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Sample records for cancer axillary lymph

  1. Breast Cancer Subtype is Associated With Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhen-Yu; Wu, San-Gang; Yang, Qi; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Li, Feng-Yan; Lin, Qin; Lin, Huan-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to assess whether breast cancer subtype (BCS) as determined by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 can predict the axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. Patients who received breast conserving surgery or mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection were identified from 2 cancer centers. The associations between clinicopathological variables and axillary lymph node involvement were evaluated in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. A total of 3471 patients met the inclusion criteria, and 53.0% had axillary lymph node metastases at diagnosis. Patients with hormone receptor (HR)?/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)? subtype had a higher grade disease and the lowest rate of lymphovascular invasion. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that BCS was significantly associated with lymph node involvement. Patients with the HR?/HER2? subtype had the lowest odds of having nodal positivity than those with other BCSs. HR+/HER2? (odds ratio [OR] 1.651, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3492.021, P?cancer subtype can predict the presence of axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. HR?/HER2? is associated with a reduced risk of axillary lymph node metastasis compared to other BCSs. Our findings may play an important role in guiding axillary treatment considerations if further confirmed in larger sample size studies. PMID:26632910

  2. Axillary lymph node management in breast cancer with positive sentinel lymph node biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Voutsadakis, Ioannis A; Spadafora, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    The surgical treatment of localized breast cancer has become progressively less aggressive over the years. The management of the axillary lymph nodes has been modified by the introduction of sentinel lymph node biopsy. Axillary dissection can be avoided in patients with sentinel lymph node negative biopsies. Based on randomized trials data, it has been proposed that no lymph node dissection should be carried out even in certain patients with sentinel lymph node positive biopsies. This commentary discusses the basis of such recommendations and cautions against a general omission of lymph node dissection in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph node biopsies. Instead, an individualized approach based on axillary tumor burden and biology of the cancer should be considered. PMID:25667909

  3. Axillary lymph node management in breast cancer with positive sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Voutsadakis, Ioannis A; Spadafora, Silvana

    2015-02-10

    The surgical treatment of localized breast cancer has become progressively less aggressive over the years. The management of the axillary lymph nodes has been modified by the introduction of sentinel lymph node biopsy. Axillary dissection can be avoided in patients with sentinel lymph node negative biopsies. Based on randomized trials data, it has been proposed that no lymph node dissection should be carried out even in certain patients with sentinel lymph node positive biopsies. This commentary discusses the basis of such recommendations and cautions against a general omission of lymph node dissection in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph node biopsies. Instead, an individualized approach based on axillary tumor burden and biology of the cancer should be considered. PMID:25667909

  4. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... more likely to affect arm function and cause lymphedema. For this reason, sentinel node biopsy is the ... OR supraclavicular (above the clavicle) nodes have cancer Lymphedema Lymphedema [lim-fa-DEE-ma] is a build- ...

  5. Three-Dimensional Sonography of Axillary Lymph Nodes in Patients With Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Koenigsberg, Tova C; Reig, Beatriu; Frank, Susan

    2016-03-01

    Sonography is useful in the evaluation of axillary lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer. In this pictorial essay, we review the range of grayscale and Doppler appearances of abnormal axillary lymph nodes on 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional imaging. PMID:26887449

  6. Axillary lymph node dissection in early-stage invasive breast cancer: is it still standard today?

    PubMed

    Gerber, Bernd; Heintze, Kristin; Stubert, Johannes; Dieterich, Max; Hartmann, Steffi; Stachs, Angrit; Reimer, Toralf

    2011-08-01

    Evaluation of axillary lymph node status by sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and complete axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) are an inherent part of breast cancer treatment. Increased understanding of tumor biology has changed the prognostic and therapeutic impact of lymph node status. Non-invasive imaging techniques like axillary ultrasound, FDG-PET, or MRI revealed moderate sensitivity and high specificity in evaluation of lymph node status. Therefore, they are not sufficient for lymph node staging. Otherwise, the impact of remaining micrometastases and even macrometastases for prognosis and treatment decisions is overestimated. Considering tumor biology, the distinction of axillary metastases in isolated tumor cells (ITC, pN0(i+)); micrometastases (pN1mi), and macrometastases (pN1a) is not comprehensible. Increasing data support the thesis that remaining axillary metastases neither increase the axillary recurrence rate nor decrease overall survival. It is doubtful that axillary tumor cells are capable to complete the complex multistep metastatic process. If applied, axillary metastases are sensitive to systemic treatment and are targeted by postoperative tangential breast irradiation. Therefore, the controversy about the clinical relevance of tumor cell clusters or micrometastases in SLN is a sophisticated but not contemporary discussion. Currently, there is no indication for axillary surgery in elderly patients with favorable tumors and clinically tumor-free lymph nodes. Nonetheless, a rational and evidence-based approach to the management of clinically and sonographically N0 patients with planned breast-conserving surgery and limited tumor size is needed now. PMID:21523451

  7. Feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients clinically suspected of axillary lymph node metastasis on preoperative imaging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Generally, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is performed in patients with clinically negative axillary lymph node (LN). This study was to assess imaging techniques in axillary LN staging and to evaluate the feasibility of SLNB in patients clinically suspected of axillary LN metastasis on preoperative imaging techniques (SI). Methods A prospectively maintained database of 767 breast cancer patients enrolled between January 2006 and December 2009 was reviewed. All patients were offered preoperative breast ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography scanning. SI patients were regarded as those for whom preoperative imaging was suspicious for axillary LN metastasis and NSI as non-suspicious for axillary LN metastasis on preoperative imaging techniques. Patients were subgrouped by presence of SI and types of axillary operation, and analyzed. Results For 323 patients who received SLNB, there was no statistically significant difference in axillary recurrence (P=0.119) between SI and NSI groups. There also was no significant difference in axillary recurrence between SLNB and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) groups in 356 SI patients (P=0.420). The presence of axillary LN metastasis on preoperative imaging carried 82.1% sensitivity and 45.9% specificity for determining axillary LN metastasis on the final pathology. Conclusions SLNB in SI patents is safe and feasible. Complications might be avoided by not performing ALND. Therefore, we recommend SLNB, instead of a direct ALND, even in SI patients, for interpreting the exact nodal status and avoiding unnecessary morbidity by performing ALND. PMID:23693028

  8. Elective hand surgery after axillary lymph node dissection for cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, R Jay; LaPorte, Dawn M; Brooks, Jaysson T; Schubert, Cornelius D; Deune, E Gene

    2015-05-01

    After axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), patients are cautioned against ipsilateral interventional procedures to avoid the theoretical increased risk of postoperative complications, particularly lymphedema. The authors' goal was to evaluate the complications of elective hand surgery after ALND. The authors reviewed patients presenting to their hand clinic from 1998 to 2011, selecting those with a diagnosis of breast cancer or melanoma and a history of previous ALND; the authors excluded those treated nonoperatively and those treated with elective surgery in the contralateral hand. Average age of the 22 patients meeting the criteria (20 with a history of breast cancer, 6 with preexisting lymphedema) was 53.9 years (range, 26.7 to 73.6 years) at the time of ALND and 63.1 years (range, 31.7 to 83.5 years) at the time of hand surgery. Average interval between surgeries was 9.2 years (range, 8 days to 37.3 years). Follow-up averaged 9.2 months (range, 8 days to 41.7 months). Fifteen patients were surveyed for long-term postoperative results (average surgery-to-survey interval, 4.3 years [range, 1 to 11.9 years]). Fifteen patients had uneventful postoperative recoveries, 4 had peri-incisional erythema requiring oral antibiotics, 1 had incisional pain and scarring, 1 had chronic wound-healing issues, and 1 had a dehiscence requiring a return to the operating room. In the 15 patients who completed the follow-up survey, there was no disease exacerbation in the 3 patients with preexisting lymphedema, and there were no new cases of lymphedema. Routine minor hand surgery did not result in lymphedema and did not increase existing lymphedema in these patients with previous ipsilateral ALND, but almost one-third of them had short-term complications in the postoperative recovery period. PMID:25970362

  9. Axillary ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration in preoperative staging of axillary lymph nodes in patients with invasive breast cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Rafael Dahmer; Girardi, Andr Ricardo; Pinto, Renata Reis; de Freitas, Viviane Aguilera Rolim

    2015-01-01

    Objective To propose an algorithm to determine the necessity for ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) in preoperative axillary lymph node staging of patients with invasive breast cancer. Materials and Methods Prospective study developed at National Cancer Institute. The study sample included 100 female patients with breast cancer referred for axillary staging by US-FNA. Results The overall US-FNA sensitivity was set at 79.4%. The positive predictive value was calculated to be 100%, and the negative predictive value, 69.5%. The US-FNA sensitivity for lymph nodes with normal sonographic features was 0%, while for indeterminate lymph nodes it was 80% and, for suspicious lymph nodes, 90.5%. In the assessment of invasive breast tumors stages T1, T2 and T3, the sensitivity was respectively 69.6%, 83.7% and 100%. US-FNA could avoid sentinel node biopsy in 54% of cases. Conclusion Axillary ultrasonography should be included in the preoperative staging of all patients with invasive breast cancer. The addition of US-FNA in cases of lymph nodes suspicious for malignancy may prevent more than 50% of sentinel lymphadenectomies, significantly shortening the time interval to definitive therapy. PMID:26811550

  10. Breast Cancer Subtype is Associated With Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    He, Zhen-Yu; Wu, San-Gang; Yang, Qi; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Li, Feng-Yan; Lin, Qin; Lin, Huan-Xin

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether breast cancer subtype (BCS) as determined by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 can predict the axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer.Patients who received breast conserving surgery or mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection were identified from 2 cancer centers. The associations between clinicopathological variables and axillary lymph node involvement were evaluated in univariate and multivariate regression analyses.A total of 3471 patients met the inclusion criteria, and 53.0% had axillary lymph node metastases at diagnosis. Patients with hormone receptor (HR)-/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)- subtype had a higher grade disease and the lowest rate of lymphovascular invasion. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that BCS was significantly associated with lymph node involvement. Patients with the HR-/HER2- subtype had the lowest odds of having nodal positivity than those with other BCSs. HR+/HER2- (odds ratio [OR] 1.651, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.349-2.021, P?cancer subtype can predict the presence of axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. HR-/HER2- is associated with a reduced risk of axillary lymph node metastasis compared to other BCSs. Our findings may play an important role in guiding axillary treatment considerations if further confirmed in larger sample size studies. PMID:26632910

  11. Sentinel lymph node biopsy does not apply to all axillary lymph node-positive breast cancer patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Wen-kai; Yang, Ben; Zuo, Wen-shu; Zheng, Gang; Dai, Ying-qi; Han, Chao; Yang, Li; Zheng, Mei-zhu

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) after neoadjuant chemotherapy (NAC) in breast cancer patients with confirmed axillary nodal metastases. Methods We enrolled 51 patients with breast cancer who received NAC. All patients were proven to have axillary nodal metastases by histopathology biopsy prior to NAC. They all underwent SLNB before breast surgery, and complete axillary lymph node dissection immediately followed. Results The identification rate for SLNB was 87.5% (84/96); the false negative rate was 24.5% (12/49). The clinicopathological factors were not significantly correlated with the identification and false negative rate of the SLNB. Lymphatic mapping, blue dye or radionuclide methods tended to decrease the identification rate of SLNB (P = 0.073). Clinical nodal status before NAC has a trend to increase the false-negative rates of the SLNB (P = 0.059). For patients with N1 clinical axillary lymph nodal status, the identification rate was 93.9%, and the false negative rate was 5.9%, compared with N2-3 patients with 73.9% and 38.9%, respectively. Conclusions SLNB is feasible for the patients whose axillary lymph nodal status before NAC is N1. However, for N2-3 patients, SLNB cannot be used as an infallible indicator of non-SLN status.

  12. A nomogram to predict the probability of axillary lymph node metastasis in early breast cancer patients with positive axillary ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Si-Qi; Zeng, Huan-Cheng; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Cong; Huang, Wen-He; Pleijhuis, Rick G; Wu, Jun-Dong; van Dam, Gooitzen M; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Among patients with a preoperative positive axillary ultrasound, around 40% of them are pathologically proved to be free from axillary lymph node (ALN) metastasis. We aimed to develop and validate a model to predict the probability of ALN metastasis as a preoperative tool to support clinical decision-making. Clinicopathological features of 322 early breast cancer patients with positive axillary ultrasound findings were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of ALN metastasis. A model was created from the logistic regression analysis, comprising lymph node transverse diameter, cortex thickness, hilum status, clinical tumour size, histological grade and estrogen receptor, and it was subsequently validated in another 234 patients. Coefficient of determination (R(2)) and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) were calculated to be 0.9375 and 0.864, showing good calibration and discrimination of the model, respectively. The false-negative rates of the model were 0% and 5.3% for the predicted probability cut-off points of 7.1% and 13.8%, respectively. This means that omission of axillary surgery may be safe for patients with a predictive probability of less than 13.8%. After further validation in clinical practice, this model may support increasingly limited surgical approaches to the axilla in breast cancer. PMID:26875677

  13. A nomogram to predict the probability of axillary lymph node metastasis in early breast cancer patients with positive axillary ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Si-Qi; Zeng, Huan-Cheng; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Cong; Huang, Wen-He; Pleijhuis, Rick G.; Wu, Jun-Dong; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Among patients with a preoperative positive axillary ultrasound, around 40% of them are pathologically proved to be free from axillary lymph node (ALN) metastasis. We aimed to develop and validate a model to predict the probability of ALN metastasis as a preoperative tool to support clinical decision-making. Clinicopathological features of 322 early breast cancer patients with positive axillary ultrasound findings were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of ALN metastasis. A model was created from the logistic regression analysis, comprising lymph node transverse diameter, cortex thickness, hilum status, clinical tumour size, histological grade and estrogen receptor, and it was subsequently validated in another 234 patients. Coefficient of determination (R2) and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) were calculated to be 0.9375 and 0.864, showing good calibration and discrimination of the model, respectively. The false-negative rates of the model were 0% and 5.3% for the predicted probability cut-off points of 7.1% and 13.8%, respectively. This means that omission of axillary surgery may be safe for patients with a predictive probability of less than 13.8%. After further validation in clinical practice, this model may support increasingly limited surgical approaches to the axilla in breast cancer. PMID:26875677

  14. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer: Predictors of Axillary and Non-Sentinel Lymph Node Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Postac?, Hakan; Zengel, Baha; Yararba?, lkem; Uslu, Adam; Eliyatk?n, Nuket; Akp?nar, Gksever; Cengiz, Fevzi; Durusoy, Raika

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a standard method for the evaluation of axillary status in patients with T1-2N0M0 breast cancers. Aims: To determine the prognostic significance of primary tumour-related clinico-histopathological factors on axillary and non-sentinel lymph node involvement of patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy. Study design: Retrospective clinical study. Methods: In the present study, 157 sentinel lymph node biopsies were performed in 151 consecutive patients with early stage breast cancer between June 2008 and December 2011. Results: Successful lymphatic mapping was obtained in 157 of 158 procedures (99.4%). The incidence of larger tumour size (2.5431.21 vs. 1.9741.04), lymphatic vessel invasion (70.6% vs. 29.4%), blood vessel invasion (84.2% vs. 15.8%), and invasive lobular carcinoma subtype (72.7% vs. 27.3%) were statistically significantly higher in patients with positive SLNs. Logistic stepwise regression analysis disclosed tumour size (odds ratio: 1.51, p=0.0021) and lymphatic vessel invasion (odds ratio: 4.68, p=0.001) as significant primary tumour-related prognostic determinants of SLN metastasis. Conclusion: A close relationship was identified between tumour size and lymphatic vessel invasion of the primary tumour and axillary lymph node involvement. However, the positive predictive value of these two independent variables is low and there is no compelling evidence to recommend their use in routine clinical practice. PMID:25207151

  15. [Axillary Lymph Nodes Metastases from Occult Breast Cancer Recurrence at Ten Years after Resection-Case Report].

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Saki; Sakurai, Kenichi; Suzuki, Shuhei; Sakagami, Masashi; Adachi, Keita; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Amano, Sadao

    2015-11-01

    We encountered a case of axillary lymph nodes metastases from occult breast cancer recurrence at 10 years after resection. Ten years previously, a 71-year-old woman had undergone surgery (dermabrasion+full thickness skin graft+axillary lymph node dissection) for axillary lymph nodes metastases from occult breast cancer. After the operation, she had received chemotherapy and hormone therapy for 5 years. Then, in the recent 5 years, she had stopped attending our hospital. Ten years after the first operation, she came back to our hospital with a lump in her axillary region. She underwent resection for the subcutaneous mass and the axillary lymph nodes. The pathological diagnosis implied metastases from breast carcinoma. We checked upa hole her body. However, we could not detect the original lesion. PMID:26805169

  16. Implication of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake of Affected Axillary Lymph Nodes in Cases with Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takaaki; Yajima, Reina; Tatsuki, Hironori; Oosone, Katsuya; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate affected axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer by positron-emission tomography using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET), an understanding of FDG avidity is important. In the present study, we examined whether certain factors, including lymphatic spread and size of metastatic lymph nodes, were associated with FDG avidity in order to evaluate the benefits of a FDG-PET assessment of axillary node metastases. We retrospectively investigated the cases of 179 consecutive patients with primary breast cancer who underwent FDG-PET preoperatively. Among the 179 patients, 48 (26.8%) had axillary lymph node metastases. The sensitivity, specificity, overall accuracy, and false-negative rates in the diagnosis of axillary lymph node status by FDG-PET were 47.9%, 98.5%, 84.9%, and 52.1%, respectively. The 48 cases with lymph node metastases were divided into two groups based on the presence or not of FDG uptake in the axillary lesions. Clinicopathological features of the primary tumor, including tumor size, standardized uptake value (SUVmax and biomarkers, were not statistically significant factors; only the clinicopathological features of metastatic lymph nodes, including the size of node metastasis, were significantly associated with FDG uptake in the axillary lymph nodes. Among the eight cases of micrometastasis, seven were not detected by FDG-PET. The number of cases with only one affected node was significantly higher in the group without FDG uptake in the axillary lesion. Although the number of lymph node metastases was relatively higher in the FDG-PET-positive patients, the difference was not statistically significant. FDG-PET may help identify patients with high axillary lymph node burden. Our findings imply that preoperative FDG-PET evaluation of lymph nodes is not sufficient to predict lymphatic spread or micrometastasis because FDG avidity is mainly influenced by the size of the tumor. PMID:26722071

  17. Breast Cancer Regional Radiation Fields for Supraclavicular and Axillary Lymph Node Treatment: Is a Posterior Axillary Boost Field Technique Optimal?

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiaochun Yu, T.K.; Salehpour, Mohammad; Zhang, Sean X.; Sun, T.L.; Buchholz, Thomas A.

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: To assess whether using an anterior oblique supraclavicular (SCV) field with a posterior axillary boost (PAB) field is an optimal technique for targeting axillary (AX) lymph nodes compared with two computed tomography (CT)-based techniques: (1) an SCV field with an anterior boost field and (2) intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Ten patients with CT simulation data treated with postmastectomy radiation that included an SCV field were selected for the study. Supraclavicular nodes and AX Level I-III nodes within the SCV field were contoured and defined as the treatment target. Plans using the three techniques were generated and evaluated for each patient. Results: The anterior axillary boost field and IMRT resulted in superior dose coverage compared with PAB. Namely, treatment volumes that received 105%, 80%, and 30% of prescribed dose for IMRT plans were significantly less than those for the anterior axillary boost plans, which were significantly less than PAB. For PAB and anterior axillary boost plans, there was a linear correlation between treatment volume receiving 105% of prescribed dose and maximum target depth. Furthermore, the IMRT technique resulted in better lung sparing and dose conformity to the target than anterior axillary boost, which again was significantly better than PAB. The maximum cord dose for IMRT was small, but higher than for the other two techniques. More monitor units were required to deliver the IMRT plan than the PAB plan, which was more than the anterior axillary boost plan. Conclusions: The PAB technique is not optimal for treatment of AX lymph nodes in an SCV field. We conclude that CT treatment planning with dose optimization around delineated target volumes should become standard for radiation treatments of supraclavicular and AX lymph nodes.

