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1

Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... spread to other parts of the body. During breast surgery, some axillary nodes may be removed to see ... G. Komen ® . Related fact sheets in this series: • Breast Cancer Surgery • Lymphedema • Prognostic Factors ©2013 Susan G. Komen ® Item ...

2

[Postoperative axillary-lymph-node recurrence in breast cancer patients].  

PubMed

We investigated 13 cases of axillary-lymph-node recurrence, who received an operation for an early stage breast cancer. They are the first recurrence of only regional without metastatic disease; the 4 patients, who had sentinel-lymph-node by biopsy at first operation, received an axillary lymph adenectomy, and 5 patients received re-lymph-adectomy after axillary lymph node dissection. The other 4 patients received only systemic therapy. Receptor conversion between primary and lymph-node recurrent site was identified for ER in 2 patients; one showed a lower expression of ER and the other showed for HER2. These led to a change in the subsequent treatment plan; 6 patients had systemic chemotherapy after recurrence, 1 patient had endocrine, 2 patients had trastuzumab and 4 patients continued the same treatment prior to surgery. Ten out of 13 patients were alive without recurrence, and 3 patients were with distant metastasis. However, one of the 3 patients who had a distant metastasis died due to brain and lung metastasis. Axillary node recurrence should be treated with axillary dissection, if possible, and receptor measurement in primary and recurrent site is useful for subsequent treatment. PMID:22202321

Yoshioka, Setsuko; Maeura, Yoshiichi; Hojou, Shigeyuki; Toyoda, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Kaori; Fujie, Yujiro; Fukunaga, Hiroki; Ota, Hirofumi; Endo, Wakio

2011-11-01

3

Factors Predicting the Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Breast Cancer: Is Axillary Node Clearance Indicated in Every Breast Cancer Patient?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was carried out to find out predictors of axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer and to evaluate its significance\\u000a in selecting the group of patients in whom axillary dissection could be avoided. Ninety-five breast cancer patients who underwent\\u000a mastectomy and axillary dissection were included in the study. Factors like patient’s age, tumor size, histopathological type,\\u000a histological grade

Amrut V. Ashturkar; Gayatri S. Pathak; Sanjay D. Deshmukh; Harshal T. Pandave

4

[Axillary lymph node irradiation in breast cancer: state of the art].  

PubMed

Place of axillary radiotherapy in the management of patients with breast cancer remains debated. While the prognostic value of axillary lymph node extension has been largely demonstrated, the benefit of axillary treatment is more uncertain. Large clinical trials having demonstrated the benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy in advanced breast cancer comprised large nodal irradiation, including axillary area. Analyzing the true benefit of axillary radiotherapy is rendered difficult by heterogeneity of series, particularly when focusing on the extent of lymph node dissection. Although adjuvant axillary radiotherapy is usually recommended in patients with insufficient lymph node dissection or with bulky axillary involvement, the prognosis in these patients remains poor by metastatic evolution and such strategy exposes to increased toxicity and functional sequels. Further assessments should better define the optimal indications and the true benefit of axillary radiotherapy. PMID:22450226

Auberdiac, Pierre; Chargari, Cyrus; Cartier, Lysian; Zioueche, Amira; Mélis, Adrien; de Laroche, Guy; Kirova, Youlia; Magné, Nicolas

2012-04-01

5

Axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer utilizing Harmonic Focus®  

PubMed Central

Background For patients with axillary lymph node metastases from breast cancer, performance of a complete axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is the standard approach. Due to the rich lymphatic network in the axilla, it is necessary to carefully dissect and identify all lymphatic channels. Traditionally, these lymphatics are sealed with titanium clips or individually sutured. Recently, the Harmonic Focus®, a hand-held ultrasonic dissector, allows lymphatics to be sealed without the utilization of clips or ties. We hypothesize that ALND performed with the Harmonic Focus® will decrease operative time and reduce post-operative complications. Methods Retrospective review identified all patients who underwent ALND at a teaching hospital between January of 2005 and December of 2009. Patient demographics, presenting pathology, treatment course, operative time, days to drain removal, and surgical complications were recorded. Comparisons were made to a selected control group of patients who underwent similar surgical procedures along with an ALND performed utilizing hemostatic clips and electrocautery. A total of 41 patients were included in this study. Results Operative time was not improved with the use of ultrasonic dissection, however, there was a decrease in the total number of days that closed suction drainage was required, although this was not statistically significant. Complication rates were similar between the two groups. Conclusion In this case-matched retrospective review, there were fewer required days of closed suction drainage when ALND was performed with ultrasonic dissection versus clips and electrocautery.

2011-01-01

6

Predicting the status of axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer: a multiparameter approach including axillary ultrasound scanning.  

PubMed

In a prospective study, we attempted to predict axillary metastases in 135 breast cancer patients by a preoperative multiparameter evaluation including axillary ultrasound scanning (US). After surgery, factors associated with lymph node metastases by univariate analysis were included in a multivariate model. By multivariate analysis, the stronger independent predictors of lymph node metastases were suspicious axillary US (p<0.001), tumor location in the outer quadrants (p=0.001) and high Ki-67 index (>10%) (p=0.002). A predictive model based on these variables, identified a high-risk group (20.0%) represented by women with suspicious axillary US, tumor in the outer quadrants and high Ki-67 index, with axillary metastases in 100%, whereas all patients with opposite features (8.1%) had uninvolved axillary lymph nodes. This multiparameter evaluation including axillary US may be used to optimize the selection of breast cancer patients candidate to sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection. The accuracy of this predictive model still requires prospective validation in a larger sample of women. PMID:19285396

Susini, Tommaso; Nori, Jacopo; Olivieri, Simone; Molino, Cecilia; Marini, Giulia; Bianchi, Simonetta; Vezzosi, Vania; Livi, Lorenzo; Mascalchi, Mario; Scarselli, Gianfranco

2009-04-01

7

Lymph node shape in computed tomography imaging as a predictor for axillary lymph node metastasis in patients with breast cancer  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether preoperative computed tomography (CT) is a useful modality for the diagnosis of axillary lymph node metastasis. The axillary lymph node status was examined in patients with primary breast cancer who had undergone surgery. In total, 75 patients were analyzed with preoperative contrast CT images, following which the patients underwent an intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy to determine possible predictors of axillary lymph node metastasis. The lymph node shape was classified into three groups, which included fat-, clear-and obscure-types. Multivariate analysis revealed that clear-type lymph nodes in preoperative contrast CT imaging may be an independent predictor of lymph node metastasis (odds ratio, 15; P=0.003). Therefore, the results indicated that preoperative CT examination is useful to predict axillary lymph node metastasis.

KUTOMI, GORO; OHMURA, TOUSEI; SATOMI, FUKINO; TAKAMARU, TOMOKO; SHIMA, HIROAKI; SUZUKI, YASUYO; OTOKOZAWA, SEIKO; ZEMBUTSU, HITOSHI; MORI, MITSURU; HIRATA, KOICHI

2014-01-01

8

Axillary treatment for patients with early breast cancer and lymph node metastasis: systematic review protocol  

PubMed Central

Background For patients with early breast cancer and lymph node metastasis, axillary treatment is widely recommended. This is either surgical removal of the axillary lymph nodes, or axillary radiotherapy. The rationale for axillary treatment is that it will reduce the risk of recurrence in the axilla, and may improve survival. However, both treatments are associated with adverse effects, such as lymphedema, pain and sensory loss, and are costly to the health services and to patients. With improvements in adjuvant therapy, routine axillary treatment may no longer offer any overall advantage. Objectives To assess the short and long term benefits and adverse effects of routine axillary treatment (axillary lymph node clearance or axillary radiotherapy) for patients with lymph node positive early-stage breast cancer. Methods/Design Criteria for potentially eligibility for the study will be that the participants are men and women with early breast cancer and lymph nodes with metastasis. The study compares either axillary treatment with no axillary treatment, or axillary node clearance with axillary radiotherapy, and the study is a randomized trial. Primary outcomes are axillary recurrence, disease-free and overall survival. Secondary outcomes include breast or chest wall recurrence, distant metastasis, time to axillary recurrence, axillary recurrence-free survival, arm morbidity, quality of life and health economic costs. The search strategy will include the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) search portal. Two independent reviewers will assess studies for inclusion in the review, assess study quality and extract data. Characteristics of included studies will be described. Meta-analysis will be conducted using ReVman software. Comment This review addresses an important clinical question, and results will inform clinical practice and health care policy.

2013-01-01

9

Imaging axillary lymph nodes in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer.  

PubMed

The presence of axillary lymph node metastasis in patients newly diagnosed with breast cancer carries significant prognostic and management implications. As a result, there is increasing interest to stage accurately the axilla with preoperative imaging to facilitate treatment planning. Currently, the most widespread imaging techniques for the evaluation of the axilla include ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. In many settings, the ability to detect axillary lymph nodes containing metastases with imaging and image-guided biopsy can allow surgeons to bypass sentinel lymph node dissection and proceed with full axillary lymph node dissection. However, no imaging modality currently has sufficient negative-predictive value to obviate surgical staging of the axilla if no abnormal lymph nodes are detected. Promising advanced imaging technologies, such as diffusion-weighted imaging and magnetic resonance lymphangiography, hold the potential to improve the accuracy of axillary staging and thereby transform management of the axilla in patients newly diagnosed with breast cancer. PMID:22818835

Rahbar, Habib; Partridge, Savannah C; Javid, Sara H; Lehman, Constance D

2012-01-01

10

Women with Breast Cancer Micrometastases in Their Sentinel Lymph Nodes May Not Need Axillary Dissection  

Cancer.gov

Results from a randomized clinical trial showed that women with breast cancer and only micrometastases in their sentinel lymph nodes who received axillary lymph node dissection had more side effects but no improvement in disease-free survival compared with women who had no further lymph node surgery.

11

Axillary lymph node metastasis from serous ovarian cancer: a case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The symptoms and findings of ovarian cancer are parallel with the degree of intra-abdominal expansion of the tumor. Metastases\\u000a in the early stage occur by peritoneal fluid’s tracking via the circulatory system. Renal and cerebral metastases of ovarian\\u000a cancer have been previously reported, but axillary lymph node metastasis is quite rare. Axillary lymph node metastasis usually\\u000a occurs in the advanced

Çetin Aydin; Haluk R. Ünalp; Ali Balo?lu; Ay?e Gül ?nci; Seyran Yi?it; Ali Yavuzcan

2009-01-01

12

Prognostic and Clinical Evaluation of Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Esophageal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Axillary lymph node metastasis (ALNM) from esophageal cancer is rare. Its prognosis and effective treatments remain unknown. Between 1997 and 2005, esophagectomy was per- formed in 361 patients with esophageal cancer in our hospital. ALNM was identified in four patients (1.1%). All patients had left ALNM with ipsilateral left supraclavicular lymph node metastasis. In two patients ALNM developed after radical

Shuhei Komatsu; Yuji Ueda; Daisuke Ichikawa; Hitoshi Fujiwara; Kazuma Okamoto; Shojiro Kikuchi; Atsushi Shiozaki; Kenichiro Imura; Rumi Ohsawa; Toshiya Ochiai; Takuji Tsubokura; Hisakazu Yamagishi

13

The Risk of Axillary Relapse After Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Breast Cancer Is Comparable With That of Axillary Lymph Node Dissection  

PubMed Central

Objective: We sought to identify the rate of axillary recurrence after sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for breast cancer. Summary Background Data: SLN biopsy is a new standard of care for axillary lymph node staging in breast cancer. Nevertheless, most validated series of SLN biopsy confirm that the SLN is falsely negative in 5–10% of node-positive cases, and few studies report the rate of axillary local recurrence (LR) for that subset of patients staged by SLN biopsy alone. Methods: Through December of 2002, 4008 consecutive SLN biopsy procedures were performed at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center for unilateral invasive breast cancer. Patients were categorized in 4 groups: SLN-negative with axillary lymph node dissection (ALND; n = 326), SLN-negative without ALND (n = 2340), SLN-positive with ALND (n = 1132), and SLN-positive without ALND (n = 210). Clinical and pathologic characteristics and follow-up data for each of the 4 cohorts were evaluated with emphasis on patterns of axillary LR. Results: With a median follow-up of 31 months (range, 1–75), axillary LR occurred in 10/4008 (0.25%) patients overall. In 3 cases (0.07%) the axillary LR was the first site of treatment failure, in 4 (0.1%) it was coincident with breast LR, and in 3 (0.07%) it was coincident with distant metastases. Axillary LR was more frequent among the unconventionally treated SLN-positive/no ALND patients than in the other 3 conventionally treated cohorts (1.4% versus 0.18%, P = 0.013). Conclusions: Axillary LR after SLN biopsy, with or without ALND, is a rare event, and this low relapse rate supports wider use of SLN biopsy for breast cancer staging. There is a low-risk subset of SLN-positive patients in whom completion ALND may not be required.

Naik, Arpana M.; Fey, Jane; Gemignani, Mary; Heerdt, Alexandra; Montgomery, Leslie; Petrek, Jeanne; Port, Elisa; Sacchini, Virgilio; Sclafani, Lisa; VanZee, Kimberly; Wagman, Raquel; Borgen, Patrick I.; Cody, Hiram S.

2004-01-01

14

Sparing sentinel node biopsy through axillary lymph node fine needle aspiration in primary breast cancers  

PubMed Central

Background Axillary lymph node status is an important staging and prognostic factor in breast cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of axilla fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in primary breast cancer without a palpable node and even without image characteristics of a metastatic node. Methods From June 2008 to January 2012, 77 patients met the inclusion criteria of having received a FNAC procedure during the diagnostic protocol of primary breast cancer with the characteristic of impalpable axilla nodes, and of having received axillary surgery after that, according to the guidelines. The patients’ characteristics, clinical-pathological features, pre-operative axillary lymph node FNAC findings, surgical lymph node report, and definite pathologic staging were reviewed. Results The FNAC procedures had a reported sensitivity of 58.82%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, negative predictive value of 72.55%, and accuracy of 80.28%. There were no false positives on FNAC; therefore, the positive likelihood ratio approached infinity. The negative likelihood ratio was 41.18%. Axillary lymph node FNAC is feasible in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients to evaluate metastatic lymph nodes even in those without clinical or ultrasonic evidence of lymphadenopathy. Conclusions FNAC can be a routine evaluation for most primary breast cancer patients with benefits in expediting treatment. For those patients with positive findings of the axilla, sentinel node biopsy can be avoided.

2013-01-01

15

Patients with Breast Cancer and Negative Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy without Additional Axillary Lymph Node Dissection: A Follow-Up Study of up to 5 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyze the rate of axillary recurrences and survival in patients operated on for breast cancer who had not undergone an axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) because of a negative sentinel node biopsy. Methods: The study includes 97 patients operated on for breast cancer and selective node biopsy from June 2000 to December 2001 who had a negative sentinel

Anna Domčnech; Ana Benitez; María Teresa Bajén; María Jesús Pla; Miguel Gil; Josep Martín-Comín

2007-01-01

16

Breast Cancer Metastasis Alters Acetylcholinesterase Activity and the Composition of Enzyme Forms in Axillary Lymph Nodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the probable involvement of cholinesterases (ChEs) in tumorigenesis, this research was addressed to ascertaining whether breast cancer metastasis alters the content of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and\\/or butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) in axillary lymph nodes (LN). ChE activity was assayed in nine normal (NLN) and seven metastasis-bearing nodes (MLN) from women. AChE and BuChE forms were characterised by sedimentation analyses, hydrophobic chromatography

Francisco Ruiz-Espejo; Juan Cabezas-Herrera; Julián Illana; Francisco J. Campoy; Encarnación Muńoz-Delgado; Cecilio J. Vidal

2003-01-01

17

[Counting of axillary lymph nodes during surgery of breast cancer. A comparison between radiographic examination and pathological assessment].  

PubMed

Proper breast cancer surgery should include removal of at least ten axillary lymph nodes according to recommendations given by DBCG (The Danish Breast Cancer Group). The present study evaluated the results of counting the lymph nodes peroperatively on radiographs of the axillary tissue compared to the final pathological examination, the latter being considered the "gold standard". Since agreement between the two methods was found in only 66 out of 90 patients (Kappa value 0.279), we consider the peroperative radiological examination of the axillary fat to be of no practical value. PMID:9148547

Bak, A M; Pedersen, S; Jylling, E

1997-04-01

18

Learning curve for the detection of axillary sentinel lymph node in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: Sentinel axillary lymph node (SALN) detection is a new technique. Surgeons must progress up a learning curve in order to guarantee quality and safety equivalent to axillary lymphadenectomy. To ensure accurate staging of patients this learning curve must include SALN detection and an axillary lymphadenectomy. The aim of our work was to validate the principles and evaluate the consequences

J. M. Classe; C. Curtet; L. Campion; C. Rousseau; M. Fiche; C. Sagan; I. Resche; R. Pioud; N. Andrieux; F. Dravet

2003-01-01

19

Assessing second echelon lymph nodes during sentinel lymph node biopsy: can we have more accurate axillary treatment for breast cancer patients?  

PubMed

Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the standard treatment for breast cancer patients with clinically negative axilla. For patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes, axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was required. However, approximately a half of the SLNs-positive patients were found to have clear axillary lymph nodes after ALND, indicating that they had received unnecessary ALND without therapeutic benefit. Therefore, we propose a hypothesis for solution of this clinical problem. We defined the second echelon lymph nodes (SELNs) as those nodes receiving lymphatic drainage directly from the SLNs. For patients with positive-SLNs, SELNs can be biopsy and assessed. If SELNs are negative, no more ALND was needed in these patients even if their SLNs are positive. If our hypothesis were confirmed to be true, we can tailored our axillary treatment to more breast cancer patients, avoiding unnecessary ALND and its complications. PMID:21908107

Chen, Kai; Jia, Weijuan; Rao, Nanyan; Deng, Heran; Jin, Liang; Song, Erwei; Su, Fengxi

2011-12-01

20

Effect of Axillary Lymph Node Dissection on Prevalence and Intensity of Chronic and Phantom Pain After Breast Cancer Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic pain after breast cancer surgery is a major problem and is expected to increase in the coming years because of an increased prevalence of breast cancer coupled with better survival. Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in patients with breast cancer is associated with nerve damage. The present study investigated the effect of ALND on the prevalence and intensity of

Monique A. Steegers; Bas Wolters; Andrea W. Evers; Luc Strobbe; Oliver H. Wilder-Smith

2008-01-01

21

Axillary lymph node micrometastases in invasive breast cancer: national figures on incidence and overall survival.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence and prognostic value of axillary lymph node micrometastases (Nmic) of 2 mm or less in breast carcinomas. Results are based on data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG). The study was carried out as a nationwide, population-based trial with a study series consisting of 6,959 women under 75 years of age registered in the national DBCG data base from 1 January 1990 to 31 October 1994. All patients had contracted operable primary breast carcinoma, stage I-III, classified according to the TNM system as T1-T3, N0-N1, M0. Women with four or more metastatic axillary lymph nodes were excluded. All patients were treated systematically according to approved national guidelines and treatment protocols. Metastases were recognized microscopically on haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. In case of doubt immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin was performed. There was no serial sectioning. Micrometastases were tumour deposits of 2 mm or smaller, and accordingly included deposits of 0.2 mm and smaller. With a median observation time of 10 years and 2 months, women with Nmic (N=427) experienced a significantly worse overall survival (OS) compared with node-negative (Nneg) women (N=4,767) (relative risk (RR)=1.20, 95% CI: 1.01-1.43), irrespective of menopausal status. Women with macrometastases (Nmac) (N=1,765) had significantly worse final outcome than women with Nmic (RR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.29-1.85), irrespective of menopausal status. Multivariate analysis adjusted for patient-, histopathologic-, and loco-regional therapeutic variables showed that cases with Nmic had a significantly higher risk of death relative to Nneg cases (adjusted RR=1.49, 95% CI: 1.18-1.90). Interaction analysis showed that the number of nodes examined had a significant impact on adjusted relative risk of death according to axillary status. Furthermore, the number of nodes involved significantly influenced adjusted risk of death in the Nmic compared to the Nmac series. In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed worse final outcome in women with Nmic compared with Nneg, where all Nmic cases received adjuvant systemic treatment. Interaction analysis showed that the number of retrieved axillary nodes and the number of affected nodes had a different influence on survival related to axillary status. The different risk pattern in Nmic vs Nmac patients indicates that Nmic cases do not show the traditional risk pattern as revealed by the Nmac cases, in which increasing number of positive nodes is associated with an orderly increasing adjusted RR. PMID:17614850

Grabau, D; Jensen, M B; Rank, F; Blichert-Toft, M

2007-07-01

22

Tumor characteristics of breast cancer in predicting axillary lymph node metastasis  

PubMed Central

Background Tumor characteristics was sought to be related to axillary lymph node metastasis (ALNM), the paramount prognostic factor in patients with invasive breast cancer. This study was aimed to identify the ALNM-associated tumor characteristics and to determine the predictive clinical pathway. Material/Methods Data from 1325 patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between January 2004 and January 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The structure equation model (SEM) was used to build the predictive clinical pathway. Results Among the factors found in the final model, the status of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 is the primary influence on ALNM through histology grade (?=0.18), followed by tumor size (?=0.16). Tumor size was highly relevant to lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and influenced ALNM through LVI (?=0.26), the strongest predictor of ALNM in the final model (?=0.46) and the highest risk of ALNM (odds ratio=9.282; 95% confidence interval: 7.218–11.936). Conclusions The structure equation model presented the relation of these important predictors, and might help physicians to assess axillary nodal condition and appropriate surgical procedures.

Tseng, Hsin-Shun; Chen, Li-Sheng; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Chen, Shou-Tung; Wang, Yu-Fen; Chen, Dar-Ren

2014-01-01

23

Arm morbidity following sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection: A study from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSentinel lymph node biopsy was implemented in the treatment of early breast cancer with the aim of reducing shoulder and arm morbidity. Relatively few prospective studies have been published where the morbidity was assessed by clinical examination. Very few studies have examined the impact on shoulder mobility of node positive patients having a secondary axillary dissection because of the findings

Anders Husted Madsen; Karen Haugaard; Jan Soerensen; Susanne Bokmand; Esbern Friis; Helle Holtveg; Jens Peter Garne; John Horby; Peer Christiansen

2008-01-01

24

Whole sentinel lymph node analysis by a molecular assay predicts axillary node status in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: The one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay is a rapid procedure for the detection of lymph node (LN) metastases using molecular biological techniques. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the whole sentinel lymph node (SLN) analysis by the OSNA assay as a predictor of non-SLN metastases. Methods: Consecutive 742 patients with breast cancer were enroled in the study. The association of non-SLN or ?4 LN metastases with clinicopathological variables was investigated using multivariate logistic analysis. Results: In total, 130 patients with a positive SLN who underwent complete axillary LN dissection were investigated. The frequency of non-SLN metastases in patients who were OSNA+ and ++ was 19.3% and 53.4%, respectively, and that in patients with ?4 LN metastases who were OSNA+ and ++ was 7.0% and 27.4%, respectively. The cytokeratin 19 (CK19) mRNA copy number (?5.0 × 103; OSNA++) in the SLN was the most significant predictors of non-SLN metastases (P=0.003). The CK19 mRNA copy number (?1.0 × 105) in the SLN was the only independent predictor of ?4 LN metastases (P=0.014). Conclusion: Whole SLN analysis using the OSNA assay could become a valuable method for predicting non-SLN and ?4 LN metastases.

Ohi, Y; Umekita, Y; Sagara, Y; Rai, Y; Yotsumoto, D; Matsukata, A; Baba, S; Tamada, S; Matsuyama, Y; Ando, M; Sagara, Y; Sasaki, M; Tsuchimochi, S; Tanimoto, A; Sagara, Y

2012-01-01

25

Metastases in axillary sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer as detected by intensive histopathological work up.  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the value of the intensive histological work up of axillary sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) to demonstrate regional metastatic disease. METHODS: From a series of 58 successful lymphatic mapping procedures, 78 SLN were analysed by serial sections (mean of 49 levels/SLN) and by immunostaining to cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen, and the results compared with those obtained by assessing the central cross section. RESULTS: The central cross section would have failed to detect metastases in eight of 26 lymph nodes (31%) in patients with breast cancer metastasising to the SLN only. This would have led to a false negative node status in six of 21 patients (29%). Two micrometastases were detected with the aid of immunostains. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest the need to examine SLN at multiple levels and to use immunohistochemistry in negative cases. Serial sections are also useful in the case of micrometastases, as some of these may convert to macrometastases at deeper levels. Multiple level investigation of SLN and immunohistochemistry in the event of the negativity of standard stains would result in improved staging and an increase in the proportion of node positive disease detected. Images

Cserni, G

1999-01-01

26

Accurate staging of axillary lymph nodes from breast cancer patients using a novel molecular method  

PubMed Central

Background: The one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay is a molecular-based lymph-node metastasis detection procedure that can assess a whole node and yields semi-quantitative results for the detection of clinically relevant nodal metastases. We aimed to determine the performance of the OSNA assay as an accurate nodal staging tool in comparison with routine histological examination. Methods: Subjects comprised 183 consecutive patients with pT1-2 breast cancer who underwent axillary dissection after positive sentinel-node (SN) biopsy with the OSNA assay. Of these, for non-SN evaluation, 119 patients underwent OSNA assay evaluation, whereas 64 had single-section histology. We compared the detection rates of non-SN metastasis and upstaging rates from the SN stage according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging between the OSNA and histology cohorts. Results: OSNA detected more cases of non-SN metastases than histology (OSNA 66/119, 55.5% vs histology 13/64, 20.3% P<0.001), particularly micrometastases (36/119, 30.3% vs 1/64, 1.6% P<0.001). Total upstaging rates were similar in both cohorts (20/119, 16.8% vs 9/64, 14.1%, P=0.79). Conclusion: OSNA detects a far greater proportion of non-SN micrometastases than routine histological examination. However, upstaging rates after axillary dissection were not significantly different between both cohorts. Follow-up of the OSNA cohort is required to determine its clinical relevance.

Osako, T; Iwase, T; Kimura, K; Yamashita, K; Horii, R; Akiyama, F

2011-01-01

27

Disease Recurrence in Sentinel Node-Positive Breast Cancer Patients Forgoing Axillary Lymph Node Dissection  

PubMed Central

Background Clinically node-negative breast cancer patients usually undergo sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy. When metastasis is identified, completion axillary lymph node dissection (CALND) is recommended. Newer data suggest that CALND may be omitted in some women as it does not improve local control or survival. Methods Women with a positive SLN diagnosed between 1999 and 2010 were included in this review and were stratified according to whether they did or did not undergo CALND. Primary endpoints included recurrence and breast cancer-specific mortality. Differences between the groups and in time to recurrence were compared and summarized. Results Overall, 276 women were included: 206 (79 %) women who underwent CALND (group 1) and 70 (21 %) women in whom CALND was omitted (group 2). Group 1 patients were younger, had more SLN disease, and received more chemotherapy (P <0.05 for each). The groups did not vary by tumor characteristics (P >0.05 for each). Median follow-up was 69 (range 6–147) and 73 (range 15–134) months for groups 1 and 2, respectively. Five (2 %) women in group 1 and three (4 %) women in group 2 died of breast cancer (P = 0.39). Local–regional or distant recurrence occurred in 20 (10 %) group 1 patients and in 10 (14 %) group 2 patients (P = 0.39). On multivariate analysis, only estrogen receptor negativity and lymphovascular invasion predicted for recurrence. Conclusions Omission of CALND in women with SLN disease does not significantly impact in-breast, nodal, or distant recurrence or mortality. Longer-term follow-up is needed to verify that this remains true with time.

Cyr, Amy; Gao, Feng; Gillanders, William E.; Aft, Rebecca L.; Eberlein, Timothy J.; Margenthaler, Julie A.

2014-01-01

28

Optical characterization of ex-vivo axillary lymph nodes of breast-cancer patients using a custom-built spectrophotometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative photoacoustics is emerging as a new hybrid modality to investigate diseases and cells in human pathology and cytology studies. Optical absorption of light is the predominant mechanism behind the photoacoustic effect. Therefore, a need exits to characterize the optical properties of specimens and to identify the relevant operating wavelengths for photoacoustic imaging. We have developed a custom low-cost spectrophotometer to measure the optical properties of human axillary lymph nodes dissected for breast-cancer staging. Optical extinction curves of positive and negative nodes were determined in the spectral range of 400 to 1000 nm. We have developed a model to estimate tissue optical properties, taking into account the role of fat and saline. Our results enabled us to select the optimal optical wavelengths for maximizing the imaging contrast between metastatic and noncancerous tissue in axillary lymph nodes.

Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Saegusa-Beecroft, Emi; Mamou, Jonathan; Chitnis, Parag V.; Machi, Junji; Feleppa, Ernest J.

2014-03-01

29

In breast cancer patients sentinel lymph node metastasis characteristics predict further axillary involvement.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to correlate various primary tumor characteristics with lymph node status, to examine sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis size and non-SLN axillary involvement, to look for a cut-off size/number value possibly predicting additional axillary involvement with more accuracy and to examine the relationship of SLN metastasis size to overall survival. Of 301 patients who underwent SLN biopsy, 75 had positive SLNs. The size of the metastases was measured. For different size categories, association with the prevalence of non-SLN metastases was assessed. Associations between metastasis size and tumor characteristics and overall survival (OS) were studied. The prevalence of axillary lymph node (ALN) involvement was not significantly different between cases with micrometastasis or macrometastasis in SLNs (p?=?0.124). However, for metastases larger than 6, 7, and 8 mm, the prevalence of ALN involvement was significantly higher (p?=?0.046, 0.022, and 0.025). OS was significantly lower in SLN-positive than in SLN-negative cases (p?=?0.0375). Primary tumor size larger than 20 mm was associated with a significantly higher incidence of SLN metastasis (p?axillary involvement. OS is shorter in the presence of positive SLN. PMID:24809673

Illyes, Ildiko; Tokes, Anna-Maria; Kovacs, Attila; Szasz, A Marcell; Molnar, Bela A; Molnar, Istvan A; Kaszas, Ilona; Baranyak, Zsuzsanna; Laszlo, Zsolt; Kenessey, Istvan; Kulka, Janina

2014-07-01

30

Prediction of additional axillary metastasis of breast cancer following sentinel lymph node surgery.  

PubMed

Sentinel lymphadenectomy is a sensitive and specific procedure that has reduced the need for complete axillary lymph node dissections in patients with negative sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). However, numerous studies have shown that SLN may be the only positive lymph node in 40 to 70% of cases. This study was therefore undertaken to determine if the characteristics of primary breast tumor or its metastasis in the SLN could predict the presence of residual disease in the nonsentinel lymph nodes (NSLNs) and thus allow for further reduction in axillary lymph node surgery. The SLN procedure was performed on 329 patients at our institution, of which 131 had positive SLNs and underwent further axillary surgery. Fifty-four patients had additional disease in the NSLNs, while in the remaining 77 cases, no residual disease was detected. The clinical and pathologic features of these cases were reviewed and statistical analysis was performed. Multivariate analysis determined two significant independent variables for prediction of residual disease in the axilla: the size of the metastatic tumor in SLNs and the presence of its extranodal extension. The mean tumor size in SLNs without residual disease in NSLNs was 0.4 cm. It was 1.1 cm in patients with additional NSLN metastasis. The positive predictive value in both instances is about 80%. The risk of NSLN involvement in patients with SLN tumors of < or = 0.4 cm was 21%. The risk was the same (21%) for patients with micrometastatic disease (< or = 0.2 cm) in SLNs. In these cases the residual disease in the NSLNs was also small. SLNs with metastatic deposits larger than 1.0 cm were likely to contain additional metastases in the NSLNs in 81% of cases. This increased to 100% if the primary carcinoma was larger than 5 cm, if it was poorly differentiated, or if it showed HER-2/neu gene amplification. The presence of an extranodal extension of SLN metastasis was an independent predictor of residual axillary disease and was associated with NSLN metastasis in 76% of cases. Primary tumor characteristics did not correlate with the incidence of NSLN metastasis in our series. PMID:15327491

Changsri, Channikarn; Prakash, Sonam; Sandweiss, Lynn; Bose, Shikha

2004-01-01

31

How Many Sentinel Lymph Nodes Are Enough for Accurate Axillary Staging in T1-2 Breast Cancer?  

PubMed Central

Purpose During a sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for breast cancer, the appropriate number of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) to be removed for accurate axillary staging is still controversial. We hypothesized that there might be an optimal threshold number of SLNs. We investigated how many SLNs should be removed to achieve an acceptable accuracy and ensure minimal morbidity. Methods We reviewed data of 328 patients with invasive breast cancer who underwent SLNB followed by complete level I and II axillary dissection between January 2004 and December 2005. The false negative rate (FNR) and accuracy of SLNB according to the number of removed SLNs were evaluated. Results The mean number of SLNs removed was 3.0 (range, 1-14), and that of total retrieved axillary lymph nodes was 17.5 (range, 10-40). In total, 111 (33.8%) patients had positive nodes on the permanent pathological report. Among them, 12 patients had negative SLNs; thus, the overall FNR of SLNB was 10.8% (12/111) and the accuracy was 96.3% (316/328). The FNR was 26.6% for a single SLN, 8.0% for two, and 11.1% for three. In cases where four or more SLNs were removed, the FNR decreased to 0% and accuracy reached 100%. Conclusion Our data suggest that a SLNB should not only remove one or two of the hottest node(s) when other hot nodes exist. We also suggest that four might be an optimal threshold number of SLNs to be removed and that removal of more than four SLNs does not improve axillary staging accuracy.

Ban, Eun Jeong; Lee, Jun Sang; Koo, Ja Seung; Park, Seho; Kim, Seung Il

2011-01-01

32

Ratio between positive lymph nodes and total excised axillary lymph nodes as an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in patients with nonmetastatic lymph node-positive breast cancer.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND.: The status of the axillary lymph nodes in nonmetastatic lymph node-positive breast cancer (BC) patients remains the single most important determinant of overall survival (OS). Although the absolute number of nodes involved with cancer is important for prognosis, the role of the total number of excised nodes has received less emphasis. Thus, several studies have focused on the utility of the axillary lymph node ratio (ALNR) as an independent prognostic indicator of OS. However, most studies suffered from shortcomings, such as including patients who received neoadjuvant therapy or failing to consider the use of adjuvant therapy and tumor receptor status in their analysis. METHODS.: We conducted a single-center retrospective review of 669 patients with nonmetastatic lymph nodepositive BC. Data collected included patient demographics; breast cancer risk factors; tumor size, histopathological, receptor, and lymph node status; and treatment modalities used. Patients were subdivided into four groups according to ALNR value (<.25, .25-.49, .50-.74, .75-1.00). Study parameters were compared at the univariate and multivariate levels for their effect on OS. RESULTS.: On univariate analysis, both the absolute number of positive lymph nodes and the ALNR were significant predictors of OS. On multivariate analysis, only the ALNR remained an independent predictor of OS, with a 2.5-fold increased risk of dying at an ALNR of ?.25. CONCLUSIONS.: Our study demonstrates that ALNR is a stronger factor in predicting OS than the absolute number of positive axillary lymph nodes. PMID:22695879

Hatoum, Hassan A; Jamali, Faek R; El-Saghir, Nagi S; Musallam, Khaled M; Seoud, Muhieddine; Dimassi, Hani; Abbas, Jaber; Khalife, Mohamad; Boulos, Fouad I; Tawil, Ayman N; Geara, Fadi B; Salem, Ziad; Shamseddine, Achraf A; Al-Feghali, Karine; Shamseddine, Ali I

2010-12-01

33

Quantitative Molecular Analysis of Sentinel Lymph Node May Be Predictive of Axillary Node Status in Breast Cancer Classified by Molecular Subtypes  

PubMed Central

To determine the performance of intraoperative one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay in detecting sentinel lymph node metastases compared to postoperative histology taking into account breast cancer molecular classification and to evaluate whether the level of cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number may be useful in predicting the likelihood of a positive axillary lymph node dissection. OSNA assay was performed in a prospective series of 903 consecutive sentinel lymph nodes from 709 breast cancer patients using 2 alternate slices of each sentinel lymph node. The remaining 2 slices were investigated by histology. Cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number, which distinguishes negative cases (<250 copies), micrometastases (+, ?250?5000 copies) and macrometastases (++, >5000 copies), was compared to axillary lymph node dissection status and to the biological tumor profile. Concordance between OSNA and histopathology was 95%, specificity 95% and sensitivity 93%. Multiple Corresponce Analysis and logistic regression evidenced that positive axillary lymph node dissection was significantly associated with a higher cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number (>5000; p<0.0001), HER2 subtype (p?=?0.007) and lymphovascular invasion (p<0.0001). Conversely, breast cancer patients with cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number <2000 mostly presented a luminal subtype and a negative axillary lymph node dissection. We confirmed that OSNA assay can provide standardized and reproducible results and that it represents a fast and quantitative tool for intraoperative evaluation of sentinel lymph node. Omission of axillary lymph node dissection could be proposed in patients presenting a sentinel lymph node with a cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number <2000 and a Luminal tumor phenotype.

Buglioni, Simonetta; Di Filippo, Franco; Terrenato, Irene; Casini, Beatrice; Gallo, Enzo; Marandino, Ferdinando; Maini, Carlo L.; Pasqualoni, Rossella; Botti, Claudio; Di Filippo, Simona; Pescarmona, Edoardo; Mottolese, Marcella

2013-01-01

34

Evaluation of the metastatic status of lymph nodes identified using axillary reverse mapping in breast cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background Axillary reverse mapping (ARM) is a new technique to preserve upper extremity lymphatic pathways during axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), thereby preventing lymphedema patients with breast cancer. However, the oncologic safety of sparing the nodes identified by ARM (ARM nodes), some of which are positive, has not been verified. We evaluated the metastatic status of ARM nodes and the efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in assessing ARM node metastasis. Methods Sixty patients with breast cancer who underwent ARM during ALND between January 2010 and July 2012 were included in this study. Twenty-five patients were clinically node-positive and underwent ALND without sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). Thirty-five patients were clinically node-negative but sentinel node-positive on the SLND. The lymphatic pathway was visualized using fluorescence imaging with indocyanine green. ARM nodes in ALND field, whose status was diagnosed using FNAC, were removed and processed for histology. We evaluated the correlation between the cytological findings of FNAC and the histological analysis of excised ARM nodes. Results The mean number of ARM nodes identified per patient was 1.6 ±0.9 in both groups. In most patients without (88%) and with (79%) SLNB, the ARM nodes were located between the axillary vein and the second intercostobrachial nerve. FNAC was performed for 45 ARM nodes, 10 of which could not be diagnosed. Six of the patients without SLNB (24%) and onewith SLNB (3%) had positive ARM nodes. Of these sevenpatients, four had >3 positive ARM nodes. There was no discordance between the cytological and histological diagnosis of ARM nodes status. Conclusions Positive ARM nodes were observed in the patients not only with extensive nodal metastasis but also in those with a few positive nodes. FNAC for ARM nodes was helpful in assessing ARM nodes metastasis, which can be beneficial in sparing nodes essential for lymphatic drainage, thereby potentially reducing the incidence of lymphedema. However, the success of sampling rates needs to be improved.

2012-01-01

35

Prediction of axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients based on pathologic information of the primary tumor  

PubMed Central

Background Axillary lymph nodes (ALN) are the most commonly involved site of disease in breast cancer that has spread outside the primary lesion. Although sentinel node biopsy is a reliable way to manage ALN, there are still no good methods of predicting ALN status before surgery. Since morbidity in breast cancer surgery is predominantly related to ALN dissection, predictive models for lymph node involvement may provide a way to alert the surgeon in subgroups of patients. Material/Methods A total of 1325 invasive breast cancer patients were analyzed using tumor biological parameters that included age, tumor size, grade, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, lymphovascular invasion, and HER2, to test their ability to predict ALN involvement. A support vector machine (SVM) was used as a classification model. The SVM is a machine-learning system developed using statistical learning theories to classify data points into 2 classes. Notably, SVM models have been applied in bioinformatics. Results The SVM model correctly predicted ALN metastases in 74.7% of patients using tumor biological parameters. The predictive ability of luminal A, luminal B, triple negative, and HER2 subtypes using subgroup analysis showed no difference, and this predictive performance was inferior, with only 60% accuracy. Conclusions With an SVM model based on clinical pathologic parameters obtained in the primary tumor, it is possible to predict ALN status in order to alert the surgeon about breast cancer counseling and in decision-making for ALN management.

Wu, Jia-Long; Tseng, Hsin-Shun; Yang, Li-Heng; Wu, Hwa-Koon; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Chen, Shou-Tung; Chen, Dar-Ren

2014-01-01

36

Prediction of axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients based on pathologic information of the primary tumor.  

PubMed

Background Axillary lymph nodes (ALN) are the most commonly involved site of disease in breast cancer that has spread outside the primary lesion. Although sentinel node biopsy is a reliable way to manage ALN, there are still no good methods of predicting ALN status before surgery. Since morbidity in breast cancer surgery is predominantly related to ALN dissection, predictive models for lymph node involvement may provide a way to alert the surgeon in subgroups of patients. Material and Methods A total of 1325 invasive breast cancer patients were analyzed using tumor biological parameters that included age, tumor size, grade, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, lymphovascular invasion, and HER2, to test their ability to predict ALN involvement. A support vector machine (SVM) was used as a classification model. The SVM is a machine-learning system developed using statistical learning theories to classify data points into 2 classes. Notably, SVM models have been applied in bioinformatics. Results The SVM model correctly predicted ALN metastases in 74.7% of patients using tumor biological parameters. The predictive ability of luminal A, luminal B, triple negative, and HER2 subtypes using subgroup analysis showed no difference, and this predictive performance was inferior, with only 60% accuracy. Conclusions With an SVM model based on clinical pathologic parameters obtained in the primary tumor, it is possible to predict ALN status in order to alert the surgeon about breast cancer counseling and in decision-making for ALN management. PMID:24714517

Wu, Jia-Long; Tseng, Hsin-Shun; Yang, Li-Heng; Wu, Hwa-Koon; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Chen, Shou-Tung; Chen, Dar-Ren

2014-01-01

37

[Axillary reverse mapping. preserving nodes during an axillary lymph node dissection].  

PubMed

A considerable percentage of breast cancer patients who have undergone an axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) experience postoperative complications, with lymphoedema occurring most frequently. Axillary Reverse Mapping (ARM) is a new technique in which the lymphatic drainage system of the upper extremity can be visualized during an ALND. If lymphoedema is caused by severing of the lymphatic drainage system or removal of its associated lymph nodes, the preservation of these structures should reduce the incidence of lymphoedema. Patients who might benefit from ARM are patients for whom a subsequent ALND is indicated following a positive sentinel lymph node diagnostic procedure, and perhaps also patients who have an indication for a primary ALND following neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. A multicenter RCT is to start in the near future, during which we will investigate whether the preservation of axillary lymph nodes results in reduced morbidity. PMID:23714290

Gobardhan, Paul D; Klompenhouwer, Elisabeth G; Beek, Martinus A; Voogd, Adri C; Luiten, Ernest J T

2013-01-01

38

SENTINEL LYMPH NODE BIOPSY IN PATIENTS WITH MULTICENTRIC/MULTIFOCAL BREAST CANCER: LOW FALSE NEGATIVE RATE AND LACK OF AXILLARY RECURRENCE  

PubMed Central

Background Accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and rate of axillary recurrence in multicentric (MC)/multifocal (MF) breast cancer are reported. Methods From 1999–2006, 93 patients with MC/MF breast cancer underwent SLNB; 41 had axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) regardless of SLN pathology (group 1) and 52 had ALND only if a SLN was positive (group 2). Patient demographics, SLN techniques, and pathology were recorded. Results There were no differences between the two groups with respect to patient age, tumor size, grade, stage, histology, or method of SLN detection. The incidence of axillary metastasis was greater in group 1 patients (68%) compared to group 2 patients (12%) (p<0.01). In group 1, the sensitivity and specificity of SLNB were 93% and 100%, with a false negative rate of 7%. None of the 52 patients in group 2 experienced an axillary recurrence (median follow-up 4.8 years). Conclusions The accuracy of SLNB in MC/MF breast cancer is comparable to that observed in unifocal breast cancer. Despite a lower rate of SLN positivity in those undergoing SLNB only, axillary recurrence is not observed.

Holwitt, Dana M.; Gillanders, William E.; Aft, Rebecca L.; Eberlein, Timothy J.; Margenthaler, Julie A.

2014-01-01

39

Prognostic Value of Metastatic Axillary Lymph Node Ratio for Chinese Breast Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective The prevalence of breast cancer varies among countries and regions. This retrospective study investigated the prognostic value of the lymph node ratio (LNR) compared with the number of positive lymph nodes (pN) in Chinese breast cancer patients. Methods The medical records of female breast cancer patients (N?=?2591) were retrospectively evaluated. The association of LNR and TMN staging system were compared with respect to overall, disease-free, and distant metastasis-free survival. Results Out of 2591 patients, 2495 underwent modified radical surgery and 96 received breast conserving surgery. All patients had adjuvant chemotherapy following surgery. The median follow up period 66.9 months (range 5–168 months). The 5-year and 10-year overall survival rates were 89.3% and 78.8%, respectively, and 5-year disease-free survival and distant metastasis-free survival rates were 81.6% and 83.5%, respectively. Univariate analysis indicated that in general T, pN, LNR, as well as tumor expression of the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 were associated with overall, disease-free, and distant metastasis-free survival (all P-values <0.05). Mutlivariate analysis found pN stage and LNR were independent predictors of overall, disease-free, and distant metastasis-free survival (all P-values <0.001). If pN stage and LNR were both included in a multivariate analysis, LNR was still an independent prognostic factor for overall, disease-free, and distant metastasis-free survival (all P-values <0.001). Conclusion Our findings support the use of LNR as a predictor of survival in Chinese patients with breast cancer, and that LNR is superior to pN stage in determining disease prognosis.

Li, Qun; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Li, Feng-Yan; Lin, Qin; Lin, Huan-Xin; Guan, Xun-Xing

2013-01-01

40

Detection of lymphovascular invasion in early breast cancer by D2-40 (podoplanin): a clinically useful predictor for axillary lymph node metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the use of D2-40 for the detection of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) in node positive\\u000a and negative early breast cancer. LVI is associated with axillary lymph node metastases (ALNM) and a long-term prognostic\\u000a factor. A precise identification of LVI would have a strong clinical impact for breast cancer patients. Methods Immunohistochemical staining

Michael Braun; Uta Flucke; Manuel Debald; Gisela Walgenbach-Bruenagel; Klaus-Jürgen Walgenbach; Tobias Höller; Martin Pölcher; Matthias Wolfgarten; Axel Sauerwald; Mignon Keyver-Paik; Marietta Kühr; Reinhard Büttner; Walther Kuhn

2008-01-01

41

Prevalence of Lymphedema in Women With Breast Cancer 5 Years After Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy or Axillary Dissection: Objective Measurements  

PubMed Central

Purpose Sentinel lymph node biopsy was adopted for the staging of the axilla with the assumption that it would reduce the risk of lymphedema in women with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term prevalence of lymphedema after SLN biopsy (SLNB) alone and after SLNB followed by axillary lymph node dissection (SLNB/ALND). Patients and Methods At median follow-up of 5 years, lymphedema was assessed in 936 women with clinically node-negative breast cancer who underwent SLNB alone or SLNB/ALND. Standardized ipsilateral and contralateral measurements at baseline and follow-up were used to determine change in ipsilateral upper extremity circumference and to control for baseline asymmetry and weight change. Associations between lymphedema and potential risk factors were examined. Results Of the 936 women, 600 women (64%) underwent SLNB alone and 336 women (36%) underwent SLNB/ALND. Patients having SLNB alone were older than those having SLNB/ALND (56 v 52 years; P < .0001). Baseline body mass index (BMI) was similar in both groups. Arm circumference measurements documented lymphedema in 5% of SLNB alone patients, compared with 16% of SLNB/ALND patients (P < .0001). Risk factors associated with measured lymphedema were greater body weight (P < .0001), higher BMI (P < .0001), and infection (P < .0001) or injury (P = .02) in the ipsilateral arm since surgery. Conclusion When compared with SLNB/ALND, SLNB alone results in a significantly lower rate of lymphedema 5 years postoperatively. However, even after SLNB alone, there remains a clinically relevant risk of lymphedema. Higher body weight, infection, and injury are significant risk factors for developing lymphedema.

McLaughlin, Sarah A.; Wright, Mary J.; Morris, Katherine T.; Giron, Gladys L.; Sampson, Michelle R.; Brockway, Julia P.; Hurley, Karen E.; Riedel, Elyn R.; Van Zee, Kimberly J.

2008-01-01

42

Assessment of Axillary Lymph Node Involvement in Breast Cancer Patients With Positron Emission Tomography Using Radiolabeled 2-(Fluorine18)- fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The presence of metastatic tumor cells in the axillary lymph nodes is an important factor when deciding whether or not to treat breast cancer patients with adjuvant therapy. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with the radiolabeled glucose analogue 2-(fluorine-18)-fluoro-2- deoxy-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) has been used to visualize primary breast tumors as well as bone and soft-tissue metas- tases. Purpose:

Norbert Avril; Jorg Dose; Fritz Jdnicke; Sibylle Ziegler; Wolfgang Romer; Wolfgang Weber; Michael Herz; Walter Nathrath; Henner Graejf; Markus Schwaiger

43

A 10-year follow-up of treatment outcomes in patients with early stage breast cancer and clinically negative axillary nodes treated with tangential breast irradiation following sentinel lymph node dissection or axillary clearance  

PubMed Central

We compare long-term outcomes in patients with node negative early stage breast cancer treated with breast radiotherapy (RT) without the axillary RT field after sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). We hypothesize that though tangential RT was delivered to the breast tissue, it at least partially sterilized occult axillary nodal metastases thus providing low nodal failure rates. Between 1995 and 2001, 265 patients with AJCC stages I–II breast cancer were treated with lumpectomy and either SLND (cohort SLND) or SLND and ALND (cohort ALND). Median follow-up was 9.9 years (range 8.3–15.3 years). RT was administered to the whole breast to the median dose of 48.2 Gy (range 46.0–50.4 Gy) plus boost without axillary RT. Chi-square tests were employed in comparing outcomes of two groups for axillary and supraclavicular failure rates, ipsilateral in-breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), distant metastases (DM), and chronic complications. Progression-free survival (PFS) was compared using log-rank test. There were 136/265 (51%) and 129/265 (49%) patients in the SLND and ALND cohorts, respectively. The median number of axillary lymph nodes assessed was 2 (range 1–5) in cohort SLND and 18 (range 7–36) in cohort ALND (P < 0.0001). Incidence of AFR and SFR in both cohorts was 0%. The rates of IBTR and DM in both cohorts were not significantly different. Median PFS in the SLND cohort is 14.6 years and 10-year PFS is 88.2%. Median PFS in the ALND group is 15.0 years and 10-year PFS is 85.7%. At a 10-year follow-up chronic lymphedema occurred in 5/108 (4.6%) and 40/115 (34.8%) in cohorts SLND and ALND, respectively (P = 0.0001). This study provides mature evidence that patients with negative nodes, treated with tangential breast RT and SLND alone, experience low AFR or SFR. Our findings, while awaiting mature long-term data from NSABP B-32, support that in patients with negative axillary nodal status such treatment provides excellent long-term cure rates while avoiding morbidities associated with ALND or addition of axillary RT field.

Goodman, Robert L.; Turner, Bruce C.; Komarnicky, Lydia T.; Curran, Walter J.; Christos, Paul J.; Khan, Imraan; Vandris, Katherine; Parashar, Bhupesh; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chao, K. S. Clifford

2013-01-01

44

Detection of sentinel lymph node in breast cancer recurrence may change adjuvant treatment decision in patients with breast cancer recurrence and previous axillary surgery.  

PubMed

Use of sentinel lymph node dissection in patients with ipsilateral breast cancer recurrence is still controversial. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer recurrence (SLNBR) and whether the positivity had impact in the adjuvant treatment. Between 2008 and 2012 we performed SLNBR in patients with ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence. We included 53 patients in a prospective study. Forty-three patients (81%) had a previous axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and ten (19%) had a previous sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). Identification rate after SLNB was 50% and after ALND was 60.5% (p = 0.4). Nine patients (26%) had a positive SLNBR. Adjuvant systemic treatment was given to all the patients with a positive SLNBR and to 23 (85%) with a negative SLNBR (p = 0.29). Six patients (66%) with positive SLNBR and 4 patients (14%) with negative SLNBR underwent radiation therapy (p < 0.01). As conclusions of our study we conclude that sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast tumor recurrence is feasible and significant differences were found in the use of radiation therapy in patients with a positive SLNBR. PMID:24726837

Cordoba, Octavi; Perez-Ceresuela, Francesc; Espinosa-Bravo, Martin; Cortadellas, Tomas; Esgueva, Antonio; Rodriguez-Revuelto, Robert; Peg, Vicente; Reyes, Victoria; Xercavins, Jordi; Rubio, Isabel T

2014-08-01

45

The Comparative Study of Ultrasonography, Contrast-Enhanced MRI, and 18F-FDG PET/CT for Detecting Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in T1 Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose A more noninvasive evaluation of axillary lymph node in breast cancer is one of the principal challenges of breast cancer treatment. To detect axillary lymph node metastasis (ALNM) in T1 breast cancer, we have compared the axillary ultrasonography (AUS), contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI), and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to determine the most adequate test or a combination of tests. Methods Retrospectively, 349 T1 breast cancer patients who were preoperatively examined using AUS, cMRI, and PET/CT between 2008 and 2011 and whom underwent pathological evaluations of axillary lymph nodes were reviewed and analyzed. Results In total, 26.4% (92/349) of patients exhibited ALNM. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of AUS for determining ALNM were 44.6%, 88.7%, 58.6%, 81.7%, and 77.1%, respectively. cMRI was similar to AUS. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of PET/CT were 44.5%, 94.2%, 73.2%, 82.6%, and 81.1%, respectively. The combination including cMRI and PET/CT was the most accurate with sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy values of 39.1%, 98.8%, 92.3%, 81.9%, and 83.1%, respectively. The mean number (3.5±4.2) of ALNMs in the patients who were positive based on cMRI and PET/CT and also pathologically proven to exhibit ALNM was significantly larger than the number (2.16±2.26) in other patients who exhibited ALNM (p=0.035). Conclusion There are no definitive modalities for detecting ALNM in T1 breast cancers to replace sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). If ALNM is suspected based on cMRI and PET/CT, the axillary dissection without SLNB might be a better option because it is related to high possibilities of ALNM and large axillary metastatic volumes.

