%, 15.2%, and 16.7% for Roach scores {<=}10%, >10%-20%, >20%-30%, >30%-40%, and >40%, respectively. The Roach score overestimates the risk by approximately 4.5-fold in patients with scores {<=}10%, by 2.5-fold for all scores between 10% and 40%, and by 4-fold for scores >40%. Conclusion: The Roach formula overpredicts the risk of pelvic nodal involvement in current-era prostate cancer patients undergoing regular PSA screening and with mainly T1c/T2 disease. Contemporary patients are much less likely to have nodal involvement for a given PSA and Gleason score.

Rahman, Sophia, E-mail: sophs1578@yahoo.com [Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Cosmatos, Harry [Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Dave, Giatri [Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Fresno, CA (United States); Williams, Stephen [Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Department of Urology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Tome, Michael [Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

2012-02-01

262

TLR3 correlated with cervical lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid cancer  

PubMed Central

Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most rapidly increasing endocrine malignancy worldwide. Although less aggressive than the majority malignancies, PTC exhibits extensive cervical lymph node metastasis in early stage of PTC. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of this early-metastasis remains unknown. Toll like receptors (TLRs) constitute a crucial component of the innate immune response to bacterial and viral pathogens. Emerging evidence suggests that TLRs play important roles in cancer progression, invasion and immune evasion, whereas whether TLRs have any role in PTC remains to be clarified. In this study, we found that TLR3 was present in both PTC specimen and various thyroid cancer cell lines. Further IHC analysis of 63 PTC patients revealed that TLR3 expression was associated with cervical metastasis, but not correlated with patients’ TNM staging, extrathyroidal invasion. In addition, TLR3 promoted migration of K1 cells in vitro. Activation of TLR3 increased cancer stem cell marker and migration promoting CD44 expression in vitro, indicating that TLR3 might promote metastasis of PTC via modulating CD44 expression. Taken together, our data revealed that TLR3 is correlated with cervical metastasis of PTC and might be an essential prognostic indicator and target for PTC metastasis. PMID:25664012

Li, Dapeng; Gu, Runxia; Yang, Xiaoyong; Hu, Chuanxiang; Li, Yigong; Gao, Ming; Yu, Yang

2014-01-01

263

Colorectal cancer and lymph nodes: The obsession with the number 12  

PubMed Central

Lymphadenectomy of colorectal cancer is a decisive factor for the prognostic and therapeutic staging of the patient. For over 15 years, we have asked ourselves if the minimum number of 12 examined lymph nodes (LNs) was sufficient for the prevention of understaging. The debate is certainly still open if we consider that a limit of 12 LNs is still not the gold standard mainly because the research methodology of the first studies has been criticized. Moreover many authors report that to date both in the United States and Europe the number “12” target is uncommon, not adequate, or accessible only in highly specialised centres. It should however be noted that both the pressing nature of the debate and the dissemination of guidelines have been responsible for a trend that has allowed for a general increase in the number of LNs examined. There are different variables that can affect the retrieval of LNs. Some, like the surgeon, the surgery, and the pathology exam, are without question modifiable; however, other both patient and disease-related variables are non-modifiable and pose the question of whether the minimum number of examined LNs must be individually assigned. The lymph nodal ratio, the sentinel LNs and the study of the biological aspects of the tumor could find valid application in this field in the near future. PMID:24587671

Li Destri, Giovanni; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Scilletta, Roberto; Scilletta, Beniamino; Puleo, Stefano

2014-01-01

264

The value of immunohistochemistry in sentinel lymph node histopathology in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

The optimal protocol for the histopathological examination of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in breast cancer has not been determined. The value of more detailed examination using immunohistochemistry (IHC) is controversial. A total of 476 SLNs from 216 patients were reviewed. Sentinel lymph nodes were sectioned at three levels at 100??m intervals and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E). If the H&E sections showed no evidence of metastasis, then the three serial sections were stained with a murine monoclonal anti-cytokeratin antibody (CAM 5.2). Metastatic deposits were classified as macrometastasis (>2.0?mm), micrometastasis (0.2–2.0?mm) or isolated tumour cells (ITC, <0.2?mm). Of the 216 patients, 56 (26%) had metastasis as identified by H&E. Immunohistochemistry detected metastatic deposits in a further nine patients (4%), of whom four (2%) had micrometastasis and five (2%) had ITC only. Those cases with micrometastases were all, on review, visible on the H&E sections. Immunohistochemistry detects only a small proportion of metastasis in SLNs. All metastatic deposits identified by IHC were either micrometastasis or ITC. Until the prognostic significance of these deposits has been determined, IHC may be of limited value in the histopathological examination of SLNs. PMID:15942633

Klevesath, M B; Bobrow, L G; Pinder, S E; Purushotham, A D

2005-01-01

265

Sentinel lymph node metastases in cancer: Causes, detection and their role in disease progression.  

PubMed

Malignant tumors of ectodermal or endodermal origin may metastasize to the sentinel lymph node, the first lymph node encountered by tumor cells that enter lymphatics in the organ of origin. This pathway is enabled by the anatomy of the disease and the causes of metastasis are the result of complex interactions that include mechanical forces within the tumor and host tissues, and molecular factors initiated by tumor cell proliferation, elaboration of cytokines and changes in the tumor microenvironment. Mechanical stresses may influence complex biochemical, genetic and other molecular events and enhance the likelihood of metastasis. This paper summarizes our understanding of interacting molecular, anatomical and mechanical processes which facilitate metastasis to SLNs. Our understanding of these interacting events is based on a combination of clinical and basic science research, in vitro and in vivo, including studies in lymphatic embryology, anatomy, micro-anatomy, pathology, physiology, molecular biology and mechanobiology. The presence of metastatic tumor in the SLN is now more accurately identifiable and, based upon prospective clinical trials, paradigm-changing SLN biopsy has become the standard of clinical practice in breast cancer and melanoma. PMID:25444847

Nathanson, S D; Shah, R; Rosso, K

2014-11-01

266

Any detectable thyroglobulin in lymph node biopsy washouts suggests local recurrence in differentiated thyroid cancer.  

PubMed

The sensitivity of local recurrence detection in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is increased by measuring thyroglobulin in needle washouts from lymph node fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNA-Tg). Recent studies have proposed minimum diagnostic threshold values for FNA-Tg and have reported interference from Tg antibodies (Tg Ab), leading to low or false-negative results. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of FNA-Tg in the diagnosis of local DTC recurrence in patients referred to a single pathology service used by our tertiary teaching hospital, the first such study in an Australian cohort. Data were collected from the pathology service database for FNA-Tg over an 18-month period, and the results of 69 FNA-Tg samples from 57 patients were obtained. FNA-Tg findings were compared with cytology and histology when patients proceeded to surgery. Using the functional sensitivity as the cut-off, detectable FNA-Tg (?0.9??g/l) had a sensitivity of 95.7%, specificity of 50% and positive predictive value of 95.7%. Our results suggest that detectable FNA-Tg leads to histological confirmation of local nodal DTC recurrence and would support a decision to proceed to surgery. Serum Tg Ab can, however, interfere with FNA-Tg measurements. Thus, we now recommend routine use of FNA-Tg washouts in all lymph node FNA biopsies for the detection of DTC recurrence. PMID:25125556

Yap, Natalie Su-Jing; Maher, Richard; Learoyd, Diana Louise

2014-12-01

267

[A case of cecum colon cancer with lymph node metastasis successfully treated with XELOX plus bevacizumab].  

PubMed

A 65-year-old woman with a history of constipation presented at our hospital and was subsequently diagnosed with advanced cecum cancer. We performed laparoscopic right hemicolectomy in January 2009, with pathological findings reveal- ing the presence of Stage III b (pT3, pN3, cM0, Cur A) disease. The patient was treated with a uracil/tegafur plus Leucovorin (UFT/LV) adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for six months. In June 2010, bold examination indicated an elevated level of tumor marker CA19-9. Computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET)/CT revealed Virchow's and para-aortic lymph node metastasis. Therapy with XELOX and bevacizumab (Bmab) was administered and continued for 10 cycles. Capecitabine+Bmab treatment was also administered for 11 courses due to an adverse event of peripheral neuropathy. Follow-up revealed both the Virchow's and para-aortic lymph node metastasis had disappeared upon completion of treatment. In November, 2011 the patient was considered to have achieved a clinical complete response (CR) and continues to be followed with no further disease progression. PMID:25434448

Ito, Shingo; Ichikawa, Ryosuke; Kure, Kazumasa; Honjo, Kumpei; Aoki, Jun; Okazawa, Yu; Mizukoshi, Kosuke; Ro, Hisashi; Kawai, Masaya; Takehara, Kazuhiro; Okubo, Haruna; Ishiyama, Shun; Sugimoto, Kiichi; Komiyama, Hiromitsu; Takahashi, Makoto; Yaginuma, Yukihiro; Kojima, Yutaka; Goto, Michitoshi; Tomiki, Yuichi; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro

2014-11-01

268

The Role of Lymph Node Fine-Needle Aspiration in Penile Cancer in the Sentinel Node Era  

PubMed Central

Penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is an uncommon condition in Western countries. Inguinal lymph nodes dissection can be curative in 20%–60% of node positive patients. However, there is a high complication rates from the dissection, thus accurate diagnosis of inguinal lymph nodes metastasis is required. Current non invasive methods to detect lymph nodes metastasis are unreliable. Dynamic Sentinel Node Biopsy (DNSB), ultrasonography (US), and fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology were proposed to in an attempt to detect sentinel lymph node (SLN). Despite the initial high rate of false negative results, recent DSNB showed improved survival compared to wait and see policy as well as reduced mortality compared to prophylactic inguinal lymphadenectomy. In addition, the US guided FNA shown 100% of specificity in detecting clinically occult lymph nodes metastasis. We proposed an algorithm for management of lymph nodes in penile cancer and suggest that FNA with US guidance should be performed in all high risk patients and that therapeutic dissection should be performed if findings are positive. PMID:21603215

Mir, Maria Carmen; Herdiman, Olivia; Bolton, Damien M.; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

2011-01-01

269

An immunohistochemical study of EGFR expression in colorectal cancer and its correlation with lymph nodes status and tumor grade  

PubMed Central

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common human malignancy. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is expressed in wide variety of human malignancies and is of some therapeutic and prognostic utility. The relationship between EGFR expression and regional lymph nodes involvement, and tumor grade in CRC has not been cleared, thus we decided to show it in a case-control study. Material and Methods: We chose paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of 46 CRCs with regional lymph nodes involvement as case group, and 46 CRCs without lymph nodes involvement as control group and then performed immunohistochemical staining for both groups. Moderate to strong, and complete staining of more than 10% of tumor cells was regarded as EGFR-positive. In analysis, P-value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: EGFR expression was positive in 80.4% and 56.5% of patients in the case and the control groups, respectively, which the difference between them was statistically significant. EGFR was positive in 48% of grade I, 60% of grade II and 100% of grade III tumors. Conclusions: EGFR expression had relationship with lymph node involvement and tumor grade in CRC. Also, lymph node-involved CRCs showed higher scores of EGFR staining than control group. Thus, EGFR may be an additional factor to develop more aggressive CRCs and may predict the probability of lymph node involvement in these tumors. PMID:23798940

Mokhtari, Mojgan; Ardestani, Mina Memar; Movahedipour, Mohammad

2012-01-01

270

[A case of gastric cancer with paraaortic lymph node metastasis responding to TS-1/CDDP combination therapy].  

PubMed

A 53-year-old man had consulted another physician regarding his epigastralgia and anorexia. Since gastric cancer was detected, he was referred to our department. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a type-2 gastric cancer at the upper portion of the lesser curvature of the stomach, and an abdominal CT scan showed marked swelling of periaortic lymph nodes. Since a radical resection appeared impossible, we used preoperative chemotherapy with a combination of TS-1 and CDDP. The patient was administered TS-1 for 3 weeks at 120 mg/ day, received an intravenous drip infusion of 90 mg/body of CDDP on day 8, and then discontinued chemotherapy for 2 weeks, which was regarded as one course. After 2 courses of the chemotherapy, an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed that the primary tumor was reduced in size, the periphery of the tumor almost flattened, and an abdominal CT scan confirmed the loss of swelling in the periaortic lymph nodes. The responsive rate was evaluated as PR. Since a radical resection was considered possible, we performed a total gastrectomy with complete D3 extirpation combined with a splenectomy. Histological efficacy was evaluated as grade 2 in primary cancer, and grade 3 in lymph nodes. Regrettably, the patient died one year and 7 months postoperatively. However, we consider the TS-1 and CDDP in combination useful as preoperative chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer with periaortic lymph node involvement. PMID:15570932

Konno, Soichi; Katsube, Takao; Obu, Masahide; Murayama, Minoru; Hamaguchi, Kanako; Shimakawa, Takeshi; Naritaka, Yoshihiko; Yagawa, Yuichi; Ogawa, Kenji; Aiba, Motohiko

2004-11-01

271

A novel method for sentinel lymph node mapping using magnetite in patients with non–small cell lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe detection rate of sentinel lymph nodes in patients with non–small cell lung cancer using isosulfan blue dye is too low for clinical use. Although exposure to radioactivity is reportedly minimal, special procedures are nonetheless required when a radioactive isotope is used as a tracer. Therefore, to eliminate the need for a radioactive tracer and to obtain a better detection

Taku Nakagawa; Yoshihiro Minamiya; Yoshihisa Katayose; Hajime Saito; Kousei Taguchi; Hiroshi Imano; Hitoshi Watanabe; Katsuhiko Enomoto; Masato Sageshima; Tomoaki Ueda; Jun-ichi Ogawa

2003-01-01

272

Risk Factors of Synchronous Inguinal Lymph Nodes Metastasis for Lower Rectal Cancer Involving the Anal Canal  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of the study is to identify the risk factors of synchronous ILN metastasis for lower rectal cancer involving the anal canal. Methods Patients with lower rectal cancer who underwent radical resection at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center were retrospectively analyzed. The synchronous ILN metastasis was defined as the metastasis occurring within 6 months after the diagnosis of rectal cancer. Patients’ gender, age, tumor diameter, dentate line invasion, differentiation level, histological type, depth of invasion, perirectal LN metastasis, lymphovascular invasion or perineural invasion were analyzed in the study. The correlation between synchronous ILN involvement and clinicopathological features were analyzed with Chi-square test/fisher’s exact test. Variables with p<0.05 in univariate analysis were then analyzed in a multivariate logistic model. Odds ratio (OR) along with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Results A total of 325 patients (182 men and 143 women) with lower rectal cancer met the criteria and were enrolled in the study. Among them, 20 patients (6.2%) had synchronous ILN metastasis. Both univariate and multivariate analysis showed the invasion of the dentate line had a strong correlation with synchronous ILN metastasis with the odds ratio (OR) of 23.558 [95% confidence interval (CI) 6.380–86.982] (p<0.001). The presence of lymphovascular invasion also showed a significant correlation synchronous ILN metastasis with odds ratio (OR) of 5.260 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.818–15.212] (p?=?0.002). Conclusions The invasion of dentate line and lymphovascular invasion are two independent risk factors of inguinal lymph node metastasis for lower rectal cancer involving the anal canal. PMID:25409168

Shi, Debing; Zheng, Hongtu; Huang, Liyong; Gu, Weilie; Xu, Ye; Cai, Sanjun; Cai, Guoxiang

2014-01-01

273

Comments to young surgeons concerning laparoscopic spleen-preserving D2 lymph node dissection for advanced gastric cancer on the upper body  

PubMed Central

Qualified radical gastrectomy with lymph node dissection is very important to the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer. Now D2 lymph node dissection is standard procedure for gastric cancer surgery, and spleen hilar lymph node dissection is mandatory for gastric cancer in upper body. Because the anatomy of vessels in this area is very complicated, D2 lymph node dissection is technical challenging not only for open gastrectomy but also for laparoscopic one. Adapting a new technique is important to all surgeons, but we surgeons should always consider a patient’s safety as the most important factor during surgery and that efforts should be based on scientific rationale with oncologic principles. I hope that the recent report by Huang et al. about laparoscopic spleen preserving hilar lymph node dissection would be helpful to young surgeons who will perform laparoscpic total gastrectomy for gastric cancer. PMID:25035646

Choi, Yoon Young; An, Ji Yeong; Hyung, Woo Jin

2014-01-01

274

Evaluation of Breast Sentinel Lymph Node Coverage by Standard Radiation Therapy Fields  

SciTech Connect

Background: Biopsy of the breast sentinel lymph node (SLN) is now a standard staging procedure for early-stage invasive breast cancer. The anatomic location of the breast SLN and its relationship to standard radiation fields has not been described. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of radiotherapy treatment planning data sets was performed in patients with breast cancer who had undergone SLN biopsy, and those with a surgical clip at the SLN biopsy site were identified. The location of the clip was evaluated relative to vertebral body level on an anterior-posterior digitally reconstructed radiograph, treated whole-breast tangential radiation fields, and standard axillary fields in 106 data sets meeting these criteria. Results: The breast SLN varied in vertebral body level position, ranging from T2 to T7 but most commonly opposite T4. The SLN clip was located below the base of the clavicle in 90%, and hence would be excluded from standard axillary radiotherapy fields where the inferior border is placed at this level. The clip was within the irradiated whole-breast tangent fields in 78%, beneath the superior-posterior corner multileaf collimators in 12%, and outside the tangent field borders in 10%. Conclusions: Standard axillary fields do not encompass the lymph nodes at highest risk of containing tumor in breast cancer patients. Elimination of the superior-posterior corner MLCs from the tangent field design would result in inclusion of the breast SLN in 90% of patients treated with standard whole-breast irradiation.