  18. Axillary and internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy in male breast cancer patients: case series and review

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiaoshan; Wang, Chunjian; Liu, Yanbing; Qiu, Pengfei; Cong, Binbin; Wang, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is considered as a rare disease that accounts for less than 1% of all breast cancers, and its treatment has been based on the evidence available from female breast cancer. Axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is now regarded as the standard of care for both female and male patients without clinical and imaging evidence of axillary lymph node metastases, while internal mammary SLNB has rarely been performed. Internal mammary chain metastasis is an independent prognostic predictor. Internal mammary SLNB should be performed to complete nodal staging and guide adjuvant therapy in MBC patients with preoperative lymphoscintigraphic internal mammary chain drainage. We report both axillary and internal mammary SLNB in two cases with MBC. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node did contain metastasis in one case. PMID:26124669

  19. Axillary lymph node micrometastases in invasive breast cancer: national figures on incidence and overall survival.

    PubMed

    Grabau, D; Jensen, M B; Rank, F; Blichert-Toft, M

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence and prognostic value of axillary lymph node micrometastases (Nmic) of 2 mm or less in breast carcinomas. Results are based on data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG). The study was carried out as a nationwide, population-based trial with a study series consisting of 6,959 women under 75 years of age registered in the national DBCG data base from 1 January 1990 to 31 October 1994. All patients had contracted operable primary breast carcinoma, stage I-III, classified according to the TNM system as T1-T3, N0-N1, M0. Women with four or more metastatic axillary lymph nodes were excluded. All patients were treated systematically according to approved national guidelines and treatment protocols. Metastases were recognized microscopically on haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. In case of doubt immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin was performed. There was no serial sectioning. Micrometastases were tumour deposits of 2 mm or smaller, and accordingly included deposits of 0.2 mm and smaller. With a median observation time of 10 years and 2 months, women with Nmic (N=427) experienced a significantly worse overall survival (OS) compared with node-negative (Nneg) women (N=4,767) (relative risk (RR)=1.20, 95% CI: 1.01-1.43), irrespective of menopausal status. Women with macrometastases (Nmac) (N=1,765) had significantly worse final outcome than women with Nmic (RR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.29-1.85), irrespective of menopausal status. Multivariate analysis adjusted for patient-, histopathologic-, and loco-regional therapeutic variables showed that cases with Nmic had a significantly higher risk of death relative to Nneg cases (adjusted RR=1.49, 95% CI: 1.18-1.90). Interaction analysis showed that the number of nodes examined had a significant impact on adjusted relative risk of death according to axillary status. Furthermore, the number of nodes involved significantly influenced adjusted risk of death in the Nmic compared to the Nmac series. In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed worse final outcome in women with Nmic compared with Nneg, where all Nmic cases received adjuvant systemic treatment. Interaction analysis showed that the number of retrieved axillary nodes and the number of affected nodes had a different influence on survival related to axillary status. The different risk pattern in Nmic vs Nmac patients indicates that Nmic cases do not show the traditional risk pattern as revealed by the Nmac cases, in which increasing number of positive nodes is associated with an orderly increasing adjusted RR. PMID:17614850

  20. Diagnostic value of preoperative axillary lymph node ultrasound assessment in patients with breast cancer qualified for sentinel lymph node biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Adam; Wiśniewska, Magdalena; Wiśniewski, Michał; Zegarski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a standard procedure in the therapeutic management of patients with non-advanced breast cancer. Aim To analyse the utility of ultrasound scan (USS) examination in the process of patient qualification for SLNB and to estimate the optimal time to perform USS in the clinical preoperational assessment of axillary lymph nodes. Material and methods A prospective analysis of 702 patients with invasive breast cancer treated with SLNB between 7.03.2012 and 27.05.2013 was performed. The patients were divided into three groups: I (USS < 8 weeks before SLNB), II (USS > 8 weeks before SLNB and another one on the day before SLNB) and III (USS > 8 weeks before SLNB without perioperative USS). In these patients the percentage of metastases in the sentinel lymph node and the clinical factors influencing the diagnostic value of preoperative ultrasound scan were assessed. Results Metastatic lesions in sentinel lymph nodes were found in 154 (21.9%) patients. The highest percentage of metastases was noted in patients operated on in the second and third month from the beginning of preoperative diagnostics. None of the factors tested (size of the original tumour, histological malignancy grading, kind of preoperative diagnostics, Ki-67 value, biological type of the tumour, age) had a statistically significant influence on the diagnostic value of perioperative USS examination in the analysed time span. Conclusions The lowest percentage of metastases in the sentinel lymph node was noted in the patients qualified for SLNB who had the ultrasound performed directly before the surgical procedure (not more than 4 weeks before the surgery). PMID:26240616

  1. Spontaneous regression of breast cancer with axillary lymph node metastasis: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Tokunaga, Eriko; Okano, Shinji; Nakashima, Yuichiro; Yamashita, Nami; Tanaka, Kimihiro; Akiyoshi, Sauri; Taketani, Kenji; Shirouzu, Mitsunori; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Morita, Masaru; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous regression (SR) of cancer is a rare but well-documented biological phenomenon. However, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. We herein report a case of the SR of breast cancer at both the primary site and metastatic axillary lymph node with spontaneously-induced T cell-mediated immunological responses. A 52-year-old female with a lump in the left axilla was diagnosed to have a small breast carcinoma with a distinct axillary lymph node metastasis. During the preoperative systemic examination, she was diagnosed to have severe type 2 diabetes mellitus, was treated with insulin, and the hyperglycemia was normalized after one month. Surgery for left breast cancer was then performed. The postoperative histopathological examination revealed the SR of breast cancer at both the primary site and metastatic axillary lymph node. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that estrogen receptor positive, AE1/AE3-positive ductal carcinoma completely underwent necrosis associated with extensive infiltration of CD3-positive T cells in the tumor nodule in the lymph node. In addition, primary ductal carcinoma cells also underwent single cell necrosis with infiltration of T cells with lymph follicle-like organization of B cells in the mammary gland. The features were suggestive that the tumor eradication in the metastatic lymph node and regression of the primary ductal carcinoma could be due to host T cell response to the ductal carcinoma. As far as we know it is the first report that shows the spontaneous regression of breast cancer, probably due to the spontaneously-induced T cell response. PMID:25120822

  2. Discordance of Intraoperative Frozen Section Analysis with Definitive Histology of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer Surgery: Complementary Axillary Lymph Node Dissection is Irrelevant for Subsequent Systemic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Geertsema, D.; Gobardhan, P. D.; Madsen, E. V. E.; Albregts, M.; van Gorp, J.; de Hooge, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background In breast cancer surgery, intraoperative frozen section (FS) analysis of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) enables axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) during the same operative procedure. In case of discordance between a negative FS analysis and definitive histology, an ALND as a second operation is advocated since additional lymph node metastases may be present. The clinical implications of the subsequent ALND in these patients were evaluated. Materials and Methods Between November 2000 and May 2008, 879 consecutive breast cancer patients underwent surgery including sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) with intraoperative FS analysis of 2 central cuts from axillary SLNs. Following fixation and serial sectioning, SLNs were further examined postoperatively with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical techniques. For patients with a discordant FS examination, the effect of the pathology findings of the subsequent ALND specimen on subsequent nonsurgical therapy were evaluated. Results FS analysis detected axillary metastases in the SLN(s) in 200 patients (23%), while the definitive pathology examination detected metastases in SLNs in another 151 patients (17%). A complementary ALND was performed in 108 of the 151 patients with discordant FS. Additional tumor positive axillary lymph nodes were found in 17 patients (16%), leading to upstaging in 7 (6%). Subsequent nonsurgical treatment was adjusted in 4 patients (4%): all 4 had more extensive locoregional radiotherapy; no patient received additional hormonal and/or chemotherapy. Conclusion Discordance between intraoperative FS analysis and definitive histology of SLNs is common. In this selection of patients, a substantial proportion had additional lymph node metastases, but postsurgical treatment was rarely adjusted based on the findings of the complementary ALND. PMID:20422461

  3. Optical characterization of ex-vivo axillary lymph nodes of breast-cancer patients using a custom-built spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Saegusa-Beecroft, Emi; Mamou, Jonathan; Chitnis, Parag V.; Machi, Junji; Feleppa, Ernest J.

    2014-03-01

    Quantitative photoacoustics is emerging as a new hybrid modality to investigate diseases and cells in human pathology and cytology studies. Optical absorption of light is the predominant mechanism behind the photoacoustic effect. Therefore, a need exits to characterize the optical properties of specimens and to identify the relevant operating wavelengths for photoacoustic imaging. We have developed a custom low-cost spectrophotometer to measure the optical properties of human axillary lymph nodes dissected for breast-cancer staging. Optical extinction curves of positive and negative nodes were determined in the spectral range of 400 to 1000 nm. We have developed a model to estimate tissue optical properties, taking into account the role of fat and saline. Our results enabled us to select the optimal optical wavelengths for maximizing the imaging contrast between metastatic and noncancerous tissue in axillary lymph nodes.

  4. The use of Raman spectroscopy for the intra-operative assessment of axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsnell, Jonathan

    Breast cancer remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Assessment of the axillary lymph nodes is part of the staging of the disease. Advances in surgical management of breast cancer have seen a move towards intra-operative lymph node assessment that facilitates an immediate axillary clearance if it is indicated. Raman spectroscopy, a technique based on the inelastic scattering of light, has previously been shown to be capable of differentiating between normal and malignant tissue. These results, based on the biochemical composition of the tissue, potentially allow for this technique to be utilised in this clinical context. The aim of this study was to evaluate the facility of Raman spectroscopy to both assess axillary lymph node tissue within the theatre setting and to achieve results that were comparable to other intra-operative techniques within a clinically relevant time frame. Initial experiments demonstrated that these aims were feasible within the context of both the theatre environment and current surgical techniques. A laboratory based feasibility study involving 17 patients and 38 lymph node samples achieved sensivities and specificities of >90% in unsupervised testing. 339 lymph node samples from 66 patients were subsequently assessed within the theatre environment. Chemometric analysis of this data demonstrated sensitivities of up to 94% and specificities of up to 99% in unsupervised testing. The best results were achieved when comparing negative nodes from N0 patients and nodes containing macrometastases. Spectral analysis revealed increased levels of lipid in the negative nodes and increased DNA and protein levels in the positive nodes. Further studies highlighted the reproducibility of these results using different equipment, users and time from excision. This study uses Raman spectroscopy for the first time in an operating theatre and demonstrates that the results obtained, in real-time, are comparable, if not superior, to current intra-operative techniques of lymph nodes assessment.

  5. Morbidity of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLN) Alone Versus SLN and Completion Axillary Lymph Node Dissection After Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Igor; Guller, Ulrich; Berclaz, Gilles; Koechli, Ossi R.; Schaer, Gabriel; Fehr, Mathias K.; Hess, Thomas; Oertli, Daniel; Bronz, Lucio; Schnarwyler, Beate; Wight, Edward; Uehlinger, Urs; Infanger, Eduard; Burger, Daniel; Zuber, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the morbidity after sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy compared with SLN and completion level I and II axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in a prospective multicenter study. Summary Background Data: ALND after breast cancer surgery is associated with considerable morbidity. We hypothesized: 1) that the morbidity in patients undergoing SLN biopsy only is significantly lower compared with those after SLN and completion ALND level I and II; and 2) that SLN biopsy can be performed with similar intermediate term morbidity in academic and nonacademic centers. Methods: Patients with early stage breast cancer (pT1 and pT2 ? 3 cm, cN0) were included between January 2000 and December 2003 in this prospective Swiss multicenter study. All patients underwent SLN biopsy. In all patients with SLN macrometastases and most patients with SLN micrometastases (43 of 68) or isolated tumor cells (11 of 19), a completion ALND was performed. Postoperative morbidity was assessed based on a standardized protocol. Results: SLN biopsy alone was performed in 449 patients, whereas 210 patients underwent SLN and completion ALND. The median follow-ups were 31.0 and 29.5 months for the SLN and SLN and completion ALND groups, respectively. Intermediate-term follow-up information was available from 635 of 659 patients (96.4%) of enrolled patients. The following results were found in the SLN versus SLN and completion ALND group: presence of lymphedema (3.5% vs. 19.1%, P < 0.0001), impaired shoulder range of motion (3.5% vs. 11.3%, P < 0.0001), shoulder/arm pain (8.1% vs. 21.1%, P < 0.0001), and numbness (10.9% vs. 37.7%, P < 0.0001). No significant differences regarding postoperative morbidity after SLN biopsy were noticed between academic and nonacademic hospitals (P = 0.921). Conclusions: The morbidity after SLN biopsy alone is not negligible but significantly lower compared with level I and II ALND. SLN biopsy can be performed with similar short- and intermediate-term morbidity in academic and nonacademic centers. PMID:17435553

  6. Tattoo pigment in axillary lymph node mimicking calcification of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matsika, Admire; Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Gray, Janet Meryl; Galbraith, Christine Ruth

    2013-01-01

    A tattoo is defined as the intentional or accidental deposit of pigment into the skin. The phenomenon of skin tattooing is on the rise worldwide and complications of tattooing are increasingly being recognised in diagnostic and clinical medicine. We describe a case of calcification-like changes on mammography resembling that of breast malignancy as a result of tattoo pigment deposition in an axillary lymph node. Recognition of such changes in routine breast screening is crucial to avoid further unnecessary invasive investigations and surgery in such patients. PMID:23929611

  7. Axillary Lymph Node Status, But Not Tumor Size, Predicts Locoregional Recurrence and Overall Survival After Mastectomy for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Beenken, Samuel W.; Urist, Marshall M.; Zhang, Yuting; Desmond, Renee; Krontiras, Helen; Medina, Heriberto; Bland, Kirby I.

    2003-01-01

    Objective To assess the significance of axillary lymph node status and tumor size for predicting locoregional recurrence (LRR) and overall survival after mastectomy for breast cancer and to discuss the utility of postmastectomy radiation therapy. Summary Background Data Patients with locally advanced breast cancer require multimodality treatment combining chemotherapy (and/or hormonal therapy), surgery, and radiation. Randomized trials have demonstrated that postmastectomy radiation reduces LRR, but no overall survival benefit has been established. Methods Criteria for accrual to the Alabama Breast Cancer Project (19751978) were female gender and T23 breast cancer with M0 status. Patients underwent a radical or a modified radical mastectomy. Node-positive patients received adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil chemotherapy or adjuvant melphalan. Patients were evaluated for LRR and overall survival based on the number of positive axillary lymph nodes and (in N0 patients) pathologic tumor size. Significance was determined using chi-square analysis. Survival curves were generated using the Kaplan-Meier method and were compared by log-rank analysis. Results After median follow-up of 15 years, neither type of surgery nor chemotherapy was shown to affect locoregional disease-free or overall survival. LRR rates were higher and overall survival rates were lower in patients with nodal involvement, while tumor size was not shown to significantly affect these rates. Conclusions Patients with axillary lymph node metastases may benefit from postmastectomy radiation, but the use of postmastectomy radiation in N0 patients is not supported when it is based on tumor size alone. PMID:12724640

  8. Quantitative Molecular Analysis of Sentinel Lymph Node May Be Predictive of Axillary Node Status in Breast Cancer Classified by Molecular Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Buglioni, Simonetta; Di Filippo, Franco; Terrenato, Irene; Casini, Beatrice; Gallo, Enzo; Marandino, Ferdinando; Maini, Carlo L.; Pasqualoni, Rossella; Botti, Claudio; Di Filippo, Simona; Pescarmona, Edoardo; Mottolese, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    To determine the performance of intraoperative one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay in detecting sentinel lymph node metastases compared to postoperative histology taking into account breast cancer molecular classification and to evaluate whether the level of cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number may be useful in predicting the likelihood of a positive axillary lymph node dissection. OSNA assay was performed in a prospective series of 903 consecutive sentinel lymph nodes from 709 breast cancer patients using 2 alternate slices of each sentinel lymph node. The remaining 2 slices were investigated by histology. Cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number, which distinguishes negative cases (<250 copies), micrometastases (+, ?250?5000 copies) and macrometastases (++, >5000 copies), was compared to axillary lymph node dissection status and to the biological tumor profile. Concordance between OSNA and histopathology was 95%, specificity 95% and sensitivity 93%. Multiple Corresponce Analysis and logistic regression evidenced that positive axillary lymph node dissection was significantly associated with a higher cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number (>5000; p<0.0001), HER2 subtype (p?=?0.007) and lymphovascular invasion (p<0.0001). Conversely, breast cancer patients with cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number <2000 mostly presented a luminal subtype and a negative axillary lymph node dissection. We confirmed that OSNA assay can provide standardized and reproducible results and that it represents a fast and quantitative tool for intraoperative evaluation of sentinel lymph node. Omission of axillary lymph node dissection could be proposed in patients presenting a sentinel lymph node with a cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number <2000 and a Luminal tumor phenotype. PMID:23533593

  9. Is ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of adequate value in detecting breast cancer patients with three or more positive axillary lymph nodes?

    PubMed

    Kramer, G M; Leenders, M W H; Schijf, L J; Go, H L S; van der Ploeg, T; van den Tol, M P; Schreurs, W H

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of the sonographically most suspicious axillary lymph node (US/FNAC) to select early breast cancer patients with three or more tumour-positive axillary lymph nodes. Between 2004 and 2014, a total of 2130 patients with histologically proven early breast cancer were evaluated and treated in the Noordwest Clinics Alkmaar. US/FNAC was performed preoperatively in all these patients. We analysed the results of US/FNAC retrospectively. Pathological axillary node status (sentinel node biopsy and/or axillary lymph node dissection) was used as reference standard. A total of 634 (29.8 %) of 2130 patients had axillary lymph node metastases on final histology. 248 node positive patients (11.6 %) had three or more positive lymph nodes. The accuracy of US/FNAC to detect three or more positive lymph nodes was 89.8 %, sensitivity was 44.8 %, specificity was 95.7 %, PPV was 58.1 %, and NPV was 92.9 %. This study shows a more than adequate accuracy of preoperative US/FNAC to detect three or more positive lymph nodes (89.8 %). However, when US/FNAC was chosen as the only axillary staging method, 6.4 % of all patients (false negative group) would have been undertreated and 3.8 % of all patients (false positive group) would have been overtreated according to the ACOSOG Z0011 criteria. PMID:26995283

  10. Axillary lymph node dose with tangential breast irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Daniel R. . E-mail: drreed@u.washington.edu; Lindsley, Skyler Karen; Mann, Gary N.; Austin-Seymour, Mary; Korssjoen, Tammy; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Moe, Roger

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: The advent of sentinel lymph node mapping and biopsy in the staging of breast cancer has resulted in a significant decrease in the extent of axillary nodal surgery. As the extent of axillary surgery decreases, the radiation dose and distribution within the axilla becomes increasingly important for current therapy planning and future analysis of results. This analysis examined the radiation dose distribution delivered to the anatomically defined axillary level I and II lymph node volume and surgically placed axillary clips with conventional tangential breast fields and CT-based three-dimensional (3D) planning. Methods and materials: Fifty consecutive patients with early-stage breast cancer undergoing breast conservation therapy were evaluated. All patients underwent 3D CT-based planning with conventional breast tangential fields designed to encompass the entire breast parenchyma. Using CT-based 3D planning, the dose distribution of the standard tangential breast irradiation fields was examined in relationship to the axillary level I and II lymph node volumes. Axillary level I and II lymph node anatomic volumes were defined by CT and surgical clips placed during complete level I-II lymph node dissection. Axillary level I-II lymph node volume doses were examined on the basis of the prescribed breast radiation dose and 3D dose distribution. Results: All defined breast volumes received {>=}95% of the prescribed dose. By contrast, the 95% isodose line encompassed only an average of 55% (range, 23-87%) of the axillary level I-II lymph node anatomic volume. No patient had complete coverage of the axillary level I-II lymph node region by the 95% isodose line. The mean anatomic axillary level I-II volume was 146.3 cm{sup 3} (range, 83.1-313.0 cm{sup 3}). The mean anatomic axillary level I-II volume encompassed by the 95% isodose line was 84.9 cm{sup 3} (range, 25.1-219.0 cm{sup 3}). The mean 95% isodose coverage of the surgical clip volume was 80%, and the median value was 81% (range, 58-98%). The mean volume deficit between the axillary level I-II volume and the surgical clip volume was 41.7 cm{sup 3} (median, 30.0 cc). Conclusion: In this study, standard tangential breast radiation fields failed to deliver a therapeutic dose adequately to the axillary level I-II lymph node anatomic volume. No patient received complete coverage of the axillary level I-II lymph node volume. Surgically placed axillary clips also failed to delineate the level I-II axilla adequately. Definitive irradiation of the level I and II axillary lymph node region requires significant modification of standard tangential fields, best accomplished with 3D treatment planning, with specific targeting of anatomically defined axillary lymph node volumes as described, in addition to the breast parenchymal volumes.