Hwang, Seung Ook; Lee, Sang-Woo; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, Wan Wook; Park, Ho Yong

2013-01-01

46

Effects of postmastectomy radiotherapy on prognosis in different tumor stages of breast cancer patients with positive axillary lymph nodes  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the effects of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) on the locoregional failure-free survival (LRFFS) and overall survival (OS) of breast cancer patients under different tumor stages and with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes (ALNs). Methods We conducted a retrospective review of 527 patients with one to three positive lymph nodes who underwent modified radical or partial mastectomy and axillary dissection from January 2000 to December 2002. The patients were divided into the T1-T2 N1 and T3-T4 N1 groups. The effects of PMRT on the LRFFS and OS of these two patient groups were analyzed using SPSS 19.0, Pearson’s ?2-test, Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox proportional hazard model. Results For T1-T2 N1 patients, no statistical significance was observed in the effects of PMRT on LRFFS [hazard ratio (HR)=0.726; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.233-2.265; P=0.582] and OS (HR=0.914; 95% CI: 0.478-1.745; P=0.784) of the general patients. Extracapsular extension (ECE) and high histological grade were the risk factors for LRFFS and OS with statistical significance in multivariate analysis. Stratification analysis showed that PMRT statistically improved the clinical outcomes in high-risk patients [ECE (+), LRFFS: P=0.026, OS: P=0.007; histological grade III, LRFFS: P<0.001, OS: P=0.007] but not in low-risk patients [ECE (–), LRFFS: P=0.987, OS: P=0.502; histological grade I-II, LRFFS: P=0.816, OS: P=0.296]. For T3-T4 N1 patients, PMRT effectively improved the local control (HR=0.089; 95% CI: 0.210-0.378; P=0.001) of the general patients, whereas no statistical effect was observed on OS (HR=1.251; 95% CI: 0.597-2.622; P=0.552). Absence of estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors (ER/PR) (–) was an independent risk factor. Further stratification analysis indicated a statistical difference in LRFFS and OS between the high-risk patients with ER/PR (–) receiving PMRT and not receiving PMRT [ER/PR (–), LRFFS: P=0.046, OS: P=0.039]. However, PMRT had a beneficial effect on the reduction of locoregional recurrence (LRR) but not in total mortality [ER/PR (+), LRFFS: P<0.001, OS: P= 0.695] in T3-T4 N1 patients with ER/PR (+) who received endocrine therapy. Conclusion PMRT could reduce ECE (+), histological grade III-related LRR, and total mortality of T1-T2 N1 patients. T3-T4 N1 patients with ER/PR (–) could benefit from PMRT by improving LRFFS and OS. However, PMRT could only reduce LRR but failed to improve OS for T3-T4 N1 patients with ER/PR (+) who received endocrine therapy.

Jia, Miao-Miao; Liang, Zhi-Jie; Chen, Qin; Zheng, Ying; Li, Ling-Mei; Cao, Xu-Chen

2014-01-01

47

Comparison of Mastoscopic and Conventional Axillary Lymph Node Dissection in Breast Cancer: Long-term Results From a Randomized, Multicenter Trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the long-term results of mastoscopic axillary lymph node dissection (MALND) and conventional axillary lymph node dissection (CALND). Patients and Methods From January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2005, a group of 1027 consecutive patients with operable breast cancer were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 study groups: MALND and CALND. The median follow-up was 63 months. The primary end points of the study were operative outcomes, complication reduction, function conservation, and cosmetics. The secondary end points were disease-free and overall survival. Results The mean operative blood loss in the MALND group was less than in the CALND group (P<.001). The patients who underwent MALND had less axillary pain, numbness or paresthesias, and arm swelling (P<.001). The aesthetic appearance of the axilla in the MALND group was much better than that in the CALND group (P=.001 at 6 months and P=.002 at 24 months). A significant difference was found between the 2 groups in distant metastasis (P=.04). The disease-free survival rate was 64.5% in the MALND group and 60.8% in the CALND group (P=.88). The overall survival rate was 81.7% in the MALND group and 78.6% in the CALND group (P=.95). Conclusion Compared with CALND, MALND has advantages in operative outcomes, complication reduction, function conservation, and cosmetics.

Luo, Chengyu; Guo, Wenbin; Yang, Jie; Sun, Qiuru; Wei, Wei; Wu, Suhua; Fang, Shubing; Zeng, Qingliang; Zhao, Zhensheng; Meng, Fanjie; Huang, Xuandong; Zhang, Xianlan; Li, Ruihua; Ma, Xiufeng; Luo, Chaoying; Yang, Yun

2012-01-01

48

Axillary and Extra-axillary Lymph Node Recurrences after a Tumor-Negative Sentinel Node Biopsy for Breast Cancer Using Intralesional Tracer Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  At our institution, tracer fluids are administered in the primary breast cancer and, in addition to the ones in the axilla,\\u000a sentinel nodes outside the axilla are rigorously pursued. The objective of the present study of sentinel node-negative breast\\u000a cancer patients was to determine the lymph node recurrence rates in the axilla and elsewhere, the false-negative rates, and\\u000a the survival.

Iris M. C. van der Ploeg; Bin B. R. Kroon; Ninja Antonini; Renato A. Valdés Olmos; Emiel J. T. Rutgers; Omgo E. Nieweg

2008-01-01

49

International multicenter tool to predict the risk of four or more tumor-positive axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer patients with sentinel node macrometastases.  

PubMed

Recently, many centers have omitted routine axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) after metastatic sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer due to a growing body of literature. However, existing guidelines of adjuvant treatment planning are strongly based on axillary nodal stage. In this study, we aim to develop a novel international multicenter predictive tool to estimate a patient-specific risk of having four or more tumor-positive axillary lymph nodes (ALN) in patients with macrometastatic sentinel node(s) (SN). A series of 675 patients with macrometastatic SN and completion ALND from five European centers were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. A multivariate predictive model was created and validated internally by 367 additional patients and then externally by 760 additional patients from eight different centers. All statistical tests were two-sided. Prevalence of four or more tumor-positive ALN in each center's series (P = 0.010), number of metastatic SNs (P < 0.0001), number of negative SNs (P = 0.003), histological size of the primary tumor (P = 0.020), and extra-capsular extension of SN metastasis (P < 0.0001) were included in the predictive model. The model's area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.766 in the internal validation and 0.774 in external validation. Our novel international multicenter-based predictive tool reliably estimates the risk of four or more axillary metastases after identifying macrometastatic SN(s) in breast cancer. Our tool performs well in internal and external validation, but needs to be further validated in each center before application to clinical use. PMID:23558360

Meretoja, Tuomo J; Audisio, R A; Heikkilä, P S; Bori, R; Sejben, I; Regitnig, P; Luschin-Ebengreuth, G; Zgajnar, J; Perhavec, A; Gazic, B; Lázár, G; Takács, T; K?vári, B; Saidan, Z A; Nadeem, R M; Castellano, I; Sapino, A; Bianchi, S; Vezzosi, V; Barranger, E; Lousquy, R; Arisio, R; Foschini, M P; Imoto, S; Kamma, H; Tvedskov, T F; Jensen, M-B; Cserni, G; Leidenius, M H K

2013-04-01

50

Survival Outcomes of Different Treatment Methods for the Ipsilateral Breast of Occult Breast Cancer Patients with Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis: A Single Center Experience  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study compared the survival outcomes of different treatment methods for the ipsilateral breast of occult breast cancer (OBC) patients with axillary lymph node metastasis. Methods A retrospective study was conducted in which forty OBC patients with axillary lymph node metastasis were identified out of 15,029 patients who had been diagnosed with a primary breast cancer at between 1992 and 2010. The patients were categorized into three treatment groups based on ipsilateral breast management: breast-conserving surgery (BCS) (n=17), mastectomy (n=12), and nonsurgical intervention with or without radiation therapy (No surgery with or without radiation therapy [No Op±RT]) (n=11). All patients underwent axillary lymph node dissection. Cases were evaluated based on treatment and potential prognostic factors with respect to overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Results During the follow-up period (median follow-up of 71.5 months), the overall OS and DFS were 76.9% and 74.9%, respectively. The 5-year treatment-specific OS was 72.0% for the BCS group, 74.0% for the mastectomy group, and 87.5% for the No Op±RT group (log-rank p=0.49). The 5-year DFS was 70.6% for the BCS group, 66.7% for the mastectomy group, and 90.9% for the No Op±RT group (log-rank p=0.36). Recurrence rates for the BCS and No Op±RT groups were 5.9% and 18.2%, respectively. Histologic grade and lymph node status were inversely correlated with DFS (log-rank p=0.04 and p<0.01, respectively). Conclusion There was no difference in survival outcomes between the three treatment methods for the ipsilateral breast (mastectomy, BCS, and No Op±RT) of OBC patients with axillary lymph node metastasis. A large-scale multicenter study is needed to validate the results from this small retrospective study.

Woo, Sang Min; Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Hee Jeong; Yu, Jong Han; Ko, Beom Seok; Sohn, Guiyun; Lee, Yu Ra; Kim, Hanna; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Baek, Seung Hee

2013-01-01

51

Histologic evaluation of sentinel and non-sentinel axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer by multilevel sectioning and predictors of non-sentinel metastasis  

PubMed Central

Sentinel lymph node (SLN) provides accurate nodal staging for breast cancer. This technique has been introduced in Siriraj Hospital since 1998. The goal of this study is to assess its accuracy in predicting the state of the axilla, and compare the results of standard examination and multilevel sectioning. A retrospective analysis of 195 breast cancer patients who underwent both SLN biopsy (using dye alone as the lymphatic mapping) and axillary node dissection during 1998-2002 were analyzed. All slides including SLNs and the non-SLNs (NSLNs) were reviewed and multilevel study was performed on all SLNs and NSLNs [four levels of hematoxylin-eosin (HE) at 200 µm interval and keratin stains on the first and fourth levels]. Of 195 patients, 30% of cases were SLN-positive (32 NSLN-positive and 27 NSLN-negative). Additional study could detect positive axillary nodes 10.8% (4 SLN-positive and 5 NSLN-positive) more than standard HE stain. The false negative rate increased from 20.3% to 24.1%. The concordance between SLN and NSLN statuses was 89.7%. The sensitivity was 75.9%. By multivariate analysis, the significant predictors for axillary node metastasis were tumor size of more than 2.2 cm, histologic type of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), not otherwise specified (NOS) and lymphovascular invasion (LVI). By univariable analysis, the significant predictors of NSLN metastasis after positive-SLN were outer location of the tumor, LVI and perinodal extension. In conclusion, use of multilevel and immunohistochemistry increased detection of positive-SLNs. Caution should be kept in accepting SLN biopsy using peritumoral dye technique alone as the procedure for staging due to a high false-negative rate. The concordance rate of 89.7% confirmed the reliability of SLN. Outer location of tumor, LVI and perinodal extension is significant predictors of positive-NSLN after positive-SLN.

Jeeravongpanich, Piyarat; Komoltri, Chulaluk; Ratanawichitrasin, Adune

2014-01-01

52

Does Fibrin Glue Improve Drainage after Axillary Lymph Node Dissection? Prospective and Randomized Study in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this prospective and randomized study was to establish whether the use of fibrin glue was beneficial after axillary lymph node dissection. From January 1990 to January 1991, 40 women were randomized before surgery for breast cancer: 20 patients (group A) underwent vaporization of fibrin glue (Tissucol®, 5 ml of 500 IU thrombin) only in the area of

F. Vaxman; A. Kolbe; F. Stricher; D. Zund; P. Volkmar; D. Gros; J. F. Grenier

1995-01-01

53

Re-emphasizing the concept of adequacy of intraoperative assessment of the axillary sentinel lymph nodes for identifying nodal positivity during breast cancer surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Although sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is a standard of care for the evaluation of the axillary lymph nodes during breast cancer surgery, a substantial degree of variation exists among individual surgeons as to what represents an adequate assessment. The aim of the current study was to assess when metastatic disease was first identified within consecutively harvested SLN candidates for invasive breast cancers demonstrating a positive SLN. Methods We retrospectively analyzed a series of 400 breast cancers from a recently published prospective randomized clinical trial. A combined radiocolloid and blue dye technique was used. All potential SLN candidates, containing counts of at least 10% of the hottest SLN and/or containing blue dye, were harvested and were consecutively numbered in the order of the decreasing level of counts (with the hottest SLN representing SLN #1). Results Among 371 invasive breast cancers, a SLN was identified within 353 cases (95%). Mean number of SLNs identified was 2.5 (range, 1 to 9), with a single SLN identified in 104 (29%) cases, two identified in 110 (31%), three identified in 73 (21%), four identified in 35 (10%), five identified in 16 (5%), and six or more identified in 15 (4%). A positive SLN was found in 104 (29%) cases. SLN #1 was the first positive SLN in 86 (83%). SLN #2 was the first positive SLN in 15 (14%). SLN #3, SLN #4, and SLN #5 were the first positive SLN in one case (1%) each. A positive SLN was found in 18% (19/104) of cases when a single SLN was identified, as compared to in 34% (85/249) when two or more SLNs were identified (P = 0.003). Conclusion The accurate and optimal assessment of the axilla during breast cancer surgery requires persistence and diligence for attempting to identify all potential SLN candidates in order to avoid failing to recognize a positive SLN. The scenario in which only a single negative SLN candidate is intraoperatively identified is one that should raise some concern to the operating surgeon.

Povoski, Stephen P; Young, Donn C; Walker, Michael J; Carson, William E; Yee, Lisa D; Agnese, Doreen M; Farrar, William B

2007-01-01

54

Age and Axillary Lymph Node Ratio in Postmenopausal Women with T1-T2 Node Positive Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The purpose of this article was to examine the relationship between age and lymph node ratio (LNR, number of positive nodes divided by number of examined nodes), and to determine their effects on breast cancer (BC) and overall mortality. Methods. Women aged ?50 years, diagnosed in 1988–1997 with a unilateral histologically confirmed T1-T2 node positive surgically treated primary nonmetastatic BC, were selected from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER). Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) were used to evaluate the age-LNR relationship. Cumulative incidence functions and multivariate competing risks analysis based on model selection by the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) were used to examine the effect of age and LNR on mortality. Low LNR was defined as ?0.20, mid-LNR 0.21–0.65, and high LNR >0.65. Results. GAMLSS showed a nonlinear LNR-age relationship, increasing from mean LNR 0.26–0.28 at age 50–70 years to 0.30 at 80 years and 0.40 at 90 years. Compared with a 9.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.8%–10.8%] risk of BC death at 5 years in women aged 50–59 years with low LNR, the risk in women ?80 years with low LNR was 12.6% [95% CI 10.1%–15.0%], mid-LNR 18.1% [13.9%–22.1%], high LNR 29.8% [22.7%–36.1%]. Five-years overall risk of death increased from 40.8% [37.5%–43.9%] by low LNR to 67.4% [61.4%–72.4%] by high LNR. The overall mortality hazard ratio for age ?80 years with high LNR was 7.49 [6.54–8.59], as compared with women aged 50–59 years with low LNR. Conclusion. High LNR combined with older age was associated with a threefold increased risk of BC death and a sevenfold increased hazard ratio of overall mortality.

Joseph, Sue A.; Coutty, Nadege; Ly, Bevan Hong; Vlastos, Georges; Nguyen, Nam Phong

2010-01-01

55

A Logistic Regression Model for Predicting Axillary Lymph Node Metastases in Early Breast Carcinoma Patients  

PubMed Central

Nodal staging in breast cancer is a key predictor of prognosis. This paper presents the results of potential clinicopathological predictors of axillary lymph node involvement and develops an efficient prediction model to assist in predicting axillary lymph node metastases. Seventy patients with primary early breast cancer who underwent axillary dissection were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to evaluate the association between clinicopathological factors and lymph node metastatic status. A logistic regression predictive model was built from 50 randomly selected patients; the model was also applied to the remaining 20 patients to assess its validity. Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between lymph node involvement and absence of nm-23 (p = 0.010) and Kiss-1 (p = 0.001) expression. Absence of Kiss-1 remained significantly associated with positive axillary node status in the multivariate analysis (p = 0.018). Seven clinicopathological factors were involved in the multivariate logistic regression model: menopausal status, tumor size, ER, PR, HER2, nm-23 and Kiss-1. The model was accurate and discriminating, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.702 when applied to the validation group. Moreover, there is a need discover more specific candidate proteins and molecular biology tools to select more variables which should improve predictive accuracy.

Xie, Fei; Yang, Houpu; Wang, Shu; Zhou, Bo; Tong, Fuzhong; Yang, Deqi; Zhang, Jiaqing

2012-01-01

56

Axillary lymph node uptake of technetium-99m-MDP  

SciTech Connect

We sought to determine the frequency and significance of axillary lymph node visualization on bone scans performed with diphosphonates. Consecutive {sup 99m}Tc-methylene diphosphonate ({sup 99m}Tc-MDP) bone scans (2435) were inspected for axillary soft-tissue uptake. In positive cases, the results of physical examination, correlative imaging studies and serial bone scans were recorded, as was the site of venipuncture. Forty-eight studies (2%) showed axillary uptake ipsilateral to the injection site. Extravasation of tracer, documented by focal activity near the injection site, was present in every case. There was no association with axillary adenopathy, mass, induration of radiographically visible calcification. On some images, foci adjacent to the axilla were superimposed on the rib, scapula, or humerus. The bone-to-background ratio was frequently reduced; repeat imaging after 1-2 hr usually improved osseous detail. Ipsilateral axillary lymph node visualization due to extravasation of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP is frequently associated with additional foci superimposed on osseous structures simulating pathology. Delayed skeletal uptake is common in such cases and necessitates a greater time interval between injection and imaging. 7 refs., 3 figs.

Ongseng, F.; Goldfarb, C.R.; Finestone, H. [Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

1995-10-01

57

Fibrin Glue Reduces the Duration of Lymphatic Drainage after Lumpectomy and Level II or III Axillary Lymph Node Dissection for Breast Cancer: A Prospective Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

This randomized prospective study investigated the effect of fibrin glue use on drainage duration and overall drain output after lumpectomy and axillary dissection in breast cancer patients. A total of 100 patients undergoing breast lumpectomy and axillary dissection were randomized to a fibrin glue group (N=50; glue sprayed onto the axillary dissection site) or a control group (N=50). Outcome measures were drainage duration, overall drain output, and incidence of seroma. Overall, the fibrin glue and control groups were similar in terms of drainage duration, overall drain output, and incidence of seroma. However, subgroup analysis showed that fibrin glue use resulted in a shorter drainage duration (3.5 vs. 4.7 days; p=0.0006) and overall drain output (196 vs. 278 mL; p=0.0255) in patients undergoing level II or III axillary dissection. Fibrin glue use reduced drainage duration and overall drain output in breast cancer patients undergoing a lumpectomy and level II or III axillary dissection.

Ko, Eunyoung; Han, Wonshik; Cho, Jihyoung; Lee, Jong Won; Kang, So Young; Jung, So-Youn; Kim, Eun-Kyu; Hwang, Ki-Tae

2009-01-01

58

Axillary staging of breast cancer and the sentinel node  

PubMed Central

Pathological aspects of axillary nodal staging of breast cancer and in particular sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy are reviewed. SLN biopsy seems an almost ideal staging procedure because it has both high accuracy and a low false negative rate. It may also allow a cost effective use of more sensitive methods of metastasis detection. However, the biological relevance of metastases detected only by modern tools remains to be elucidated. This review focuses on standard axillary staging and the histopathological investigation of SLNs, with emphasis on the intraoperative setting. Future trends including ancillary studies, quality control issues, prediction of non-SLN involvement, and suggestions concerning the minimum requirements for the histology of axillary SLNs are also discussed. Key Words: axillary staging • breast cancer • sentinel lymph node

Cserni, G

2000-01-01

59

The impact of axillary lymph nodes removed in staging of node-positive breast carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Number of positive lymph nodes in the axilla and pathologic lymph node status (pN) have a great impact on staging according to the current American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system of breast carcinoma. Our aim was to define whether the total number of removed axillary lymph nodes influences the pN and thus the staging. Methods and Materials: The records of 798 consecutive invasive breast cancer patients with T1-3 tumors and positive axillary lymph nodes who underwent modified radical mastectomy between 1999 and 2005 in our hospital were reviewed. The total number of removed nodes were grouped, and compared with the patient and tumor characteristics and the influence of the number of nodes removed on the staging was analyzed. Results: The proportion of patients with {>=}4 positive nodes (59%), and pN3 status (51%) were the highest in the group with 21-25 nodes removed. Compared with patients with 1-20 nodes removed, the proportion of patients with {>=}4 positive nodes (52%), and pN3 status (46%) were significantly higher in those with more than 20 nodes removed. Although the proportion of Stage IIA and IIB decreased, the proportion of Stage IIIA and IIIC increased in patients with >20 nodes removed compared with those with 1-20 nodes removed. Conclusions: In patients with axillary node-positive breast carcinoma, staging is highly influenced by total number of removed nodes. Levels I-III axillary dissection with more than 20 axillary lymph nodes removed could lead to more effective adjuvant chemotherapy and increases substantially the proportion of patients to receive radiotherapy.

Kuru, Bekir [Department of General Surgery, Ankara Oncology Education and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: bekirkuru@hotmail.com; Bozgul, Mustafa [Department of General Surgery, Ankara Oncology Education and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey)

2006-12-01

60

Coverage of axillary lymph nodes with high tangential fields in breast radiotherapy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to evaluate the coverage of axillary nodal volumes with high tangent fields (HTF) in breast radiotherapy and to determine the utility of customised blocking. The treatment plans of 30 consecutive patients with early breast cancer were evaluated. The prescription dose was 50 Gy to the whole breast. Axillary level I-II lymph node volumes were delineated and the cranial border of the tangential fields was set just below the humeral head to create HTF. Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were used to calculate the doses received by axillary nodal volumes. In a second planning set, HTF were modified with multileaf collimators (MLC-HTF) to obtain an adequate dose coverage of axillary nodes. The mean doses of the axillary nodes, the ipsilateral lung and heart were compared between the two plans (HTF vs MLC-HTF) using a paired sample t-test. The doses received by 95% of the breast volumes were not significantly different for the two plans. The doses received by 95% of the level I and II axillary volumes were 16.79 Gy and 11.59 Gy, respectively, for HTF, increasing to 47.2 Gy and 45.03 Gy, respectively, for MLC-HTF. Mean lung doses and per cent volume of the ipsilateral lung receiving 20 Gy (V20) were also increased from 6.47 Gy and 10.47%, respectively, for HTF, to 9.56 Gy and 16.77%, respectively, for MLC-HTF. Our results suggest that HTF do not adequately cover the level I and II axillary lymph node regions. Modification of HTF with MLC is necessary to obtain an adequate coverage of axillary levels without compromising healthy tissue in the majority of the patients. PMID:21088091

Alço, G; I?dem, S I; Ercan, T; Dinçer, M; Sentürk, R; Atilla, S; Oral Zengin, F; Okkan, S

2010-12-01

61

Coverage of axillary lymph nodes with high tangential fields in breast radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to evaluate the coverage of axillary nodal volumes with high tangent fields (HTF) in breast radiotherapy and to determine the utility of customised blocking. The treatment plans of 30 consecutive patients with early breast cancer were evaluated. The prescription dose was 50 Gy to the whole breast. Axillary level I–II lymph node volumes were delineated and the cranial border of the tangential fields was set just below the humeral head to create HTF. Dose–volume histograms (DVH) were used to calculate the doses received by axillary nodal volumes. In a second planning set, HTF were modified with multileaf collimators (MLC-HTF) to obtain an adequate dose coverage of axillary nodes. The mean doses of the axillary nodes, the ipsilateral lung and heart were compared between the two plans (HTF vs MLC-HTF) using a paired sample t-test. The doses received by 95% of the breast volumes were not significantly different for the two plans. The doses received by 95% of the level I and II axillary volumes were 16.79 Gy and 11.59 Gy, respectively, for HTF, increasing to 47.2 Gy and 45.03 Gy, respectively, for MLC-HTF. Mean lung doses and per cent volume of the ipsilateral lung receiving 20 Gy (V20) were also increased from 6.47 Gy and 10.47%, respectively, for HTF, to 9.56 Gy and 16.77%, respectively, for MLC-HTF. Our results suggest that HTF do not adequately cover the level I and II axillary lymph node regions. Modification of HTF with MLC is necessary to obtain an adequate coverage of axillary levels without compromising healthy tissue in the majority of the patients.

Alco, G; Igdem, S I; Ercan, T; Dincer, M; Senturk, R; Atilla, S; Oral Zengin, F; Okkan, S

2010-01-01

62

Axillary dissection after unsuccessful sentinel lymphadenectomy for breast cancer.  

PubMed

Intraoperative lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy (LM/SL) has been demonstrated to provide sensitive axillary staging for breast cancer. LM/SL has a steep learning curve, and factors associated with unsuccessful LM/SL are not well known. Two hundred sixty patients with breast carcinoma and clinically negative axillae underwent injection of about 5 cm3 of isosulfan blue dye (Lymphazurin, US Surgical Corp, Norwalk, CT) into breast tissue surrounding a cancer or biopsy site. After 5 minutes of breast compression, blue-stained lymph nodes were sought. In 47 patients, no blue nodes were detected; a standard axillary dissection was performed. All 47 patients were women with a mean age of 56 years (range, 34-80). Ductal carcinoma was most common (91.5%). Mean tumor size was 1.99 cm. Axillary dissection yielded a mean of 15.8 lymph nodes (range, 6-35). Sixteen patients (34%) had positive lymph nodes (mean, 7.6; median, 6; range, 1-24). Factors associated with LM/SL difficulty include surgeon inexperience, medial hemisphere primary location, extensive axillary metastases, and extranodal invasion. Inability to identify a sentinel node in a clinically negative axilla is a risk factor for extensive axillary tumor burden. Axillary dissection should be performed for patients with unsuccessful LM/SL, particularly those with lateral hemisphere primaries. PMID:10515550

Guenther, J M

1999-10-01

63

Pitt study finds breast cancer patients with positive ultrasound guided axillary node biopsy need dissection  

Cancer.gov

Contrary to a trend in treatment, breast cancer patients with suspicious lymph nodes should have an ultrasound-guided axillary node biopsy, and if that biopsy is positive these patients should undergo an axillary dissection, a new study shows. The study, conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, compared 199 patients with a positive ultrasound-guided axillary node biopsy to 434 patients with a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy.

64

Cost comparison of axillary sentinel lymph node detection and axillary lymphadenectomy in early breast cancer. A national study based on a prospective multi-institutional series of 985 patients 'on behalf of the Group of Surgeons from the French Unicancer Federation'  

PubMed Central

Background: Our objective was to assess the global cost of the sentinel lymph node detection [axillary sentinel lymph node detection (ASLND)] compared with standard axillary lymphadenectomy [axillary lymph node dissection (ALND)] for early breast cancer patients. Patients and methods: We conducted a prospective, multi-institutional, observational, cost comparative analysis. Cost calculations were realized with the micro-costing method from the diagnosis until 1 month after the last surgery. Results: Eight hundred and thirty nine patients were included in the ASLND group and 146 in the ALND group. The cost generated for a patient with an ASLND, with one preoperative scintigraphy, a combined method for sentinel node detection, an intraoperative pathological analysis without lymphadenectomy, was lower than the cost generated for a patient with lymphadenectomy [€2947 (? = 580) versus €3331 (? = 902); P = 0.0001]. Conclusion: ASLND, involving expensive techniques, was finally less expensive than ALND. The length of hospital stay was the cost driver of these procedures. The current observational study points the heterogeneous practices for this validated and largely diffused technique. Several technical choices have an impact on the cost of ASLND, as intraoperative analysis allowing to reduce rehospitalization rate for secondary lymphadenectomy or preoperative scintigraphy, suggesting possible savings on hospital resources.

Classe, J. M.; Baffert, S.; Sigal-Zafrani, B.; Fall, M.; Rousseau, C.; Alran, S.; Rouanet, P.; Belichard, C.; Mignotte, H.; Ferron, G.; Marchal, F.; Giard, S.; Tunon de Lara, C.; Le Bouedec, G.; Cuisenier, J.; Werner, R.; Raoust, I.; Rodier, J.-F.; Laki, F.; Colombo, P.-E.; Lasry, S.; Faure, C.; Charitansky, H.; Olivier, J.-B.; Chauvet, M.-P.; Bussieres, E.; Gimbergues, P.; Flipo, B.; Houvenaeghel, G.; Dravet, F.; Livartowski, A.

2012-01-01

65

Detection of breast micro-metastases in axillary lymph nodes by infrared micro-spectral imaging†  

PubMed Central

We report the ability of infrared micro-spectral imaging, coupled with completely unsupervised methods of multivariate statistical analysis, to accurately reproduce the histological architecture of axillary lymph nodes and detect metastatic breast cancer cells. The acquisition of spectral data from tissue embedded in paraffin provided spectra free of dispersive artefacts that may be observed for infrared microscopic measurements using a ‘reflection/absorption’ methodology. As a consequence, superior tissue classification and identification of cellular abnormality unattainable for deparaffinised tissue was achieved.

Bedrossian, Kristi; Laver, Nora; Miljkovic, Milos; Romeo, Melissa J.; Diem, Max

2009-01-01

66

[Evaluation of axillary lymph nodes from the results of radioisotopic study].  

PubMed

The purpose of the investigation was to study the pattern of 99mTc (MIBI) technitrile uptake in the metastatically involved lymph nodes in breast cancer, by applying the plain scintigraphic technique. The scintigraphic study of the breast and regional metastatic areas by means of the radionuclide 99mTc (MIBI) technitrile was made on a Millennium GE tomographic gamma chamber. The radiotracer 550 (MBq) dissolved in 10-20 ml of saline solution was intravenously injected into the arm cubital vein contralaterally to the lesion. Following 20 minutes of injection of the agent, plain scintigraphy was carried out in three standard projections: frontal and two oblique ones. The scintigraphy was performed using a high-resolution collimator recording a 128 x 128 matrix image. The detector was maximally approximated to the organ being examined. A plain scintigraphic scan was recorded on each side for 10 minutes. By the degree of axillary lymph nodal involvement, the patients were divided into 3 groups in accordance with the international TNM classification: N0 (n = 55), N1 (n = 13), N2 (n = 4). Among 72 patients, axillary lymph nodes could be detected in 6, in 2 of them changes were not diagnosed by X-ray and ultrasound studies. The final pathomorphological study of intraoperative materials revealed axillary lymph nodal metastatic involvement in 17 patients. A micrometastasis in one lymph node was found in 1 patient. None of the radionuclide studies showed tumor spread in 5 cases. The sensitivity, specificity, and precision of the technique were 35.3, 100, and 84.7%, respectively. Thus, a combination of the high cost of the procedure, its radiation load on a patient, and its low sensitivity make the use of plain scintigraphy of axillary regions inexpedient in the complex of studies of the extent of breast cancer in the present development of technology. PMID:18652188

Rozhkova, N I; Fomin, D K; Smirnova, N A; Mazo, M L

2007-01-01

67

Axillary staging of breast cancer: what the radiologist should know.  

PubMed

Identifying the presence of axillary node and internal mammary node metastases in patients with invasive breast cancer is critical for determining prognosis and for deciding on appropriate treatment. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the definitive method to exclude axillary metastases. Patients with positive SLNB results generally undergo axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). The benefit of preoperative identification of axillary metastases is that it allows the surgeon to proceed directly to ALND and to avoid an unnecessary SLNB and the need for a second surgical procedure involving the axillary nodes. Knowledge of the important anatomic landmarks of the axilla is important in finding and accurately reporting suspicious lymph nodes. The pathologic features of nodal metastases illuminate the imaging appearances of these nodes, as depicted with all modalities. Ultrasonography (US) is the primary imaging modality for evaluating axillary nodes. Morphologic criteria, such as cortical thickening, hilar effacement, and nonhilar cortical blood flow, are more important than size criteria in the identification of metastases. US-guided lymph node sampling, especially with core biopsy, is invaluable in confirming the presence of a metastasis in a suspicious node. Core biopsy has been shown to be equal in safety to fine needle aspiration and has a significantly lower false-negative rate. Magnetic resonance imaging is also useful, with the added benefit of providing a global view of both axillae. Computed tomography and radionuclide imaging play a lesser role in imaging the axilla. Preoperative image-based identification and sampling of abnormal lymph nodes that have a high positive predictive value for metastases is an extremely important component in the management of patients with invasive breast cancer. PMID:24108553

Ecanow, Jacob S; Abe, Hiroyuki; Newstead, Gillian M; Ecanow, David B; Jeske, Jan M

2013-10-01

68

Pathology Case Study: Enlarged Right Axillary Lymph Node  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 40-year-old man was found to have an enlarged right axillary lymph node. Visitors are given the patient history, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical immunology.

Fung, Mark

2009-02-18

69

Factors associated with involvement of four or more axillary nodes for sentinel lymph node-positive patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Sentinel lymph node-positive (SLN+) patients who are unlikely to have 4 or more involved axillary nodes might be treated with less extensive regional nodal radiation. The purpose of this study was to define possible predictors of having 4 or more involved axillary nodes. Methods and Materials: The records of 224 patients with breast cancer and 1 to 3 involved SLNs, who underwent completion axillary dissection without neoadjuvant chemotherapy or hormonal therapy were reviewed. Factors associated with the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes (SLNs plus non-SLNs) were evaluated by Pearson chi-square test of association and by simple and multiple logistic-regression analysis. Results: Of 224 patients, 42 had involvement of 4 or more axillary nodes. On univariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes was positively associated with increased tumor size, lobular histology, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), increased number of involved SLNs, decreased number of uninvolved SLNs, and increased size of SLN metastasis. On multivariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes was associated with LVSI, increased number of involved SLNs, increased size of SLN metastasis, and lobular histology. Conclusions: Patients with 1 or more involved SLN, LVSI, or SLN macrometastasis should be treated to the supraclavicular fossa/axillary apex if they do not undergo completion axillary dissection. Other SLN+ patients might be adequately treated with less extensive radiation fields.

Katz, Angela [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail: abkatz@partners.org; Niemierko, Andrzej [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Gage, Irene [Breast Cancer Treatment Group, Sibley Memorial Hospital, Washington, DC (United States); Evans, Sheila [Breast Cancer Treatment Group, Sibley Memorial Hospital, Washington, DC (United States); Shaffer, Margaret [Breast Cancer Treatment Group, Sibley Memorial Hospital, Washington, DC (United States); Smith, Frederick P. [Breast Cancer Treatment Group, Sibley Memorial Hospital, Washington, DC (United States); Taghian, Alphonse [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Magnant, Colette [Breast Cancer Treatment Group, Sibley Memorial Hospital, Washington, DC (United States)

2006-05-01

70

99mTc-labelled SM3 in the preoperative evaluation of axillary lymph nodes and primary breast cancer with change detection statistical processing as an aid to tumour detection.  

PubMed Central

The extent of primary surgery for breast cancer could be tailored to the patient if previous information on the presence or absence of lymph node involvement could be reliably determined. Prospective radioimmunoscintigraphy in 29 patients with primary breast cancer that was found on screening has been undertaken with 555 MBq (15 mCi) 99mTc SM3, an Imperial Cancer Research Fund (ICRF) murine monoclonal antibody, 0.5 mg with images at 10 min and 22 h, and analysis using a change detection algorithm. Sites of significant change between the early and later images were displayed as a map of probabilities. Image-positive and -negative axillary lymph nodes were compared by histology in the 28 evaluable patients. The correct identification of the presence or absence of node involvement, even if impalpable, has been shown in 24 out of 28 patients (29 lymph node groups). Sensitivity was 90% (nine out of ten), specificity 84% (16 out of 19) and accuracy 86%. These results encourage further assessment of this technique. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Biassoni, L.; Granowska, M.; Carroll, M. J.; Mather, S. J.; Howell, R.; Ellison, D.; MacNeill, F. A.; Wells, C. A.; Carpenter, R.; Britton, K. E.

1998-01-01

71

Radiation Use and Long-Term Survival in Breast Cancer Patients With T1, T2 Primary Tumors and One to Three Positive Axillary Lymph Nodes  

SciTech Connect

Background: For patients with Stage II breast cancer with one to three positive lymph nodes, controversy exists about whether radiation as a component of treatment provides a survival benefit. Methods and Materials: We analyzed data from patients with Stage II breast cancer with one to three positive lymph nodes diagnosed from 1988-2002 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry and compared the outcome of 12,693 patients treated with breast-conservation therapy with radiation (BCT + XRT) with the 18,902 patients treated with mastectomy without radiation (MRM w/o XRT). Results: Patients treated with BCT + XRT were younger, were more likely to be treated in recent years of the study period, more commonly had T1 primary tumors, and had fewer involved nodes compared with those treated with MRM w/o XRT (p < 0.001 for all differences). The 15-year breast cancer-specific survival rate for the BCT + XRT group was 80% vs. 72% for the MRM w/o XRT group (p < 0.001). Cox regression analysis showed that MRM w/o XRT was associated with a hazard ratio for breast cancer death of 1.19 (p < 0.001) and for overall death of 1.25 (p < 0.001). The survival benefit in the BCT + XRT group was not limited to subgroups with high-risk disease features. Conclusions: Radiation use was independently associated with improved survival for patients with Stage II breast cancer with one to three positive lymph nodes. Because multivariate analyses of retrospective data cannot account for all potential biases, these data require confirmation in randomized clinical trials.

Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)], E-mail: tbuchhol@mdanderson.org; Woodward, Wendy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Duan Zhigang; Fang Shenying [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Oh, Julia L.; Tereffe, Welela; Strom, Eric A.; Perkins, George H.; Yu, T.-K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Hunt, Kelly K.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Giordano, Sharon H. [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2008-07-15

72

Efficacy of sentinel lymph node biopsy in male breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is rapidly becoming the standard of care in the treatment of women with early stage breast cancer. Male breast cancer although relatively rare, has typically been treated with mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Men who develop breast carcinoma have the same risk as their female counterparts of developing the morbidities associated with

Vincent M. Cimmino; Amy C. Degnim; Michael S. Sabel; Kathleen M. Diehl; Lisa A. Newman; Alfred E. Chang

2004-01-01

73

Breast cancer presenting as an axillary mass.  

PubMed Central

Experience with breast cancer presenting as an axillary mass in 42 patients has been reviewed according to initial clinical findings, treatment and survival. In the absence of an obvious inflammatory lesion, an axillary node may prove to be the first sign of breast cancer. It has been demonstrated that such a node should be biopsied and if positive for adenocarcinoma, a radical mastectomy performed presuming other primary sites have been ruled out. The survival rate after surgery in this group of patients is better than in those who present with a palpable breast mass and have axillary metastases.

Ashikari, R; Rosen, P P; Urban, J A; Senoo, T

1976-01-01

74

Sentinel lymph node mapping in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is a rapidly emerging treatment option for the patient with early stage invasive breast cancer\\u000a and a clinically negative axilla. In the era of mammographic detection, SLN biopsy has the potential to eliminate axillary\\u000a dissection for the enlarging cohort of breast cancer patients who are node-negative. With experience, using radioisotope,\\u000a blue dye, or both, SLN

Hiram S. Cody

1999-01-01

75

Toward nodal staging of axillary lymph node basins through intradermal administration of fluorescent imaging agents  

PubMed Central

As part of a proof-of-concept study for future delivery of targeted near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) tracers, we sought to assess the delivery of micrograms of indocyanine green to all the axillary lymph nodes following intraparenchymal breast injections and intradermal arm injections in 20 subjects with advanced breast carcinoma and undergoing complete axillary lymph node dissection. Lymphatic vessels and nodes were assessed in vivo. Ex vivo images demonstrated that 87% of excised lymph nodes, including 81% of tumor-positive lymph nodes, were fluorescent. Future clinical studies using microdose amounts of tumor-targeting NIRF contrast agents may demonstrate improved surgical intervention with reduced morbidity.

Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Rasmussen, John C.; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Tan, I-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Wagner, Jamie L.; Babiera, Gildy V.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

2013-01-01

76

A moat around castle walls. The role of axillary and facial hair in lymph node protection from mutagenic factors.  

PubMed

Axillary hair is a highly conserved phenotypical feature in humans, and as such deserves at least consideration of its functional significance. Protection from environmental factors is one of the main functions attributed to hair in furred vertebrates, but is believed to be inapplicable to humans. I considered the hypothesis that the phenotypic preservation of axillary hair is due to its unrecognized role in the organism protection. Two immediate questions arise--what exactly is being protected and what it is protected from. A large group of axillary lymph nodes represents a major difference between underarms and the adjacent areas of the trunk. The consideration of potential factors from which hair can offer protection identifies sunlight as the most likely candidate. Intense sweat production underarms may represent an independent defense mechanism, specifically protecting lymph nodes from overheating. Moreover, the pattern of facial hair growth in males strikingly overlaps with the distribution of superficial lymph nodes, suggesting potential role for facial hair in protection of lymph nodes, and possibly thymus and thyroid. The idea of lymph node protection from environmental mutagenic factors, such as UV radiation and heat, appears particularly important in light of wide association of lymph nodes with cancers. The position of contemporary fashion towards body hair is aggressively negative, including the social pressure for removal of axillary and bikini line hair for women, facial hair for men in many professional occupations, and even body hair for men. If this hypothesis is proven to be true, the implications will be significant for immunology (by providing new insights in lymph node physiology), health sciences (depilation is painful and therefore easily modifiable habit if proven to increase disease risk), as well as art, social fashion and economy. PMID:16690220

Komarova, Svetlana V

2006-01-01

77

Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Breast Cancer: Our Technique and Future Directions in Lymph Node Staging  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer remains a major cause of cancer death for women in the United States. Accurate cancer staging, especially of the axillary lymph nodes, is essential for predicting the prognosis of patients and for determining the appropriate multimodality treatment strategy. Historically, the traditional approach for staging the lymphatic metastasis in breast cancer has been Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). However, as the understanding of the lymphatic drainage of the breast has improved, the Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has replaced ALND as the gold standard for lymph node staging in breast cancer. Multiple studies have demonstrated the benefits of SLN biopsy compared to ALND in terms of morbidity, while maintaining the clinical ability to appropriately stage patients, but without any loss in therapeutic impact. In this review, we discuss the historical development of SLN biopsy, describe our technique in detail, and discuss the possible future directions of the lymphatic staging of breast cancer.

Rashid, Omar M.; Takabe, Kazuaki

2012-01-01

78

Evaluation of Lymph Node Status in Male Breast Cancer Patients: A Role for Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is rapidly emerging as an alternative to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for many female breast cancer patients. In contrast, ALND remains the standard of care for male breast cancer patients with similar tumors. We evaluated the results of SLN biopsy in male breast cancer patients with clinically negative axillae. This study included all male

Daniel Albo; Frederick C. Ames; Kelly K. Hunt; Merrick I. Ross; S. Eva Singletary; Henry M. Kuerer

2003-01-01

79

Does the Axillary Lymph Node Ratio Have Any Added Prognostic Value over pN Staging for South East Asian Breast Cancer Patients?  

PubMed Central

Introduction Lymph node ratio (LNR, i.e. the ratio of the number of positive nodes to the total number of nodes excised) is reported to be superior to the absolute number of nodes involved (pN stage) in classifying patients at high versus low risk of death following breast cancer. The added prognostic value of LNR over pN in addition to other prognostic factors has never been assessed. Methods All patients diagnosed with lymph node positive, non-metastatic invasive breast cancer at the National University Hospital (Singapore) and University of Malaya Medical Center (Kuala Lumpur) between 1990–2007 were included (n?=?1589). Overall survival of the patients was estimated by the Kaplan Meier method for LNR [categorized as low (>0 and <0.2), intermediate (0.2–0.65) and high (>0.65–1)] and pN staging [pN1, pN2 and pN3]. Adjusted overall relative mortality risks associated with LNR and pN were calculated by Cox regression. The added prognostic value of LNR over pN was evaluated by comparing the discriminating capacity (as indicated by the c statistic) of two multivariate models, one including pN and one including LNR. Results LNR was superior to pN in categorizing mortality risks for women ?60 years, those with ER negative or grade 3 tumors. In combination with other factors (i.e. age, treatment, grade, tumor size and receptor status), substituting pN by LNR did not result in better discrimination of women at high versus low risk of death, neither for the entire cohort (c statistic 0.72 [0.70–0.75] and 0.73 [0.71–0.76] respectively for pN versus LNR), nor for the subgroups mentioned above. Conclusion In combination with other prognosticators, substitution of pN by LNR did not provide any added prognostic value for South East Asian breast cancer patients.

Saxena, Nakul; Hartman, Mikael; Yip, Cheng-Har; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Khin, Lay Wai; Taib, Nur Aishah; Looi, Lai-Meng; Lim, Siew-Eng; Lee, Soo-Chin; Verkooijen, Helena M.

2012-01-01

80

Comparison of Treatment Outcome Between Breast-Conservation Surgery With Radiation and Total Mastectomy Without Radiation in Patients With One to Three Positive Axillary Lymph Nodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To test the difference in treatment outcome between breast-conservation surgery with radiation and total mastectomy without radiation, to evaluate the benefits of adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: Using the Severance Hospital Breast Cancer Registry, we divided the study population of T1, T2 and one to three axillary node-positive patients

Hyung Seok Park; Yong Bae Kim; Chang Ok Suh; Byeong-Woo Park

2011-01-01

81

HER2/neu, Topoisomerase 2a, Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors: Discordance between Primary Breast Cancer and Metastatic Axillary Lymph Node in Expression and Amplification Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Summary Molecular classification of breast cancer (BC) and the evaluation of new biological markers such as estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), ErbB2 (HER2) and topoisomerase 2a (Topo2a) status are claimed to be important parameters in the management of BC therapy. In case of heterogeneity between primary BC and metastatic site, this implies profound limitations of efficient systemic therapy. Therefore, it is essential to analyze whether biological markers of BC relate to identical expression profiles of metastatic lymph nodes (mLNs). We used paraffin-embedded tumor tissue from 119 patients with at least 1 mLN. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to analyze ER, PR, HER2 and Topo2a. In addition, HER2 and Topo2a amplification was evaluated by fluorescence/chromogenic in situ hybridization (FISH/CISH) in all samples with a HER2 score of 2+/3+ by IHC. Overall, the percentage of discordant marker status in the BC and its mLN was 2.6% for ER, 3.5% for PR, 3.4% for HER2, and 3.4% for Topo2a. With FISH/CISH, the amplification rate for Topo2a and HER2 was concordant in all cases. Because there are no prospective studies, it remains unclear whether these discrepancies have an effect on patient survival.

Ataseven, Beyhan; Gologan, Daniela; Gunesch, Angela; Kehl, Victoria; Hoegel, Bernhard; Beer, Michaela; Eiermann, Wolfgang

2012-01-01

82

Evaluating the efficacy of current clinical practice of adjuvant chemotherapy in postmenopausal women with early-stage, estrogen or progesterone receptor-positive, one-to-three positive axillary lymph node, breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose We evaluated the benefit of the current clinical practice of adjuvant chemotherapy for postmenopausal women with early-stage, estrogen- or progesterone-receptor-positive (er/pr+), one-to-three positive axillary lymph node (1–3 ln+), breast cancer (esbc). Methods Using the Manitoba Cancer Registry, we identified all postmenopausal women diagnosed with er/pr+ 1–3 ln+ esbc during the periods 1995–1997, 2000–2002, and 2003–2005 (n = 156, 161, and 171 respectively). Treatment data were obtained from the Manitoba Cancer Registry and by linkage with Manitoba administrative databases. Seven-year survival data were available for the 1995–1997 and 2000–2002 populations. Using Cox regression, we assessed the independent effect of the clinical practice of adjuvant chemotherapy on disease-free (dfs) and overall survival (os). Results Clinical breast cancer treatments did not differ significantly between the 2000–2002 and 2003–2005 populations. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered in 103 patients in the 2000–2002 population (64%) and in 44 patients in the 1995–1997 population [28.2%; mean difference: 36%; 95% confidence interval (ci): 31% to 40%; p < 0.0001]. Compared with 1995–1997, 2000–2002 was not significantly associated with an incremental dfs benefit for patients over a period of 7 years (2000–2002 vs. 1995–1997; adjusted hazard ratio: 0.98; 95% ci: 0.64 to 1.4). Conclusions The treatment standard of adjuvant chemotherapy in addition to endocrine therapy may not be effective for all women with er/pr+ 1–3 ln+ esbc. There could be a subgroup of those women who do not benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy as expected and who are therefore being overtreated. Further studies with a larger sample size are warranted to confirm our results.

Hannouf, M.B.; Brackstone, M.; Xie, B.; Zaric, G.S.

2012-01-01

83

Sentinel lymph node micrometastasis as a predictor of axillary tumor burden.  

PubMed

The sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) procedure is an alternative method for assessing the axillary lymph node (ALN) status in patients with breast cancer. The SLNB carries the risk of a false-negative result, with patients harboring positive ALNs in the face of a negative SLNB examination. In addition, the significance of a SLNB with cells identified only with keratin or with deposits less than 0.2 mm remains unresolved. We analyzed our SLNB data over the past 5 years in order to determine the relationship between SLN tumor burden and ALN tumor burden. Pathology files for the past 5 years at Magee-Womens Hospital were searched for all SLNB cases that had an axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Each SLNB case was reviewed and tabulated for breast tumor size, SLN tumor size, and largest tumor size in the ALND. Correlation and frequency distribution were performed for the status of all SLNs and ALNDs. Patterns of lymph node metastasis were recorded and the sizes of the SLN metastases were reported according to the recent Philadelphia Consensus Conference on Sentinel Lymph Nodes and the revised American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging. SLN metastases were classified as immunohistochemistry (IHC) positive if only single keratin-positive cells or clusters were present and were not observed with standard tissue stains, as submicrometastatic (SMM) if tumors were less than 0.2 mm (excluding IHC positive), as micrometastatic if tumors were larger than 0.2 mm but axillary macrometastasis. Ninety percent of these metastases occurred with T1c/T2 breast tumors, indicating the important codependence of T stage. Overall there is a subset of patients who are IHC positive, SMM positive, or micrometastatic positive with ALNs that are macrometastatic who are at risk of harboring axillary macrometastases. Keratin IHC of breast SLNs is useful for defining these subsets. PMID:15009035

Dabbs, David J; Fung, Mark; Landsittel, Douglas; McManus, Kim; Johnson, Ronald

2004-01-01

84

Prognostic, predictive abilities and concordance of BCL2 and TP53 protein expression in primary breast cancers and axillary lymph-nodes: A retrospective analysis of the Belgian three arm study evaluating anthracycline vs CMF adjuvant chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Given recent data on genetic heterogeneity within and individual's tumor, we investigated if there were differences in the prognostic and predictive abilities of BCL2 and TP53 protein expression in primary breast cancer (TU) and corresponding axillary lymph-nodes (LN). We used patient samples from the adjuvant Belgian three-arm study which randomized between anthracycline containing regimens and traditional CMF. The endpoints analyzed were overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS) and interactions between chemotherapy regimens. At a median follow-up of 15.6 years, BCL2 and TP53 (in both TU and LN) were significantly associated with OS but only in the first 5 years. Likewise, BCL2 and TP53 (in both TU and LN) were associated with EFS in the first 2 years after randomization, with no association after 2 years. BCL2 and TP53 remained statistically significant after adjustment for the standard clinical-pathological characteristics in regard to OS and EFS in the respective first years after randomization, (p value < 0.001 for both markers). Furthermore, an interaction was found between high BCL2 expression in the TU (but not in LN) and benefit to CMF over anthracycline-based chemotherapy (interaction p value EFS: 0.042; OS = 0.01). No interaction was found for TP53 expression neither in TU nor in LN. We conclude that BCL2 and TP53 were predictive biomarkers for better and worse survival respectively, but only in the first two to five years after diagnosis. BCL2 expression in the TU but not in the LN was predictive of increased benefit to CMF vs anthracycline-based chemotherapy. PMID:24768477

Bozovic-Spasojevic, Ivana; Ameye, Lieveke; Paesmans, Marianne; Larsimont, Denis; Di Leo, Angelo; Dolci, Stella; Piccart, Martine; de Azambuja, Evandro; Loi, Sherene

2014-08-01

85

Determinants of Diagnostic Performance Of [F-18]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography for Axillary Staging in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective To prospectively investigate determinants of the accuracy of staging axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer using [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). Methods Patients with primary operable breast cancer underwent FDG PET of the chest followed by sentinel node biopsy (SNB, n = 47) and/or complete axillary lymph node dissection (ALND, n = 23). PET scans were independently interpreted by three observers in a blinded fashion with respect to the FDG avidity of the primary tumor and the axillary status. The results were compared to histopathological analyses of the axillary lymph nodes. Clinicians were blinded to the PET results. Results Axillary lymph node specimens and FDG PET scans were evaluated in 70 patients (59% cT1). Overall, 32 (46%) had lymph node metastases as established by SNB (18/47) or ALND (14/23), 20 of which were confined to a single node. The overall sensitivity of FDG PET was 25%, with a specificity of 97%. PET results were false-negative in all 18 positive SNBs and true-positive in 8/14 in the ALND group. The performance of FDG PET depended on the axillary tumor load and the FDG avidity of the primary tumor. Intense uptake in the primary tumor was found in only 57% of the patients, and this was independent of the size. There was excellent interobserver agreement of visual assessment of FDG uptake in primary tumor and axillary lymph nodes. Conclusions The sensitivity of FDG PET to detect occult axillary metastases in operable breast cancer was low, and it was a function of axillary tumor load and FDG avidity of the primary tumor. Even though the clinical relevance of occult disease detected by SNB needs to be confirmed, it is suggested that FDG PET in these patients should be focused on exploiting its nearly perfect specificity and the potential prognostic relevance of variable FDG uptake.

van der Hoeven, Jacobus J. M.; Hoekstra, Otto S.; Comans, Emile F. I.; Pijpers, Rik; Boom, Robert P. A.; van Geldere, Dick; Meijer, Sybren; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Teule, Gerrit J. J.

2002-01-01

86

Establishing axillary Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLNB) for early breast cancer in the United Kingdom: A survey of the national training program  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe UK National training programme (NEWSTART) for SLNB in breast cancer was established in 2004, aimed at providing structured, standardised training with a focus on multidisciplinary team (MDT) delivery.

M. Keshtgar; N. Aresti; F. MacNeil

2010-01-01

87

Video-assisted axillary surgery for cancer: non-randomized comparison with conventional techniques.  

PubMed

Endoscopic techniques have been introduced in most of surgical disciplines including surgery for breast cancer. However, there is shortage of evidence-based guidelines and oncological outcome data. We present a controlled trial of endoscopic axillary surgery for breast cancer with mid-term oncologic results. Fifty cases of axilloscopy for sentinel node biopsy, axillary sampling or full axillary dissection were included. Sentinel node biopsy was accomplished with the blue dye technique. Full axillary dissection was performed with a three-port approach with gas insufflation without liposuction. Endoscopic axillary dissection significantly lowered duration of drainage and operative blood loss. Lymph node harvest with endoscopic approach was significantly lower than with open procedure. One case developed axillary recurrence. Endoscopic sentinel node biopsy yielded identification rate of 80%. Current data do not justify the oncological safety of resectional endoscopic procedures. Endoscopically assisted axillary cancer surgery is technically feasible. The technique is valuable to maximize utility of blue dye method for sentinel lymphadenectomy in areas with no access to radio-guided surgery. PMID:17532217

Hussein, Osama; El-Nahhas, Waleed; El-Saed, Aiman; Denewer, Adel

2007-10-01

88

The relationship between cytotoxicity and prognostically significant histologic changes in lymph nodes from patients with cancer of the breast.  

PubMed Central

Axillary lymph nodes obtained from 37 patients with cancer of the breast were used in a microcytotoxicity assay against a human mammary cancer cell line, ALAB. Cell suspensions made from 60 individual lymph nodes and 51 lymph node pools were tested. Each lymph node was graded for the extent of the histologic changes of sinus histiocytosis (SH), paracortical hyperplasia (PCH), and germinal center hyperplasia (GCH). High levels of cytotoxicity correlated significantly with the presence of SH and PCH. When multiple lymph nodes of individual patients were pooled and tested, a high intensity of GCH correlated with a low degree of cytototoxicity. The cytotoxic activity of pooled lymph nodes from different axillary regions was studied in 20 patients. In 7 of these patients, low axillary lymph node cells were more cytotoxic than high axillary node cells. The reverse was found for 7 patients, and there was no difference in cytotoxicity between axillary regions in 6. Cytotoxic lymph node pools had high SH and low GCH whether they were obtained from the low or high region. Noncytotoxic lymph node pools from the high axillary region had a low intensity of all three histologic reactions. In contrast, noncytotoxic lymph node pools from the low axillary regions had high intensities of SH, PCH, and GCH. These results suggest that germinal center hyperplasia in the lymph nodes nearest an advancing tumor is associated with a local suppression of cytotoxic cell activity.