Rabinovitch, Rachel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, CO (United States)], E-mail: Rachel.rabinovitch@uchsc.edu; Ballonoff, Ari; Newman, Francis M.S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, CO (United States); Finlayson, Christina [Department of GI, Tumor, and Endocrine Surgery, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, CO (United States)

2008-04-01

275

A prognostic model for lymph node-negative breast cancer patients based on the integration of proliferation and immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for a more precise prognosis of the risk of relapse is needed to avoid overtreatment of lymph node-negative breast\\u000a cancer patients. A large derivation data set (n = 684) was generated by pooling three independent breast cancer expression microarray data sets. Two major prognostic factors,\\u000a proliferation and immune response, were identified among genes showing significant differential expression levels between\\u000a the

Ensel Oh; Yoon-La Choi; Taesung Park; Seungyeoun Lee; Seok Jin Nam; Young Kee Shin

276

Normal Fibroblasts Induce E-Cadherin Loss and Increase Lymph Node Metastasis in Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background A tumor is considered a heterogeneous complex in a three-dimensional environment that is flush with pathophysiological and biomechanical signals. Cell-stroma interactions guide the development and generation of tumors. Here, we evaluate the contributions of normal fibroblasts to gastric cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings By coculturing normal fibroblasts in monolayers of BGC-823 gastric cancer cells, tumor cells sporadically developed short, spindle-like morphological characteristics and demonstrated enhanced proliferation and invasive potential. Furthermore, the transformed tumor cells demonstrated decreased tumor formation and increased lymphomatic and intestinal metastatic potential. Non-transformed BGC-823 cells, in contrast, demonstrated primary tumor formation and delayed intestinal and lymph node invasion. We also observed E-cadherin loss and the upregulation of vimentin expression in the transformed tumor cells, which suggested that the increase in metastasis was induced by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Conclusion Collectively, our data indicated that normal fibroblasts sufficiently induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in cancer cells, thereby leading to metastasis. PMID:24845259

Xu, Wen; Hu, Xinlei; Chen, Zhongting; Zheng, Xiaoping; Zhang, Chenjing; Wang, Gang; Chen, Yu; Zhou, Xinglu; Tang, Xiaoxiao; Luo, Laisheng; Xu, Xiang; Pan, Wensheng

2014-01-01

277

Downregulation of miR-193a-5p correlates with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the correlation of miR-193a-5p with lymph node metastasis and postoperative survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. METHODS: A total of 304 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens (69 paired cancer and normal tissues, 55 primary tumors of stage III CRC and matched lymph nodes, and 56 primary tumors of stage II CRC) were included in this study. The relative expression levels of miR-193a-5p in the normal mucosa, primary cancer, and metastatic lymph node lesions were measured by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We evaluated the association of its expression with colorectal cancer lymph node metastasis, clinicopathological factors, and patient survival. RESULTS: The relative expression level of miR-193a-5p was significantly lower in CRC tissues than in the normal mucosa (P = 0.0060). The expression levels of miR-193a-5p were lower in primary CRC tissues with lymph node metastases than in those without metastases (P = 0.0006), and decreased expression of miR-193a-5p correlated with advanced lymph node metastatic stage (P = 0.0007). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with low miR-193a-5p expression had decreased disease-free survival (DFS) (P = 0.0026) and poor overall survival (OS) (P = 0.0003). Interestingly, for the group of patients with lymph node metastases, miR-193a-5p expression was also related to survival. Patients with low miR-193a-5p expression had decreased DFS (P = 0.0262) and poor OS (P = 0.0230). Moreover, multivariate analysis indicated that downregulation of miR-193a-5p was an independent predictor of poor OS. CONCLUSION: Downregulation of miR-193a-5p correlates with lymph node metastasis and poor survival of CRC. miR-193a-5p may be a useful biomarker for CRC diagnosis, metastasis and prognosis prediction. PMID:25232258

Zhang, Peng; Ji, Deng-Bo; Han, Hai-Bo; Shi, Yun-Fei; Du, Chang-Zheng; Gu, Jin

2014-01-01

278

Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy  

Cancer.gov

A fact sheet that describes the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) procedure, its use in determining the extent, or stage, of cancer in the body, and the results of research on the use of SLNB in breast cancer and melanoma.

279

A Lymph Node Ratio of 10% Is Predictive of Survival in Stage III Colon Cancer: A French Regional Study.  

PubMed

Abstract Lymph node ratio (LNR) (positive lymph nodes/sampled lymph nodes) is predictive of survival in colon cancer. The aim of the present study was to validate the LNR as a prognostic factor and to determine the optimum LNR cutoff for distinguishing between "good prognosis" and "poor prognosis" colon cancer patients. From January 2003 to December 2007, patients with TNM stage III colon cancer operated on with at least of 3 years of follow-up and not lost to follow-up were included in this retrospective study. The two primary endpoints were 3-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) as a function of the LNR groups and the cutoff. One hundred seventy-eight patients were included. There was no correlation between the LNR group and 3-year OS (P = 0.06) and a significant correlation between the LNR group and 3-year DFS (P = 0.03). The optimal LNR cutoff of 10% was significantly correlated with 3-year OS (P = 0.02) and DFS (P = 0.02). The LNR was not an accurate prognostic factor when fewer than 12 lymph nodes were sampled. Clarification and simplification of the LNR classification are prerequisites for use of this system in randomized control trials. An LNR of 10% appears to be the optimal cutoff. PMID:25058763

Sabbagh, Charles; Mauvais, François; Cosse, Cyril; Rebibo, Lionel; Joly, Jean-Paul; Dromer, Didier; Aubert, Christine; Carton, Sophie; Dron, Bernard; Dadamessi, Innocenti; Maes, Bernard; Perrier, Guillaume; Manaouil, David; Fontaine, Jean-François; Gozy, Michel; Panis, Xavier; Foncelle, Pierre Henri; de Fresnoy, Hugues; Leroux, Fabien; Vaneslander, Pierre; Ghighi, Caroline; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc

2014-01-01

280

Photoacoustic image-guided needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have implemented a hand-held photoacoustic and ultrasound probe for image-guided needle biopsy using a modified clinical ultrasound array system. Pulsed laser light was delivered via bifurcated optical fiber bundles integrated with the hand-held ultrasound probe. We photoacoustically guided needle insertion into rat sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) following accumulation of indocyanine green (ICG). Strong photoacoustic image contrast of the needle was achieved. After intradermal injection of ICG in the left forepaw, deeply positioned SLNs (beneath 2-cm thick chicken breast) were easily indentified in vivo and in real time. Further, we confirmed ICG uptake in axillary lymph nodes with in vivo and ex vivo fluorescence imaging. These results demonstrate the clinical potential of this hand-held photoacoustic system for facile identification and needle biopsy of SLNs for cancer staging and metastasis detection in humans.

Kim, Chulhong; Erpelding, Todd N.; Akers, Walter J.; Maslov, Konstantin; Song, Liang; Jankovic, Ladislav; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Achilefu, Samuel; Wang, Lihong V.

2011-03-01

281

Left lower sleeve lobectomy and systematic lymph node dissection by complete video-assisted thoracic surgery  

PubMed Central

Sleeve lobectomy for selected cases of central lung cancer has better functional outcomes comparing to pneumonectomy. With improved technology and increased experiences in complete video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy, complete VATS sleeve lobectomy has been applied in major medical centers recently. A 64-year-old male patient with left lower central lung cancer underwent thoracoscopic sleeve lobectomy and systemic mediastinal lymph node dissection. The major incision, of four incisions in total, was a 4 cm mini-incision in the 4th intercostal space of anterior axillary line. The patient had recovered uneventfully after the surgery. PMID:25589982

Fan, Jun-Qiang; Chang, Zhi-Bo; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Bai-Qin

2014-01-01

282

Visualization of the primo vascular system afloat in a lymph duct.  

PubMed

Because of the potential roles of the primo vascular system (PVS) in cancer metastasis, immune function, and regeneration, understanding the molecular biology of the PVS is desirable. The current state of PVS research is comparable to that of lymph research prior to the advent of Lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1). There is very little knowledge of the molecular biology of the PVS due to difficulties in identifying and isolating primo endothelial cells. Present investigations rely on the morphology and the use of differential staining procedures to identify the PVS within tissues, making detailed molecular studies all but impossible. To overcome such difficulties, one may emulate the explosive development of lymph molecular biology. For this purpose, there is a need for a reliable method to obtain PVS specimens to initiate the molecular investigation. One of the most reliable methods is to detect the primo vessels and primo nodes afloat in the lymph flow. The protocols for observation of the PVS in the large lymph ducts in the abdominal cavity and the thoracic cavity were reported earlier. These methods require a laparectomy and skillful techniques. In this work, we present a protocol to identify and harvest PVS specimens from the lymph ducts connecting the inguinal and the axillary nodes, which are located entirely in the skin. Thus, the PVS specimen is more easily obtainable. This method is a stepping-stone toward development of a system to monitor migration of cancer cells in metastasis from a breast tumor to the axillary nodes, where cancer cells use the PVS as a survival rope in hostile lymph flow. PMID:25499568

Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Bae, Kyoung-Hee; Kwon, Hee Min; Song, Yoon Kyu; Soh, Kwang-Sup

2014-12-01

283

Hypofractionated Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy for Lymph Node Metastasized Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the planning results and acute toxicity after hypofractionated intensity-modulated arc radiotherapy and androgen deprivation for lymph node metastasized (Stage N1) prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 31 patients with Stage T1-T4N1M0 prostate cancer were treated with intensity-modulated arc radiotherapy and 3 years of androgen deprivation as primary treatment. The clinical target volume (CTV{sub p}) was the prostate and seminal vesicles. Elective lymph node areas ({sub e}) were delineated and expanded by 2 mm to create the CTV{sub e}. The planning target volumes (PTV{sub p} and PTV{sub e}) were created using a three-dimensional expansion of the CTV{sub p} and CTV{sub e}, respectively, of 7 mm. A median dose of 69.3 Gy and 50 Gy was prescribed to the PTV{sub p} and PTV{sub e} respectively, to be delivered in 25 fractions. Upper and lower gastrointestinal toxicity was scored using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group toxicity and radiotherapy-induced lower intestinal toxicity scoring system. Genitourinary toxicity was scored using a combined Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, LENT-SOMA (late effects normal tissue-subjective, objective, management, analytic), and Common Toxicity Criteria toxicity scoring system. Results: The median follow-up time was 3 months. The mean prescription dose to the CTV{sub p} and PTV{sub p} was 70.4 Gy and 68.6 Gy, respectively. The minimal dose to the CTV{sub e} and PTV{sub e} was 49.0 Gy and 47.0 Gy, respectively. No acute Grade 2 or greater gastrointestinal toxicity occurred. Fourteen patients developed acute Grade 2 lower gastrointestinal toxicity. Acute Grade 3 and 2 genitourinary toxicity developed in 2 and 14 patients, respectively. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that hypofractionated intensity-modulated arc radiotherapy as primary therapy for N1 prostate cancer is feasible with low toxicity.

Fonteyne, Valerie, E-mail: valerie.fonteyne@uzgent.b [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); De Gersem, Werner; De Neve, Wilfried; Jacobs, Filip [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Lumen, Nicolaas [Department of Urology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Vandecasteele, Katrien [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Villeirs, Geert [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); De Meerleer, Gert [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

2009-11-15

284

Drug Allergy and the Risk of Lymph Node Metastasis in Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Previous epidemiologic studies have reported that a history of allergy is associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer and other malignancies. However, no information is available for the association between allergy and the risk of lymph node metastasis. Our study was designed to determine this association in rectal cancer. Methods Patients who were treated at our hospital in the period from January 2003 to June 2011, and with a pathologically hospital discharge diagnosis of rectal adencarcinoma, were included. The clinical, laboratory, and pathologic parameters were analyzed. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the association. Moreover, for type of allergic drug, sub-group analysis was performed. Results 469 patients were included, including 231 with pathological lymph node metastasis (pLNM) (49.3%) and 238 without pLNM. Univariate analysis showed, compared with patients without pLNM, patients with pLNM had a younger age (60.6±12.8 yr vs. 63.6±12.2 yr, P?=?0.012), a lower percentage of drug allergy (8.7% vs. 16.0%, P?=?0.016), an increased CEA (median/interquartile-range 5.40/2.40–13.95 vs. 3.50/2.08–8.67, P?=?0.009), and a lower serum sodium (141±3.1 mmol/L vs. 142±2.9 mmol/L, P?=?0.028). Multivariate analysis showed that drug allergy was associated with a reduced risk of pLNM (OR?=?0.553; 95% CI, 0.308–0.994; P?=?0.048). In addition, our results showed that: (1) for tumor classification, patients with drug allergy had a higher percentage of group patients with pT1/pT2; and (2) for type of allergic drug, this inverse association was found for penicillins, not for other allergic drugs. Conclusion Drug allergy is associated with a reduced risk of pLNM in rectal cancer. PMID:25162236

Gao, Chun; Li, Jing-Tao; Fang, Long; Xu, Ying-Ying; Zhao, Hong-Chuan

2014-01-01

285

Intraoperative Evaluation of Sentinel Lymph Nodes for Metastatic Breast Carcinoma by Imprint Cytology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The increasing utilization of lymphatic mapping techniques for breast carcinoma has made intraoperative evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes attractive. Axillary lymph node dissection can be performed during the initial surgery if the sentinel lymph node is positive, potentially avoiding a second operative procedure. At present the optimal technique for rapid sentinel lymph node assessment has not been determined. Both

Andrew J. Creager; Kim R. Geisinger; Stephen A. Shiver; Nancy D. Perrier; Perry Shen; Jo Ann Shaw; Peter R. Young; Edward A. Levine

2002-01-01

286

Chromosome alterations associated with positive and negative lymph node involvement in breast cancer.  

PubMed

Genetic heterogeneity is high in breast cancer, and hence it is difficult to link a specific chromosome alteration to a specific clinicopathologic feature. We examined clonal chromosome alterations in 45 breast carcinomas and statistically correlated the findings with clinical-histopathological parameters of the patients. The most common abnormalities were losses of chromosomes 19, 22, 21, X, and 17 and gains of chromosomes 9 and 18. A statistically significant correlation was found between clonal aberrations in chromosomes 17, 20, and 21 and positive lymph node involvement (LN+) and between clonal aberrations in chromosomes X and 6 and negative involvement (LN-). The average number of chromosome abnormalities was the same for both LN- and LN+ groups, and numerical and structural alterations were equally distributed. The mean number of chromosome aberrations did not differ significantly among tumor grades, but when aberrations were analyzed as monosomies, trisomies, and structural aberrations, a heterogeneous distribution was observed. Further cytogenetic investigation of breast tumors and their variable pathological features is undoubtedly necessary. The recognition and ultimately the molecular understanding of these abnormalities may improve breast cancer taxonomy and provide important prognostic information for both the patient and clinician. PMID:17321326

Wuicik, Lismeri; Cavalli, Luciane Regina; Cornélio, Déborah Afonso; Schmid Braz, Ana Teresa; Barbosa, Miriam L; Lima, Rubens Silveira; Urban, Cícero Andrade; Bleggi Torres, Luiz Fernando; Ribeiro, Enilze Maria S F; Cavalli, Iglenir João

2007-03-01

287

Radiation to supraclavicular and internal mammary lymph nodes in breast cancer increases the risk of stroke  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess whether adjuvant treatment of breast cancer (BC) affects the risk of stroke, and to explore radiation targets and fraction doses regarding risk and location of stroke. In a Swedish BC cohort diagnosed during 1970–2003, we carried out a nested case–control study of stroke after BC, with relevant details extracted from medical records. The odds ratio (OR) for radiotherapy (RT) vs that of no RT did not differ between cases and controls (OR=0.85; confidence interval, CI=0.6–1.3). Radiotherapy to internal mammary chain (IMC) and supraclavicular (SCL) lymph nodes vs that of no RT was associated with a higher, although not statistically significant, risk of stroke (OR=1.3; CI=0.8–2.2). In a pooled analysis, RT to IMC and SCL vs the pooled group of no RT and RT to breast/chest wall/axilla (but not IMC and SCL), showed a significant increase of stroke (OR=1.8; CI=1.1–2.8). There were no associations between cancer laterality, targets of RT, and location of stroke. The radiation targets, IMC and SCL, showed a statistically significant trend for an increased risk of stroke with daily fraction dose. Our finding of a target-specific increased risk of stroke and a dose-response relationship for daily fraction dose, indicate that there may be a causal link between RT to the IMC and SCL and risk of stroke. PMID:19259096

Nilsson, G; Holmberg, L; Garmo, H; Terent, A; Blomqvist, C

2009-01-01

288

A novel orthotopic mouse model of head and neck cancer and lymph node metastasis.  