  11. Comparison of the expression of prognostic biomarkers between primary tumor and axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Song; Xu, Lanwei; Liu, Wenjun; Lv, Cuixia; Zhang, Kai; Gao, Haidong; Wang, Jianli; Ma, Rong

    2015-01-01

    The prognosis and prediction of axillary lymph node (ALN) metastases in breast cancer is traditionally based upon the biomarkers status of the primary tumor. Some retrospective studies showed significant discordance in receptor expression between primary and metastatic tumors. We aim to prospectively assess the incidence of discordant biomarkers status in primary tumor and ALN metastases and to evaluate the role of ALN biopsies for the reassessment of receptor status. Tissue arrays were constructed from 54 breast cancer patients with ALN metastases diagnosed. Arrays were immuno-stained to compare protein expression of four biomarkers including estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), HER2, and Ki67 by immunohistochemistry. The kappa value of consistency in the primary tumor and the metastatic lymph nodes were 0.465 for ER, 0.445 for PR, and 0.706 for HER2. Good consistency was shown for Ki67 expression in primary and metastases regions with T test. No significant difference is existed between primary tumor and ALN metastases. It is concluded that the good consistency is present for ER, PR, HER2 and Ki67 between the primary tumor and the metastatic lymph nodes, suggesting that ER, PR, HER2, or Ki67 status in primary tumors could reflect their status in ALN metastases. PMID:26191291

  12. Molecular Detection of Micrometastatic Breast Cancer in Histopathology-Negative Axillary Lymph Nodes Correlates With Traditional Predictors of Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Gillanders, William E.; Mikhitarian, Kaidi; Hebert, Renee; Mauldin, Patrick D.; Palesch, Yuko; Walters, Christian; Urist, Marshall M.; Mann, G Bruce; Doherty, Gerard; Herrmann, Virginia M.; Hill, Arnold D.; Eremin, Oleg; El-Sheemy, Mohamed; Orr, Richard K.; Valle, Alvaro A.; Henderson, Michael A.; Dewitty, Robert L.; Sugg, Sonia L.; Frykberg, Eric; Yeh, Karen; Bell, Richard M.; Metcalf, John S.; Elliott, Bruce M.; Brothers, Thomas; Robison, Jay; Mitas, Michael; Cole, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: We sought to establish the clinical relevance of micrometastatic disease detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in axillary lymph nodes (ALN) of breast cancer patients. Background: The presence of ALN metastases remains one of the most valuable prognostic indicators in women with breast cancer. However, the clinical relevance of molecular detection of micrometastatic breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) and nonsentinel ALN has not been established. Methods: Four hundred eighty-nine patients with T1T3 primary breast cancers were analyzed in a prospective, multi-institutional cohort study. ALN were analyzed by standard histopathology (H&E staining) and by multimarker, real-time RT-PCR analysis (mam, mamB, muc1, CEA, PSE, CK19, and PIP) designed to detect breast cancer micrometastases. Results: A positive marker signal was observed in 126 (87%) of 145 subjects with pathology-positive ALN, and in 112 (33%) of 344 subjects with pathology-negative ALN. In subjects with pathology-negative ALN, a positive marker signal was significantly associated with traditional indicators of prognosis, such as histologic grade (P = 0.0255) and St. Gallen risk category (P = 0.022). Mammaglobin was the most informative marker in the panel. Conclusion: This is the first report to show that overexpression of breast cancerassociated genes in breast cancer subjects with pathology-negative ALN correlates with traditional indicators of disease prognosis. These interim results provide strong evidence that molecular markers could serve as valid surrogates for the detection of occult micrometastases in ALN. Correlation of real-time RT-PCR analyses with disease-free survival in this patient cohort will help to define the clinical relevance of micrometastatic disease in this patient population. PMID:15166962

  13. Use of CEA and CA15-3 to Predict Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, San-Gang; He, Zhen-Yu; Ren, Hong-Yue; Yang, Li-Chao; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Li, Feng-Yan; Guo, Ling; Lin, Huan-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The clinical significance of preoperative serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) in breast cancer is controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical value of preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA 15-3 on the risk of axillary lymph node metastasis (ALNM) in patients with breast cancer. Methods: This retrospective study analyzed 1148 breast cancer patients whose preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 levels were measured. The association of these tumor markers and clinicopathologic parameters with ALNM was determined by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: A median of 15 lymph nodes were removed. Seven hundred seventy-eight (67.8%) patients had node-negative disease and 370 (32.2%) had ALNM. Univariate analysis showed that tumor location (P = 0.024), stage (P = 0.001), grade (P < 0.001), lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (P < 0.001), CEA level (P < 0.001), CA15-3 level (P < 0.001), and breast cancer subtype (BCS) (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with ALNM. ALNM was present in 4.5% of patients with normal CEA and 11.6% of patients with elevated CEA. ALNM was present in 8.0% of patients with normal CA15-3 and 17.0% of patients with high CA15-3. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that tumor location, stage, grade, LVI, CEA, CA15-3, and BCS were significantly and independently associated with ALNM (P < 0.05 for all). Conclusion: The probability of ALNM was greater in patients with elevated preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA15-3. CEA and CA15-3 appear to be independent predictors of ALNM in breast cancer. PMID:26722358

  14. Contouring Guidelines for the Axillary Lymph Nodes for the Delivery of Radiation Therapy in Breast Cancer: Evaluation of the RTOG Breast Cancer Atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, Michelle S.; Usman, Asad A.; Neuschler, Erin I.; Sathiaseelan, Vythialinga; Hayes, John P.; Small, William

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the axillary lymph nodes on pretreatment diagnostic computed tomography (CT) of the chest to determine their position relative to the anatomic axillary borders as defined by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) breast cancer atlas for radiation therapy planning. Methods and Materials: Pretreatment diagnostic CT chest scans available for 30 breast cancer patients with clinically involved lymph nodes were fused with simulation CT. Contouring of axillary levels I, II, and III according to the RTOG guidelines was performed. Measurements were made from the area of distal tumor to the anatomic borders in 6 dimensions for each level. Results: Of the 30 patients, 100%, 93%, and 37% had clinical involvement of levels I, II, and III, respectively. The mean number of lymph nodes dissected was 13.6. The mean size of the largest lymph node was 2.4 cm. Extracapsular extension was seen in 23% of patients. In 97% of patients, an aspect of the involved lymph node lay outside of the anatomic border of a level. In 80% and 83% of patients, tumor extension was seen outside the cranial (1.78 ± 1.0 cm; range, 0.28-3.58 cm) and anterior (1.27 ± 0.92 cm; range, 0.24-3.58 cm) borders of level I, respectively. In 80% of patients, tumor extension was seen outside the caudal border of level II (1.36 ± 1.0 cm, range, 0.27-3.86 cm), and 0% to 33% of patients had tumor extension outside the remaining borders of all levels. Conclusions: To cover 95% of lymph nodes at the cranial and anterior borders of level I, an additional clinical target volume margin of 3.78 cm and 3.11 cm, respectively, is necessary. The RTOG guidelines may be insufficient for coverage of axillary disease in patients with clinical nodal involvement who are undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy, incomplete axillary dissection, or treatment with intensity modulated radiation therapy. In patients with pretreatment diagnostic CT chest scans, fusion with simulation CT should be considered for tumor delineation.

  15. The prognostic relevance of the mitotic activity index in axillary lymph node-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jobsen, Jan J; van der Palen, Job; Brinkhuis, Maril; Nortier, Johan W R; Struikmans, Henk

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to look at the mitotic activity index (MAI) as a prognostic factor in a prospective population-based cohort of lymph node-negative invasive breast cancer patients. Analyses were based on 2,048 breast-conserving therapies in 1,971 patients, node-negative, and without any form of adjuvant systemic therapy with long-term follow-up. The 15-year distant metastases-free survival (DMFS) for women ?55 years was 88.3 % for low MAI values (?12) versus 73.4 % for high MAI values (>12); (HR 2.8; 95 % CI 1.8-4.4; p < 0.001). Multivariate analyses for DMFS showed significance for MAI. For MAI and Bloom-Richardson grading, by performing a likelihood ratio test, we showed the statistical significance for both. For women >55-years, the MAI was not an independent significant factor. We also confirmed the above findings for disease-specific survival. When multi-gene assays are not available, the MAI remains a robust prognostic marker in women younger than 55 years of age with early node-negative breast cancer. PMID:25526926

  16. One-step nucleic acid amplification assay for intraoperative prediction of advanced axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients with sentinel lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    KUBOTA, MICHIYO; KOMOIKE, YOSHIFUMI; HAMADA, MIKA; SHINZAKI, WATARU; AZUMI, TATSUYA; HASHIMOTO, YUKIHIKO; IMOTO, SHIGERU; TAKEYAMA, YOSHIFUMI; OKUNO, KIYOTAKA

    2016-01-01

    The one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay is used to semiquantitatively measure the cytokeratin (CK)19 mRNA copy numbers of each sentinel lymph node (SLN) in breast cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the diagnosis of ?4 LN metastases is possible using the OSNA assay intraoperatively. Between May, 2010 and December, 2014, a total of 134 patients who underwent axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) of positive SLNs were analyzed. The total tumor load (TTL) was defined as the total CK19 mRNA copies of all positive SLNs. The correlation between TTL and ?4 LN metastases was evaluated. Of the 134 patients, 31 (23.1%) had ?4 LN metastases. TTL ?5.4104 copies/l evaluated by receiver operator characteristic curve analysis was examined along with other clinicopathological variables. In the multivariate analysis, only TTL ?5.4104 copies/l was correlated with ?4 LN metastases (odds ratio = 2.95, 95% confidence interval: 1.177.97, P=0.022). Therefore, TTL assessed by the OSNA assay has the potential to be a predictor of ?4 LN metastases and it may be useful for the selection of patients with positive SLNs in whom ALND may be safely omitted.

  17. Prevalence of Lymphedema in Women With Breast Cancer 5 Years After Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy or Axillary Dissection: Objective Measurements

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Sarah A.; Wright, Mary J.; Morris, Katherine T.; Giron, Gladys L.; Sampson, Michelle R.; Brockway, Julia P.; Hurley, Karen E.; Riedel, Elyn R.; Van Zee, Kimberly J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Sentinel lymph node biopsy was adopted for the staging of the axilla with the assumption that it would reduce the risk of lymphedema in women with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term prevalence of lymphedema after SLN biopsy (SLNB) alone and after SLNB followed by axillary lymph node dissection (SLNB/ALND). Patients and Methods At median follow-up of 5 years, lymphedema was assessed in 936 women with clinically node-negative breast cancer who underwent SLNB alone or SLNB/ALND. Standardized ipsilateral and contralateral measurements at baseline and follow-up were used to determine change in ipsilateral upper extremity circumference and to control for baseline asymmetry and weight change. Associations between lymphedema and potential risk factors were examined. Results Of the 936 women, 600 women (64%) underwent SLNB alone and 336 women (36%) underwent SLNB/ALND. Patients having SLNB alone were older than those having SLNB/ALND (56 v 52 years; P < .0001). Baseline body mass index (BMI) was similar in both groups. Arm circumference measurements documented lymphedema in 5% of SLNB alone patients, compared with 16% of SLNB/ALND patients (P < .0001). Risk factors associated with measured lymphedema were greater body weight (P < .0001), higher BMI (P < .0001), and infection (P < .0001) or injury (P = .02) in the ipsilateral arm since surgery. Conclusion When compared with SLNB/ALND, SLNB alone results in a significantly lower rate of lymphedema 5 years postoperatively. However, even after SLNB alone, there remains a clinically relevant risk of lymphedema. Higher body weight, infection, and injury are significant risk factors for developing lymphedema. PMID:18838709

  18. Detection of sentinel lymph node in breast cancer recurrence may change adjuvant treatment decision in patients with breast cancer recurrence and previous axillary surgery.

    PubMed

    Cordoba, Octavi; Perez-Ceresuela, Francesc; Espinosa-Bravo, Martin; Cortadellas, Tomas; Esgueva, Antonio; Rodriguez-Revuelto, Robert; Peg, Vicente; Reyes, Victoria; Xercavins, Jordi; Rubio, Isabel T

    2014-08-01

    Use of sentinel lymph node dissection in patients with ipsilateral breast cancer recurrence is still controversial. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer recurrence (SLNBR) and whether the positivity had impact in the adjuvant treatment. Between 2008 and 2012 we performed SLNBR in patients with ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence. We included 53 patients in a prospective study. Forty-three patients (81%) had a previous axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and ten (19%) had a previous sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). Identification rate after SLNB was 50% and after ALND was 60.5% (p = 0.4). Nine patients (26%) had a positive SLNBR. Adjuvant systemic treatment was given to all the patients with a positive SLNBR and to 23 (85%) with a negative SLNBR (p = 0.29). Six patients (66%) with positive SLNBR and 4 patients (14%) with negative SLNBR underwent radiation therapy (p < 0.01). As conclusions of our study we conclude that sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast tumor recurrence is feasible and significant differences were found in the use of radiation therapy in patients with a positive SLNBR. PMID:24726837

  19. The natural history of human breast cancer. The relationship between involvement of axillary lymph nodes and the initiation of distant metastases.

    PubMed Central

    Koscielny, S.; Le, M. G.; Tubiana, M.

    1989-01-01

    A method has been developed for determining the mean volume of breast cancer in women at the time of the involvement of the first, second, third,... nth axillary lymph nodes. It has been found that the proportion of patients with axillary involvement as well as the number of involved nodes increase progressively with tumour size. This orderly involvement of axillary nodes is observed in all patient subsets despite a wide spread of tumour volume at the time of invasion of the axillary nodes. This makes it possible to compute for each patient or subset of patients the size of the tumour at the time of the first node involvement, a parameter which characterises the propensity for nodal involvement. A strong correlation was demonstrated between the propensity to lymphatic involvement and the probability of distant dissemination. During tumour progression the capacity for lymphatic spread is on average acquired much earlier than the capacity for haematogenous spread. For tumours of the outer quadrants, the volume at first axillary involvement is smaller than for tumours located in the inner quadrants, whereas the tumour volumes at the time of distant metastatic initiation are equal for the two tumour sites. The discrepancy between these two observations shows that axillary involvement, while being a good index of the propensity of the tumour cells to acquire the capacity for distant spread, is not the cause of this spread. From a clinical point of view, these data show that the prognostic significance of axillary involvement can be further increased by taking into account the size of the tumour. The data suggest that there is a continuum from slow growing disease with late axillary involvement and late distant dissemination to the most aggressive subtype. PMID:2736212

  20. Three stage axillary lymphatic massage optimizes sentinel lymph node localisation using blue dye

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Robert M; Basit, Abdul; Nguyen, Quang T; Jaipersad, Anthony; Billingham, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Aims This paper describes a simple technique of axillary and breast massage which improves the successful identification of blue sentinel nodes using patent blue dye alone. Methods Patent blue dye was injected in the subdermal part of the retroaroelar area in 167 patients having surgical treatment for invasive breast cancer. Three stage axillary lymphatic massage was performed prior to making the axillary incision for sentinel lymph node biopsy. All patients had completion axillary sampling or clearance. Results A blue lymphatic duct leading to lymph nodes of the first drainage was identified in 163 (97%) of the patients. Results are compared with 168 patients who had sentinel lymph node biopsy using blue dye without axillary massage. Allergic reactions were observed in four patients (1.2%). Conclusion Three stage axillary lymphatic massage improves the successful identification of a blue sentinel lymph node in breast cancer patients. PMID:18154682

  1. Real-time ultrasound elastography in 180 axillary lymph nodes: elasticity distribution in healthy lymph nodes and prediction of breast cancer metastases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the general appearance of normal axillary lymph nodes (LNs) in real-time tissue sonoelastography and to explore the method′s potential value in the prediction of LN metastases. Methods Axillary LNs in healthy probands (n=165) and metastatic LNs in breast cancer patients (n=15) were examined with palpation, B-mode ultrasound, Doppler and sonoelastography (assessment of the elasticity of the cortex and the medulla). The elasticity distributions were compared and sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) were calculated. In an exploratory analysis, positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) were calculated based upon the estimated prevalence of LN metastases in different risk groups. Results In the elastogram, the LN cortex was significantly harder than the medulla in both healthy (p=0.004) and metastatic LNs (p=0.005). Comparing healthy and metastatic LNs, there was no difference in the elasticity distribution of the medulla (p=0.281), but we found a significantly harder cortex in metastatic LNs (p=0.006). The SE of clinical examination, B-mode ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound and sonoelastography was revealed to be 13.3%, 40.0%, 14.3% and 60.0%, respectively, and SP was 88.4%, 96.8%, 95.6% and 79.6%, respectively. The highest SE was achieved by the disjunctive combination of B-mode and elastographic features (cortex >3mm in B-mode or blue cortex in the elastogram, SE=73.3%). The highest SP was achieved by the conjunctive combination of B-mode ultrasound and elastography (cortex >3mm in B-mode and blue cortex in the elastogram, SP=99.3%). Conclusions Sonoelastography is a feasible method to visualize the elasticity distribution of LNs. Moreover, sonoelastography is capable of detecting elasticity differences between the cortex and medulla, and between metastatic and healthy LNs. Therefore, sonoelastography yields additional information about axillary LN status and can improve the PPV, although this method is still experimental. PMID:23253859

  2. Histologic Grade and Decrease in Tumor Dimensions Affect Axillary Lymph Node Status after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Hee; Kang, Doo Kyoung; Kim, Ji Young; Han, Sehwan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purposes our study was to find out any histologic factors associated with negative conversion of axillary lymph node (ALN) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). We also evaluated the association between the decrease in size of primary breast tumor and negative conversion of ALN. Methods From January 2012 to November 2014, we included 133 breast cancer patients who underwent NAC and who had ALN metastases which were confirmed on fine-needle aspiration or core needle biopsy at initial diagnosis. All 133 patients underwent initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the time of diagnosis and preoperative MRI after completion of NAC. We measured the longest dimension of primary breast cancer on MRI. Results Of 133 patients, 39 patients (29%) showed negative conversion of ALN and of these 39 patients, 25 patients (64%) showed pathologic complete remission of primary breast. On univariate analysis, mean percent decrease in longest dimension, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status and histologic grade were significantly associated with the ALN status after NAC (p<0.001, p=0.001, p< 0.001, p=0.001, p=0.002, respectively). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, percent decrease in longest dimension (odds ratio, 1.026; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.009-1.044) and histologic grade (odds ratio, 3.964; 95% CI, 1.151-13.657) were identified as being independently associated with the ALN status after NAC. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.835 with the best cutoff value of 80% decrease in longest dimension. Combination of high histologic grade and more than 80% decrease in longest dimension showed 64% sensitivity and 92% specificity. Conclusion High histologic grade and more than 80% decrease in primary tumor dimension were associated with negative conversion of ALN after NAC. PMID:26770247

  3. Can internal mammary chain treatment decrease the risk of death for patients with medial breast cancers and positive axillary lymph nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Le, M.G.; Arriagada, R.; de Vathaire, F.; Dewar, J.; Fontaine, F.; Lacour, J.; Contesso, G.; Tubiana, M. )

    1990-12-01

    The effect of internal mammary chain treatment on each type of malignant death-related event was analyzed in 1195 patients with operable breast cancer and histologically involved axillary lymph nodes. A group of 135 patients who had no internal mammary chain treatment was compared with a control group of 1060 patients who were treated by surgery and/or postoperative radiation therapy. In a multivariate analysis taking into account age, clinical size of the tumor, histoprognostic grading, and the number of positive axillary lymph nodes, quantitative interaction tests were used to determine whether the effects of internal mammary chain treatment on each type of malignant event were significantly different for patients with a lateral tumor compared with those with a medial tumor. The authors found that the effects of this treatment on the risks of distant metastases and of secondary breast cancer were not the same for the patients with a medial tumor as for those with a lateral tumor. For the untreated patients with a medial tumor, the risks of distant metastases and second breast cancer were, respectively, 1.6 (P = 0.02) and 2.9 (P = 0.02), compared with the treated patients. Conversely, for women with lateral tumor, no difference between the two treatment groups was observed. Thus, internal mammary chain treatment may improve long-term survival rate in patients with a medial tumor and positive axillary lymph nodes essentially by decreasing the risk of development of distant metastases (mainly brain, distant lymph nodes, multiple simultaneous metastases) and/or a secondary breast cancer.