Check, I. J.; Cobb, M.; Hunter, R. L.

1980-01-01

89

Frozen section analysis of sentinel lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer does not impair the probability to detect lymph node metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intra-operative frozen section analysis (FS analysis) of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with breast cancer can prevent a second operation for axillary lymph node dissection. In contrast, loss of tissue during FS analysis may impair the probability to detect lymph node metastases. To determine the effect of tissue loss on the probability of detection of metastases, dimensions and tissue

E. V. E. Madsen; Dalen van J; Gorp van P. J; P. M. P. Van Oort

2012-01-01

90

Which Patients Might Benefit from Postmastectomy Radiotherapy in Breast Cancer Patients with T1-2 Tumor and 1-3 Axillary Lymph Nodes Metastasis?  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study compared the clinical outcomes of T1-2N1 breast cancer patients with and without postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT). Risk factors for loco-regional recurrence (LRR) were identified in order to define a subgroup of patients who might benefit from PMRT. Materials and Methods Of 110 T1-2N1 breast cancer patients who underwent mastectomy from January 1994 through December 2009, 32 patients underwent PMRT and 78 patients did not. Treatment outcomes and risk factors for LRR were analyzed. Results The 5- and 10-year LRR rates were both 6.2% in the PMRT group, and 10.4% and 14.6% in the no-PMRT group (p=0.336). In addition, no significant differences in distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) or overall survival (OS) were observed between patients receiving and not receiving PMRT. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with higher LRR rates included grade 3 disease, extracapsular extension (ECE), and triple negative subtype. Patients who had one or more risk factors for LRR were defined as a high-risk patient group. In the high-risk group, both 5- and 10-year LRR rates for patients who underwent PMRT was 18.2%, and LRR rates of 21.4% at five years and 36.6% at 10 years were observed for patients who did not undergo PMRT (p=0.069). Conclusion PMRT in T1-2N1 breast cancer patients should be considered according to several prognostic factors in addition to T and N stage. Findings of our study indicated that PMRT did not improve LRR, DMFS, or OS in T1-2N1 breast cancer patients. However, in a subgroup of patients with grade 3 disease, ECE, or triple negative subtype, PMRT might be beneficial.

Kong, Moonkyoo

2013-01-01

91

The value of cytokeratin immunohistochemistry in the evaluation of axillary sentinel lymph nodes in patients with lobular breast carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Cytokeratin immunohistochemistry (IHC) reveals a higher rate of occult lymph node metastases among lobular carcinomas than among ductal breast cancers. IHC is widely used but is seldom recommended for the evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients. Objective To assess the value of cytokeratin IHC for the detection of metastases in sentinel lymph nodes of patients with invasive lobular carcinoma. Methods The value of IHC, the types of metastasis found by this method, and the involvement of non?sentinel lymph nodes were analysed in a multi?institutional cohort of 449 patients with lobular breast carcinoma, staged by sentinel lymph node biopsy and routine assessment of the sentinel lymph nodes by IHC when multilevel haematoxylin and eosin staining revealed no metastasis. Results 189 patients (42%) had some type of sentinel node involvement, the frequency of this increasing with increasing tumour size. IHC was needed for identification of 65 of these cases: 17 of 19 isolated tumour cells, 40 of 64 micrometastases, and 8 of 106 larger metastases were detected by this means. Non?sentinel?node involvement was noted in 66 of 161 cases undergoing axillary dissection. Although isolated tumour cells were not associated with further lymph node involvement, sentinel node positivity detected by IHC was associated with further nodal metastases in 12 of 50 cases (0.24), a proportion that is higher than previously reported for breast cancer in general. Conclusions IHC is recommended for the evaluation of sentinel nodes from patients with lobular breast carcinoma, as the micrometastases or larger metastases demonstrated by this method are often associated with a further metastatic nodal load.

Cserni, G; Bianchi, S; Vezzosi, V; Peterse, H; Sapino, A; Arisio, R; Reiner-Concin, A; Regitnig, P; Bellocq, J-P; Marin, C; Bori, R; Penuela, J M; Iturriagagoitia, A Cordoba

2006-01-01

92

Axillary reverse lymphatic mapping in breast cancer surgery: a comprehensive review.  

PubMed

Axillary reverse lymphatic mapping (ARM) is a surgical technique that was first described in 2007 as a method for preserving the lymphatic drainage of the arm during sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for breast cancer. We found that the ARM technique had several limitations that include a poor success rate for identification of arm lymph nodes (ARM nodes) and lymphatics. The occurrence of common lymphatic drainage pathways of the arm and the breast in a subset of patients also raises concerns regarding its oncological soundness. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the ARM procedure in reducing lymphedema risk in breast cancer patients that undergo a variety of treatments, has yet to be clearly defined. PMID:24621187

Seyednejad, Nazgol; Kuusk, Urve; Wiseman, Sam M

2014-07-01

93

Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Early Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Summary The role of axillary surgery for the treatment of primary breast cancer is in a process of constant change. During the last decade, axillary dissection with removal of at least 10 lymph nodes (ALD) was replaced by sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) as a staging procedure. Since then, the indication for SLNB rapidly expanded. Today's surgical strategies aim to minimize the rate of patients with a negative axillary status who undergo ALD. For some subgroups of patients, the indication for SLNB (e.g. multicentric disease, large tumors) or its implication for treatment planning (micrometastatic involvement, neoadjuvant chemotherapy) is being discussed. Although the indication for ALD is almost entirely restricted to patients with positive axillary lymph nodes today, the therapeutic effect of completion ALD is more and more questioned. On the other hand, the diagnostic value of ALD in node-positive patients is discussed. This article reflects today's standards in axillary surgery and discusses open issues on the diagnostic and therapeutic role of SLNB and ALD in the treatment of early breast cancer.

Kuhn, Thorsten

2011-01-01

94

Axillary node metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma with h?rthle and signet ring cell differentiation. A case of disseminated thyroid cancer with peculiar histologic findings  

PubMed Central

Background Differentiated thyroid cancer is usually associated with an excellent prognosis and indolent course. Distant metastases are rare events at the onset of thyroid cancer. Among these presentations, metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes is even more unusual: only few cases were previously reported in the literature; there has been no report of axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. Axillary lymph node metastasis generally arises in the context of disseminated disease and carries an ominous prognosis. Case presentation Here we present a case of axillary lymph node metastasis in the context of disseminated differentiated thyroid cancer. The patient underwent near total thyroidectomy and neck and axillary lymph node dissection. A histopathological diagnosis of poorly differentiated follicular carcinoma with "signet ring cells" and Hürthle cell features was established. The patient received radioactive iodine therapy and TSH suppression therapy. Subsequently his serum thyroglobulin level decreased to 44.000 ng/ml from over 100.000 ng/ml. Discussion and Conclusion Currently there are only few reported cases of axillary node metastases from thyroid cancer, and to our knowledge, this is the first report on axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. "Signet ring cell" is a morphologic feature shared by both benign and, more rarely, malignant follicular thyroid neoplasm, and it generally correlates with an arrest in folliculogenesis. Our case is one of the rare "signet ring cells" carcinomas so far described.

2012-01-01

95

Less-Invasive Lymph Node Surgery Safe for Women with Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Breast cancer patients who had sentinel lymph node biopsy followed by axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) only if cancer cells were detected in the sentinel nodes had the same overall survival as those  who underwent ALND regardless of sentinel node status, according to a randomized trial published online September 20, 2010, in Lancet Oncology.

96

Mucinous carcinoma with axillary lymph node metastasis in a male breast: A case report  

PubMed Central

Context: Pure mucinous carcinoma of the male breast is an extremely rare neoplasm. It is characterized by a lower incidence of metastatic nodal involvement and a higher survival rate than invasive ductal carcinomas. Case Report: We report the case of a 75-year-old male who presented with a retroareolar mass of the right breast. The patient underwent radical mastectomy including right axillary lymph node dissection. The tumor was well demarcated and had a friable consistency with a gelatinous appearance. Histologically, the diagnostic of pure mucinous carcinoma with lymph node metastasis was performed. After surgery, the patient received chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormonotherapy (Tamoxifen). The patient remained free of disease for 36 months after surgery. Conclusion: Pure mucinous carcinoma of the male breast is a very rare tumor; in which axillary nodal disease is exceptional.

Hammedi, Faten; Trabelsi, Amel; Abdelkrim, Soumaya Ben; Abid, Lilia Ben Yacoub; Jomaa, Wafa; Bdioui, Ahlem; Beizig, Nadia; Mokni, Moncef

2010-01-01

97

Histologic localization of sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer.  

PubMed

Data from a recent study support the hypothesis that axillary lymph node metastases frequently localize near the inflow junction of the afferent lymphatic vessel. Our goal was to evaluate the microscopic location of axillary sentinel lymph node metastases in a prospective study of breast cancer patients. A total of 305 axillary sentinel lymph nodes from 213 breast cancer patients undergoing surgery at our institution were evaluated. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy using technetium-labeled sulfur colloid and intraoperative isosulfan blue dye injection were used for identifying the sentinel lymph node. Intraoperatively, the surgeon placed a suture either at the point of entry of isosulfan blue dye or at the area with the highest radioactive counts, and this area was inked at the grossing bench before processing. Metastases were identified in 55 of the 305 lymph nodes examined. Thirty-four nodes contained metastases in both the inked half and the opposite half. Metastatic tumor was identified in the inked half alone in 18 lymph nodes. Only three nodes contained metastatic tumor in the opposite half with no tumor in the inked half (p <0.001). Similar results were found when nodes tagged at the point of blue dye entry and nodes tagged at the area with the highest radioactive counts were analyzed separately. Our findings suggest that metastatic tumor has a higher probability of being present in the region of the inflow junction of the afferent lymphatic vessel. This information may be useful in determining the optimal method for evaluating axillary sentinel lymph node specimens from breast cancer patients. PMID:12604895

Diaz, Leslie K; Hunt, Kelly; Ames, Frederick; Meric, Funda; Kuerer, Henry; Babiera, Gildy; Ross, Merrick; Singletary, Eva; Middleton, Lavinia P; Symmans, W Fraser; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Sahin, Aysegul; Sneige, Nour; Gilcrease, Michael Z

2003-03-01

98

Tattoo pigment mimicking metastatic malignant melanoma in an axillary sentinel lymph node  

PubMed Central

The case of a 37-year-old man with a Clarkes level III, Breslow thickness 1.2 mm superficial spreading melanoma of his forearm is described. Intraoperatively, a black-pigmented ipsilateral axillary sentinel lymph node, highly suspicious for metastatic disease, was harvested. The patient had a faded tattoo in the vicinity of the malignant melanoma. Histological examination of the lymph node demonstrated normal lymphoid tissue and the presence of pigmented macrophages due to tattoo ink. Metastatic malignant melanoma was ruled out. The importance of histological confirmation of an enlarged pigmented node before complete dissection of the regional lymph nodes is discussed. The importance of recording the presence of decorative tattoos is stressed as the tattoo pigment may clinically mimic metastatic disease in those with malignant melanoma undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy.

McDermott, A; O'Donoghue, G T; Kerin, M

2010-01-01

99

Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients after overnight migration of radiolabelled sulphur colloid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the performance and feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients using technetium-99m (99mTc) sulphur colloid and gamma probe.Methods: From May 2000 to March 2001, 70 patients with a tumour less than 5 cm with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes underwent sentinel node biopsy followed by standard axillary dissection. 99mTc sulphur colloid was injected around

N Lamichhane; K W Shen; C L Li; Q X Han; Y J Zhang; Z M Shao; Z Z Shen

2004-01-01

100

Clinical practice guidelines for the use of axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy in carcinoma of the breast: current update.  

PubMed

Axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has been adopted as a suitable alternative to traditional level I and II axillary dissection in the management of clinically node-negative (N0) breast cancers. There are two current techniques used to identify the sentinel node(s): radiopharmaceutical, technetium sulfur colloid, and isosulfan blue dye (used in the United States) and technetium-labeled albumin and patent blue dye (used in Europe). (The labeled albumin is not U.S. Food and Drug Administration [FDA] approved in the United States.) SLNB to replace axillary dissection should only be performed by surgeons and patient management teams with appropriate training and experience. Although both radiocolloid and blue dye are used together by most surgeons, and training should be in both techniques, some experienced surgeons use one or the other almost exclusively. In addition, surgical pathologists must recognize the need to examine these small specimens with great care, using a generally adopted protocol. Imprint cytology or frozen sections may be used, followed by additional sections for light microscopy. Immunochemical staining with cytokeratin or other techniques to identify "submicroscopic" metastasis is often used, but the results should not be used to influence clinical decisions with respect to adjuvant therapy. "Failed" SLNB implies the surgeon's failure to identify the sentinel nodes, in which case a complete dissection is performed. A "false-negative" SLNB implies the finding of metastasis in the excised sentinel nodes by light microscopy after a negative frozen section examination. Whether a false-negative SLNB mandates completion axillary dissection is controversial, with clinical trials currently under way to answer this question. Although SLNB was initiated to accompany breast-conserving treatment, it is equally useful in patients undergoing mastectomy. It is more difficult to perform with mastectomy. When using blue dye only, SLNB may require a separate incision because of time constraints between injection and identification of the blue-stained nodes; radiocolloid usually does not. Completion axillary dissection after false-negative SLNB is more difficult after mastectomy. SLNB is a useful procedure that may save 70% of women with clinically negative (N0) axillae and all of those with pathologically negative axillae from the morbidity of complete axillary dissection. Ideally the sentinel nodes should be able to identified in more than 95% of patients, with a false-negative rate of less than 5%. Until these rates can be achieved consistently, however, surgeons should not abandon traditional axillary dissection. PMID:15009032

Schwartz, Gordon F

2004-01-01

101

Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients after overnight migration of radiolabelled sulphur colloid  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the performance and feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients using technetium-99m (99mTc) sulphur colloid and gamma probe. Methods: From May 2000 to March 2001, 70 patients with a tumour less than 5 cm with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes underwent sentinel node biopsy followed by standard axillary dissection. 99mTc sulphur colloid was injected around the primary tumour the day before surgery and a gamma probe was used to detect the sentinel lymph node during the surgical procedure. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was compared with standard axillary dissection for its ability to accurately reflect the final pathological status of the axillary nodes. Results: The sentinel lymph node was successfully identified in 67 of 70 patients (95.71%). The number of sentinel lymph nodes ranged from 1–5 (mean 1.5) and non-sentinel nodes ranged from 5–22 (mean 13.3). Of the 67 patients with successfully identified sentinel lymph nodes, 43.28% (29/67) were histologically positive. Sensitivity of the sentinel lymph node to predict axilla was 82.75%; specificity was 100%. Positive and negative predictive values were 100% and 88.3% respectively. The sentinel lymph node was falsely negative in five patients, yielding an accuracy of 92.53%. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was more accurate for T1 tumours than for T2 tumours. Conclusions: The gamma probe guided method after overnight migration of 99mTc sulphur colloid is technically feasible for detecting sentinel lymph nodes in most breast cancer patients, accurately predicting the axillary lymph node status, and appears more accurate for T1 lesions than for larger lesions. This minimally invasive axillary staging procedure represents a major advance in the surgical treatment of breast cancer.

Lamichhane, N; Shen, K; Li, C; Han, Q; Zhang, Y; Shao, Z; Shen, Z

2004-01-01

102

Impact of Clinicopathological Factors on Sensitivity of Axillary Ultrasonography in the Detection of Axillary Nodal Metastases in Patients With Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) are used to evaluate the breast and regional nodes in breast cancer patients.\\u000a We sought to identify factors influencing the sensitivity of ultrasonography for detection of nodal metastasis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Patients with a clinically negative axilla who underwent axillary ultrasonography and sentinel lymph node biopsy were included.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results: Of 208 patients, axillary ultrasonography was negative

Isabelle Bedrosian; Deepak Bedi; Henry M. Kuerer; Bruno D. Fornage; Lori Harker; Merrick I. Ross; Frederick C. Ames; Savitri Krishnamurthy; Beth S. Edeiken-Monroe; Funda Meric; Barry W. Feig; Jeri Akins; S. Eva Singletary; Nadeem Q. Mirza; Kelly K. Hunt

2003-01-01

103

Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura after Mastectomy and Axillary Lymph Node Dissection  

PubMed Central

First described in 1916, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune disease resulting in the destruction of platelets. Here, we present a case of an 85-year-old patient diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast whose surgical treatment was complicated postoperatively by acute-onset thrombocytopenia with a resultant hematoma at the operative site. Diagnostic Workup revealed no clear etiology for the thrombocytopenia; therefore, a presumptive diagnosis of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura was made. Previous literature has associated the development of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura with breast cancer. However, to the authors' knowledge, there are no reported cases of ITP presenting immediately following surgical intervention for breast cancer in the absence of other etiologic factors.

Santivasi, Wil L.; Routt, Meghan M.; Terando, Alicia M.

2014-01-01

104

Axillary Ultrasound for Breast Cancer Staging: an Attempt to Identify Clinical/Histopathological Factors Impacting Diagnostic Performance  

PubMed Central

Aim: To assess the diagnostic value of pre-surgery axillary ultrasound for nodal staging in patients with primary breast cancer and to identify clinical/histopathological factors impacting diagnostic performance. Study design: Single-center, retrospective chart analysis. We assessed sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of clinical examination as well as axillary ultrasound vs. clinical examination alone. The histopathological results were the standard of truth. In addition, we analyzed clinical and histopathological factors regarding their potential to impact sensitivity and specificity. Results: We enrolled a total of 172 women in the study. Sensitivity of clinical examination plus ultrasound was significantly higher than for clinical examination alone (58% vs. 31.6%). Specificity and positive predictive value were similar while the negative predictive value increased from 63.4% to 73% when additionally applying ultrasound. Sensitivity and specificity of axillary ultrasound were impacted by tumor size (P = 0.2/0.04), suspicious axillary palpation (P < 0.01/<0.01), number of affected lymph nodes (P < 0.01/?) and distant metastases (P = 0.04/<0.01). All other factors had no impact. Conclusion: Since pre-surgery axillary nodal staging is currently used to determine disease management, axillary ultrasound is a useful add-on tool in the diagnostic armamentarium for breast cancer patients. Tumor size, suspicious axillary palpation, number of affected lymph nodes and distant metastases increase diagnostic performance of this diagnostic modality.

Ertan, Kubilay; Linsler, Christina; di Liberto, Alexander; Ong, Mei Fang; Solomayer, Erich; Endrikat, Jan

2013-01-01

105

Impact of non-axillary sentinel node biopsy on staging and treatment of breast cancer patients.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of lymphatic drainage to non-axillary sentinel nodes and to determine the implications of this phenomenon. A total of 549 breast cancer patients underwent lymphoscintigraphy after intratumoural injection of (99m)Tc-nanocolloid. The sentinel node was intraoperatively identified with the aid of intratumoural administered patent blue dye and a gamma-ray detection probe. Histopathological examination of sentinel nodes included step-sectioning at six levels and immunohistochemical staining. A sentinel node outside level I or II of the axilla was found in 149 patients (27%): internal mammary sentinel nodes in 86 patients, other non-axillary sentinel nodes in 44 and both internal mammary and other non-axillary sentinel nodes in nineteen patients. The intra-operative identification rate was 80%. Internal mammary metastases were found in seventeen patients and metastases in other non-axillary sentinel nodes in ten patients. Staging improved in 13% of patients with non-axillary sentinel lymph nodes and their treatment strategy was changed in 17%. A small proportion of clinically node negative breast cancer patients can be staged more precisely by biopsy of sentinel nodes outside level I and II of the axilla, resulting in additional decision criteria for postoperative regional or systemic therapy. PMID:12232750

Tanis, P J; Nieweg, O E; Valdés Olmos, R A; Peterse, J L; Rutgers, E J Th; Hoefnagel, C A; Kroon, B B R

2002-09-23

106

Sentinel lymph node drainage in multicentric breast cancers.  

PubMed

Axillary lymph node status is the most important prognostic marker in patients with breast cancer; the presence of axillary metastases impacts prognosis as well as subsequent systemic therapy. Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is associated with significant morbidity and psychological distress; the introduction of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy with lymphatic mapping affords the ability to identify those patients most likely to benefit from ALND, sparing node-negative patients. The lymphatic drainage of the breast is poorly understood, and the situation is further complicated by the lack of standardization of the SLN biopsy technique among institutions. Multicentricity has generally been considered to be a contraindication to SLN biopsy due to concerns about potential inaccuracies. Here we report five cases of patients with multicentric breast cancers (two tumors in two distinct quadrants). In each case, injection of one site with technetium-labeled sulfur colloid and the second site with isosulfan blue dye resulted in successful identification of at least one node that was both hot and blue within the axilla. These observations suggest that the lymphatic drainage of the entire breast coincides with drainage of the tumor bed, regardless of the quadrant. However, further studies are needed to validate the accuracy of SLN biopsy in multicentric breast cancers. PMID:12390358

Jin Kim, Hong; Heerdt, Alexandra S; Cody, Hiram S; Van Zee, Kimberly J

2002-01-01

107

Axillary skin malignancy: a rare breast cancer presentation.  

PubMed

A rise in incidence and decrease in mortality rates from breast cancer have lead to an increase in prevalence within developed countries. Presentation is classically with a palpable breast tissue mass that may metastasize to bone, lung, liver, brain, lymph nodes, and skin. We describe a delayed diagnosis, in an 80-year-old female patient, where, on 2 occasions, the primary initial presentation was with a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in the right axilla. It was not until the third referral, with an ipsilateral breast lump, that breast cancer was clinically diagnosed. This was histologically identified as the primary malignancy, most likely in-keeping with squamous cell carcinoma of the breast. This unique atypical presentation represents a diagnostic challenge and highlights a clinically relevant learning point that may avoid subsequent diagnostic delay. Cutaneous axillary lesions should be treated with a high index of suspicion, necessitating the requirement for chest examination because of the possible presence of an associated primary breast carcinoma. PMID:23241794

Miranda, Benjamin H; Malahias, Marco; El-Said, Tarek F A; Fahmy, Fahmy S

2014-05-01

108

Long-term clinical impact of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer and cutaneous melanoma.  

PubMed

Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is based on the hypothesis that the sentinel lymph node (SLN) reflects the lymph-node status and a negative SLN might allow complete axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) to be avoided. Past and current sentinel lymph node clinical trials for breast carcinoma and melanoma address the prognostic and therapeutic utility of SLN dissection (SLND). This technique has already become a standard of care for breast cancer patients and select patients with melanoma. However, it is still important to discuss current techniques and some controversies. This article reviews these issues as well as current guidelines for treatment and management of patients with various findings on SLNB. PMID:24835286

Gangi, A; Essner, R; Giuliano, A E

2014-06-01

109

Ultrasound-guided lymph node sampling in the initial management of breast cancer.  

PubMed

Ultrasound-guided fine needle sampling is proving very useful for avoiding surgical biopsy of the sentinel lymph node for N+breast cancer. Because of its high specificity, cytology is sufficient in most cases. Focal or diffuse cortical thickening or the absence of the echogenic hilum irrespective of the size and shape of the lymph node are ultrasound signs which should be taken into account. The status of the lymph nodes in axillary and extra-axillary sites has an impact on the later management of patients and reduces the length of time for secondary lymph node dissection and adjuvant therapy, as one third of sentinel ganglion procedures can be avoided. It should be possible to optimise identification of the sentinel lymph node by the intradermal injection of ultrasound contrast agent. The cost/effectiveness ratio is positive but unknown and should be assessed in the initial management of breast cancer. PMID:23290786

Balu-Maestro, C; Ianessi, A; Chapellier, C; Marcotte, C; Stolear, S

2013-04-01

110

Postoperative axillary lymphoscintigraphy in the management of breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

Postoperative axillary lymphoscintigrams have been performed according to a technique of two-staged injection in 313 patients who had undergone a radical mastectomy with axillary dissection for breast cancer. Total absence of visualization of residual nodes suggests that dissection could be said to be complete in only 35.8% of the investigated patients, or because of metastatic disease causing blockage. The visualized residual nodes in patients represent a risk of developing nodal relapse, especially with positive pathological demonstration of axillary node invasion and without nodal irradiation. On the other hand, when the investigation showed the interruption of the lymphatic pathways of the arm, patients developed upper limb edemas more frequently. It is concluded that this simple and non traumatic technique is of value in order to assess the immediate postoperative axillary nodal status, and that it may influence the treatment of the patients.

Bourgeois, P.; Fruhling, J.; Henry, J.

1983-01-01

111

Cytological and Pathological Correlation of FNAC in Assessing Breast Lumps and Axillary Lymph Node Swellings in a Public Sector Hospital in India.  

PubMed

Background. Breast lumps have varied pathology, and there are different techniques to prove the diagnosis. The aim of the present study is to analyze the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the breast lesions at our center. Methods. We had retrospectively analysed 854 patients who underwent FNAC for primary breast lumps and 190 patients who underwent FNAC for an axillary lymph node in the year 2010. Results. Of 854 patients, histological correlation was available in 723 patients. The analysis was done for 812 patients as medical records were not available for 42 patients. FNAC was false negative in seven cases; 2 cases of phyllodes were reported as fibroadenoma, and 5 cases of carcinoma were diagnosed as atypical hyperplasia. The sensitivity, specificity, and false negative value of FNAC in diagnosing breast lumps were 99% (715/723), 100%, and 1%, respectively. Of 190 patients for whom FNAC was performed for axilla, 170 had proven to have axillary lymph node metastases, and the rest had reactive hyperplasia or inflammatory cells. Conclusions. FNAC is rapid, accurate, outpatient based, and less complicated procedure and helps in diagnosis of breast cancer, benign diseases, and axillary involvement in experienced hands with less chance of false results. PMID:24455419

Challa, Vasu Reddy; Yale Guru, Basavanna Goud; Rangappa, Poornima; Deshmane, Vijayalakshmi; Gayathri, Devi M

2013-01-01

112

Management and results of treatment of breast cancer patients having sentinel lymph node micrometastases.  

PubMed

According to current therapeutic guidelines, finding micrometastases in the sentinel node (SLN) of a?patient with non-advanced breast cancer is not an absolute indication for adjuvant axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). This work presents our experiences regarding this clinical problem. 1071 breast cancer patients were referred for sentinel node biopsy between January 2004 and December 2011. Metastases were found in 245 of the removed lymph nodes. In 49 patients lymph node changes turned out to be micrometastases or isolated tumor cells (ITC). ALND was performed in 38 cases of sentinel node micrometastases or ICTs. In three patients involvement of other axillary lymph nodes was found in the studied tissue material (7.9% vs. 37.9% for metastases >2mm). The remaining patients with micrometastases in the SLN (11/49) were treated conservatively. No local axillary recurrences or neoplastic metastases were found in this group of patients with SLN micrometastases. Mean follow-up period in patients who had undergone ALND was 18.0 months (4 to 60 months) and 21.4 months (9-40 months) in patients without ALND. Non-radical surgical treatment in the presence of SLN micrometastases in patients with non-advanced breast cancer does not lead to therapeutic failure (local axillary recurrences, distant metastases). Obtaining favorable outcomes of conservative treatment in the analyzed group of patients does not require additional modification of the adjuvant therapy. Keywords: breast cancer, sentinel lymph node biopsy, micrometastases, treatment and results. PMID:24824931

Nowikiewicz, T; Srutek, E; Jankowski, M; Las-Jankowska, M; Klag, M; Kozak, D; Glowacka, I; Zegarski, W

2014-01-01

113

Axillary lymph node status and prognosis in multifocal and multicentric breast carcinoma.  

PubMed

According to tumor-node-metastasis classification, tumor size should be based only on the largest tumor for multifocal and multicentric (MFMC) carcinomas. We estimated tumor size of MFMC carcinoma using either largest dimension of the largest tumor (dominant tumor size) or sum of the largest dimension of all tumors (aggregate tumor size), and compared the risk of axillary lymph node metastasis and prognosis between MFMC and unifocal carcinoma. We retrospectively reviewed the file records of 3,616 patients with MFMC (258 patients, 7.1%) and unifocal (3,358 patients) carcinoma. In T1 and T2 tumor subgroups, using dominant (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001) and aggregate (p = 0.017 and p = 0.004) tumor size axilla-positivity ratio was significantly higher in MFMC carcinoma compared with unifocal carcinoma. In stage I and II disease classified according to either dominant or aggregate tumor size, there was no significant survival difference between MFMC and unifocal carcinoma patients. In patients with stage III disease by dominant and aggregate tumor size disease-free survival was significantly worse in MFMC carcinoma compared with unifocal carcinoma (p = 0.036 and p = 0.041); multifocality and multicentricity had no independent prognostic significance (p = 0.074 and p = 0.079). The risk of axillary metastasis in MFMC carcinoma was higher than unifocal carcinoma, regardless of the method employed for tumor size estimation. MFMC carcinoma staged according to either dominant or aggregate tumor size had similar survival with unifocal carcinoma. We recommend using the largest dimension of the largest tumor in estimation of tumor size for MFMC carcinoma. PMID:24438065

Duraker, Nüvit; Caynak, Zeynep Civelek

2014-01-01

114

Is Routine Intraoperative Frozen-Section Examination of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer Worthwhile?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Routine intraoperative frozen section (FS) of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) can detect metastatic disease, allowing immediate axillary dissection and avoiding the need for reoperation. Routine FS is also costly, increases operative time, and is subject to false-negative results. We examined the benefit of routine intraoperative FS among the first 1000 patients at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center who had

Martin R. Weiser; Leslie L. Montgomery; Barbara Susnik; Lee K. Tan; Patrick I. Borgen; Hiram S. Cody III

2000-01-01

115

Cost-effectiveness of a 21-gene recurrence score assay versus Canadian clinical practice in women with early-stage estrogen- or progesterone-receptor-positive, axillary lymph-node negative breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background A 21-gene recurrence score (RS) assay may inform adjuvant systematic treatment decisions in women with early stage breast cancer. We sought to investigate the cost effectiveness of using the RS-assay versus current clinical practice (CCP) in women with early-stage estrogen- or progesterone-receptor-positive, axilliary lymph-node negative breast cancer (ER+/ PR?+?LN- ESBC) from the perspective of the Canadian public healthcare system. Methods We developed a Markov model to project the lifetime clinical and economic consequences of ESBC. We evaluated adjuvant therapy separately in post- and pre-menopausal women with ER+/ PR?+?LN- ESBC. We assumed that the RS-assay would reclassify pre- and post-menopausal women among risk levels (low, intermediate and high) and guide adjuvant systematic treatment decisions. The model was parameterized using 7 year follow up data from the Manitoba Cancer Registry, cost data from Manitoba administrative databases, and secondary sources. Costs are presented in 2010 CAD. Future costs and benefits were discounted at 5%. Results The RS-assay compared to CCP generated cost-savings in pre-menopausal women and had an ICER of $60,000 per QALY gained in post-menopausal women. The cost effectiveness was most sensitive to the proportion of women classified as intermediate risk by the RS-assay who receive adjuvant chemotherapy and the risk of relapse in the RS-assay model. Conclusions The RS-assay is likely to be cost effective in the Canadian healthcare system and should be considered for adoption in women with ER+/ PR?+?LN- ESBC. However, ongoing assessment and validation of the assay in real-world clinical practice is warranted.

2012-01-01

116

Experience with endoscopic axillary lymphadenectomy using needlescopic instruments in patients with breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic axillary lymphadenectomy using needlescopic instruments in patients with breast cancer. Methods: Five patients with breast cancer were treated by partial mastectomy and endoscopic axillary lymphadenectomy. We evaluated the results of the surgical procedure and the postoperative course. Results: In all the patients, endoscopic axillary lymphadenectomy

N. Tagaya; K. Kubota

2002-01-01

117

Parametric imaging of the local attenuation coefficient in human axillary lymph nodes assessed using optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

We report the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to determine spatially localized optical attenuation coefficients of human axillary lymph nodes and their use to generate parametric images of lymphoid tissue. 3D-OCT images were obtained from excised lymph nodes and optical attenuation coefficients were extracted assuming a single scattering model of OCT. We present the measured attenuation coefficients for several tissue regions in benign and reactive lymph nodes, as identified by histopathology. We show parametric images of the measured attenuation coefficients as well as segmented images of tissue type based on thresholding of the attenuation coefficient values. Comparison to histology demonstrates the enhancement of contrast in parametric images relative to OCT images. This enhancement is a step towards the use of OCT for in situ assessment of lymph nodes.

Scolaro, Loretta; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Klyen, Blake R.; Wood, Benjamin A.; Robbins, Peter D.; Saunders, Christobel M.; Jacques, Steven L.; Sampson, David D.

2012-01-01

118

Status of sentinel lymph node for breast cancer.  

PubMed

Long-awaited results from randomized clinical trials designed to test the validity of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) as replacement of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in management of early breast cancer have recently been published. All the trials conclude SLNB has survival rates comparable to those of ALND (up to 10 years in one study) and conclude SLNB has less morbidity than ALND. All the trials support replacing ALND with SLNB for staging in early breast cancer; all support SLNB as the standard of care for such cancer. The SLNB protocols used in the trials varied, and no consensus that would suggest a standard protocol exists. The results of the trials and of other peer-reviewed research do, however, suggest a framework for including some specific methodologies in accepted practice. This article highlights the overall survival and disease-free survival data as reported from the clinical trials. This article also reviews the status of SLN procedures and the following: male breast cancer, the roles of various imaging modalities (single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography, positron emission tomography/computed tomography, and ultrasound), ductal carcinoma in situ, extra-axillary SLNs, SLNB after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, radiation exposure to patients and medical personnel, and a new radiotracer that is the first to label SLNs not by particle trapping but by specific macrophage receptor binding. The proper Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code for lymphoscintigraphy and SLN localization prior to surgery is 78195. PMID:23725990

Moncayo, Valeria M; Aarsvold, John N; Grant, Sandra F; Bartley, Scott C; Alazraki, Naomi P

2013-07-01

119

Ultrasound Guided Core Biopsy versus Fine Needle Aspiration for Evaluation of Axillary Lymphadenopathy in Patients with Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Rationale and Objectives. To compare the sensitivities of ultrasound guided core biopsy and fine needle aspiration (FNA) for detection of axillary lymph node metastases in patients with a current diagnosis of ipsilateral breast cancer. Materials and Methods. From December 2008 to December 2010, 105 patients with breast cancer and abnormal appearing lymph nodes in the ipsilateral axilla consented to undergo FNA of an axillary node immediately followed by core biopsy of the same node, both with ultrasound guidance. Experienced pathologists evaluated the aspirate cytology without knowledge of the core histology. Cytology and core biopsy results were compared to sentinel node excision or axillary dissection pathology. Sensitivities were compared using McNemar's test. Results. Of 70 patients with axillary node metastases, FNA was positive in 55/70 (78.6%) and core was positive in 61/70 (87.1%) (P = 0.18). The FNA and core results were discordant in 14/70 (20%) patients. Ten cases were FNA negative/core positive. Four cases were FNA positive/core negative. Conclusion. Core biopsy detected six (8.6%) more cases of metastatic lymphadenopathy than FNA but the difference in sensitivities was not statistically significant. Core biopsy should be considered if the node is clearly imaged and readily accessible. FNA is a good alternative when a smaller needle is desired due to node location or other patient factors. This trial is registered with NCT01920139.

Ganott, Marie A.; Zuley, Margarita L.; Abrams, Gordon S.; Lu, Amy H.; Kelly, Amy E.; Chivukula, Mamatha; Carter, Gloria; Austin, R. Marshall; Bandos, Andriy I.

2014-01-01

120

[Sentinel lymph node biopsy in pregnancy-associated breast cancer].  

PubMed

The incidence of pregnancy-associated breast cancer is rising. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the method of choice in clinically node negative cases as the indicated minimally invasive regional staging procedure. Some reports have linked radioisotope and blue dye required for lymphatic mapping to teratogenic effects, the idea of which has become a generalized statement and, until recently, contraindication for these agents was considered during pregnancy. Today, there are many published reports of successful interventions with low-dose 99mTc-labeled human albumin nanocolloid, based on dosimetric modeling demonstrating a negligible radiation exposure of the fetus. These results contributed to the seemingly safe and successful use of sentinel lymph node biopsy during pregnancy, though generally it can not replace axillary lymphadenectomy in the absence of high-quality evidence. The possibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy should be offered to pregnancy-associated early breast cancer patients with clinically negative axilla, and patients should be involved in the decision making following extensive counselling. This paper presents the successful use of sentinel lymph node biopsy with low-dose tracer during two pregnancies (in the first and third trimesters) and, for the first time in Hungarian language, it offers a comprehensive literature review on this topic. Orv. Hetil., 154(50), 1991-1997. PMID:24317358

Mátrai, Zoltán; Bánhidy, Ferenc; Téglás, Melinda; Kovács, Eszter; Sávolt, Akos; Udvarhelyi, Nóra; Bartal, Alexandra; Kásler, Miklós

2013-12-01

121

Changing the Intraoperative Nodal Status of a Breast Cancer Patient Using Freehand SPECT for Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy.  

PubMed

Radio-guided sentinel lymph node biopsy in early-stage breast cancer is standard of care. Freehand SPECT is a system for intraoperative visualization of radioactivity in the body. It generates a 3-dimensional image of the radioactivity distribution complementing the acoustic information of the gamma probe by providing depth and radioactive uptake information. In the reported case, freehand SPECT was used in a breast cancer patient as a control method after conventional sentinel lymph node biopsy. Freehand SPECT identified an additional lymph node, changing the original stage from pN1(mic) (micrometastasis) to pN1a (nodal positive), resulting in an axillary lymph node dissection. PMID:24152664

Bluemel, Christina; Schnelzer, Andreas; Ehlerding, Alexandra; Scheidhauer, Klemens; Kiechle, Marion

2014-05-01

122

Management of sentinel node re-mapping in patients who have second or recurrent breast cancer and had previous axillary procedures  

PubMed Central

Background In patients with recurrent or second primary ipsilateral breast cancer, axillary staging is the key factor in locoregional control and a strong prognostic characteristic. The efficient evaluation of lymphatic drainage of re-sentinel lymph node biopsies (re-SLNBs) has remained a challenge in the management of ipsilateral primary or recurrent breast cancer patients who are clinically lymph node negative. This study explores whether a SLNB for patients with primary or recurrent breast cancer is possible after previous axillary surgery. It evaluates potential reasons for mapping failure that might be associated with patients in this group. Methods Between March 2006 and November 2013, 458 patients were subjected to a breast SLNB. A lymphoscintigraphy procedure was performed on 330 patients for sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping on the day of surgery. Seven patients with either a second primary cancer in the same breast or recurrent breast cancer were described. Two of these seven patients had axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) during previous treatments and five had SLNB. A dual mapping method was used for all patients. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was performed four hours before surgery. Results SLNs were successfully remapped in six of seven (85.7%) patients, of whom five (71.43%) had previously undergone SLNB and two (28.57%) previous ALND. Localizations of SLNs were ipsilateral axillary in three patients, ipsilateral internal mammary in one patient, and contralateral axillary in two patients. An altered distribution of lymph nodes was discovered in both patients with previous ALND. In one of the two patients, metastases were found in an aberrant lymph drainage basin at the location of a non-ipsilateral axillary node (contralateral axillary SLN). The second previously ALND patient had an internal mammary SLN. In one patient, mapping was unsuccessful and the SLN was not identified. Conclusions Altered lymphatic drainage incidence increases following breast-conserving surgery for an initial breast cancer, and the location of SLNs becomes unpredictable at the time of a second primary or recurrent ipsilateral breast cancer. This leads to the necessity of using a radionuclide (lymphoscintigraphy) for a successful re-mapping procedure. A re-SLNB is precise and beneficial even though there are few patients. A lymphoscintigraphy can identify SLNs at their new unpredicted location.

2014-01-01

123

Evaluation of a Single-Isocenter Technique for Axillary Radiotherapy in Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to develop a technique for axillary radiotherapy that minimizes the risk of radiation-induced damage to the surrounding normal tissue (i.e., arm, shoulder, lung, esophagus, and spinal cord) while keeping the risk of a nodal recurrence to a minimum. A planning study was performed in 20 breast cancer patients. The target volume of the axillary treatment encompassed the periclavicular and axillary lymph node areas. The 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) information in this study was used to outline the lymph node areas and the organs at risk (i.e., the esophagus, spinal cord, brachial plexus, and lung). A conventional AP-PA technique (with a transmission plate placed in the AP beam) was evaluated. In addition, a new single-isocenter technique consisting of AP/PA fields using a gantry rotation of {+-}20 deg. and a medial AP segment was developed. Both techniques were compared by evaluation of the calculated dose distributions and the dose-volume histograms of the target volume and surrounding organs at risk. The field borders and humeral shielding were redefined based on the 3D anatomical references. Adapting the humeral shielding reduced the irradiated volume by 19% and might contribute to a reduction of the incidence of arm edema and impairment of shoulder function. The maximum radiation dose in the esophagus and spinal cord was reduced by more than 50% using the single-isocenter technique. The difference between both techniques with respect to the mean doses in the target volume and lung, and the maximum dose in brachial plexus, was not statistically significant. Moreover, the single-isocenter technique allowed a fast and easy treatment preparation and reduced the execution time considerably (with approximately 10 minutes per fraction)

Beek, Suzanne van [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: s.v.beek@nki.nl; Jaeger, Katrien de [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mijnheer, Ben [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]|[INHOLLAND University of Professional Training, Haarlem (Netherlands); Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2008-10-01

124

Optimization of a gamma imaging probe for axillary sentinel lymph mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping is a technique for assessing whether early-stage invasive breast cancer has metastasized, thus determining prognosis and treatment options. SLN identification is achieved using the blue-dye and radioactive colloids techniques, which are sometimes combined with lymphoscintigraphy. Furthermore, intra-operative gamma acoustic probes, as well as gamma imaging probes are used during surgery. The purpose of this study is the construction of a gamma probe for sentinel lymph node imaging and its optimization in terms of sensitivity with respect to spatial resolution. The reference probe has small field of view (2.5 × 2.5 cm2) and is based on a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) coupled to a pixellated CsI(Tl) scintillator. Following experimental validation, we simulated the system using the GATE Monte Carlo toolkit (GATE v6.1) and modeled various collimator geometries, in order to evaluate their performance and propose the optimal configuration. The constraints of the proposed gamma imaging probe are i) sensitivity close to 2 cps/kBq and ii) spatial resolution equal to 6 mm at 2 cm source-to-collimator distance and ~ 10 mm at 5 cm. An integrated structure that achieves those requirements is a tungsten collimator with 2 × 2 mm2square holes, 16 mm thickness, 0.15 mm septa, where each CsI(Tl) 2 × 2 × 5 mm3 crystal pixel is placed inside the collimator.

Georgiou, M.; Loudos, G.; Stratos, D.; Papadimitroulas, P.; Liakou, P.; Georgoulias, P.

2012-09-01

125

Prognostic Significance of the Number of Removed and Metastatic Lymph Nodes and Lymph Node Ratio in Breast Carcinoma Patients with 1-3 Axillary Lymph Node(s) Metastasis  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the prognostic significance of lymph node ratio (LNR), number of metastatic lymph nodes divided by number of removed nodes in 924 breast carcinoma patients with 1–3 metastatic axillary lymph node(s). The most significant LNR threshold value separating patients in low- and high-risk groups with significant survival difference was 0.20 for disease-free survival (P < 0.001), 0.30 for locoregional recurrence-free survival (P < 0.001), and 0.15 for distant metastasis-free survival (P < 0.001), and the patients with lower LNR had better survival. All three LNR threshold values had independent prognostic significance in Cox analysis (P < 0.001 for all three of them). In conclusion, LNR is a useful tool in separating breast carcinoma patients with 1–3 metastatic lymph node(s) into low- and high-risk prognostic groups.

Duraker, Nuvit; Bat?, Bak?r; Demir, Davut; Caynak, Zeynep Civelek

2011-01-01

126

Prognostic Significance of the Number of Removed and Metastatic Lymph Nodes and Lymph Node Ratio in Breast Carcinoma Patients with 1-3 Axillary Lymph Node(s) Metastasis.  

PubMed

We evaluated the prognostic significance of lymph node ratio (LNR), number of metastatic lymph nodes divided by number of removed nodes in 924 breast carcinoma patients with 1-3 metastatic axillary lymph node(s). The most significant LNR threshold value separating patients in low- and high-risk groups with significant survival difference was 0.20 for disease-free survival (P < 0.001), 0.30 for locoregional recurrence-free survival (P < 0.001), and 0.15 for distant metastasis-free survival (P < 0.001), and the patients with lower LNR had better survival. All three LNR threshold values had independent prognostic significance in Cox analysis (P < 0.001 for all three of them). In conclusion, LNR is a useful tool in separating breast carcinoma patients with 1-3 metastatic lymph node(s) into low- and high-risk prognostic groups. PMID:22091427

Duraker, Nüvit; Bat?, Bak?r; Demir, Davut; Caynak, Zeynep Civelek

2011-01-01

127

Impairment of Lymph Drainage in Subfascial Compartment of Forearm in Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema  

PubMed Central

Background: In arm lymphedema secondary to axillary surgery and radiotherapy (breast cancer-related lymphedema), the swelling is largely epifascial and lymph flow per unit epifascial volume is impaired. The subfascial muscle compartment is not measurably swollen despite the iatrogenic damage to its axillary drainage pathway, but this could be due to its low compliance. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that subfascial lymph drainage too is impaired. Methods and Results: Quantitative lymphoscintigraphy was used to measure the removal rate constant (local lymph flow per unit distribution volume) for technetium-99m-human immunoglobulin G injected intramuscularly in the forearms of nine women with unilateral lymphedema. The removal rate constant was on average 31% lower in the ipsilateral swollen forearm than in the contralateral forearm (swollen arm: ?0.096 ± 0.041% min?1, contralateralarm: ?0.138 ± 0.037% min?1; mean ± SD, p = 0.037). The decrease in subfascial rate constant correlated strongly with increase in arm volume (r 0.88, p = 0.002), even though the swelling is mainly epifascial. There was no convincing evidence of dermal backflow. Conclusions: Lymph flow in the subfascial muscle compartment is decreased in breast cancer-related lymphedema. The correlation between impairment of subfascial drainage and epifascial arm swelling could be because both depend on the severity of axillary damage, or because loss of function in subfascial lymphatics impairs drainage from the epifascial to the subfascial system.

MELLOR, R.H.; COOK, G.J.; SVENSSON, W.E.; PETERS, A.M.; LEVICK, J.R.; MORTIMER, P.S.

2005-01-01

128

Axillary metastases from occult breast cancer. Our experience.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 63-year-old woman with occult breast cancer who presented with a hard metastatic nodule in the left axilla. Although histology identified a metastatic carcinoma in the lymph nodes, numerous tests failed to detect the primary tumor. Resected lymph node was positive for both estrogen and progesterone receptors, suggesting the breast as the site of the primary tumor. Left modified radical mastectomy was performed. Pathology revealed an invasive lobular carcinoma (2.5 x 2 mm in size) with extensive lymphatic involvement, which strongly expressed both vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) and VEGF-D. PMID:24576904

Sanguinetti, Alessandro; Polistena, Andrea; D'Ermo, Giuseppe; Lucchini, Roberta; Triola, Roberta; Conti, Claudia; Avenia, Stefano; Cavallaro, Giuseppe; De Toma, Giorgio; Avenia, Nicola

2014-02-01

129

Familial Blood and Lymph Node Cancers Study  

Cancer.gov

A study of a group of familial blood and lymph node cancers (also called "lymphoproliferative disorders"), including: chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, and multiple myeloma

130

[Breast cancer and axillary area: state of the art and perspectives].  

PubMed

A therapeutic surgical de-escalation has been observed since many years with an actual prolongation for axillary lymph node area treatment. Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) omission has been studied before and after validation of sentinel node (SN) biopsy procedure. A non-inferiority of ALND omission has been reported in case of non-involved SN. ALND omission has been studied in case of SN involvement without consensus in relation with scientific level of proof and with selective indications. The purpose of this work is to make a synthesis of the experiences on this subject then to envisage the current and future perspectives. PMID:24316763

Houvenaeghel, Gilles; Cohen, Monique; Chereau Ewald, Elisabeth; Bannier, Marie; Buttarelli, Max; Jauffret, Camille; Lambaudie, Eric

2013-12-01

131

A case report and epidemiological investigation of axillary lymph node abscess caused by Corynebacterium ulcerans in an HIV-1-positive patient.  

PubMed

SUMMARY A human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-positive male undergoing antiretroviral therapy was diagnosed with an axillary lymph node abscess caused by Corynebacterium ulcerans, and an environmental survey revealed that the patient's cat as the source of infection. PMID:24054497

Yoshimura, Y; Tachikawa, N; Komiya, T; Yamamoto, A

2014-07-01

132

Intraductal papilloma in an axillary lymph node of a patient with human immunodeficiency virus: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Introduction Inclusions of ectopic breast tissue in axillary lymph nodes are reported very infrequently and typically are only identified microscopically as an incidental finding. Furthermore the development of a benign proliferative lesion in the form of an intraductal papilloma from intranodal ectopic breast tissue is an extremely rare phenomenon with only three previous cases reported. This report describes an unusual and rare case of an intraductal papilloma arising in an axillary lymph node of a patient known to have the human immunodeficiency virus. Case presentation A 40-year-old Black African woman underwent excision of an enlarged palpable axillary lymph node. In the preceding 7 years she had received at least six separate surgical excisions to her ipsilateral breast for papillomatosis. The last surgical intervention was performed 1 year prior to presentation with an enlarged axillary lymph node. Histological examination of her axillary lymph node revealed a papillomatous proliferative epithelial lesion within an apparent encompassing duct, resembling a mammary intraductal papilloma. In the surrounding lymphoid tissue small groups of duct-like structures were additionally noted. Immunostaining with a panel of myoepithelial markers in conjunction with oestrogen receptor produced a mixed heterogeneous staining pattern in both the papillomatous lesion and the peripheral duct-like structures. This confirmed the diagnosis of a benign intraductal papilloma within an axillary lymph node, considered to have arisen from ectopic breast tissue. Conclusions This case demonstrates that intranodal ectopic breast tissue has the potential to undergo benign proliferative change albeit extremely rarely. Therefore this possibility must be considered to ensure the correct diagnosis is made. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report which has described recurrent intraductal papillomas and the subsequent development of an intraductal papilloma within an ipsilateral axillary lymph node, in a patient who is human immunodeficiency virus positive. There is minimal literature investigating the specific types of breast pathologies experienced by patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus and it remains unexplored as to whether human immunodeficiency virus may lead to proliferative papillomatous epithelial changes. This report considers the role of the human papillomavirus and recommends that further investigatory studies are required.

2014-01-01

133

The role of micrometastatic disease in sentinel lymph node in breast cancer.  

PubMed

Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard procedure for axillary node staging in breast cancer. Improvements in histopathological analysis and immunohistochemistry have recently increased the rate of detection of lymph nodal micrometastases. The clinical implications and prognostic significance of micrometastases in SLN still remain a controversial issue. Literature review was analyzed by searches of Medline and PubMed data bases. Whereas most studies carried on small groups of patients did not show differences in survival, recently some studies with longer follow-up and with larger populations demonstrated that prognosis of patients with micrometastases is worse compared to that of patients with SLN free of disease. To date, completion axillary dissection remains the standard option when a macro or micrometastasis (0.2-2 mm) in the SLN is found. However, in absence of level-1 evidence guidelines, each case requires discussion in the context of a multi-disciplinary team. PMID:21050305

Rovera, Francesca; Frattini, Francesco; Chiappa, Corrado; Piscopo, Cristiano; Bianchi, Veronica; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Rausei, Stefano; Boni, Luigi; Dionigi, Renzo

2010-01-01

134

Molecular response of the axillary lymph node microenvironment to metastatic colonization.  

PubMed

Breast stroma plays an active role in tumorigenesis, undergoing both phenotypic and molecular changes that facilitate and promote tumor development and growth. The metastatic microenvironment also plays a role in successful colonization; however, genetic changes in these secondary microenvironments are not well described. To improve understanding of molecular changes associated with metastatic colonization, gene expression patterns from lymph node tissues from women with at least one positive, as well as one negative node, were compared. Lymph node tissue was microdissected and hybridized to U133A 2.0 gene expression arrays. Differential expression was detected using Partek(®) Genomics Suite(??) 6.6 with FDR <0.05 and >2-fold change defining significance. Twenty-two genes were differentially expressed, 14 genes, including AZGP1, FOXA1 and PIP, were expressed at significantly higher levels in colonized lymph nodes and eight genes, such as CXCL2 and HPGDS, were expressed at significantly higher levels in non-metastatic lymph nodes. Thus, lymph node tissues harboring metastases have different gene expression patterns from those without metastases. Many differentially expressed genes are involved in cellular proliferation and survival, immune function and mesenchymal-epithelial transition, suggesting that repression of immune response and restoration of an epithelial phenotype in the host tissue are critical for successful establishment of lymph node metastases. PMID:24687565

Valente, Allyson L; Kane, Jennifer L; Ellsworth, Darrell L; Shriver, Craig D; Ellsworth, Rachel E

2014-06-01

135

Evaluation of lymph node status in male breast cancer patients: a role for sentinel lymph node biopsy.  