PubMed

Prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is largely determined by the extent of lymph node (LN) metastasis at diagnosis, and this appears to be controlled by cancer cell genetics. To examine the role of these genes in LN metastasis, we created a human-in-mouse orthotopic model of HNSCC and performed comparative microarray analysis of gene expression between populations of HNSCC cell lines derived before and after serial transplantation and in vivo metastasis in mice. Microarray analysis comparing the USC-HN3-GFP, USC-HN3-GFP-G1 and USC-HN3-GFP-G2 cell lines identified overexpression of genes implicated in epithelial-to- mesenchymal transition and the formation of cancer stem cells, including CAV-1, TLR-4 (Toll-like receptor 4), MMP-7 (matrix metalloproteinase 7), ALDH1A3, OCT-4 and TRIM-29. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis confirmed upregulation of respective gene signaling pathways in the USC-HN1-GFP-G2 cell line. Patient HNSCC samples from advanced stages overexpressed ALDH1A3, CAV-1 and MMP-7. Our results show that CAV-1, TLR-4, MMP-7, ALDH1A3, OCT-4 and TRIM-29 have increased expression in HNSCC cells selected for an enhanced metastatic phenotype and suggest that these genes may have an important role in the metastatic potential of HNSCC cells. Inhibition of these genes may therefore have prognostic and therapeutic utility in HNSCC. PMID:24018643

Masood, R; Hochstim, C; Cervenka, B; Zu, S; Baniwal, S K; Patel, V; Kobielak, A; Sinha, U K

2013-01-01

289

A dual-modality photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system for noninvasive sentinel lymph node detection: preliminary clinical results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has emerged as an accurate, less invasive alternative to axillary lymph node dissection, and it has rapidly become the standard of care for patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) hypothesis states that the pathological status of the axilla can be accurately predicted by determining the status of the first (i.e., sentinel) lymph nodes that drain from the primary tumor. Physicians use radio-labeled sulfur colloid and/or methylene blue dye to identify the SLN, which is most likely to contain metastatic cancer cells. However, the surgical procedure causes morbidity and associated expenses. To overcome these limitations, we developed a dual-modality photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system to noninvasively detect SLNs based on the accumulation of methylene blue dye. Ultimately, we aim to guide percutaneous needle biopsies and provide a minimally invasive method for axillary staging of breast cancer. The system consists of a tunable dye laser pumped by a Nd:YAG laser, a commercial ultrasound imaging system (Philips iU22), and a multichannel data acquisition system which displays co-registered photoacoustic and ultrasound images in real-time. Our clinical results demonstrate that real-time photoacoustic imaging can provide sensitive and specific detection of methylene blue dye in vivo. While preliminary studies have shown that in vivo detection of SLNs by using co-registered photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging is feasible, further investigation is needed to demonstrate robust SLN detection.

Erpelding, Todd N.; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Krumholz, Arie; Ke, Haixin; Maslov, Konstantin; Appleton, Catherine; Margenthaler, Julie; Wang, Lihong V.

2014-03-01

290

Long-term results of tailored D(2) lymph node dissection after R(0) surgery for gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Implementation of extended lymph node dissection for gastric cancer in western non-specialized centers through tailoring its extent upon disease stage and patient comorbidities was suggested as a wise policy to reduce morbidity and mortality rates, albeit with a potential for undertreatment in elderly and/or comorbid patients. Current definition of R(0) resection for gastric cancer lacks consideration of treatment-related variables such as extended lymph node dissection. Few studies to date have tried to fill this gap in such a clinical context. A retrospective evaluation of factors influencing long-term results after R(0) surgery was done in a prospective series of a non-specialized western surgical unit during the implementation of D(2) lymphadenectomy. Univariate and multivariate analysis of 22 variables were performed on a prospective database of 233 consecutive R(0) resections performed by ten different surgeons in 10 years. Endpoint was disease-free survival calculated at 5 and at 10 years. Disease-free survival rates were independently influenced by age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status and lymph node ratio. Subset analysis of the status at censor stratified for age and ASA status failed to identify any significant difference in disease recurrence rates. Lymph node ratio was the only treatment-related independent prognostic factor for long-term results after R(0) surgery for gastric cancer in the setting of a non-specialized western unit, where the extent of lymph node dissection needs to be tailored on the presence of comorbidities (ASA status). PMID:21445644

Catarci, Marco; Montemurro, Leonardo Antonio; Ghinassi, Sabrina; Di Cintio, Antonio; Leone, Leonardo; Cosentino, Luigi Marino; Viarengo, Maria Antonietta; Grassi, Giovanni Battista

2011-06-01

291

Counterpoint: sentinel lymph node biopsy is not indicated for ductal carcinoma in situ.  

PubMed

The purpose of axillary surgery in breast cancer is to provide prognostic information to guide the choice of adjuvant systemic therapy. Axillary surgery for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was abandoned in the 1980s because of the extremely low risk of lymph node metastases and high survival rates. Most women with metastases probably harbored an unrecognized focus of invasion or had metastases subsequent to an invasive local recurrence. Increased use of the less morbid sentinel node biopsy (SNB) for axillary staging of invasive cancer and the recognition that many patients will harbor micrometastases in nodes only recognized by cytokeratin immunohistochemistry (IHC) led two groups to perform SNB with IHC in women with DCIS. One group included all subtypes of DCIS and found metastases in 13% (half of which were detected only on IHC). The other group studied only patients with "high-risk" DCIS. They found metastases in 12% (7 of 9 by IHC only). These groups recommend SNB for women with DCIS. However, the use of SNB in DCIS should be tempered by the uncertainty of the prognostic significance of IHC-detected metastases, the conflicting results of these 2 studies, and the real potential to cause more harm than good from the morbidity of the procedure, the application of unnecessary axillary dissection, and the use of unwarranted adjuvant systemic chemotherapy. These results should be used to generate hypotheses for clinical trials addressing these problems. However, SNB for DCIS remains investigational and should not be generally applied. PMID:19768879

Edge, Stephen B; Sheldon, David G

2003-04-01

292

Endosonographic Features Predictive of Malignancy on FNA in Lung Cancer-Associated Mediastinal Lymph Nodes  

PubMed Central

Background Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is useful in determining mediastinal lymph node (LN) metastases in patients undergoing staging for lung cancer. However, fine needle aspiration (FNA) of LNs is often performed only if suspicious features are present. The utility of individual LN features in predicting malignant cytology remains unclear. Objective To evaluate the utility of EUS LN features for predicting malignant cytology. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Two tertiary care centers in USA. Interventions 425 patients with primary lung cancer underwent EUS. All mediastinal LNs were described according to size, shape, echogenicity, and edge characteristics. FNA was performed on LNs with any features suggestive of malignancy. EUS-FNA cytology was classified as benign or abnormal (suspicious/malignant). The utility of LN features in predicting malignant cytology were determined and further analyzed by logistic regression and a predictive model was established. Results EUS detected 836 LNs in 425 patients, and FNA was obtained in 698. On multivariable analysis, only round shape, short axis >8.3 mm, and sharp margins were predictive of malignant cytology. According to the predictive model, the calculated probability of having malignancy is less than 4% (95% CI 0.022-0.064) when none of the LN features are present, and 63% (95% CI, 0.517-0.722) when all features were seen. Limitations No surgical histology as gold standard. Conclusions Among patients with lung cancer, EUS features of round shape, sharp margins and short axis > 8.3 mm are significant predictors of malignancy. The probability of malignancy is low when none of the features are present. PMID:20541192

Gill, Kanwar Rupinder S.; Ghabril, Marwan S.; Jamil, Laith H.; McNeil, Rebecca B.; Woodward, Timothy A.; Raimondo, Massimo; Hoffman, Brenda J.; Hawes, Robert H.; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Wallace, Michael B.

2010-01-01

293

L1 Cell Adhesion Molecule Expression Is Associated With Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis and Advanced Stage in Diabetic Patients With Endometrial Cancer: A Matched Case Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetic patients with endometrial cancer had more lymph node metastasis than non-diabetic patients with endometrial cancer. L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) could be possibly associated with lymph node metastasis in diabetic patients with endometrial cancer via epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We aimed to investigate the association between L1CAM expression and lymph node metastasis in diabetic patients with endometrial cancer. Methods: We conducted a matched case control study of 68 endometrial cancer patients who comprise each 34 diabetic and non-diabetic patients. L1CAM expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using fresh formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue block of the patients. The association between L1CAM expression and pelvic lymph node metastasis was assessed according to the presence of diabetes. Results: Of the 68 patients, 13 (19.1%) were positive for L1CAM immunostaining. Positive rate of L1CAM expression in diabetic endometrial cancer patients was similar to that in non-diabetic endometrial cancer patients (14.7% vs. 23.5%, P = 0.355). Tumor recurred more frequently in patients with positive L1CAM expression than those with negative L1CAM expression (33.3% vs. 1.6%, P = 0.019). However, we failed to find any significant association between L1CAM expression and lymph node metastasis. Only for the diabetic patients (n = 34), patients with pelvic lymph node metastasis had more L1CAM expression than those without lymph node metastasis (50.0% vs. 3.6%, P = 0.035). Advanced stage was the only risk factor for recurrence that showed a significant association with L1CAM expression for the diabetic endometrial cancer patients (P = 0.006), as well as all the enrolled patients (P = 0.014). Conclusion: L1CAM expression is associated with pelvic lymph node metastasis and advanced stage in diabetic patients with endometrial cancer. PMID:25337593

Suh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Min A; Kim, Hee Seung; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Park, Noh Hyun; Song, Yong Sang; Kang, Soon-Beom

2014-01-01

294

The Clinical Significance and Risk Factors of Solitary Lymph Node Metastasis in Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

Aims To assess the clinical significance and risk factors of solitary lymph node metastasis (SLM) in gastric carcinoma and establish a more accurate method to evaluate the possibility of lymph node metastasis (LM). Methods A total of 385 patients with gastric carcinoma who underwent D2 lymphadenectomy at the Cancer Center of Sun Yat-Sen University were included in this research. Then we used a group of data from Sun Yat-sen University Gastrointestinal Hospital (SYSUGIH) to validate the accuracy of our developed method. The ?2 test, Kaplan–Meier analysis, log-rank test, COX model, and discriminate analysis were used to analyze the data with SPSS13.0. Results We found that the LM number and pathological T staging were independent prognostic risk factors. CEA grading, LN status by CT, and T staging by CT were independent risk factors for LM in gastric carcinoma. In addition, we developed the equation Y = -5.0 + X1 + 1.8X3 + 0.7X4 (X1 = CEA grading, X3 = LN status by CT, X4 = T staging by CT) to evaluate the situation of LM. The data from SYSUGIH shows this equation has a better accuracy compared with CT. Conclusions SLM is an independent risk factor in gastric cancer. And there was no survival difference between the skip metastasis group and the other SLM group (P = 0.659). It is inappropriate for the patient with SLM doing a standard D2 lymphadenectomy, due to the fact that LM rarely occurs in the splenic artery, splenic hilum. The risk factors for LM include CEA grading, LN status by CT, and T staging by CT. And we can use Y = -5.0 + X1 + 1.8X3 + 0.7X4 (X1, CEA grading, X3 = LN status by CT, X4 = T staging by CT, the critical value is 0.3) to estimate the possibility of LM, which has a better accuracy compared with CT. PMID:25633364

Ma, Min; Chen, Shi; Zhu, Bao-yan; Zhao, Bai-Wei; Wang, Hua-She; Xiang, Jun; Wu, Xiao-Bin; Lin, Yi-Jia; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Peng, Jun-Sheng; Chen, Ying-Bo

2015-01-01

295

Biopathologic features and clinical significance of micrometatasis in the lymph node of early gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the biopathologic features and clinical significance of nodal micrometastasis (MI) in early gastric cancer (EGC). METHODS: Among 1022 EGC patients who underwent gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy of D1 + ? or more from March 2001 to December 2005 at the Korean National Cancer Center, available nodal metastasis was found in 90 pT1N1 patients. Nodal metastasis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with cytokeratin and patients were classified into MI and macrometastasis (MA) groups based on the main tumor burden according to the 6th International Union Against Cancer/American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system; the main tumor burden with a diameter of greater than 0.2 mm but no greater than 2 mm as MI, and greater than 2 mm as MA of the representative metastatic node. Proliferative and apoptotic activities of the primary tumor and the nodal metastasis were measured by IHC with Ki-67 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, respectively. Biopathologic and clinical features of the patients were analyzed and compared between MI and MA groups. Patients with recurrence were compared with those without recurrence to identify risk factors for recurrence. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients showed MI and the other 53 patients revealed MA in the lymph node; the incidence of patients with MI and MA was 41.1% and 58.9%. The main tumor burden was 0.9 and 4.6 mm in the representative metastatic node, respectively. Japanese N2 stations were more frequently involved in MA group (20.9%) than in MI group (10.3%) but the difference was not statistically different (P = 0.338). Proliferative and apoptotic activities of MI were decreased than those of MA (26.7% vs 40.5%, P = 0.004 and 1.0% vs 3.0%, P < 0.001, respectively). However, nodal MI in the current study showed a relatively high proliferative activity and an equivalent apoptotic activity compared to other cancers in the previously published studies. Recurrence was observed in 6 patients during the mean follow up period of 87.6 ± 26.2 mo. The recurrence was significantly associated with the presence of MA (P = 0.041) and lymphovascular invasion of the primary tumor (P = 0.032). CONCLUSION: Lymphadenectomy of D1 + ? or more might be necessary in patients with MI in sentinel node to prevent recurrence by clearing MI involving Japanese N2 station. PMID:25593497

Jo, Min Jung; Park, Ji Yeon; Song, Joon Seon; Kook, Myeong-Cherl; Ryu, Keun Won; Cho, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Jun Ho; Nam, Byung-Ho; Hong, Eun Kyung; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Young-Woo

2015-01-01

296

Regional nodal irradiation in the conservative treatment of breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

At this institution conservative treatment of breast cancer was begun in the 1960's. The following analysis represents our experience through 1984 with specific reference to the management of the regional lymph nodes. A total of 432 patients with clinical stage I and II breast cancer were treated between 1962 and 1984 with lumpectomy and radiation therapy. The breast was treated with tangential fields to a median dose of 4800 cGy and electron conedown to a total tumor bed dose of 6400 cGy. Axillary dissection was not routinely performed, particularly in the earlier years. More recently, axillary dissection has been used with increasing frequency if it was felt that the results of the dissection would influence systemic treatment. One hundred eighty-seven patients (43%) underwent axillary dissection and routinely received regional nodal irradiation to the internal mammary and supraclavicular lymph nodes. Two hundred forty-five patients (57%) did not undergo axillary dissection and routinely received regional nodal irradiation to the internal mammary, supraclavicular, and entire axillary regions to a total median dose of 4600 cGy. As of May 1989 with a median follow-up of 7.5 years, there have been a total of 12 nodal failures for an actuarial nodal control rate of 97% at 5 years and 96% at 10 years. The actuarial 5-year regional nodal control rate was the same for both the group of patients receiving regional RT alone without axillary dissection and the group of patients receiving axillary dissection and supraclavicular/internal mammary radiation. There has been minimal morbidity associated with this treatment policy. We conclude that regional nodal irradiation, with or without axillary dissection, results in a high rate of regional nodal control and minimal treatment morbidity in patients undergoing conservative treatment of early stage breast cancer.

Haffty, B.G.; Fischer, D.; Fischer, J.J. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

1990-10-01

297

Lack of survival benefit of post-operative radiation therapy in prostate cancer patients with positive lymph nodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Randomized data from SWOG 8794 and EORTC 22911 confirm the benefit of post-operative radiation therapy (RT) for selected patients with pT3 prostate cancer (CaP) after radical prostatectomy (RP). However, data regarding the potential benefit of RT for patients post-RP with positive lymph node (+LN) involvement are limited. We analyzed the Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) registry for population-based data on

P A S Johnstone; V Assikis; M Goodman; K C Ward; R H Riffenburgh; V Master; PAS Johnstone

2007-01-01

298

Sentinel lymphadenectomy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer may reliably represent the axilla except for inflammatory breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, women with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) undergo a modified radical mastectomy or\\u000a lumpectomy with axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and radiotherapy. Sentinel lymphadenectomy (SL) is accepted for axillary\\u000a evaluation in early breast cancer. We assessed the feasibility and predictive value of SL after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Eligible women received neoadjuvant therapy for LABC and were scheduled to

Vered Stearns; C. Alexander Ewing; Rebecca Slack; Marie F. Penannen; Daniel F. Hayes; Theodore N. Tsangaris

2002-01-01

299

Curative Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Stage IVB Cervical Cancer Presenting With Paraortic and Left Supraclavicular Lymph Node Metastases  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) with curative intent in patients with stage IVB cervical cancer initially presenting with paraortic and left supraclavicular lymph node metastases. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 25 patients with both paraortic and left supraclavicular lymph nodal metastases (group I) were reviewed and compared with those of 101 women with paraortic lymph node metastases alone (group II). Group I received a mean 59.4 Gy to the paraortic and left supraclavicular areas and 50.4 Gy to the pelvis, followed by 30 Gy of high-dose-rate brachytherapy in 6 fractions. Group II received the same dose to the paraortic area and pelvis followed by intracavitary brachytherapy. All patients received platinum-based chemotherapy simultaneously. Results: Of the 25 patients in group I, 16 (64%) experienced acute grade 3-4 hematologic toxicities, and 1 had a late grade 3 genitourinary toxicity. Complete responses, including the primary mass and pelvic, paraortic, and left supraclavicular lymph nodes, were observed in 13 patients (52%). At a median follow-up of 32 months for surviving patients, 3 experienced in-field failure, 6 showed distant failure, and 9 showed both. The 3-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 49% and 33%, respectively. In comparison, of the 101 patients in group II, 16 showed in-field failure, 14 experienced distant failure, and 11 showed both. The 3-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 69% and 57%, respectively. Conclusions: Curative CCRT is feasible in patients with stage IVB cervical cancer presenting with paraortic and left supraclavicular lymph nodal metastases, with acceptable late toxicity and high response rates, despite high rates of acute hematologic toxicity.

Kim, Ji-Yoon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Catholic University of Korea, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Catholic University of Korea, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joo-Young [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)] [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hee [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Mee Sun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Chonnam National University Medical School, Jeollanam-do (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Chonnam National University Medical School, Jeollanam-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Juree [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cheil General Hospital and Women's Healthcare Center, Kwandong University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cheil General Hospital and Women's Healthcare Center, Kwandong University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Seok, E-mail: ysk@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-11-01

300

In vivo photoacoustic and ultrasonic mapping of rat sentinel lymph nodes with a modified commercial ultrasound imaging system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become the standard method for axillary staging in breast cancer patients, relying on invasive identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) following injection of blue dye and radioactive tracers. While SLNB achieves a low false negative rate (5-10%), it is an invasive procedure requiring ionizing radiation. As an alternative to SLNB, ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy has been tested clinically. However, ultrasound alone is unable to accurately identify which lymph nodes are sentinel. Therefore, a non-ionizing and noninvasive detection method for accurate SLN mapping is needed. In this study, we successfully imaged methylene blue dye accumulation in vivo in rat axillary lymph nodes using a Phillips iU22 ultrasound imaging system adapted for photoacoustic imaging with an Nd:YAG pumped, tunable dye laser. Photoacoustic images of rat SLNs clearly identify methylene blue dye accumulation within minutes following intradermal dye injection and co-registered photoacoustic/ultrasound images illustrate lymph node position relative to surrounding anatomy. To investigate clinical translation, the imaging depth was extended up to 2.5 cm by adding chicken breast tissue on top of the rat skin surface. These results raise confidence that photoacoustic imaging can be used clinically for accurate, noninvasive SLN mapping.