  4. A Case Report of Male Occult Breast Cancer First Manifesting as Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis With Part of Metastatic Mucinous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    He, Mengna; Liu, He; Jiang, Yuxin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Occult breast cancer (OBC) is a type of breast cancer without any symptoms in the breast (no primary cancer lesion is found in either breast on a physical examination or imaging examination such as ultrasound and mammography). The incidence of OBC is rare in females, whereas in males, there are few cases of breast cancer, and the rate of OBC is very low. This is the first time report a case of male OBC first manifested as axillary metastasis, of which the pathological results showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma with part of metastatic mucinous carcinoma. A 40-year-old male patient presenting palpable masses in his left axillary on physical and imaging examination revealed unremarkable despite of multiple swollen lymph nodes in the left axillary, and the resected sample showed metastatic adenocarcinoma with part of metastatic mucinous carcinoma. Based on immunohistochemical analysis, positive of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal receptor 2 (Her-2), it was identified as an OBC. This is the fourth case report of male OBC in the literature; 1 case was reported in China in 2008, and it was metastatic infiltrating ductal carcinoma, and 2 cases were reported in Korea in 2012, one of which was reported as metastatic carcinoma and the other was metastatic adenocarcinoma; however, our case was a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma with part of mucinous carcinoma. Our case of male OBC could metastasize to supraclavicular region and lung in addition to axillary lymph nodes, and the prognosis was relatively poor compared to the 3 cases reported before. The aim of this case report is to introduce the imaging, pathological features, and management of a rare male OBC. PMID:26107674

  5. A Declining Rate of Completion Axillary Dissection in Sentinel Lymph Node-positive Breast Cancer Patients Is Associated With the Use of a Multivariate Nomogram

    PubMed Central

    Park, Julia; Fey, Jane V.; Naik, Arpana M.; Borgen, Patrick I.; Van Zee, Kimberly J.; Cody, Hiram S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare sentinel lymph node (SLN)-positive breast cancer patients who had completion axillary dissection (ALND) with those who did not, with particular attention to clinicopathologic features, nomogram scores, rates of axillary local recurrence (LR), and changes in treatment pattern over time. Background: While conventional treatment of SLN-positive patients is to perform ALND, there may be a low-risk subgroup of SLN-positive patients in whom ALND is not required. A multivariate nomogram that predicts the likelihood of residual axillary disease may assist in identifying this group. Methods: Among 1960 consecutive SLN-positive patients (1997–2004), 1673 (85%) had ALND (“SLN+/ALND”) and 287 (15%) did not (“SLN+/no ALND”). We compare in detail the clinicopathologic features, nomogram scores, and rates of axillary LR between groups. Results: Compared with the SLN+/ALND group, patients with SLN+/no ALND were older, had more favorable tumors, were more likely to have breast conservation, had a lower median predicted risk of residual axillary node metastases (9% vs. 37%, P < 0.001), and had a marginally higher rate of axillary LR (2% vs. 0.4%, P = 0.004) at 23 to 30 months’ follow-up; half of all axillary LR in SLN+/no ALND patients were coincident with other local or distant sites. For patients in whom intraoperative frozen section was either negative or not done, the rate of completion ALND declined from 79% in 1997 to 62% in 2003 to 2004 but varied widely by surgeon, ranging from 37% to 100%. For 10 of 10 evaluable surgeons, the median nomogram scores in the SLN+/no ALND group were ≤10.5. Conclusions: SLN+/no ALND breast cancer patients, a selected group with relatively favorable disease characteristics, had a 9% predicted likelihood of residual axillary disease by nomogram but an observed axillary LR of 2%. A gradual and significant decline over time in the rate of completion ALND is associated with, but not entirely explained by, the institution of a predictive nomogram. It is reasonable to omit ALND for a low-risk subset of SLN-positive patients. PMID:17435554

  6. Multiple levels paravertebral block versus morphine patient-controlled analgesia for postoperative analgesia following breast cancer surgery with unilateral lumpectomy, and axillary lymph nodes dissection

    PubMed Central

    Fallatah, Summayah; Mousa, WF

    2016-01-01

    Background: Postoperative pain after breast cancer surgery is not uncommon. Narcotic based analgesia is commonly used for postoperative pain management. However, the side-effects and complications of systemic narcotics is a significant disadvantage. Different locoregional anesthetic techniques have been tried including, single and multiple levels paravertebral block (PVB), which seems to have a significant reduction in immediate postoperative pain with fewer side-effects. The aim of this study was to compare unilateral multiple level PVB versus morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for pain relief after breast cancer surgery with unilateral lumpectomy and axillary lymph nodes dissection. Materials and Methods: Forty patients scheduled for breast cancer surgery were randomized to receive either preoperative unilateral multiple injections PVB at five thoracic dermatomes (group P, 20 patients) or postoperative intravenous PCA with morphine (group M, 20 patients) for postoperative pain control. Numerical pain scale, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, Time to first analgesic demand, 24-h morphine consumption side-effects and length of hospital stay were recorded. Results: PVB resulted in a significantly more postoperative analgesia, maintained hemodynamic, more significant reduction in nausea and vomiting, and shorter hospital stay compared with PCA patients. Conclusion: Multiple levels PVB is an effective regional anesthetic technique for postoperative pain management, it provides superior analgesia with less narcotics consumption, and fewer side-effects compared with PCA morphine for patients with breast cancer who undergo unilateral lumpectomy, with axillary lymph nodes dissection. PMID:26955304

  7. The Evolution of Axillary Staging in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rao, Roshni

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer treatment has a long, fascinating history. Multimodality therapy utilizes surgery, systemic therapy and radiation. The role of surgical axillary staging in breast cancer continues to evolve. Secondary to randomized, controlled trials, sentinel lymph node biopsy is the standard for surgical staging in patients with a clinically negative axilla. Traditionally, when sentinel nodes revealed metastases, a complete axillary lymph node dissection was performed. Recently however, the value of complete axillary dissection is being challenged. PMID:26606821

  8. [Prophylactic axillary radiotherapy for breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Rivera, S; Louvel, G; Rivin Del Campo, E; Boros, A; Oueslati, H; Deutsch,

    2015-06-01

    Adjuvant radiotherapy, after breast conserving surgery or mastectomy for breast cancer, improves overall survival while decreasing the risk of recurrence. However, prophylactic postoperative radiotherapy of locoregional lymph nodes for breast cancer, particularly of the axillary region, is still controversial since the benefits and the risks due to axillary irradiation have not been well defined. To begin with, when performing conformal radiotherapy, volume definition is crucial for the analysis of the risk-benefit balance of any radiation treatment. Definition and contouring of the axillary lymph node region is discussed in this work, as per the recommendations of the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO). Axillary recurrences are rare, and the recent trend leads toward less aggressive surgery with regard to the axilla. In this literature review we present the data that lead us to avoid adjuvant axillary radiotherapy in pN0, pN0i+ and pN1mi patients even without axillary clearance and to perform it in some other situations. Finally, we propose an update about the potential toxicity of adjuvant axillary irradiation, which is essential for therapeutic decision-making based on current evidence, and to guide us in the evolution of our techniques and indications of axillary radiotherapy. PMID:26044178

  9. Can clinically relevant prognostic subsets of breast cancer patients with four or more involved axillary lymph nodes be identified through immunohistochemical biomarkers? A tissue microarray feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Crabb, Simon J; Bajdik, Chris D; Leung, Samuel; Speers, Caroline H; Kennecke, Hagen; Huntsman, David G; Gelmon, Karen A

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Primary breast cancer involving four or more axillary lymph nodes carries a poor prognosis. We hypothesized that use of an immunohistochemical biomarker scoring system could allow for identification of variable risk subgroups. Methods Patients with four or more positive axillary nodes were identified from a clinically annotated tissue microarray of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary breast cancers and randomized into a 'test set' and a 'validation set'. A prospectively defined prognostic scoring model was developed in the test set and was further assessed in the validation set combining expression for eight biomarkers by immunohistochemistry, including estrogen receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptors 1 and 2, carbonic anhydrase IX, cytokeratin 5/6, progesterone receptor, p53 and Ki-67. Survival outcomes were analyzed by the KaplanMeier method, log rank tests and Cox proportional-hazards models. Results A total of 313 eligible patients were identified in the test set for whom 10-year relapse-free survival was 38.3% (SEM 2.9%), with complete immunohistochemical data available for 227. Tumor size, percentage of positive axillary nodes and expression status for the progesterone receptor, Ki-67 and carbonic anhydrase IX demonstrated independent prognostic significance with respect to relapse-free survival. Our combined biomarker scoring system defined three subgroups in the test set with mean 10-year relapse-free survivals of 75.4% (SEM 7.0%), 35.3% (SEM 4.1%) and 19.3% (SEM 7.0%). In the validation set, differences in relapse-free survival for these subgroups remained statistically significant but less marked. Conclusion Biomarkers assessed here carry independent prognostic value for breast cancer with four or more positive axillary nodes and identified clinically relevant prognostic subgroups. This approach requires refinement and validation of methodology. PMID:18194560

  10. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy should still be performed, especially in the patient with clinically positive axillary lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Peng-fei; Zhao, Rong-rong; Liu, Yan-bing; Wang, Yong-sheng

    2013-10-01

    Current studies suggest that the internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) should not be performed routinely, for it did not alter clinical management of breast cancer patients in terms of adjuvant treatment. However, consideration should be given to the fact, the study population in all current research relate to IM-SLNB is the patients with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes. As internal mammary lymph nodes metastases are mostly found concomitantly with axillary metastases, clinical trials currently fail to evaluate the status of internal mammary lymph nodes who really in need. In consideration of the impact to staging and accurate indication of radiation to the internal mammary area, we recommend that research on IM-SLNB should still be encouraged, especially in patients with clinically positive axillary lymph nodes. PMID:23838319

  11. Breast Cancer Patients With 10 or More Involved Axillary Lymph Nodes Treated by Multimodality Therapy: Influence of Clinical Presentation on Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Geara, Fady B. . E-mail: fg00@aub.edu.lb; Nasr, Elie; Tucker, Susan L.; Charafeddine, Maya; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Eid, Toufic; Abbas, Jaber; Salem, Ziad; Shamseddine, Ali; Issa, Philip; El Saghir, Nagi

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: To analyze tumor control and survival for breast cancer patients with 10 or more positive lymph nodes without systemic disease, treated by adjuvant radiation alone or combined-modality therapy. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 309 consecutive patients with these characteristics who received locoregional radiotherapy (RT) at our institution. The majority of patients had clinical Stage II or IIIA-B disease (43% and 48%, respectively). The median number of positive axillary lymph nodes was 15 (range, 10-78). Adjuvant therapy consisted of RT alone, with or without chemotherapy, tamoxifen, and/or ovarian castration. Results: The overall 5-year and 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 20% and 7%, respectively. Median DFS was higher for patients with Stage I-II compared with those with Stage IIIABC (28 vs. 19 months; p = 0.006). Median DFS for patients aged {<=}35 years was lower than that of older patients (12 vs. 24 months; p < 0.0001). Patients treated with a combination therapy had a higher 5-year DFS rate compared with those treated by RT alone (26% vs. 11%; p 0.03). In multivariate analysis, clinical stage (III vs. I, II; relative risk = 1.8, p = 0.002) and age ({<=}35 vs. others; relative risk = 2.6, p <0.001) were found to be independent variables for DFS. Conclusion: This retrospective data analysis identified young age and advanced clinical stage as pertinent and independent clinical prognostic factors for breast cancer patients with advanced axillary disease (10 or more involved nodes). These factors can be used for further prognostic classification.

  12. Contribution of Kinetic Characteristics of Axillary Lymph Nodes to the Diagnosis in Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    rg, ?ebnem; Ba?ara, I??l; Pekindil, Gkhan; Co?kun, Teoman

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the contribution of kinetic characteristics in the discrimination of malignant-benign axillary lymph nodes. Material and Methods: One hundred fifty-five female patients were included in the study. Following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations postprocessing applications were applied, dynamic curves were obtained from subtracted images. Types of dynamic curves were correlated with histopathological results in malignant cases or final clinical results in patients with no evidence of malignancy. Sensitivity, specificity, positive likehood ratio (+LHR), negative (?LHR) of dynamic curves characterizing the axillary lymph nodes were calculated. Results: A total of 178 lymph nodes greater than 8 mm were evaluated in 113 patients. Forty-six lymph nodes in 24 cases had malignant axillary involvement. 132 lymph nodes in 89 patients with benign diagnosis were included in the study. The sensitivity of type 3 curve as an indicator of malignancy was calculated as 89%. However the specificity, +LHR, ?LHR were calculated as 14%, 1.04, 0.76 respectively. Conclusion: Since kinetic analysis of both benign and malignant axillary lymph nodes, rapid enhancement and washout (type 3) they cannot be used as a discriminator, unlike breast lesions. MRI, depending on the kinetic features of the axillary lymph nodes, is not high enough to be used in the clinical management of breast cancer patients. PMID:25207016

  13. Prevalence of Lymphedema in Women With Breast Cancer 5 Years After Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy or Axillary Dissection: Patient Perceptions and Precautionary Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Sarah A.; Wright, Mary J.; Morris, Katherine T.; Sampson, Michelle R.; Brockway, Julia P.; Hurley, Karen E.; Riedel, Elyn R.; Van Zee, Kimberly J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy was adopted for the staging of the axilla with the assumption that it would reduce the risk of lymphedema in women with breast cancer. This study was undertaken to examine patient perceptions of lymphedema and use of precautionary behaviors several years after axillary surgery. Patients and Methods Nine hundred thirty-six women who underwent SLN biopsy (SLNB) alone or SLNB followed by axillary lymph node dissection (SLNB/ALND) between June 1, 1999, and May 30, 2003, were evaluated at a median of 5 years after surgery. Patient-perceived lymphedema and avoidant behaviors were assessed through interview and administered a validated instrument, and compared with arm measurements. Results Current arm swelling was reported in 3% of patients who received SLNB alone versus 27% of patients who received SLNB/ALND (P < .0001), as compared with 5% and 16%, respectively, with measured lymphedema. Only 41% of patients reporting arm swelling had measured lymphedema, and 5% of patients reporting no arm swelling had measured lymphedema. Risk factors associated with reported arm swelling were greater body weight (P < .0001), higher body mass index (P < .0001), infection (P < .0001), and injury (P = .007) in the ipsilateral arm since surgery. Patients followed more precautions if they had measured or perceived lymphedema. Conclusion Body weight, infection, and injury are significant risk factors for perceiving lymphedema. There is significant discordance between the presence of measured and patient-perceived lymphedema. When compared to SLNB/ALND, SLNB-alone results in a significantly lower rate of patient-perceived arm swelling 5 years postoperatively, and is perceived by fewer women than are measured to have it. PMID:18838708

  14. Intercostobrachial Nerves as a Novel Anatomic Landmark for Dividing the Axillary Space in Lymph Node Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianyi; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Wenhai; Jia, Shi; Gu, Xi; Ma, Yan; Li, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Our aim was to assess the feasibility of using the intercostobrachial nerves (ICBNs) as a possible new anatomic landmark for axillaries lymph node dissection in breast cancer patients. Background Data Summary. The preservation of ICBN is now an accepted procedure in this type of dissection; however, it could be improved further to reduce the number of postoperative complications. The axillary space is divided into lower and upper parts by the ICBNa thorough investigation of the metastasis patterns in lymph nodes found in this area could supply new information leading to such improvements. Methods. Seventy-two breast cancer patients, all about to undergo lymph node dissection and with sentinel lymph nodes identified, were included in this trial. The lymph nodes were collected in two groups, from lower and upper axillary spaces, relative to the intercostobrachial nerves. The first group was further subdivided into sentinel (SLN) and nonsentinel (non-SLN) nodes. All lymph nodes were tested to detect macro- and micrometastasis. Results. All the sentinel lymph nodes were found under the intercostobrachial nerves; more than 10 lymph nodes were located in that space. Moreover, when lymph nodes macrometastasize or micrometastasize above the intercostobrachial nerves, we also observe metastasis-positive nodes under the nerves; when the lower group nodes show no metastasis, the upper group is also metastasis free. Conclusions. Our results show that the intercostobrachial nerves are good candidates for a new anatomic landmark to be used in lymph node dissection procedure. PMID:23401796

  15. Beyond Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis, BMI and Menopausal Status Are Prognostic Determinants for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Treated by Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bonsang-Kitzis, Hélène; Chaltier, Léonor; Belin, Lisa; Savignoni, Alexia; Rouzier, Roman; Sablin, Marie-Paule; Lerebours, Florence; Bidard, François-Clément; Cottu, Paul; Sastre-Garau, Xavier; Laé, Marick; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Reyal, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    Background Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are a specific subtype of breast cancers with a particularly poor prognosis. However, it is a very heterogeneous subgroup in terms of clinical behavior and sensitivity to systemic treatments. Thus, the identification of risk factors specifically associated with those tumors still represents a major challenge. A therapeutic strategy increasingly used for TNBC patients is neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Only a subset of patients achieves a pathologic complete response (pCR) after NAC and have a better outcome than patients with residual disease. Purpose The aim of this study is to identify clinical factors associated with the metastatic-free survival in TNBC patients who received NAC. Methods We analyzed 326 cT1-3N1-3M0 patients with ductal infiltrating TNBC treated by NAC. The survival analysis was performed using a Cox proportional hazard model to determine clinical features associated with prognosis on the whole TNBC dataset. In addition, we built a recursive partitioning tree in order to identify additional clinical features associated with prognosis in specific subgroups of TNBC patients. Results We identified the lymph node involvement after NAC as the only clinical feature significantly associated with a poor prognosis using a Cox multivariate model (HR = 3.89 [2.42–6.25], p<0.0001). Using our recursive partitioning tree, we were able to distinguish 5 subgroups of TNBC patients with different prognosis. For patients without lymph node involvement after NAC, obesity was significantly associated with a poor prognosis (HR = 2.64 [1.28–5.55]). As for patients with lymph node involvement after NAC, the pre-menopausal status in grade III tumors was associated with poor prognosis (HR = 9.68 [5.71–18.31]). Conclusion This study demonstrates that axillary lymph node status after NAC is the major prognostic factor for triple-negative breast cancers. Moreover, we identified body mass index and menopausal status as two other promising prognostic factors in this breast cancer subgroup. Using these clinical factors, we were able to classify TNBC patients in 5 subgroups, for which pre-menopausal patients with grade III tumors and lymph node involvement after NAC have the worse prognosis. PMID:26684197

  16. Intradermal administration of fluorescent contrast agents for delivery to axillary lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, John C.; Meric-Berstam, Funda; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Tan, I.-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Wagner, Jamie L.; Babiera, Gildy V.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2014-05-01

    In this proof-of-concept study we seek to demonstrate the delivery of fluorescent contrast agent to the tumor-draining lymph node basin following intraparenchymal breast injections and intradermal arm injection of micrograms of indocyanine green in 20 breast cancer patients undergoing complete axillary lymph node dissection. Individual lymph nodes were assessed ex vivo for presence of fluorescent signal. In all, 88% of tumor-negative lymph nodes and 81% of tumor-positive lymph nodes were fluorescent. These results indicate that future studies utilizing targeted fluorescent contrast agents may demonstrate improved surgical and therapeutic intervention.