PubMed

Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is rapidly emerging as an alternative to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for many female breast cancer patients. In contrast, ALND remains the standard of care for male breast cancer patients with similar tumors. We evaluated the results of SLN biopsy in male breast cancer patients with clinically negative axillae. This study included all male breast cancer patients who underwent SLN biopsy at our institution between October 1999 and 2000. All patients had negative axillae on clinical examination and sonography. All patients underwent preoperative lymphoscintigraphy followed by SLN biopsy performed using a combination of isosulfan blue dye and technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid. Tc 99m sulfur colloid was injected at a dose of 2.5 mCi 24 h before surgery (four patients) or 0.5 mCi 2-4 h before surgery (three patients). Intraoperatively, 5 ml of 1% isosulfan blue was injected adjacent to the breast tumor or biopsy cavity prior to SLN biopsy. A gamma probe was used intraoperatively in order to localize SLNs. Any node that was blue or associated with ex vivo radioactivity counts at least 10 times higher than the axillary background counts was defined as a SLN. SLNs were assessed intraoperatively using touch preparation cytologic examination. Completion ALND was performed if nodal metastases were identified. Seven patients, 44-76 years of age, were included in the study. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy identified SLNs in five patients. Intraoperatively, SLNs were identified in all seven patients. SLNs were identified in six patients using the gamma probe and in all seven patients using blue dye. The mean number of SLNs encountered was 2.9. Findings on touch preparation cytology correlated with findings on the final pathological analysis examination in all patients. One patient had a positive SLN, this patient had three additional positive nodes identified in his completion ALND specimen. Three patients with negative SLNs had been elected preoperatively to undergo ALND regardless of findings on SLN biopsy, no positive lymph nodes were identified in the ALND specimens from these patients. These findings compare favorably with findings reported in the literature regarding SLN biopsy in female breast cancer patients. Blue dye injection and radioisotope injection were complementary. SLN biopsy should be considered for axillary staging in male breast cancer patients with clinically negative axillae. PMID:12602900

Albo, Daniel; Ames, Frederick C; Hunt, Kelly K; Ross, Merrick I; Singletary, S Eva; Kuerer, Henry M

2003-01-01

136

Value of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer Patients with Previous Excisional Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast cancer patients with clinically negative axilla will ensure axillary dissection only for cases with lymph node metastasis and provide information about pathologic staging as accurate as the axillary dissection. It was shown that SLNB could be successfully performed regardless of the type of biopsy. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of SLNB after excisional biopsy. Methods One hundred patients diagnosed with excisional biopsy or guide wire-localization and operated on with SLNB between February 2007 and March 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. SLNB was performed with 10 cc of 1% methylene blue alone or both methylene blue and 1 mCi of Tc-99m nanocolloid combination. Age, tumor localization and size, length of the biopsy incision, size of the biopsy specimen, multifocality, lymphovascular invasion, tumor grade, staining with methylene blue, localization, number and metastatic status of the lymph nodes stained, and success rate with a gamma probe were evaluated. Results Sentinel lymph node (SLN) could not be identified in 9 (16.9%) of patients in the methylene blue group (n=53). In the combination group (n=47), SLN could not be identified in one patient. Of 32 patients with negative SLNB, metastatic involvement was found to be present in 5 patients after axillary lymph node dissection (false negatives). The average numbers of SLNs found in the methylene blue group and combination group were 1.4 and 1.6, respectively. SLN detection and false negative rates in the methylene blue group were 83% and 15.7%, respectively. The rates for the combination group were 98% and 6.4%, respectively. None of the parameters related to patient, tumor or process were found to affect detection rates of SLN. Conclusion Only SLNB using a combination method is a safe and reliable technique for breast cancer patients diagnosed with excisional biopsy.

Coskun, Gokhan; Dogan, Lutfi; Ozaslan, Cihangir; Atalay, Can

2012-01-01

137

[The potential role of SPECT/CT in the preoperative detection of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer].  

PubMed

Regional lymph node status is the most important prognostic factor in breast cancer. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the standard method of axillary staging in early breast cancer patients with clinically negative nodes. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy might support refining biopsy findings by determining the number and location of sentinel lymph nodes. In aged or overweight patients, in the presence of atypical or extra-axillary lymphatic drainage, non-visualized lymph nodes, or sentinel lymph nodes close to the isotope injection site, detection could be aided by a new, hybrid imaging tool: the single-photon emission computed tomography combined with computed tomography (3D SPECT/CT). For the first time in Hungarian language, authors overview the literature: all 14 English-language articles on the implementation of 3D SPECT/CT in sentinel lymph node detection in breast cancer are included. It is concluded that 3D SPECT/CT increases the success rate and quality of preoperative sentinel node identification, and is capable of providing a more accurate staging of breast cancer patients in routine clinical practice. PMID:21464026

Mátrai, Zoltán; Tóth, László; Saeki, Toshiaki; Sinkovics, István; Godény, Mária; Takeuchi, Hideki; Bidlek, Mária; Bartal, Alexandra; Sávolt, Akos; Dorogi, Bence; Kásler, Miklós

2011-04-24

138

Radical axillary dissection in the staging and treatment of breast cancer.  

PubMed Central

The results of 237 radical axillary dissections undertaken by one surgeon in patients with breast cancer were reviewed to evaluate the role of this procedure in staging and treatment. The accuracy of physical examination in detecting axillary metastases was 68%. With a policy of enforced shoulder immobilisation for 10 days postoperatively, the incidence of postoperative wound complications was 8%. There have been three axillary recurrences during a median follow-up period of 44 months (range 6-97 months). Late complications were assessed in 50 patients followed up for greater than 12 months. While eight patients complained of constant swelling of the arm, only three had a difference in arm circumference of greater than 3 cm and only one had persistent limitation of shoulder abduction. Radical axillary dissection ensures accurate clinical staging and provides excellent local control with few complications and without the need for axillary irradiation.

Ball, A. B.; Waters, R.; Fish, S.; Thomas, J. M.

1992-01-01

139

The Efficacy of Arm Node Preserving Surgery Using Axillary Reverse Mapping for Preventing Lymphedema in Patients with Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose The axillary reverse mapping (ARM) technique to identify and preserve arm nodes during sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was developed to prevent lymphedema. The purpose of this study was to investigate the location and metastatic rate of the arm node, and to evaluate the short term incidence of lymphedema after arm node preserving surgery. Methods From January 2009 to October 2010, 97 breast cancer patients who underwent ARM were included. Blue-dye (2.5 mL) was injected into the ipsilateral upper-inner arm. At least 20 minutes after injection, SLNB or ALND was performed and blue-stained arm nodes and/or lymphatics were identified. Patients were divided into two groups, an arm node preserved group (70 patients had ALND, 10 patients had SLNB) and an unpreserved group (13 patients had ALND, 4 patients had SLNB). The difference in arm circumference between preoperative and postoperative time points was checked in both groups. Results The mean number of identified blue stained arm nodes was 1.4±0.6. In the majority of patients (92%), arm nodes were located between the lower level of the axillary vein and just below the second intercostobrachial nerve. In the arm node unpreserved group, 2 patients had metastasis in their arm node. Among ALND patients, in the arm node preserved group, the difference in arm circumference between preoperative and postoperative time points in ipsilateral and contralateral arms was 0.27 cm and 0.07 cm, respectively, whereas it was 0.47 cm and -0.03 cm in the unpreserved group; one case of lymphedema was found after 6 months. No difference was found between arm node preserved and unpreserved group among SLNB patients. Conclusion Arm node preserving was possible in all breast cancer patients with identifiable arm nodes, during ALND or SLNB, except for those with high surgical N stage, and lymphedema did not develop in patients with arm node preserving surgery.

Han, Jung Woo; Seo, Yu Jeong; Choi, Jung Eun; Kang, Su Hwan; Bae, Young Kyung

2012-01-01

140

Risk Factors for Regional Nodal Relapse in Breast Cancer Patients With One to Three Positive Axillary Nodes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In many centers, supraclavicular fossa radiotherapy (SCF RT) is not routinely offered to breast cancer patients with one to three positive lymph nodes. We aimed to identify a subgroup of these patients who are at high risk of supra or infraclavicular fossa relapse (SCFR) such that they can be offered SCFRT at the time of diagnosis to improve long term locoregional control. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective analysis of the pathological features of 1,065 cases of invasive breast cancer with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes. Patients underwent radical breast conserving surgery or mastectomy. A total of 45% of patients received adjuvant chest wall/breast RT. No patients received adjuvant SCFRT. The primary outcome was SCFR. Secondary outcomes were chest wall/breast recurrence, distant metastasis, all death, and breast-cancer specific death. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to calculate actuarial event rates and survival functions compared using log-rank tests. Multivariate analyses (MVA) of factors associated with outcome were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Median follow-up was 9.7 years. SCFR rate was 9.2%. Median time from primary diagnosis to SCFR was 3.4 years (range, 0.7-14.4 years). SCFR was associated with significantly lower 10-year survival (18% vs. 65%; p < 0.001). Higher grade and number of positive lymph nodes were the most significant predictors of SCFR on MVA (p < 0.001). 10 year SCFR rates were less than 1% in all patients with Grade 1 cancers compared with 30% in those having Grade 3 cancers with three positive lymph nodes. Additional factors associated with SCFR on univariate analysis but not on MVA included larger nodal deposits (p = 0.002) and proportion of positive nodes (p = 0.003). Conclusions: Breast cancer patients with one to three positive lymph nodes have a heterogenous risk of SCFR. Patients with two to three positive axillary nodes and/or high-grade disease may warrant consideration of SCFRT.

Yates, Lucy, E-mail: lucy.yates@gstt.nhs.uk [Guy's, King's, St Thomas' Cancer Centre, Guy's Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Kirby, Anna [Guy's, King's, St Thomas' Cancer Centre, Guy's Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Department of Clinical Oncology, Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (United Kingdom); Crichton, Siobhan [Department of Statistics, Kings College London (United Kingdom); Gillett, Cheryl [Breast Pathology, Kings College London (United Kingdom); Cane, Paul [Department of Histopathology, Guy's and St Thomas' Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Fentiman, Ian; Sawyer, Elinor [Guy's, King's, St Thomas' Cancer Centre, Guy's Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

2012-04-01

141

Male breast cancer arising in ectopic axillary breast tissue: A diagnostic dilemma  

PubMed Central

Male breast cancer arising in ectopic axillary breast tissue is a rare occurrence and few cases have been reported in the literature. Due to its rarity, male axillary breast cancer is easy to misdiagnose. As for adenocarcinoma in the axilla, it is difficult to identify whether the origin is the mammary tissue or the skin appendages, particularly in cases where there is a poor differentiation. The present study reports the case of a male patient with a right axillary lesion that had been present for 6 months. A histological evaluation revealed the features of a poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma with regards to the pathological report. The patient was diagnosed with a metastatic adenocarcinoma with unknown primary origin. However, following 4 cycles of intensive chemotherapy, the patient experienced bone metastasis while the local lesion was in partial remission. Further immunohistochemistry confirmed its mammary origin. There is limited literature relating to male ectopic axillary breast cancer, and a high probability of misdiagnosis of this disease.

XIE, YANGCHUN; HUANG, JIN; XIAO, DESHENG; ZHONG, MEIZUO

2013-01-01

142

Clinicopathologic analysis of sentinel lymph node mapping in early breast cancer.  

PubMed

Axillary nodal status is the most significant prognosticator for predicting survival and guiding adjuvant therapy in breast cancer patients. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) represents a minimally invasive procedure with low morbidity for staging axillary nodal status. In this article we review and report our experiences in patients with early breast cancer who underwent SLNB at the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center. Between September 1998 and May 2000, a total 83 SLNBs were performed in 81 patients with proven breast cancer and negative axillary examination who elected to have SLNB as the first step of nodal staging. Two patients had bilateral breast cancer. SLNB was localized by using both 99Tc sulfur colloid (83 cases) and isosulfan blue dye (75 cases). Data of these patients were prospectively collected and analyzed. The clinical and pathologic characteristics of women with positive and negative sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) were compared to identify features predictive of SLN metastasis. Of the 83 cases, the SLN was successfully localized in 82 (98.8%). Sixty-three percent of patients had SLNs found in level I only, 18.3% in both level I and II, and 4.9% in level II alone. The vast majority (84.3%) of these cases had T1 breast cancer with an average size of 1.55 cm for the entire series. Twenty-three patients (28%) had positive SLNs, with an average of 1.5 positive SLNs per patient. Fifteen had metastases detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining and 8 had micrometastases detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using anticytokeratin antibodies. Ten of the former group agreed to and 2 of the latter group opted for full axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). An average of 17.5 lymph nodes were removed from each ALND procedure. Additional metastases or micrometastases were found in seven patients (in a total of 28 lymph nodes). Three patients with completely negative SLNs experienced additional axillary lymph node removal due to their election of free flap reconstruction. None had metastases detected in these lymph nodes. The absence of estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER/PR) by IHC (p = 0.036) and the presence of lymphatic/vascular invasion (LVI) (p = 0.002) predicted positive SLNs in patients with early breast cancer in a univariate analysis; in a multivariate analysis only LVI was predictive (p = 0.0125). Histologic type, nuclear grade, tumor differentiation, HER-2/neu and p53 status, S-phase fraction, and DNA ploidy did not predict SLN status. Immediate postoperative complications were uncommon and delayed complications completely absent. Because of the high detection rate, accurate staging, and minimal morbidity, SLNB should be offered as a choice to women with small breast cancers and clinically negative nodes. Because positive LVI and negative ER/PR status are highly predictive of pathologically positive SLNs in small breast cancers, women whose cancers meet these criteria should be advised preoperatively about their risk of having a positive SLN and may benefit from intraoperative assessment (frozen section and/or touch preparation) of their SLNs. PMID:12752622

Choi, Seung-Hye; Barsky, Sanford H; Chang, Helena R

2003-01-01

143

Bilateral axillary lymph node uptake of radiotracer during lower extremity lymphoscintigraphy.  

PubMed

Lymphoscintigraphy is a useful technique for the evaluation of lymphatic function in the presence of limb swelling. The authors report a case where proximal lower limb and genital swelling in a 23-yr-old man was investigated by lymphoscintigraphy. The patient had a history of previous surgery and subsequent infection in the affected groin. Lower limb lymphoscintigraphy showed features of an unusual lymphatic drainage pattern that most likely represented adaptation to chronic lymphatic insufficiency. The drainage pattern was characterized by marked dermal backflow pattern, aberrant lymph node uptake in the abdomen and chest and unexpected avid radiotracer uptake in the axillae bilaterally. PMID:9098194

Howarth, D M; Collins, D A

1997-04-01

144

Penile cancer--the sentinel lymph node controversy.  

PubMed

The management of lymph nodes in penile cancer has always been a problem. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was supposed to solve this problem but has not been universally accepted due to conflicting results. We herein present a case of penile cancer with bilateral pathologically positive inguinal lymph nodes associated with concurrent negative sentinel lymph node biopsies. We discuss the possible reasons for this situation and suggest guidelines to study this issue. PMID:1792706

Srinivas, V; Joshi, A; Agarwal, B; Mundhada, U; Shah, A; Phadke, A G

1991-01-01

145

Octreotide in the treatment of lymphorrhea after axillary node dissection: a prospective randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAxillary lymph node dissection for staging and local control of nodal disease is an integral part of breast cancer therapy. Lymphorrea is a serious and disabling complication of axillary lymphadenectomy, but no effective therapy is currently available. Octreotide is a hormone with general antisecretory effects that has been used to control lymphorrhea in thoracic duct injury and after radical neck

Paolo Carcoforo; Giorgio Soliani; Umberto Maestroni; A Donini; Daniel Inderbitzin; Thomas T Hui; Alan Lefor; Itzhak Avital; Giuseppe Navarra

2003-01-01

146

Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Colon Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The clinical impact of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in colon cancer is still controversial. The purpose of this prospective multicenter trial was to evaluate its clinical value to predict the nodal status and identify factors that influence these results. Methods: Colon cancer patients without prior colorectal surgery or irradiation were eligible. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) was identified intraoperatively by subserosal blue dye injection around the tumor. The SLN underwent step sections and immunohistochemistry (IHC), if classified free of metastases after routine hematoxylin and eosin examination. Results: At least one SLN (median, n = 2) was identified in 268 of 315 enrolled patients (detection rate, 85%). Center experience, lymphovascular invasion, body mass index (BMI), and learning curve were positively associated with the detection rate. The false-negative rate to identify pN+ patients by SLNB was 46% (38 of 82). BMI showed a significant association to the false-negative rate (P < 0.0001), the number of tumor-involved lymph nodes was inversely associated. If only slim patients (BMI ?24) were investigated in experienced centers (>22 patients enrolled), the sensitivity increased to 88% (14 of 16). Moreover, 21% (30 of 141) of the patients, classified as pN0 by routine histopathology, revealed micrometastases or isolated tumor cells (MM/ITC) in the SLN. Conclusions: The contribution of SLNB to conventional nodal staging of colon cancer patients is still unspecified. Technical problems have to be resolved before a definite conclusion can be drawn in this regard. However, SLNB identifies about one fourth of stage II patients to reveal MM/ITC in lymph nodes. Further studies must clarify the clinical impact of these findings in terms of prognosis and the indication of adjuvant therapy.

Bembenek, Andreas E.; Rosenberg, Robert; Wagler, Elke; Gretschel, Stephan; Sendler, Andreas; Siewert, Joerg-Ruediger; Nahrig, Jorg; Witzigmann, Helmut; Hauss, Johann; Knorr, Christian; Dimmler, Arno; Grone, Jorn; Buhr, Heinz-Johannes; Haier, Jorg; Herbst, Hermann; Tepel, Juergen; Siphos, Bence; Kleespies, Axel; Koenigsrainer, Alfred; Stoecklein, Nikolas H.; Horstmann, Olaf; Grutzmann, Robert; Imdahl, Andreas; Svoboda, Daniel; Wittekind, Christian; Schneider, Wolfgang; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Schlag, Peter M.

2007-01-01

147

Comparison of Treatment Outcome Between Breast-Conservation Surgery With Radiation and Total Mastectomy Without Radiation in Patients With One to Three Positive Axillary Lymph Nodes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To test the difference in treatment outcome between breast-conservation surgery with radiation and total mastectomy without radiation, to evaluate the benefits of adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: Using the Severance Hospital Breast Cancer Registry, we divided the study population of T1, T2 and one to three axillary node-positive patients into two groups: breast-conservation surgery with radiation (BCS/RT) and total mastectomy without radiation (TM/no-RT). Data related to locoregional recurrence, distant recurrence, and death were collected, and survival rates were calculated. Results: The study population consisted of 125 patients treated with BCS/RT and 365 patients treated with TM/no-RT. With a median follow-up of 68.4 months, the 10-year locoregional recurrence-free survival rate with BCS/RT and TM/no-RT was 90.5% and 79.2%, respectively (p = 0.056). The 10-year distant recurrence-free survival rate was 78.8% for patients treated with BCS/RT vs. 68.0% for those treated with TM/no-RT (p = 0.012). The 10-years overall survival rate for patients treated with BCT/RT and TM/no-RT was 87.5% and 73.9%, respectively (p = 0.035). After multivariate analysis, patients treated with BCT/RT had better distant recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.527; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.297-0.934; p = 0.028), with improving locoregional recurrence-free survival (HR, 0.491; 95% CI, 0.231-1.041; p = 0.064) and overall survival trend (HR, 0.544; 95% CI, 0.277-1.067; p = 0.076). Conclusions: This study provides additional evidence that adjuvant radiation substantially reduces local recurrence, distant recurrence, and mortality for patients with one to three involved nodes.

Kim, Seung Il; Park, Seho; Park, Hyung Seok [Department of Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Bae; Suh, Chang Ok [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byeong-Woo, E-mail: bwpark@yuhs.ac [Department of Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2011-08-01

148

Lymph Node Metastases and Prognosis in Penile Cancer  

PubMed Central

Lymph node status is a key prognostic factor in penile squamous cell carcinoma. Recently, growing evidence indicates a multimodality approach consisting of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by consolidation surgery improves the outcome of locally advanced penile cancer. Thus, accurate estimation of survival probability in node-positive penile cancer is critical for treatment decision making, counseling of patients and follow-up scheduling. This article reviewed evolving developments in assessing the risk for cancer progression based on lymph node related variables, such as the number of metastatic lymph nodes, bilateral lymph node metastases, the ratio of positive lymph nodes, extracapsular extension of metastatic lymph nodes, pelvic lymph node metastases, metastatic deposit in sentinel lymph nodes and N stage in TNM classification. Controversial issues surrounding the prognostic value of these nodal related predictors were also discussed.

Zhu, Yao; Ye, Ding-wei

2012-01-01

149

Lymph node metastases and prognosis in penile cancer.  

PubMed

Lymph node status is a key prognostic factor in penile squamous cell carcinoma. Recently, growing evidence indicates a multimodality approach consisting of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by consolidation surgery improves the outcome of locally advanced penile cancer. Thus, accurate estimation of survival probability in node-positive penile cancer is critical for treatment decision making, counseling of patients and follow-up scheduling. This article reviewed evolving developments in assessing the risk for cancer progression based on lymph node related variables, such as the number of metastatic lymph nodes, bilateral lymph node metastases, the ratio of positive lymph nodes, extracapsular extension of metastatic lymph nodes, pelvic lymph node metastases, metastatic deposit in sentinel lymph nodes and N stage in TNM classification. Controversial issues surrounding the prognostic value of these nodal related predictors were also discussed. PMID:23359765

Zhu, Yao; Ye, Ding-Wei

2012-06-01

150

Some Women May Not Need More Extensive Lymph Node Surgery for Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Results from a randomized clinical trial published February 9, 2011, in the Journal of the American Medical Association demonstrate that axillary lymph node dissection provided no additional survival benefit when compared with sentinel lymph node biopsy in women with small breast tumors and minimal lymph node metastasis who were treated with lumpectomy, whole-breast radiotherapy, and adjuvant systemic therapy.

151

Tangential Radiotherapy Without Axillary Surgery in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Results of a Prospective Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the risk of regional-nodal recurrence in patients with early-stage, invasive breast cancer, with clinically negative axillary nodes, who were treated with breast-conserving surgery, 'high tangential' breast radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery or the use of a separate nodal radiation field. Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and November 2003, 74 patients who were {>=}55 years of age with Stage I-II clinically node-negative, hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer underwent tumor excision to negative margins without axillary surgery as a part of a multi-institutional prospective study. Postoperatively, all underwent high-tangential, whole-breast radiotherapy with a boost to the tumor bed, followed by 5 years of hormonal therapy. Results: For the 74 patients enrolled, the median age was 74.5 years, and the median pathologic tumor size was 1.2 cm. Lymphatic vessel invasion was present in 5 patients (7%). At a median follow-up of 52 months, no regional-nodal failures or ipsilateral breast recurrences had been identified (95% confidence interval, 0-4%). Eight patients died, one of metastatic disease and seven of other causes. Conclusion: In this select group of mainly older patients with early-stage hormone-responsive breast cancer and clinically negative axillary nodes, treatment with high-tangential breast radiotherapy and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery, yielded a low regional recurrence rate. Such patients might be spared more extensive axillary treatment (axillary surgery, including sentinel node biopsy, or a separate nodal radiation field), with its associated time, expense, and morbidity.

Wong, Julia S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: jwong@lroc.harvard.edu; Taghian, Alphonse G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Bellon, Jennifer R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Keshaviah, Aparna [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Smith, Barbara L. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Winer, Eric P. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Silver, Barbara; Harris, Jay R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)

2008-11-01

152

Distance of Breast Cancer From the Skin and Nipple Impacts Axillary Nodal Metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Lymphatic drainage of the breast is via subareolar and dermal lymphatics. The aim of this study was to determine whether distance\\u000a of breast cancers from the skin and\\/or distance from the nipple impacts the likelihood of axillary nodal metastases.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A retrospective review was performed of sonographically visible T1 and T2 breast cancers with breast and axillary surgery\\u000a performed at Mayo

Bijan Ansari; Marilyn J. Morton; Darcy L. Adamczyk; Katie N. Jones; Julie K. Brodt; Amy C. Degnim; James W. Jakub; Christine M. Lohse; Judy C. Boughey

153

Uncommon applications of sentinel lymph node mapping: urogenital cancers.  

PubMed

Beside the classical applications of sentinel lymph node mapping, some new procedures are emerging and showing feasibility and clinical utility. In this chapter, we will report on sentinel lymph node mapping in 1) malignancies of the female reproductive system (cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, vulvar cancer and ovarian cancer); 2) malignancies of the male reproductive system (prostate cancer, penile cancer and testicular cancer); 3) malignancies in kidney and bladder. This paper presents the uncommon applications of sentinel lymph node mapping in urogenital neoplasms. PMID:24835291

Giammarile, F; Vidal-Sicart, S; Valdés Olmos, R A

2014-06-01

154

Mediastinal lymph node size in lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

Using a size criterion of 1 cm or greater as evidence for abnormality, the size of mediastinal lymph nodes identified by computed tomography (CT) was a poor predictor of mediastinal lymph node metastases in a series of 86 patients who had surgery for bronchogenic carcinoma. The surgery included full nodal sampling in all patients. Of the 86 patients, 36 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm identified by CT. Of the 21 patients with mediastinal metastases proven at surgery, 14 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm (sensitivity = 67%). Of the 65 patients without mediastinal metastases, 22 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm. Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse distal to the cancer was present in 39 patients (45%). Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse is a common occurrence in bronchogenic carcinoma, but mediastinal nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm in this circumstance cannot be presumed to represent metastatic disease. Metastatic mediastinal lymph node involvement was related to nodal size also in patients with evidence of prior granulomatous disease and in patients with no putative benign cause for nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm.

Libshitz, H.I.; McKenna, R.J. Jr.

1984-10-01

155

Prediction of non-sentinel lymph node involvement in breast cancer patients with a positive sentinel lymph node.  

PubMed

Completion axillary lymph node dissection (cALND) is the golden standard if breast cancer involves the sentinel lymph node (SLN). However, most non-sentinel lymph nodes (NSLN) are not involved, cALND has a considerable complication rate and does not improve outcome. We here present and validate our predictive model for positive NSLNs in the cALND if the SLN is positive. Consecutive early breast cancer patients from one center undergoing cALND for a positive SLN were included. We assessed demographic and clinicopathological variables for NSLN involvement. Uni- and multivariate analysis was performed. A predictive model was built and validated in two external centers. 21.9% of 470 patients had at least one involved NSLN. In univariate analysis, seven variables were significantly correlated with NSLN involvement: tumor size, grade, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), number of positive and negative SLNs, size of SLN metastasis and intraoperative positive SLN. In multivariate analysis, LVI, number of negative SLNs, size of SLN metastasis and intraoperative positive pathological evaluation were independent predictors for NSLN involvement. The calculated risk resulted in an AUC of 0.76. Applied to the external data, the model was accurate and discriminating for one (AUC = 0.75) and less for the other center (AUC = 0.58). A discriminative predictive model was constructed to calculate the risk of NSLN involvement in case of a positive SLN. External validation of our model reveals differences in performance when applied to data from other institutions concluding that such a predictive model requires validation prior to use. PMID:24768478

Reynders, Anneleen; Brouckaert, Olivier; Smeets, Ann; Laenen, Annouschka; Yoshihara, Emi; Persyn, Frederik; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Amant, Frederic; Soens, Julie; Van Ongeval, Chantal; Moerman, Philippe; Vergote, Ignace; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Staelens, Gracienne; Van Eygen, Koen; Vanneste, Alain; Van Dam, Peter; Colpaert, Cecile; Neven, Patrick

2014-08-01

156

Somatostatin receptor in breast cancer and axillary nodes: study with scintigraphy, histopathology and receptor autoradiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a prospective analysis of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy using 111In radiolabeled pentetreotide, a somatostatin analog, in patients with breast cancer in the aim to visualize the primary tumor and axillary or parasternal metastatic extension because some malignant breast tumors express somatostatin receptors (SS-R) in 50%, approximately. An analysis of SS-R was performed by autoradiography.

Jean Louis Albérini; Bernard Meunier; Barbara Denzler; Anne Devillers; Patrick Tass; Leo Dazord; Thierry Le Simple; Jean Laissue; Rolf de Jong; Joseph Le Cloirec; Jean Claudei Reubi; Patrick Bourguet

2000-01-01

157

Ultrastaging of lymph node in uterine cancers  

PubMed Central

Background Lymph node status is an important prognostic factor and a criterion for adjuvant therapy in uterine cancers. While detection of micrometastases by ultrastaging techniques is correlated to prognosis in several other cancers, this remains a matter of debate for uterine cancers. The objective of this review on sentinel nodes (SN) in uterine cancers was to determine the contribution of ultrastaging to detect micrometastases. Methods Review of the English literature on SN procedure in cervical and endometrial cancers and histological techniques including hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, serial sectioning, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and molecular techniques to detect micrometastases. Results In both cervical and endometrial cancers, H&E and IHC appeared insufficient to detect micrometastases. In cervical cancer, using H&E, serial sectioning and IHC, the rate of macrometastases varied between 7.1% and 36.3% with a mean value of 25.8%. The percentage of women with micrometastases ranged from 0% and 47.4% with a mean value of 28.3%. In endometrial cancer, the rate of macrometastases varied from 0% to 22%. Using H&E, serial sectioning and IHC, the rate of micrometastases varied from 0% to 15% with a mean value of 5.8%. In both cervical and endometrial cancers, data on the contribution of molecular techniques to detect micrometastases are insufficient to clarify their role in SN ultrastaging. Conclusion In uterine cancers, H&E, serial sectioning and IHC appears the best histological combined technique to detect micrometastases. Although accumulating data have proved the relation between the risk of recurrence and the presence of micrometastases, their clinical implications on indications for adjuvant therapy has to be clarified.

2010-01-01

158

Clinical significance of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer, one of the most common malignancies in the world, frequently reveals lymph node, peritoneum, and liver metastases. Most of gastric cancer patients present with lymph node metastasis when they were initially diagnosed or underwent surgical resection, which results in poor prognosis. Both the depth of tumor invasion and lymph node involvement are considered as the most important prognostic predictors of gastric cancer. Although extended lymphadenectomy was not considered a survival benefit procedure and was reported to be associated with high mortality and morbidity in two randomized controlled European trials, it showed significant superiority in terms of lower locoregional recurrence and disease related deaths compared to limited lymphadenectomy in a 15-year follow-up study. Almost all clinical investigators have reached a consensus that the predictive efficiency of the number of metastatic lymph nodes is far better than the extent of lymph node metastasis for the prognosis of gastric cancer worldwide, but other nodal metastatic classifications of gastric cancer have been proposed as alternatives to the number of metastatic lymph nodes for improving the predictive efficiency for patient prognosis. It is still controversial over whether the ratio between metastatic and examined lymph nodes is superior to the number of metastatic lymph nodes in prognostic evaluation of gastric cancer. Besides, the negative lymph node count has been increasingly recognized to be an important factor significantly associated with prognosis of gastric cancer.

Deng, Jing-Yu; Liang, Han

2014-01-01

159

Axillary lymphadenectomy for breast cancer in elderly patients and fibrin glue  

PubMed Central

Background Axillary lymphadenectomy or sentinel biopsy is integral part of breast cancer treatment, yet seroma formation occurs in 15-85% of cases. Among methods employed to reduce seroma magnitude and duration, fibrin glue has been proposed in numerous studies with controversial results. Methods Thirty patients over 60 years underwent quadrantectomy or mastectomy with level I/II axillary lymphadenectomy; a suction drain was fitted in all patients. Fibrin glue spray were applied to the axillary fossa in 15 patients; the other 15 patients were treated with harmonic scalpel. Results Suction drainage was removed between post-operative Days 3 and 4. Seroma magnitude and duration were not significant in patients receiving fibrin glue compared with the harmonic scalpel group. Conclusions Use of fibrin glue does not always prevent seroma formation, but can reduce seroma magnitude, duration and necessary evacuative punctures.

2013-01-01

160

Diagnosis of axillary nodal metastases by ultrasound-guided core biopsy in primary operable breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the use of ultrasound (US)-guided core biopsy of axillary nodes in patients with operable breast cancer. The ipsilateral axillae of 187 patients with suspected primary operable breast cancer were scanned. Nodes were classified based on their shape and cortical morphology. Abnormal nodes underwent US-guided core biopsy\\/fine needle aspiration (FNA), and the results

A Damera; A J Evans; E J Cornford; A R M Wilson; H C Burrell; J J James; S E Pinder; I O Ellis; A H S Lee; R D Macmillan

2003-01-01

161

Staging of women with breast cancer after introduction of sentinel node guided axillary dissection.  

PubMed

Today, sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) has replaced axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) as standard procedure for staging of the axilla in the treatment of breast cancer. SLND can accurately stage the axilla by removing on average only two lymph nodes. Only in case of metastatic spread to sentinel nodes an ALND is offered. Removing fewer nodes has made more extensive histopathological examinations of the lymph nodes possible and as a consequence more metastases are found. This has resulted in stage migration. Based on data from the nationwide Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) database we have estimated the magnitude and therapeutic consequences of this stage migration in Denmark by comparing the distribution of lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients operated in 1993-1996 and 2005-2008; before and after introducing SLND. The proportion of patients having macrometastases was not significantly different in the two periods, whereas the proportion of patients with micrometastases increased significantly from 5.1% to 9.0%. However, the proportion of patients offered adjuvant systemic treatment due to positive nodal status as the only high-risk criterion did only increase from 7.8% to 8.8%, when estimated using today´s criteria for risk-allocation, because nodal status is now less important in risk-allocation. In general, only 15-20% of patients with micrometastases and 10-15% of patients with isolated tumor cells (ITC) in sentinel node have further metastatic spread to non-sentinel nodes (NSN). Thus, the majority of these patients does not benefit from additional ALND but still run the risk of arm morbidity. Based on data from the DBCG database, we have developed two models to predict NSN metastases in breast cancer patients with micrometastases or ITC in the sentinel node. A total number of 304 breast cancer patients with ITC and 1577 patients with micrometastases in sentinel node operated in 2001-2008 with SLND and subsequent ALND were identified in the database. In patients with ITC in sentinel node the risk of NSN metastases was significantly associated with younger age at diagnosis, increasing tumor size and increasing proportion of positive sentinel nodes in a multivariate analysis. If patients were ? 40 years at diagnosis with tumor size ? 2 cm as well as one or more negative sentinel nodes, NSN metastases were found in only 2%. Omission of ALND in this group would spare 1/3 of patients with ITC in sentinel node for an ALND. In patients with micrometastases in sentinel node the risk of NSN metastases was significantly associated with increasing tumor size, lymphovascular invasion, negative hormone receptor status, location of tumor in the upper lateral quadrant of the breast and increasing proportion of positive sentinel nodes in a multivariate analysis. However, a model based on these traditional prognostic markers could not identify a subgroup of patients with a risk of NSN metastases less than 10%. We then investigated whether the biochemical prognostic markers TIMP-1, Ki67 and HER2 could support the model. In a matched case-control study 25 cases with micrometastases in sentinel node and additional metastatic spread to NSN were compared to 50 matched controls with micrometastases in sentinel node but without NSN metastases. Despite being prognostic markers in breast cancer, we found no significant differences in the expression of these three biochemical markers between patients with and without NSN metastases. Not all NSN metastases will become clinically relevant, making ALND redundant in many breast cancer patients. Accordingly, there is a trend towards omission of ALND in breast cancer patients with minimal metastatic disease in sentinel node. As a result, a tool is needed to identify a group of patients with high risk of recurrence, where ALND should still be offered. In our model a small group of patients with micrometastases had a high risk of NSN metastases on nearly 40%, comparable to patients with macrometastases, indicating that ALND may still be recommended in this subgro

Tvedskov, Tove Filtenborg

2012-07-01

162

Anthracycline-based induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil and radiation therapy in surgically resected axillary node-positive breast cancer  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to determine the toxicity and efficacy of 4 courses of anthracyclines-taxane (AT) chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy (XRT) concurrent with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil (CMF) in surgically resected axillary node-positive (N+) breast cancer. A total of 200 women with N+ breast cancer were treated with adriamycin and docetaxel followed by XRT concurrent with six courses of CMF. Two courses of dose-dense chemotherapy with ifosfamide, carboplatin and etoposide, supported by pegfilgrastim, were administered to patients with >5 histologically confirmed axillary lymph node metastases and patients with triple-negative disease. Additional treatments included 1 year of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive patients, 5 years of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue in premenopausal women and 5 years of an aromatase inhibitor (AI) in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) patients. The mean number of positive axillary lymph nodes was 4.4 (range, 2–37), 52% of the patients were premenopausal, 74% were ER+ and 26% had triple-negative disease. After a median follow-up of 73 months, grade 2 and 3 hematological toxicity was observed in 20% of the patients. The 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 73 and 77%, respectively. There was no significant difference in DFS between ER+ and estrogen receptor-negative (ER?) patients (P>0.05), whereas the OS was better in ER+ vs. ER? patients (P<0.05) and in premenopausal vs. postmenopausal patients (P<0.005). In conclusion, induction AT concurrent CMF and XRT and dose-dense chemotherapy followed by AI in N+ high-risk breast cancer was associated with a low level of systemic and late cardiac toxicity and excellent local control, DFS and OS.

RECCHIA, FRANCESCO; CANDELORO, GIAMPIERO; CESTA, ALISIA; DI STASO, MARIO; BONFILI, PIERLUIGI; GRAVINA, GIOVANNI LUCA; DI CESARE, ERNESTO; NECOZIONE, STEFANO; REA, SILVIO

2014-01-01

163

[Clinical significance of lymph node micrometastases in cervical cancer].  

PubMed

In most cancers of epithelial origin, metastases to the lymph nodes constitute the most important prognostic factor and are predictive of the results of the surgical and adjuvant therapies. Data on the lymph node status allows to design an appropriate treatment plan. Despite advances in gynecologic oncology the importance of lymph node micrometastases in cervical cancer especially in nonsentinel lymph nodes which are detected by ultrastaging, has not been fully elucidated. The purpose of the article is to familiarize the reader with the state of current knowledge on cervical cancer micrometastases. The authors attempt to answer the question about the benefits of lymph node assessment in the search for micrometastases in cervical cancer as well as to address emerging doubts. PMID:24191518

Sniadecki, Marcin; Sawicki, Sambor; Wojtylak, Szymon; Liro, Marcin; Wydra, Dariusz

2013-09-01

164

Rare axillary metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil.  

PubMed

Tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is rarely involved in axillary lymph nodes. We describe herein a rare case of tonsillar SCC involved in axillary lymph nodes. A 55-year-old man with a history of a wide excision of the left tonsil and concurrent chemoradiotherpy for the tonsillar SCC 1 year ago was presented to us with dysphagia. Except for the confirmed tumor over the retropharyngeal space, whole-body FDG PET/CT demonstrated a hypermetabolic lesion about 1 cm in size in the right axilla. Histopathology proved as a metastatic tonsillar SCC. The cancer staging and therapeutic regimens were thus altered. PMID:23478853

Cheng, Cheng-Yi; Su, Ting-Fu; Lin, Yau-Hsan; Ho, Ching-Liang; Huang, Wen-Sheng

2013-07-01

165

Using the lymph nodal ratio to predict the risk of locoregional recurrence in lymph node-positive breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy without radiation therapy  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate the prognostic value of axillary lymph node ratio (LNR) as compared to the number of involved nodes (pN stage) in patients with axillary lymph node-positive breast cancer treated with mastectomy without radiation. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of the clinical data of patients with stage II-III node-positive breast cancer (N=1068) between 1998 and 2007. Locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared based on the LNR and pN staging. Results A total of 780 cases were classified as pN1, 183 as pN2, and 105 as pN3. With respect to LNR, 690 cases had a LNR from 0.01-0.20, 269 cases a LNR from 0.21-0.65, and 109 cases a LNR > 0.65. The median follow-up time was 62 months. Univariate analysis showed that both LNR and pN stage were prognostic factors of LRFS and OS (p<0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that LNR was an independent prognostic factor of LRFS and OS (p<0.05). pN stage had no significant effect on LRFS or OS (p>0.05). In subgroup analysis, the LNR identified groups of patients with different survival rates based on pN stage. Conclusions LNR is superior to pN staging as a prognostic factor in lymph node-positive breast cancer after mastectomy, and should be used as one of the indications for adjuvant radiation therapy.

2013-01-01

166

Prognostic role of lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective To clarify the relationship between clinicopathological features and lymph node metastasis and to propose the potential indications of lymph node metastasis for prognosis in early gastric cancer (EGC) patients. Methods We retrospectively observed 226 EGC patients with lymph node resection, and analyzed the associations between lymph node metastasis and clinicopathological parameters using the chi-square test in univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis in multivariate analysis. Overall survival analysis was determined using the Kaplan-Meier and log-rank test. We conducted multivariate prognosis analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results Of all the EGC patients, 7.5% (17/226) were histologically shown to have lymph node metastasis. The differentiation, lymphovascular invasion and depth of invasion were independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis in EGC. The 5- and 10-year survival rates were significantly lower in patients with lymph node metastasis than in those without and the patients also had shorter progress-free survival time. Lymph node metastasis and tumor size were independent prognostic factors for EGC. The status of the lymph nodes was a significant factor in predicting recurrence or metastasis after surgery. Conclusions The undifferentiated carcinoma and lymphovascular and/or submucosal invasion were associated with a higher incidence of lymph node metastasis in EGC patients, whom need to perform subsequent D2 lymphadenectomy or laparoscopic lymph node dissection and more rigorous follow-up or additional chemotherapy/radiation after D2 gastrectomy for poor prognosis and high recurrence/metastasis rate.

Zheng, Zhixue; Liu, Yiqiang; Bu, Zhaode; Zhang, Lianhai; Li, Ziyu; Du, Hong

2014-01-01

167

Clinical Significance of Axillary Microresiduals After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer Patients with Cytologically Proven Metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has been widely accepted for advanced breast cancer patients, and pathological complete remission\\u000a (pCR) was revealed to be an important prognostic factor. The pCR status of cytologically proven axillary metastases (ALN-pCR)\\u000a offers a more powerful prognostic predictor than pCR of the main tumor. This study evaluated the clinical significance of\\u000a residual micrometastases and discusses screening methods after

Masahiro Sakakibara; Takeshi Nagashima; Masami Kadowaki; Yasuhide Onai; Toshihiko Fujimori; Jissei Yokomizo; Hiroshi Suzuki; Koya Fushimi; Yukio Nakatani; Masaru Miyazaki

2009-01-01

168

Optical Coherence Tomography: The Intraoperative Assessment of Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

During breast-conserving surgeries, axillary lymph nodes draining from the primary tumor site are removed for disease staging. Although a high number of lymph nodes are often resected during sentinel and lymph-node dissections, only a relatively small percentage of nodes are found to be metastatic, a fact that must be weighed against potential complications such as lymphedema. Without a real-time in

FREDDY T. NGUYEN; ADAM M. ZYSK; ERIC J. CHANEY; STEVEN G. ADIE; JAN G. KOTYNEK; URETZ J. OLIPHANT; FRANK J. BELLAFIORE; KENDRITH M. ROWLAND; PATRICIA A. JOHNSON; STEPHEN A. BOPPART

2010-01-01

169

Clinicopathologic Factors Associated With False-Negative Sentinel Lymph-Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Data: Previous studies have suggested a variety of factors that may affect the false negative (FN) rate for sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in breast cancer. Because FN results are relatively rare, no prior studies have had sufficient sample size to allow detailed statistical analysis of factors predicting FN results. Methods: Patients with clinical stage T1-2, N0 invasive breast cancer were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter study. All patients underwent SLN biopsy, followed by planned completion axillary dissection regardless of the SLN results, to assess the FN rate. SLN biopsy was performed using radioactive colloid injection in combination with isosulfan blue dye in 94% of cases. Dermal, subdermal, peritumoral, or subareolar radioactive colloid injection techniques were used at the discretion of each institution. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with a FN result. Results: SLNs were identified in 3870 of 4117 patients (94%). There were 1243 true positive, 2521 true negative, and 106 FN results. Age, histologic subtype, the number of non-SLN removed, tumor palpability, type of breast biopsy, and SLN injection technique were not significant factors. On multivariate analysis, tumor size <2.5 cm, upper outer quadrant tumor location, removal of only a single SLN, minimal surgeon experience, presence of a single positive axillary LN, and use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) for SLN analysis were independently associated with an increased risk of FN results. Conclusions: Surgeon experience, tumor size and location, and the number of SLN removed are preoperative and intraoperative factors that independently predict the risk of a FN result. In contrast to suggestions from other smaller studies, age does not affect the likelihood of a FN result; a lesser, rather than greater, number of positive axillary nodes was associated with an increased likelihood of a FN result; and IHC analysis of the SLN increases, rather than decreases, the risk of FN results.

Martin, Robert C. G.; Chagpar, Anees; Scoggins, Charles R.; Edwards, Michael J.; Hagendoorn, Lee; Stromberg, Arnold J.; McMasters, Kelly M.

2005-01-01

170

Feasibility of telecytopathology for rapid preliminary diagnosis of ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of axillary lymph nodes in a remote breast care center  

PubMed Central

Background: In the recent years, the advances in digital methods in pathology have resulted in the use of telecytology in the immediate assessment of fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens. However, there is a need for organ-based and body site-specific studies on the use of telecytology for the immediate assessment of FNA to evaluate its pitfalls and limitations. We present our experience with the use of telecytology for on-site evaluation of ultrasound-guided FNA (USG-FNA) of axillary lymph nodes in a remote breast care center. Materials and Methods: Real-time images of Diff-Quik-stained cytology smears were obtained with an Olympus digital camera attached to an Olympus CX41 microscope and transmitted via ethernet by a cytotechnologist to a pathologist who rendered preliminary diagnosis while communicating with the on-site cytotechnologist over the Vocera system. The accuracy of the preliminary diagnosis was compared with the final diagnosis, retrospectively. Results: A total of 39 female patients (mean age: 50.5 years) seen at the breast care center underwent USG-FNA of 44 axillary nodes. Preliminary diagnoses of benign, suspicious/malignant, and unsatisfactory were 41, 52, and 7%, respectively. Only one of the 23 cases that were initially interpreted as benign was reclassified as suspicious on final cytologic diagnosis. Seventeen of 18 suspicious/malignant cases on initial cytology corresponded with a malignant diagnosis on final cytology. One suspicious case was reclassified as benign on final cytologic diagnosis. All unsatisfactory cases remained inadequate for final cytologic interpretation. The presence of additional material in the cell block and interpretative error were the main reasons for discrepancy, accounting for the two discrepant cases. Conclusions: This retrospective study demonstrates that the on-site telecytology evaluation of USG-FNA of axillary lymph nodes in patients at a remote breast care center was highly accurate compared with the final cytologic evaluation. It allows pathologists to use their time more efficiently and makes on-site evaluation at a remote site possible.

Khurana, Kamal K.; Kovalovsky, Andra; Masrani, Deepa

2012-01-01

171

Pleomorphic lobular carcinoma of the male breast with axillary lymph node involvement: a case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Background Carcinoma of the male breast is responsible for less than 1% of all malignancies in men but the incidence is rising. Invasive ductal carcinoma is the most common histological subtype while invasive lobular carcinoma is responsible for only 1.5% of the total cases of which pleomorpic lobular carcinoma is an extremely rare variant. We report the case of a gentleman with node positive, pleomorphic lobular carcinoma of the breast. Case presentation An elderly gentleman with a past history of type 2 diabetes and long term ethanol use presented to us with a self-discovered palpable lump in the left breast. Physical examination revealed bilateral gynaecomastia along with a well circumscribed subareolar mass and palpable lymphadenopathy in the ipsilateral axilla. The breast nodule revealed atypical cells on fine needle aspiration biopsy and the patient underwent a modified radical mastectomy after systemic surveillance was negative for metastatic disease. The lesion was reported as grade III pleomorphic lobular carcinoma with a lack of E-cadherin expression on immunohistochemistry and the neoplastic cells exhibited strong positivity for estrogen receptor in the absence of Her2 gene amplification. Six out of the eleven dissected regional lymph nodes showed evidence of disease. The patient completed 4 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy without evidence of recurrent disease and was subsequently lost to follow up. Conclusions Although invasive lobular carcinomas comprise 12% of all female breast cancers, they are very rare in males due to lack of acini and lobules in the normal male breast. Pleomorphic lobular carcinoma, an aggressive variant of ILC is even rarer in males. Chronic consumption of ethanol by our patient may have resulted in some degree of hepatic impairment with resultant hyperestrogenism. This in theory may have been the cause of his gynaecomastia, resultant breast cancer and is a plausible explanation for development of the invasive lobular subtype in a male. The prognosis and clinicopatholocial features of pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in men are less clearly defined due to its rarity. Additional studies are hence necessary to improve our understanding of this disease in males.

2014-01-01

172

Breast cancer sentinel lymph node mapping using near-infrared guided indocyanine green in comparison with blue dye.  

PubMed

Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green (ICG) was considered to have the potential to improve sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in breast cancer. Herein, we performed a randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of ICG fluorescence imaging compared with blue dye imaging in SLN navigation surgery. We also analyzed lymph drainage pathways to identify targets for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). Finally, 68 consecutive patients diagnosed with breast cancer and who underwent SLNB between November 2010 and September 2012 were enrolled in the study. The cases were randomly grouped into either the ICG fluorescence or blue dye group, with 36 in the ICG fluorescence group and 32 in the blue dye group. Levels I and II axillary dissection was performed in all cases after SLNB. A single lymph drainage pathway was detected in 21 of 36 (58.3 %) patients, and multiple lymph drainage pathways were detected in 15 of 36 (41.7 %) cases. The detection rate of SLNB was higher by ICG fluorescence than by blue dye (97.2 vs. 81.3 %, p?

Guo, Wenbin; Zhang, Li; Ji, Jun; Gao, Wei; Liu, Jintao; Tong, Meng

2014-04-01

173

Extracapsular tumor spread and the risk of local, axillary and supraclavicular recurrence in node-positive, premenopausal patients with breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: Extracapsular tumor spread (ECS) has been identified as a possible risk factor for breast cancer recurrence, but controversy exists regarding its role in decision making for regional radiotherapy. This study evaluates ECS as a predictor of local, axillary, and supraclavicular recurrence. Patients and methods: International Breast Cancer Study Group Trial VI accrued 1475 eligible pre- and perimenopausal women with node-positive breast cancer who were randomly assigned to receive three to nine courses of classical combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil. ECS status was determined retrospectively in 933 patients based on review of pathology reports. Cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using methods for competing risks analysis. Adjustment factors included treatment group and baseline patient and tumor characteristics. The median follow-up was 14 years. Results: In univariable analysis, ECS was significantly associated with supraclavicular recurrence (HR?=?1.96; 95% confidence interval 1.23–3.13; P = 0.005). HRs for local and axillary recurrence were 1.38 (P = 0.06) and 1.81 (P = 0.11), respectively. Following adjustment for number of lymph node metastases and other baseline prognostic factors, ECS was not significantly associated with any of the three recurrence types studied. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the decision for additional regional radiotherapy should not be based solely on the presence of ECS.

Gruber, G.; Cole, B. F.; Castiglione-Gertsch, M.; Holmberg, S. B.; Lindtner, J.; Golouh, R.; Collins, J.; Crivellari, D.; Thurlimann, B.; Simoncini, E.; Fey, M. F.; Gelber, R. D.; Coates, A. S.; Price, K. N.; Goldhirsch, A.; Viale, G.; Gusterson, B. A.

2008-01-01

174

Importance of sentinel lymph node biopsy in surgical therapy of in situ breast cancer.  

PubMed

The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the rate of sentinel lymph node (SLN) positivity in patients with a final diagnosis of ductal in situ cancer (DCIS) of the breast. Between October 2002 and January 2007, 57 patients with DCIS underwent wide excision after radio-guided lesion localization; 53 of them (53/57, 93%) had participated in simultaneous SLN mapping. SLNs were analysed by 250-micron step-sectioning with haematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical evaluation. The histologic investigation verified pure breast DCIS in 44 cases (44/57, 77.2%), DCIS with microinvasion in eight cases (8/57, 14%) and lobular in situ breast cancer in five cases (5/57, 8.8%). SLNs were identified in 49 cases (49/53, 92.5%) and removed in 48 cases (48/53, 90.6%), i.e. an average of 1.6 SLNs per patient. In four patients (4/53, 7.6%), the SLN biopsy was unsuccessful because of the failure of the radiocolloid substance to migrate. In these cases, axillary sampling was performed. In one case (1/53, 1.9%), only a parasternal SLN was detected; this was not removed. Histologic analysis of the SLNs and the axillary lymph nodes with haematoxylin and eosin or cytokeratin immunohistochemistry did not prove the presence of metastases. The international data and our present results suggest that routine SLN biopsy is not to be recommended in pure DCIS cases. If the final histology verifies an invasive or microinvasive tumour, or if mastectomy is to be performed, SLN mapping is suggested. PMID:19023676

Takács, Tibor; Paszt, Attila; Szentpáli, Károly; Ormándi, Katalin; Lázár, Máté; Pálka, István; Kahán, Zsuzsa; Lázár, György

2009-09-01

175

Utility of 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose emission tomography/computed tomography fusion imaging (18F-FDG PET/CT) in combination with ultrasonography for axillary staging in primary breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate evaluation of axillary lymph node (ALN) involvement is mandatory before treatment of primary breast cancer. The aim of this study is to compare preoperative diagnostic accuracy between positron emission tomography/computed tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG PET/CT) and axillary ultrasonography (AUS) for detecting ALN metastasis in patients having operable breast cancer, and to assess the clinical management of axillary 18F-FDG PET/CT for therapeutic indication of sentinel node biopsy (SNB) and preoperative systemic chemotherapy (PSC). Methods One hundred eighty-three patients with primary operable breast cancer were recruited. All patients underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT and AUS followed by SNB and/or ALN dissection (ALND). Using 18F-FDG PET/CT, we studied both a visual assessment of 18F-FDG uptake and standardized uptake value (SUV) for axillary staging. Results In a visual assessment of 18F-FDG PET/CT, the diagnostic accuracy of ALN metastasis was 83% with 58% in sensitivity and 95% in specificity, and when cut-off point of SUV was set at 1.8, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 36, 100, and 79%, respectively. On the other hand, the diagnostic accuracy of AUS was 85% with 54% in sensitivity and 99% in specificity. By the combination of 18F-FDG PET/CT and AUS to the axilla, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 64, 94, and 85%, respectively. If either 18F-FDG PET uptake or AUS was positive in allixa, the probability of axillary metastasis was high; 50% (6 of 12) in 18F-FDG PET uptake only, 80% (4 of 5) in AUS positive only, and 100% (28 of 28) in dual positive. By the combination of AUS and 18F-FDG PET/CT, candidates of SNB were more appropriately selected. The axillary 18F-FDG uptake was correlated with the maximum size and nuclear grade of metastatic foci (p = 0.006 and p = 0.03). Conclusion The diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT was shown to be nearly equal to ultrasound, and considering their limited sensitivities, the high radiation exposure by 18F-FDG PET/CT and also costs of the examination, it is likely that AUS will be more cost-effective in detecting massive axillary tumor burden. However, when we cannot judge the axillary staging using AUS alone, metabolic approach of 18F-FDG PET/CT for axillary staging would enable us a much more confident diagnosis.

Ueda, Shigeto; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Asakawa, Hideki; Omata, Jiro; Fukatsu, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Nobuo; Kondo, Tadaharu; Hama, Yukihiro; Tamura, Katsumi; Ishida, Jiro; Abe, Yoshiyuki; Mochizuki, Hidetaka

2008-01-01

176

An improved axillary staging system using the OSNA assay does not modify the therapeutic management of breast cancer patients  

PubMed Central

The one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay is a molecular procedure that can identify deposits of breast cancer (BC) cells in the sentinel lymph node (SLN). We examined the consistency of the OSNA assay with a classic hematoxylin-eosin (H&E)-based immunohistochemistry (IHC) study and evaluated how OSNA-based axillary staging might impact the therapeutic management of BC patients. SLN biopsy results were considered to be positive in 60 patients (40%) in the OSNA group (N = 148) and in 43 (28%) patients in the IHC cohort (N = 153, p = 0.023). There was no difference in the macrometastasis (22% for OSNA, 15% for H&E, p = 0.139) or micrometastasis (19% for OSNA, 13% for H&E, p = 0.166) rates, but we found statistically significant differences in the number of isolated tumor cells (1% for OSNA, 11% for H&E, p < 0.001). There were no differences in the administration rate of adjuvant systemic therapy between the OSNA (66% in the SLN+ patients) and the H&E (74% in the SLN+ patients) groups (p = 0.159). The OSNA assay allows for the detection of SLN metastases more precisely than conventional pathologic methods but does not alter the therapeutic management of SLN+ BC patients.

Ruano, Miguel Alonso; Lopez-Bonet, Eugeni; Buxo, Maria; Tuca-Rodriguez, Francesc; Vila-Camps, Ester; Alvarez, Elena; Martin-Castillo, Begona; Menendez, Javier A.

2014-01-01

177

Sentinel lymph node imaging and research after bone scintigraphy in breast cancer patients.  