Erpelding, Todd N.; Kim, Chulhong; Pramanik, Manojit; Guo, Zijian; Dean, John; Jankovic, Ladislav; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

2010-02-01

301

Activin type IB receptor signaling in prostate cancer cells promotes lymph node metastasis in a xenograft model  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ActRIB signaling induces Snail and S100A4 expressions in prostate cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prostate cancer cell lines expressing an active form of ActRIB were established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ActRIB signaling promotes EMT and lymph node metastasis in xenograft model. -- Abstract: Activin, a member of the transforming growth factor-{beta} family, has been known to be a growth and differentiating factor. Despite its pluripotent effects, the roles of activin signaling in prostate cancer pathogenesis are still unclear. In this study, we established several cell lines that express a constitutive active form of activin type IB receptor (ActRIBCA) in human prostate cancer cells, ALVA41 (ALVA-ActRIBCA). There was no apparent change in the proliferation of ALVA-ActRIBCA cells in vitro; however, their migratory ability was significantly enhanced. In a xenograft model, histological analysis revealed that the expression of Snail, a cell-adhesion-suppressing transcription factor, was dramatically increased in ALVA-ActRIBCA tumors, indicating epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Finally, mice bearing ALVA-ActRIBCA cells developed multiple lymph node metastases. In this study, we demonstrated that ActRIBCA signaling can promote cell migration in prostate cancer cells via a network of signaling molecules that work together to trigger the process of EMT, and thereby aid in the aggressiveness and progression of prostate cancers.

Nomura, Masatoshi, E-mail: nomura@med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)] [Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Tanaka, Kimitaka; Wang, Lixiang; Goto, Yutaka; Mukasa, Chizu; Ashida, Kenji; Takayanagi, Ryoichi [Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)] [Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

2013-01-04

302

Extended Salvage Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection in Patients with Recurrent Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background. Treatment of patients with a biochemical recurrence (BCR) of prostate cancer (PCa) is generally difficult and without valid treatment options. Since 2004 we have been developing therapeutic possibilities for these patients. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 41 patients with a BCR of PCa and a mean followup of 40.3 ± 20.8 months. Group 1 (n = 10): salvage radical prostatectomy (sRP) with SePLND (salvage extended pelvic lymph nodes dissection) (initial treatment: combined brachytherapy). Group 2 (n = 22): SePLND (initial treatment: radical prostatectomy (RP)). Group 3 (n = 9): SePLND (initial treatment: RP and adjuvant radiation therapy (RT)). We observed PSA, PSA-velocity, localization of LNs and LNs+, BCR-free period, and BR (biochemical response). Results. Group 1: 60% with BCR-freedom (mean 27.2 months). Group 2: 63.6% with BCR-freedom (mean 17.5 months). Group 3: 33.3% with BCR-freedom (mean 17.6 months). In total, BCR-freedom was observed in 23 of 41 patients (56.1%) after salvage surgery. 75.6% of all patients showed a BR. 765?LNs were removed and 14.8% of these were LN+. Conclusions. The BCR-free period and BR are comparable in all three groups. Sensibility to ADT can be reestablished and prolonged as a result of SePLND. Multicenter studies are needed for a reliable output. PMID:24688536

Osmonov, Daniar K.; Aksenov, Alexey V.; Boller, Annkathrin; Kalz, Almut; Heimann, Diana; Janssen, Isa; Jünemann, Klaus-Peter

2014-01-01

303

Comparison of Nodal Risk Formula and MR Lymphography for Predicting Lymph Node Involvement in Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare the nodal risk formula (NRF) as a predictor for lymph node (LN) metastasis in patients with prostate cancer with magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL) using Ultrasmall Super-Paramagnetic particles of Iron Oxide (USPIO) and with histology as gold standard. Methods and Materials: Logistic regression analysis was performed with the results of histopathological evaluation of the LN as dependent variable and the nodal risk according to the NRF and the result of MRL as independent input variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to assess the performance of the models. Results: The analysis included 375 patients. In the single-predictor regression models, the NRF and MRL results were both significantly (p <0.001) predictive of the presence of LN metastasis. In the models with both predictors included, NRF was nonsignificant (p = 0.126), but MRL remained significant (p <0.001). For NRF, sensitivity was 0.79 and specificity was 0.38; for MRL, sensitivity was 0.82 and specificity was 0.93. After a negative MRL result, the probability of LN metastasis is 4% regardless of the NRF result. After a positive MRL, the probability of having LN metastasis is 68%. Conclusions: MRL is a better predictor of the presence of LN metastasis than NRF. Using only the NRF can lead to a significant overtreatment on the pelvic LN by radiation therapy. When the MRL result is available, the NRF is no longer of added value.

Deserno, Willem M.L.L.G., E-mail: w.deserno@rad.umcn.nl [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Debats, Oscar A. [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Rozema, Tom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Fortuin, Ansje S. [Department of Radiology, Deventer Ziekenhuis, Deventer (Netherlands); Heesakkers, Roel A.M.; Hoogeveen, Yvonne [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Peer, Petronella G.M. [Department of Biostatistics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Barentsz, Jelle O. [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lin, Emile N.J.T. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

2011-09-01

304

Salvage Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection in Recurrent Prostate Cancer: Surgical and Early Oncological Outcome  

PubMed Central

Methodology. Seventeen patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) rise following local treatment for prostate cancer with curative intent underwent open or minimally invasive salvage pelvic lymph node dissection (SLND) for oligometastatic disease (<4 synchronous metastases) or as staging prior to salvage radiotherapy. Biochemical recurrence after complete biochemical response (cBR) was defined as 2 consecutive PSA increases >0,2?ng/mL; and after incomplete biochemical response as 2 consecutive PSA rises. Newly found metastasis on imaging defined clinical progression (CP). Palliative androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) was initiated if >3 metastases were detected or if patients became symptomatic. Kaplan-Meier statistics were applied. Results. Clavien-Dindo grade 1, 2, 3a, and 3b complications were seen in 6, 1, 1, and 2 patients, respectively. Median follow-up time was 22 months. Among 13 patients treated for oligometastatic disease, 8 (67%) had a PSA decline, with 3 patients showing cBR. Median PSA progression-free survival (FS) was 4.1 months and median CP-FS 7 months. Three patients started ADT, resulting in a 2-year ADT-FS rate of 79.5%. Conclusion. SLND is feasible, but postoperative complication rate seems higher than that for primary LND. Biochemical and clinical response duration is limited, but as part of an oligometastatic treatment regime it can defer palliative ADT.

Van Praet, Charles; Lumen, Nicolaas; Ost, Piet; Fonteyne, Valérie; De Meerleer, Gert; Lambert, Bieke; Delrue, Louke; De Visschere, Pieter; Villeirs, Geert; Decaestecker, Karel

2015-01-01

305

Same Surgeon: Different Centre Equals Differing Lymph Node Harvest following Colorectal Cancer Resection.  

PubMed

Introduction. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of surgeon relocation on lymph node (LN) retrieval in colorectal cancer (CRC) resection. Methods. The study population was 213 consecutive patients undergoing CRC resection by a single surgeon, at two units: unit one 110 operations (2002-2005) and unit two 103 (2005-2009). LN yields and case mix were compared. Results. Median LN harvests were significantly different between the two centres: unit 1: 13 nodes/patient and unit 2: 22 nodes/patient (P < .001). In unit one 42% of cases were LN positive and in unit two 48% (P = .398). There was no difference in case mix. Multivariate analysis identified unit (P < .001) and pathologist (P = .007) as independent predictors of harvest. Conclusions. A surgeon moving units can experience significantly different LN yield following CRC resection. Both units comply with national standards, but the "surgeon's results" at the two units appear to be pathologist dependent. This has implications for nodal harvest as a surrogate marker of surgical quality. PMID:22312505

Evans, M D; Robinson, S; Badiani, S; Rees, A; Stamatakis, J D; Karandikar, S S; Langman, G

2011-01-01

306

Elevated IGFIR expression regulating VEGF and VEGF-C predicts lymph node metastasis in human colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGFIR) has been shown to regulate the tumor development. The objective of the current study is to determine the association of IGFIR with lymph node metastasis and to explore the related mechanism in human colorectal cancer in clinic. Methods In a random series of 98 colorectal cancer patients, the expressions of IGFIR, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF-C were investigated by immunohistochemistry, and the association of these expressions with lymph node metastasis was statistically analyzed. The expressions of VEGF and VEGF-C in colorectal cancer cells stimulated with IGF-I were also examined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Higher rates of IGFIR (46%), VEGF (53%), and VEGF-C (46%) expression were found in colorectal cancer tissues than in normal and colorectal adenoma tissues. These expressions were significantly associated with clinicopathologic factors and lymph node status. We also found the concomitant high expressions of IGFIR/VEGF (P < 0.001) and IGFIR/VEGF-C (P = 0.001) had a stronger correlation with lymph node metastasis than did each alone or both low expressions. In addition, IGF-I could effectively induce the VEGF and VEGF-C mRNA expression and protein secretion in colorectal cancer cells expressing IGFIR molecules. Moreover, Patients who had strong staining for IGFIR, VEGF and VEGF-C showed significantly less favorable survival rates compared with patients who had low staining for these molecules (P < 0.001). The survival rates of patients who were both high expression of IGFIR/VEGF and IGFIR/VEGF-C also were significantly lower compared with patients who were negative or one of high expression of these molecules (P < 0.001). Conclusions Together the findings indicated for the first time that simultaneous examination of the expressions of IGFIR, VEGF and VEGF-C will benefit the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in order to assay the prognosis and determine the treatment strategy in patients with colorectal cancer undergoing surgery. PMID:20459642

2010-01-01

307

Surgical sentinel lymph node biopsy in early breast cancer. Could it be avoided by performing a preoperative staging procedure? A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The aim of this pilot trial was to study the feasibility of sentinel node percutaneous preoperative gamma probe-guided biopsy as a valid preoperative method of assessment of nodal status compared to surgical sentinel lymph node biopsy. Material/Methods This prospective study enrolled 10 consecutive patients without evidence of axillary lymph node metastases at preoperative imaging. All patients underwent sentinel node occult lesion localization (SNOLL) using radiotracer intradermic injection that detected a “hot spot” corresponding to the sentinel node in all cases. Gamma probe over the skin detection with subsequent ultrasonographically guided needle biopsy of the sentinel node were performed. The percutaneous needle core histopathological diagnosis was compared to the results of the surgical biopsy. Results Preoperative sentinel node identification was successful in all patients. Conclusions The combination of preoperative gamma probe sentinel node detection and ultrasound-guided biopsy could represent a valid alternative to intraoperative sentinel node biopsy in clinically and ultrasonographically negative axillary nodes, resulting in shorter duration of surgery and lower intraoperative risks. PMID:22936189

Testori, Alberto; Meroni, Stefano; Moscovici, Oana Codrina; Magnoni, Paola; Malerba, Paolo; Chiti, Arturo; Rahal, Daoud; Travaglini, Roberto; Cariboni, Umberto; Alloisio, Marco; Orefice, Sergio

2012-01-01

308

Breast cancer subpopulation with high risk of internal mammary lymph nodes metastasis: analysis of 2,269 Chinese breast cancer patients treated with extended radical mastectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The selective treatment of internal mammary lymph nodes (IMNs) in breast cancer is controversial. The purpose of this research\\u000a was to determine the subpopulation patients with high risk of internal mammary lymph nodes metastasis who received extended\\u000a radical mastectomy without any preoperative treatment from 1956 to 2003 in China.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods  1,679 Chinese patients were underwent extended radical mastectomy (ERM)

Ou Huang; Liping Wang; Kunwei Shen; Hong Lin; Zhen Hu; Guangyu Liu; Jiong Wu; Jinsong Lu; Zhiming Shao; Qixia Han; Zhenzhou Shen

2008-01-01

309

Heterogeneous expression of nm23 gene product as a predictor of lymph nodal status in human breast cancer.  

PubMed

The nm23 gene was originally identified by differential hybridization of metastatic murine melanoma cell lines. Some experimental studies demonstrated a significantly low metastatic potential of melanoma cell lines transfected with the nm23 gene. In this study, we clarified the relationship between intracellular nm23-immunoreactivity and lymph nodal status of human breast cancer. We analyzed 82 surgically removed breast tumors including 67 invasive carcinomas (ductal, lobular and mucinous carcinomas). The nm23 expression was diffusely positive in the benign tumors and non-invasive carcinomas. Of the invasive ductal carcinomas, lymph node metastasis was found in 67.7% (21/31) of the focally positive/negative cases and in 18.2% (4/22) of the diffusely positive cases (p<0.001). Immunohistochemically, advanced margins of invasive carcinomas with lymph node metastasis were shown to be negative for nm23 expression, while intraductal carcinoma components were positive. This observation suggested that focally positive/negative nm23 expression can be a predictor of lymph node metastasis of invasive ductal breast carcinoma. PMID:9824622

Yoshida, H; Kijima, H; Terasaki, Y; Suto, A; Takeshita, T; Omiya, H; Shimojima, K; Shimbori, M; Sato, T; Sato, S; Onoda, N; Yamazaki, H; Tamaoki, N; Ueyama, Y; Nakamura, M

1998-12-01

310

Near-infrared fluorescence sentinel lymph node biopsy in vulvar cancer: a randomized comparison of lymphatic tracers  

PubMed Central

This study aims to confirm feasibility of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging for sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in vulvar cancer and to compare the tracer indocyanine green (ICG) bound to human serum albumin (HSA) versus ICG alone. Patients received 99mTc-nanocolloid and patent blue for SLN detection. Subsequently, patients randomly received ICG:HSA or ICG alone. In 24 patients, 35 SLNs were intraoperatively detected. All SLNs detected were radioactive and NIR fluorescent and 27 (77%) were blue. No significant difference was found between ICG:HSA and ICG alone. This trial confirms the feasibility of NIR fluorescence imaging for SLN mapping in vulvar cancer. PMID:23418877

Schaafsma, Boudewijn E.; Verbeek, Floris P.R.; Peters, Alexander A.W.; van der Vorst, J.R.; de Kroon, Cornelis D.; van Poelgeest, Mariette I. E.; Trimbos, J. Baptist M.Z.; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; Frangioni, John V.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Gaarenstroom, Katja N.

2012-01-01

311

Ultrasonic dissection system technology in breast cancer: a case-control study in a large cohort of patients requiring axillary dissection.  

PubMed

In the sentinel node era, axillary dissection (ALND) for breast cancer (BC) is required much less frequently than in the past. However, complications, such as prolonged drainage output and seroma formation, are still observed. Harmonic dissection devices (HDDs) are widely used in laparoscopic and minimally invasive surgery to reduce collateral damage during tissue dissection, but its usefulness in breast surgery is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of HDDs compared to that of conventional dissection in performing ALND. One hundred thirty-nine women (median age 61 years, range 34-71 years) with confirmed pT1-2 primary infiltrating ductal BC undergoing curative surgery were enrolled in the study. The population was prospectively randomized between two age- and stage-matched arms: group A (cases)-68 (48.9 %) patients (HDD technique), versus group B (controls)-71 (51.1 %) patients (conventional technique). In group B, skin flaps were obtained using a scalpel, scissors, and electrocautery which was never used for ALND. In group A, for each operation time, the HDDs were used exclusively. The mean operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and drainage output were (A vs. B) 95 ± 22 versus 109 ± 25 min, 56 ± 12 versus 86 ± 15 mL, and 412 ± 83 versus 456 ± 69 mL, respectively (p < 0.01). Twenty-nine (20.9 %) patients developed an axillary seroma: 9 (13.2 %) and 20 (28.2 %) for groups A and B, respectively (p = 0.030). Our study confirms that in patients with BC requiring ALND the use of HDDs is more time efficient than conventional surgery, and reduces intraoperative bleeding, the amount of drainage, and the risk of seroma formation. These results may lead to several short- and long-term advantages. Thus, a careful evaluation of the cost-benefits of nontraditional tools, such as HDDs, should be performed in all patients undergoing modified radical or partial mastectomy and ALND for BC. PMID:24186056

Lumachi, F; Basso, S M M; Santeufemia, D A; Bonamini, M; Chiara, G B

2013-11-01

312

Lymph nodes  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... and conveying lymph and by producing various blood cells. Lymph nodes play an important part in the ... the microorganisms being trapped inside collections of lymph cells or nodes. Eventually, these organisms are destroyed and ...

313

[A case of advanced gastric cancer with abdominal paraaortic lymph node swelling successfully resected following neoadjuvant chemotherapy of TS-1 and low-dose cisplatin].  

PubMed

A 63-year-old man who had suffered from anorexia and body weight loss was admitted to the hospital. Upper GI series and an endoscopic examination revealed type 3 cancer in the posterior wall of the cardia. Abdominal CT scan showed enlargement of No. 16 lymph nodes. Preoperative diagnosis was stage IV gastric cancer (T3 (SE) H0 P0 N3), and we considered a curative operation impossible. Therefore, neoadjuvant chemotherapy with TS-1 and low-dose cisplatin (CDDP) was planned. After 4 weeks of administration, the primary lesion was reduced in size and the No. 16 lymph nodes were shrunken remarkably. Therefore, a total gastrectomy with a splenectomy, a distal pancreatectomy, and D3 lymph node dissection was performed. Histological findings demonstrated the degeneration of cancer cells and fibrosis in the primary tumor and metastatic regional lymph nodes. There were no viable cancer cells in the No. 16 lymph nodes. The histological changes against neoadjuvant chemotherapy were judged to be Grade 1b for the main tumor and Grade 3 for the No. 16 lymph nodes. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with TS-1 and low-dose cisplatin is so effective in a short period that can be adapted to advanced gastric cancer for downstaging. PMID:12795108

Morifuji, Masahiko; Murakami, Yoshiaki; Yokoyama, Takashi; Yokoyama, Yujiro; Kanehiro, Tetsuya; Uemura, Kenichiro; Sasaki, Masaru; Sueda, Taijiro

2003-05-01

314

Protease-activated receptor 2 suppresses lymphangiogenesis and subsequent lymph node metastasis in a murine pancreatic cancer model.  