  17. Endosalpingiosis in axillary lymph nodes simulating metastatic breast carcinoma: a potential diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Amir H; Omeroglu, Gulbeyaz; Kanber, Yonca; Omeroglu, Atilla

    2013-12-01

    Intraoperative assessment of sentinel lymph nodes at time of surgical excision of primary breast carcinoma is a crucial step in the determination of cancer extent and the need for further axillary dissection. Benign epithelial inclusions in axillary lymph nodes can mimic metastatic carcinoma and are a well-known pitfall during examination of these nodes in frozen or permanent sections. Most often, these inclusions consists of heterotopic mammary glands and are familiar to the practicing pathologist. Here, however, we present a rare case of endosalpingiosis in the axillary lymph nodes of a breast cancer patient and describe our experience and effort to characterize the lesion. Simulating a metastatic focus of invasive ductal carcinoma, the glandular inclusions lacked myoepithelial cells and failed to stain with myoepithelial markers. However, consistent with a Mullerian origin, the inclusions demonstrated strong staining with PAX-8 and WT-1. Although endosalpingiotic inclusions are not uncommonly encountered in subdiaphragmatic lymph nodes, they are an extremely rare finding above the diaphragm. Pathologists must be aware of these lesions and their ability to imitate metastatic gland-forming carcinoma during frozen section or permanent examination of axillary lymph nodes. PMID:24021901

  18. Positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of axillary lymph node metastases in early breast cancer: systematic review and economic evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, K L; Meng, Y; Harnan, S; Ward, S E; Fitzgerald, P; Papaioannou, D; Wyld, L; Ingram, C; Wilkinson, I D; Lorenz, E

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Evaluation of axillary lymph node metastases is important for breast cancer staging and treatment planning. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy, cost-effectiveness and effect on patient outcomes of positron emission tomography (PET), with or without computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of axillary lymph node metastases in patients with newly diagnosed early-stage breast cancer. DATA SOURCES A systematic review of literature and an economic evaluation were carried out. Key databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE and nine others) plus research registers and conference proceedings were searched for relevant studies up to April 2009. A decision-analytical model was developed to determine cost-effectiveness in the UK. REVIEW METHODS One reviewer assessed titles and abstracts of studies identified by the search strategy, obtained the full text of relevant papers and screened them against inclusion criteria. Data from included studies were extracted by one reviewer using a standardised data extraction form and checked by a second reviewer. Discrepancies were resolved by discussion. Quality of included studies was assessed using the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS) checklist, applied by one reviewer and checked by a second. RESULTS Forty-five citations relating to 35 studies were included in the clinical effectiveness review: 26 studies of PET and nine studies of MRI. Two studies were included in the cost-effectiveness review: one of PET and one of MRI. Of the seven studies evaluating PET/CT (n = 862), the mean sensitivity was 56% [95% confidence interval (CI) 44% to 67%] and mean specificity 96% (95% CI 90% to 99%). Of the 19 studies evaluating PET only (n = 1729), the mean sensitivity was 66% (95% CI 50% to 79%) and mean specificity 93% (95% CI 89% to 96%). PET performed less well for small metastases; the mean sensitivity was 11% (95% CI 5% to 22%) for micrometastases (≤ 2 mm; five studies; n = 63), and 57% (95% CI 47% to 66%) for macrometastases (> 2 mm; four studies; n = 111). The smallest metastatic nodes detected by PET measured 3 mm, while PET failed to detect some nodes measuring > 15 mm. Studies in which all patients were clinically node negative showed a trend towards lower sensitivity of PET compared with studies with a mixed population. Across five studies evaluating ultrasmall super-paramagnetic iron oxide (USPIO)-enhanced MRI (n = 93), the mean sensitivity was 98% (95% CI 61% to 100%) and mean specificity 96% (95% CI 72% to 100%). Across three studies of gadolinium-enhanced MRI (n = 187), the mean sensitivity was 88% (95% CI 78% to 94%) and mean specificity 73% (95% CI 63% to 81%). In the single study of in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (n = 27), the sensitivity was 65% (95% CI 38% to 86%) and specificity 100% (95% CI 69% to 100%). USPIO-enhanced MRI showed a trend towards higher sensitivity and specificity than gadolinium-enhanced MRI. Results of the decision modelling suggest that the MRI replacement strategy is the most cost-effective strategy and dominates the baseline 4-node sampling (4-NS) and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) strategies in most sensitivity analyses undertaken. The PET replacement strategy is not as robust as the MRI replacement strategy, as its cost-effectiveness is significantly affected by the utility decrement for lymphoedema and the probability of relapse for false-negative (FN) patients. LIMITATIONS No included studies directly compared PET and MRI. CONCLUSIONS Studies demonstrated that PET and MRI have lower sensitivity and specificity than SLNB and 4-NS but are associated with fewer adverse events. Included studies indicated a significantly higher mean sensitivity for MRI than for PET, with USPIO-enhanced MRI providing the highest sensitivity. However, sensitivity and specificity of PET and MRI varied widely between studies, and MRI studies were relatively small and varied in their methods; therefore, results should be interpreted with caution. Decision modelling based on these results suggests that the most cost-effective strategy may be MRI rather than SLNB or 4-NS. This strategy reduces costs and increases quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) because there are fewer adverse events for the majority of patients. However, this strategy leads to more FN cases at higher risk of cancer recurrence and more false- positive (FP) cases who would undergo unnecessary axillary lymph node dissection. Adding MRI prior to SLNB or 4-NS has little effect on QALYs, though this analysis is limited by lack of available data. Future research should include large, well-conducted studies of MRI, particularly using USPIO; data on the long-term impacts of lymphoedema on cost and patient utility; studies of the comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of SLNB and 4-NS; and more robust UK cost data for 4-NS and SLNB as well as the cost of MRI and PET techniques. FUNDING This study was funded by the Health Technology Assessment programme of the National Institute of Health Research. PMID:21276372

  19. Isolated axillary lymph node tuberculosis in ultrasonography. A case report

    PubMed Central

    Urba?ska-Krawiec, Dagmara; Kajor, Maciej; Stefa?ski, Leszek

    2012-01-01

    We present a rare case of isolated axillary lymph node tuberculosis. A 66-year-old patient was admitted in order to perform the diagnostics of a painless tumor of the left armpit. Blood biochemistry tests and chest X-ray did not show any abnormalities. In the ultrasound examination a solid structure of the dimensions of 1.81 cm of irregular outline with adjacent hypoechogenic lymph nodes was visualized. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was based on histopathologic examination of the excised tumor. In the latter years an increase in extrapulmonary type of tuberculosis has been observed. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis may appear in practically each organ, nevertheless it affects pleura most often. Lymph node tuberculosis is the second, when it comes to the prevalence rate, type of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. In the majority of cases of lymph node tuberculosis it affects superficial lymph nodes. In the ultrasound examination a packet of pathological, enlarged and hypoechogenic lymph nodes is stated. In 1/3 of cases the central part of the nodes is hyperechogenic which indicates its caseation necrosis. Lymph nodes have a tendency to be matted and they have blurred outline. We observed this type of lymph node image in the presented patient. This image may be a diagnostic hint. Nevertheless, in the differentiation diagnostics one should take many other disease entities into consideration, inter alia: sarcoidosis, lymphomas, fungal infections, neoplastic metastases; the latter ones have an image most similar to tuberculosis lymph nodes. Tuberculosis ought to be considered in differential diagnosis of atypical masses.

  20. Endocervicosis involving axillary lymph nodes: first case report.

    PubMed

    Mukonoweshuro, Pinias; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2014-11-01

    The occurence of Mullerian epithelial inclusions, especially endosalpingiosis, in pelvic and other subdiaphragmatic lymph nodes is well known. In contrast, Mullerian inclusions involving lymph nodes above the diaphragm is uncommon, although occasional cases of endosalpingiosis have been reported. We report a case of benign Mullerian inclusions of mucinous endocervical type (endocervicosis) coexistent with metastatic breast-infiltrating ductal carcinoma in 2 axillary lymph nodes. The inclusions exhibited diffuse positive staining with CK7, PAX8, CA125, and estrogen receptor and were WT1 negative. To our knowledge, this is the first report of endocervicosis involving supradiaphragmatic lymph nodes. Close morphologic examination and immunohistochemistry assists in distinguishing Mullerian inclusions from metastatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:25272302

  1. Cost comparison of axillary sentinel lymph node detection and axillary lymphadenectomy in early breast cancer. A national study based on a prospective multi-institutional series of 985 patients on behalf of the Group of Surgeons from the French Unicancer Federation

    PubMed Central

    Classe, J. M.; Baffert, S.; Sigal-Zafrani, B.; Fall, M.; Rousseau, C.; Alran, S.; Rouanet, P.; Belichard, C.; Mignotte, H.; Ferron, G.; Marchal, F.; Giard, S.; Tunon de Lara, C.; Le Bouedec, G.; Cuisenier, J.; Werner, R.; Raoust, I.; Rodier, J.-F.; Laki, F.; Colombo, P.-E.; Lasry, S.; Faure, C.; Charitansky, H.; Olivier, J.-B.; Chauvet, M.-P.; Bussires, E.; Gimbergues, P.; Flipo, B.; Houvenaeghel, G.; Dravet, F.; Livartowski, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Our objective was to assess the global cost of the sentinel lymph node detection [axillary sentinel lymph node detection (ASLND)] compared with standard axillary lymphadenectomy [axillary lymph node dissection (ALND)] for early breast cancer patients. Patients and methods: We conducted a prospective, multi-institutional, observational, cost comparative analysis. Cost calculations were realized with the micro-costing method from the diagnosis until 1 month after the last surgery. Results: Eight hundred and thirty nine patients were included in the ASLND group and 146 in the ALND group. The cost generated for a patient with an ASLND, with one preoperative scintigraphy, a combined method for sentinel node detection, an intraoperative pathological analysis without lymphadenectomy, was lower than the cost generated for a patient with lymphadenectomy [2947 (? = 580) versus 3331 (? = 902); P = 0.0001]. Conclusion: ASLND, involving expensive techniques, was finally less expensive than ALND. The length of hospital stay was the cost driver of these procedures. The current observational study points the heterogeneous practices for this validated and largely diffused technique. Several technical choices have an impact on the cost of ASLND, as intraoperative analysis allowing to reduce rehospitalization rate for secondary lymphadenectomy or preoperative scintigraphy, suggesting possible savings on hospital resources. PMID:21896543

  2. Virtual lymph node analysis to evaluate axillary lymph node coverage provided by tangential breast irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Shin-Hyung; Lee, Jeong Eun; Park, In-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the coverage of axillary lymph node with tangential breast irradiation fields by using virtual lymph node (LN) analysis. Materials and Methods Forty-eight women who were treated with whole breast irradiation after breast-conserving surgery were analyzed. The axillary and breast volumes were delineated according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) contouring atlas. To generate virtual LN contours, preoperative fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) scans with identifiable LN were fused with the CT scans, and the virtual LN contour were delineated on the CT. Results The median level I and II axillary volume coverage percentages at the VD95% line were 33.5% (range, 5.3% to 90.4%) and 0.6% (range, 0.0% to 14.6%), respectively. Thirty-one LNs in 18 patients were delineated (26 in level I and 5 in level II). In the level I axilla, 84.6% of virtual LNs were encompassed by the 95% isodose line. In the level II axilla, by contrast, none of the virtual LNs were encompassed by the 95% isodose volumes. There was a substantial discrepancy between the RTOG contouring atlas-based axillary volume analysis and the virtual LN analysis, especially for the level I axillary coverage. The axillary volume coverage was associated with the body mass index (BMI) and breast volume. Conclusion The tangential breast irradiation did not deliver adequate therapeutic doses to the axillary region, particularly those in the level II axilla. Patients with small breast volumes or lower BMI showed reduced axillary coverage from the tangential breast fields. For axillary LN irradiation, individualized anatomy-based radiation fields for patients would be necessary. PMID:25874178

  3. Predicting axillary lymph node metastasis from kinetic statistics of DCE-MRI breast images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, Ahmed B.; Lin, Lilie; Gavenonis, Sara C.; Mies, Carolyn; Xanthopoulos, Eric; Kontos, Despina

    2012-03-01

    The presence of axillary lymph node metastases is the most important prognostic factor in breast cancer and can influence the selection of adjuvant therapy, both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this work we present a set of kinetic statistics derived from DCE-MRI for predicting axillary node status. Breast DCE-MRI images from 69 women with known nodal status were analyzed retrospectively under HIPAA and IRB approval. Axillary lymph nodes were positive in 12 patients while 57 patients had no axillary lymph node involvement. Kinetic curves for each pixel were computed and a pixel-wise map of time-to-peak (TTP) was obtained. Pixels were first partitioned according to the similarity of their kinetic behavior, based on TTP values. For every kinetic curve, the following pixel-wise features were computed: peak enhancement (PE), wash-in-slope (WIS), wash-out-slope (WOS). Partition-wise statistics for every feature map were calculated, resulting in a total of 21 kinetic statistic features. ANOVA analysis was done to select features that differ significantly between node positive and node negative women. Using the computed kinetic statistic features a leave-one-out SVM classifier was learned that performs with AUC=0.77 under the ROC curve, outperforming the conventional kinetic measures, including maximum peak enhancement (MPE) and signal enhancement ratio (SER), (AUCs of 0.61 and 0.57 respectively). These findings suggest that our DCE-MRI kinetic statistic features can be used to improve the prediction of axillary node status in breast cancer patients. Such features could ultimately be used as imaging biomarkers to guide personalized treatment choices for women diagnosed with breast cancer.

  4. Cancer and lymph nodes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the body and travel to an area of lymph nodes. The cancer cells often travel to nodes near the tumor ... American Cancer Society. Lymph Nodes and Cancer. Available at: ... Accessed June 4, 2014. Camp MS, Smith BL. ...

  5. Rare case of axillary lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma detected using Iodine-131 whole-body scintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Rajan, Firoz; Mohanan, Vyshak; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2015-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer is, usually, associated with an excellent prognosis and indolent course. Distant metastases are rare events at the onset of thyroid cancer. Among these presentations, metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes is even more unusual. Only few cases of papillary carcinoma with axillary nodal metastasis were previously reported in the literature. We present a 38-year-old female who underwent Iodine-131 whole-body scintigraphy, after total thyroidectomy and bilateral neck lymph node dissection for papillary carcinoma of thyroid, showed intense uptake in the remnant thyroid, lung metastasis, left cervical and left axillary lymph nodes. Excision of left axillary lymph nodes confirmed metastatic papillary carcinoma. PMID:25829741

  6. Rare case of axillary lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma detected using Iodine-131 whole-body scintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Rajan, Firoz; Mohanan, Vyshak; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2015-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer is, usually, associated with an excellent prognosis and indolent course. Distant metastases are rare events at the onset of thyroid cancer. Among these presentations, metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes is even more unusual. Only few cases of papillary carcinoma with axillary nodal metastasis were previously reported in the literature. We present a 38-year-old female who underwent Iodine-131 whole-body scintigraphy, after total thyroidectomy and bilateral neck lymph node dissection for papillary carcinoma of thyroid, showed intense uptake in the remnant thyroid, lung metastasis, left cervical and left axillary lymph nodes. Excision of left axillary lymph nodes confirmed metastatic papillary carcinoma. PMID:25829741

  7. Factors associated with involvement of four or more axillary nodes for sentinel lymph node-positive patients

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Angela . E-mail: abkatz@partners.org; Niemierko, Andrzej; Gage, Irene; Evans, Sheila; Shaffer, Margaret; Smith, Frederick P.; Taghian, Alphonse; Magnant, Colette

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: Sentinel lymph node-positive (SLN+) patients who are unlikely to have 4 or more involved axillary nodes might be treated with less extensive regional nodal radiation. The purpose of this study was to define possible predictors of having 4 or more involved axillary nodes. Methods and Materials: The records of 224 patients with breast cancer and 1 to 3 involved SLNs, who underwent completion axillary dissection without neoadjuvant chemotherapy or hormonal therapy were reviewed. Factors associated with the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes (SLNs plus non-SLNs) were evaluated by Pearson chi-square test of association and by simple and multiple logistic-regression analysis. Results: Of 224 patients, 42 had involvement of 4 or more axillary nodes. On univariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes was positively associated with increased tumor size, lobular histology, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), increased number of involved SLNs, decreased number of uninvolved SLNs, and increased size of SLN metastasis. On multivariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes was associated with LVSI, increased number of involved SLNs, increased size of SLN metastasis, and lobular histology. Conclusions: Patients with 1 or more involved SLN, LVSI, or SLN macrometastasis should be treated to the supraclavicular fossa/axillary apex if they do not undergo completion axillary dissection. Other SLN+ patients might be adequately treated with less extensive radiation fields.

  8. A grid matrix-based Raman spectroscopic method to characterize different cell milieu in biopsied axillary sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Som, Dipasree; Tak, Megha; Setia, Mohit; Patil, Asawari; Sengupta, Amit; Chilakapati, C Murali Krishna; Srivastava, Anurag; Parmar, Vani; Nair, Nita; Sarin, Rajiv; Badwe, R

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy which is based upon inelastic scattering of photons has a potential to emerge as a noninvasive bedside in vivo or ex vivo molecular diagnostic tool. There is a need to improve the sensitivity and predictability of Raman spectroscopy. We developed a grid matrix-based tissue mapping protocol to acquire cellular-specific spectra that also involved digital microscopy for localizing malignant and lymphocytic cells in sentinel lymph node biopsy sample. Biosignals acquired from specific cellular milieu were subjected to an advanced supervised analytical method, i.e., cross-correlation and peak-to-peak ratio in addition to PCA and PC-LDA. We observed decreased spectral intensity as well as shift in the spectral peaks of amides and lipid bands in the completely metastatic (cancer cells) lymph nodes with high cellular density. Spectral library of normal lymphocytes and metastatic cancer cells created using the cellular specific mapping technique can be utilized to create an automated smart diagnostic tool for bench side screening of sampled lymph nodes. Spectral library of normal lymphocytes and metastatic cancer cells created using the cellular specific mapping technique can be utilized to develop an automated smart diagnostic tool for bench side screening of sampled lymph nodes supported by ongoing global research in developing better technology and signal and big data processing algorithms. PMID:26552923

  9. West Midlands Oncology Association trials of adjuvant chemotherapy in operable breast cancer: results after a median follow-up of 7 years. I. Patients with involved axillary lymph nodes.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, J. M.; Howell, A.; Kelly, K. A.; Grieve, R. J.; Monypenny, I. J.; Walker, R. A.; Waterhouse, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a regimen of combination chemotherapy known to be active in advanced breast cancer when given as an adjuvant treatment after mastectomy. A total of 569 patients with cancer of the breast and involvement of axillary lymph nodes were randomised, after simple mastectomy with axillary sampling, to receive either no adjuvant treatment or intravenous adriamycin 50 mg, vincristine 1 mg, cyclophosphamide 250 mg, methotrexate 150 mg and fluorouracil 250 mg (AVCMF) every 21 days for eight cycles. Randomisation was stratified according to menopausal status and tumour size. Treatment was started within 14 days of surgery in 94% of patients. Eighty-eight per cent of patients received at least seven cycles of chemotherapy with no dose reduction. The median relapse-free survival was prolonged by 14 months in patients treated with AVCMF (chi2 1 = 11.7; P = 0.0006). In the premenopausal group this period was 17 months (chi2 1 = 8.8; P = 0.003) compared with 8 months in the post-menopausal group (chi2 1 = 3.3; P = 0.07). Neither overall survival nor survival in these subgroups was significantly influenced by treatment. PMID:2690913

  10. Axillary lymph node tuberculosis masquerading as inflammatory breast carcinoma in an immune-compromised patient.

    PubMed

    Chikkannaiah, Panduranga; Vani, B R; Benachinmardi, Kirtilaxmi; Murthy, V Srinivasa

    2016-02-01

    While tuberculosis is still the leading opportunistic infection among human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients, extra-pulmonary tuberculosis is more common than pulmonary tuberculosis, with lymph nodes being a common site. Axillary lymph node pathology such as tuberculosis and lymphoma rarely mimics inflammatory breast carcinoma by producing lymphatic obstruction. We report a case of axillary lymph node tuberculosis in a 40-year-old immune-compromised woman, clinically presenting as inflammatory breast carcinoma. PMID:25681261

  11. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alsaif, Abdulaziz A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To report our experience in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in early breast cancer. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2005 and December 2014. There were 120 patients who underwent SLNB with frozen section examination. Data collected included the characteristics of patients, index tumor, and sentinel node (SN), SLNB results, axillary recurrence rate and SLNB morbidity. Results: There were 120 patients who had 123 cancers. Sentinel node was identified in 117 patients having 120 tumors (97.6% success rate). No SN was found intraoperatively in 3 patients. Frozen section results showed that 95 patients were SN negative, those patients had no immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), whereas 25 patients were SN positive and subsequently had immediate ALND. Upon further examination of the 95 negative SN’s by hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining for doubtful H&E cases, 10 turned out to have micrometastases (6 had delayed ALND and 4 had no further axillary surgery). Median follow up of patients was 35.5 months and the mean was 38.8 months. There was one axillary recurrence observed in the SN negative group. The morbidity of SLNB was minimal. Conclusion: The obtainable results from our local experience in SLNB in breast cancer, concur with that seen in published similar literature in particular the axillary failure rate. Sentinel lymph node biopsy resulted in minimal morbidity. PMID:26318461

  12. Toward nodal staging of axillary lymph node basins through intradermal administration of fluorescent imaging agents

    PubMed Central

    Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Rasmussen, John C.; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Tan, I-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Wagner, Jamie L.; Babiera, Gildy V.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a proof-of-concept study for future delivery of targeted near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) tracers, we sought to assess the delivery of micrograms of indocyanine green to all the axillary lymph nodes following intraparenchymal breast injections and intradermal arm injections in 20 subjects with advanced breast carcinoma and undergoing complete axillary lymph node dissection. Lymphatic vessels and nodes were assessed in vivo. Ex vivo images demonstrated that 87% of excised lymph nodes, including 81% of tumor-positive lymph nodes, were fluorescent. Future clinical studies using microdose amounts of tumor-targeting NIRF contrast agents may demonstrate improved surgical intervention with reduced morbidity. PMID:24466486

  13. Florid, papillary endosalpingiosis of the axillary lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Stolnicu, Simona; Preda, Ovidiu; Kinga, Szabo; Marian, Cristina; Nicolau, Romeo; Andrei, Sorin; Nicolae, Alina; Nogales, Francisco F