PubMed

The aim of the study is to see if Bone Scan (BS) - when performed the day before the operation-interferes with the results of the Sentinel Lymph Node (SLN) technique using radiocolloids (their pre-operative imaging and their peroperative research). Therefore, the data of 393 patients who had one selective lymphadenectomy of the SLN(s) followed by the complete axillary node (AxN) clearance for Breast Cancer and among whom 309 patients had one BS the day before the operation (and just before the injection-s for the SLN) and 84 did not, were analysed and compared. The two series presented the same characteristics with regard to: age, clinical staging of the tumour, kind of injection-s performed (intradermic and paratumoural and/or intraparenchymal and peritumoral), pathological size of the tumour, percentage of cases with no AxN invasion, total number of AxN removed by the surgeons. The percentages of no axillary SLN visualisation, the mean numbers of axillary SLN visualised on pre-operative lymphoscintigram as well as of SLN removed by the surgeons were not statistically different in the groups of patients with (respectively, 12.11, 2.6 and 3.03) and without BS (respectively, 12.99, 2.7 and 2.96). More noteworthy, the false negative (FN) rate of the SLN technique, albeit having a higher observed value in the group with BS (9.6%, 12/125), did not differ significantly from that in the group without BS (5.6%, 2/36). The accuracies (overall correct classification rates), the sensitivities and the negative predictive values of the SLN technique also did not differ significantly between the two groups. It is concluded that the SLN technique can be accurately performed just after one BS. PMID:14659326

Bourgeois, P; Nogaret, J M; Veys, I; Hertens, D; Noterman, D; Dagnelie, J; Vanhaudenarde, C; Barette, M; Larsimont, D

2003-06-01

178

A New Formula for Prostate Cancer Lymph Node Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The successful treatment of prostate cancer depends on the accurate estimation of the risk of regional lymph node (LN) involvement. The Roach formula (RF) has been criticized as overestimating LN risk. A modification of the RF has been attempted by other investigators using simplified adjustment ratios: the Nguyen formula (NF). Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology,

James B. Yu; Danil V. Makarov; Cary Gross

2011-01-01

179

Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy do not enhance the accuracy of lymphatic mapping for breast cancer.  

PubMed

Lymphoscintigraphy (LS) may identify sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) outside the axilla. Biopsy of these nodes could improve the accuracy of lymphatic mapping (LM) for breast cancer (BC) if a significant number of tumor-positive extra-axillary sentinel nodes are identified. To address this, we evaluated the impact of the use of preoperative LS and biopsy of axillary and internal mammary SLNs in women with BC. From October 1997 to July 2003, 175 women with breast cancer received technetium sulfur colloid, and images were obtained. Isosulfan blue dye was injected intraoperatively, and LM of the axillary and internal mammary lymph node basins was performed with a hand-held gamma probe. The anatomic location and histologic status of all SLNs identified with LS and LM was recorded, and the impact of the findings on LS and internal mammary LM were evaluated. LS showed SLN in 127/175 (73%) women and "hot spots" were found with the gamma probe in 142/175 (81%). At least one SLN was identified by LM in 168/175 (96%) patients, and 48/168 (29%) had metastases. One hundred sixty-two of 168 (96%) patients had SLN exclusively in the axilla. Only 10 of 175 (6%) women had internal mammary (IM) SLNs seen on LS. LM identified IM sentinel nodes in 6 of these 10 patients, but none were involved with tumor. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and biopsy of internal mammary sentinel nodes do not enhance the accuracy of lymphatic mapping for breast cancer. Omitting lymphoscintigraphy reduces the complexity and cost of lymphatic mapping without compromising the identification of tumor-positive sentinel nodes. PMID:15663043

Lawson, Laura L; Sandler, Martin; Martin, William; Beauchamp, R Daniel; Kelley, Mark C

2004-12-01

180

Prevention of Lymphorrhea by Means of Fibrin Glue after Axillary Lymphadenectomy in Breast Cancer: Prospective Randomized Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective randomized trial was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of fibrin glue in preventing lymphorrhea after axillary lymphadenectomy in breast cancer. One hundred and eight breast cancer patients, operated on by two senior surgeons, were randomized into two groups: group 1 (n = 58) without fibrin glue and group 2 (n = 50) with 2 ml of fibrin

F. N. Gilly; Y. François; A. C. Sayag-Beaujard; O. Glehen; A. Brachet; J. Vignal

1998-01-01

181

Bilateral axillary lymph node uptake of radiotracer during lower extremity and scrotal lymphoscintigraphy in a case of primary scrotal lymphoedema  

PubMed Central

Lymphoscintigraphy is a useful technique for the evaluation of lymphatic function in the presence of limb swelling. The authors report a case where genital swelling in a 20-year-old man was investigated by lymphoscintigraphy. We performed lower limb lymphoscintigraphy and scrotal lymphoscintigraphy in the patient on two different days. Lower limb revealed dermal backflow pattern in lower limbs, inguinoscrotal reflux of the lymph and unexpected avid radiotracer uptake in the axillae bilaterally. Scrotal lymphoscintigraphy revealed slow movement of the lymph from the scrotal skin and again unexpected avid radiotracer uptake in the axillae bilaterally. Findings were concluded as congenital hypoplasia of lymphatics in lower limbs, congenital lymphectasia/compensatory megalymphatics in scrotum and aberrant lymphatic pathway, possibly due to malfunctioning/nonfunctioning thoracic duct.

Jain, Anuj; Jaimini, Abhinav

2011-01-01

182

Bilateral axillary lymph node uptake of radiotracer during lower extremity and scrotal lymphoscintigraphy in a case of primary scrotal lymphoedema.  

PubMed

Lymphoscintigraphy is a useful technique for the evaluation of lymphatic function in the presence of limb swelling. The authors report a case where genital swelling in a 20-year-old man was investigated by lymphoscintigraphy. We performed lower limb lymphoscintigraphy and scrotal lymphoscintigraphy in the patient on two different days. Lower limb revealed dermal backflow pattern in lower limbs, inguinoscrotal reflux of the lymph and unexpected avid radiotracer uptake in the axillae bilaterally. Scrotal lymphoscintigraphy revealed slow movement of the lymph from the scrotal skin and again unexpected avid radiotracer uptake in the axillae bilaterally. Findings were concluded as congenital hypoplasia of lymphatics in lower limbs, congenital lymphectasia/compensatory megalymphatics in scrotum and aberrant lymphatic pathway, possibly due to malfunctioning/nonfunctioning thoracic duct. PMID:23559718

Jain, Anuj; Jaimini, Abhinav

2011-10-01

183

The clinical significance of sentinel lymph node micrometastasis in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction The advent of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and improvements in histopathological and molecular analysis have increased\\u000a the rate at which micrometastases (MM) are identified. However, their significance has been the subject of much debate. In\\u000a this article we review the literature concerning axillary lymph node (ALN) MM, with particular reference to SLNB. The controversies\\u000a regarding histopathological assessment, clinical

Neill Patani; Kefah Mokbel

2009-01-01

184

Imaging in assessing lymph node status in gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Accurate assessment of lymph node status is of crucial importance for appropriate treatment planning and determining prognosis\\u000a in patients with gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to systematically review the current role of imaging in assessing\\u000a lymph node (LN) status in gastric cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A systematic literature search was performed in the PubMed\\/MEDLINE and Embase databases. The methodological quality

Robert Michael Kwee; Thomas Christian Kwee

2009-01-01

185

Discordance rate of HER2 status in primary breast carcinomas versus synchronous axillary lymph node metastases: a multicenter retrospective investigation  

PubMed Central

Background Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is considered to be a therapeutic and prognostic marker in the management of breast carcinoma (BC), although discordance rates between primary and metastatic or locally recurrent lesions have been reported. Methods One hundred and forty-eight paraffin-embedded BC tissues from patients of mean age 59.27 (33–96) years and corresponding synchronous lymph node metastases were collected and retrospectively studied using immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization to evaluate HER2 status. Fleiss-Cohen weighted k statistics were used to assess the concordance rate between HER2 status of the primary BC and the synchronous metastatic lesions. Results The overall concordance rate for HER2 was 95.28%. Eighty-nine cases were concordantly HER2-negative in primary BC and nodal metastases, and 52 cases were HER2-positive in both primary and metastatic tumors. Changes in HER2 status between primary BC and corresponding synchronous metastases were observed in seven (4.72%) cases. Three of the discordant cases were HER2-negative in the primary tumor and HER2-positive in the metastases, while four cases were HER2-positive in the primary BC and HER2-negative in the metastases. No significant correlations were identified between HER2 status and expression of hormone receptors, growth fraction (Ki-67), or other histopathological parameters (pT, pN, grade). Conclusion Simultaneous determination of HER2 in BC and corresponding metastatic lymph nodes is not mandatory, but may strongly influence the therapeutic management. It was demonstrated that loss of HER2 amplification results in worse post-relapse survival and overall survival in BC patients and, on the other hand, a gain in HER2 expression in metastatic lymph nodes of BC may allow the possibility of a targeted treatment. Thus, our opinion is that significant prognostic information may be obtained by simultaneous assessment of HER2 status in both primary and synchronous metastatic BC.

Ieni, Antonio; Barresi, Valeria; Caltabiano, Rosario; Cascone, Anna Maria; Del Sordo, Rachele; Cabibi, Daniela; Zeppa, Pio; Lanzafame, Salvatore; Sidoni, Angelo; Franco, Vito; Tuccari, Giovanni

2014-01-01

186

Increased false negative rates in sentinel lymph node biopsies in patients with multi-focal breast cancer.  

PubMed

There are few data about the reliability of sentinel node biopsy in patients with multi-focal breast cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting the identification and accuracy of the sentinel node, comparing multifocality with other variables, using peritumoral isosulfan blue dye injection technique alone. Between 1998 and 2001, 122 patients with clinically negative nodes from a single institute were eligible for sentinel lymph node biopsies (SLNBs). All patients underwent conventional axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). SLNs were identified in 111 of 122 (91%) cases, and analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin. Twenty-one patients with multifocal breast cancer were determined by clinical or pathologic examination (gross or microscopic). Success in locating the sentinel node was unrelated to patient's age, tumor size, type, location, histological or nuclear grade, multifocality, or a previous surgical biopsy. SLNBs accurately predicted the status of the axilla in 104 of the 111 patients (93.7%), while 18 of the 21 patients with multi-focal breast cancer (85.7%) had successful lymphatic mapping. The false negative (FN) rate was 11.3% among patients with successful SLNBs. Multifocality and tumor size (>2 cm) were associated significantly with decreased accuracy and increased FN rates (for multifocality, p = 0.007 and p = 0.006, and for tumor size >2 cm, p = 0.04 and p = 0.05, respectively) in binary logistic regression analysis, whereas excisional biopsy, tumor location in the upper outer quadrant and patient's age did not significantly affect the accuracy and FN rates in univariate analysis. These results suggest sentinel lymph node biopsy using peritumoral isosulfan blue injection method alone can accurately predict axillary status in patients with clinically negative nodes, but patients with multi-focal disease and large tumor size may not be ideal candidates. PMID:12462384

Ozmen, Vahit; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut; Cabioglu, Neslihan; Tuzlali, Sitki; Ilhan, Ridvan; Igci, Abdullah; Kecer, Mustafa; Bozfakioglu, Yavuz; Dagoglu, Temel

2002-12-01

187

A Long-Term Study of Radiation Therapy in T1-2 Node-Negative Breast Cancer Patients in Relation to the Number of Axillary Nodes Examined  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The optimal number of axillary nodes to be resected is controversial. This large series investigated the effect of surgery with or without adjuvant radiotherapy among node-negative breast cancer patients in relation to the number of nodes examined. Methods and Materials: Node-negative patients from the Saskatchewan registry of 1981-1995 were studied. Because nodal status may be more reliable with more number of nodes examined, we analyzed T1-2 age < 90 patients with < 10 nodes examined treated with surgery alone (Group A{sub S}, n = 509) vs. surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy (Group A{sub S}+R, n = 342); and T1-2 age < 90 patients with {>=} 10 nodes examined treated with surgery alone (Group B{sub S}, n = 902) vs. surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy (Group B{sub S}+R, n = 596). Results: For the two radiotherapy groups, patients with < 10 nodes (Group A{sub S}+R) vs. {>=} 10 nodes (Group B{sub S}+R), there was no difference in overall survival (p = 0.14). In the two nonradiotherapy groups (A{sub S} and B{sub S}), there is a statistically significant decrease in overall survival for patients with < 10 nodes removed (p < 0.001, log-rank test). The optimal number of axillary nodes examined could be 8 nodes with adjuvant radiotherapy (p = 0.05, logrank test) and 12 nodes without adjuvant radiotherapy (p = 0.02, log-rank test). Conclusions: The poorer prognosis of a lesser number of nodes resected was overcome partly by the use of radiotherapy, raising the possibility of micrometastases in lymph nodes not removed. The optimal number of axillary nodes examined could be 8 nodes with adjuvant radiotherapy and 12 nodes without adjuvant radiotherapy.

Tai, Patricia [Department of Oncology, Allan Blair Cancer Center, University of Saskatchewan (Canada)], E-mail: ptai2@yahoo.com; Yu, Edward [Radiation Oncology Division, Department of Oncology, University of Western Ontario (Canada); Sadikov, Evgeny [Department of Oncology, Allan Blair Cancer Center, University of Saskatchewan (Canada); Joseph, Kurian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta (Canada)

2009-06-01

188

Evaluation of the Benefit of Routine Intraoperative Frozen Section Analysis of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Aims. Intraoperative analysis of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) by frozen section (FS) allows for immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in case of metastatic disease in patients with breast cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the benefit of intraoperative FS, with regard to false negative rate (FNR) and influence on operation time. Materials and Methods. Intraoperative analysis of the SLN by FS was performed on 628 patients between January 2005 and October 2009. Patients were retrospectively studied. Results. FS accurately predicted axillary status in 525 patients (83.6%). There were 78 true positive findings (12.4%), of which there are 66 macrometastases (84.6%), 2 false positive findings (0.3%), and 101 false negative findings (16.1%), of which there are 65 micrometastases and isolated tumour cells (64.4%) resulting in an FNR of 56.4%. Additional operation time of a secondary ALND after wide local excision and SLNB is 17 minutes, in case of ablative surgery 35 minutes. The SLN was negative in 449 patients (71.5%), making their scheduled operation time unnecessary. Conclusions. FS was associated with a high false negative rate (FNR) in our population, and the use of telepathology caused an increase in this rate. Only 12.4% of the patients benefited from intraoperative FS, as secondary ALND could be avoided, so FS may be indicated for a selected group of patients.

Francissen, C. M. T. P.; van la Parra, R. F. D.; Mulder, A. H.; Bosch, A. M.; de Roos, W. K.

2013-01-01

189

Evaluation of the benefit of routine intraoperative frozen section analysis of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer.  

PubMed

Aims. Intraoperative analysis of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) by frozen section (FS) allows for immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in case of metastatic disease in patients with breast cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the benefit of intraoperative FS, with regard to false negative rate (FNR) and influence on operation time. Materials and Methods. Intraoperative analysis of the SLN by FS was performed on 628 patients between January 2005 and October 2009. Patients were retrospectively studied. Results. FS accurately predicted axillary status in 525 patients (83.6%). There were 78 true positive findings (12.4%), of which there are 66 macrometastases (84.6%), 2 false positive findings (0.3%), and 101 false negative findings (16.1%), of which there are 65 micrometastases and isolated tumour cells (64.4%) resulting in an FNR of 56.4%. Additional operation time of a secondary ALND after wide local excision and SLNB is 17 minutes, in case of ablative surgery 35 minutes. The SLN was negative in 449 patients (71.5%), making their scheduled operation time unnecessary. Conclusions. FS was associated with a high false negative rate (FNR) in our population, and the use of telepathology caused an increase in this rate. Only 12.4% of the patients benefited from intraoperative FS, as secondary ALND could be avoided, so FS may be indicated for a selected group of patients. PMID:24167745

Francissen, C M T P; van la Parra, R F D; Mulder, A H; Bosch, A M; de Roos, W K

2013-01-01

190

The clinical significance of subcarinal lymph node dissection in the radical resection of oesophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To explore the rule of subcarinal lymph node metastasis in thoracic oesophageal cancer and its clinical significance in the radical resection of oesophageal cancer. METHODS We retrospectively analysed 2223 patients with oesophageal cancer who were admitted to Henan Cancer Hospital during 2004–2011 and underwent surgery as the first treatment option. Routine subcarinal lymph node dissections were performed, and the sections from the resected lymph nodes were embedded in paraffin for routine pathological examination. RESULTS Subcarinal lymph node metastasis was observed in 200 patients (9%). Logistic regression analysis identified the following risk factors (P < 0.05): tumour location, depth of invasion into the oesophageal wall, tissue type, number of lymph node metastases, paraoesophageal lymph node metastasis (level 8 lymph nodes), left gastric cardiac lymph node metastasis. Unpaired t-test and ?2-test showed that more lymph node metastases, longer tumour length, deeper tumour invasion, middle oesophageal cancer, squamous-cell carcinoma, lower degree of differentiation, paraoesophageal lymph node metastasis and left gastric cardiac lymph node metastasis were associated with a higher frequency of subcarinal lymph node metastases (P < 0.05). Using the Kaplan–Meier method, recurrence and metastasis were shown to be more likely with solitary subcarinal lymph node metastasis than with solitary paraoesophageal lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Tumour location, depth of invasion, pathological type, degree of differentiation and other factors are closely associated with subcarinal lymph node metastasis. Recurrence and metastasis after oesophageal dissection are more likely with subcarinal lymph node metastasis.

Ma, Haibo; Li, Yin; Ding, Zhidan; Liu, Xianben; Xu, Jinliang; Qin, Jianjun

2013-01-01

191

Sentinel lymph node mapping in breast cancer: a critical reappraisal of the internal mammary chain issue.  

PubMed

Although, like the axilla, the internal mammary nodes (IMNs) are a first-echelon nodal drainage site in breast cancer, the importance of their treatment has long been debated. Seminal randomized trials have failed to demonstrate a survival benefit from surgical IMN dissection, and several retrospective studies have shown that IMNs are rarely the first site of recurrence. However, the recent widespread adoption of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has stimulated a critical reappraisal of such early results. Furthermore, the higher proportion of screening-detected cancers, improved imaging and techniques (i.e., lymphoscintigraphy for radioguided SLN biopsy) make it possible to visualize lymphatic drainage to the IMNs. The virtually systematic application of adjuvant systemic and/or loco-regional radiotherapy encourages re-examination of the significance of IMN metastases. Moreover, randomized trials testing the value of postmastectomy irradiation and a meta-analysis of 78 randomized trials have provided high levels of evidence that local-regional tumor control is associated with long-term survival improvements. This benefit was limited to trials that used systemic chemotherapy, which was not routinely administered in the earlier studies. However, the contribution from IMN treatment is unclear. Lymphoscintigraphic studies have shown that a significant proportion of breast cancers have primary drainage to the IMNs, including approximately 30% of medial tumors and 15% of lateral tumors. In the few studies where IMN biopsy was performed, 20% of sentinel IMNs were metastatic. The risk of IMN involvement is higher in patients with medial tumors and positive axillary nodes. IMN metastasis has prognostic significance, as recognized by its inclusion in the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging criteria, and seems to have similar prognostic importance as axillary nodal involvement. Although routine IMN evaluation might be indicated, it has not been routinely performed, perhaps because IMN drainage with lymphoscintigraphy is more difficult to demonstrate than axillary drainage. This difference is due to technical reasons and not the absence of lymphatics to the IMN. Recent anatomical studies have confirmed a model of breast lymphatic drainage that comprises superficial, deep and perforating systems. The superficial system drains to the axilla, usually to a lymph node posterior to the pectoralis minor muscle. The deep system drains to the axilla and also anastomoses with the perforating system which drains to the IMNs. The perforating system does not connect with the superficial system. The prevalence of IMN drainage tends to reflect the method of lymphoscintigraphy, where peritumoral (deep lymphatic system) injections have a much higher likelihood of IMN drainage than subareolar or subdermal (superficial lymphatic system) injections. The fused SPECT/CT images represent a further technical solution to increase the identification of IMNs and consequently can significantly reduce the false negative rate of sentinel lymph node biopsy. Before mature results from current and future randomized trials assessing the benefit of IMN irradiation become available, lymphoscintigraphy and IMNs biopsy may be used to guide decisions regarding systemic and local-regional treatment. However, even in patients with visualized primary IMN drainage, the potential benefit of treatment should be balanced against the risk of added morbidity. PMID:24835288

Manca, G; Volterrani, D; Mazzarri, S; Duce, V; Svirydenka, A; Giuliano, A; Mariani, G

2014-06-01

192

Cat scratch disease and lymph node tuberculosis in a colon patient with cancer.  

PubMed

A 71-year-old man operated for a sigmoid tumour remained in the surveillance after adjuvant chemotherapy. After 3 years, a left axillary lymph node was visible on CT scan. The biopsy revealed a necrotising and abscessed granulomatous lymphadenitis, suggestive of cat scratch disease. The patient confirmed having been scratched by a cat and the serology for Bartonella henselae was IgM+/IgG-. Direct and culture examinations for tuberculosis were negative. The patient was treated for cat scratch disease. One year later, the CT scan showed increased left axillary lymph nodes and a left pleural effusion. Direct and cultural examinations to exclude tuberculosis were again negative. Interferon-? release assay testing for tuberculosis was undetermined and then positive. Lymph node and pleural tuberculosis were diagnosed and treated with a good radiological response. This article has provides evidence of the importance of continued search for the right diagnosis and that two diagnoses can happen in the same patient. PMID:24334464

Matias, M; Marques, T; Ferreira, M A; Ribeiro, L

2013-01-01

193

Recurrent ovarian cancer presenting in the right supraclavicular lymph node with isolated metastasis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction The majority of ovarian cancer recurrences are in the abdomen. However, some cases relapse as isolated lymph node metastases, mostly in pelvic or para-aortic nodes. Peripheral isolated lymph node metastasis is rare. Case presentation A 69-year-old Japanese woman had recurrent ovarian cancer presenting with isolated right supraclavicular lymph node metastasis. After surgical resection and combination chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel, her right supraclavicular lymph node completely regressed. Conclusions Peripheral isolated lymph nodes, including right supraclavicular lymph node, can recur without a macroscopic abdominal lesion. Clinicians should carefully examine peripheral lymph nodes for recurrence.

2012-01-01

194

Internal mammary node status: A major prognosticator in axillary node-negative breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The internal mammary lymph nodes (IMN) have received little attention in recent years, yet are a well-documented site of metastasis and a major prognostic factor in early-stage breast cancer.\\u000aMethods\\/Results: Ten-year follow-up of the final 195 patients treated by extended radical mastectomy (ERM) in this practice (selected largely on the basis of medial tumor location, and comprising 15% of

Hiram S. Cody III; Jerome A. Urban

1995-01-01

195

Omics-based profiling of carcinoma of the breast and matched regional lymph node metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Axillary lymph node (ALN) status is currently used as an important clinical indicator of breast cancer prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying lymph node metastasis are poorly understood and the relationship between ALN metastasis and the primary tumor remains unclear. In an effort to reveal structural changes in the genome and related protein responses that may drive regional metastatic progression

Jian Li; Pavel Gromov; Irina Gromova; José M. Moreira; Vera Timmermans-Wielenga; Fritz Rank; Kai Wang; Shengting Li; Heng Li; Carsten Wiuf; Huanming Yang; Xiuqing Zhang; Lars Bolund; Julio E. Celis

2008-01-01

196

Seven synchronous early gastric cancer with 28 lymph nodes metastasis  

PubMed Central

An 85 year male patient complaining epigastric discomfort was admitted. From the esophagogastroduodenoscopy, three early gastric cancer (EGCa) lesions had been identified and these were diagnosed as adenocarcinoma with poorly differentiated cell type. The patient underwent operation. From the post-operative mapping, however, additional 4 EGCa lesions were found, and the patient was diagnosed with 7 synchronous EGCa. Out of the 7 EGCa lesions, 6 had shown invasion only to the mucosal layer and one had shown invasion into the 1/3 layer of submucosa. In spite of such superficial invasions, 28 of 48 lymph nodes had been identified as metastases. The multiple lesions of EGCa do not increase the risk of lymph node metastasis, but if their differentiations are poor or if they have lympho-vascular invasion, multiple lymph node metastases could incur even if the depth of invasion is limited to the mucosal layer or the upper portion of the submucosal layer.

Seong, Hyeonjin; Kim, Jin Il; Lee, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Hyun Jin; Cho, Hyung Joon; Kim, Hye Kang; Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Wook; Kim, Tae-Jung

2013-01-01

197

Axillary node dissection in patients with breast cancer diagnosed through the Ontario Breast Screening Program: a need for minimally invasive techniques  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the role of axillary node dissection by studying patient and tumour characteristics of invasive breast cancer through the Ontario Breast Screening Program (OBSP). Design A retrospective evaluation. Setting The London, Ont., branch of the OBSP. Patients Three groups of women seen were studied: 50 women with screen-detected breast cancers, which were palpable and detected by the nurse-examiner, 62 women with occult screen-detected breast cancers and 353 age-matched women with invasive breast cancer from the LRCC prospective database, who served as controls. Main outcome measure The proportion of involved axillary nodes within the 3 groups based on patient and tumour characteristics. Results Twenty-five (22.3%) of the 112 women had screen-detected tumours less than 1 cm in dimension, but only 1 had an involved axillary node. Twelve (19%) of the 62 women with occult screen-detected tumours had involved lymph nodes compared with 17 (34%) of the 50 women with palpable screen-detected cancers (NS). In the control group tumour dimension less than 1 cm versus 1 cm or larger had a marked effect on the probability of axillary node involvement (12.5% v. 40.7%, p = 0.001). In the palpable screen-detected group 3 times as many women with outer quadrant or central lesions had involved nodes as those with inner quadrant lesions (38% v. 12%) and for those with a family history of breast cancer almost twice as many had involved axillary nodes. In occult screen-detected patients there was more nodal involvement in patients aged 60 years or less than in those older than 60 years (35% v. 10%, p = 0.042); only 4 of 41 patients older than 60 years had involved nodes at surgery. A significant difference in nodal involvement was found with respect to high or intermediate grade versus low grade lesions in the occult group (44% v. 12%, p = 0.033). In the control group, tumour grade (intermediate and high [45.3%] v. low [20.0%]) and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (current or recent use [56.5%] v. no use [34.5%]) were significant findings (p < 0.001 and p = 0.005 respectively). Conclusions Women older than 60 years with tumours smaller than 1 cm had a low probability of nodal positivity (0% to 8.7%), but there is insufficient information in this group to give a 95% or better prediction of nodal status at the time of surgery. Studies of minimally invasive techniques such as sentinel node biopsy are needed in this group to minimize surgical morbidity in these women who, as a result of early diagnosis, have an excellent long-term outlook.

Singhal, Hemant; O'Malley, Frances P.; Tweedie, Edward; Stitt, Lawrence; Tonkin, Katia S.

1997-01-01

198

Molecular analysis of sentinel lymph nodes and search for molecular signatures of the metastatic potential of breast cancer.  

PubMed

Molecular assays are a new and invaluable tool in the assessment of axillary lymph node status and metastatic potential of breast cancer. Many protocols for assessing the sentinel lymph node (SLN) status have been developed based on cytology and/or histology, showing that the rate of detection of metastasis increases with the number of histologic sections examined and with use of immunohistochemical staining in addition to conventional Hematoxylin & Eosin staining. However, full standardization of protocols for this procedure has not been achieved. Further attempts to increase sensitivity and specificity of sentinel node analysis include molecular biology-based techniques such as the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and, more recently, one step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA). The latter technique, that has sensitivity close to 100% and extremely high specificity along with good reproducibility, allows analysis of the SLN in full with an intraoperative procedure in approximately 30 minutes. This highly standardized method permits to compare results between groups and predicts the probability of involvement of the remaining axillary lymph nodes based on the total tumor load of the SLN(s). Results of multicenter clinical trials suggest that OSNA allows a better personalization of patients' care based on the results of SLN analysis, because it offers criteria to select patient with metastatic SLN who will not receive additional benefit from axillary clearance. Due to the current controversy on the best treatment of the axilla after a positive SLN, the SLN copy number of CK19 mRNA can have a high impact on therapeutic decisions in this group of patients. Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous group of diseases, characterized by remarkable differences in the histopathological features, response to treatment and clinical outcome. Most of the clinical and translational research efforts during the last decades aimed at identifying markers that would allow to predict the metastatic potential of early breast cancer, and hence to assess accurately its prognosis and to inform the choice of adjuvant systemic treatments. It is now clear that neoplastic transformation, tumor progression and response to treatment are driven and accompanied by the deregulated expression of hundred or thousand genes, whose status cannot be assessed by the currently established histopathological and immunohistochemical approach. The new molecular assays have elicited a great deal of expectations, and for the most part they have been enthusiastically welcomed as potentially offering new chances for a better and more personalized care of the patients. Many, however, are still reluctant to consider these assays ready for use in the clinical practice, and keep waiting for a confirmatory evidence of their utility when the results of ongoing clinical trials will be mature. PMID:24835292

Hoon, D S; Bernet, L; Cano, R; Viale, G

2014-06-01

199

Clinical application of carbon nanoparticle lymph node tracer in the VI region lymph node dissection of differentiated thyroid cancer.  

PubMed

The application and clinical significance of carbon nanoparticle lymph tracer in the VI region (central region) lymph node dissection of differentiated thyroid cancer was investigated. Eighty patients with differentiated thyroid cancer were equally divided into the carbon nanoparticle-marked group (ipsilateral thyroid injection) and the control group (no injection). All patients underwent standard primary tumor treatment and VI lymph node dissection. The number of lymph nodes retrieved in the carbon nanoparticle group (mean = 6.725 pieces, range = 1-13) was significantly higher than those retrieved in the control group (mean = 3.6, range = 1-7; P < 0.05). The black staining lymph node rate was 69.89%. A significantly higher number of lymph nodes less than 2 mm were detected in the carbon nanoparticle group (P = 0.0023). The transfer rates and lymph node metastasis rates did not differ significantly between the two groups. The black-staining lymph node metastasis rate was 20.74% (39/188) and the non-staining lymph node metastasis rate was 22.22% (18/81), which were not significantly different (P = 0.7856). No parathyroid accidental resection was observed in the carbon nanoparticle group, whereas three cases occurred in the control group (P = 0.2405). In conclusion, carbon nanoparticles show good lymphatic tracer effects, easy identification, increased number of lymph nodes retrieved, more accurate reflection of the VI region lymph node status, and increased accuracy of the clinical stage. These results should help develop reasonable surgery programs and follow-up comprehensive treatments, and can help to reduce the risk of accident parathyroid resection. PMID:24841788

Sun, S P; Zhang, Y; Cui, Z Q; Chen, Q; Zhang, W; Zhou, C X; Xie, P P; Liu, B G

2014-01-01

200

Predicting lymph node status in early gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate prediction of lymph node (LN) status is of crucial importance for appropriate treatment planning in patients with\\u000a early gastric cancer (EGC). However, there is no definitive consensus yet on which patient and\\/or tumor characteristics are\\u000a associated with LN metastasis. A systematic search for studies investigating the relationship between patient and\\/or tumor\\u000a characteristics and LN metastasis in EGC was performed

Robert Michael Kwee; Thomas Christian Kwee

2008-01-01

201

Effects of local phenytoin on seroma formation after mastectomy and Axillary lymph node dissection: an experimental study on mice  

PubMed Central

Background Seroma formation is the most common complication after breast cancer surgery. It is an important complication since it prolongs therapy duration, increases cost, and negatively affects patient psychology. Currently, there is no widely accepted method that prevents seroma formation. We tried to investigate impact of local phenytoin application on seroma formation following an experimental mastectomy model created in rats. Methods Two groups including eight rats in each were randomized. Saline injection was applied in the first group, whereas 1% phenytoin was locally used in the second group. Ten days after the surgery, seroma formation and wound-healing processes were evaluated using histopathological and biochemical examinations. Results Phenytoin significantly decreased seroma formation. Fibrosis was significantly increased and angiogenesis was significantly reduced in the phenytoin group (P?

2012-01-01

202

Randomized Multicenter Trial of Sentinel Node Biopsy Versus Standard Axillary Treatment in Operable Breast Cancer: The ALMANAC Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy in women with operable breast cancer is routinely used in some countries for staging the axilla despite limited data from randomized trials on morbidity and mortality outcomes. We conducted a multi- center randomized trial to compare quality-of-life outcomes between patients with clinically node-negative invasive breast cancer who received sentinel lymph node biopsy and patients who

Robert E. Mansel; Amit Goyal; Robert G. Newcombe; J. Michael Dixon; Constantinos Yiangou; Kieran Horgan; Nigel Bundred; Ian Monypenny; David England; Mark Sibbering; Tholkifl I. Abdullah; Lester Barr; Dudley H. Sinnett; Anne Fleissig; Dayalan Clarke; Peter J. Ell

2006-01-01

203

Lymphatic mapping of the breast: locating the sentinel lymph nodes.  

PubMed

When the concept of sentinel lymph node biopsy was described in patients with melanoma, researchers quickly started to use lymphatic mapping techniques in breast cancer patients in an attempt to locate the sentinel node in the axilla. We have been performing mammary lymphoscintigraphy in this role for 6 years and have now studied 159 patients. Like others, we have found that most breast cancers (93%) have lymphatic drainage that includes the axilla, and we have found an average of 1.4 axillary sentinel nodes in these patients. Surgical biopsy of the axillary sentinel nodes accurately staged the node field in 96% of patients. We have also found, however, that the pattern of lymphatic drainage from the cancer site is unpredictable; and in 49% of patients lymphatic drainage occurred across the center line of the breast to axillary or internal mammary sentinel nodes. In more than half of our patients (56%) lymphatic drainage occurred to lymph nodes outside the axilla including the internal mammary (45%), supraclavicular (13%), and interpectoral and intramammary interval nodes (12%). These nodes are also sentinel nodes, and their presence indicates that a sentinel node biopsy procedure that stages only the status of the axillary lymph nodes has the potential to understage about half the patients with breast cancer. High quality lymphoscintigraphy allows accurate mapping of peritumoral lymphatic drainage in most patients with breast cancer. It is possible that in the future accurate nodal staging in each individual will involve biopsy of all sentinel lymph nodes, regardless of their location. PMID:11376417

Uren, R F; Howman-Giles, R; Renwick, S B; Gillett, D

2001-06-01

204

Predicting Likelihood of Having Four or More Positive Nodes in Patient With Sentinel Lymph Node-Positive Breast Cancer: A Nomogram Validation Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Katz suggested a nomogram for predicting having four or more positive nodes in sentinel lymph node (SLN)-positive breast cancer patients. The findings from this formula might influence adjuvant radiotherapy decisions. Our goal was to validate the accuracy of the Katz nomogram. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 309 patients with breast cancer who had undergone completion axillary lymph node dissection. The factors associated with the likelihood of having four or more positive axillary nodes were evaluated in patients with one to three positive SLNs. The nomogram developed by Katz was applied to our data set. The area under the curve of the corresponding receiver operating characteristics curve was calculated for the nomogram. Results: Of the 309 patients, 80 (25.9%) had four or more positive axillary lymph nodes. On multivariate analysis, the number of positive SLNs (p < .0001), overall metastasis size (p = .019), primary tumor size (p = .0001), and extracapsular extension (p = .01) were significant factors predicting for four or more positive nodes. For patients with <5% probability, 90.3% had fewer than four positive nodes and 9.7% had four or more positive nodes. The negative predictive value was 91.7%, and sensitivity was 80%. The nomogram was accurate and discriminating (area under the curve, .801). Conclusion: The probability of four or more involved nodes is significantly greater in patients who have an increased number of positive SLNs, increased overall metastasis size, increased tumor size, and extracapsular extension. The Katz nomogram was validated in our patients. This nomogram will be helpful to clinicians making adjuvant treatment recommendations to their patients.

Unal, Bulent; Gur, Akif Serhat [Department of Surgical Oncology, Magee-Womens Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Beriwal, Sushil [Department of Radiation Oncology, Magee-Womens Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tang Gong [Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Johnson, Ronald; Ahrendt, Gretchen; Bonaventura, Marguerite [Department of Surgical Oncology, Magee-Womens Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Soran, Atilla, E-mail: asoran@magee.ed [Department of Surgical Oncology, Magee-Womens Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

2009-11-15

205

Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery for early stage gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

We attempted to evaluate the history of sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS), technical aspects, tracers, and clinical applications of SNNS using Infrared Ray Electronic Endoscopes (IREE) combined with Indocyanine Green (ICG). The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as a first lymph node (LN) which receives cancer cells from a primary tumor. Reports on clinical application of SNNS for gastric cancers started to appear since early 2000s. Two prospective multicenter trials of SNNS for gastric cancer have also been accomplished in Japan. Kitagawa et al reported that the endoscopic dual (dye and radioisotope) tracer method for SN biopsy was confirmed acceptable and effective when applied to the early-stage gastric cancer (EGC). We have previously reported the usefulness of SNNS in gastrointestinal cancer using ICG as a tracer, combined with IREE (Olympus Optical, Tokyo, Japan) to detect SLN. LN metastasis rate of EGC is low. Hence, clinical application of SNNS for EGC might lead us to avoid unnecessary LN dissection, which could preserve the patient’s quality of life after operation. The most ideal method of SNNS should allow secure and accurate detection of SLN, and real time observation of lymphatic flow during operation.

Mitsumori, Norio; Nimura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Naoto; Kawamura, Masahiko; Aoki, Hiroaki; Shida, Atsuo; Omura, Nobuo; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

2014-01-01

206

Predictors of Lymphedema Following Breast Cancer Surgery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Surgery for breast cancer includes removal of the breast tumor along with the axillary lymph nodes. The status of these nodes helps clinicians determine prognosis and guides treatment decisions. Unfortunately, a relatively common side effect following axi...

K. K. Swenson

2004-01-01

207

Predictors of Lymphedema Following Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Surgery for breast cancer includes removal of the breast tumor along with the axillary lymph nodes. The status of these nodes helps clinicians determine the patient's prognosis and guides treatment decisions. Unfortunately, a relatively common side effect...

K. K. Swenson

2005-01-01

208

Predictors of Lymphedema Following Breast Cancer Surgery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Surgery for breast cancer includes removal of the breast tumor along with axillarylymph nodes. Unfortunately, a relatively common side effect following axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is upper-extremity lymphedema. The purpose of this study is to id...

K. K. Swenson

2006-01-01

209

Predictors of recurrence in breast cancer subtypes with negative lymph node in a Chinese population  

PubMed Central

To establish a series of objective parameters to predict the risk of relapse from axillary lymph node-negative (ANN) breast cancer, and evaluate the patterns of recurrence according to molecular subtypes, we collected information on 2126 consecutive breast cancer patients operated between 2002 and 2006. In this case-control study, 212 patients experiencing recurrence or breast cancer related death were defined as ‘poor group’. Another 212 patients were selected from the remaining cases with stratified sampling method to comprise the ‘good group’. Significant differences were found in vascular invasion, grade and molecular subtype between the two groups. Expression of ER and PR in the ‘poor group’ was lower (P < 0.05). However, positive rates of Ki67, p53 and VEGF in the ‘poor group’ were higher (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that molecular subtype, expression of VEGF, tumor grade, and vascular invasion were closely correlated with bad outcome. Analysis of the ‘poor group’ demonstrated that ‘HER2 positive’ and ‘triple negative’ subtypes more commonly suffered from distant metastases and death. No metastasis was found in patients with pure invasive papillary carcinoma, invasive cribriform carcinoma or adenoid cystic carcinoma, whereas the diagnoses of invasive micropapillary carcinoma, invasive apocrine carcinoma, invasive papillary carcinoma mixed with invasive ductal carcinoma, or metaplastic carcinoma were correlated with distant metastasis and death. In conclusion, molecular subtype and expression of VEGF are useful markers for predicting prognosis of ANN breast cancer patients. ‘Luminal A-like’ subtype has better outcome than others. Moreover, molecular subtypes have different recurrence patterns.

Liu, Xia; Guan, Yong; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Shan; Liu, Junjun; Wang, Li; Niu, Yun

2014-01-01

210

Lymph Node Assessment in Endometrial Cancer: Towards Personalized Medicine  

PubMed Central

Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common malignancy of the female reproductive tract and is increasing in incidence. Lymphovascular invasion and lymph node (LN) status are strong predictive factors of recurrence. Therefore, the determination of the nodal status of patients is mandatory to optimally tailor adjuvant therapies and reduce local and distant recurrences. Imaging modalities do not yet allow accurate lymph node staging; thus pelvic and aortic lymphadenectomies remain standard staging procedures. The clinical data accumulated recently allow us to define low- and high-risk patients based on pre- or peroperative findings that will allow the clinician to stratify the patients for their need of lymphadenectomies. More recently, several groups have been introducing sentinel node mapping with promising results as an alternative to complete lymphadenectomy. Finally, the use of peroperative algorithm for risk determination could improve patient's staging with a reduction of lymphadenectomy-related morbidity.

Vidal, Fabien; Rafii, Arash

2013-01-01

211

Prevention of lymphorrhea by means of fibrin glue after axillary lymphadenectomy in breast cancer: prospective randomized trial.  

PubMed

A prospective randomized trial was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of fibrin glue in preventing lymphorrhea after axillary lymphadenectomy in breast cancer. One hundred and eight breast cancer patients, operated on by two senior surgeons, were randomized into two groups: group 1 (n = 58) without fibrin glue and group 2 (n = 50) with 2 ml of fibrin glue applied to the axillary dissection area at the end of the lymphadenectomy procedure. Early postoperative morbidity was 2/58 and 0/50 in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Mean daily postoperative drainage was significantly greater in group 1. The mean cumulative drainage quantity 6 days after the operation was 407.8 ml and 214.4 ml in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p = 0.001). The mean postoperative hospital stay was 10.1 days and 8.0 days in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p = 0.006). One delayed seroma was observed in each group. Fibrin glue seems to reduce daily postoperative drainage and hospital stay, but did not affect delayed seroma formation after axillary lymphadenectomy for breast cancer. PMID:9838238

Gilly, F N; François, Y; Sayag-Beaujard, A C; Glehen, O; Brachet, A; Vignal, J

1998-01-01

212

Four Cases of Chylous Fistula after Breast Cancer Resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chylous fistulas in cases treated surgically for breast cancer only, are rare. We encountered four chylous fistula cases after breast cancer operations out of a total of 851 cases, all of which involved the left breast. Chylous fistulas were confirmed by axillary white fluid and were unrelated to obesity, surgical method or the area of axillary lymph node dissection. All

Eiji Nakajima; Hiroji Iwata; Takushi Iwase; Hiroshi Murai; Mituhiro Mizutani; Shigeto Miura; Harubumi Kato

2004-01-01

213

Lymph node harvest in colon and rectal cancer: Current considerations  

PubMed Central

The prognostic significance of identifying lymph node (LN) metastases following surgical resection for colon and rectal cancer is well recognized and is reflected in accurate staging of the disease. An established body of evidence exists, demonstrating an association between a higher total LN count and improved survival, particularly for node negative colon cancer. In node positive disease, however, the lymph node ratios may represent a better prognostic indicator, although the impact of this on clinical treatment has yet to be universally established. By extension, strategies to increase surgical node harvest and/or laboratory methods to increase LN yield seem logical and might improve cancer staging. However, debate prevails as to whether or not these extrapolations are clinically relevant, particularly when very high LN counts are sought. Current guidelines recommend a minimum of 12 nodes harvested as the standard of care, yet the evidence for such is questionable as it is unclear whether an increasing the LN count results in improved survival. Findings from modern treatments, including down-staging in rectal cancer using pre-operative chemoradiotherapy, paradoxically suggest that lower LN count, or indeed complete absence of LNs, are associated with improved survival; implying that using a specific number of LNs harvested as a measure of surgical quality is not always appropriate. The pursuit of a sufficient LN harvest represents good clinical practice; however, recent evidence shows that the exhaustive searching for very high LN yields may be unnecessary and has little influence on modern approaches to treatment.

McDonald, James R; Renehan, Andrew G; O'Dwyer, Sarah T; Haboubi, Najib Y

2012-01-01

214

Multifocality and multicentricity are not contraindications for sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer surgery  

PubMed Central

Background After the availability of the results of validation studies, the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has replaced routine axillary dissection (AD) as the new standard of care in early unifocal breast cancers. Multifocal (MF) and multicentric (MC) tumors have been considered a contraindication for this technique due to the possible incidence of a higher false-negative rate. This prospective study evaluates the lymphatic drainage from different tumoral foci of the breast and assesses the accuracy of SLNB in MF-MC breast cancer. Patients and methods Patients with preoperative diagnosis of MF or MC infiltrating and clinically node-negative (cN0) breast carcinoma were enrolled in this study. Two consecutive groups of patients underwent SLN mapping using a different site of injection of the radioisotope tracer: a) "2ID" Group received two intradermal (ID) injections over the site of the two dominant neoplastic nodules. A lymphoscintigraphic study was performed after each injection to evaluate the route of lymphatic spreading from different sites of the breast. b) "A" Group had periareolar (A) injection followed by a conventional lymphoscintigraphy. At surgery, both radioguided SLNB (with frozen section exam) and subsequent AD were planned, regardless the SLN status. Results A total 31 patients with MF (n = 12) or MC (n = 19) invasive, cN0 cancer of the breast fulfil the selection criteria. In 2 ID Group (n = 15) the lymphoscintigraphic study showed the lymphatic pathways from two different sites of the breast which converged into one major lymphatic trunk affering to the same SLN(s) in 14 (93.3%) cases. In one (6.7%) MC cancer two different pathways were found, each of them affering to a different SLN. In A Group (n = 16) lymphoscintigraphy showed one (93.7%) or two (6.3%) lymphatic channels, each connecting areola with one or more SLN(s). Identification rate of SLN was 100% in both Groups. Accuracy of frozen section exam on SLN was 96.8% (1 case of micrometastasis was missed). SLN was positive in 13 (41.9%) of 31 patients, including 4 cases (30.7%) of micrometastasis. In 7 of 13 (53.8%) patients the SLN was the only site of axillary metastasis. SLNB accuracy was 96.8% (30 of 31), sensitivity 92.8 (13 of 14), and false-negative rate 7.1% (1 of 14). Since the case of skip metastasis was identified by the surgeon intraoperatively, it would have been no impact in the clinical practice. Conclusion Our lymphoscintigraphic study shows that axillary SLN represents the whole breast regardless of tumor location within the parenchyma. The high accuracy of SLNB in MF and MC breast cancer demonstrates, according with the results of other series published in the literature, that both MF and MC tumors do not represent a contraindication for SLNB anymore.

Ferrari, Alberta; Dionigi, Paolo; Rovera, Francesca; Boni, Luigi; Limonta, Giorgio; Garancini, Silvana; De Palma, Diego; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Vanoli, Cristiana; Diurni, Mario; Carcano, Giulio; Dionigi, Renzo

2006-01-01

215

Lymph node sampling in lung cancer: how should it be done?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Systematic lymph node dissection in radical operation for lung cancer is recognized as an operative procedure which is expected to improve local control. We investigate the most effective method of lymph node dissection or sampling. Methods: A retrospectrive study was carried out on 1815 patients who underwent systematic lymph node dissection and complete resection. The lymphatic route of metastatis

Tsuguo Naruke; Ryosuke Tsuchiya; Haruhiko Kondo; Haruhiko Nakayama; Hisao Asamura

1999-01-01

216

Clinical trial of combined radio- and fluorescence-guided sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Combining radioactive colloids and a near-infrared (NIR) fluorophore permit preoperative planning and intraoperative localization of deeply located sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) with direct optical guidance by a single lymphatic tracer. The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate and optimize a hybrid NIR fluorescence and radioactive tracer for SLN detection in breast cancer patients. Method Patients with breast cancer undergoing SLN biopsy were enrolled. The day before surgery, indocyanine green (ICG)-99mTc-Nanocolloid was injected periareolarly and a lymphoscintigram was acquired. Directly before surgery, blue dye was injected. Intraoperative SLN localization was performed by a gamma probe and the Mini-FLARETM NIR fluorescence imaging system. Patients were divided into two dose groups, with one group receiving twice the particle density of ICG and nanocolloid, but the same dose of radioactive 99mTechnetium. Results Thirty-two patients were enrolled in the trial. At least one SLN was identified pre- and intraoperatively. All 48 axillary SLNs could be detected by gamma tracing and NIR fluorescence imaging, but only 42 of them stained blue. NIR fluorescence permitted detection of lymphatic vessels draining to the SLN up to 29 hours after injection. Increasing the particle density by two-fold did not yield a difference in fluorescence intensity, median 255 (range 98 – 542) vs. median 284 (90 – 921; P = 0.590), or signal- to- background ratio, median 5.4 (range 3.0 – 15.4) vs. median 4.9 (3.5 – 16.3; P = 1.000), of the SLN. Conclusion The hybrid NIR fluorescence and radioactive tracer ICG-99mTc-Nanocolloid permitted accurate pre- and intraoperative detection of the SLNs in patients with breast cancer.

Schaafsma, Boudewijn E.; Verbeek, Floris P.R.; Rietbergen, Daphne D.D.; van der Hiel, Bernies; van der Vorst, Joost R.; Liefers, Gerrit-Jan; Frangioni, John V.; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; van Leeuwen, Fijs W.B.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.

2013-01-01

217

Clinical course and treatment results of breast cancer patients with ten or more positive axillary nodes.  

PubMed

Two-hundred and fifty-nine women with operable breast cancer, having more than 10 involved nodes without a distant metastasis, were treated with radical, modified radical or partial mastectomy with complete axillary dissection. Survival at 5 years was 63% and at 7 years 54%. Fifty-six per cent and 52% were disease free 5 and 7 years after initial therapy. Postmenopausal women had an overall survival rate of 64% and disease free survival rate of 61% while premenopausal women had an overall survival of 58% and disease free survival of 52%. Survival and disease free survival rate for those with 10-20 positive nodes were 65% and 69% respectively, while for those with more than 20 positive nodes the rates were 49% and 52% respectively; a statistically better survival in the 2nd group. Although the observational time of patients having adjuvant CEF is short, a better survival rate and disease free survival rate is possible in women treated with CEF. PMID:14731579

Keramopoullos, A; Louvrou, N; Iatrakis, G; Ampela, K; Michalas, S

2000-02-01

218

Radical lymph node dissection for cancer of the thoracic esophagus.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The authors documented the localization and frequency of lymphatic spread in squamous cell carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus and evaluated the influence of radical systematic lymph node dissection on patient survival. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: From accumulated surgical experience, it was suggested that some of the patients with lymph nodal involvement from cancer could be cured by its clearance. However, it is only recently that cancer of the esophagus has been evaluated in terms of analyzing lymphatic spread and results of lymphadenectomy. METHODS: Among 1298 patients admitted to the Toranomon Hospital between 1973 and 1993, 913 (70.3%) had resections, including curative and palliative procedures. For this study, 717 patients with TNM RO (resection with no residual tumor at operation in TNM classification) were analyzed. Survival was compared between groups of patients with less extensive thoracoabdominal (two-field) dissections and extensive collothoracoabdominal (three-field) dissections. RESULTS: Comparative study revealed that 5-year survival rate for TNM RO patients after free-field dissection (55.0%) was significantly better (log rank test, p = 0.0013) than the rate after two-field dissection (38.3%). The results were particularly significant in subgroups with stage III and IV (because of nodal factor). Overall 5-year survival rate after all resections was 42.4%. CONCLUSIONS: The role of radical lymph node dissection in cancer of the thoracic esophagus evaluated. Long-term survival was compared between two groups with two- and three-field dissection. It was concluded that survival rate was significantly better in patients with extensive three-field dissection.

Akiyama, H; Tsurumaru, M; Udagawa, H; Kajiyama, Y

1994-01-01

219

Risk Factors of Lymph Edema in Breast Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Background. Lymphedema secondary to breast cancer treatment is a common and serious problem for disease survivors. The objective of the current study was to identify the risk factors of secondary lymphedema after breast carcinoma treatment. Materials & Methods. The breast cancer patients who were followed up in three centers in Tehran and Mashhad in 2010 were recruited in the study. The circumference measurement was used for defining lymphedema. Results. Among 410 breast cancer patients, 123 cases (30%) developed lymphedema. Variables such as low educational level, body mass index (BMI), higher stage of disease, number of involved lymph nodes, comorbid diseases, trauma, infection, and the time after surgery showed significant correlation with the development of lymphedema. In logistic regression analysis, increase of 1?kg/m2 in BMI (OR?=?1.09; 95%??CI 1.05–1.15), each number increase in lymph node involvement (OR?=?1.15; 95%??CI 1.08–1.21) and the increase of every 1 month after surgery (OR?=?1.01; 95%??CI 1.01–1.02) significantly increased the risk of lymphedema. Conclusion. The results of this study demonstrated that preserving a fitted BMI, emphasis on self-care, and educating preventive activities may have important roles in decreasing the lymphedema incidence and improving the patients' quality of life.

Shahpar, Haghighat; Atieh, Akbari; Maryam, Ansari; Fatemeh, Homaei Shandiz; Massoome, Najafi; Mandana, Ebrahimi; Masud, Yunesian; Hamid Reza, Mirzaei; Mohammad Esmaeil, Akbari

2013-01-01

220

Thoracoscopic mediastinal lymph node dissection for lung cancer.  

PubMed

In lung cancer, mediastinum lymphatic spread occurs. We review our technique and experience of thoracoscopic mediastinal lymphnode dissection (MLND). Between 1997 and 2011, 992 patients with primary lung cancer underwent thoracoscopic major pulmonary resection with MLND. Initially we used a combination of electrocautery and clips to divide blood vessels and lymphatic channels; our current technique relies on a vessel sealing system (VSS) which is expeditious and leads to less lymphorrhea. Furthermore, dissection of station 7 nodes is performed after each main bronchus or right intermediate bronchus is taped with a 0 silk suture, which is then brought out of the thorax through the access incision for antero-lateral retraction of the tracheal carina. We dissect between 3 and 4 N2 lymph node stations and a total of approximately 20 N2 lymph nodes. Postoperative complications related to MLND occurred in 35 of 992 patients (3.5%), 15 (1.5%) for recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, 3 (0.3%) for bilateral vagal injury, 14 (1.4%) for chylothorax and 3 (0.3%) for airway injury. However, none were lethal. Thoracoscopic mediastinal dissection is safe and feasible in treating lung cancer. We believe our technique and VSS are very useful for thoracoscopic MLND. PMID:22643666

Watanabe, Atsushi; Nakazawa, Jyunnji; Miyajima, Masahiro; Harada, Ryo; Nakashima, Shinji; Mawatari, Tohru; Higami, Tetsuya

2012-01-01

221

Handheld array-based photoacoustic probe for guiding needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes.  