PubMed

Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is a G protein-coupled receptor that functions as a cell-surface sensor for coagulation factors and other proteases associated with the tumour microenvironment. Pancreatic cancer cells express high levels of PAR-2 and activation of PAR-2 may induce their proliferation and migration. Interestingly, however, PAR-2 expression is increased in stroma-rich pancreatic cancer regions, suggesting a potential role of PAR-2 in the tumour microenvironment. Here, we assessed the importance of PAR-2 in the stromal compartment by utilizing an orthotopic pancreatic cancer model, in which tumour cells are PAR-2-positive, whereas stromal cells are PAR-2-negative. We assessed tumour weight and volume and analysed proliferation and (lymph)angiogenesis both in vivo and in vitro. We show that genetic ablation of PAR-2 from the stromal compartment inhibits primary tumour growth, which is accompanied by reduced vascularization in primary tumours and reduced in tube formation of vascular endothelial cells in vitro. In contrast to smaller primary tumours, the number of lymph node metastases was increased in PAR-2-deficient animals, which was accompanied by an increased number of lymphatic vessels. In vitro tube-formation assays show that PAR-2 does not inhibit the intrinsic tube-forming capacity of lymphatic endothelial cells, but that PAR-2 actually inhibits cancer cell-induced tube formation. Overall, stromal PAR-2 thus plays a dual role in pancreatic cancer development by potentiating primary tumour growth but limiting lymphangiogenesis and subsequent lymph node metastasis. Our data identify a novel role of PAR-2 in the tumour microenvironment and pinpoint PAR-2 as a negative regulator of lymphangiogenesis. PMID:25065357

Shi, Kun; Queiroz, Karla C S; Roelofs, Joris J T H; van Noesel, Carel J M; Richel, Dirk J; Spek, C Arnold

2014-11-01

315

Extranodal extension on sentinel lymph node dissection: why should we treat it differently?  

PubMed

American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0011 concluded that axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) may be avoided in selected patients with breast cancer with limited axillary nodal metastasis on sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND). However, patients with extranodal extension (ENE) were excluded to the follow existing standard of care, which is completion ALND. The significance of ENE detected on SLND is not well defined. Our objective was to determine the impact of ENE found on SLND on nonsentinel lymph node (NSLN) metastasis, recurrence, and overall mortality. We evaluated patients with breast cancer treated at a tertiary cancer center from 2005 to 2012. SLND was performed in 655 patients. Of those, 478 of 655 (73.0%) patients had no SLN metastases, 124 of 655 (18.9%) had SLN metastases without ENE (SLN-ENE), and 53 of 655 (8.1%) had SLN metastases with ENE (SLN+ENE). Of patients undergoing ALND, NSLN metastasis was detected in 37 of 84 (44.0%) of patients in the SLN-ENE group and 26 of 45 (57.8%) patients in the SLN+ENE group (P = 0.14). On adjusted analyses, ENE was associated with increased disease recurrence (odds ratio [OR], 5.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 24.48; P = 0.03) as well as increased overall mortality (OR, 8.16; 95% CI, 1.72 to 38.63; P = 0.01). In conclusion, ENE is associated with increased overall axillary nodal burden, disease recurrence, and overall mortality. PMID:25264632

Choi, Audrey H; Surrusco, Matthew; Rodriguez, Samuel; Bahjri, Khaled; Solomon, Naveen; Garberoglio, Carlos; Lum, Sharon; Senthil, Maheswari

2014-10-01

316

Nano-chemotherapeutics: Maximising lymphatic drug exposure to improve the treatment of lymph-metastatic cancers.  

PubMed

Nano-sized drug delivery systems incorporating chemotherapeutic drugs ("nano-chemotherapeutics") have been widely employed for the treatment of solid tumours. The dimensions of nanoparticulate drug delivery systems also make them ideal vectors for improving drug exposure to the lymphatic system, potentially enhancing the treatment of lymph-resident metastases. This review examines the physical properties of nanoparticulate drug delivery systems that promote lymphatic exposure and lymph node retention, and discusses methods for improving lymphatic access. Drug delivery systems that have been investigated for the treatment of lymph node metastasis are also reviewed, and recent advances towards active targeting approaches for lymphatic metastases highlighted. PMID:24801249

Ryan, Gemma M; Kaminskas, Lisa M; Porter, Christopher J H

2014-11-10

317

Gaint axillary lipoma following excision.  

PubMed

Lipomas are benign tumors and are most common mesenchymal soft tissue tumors, composed of mature lipocytes. Frequent site are trunk and extremities. Axilla is an uncommon site of lipoma while giant axillary lipomas are rare. We report a case of recurrence of small axillary lipoma into giant axillary lipoma following excision. PMID:24426549

Bashir, Mudasir; Zaki, Imtiyaz Ahmad; Mahajan, Manoj Kumar

2013-06-01

318

Predictive risk factors for lymph node metastasis in patients with small size non-small cell lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate clinical staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is essential for developing an optimal treatment strategy. This study aimed to determine the predictive risk factors for lymph node metastasis, including both N1 and N2 metastases, in clinical T1aN0 NSCLC patients. Methods We retrospectively evaluated clinical T1aN0M0 NSCLC patients who showed no radiologic evidence of lymph node metastasis, and who had undergone surgical pulmonary resection with systematic mediastinal node dissection or sampling at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University between January 2011 and June 2013. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictive factors for node metastasis. Results Pathologically positive lymph nodes were found in 16.2% (51/315) of the patients. Positive N1 nodes were found in 12.4% (39/315) of the patients, and positive N2 nodes were identified in 13.0% (41/315) of the patients. Some 9.2% (29/315) of the patients had both positive N1 and N2 nodes, and 3.8% (12/315) of the patients had nodal skip metastasis. Variables of preoperative radiographic tumor size, non-upper lobe located tumors, high carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels and micropapillary predominant adenocarcinoma (AC) were identified as predictors for positive N1 or N2 node multivariate analysis. Conclusions Pathologically positive lymph nodes were common in small size NSCLC patients with clinical negative lymph nodes. Therefore, preoperative staging should be performed more thoroughly to increase accuracy, especially for patients who have the larger size, non-upper lobe located, high CEA level or micropapillary predominant ACs.

Bao, Feichao; Yuan, Ping; Yuan, Xiaoshuai; Lv, Xiayi; Wang, Zhitian

2014-01-01

319

Evaluation of Automatic Atlas-Based Lymph Node Segmentation for Head-and-Neck Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate if automatic atlas-based lymph node segmentation (LNS) improves efficiency and decreases inter-observer variability while maintaining accuracy. Methods and Materials: Five physicians with head-and-neck IMRT experience used computed tomography (CT) data from 5 patients to create bilateral neck clinical target volumes covering specified nodal levels. A second contour set was automatically generated using a commercially available atlas. Physicians modified the automatic contours to make them acceptable for treatment planning. To assess contour variability, the Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation (STAPLE) algorithm was used to take collections of contours and calculate a probabilistic estimate of the 'true' segmentation. Differences between the manual, automatic, and automatic-modified (AM) contours were analyzed using multiple metrics. Results: Compared with the 'true' segmentation created from manual contours, the automatic contours had a high degree of accuracy, with sensitivity, Dice similarity coefficient, and mean/max surface disagreement values comparable to the average manual contour (86%, 76%, 3.3/17.4 mm automatic vs. 73%, 79%, 2.8/17 mm manual). The AM group was more consistent than the manual group for multiple metrics, most notably reducing the range of contour volume (106-430 mL manual vs. 176-347 mL AM) and percent false positivity (1-37% manual vs. 1-7% AM). Average contouring time savings with the automatic segmentation was 11.5 min per patient, a 35% reduction. Conclusions: Using the STAPLE algorithm to generate 'true' contours from multiple physician contours, we demonstrated that, in comparison with manual segmentation, atlas-based automatic LNS for head-and-neck cancer is accurate, efficient, and reduces interobserver variability.

Stapleford, Liza J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine and Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University Atlanta, GA (United States); Lawson, Joshua D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine and Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University Atlanta, GA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA (United States); Perkins, Charles; Edelman, Scott; Davis, Lawrence [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine and Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University Atlanta, GA (United States)

2010-07-01

320

A Methylene Blue–assisted Technique for Harvesting Lymph Nodes After Radical Surgery for Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

Harvesting lymph nodes (LNs) after gastrectomy is essential for accurate staging. This trial evaluated the efficiency and quality of a conventional method and a methylene blue–assisted method in a randomized manner. The key eligibility criteria were as follows: (i) histologically proven adenocarcinoma of the stomach; (ii) clinical stage I-III; (iii) R0 resection planned by gastrectomy with D1+ or D2 lymphadenectomy. The primary endpoint was the ratio of the pathologic number of harvested LNs per time (minutes) as an efficacy measure. The secondary endpoint was the number of harvested LNs, as a quality measure. Between August 2012 and December 2012, 60 patients were assigned to undergo treatment using the conventional method (n=29) and the methylene blue dye method (n=31). The baseline demographics were mostly well balanced between the 2 groups. The number of harvested LNs (mean±SD) was 33.6±11.9 in the conventional arm and 43.4±13.9 in the methylene blue arm (P=0.005). The ratio of the number of the harvested LNs per time was 1.12±0.46 LNs/min in the conventional arm and 1.49±0.59 LNs/min in the methylene blue arm (P=0.010). In the subgroup analyses, the quality and efficacy were both superior for the methylene blue dye method compared with the conventional method. The methylene blue technique is recommended for harvesting LNs during gastric cancer surgery on the basis of both the quality and efficacy. PMID:25356528

Aoyama, Toru; Fujikawa, Hirohito; Cho, Haruhiko; Ogata, Takashi; Shirai, Junya; Hayashi, Tsutomu; Rino, Yasushi; Masuda, Munetaka; Oba, Mari S.; Morita, Satoshi

2015-01-01

321

Tumor, Lymph Node, and Lymph Node-to-Tumor Displacements Over a Radiotherapy Series: Analysis of Interfraction and Intrafraction Variations Using Active Breathing Control (ABC) in Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To estimate errors in soft tissue-based image guidance due to relative changes between primary tumor (PT) and affected lymph node (LN) position and volume, and to compare the results with bony anatomy-based displacements of PTs and LNs during radiotherapy of lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Weekly repeated breath-hold computed tomography scans were acquired in 17 lung cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. PTs and affected LNs were manually contoured on all scans after rigid registration. Interfraction and intrafraction displacements in the centers of mass of PTs and LNs relative to bone, as well as LNs relative to PTs (LN-PT), were calculated. Results: The mean volume after 5 weeks was 65% for PTs and 63% for LNs. Systematic and random interfraction displacements were 2.6 to 4.6 mm and 2.7 to 2.9 mm, respectively, for PTs; 2.4 to 3.8 mm and 1.4 to 2.7 mm, respectively, for LNs; and 2.3 to 3.9 mm and 1.9 to 2.8 mm, respectively, for LN-PT. Systematic and random intrafraction displacements were less than 1 mm except in the superoinferior direction. Interfraction LN-PT displacements greater than 3 mm were observed in 67% of fractions and require a safety margin of 12 mm in the lateral direction, 11 mm in the anteroposterior direction, and 9 mm in the superoinferior direction. LN-PT displacements displayed significant time trends (p < 0.0001) and depended on the presence of pathoanatomic conditions of the ipsilateral lung, such as atelectasis. Conclusion: Interfraction LN-PT displacements were mostly systematic and comparable to bony anatomy-based displacements of PTs or LNs alone. Time trends, large volume changes, and the influence of pathoanatomic conditions underline the importance of soft tissue-based image guidance and the potential of plan adaptation.

Weiss, Elisabeth, E-mail: eweiss@mcvh-vcu.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Robertson, Scott P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Mukhopadhyay, Nitai [Department of Biostatistics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Hugo, Geoffrey D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

2012-03-15

322

Integrated FDG?PET/CT does not make invasive staging of the intrathoracic lymph nodes in non?small cell lung cancer redundant: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Staging of non?small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is important for determining choice of treatment and prognosis. The accuracy of FDG?PET scans for staging of lymph nodes is too low to replace invasive nodal staging. It is unknown whether the accuracy of integrated FDG?PET/CT scanning makes invasive staging redundant. Methods In a prospective study, the mediastinal and/or hilar lymph nodes in patients with proven NSCLC were investigated with integrated FDG?PET/CT scanning. Pathological confirmation of all suspect lymph nodes was obtained to calculate the accuracy of the fusion images. In addition, the use of the standardised uptake value (SUV) in the staging of intrathoracic lymph nodes was analysed. Results 105 intrathoracic lymph node stations from 52 patients with NSCLC were characterised. The prevalence of malignancy in the lymph nodes was 36%. The sensitivity of the integrated FDG?PET/CT scan to detect malignant lymph nodes was 84% and its specificity was 85% (positive likelihood ratio 5.64, negative likelihood ratio 0.19). SUVmax, SUVmean and the SUVmax/SUVliver ratio were all significantly higher in malignant than in benign lymph nodes. The area under the receiver operating curve did not differ between these three quantitative variables, but the highest accuracy was found with the SUVmax/SUVliver ratio. At a cut?off value of 1.5 for the SUVmax/SUVliver ratio, the sensitivity and specificity to detect malignant lymph node invasion were 82% and 93%, respectively. Conclusion The accuracy of integrated FDG?PET/CT scanning is too low to replace invasive intrathoracic lymph node staging in patients with NSCLC. The visual interpretation of the fusion images of the integrated FDG?PET/CT scan can be replaced by the quantitative variable SUVmax/SUVliver without loss of accuracy for intrathoracic lymph node staging. PMID:17687098

Tournoy, K G; Maddens, S; Gosselin, R; Van Maele, G; van Meerbeeck, J P; Kelles, A

2007-01-01

323

Mediastinal Lymph Node Dissection versus Mediastinal Lymph Node Sampling for Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the overall survival, local recurrence, distant metastasis, and complications of mediastinal lymph node dissection (MLND) versus mediastinal lymph node sampling (MLNS) in stage I–IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods A systematic search of published literature was conducted using the main databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases) to identify relevant randomized controlled trials that compared MLND vs. MLNS in NSCLC patients. Methodological quality of included randomized controlled trials was assessed according to the criteria from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Review of Interventions (Version 5.1.0). Meta-analysis was performed using The Cochrane Collaboration’s Review Manager 5.3. The results of the meta-analysis were expressed as hazard ratio (HR) or risk ratio (RR), with their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Results We included results reported from six randomized controlled trials, with a total of 1,791 patients included in the primary meta-analysis. Compared to MLNS in NSCLC patients, there was no statistically significant difference in MLND on overall survival (HR?=?0.77, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.08; P?=?0.13). In addition, the results indicated that local recurrence rate (RR?=?0.93, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.28; P?=?0.67), distant metastasis rate (RR?=?0.88, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.04; P?=?0.15), and total complications rate (RR?=?1.10, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.79; P?=?0.72) were similar, no significant difference found between the two groups. Conclusions Results for overall survival, local recurrence rate, and distant metastasis rate were similar between MLND and MLNS in early stage NSCLC patients. There was no evidence that MLND increased complications compared with MLNS. Whether or not MLND is superior to MLNS for stage II–IIIA remains to be determined. PMID:25296033

Huang, Xiongfeng; Wang, Jianmin; Chen, Qiao; Jiang, Jielin

2014-01-01

324

High Occurrence of Aberrant Lymph Node Spread on Magnetic Resonance Lymphography in Prostate Cancer Patients With a Biochemical Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the pattern of lymph node spread in prostate cancer patients with a biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy, eligible for salvage radiotherapy; and to determine whether the clinical target volume (CTV) for elective pelvic irradiation in the primary setting can be applied in the salvage setting for patients with (a high risk of) lymph node metastases. Methods and Materials: The charts of 47 prostate cancer patients with PSA recurrence after prostatectomy who had positive lymph nodes on magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL) were reviewed. Positive lymph nodes were assigned to a lymph node region according to the guidelines of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) for delineation of the CTV for pelvic irradiation (RTOG-CTV). We defined four lymph node regions for positive nodes outside this RTOG-CTV: the para-aortal, proximal common iliac, pararectal, and paravesical regions. They were referred to as aberrant lymph node regions. For each patient, clinical and pathologic features were recorded, and their association with aberrant lymph drainage was investigated. The distribution of positive lymph nodes was analyzed separately for patients with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <1.0 ng/mL. Results: MRL detected positive aberrant lymph nodes in 37 patients (79%). In 20 patients (43%) a positive lymph node was found in the pararectal region. Higher PSA at the time of MRL was associated with the presence of positive lymph nodes in the para-aortic region (2.49 vs. 0.82 ng/mL; p = 0.007) and in the proximal common iliac region (1.95 vs. 0.59 ng/mL; p = 0.009). There were 18 patients with a PSA <1.0 ng/mL. Ten of these patients (61%) had at least one aberrant positive lymph node. Conclusion: Seventy-nine percent of the PSA-recurrent patients had at least one aberrant positive lymph node. Application of the standard RTOG-CTV for pelvic irradiation in the salvage setting therefore seems to be inappropriate.