    2011-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman underwent radical mastectomy and axillary node dissection because of an invasive ductal carcinoma with neuroendocrine features. Histologically, all 22 sampled lymph nodes had widespread cystic inclusions lined by a regular, serous-type epithelium positive for cytokeratin-7, WT-1, CA125, and estrogen receptors. Papillary projections were found in the lumen of some cysts. The lesions were consistent with florid, papillary endosalpingiosis (FPE), a hitherto unreported condition in a supradiaphragmatic location. Metastases from papillary carcinomas of ovary, breast, or thyroid were excluded considering the lesion's immunophenotype (negative for mammaglobin and TTF-1) and the absence of both atypical features and a concurrent abdominal serous tumor. In only one node, lesions co-existed with a metastasis of breast carcinoma. Supradiaphragmatic FPE represents a pitfall in the differential diagnosis of metastases, especially in sentinel nodes, since it may increase their size and reveal an unusual ultrasonographic image. Clinicopathologic findings and a focused immunohistochemical study led to the correct diagnosis of this benign lesion. PMID:21477174

  14. Raman spectroscopy--a potential new method for the intra-operative assessment of axillary lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Horsnell, Jonathan D; Smith, Jenny A; Sattlecker, Martina; Sammon, Alistair; Christie-Brown, Jonathan; Kendall, Catherine; Stone, Nicholas

    2012-06-01

    Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy has become the standard surgical procedure for the sampling of axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer. Intra-operative node assessment of these nodes would allow definitive axillary surgery to take place immediately with associated benefits for patient management. Our experimental study aims to demonstrate that a Raman spectroscopy probe system could overcome many of the disadvantages of current intra-operative methods. 59 axillary lymph nodes, 43 negative and 16 positive from 58 patients undergoing breast surgery at our district general hospital were mapped using Raman micro-spectroscopy. These maps were then used to model the effect of using a Raman spectroscopic probe by selecting 5 and 10 probe points across the mapped images and evaluating the impact on disease detection. Results demonstrated sensitivities of up to 81% and specificities of up to 97% when differentiating between positive and negative lymph nodes, dependent on the number of probe points included. The results would have concurred with histopathology assessment in 89% and 91% of cases in the 5 and 10 point models respectively. Using Raman spectroscopy in this way could allow lymph node assessment within a time-frame suitable for intra-operative use. PMID:22525413

  15. Breast cancer recurrence after sentinel lymph node biopsy

    PubMed Central

    AlSaif, Abdulaziz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To look into the pattern of breast cancer recurrence following mastectomy, breast conservative surgery and radiotherapy or chemotherapy after SLNB at our institution. Methods: Between January 2005 and December 2014, all patients diagnosed with breast cancer with clinically negative axilla, underwent SLNB. We reviewed their medical records to identify pattern of cancer recurrence. Results: The median follow-up was 35.5 months. Eighty five patients (70.8%) had a negative sentinel lymph node (SLN) and subsequently had no further axillary treatment, one of them (1.2%) developed axillary recurrence 25 months postoperatively. Twenty five patients (20.8%) had a positive SLN (macrometastases) and subsequently had immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Ten patients (8.3%) had a positive SLN (micrometastases). In the positive SLN patients (macrometastases and micrometastases), there were two ipsilateral breast recurrences (5.7%), seen three and four years postoperatively. Also in this group, there was one (2.9%) distant metastasis to bone three years postoperatively. Conclusion: In this series, the clinical axillary false negative rate for SLNB was 1.2% which is in accordance with the published literature. This supports the use of SLNB as the sole axillary staging procedure in breast cancer patients with negative SLNB. Axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in patients with micrometastases in their sentinel lymph node(s). PMID:26870109

  16. Endosalpingiosis in axillary lymph nodes: a possible pitfall in the staging of patients with breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Corben, Adriana D; Nehhozina, Tatjana; Garg, Karuna; Vallejo, Christina E; Brogi, Edi

    2010-08-01

    The occurrence of benign epithelial inclusions in lymph nodes is well documented and can sometimes mimic metastatic carcinoma. Benign mllerian inclusions, such as endometriosis and endosalpingiosis, are common in pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes, but their presence in supradiaphragmatic lymph nodes is a rare event. We report our experience with 3 patients found to have endosalpingiosis in axillary sentinel lymph nodes obtained for staging of breast carcinoma. All patients were postmenopausal women, with age ranging between 65 and 75 years. Endosalpingiosis involved a single lymph node in 1 patient, and 2 nodes in each of the other 2; it was present in the lymph node capsule in all the 3 cases, with few glands scattered within the lymph node parenchyma in 2 of the patients. The glands contained ciliated and intercalated peg cells, had no periglandular endometrial-type stroma, and showed no atypia or mitotic activity. The epithelium demonstrated positive nuclear immunoreactivity for WT1 and PAX8, and was devoid of myoepithelium or basement membrane. Endosalpingiosis had been misinterpreted as metastatic carcinoma at another hospital in 1 of the 3 patients, with subsequent dissection of 19 additional benign axillary lymph nodes. We conclude that endosalpingiosis can involve axillary lymph nodes and closely simulate metastatic mammary carcinoma. Morphologic identification of ciliated cells and "peg" cells is most helpful to recognize this benign inclusion, and positive immunoreactivity for WT1 and/or PAX8 can be used to support the diagnosis. PMID:20631604

  17. An optimized posterior axillary boost technique in radiation therapy to supraclavicular and axillary lymph nodes: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Victor; Arenas, Meritxell; Müller, Katrin; Gomez, David; Bonet, Marta

    2013-01-01

    To assess the advantages of an optimized posterior axillary (AX) boost technique for the irradiation of supraclavicular (SC) and AX lymph nodes. Five techniques for the treatment of SC and levels I, II, and III AX lymph nodes were evaluated for 10 patients selected at random: a direct anterior field (AP); an anterior to posterior parallel pair (AP-PA); an anterior field with a posterior axillary boost (PAB); an anterior field with an anterior axillary boost (AAB); and an optimized PAB technique (OptPAB). The target coverage, hot spots, irradiated volume, and dose to organs at risk were evaluated and a statistical analysis comparison was performed. The AP technique delivered insufficient dose to the deeper AX nodes. The AP-PA technique produced larger irradiated volumes and higher mean lung doses than the other techniques. The PAB and AAB techniques originated excessive hot spots in most of the cases. The OptPAB technique produced moderate hot spots while maintaining a similar planning target volume (PTV) coverage, irradiated volume, and dose to organs at risk. This optimized technique combines the advantages of the PAB and AP-PA techniques, with moderate hot spots, sufficient target coverage, and adequate sparing of normal tissues. The presented technique is simple, fast, and easy to implement in routine clinical practice and is superior to the techniques historically used for the treatment of SC and AX lymph nodes.

  18. Axillary lymph node metastases in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast. A rare finding

    PubMed Central

    SPILIOPOULOS, D.; MITSOPOULOS, G.; KAPTANIS, S.; HALKIAS, C.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the breast is a rare malignant salivary-type neoplasm that has a good prognosis and represents less than 1% of all breast cancers. It is a triple negative carcinoma that presents as a painful mass. The mean age at the time of diagnosis is 5060 years old. The solid variant of this type of tumour with basaloid features and presence of nodal metastases is very rare and considered to have a more aggressive clinical course. We present a case with presence of axillary lymph node metastases that was successfully treated with no evidence of recurrence one year after the diagnosis and review the literature. PMID:26712257

  19. Axillary Staging in Breast Cancer Patients with Exclusive Lymphoscintigraphic Drainage to the Internal Mammary Chain

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Eva V. E.; van Dalen, Thijs; Koelemij, Ron; van Rossum, Peter S. N.; Borel Rinkes, Inne H. M.; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Witkamp, Arjen J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the need of axillary staging in breast cancer patients showing exclusive lymphatic drainage to the internal mammary chain (IMC). Methods A total of 2203 patients treated for breast carcinoma in three participating hospitals between July 2001 and July 2008 were analyzed. Only patients showing drainage to the IMC on preoperative lymphoscintigraphy were included. The number of harvested IMC sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), axillary SLNs, and metastases were recorded. Finally, the follow-up of this group of patients was analyzed. Results In 25/426 patients, drainage was exclusively to the IMC. Exploration of the axilla resulted in the harvesting of blue SLNs in 9 patients (36%) and the retrieval of an enlarged lymph node in 1 patient. In 4 of the remaining 15 patients, an axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was done. Lymph node metastases were found in 3 patients who had blue axillary SLNs and in 1 patient who underwent ALND. In the 11 patients who had no blue SLNs and no ALND, no axillary recurrences were observed during follow-up (median = 26 months). Conclusions Proper staging of the axilla remains crucial in patients showing exclusive drainage to the IMC. When no axillary node can be retrieved, ALND remains subject to discussion. PMID:20936283

  20. A Subset of Nondescript Axillary Lymph Node Inclusions Have the Immunophenotype of Endosalpingiosis

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Erin; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Argani, Cynthia; Kronz, Joseph; Vang, Russell; Argani, Pedram

    2015-01-01

    We report 2 cases of bland, otherwise nondescript axillary lymph node inclusions that have the immunophenotype of endosalpingiosis in patients with concurrent invasive breast carcinomas. Neither inclusion demonstrated the classic morphology of endosalpingiosis with admixed ciliated and secretory cells. Rather, both cases were composed of nondescript cuboidal to columnar bland epithelial cells situated within the lymph node capsule. Whereas both inclusions labeled diffusely for estrogen receptor and lacked evidence of a myoepithelial component, both labeled diffusely for PAX8 and WT-1, which distinguished them from their corresponding concurrent primary mammary carcinomas. These findings suggest that a subset of otherwise nondescript axillary lymph node inclusions represent endosalpingiosis and highlight the utility of PAX8 and WT-1 immunohistochemistry in distinguishing these from metastatic well-differentiated ductal carcinoma. PMID:24921637

  1. A subset of nondescript axillary lymph node inclusions have the immunophenotype of endosalpingiosis.

    PubMed

    Carney, Erin; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Argani, Cynthia; Kronz, Joseph; Vang, Russell; Argani, Pedram

    2014-12-01

    We report 2 cases of bland, otherwise nondescript axillary lymph node inclusions that have the immunophenotype of endosalpingiosis in patients with concurrent invasive breast carcinomas. Neither inclusion demonstrated the classic morphology of endosalpingiosis with admixed ciliated and secretory cells. Rather, both cases were composed of nondescript cuboidal to columnar bland epithelial cells situated within the lymph node capsule. Whereas both inclusions labeled diffusely for estrogen receptor and lacked evidence of a myoepithelial component, both labeled diffusely for PAX8 and WT-1, which distinguished them from their corresponding concurrent primary mammary carcinomas. These findings suggest that a subset of otherwise nondescript axillary lymph node inclusions represent endosalpingiosis and highlight the utility of PAX8 and WT-1 immunohistochemistry in distinguishing these from metastatic well-differentiated ductal carcinoma. PMID:24921637

  2. Post-mastectomy radiotherapy benefits subgroups of breast cancer patients with T12 tumor and 13 axillary lymph node(s) metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yu-Li; Li, Shan-Hsuan; Chen, Yen-Yang; Chen, Hui-Chun; Tang, Yen; Huang, Cheng-Hua; Chou, Fong-Fu; Wu, Shih-Chung; Rau, Kun-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the role of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in breast cancer patients with T12 and N1 disease. Patients and methods. A total of 207 postmastectomy women were enrolled. The 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of locoregional recurrence rate (LRR), distant recurrence rate (DRR) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by different tumor characteristics. Multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results With median follow-up 59.5 months, the 5-year LRR, DRR and OS were 9.1%, 20.3% and 84.4%, respectively. On univariate analysis, age < 40 years old (p = 0.003) and Her-2/neu over-expression (p = 0.016) were associated with higher LRR, whereas presence of LVI significantly predicted higher DRR (p = 0.026). Negative estrogen status (p = 0.033), Her-2/neu overexpression (p = 0.001) and LVI (p = 0.01) were significantly correlated with worse OS. PMRT didnt prove to reduce 5-year LRR (p = 0.107), as well as 5-year OS (p = 0.918). In subgroup analysis, PMRT showed significant benefits of improvement LRR and OS in patients with positive LVI. Conclusions For patients with T12 and N1 stage breast cancer, PMRT can decrease locoregional recurrence and increase overall survival only in patients with lymphovascular invasion. PMID:25177247

  3. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khn, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    Summary The role of axillary surgery for the treatment of primary breast cancer is in a process of constant change. During the last decade, axillary dissection with removal of at least 10 lymph nodes (ALD) was replaced by sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) as a staging procedure. Since then, the indication for SLNB rapidly expanded. Today's surgical strategies aim to minimize the rate of patients with a negative axillary status who undergo ALD. For some subgroups of patients, the indication for SLNB (e.g. multicentric disease, large tumors) or its implication for treatment planning (micrometastatic involvement, neoadjuvant chemotherapy) is being discussed. Although the indication for ALD is almost entirely restricted to patients with positive axillary lymph nodes today, the therapeutic effect of completion ALD is more and more questioned. On the other hand, the diagnostic value of ALD in node-positive patients is discussed. This article reflects today's standards in axillary surgery and discusses open issues on the diagnostic and therapeutic role of SLNB and ALD in the treatment of early breast cancer. PMID:21779223

  4. Wound complications after modified radical mastectomy compared with tylectomy with axillary lymph node dissection.

    PubMed

    Vinton, A L; Traverso, L W; Jolly, P C

    1991-05-01

    Tylectomy with axillary lymph node dissection and radiotherapy (TAD) has become an accepted treatment for early breast cancer and has been shown to result in equal 5- and 8-year survival when compared with modified radical mastectomy (MRM). In order to determine the safety of TAD with respect to wound complications and to identify potential risk factors, we reviewed the charts of 560 patients undergoing MRM (n = 387) and TAD (n = 173) at Virginia Mason Medical Center from 1983 through 1989. The incidence of infection, seroma, hematoma, and epidermolysis were compared, and obesity, age 60 years or older, smoking, antibiotics, and wound drainage were examined as possible risk factors. There were more wound complications in the MRM group versus the TAD group (49% versus 35%; p less than 0.01), specifically more seromas (29% versus 18%; p less than 0.01) and epidermolysis (18% versus 0%). In the MRM group, age 60 years or older was associated with seroma (p less than 0.01) and smoking was associated with epidermolysis (p less than 0.01). In the TAD group, obesity was associated with infection. In both groups, volume of drainage from closed suction wound drains greater than 30 mL in the 24 hours prior to removal of the last drain was associated with seroma (p less than 0.05). PMID:2031542

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of 1.5 Tesla breast magnetic resonance imaging in the pre-operative assessment of axillary lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    de Felice, C; Cipolla, V; Stagnitti, A; Porfiri, L M; Guerrieri, D; Musella, A; Santucci, D; Meggiorini, M L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the accuracy of 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (1.5T MRI) in the preoperative evaluation of axillary lymph nodes in patients with invasive breast cancer. The authors retrospectively analyzed 26 patients with invasive breast cancer who had undergone sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and/or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). All patients had been submitted to preoperative contrast enhanced breast 1.5T MRI. On the basis of lymph nodes morphological and dynamic characteristics, lymph nodes were classified as "negative" (short axis < 5 mm), "borderline" (short axis > 5 mm, absence of a hilum) or "positive" (short axis > 5 mm, absence of a hilum and also other suspicious features). The authors compared 1.5T MRI results with the outcome of histological analysis performed according to the TNM criteria; sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 1.5T MRI were evaluated. Considering only the lymph nodes "positive", 1.5 T MRI showed: SE 37.8%, SP 99.3%, FP 0.7%, PPV 92.5%, and NPV 88.1%. However, considering also "borderline", 1.5T MRI achieved: SE 75.7%, SP 99.3%, FP 0.7%, PPV 96.1%, and NPV was 95%. Contrast enhanced breast 1.5T MRI is not yet a valid alternative to histological analysis but it is a valid tool for a preoperative study of the topography of axillary lymph nodes and has the potential to become a routine method for evaluating the metastatic lymph nodes before submission to ALND. PMID:26390701

  6. Predicting axillary sentinel node status in patients with primary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kolarik, D; Pecha, V; Skovajsova, M; Zahumensky, J; Trnkova, M; Petruzelka, L; Halaska, M; Sottner, O; Otcenasek, M; Kolarova, H

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the combination of characteristics in early breast cancer that could estimate the risk of occurrence of metastatic cells in axillary sentinel lymph node(s). If we were able to reliably predict the presence or absence of axillary sentinel involvement, we could spare a considerable proportion of patients from axillary surgery without compromising therapeutic outcomes of their disease. The study is based on retrospective analysis of medical records of 170 patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer. These women underwent primary surgery of the breast and axilla in which at least one sentinel lymph node was obtained. Logistic regression has been employed to construct a model predicting axillary sentinel lymph node involvement using preoperative and postoperative tumor characteristics. Postoperative model uses tumor features obtained from definitive histology samples. Its predictive capability expressed by receiver operating characteristic curve is good, area under curve (AUC) equals to 0.78. The comparison between preoperative and postoperative results showed the only significant differences in values of histopathological grading; we have considered grading not reliably stated before surgery. In preoperative model only the characteristics available and reliably stated at the time of diagnoses were used. The predictive capability of this model is only fair when using the data available at the time of diagnosis (AUC = 0.66). We conclude, that predictive models based on postoperative values enable to reliably estimate the likelihood of occurrence of axillary sentinel node(s) metastases. This can be used in clinical practice in case surgical procedure is divided into two steps, breast surgery first and axillary surgery thereafter. Even if preoperative values were not significantly different from postoperative ones (except for grading), the preoperative model predictive capability is lower compared to postoperative values. The reason for this worse prediction was identified in imperfect preoperative diagnostic. PMID:23374005

  7. Impact of non-axillary sentinel node biopsy on staging and treatment of breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Tanis, P J; Nieweg, O E; Valds Olmos, R A; Peterse, J L; Rutgers, E J Th; Hoefnagel, C A; Kroon, B B R

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of lymphatic drainage to non-axillary sentinel nodes and to determine the implications of this phenomenon. A total of 549 breast cancer patients underwent lymphoscintigraphy after intratumoural injection of 99mTc-nanocolloid. The sentinel node was intraoperatively identified with the aid of intratumoural administered patent blue dye and a gamma-ray detection probe. Histopathological examination of sentinel nodes included step-sectioning at six levels and immunohistochemical staining. A sentinel node outside level I or II of the axilla was found in 149 patients (27%): internal mammary sentinel nodes in 86 patients, other non-axillary sentinel nodes in 44 and both internal mammary and other non-axillary sentinel nodes in nineteen patients. The intra-operative identification rate was 80%. Internal mammary metastases were found in seventeen patients and metastases in other non-axillary sentinel nodes in ten patients. Staging improved in 13% of patients with non-axillary sentinel lymph nodes and their treatment strategy was changed in 17%. A small proportion of clinically node negative breast cancer patients can be staged more precisely by biopsy of sentinel nodes outside level I and II of the axilla, resulting in additional decision criteria for postoperative regional or systemic therapy. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 705710. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600359 www.bjcancer.com 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12232750

  8. A Rapidly Enlarging Squamous Inclusion Cyst in an Axillary Lymph Node following Core Needle Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cunxian; Xiong, Jinjun; Quddus, M. Ruhul; Ou, Joyce J.; Hansen, Katrine; Sung, C. James

    2012-01-01

    A 73-year-old woman was found to have a 1.7?cm axillary mass, for which a core needle biopsy was performed. The specimen revealed fragmented squamous epithelium surrounded by lymphoid tissue consistent with a squamous inclusion cyst in a lymph node, but a metastatic squamous cell carcinoma could not be excluded. Within one month, the lesion enlarged to 5?cm and was excised. Touch preparation cytology during intraoperative consultation displayed numerous single and sheets of atypical epithelioid cells with enlarged nuclei and occasional mitoses, suggesting a carcinoma. However, multinucleated giant cells and neutrophils in the background indicated reactive changes. We interpreted the touch preparation as atypical and recommended conservative surgical management. Permanent sections revealed a ruptured squamous inclusion cyst in a lymph node with extensive reactive changes. Retrospectively, the atypical epithelioid cells on touch preparation corresponded to reactive histiocytes. This is the first case report of a rapidly enlarging ruptured squamous inclusion cyst in an axillary lymph node following core needle biopsy. Our case demonstrates the diagnostic challenges related to a ruptured squamous inclusion cyst and serves to inform the readers to consider this lesion in the differential diagnosis for similar situations. PMID:22953131

  9. A rare case of secretory breast carcinoma in a male adult with axillary lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jinhua; Jiang, Li; Gan, Yongli; Wu, Weizhu

    2015-01-01

    Secretory breast carcinoma is a rare tumor originally described in children but occurring equally in adult population, especially in women. This unusual subtype has a generally favorable prognosis, although several cases have been described in adults with increased aggressiveness and a risk of metastases even death. So far, merely ten cases of secretory breast carcinoma with metastatic axillary lymph node in male were reported. Here, we describe the eleventh case, a 24-years-old male who presented with a painless mass in the right breast was diagnosed to be “secretary breast carcinoma”, and subsequently underwent modified radical mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:26045861

  10. In-vivo detection of tumor-infiltrated axillary lymph nodes with a handheld beta-sensitive probe: a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raylman, Raymond R.; Derakhshan, Jamal

    2001-05-01

    Sentinel node biopsy utilizing Technetium-99m-labeled sulfur colloid is rapidly becoming a standard part of the surgical treatment of breast cancer. Although this method is effective in identifying sentinel lymph node(s) in the axilla, the non-tumor-specific nature of colloids necessitates removal of the node(s) for subsequent analysis. Tumor-specific radiotracers, such as positron-emitting Fluorine-18-labeled Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), have been used with positron emission tomography (PET) to successfully stage breast cancer. Thus, the use of FDG with a handheld probe optimized for detection of beta particles could perhaps help identify cancer-infiltrated nodes during axillary dissection. In this study the ability of a new solid-state beta-sensitive probe to identify tumor- infiltrated lymph nodes was investigated in a phantom study. The axilla and tumor-infiltrated lymph nodes were simulated with gelatin phantoms containing FDG concentrations commonly reported from PET studies. FDG uptake in the organs of a patient was simulated with an anthropomorphic torso phantom. Following examination by the handheld probe, a PET image of the phantom was acquired. The results demonstrated that the probe was capable of identifying lymph nodes containing as little as 10 (mu) l of tumor. This amount of simulated tumor was too small to be detected by the PET scanner. This method, therefore, may be useful in intraoperatively identifying some tumor-infiltrated axillary lymph nodes not detected with PET; potentially increasing the efficiency of axillary dissection. Future clinical trials must be performed to assess the utility of this new technique.