PubMed

By modifying a clinical ultrasound array system, we develop a novel handheld photoacoustic probe for image-guided needle biopsy. The integration of optical fiber bundles for pulsed laser light delivery enables photoacoustic image-guided insertion of a needle into rat axillary lymph nodes with accumulated indocyanine green (ICG). Strong photoacoustic contrast of the needle is achieved. After subcutaneous injection of the dye in the left forepaw, sentinel lymph nodes are easily detected, in vivo and in real time, beneath 2-cm-thick chicken breast overlaying the axillary region. ICG uptake in axillary lymph nodes is confirmed with fluorescence imaging both in vivo and ex vivo. These results demonstrate the clinical potential of this handheld photoacoustic system for facile identification and needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes for cancer staging and metastasis detection in humans. PMID:20799812

Kim, Chulhong; Erpelding, Todd N; Maslov, Konstantin; Jankovic, Ladislav; Akers, Walter J; Song, Liang; Achilefu, Samuel; Margenthaler, Julie A; Pashley, Michael D; Wang, Lihong V

2010-01-01

222

Characterization of lymph node metastasis and its clinical significance in the surgical treatment of gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to characterize lymph node metastasis and determine its clinical significance in the surgical treatment of gastric cancer. The medical charts of 920 gastric cancer patients who underwent radical surgical resection between March, 2010 and March, 2013, were retrospectively reviewed and statistically analyzed. Lymphatic metastasis was observed in 69.6% of the patients (640/920). The frequency of lymph node metastasis in patients with early-stage gastric cancer was 21.4% (18/84). Lymph node metastasis was observed in all the patients with stage IIIC-IV gastric cancer. The incidence of lymph node metastasis was higher among patients with tumors >7 cm in size. The most frequently affected lymph nodes in patients with proximal, central and distal gastric cancer were station no. 1 (34.2%), no. 3 (33.8%) and no. 6 (34.3%) lymph nodes, respectively. The frequency of lymph node metastasis in patients with Borrmann type IV cancer was significantly higher compared to that in patients with other Borrmann type cancers. Our study further demonstrated that lymphatic metastasis is closely correlated with TNM stage, location, depth of invasion and size of gastric tumors. Therefore, we recommend that a sufficient number of lymph nodes be examined from each patient to determine the extent of lymph node dissection based on Borrmann type, location, size, depth of invasion and histology of the cancer.

ZUO, CHAO-HUI; XIE, HAILONG; LIU, JINGSHI; QIU, XIAO-XIN; LIN, JIN-GUAN; HUA, XIAO; QIN, ANG

2014-01-01

223

Determination of Indication for Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Clinical Node-negative Breast Cancer Using Preoperative 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography\\/ Computed Tomography Fusion Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is indicated for axillary lymph node metastasis- negative cases (N0), but clarification of the indication may increase treatment efficiency. Fluorine-18-labeled 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) may have a high positive predictive value in diagnosis of axillary lymph node metastasis. Methods: Ninety-two breasts\\/axillae were analyzed retrospectively in 90 patients (median age 54.6-year old, median primary tumor

Naruto Taira; Shozo Ohsumi; Daisuke Takabatake; Fumikata Hara; Seiki Takashima; Kenjiro Aogi; Shigemitsu Takashima; Takeshi Inoue; Shigenori Sugata; Rieko Nishimura

224

Long-term follow-up of elderly patients with operable breast cancer treated with surgery without axillary dissection plus adjuvant tamoxifen.  

PubMed Central

Between 1982 and 1990, 321 elderly patients (range 70-92 years, median age 77) with operable breast cancer (T1 in 219, T2 in 77, T3 in one and T4b in 24 patients) and clinically uninvolved axillary nodes underwent surgery without axillary dissection and received adjuvant tamoxifen. All patients had surgery performed under local anaesthesia. Tamoxifen was given after surgery at the dose of 20 mg daily, indefinitely. With a median follow-up of 67 months (range 42-141), 17 patients developed local relapse, 14 ipsilateral axillary recurrence, five ipsilateral breast cancer, five contralateral breast cancer, 13 second primary and 23 developed distant metastases. The cumulative probability of developing a local, axillary and distant recurrence at 72 months was estimated to be 5.4%, 4.3% and 6.2%, respectively. Out of 244 patients who did not develop any relapse, 83 (25.8%) died from intercurrent disease. The 72 month relapse-free survival rate was 76%. This experience suggests that elderly patients with small tumours without clinical axillary involvement may be satisfactorily treated with conservative surgery and tamoxifen. The importance of axillary dissection is controversial owing to a high response rate to hormonal therapy and an increased death rate due to concomitant diseases.

Martelli, G.; DePalo, G.; Rossi, N.; Coradini, D.; Boracchi, P.; Galante, E.; Vetrella, G.

1995-01-01

225

Axillary dissection in breast-conserving surgery for stage i and ii breast cancer: a national cancer data base study of patterns of omission and implications for survival 1 1 No competing interests declared  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Breast conservation (partial mastectomy, axillary node dissection or sampling, and radiotherapy) is the current standard of care for eligible patients with Stages I and II breast cancer. Because axillary node dissection (AND) has a low yield, some have argued for its omission. The present study was undertaken to determine factors that correlated with omission of AND, and the impact

Kirby I Bland; Carol E. H Scott-Conner; Herman Menck; David P Winchester

1999-01-01

226

Laparoscopic Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection in the Staging of Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Men with localized prostate cancer who present with high risk features may benefit from determination of pelvic lymph node status by a laparoscopic lymph node dissection prior to definitive therapy. Methods: One hundred eighty-nine men with a median age of 69 years (range 49-80) with T1-T3 prostate cancer had a laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection (LPLND) prior to definitive

NELSON N. STONE; RICHARD G. STOCK

227

Sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer using methylene blue dye manifests a short learning curve among experienced surgeons: a prospective tabular cumulative sum (CUSUM) analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The benefits of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for breast cancer patients with histologically negative axillary nodes, in whom axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is thereby avoided, are now established. Low false negative rate, certainly with blue dye technique, mostly reflects the established high inherent accuracy of SLNB and low axillary nodal metastatic load (subject to patient selection). SLN identification rate is influenced by volume, injection site and choice of mapping agent, axillary nodal metastatic load, SLN location and skill at axillary dissection. Being more subject to technical failure, SLN identification seems to be a more reasonable variable for learning curve assessment than false negative rate. Methylene blue is as good an SLN mapping agent as Isosulfan blue and is much cheaper. Addition of radio-colloid mapping to blue dye does not achieve a sufficiently higher identification rate to justify the cost. Methylene blue is therefore the agent of choice for SLN mapping in developing countries. The American Society of Breast Surgeons recommends that, for competence, surgeons should perform 20 SLNB but admits that the learning curve with a standardized technique may be "much shorter". One appropriate remedy for this dilemma is to plot individual learning curves. Methods Using methylene blue dye, experienced breast surgeons performed SLNB in selected patients with breast cancer (primary tumor < 5 cm and clinically negative ipsilateral axilla). Intraoperative assessment and completion ALND were performed for standardization on the first 13 of 24 cases. SLN identification was plotted for each surgeon on a tabular cumulative sum (CUSUM) chart with sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) limits based on a target identification rate of 85%. Results The CUSUM plot crossed the SPRT limit line after 8 consecutive, positively identified SLN, signaling achievement of an acceptable level of competence. Conclusion Tabular CUSUM charting, based on a justified choice of parameters, indicates that the learning curve for SLNB using methylene blue dye is completed after 8 consecutive, positively identified SLN. CUSUM charting may be used to plot individual learning curves for trainee surgeons by applying a proxy parameter for failure in the presence of a mentor (such as failed SLN identification within 15 minutes).

East, Jeffrey M; Valentine, Christopher SP; Kanchev, Emil; Blake, Garfield O

2009-01-01

228

Axillary node status in breast cancer patients prior to surgery by imaging with Tc-99m humanised anti-PEM monoclonal antibody, hHMFG1  

PubMed Central

In early breast cancer axillary nodes are usually impalpable and over 50% of such patients may have an axillary clearance when no nodes are involved. This work identifies axillary node status by imaging with a Tc-99m radiolabelled anti-Polymorphic Epithelial Mucin, humanised monoclonal antibody (human milk fat globule 1), prior to surgery in 30 patients. Change detection analysis of image data with probability mapping is undertaken. A specificity of 93% and positive predictive value of 92% (both 100% if a second cancer in the axilla with negative nodes is considered) were found. A strategy for combining negative imaging with the sentinel node procedure is presented. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 870–878. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600200 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK

Al-Yasi, A R; Carroll, M J; Ellison, D; Granowska, M; Mather, S J; Wells, C A; Carpenter, R; Britton, K E

2002-01-01

229

Intraoperative identification of sentinel lymph nodes by near-infrared fluorescence imaging in patients with breast cancer.  

PubMed

We present a novel method for sentinel lymph node (SLN) identification by fluorescence imaging that provides a high detection rate and a low false-negativity rate. Twenty-five breast cancer patients with tumors less than 3 cm in diameter were enrolled. A combination of indocyanine green and indigo carmine was injected subdermally in the areola. Subcutaneous lymphatic channels draining from the areola to the axilla were immediately showed by fluorescence imaging. After incising the axillary skin near the point of disappearance of the fluorescence, the SLN was dissected under fluorescence guidance. In all patients, the lymphatic channels and SLN were successfully visualized. The mean number of fluorescent SLN and blue-dyed SLN were 5.5 and 2.3. Eight patients were found to have lymph node metastases pathologically. All of them were recognized by fluorescence imaging. This method is feasible and safe for intraoperative detection of SLN allowing real-time observation without any need for training. PMID:18353274

Tagaya, Nobumi; Yamazaki, Rie; Nakagawa, Aya; Abe, Akihito; Hamada, Kiyoshige; Kubota, Keiichi; Oyama, Tetsunari

2008-06-01

230

Adjuvant radiotherapy of regional lymph nodes in breast cancer - a meta-analysis of randomized trials  

PubMed Central

Background Radiotherapy (RT) improves overall survival (OS) of breast cancer patients after breast conserving surgery and after mastectomy in patients with involved lymph nodes (LN). The contribution of RT to the regional LN to this survival benefit was poorly understood. Recently, the results of three large randomized trials addressing this question have become available. Material and methods The published abstracts (full publication pending) of the MA.20 (n=1832) and the EORTC 22922–10925 (EORTC) (n=4004) trial and the full publication of the French trial (n=1334) were basis of the meta-analysis. Main eligibility criteria were positive axillary LN (all trials), LN negative disease with high risk for recurrence (MA.20), and medial/central tumor location (French, EORTC). The MA.20 and the EORTC trial tested the effect of additional regional RT to the internal mammary (IM) LN and medial supraclavicular (MS) LN, whereas in the French trial all patients received RT to the MS-LN and solely RT to the IM-LN was randomized. Primary endpoint was OS. Secondary endpoints were disease-free survival (DFS) and distant metastasis free survival (DMFS). Results Regional RT of the MS-LN and the IM-LN (MA.20 and EORTC) resulted in a significant improvement of OS (Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.85 (95% CL 0.75 - 0.96)). Adding the results of the French trial and using the random effects model to respect the different design of the French trial, the effect on OS of regional radiotherapy was still significant (HR 0.88 (95% CL 0.80 - 0.97)). The absolute benefits in OS were 1.6% in the MA.20 trial at 5 years, 1.6% in the EORTC trial at 10 years, and 3.3% in the French trial at 10 years (not significant in single trials). Regional radiotherapy of the MS-LN and the IM-LN (MA.20 and EORTC) was associated with a significant improvement of DFS (HR 0.85 (95% CL 0.77 - 0.94)) and DMFS (HR 0.82 (95% CL 0.73 - 0.92)). The effect sizes were not significantly different between trials for any end point. Conclusion Additional regional radiotherapy to the internal mammary and medial supraclavicular lymph nodes statistically significantly improves DFS, DMFS, and overall survival in stage I-III breast cancer.

2013-01-01

231

Unveiling lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

With respect to gastric cancer treatment, improvements in endoscopic techniques and novel therapeutic modalities [such as endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD)] have been developed. Currently, EMR/ESD procedures are widely accepted treatment modalities for early gastric cancer (EGC). These procedures are most widely accepted in Asia, including in Korea and Japan. In the present era of endoscopic resection, accurate prediction of lymph node (LN) metastasis is a critical component of selecting suitable patients for EMR/ESD. Generally, indications for EMR/ESD are based on large Japanese datasets, which indicate that there is almost no risk of LN metastasis in the subgroup of EGC cases. However, there is some controversy among investigators regarding the validity of these criteria. Further, there are currently no accurate methods to predict LN metastasis in gastric cancer (for example, radiologic methods or methods based on molecular biomarkers). We recommend the use of a 2-step method for the management of early gastric cancer using endoscopic resection. The first step is the selection of suitable patients for endoscopic resection, based on endoscopic and histopathologic findings. After endoscopic resection, additional surgical intervention could be determined on the basis of a comprehensive review of the endoscopic mucosal resection/endoscopic submucosal dissection specimen, including lymphovascular tumor emboli, tumor size, histologic type, and depth of invasion. However, evaluation of clinical application data is essential for validating this recommendation. Moreover, gastroenterologists, surgeons, and pathologists should closely collaborate and communicate during these decision-making processes.

Shin, Nari; Jeon, Tae-Yong; Kim, Gwang Ha; Park, Do Youn

2014-01-01

232

The sinus reaction in the axillary nodes in breast cancer related to tumour size and nodal state.  

PubMed

The sinuses of the axillary nodes were studied in 59 breast cancer patients. Three types of reaction were defined in them; sinus histiocytosis, a mixed sinus reaction, and sinus catarrh. Sinus histiocytosis, as defined here, was virtually confined to the mode-negative cases; sinus catarrh, common to both node-negative and positive, but increasing with tumour size in the former. It is suggested that transition may occur from sinus histiocytosis, via the mixed reaction, to sinus catarrh, and that the establishment of the latter may facilitate tumour spread. PMID:7160834

Hartveit, F

1982-11-01

233

Sentinel lymph node biopsy in esophageal cancer: an essential step towards individualized care  

PubMed Central

Lymph node status is the most important prognostic factor in esophageal cancer. Through improved detection of lymph node metastases, using the sentinel lymph node concept, accurate staging and more tailored therapy may be achieved. This review article outlines two principle ways in which the sentinel lymph node concept could dramatically influence current standard of care for patients with esophageal cancer. We discuss three limitations to universal acceptance of the technique, and propose next steps for increasing enthusiasm amongst physicians and surgeons including the development of a universal tracer, and improved contrast agents with novel dual-modality ‘visibility’.

2014-01-01

234

The Prognostic Value of Lymph Nodes Dissection Number on Survival of Patients with Lymph Node-Negative Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective. The study was designed to explore the prognostic value of examined lymph node (LN) number on survival of gastric cancer patients without LN metastasis. Methods. Between August 1995 and January 2011, 300 patients who underwent gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy for LN-negative gastric cancer were reviewed. Patients were assigned to various groups according to LN dissection number or tumor invasion depth. Some clinical outcomes, such as overall survival, operation time, length of stay, and postoperative complications, were compared among all groups. Results. The overall survival time of LN-negative GC patients was 50.2 ± 30.5 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that LN dissection number (P < 0.001) and tumor invasion depth (P < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors of survival. The number of examined LNs was positively correlated with survival time (P < 0.05) in patients with same tumor invasion depth but not correlated with T1 stage or examined LNs >30. Besides, it was not correlated with operation time, transfusion volume, length of postoperative stay, or postoperative complication incidence (P > 0.05). Conclusions. The number of examined lymph nodes is an independent prognostic factor of survival for patients with lymph node-negative gastric cancer. Sufficient dissection of lymph nodes is recommended during surgery for such population.

Song, Wu; Yuan, Yujie; Wang, Liang; He, Weiling; Zhang, Xinhua; Chen, Chuangqi; Zhang, Changhua; Cai, Shirong; He, Yulong

2014-01-01

235

Lymph node staging in colorectal cancer: Old controversies and recent advances  

PubMed Central

Outcome prediction based on tumor stage reflected by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)/Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) tumor node metastasis (TNM) system is currently regarded as the strongest prognostic parameter for patients with colorectal cancer. For affected patients, the indication for adjuvant therapy is mainly guided by the presence of regional lymph node metastasis. In addition to the extent of surgical lymph node removal and the thoroughness of the pathologist in dissecting the resection specimen, several parameters that are related to the pathological work-up of the dissected nodes may affect the clinical significance of lymph node staging. These include changing definitions of lymph nodes, involved lymph nodes, and tumor deposits in different editions of the AJCC/UICC TNM system as well as the minimum number of nodes to be dissected. Methods to increase the lymph node yield in the fatty tissue include methylene blue injection and acetone compression. Outcome prediction based on the lymph node ratio, defined as the number of positive lymph nodes divided by the total number of retrieved nodes, may be superior to the absolute numbers of involved nodes. Extracapsular invasion has been identified as additional prognostic factor. Adding step sectioning and immunohistochemistry to the pathological work-up may result in higher accuracy of histological diagnosis. The clinical value of more recent technical advances, such as sentinel lymph node biopsy and molecular analysis of lymph nodes tissue still remains to be defined.

Resch, Annika; Langner, Cord

2013-01-01

236

Technical advances in sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer.  

PubMed

Technical advances in the past several years have simplified and improved sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for breast cancer. The use of alternative injection sites (skin or subareolar) yields high SLN identification rates and may shorten the learning curve associated with standard peri-tumoral injection. The dual-agent (radiocolloid plus blue dye) technique is now recommended to decrease false-negative rates, especially when surgeons are just learning how to perform SLN biopsy. Methylene blue may be an acceptable substitute for isosulfan blue dye and is associated with fewer hypersensitivity reactions. Hand-held gamma probes are now smaller and more maneuverable, with better shielding for directional detection of gamma rays. Routine preoperative lymphoscintigraphy can be avoided, thus facilitating operating room scheduling. Surgeons can use minimally invasive techniques to identify and remove internal mammary SLNs. PMID:15156948

Tuttle, Todd M

2004-05-01

237

Sentinel Lymph Node Surgery after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients With Node-Positive Breast Cancer: The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Z1071 Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Importance Sentinel lymph node (SLN) surgery provides reliable nodal staging information with less morbidity than axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for clinically node-negative (cN0) breast cancer patients. The application of SLN surgery for staging the axilla following chemotherapy for women who initially had node-positive breast cancer (cN1) is unclear because of high false negative results reported in previous studies. Objective To determine the false negative rate (FNR) for SLN surgery following chemotherapy in patients initially presenting with biopsy-proven node-positive breast cancer. Design, Setting, and Patients The ACOSOG Z1071 trial enrolled women with clinical T0–4 N1–2, M0 breast cancer who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Following chemotherapy, patients underwent both SLN surgery and ALND. SLN surgery using both blue dye and a radiolabeled colloid mapping agent was encouraged. Main Outcome Measure The primary endpoint was the FNR of SLN surgery after chemotherapy in women who presented with cN1 disease. We examined the likelihood that the FNR in those with 2 or more SLNs examined was greater than 10%, the rate expected for women undergoing SLN surgery who present with clinically node-negative disease. Results Seven hundred fifty-six patients were enrolled from 136 institutions. Of 663 evaluable patients with cN1 disease, 649 underwent chemotherapy followed by both SLN surgery and ALND. A SLN could not be identified in 46 patients (7.1%). Only one SLN was excised in 78 patients (12.0%). Of the remaining 525 patients with 2 or more SLNs removed, no cancer was identified in the axillary lymph nodes of 215 patients yielding a pathological complete nodal response of 41.0% (95% CI: 36.7%–45.3%). In 39 patients, cancer was not identified in the SLNs but was found in lymph nodes obtained with ALND resulting in a FNR of 12.6% (90% Bayesian Credible Interval, 9.85%–16.05%). Conclusions and Relevance Among women with cN1 breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy who had 2 or more SLNs examined, the FNR was not found to be 10% or less. Given this FNR threshold, changes in approach and patient selection that result in greater sensitivity would be necessary to support the use of SLN surgery as an alternative to ALND. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov; trial identifier NCT00881361.

Boughey, Judy C.; Suman, Vera J.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Ahrendt, Gretchen M.; Wilke, Lee G.; Taback, Bret; Leitch, A. Marilyn; Kuerer, Henry M.; Bowling, Monet; Flippo-Morton, Teresa S.; Byrd, David R.; Ollila, David W.; Julian, Thomas B.; McLaughlin, Sarah A.; McCall, Linda; Symmans, W. Fraser; Le-Petross, Huong T.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Nelson, Heidi; Hunt, Kelly K.

2014-01-01

238

A Model to Estimate the Risk of Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema: Combinations of Treatment-Related Factors of the Number of Dissected Axillary Nodes, Adjuvant Chemotherapy, and Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The development of breast cancer-related lymphedema (LE) is closely related to the number of dissected axillary lymph nodes (N-ALNs), chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. In this study, we attempted to estimate the risk of LE based on combinations of these treatment-related factors. Methods and Materials: A total of 772 patients with breast cancer, who underwent primary surgery with axillary lymph node dissection from 2004 to 2009, were retrospectively analyzed. Adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) was performed in 677 patients (88%). Among patients who received radiation therapy (n=675), 274 (35%) received supraclavicular radiation therapy (SCRT). Results: At a median follow-up of 5.1 years (range, 3.0-8.3 years), 127 patients had developed LE. The overall 5-year cumulative incidence of LE was 17%. Among the 127 affected patients, LE occurred within 2 years after surgery in 97 (76%) and within 3 years in 115 (91%) patients. Multivariate analysis showed that N-ALN (hazard ratio [HR], 2.81; P<.001), ACT (HR, 4.14; P=.048), and SCRT (HR, 3.24; P<.001) were independent risk factors for LE. The total number of risk factors correlated well with the incidence of LE. Patients with no risk or 1 risk factor showed a significantly lower 5-year probability of LE (3%) than patients with 2 (19%) or 3 risk factors (38%) (P<.001). Conclusions: The risk factors associated with LE were N-ALN, ACT, and SCRT. A simple model using combinations of these factors may help clinicians predict the risk of LE.

Kim, Myungsoo; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Sung Uk; Lee, Nam Kwon; Jung, So-Youn; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Eun Sook; Kang, Han-Sung [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)] [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyung Hwan, E-mail: shin.kyunghwan@gmail.com [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01

239

New models and online calculator for predicting non-sentinel lymph node status in sentinel lymph node positive breast cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background Current practice is to perform a completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for breast cancer patients with tumor-involved sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), although fewer than half will have non-sentinel node (NSLN) metastasis. Our goal was to develop new models to quantify the risk of NSLN metastasis in SLN-positive patients and to compare predictive capabilities to another widely used model. Methods We constructed three models to predict NSLN status: recursive partitioning with receiver operating characteristic curves (RP-ROC), boosted Classification and Regression Trees (CART), and multivariate logistic regression (MLR) informed by CART. Data were compiled from a multicenter Northern California and Oregon database of 784 patients who prospectively underwent SLN biopsy and completion ALND. We compared the predictive abilities of our best model and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Breast Cancer Nomogram (Nomogram) in our dataset and an independent dataset from Northwestern University. Results 285 patients had positive SLNs, of which 213 had known angiolymphatic invasion status and 171 had complete pathologic data including hormone receptor status. 264 (93%) patients had limited SLN disease (micrometastasis, 70%, or isolated tumor cells, 23%). 101 (35%) of all SLN-positive patients had tumor-involved NSLNs. Three variables (tumor size, angiolymphatic invasion, and SLN metastasis size) predicted risk in all our models. RP-ROC and boosted CART stratified patients into four risk levels. MLR informed by CART was most accurate. Using two composite predictors calculated from three variables, MLR informed by CART was more accurate than the Nomogram computed using eight predictors. In our dataset, area under ROC curve (AUC) was 0.83/0.85 for MLR (n = 213/n = 171) and 0.77 for Nomogram (n = 171). When applied to an independent dataset (n = 77), AUC was 0.74 for our model and 0.62 for Nomogram. The composite predictors in our model were the product of angiolymphatic invasion and size of SLN metastasis, and the product of tumor size and square of SLN metastasis size. Conclusion We present a new model developed from a community-based SLN database that uses only three rather than eight variables to achieve higher accuracy than the Nomogram for predicting NSLN status in two different datasets.

Kohrt, Holbrook E; Olshen, Richard A; Bermas, Honnie R; Goodson, William H; Wood, Douglas J; Henry, Solomon; Rouse, Robert V; Bailey, Lisa; Philben, Vicki J; Dirbas, Frederick M; Dunn, Jocelyn J; Johnson, Denise L; Wapnir, Irene L; Carlson, Robert W; Stockdale, Frank E; Hansen, Nora M; Jeffrey, Stefanie S

2008-01-01

240

Virchow lymph node metastatic recurrence of sigmoid colon cancer with severe lymph node metastases successfully treated using systemic chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy.  

PubMed

Metastatic recurrence of colon cancer in the left supraclavicular lymph node (Virchow lymph node) is rare, and to date there are no reports on radiotherapy as treatment. We report on a case of metastatic recurrence of sigmoid colon cancer in the Virchow lymph node with severe lymph node metastases successfully treated with a combined modality therapy of systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The case is of a 58-year-old man, who underwent sigmoid excision and lymph node excision, and subsequently received systemic chemotherapy. After left supraclavicular lymph node recurrence appeared he later received radiotherapy. Complete response was achieved, and there has been no further recurrence, to date, 10 months after the radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was effective as a local treatment, and local control of distant metastasis of colonic cancer may lead to a good prognosis. PMID:23780983

Ohchi, Takafumi; Akagi, Yoshito; Kinugasa, Tetsushi; Ishibashi, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Natsuki; Fujino, Shinya; Kibe, Shiro; Yuge, Kotaro; Sasatomi, Teruo; Mizobe, Tomoaki; Oka, Yosuke; Hong, Kawang Dae; Shirouzu, Kazuo

2013-07-01

241

Long-Term Effects of Complex Decongestive Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients With Arm Lymphedema After Axillary Dissection  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the long-term effects of complex decongestive therapy (CDT) on edema reduction in breast cancer-related lymphedema patients after axillary dissection, according to the initial volume of edema. Methods A retrospective review of 57 patients with unilateral arm after an axillary dissection for breast cancer was performed. The patients, treated with two weeks of CDT and self-administered home therapy, were followed for 24 months. Arm volume was serially measured by using an optoelectronic volumeter prior to and immediately after CDT; and there were follow-up visits at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Patients were divided into two groups according to the percent excess volume (PEV) prior to CDT: group 1, PEV<20% and group 2, PEV?20%. Results In group 1, mean PEV before CDT was 11.4±5.0% and 14.1±10.6% at 24 months after CDT with no significant difference. At the end of CDT, PEV was 28.8±15.7% in group 2, which was significantly lower than the baseline (41.9±19.6%). The reduction of PEV was maintained for 24 months in group 2. Conclusion The long-term effects of CDT were well-maintained for 24 months, but there was a difference in progression of PEV between the two groups. The patients with more initial PEV showed significant volume-reducing effects of CDT. In patients with less initial PEV, the severity of lymphedema did not progress to higher grades.

Hwang, Jung Min; Kim, Tae Won; Lee, Seung Yeol; Chang, Hyun Ju; Chu, In Ho

2013-01-01

242

The competent sentinel node: an association with an axillary presentation and an occult or a small primary invasive breast carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The concept of the sentinel node describes a primary or sentinel lymph node (SLN), which exists and through which tumour cells from a primary tumour in a particular location must first travel to spread to a particular regional lymph node group. In this series we present three patients presenting with a pathological axillary node associated with either an occult or very small primary breast cancer. In each case the primary tumour was found to have metastasised to the palpable node, however despite the significant enlargement of this node, no other axillary nodes were found to be affected on axillary node clearance. This has led us to postulate that the SLN in some cases contains unique characteristics that enable it to prevent further spread of the tumour up the lymphatic chain. Hence the term the competent sentinel node.

Mansfield, Lucy; Devalia, Haresh; Rehman, Nadeem; Mokbel, Kefah

2006-01-01

243

Are lymph node micrometastases of any clinical significance in dukes stages A and B colorectal cancer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The aim was to investigate the significance of lymph node micrometastases in Dukes Stages A and B colorectal cancer. METHODS: Archival specimens were examined from 147 patients (96 colon, 51 rectum; 44 Stage A, 103 Stage B) who had surgery between 1987 and 1994. One lymph node section from each node (colon, 1–11; median, 4; rectum, 1–15; median, 3)

Ĺke Öberg; Roger Stenling; Björn Tavelin; Gudrun Lindmark

1998-01-01

244

Esophageal cancer staging: improved accuracy by endoscopic ultrasound of celiac lymph nodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Clinical staging of esophageal cancer is required for optimal therapy but remains imprecise. Pathologic verification of involved lymph nodes could potentially direct treatment allocation. With the rising incidence of distal and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinomas, assessment of the celiac axis lymph nodes (CLNs) becomes important because it is a common nodal drainage basin. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) permits evaluation of CLNs

Carolyn E Reed; Girish Mishra; Anand V Sahai; Brenda J Hoffman; Robert H Hawes

1999-01-01

245

Prognostic significance of high-risk HPV status in advanced cervical cancers and pelvic lymph nodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective.In this study, we investigated the presence of high-risk (HR) HPV types most prevalent in the Hungarian population in surgically removed cervical cancers and pelvic lymph nodes. The aim of our work was to determine the prognostic significance of HPV status in the lymph nodes draining the tumor.

Tibor Füle; Zsolt Csapó; Miklós Máthé; Péter Tátrai; Viktória László; Zoltán Papp; Ilona Kovalszky

2006-01-01

246

maxPET, a dedicated mammary and axillary region PET imaging system for breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents initial measurements from a high-performance prototype dedicated PET camera (maxPET) designed for mammary and axillary region imaging. The system consists of two 15×15 cm2 planar scintillation detector plates operating in coincidence, with each plate composed of 25 modular detectors. The modular detectors are comprised of a 9×9 array of 3×3×20 mm3 lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) detector elements, read out by

N. K. Doshi; R. W. Silverman; Y. Shao; S. R. Cherry

2001-01-01

247

Contraindications of sentinel lymph node biopsy: ?re there any really?  

PubMed Central

Background One of the most exciting and talked about new surgical techniques in breast cancer surgery is the sentinel lymph node biopsy. It is an alternative procedure to standard axillary lymph node dissection, which makes possible less invasive surgery and side effects for patients with early breast cancer that wouldn't benefit further from axillary lymph node clearance. Sentinel lymph node biopsy helps to accurately evaluate the status of the axilla and the extent of disease, but also determines appropriate adjuvant treatment and long-term follow-up. However, like all surgical procedures, the sentinel lymph node biopsy is not appropriate for each and every patient. Methods In this article we review the absolute and relative contraindications of the procedure in respect to clinically positive axilla, neoadjuvant therapy, tumor size, multicentric and multifocal disease, in situ carcinoma, pregnancy, age, body-mass index, allergies to dye and/or radio colloid and prior breast and/or axillary surgery. Results Certain conditions involving host factors and tumor biologic characteristics may have a negative impact on the success rate and accuracy of the procedure. The overall fraction of patients unsuitable or with multiple risk factors that may compromise the success of the sentinel lymph node biopsy, is very small. Nevertheless, these patients need to be successfully identified, appropriately advised and cautioned, and so do the surgeons that perform the procedure. Conclusion When performed by an experienced multi-disciplinary team, the SLNB is a highly effective and accurate alternative to standard level I and II axillary clearance in the vast majority of patients with early breast cancer.

Filippakis, George M; Zografos, George

2007-01-01

248

Contact Nd-YAG laser in mastectomy and axillary evacuation: a prospective randomized study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty patients underwent modified mastectomy for breast cancer. They were allocated into three operation groups. Group A (n=10) underwent conventional operation, group B (n=10) contact Nd-YAG laser operation, and group C (n=10) conventional mastectomy with laser evacuation of the axillary lymph nodes. The operation with contact Nd-YAG laser was slower (pp<0.01), but there were post-operative wound seromas in 50% of

Juha Hahl

1991-01-01

249

Eight-year experience with the intraoperative frozen section examination of sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer in a North-Italian university center  

PubMed Central

Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) completely changed the impact of breast surgery on patients psycho-physical wellness, reducing morbidity associated with complete axillary lymph node dissection (CALND) while granting an adequate breast cancer staging. We reviewed our experience with the SLNB in a University Clinic. We collected data about all breast cancer patients submitted to SLNB from 2002 to 2010, and analyzed them with R (version 2.15.2), considering significant p<0.05. We performed 615 SLNBs on 607 patients, with a mean age of 59.86 (±10.76). Sentinel node detection rate resulted 99,7%, with a mean number of biopsied nodes of 1.64 (±0.67), axillary localization in 98% of cases, and negative intraoperative histological finding in the 86.2% of cases. Prevalence of ITCs, micrometastasis, macrometastasis and pericapsular metastasis resulted respectively 0.6%, 4.9%, 7.5% and 8.8%. Among women who received CALND, mean number of examined nodes was 16.36 (±6.19) and mean number of metastatic non-sentinel nodes was 0.97 in case of micrometastasis, 2.65 in case of macrometastasis, and up to 9.88 when pericapsular invasion was described. To conclude, our data confirm the role of nodal metastasis size in the prediction of non-sentinel node involvement, but further studies are required in order to better assess the role of ITCs and micrometastasis in the diagnostic and therapeutic management of breast cancer, with the final aim to reduce the surgical complications of axilla demolition when unnecessary.

Cedolini, Carla; Bertozzi, Serena; Seriau, Luca; Londero, Ambrogio P; Concina, Serena; Cattin, Federico; Geatti, Onelio; Loreto, Carla Di; Risaliti, Andrea

2014-01-01

250

Does Fibrin Glue Reduce Lymph Leakage (Pleural Effusion) after Extended Esophagectomy? Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibrin glue has been shown to be effective in improving postoperative chylothorax following various thoracic procedures and in reducing lymphorrhea after axillary dissection. It is unknown, however, whether fibrin glue is effective in reducing lymph leakage (pleural effusion) after esophagectomy. A series of 43 consecutive patients with thoracic esophageal cancer who underwent extended esophagectomy were prospectively randomized to two groups:

Mitsuo Tachibana; Shoichi Kinugasa; Hiroshi Yoshimura; Dipok Kumar Dhar; Shuhei Ueda; Toshiyuki Fujii; Hitoshi Kohno; Naofumi Nagasue

2003-01-01

251

New Guidelines Might Limit Need for Lymph Node Removal for Breast Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. New Guidelines Might Limit Need for Lymph Node Removal ... The group, which represents cancer specialists, said the new recommendations should also restrict the number of women ...

252

Technique of sentinel lymph node biopsy and lymphatic mapping during laparoscopic colon resection for cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: The utility of lymph node mapping to improve staging in colon cancer is still under evaluation. Laparoscopic colectomy for colon cancer has been validated in multi-centric trials. This study assessed the feasibility and technical aspects of lymph node mapping in laparoscopic colectomy for colon cancer. Methods: A total of 42 patients with histologically proven colon cancer were studied from January 2006 to September 2007. Exclusion criteria were: advanced disease (clinical stage III), rectal cancer, previous colon resection and contraindication to laparoscopy. Lymph-nodal status was assessed preoperatively by computed tomography (CT) scan and intra-operatively with the aid of laparoscopic ultrasound. Before resection, 2–3 ml of Patent Blue V dye was injected sub-serosally around the tumour. Coloured lymph nodes were marked as sentinel (SN) with metal clips or suture and laparoscopic colectomy with lymphadenectomy completed as normal. In case of failure of the intra-operative procedure, an ex vivo SN biopsy was performed on the colectomy specimen after resection. Results: A total number of 904 lymph nodes were examined, with a median number of 22 lymph nodes harvested per patient. The SN detection rate was 100%, an ex vivo lymph node mapping was necessary in four patients. Eleven (26.2%) patients had lymph-nodal metastases and in five (45.5%) of these patients, SN was the only positive lymph node. There were two (18.2%) false-negative SN. In three cases (7.1%) with aberrant lymphatic drainage, lymphadenectomy was extended. The accuracy of SN mapping was 95.2% and negative predictive value was 93.9%. Conclusions: Laparoscopic lymphatic mapping and SN removal is feasible in laparoscopic colectomy for colon cancer. The ex vivo technique is useful as a salvage technique in case of failure of the intra-operative procedure. Prospective studies are justified to determine the real accuracy and false-negative rate of the technique.

Bianchi, PP; Andreoni, B; Rottoli, M; Celotti, S; Chiappa, A; Montorsi, M

2007-01-01

253

Risk Factors Associated with Lymphedema among Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Survivors after Radical Mastectomy and Axillary Dissection in China  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Lymphedema is the major complication following breast cancer treatment and can persist long periods of time and affect breast cancer survivors’ quality of life. Accurate estimation of the risk factors for lymphedema is of significant importance. In this article we report the factors for secondary lymphedema among postmenopausal breast cancer patients after radical mastectomy in China. Patients and Methods A total of 126 consecutive postmenopausal breast cancer patients who received radical mastectomy were admitted to the Chongqing Breast Cancer Center between July 2009 and June 2010. Circumferential measurement was used to diagnose lymphedema. Results Among the 126 postmenopausal women with breast cancer, 54 (42.9%) had lymphedema. Body mass index (BMI), lymph nodes status, and radiotherapy were associated with lymphedema. BMI ? 25 kg/m2 (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 7.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8–20.1) and radiotherapy (adjusted OR = 3.0; 95% CI 2.0–9.2) were independent predictors of lymphedema. Conclusion BMI, lymph nodes status, and radiotherapy were the risk factors for lymphedema among Chinese postmenopausal breast cancer patients who underwent radical mastectomy. Clinicians should provide sufficient information for patients and their caregivers to prevent this complication, especially for those who are at high risk of developing lymphedema.

Hua-Ping, Huang; Jian-Rong, Zhou; Zeng, Qing

2012-01-01

254

Management of the lymph nodes in penile cancer.  

PubMed

A comprehensive literature study was conducted to evaluate the levels of evidence (LEs) in publications on the diagnosis and staging of penile cancer. Recommendations from the available evidence were formulated and discussed by the full panel of the International Consultation on Penile Cancer in November 2008. The final grades of recommendation (GRs) were assigned according to the LE of the relevant publications. The following consensus recommendations were accepted. Fine needle aspiration cytology should be performed in all patients (with ultrasound guidance in those with nonpalpable nodes). If the findings are positive, therapeutic, rather than diagnostic, inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND) can be performed (GR B). Antibiotic treatment for 3-6 weeks before ILND in patients with palpable inguinal nodes is not recommended (GR B). Abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are not useful in patients with nonpalpable nodes. However, they can be used in those with large, palpable inguinal nodes (GR B). The statistical probability of inguinal micrometastases can be estimated using risk group stratification or a risk calculation nomogram (GR B). Surveillance is recommended if the nomogram probability of positive nodes is <0.1 (10%). Surveillance is also recommended if the primary lesion is grade 1, pTis, pTa (verrucous carcinoma), or pT1, with no lymphovascular invasion, and clinically nonpalpable inguinal nodes, but only provided the patient is willing to comply with regular follow-up (GR B). In the presence of factors that impede reliable surveillance (obesity, previous inguinal surgery, or radiotherapy) prophylactic ILND might be a preferable option (GR C). In the intermediate-risk group (nomogram probability .1-.5 [10%-50%] or primary tumor grade 1-2, T1-T2, cN0, no lymphovascular invasion), surveillance is acceptable, provided the patient is informed of the risks and is willing and able to comply. If not, sentinel node biopsy (SNB) or limited (modified) ILND should be performed (GR B). In the high-risk group (nomogram probability >.5 [50%] or primary tumor grade 2-3 or T2-T4 or cN1-N2, or with lymphovascular invasion), bilateral ILND should be performed (GR B). ILND can be performed at the same time as penectomy, instead of 2-6 weeks later (GR C). SNB based on the anatomic position can be performed, provided the patient is willing to accept the potential false-negative rate of /=2 nodes on one side, contralateral limited ILND with frozen section analysis can be performed, with complete ILND if the frozen section analysis findings are positive (GR B). If clinically suspicious inguinal metastases develop during surveillance, complete ILND should be performed on that side only (GR B), and SNB or limited ILND with frozen section analysis on the contralateral side can be considered (GR C). Endoscopic ILND requires additional study to determine the complication and long-term survival rates (GR C). Pelvic lymph node dissection is recommended if >/=2 proven inguinal metastases, grade 3 tumor in the lymph nodes, extranodal extension (ENE), or large (2-4 cm) inguinal nodes are present, or if the femoral (Cloquet's) node is involved (GR C). Performing ILND before pelvic lymph node dissection is preferable, because pelvic lymph node dissection can be avoided in patients with minimal inguinal metastases, thus avo

Heyns, Chris F; Fleshner, Neil; Sangar, Vijay; Schlenker, Boris; Yuvaraja, Thyavihally B; van Poppel, Hendrik

2010-08-01

255

The clinical relevance of axillary reverse mapping (ARM): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in patients with breast cancer has the potential to induce side-effects, including upper-limb lymphedema. Axillary reverse mapping (ARM) is a technique that enables discrimination of the lymphatic drainage of the breast from that of the upper limb in the axillary lymph node (LN) basin. If lymphedema is caused by removing these lymphatics and nodes in the upper limb, the possibility of identifying these lymphatics would enable surgeons to preserve them. The aim of this study is to determine the clinical relevance of selective axillary LN and lymphatic preservation by means of ARM. To minimize the risk of overlooking tumor-positive ARM nodes and the associated risk of undertreatment, we will only include patients with a tumor-positive sentinel lymph node (SLN). Patients who are candidates for ALND because of a proven positive axillary LN at clinical examination can be included in a registration study. Methods/design The study will enroll 280 patients diagnosed with SLN biopsy-proven metastasis of invasive breast cancer with an indication for a completion ALND. Patients will be randomized to undergo standard ALND or an ALND in which the ARM nodes and their corresponding lymphatics will be left in situ. Primary outcome is the presence of axillary surgery-related lymphedema at 6, 12, and 24 months post-operatively, measured by the water-displacement method. Secondary outcome measures include pain, paresthesia, numbness, and loss of shoulder mobility, quality of life, and axillary recurrence risk. Discussion The benefit of ALND in patients with a positive SLN is a subject of debate. For many patients, an ALND will remain the treatment of choice. This multicenter randomized trial will provide evidence of whether or not axillary LN preservation by means of ARM decreases the side-effects of an ALND. Enrolment of patients will start in April 2013 in five breast-cancer centers in the Netherlands, and is expected to conclude by April 2016. Trial registration TC3698

2013-01-01

256

A New Formula for Prostate Cancer Lymph Node Risk  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: The successful treatment of prostate cancer depends on the accurate estimation of the risk of regional lymph node (LN) involvement. The Roach formula (RF) has been criticized as overestimating LN risk. A modification of the RF has been attempted by other investigators using simplified adjustment ratios: the Nguyen formula (NF). Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was investigated for patients treated in 2004 through 2006 for whom at least 10 LN were examined at radical prostatectomy, cT1c or cT2 disease, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <26 ng/ml (N = 2,930). The Yale formula (YF) was derived from half of the sample (n = 1,460), and validated in the other half (n = 1,470). Results: We identified 2,930 patients. Only 4.6% of patients had LN+, and 72.6% had cT1c disease. Gleason (GS) 8-10 histology was found in 14.4% of patients. The YF for prediction of %LN+ risk is [GS - 5]x [PSA/3 + 1.5 x T], where T = 0, 1, and 2 for cT1c, cT2a, and cT2b/cT2c. Within each strata of predicted %LN+ risk, the actual %LN+ was closest to the YF. Using a >15% risk as an indicator of high-risk disease, the YF had increased sensitivity (39.0% vs. 13.6%) compared with the NF, without a significant reduction in specificity (94.9% vs. 98.8%). The NF was overly restrictive of the high-risk group, with only 2% of patients having a >15% risk of LN+ by that formula. Conclusion: The YF performed better than the RF and NF and was best at differentiating patients at high risk for LN+ disease.

Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.ed [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, CT (United States); Makarov, Danil V. [Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Section of Urology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Department of Veterans Affairs Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT (United States); Gross, Cary [Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

2011-05-01

257

PROSTATE CANCER TOPOGRAPHY AND PATTERNS OF LYMPH NODE METASTASIS  

PubMed Central

Pelvic lymph node (LN) metastasis is a well-recognized route of prostate cancer spread. However, the relationship between topography and pathologic features of primary prostatic cancers and patterns of pelvic LN metastasis has not been well studied. We reviewed original slides of radical prostatectomies and pelvic LN dissections from 125 patients with LN metastasis and recorded total # of LN excised / laterality of positive LN, as well as localization, staging parameters, lymphovascular invasion and tumor volume of primary tumors. LN Quantity and Distribution 14.6 (mean) and 13 (median) LN were resected. 76 (61%), 33 (26%) and 16 (13%) cases had 1, 2 and > 2 positive LN, while 58, 44 and 20 cases had LN metastasis on the right (R), left (L), and bilaterally. Pathologic Features 86% (108/125) and 37% (46/125) demonstrated extraprostatic extension and seminal vesicle invasion, while 64% showed lymphovascular invasion. Mean and median total tumor volume was 6.39 and 3.92 cc, with ? 50% and ? 90% Gleason patterns 4/5 in 105 (84%) and 73 (58%) cases, respectively. Correlation with Dominant Tumor Location Dominant lesions on RP: 50 R lobe, 44 L lobe, 31 bilateral. 15/50 (30%) R lobe and 18/44 (41%) L lobe dominant tumors had LN metastasis on the contralateral side. Only 4% (5/125) of cases were associated with anterior dominant tumors. 30–40% of LN metastases occur contralateral to the dominant tumor. LN metastasis is overwhelmingly associated with high grade, high stage and large volume disease. LN positivity is rarely associated with anterior dominant tumors.

Tokuda, Yuji; Carlino, Lauren J.; Gopalan, Anuradha; Tickoo, Satish K.; Kaag, Matthew G.; Guillonneau, Bertrand; Eastham, James A.; Scher, Howard I.; Scardino, Peter T.; Reuter, Victor E.; Fine, Samson W.

2012-01-01

258

Usefulness of sentinel lymph node detection in early stages of cervical cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in combination with surgical biopsy is an emerging tech- nique for use in the early stages of cervical cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technique in a series of 40 consecutive women with early stage cervical cancer. Methods: Forty patients with early stage cervical cancer (FIGO stage IA2 (2), IB1

I. Roca; A. P. Caresia; A. Gil-Moreno; P. Pifarre; S. Aguade-Bruix; J. Castell-Conesa; J. M. Martínez-Palones; J. Xercavins

2005-01-01

259

[Determination of sentinel lymph node by Tc(99m) in small-cell lung cancer].  

PubMed

Introduction: In the prospective study was aimed to be the actual node staging identified sentinel and mediastinel lymph nodes and mapping in patient with operable non-small cell lung carcinomas. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients underwent pulmonary resections due to non-small cell bronchial carcinoma in the study were included . Intraoperatively, by injecting Tc99m to peritumoral tissues, average 96 minutes later, radioactivity levels of the tumoral tissue and lymph nodes were measured. All patients were evaluated by bronchoscopy for endobronchial lesions. The patients were scanned for the metastasis of solid organs in order to pre-operative staging. Results: The interlobar lymph node stations as a sentinel lymph nodes were detected in 45% of the patient. Lobes of specific, lymph node stations and skip metastasis detected lymph nodes were identified. Sentinel lymph node was in 77% of patients at the level N1 and in 66%of patients at the level N2. It were at two different stations in 66% of patients and at single-station in 33% of patient . In 1 (11%) of 9 patients identified sentinel lymph node, the metastasis has been reported by the routine histopathological examination. Conclusion: To detection sentinel lymph node, micrometastasis also allows for a more detailed pathological examination. It provides making true node staging in patients and postoperative therapy helps to organize appropriate support with non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:24814077

Zeybek, Arife; Sarper, Alpay; Erdo?an, Abdullah; Dertsiz, Levent; Demircan, Abid

2014-03-01

260

Robotic-Assisted Dissection of Bulky Lymph Nodes in Cervical Cancer  

PubMed Central

The resection of bulky lymph node metastases, which may provide a therapeutic benefit, has been proposed in several studies based on laparotomy and laparoscopy. There is no published study in the literature examining the resection of bulky lymph node metastases using a robotic technique. In this report, we presented a patient with cervical cancer who underwent robotic-assisted dissection of bulky lymph nodes. The robotic-assisted operation time was 255 minutes, and the mean console time was 215 minutes. The estimated blood loss was 70?mL. The number of lymph nodes retrieved was 28, and the number of the dissected paraaortic lymph nodes was 13. The number of the lymph node metastases was eight. The bulky lymph nodes which are difficult to be eradicated with standard radiation therapy can be resected with robotic-assisted surgery and successful resection of the lymph nodes can improve the treatment strategy. This minimal invasive technique is safe and feasible for bulky lymph node dissection.

Gocmen, Ahmet; Avc?, Muhittin Eftal

2014-01-01

261

Non-Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis Prediction in Breast Cancer with Metastatic Sentinel Lymph Node: Impact of Molecular Subtypes Classification  

PubMed Central

Introduction To decipher the interaction between the molecular subtype classification and the probability of a non-sentinel node metastasis in breast cancer patients with a metastatic sentinel lymph-node, we applied two validated predictors (Tenon Score and MSKCC Nomogram) on two large independent datasets. Materials and Methods Our datasets consisted of 656 and 574 early-stage breast cancer patients with a metastatic sentinel lymph-node biopsy treated at first by surgery. We applied both predictors on the whole dataset and on each molecular immune-phenotype subgroups. The performances of the two predictors were analyzed in terms of discrimination and calibration. Probability of non-sentinel lymph node metastasis was detailed for each molecular subtype. Results Similar results were obtained with both predictors. We showed that the performance in terms of discrimination was as expected in ER Positive HER2 negative subgroup in both datasets (MSKCC AUC Dataset 1?=?0.73 [0.69–0.78], MSKCC AUC Dataset 2?=?0.71 (0.65–0.76), Tenon Score AUC Dataset 1?=?0.7 (0.65–0.75), Tenon Score AUC Dataset 2?=?0.72 (0.66–0.76)). Probability of non-sentinel node metastatic involvement was slightly under-estimated. Contradictory results were obtained in other subgroups (ER negative HER2 negative, HER2 positive subgroups) in both datasets probably due to a small sample size issue. We showed that merging the two datasets shifted the performance close to the ER positive HER2 negative subgroup. Discussion We showed that validated predictors like the Tenon Score or the MSKCC nomogram built on heterogeneous population of breast cancer performed equally on the different subgroups analyzed. Our present study re-enforce the idea that performing subgroup analysis of such predictors within less than 200 samples subgroup is at major risk of misleading conclusions.

Rouzier, Roman; de Gournay, Emmanuel; Senechal, Claire; Bidard, Francois-Clement; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Cottu, Paul; Lerebours, Florence; Kirova, Youlia; Feron, Jean-Guillaume; Fourchotte, Virginie; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Guinebretiere, Jean-Marc; Sigal-Zafrani, Brigitte; Sastre-Garau, Xavier; De Rycke, Yann; Coutant, Charles

2012-01-01

262

Optimization of Near-Infrared Fluorescent Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping in Cervical Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective In early cervical cancer, a total pelvic lymphadenectomy is the standard of care even though most patients have negative nodes and thus undergo lymphadenectomy unnecessarily. Although the value of sentinel lymph node mapping in early stage cervical cancer has not yet been established, near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging is a promising technique to perform this procedure. NIR fluorescence imaging is based on invisible NIR light and can provide high sensitivity, high-resolution, and real-time image-guidance during surgery. Methods/materials Clinical trial subjects were 9 consecutive cervical cancer patients undergoing total pelvic lymphadenectomy. Prior to surgery, 1.6 mL of indocyanine green adsorbed to human serum albumin (ICG:HSA) was injected transvaginally and submucosally in 4 quadrants around the tumor. Patients were allocated to 500, 750, or 1,000 ?M ICG:HSA concentration groups. The Mini-FLARE™ imaging system was used for NIR fluorescence detection and quantitation. Results Sentinel lymph nodes were identified in all 9 patients. An average of 3.4 ± 1.2 sentinel lymph nodes was identified per patient. No differences in signal to background of the sentinel lymph nodes between the 500, 750, and 1,000 ?M dose groups were found (P = 0.73). In 2 patients, tumor-positive lymph nodes were found. In both patients, tumor-positive lymph nodes confirmed by pathology were also NIR fluorescent. Conclusions This study demonstrated preliminary feasibility to successfully detect sentinel lymph nodes in cervical cancer patients using ICG:HSA and the Mini-FLARE™ imaging system. When considering safety, cost-effectiveness, and pharmacy preferences, an ICG:HSA concentration of 500 ?M was optimal for sentinel lymph node mapping in cervical cancer patients.

van der Vorst, Joost R.; Hutteman, Merlijn; Gaarenstroom, Katja N.; Peters, Alexander A.W.; Mieog, J. Sven D.; Schaafsma, Boudewijn E.; Kuppen, Peter J.K.; Frangioni, John V.; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.

2011-01-01

263

Lymph node metastasis detection of ovarian cancer by porphyrin fluorescence photodetection: case report.  

PubMed

The concept of intraoperative in vivo diagnosis and selective resection of infiltrated lymph nodes in ovarian cancer has not been evaluated despite the increased morbidity associated with pelvic and paraaortic lymph node dissection and its questionable therapeutic value. Fluorescence photodetection is based on the application of a photosensitizer relatively selective for malignant tissue, which after light activation of appropriate wavelength, shows fluorescence. Six hours after oral application of 10 mg/kg body weight 5-aminolevulinic acid, the abdominal cavity of a patient with suspicion of recurrent ovarian cancer was inspected using a laparoscope and blue light at 380-440 nm. Spectral measurements at a wavelength of 635 nm, multiple peritoneal biopsies, and lymph node excisions were performed. White light inspection and porphyrin fluorescence photodetection revealed no intraperitoneal metastases and multiple biopsies were negative. Fluorescence-positive lymph nodes were visible only in the left common iliac region and a specific porphyrin fluorescence peak could be detected. In contrary, no increased porphyrin fluorescence of intraperitoneal tissues or skin was seen. Fluorescence microscopy showed the characteristic red fluorescence in the infiltrated parts of the lymph node tissue by the papillary ovarian cancer. Histology of the other sites was negative. No systemic or cutaneous side effects were recorded. This data is a proof of the concept that porphyrin fluorescence-guided lymph node metastasis detection is possible in ovarian cancer and should stimulate further research in this field. PMID:17211677

Hillemanns, Peter; Reiff, Jessica; Stepp, Herbert; Soergel, Philipp

2007-09-01

264

Use of Axillary Deodorant and Effect on Acute Skin Toxicity During Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: A Prospective Randomized Noninferiority Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To prospectively determine the effect of deodorant use on acute skin toxicity and quality of life during breast radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Before breast RT, 84 patients were randomly assigned to the deodorant group (n = 40) or the no-deodorant group (n = 44). The patients were stratified by axillary RT and previous chemotherapy. Toxicity evaluations were always performed by the principal investigator, who was unaware of the group assignment, at the end of RT and 2 weeks after completion using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute skin toxicity criteria. Symptoms of acute skin toxicity (i.e., discomfort, pain, pruritus, sweating) and quality of life were self-evaluated. For each criterion, the point estimate of rate difference with the 95% one-sided upper confidence limit was computed. To claim noninferiority owing to deodorant use, the 95% one-sided upper confidence limit had to be lower than the noninferiority margin, fixed to 12.8%. Results: In the deodorant vs. no-deodorant groups, Grade 2 axillary radiodermatitis occurred in 23% vs. 30%, respectively, satisfying the statistical criteria for noninferiority (p = .019). Grade 2 breast radiodermatitis occurred in 30% vs. 34% of the deodorant vs. no-deodorant groups, respectively, also satisfying the statistical criteria for noninferiority (p = .049). Similar results were observed for the self-reported evaluations. The deodorant group reported less sweating (18% vs. 39%, p = .032). No Grade 3 or 4 radiodermatitis was observed. Conclusion: According to our noninferiority margin definition, the occurrence of skin toxicity and its related symptoms were statistically equivalent in both groups. No evidence was found to prohibit deodorant use (notwithstanding the use of an antiperspirant with aluminum) during RT for breast cancer.