Meijer, Hanneke J.M., E-mail: H.Meijer@rther.umcn.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lin, Emile N. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Debats, Oscar A. [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Witjes, J. Alfred [Department of Urology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Span, Paul N.; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Barentsz, Jelle O. [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

2012-03-15

325

Design and development of a dedicated mammary and axillary region positron emission tomography system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women. Currently, mammography and physical breast examination, both non-invasive techniques, provide the two most effective methods available for screening potential breast cancer patients. During the management of patients, however, several invasive techniques such as axillary lymph node dissection, core biopsies and lumpectomies, are utilized to determine the stage or malignancy of the disease with significant cost and morbidity associated with them. Positron Emission Tomography (PET), using [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tracer is a sensitive and non-invasive imaging modality that may be a cost-effective alternative to certain invasive procedures. In this project we have developed a low cost, high performance, dedicated PET camera (maxPET) for mammary and axillary region imaging. The system consists of two 15x15 cm2 planar scintillation detector arrays composed of modular detectors operating in coincidence. The modular detectors are comprised of a 9x9 array of 3x3x20 mm3 lutetiurn oxyorthosilicate (LSO) detector elements, read out by a 5x5 array of position- sensitive photomultiplier tubes. The average measured intrinsic spatial resolution of a detector module is 2.26 mm with a sensitivity of up to 40% for a central point source. The measured coincidence timing resolution for two modules is 2.4 ns. The average energy resolution measured across the entire two detector plates is 21.6%. The coincidence timing resolution for the entire system is 8.1 ns. A line bar phantom was imaged and images were reconstructed using the focal plane tomography algorithm. A 4 mm projection image resolution was measured based on profiles taken through the line bar phantom images. The goal of the maxPET system will be to aid in breast cancer patient management by assisting in imaging women with dense, fibro-glandular breasts, detecting axillary lymph node metastases without surgery, monitoring chemotherapy effectiveness and assisting in visualization of recurrence and tumoral boundaries.

Doshi, Niraj Kumar

326

Paratracheal lymph node dissection in cancer of the larynx, hypopharynx, and cervical esophagus: the need for guidelines.  

PubMed

In laryngeal, hypopharyngeal, and cervical esophageal carcinomas, the paratracheal lymph nodes (PTLN) may be at risk for lymph node metastasis. The presence of PTLN metastasis is an important prognostic factor for the development of mediastinal and distant metastases, stomal recurrence, and disease-free and overall survival. Studies on PTLN metastasis are scarce. In most studies, PTLN dissection has not been routinely performed, and selection criteria for PTLN dissection are usually not well defined. Therefore, in most reported studies, selection bias is present and results are difficult to compare. The reported prevalence of PTLN metastases varies according to the site and stage of the primary tumor: subglottic cancer, transglottic cancer, and glottic cancer with subglottic extension have a higher risk of PTLN metastases. Diagnostic imaging is not sufficiently reliable to detect occult PTLN metastases and avoid unnecessary PTLN dissections. PTLN dissection is associated with limited morbidity, but damage to major vessels may occur, and because of exposure of these vessels PTLN may increase the morbidity of fistulae that can occur after total laryngectomy. The dissection may produce hypocalcemia, if performed bilaterally. Nevertheless, the limited morbidity and high rate of metastasis in specific laryngeal, hypopharyngeal, and cervical esophageal carcinomas argue in favor of routine elective PTLN treatment for these tumors. Large prospective studies are needed to identify the patients at risk with primary tumors in more detail. Moreover, improved diagnostic imaging is needed to detect (occult) PTLN metastases more reliably. Based on future studies, clinical guidelines have to be developed to avoid undertreatment and overtreatment. PMID:20652978

de Bree, Remco; Leemans, C René; Silver, Carl E; Robbins, K Thomas; Rodrigo, Juan P; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Takes, Robert P; Shaha, Ashok R; Medina, Jesus E; Suárez, Carlos; Ferlito, Alfio

2011-06-01

327

Newer Imaging Modalities to Assist With Target Localization in the Radiation Treatment of Prostate Cancer and Possible Lymph Node Metastases  

SciTech Connect

Precise localization of prostate cancer and the drainage lymph nodes is mandatory to define an accurate clinical target volume for conformal radiotherapy. Better target definition and delineation on a daily basis is surely important in quality assurance for fractionated radiation therapy. This article reviews the evidence for major emerging techniques that show promise in better identifying the clinical target volume. Partial prostate boost by brachytherapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, or protons has become possible not only with standard imaging techniques but also with the availability of metabolic images obtained by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Even though fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography has not been found to be useful, novel radiolabeled tracers may eventually prove of value in the diagnosis and treatment planning of prostate cancer. For the metastatic lymph nodes, lymphotropic nanoparticle-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging using ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles has greater accuracy as compared with conventional techniques and has been instrumental in delineating the lymphatic drainage of the prostate gland. These novel investigational techniques could further help in optimizing conformal radiotherapy for patients with prostate cancer. The concepts of biologic target volume, real target volume, and multidimensional conformal radiotherapy are being explored.

John, Subhash S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: subhashjohn@hotmail.com; Zietman, Anthony L.; Shipley, William U. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Harisinghani, Mukesh G. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

2008-05-01

328

Transcriptional profile of fibroblasts obtained from the primary site, lymph node and bone marrow of breast cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) influence tumor development at primary as well as in metastatic sites, but there have been no direct comparisons of the transcriptional profiles of stromal cells from different tumor sites. In this study, we used customized cDNA microarrays to compare the gene expression profile of stromal cells from primary tumor (CAF, n = 4), lymph node metastasis (N+, n = 3) and bone marrow (BM, n = 4) obtained from breast cancer patients. Biological validation was done in another 16 samples by RT-qPCR. Differences between CAF vs N+, CAF vs BM and N+ vs BM were represented by 20, 235 and 245 genes, respectively (SAM test, FDR < 0.01). Functional analysis revealed that genes related to development and morphogenesis were overrepresented. In a biological validation set, NOTCH2 was confirmed to be more expressed in N+ (vs CAF) and ADCY2, HECTD1, HNMT, LOX, MACF1, SLC1A3 and USP16 more expressed in BM (vs CAF). Only small differences were observed in the transcriptional profiles of fibroblasts from the primary tumor and lymph node of breast cancer patients, whereas greater differences were observed between bone marrow stromal cells and the other two sites. These differences may reflect the activities of distinct differentiation programs. PMID:25249769

Del Valle, Paulo Roberto; Milani, Cintia; Brentani, Maria Mitzi; Katayama, Maria Lucia Hirata; de Lyra, Eduardo Carneiro; Carraro, Dirce Maria; Brentani, Helena; Puga, Renato; Lima, Leandro A.; Rozenchan, Patricia Bortman; Nunes, Bárbara dos Santos; Góes, João Carlos Guedes Sampaio; Azevedo Koike Folgueira, Maria Aparecida

2014-01-01

329

Expression of Eph receptor A10 is correlated with lymph node metastasis and stage progression in breast cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Eph receptor A10 (EphA10) is a valuable breast cancer marker that is highly expressed in breast cancer tissues by comparison with normal breast tissues, as we previously reported. However, the role of EphA10 expression in breast cancer is not well understood. Here, we have analyzed the expression of EphA10 at the mRNA- and protein-level in clinical breast cancer tissues and then evaluated the relationship with clinicopathological parameters for each sample. EphA10 mRNA expression was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction using complimentary DNA (cDNA) samples derived from breast cancer patients. Lymph node (LN) metastasis and stage progression were significantly correlated with EphA10 expression at the mRNA level (P = 0.0091 and P = 0.034, respectively). Furthermore, immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining of breast cancer tissue microarrays (TMAs) revealed that EphA10 expression at the protein level was also associated with LN metastasis and stage progression (P = 0.016 and P = 0.011, respectively). These results indicate that EphA10 expression might play a role in tumor progression and metastasis. Our findings will help elucidate the role of EphA10 in clinical breast cancer progression. PMID:24403271

Nagano, Kazuya; Kanasaki, So-ichiro; Yamashita, Takuya; Maeda, Yuka; Inoue, Masaki; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Abe, Yasuhiro; Mukai, Yohei; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsutsumi, Yasuo; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi

2013-01-01

330

Laparoscopy-assisted versus open gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection for advanced gastric cancer: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

A raising number of surgeons have chosen laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy (LAG) as an alternative to open gastrectomy (OG) with D2 lymph node dissection for treatment of advanced gastric cancer (ADG). But no meta-analysis has been performed to evaluate the value of LAG versus OG with regard to safety and efficacy for treatment of ADG. A comprehensive literature research was performed in PubMed, Web of Science and Embase to identify studies that compared LAG and OG with D2 lymph node dissection for treatment of ADG. Data of interest were checked and subjected to meta-analysis with RevMan 5.1 software. 11 studies with 1904 patients (982 in LAG and 922 in OG) were enrolled. Pooled risk ratios (RR) and weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were appropriately derived from random-effects models or fixed-effects models. Compared with OG, LAG was associated with less blood loss (WMD = -144.47; P < 0.05), shorter time of first flatus time (WMD = -0.91; P < 0.05) and postoperative hospital stay (WMD = -3.27; P < 0.05), and lower morbidity (RR = 0.70; P < 0.05), but longer operation time (WMD = 41.78; P < 0.05). No significant differences were noted in terms of harvested lymph nodes (WMD = 1.85; P = 0.09), pathological N stage (?2 3.97; P = 0.26), tumor size (WMD = -0.05; P = 0.81), mortality (RR 0.82; P = 0.76), cancer recurrence rate (RR 0.77; P = 0.18) and 3-year overall survival rate (RR 1.09; P = 0.18). Compared with OG, LAG with D2 lymph node dissection for ADG had the advantages of minimal invasion, faster recovery, and fewer complications, and it could achieve the same degree of radicality, harvested lymph nodes, short-term and long-term prognosis as OG, though the operation time was slightly longer. PMID:25035771

Huang, Yu-Ling; Lin, Hai-Guan; Yang, Jian-Wu; Jiang, Fu-Quan; Zhang, Tao; Yang, He-Ming; Li, Cheng-Lin; Cui, Yan

2014-01-01

331

[Mediastinal involvement of thyroid cancer with mediastinal lymph node metastasis; report of a case].  

PubMed

We report a surgical case of mediastinal involvement of papillary adenocacinoma of thyroid with mediastinal lymph node metastasis. A 58-year-old male was admitted to our hospital with laryngeal discomfort. The laryngeal fiber scopy showed left recurrent nerve palsy, although he hadn't noticed hoarseness before admission. An enhanced computed tomography(CT)scan revealed a heterogeneous 3×3 cm mass in the upper mediastinum. The 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography( FDG-PET)showed an accumulation of FDG in the mass and also in a mediastinal lymph node. The incisional biopsy on mediastinoscopy revealed a papillary adenocarcinoma of thyroid and a total thyroidectomy with resection of mediastinal lymph node through cervical and reverse-T upper mini-sternotomy approach was performed. PMID:23917143

Okagawa, Takehiko; Hiramatsu, Yoshinori

2013-07-01

332

Spectral imaging as a potential tool for optical sentinel lymph node biopsies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLNB) is an increasingly standard procedure to help oncologists accurately stage cancers. It is performed as an alternative to full axillary lymph node dissection in breast cancer patients, reducing the risk of longterm health problems associated with lymph node removal. Intraoperative analysis is currently performed using touchprint cytology, which can introduce significant delay into the procedure. Spectral imaging is forming a multi-plane image where reflected intensities from a number of spectral bands are recorded at each pixel in the spatial plane. We investigate the possibility of using spectral imaging to assess sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer patients with a view to eventually developing an optical technique that could significantly reduce the time required to perform this procedure. We investigate previously reported spectra of normal and metastatic tissue in the visible and near infrared region, using them as the basis of dummy spectral images. We analyse these images using the spectral angle map (SAM), a tool routinely used in other fields where spectral imaging is prevalent. We simulate random noise in these images in order to determine whether the SAM can discriminate between normal and metastatic pixels as the quality of the images deteriorates. We show that even in cases where noise levels are up to 20% of the maximum signal, the spectral angle map can distinguish healthy pixels from metastatic. We believe that this makes spectral imaging a good candidate for further study in the development of an optical SLNB.

O'Sullivan, Jack D.; Hoy, Paul R.; Rutt, Harvey N.

2011-07-01

333

Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) in esophageal cancer correlates with lymph node metastasis and poor patient prognosis  

PubMed Central

Background The diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in esophageal cancer by the presence and number of metastatic lymph nodes is an extremely important prognostic factor. In addition, the indication of non-surgical therapy is gaining more attention. Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) is potentially lymphangiogenic and selectively induces hyperplasia of the lymphatic vasculature. In this study, we investigated the expression of VEGF-C and whether it correlated with various clinico-pathologic findings. Methods KYSE series of esophageal cancer cell lines and 106 patients with primary esophageal squamous cell carcinomas who had undergone radical esophagectomy were analyzed. VEGF-C mRNA expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Results High expression of VEGF-C was detected in most of the KYSE cell lines, especially KYSE410, yet, in an esophageal normal epithelium cell line, Het-1A, VEGF-C was not detected. In the clinical specimen, the expression of VEGF-C in the cancerous tissue was higher than in the corresponding noncancerous esophageal mucosa (p = 0.026). The expression of VEGF-C was found to be higher in Stage2B-4A tumors than in Stage0-2A tumors (p = 0.049). When the patients were divided into two groups according to their expression levels of VEGF-C (a group of 53 cases with high expression and a group of 53 cases with low expression), the patients with high VEGF-C expression had significantly shorter survival after surgery than the patients with low expression (p = 0.0065). Although univariate analysis showed that high expression of VEGF-C was a statistically significant prognostic factor, this was not shown in multivariate analysis. In the subgroup of patients with Tis and T1 tumors, the expression of VEGF-C was higher in N1 tumors than in N0 tumors (p = 0.029). The survival rate of patients from the high expression group (n = 10) was lower than that in the low expression group (n = 11), and all the patients in the low VEGF-C expression group survived. Conclusions The expression of VEGF-C correlates with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis. In patients with Tis and T1 esophageal tumors, the expression of VEGF-C may be a good diagnostic factor for determining metastasis of the lymph node. PMID:20584281

2010-01-01

334

Comparative Assessment of Lymph Node Micrometastasis in Cervical, Endometrial and Vulvar Cancer: Insights on the Real Time qRT-PCR Approach versus Immunohistochemistry, Employing Dual Molecular Markers  

PubMed Central

To address the value of qRT-PCR and IHC in accurately detecting lymph node micrometastasis in gynecological cancer, we performed a systematic approach, using a set of dual molecular tumor-specific markers such as cytokeratin 19 (CK19) and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9), in a series of 46 patients (19 with cervical cancer, 18 with endometrial cancer, and 9 with vulvar cancer). A total of 1281 lymph nodes were analyzed and 28 were found positive by histopathology. Following this documentation, 82 lymph nodes, 11 positive and 71 negative, were randomly selected and further analyzed both by IHC and qRT-PCR for CK19 and CA9 expression. All 11 (100%) expressed CK19 by IHC, while only 6 (54.5%) expressed CA9. On the contrary, all the histologically negative for micrometastases lymph nodes were also negative by IHC analysis for both markers. The comparative diagnostic efficacy of the two markers using qRT-PCR, however, disclosed that the analysis of the same aliquots of the 82 lymph nodes led to 100% specificity for the CK19 biomarker, while, in contrast, CA9 failed to recapitulate a similar pattern. These data suggest that qRT-PCR exhibits a better diagnostic accuracy compared to IHC, while CK19 displays a consistent pattern of detection compared to CA9. PMID:24527437

Pappa, Kalliopi I.; Rodolakis, Alexandros; Christodoulou, Ioanna; Gazouli, Maria; Markaki, Sofia; Antsaklis, Aris; Anagnou, Nicholas P.

2014-01-01

335

Anticoagulant medication at time of needle biopsy for breast cancer in relation to risk of lymph node metastasis.  