  11. Is It Contralateral Axillary Metastasis or Occult Breast Cancer?: A Confusing Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Son, Yong Gi; Kim, Woon Won; Kim, Ki Hoon; Kim, Jin Soo

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 43-year-old woman with primary left breast cancer presenting metastatic lymphadenopathy in the contralateral axilla. This patient represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge because primary breast cancer, occult contralateral breast cancer, and extra-mammary primary lesion can all be the source of the contralateral axillary metastasis. Left breast-conserving surgery, left sentinel lymph node biopsy, right breast mass excision, and right axillary lymph node dissection were performed. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the left breast cancer specimen was positive for estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR), but negative for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). In contrast, the right axillary lymphadenopathy specimen was negative for ER and PR, but positive for HER2. Further investigation revealed no evidence of occult primary cancers or extra-mammary tumors. After surgical intervention, the patient was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant radiation therapy, and targeted therapy with trastuzumab. Two years after diagnosis, she is free of disease and presently being treated with tamoxifen. PMID:26668571

  12. Axillary skin malignancy: a rare breast cancer presentation.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Benjamin H; Malahias, Marco; El-Said, Tarek F A; Fahmy, Fahmy S

    2014-05-01

    A rise in incidence and decrease in mortality rates from breast cancer have lead to an increase in prevalence within developed countries. Presentation is classically with a palpable breast tissue mass that may metastasize to bone, lung, liver, brain, lymph nodes, and skin. We describe a delayed diagnosis, in an 80-year-old female patient, where, on 2 occasions, the primary initial presentation was with a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in the right axilla. It was not until the third referral, with an ipsilateral breast lump, that breast cancer was clinically diagnosed. This was histologically identified as the primary malignancy, most likely in-keeping with squamous cell carcinoma of the breast. This unique atypical presentation represents a diagnostic challenge and highlights a clinically relevant learning point that may avoid subsequent diagnostic delay. Cutaneous axillary lesions should be treated with a high index of suspicion, necessitating the requirement for chest examination because of the possible presence of an associated primary breast carcinoma. PMID:23241794

  13. Predictive Value of Tumor Load in Breast Cancer Sentinel Lymph Nodes for Second Echelon Lymph Node Metastases

    PubMed Central

    van Deurzen, C. H. M.; van Hillegersberg, R.; Hobbelink, M. G. G.; Seldenrijk, C. A.; Koelemij, R.; van Diest, P. J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The need for routine axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in patients with invasive breast cancer and low-volume sentinel node (SN) involvement is questionable. Accurate prediction of second echelon lymph node involvement could identify those patients most likely to benefit from ALND. Methods: A consecutive series of 317 patients with invasive breast cancer and a tumor positive axillary SN followed by ALND was reviewed. Clinicopathologic features of the primary tumor and the SN were assessed as possible predictors of second echelon lymph node involvement. Results: Second echelon metastases were found in 116/317 cases (36.6%). Frequency of second echelon lymph node involvement in patients with isolated tumor cells (ITC, N = 23), micro- (N = 101) and macrometastases (N = 193) was 13%, 20% and 48%, respectively (p < 0.001). Based on the area % of SN occupied by tumor no subgroup of patients could be selected with less than 20% second echelon lymph node involvement. However, none of the patients with SN ITC or micrometastases and a primary tumor size ?1 cm (N = 12, 3.8%) had second echelon lymph node involvement. Conclusions: Accurately measured SN tumor load predicts second echelon lymph node involvement. However, even in patients with ITC, the second echelon lymph nodes are involved in 13% justifying ALND. PMID:18032826

  14. Fluorescence imaging to study cancer burden on lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Souza, Alisha V.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Gunn, Jason R.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2015-03-01

    Morbidity and complexity involved in lymph node staging via surgical resection and biopsy calls for staging techniques that are less invasive. While visible blue dyes are commonly used in locating sentinel lymph nodes, since they follow tumor-draining lymphatic vessels, they do not provide a metric to evaluate presence of cancer. An area of active research is to use fluorescent dyes to assess tumor burden of sentinel and secondary lymph nodes. The goal of this work was to successfully deploy and test an intra-nodal cancer-cell injection model to enable planar fluorescence imaging of a clinically relevant blue dye, specifically methylene blue along with a cancer targeting tracer, Affibody labeled with IRDYE800CW and subsequently segregate tumor-bearing from normal lymph nodes. This direct-injection based tumor model was employed in athymic rats (6 normal, 4 controls, 6 cancer-bearing), where luciferase-expressing breast cancer cells were injected into axillary lymph nodes. Tumor presence in nodes was confirmed by bioluminescence imaging before and after fluorescence imaging. Lymphatic uptake from the injection site (intradermal on forepaw) to lymph node was imaged at approximately 2 frames/minute. Large variability was observed within each cohort.

  15. ALND for Women with Breast Cancer Micrometastases

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from a randomized clinical trial that compared axillary lymph node dissection versus no axillary lymph node dissection in women with breast cancer and only micrometastases in their sentinel lymph nodes.

  16. Long-term clinical impact of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer and cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Gangi, A; Essner, R; Giuliano, A E

    2014-06-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is based on the hypothesis that the sentinel lymph node (SLN) reflects the lymph-node status and a negative SLN might allow complete axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) to be avoided. Past and current sentinel lymph node clinical trials for breast carcinoma and melanoma address the prognostic and therapeutic utility of SLN dissection (SLND). This technique has already become a standard of care for breast cancer patients and select patients with melanoma. However, it is still important to discuss current techniques and some controversies. This article reviews these issues as well as current guidelines for treatment and management of patients with various findings on SLNB. PMID:24835286

  17. Volume-Based Parameters of {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Improve Disease Recurrence Prediction in Postmastectomy Breast Cancer Patients With 1 to 3 Positive Axillary Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Naomi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Ochi, Takashi; Kiyoto, Sachiko; Ohsumi, Shozo; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To determine whether volume-based parameters on pretreatment {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy without adjuvant radiation therapy are predictive of recurrence. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 93 patients with 1 to 3 positive axillary nodes after surgery, who were studied with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography for initial staging. We evaluated the relationship between positron emission tomography parameters, including the maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and clinical outcomes. Results: The median follow-up duration was 45 months. Recurrence was observed in 11 patients. Metabolic tumor volume and TLG were significantly related to tumor size, number of involved nodes, nodal ratio, nuclear grade, estrogen receptor (ER) status, and triple negativity (TN) (all P values were <.05). In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, MTV and TLG showed better predictive performance than tumor size, ER status, or TN (area under the curve: 0.85, 0.86, 0.79, 0.74, and 0.74, respectively). On multivariate analysis, MTV was an independent prognostic factor of locoregional recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio 34.42, 95% confidence interval 3.94-882.71, P=.0008) and disease-free survival (DFS) (hazard ratio 13.92, 95% confidence interval 2.65-103.78, P=.0018). The 3-year DFS rate was 93.8% for the lower MTV group (<53.1; n=85) and 25.0% for the higher MTV group (≥53.1; n=8; P<.0001, log–rank test). The 3-year DFS rate for patients with both ER-positive status and MTV <53.1 was 98.2%; and for those with ER-negative status and MTV ≥53.1 it was 25.0% (P<.0001). Conclusions: Volume-based parameters improve recurrence prediction in postmastectomy breast cancer patients with 1 to 3 positive nodes. The addition of MTV to ER status or TN has potential benefits to identify a subgroup at higher risk for recurrence.

  18. Prognostic factors in patients with melanoma metastatic to axillary or inguinal lymph nodes. A multivariate analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Coit, D G; Rogatko, A; Brennan, M F

    1991-01-01

    Although pathologic nodal status is a major determinant of outcome in melanoma, there is substantial prognostic heterogeneity among node-positive patients. This study was undertaken to further clarify significant variables predicting survival in patients with melanoma metastatic to axillary or groin nodes. From 1019 patients with melanoma undergoing axillary or groin dissection between 1974 and 1984, the authors identified 449 patients with histologically positive nodes. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier product limit method and the Cox model of proportional hazard regression. The major determinant of survival was pathologic stage (PS) according to the 1983 AJCC staging system. Three hundred fifty patients (78%) were classified PS-III (one nodal group involved), with a survival of 39% at 5 years and 32% at 10 years. Factors independently predictive of a favorable outcome in these patients were nontruncal primary site (p = 0.0002), microscopic nodal involvement (p = 0.001), number of positive nodes less than three (p = 0.003), and absence of extranodal disease (p = 0.01). Ninety-nine patients (22%) were classified PS-IV, 51 with two nodal stations involved (N2), 25 with intransit disease and one nodal station involved (N2), 7 with extraregional soft tissue metastases (M1), and 16 with visceral metastases (M2). Survival for PS-IV patients was 9% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Within PS-IV, factors independently predictive of a more favorable outcome were the absence of extranodal disease (p = 0.0001), female sex (p = 0.03), and a long interval from diagnosis to lymph node dissection (p = 0.04). These factors were incorporated into a model predicting relative risk of death from disease for both PS-III and PS-IV patients, separating patients into groups at high, intermediate, and low risk of recurrence after lymphadenectomy. PMID:1953117

  19. Nanoparticles in Sentinel Lymph Node Assessment in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Laura; Charles-Edwards, Geoff; Douek, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The modern management of the axilla in breast cancer relies on surgery for accurate staging of disease and identifying those patients at risk who would benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. The introduction of sentinel lymph node biopsy has revolutionized axillary surgery, but still involves a surgical procedure with associated morbidity in many patients with no axillary involvement. Nanotechnology encompasses a broad spectrum of scientific specialities, of which nanomedicine is one. The potential use of dual-purpose nanoprobes could enable imaging the axilla simultaneous identification and treatment of metastatic disease. Whilst most applications of nanomedicine are still largely in the laboratory phase, some potential applications are currently undergoing clinical evaluation for translation from the bench to the bedside. This is an exciting new area of research where scientific research may become a reality. PMID:24281206

  20. Axillary dissection in primary breast cancer: variations of the surgical technique and influence on morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Wojcinski, Sebastian; Nuengsri, Sirin; Hillemanns, Peter; Schmidt, Werner; Deryal, Mustafa; Ertan, Kubilay; Degenhardt, Friedrich

    2012-01-01

    Lymphedema of the arm is the most common and impairing complication after breast cancer surgery with axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Our prospective study evaluated the effect of two different surgical techniques for ALND on postoperative morbidity. Patients were scheduled to undergo ALND. Patients in group 1 (n = 17) underwent the most common and standard technique of ALND, which uses sharp dissection of the tissue and subsequent electro-coagulation of bleedings. Patients in group 2 (n = 17) underwent a modified standard technique of ALND with clamping and ligatures of all resection margins. Postoperative wound secretion was quantified and patients were followed up for 6 months to assess long-term morbidity. The variations in surgical technique had no significant influence on the outcome variables. However, patients in group 2 showed a tendency to less wound secretion (713 versus 802 mL; P = nonsignificant), a decreased rate of immediate postoperative seromas (11.8 versus 23.5%; P = nonsignificant) and less lymphedema after 3 months (29.4 versus 41.2%; P = nonsignificant). Moreover, the number of resected lymph nodes correlated with the total amount of drained fluid (P = 0.006), the duration of the drain (P = 0.015), and the risk for the development of lymphedema after 3 months (P = 0.016). The described variations in surgical technique had no influence on the outcomes of the patients. The number of resected axillary lymph nodes remains the most important risk factor for treatment-related morbidity. Therefore, a well-balanced choice of the extent of the axillary dissection should be the surgeon’s main concern. PMID:22570566

  1. Axillary dissection in primary breast cancer: variations of the surgical technique and influence on morbidity.

    PubMed

    Wojcinski, Sebastian; Nuengsri, Sirin; Hillemanns, Peter; Schmidt, Werner; Deryal, Mustafa; Ertan, Kubilay; Degenhardt, Friedrich

    2012-01-01

    Lymphedema of the arm is the most common and impairing complication after breast cancer surgery with axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Our prospective study evaluated the effect of two different surgical techniques for ALND on postoperative morbidity. Patients were scheduled to undergo ALND. Patients in group 1 (n = 17) underwent the most common and standard technique of ALND, which uses sharp dissection of the tissue and subsequent electro-coagulation of bleedings. Patients in group 2 (n = 17) underwent a modified standard technique of ALND with clamping and ligatures of all resection margins. Postoperative wound secretion was quantified and patients were followed up for 6 months to assess long-term morbidity. The variations in surgical technique had no significant influence on the outcome variables. However, patients in group 2 showed a tendency to less wound secretion (713 versus 802 mL; P = nonsignificant), a decreased rate of immediate postoperative seromas (11.8 versus 23.5%; P = nonsignificant) and less lymphedema after 3 months (29.4 versus 41.2%; P = nonsignificant). Moreover, the number of resected lymph nodes correlated with the total amount of drained fluid (P = 0.006), the duration of the drain (P = 0.015), and the risk for the development of lymphedema after 3 months (P = 0.016). The described variations in surgical technique had no influence on the outcomes of the patients. The number of resected axillary lymph nodes remains the most important risk factor for treatment-related morbidity. Therefore, a well-balanced choice of the extent of the axillary dissection should be the surgeon's main concern. PMID:22570566

  2. Dual-Modality Photoacoustic and Ultrasound Imaging System for Noninvasive Sentinel Lymph Node Detection in Patients with Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Erpelding, Todd N; Krumholz, Arie; Ke, Haixin; Maslov, Konstantin; Appleton, Catherine; Margenthaler, Julie A; Wang, Lihong V

    2015-01-01

    The detection of regional lymph node metastases is important in cancer staging as it guides the prognosis of the patient and the strategy for treatment. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is an accurate, less invasive alternative to axillary lymph node dissection. The sentinel lymph node hypothesis states that the pathological status of the axilla can be accurately predicted by determining the status of the first lymph nodes that drain from the primary tumor. Physicians use radio-labeled sulfur colloid and/or methylene blue dye to identify the SLN, which is most likely to contain metastatic cancer cells. However, the surgical procedure causes morbidity and associated expenses. To overcome these limitations, we developed a dual-modality photoacoustic and ultrasonic imaging system to noninvasively detect SLNs based on the accumulation of methylene blue dye. Ultimately, we aim to guide percutaneous needle biopsies and provide a minimally invasive method for axillary staging of breast cancer. PMID:26510774

  3. Dual-Modality Photoacoustic and Ultrasound Imaging System for Noninvasive Sentinel Lymph Node Detection in Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Erpelding, Todd N.; Krumholz, Arie; Ke, Haixin; Maslov, Konstantin; Appleton, Catherine; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-01-01

    The detection of regional lymph node metastases is important in cancer staging as it guides the prognosis of the patient and the strategy for treatment. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is an accurate, less invasive alternative to axillary lymph node dissection. The sentinel lymph node hypothesis states that the pathological status of the axilla can be accurately predicted by determining the status of the first lymph nodes that drain from the primary tumor. Physicians use radio-labeled sulfur colloid and/or methylene blue dye to identify the SLN, which is most likely to contain metastatic cancer cells. However, the surgical procedure causes morbidity and associated expenses. To overcome these limitations, we developed a dual-modality photoacoustic and ultrasonic imaging system to noninvasively detect SLNs based on the accumulation of methylene blue dye. Ultimately, we aim to guide percutaneous needle biopsies and provide a minimally invasive method for axillary staging of breast cancer. PMID:26510774

  4. Immunolymphoscintigraphy for the detection of lymph node metastases from breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tjandra, J.J.; Russell, I.S.; Collins, J.P.; Andrews, J.T.; Lichtenstein, M.; Binns, D.; McKenzie, I.F.

    1989-03-15

    The presence of metastases in the regional lymph nodes is the major prognostic factor in breast cancer in the absence of overt distant metastases and is also an important indicator of the need for adjuvant therapy in ''early'' breast cancer. Currently, the accurate assessment of axillary lymph node status requires axillary dissection which has an associated morbidity. An alternative method of identifying patients who are ''node positive'' has been developed by means of immunolymphoscintigraphy with s.c. administered radioiodinated monoclonal antibody. The /sup 131/I-labeled anti-breast cancer antibody (RCC-1; 400 micrograms) and cold iodine-labeled blocking antibody (Ly-2.1; 2 mg which is nonreactive with breast cancer) were injected s.c. into both arms and scintigraphy images were obtained 16-18 h after the injection, using the axilla contralateral to the side of the breast cancer as the control. Studies were reported as positive if the amount of background-subtracted radioactive count in the axilla of interest exceeded the normal side by a radio equal to or greater than 1.5:1.0 as assessed by computer analysis. In 38 of 40 patients the findings on scintigraphy were correlated with operative and histopathological findings on the axillary dissection specimen or cytological findings of fine needle aspiration of axillary lymph nodes. In a prospective study of 26 patients, the method is more sensitive (86%) and specific (92%) than preoperative clinical assessment (57% sensitivity, 58% specificity) in the detection of axillary lymph node metastases; and by combining both modalities of assessment, there was an improvement in the sensitivity (100%) but a deterioration in the specificity (50%).

  5. Evaluation of a Single-Isocenter Technique for Axillary Radiotherapy in Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Beek, Suzanne van Jaeger, Katrien de; Mijnheer, Ben |; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a technique for axillary radiotherapy that minimizes the risk of radiation-induced damage to the surrounding normal tissue (i.e., arm, shoulder, lung, esophagus, and spinal cord) while keeping the risk of a nodal recurrence to a minimum. A planning study was performed in 20 breast cancer patients. The target volume of the axillary treatment encompassed the periclavicular and axillary lymph node areas. The 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) information in this study was used to outline the lymph node areas and the organs at risk (i.e., the esophagus, spinal cord, brachial plexus, and lung). A conventional AP-PA technique (with a transmission plate placed in the AP beam) was evaluated. In addition, a new single-isocenter technique consisting of AP/PA fields using a gantry rotation of {+-}20 deg. and a medial AP segment was developed. Both techniques were compared by evaluation of the calculated dose distributions and the dose-volume histograms of the target volume and surrounding organs at risk. The field borders and humeral shielding were redefined based on the 3D anatomical references. Adapting the humeral shielding reduced the irradiated volume by 19% and might contribute to a reduction of the incidence of arm edema and impairment of shoulder function. The maximum radiation dose in the esophagus and spinal cord was reduced by more than 50% using the single-isocenter technique. The difference between both techniques with respect to the mean doses in the target volume and lung, and the maximum dose in brachial plexus, was not statistically significant. Moreover, the single-isocenter technique allowed a fast and easy treatment preparation and reduced the execution time considerably (with approximately 10 minutes per fraction)

  6. Optimization of a gamma imaging probe for axillary sentinel lymph mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, M.; Loudos, G.; Stratos, D.; Papadimitroulas, P.; Liakou, P.; Georgoulias, P.