Theberge, Valerie, E-mail: valerie.theberge.1@ulaval.c [Departement de Radio-Oncologie, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec, QB (Canada); Harel, Francois [Centre de Recherche de L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec, QB (Canada); Dagnault, Anne [Departement de Radio-Oncologie, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec, QB (Canada); Centre de Recherche de L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec, QB (Canada)

2009-11-15

265

Molecular Changes in Pre-Metastatic Lymph Nodes of Esophageal Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Lymph node metastasis indicates poor prognosis in esophageal cancer. To understand the underlying mechanisms, most studies so far focused on investigating the tumors themselves and/or invaded lymph nodes. However they neglected the potential events within the metastatic niche, which precede invasion. Here we report the first description of these regulations in patients on transcription level. We determined transcriptomic profiles of still metastasis-free regional lymph nodes for two patient groups: patients classified as pN1 (n?=?9, metastatic nodes exist) or pN0 (n?=?5, no metastatic nodes exist). All investigated lymph nodes, also those from pN1 patients, were still metastasis-free. The results show that regional lymph nodes of pN1 patients differ decisively from those of pN0 patients – even before metastasis has taken place. In the pN0 group distinct immune response patterns were observed. In contrast, lymph nodes of the pN1 group exhibited a clear profile of reduced immune response and reduced proliferation, but increased apoptosis, enhanced hypoplasia and morphological conversion processes. DKK1 was the most significant gene associated with the molecular mechanisms taking place in lymph nodes of patients suffering from metastasis (pN1). We assume that the two molecular profiles observed constitute different stages of a progressive disease. Finally we suggest that DKK1 might play an important role within the mechanisms leading to lymph node metastasis.

Otto, Benjamin; Koenig, Alexandra M.; Tolstonog, Genrich V.; Jeschke, Anke; Klaetschke, Kristin; Vashist, Yogesh K.; Wicklein, Daniel; Wagener, Christoph; Izbicki, Jakob R.; Streichert, Thomas

2014-01-01

266

Thermochemoradiotherapy using superselective intra-arterial infusionfor N3 cervical lymph node metastases of tongue cancer.  

PubMed

A case of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue with advanced N3 cervical lymph node metastases in an 80-year-old female is reported. The patient was treated with a combination of radiotherapy (2 Gy/day, total 60 Gy), superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy via a superficial temporal artery and a femoral artery (docetaxel, total 124 mg; cisplatin, total 135 mg), and four sessions of hyperthermia for cervical lymph node metastases. The tumor responded well to therapy, and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in both primary and neck lesions disappeared on positron emission tomography-computed tomography. The patient has shown no clinical or radiological evidence of local recurrence or distant metastases 6 years after the end of treatment. Advanced oral cancer patients with N3 cervical lymph node metastases are particularly difficult to treat and have a poor prognosis. This method of thermochemoradiotherapy seems a promising modality for patients with N3 cervical lymph node metastases of oral cancer. PMID:24518725

Hiroaki, Nishiguchi; Kenji, Mitsudo; Noriyuki, Yamamoto; Iwai, Tohnai

2013-01-01

267

Androgen and androgen-metabolizing enzymes in metastasized lymph nodes of breast cancer.  

PubMed

Androgen receptor and androgen metabolizing enzymes, 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5 (17?HSD5) and 5?-reductase1 (5?1), are frequently detected in primary tumor of breast cancer, but their status in metastatic lymph nodes has not been examined. The biological role of androgen in breast cancer and its metastatic process also remain unknown. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to localize the expression of androgen receptor, 17?HSD5, and 5?1 in primary tumors and paired metastatic lymph nodes and correlated the findings with clinicopathologic factors of individual patients. Approximately 70% of primary tumors and paired metastatic lymph nodes expressed androgen receptor, with significant correlation between both lesions. However, 17?HSD5 and 5?1 immunoreactivity was decreased in metastatic lymph nodes. Alone or in tandem with androgen receptor, 5?1 was associated with significantly lower Ki-67 index, lower pathologic grade, and higher estrogen receptor positivity, but androgen receptor/5?1 double positivity in lymph nodes was associated with larger lymph node metastasis and higher TNM stage. In conclusion, androgen receptor immunoreactivity remained stable during the process of metastasis, whereas androgen-metabolizing enzymes decreased. Although results of our study and previous reports imply additional roles of androgen metabolism in the metastasis process, especially conversion by 5?1, there may be divergence between its effects on primary tumor and those in metastatic lymph nodes. PMID:23953348

Shibahara, Yukiko; Miki, Yasuhiro; Sakurada, Chikako; Uchida, Keiko; Hata, Shuko; McNamara, Keely; Yoda, Tomomi; Takagi, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Takashi; Ishida, Takanori; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Sasano, Hironobu

2013-10-01

268

Involvement of level IIb lymph node metastasis and dissection in thyroid cancer  

PubMed Central

Thyroid neoplasms are the most frequent neoplasm in the head and neck region. Most thyroid carcinomas are well-differentiated tumors of follicular cell origin. Thyroid papillary carcinoma (TPC) is the most common thyroid malignancy. It constitutes 60% to 90% of all the thyroid carcinomas and cervical lymph node metastases are commonly seen in these patients. Although cervical lymph node metastases are common in this cancer, the management and the prognostic role of lymph nodes in TPC remains controversial. In this paper we reviewed the currently available literature regarding the extent of lateral neck dissection in papillary thyroid carcinoma patients with lateral neck metastasis.

Ozcan, Cengiz

2013-01-01

269

The total number of lymph nodes in resected colon cancer specimens is affected by several factors but the lymph node ratio is independent of these.  

PubMed

The number of lymph nodes retrieved from the specimen may be a surrogate measure of the adequacy of extensive colon cancer surgery, but many variables may influence the total lymph node yield of any specimen. We examined which variables would be influential both for negative and positive node sampling.The combined results from 428 patients from three hospitals A to C treated in 2007-2009 with single colon cancers having R0 segmental resections were analysed. The surgical technique and pathology staining methods were slightly different between the hospitals.The mean number of lymph nodes was 15.8 (range 1-60). Twelve or more lymph nodes were harvested in 78% of the specimens. In the multivariate Poisson regression analysis of all TNM stages, the factors associated with the total lymph node harvest were age, pathology handling, tumour location and size (p < 0.001), whereas for TNM stage III alone the pathology handling (p < 0.001) and a radical operating technique (p = 0.003) were highly significant. The total number of lymph nodes was the only significant factor for the number of positive lymph nodes (Posln) according to the multivariate negative regression analysis (p = 0.02) but the analysis of the lymph node ratio (LNR) detected no statistically significant variable.Several factors, and especially the specimen processing technique, were important for the total number of harvested lymph nodes. The number of Posln varied between segments and increased with the total number of harvested lymph nodes, but for LNR no variable was important. LNR seemed to abolish the combined effect of tumour location and the total lymph node yield in prognosis assessment. PMID:24164093

Stanisavljevi?, Luka; Sřndenaa, Karl; Storli, Kristian Eeg; Leh, Sabine; Nesvik, Idunn; Gudlaugsson, Einar; Bukholm, Ida; Eide, Geir Egil

2014-06-01

270

Noninvasive Detection of Clinically Occult LymphNode Metastases in Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Accurate detection of lymph-node metastases in prostate cancer is an essential com- ponent of the approach to treatment. We investigated whether highly lymphotropic superparamagnetic nanoparticles, which gain access to lymph nodes by means of in- terstitial-lymphatic fluid transport, could be used in conjunction with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to reveal small nodal metastases. methods Eighty patients with presurgical

Mukesh G. Harisinghani; Jelle Barentsz; Peter F. Hahn; Willem M. Deserno; Shahin Tabatabaei; Christine Hulsbergen van de Kaa; Jean de la Rosette; Ralph Weissleder

2003-01-01

271

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C Promotes Lymph Node Metastasis in a Rectal Cancer Orthotopic Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C), a novel member of the vascular endothelial growth factor family, is a relatively specific lymphangiogenic growth factor. It has been suggested that increased expression of VEGF-C in primary tumors is correlated with lymph node metastasis. We conducted this study to determine whether VEGF-C directly affects lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in colorectal cancer.

Masayo Kawakami; Yoshiyuki Yanai; Fumitake Hata; Koichi Hirata

2005-01-01

272

Treatment strategy for chylothorax after pulmonary resection and lymph node dissection for lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We reviewed our experience with iatrogenic chylothorax after pulmonary resections for lung cancer to evaluate our treatment strategy and to identify factors that predict the need for reoperation. Methods: From July 1992 through February 2000, a total of 1110 patients underwent pulmonary resection (at least lobectomy) and systematic mediastinal lymph node dissection for lung cancer at our division. Twenty-seven

Kimihiro Shimizu; Junji Yoshida; Mituyo Nishimura; Kazuya Takamochi; Rie Nakahara; Kanji Nagai

2002-01-01

273

Pericolic Mesenteric Lymph Nodes: An Aid in Distinguishing Diverticulitis from Cancer of the Colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. This study was done to determine if the detection of pericolic lymph nodes on CT scans could be used to differentiate cancer of the colon from diverticulitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS. We retrospectively evaluated 58 CF scans from 57 pa- tients with proven diverticulitis or cancer of the colon. The CT scans were evaluated by five board- certified radiologists who

Kedar N. Chintapalli; Christine C. Esola; Shailendra Chopra; Abraham A. Ghiatas

274

Fox Chase study finds age tied to spread of rectal cancer to lymph nodes  

Cancer.gov

Rectal cancer is more likely to spread to the lymph nodes in younger patients, according to new findings that Fox Chase Cancer Center researchers presented on October 29 at the American Society for Radiation Oncology’s 54th Annual Meeting. The results—which are the first of their kind—suggest that doctors should search for spreading more aggressively in these patients.

275

Drug evaluation: Lymphoseek - Neoprobe's sentinel lymph node imaging agent for use in cancer patients.  

PubMed

Neoprobe, under license from the University of California San Diego Cancer Center, is developing 99mTc-DTPA-mannosyl-dextran (Lymphoseek) as a potential agent for imaging lymph nodes in patients undergoing treatment for breast cancer and melanoma. Phase II trials of Lymphoseek were initiated in mid 2006. PMID:17209528

de Paulis, Tomas

2006-12-01

276

Laparoscopy-assisted lateral pelvic lymph node dissection for advanced rectal cancer.  

PubMed

In Japan, there has been no indication of laparoscopic surgery for advanced lower rectal cancer because of the problem about the treatment of lateral pelvic lymph node metastasis. We report a new technique which allows lateral pelvic lymph node dissection like in open surgery for advanced rectal cancer. After laparoscopic total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer, a surgical incision of approximately 8 cm is placed in the supra-pubic area. Then, the latero-vesical area of the retroperitoneum, latero-vesical space is dissected bluntly with forceps. The external iliac artery and vein are taped and lymph node dissection is performed. As the external iliac vein is pulled internally, fatty tissue including lymph nodes in the obturator space is separated from the psoas major muscle. After completing of such a procedure, the obturator nerve is indentified in the fatty tissue with surrounding lymph nodes. As the external iliac vein is pulled laterally, fatty tissue including lymph nodes in the oburator space is dissected by fat aspiration procedure (FAP) using a suction tip. FAP is helpful to confirm the vascular system, by which the obturator space is skeletonized and anatomical structures are identified clearly. PMID:21410045

Kawahara, Hidejiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Ushigome, Takuro; Noaki, Rohta; Kobayashi, Susumu; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

2010-01-01

277

Radical lymph node dissection for gallbladder cancer: indications and limitations.  

PubMed

Radical lymph node dissection provides survival benefit for patients with pT2 or more advanced gallbladder carcinoma tumors only if potentially curative resection is feasible; it must always be considered when planning a resection or re-resection for robust patients with pT2 or more advanced gallbladder carcinoma tumors. The degree of radical lymphadenectomy depends on clinically assessed nodal status: portal lymph node dissection is limited to cN0 disease; extended portal nodal dissection is indicated for cN0 and a modest degree of cN1 disease; peripancreatic lymph node dissection with pancreaticoduodenectomy is indicated for selected cases of evident peripancreatic nodal disease and/or direct organ involvement. Extended resection with extensive lymphadenectomy should be limited to expert surgeons because it may cause serious morbidity and mortality. PMID:17336245

Shirai, Yoshio; Wakai, Toshifumi; Hatakeyama, Katsuyoshi

2007-01-01

278

Does Lymphovascular Invasion Predict Regional Nodal Failure in Breast Cancer Patients With Zero to Three Positive Lymph Nodes Treated With Conserving Surgery and Radiotherapy? Implications for Regional Radiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine the relationship between lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and regional nodal failure (RNF) in breast cancer patients with zero to three positive nodes treated with breast-conservation therapy (BCT). Methods and Materials: The records of 1,257 breast cancer patients with zero to three positive lymph nodes were reviewed. All patients were treated with BCT at Massachusetts General Hospital from 1980 to December 2003. Lymphovascular invasion was diagnosed by hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections and in some cases supported by immunohistochemical stains. Regional nodal failure was defined as recurrence in the ipsilateral supraclavicular, axillary, or internal mammary lymph nodes. Regional nodal failure was diagnosed by clinical and/or radiologic examination. Results: The median follow-up was 8 years (range, 0.1-21 years). Lymphovascular invasion was present in 211 patients (17%). In univariate analysis, patients with LVI had a higher rate of RNF (3.32% vs. 1.15%; p = 0.02). In multivariate analysis, only tumor size, grade, and local failure were significant predictors of RNF (p = 0.049, 0.013, and 0.0001, respectively), whereas LVI did not show a significant relationship with RNF (hazard ratio = 2.07; 95% CI, 0.8-5.5; p = 0.143). The presence of LVI in the T2/3 population did not increase the risk of RNF over that for those with no LVI (p = 0.15). In addition, patients with Grade 3 tumors and positive LVI did not have a higher risk of RNF than those without LVI (p = 0.96). Conclusion: These results suggest that LVI can not be used as a sole indicator for regional nodal irradiation in breast cancer patients with zero to three positive lymph nodes treated with BCT.

Boutrus, Rimoun; Abi-Raad, Rita; Niemierko, Andrzej [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Brachtel, Elena F. [Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Rizk, Levi; Kelada, Alexandra [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G., E-mail: ataghian@partners.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

2010-11-01

279

Sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer patients using fluorescence navigation with indocyanine green  

PubMed Central

Background There are various methods for detecting sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) using a vital dye is a convenient and safe, intraoperatively preparative method to assess lymph node status. However, the disadvantage of the dye method is that the success rate of sentinel lymph node detection depend on the surgeon's skills and preoperative mapping of the sentinel lymph node is not feasible. Currently, a vital dye, radioisotope, or a combination of both is used to detect sentinel nodes. Many surgeons have reported successful results using either method. In this study we have analyzed breast lymphatic drainage pathways using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging. Methods We examined the lymphatic courses, or lymphatic vessels, in the breast using ICG fluorescence imaging, and applied this method to SLNB in patients who underwent their first operative treatment for breast cancer between May 2006 and April 2008. Fluorescence images were obtained using a charge coupled device camera with a cut filter used as a detector, and light emitting diodes at 760 nm as a light source. When ICG was injected into the subareola and periareola, subcutaneous lymphatic vessels from the areola to the axilla became visible by fluorescence within a few minutes. The sentinel lymph node was then dissected with the help of fluorescence imaging navigation. Results The detection rate of sentinel nodes was 100%. 0 to 4 states of lymphatic drainage pathways from the areola were observed. The number of sentinel nodes was 3.41 on average. Conclusions This method using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging may possibly improve the detection rate of sentinel lymph nodes with high sensitivity and compensates for the deficiencies of other methods. The ICG fluorescence imaging technique enables observation of breast lymph vessels running in multiple directions and easily and accurately identification of sentinel lymph nodes. Thus, this technique can be considered useful.

2011-01-01

280

Implementation of the american college of surgeons oncology group z1071 trial data in clinical practice: is there a way forward for sentinel lymph node dissection in clinically node-positive breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy?  

PubMed

For clinically node-positive breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy, approximately 40 % will be found to be pathologically node negative. The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1071 trial was therefore conducted to evaluate sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) in these patients. The trial's primary end point was to determine the false-negative rate (FNR) among patients with clinical N1 disease in whom at least 2 sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) were identified. The FNR was 12.6 %, which exceeded the prespecified end point of 10.0 %. After data publication, our multidisciplinary team discussed the trial results and how we may incorporate the findings into clinical practice. Patient selection and surgical technique are critical. As an example, when dual tracer technique was used, the FNR was 10.8 %. Data from the trial presented at the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium suggested that the FNR could be improved if a clip was placed in the biopsy-proven positive lymph node and removal of that node during SLND was confirmed. Taking this into consideration, we have proposed an approach to surgical management of the axilla in clinically node-positive patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy termed targeted axillary dissection (TAD). TAD involves placing a clip at the time a lymph node is determined to be positive. After completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the clipped node is localized by using a wire or radioactive seed, and during the SLND procedure, all SLNs and the clipped node are removed. We are currently evaluating the efficacy of TAD in axillary staging after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:24841348

Mittendorf, Elizabeth A; Caudle, Abigail S; Yang, Wei; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Shaitelman, Simona; Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana; Woodward, Wendy A; Bedrosian, Isabelle; Kuerer, Henry M; Hunt, Kelly K

2014-08-01

281

Tumor and lymph node lymphangiogenesis--impact on cancer metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of lymph node (LN) metas- tasis is a major determinant for the staging and the prognosis of most human malignancies and often guides therapeutic decisions. Although the clinical significance of LN involvement is well documented, little has been known about the molecular mecha- nisms that promote tumor spread via lymphatic vessels to sentinel and distal LN and beyond.

Nadja E. Tobler; Michael Detmar

2006-01-01

282

Lymph node metastasis is infrequent in patients with highly-methylated colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

In this study, the combined methylation status of p16, p14, HLTF, CDH13 and RUNX3 was examined in 59 resected primary colorectal cancers using methylation-specific PCR and the methylation status was correlated with the clinicopathological features of the affected patients. A significant difference was found in lymph node metastasis (p = 0.0359) on comparing the methylation status in colorectal cancers with lymph node metastasis to those without. There was also a significant gender difference (p = 0.0248) when the methylation status was compared. Colorectal cancer without lymph node metastasis frequently exhibited aberrant methylation of the p16, p14, HLTF, CDH13 and RUNX3 genes. PMID:16475679

Hibi, Kenji; Nakao, Akimasa

2006-01-01

283

Rectal cancer: a compartmental disease. the mesorectum and mesorectal lymph nodes.  

PubMed

Even though the technique of total mesorectal excision has been widely used, there have been few detailed descriptions of the distribution of lymph nodes within the rectal mesentery. We describe the results of our anatomic study of lymph node size and distribution within the mesorectum and pelvic side-wall tissue using a fat-clearing solvent in seven male cadavers, and we used a similar technique to examine the mesorectum in a patient who underwent total mesorectal excision after preoperative chemoradiation for a uT3 rectal cancer. In both the cadavers and our patient, the majority of lymph nodes were located within the posterior upper two-thirds of the mesorectum. Few lymph nodes were located in the distal mesorectum or anteriorly. In the cadavers, the majority of lymph nodes were less than 3 mm in diameter. In the patient who had received preoperative chemoradiation, routine tissue processing yielded only four lymph nodes, whereas processing in fat-clearing solvent yielded 25 additional nodes. The majority of these nodes, in contrast to those observed in cadavers, were less than 1 mm in diameter. The majority of mesorectal lymph nodes were located within the upper two-thirds of the posterior mesorectum. Complete removal of nodes in this area may, in part, explain the superior results of total mesorectal excision with respect to local recurrence. PMID:15865017

Galandiuk, Susan; Chaturvedi, Kiran; Topor, Boris

2005-01-01

284

Is Occult Lymph Node Disease in Colorectal Cancer Patients Clinically Significant?  

PubMed Central

The clinical significance of micrometastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) to regional lymph nodes remains controversial. In this review, we analyze publications that have evaluated the clinical significance of occult lymph node metastasis in CRC. An extensive literature search identified 19 publications that evaluated the clinical significance of micrometastatic CRC by various methods, including immunohistochemistry (IHC; n = 13) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, n = 6). These studies were reviewed for methodology and findings. Significant limitations in methodology were identified, including inconsistent histological definitions of micrometastatic disease, poor sampling because of an inadequate number of lymph nodes or number of sections per lymph node analyzed, lack of conformity with respect to IHC antibody or RT-PCR marker, and inadequate power because of small sample size. Micrometastatic lymph node metastasis identified by RT-PCR was consistently found to be prognostically significant, but this was not true of micrometastatic disease identified by IHC. RT-PCR analysis of lymph nodes with specific markers can help identify pN0 (pathological-negative lymph node) CRC patients at increased risk for recurrence. The identification of occult disease by IHC techniques may also ultimately prove to be associated with worse outcome, but a number of inadequately powered studies have concluded conversely.

Nicastri, Daniel G.; Doucette, John T.; Godfrey, Tony E.; Hughes, Steven J.

2007-01-01

285

Spontaneous regression of metastatic cancer cells in the lymph node: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Spontaneous regression of a malignant tumor is the phenomenon of disappearance of cancer cells without any treatments and it can be induced by an enhanced tumor-targeting immune response. However, there has not been a comprehensive immunological overview to compare the tumor-regressed lymph nodes and metastatic lymph nodes in the same patient. Case presentation We conducted a histologic analysis of various immune cells in an Asian female patient with buccal cancer (squamous cell carcinomas), in which the spontaneous regression of metastatic lymphadenopathy was confirmed by surgical pathology. The immune cell profiles between the metastatic nodes and the tumor-regressed nodes were compared. Tumor regression was confirmed by hematoxylin & eosin and cytokeratin/Ki-67 staining. Distinct differences were observed in Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells and CD56(+) natural killer (NK) cells; a higher density of Foxp3(+) Treg cells was found in metastatic lymph nodes and more infiltration of CD56(+) NK cells in tumor regressed lymph nodes. Other immune cell populations (CD4, CD8, CD20, CD68, CD86, CD123, CD11c, and mannose receptor) showed no discernible differences in marker expression in the nodes examined. Conclusion Less recruitment of Treg and high infiltration of NK cells were key features in tumor-regressed lymph nodes. Modulation of Treg or NK cells may be a good therapeutic method to control lymph node metastasis.

2014-01-01

286

Impact of Internal Mammary Lymph Node Drainage Identified by Preoperative Lymphoscintigraphy on Outcomes in Patients with Stage I to III Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Involvement of internal mammary (IM) lymph nodes is associated with a poor prognosis for patients with breast cancer. We examined the effect of drainage to IM nodes identified by lymphoscintigraphy on oncologic outcomes. METHODS A prospectively maintained breast cancer patient database at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center was used to identify patients with stage I to III breast cancer who underwent preoperative lymphoscintigraphy with peritumoral injection of colloid and intraoperative lymphatic mapping from 1996 to 2005. We reviewed the medical records of 1,772 patients who had drainage to any lymph node basin on lymphoscintigraphy but did not undergo IM nodal biopsy. Patients with IM drainage (with or without axillary drainage) were compared with patients without IM drainage. Local-regional recurrence (LRR), distant disease–free survival (DDFS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. RESULTS We identified IM drainage in 334 patients (18.8%). Patients with IM drainage were significantly younger, less likely to have upper outer quadrant tumors, and more likely to have smaller and medial tumors than patients without IM drainage. Rates of IM irradiation did not differ between the two groups. The median follow-up time was 7.4 years. On multivariate analysis, IM drainage was significantly associated with a worse DDFS (Hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–2.6; P = 0.04) but not LRR or OS. CONCLUSIONS IM drainage on preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was found to be significantly associated with worse DDFS. Further study is needed to determine the role of lymphoscintigraphy in the personalization of breast cancer staging and therapy.

Kong, Amanda L.; Tereffe, Welela; Hunt, Kelly K.; Yi, Min; Kang, Taewoo; Weatherspoon, Kimberly; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Bedrosian, Isabelle; Hwang, Rosa F.; Babiera, Gildy V.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda

2014-01-01

287

Genomic profiling of hormone-naďve lymph node metastases in patients with prostate cancer.  

PubMed

The progression of organ-confined prostate cancer to metastatic cancer is inevitably fatal. Consequently, identification of structural changes in the genome and associated transcriptional responses that drive this progression is critical to understanding the disease process and the development of biomarkers and therapeutic targets. In this study, whole genome copy number changes in genomes of hormone-naďve lymph node metastases were profiled using array comparative genomic hybridization, and matched primaries were included for a subset. Matched primaries and lymph node metastases showed very similar copy number profiles that are distinct from primary tumors that fail to metastasize. PMID:17217626

Paris, Pamela L; Hofer, Matthias D; Albo, Giancarlo; Kuefer, Rainer; Gschwend, Juergen E; Hautmann, Richard E; Fridyland, Jane; Simko, Jeffrey; Carroll, Peter R; Rubin, Mark A; Collins, Colin

2006-12-01

288

Clinical relevance of lymph node ratio in breast cancer patients with one to three positive lymph nodes  

PubMed Central

Background: To test the hypotheses that breast cancer patients with one to three positive lymph nodes (pN1) consist of heterogeneous prognostic subsets and that the ratio of positive nodes to total nodes dissected (lymph node ratio, LNR) might discriminate patients with a higher risk as candidates for post-mastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT). Methods: Using information from 7741 node-positive patients, we first identified cutoff values of the LNR using the nonparametric bootstrap method. Focusing on 3477 patients with pN1 disease, we then evaluated the clinical relevance of the LNR categorised by the estimated cutoff values (categorised LNR, cLNR). Results: Among 3477 patients with pN1 disease, 3059 and 418 patients were assigned into the low and intermediate cLNR groups, respectively, based on a cutoff value of 0.18. The prognostic factors associated with poor overall survival (OS) included younger age, T2 stage, negative oestrogen/progesterone receptors, high histologic grade, and intermediate cLNR. Post-mastectomy radiation therapy significantly increased OS in patients assigned to the intermediate cLNR (hazard ratio, 0.39; 95% confidence interval, 0.17–0.89; P=0.0248), whereas patients in the low cLNR group derived no additional survival benefit from PMRT. Conclusion: This study suggests that PMRT should be recommended for patients with pN1 disease and an intermediate cLNR.

Kim, S I; Cho, S-H; Lee, J S; Moon, H-G; Noh, W C; Youn, H J; Ko, B K; Park, B-W

2013-01-01

289

Does LigaSure™ reduce fluid drainage in axillary dissection? A randomized prospective clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is an integral part of breast cancer treatment. It is required in about 40–50% of patients. The placement of a drain in the axilla after an operation is current surgical practice. Short surgical stay programmes increase operating efficiency and reduce medical care costs, without compromising quality of care. LigaSure™ is a new haemostatic device that uses bipolar energy to seal vessels. The aim of this study is to determine whether axillary dissection with LigaSure™ reduces the time of wound drainage, the duration of surgical intervention and the volume of drainage after treatment. Patients and methods: This study is a prospective randomized controlled trial. A total of 100 women with breast cancer who needed axillary dissection were randomized into the LigaSure™ or conventional axillary dissection group. Levels I to III lymph node dissection was performed. A closed suction drain was always placed in the axilla and removed after 6–8 days or when fluid amount was <60 cc in the previous 24 hours. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups when considering the duration of surgical procedure: average duration was 70.7 ± 24.66 minutes for LigaSure™ patients, while in the conventional dissection group the mean was 70.6 ± 22.47 minutes (p=0.98). Total amount of drained fluid was 624.49 cc in the LigaSure™ axillary dissection group and 792.96 in the conventional ALND group; this difference did not achieve statistical significance (p=0.09); the duration of draining was also similar, with no statistical difference (p=0.15). Conclusions: The present study did not show clear advantages in LigaSure™ use for ALND, although it represents a good haemostatic device, especially in abdominal surgery.

Antonio, M; Pietra, T; Domenico, LG; Massimo, D; Ignazio, R; Antonio, N; Luigi, C

2007-01-01

290

What next? Managing lymph nodes in men with penile cancer  

PubMed Central

The management of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the penis is often daunting given its rarity and subsequent lack of high-level evidence to support our decision-making. This culminates in the complex surgical issues involving the management of the regional lymph nodes, which is of critical importance to both quantity and quality of life for these patients. This review aims to highlight the decisive issues surrounding the management of the pelvic and inguinal lymph nodes in the setting of squamous cell carcinoma of the penis, and to spotlight recently published information that adds credence to accepted management strategies of both the clinically positive and negative groin after successful management of the primary lesion.

Leveridge, Michael; Siemens, D. Robert; Morash, Christopher

2008-01-01

291

Lymph node staging by positron emission tomography in cervical cancer: relationship to prognosis.  

PubMed

PURPOSE A previous retrospective study demonstrated that positron emission tomography with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) was more sensitive than computed tomography for lymph node staging in patients with cervical cancer; the findings on FDG-PET were strongly associated with progression-free survival. Therefore, a prospective cohort study was initiated to evaluate FDG-PET lymph node staging in a larger patient population. PATIENTS AND METHODS The study was conducted between July 2000 and March 2009. All 560 patients with cervical cancer underwent pretreatment FDG-PET lymph node staging. Treatment included surgery alone, surgery and postoperative radiation therapy, and definitive radiation or combination radiation and chemotherapy. PET findings were correlated with the risk of disease progression and with survival. Results Overall, 47% of patients had lymph node involvement by FDG-PET at diagnosis. The frequency of lymph node metastasis increased with clinical stage and was similar to that in historical surgical series. Within a stage, patients with PET-positive lymph nodes had significantly worse disease-specific survival than those with PET-negative lymph nodes (P < .001). Disease-specific survival was stratified into distinct groups based on the most distant level of PET-detected nodal disease (none, pelvic, para-aortic, or supraclavicular; P < .001). The hazard ratios for disease recurrence increased incrementally based on the most distant level of nodal disease: pelvic 2.40 (95% CI, 1.63 to 3.52), para-aortic 5.88 (95% CI, 3.80 to 9.09), and supraclavicular 30.27 (95% CI 16.56 to 55.34). CONCLUSION Nodal involvement detected by FDG-PET in cervical cancer relates to clinical stage, is comparable to historical data, and stratifies patient recurrence and survival outcomes. PMID:20308664

Kidd, Elizabeth A; Siegel, Barry A; Dehdashti, Farrokh; Rader, Janet S; Mutch, David G; Powell, Matthew A; Grigsby, Perry W

2010-04-20

292

Efficacy of methylene blue dye in localization of sentinel lymph node in breast cancer patients.  

PubMed

Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is an important surgical advance in the management of early breast cancer. Localization of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) in breast cancer and other cancer patients is widely used now utilizing isosulfan blue dye. Few alternative types of dye have been used and investigated. In a prospective study of 54 patients, methylene blue dye was used as an alternative to isosulfan blue to localize the SLN in breast cancer patients. The methylene blue dye technique was successful in 91.1% of patients after excluding the initial learning cases; the results are similar for isosulfan blue dye. This study describes methylene blue dye localization as a successful alternative to isosulfan blue dye in identifying the sentinel node in breast cancer patients. Methylene blue dye is readily available in most Egyptian institutes, with a very low cost. PMID:15327490

Nour, Ashraf

2004-01-01

293

Sentinel lymph node biopsy in male breast cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of sentinel node biopsy has been validated for female breast cancer patients whereas, ALND remains the standard of care for male breast cancer patients with similar tumours. We evaluated the results of SLN biopsy in male breast cancer patients with clinically negative axillae.This study included all male breast cancer patients who underwent SLN biopsy between February 1998 and

A. Goyal; K. Horgan; M. Kissin; C. Yiangou; M. Sibbering; M. Lansdown; R. G. Newcombe; R. E. Mansel

2004-01-01

294

SEER Lymph Node Fields  

Cancer.gov

1 1 SEER Lymph Node Codes www.seer.cancer.gov SEER Lymph Node Codes Revisited SEER Program Training Materials October 2002 2 SEER Lymph Node Codes www.seer.cancer.gov EOD Lymph Node Involvement Number of Regional Nodes Positive Number of Regional

295

Landmark Trials Affecting the Surgical Management of Invasive Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Significant progress has been made in the surgical management of breast cancer. Historically, women with invasive breast cancer underwent a Halsted radical mastectomy; morbid procedure removing the breast, underlying muscle and regional lymph nodes. In contemporary practice, the majority of women diagnosed with early stage invasive breast cancer can now be managed with breast conserving therapy to include a segmental mastectomy followed by radiation. Axillary lymph nodes are routinely assessed by sentinel lymph node biopsy. Axillary lymph node dissection is reserved for patients with documented nodal metastasis, however, here too progress has been made as a population of low risk patients has been identified in whom a complete dissection is not required even in the setting of a positive sentinel lymph node. This chapter details the landmark clinical trials that have guided the surgical management of breast cancer.

Black, Dalliah M.

2014-01-01

296

Results of optical Monte Carlo simulations of a compact ? camera for the detection of sentinel lymph nodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breast cancer is most often treatable when detected in the early stages, before the primary disease spreads to sentinel lymph nodes in the axilla and supraclavicular region. A sentinel lymph node is the closest adjacent lymph node to receive lymphatic drainage from a primary breast tumour. It is from these nodes that cancer cells metastasise throughout the lymphatic system, spreading the disease. This work details the optical Monte Carlo modelling of an ultra compact, nuclear medicine ? camera that will be used intra-operatively to detect malignant sentinel lymph nodes. This development will improve the identification and localisation of these sentinel nodes, thereby facilitating improved techniques for axillary lymph node dissection, and sentinel lymph node biopsy.

Lowe, Dean; Truman, Andrew; Kwok, Harry; Bergman, Alanah

2001-07-01

297

Improvement of the sentinel lymph node detection rate of cervical sentinel lymph node biopsy using real-time fluorescence navigation with indocyanine green in head and neck skin cancer.  

PubMed

The standard technique using lymphoscintigraphy, blue dye and a gamma probe has established a reliable method for sentinel node biopsy for skin cancer. However, the detection rate of cervical sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) is generally lower than that of inguinal or axillary SLN because of the complexity of lymphatic drainage in the head and neck region and the "shine-through" phenomenon. Recently, indocyanine green fluorescence imaging has been reported as a new method to detect SLN. We hypothesized that fluorescence navigation with indocyanine green in combination with the standard technique would improve the detection rate of cervical sentinel nodes. We performed cervical sentinel node biopsies using the standard technique in 20 basins of 18 patients (group A) and using fluorescence navigation in combination with the standard technique in 12 basins of 16 patients (group B). The mean number of sentinel nodes was two per basin (range, 1-4) in group A and three per basin (range, 1-5) in group B. The detection rate of sentinel nodes was 83% (29/35) in group A and 95% (36/38) in group B. The false-negative rate was 6% (1/18 patients) in group A and 0% in group B. Fluorescence navigation with indocyanine green may improve the cervical sentinel node detection rate. However, greater collection of data regarding the usefulness of cervical sentinel node biopsy using indocyanine green is necessary. PMID:23621899

Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Fujisawa, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Furuta, Jun-ichi; Kawachi, Yasuhiro; Otsuka, Fujio

2013-06-01

298

Nationwide prevalence of lymph node metastases in Gleason score 3?+?3?=?6 prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Based on revisions of Gleason scoring in 2005, it has been reported that nodal metastases at radical prostatectomy in Gleason 3?+?3?=?6 (GS6) prostate cancer are extremely rare, and that GS6 cancers with nodal metastases are invariably upgraded upon review by academic urological pathologists. We analysed the prevalence and determinants of nodal metastases in a national sample of patients with GS6 cancer.We utilised the SEER database to identify patients diagnosed with GS6 prostate cancer during 2004-2010 who had radical prostatectomy and ?1 lymph node(s) examined. We calculated the prevalence of nodal metastases and constructed a multivariable logistic regression model to identify factors associated with nodal metastases. Among 21,960 patients, the prevalence of nodal metastases was 0.48%. Older age, preoperative PSA >10 ?ng/mL, and advanced stage were positively associated with nodal metastases. Lymph node metastases in GS6 cancer are more prevalent in a nationwide population compared to academic centres. Revised guidelines for Gleason scoring have made GS6 cancer a more homogeneously indolent disease, which may be relevant in the era of active surveillance. We submit that lymph node metastases in GS6 cancer be used as a proxy for adherence to the 2005 ISUP consensus on Gleason grading. PMID:24798166

Liu, Jen-Jane; Lichtensztajn, Daphne Y; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Sieh, Weiva; Chung, Benjamin I; Cheng, Iona; Brooks, James D

2014-06-01

299

Three-dimensional High-frequency Characterization of Cancerous Lymph Nodes  

PubMed Central

High-frequency ultrasound (HFU) offers a means of investigating biological tissue at the microscopic level. High-frequency, three-dimensional (3D) quantitative-ultrasound (QUS) methods were developed to characterize freshly-dissected lymph nodes of cancer patients. 3D ultrasound data were acquired from lymph nodes using a 25.6-MHz center-frequency transducer. Each node was inked prior to tissue fixation to recover orientation after sectioning for 3D histological evaluation. Backscattered echo signals were processed using 3D cylindrical regions-of-interest to yield four QUS estimates associated with tissue microstructure (i.e., effective scatterer size, acoustic concentration, intercept, and slope). QUS estimates were computed following established methods using two scattering models. In this study, 46 lymph nodes acquired from 27 patients diagnosed with colon cancer were processed. Results revealed that fully-metastatic nodes could be perfectly differentiated from cancer-free nodes using slope or scatterer-size estimates. Specifically, results indicated that metastatic nodes had an average effective scatterer size (i.e., 37.1 ± 1.7 um) significantly larger (p <0.05) than that in cancer-free nodes (i.e., 26 ± 3.3 um). Therefore, the 3D QUS methods could provide a useful means of identifying small metastatic foci in dissected lymph nodes that might not be detectable using current standard pathology procedures.

Mamou, Jonathan; Coron, Alain; Hata, Masaki; Machi, Junji; Yanagihara, Eugene; Laugier, Pascal; Feleppa, Ernest J.

2009-01-01

300

Refining Post-Surgical Therapy for Women with Lymph Node-Positive Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In this phase III trial, women with HER2-negative, HR-positive breast cancer and 1-3 positive lymph nodes with recurrence scores of 25 or lower will be randomly assigned either to undergo adjuvant chemotherapy before starting endocrine therapy or to begin endocrine therapy without chemotherapy.

301

Survival related to lymph node involvement in lung cancer after sleeve lobectomy compared with pneumonectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes after sleeve lobectomy and pneumonectomy for patients with non–small cell lung cancer distributed according to their nodal involvement status. Methods: Of 1172 patients in whom primary non–small cell lung carcinoma, including mediastinal lymph nodes, was completely excised, 151 patients underwent sleeve lobectomy and 60 underwent pneumonectomy. For bias reduction

Morihito Okada; Hiroyuki Yamagishi; Shinsuke Satake; Hidehito Matsuoka; Yoshifumi Miyamoto; Masahiro Yoshimura; Noriaki Tsubota

2000-01-01

302

Epithelial ovarian cancer relapsing as isolated lymph node disease: natural history and clinical outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Several evidences suggested that ovarian cancer (OC) patients showing isolated lymph node recurrence (ILNR) have an indolent evolution. The aim of the study was to retrospectively review ILNR observed in our Institution over the past 11 years in order to investigate: the pattern of disease progression after the first diagnosis of ILNR, and their clinical outcome. METHODS: Between September

Francesco Legge; Marco Petrillo; Vincenzo Adamo; Salvatore Pisconti; Giovanni Scambia; Gabriella Ferrandina

2008-01-01

303

Cervical bronchogenic cysts mimic metastatic lymph nodes during thyroid cancer surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose Although congenital bronchogenic cysts in the cervical region, especially in the thyroid or perithyroidal area, are rare, distinguishing them from other cervical cystic lesions (e.g., thyroglossal duct and branchial cleft cysts) and metastatic cervical lymph nodes is difficult preoperatively. Additionally, cystic degeneration of metastatic lymph nodes is common in patients with thyroid cancer. We investigated the clinical characteristics and proper treatment for individuals with cervical bronchogenic cysts. Methods Of the 18,900 patients treated for thyroid cancer, 18 patients with pathologically confirmed bronchogenic cysts were retrospectively reviewed. Bilateral total thyroidectomy or less than total thyroidectomy with central compartment node dissection, including cystic mass excision was done and cystic mass was confirmed by postoperative pathologic examination. Results All cervical bronchogenic cysts were asymptomatic. Their mean size was 1.2 cm (range, 0.3 to 3 cm). Of these 18 patients, 15 did not have any abnormal radiological findings, except for lymphadenopathy during preoperative evaluations. Most bronchogenic cysts were detected around the thyroid and paratracheal areas. On preoperative imaging and intraoperatively, most were indistinguishable from metastatic cervical lymph nodes or other cystic lesions. Conclusion Although cervical bronchogenic cysts are rare and benign, they should be distinguished from other cystic cervical masses, especially metastatic cervical lymph nodes associated with thyroid cancer. Possible cervical bronchogenic cysts found during thyroid cancer evaluation or surgery should be surgically excised.

Jun, Hak Hoon; Kim, Seok Mo; Lee, Yong Sang; Hong, Soon Won; Park, Cheong Soo

2014-01-01

304

Comparison of Nodal Risk Formula and MR Lymphography for Predicting Lymph Node Involvement in Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To compare the nodal risk formula (NRF) as a predictor for lymph node (LN) metastasis in patients with prostate cancer with magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL) using Ultrasmall Super-Paramagnetic particles of Iron Oxide (USPIO) and with histology as gold standard. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Logistic regression analysis was performed with the results of histopathological evaluation of the LN as dependent variable

Willem M. L. L. G. Deserno; Oscar A. Debats; Tom Rozema; Ansje S. Fortuin; Roel A. M. Heesakkers; Yvonne Hoogeveen; Petronella G. M. Peer; Jelle O. Barentsz; Emile N. J. T. van Lin

2011-01-01

305

Indications for mediastinoscopy and comparison of lymph node dissections in candidates for lung cancer surgery.  

PubMed

A prospective phase II study of indications for surgery, using video-assisted mediastinoscopy (VAM) to detect mediastinal lymph node metastasis was conducted in patients with resectable primary lung cancer of clinical stages I-IIIA. According to the indication criteria for VAM, Group A patients had primary tumor resection and lymph node sampling without VAM. Patients without detected metastasis by VAM underwent thoracotomy and systematic lymph node dissection (Group B). Cases with mediastinal lymph node involvement confirmed by VAM were treated with chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (Group D) or by thoracotomy (Group C) with extended dissection of mediastinal lymph nodes via median sternotomy. Of the 359 eligible patients, 209 underwent VAM (Group V) and 150 had thoracotomy without VAM (Group A). Of the VAM patients, 158 were negative for mediastinal involvement and underwent thoracotomy (Group B). Fifty-one patients had metastases and were given chemotherapy or chemo-radiotherapy. After two courses of chemotherapy, 22 patients with partial response (PR) or stable disease (SD) but reduced tumor markers received surgery with mediastinal lymph node dissection (Group C). The 2- and 5-year survival rates were 93.0 and 88.5% for Group A, and 89.5 and 61.5% for Group B, while the 2-year rate in Group C was 60.3%. In stage IA patients, Group A 2- and 5-year survival rates were 98.6 and 95.1%, the respective Group B rates being 96.3 and 89.9%. The more favorable Group A outcomes indicated both successful selection by these criteria of patients not requiring mediastinal examination, and the superfluity of complete lymph node dissection in early stage cancer. PMID:17466405

Kimura, Hideki; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Ando, Soichiro; Yoshida, Shigetosi; Ishikawa, Aki; Wada, Yoshinobu; Fujisawa, Takehiko

2007-06-01

306

Importance of sentinel lymph nodes in colorectal cancer: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Accurate identification of lymph nodes involved in metastases is vitally important for predicting survival, and it facilitates decision making with regard to adjuvant therapy. The study described here, which was undertaken to evaluate the role of sentinel lymph node mapping in refining the staging of colorectal cancer, was performed prospectively in 19 patients with colorectal cancer who underwent surgery from January to July 2005. Sentinel lymph node sampling was performed during each operation with isosulfan blue dye. Additional immunohistochemical staining was performed only if the sentinel nodes were negative for metastasis. In 18 of 19 patients, at least 1 sentinel node was identified. In 5 of 18 patients, sentinel nodes were positive for metastasis, and in 3 of 5, the sentinel node was the only node containing metastasis that was detected by immunohistochemical staining. In 3 patients, metastases in nonsentinel lymph nodes were detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining; these were determined to be false-negative results. Upstaging associated with sentinel lymph node mapping may reveal disease that might otherwise remain undetected by conventional methods. Patients who are upstaged may benefit from adjuvant therapies that have been shown to improve survival. PMID:17660167

Köksal, Hande; Bostanci, Hasan; Mentes, B Bülent

2007-01-01

307

Enhancement the Prediction of Postoperative Survival in Gastric Cancer by Combining the Negative Lymph Node Count with Ratio Between Positive and Examined Lymph Nodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the negative lymph node (NLN) count on the prognostic prediction of\\u000a the ratio between positive and examined lymph nodes (RML) in gastric cancer after curative resection.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The positive and negative node counts were determined for 456 patients who underwent curative resection for gastric cancer.\\u000a Overall survival was examined according

Jingyu Deng; Han Liang; Dianchang Wang; Dan Sun; Xuewei Ding; Yi Pan; Xiangyu Liu

2010-01-01

308

The Prognostic Value of Harvested Lymph Nodes and the Metastatic Lymph Node Ratio for Gastric Cancer Patients: Results of a Study of 1,101 Patients  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate whether the recommendation to remove 15 lymph nodes that is used in the staging system is necessary to assess gastric cancer progression and to evaluate whether our metastatic lymph node ratio dividing method, adapted from the AJCC’s (American Joint Committee on Cancer) 7th TNM staging system, is helpful for the patients with fewer than 15 harvested lymph nodes. Methods We performed a retrospective study of 1101 patients with histologically diagnosed gastric cancer who underwent a D2 gastrectomy at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between January 2001 and December 2010. The Kappa and Chi-squared tests were employed to compare the clinicopathological variables. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression were employed for the univariate and multivariate survival analyses. Results In the trial, 346, 601 and 154 patients had 0–14, 15–30 and more than 30 lymph nodes harvested, respectively. The median survival times of patients with different lymph nodes harvested in N0, N1, N2 and N3a groups were 45.43, 54.28 and 66.95 months (p?=?0.068); 49.22, 44.25 and 56.72 months (p<0.001), 43.94, 47.97 and 35.19 months (p?=?0.042); 32.88, 42.76 and 23.50 months (p?=?0.016). Dividing the patients who had fewer than 15 lymph nodes harvested by the metastatic lymph node ratio at 0, 0.13 and 0.40, the median survival times of these 4 groups were 70.6, 50.5, 53.5 and 30.7 months (p<0.001). After re-categorising these 4 groups into the N0, N1, N2, N3a groups, the histological grade, T staging, premier N staging, and restaged N staging were the independent prognostic factors. Conclusions Large numbers of lymph nodes harvested in radical gastrectomy do not cause stage migration. For those patients with a small number of harvested lymph nodes, their stage should be divided by the metastatic lymph node ratio, referred to in the TNM staging system, to assign them an accurate stage.

Li, Yuan-Fang; Feng, Xing-Yu; Sun, Xiao-Wei; Li, Wei; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Zhan, You-Qing; Qian, Chao-Nan; Chen, Ying-Bo

2012-01-01

309

Chemokine receptor CXCR3 promotes colon cancer metastasis to lymph nodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemokines and their receptors are essential for leukocyte trafficking, and also implicated in cancer metastasis to specific organs. We have recently demonstrated that CXCR3 plays a critical role in metastasis of mouse melanoma cells to lymph nodes. Here, we show that some human colon cancer cell lines express CXCR3 constitutively. We constructed cells that expressed CXCR3 cDNA (‘DLD-1-CXCR3’), and compared

K Kawada; H Hosogi; M Sonoshita; H Sakashita; T Manabe; Y Shimahara; Y Sakai; A Takabayashi; M Oshima; M M Taketo

2007-01-01

310

Chemokine Receptors Involved in Colon Cancer Progression, and Lymph Node Metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we focus on the roles of chemokines and their receptors on colon cancer invasion, and lymph node metastasis\\u000a in two mouse models. First, inactivation of TGF-? family signaling within colon cancer epithelium increases chemokine CCL9,\\u000a and promotes recruitment of the MMP-expressing stromal cells that carry CCR1, the cognate receptor for CCL9. Consistently,\\u000a lack of CCR1 prevents the

Makoto Mark Taketo; Kenji Kawada

311

The effects of ECE on the benefits of PMRT for breast cancer patients with positive axillary nodes  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the effects of extracapsular extension (ECE) on the benefits of post-mastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) for groups of patients with varying numbers of positive axillary nodes (1–3, 4–9 and ?10 positive axillary nodes). Methods: A total of 1220 axillary node-positive patients who had received mastectomy were involved in this study. Patients were grouped as ‘Radio + /ECE + ’, ‘Radio–/ECE + ’, ‘Radio + /ECE–’ or ‘Radio–/ECE–’ according to status of ECE and whether receiving PMRT or not, and were evaluated in terms of local region relapse (LRR) rate. The 5-year and 10-year Kaplan-Meier disease-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were analyzed. Results: ECE-positive differed from ECE-negative groups with statistical significance for all comparisons in favor of the ECE-negative group: 5-year locoregional failure-free survival (LRFFS) (82.69% vs 91.83%, P < 0.001), 10-year LRFFS (75.39% vs 90.02%, P < 0.001); 5-year OS (52.12% vs 74.46%, P < 0.001), 10-year OS (35.17% vs 67.63%, P < 0.001). There were no significant effects of ECE on the benefits of PMRT for patients with 1–3 (P = 0.5720), ?10(P = 0.0614) positive axillary nodes. However, for the group of patients with 4–9 positive axillary nodes, ECE status had a significant effect on the benefits of PMRT with respect to 5-year and 10-year LRFFS (P < 0.05). Conclusion: In our study, regardless of the ECE status, PMRT didn't significantly improve the LRFFS for patients with 1–3 or ?10 positive axillary nodes. However, for patients with 4–9 positive axillary nodes, ECE could be an important criterion to consider when deciding whether to receive PMRT.

Geng, Wenwen; Zhang, Bin; Li, Danhua; Liang, Xinrui; Cao, Xunchen

2013-01-01

312

Interleukin6 174G3 C Polymorphism Is Associated with Improved Outcome in High-Risk Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Axillary lymph node involvement in breast cancer is a marker of recurrence risk. Despite aggressive adjuvant therapy, recurrence in pa- tients with four or more involved lymph nodes approaches 50% at 5 years from diagnosis. Markers that can distinguish those likely to relapse from those likely to be cured are needed to tailor therapy and provide accurate prognostic information to

Angela DeMichele; Anne-Marie Martin; Rosemarie Mick; Priya Gor; Lisa Wray; Melissa Klein-Cabral; Galene Athanasiadis; Theresa Colligan; Edward Stadtmauer; Barbara Weber

2003-01-01

313

RTOG GU Radiation Oncology Specialists Reach Consensus on Pelvic Lymph Node Volumes for High-Risk Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiation therapy to the pelvic lymph nodes in high-risk prostate cancer is required on several Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) clinical trials. Based on a prior lymph node contouring project, we have shown significant disagreement in the definition of pelvic lymph node volumes among genitourinary radiation oncology specialists involved in developing and executing current RTOG trials. Materials and Methods: A consensus meeting was held on October 3, 2007, to reach agreement on pelvic lymph node volumes. Data were presented to address the lymph node drainage of the prostate. Extensive discussion ensued to develop clinical target volume (CTV) pelvic lymph node consensus. Results: Consensus was obtained resulting in computed tomography image-based pelvic lymph node CTVs. Based on this consensus, the pelvic lymph node volumes to be irradiated include: distal common iliac, presacral lymph nodes (S{sub 1}-S{sub 3}), external iliac lymph nodes, internal iliac lymph nodes, and obturator lymph nodes. Lymph node CTVs include the vessels (artery and vein) and a 7-mm radial margin being careful to 'carve out' bowel, bladder, bone, and muscle. Volumes begin at the L5/S1 interspace and end at the superior aspect of the pubic bone. Consensus on dose-volume histogram constraints for OARs was also attained. Conclusions: Consensus on pelvic lymph node CTVs for radiation therapy to address high-risk prostate cancer was attained and is available as web-based computed tomography images as well as a descriptive format through the RTOG. This will allow for uniformity in evaluating the benefit and risk of such treatment.

Lawton, Colleen A.F. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee WI (United States)], E-mail: clawton@mcw.edu; Michalski, Jeff [Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); El-Naqa, Issam [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Buyyounouski, Mark K. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Lee, W. Robert [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Menard, Cynthia [PMH-UHN University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); O'Meara, Elizabeth [American College of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Rosenthal, Seth A. [Radiation Oncology Center, Radiological Associates of Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (United States); Ritter, Mark [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Seider, Michael [Akron City Hospital, Akron, OH (United States)

2009-06-01

314

Genetic polymorphisms in DPF3 associated with risk of breast cancer and lymph node metastases  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have identified rare genetic variations responsible for many cases of familial breast cancer but their contribution to total breast cancer incidence is relatively small. More common genetic variations with low penetrance have been postulated to account for a higher proportion of the population risk of breast cancer. Methods and Results In an effort to identify genes that influence non-familial breast cancer risk, we tested over 25,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within approximately 14,000 genes in a large-scale case-control study in 254 German women with breast cancer and 268 age-matched women without malignant disease. We identified a marker on chromosome 14q24.3-q31.1 that was marginally associated with breast cancer status (OR = 1.5, P = 0.07). Genotypes for this SNP were also significantly associated with indicators of breast cancer severity, including presence of lymph node metastases (P = 0.006) and earlier age of onset (P = 0.01). The association with breast cancer status was replicated in two independent samples (OR = 1.35, P = 0.05). High-density association fine mapping showed that the association spanned about 80 kb of the zinc-finger gene DPF3 (also known as CERD4). One SNP in intron 1 was found to be more strongly associated with breast cancer status in all three sample collections (OR = 1.6, P = 0.003) as well as with increased lymph node metastases (P = 0.01) and tumor size (P = 0.01). Conclusion Polymorphisms in the 5' region of DPF3 were associated with increased risk of breast cancer development, lymph node metastases, age of onset, and tumor size in women of European ancestry. This large-scale association study suggests that genetic variation in DPF3 contributes to breast cancer susceptibility and severity.