PubMed

Anticoagulant treatment might enhance the natural defense against tumor cell dissemination caused by diagnostic needle biopsy by counteracting thrombocyte coating of such cells. To clarify whether women using anticoagulant treatment at the time of biopsy have a lower occurrence of lymph node metastasis, we conducted a nationwide Swedish cohort study of 26,528 female incident breast cancer patients in 2006-2011. Point risk ratio (RR) of risk of lymph node metastasis among users of anticoagulant treatment adjusted for age, T-stage, socioeconomic factors, and concomitant medication was RR?=?0.94, (95% CI: 0.87-1.03), and lower in younger women (RR?=?0.80, 95% CI 0.50-1.29). Although nonsignificant, these associations may underestimate a true negative association since women using anticoagulant treatment are likely to have more concomitant diseases, lead an unhealthier lifestyle, and have lower participation in mammography screening. These findings provide some support for the hypothesis that anticoagulant medications might counteract breast cancer spread caused by needle biopsy. PMID:24346771

Ljung, Rickard; Sennerstam, Roland; Mattsson, Fredrik; Auer, Gert; Lagergren, Jesper

2014-07-01

336

Beware of arteria lusoria during lymph node dissection of the right paratracheal fossa for lung cancer surgery  

PubMed Central

An asymptomatic elderly woman presented with a solitary right upper lobe mass revealed to be non-small cell lung cancer following routine surveillance post mastectomy. Upon review of CT with contrast in preparation for rigid bronchoscopy and right upper lobectomy, we noticed that the patient had a rare case of arteria lusoria. This is the presence of an aberrant right subclavian artery extending from the left side of the aortic arch, crossing posteriorly across the midline to supply the upper limb. We suggest that with a documented 100% diagnostic sensitivity on 64 multislice computed tomography, the presence of arteria lusoria within the posterior paratracheal fossa may cause life-threatening complications in the unaware during systematic lymph node dissection for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PMID:25590005

Pan, Daniel; Cufari, Maria Elena

2014-01-01

337

Single Incision Laparoscopic Total Gastrectomy and D2 Lymph Node Dissection for Gastric Cancer Using a Four-Access Single Port: The First Experience  

PubMed Central

Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) have been developed to reduce the invasiveness of laparoscopic surgery. SILS has been frequently applied in various clinical settings, such as cholecystectomy, colectomy, and sleeve gastrectomy. So far, there have been four reports on single incision laparoscopic distal gastrectomy and one report on single incision laparoscopic total gastrectomy with D1 lymph node dissection for gastric cancer. In this report, we present our single incision laparoscopic total gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection technique using a four-hole single port (OctoPort) in a patient with gastric cancer. PMID:24062964

Ozveri, Emel; Gok, Hakan; Ozben, Volkan

2013-01-01

338

Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Cyclophosphamide, and Paclitaxel With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Lymph Node-Positive or High-Risk, Lymph Node-Negative Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

2015-02-09

339

High Frequency of CD8 Positive Lymphocyte Infiltration Correlates with Lack of Lymph Node Involvement in Early Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Aims. A trend towards local excision of early rectal cancers has prompted us to investigate if immunoprofiling might help in predicting lymph node involvement in this subgroup. Methods. A tissue microarray of 126 biopsies of early rectal cancer (T1 and T2) was stained for several immunomarkers of the innate and the adaptive immune response. Patients' survival and nodal status were analyzed and correlated with infiltration of the different immune cells. Results. Of all tested markers, only CD8 (P = 0.005) and TIA-1 (P = 0.05) were significantly more frequently detectable in early rectal cancer biopsies of node negative as compared to node positive patients. Although these two immunomarkers did not display prognostic effect “per se,” CD8+ and, marginally, TIA-1 T cell infiltration could predict nodal involvement in univariate logistic regression analysis (OR 0.994; 95% CI 0.992–0.996; P = 0.009 and OR 0.988; 95% CI 0.984–0.994; P = 0.05, resp.). An algorithm significantly predicting the nodal status in early rectal cancer based on CD8 together with vascular invasion and tumor border configuration could be calculated (P < 0.00001). Conclusion. Our data indicate that in early rectal cancers absence of CD8+ T-cell infiltration helps in predicting patients' nodal involvement. PMID:25609852

Däster, Silvio; Eppenberger-Castori, Serenella; Hirt, Christian; Zlobec, Inti; Delko, Tarik; Nebiker, Christian A.; Soysal, Savas D.; Amicarella, Francesca; Iezzi, Giandomenica; Sconocchia, Giuseppe; Heberer, Michael; Lugli, Alessandro; Spagnoli, Giulio C.; Kettelhack, Christoph; Terracciano, Luigi; Oertli, Daniel; von Holzen, Urs; Tornillo, Luigi; Droeser, Raoul A.

2014-01-01

340

Missed nodal metastases in breast-cancer.  

PubMed

The routine use of immunohistochemistry has been suggested in the examination of the axillary nodes from patients with node-negative breast cancer in order to detect possible micrometastases. In this study, comprising 70 axillary specimens, we found missed micrometastases in 5 lymph nodes from a total of 40 cases following staining with epithelial membrane antigen. These metastases were also visible in the original haematoxylin and eosin stained slides, but missed on first examination. This makes a total of 10% of the cases, but only 0.8% of the nodes examined. Due to the increased expense of immunohistochemistry we would not recommend it as a routine in the examination of the axillary specimens. Until the prognostic significance of such deposits has been clearly defined we recommend hilar sectioning of the nodes, i.e. targeting of the sites of choice for micrometastases, and a second look at the slides from 'node-negative' cases, before they are reported. PMID:21566995

Hartveit, F; Lilleng, P

1994-04-01

341

Identification of tumor-binding scFv derived from clonally related B cells in tumor and lymph node of a patient with breast cancer.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the clonal relationship between B cells within a breast cancer and the B cells in the tumor-draining lymph node (TDLN). We also determined the binding capacity of antibodies derived from these sources to autologous cancer and autologous noncancer breast tissue. Antibody clonality of B cells derived from tumor and lymph node was determined by analyzing heavy and light chain immunoglobulin sequences. The number of shared clonal groups observed between tumor and lymph node antibodies was significant for both heavy (p = 0.004) and light chain (p = 0.012) populations. Panning with phage-displayed single-chain variable fragment libraries derived from the tumor and lymph node B cells resulted in multiple antibodies that bound autologous tumor. Sequence analysis of enriched antibodies recovered after the third round of panning the tumor and TDLN libraries against autologous tumor lysates had a genetic relationship. These results indicate that B cells infiltrating a patient's breast cancer and B cells present in the tumor-draining lymph node are clonally and functionally related. PMID:25261355

Novinger, Leah J; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Krag, David N

2015-01-01

342

Automatic detection of axillary lymphadenopathy on CT scans of untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have an increased frequency of axillary lymphadenopathy. Pretreatment CT scans can be used to upstage patients at the time of presentation and post-treatment CT scans can reduce the number of complete responses. In the current clinical workflow, the detection and diagnosis of lymph nodes is usually performed manually by examining all slices of CT images, which can be time consuming and highly dependent on the observer's experience. A system for automatic lymph node detection and measurement is desired. We propose a computer aided detection (CAD) system for axillary lymph nodes on CT scans in CLL patients. The lung is first automatically segmented and the patient's body in lung region is extracted to set the search region for lymph nodes. Multi-scale Hessian based blob detection is then applied to detect potential lymph nodes within the search region. Next, the detected potential candidates are segmented by fast level set method. Finally, features are calculated from the segmented candidates and support vector machine (SVM) classification is utilized for false positive reduction. Two blobness features, Frangi's and Li's, are tested and their free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curves are generated to assess system performance. We applied our detection system to 12 patients with 168 axillary lymph nodes measuring greater than 10 mm. All lymph nodes are manually labeled as ground truth. The system achieved sensitivities of 81% and 85% at 2 false positives per patient for Frangi's and Li's blobness, respectively.

Liu, Jiamin; Hua, Jeremy; Chellappa, Vivek; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Farooqui, Mohammed; Marti, Gerald; Wiestner, Adrian; Summers, Ronald M.

2012-03-01

343

Treatment plan for breast cancer with sentinel node metastasis  

PubMed Central

Lymph node involvement is considered to be one of the most important independent prognostic factors in breast cancer. In patients without palpable lymphadenopathies, the method of choice for determining this involvement is the sentinel lymph node biopsy. In the presence of macrometastases, the current standard is to perform axillary lymph node dissection in spite of the knowledge that the involvement of non-sentinel lymph nodes is approximately 50%. When lymph node involvement is micrometastasic, the decision as to whether or not to proceed with lymphadenectomy remains in dispute. We set out, on the basis of the current scientific evidence and our own experience, to create guidelines that allow us to individualise each case and decide whether or not to perform a lymphadenectomy. We will discuss the arguments that support our position. PMID:24478806

Abreu, Efrén Bolívar; Martinez, Pedro; Betancourt, Luis; Romero, Gabriel; Godoy, Ali; Bergamo, Laura

2014-01-01

344

Nodal Ratios in Node-Positive Breast Cancer-Long-Term Study to Clarify Discrepancy of Role of Supraclavicular and Axillary Regional Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To study the absolute number of involved nodes/the number of nodes examined or the nodal ratio (NR) in breast cancer. The primary study endpoint was to evaluate the role of supraclavicular and axillary radiotherapy (SART) according to the NR. Methods and Materials: From the Saskatchewan provincial registry of 1981-1995, the charts of 5,996 consecutive patients were retrieved to collect detailed prognostic factors. Among these patients, 1,985 were node positive. Because the NRs are more reliable the greater the number of nodes examined, we analyzed 1,255 patients with {>=}10 nodes examined. Of these 1,255 patients, 667, 389, and 199 were categorized into three NR groups-low ({<=}25%), medium (>25% to {<=}75%), and high (>75%) nodal involvement, respectively. Results: The NR correlated significantly with the primary tumor size ({<=}2 cm, >2 to {<=}5 cm, and >5 cm; p = 2.2 x 10{sup -16}), clinical stage group (p = 5.5 x 10{sup -16}), pathologic stage group (p < 2.2 x 10{sup -16}), and the risk of any first recurrence (p = 5.0 x 10{sup -15}) using chi-square tests. For a low NR, the 10-year overall survival rate with and without SART was 57% and 58% (p 0.18), and the cause-specific survival rate was 68% and 71% (p = 0.32), respectively. For a medium NR, the 10-year overall survival rate with and without SART was 48% and 34% (p = 0.007), and the cause-specific survival rate was 57% and 43% (p = 0.002), respectively. For a high NR, the 10-year overall survival rate with and without SART was 19% and 10% (p = 0.005), and the cause-specific survival rate was 26% and 14% (p = 0.005), respectively. Conclusion: This is the first study demonstrating that for patients with {>=}10 nodes examined, SART significantly improved the survival for the median and high NR groups but not for the low NR group.

Tai, Patricia [Department of Oncology, Allan Blair Cancer Center, University of Saskatchewan, Regina, SK (Canada)]. E-mail: patricia.tai@scf.sk.ca; Joseph, Kurian [Department of Oncology, Cross Cancer Center, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Sadikov, Evgeny [Department of Oncology, Allan Blair Cancer Center, University of Saskatchewan, Regina, SK (Canada); Mahmood, Shazia [Department of Oncology, Allan Blair Cancer Center, University of Saskatchewan, Regina, SK (Canada); Lien, Francis [Department of Oncology, Allan Blair Cancer Center, University of Saskatchewan, Regina, SK (Canada); Yu, Edward [Radiation Oncology Program, London Regional Cancer Center, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada)

2007-07-01

345

Correlation of Point B and Lymph Node Dose in 3D-Planned High-Dose-Rate Cervical Cancer Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare high dose rate (HDR) point B to pelvic lymph node dose using three-dimensional-planned brachytherapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients with FIGO Stage IB-IIIB cervical cancer received 70 tandem HDR applications using CT-based treatment planning. The obturator, external, and internal iliac lymph nodes (LN) were contoured. Per fraction (PF) and combined fraction (CF) right (R), left (L), and bilateral (Bil) nodal doses were analyzed. Point B dose was compared with LN dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters by paired t test and Pearson correlation coefficients. Results: Mean PF and CF doses to point B were R 1.40 Gy +- 0.14 (CF: 7 Gy), L 1.43 +- 0.15 (CF: 7.15 Gy), and Bil 1.41 +- 0.15 (CF: 7.05 Gy). The correlation coefficients between point B and the D100, D90, D50, D2cc, D1cc, and D0.1cc LN were all less than 0.7. Only the D2cc to the obturator and the D0.1cc to the external iliac nodes were not significantly different from the point B dose. Significant differences between R and L nodal DVHs were seen, likely related to tandem deviation from irregular tumor anatomy. Conclusions: With HDR brachytherapy for cervical cancer, per fraction nodal dose approximates a dose equivalent to teletherapy. Point B is a poor surrogate for dose to specific nodal groups. Three-dimensional defined nodal contours during brachytherapy provide a more accurate reflection of delivered dose and should be part of comprehensive planning of the total dose to the pelvic nodes, particularly when there is evidence of pathologic involvement.

Lee, Larissa J. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Sadow, Cheryl A. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Russell, Anthony [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Viswanathan, Akila N., E-mail: aviswanathan@lroc.harvard.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

2009-11-01

346

Is extended-field concurrent chemoradiation an option for radiologic negative paraaortic lymph node, locally advanced cervical cancer?  

PubMed Central

Background The aim was to evaluate whether extended-field concurrent chemoradiation (EF-CCRT) leads to results better than those obtained by standard whole-pelvis concurrent chemoradiation (WP-CCRT) in locally advanced cervical cancer with radiologic negative paraaortic lymph nodes (PALNs). Patients and methods A total of 102 patients with histopathologically proven squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, or adenosquamous cell carcinoma, and radiologic negative PALN locally advanced cervical cancer, stage IIB-IVA, were accrued between July 2007 and April 2008 and were randomly assigned to WP-CCRT (50 patients) or EF-CCRT (52 patients), followed by high-dose rate brachytherapy. Data regarding the safety profile, response rates, and occurrence of local, PALN, or distant failure were recorded. Results During a median follow-up time of 60 months (18–66), 74/102 patients completed the treatment protocol and were analyzed. Overall PALN, distant-metastasis control, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were 97.1%, 86.9%, 80.3%, and 72.4% in EF-CCRT respectively in comparison with WP-CCRT (82.1%,74.7%, 69.1%, and 60.4%), with P-values of 0.02, 0.03, 0.03 and 0.04 respectively. No difference in acute toxicity profile was seen between the groups, and late toxicities were mild and minimal. Conclusion Prophylactic EF-CCRT can be a reasonable option in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer with radiologic positive pelvic lymph nodes and radiologic negative PALN. PMID:25228820

Asiri, Mushabbab Al; Tunio, Mutahir A; Mohamed, Reham; Bayoumi, Yasser; Alhadab, Abdulrehman; Saleh, Rasha M; AlArifi, Muhannad Saud; Alobaid, Abdelaziz

2014-01-01

347

Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression as a Predictor of Para-Aortic Lymph Node Recurrence in Uterine Cervical Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is associated with a worse prognosis and the development of distant metastases in cervical cancer. This matched-pair analysis examined whether COX-2 expression is associated with para-aortic lymph node (PALN) recurrence in uterine cervical cancer treated with radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: For this study, we matched 20 patients with PALN recurrence after definitive or postoperative RT by stage with 20 others who did not have PALN recurrence. Of the 20 patients with PALN recurrence, definitive or postoperative RT was performed in 11 and 9 patients, respectively. COX-2 expression was assessed immunohistochemically using a mouse monoclonal antibody on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor specimens taken before RT. A logistic regression model was used to predict for PALN recurrence. Results: COX-2 was expressed in 28 (70%) of the 40 patients. The staining intensity was as follows: weak in 19 (47%), moderate in 6 (15%), and strong in 3 (8%) patients. The patients with PALN recurrence had much greater expression of COX-2 (17 patients, 85%) than did the control group (11 patients, 55%; p = 0.04). Strong staining intensity of COX-2 was seen only in the PALN recurrence group. The statistically significant factors associated with PALN recurrence were positive pelvic lymph nodes (odds ratio, 7.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.55-37.37; p = 0.01) and COX-2 expression (odds ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.09; p = 0.03). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that COX-2 overexpression in the initial tumor tissue might be associated with PALN recurrence after RT in cervical cancer patients.

Kim, Jun-Sang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: k423j@cnu.ac.kr; Li Shengjin [Department of Pathology, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin-Man [Cancer Research Institute, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pathology, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, Seung-Gu; Kim, Ki-Hwan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Moon-June [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2008-04-01

348

Recursive Partitioning Analysis of Mediastinal N2 Lymph Node Involvement with Selected Biological Markers in Operable Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: A Correlative Study  

PubMed Central

Background Expressions of various biomarkers in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been linked with the prognosis and involvement of mediastinal lymph nodes. Methods In this study, we utilized recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) by using P53, c-erb-B2, and P-glycoprotein (PGP) expressions evaluated by immunohistochemistry to estimate retrospectively the likelihood of the occult N2 mediastinal lymph node involvement in patients with operable NSCLC. Results In univariate tests, immunohistochemical staining of the primary tumor for these 3 markers in 61 patients undergoing surgery revealed no direct relationship with the N2 involvement. However, RPA demonstrated in patients aged <75 and with ?4 mediastinal lymph nodes removed that, high PGP expression frequency (?20%) predicted an increased likelihood of the N2 involvement (46.7%, R2 = 0.25). Univariate nominal logistic regression analysis revealed that RPA group affiliation, and the number of mediastinal lymph nodes resected (logarithmic transformation) were associated with the metastasis to N2 lymph nodes (?2 = 17.59, p = 0.0005, and ?2 = 2.40, p = 0.0654, respectively). Multivariate analysis confirmed that only RPA group affiliation predicted the N2 involvement (?2 = 14.63, p = 0.0022). Conclusion This study shows for the first time that PGP expression of the primary tumor may help to predict the occult N2 mediastinal lymph node involvement in NSCLC. Thus, further research is required to understand whether PGP expression may aid in the decision process for preoperative mediastinoscopy. PMID:19662216

Bozcuk, H; Gumus, A; Ozbilim, G; Sarper, A; Kucukosmanoglu, I; Ozdogan, M; Demircan, A

2007-01-01

349

Intraoperative Subareolar Radioisotope Injection for Immediate Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the identification of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast cancer patients after intraoperative injection of unfiltered technetium-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-99) and blue dye. Background: SLNB guided by a combination of radioisotope and blue dye injection yields the best identification rates in breast cancer patients. Radioisotope is given preoperatively, without local anesthesia, whereas blue dye is given intraoperatively. We hypothesized that, because of the rapid drainage noted with the subareolar injection technique of radioisotope, intraoperative injection would be feasible and less painful for SLN localization in breast cancer patients. Methods: Intraoperative injection of Tc-99 and confirmation blue dye was performed using the subareolar technique for SLNB in patients with operable breast cancer. The time lapse between injection and axillary incision, the background count, the preincision and ex vivo counts of the hot nodes, and the axillary bed counts were documented. The identification rate was recorded. Results: Ninety-six SLNB procedures were done in 88 patients with breast cancer employing intraoperative subareolar injection technique for both radioisotope (all 96 procedures) and blue dye (93 procedures) injections. Ninety-three (97%) procedures had successful identification; all SLNs were hot; 91 (of 93 procedures with blue dye) were blue and hot. The mean time from radioisotope injection to incision was 19.9 minutes (SD 8.5 minutes). The mean highest 10 second count was 88,544 (SD 55,954). Three of 96 (3%) patients with failure of localization had previous excisional biopsies: 1 circumareolar and 2 upper outer quadrant incisions that may have disrupted the lymphatic flow. Conclusion: Intraoperative subareolar injection of radioisotope rapidly drains to the SLNs and allows immediate staging of the axilla, avoiding the need to coordinate diagnostic services and a painful preoperative procedure. PMID:15166963