Hoyal, Carolyn R; Kammerer, Stefan; Roth, Richard B; Reneland, Richard; Marnellos, George; Kiechle, Marion; Schwarz-Boeger, Ulrike; Griffiths, Lyn R; Ebner, Florian; Rehbock, Joachim; Nelson, Matthew R; Braun, Andreas

2005-01-01

315

Changes in specialized blood vessels in lymph nodes and their role in cancer metastasis  

PubMed Central

Background High endothelial venules (HEV) have been recognized to play a role in metastasis by its changes seen in the cancer microenvironment of lymph nodes (LN) and solid cancers. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue is a prevalent tumor of the head and neck region with high propensity for LN metastasis. The extent of LN metastasis is the most reliable adverse prognostic factor. Primary tumors can induce vasculature reorganization within sentinel LN before the arrival of tumor cells and HEV represents these remodelled vessels. This study aims to evaluate the cancer induced vascular changes in regional lymph nodes (LN) of patients by studying the morphological and functional alterations of HEV and its correlation with clinical outcome and pathological features. Methods This study was based on 65 patients with SCC tongue who underwent primary surgical treatment including neck dissection. The patients were categorized into 2 groups based on the presence of malignancy in their cervical lymph nodes. A review of the patients' pathological and clinical data was performed from a prospective database. Immunohistochemical staining of the tissue blocks for HEV and high-power-field image analysis were performed and analyzed with correlation to the patients' clinical and pathological features. Results The total number of HEV was found to be significantly associated to disease-free interval. There was a similar association comparing the HEV parameters to overall survival. The density of abnormal HEV was significantly higher in patients with established metastases in their lymph nodes and HEV was shown to be a better prognosis factor than conventional tumor staging. The HEV morphological metamorphosis demonstrates a spectrum that correlates well with disease progression and clinical outcome. Conclusions The results suggest that the HEV displays a spectrum of morphological changes in the presence of cancer and LN metastasis, and that HEV is possibly involved in the process of cancer metastasis. We revealed the relationship of HEV and their metamorphosis in pre-metastatic and metastatic environments in regional lymph nodes of tongue cancer patients in relation to clinical outcomes. The significant observation of modified dilated HEV containing red blood cells in lymph nodal basin of a cancer suggests the shifting of its function from one primarily of immune response to that of a blood carrying vessel. It also demonstrated potential prognostic value. More studies are needed to elucidate its potential role in cancer immunotherapy and as a potential novel therapeutic approach to preventing metastasis by manipulating the remodelling processes of HEV.

2012-01-01

316

Diagnostic accuracy of preoperative tests for lymph node status in endometrial cancer: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background: Approximately 72% of endometrial cancers are FIGO stage I at diagnosis and about 10% have lymph node metastases. An ideal diagnostic test for nodal disease would be able to prevent both overtreatment (i.e. unnecessary lymphadenectomy) and undertreatment (i.e. withholding lymphadenectomy or adjuvant postoperative treatment to patients with lymph node metastases). Objectives: In this review we compare the accuracy of preoperative tests (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography-computed tomography, CA-125 serum levels, and ultrasonography) for the detection of lymph node metastases in endometrial cancers with the final histopathologic diagnosis after complete pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy as the gold standard. Method: A systematic search in MEDLINE (using PubMed), Embase and The Cochrane Library was performed up to 23 July 2012. Results: We found one article that met our inclusion criteria for computed tomography, none for magnetic resonance imaging, 2 for positron emission tomography/computed tomography), 2 for CA-125 and none for ultrasonography. Conclusions: Due to the lack of high-quality articles on a preoperative test for lymph node status in endometrial cancer, no proper comparison between these modalities can be made.

Trum, J.W.; Bakers, F.C.H.; Beets-Tan, R.G.H.; Smits, L.J.M.; Kruitwagen, R.F.P.M.

2013-01-01

317

The Prognosis of T3N0 Colon Cancer Is Dependent on the Number of Lymph Nodes Examined  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: T3N0 colon cancer is the target of many adjuvant studies. Very few studies have examined the relationship of the number of lymph nodes examined to the prognosis of this stage. We examined data from the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) to determine whether the number of examined lymph nodes is prognostic for T3N0 colon cancer.Methods: A total of 35,787

Richard S. Swanson; Carolyn C. Compton; Andrew K. Stewart; Kirby I. Bland

2003-01-01

318

Color-coded fluorescence imaging of lymph-node metastasis, angiogenesis, and its drug-induced inhibition.  

PubMed

Lymph nodes are often the first target of metastatic cancer which can then remetastasize to distant organs. The progression of lymph node metastasis is dependent on sufficient blood supply provided by angiogenesis. In the present study, we have developed a color-coded imaging model to visualize angiogenesis of lymph nodes metastasis using green fluorescent protein (GFP) and red fluorescent protein (RFP). Transgenic mice carrying GFP under the control of the nestin promoter (ND-GFP mice) were used as hosts. Nascent blood vessels express GFP in these mice. B16F10-RFP melanoma cells were injected into the efferent lymph vessel of the inguinal lymph node of the ND-GFP nude mice, whereby the melanoma cells trafficked to the axillary lymph node. Three days after melanoma implantation, ND-GFP-expressing nascent blood vessels were imaged in the axillary lymph nodes. Seven days after implantation, ND-GFP-expressing nascent blood vessels formed a network in the lymph nodes. ND-GFP-positive blood vessels surrounded the tumor mass by 14 days after implantation. However, by 28 days after implantation, ND-GFP expression was diminished as the blood vessels matured. Treatment with doxorubicin significantly decreased the mean nascent blood vessel length per tumor volume. These results show that the dual-color ND-GFP blood vessels/RFP-tumor model is a powerful tool to visualize and quantitate angiogenesis of metastatic lymph nodes as well as for evaluation of its inhibition. PMID:24115019

Aki, Ryoichi; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Bouvet, Michael; Katsuoka, Kensei; Hoffman, Robert M

2014-03-01

319

Number of lymph nodes after neoadjuvant therapy for rectal cancer: How many are needed?  

PubMed Central

Neoadjuvant chemoradiation is the standard treatment for advanced rectal tumor, providing better local control of disease and potentially increasing sphincter preservation surgery. Neoadjuvant radiation may affect the number of lymph nodes harvested after resection or alter their prognostic value. Over the past 10 years, standards for lymph node harvests in colorectal cancer have been proposed. Several studies have recommend examination of at least 12 lymph nodes (LNs) in the specimen and this number is now used as a reflection of surgical quality. Nevertheless, recent reports have identified significantly decreased LN harvests in patients treated with neoadjuvant radiation. And preoperative chemoradiation has a significant effect on the number of nodes harvested in rectal specimens and this should be considered in staging of the tumor. In the near future, the total number of nodes will be less important than specific biologic markers in detecting high-risk patients and improving their prognosis with adjuvant therapy tailored.

Scabini, Stefano; Ferrando, Valter

2012-01-01

320

[Supra- and infraclavicular lymph node irradiation in breast cancer patients: state of the art].  

PubMed

Radiation therapy plays an essential role in the treatment of invasive breast cancer. However, prophylactic treatment of supra- and infraclavicular lymph nodes is not consensual, with different treatment depending on the centres and practitioners. Clinical indications for radiotherapy of the supra- and infraclavicular lymph nodes are often the subject of a consensus. Nevertheless, radiotherapy induces some toxicity. Various techniques have been developed. To date, conformal radiotherapy allows an accurate assessment of doses to target volumes and organs at risk, but at the cost of a sometime complex delineation. This article reviews the literature on radiation of supra- and infraclavicular lymph nodes, with a special focus on technical aspects in delineation and its potential toxicity. PMID:22551779

Auberdiac, P; Cartier, L; Chargari, C; Zioueche, A; Mélis, A; de Laroche, G; Castro Pena, P; Kirova, Y M; Magné, N

2012-05-01

321

Evaluation of the potential for lymph node metastasis using CRP 1846C>T genetic polymorphism in invasive breast cancer.  

PubMed

Lymph node status is a key indicator of the best approach to treatment of invasive breast cancer. However, the accuracy with which lymph node metastasis is diagnosed is not currently satisfactory. New and more reliable methods that enable one to know who has a greater potential for lymph node metastasis would be highly desirable. We previously reported that lymph node involvement in esophageal and lung cancer may have a genetic component: C-reactive protein (CRP) 1846C?>?T genetic polymorphism. Here we examined the diagnostic value of CRP 1846C?>?T polymorphism for assessing the risk of lymph node metastasis in cases of invasive breast cancer. The study participants were 185 women with invasive breast cancer who underwent curative surgery with lymph node dissection. Using DNA from blood samples and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, the utility of CRP genetic 1846C?>?T polymorphism (rs1205) for assessing the risk of lymph node metastasis was evaluated. Fifty-two (28 %) patients had lymph node metastasis. After the patients were divided into two groups based on their CRP 1846 genotypes (C/C?+?C/T and T/T), the clinical characteristics did not differ between the groups, but there was a significantly greater incidence of lymph node metastasis among patients in the T/T group. Moreover, the odds ratio for lymph node involvement in patients carrying the 1846 T/T genotype was more than 2.2 in multivariate logistic regression models. CRP genetic polymorphism may be a novel predictor of the risk of lymph node metastasis in invasive breast cancer. PMID:24633920

Terata, Kaori; Motoyama, Satoru; Kamata, Shuichi; Hinai, Yudai; Miura, Masatomo; Sato, Yusuke; Yoshino, Kei; Ito, Aki; Imai, Kazuhiro; Saito, Hajime; Minamiya, Yoshihiro

2014-06-01

322

Collagen I fiber density increases in lymph node positive breast cancers: pilot study  

PubMed Central

Abstract. Collagen I (Col1) fibers are a major structural component in the extracellular matrix of human breast cancers. In a preliminary pilot study, we explored the link between Col1 fiber density in primary human breast cancers and the occurrence of lymph node metastasis. Col1 fibers were detected by second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy in primary human breast cancers from patients presenting with lymph node metastasis (LN+) versus those without lymph node metastasis (LN?). Col1 fiber density, which was quantified using our in-house SHG image analysis software, was significantly higher in the primary human breast cancers of LN+ (fiber volume=29.22%±4.72%, inter-fiber distance=2.25±0.45???m) versus LN? (fiber volume=20.33%±5.56%, inter-fiber distance=2.88±1.07???m) patients. Texture analysis by evaluating the co-occurrence matrix and the Fourier transform of the Col1 fibers proved to be significantly different for the parameters of co-relation and energy, as well as aspect ratio and eccentricity, for LN+ versus LN? cases. We also demonstrated that tissue fixation and paraffin embedding had negligible effect on SHG Col1 fiber detection and quantification. High Col1 fiber density in primary breast tumors is associated with breast cancer metastasis and may serve as an imaging biomarker of metastasis.

Kakkad, Samata M.; Solaiyappan, Meiyappan; Argani, Pedram; Sukumar, Saraswati; Jacobs, Lisa K.; Leibfritz, Dieter; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.; Glunde, Kristine

2012-01-01

323

Prognostic analysis of esophageal cancer in elderly patients: metastatic lymph node ratio versus 2010 AJCC classification by lymph nodes  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have proposed a new prognostic factor (metastatic lymph node ratio, or MLNR) for patients with esophageal cancer (EC). However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no studies conducted to date regarding MLNR in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of MLNR staging compared with the 2010 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) N staging in elderly patients with EC. Methods From January 2001 to December 2009, a retrospective analysis of 132 consecutive patients older than 70 years of age with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) was conducted. Prognostic factors for disease-specific survival were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic curves were also plotted to verify the accuracy of MLNR staging and N staging for survival prediction. Results The disease-specific survival rates of N0, N1, N2 and N3 patients according to the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual Seventh Edition N staging were 65.5%, 42.9%, 22.2% and 0, respectively (N0 vs N1, P = 0.017; N1 vsN2, = 0.050; N2 vs N3, P < 0.001). The disease-specific survival rates of MLNR0, MLNR1, MLNR2 and MLNR3 patients were 65.5%, 45.0%, 21.1% and 0, respectively (MLNR0 vsMLNR1, P = 0.026; MLNR1 vs MLNR2, P = 0.033; MLNR2 vs MLNR3, P = 0.015). The areas under the curve were 0.731 for the 2010 AJCC N staging and 0.737 for the MLNR staging. Conclusion MLNR is an independent predictor of survival in elderly patients with ESCC. MLNR staging predicts survival after EC similarly to the 2010 AJCC N classifications and should be considered an alternative to current N staging.

2013-01-01

324

Entire-volume Serial Histological Examination for Detection of Micrometastases in Lymph Nodes of Colorectal Cancers  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to accurately detect lymph-node micrometastases, i.e., metastatic cancer foci that have a size between 2.0 and 0.2 mm, in nodes excised from colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, and to determine how frequently micrometastases might be missed when standard histological examination procedures are used. A total of 311 lymph nodes were removed and examined from 90 patients with Stage I to IV CRC. The number of slices of histology sections ranged from 6 to 75 per node (average=25.5; SD= 11.1), which provided a total of 7,943 slices. Lymph nodes were examined in their entire volume at every 50-µm and 100-µm intervals for nodes smaller and larger than 5 mm respectively. The total number of thin sections examined in each node and the number of thin sections where metastatic foci were present were counted. The number of thin sections with metastatic foci and the total number of slices was determined for each node. In addition, the presence or absence of metastatic foci in the “central” slice was determined. Micrometastases were found in 12/311 (3.9%) of all lymph nodes. In the 12 lymph nodes with micrometastases, the rate of metastatic slices over all slices was 39.4% (range=6.3 to 81.3%; SD=25.8%) In the central slice of each node, micrometastases were present only in 6 of 12 lymph nodes (50%); accordingly, they were not present in the central slice for half the micrometastatic nodes. These 6 nodes represented 1.9% of the 311 nodes and 11.1% of the 54 metastatic nodes. This study suggests that a significant fraction of micrometastases can be missed by traditional singleslice sectioning; half of the micrometastases would have been overlooked in our data set of 311 nodes.

Machi, Junji; Mamou, Jonathan; Yanagihara, Eugene T.; Saegusa-Beecroft, Emi; Kobayashi, Gregory K.; Wong, Clifford C. M.; Fung, Conway; Feleppa, Ernest J.; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro

2014-01-01

325

Lymph node metastasis in grossly apparent clinical stage Ia epithelial ovarian cancer: Hacettepe experience and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Background Lymphadenectomy is an integral part of the staging system of epithelial ovarian cancer. However, the extent of lymphadenectomy in the early stages of ovarian cancer is controversial. The objective of this study was to identify the lymph node involvement in unilateral epithelial ovarian cancer apparently confined to the one ovary (clinical stage Ia). Methods A prospective study of clinical stage I ovarian cancer patients is presented. Patient's characteristics and tumor histopathology were the variables evaluated. Results Thirty three ovarian cancer patients with intact ovarian capsule were evaluated. Intraoperatively, neither of the patients had surface involvement, adhesions, ascites or palpable lymph nodes (supposed to be clinical stage Ia). The mean age of the study group was 55.3 ± 11.8. All patients were surgically staged and have undergone a systematic pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy. Final surgicopathologic reports revealed capsular involvement in seven patients (21.2%), contralateral ovarian involvement in two (6%) and omental metastasis in one (3%) patient. There were two patients (6%) with lymph node involvement. One of the two lymph node metastasis was solely in paraaortic node and the other metastasis was in ipsilateral pelvic lymph node. Ovarian capsule was intact in all of the patients with lymph node involvement and the tumor was grade 3. Conclusion In clinical stage Ia ovarian cancer patients, there may be a risk of paraaortic and pelvic lymph node metastasis. Further studies with larger sample size are needed for an exact conclusion.

2010-01-01

326

Ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of metastases in nonpalpable supraclavicular lymph nodes in lung cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives To assess frequency and significance of enlarged nonpalpable supraclavicular lymph nodes with routine ultrasound (US) evaluation and US-guided fineneedle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) for the diagnosis and staging of patients with lung cancer. Materials and methods 106 consecutive patients with lung cancer and nonpalpable supraclavicular lymph nodes were evaluated with cervical US for the presence of pathological lymph nodes. FNAB was performed in patients with nodes with short-axis > 5 mm, rounded shape and missing echogenic hilum. Results 27 (25.5%) patients had enlarged supraclavicular lymph nodes on US. Fourteen patients (13.2%) had cytologically proven lymph node involvement. Supraclavicular lymph node metastasis was more frequent in patients with mediastinal invasion (p = 0.0001) and patients with enlarged lymph nodes on upper paratracheal stations on thorax CT (p = 0.0001). No relation was found between supraclavicular lymph node involvement and T stage (p = 0.27), distant metastasis (p = 0.50) or histological type (p = 0.80). Three patients were upstaged from IIIA to IIIB status. US-guided FNAB was the only diagnostic method in 2 patients. Conclusion US-guided FNAB is a simple and safe procedure which can document N3 stage of disease in lung cancer patients. Thereby more invasive and expensive diagnostic procedures can be avoided in selected lung cancer patients.

2011-01-01

327

New approach to anal cancer: Individualized therapy based on sentinel lymph node biopsy  

PubMed Central

Oncological treatment is currently directed toward a tailored therapy concept. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal could be considered a suitable platform to test new therapeutic strategies to minimize treatment morbidity. Standard of care for patients with anal canal cancer consists of a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This treatment has led to a high rate of local control and a 60% cure rate with preservation of the anal sphincter, thus replacing surgical abdominoperineal resection. Lymph node metastases represent a critical independent prognostic factor for local recurrence and survival. Mesorectal and iliac lymph nodes are usually included in the radiation field, whereas the inclusion of inguinal regions still remains controversial because of the subsequent adverse side effects. Sentinel lymph node biopsies could clearly identify inguinal node-positive patients eligible for therapeutic groin irradiation. A sentinel lymph node navigation procedure is reported here to be a feasible and effective method for establishing the true inguinal node status in patients suffering from anal canal cancer. Based on the results of sentinel node biopsies, a selective approach could be proposed where node-positive patients could be selected for inguinal node irradiation while node-negative patients could take advantage of inguinal sparing irradiation, thus avoiding toxic side effects.

De Nardi, Paola; Carvello, Michele; Staudacher, Carlo

2012-01-01

328

Gene Expression Signatures of Lymph Node Metastasis in Oral Cancer: Molecular Characteristics and Clinical Significances  

PubMed Central

Even though lymph node metastasis accounts for the vast majority of cancer death in patients with oral cancer (OC), the molecular mechanisms of lymph node metastasis remain elusive. Genome-wide microarray analyses and functional studies in vitro and in vivo, along with detailed clinical observations, have identified a number of molecules that may contribute to lymph node metastasis. These include lymphangionenic cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, basement membrane-interacting molecules, matrix enzymes and relevant downstream signaling pathways. However, defined gene signatures from different studies are highly variable, which hinders their translation to clinically relevant applications. To date, none of the identified signatures or molecular biomarkers has been successfully implemented as a diagnostic or prognostic tool applicable to routine clinical practice. In this review, we will first introduce the significance of lymph node metastasis in OC, and clinical/experimental evidences that support the underlying molecular mechanisms. We will then provide a comprehensive review and integrative analysis of the existing gene expression studies that aim to identify the metastasis-related signatures in OC. Finally, the remaining challenges will be discussed and our insights on future directions will be provided.

Liu, Xiqiang; Kolokythas, Antonia; Wang, Jianguang; Huang, Hongzhang; Zhou, Xiaofeng

2011-01-01

329

Clinical Significance of Lymph Node Ratio in Stage III Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Recent literature has shown that lymph node ratio is superior to the absolute number of metastatic lymph nodes in predicting the prognosis in several malignances other than colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of the lymph node ratio (LNR) in patients with stage III colorectal cancer. Methods We included 186 stage III colorectal cancer patients who underwent a curative resection over a 10-year period in one hospital. The cutoff point of LNR was chosen as 0.07 because there was significant survival difference at that LNR. The Kaplan-Meier and the Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the prognostic effect according to LNR. Results There was statistically significant longer overall survival in the group of LNR > 0.07 than in the group of LNR ? 7 (P = 0.008). Especially, there was a survival difference for the N1 patients group (LN < 4) according to LNR (5-year survival of N1 patients was lower in the group of LNR > 0.07, P = 0.025), but there was no survival difference for the N2 group (4 ? LN) according to LNR. The multivariate analysis showed that the LNR is an independent prognostic factor. Conclusions LNR can be considered as a more accurate and potent modality for prognostic stratifications in patients with stage III colorectal cancer.

Park, Yo Han; Lee, Jae Im; Park, Jong Kyung; Jo, Hang Ju; Kang, Won Kyung

2011-01-01

330

Sentinel lymph node biopsy in cervical cancer: A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is used to determine the pathological status of the first lymph node receiving lymphatic drainage from the primary tumor. The diagnostic value of SLNB for the assessment of the nodal status in patients with cervical cancer has not been determined. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to assess the diagnostic value of SLNB in cervical cancer. A search for related literature was performed using PubMed. Data were analyzed using a random effects model and a subgroup analysis was used to assess the diagnostic value of different practices during the process. A total of 17 studies involving a total of 1,112 patients were included in the analysis. The pooled sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection rate, sensitivity and negative predictive values were 92.2% [95% confidence interval (CI): 88.3–94.8%], 88.8% (95% CI: 85.1–91.7%) and 95.0% (95% CI: 92.8–96.6%), respectively. The subgroup analysis revealed that laparoscopy, tracer combination and immunohistochemistry were associated with a higher SLN detection rate. In conclusion, the SLNB in cervical cancer appears to be of diagnostic value, particularly the procedure with the combination of laparoscopy, combined tracers and immunohistochemistry. However, further studies are required to establish the clinical value of SLNB in cervical cancer.

WU, YIBO; LI, ZEMING; WU, HAIYAN; YU, JINJIN

2013-01-01

331

Management of prostate cancer patients with lymph node involvement: A rapidly evolving paradigm  

PubMed Central

Although widespread PSA screening has inevitably led to increased diagnosis of lower risk prostate cancer, the number of patients with nodal involvement at baseline remains high (nearly 40% of high risk patients initially staged cN0). These rates probably do not reflect the true incidence of prostate cancer with lymph node involvement among patients selected for external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), as patients selected for surgery often have more favorable prognostic features. At many institutions, radical treatment directed only at the prostate is considered standard and patients known to have regional disease are often managed palliatively with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for presumed systemic disease. New imaging tools such as MR lymphangiography, choline-based PET imaging or combined SPECT/CT now allow surgeons and radiation oncologists to identify and target nodal metastasis and/or lymph nodes with a high risk of occult involvement. Recent advances in the field of surgery including the advent of extended nodal dissection and sentinel node procedures have suggested that cancer-specific survival might be improved for lymph-node positive patients with a low burden of nodal involvement when managed with aggressive interventions. These new imaging tools can provide radiation oncologists with maps to guide delivery of high dose conformal radiation to a target volume while minimizing radiation toxicity to non-target normal tissue. This review highlights advances in imaging and reports how they may help to define a new paradigm to manage node-positive prostate cancer patients with a curative-intent.

Crehange, Gilles; Chen, Chien Peter; Hsu, Charles C.; Kased, Norbert; Coakley, Fergus V.; Kurhanewicz, John; Roach, Mack

2013-01-01

332

Prognostic Value of the Lymph Node Ratio in Stage III Gastric Cancer Patients Undergoing Radical Resection  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of metastatic lymph node ratio (LNR) in patients having radical resection for stage III gastric cancer. Methods A total of 365 patients with stage III gastric cancer who underwent radical resection between 2002 and 2008 at Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital were analyzed. The cut-point survival analysis was adopted to determine the appropriate cutoffs for LNR. Kaplan–Meier survival curves and log-rank tests were used for the survival analysis. Results By cut-point survival analysis, the LNR staging system was generated using 0.25 and 0.50 as the cutoff values. Pearson's correlation test revealed that the LNR was related with metastatic lymph nodes but not related with total harvested lymph nodes. Cox regression analysis showed that depth of invasion and LNR were the independent predictors of survival (p<0.05). There was a significant difference in survival between each pN stages classified by the LNR staging, however no significant difference was found in survival rate between each LNR stages classified by the pN staging. Conclusions The LNR is an independent prognostic factor for survival in stage III gastric cancer and is superior to the pN category in TNM staging. It may be considered as a prognostic variable in future staging system.

Ke, Bin; Song, Xi-Na; Liu, Ning; Zhang, Ru-Peng; Wang, Chang-Li; Liang, Han

2014-01-01

333

DSG3 as a Biomarker for the Ultrasensitive Detection of Occult Lymph Node Metastasis in Oral Cancer Using Nanostructured Immunoarrays  

PubMed Central

Objectives The diagnosis of cervical lymph node metastasis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients constitutes an essential requirement for clinical staging and treatment selection. However, clinical assessment by physical examination and different imaging modalities, as well as by histological examination of routine lymph node cryosections can miss micrometastases, while false positives may lead to unnecessary elective lymph node neck resections. Here, we explored the feasibility of developing a sensitive assay system for desmoglein 3 (DSG3) as a predictive biomarker for lymph node metastasis in HNSCC. Materials and Methods DSG3 expression was determined in multiple general cancer- and HNSCC-tissue microarrays (TMA), in negative and positive HNSCC metastatic cervical lymph nodes, and in a variety of HNSCC and control cell lines. A nanostructured immunoarray system was developed for the ultrasensitive detection of DSG3 in lymph node tissue lysates. Results We demonstrate that DSG3 is highly expressed in all HNSCC lesions and their metastatic cervical lymph nodes, but absent in non-invaded lymph nodes. We show that DSG3 can be rapidly detected with high sensitivity using a simple microfluidic immunoarray platform, even in human tissue sections including very few HNSCC invading cells, hence distinguishing between positive and negative lymph nodes. Conclusion We provide a proof of principle supporting that ultrasensitive nanostructured assay systems for DSG3 can be exploited to detect micrometastatic HNSCC lesions in lymph nodes, which can improve the diagnosis and guide in the selection of appropriate therapeutic intervention modalities for HNSCC patients.

Patel, Vyomesh; Martin, Daniel; Malhotra, Ruchika; Marsh, Christina A.; Doci, Colleen L.; Nathan, Cherie-Ann O; Sinha, Uttam K.; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Molinolo, Alfredo A.; Rusling, James F.; Gutkind, J. Silvio

2012-01-01

334

Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer: Initial Experience at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center 1 1 This work has been supported by grants from the Tow Foundation and the Liz Claiborne Foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) has emerged as a potential alternative to routine axillary dissection in clinically node-negative breast cancer.Study Design: From September 1995 to June 1996 at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 60 patients with clinically node-negative cancer underwent SNB, which was immediately followed by standard axillary dissection. Both blue dye and radioisotope were used to identify the sentinel node.

Brian J O’Hea; Arnold D. K Hill; Ayda M El-Shirbiny; Samuel D. J Yeh; Paul Peter Rosen; Daniel G Coit; Patrick I Borgen; Hiram S Cody

1998-01-01

335

Micrometastatic cancer cells in lymph nodes, bone marrow, and blood: Clinical significance and biologic implications.  

PubMed

Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Cancer metastasis may be regarded as a progressive process from its inception in the primary tumor microenvironment to distant sites by way of the lymphovascular system. Although this type of tumor dissemination often occurs in an orderly fashion via the sentinel lymph node (SLN), acting as a possible gateway to the regional lymph nodes, bone marrow, and peripheral blood and ultimately to distant metastatic sites, this is not a general rule as tumor cells may enter the blood and spread to distant sites, bypassing the SLN. Methods of detecting micrometastatic cancer cells in the SLN, bone marrow, and peripheral blood of patients have been established. Patients with cancer cells in their SLN, bone marrow, or peripheral blood have worse clinical outcomes than patients with no evidence of spread to these compartments. The presence of these cells also has important biologic implications for disease progression and the clinician's understanding of the process of cancer metastasis. Further characterization of these micrometastatic cancer cells at each stage and site of metastasis is needed to design novel selective therapies for a more "personalized" treatment. CA Cancer J Clin 2014;64:195-206. (©) 2014 American Cancer Society. PMID:24500995

Leong, Stanley P L; Tseng, William W

2014-05-01

336

Lymphatic Mapping and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy.  

PubMed

The status of the regional nodal basin remains the most important prognostic indicator of survival. The current standard of care for the management of invasive breast cancer is the complete removal of the tumor, with documentation of negative margins by either mastectomy or lumpectomy, followed by complete axillary lymph node dissection. Data suggest that complete lymph node dissection (CLND) provides better local control of the disease and may actually offer a survival advantage. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy are clearly changing this long-held paradigm and have the potential to change the standard of surgical care of the breast cancer patient. The purpose of this report is to describe the lymphatic mapping experience at the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute. From April 1994 to January 1999, 1,147 consecutive breast cancer patients were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved lymphatic mapping protocol. Lymphatic mapping was performed using Tc99m-labeled sulfur colloid and isosulfan blue dye. An SLN was defined as any blue node and/or any hot node with ex vivo radioactivity counts >/=10 times an excised non-SLN or in situ radioactivity counts >/=3 times the background counts. Lymphatic mapping was successful in identifying the SLN in 1,098 of 1,147 (95.7%) cases. In the first 186 patients, all of whom underwent CLND following SLN biopsy, one false-negative biopsy was encountered for a false-negative rate of 0.83%. The method of diagnosis (excisional versus minimally invasive) does not appear to impact on lymphatic mapping. Tumor size, however, is directly related to the probability of axillary lymph node involvement. Advances in technology and the development of minimally invasive surgical techniques have heralded a new era in surgery. Lymphatic mapping and SLN biopsy may actually prove to be a more accurate method of identifying metastases to the axilla by allowing a more focused pathologic examination of the axillary node(s) at highest risk for metastasis. With adequate training, this technique can be readily implemented as a valuable tool in the surgical treatment of breast cancer. PMID:11348304

Bass, Siddharth S.; Lyman, Gary H.; McCann, Christa R.; Ku, Ni Ni; Berman, Claudia; Durand, Kara; Bolano, Monica; Cox, Sarah; Salud, Christopher; Reintgen, Douglas S.; Cox, Charles E.

1999-09-01

337

Up-Regulation of MicroRNA-145 Associates with Lymph Node Metastasis in Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Metastasis is the main cause of mortality in patients with solid tumours. Identifying the exact molecules associated with CRC metastasis may be crucial to understand the process, which might also be translated to the diagnosis and treatment of CRC. In this study, we investigate the association of microRNA expression patterns with the lymph node metastasis of colorectal cancer. Among these candidate miRNAs, the expression of miRNA-145 was significantly related to lymph node metastasis of CRC. Both in vitro and in vivo study demonstrated that up-regulation of miR-145 could improve the ability of migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cell, while no effect on proliferation was observed. The mechanism of this promotion is associated with the stabilization of Hsp-27, a protein which plays an important role in the promotion of metastasis. These results may be crucial to understanding CRC metastasis and may be translated to the diagnosis and treatment of CRC.

Tang, Wanyan; An, Huaying; Ma, Jie

2014-01-01

338

Adding Taxol to Initial Chemotherapy May Be New Option When Breast Cancer Has Spread to Lymph Nodes  

Cancer.gov

Early findings from a large, multicenter trial suggest that the drug Taxol (paclitaxel), in combination with other standard chemotherapy agents, may have a small but significant benefit for breast cancer patients whose disease has spread to nearby lymph nodes.

339

Pathology Case Study: Enlarged Axillary Lymph Node  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 73 year old female who had a history of thyroidectomy for benign nodules who presented with a lump in her thyroidectomy scar. Visitors are given a patient history, microscopic description, and immunohistochemistry, including images. They are also given an opportunity to diagnose the patient before clicking on the "Final Diagnosis" section, which provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopatholgy.

Contis, Lydia C.; Peng, Yan

2009-03-23

340

The pattern of lymphatic metastasis of breast cancer and its influence on the delineation of radiation fields  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The delineation of radiation fields should cover the clinical target volume (CTV) and minimally irradiate the surrounding normal tissues and organs. This study was designed to explore the pattern of lymphatic metastasis of breast cancer and indications for radiotherapy after radical or modified radical mastectomy and to discuss the rational delineation of radiation fields. Methods and materials: Between September 1980 and December 2003, 78 breast cancer patients receiving extended radical mastectomy in the Margottini model and 61 cases with complete data were analyzed to investigate the internal mammary lymphatic metastatic status. Between March 1988 and December 1988, 46 patients with clinical negative supraclavicular nodes received radical mastectomy plus supraclavicular lymph node dissection. The supraclavicular lymph nodes and axillary lymph nodes were labeled as S and levels I, II, or III, respectively, and examined pathologically. Between January 1996 and April 1999, 412 patients who had radical or modified radical mastectomy underwent the pathologic examination of axillary or levels I, II, or III nodes. Results: The incidence of internal mammary lymph node metastasis was 24.6%. It was 36.7% for the patients with positive axillary lymph nodes and 12.9% for the patients with negative axillary lymph nodes. All the metastatic internal mammary lymph nodes were located at the first, second, and third intercostal spaces. Skipping metastasis of the supraclavicular and axillary lymph nodes was observed in 3.8% and 8.1% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: According to our data, we suggest that the radiation field for internal mammary lymph nodes should exclude the fourth and fifth intercostal spaces, which may help to reduce the radiation damage to heart. It is unnecessary to irradiate the supraclavicular lymph nodes for the patients with negative axillary level III nodes, even with positive level I and level II nodes.

Yu Jinming [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shandong Province (China)]. E-mail: jn7984729@public.jn.sd.cn; Li Gong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shandong Province (China); Li Jianbin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shandong Province (China); Wang Yongsheng [Department of Breast Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shandong Province (China)

2005-03-01

341

Mediastinal lymph node metastasis of colon cancer: Report of a case  

Microsoft Academic Search

We herein describe a patient with mediastinal lymph node metastases which occurred after both a primary sigmoid colon cancer\\u000a and metachronous ovarian metastasis had been resected. The most likely route of metastases to the mediastinum in this case\\u000a is the paravertebral venous plexus probably connected to the ovarian metastasis, or so-called remetastasis. This case illustrates\\u000a that the mediastinum is thus

Hiroshi Kura; Norihiro Sato; Akihiko Uchiyama; Yuji Nakafusa; Ryuichi Mibu; Kouichirou Yoshida; Kentaro Kuroiwa; Masao Tanaka

1999-01-01

342

Screening of lymph nodes metastasis associated lncRNAs in colorectal cancer patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To screen lymph nodes metastasis associated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in colorectal cancer through microarray analysis. METHODS: Metastatic lymph node (MLN), normal lymph node (NLN) and tumor tissues of 3 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients were collected during the operation and validated by pathological examinations. RNAs were extracted from MLN, NLN, and cancer tissues separately. RNA quantity and quality were measured with a NanoDrop ND-1000 spectrophotometer and RNA integrity was assessed by standard denaturing agarose electrophoresis. Agilent Feature Extraction Software (Version 11.0.1.1) was used to analyze acquired array images. Four differently expressed lncRNAs were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in 26 subsets of MLN, NLN, and tumor tissues. RESULTS: Of 33045 lncRNAs, 1133 were differentially expressed in MLN compared with NLN, of which 260 were up-regulated and 873 down-regulated (? 2 fold-change). Five hundred and forty-five lncRNAs were differentially expressed in MLN compared with tumor tissues, of which 460 were up-regulated and 85 down-regulated (? 2 fold-change). Compared with NLN and cancer tissues, 14 lncRNAs were specifically up-regulated and 5 specifically down-regulated in MLN. AK307796, ENST00000425785, and AK021444 were confirmed to be specifically up-regulated in MLN and ENST00000465846 specifically down-regulated in MLN by qRT-PCR in 26 CRC patients. CONCLUSION: The specifically expressed lncRNAs in MLN may exert a partial or key role in the progress of lymph nodes metastasis of CRC.

Han, Jun; Rong, Long-Fei; Shi, Chuan-Bin; Dong, Xiao-Gang; Wang, Jie; Wang, Bao-Lin; Wen, Hao; He, Zhen-Yu

2014-01-01

343

FDG-PET staging and importance of lymph node SUV in head and neck cancer  

PubMed Central

Objectives The role of positron emission tomography (PET) with fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) in the staging of head and neck cancer (HNC) is unclear. The NCCN guidelines do not recommend FDG-PET as a part of standard workup. The purpose of this report is to examine the role of FDG-PET imaging in altering management and providing prognostic information for HNC. Methods Retrospective review of HNC patients who had a staging FDG-PET scan performed at either Thomas Jefferson University or University of Kansas Medical Center between the years 2001 and 2007. A total of 212 PET scans were performed in patients who went on to receive radiotherapy. Results The median follow-up time for all patients was 469 days. The PPV and NPV of PET imaging to correctly identify lymph node status was 94% and 89% respectively. Lymph nodes with extracapsular extension (ECE) had higher SUVs than nodes without ECE, 11.0 vs. 5.0 (p < 0.0007). Maximum SUV for the primary tumor > 8.0 was predictive of worse overall survival (p < 0.045), while the SUV of the lymph nodes was predictive for distant recurrence at one year--with a mean SUV value of 10.4 for patients with distant failure vs. 7.0 without (p < 0.05). Conclusions FDG-PET staging in head and neck cancer has good positive and negative predictive values in determining lymph node status. The maximum SUV of the primary tumor is predictive of overall survival. This is the first report to find that the SUV of a lymph node is predictive for ECE and also for distant recurrence.

2010-01-01

344

Downregulation of glutathione peroxidase 3 is associated with lymph node metastasis and prognosis in cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3) is a member of the glutathione peroxidase family of selenoproteins and is one of the key defensive enzymes against oxidative damages to host cells. Downregulation of GPX3 due to its promoter hypermethylation has been documented in several different types of cancer, indicating that GPX3 functions as a possible tumor suppressor. In the present study, we showed that GPX3 is also significantly downregulated in cervical cancer tissues compared to normal cervical tissues by qRT-PCR analyses and immunohistostainings. GPX3 expression was significantly related to lymph node metastasis and prognosis in cervical cancer patients. Treatment of cervical cancer cells with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine restored the expression of GPX3 and methylation-specific PCR (MSP) confirmed the CpG methylation of the GPX3 gene. Our results indicate that promoter methylation is one of the major causes of GPX3 downregulation in cervical cancer and GPX3 could serve as a predictive biomarker for lymph node metastasis and prognosis of cervical cancer. PMID:24788695

Zhang, Xianglan; Zheng, Zhenlong; Yingji, Shen; Kim, Hyeyeon; Jin, Renshun; Renshu, Li; Lee, Doo Young; Roh, Mi Ryung; Yang, Sanghwa

2014-06-01

345

Clinicopathological features of gastric metastasis from breast cancer in three cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common sites for metastases from breast cancer are lymph nodes, bone, lung, liver, and brain. Gastrointestinal (GI) metastasis\\u000a is rarely found or diagnosed in patients with breast cancer. This report presents three cases of gastric metastasis from breast\\u000a cancer. Case 1 was a 42-year-old female diagnosed with gastric metastasis after mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection\\u000a for invasive lobular carcinoma

Kenta Koike; Kenji Kitahara; Mayumi Higaki; Masako Urata; Fumio Yamazaki; Hirokazu Noshiro

346

Contrast-Enhanced MR Imaging of Lymph Nodes in Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

The accurate identification and characterization of lymph nodes by modern imaging modalities has important therapeutic and prognostic significance for patients with newly diagnosed cancers. The presence of nodal metastases limits the therapeutic options, and it generally indicates a worse prognosis for the patients with nodal metastases. Yet anatomic imaging (CT and MR imaging) is of limited value for depicting small metastatic deposits in normal-sized nodes, and nodal size is a poor criterion when there is no extracapsular extension or focal nodal necrosis to rely on for diagnosing nodal metastases. Thus, there is a need for functional methods that can be reliably used to identify small metastases. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging of lymph nodes is a non-invasive method for the analysis of the lymphatic system after the interstitial or intravenous administration of contrast media. Moreover, some lymphotrophic contrast media have been developed and used for detecting lymph node metastases, and this detection is independent of the nodal size. This article will review the basic principles, the imaging protocols, the interpretation and the accuracies of contrast-enhanced MR imaging of lymph nodes in patients with malignancies, and we also focus on the recent issues cited in the literature. In addition, we discuss the results of several pre-clinical studies and animal studies that were conducted in our institution.

Choi, Seung Hong

2010-01-01

347

Can CA-125 Predict Lymph Node Metastasis in Epithelial Ovarian Cancers in Turkish Population?  

PubMed Central

Objective. The role of single preoperative serum CA-125 levels in predicting pelvic or paraaortic lymph node metastasis in patients operated for epithelial ovarian cancer has been investigated. Methods. 176 patients diagnosed with epithelial ovarian carcinoma after staging laparotomy between January 2002 and May 2010 were evaluated retrospectively. Results. The mean, geometric mean, and median of preoperative serum CA-125 levels were 632,6, 200,29, and 191,5?U/mL, respectively. The cut-off value predicting lymph node metastases in the ROC curve was 71,92?U/mL, which is significant in logistic regression analysis (P = 0.005). The preoperative log CA-125 levels were also statistically significant in predicting lymph node metastasis in logistic regression analysis (P = 0.008). Conclusions. The tumor marker CA-125, which increases with grade independent of the effect of stage in EOC, is predictive of lymph node metastasis with a high rate of false positivity in Turkish population. The high false positive rate may obscure the predictive value of CA-125.

Koroglu, Nadiye; Y?ld?r?m, Gokhan; Ulker, Volkan; Gulk?l?k, Ahmet; Dansuk, Ramazan

2014-01-01

348

Detection of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in patients with Early Stage Cervical Cancer  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of identifying the sentinel lymph nodes (SNs) as well as to evaluate factors that might influence the SN detection rate in patients with cervical cancer of the uterus. Eighty nine patients underwent intracervical injection of 1% isosulfan blue dye at the time of planned radical hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy between January 2003 and December 2003. With the visual detection of lymph nodes that stained blue, SNs were identified and removed separately. Then all patients underwent complete pelvic lymph node dissection and/or para-aortic lymph node dissection. SNs were identified in 51 of 89 (57.3%) patients. The most common site for SN detection was the external iliac area. Metastatic nodes were detected in 21 of 89 (23.5%) patients. One false negative SN was obtained. Successful SN detection was more likely in patients younger than 50 yr (p=0.02) and with a history of preoperative conization (p=0.05). However, stage, histological type, surgical procedure and neoadjuvant chemotherapy showed no significant difference for SN detection rate. Therefore, the identification of SNs with isosulfan blue dye is feasible and safe. The SN detection rate was high in patients younger than 50 yr or with a history of preoperative conization.

Seong, Seok Ju; Park, Hyun; Yang, Kwang Moon; Kim, Tae Jin; Lim, Kyung Taek; Shim, Jae Uk; Park, Chong Taik

2007-01-01

349

Detection of sentinel lymph nodes in patients with early stage cervical cancer.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of identifying the sentinel lymph nodes (SNs) as well as to evaluate factors that might influence the SN detection rate in patients with cervical cancer of the uterus. Eighty nine patients underwent intracervical injection of 1% isosulfan blue dye at the time of planned radical hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy between January 2003 and December 2003. With the visual detection of lymph nodes that stained blue, SNs were identified and removed separately. Then all patients underwent complete pelvic lymph node dissection and/or para-aortic lymph node dissection. SNs were identified in 51 of 89 (57.3%) patients. The most common site for SN detection was the external iliac area. Metastatic nodes were detected in 21 of 89 (23.5%) patients. One false negative SN was obtained. Successful SN detection was more likely in patients younger than 50 yr (p=0.02) and with a history of preoperative conization (p=0.05). However, stage, histological type, surgical procedure and neoadjuvant chemotherapy showed no significant difference for SN detection rate. Therefore, the identification of SNs with isosulfan blue dye is feasible and safe. The SN detection rate was high in patients younger than 50 yr or with a history of preoperative conization. PMID:17297260

Seong, Seok Ju; Park, Hyun; Yang, Kwang Moon; Kim, Tae Jin; Lim, Kyung Taek; Shim, Jae Uk; Park, Chong Taik; Lee, Ki Heon

2007-02-01

350

Lymph node metastasis in grossly apparent clinical stage Ia epithelial ovarian cancer: Hacettepe experience and review of literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lymphadenectomy is an integral part of the staging system of epithelial ovarian cancer. However, the extent of lymphadenectomy in the early stages of ovarian cancer is controversial. The objective of this study was to identify the lymph node involvement in unilateral epithelial ovarian cancer apparently confined to the one ovary (clinical stage Ia). METHODS: A prospective study of clinical

Guldeniz Aksan Desteli; Murat Gultekin; Alp Usubutun; Kunter Yuce; Ali Ayhan

2010-01-01

351

Successful treatment of lymph node metastases recurring from gallbladder cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 66-year-old woman who had undergone cholecystectomy for the treatment of gallbladder cancer 5 years and 10 months previously\\u000a was referred to our center due to increased carbohydrate antigen (CA)19-9. Increased CA19-9 (136?U\\/ml) was the only abnormality\\u000a detected on initial examination, and, despite various tests, clear signs of recurrence could not be detected. Subsequently,\\u000a the patient was followed. Six months

Kentaro Tasaki; Hiroshi Yamamoto; Kazuo Watanabe; Takehide Asano; Ichiro Honda; Satoshi Watanabe; Matsuo Nagata; Hiroaki Soda; Yasuhito Shimizu; Takayuki Tohma

2003-01-01

352

Lung Cancer Lymph Node Micrometastasis Detection Using RT-PCR - Correlation with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) expression  

PubMed Central

Objectives Lymph node (LN) staging provides critical information in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Lymphangiogenesis may be an important contributor to the pathophysiology of lymphatic metastases. We hypothesized that the presence of lymph node micrometastases positively correlates with VEGF-A/C/D and VEGF-receptor-3 (lymphangiogenic factors) expression in lymph nodes. Methods Forty NSCLC patients had pre-operative PET-CT and mediastinoscopy. RT-PCR assays for mRNA expression of epithelial markers (CK-7, CEACAM-5 and PLUNC) were performed in selected fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid lymph nodes. VEGF-A/C/D and VEGF-receptor-3 expression levels were measured in primary tumors and lymph nodes. Wilcoxon rank sum test was run for the association between the RT-PCR epithelial marker levels and VEGF expression levels in the LNs. Results RT-PCR for CK-7, CEACAM5 or PLUNC indicated lymph node micrometastatic disease in 19 of 35 patients (54%). There was a high correlation between detection of micrometastases and VEGF-A/C/D or VEGF-receptor-3 expression levels in lymph nodes. Median follow-up was 12.6 months. Conclusions RT-PCR analysis of FDG-avid lymph nodes results in up-staging of patients. Micrometastases correlate with the expression of VEGF in lymph nodes in NSCLC patients. This may reflect the role of lymphangiogenesis in promoting metastases.

Nwogu, Chukwumere E.; Yendamuri, Sai; Tan, Wei; Kannisto, Eric; Bogner, Paul; Morrison, Carl; Cheney, Richard; Dexter, Elisabeth; Picone, Anthony; Hennon, Mark; Hutson, Alan; Reid, Mary; Adjei, Alex; Demmy, Todd L.

2013-01-01

353

Advanced ovarian cancer: Vaccination site draining lymph node as target of immuno-modulative adjuvants in autologous cancer vaccine  

PubMed Central

Tumor as source of tumor associated antigens (TAA) and sentinel lymph node (SLN) configure the first interaction between the malignant disease and the patient’s immune system. As consequence of this interaction, a local immune response is elicited inside the SLN. Tumor’s cytokines reach the SLN conditioning its cellular microenvironment to produce local permissive immune responses. This local tolerogenic immunity is decisional because it starts a systemic also permissive immunity. The tumor progresses. To counteract this mechanism, we have designed a medical procedure to create an immunotherapeutic site (ITS) that reproduces, distantly from the tumor, a TAA source and a draining lymph node but with a cellular microenvironment conditioned to promote local protective instead of permissive immune responses. Due to ITS decisional role, this local protective immunity starts a systemic anti-tumoral immune response. In progressive ovarian cancer, we tested an ITS using the autologous thermostable hemoderivative-cancer vaccine as TAA source and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulant factor plus etoposide, injected both at the vaccination site, as conditioner of the draining lymph node cellularity. The immunophenotyping of lymph node cell populations showed that ITS acquired a locally protective immune profile T-regulatory-cells/activated-antigen presenting-cells and systemically increased the antiprogressive effect of the tested vaccine.

Lasalvia-Prisco, Eduardo; Garcia-Giralt, Emilio; Cucchi, Silvia; Vazquez, Jesus; Robinson, Leonard; Dalton, John

2007-01-01

354

Lymph node ratio and pN staging in patients with node-positive breast cancer: a report from the Korean breast cancer society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with node-positive breast cancer are currently classified according to pN stage. Lymph node ratio (LNR), the ratio\\u000a of positive to total removed lymph nodes, maybe a more useful prognostic factor in these patients. We therefore compared LNR\\u000a and pN staging as prognostic factors in patients with node-positive breast cancer. Using two large prospective databases of\\u000a the Korean Breast Cancer

Sei Hyun Ahn; Hee Jeong Kim; Jong Won Lee; Gyung-Yub Gong; Dong-Yong Noh; Jung Hyun Yang; Sang Seol Jung; Ho Yong Park

355

Lymph node ratio and breast cancer prognosis: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Due to the heterogeneity of lymph node examination and the conflicting results existing for the same classification of lymph node ratio (LNR), it is necessary to conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic effects of different LNRs on breast cancer. PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched to find all published cohort studies that evaluated the prognostic value of different LNRs on breast cancer. The outcomes were overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), breast cause-special survival (BCCS), mortality, locoregional recurrence (LRR), and distant metastasis. Data was analyzed using comprehensive meta-analysis software version 2.0, and 23 studies were included. The available evidence showed that LNR was a prognostic predictor for breast cancer, especially for clinically node-positive breast cancer, but the available evidence could not judge which cutoff point is the most reliable. Meanwhile, the cutoff values 0.2 and 0.65 could be suitable to predict breast cancer OS, DFS, BCCS, and mortality. PMID:24101545

Liu, Dechun; Chen, Yanbin; Deng, Miao; Xie, Gangqiang; Wang, Jianguang; Zhang, Like; Liu, Qipeng; Yuan, Pengfei; Feng, Xiaoshan

2014-01-01

356

MD Anderson study finds African American women with breast cancer less likely to have newer, recommended surgical procedure  

Cancer.gov

African American women with early stage, invasive breast cancer were 12 percent less likely than Caucasian women with the same diagnosis to receive a minimally invasive technique, axillary sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy, years after the procedure had become the standard of surgical practice, according to research from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. The study, presented at the 2012 CTRC-AACR San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, also found that those African American women who underwent the older, more invasive procedure, axillary lymph node (ALN) dissection, had higher rates of lymphedema.

357

NCI Cancer Bulletin for February 22, 2011  

Cancer.gov

Clinical trials have shown that surgeons can remove less tissue from women who have early-stage, lymph node-negative breast cancer without harming their chances of the disease returning or their overall survival. Now, a study led by Dr. Armando Giuliano of the John Wayne Cancer Institute in Santa Monica, CA, adds to that knowledge by demonstrating that a surgical practice called axillary lymph node dissection isn’t necessary for some women with early-stage disease when cancer cells are found in the adjacent lymph nodes.

358

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer reduces surgical risks and lymph-vascular space involvement  

PubMed Central

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), which can reduce the size and therefore increase the resectability of tumors, has recently evolved as a treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer. NACT has been reported to decrease the risk of pathologic factors related to prognosis of cervical cancer. To further assess the effects of NACT on surgery and the pathologic characteristics of cervical cancer, we reviewed 110 cases of locally advanced cervical cancer treated with radical hysterectomy with or without NACT at the People's Hospital of Peking University between January 2006 and December 2010. Of 110 patients, 68 underwent platinum-based NACT prior to surgery (NACT group) and 42 underwent primary surgery treatment (PST group). Our results showed 48 of 68 (70.6%) patients achieved a complete response or partial response to NACT. Estimated blood loss, operation time, and number of removed lymph nodes during surgery, as well as complication rates during and after surgery were not significantly different between the NACT group and the PST group. The rates of deep stromal invasion, positive parametria, positive surgical vaginal margins, and lymph node metastasis were not significantly different between the two groups. However, the rate of lymph-vascular space involvement (LVSI) was significantly lower in the NACT group than in the PST group (P = 0.021). In addition, the response rate of NACT was significantly higher in the patients with chemotherapeutic drugs administrated via artery than via vein. Our results suggest that NACT is a safe and effective treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer and significantly decreases the rate of LVSI.

Wang, Yue; Wang, Guang; Wei, Li-Hui; Huang, Ling-Hui; Wang, Jian-Liu; Wang, Shi-Jun; Li, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Dan-Hua; Bao, Dong-Mei; Gao, Jian

2011-01-01

359

Detection of sentinel and non-sentinel lymph node micrometastases by complete serial sectioning and immunohistochemical analysis for gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated the presence and distribution of the sentinel and the non-sentinel node micrometastases using complete serial sectioning and immunohistochemical staining (IHC), to inspect whether lymph node micrometastases spread to the sentinel lymph nodes first. Methods A total of 35 patients, who underwent gastrectomy with a sentinel lymph node biopsy for gastric cancer, were enrolled in this study. Total of 1028 lymph nodes of 35 patients having gastric cancer without metastasis of lymph node by permanent section with hematoxylin and eosin staining (H&E) were selected. There were 252 sentinel nodes and the other 776 were non-sentinel nodes. All nodes were sectioned serially and stained alternately with H&E and IHC. Lymph node micrometastases was defined as proving to be positive first either the IHC or the complete serial sectioning. Results Micrometastases were detected in 4 (11%) of the 35 patients, 6 (0.58%) of 1028 nodes. Of these 4 patients, 3 had micrometastases exclusively in sentinel nodes, and the other had micrometastasis in both sentinel and non-sentinel nodes. There was no patient who had the micrometasitases only in non-sentinel nodes. Conclusion These results support the concept that lymph node micrometastasis of gastric cancer spreads first to sentinel nodes.

Ishii, Kaname; Kinami, Shinichi; Funaki, Kenichiro; Fujita, Hideto; Ninomiya, Itasu; Fushida, Sachio; Fujimura, Takashi; Nishimura, Genichi; Kayahara, Masato

2008-01-01

360

Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients with previous breast augmentation surgery.  

PubMed

The number of breast augmentation surgeries (BAS) has increased. Therefore, the number of breast cancer patients with history of BAS has also increased. In this paper, we present two cases of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with previous BAS who were diagnosed with breast cancer. The patients were augmented using different approach; the first case was augmented through transaxillary incision, whereas the second case was augmented through periareolar incision. Lymphoscintigraphy (LPG) was performed on the patients 1 day prior to operation, enabling confirmation of lymphatic flow and SLN in both patients. SLNB was successfully performed in both cases. In one patient, SLNB was performed using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence and the Photodynamic Eye (PDE) system. Regardless of history of BAS, ICG and PDE system showed lymphatic flow and SLN in real time. LPG and ICG fluorescence were useful methods for SLN detection in patients with previous BAS, being able to confirm lymph flow before operation. Biopsy methods using LPG and PDE system were considered useful for difficult confirmation of lymph flow after breast augmentation. This is the first report of SLNB using ICG and PDE system for patients with previous BAS. PMID:21671037

Nagao, Tomoya; Hojo, Takashi; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Tanaka-Akashi, Sadako; Kinoshita, Takayuki

2011-06-14

361

The Impact of Prophylactic Axillary Node Dissection on Breast Cancer Survival—A Bayesian Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Because of the general acceptance of the NSABP B-04 study, prophylactic axillary node dissection for women with clinically negative axillae is considered diagnostic, but not therapeutic, by many oncologists. Nevertheless, several authors have shown that B-04 did not include enough patients to exclude a small survival advantage.Methods: A Bayesian meta-analysis of the available literature was performed comparing standard treatment

Richard K. Orr

1999-01-01

362

The IASLC lung cancer staging project: a proposal for a new international lymph node map in the forthcoming seventh edition of the TNM classification for lung cancer.  

PubMed

The accurate assessment of lymph node involvement is an important part of the management of lung cancer. Lymph node "maps" have been used to describe the location of nodal metastases. Howe