Layeeque, Rakhshanda; Kepple, Julie; Henry-Tillman, Ronda S.; Adkins, Laura; Kass, Rena; Colvert, Maureen; Gibson, Regina; Mancino, Anne; Korourian, Soheila; Klimberg, V Suzanne

2004-01-01

350

Identification of EGFR expression status association with metastatic lymph node density (ND) by expression microarray analysis of advanced gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Metastatic lymph node density (ND) has been reproducibly proven to be a prognostic factor in gastric cancer. The molecular mechanisms that underlie this aggressiveness are underexplored. Here, we aimed to identify molecules associated with this unique phenotype. Tumor specimens from patients with stage III gastric cancer with high or low ND (n = 4 for both) were compared at the mRNA level using Affymetrix microarray (harboring 54,675 genes). The expression data were prioritized, and genes that correlated with ND were selected. Ultimately, the EGFR was validated as such a candidate molecule in patients with primary advanced gastric cancer who underwent standard treatment (n = 167). Expression data of the microarray were prioritized based on gene expression ratio and frequency of gene expression. The first priority genes to be selected were genes that are known to be amplified in cancer, which included NKX2.1, CHST9, CTNND2, SLC25A27, FGFR2, EGFR, and PTGER1. Of these genes, the EGFR gene was of particular interest. EGFR expression in primary gastric cancer was examined using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The Student's t-test elucidated a significant difference in EGFR expression between IHC 2+/3+ and IHC 1+ according to ND (P = 0.0035). The Chi-square test also indicated a significant difference between high and low levels of EGFR immunohistochemical staining (IHC2+/3+ and IHC1+, respectively) and ND status (P = 0.0023). According to the least squares method, as ND increased, the risk that EGFR staining levels changed from IHC 1+ to IHC 2+ also increased. In this study, we determined that high EGFR expression may underlie the aggressive mechanism of advanced gastric cancer with high ND. PMID:25154973

Ema, Akira; Waraya, Mina; Yamashita, Keishi; Kokubo, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Hirosuke; Hoshi, Keika; Shinkai, Yoshiko; Kawamata, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kazunori; Nishimiya, Hiroshi; Katada, Natsuya; Watanabe, Masahiko

2015-01-01

351

[(11)C]Acetate positron emission tomography-computed tomography imaging of prostate cancer lymph-node metastases correlated with histopathological findings after extended lymphadenectomy.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective.The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of combined [(11)C]acetate positron emission tomography and computed tomography ([(11)C]acetate-PET/CT) in regional lymph-node staging in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). Material and methods. [(11)C]Acetate-PET/CT was performed in 19 PCa patients who subsequently underwent extended pelvic lymph-node dissection (ePLND). The [(11)C]acetate-PET/CT results were compared with the surgical and histopathological findings from 13 defined lymph-node regions. Results.[(11)C]Acetate-PET/CT was true-positive for lymph-node metastases in nine patients, false-positive in three, false-negative in one patient and true-negative in six. The patient-by-patient-based sensitivity was 90% and the specificity 67%, the positive predictive value (PPV) was 75% and the negative predictive value (NPV) 86%. From a total of 114 nodal regions (mean 5.9 regions per patient), 484 lymph nodes (mean 25.5 nodes per patient) were removed and evaluated histopathologically. Forty-six lymph nodes from 24 out of 114 (21%) nodal regions were positive for PCa metastasis. The nodal-region-based sensitivity of [(11)C]acetate-PET/CT was 62%, specificity was 89%, PPV 62% and NPV 89%. Conclusion. [(11)C]Acetate-PET/CT detects PCa lymph-node metastases with high patient-by-patient-based sensitivity but low specificity, and low nodal-region-based sensitivity but high specificity. Its limited ability to detect microscopic lymph-node involvement makes ePLND essential in all patients diagnosed with positive nodes on [(11)C]acetate-PET/CT. PMID:25001948

Schumacher, Martin C; Radecka, Eva; Hellström, Magnus; Jacobsson, Hans; Sundin, Anders

2015-02-01

352

Correlation between Duffy blood group phenotype and breast cancer incidence  

PubMed Central

Background Different ethnicities have different distribution of Duffy blood group (DBG) phenotypes and different breast cancer morbidity. A study in our lab demonstrated that Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines (DARC, also known as DBGP, the Duffy protein phenotype), led to the inhibition of tumorigenesis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that DBGP is correlated with breast cancer occurrence. Methods DBGP proteins were examined by indirect antiglobulin testing with anti-FYa and anti-FYb antibodies. The phenotypes were classified into four groups according to the agglutination reactions: FYa + FYb+, FYa + FYb-, FYa-FYb + and FYa-FYb-. The phenotypes and pathological diagnosis of consecutively hospitalized female patients (n = 5,022) suffering from breast cancer at the Shanghai Cancer Hospital and Henan Province Cancer Hospital were investigated. The relationships between DBGP expression with breast cancer occurrence, axillary lymph status, histological subtype, tumor size pathological grade and overall survival were analyzed. Results The incidence of breast cancer was significantly different between FYa + FYb + (29.8%), FYa + FYb- (33.2%), FYa-FYb + (45.6%) and FYa-FYb- (59.1%; P = 0.001). Significant different numbers of breast cancer patients had metastases to the axillary lymph nodes in the FYa + FYb + group (25.1%), FYa + FYb- (36.9%), FYa-FYb + (41.0%) and FYa-FYb- (50.0%, (P = 0.005). There was a statistical significance (p = 0.022) of the overall survival difference between patients with difference phenotypes. No significant difference was observed in cancer size (t-test, p > 0.05), histological cancer type (Fisher's exact test, p > 0.05) or histological grade (Fisher's exact test, p > 0.05) between every each DBGP group. Conclusions DBGP is correlated with breast cancer incidence and axillary lymph node metastasis and overall survival. Further investigations are required to determine the underlying mechanism of Duffy blood group phenotype on breast cancer risk. PMID:22928984

2012-01-01

353

Elevated expression of syntenin in breast cancer is correlated with lymph node metastasis and poor patient survival  

PubMed Central

Introduction Syntenin is a scaffolding-PDZ domain-containing protein. Although it is reported that syntenin is associated with melanoma growth and metastasis, the possible role of syntenin in breast cancer has not been well elucidated. The present study investigated the expression and function of syntenin in breast cancer. Methods Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blots were used to determine the mRNA and protein expression of syntenin. With a combination of overexpression and RNA interference, the effect of syntenin on migration, invasion, and ERK1/2 activation was examined in breast cancer cell lines. The effect of syntenin in vivo was assessed with an orthotropic xenograft tumor model in BALB/c nu/nu mice. In addition, the expression level of syntenin in clinical breast cancer tissues was evaluated with immunohistochemistry. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve was used to evaluate patient survival, and the Cox proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analysis. Results Our study showed that syntenin expression was upregulated in high-metastasis breast cancer cell lines and breast cancer tissues. Overexpression of syntenin in breast cancer cells promoted cell migration and invasion in vitro. Moreover, overexpression of syntenin promoted breast tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo. We further showed that activation of integrin ?1 and ERK1/2 was required for syntenin-mediated migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. The correlation between syntenin expression and tumor size (P = 0.011), lymph node status (P = 0.001), and recurrence (P = 0.002) was statistically significant. More important, syntenin expression in primary tumors was significantly related to patients' overall survival (OS; P = 0.023) and disease-free survival (DFS; P = 0.001). Its status was an independent prognostic factor of OS (P = 0.049) and DFS (P = 0.002) in our cohort of patients. Conclusions These results suggest that syntenin plays a significant role in breast cancer progression, and it warrants further investigation as a candidate molecular marker of breast cancer metastasis and a potential therapeutic target. PMID:23786877

2013-01-01

354

Position determine system for lymph node relating breast cancer using a high- Tc SQUID  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of a lymph-node detection system used with a high- Tc superconducting quantum interference device was investigated. Ultra-small iron oxide particles containing 360 pg in weight of iron could be detected at a distance of 1 mm using Helmholtz coils. When a pair of angled field coils, which were of a more practical design, were used this value was increased to 2.8 ng. This value is still large enough to apply the technique for sentinel-node biopsy and lymphatic mapping.

Tanaka, Saburo; Ota, Hajime; Kondo, Yoichi; Tamaki, Yasuhiro; Noguchi, Shinzaburo; Hasegawa, Masakatsu

2002-03-01

355

Immunohistochemically defined subtypes and outcome in occult breast carcinoma with axillary presentation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcome of occult breast cancer (OBC) in patients with axillary presentation overall and according to the immunohistochemically defined tumour subtypes. We reviewed information on 15,490 consecutive primary breast cancer patients, who underwent surgery at the European institute of oncology between September 1997 and December 2008. Patients with OBC were compared with an equal number of patients with small invasive breast carcinomas (pT1) observed at the same institution during the same period, matched for year of surgery, age, nodal status and biological features. Eighty patients with OBC (study group) and 80 patients with early breast cancer (control group) were identified. There was no significant difference in the disease-free survival (5 years DFS 66 vs. 68% P = 0.91) and the overall survival (5 years OS 80 and 86% P = 0.99) between the OBC and control groups. A statistically significant worse outcome was observed within the group of OBC for patients with more than four involved lymph nodes and with triple negative tumours. The outcome of OBC patients is comparable with that of matched patients with small sized breast cancer. High risk of relapse and death was observed in OBC patients with triple negative tumours and extensive nodal involvement. PMID:21822638

Montagna, Emilia; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Rotmensz, Nicole; Viale, Giuseppe; Cancello, Giuseppe; Mazza, Manuelita; Cardillo, Anna; Ghisini, Raffaella; Galimberti, Viviana; Veronesi, Paolo; Monti, Simonetta; Luini, Alberto; Raviele, Paola Rafaniello; Mastropasqua, Mauro Giuseppe; Goldhirsch, Aron; Colleoni, Marco

2011-10-01

356

[A case of paraaortic lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer resistant to chemotherapy successfully treated with chemoradiation therapy].  

PubMed

We report a case of recurrent gastric cancer with paraaortic lymph nodes (No.16LNs) that was effectively controlled with chemoradiation therapy. A 63-year-old man underwent distal gastrectomy, cholecystectomy, and D2 dissection in July 2004 for advanced gastric cancer in the lower third area that was diagnosed as moderately differentiated stage II adenocarcinoma [T1(SM), N2, H0, P0, CY0, M0]. He suffered from No.16LNs metastasis with serum CEA elevation in October 2007, and therefore, 4 courses of S-1, followed by 3 courses of CPT-11 as second-line treatment, 14 courses of docetaxel as third-line treatment, and 15 courses of paclitaxel+cisplatin as fourth-line chemotherapy, were administrated. Enlargement of No.16LNs with serum CEA elevation was observed in October 2010. Other metastases were not observed, and hence, chemoradiotherapy (CRT; S-1: 80 mg/body+total of 65 Gy per 26 Fr) for No.16LNs was performed. A partial response and reduction of serum CEA level were noted, and the patient is alive with no sign of progression 18 months after CRT. Grade 1 adverse events including anemia, fatigue, and anorexia were recognized. It is thought that chemoradiation therapy is an effective treatment for localized LN metastasis originating from gastric cancer resistant to chemotherapy. PMID:23268065

Kimura, Yutaka; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Fujita, Shoichiro; Kim, Chiwan; Danno, Katsuki; Kanoh, Toshiyuki; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Ohnishi, Tadashi; Tono, Takeshi; Yamada, Yuji; Kagawa, Kazufumi; Monden, Takushi; Imaoka, Shingi

2012-11-01

357

Overexpression of Snail is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a significant role in tumor progression and invasion. Snail is a known regulator of EMT in various malignant tumors. This study investigated the role of Snail in gastric cancer. Methods We examined the effects of silenced or overexpressed Snail using lenti-viral constructs in gastric cancer cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarrays from 314 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (GC) was used to determine Snail’s clinicopathological and prognostic significance. Differential gene expression in 45 GC specimens with Snail overexpression was investigated using cDNA microarray analysis. Results Silencing of Snail by shRNA decreased invasion and migration in GC cell lines. Conversely, Snail overexpression increased invasion and migration of gastric cancer cells, in line with increased VEGF and MMP11. Snail overexpression (?75% positive nuclear staining) was also significantly associated with tumor progression (P?lymph node metastases (P?=?0.002), lymphovascular invasion (P?=?0.002), and perineural invasion (P?=?0.002) in the 314 GC patients, and with shorter survival (P?=?0.023). cDNA microarray analysis revealed 213 differentially expressed genes in GC tissues with Snail overexpression, including genes related to metastasis and invasion. Conclusion Snail significantly affects invasiveness/migratory ability of GCs, and may also be used as a predictive biomarker for prognosis or aggressiveness of GCs. PMID:23151184

2012-01-01

358

Use of Indocyanine Green for Detecting the Sentinel Lymph Node in Breast Cancer Patients: From Preclinical Evaluation to Clinical Validation  

PubMed Central

Assessment of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) in patients with early stage breast cancer is vital in selecting the appropriate surgical approach. However, the existing methods, including methylene blue and nuclides, possess low efficiency and effectiveness in mapping SLNs, and to a certain extent exert side effects during application. Indocyanine green (ICG), as a fluorescent dye, has been proved reliable usage in SLN detection by several other groups. In this paper, we introduce a novel surgical navigation system to detect SLN with ICG. This system contains two charge-coupled devices (CCD) to simultaneously capture real-time color and fluorescent video images through two different bands. During surgery, surgeons only need to follow the fluorescence display. In addition, the system saves data automatically during surgery enabling surgeons to find the registration point easily according to image recognition algorithms. To test our system, 5 mice and 10 rabbits were used for the preclinical setting and 22 breast cancer patients were utilized for the clinical evaluation in our experiments. The detection rate was 100% and an average of 2.7 SLNs was found in 22 patients. Our results show that the usage of our surgical navigation system with ICG to detect SLNs in breast cancer patients is technically feasible. PMID:24358319

Chi, Chongwei; Ye, Jinzuo; Ding, Haolong; He, De; Huang, Wenhe; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Tian, Jie

2013-01-01

359

p53 overexpression in lymph node metastases predicts clinical outcome in ductal pancreatic cancer.  

PubMed

In this study, we evaluated the prognostic significance of both p53 overexpression and proliferating activity in 133 primary ductal pancreatic carcinomas and in their regional synchronous lymph node metastases by immunohistochemistry, by using DO7 and MIB1 monoclonal antibodies, respectively. Tumor samples and lymph nodes were obtained from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival material of patients operated on between 1976 and 1996. Patients had a well-documented clinical history and were given accurate follow-up. p53 accumulation was observed in 77 (54%) of 133 primary tumors and in 22 (44%) of 50 patients with nodal metastases. The p53 overexpression was directly related to proliferating activity (p = 0.01) in the primary tumors. A significant direct correlation was present between the p53 expression in the primary tumor and in nodal metastases (p = 0.01); the same occurred for proliferating activity by MIB1 (p = 0.002). The patients' overall survival was affected by the presence of nodal (p = 0.02) and distant (p = 0.0001) metastases. The p53 immunoreactivity in nodal metastases was associated with a statistically significant decrease in the postoperative survival period (p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis confirmed these results, and the only two parameters that maintained statistical significance were M1 status (p = 0.0006) and p53 overexpression in nodal metastases (p = 0.01). PMID:10416688

Campani, D; Boggi, U; Cecchetti, D; Esposito, I; Ceccarelli, F; D'Antonio, L; De Negri, F; Mosca, F; Bevilacqua, G; Fornaciari, G

1999-07-01

360

Cost-effectiveness of sentinel lymph node biopsy vs inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy in women with vulval cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: This study examines the cost-effectiveness of sentinel lymph node biopsy, a potentially less morbid procedure, compared with inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy (IFL) among women with stage I and stage II vulval squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: A model-based economic evaluation was undertaken based on clinical evidence from a systematic review of published sources. A decision tree model was developed with the structure being informed by clinical input, taking the perspective of the health-care provider. Results: For overall survival for 2 years, IFL was found to be the most cost-effective option and dominated all other strategies, being the least costly and most effective. For morbidity-free related outcomes for 2 years, sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy with 99mTc and blue dye and haematoxylin & eosin (H&E) histopathology, with ultrastaging and immunohistochemistry reserved for those that test negative following H&E is likely to be the most effective approach. Conclusion: SLN biopsy using 99mTc and blue dye with ultrastaging may be considered the most cost-effective strategy based on the outcome of survival free of morbidity for 2 years. The findings here also indicate that using blue dye and H&E for the identification of the SLN and the identification of metastasis, respectively, are not sensitive enough to be used on their own. PMID:24129233

Sutton, A J; Barton, P; Sundar, S; Meads, C; Rosenthal, A N; Baldwin, P; Khan, K; Roberts, T E

2013-01-01

361

Lymphotropic nanoparticle-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (LNMRI) identifies occult lymph node metastases in prostate cancer patients prior to salvage radiation therapy.  

PubMed

Twenty-six patients with prostate cancer status post-radical prostatectomy who were candidates for salvage radiation therapy (SRT) underwent lymphotropic nanoparticle enhanced MRI (LNMRI) using superparamagnetic nanoparticle ferumoxtran-10. LNMRI was well tolerated, with only two adverse events, both Grade 2. Six (23%) of the 26 patients, previously believed to be node negative, tested lymph node positive by LNMRI. A total of nine positive lymph nodes were identified in these six patients, none of which were enlarged based on size criteria. PMID:19559353

Ross, Robert W; Zietman, Anthony L; Xie, Wanling; Coen, John J; Dahl, Douglas M; Shipley, William U; Kaufman, Donald S; Islam, Tina; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Weissleder, Ralph; Harisinghani, Mukesh

2009-01-01