    2012-09-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping is a technique for assessing whether early-stage invasive breast cancer has metastasized, thus determining prognosis and treatment options. SLN identification is achieved using the blue-dye and radioactive colloids techniques, which are sometimes combined with lymphoscintigraphy. Furthermore, intra-operative gamma acoustic probes, as well as gamma imaging probes are used during surgery. The purpose of this study is the construction of a gamma probe for sentinel lymph node imaging and its optimization in terms of sensitivity with respect to spatial resolution. The reference probe has small field of view (2.5 2.5 cm2) and is based on a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) coupled to a pixellated CsI(Tl) scintillator. Following experimental validation, we simulated the system using the GATE Monte Carlo toolkit (GATE v6.1) and modeled various collimator geometries, in order to evaluate their performance and propose the optimal configuration. The constraints of the proposed gamma imaging probe are i) sensitivity close to 2 cps/kBq and ii) spatial resolution equal to 6 mm at 2 cm source-to-collimator distance and ~ 10 mm at 5 cm. An integrated structure that achieves those requirements is a tungsten collimator with 2 2 mm2square holes, 16 mm thickness, 0.15 mm septa, where each CsI(Tl) 2 2 5 mm3 crystal pixel is placed inside the collimator.

  7. Videoendoscopic single-port axillary dissection

    PubMed Central

    Uras, Cihan; Aytac, Erman; Aydogan, Fatih

    2011-01-01

    Videoendoscopy is newly used in breast and axillary surgery. Single-port surgery is one of the newest methods of minimally invasive surgery. This report describes the first case of videoendoscopic single-port axillary dissection. In histopathological evaluation, 24 lymph nodes were identified and one node was infiltrated by the cancer cells. Videoendoscopic single-port axillary dissection is a precise and improvable technique. Single-port videoendoscopic axillary dissection could be more feasible with individual tools that will be designed for minimally invasive breast surgery. PMID:22022116

  8. Axillary lymph node metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma detected by FDG PET/CT in a thyroglobulin-positive patient with negative whole-body 131I scan.

    PubMed

    Elboga, Umut; Kalender, Ebuzer; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Celen, Y Zeki; Aktolun, Cumali

    2012-11-01

    Axillary metastasis is not a common finding in papillary carcinoma. 18F-FDG can detect foci of metastasis in patients with negative 131I scan. We report a case of a 64-year-old man who had undergone thyroidectomy and 131I ablation due to classic type of papillary carcinoma 14 years ago. Follow-up examination revealed high serum thyroglobulin and negative whole body 131I scan. 18F-FDG PET/CT showed focally increased uptake in right axillary as well as supraclavicular and bilateral cervical lymph nodes. Histopathological examination of the surgically removed lymph nodes confirmed the metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. PMID:22996245

  9. Sentinel lymph node mapping of a breast cancer of the vulva: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Cripe, James; Eskander, Ramez; Tewari, Krishnansu

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic breast tissue is rare and typically presents as an axillary mass. Previous reports have identified ectopic breast tissue in the vulva, but malignancy is exceedingly uncommon. We present a 62 years old with locally advanced breast carcinoma arising in the vulva demonstrates the utilization of sentinel lymph node mapping to identify metastatic lymph nodes previously unable to be identified via traditional surgical exploration. Our case supports the principles of adjuvant therapy for breast cancer to be applied to ectopic breast cancer arising in the vulva. A literature review highlights common key points in similar cases to guide management. PMID:25866706

  10. Sentinel lymph node in lung cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Melfi, Franca M A; Davini, Federico; Boni, Giuseppe; Mussi, Alfredo

    2012-05-01

    The greatest utility of sentinel lymph node (SLN) assessment is the avoidance of lymph node dissection and related morbidity. Another potential utility is the ability to direct pathologic examination and more sensitive techniques to detect occult micrometastatic disease. New pathologic methods can identify single tumor cells or even genetic material within a single lymph node station, bringing the concept of ultrastaging and micrometastasis in the field on staging. This article describes the SLN technique in patients with early non-small-cell lung cancer, as unique and useful targeting enables pathologists to localize micrometastatic foci within an otherwise normal lymph node. PMID:22520287

  11. Familial Blood and Lymph Node Cancers Study

    Cancer.gov

    A study of a group of familial blood and lymph node cancers (also called "lymphoproliferative disorders"), including: chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Waldenstrm's macroglobulinemia, and multiple myeloma

  12. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer: Indications, Contraindications, and Controversies.

    PubMed

    Manca, Gianpiero; Rubello, Domenico; Tardelli, Elisa; Giammarile, Francesco; Mazzarri, Sara; Boni, Giuseppe; Chondrogiannis, Sotirios; Marzola, Maria Cristina; Chiacchio, Serena; Ghilli, Matteo; Roncella, Manuela; Volterrani, Duccio; Colletti, Patrick M

    2016-02-01

    Axillary lymph node status, a major prognostic factor in early-stage breast cancer, provides information important for individualized surgical treatment. Because imaging techniques have limited sensitivity to detect metastasis in axillary lymph nodes, the axilla must be explored surgically. The histology of all resected nodes at the time of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) has traditionally been regarded as the most accurate method for assessing metastatic spread of disease to the locoregional lymph nodes. However, ALND may result in lymphedema, nerve injury, shoulder dysfunction, and other short-term and long-term complications limiting functionality and reducing quality of life. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a less invasive method of assessing nodal involvement. The concept of SLNB is based on the notion that tumors drain in an orderly manner through the lymphatic system. Therefore, the SLN is the first to be affected by metastasis if the tumor has spread, and a tumor-free SLN makes it highly unlikely for other nodes to be affected. Sentinel lymph node biopsy has become the standard of care for primary treatment of early breast cancer and has replaced ALND to stage clinically node-negative patients, thus reducing ALND-associated morbidity. More than 20 years after its introduction, there are still aspects concerning SLNB and ALND that are currently debated. Moreover, SLNB remains an unstandardized procedure surrounded by many unresolved controversies concerning the technique itself. In this article, we review the main indications, contraindications, and controversies of SLNB in breast cancer in the light of the most recent publications. PMID:26447368

  13. Langerhans Cell Sarcoma of the Axillary Lymph Node: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Orgen Çallı, Aylin; Morgül, Yelda; Alacacıoğlu, İnci; Bener, Sadi; Payzin, Bahriye

    2013-01-01

    Langerhans cell sarcoma is a rare, high-grade neoplasm with overtly malignant cytological features and the Langerhans phenotype. Herein, we present a rare case of Langerhans cell sarcoma in a 65-year-old female that presented with a painless enlarging mass in her right axillary region, along with the histopathological features and diagnostic characteristics in the light of literature on Langerhans cell sarcoma. PMID:26923635

  14. Study of incidence of lymphedema in Indian patients undergoing axillary dissection for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Pramod R; Sharma, Shekhar; Ahmed, Sheikh Zahoor; Vijaykumar, D K

    2010-09-01

    Lymphedema of the upper extremity, in addition to being unsightly, can be painful, can limit the arm movements, increases the risk of infection and is psychologically distressing, serving as a constant reminder of cancer. 1. To ascertain the incidence of lymphedema in a hospital based population (in patients undergoing axillary dissection for breast cancer. 2. To determine the clinico-epidemilogical factors associated with the occurrence of lymphedema in these patients. For all patients undergoing axillary dissection, arm measurements were taken in the pre-& post-operative period from at least 3 sites; one in the arm, forearm and wrist (points fixed in reference to fixed bony landmarks). Patients included in this study were followed up for at least 12months. Circumference difference of more than 5% was taken as mild lymphedema; more than 10% as moderate lymphedema and more than 15% as severe lymphedema. Data was analyzed using SPSS 11.0 statistical software. Of the 231 patients in this study mean age was 51.2years, majority were housewives (71.9%) and postmenopausal (58.5%). Modified radical mastectomy (MRM), was performed on 203 (87.9%) patients. 57.2% patients had positive lymph nodes. The mean number of positive nodes was 6.52. Majority of the patients received chemo and radio therapy. Overall incidence of lymphedema was 41.1%. The definition of 5-10% increase as mild lymphedema may be a bit severe as in most patients with this increase, lymphedema is not clinically apparent. The incidence of moderate and severe lymphedema in our series is only 7.4%. The incidence of clinically significant lymphedema (moderate to severe lymphedema & symptomatic mild lymphedema) was 16.8%. Only axillary irradiation and pathological nodal status (pN3) emerged as significant risk factors for lymphedema development on multivariate analysis. Lymphedema once established is difficult to treat. Combination of axillary dissection with radiation and more nodal positivity seems to predispose to lymphedema. Prevention by means of sentinel node biopsy in early cases, good surgical technique, arm care post surgery, exercises and massage therapy may help reducing the incidence and/or severity. PMID:22693375

  15. Predictors and Outcomes of Completion Axillary Node Dissection Among Older Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Javid, Sara H.; He, Hao; Korde, Larissa A.; Flum, David R.; Anderson, Benjamin O.

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for older women who had sentinel lymph node-positive (SLN+) invasive breast cancer is unclear. We examined factors predictive of ALND and the association between ALND, adjuvant chemotherapy administration, and survival. Methods Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database, we reviewed records of women age >65 diagnosed with stage I/II breast cancer from 1998–2005. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify patient and disease variables associated with ALND, and assess association between ALND and all-cause and breast cancer-specific survival. Results Among SLN+ patients, 88 % underwent ALND. Earlier diagnosis year, greater nodal involvement, younger age, registry location, and larger tumor size were all associated with a significantly higher likelihood of ALND. The ALND in SLN+ patients was not significantly associated with 5-year breast cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio [HR] 1.22, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.76–1.96). The SLN+ patients who underwent ALND were more likely to receive adjuvant chemotherapy (odds ratio [OR] 1.8, 95 % CI 1.45–2.24). However, younger age (OR 18.0, 95 % CI 14.4–23.9), estrogen receptor-negative (ER−) status (OR 4.2, 95 % CI 3.4–5.3), and fewer comorbidities (OR 2.6, 95 % CI 1.7–4.0) were all more strongly linked to receipt of chemotherapy. Conclusions ALND for older patients with SLN+ breast cancer is not associated with improved 5-year all-cause or breast cancer-specific survival. Younger age, fewer comorbidities, and estrogen receptor-negative (ER−) status were more strongly associated with receipt of chemotherapy than ALND. Consideration should be given to omitting ALND in older patients, particularly if findings of ALND will not influence adjuvant therapy decisions. PMID:24585407

  16. Dose coverage of axillary level I-III areas during whole breast irradiation with simplified intensity modulated radiation therapy in early stage breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Tuan, Jeffrey; Ma, Jin-li; Mei, Xin; Yu, Xiao-li; Zhou, Zhi-rui; Shao, Zhi-min; Liu, Guang-yu; Guo, Xiao-mao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to evaluate the dose coverage of axillary areas during whole breast irradiation with simplified intensity modulated radiation therapy (s-IMRT) and field-in-field IMRT (for-IMRT) in early stage breast cancer patients. Methods Sixty-one consecutive patients with breast-conserving surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy were collected. Two plans were created for each patient: the s-IMRT and for-IMRT plan. Dosimetric parameters of axillary areas were compared. Results The average of mean doses delivered to the axillary level I areas in s-IMRT and for-IMRT plan were 27.7Gy and 29.1Gy (p = 0.011), respectively. The average of V47.5Gy, V45Gy and V40Gy (percent volume receiving≥ 47.5Gy, 45Gy and 40Gy) of the axillary level I in s-IMRT plan was significantly lower than that in for-IMRT plan (p < 0.001). For for-IMRT plans, patients with upper tangential border to humeral head ≤2cm, breast separation >19.3cm and body width >31.9cm had significantly higher mean dose in axillary level I area (p = 0.002, 0.007, 0.001, respectively). Conclusion Compared with for-IMRT plan, the s-IMRT plan delivered lower dose to axillary level I area. For centers using s-IMRT technique, caution should be exercised when selecting to omit axillary lymph node dissection for patients with breast conserving surgery and limited positive SLNs. PMID:26082440

  17. Risk Factors for Regional Nodal Relapse in Breast Cancer Patients With One to Three Positive Axillary Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, Lucy; Kirby, Anna; Crichton, Siobhan; Gillett, Cheryl; Cane, Paul; Fentiman, Ian; Sawyer, Elinor

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: In many centers, supraclavicular fossa radiotherapy (SCF RT) is not routinely offered to breast cancer patients with one to three positive lymph nodes. We aimed to identify a subgroup of these patients who are at high risk of supra or infraclavicular fossa relapse (SCFR) such that they can be offered SCFRT at the time of diagnosis to improve long term locoregional control. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective analysis of the pathological features of 1,065 cases of invasive breast cancer with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes. Patients underwent radical breast conserving surgery or mastectomy. A total of 45% of patients received adjuvant chest wall/breast RT. No patients received adjuvant SCFRT. The primary outcome was SCFR. Secondary outcomes were chest wall/breast recurrence, distant metastasis, all death, and breast-cancer specific death. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to calculate actuarial event rates and survival functions compared using log-rank tests. Multivariate analyses (MVA) of factors associated with outcome were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Median follow-up was 9.7 years. SCFR rate was 9.2%. Median time from primary diagnosis to SCFR was 3.4 years (range, 0.7-14.4 years). SCFR was associated with significantly lower 10-year survival (18% vs. 65%; p < 0.001). Higher grade and number of positive lymph nodes were the most significant predictors of SCFR on MVA (p < 0.001). 10 year SCFR rates were less than 1% in all patients with Grade 1 cancers compared with 30% in those having Grade 3 cancers with three positive lymph nodes. Additional factors associated with SCFR on univariate analysis but not on MVA included larger nodal deposits (p = 0.002) and proportion of positive nodes (p = 0.003). Conclusions: Breast cancer patients with one to three positive lymph nodes have a heterogenous risk of SCFR. Patients with two to three positive axillary nodes and/or high-grade disease may warrant consideration of SCFRT.

  18. Does information from axillary dissection change treatment in clinically node-negative patients with breast cancer? An algorithm for assessment of impact of axillary dissection.

    PubMed Central

    Dees, E C; Shulman, L N; Souba, W W; Smith, B L

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors assessed the impact of axillary dissection on adjuvant systemic therapy recommendations in patients with breast cancer. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: With increasing use of systemic therapy in node-negative women and the desire to reduce treatment morbidity and cost, the need for axillary dissection in clinically node-negative patients with breast cancer has been challenged. METHODS: Two hundred eighty-two women with clinically negative axillae were analyzed using a model treatment algorithm. Systemic therapy was assigned with and without data from axillary dissection. Treatment shifts based on axillary dissection data were scored. RESULTS: Twenty-seven percent of clinically node-negative women had pathologically positive nodes. Eight percent of T1a and 10% of T1b tumors had positive nodes and would have been undertreated without axillary dissection. Seven percent of premenopausal women with tumors < 1 cm and 13% with tumors > or = 1 cm had treatment changed by axillary dissection. For women 50 to 60 years of age, 10% with tumors < 1 cm, 17% with tumors 1 to 2 cm with positive prognostic features, and 4% with poor prognostic features had significant treatment shifts after axillary dissection. For clinically node-negative women older than 60 years of age not eligible for chemotherapy, only 3% of those with tumors < 1 cm and none of those with tumors > or = 1 cm had their treatment changed by findings at axillary dissection. Treatment shifts based on axillary dissection were larger if the treatment algorithm allowed for more varied or more aggressive treatment options. CONCLUSIONS: Data obtained from axillary dissection will alter adjuvant systemic therapy regimen in a significant number of clinically node-negative women younger than 60 years of age and for older women eligible to receive chemotherapy. PMID:9339934

  19. [Lymph nodes of esophagus cancer: radiological approach].

    PubMed

    Aubert, E; Servois, V

    2014-10-01

    The cervico-thoracic-abdominal-pelvic CT-scan is a key examination of the staging of esophagus cancers. Anatomical and pathophysiological knowledge of the lymph nodes is an essential tool to establish a precise mapping. Imaging tests (such endoscopic ultrasound and PET scanning) will be very useful to determine clinical options and clinical target volume delineation for the radiotherapy of esophagus cancers. PMID:25205427

  20. Validation of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center nomogram for predicting non-sentinel lymph node metastasis in sentinel lymph node-positive breast-cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Xiang; Wang, Yongsheng; Li, Minmin; Chen, Peng; Zhou, Zhengbo; Liu, Yanbing; Zhao, Tong; Zhang, Zhaopeng; Wang, Chunjian; Sun, Xiao; Qiu, Pengfei

    2015-01-01

    Background The main purpose of the study reported here was to validate the clinical value of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) nomogram that predicts non-sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis in SLN-positive patients with breast cancer. Methods Data on 1,576 patients who received sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) at the Shandong Cancer Hospital from December 2001 to March 2014 were collected in this study, and data on 509 patients with positive SLN were analyzed to evaluate the risk factors for non-SLN metastasis. The MSKCC nomogram was used to estimate the probability of non-SLN metastasis and was compared with actual probability after grouping into deciles. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn and predictive accuracy was assessed by calculating the area under the ROC curve. Results Tumor size, histological grade, lymphovascular invasion, multifocality, number of positive SLNs, and number of negative SLNs were correlated with non-SLN metastasis (P<0.05) by univariate analysis. However, multivariate analysis showed that tumor size (P=0.039), histological grade (P=0.043), lymphovascular invasion (P=0.001), number of positive SLNs (P=0.001), and number of negative SLNs (P=0.000) were identified as independent predictors for non-SLN metastasis. The trend of actual probability in various decile groups was comparable to the predicted probability. The area under the ROC curve was 0.722. Patients with predictive values lower than 10% (97/492, 19.7%) had a frequency of non-SLN metastasis of 17.5% (17/97). Conclusion The MSKCC nomogram can provide an accurate prediction of the probability of non-SLN metastasis, and offers a reference basis about axillary lymph node dissection. Axillary lymph node dissection could be avoided in patients with predictive values lower than 10%. PMID:25750542

  1. Clinical practice guidelines for the care and treatment of breast cancer: 13. Sentinel lymph node biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Cantin, Jacques; Scarth, Hugh; Levine, Mark; Hugi, Maria

    2001-01-01

    Objective To provide information and recommendations to women with breast cancer and their physicians regarding what is now known about sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy. Options Axillary dissection; SLN biopsy followed by backup axillary dissection; SLN biopsy. Outcomes Accurate determination of cancer stage, resulting in better-informed therapeutic decisions. Evidence Systematic review of English-language literature published from January 1991 to December 2000 retrieved primarily from MEDLINE and CANCERLIT. Recommendations · Axillary dissection is the standard of care for the surgical staging of operable breast cancer. · If a patient requests or is offered SLN biopsy, the benefits and risks as well as what is and is not known about the procedure should be outlined. · Patients should be informed of the number of SLN biopsies performed by the surgeon and the surgeon's success rate with the procedure, as determined by the identification of the SLN and the false-negative rate (the presence of tumour cells in the axillary nodes when the SLN biopsy result is negative). · Before surgeons replace axillary dissection by SLN biopsy as the staging procedure at their institution, they should (a) familiarize themselves with the literature on the topic and the techniques needed to perform the procedure, (b) follow a defined protocol for all 3 aspects of the procedure (nuclear medicine, surgery, pathology) and (c) perform backup axillary dissection until an acceptable success rate (as determined by the identification of the SLN and the false-negative rate) is achieved. · A surgeon who performs breast cancer surgery infrequently should not perform SLN biopsy. · A positive SLN biopsy result or failure to identify an SLN should prompt full axillary dissection. · SLN biopsy is contraindicated in women who have clinically palpable nodes, locally advanced breast cancer, multifocal tumours, previous breast surgery or previous irradiation of the breast. · Staining of tissue sections with hematoxylin and eosin, and not immunohistochemical analysis for cytokeratin, should determine adjuvant therapy. · Participation in randomized clinical trials is encouraged. [A patient version of these guidelines appears in Appendix 1.] Validation Internal validation within the Steering Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Care and Treatment of Breast Cancer; no external validation. Sponsor The steering committee was convened by Health Canada. Completion date Apr. 9, 2001. PMID:11501455

  2. Comparison of Treatment Outcome Between Breast-Conservation Surgery With Radiation and Total Mastectomy Without Radiation in Patients With One to Three Positive Axillary Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Seung Il; Park, Seho; Park, Hyung Seok; Kim, Yong Bae; Suh, Chang Ok; Park, Byeong-Woo

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To test the difference in treatment outcome between breast-conservation surgery with radiation and total mastectomy without radiation, to evaluate the benefits of adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: Using the Severance Hospital Breast Cancer Registry, we divided the study population of T1, T2 and one to three axillary node-positive patients into two groups: breast-conservation surgery with radiation (BCS/RT) and total mastectomy without radiation (TM/no-RT). Data related to locoregional recurrence, distant recurrence, and death were collected, and survival rates were calculated. Results: The study population consisted of 125 patients treated with BCS/RT and 365 patients treated with TM/no-RT. With a median follow-up of 68.4 months, the 10-year locoregional recurrence-free survival rate with BCS/RT and TM/no-RT was 90.5% and 79.2%, respectively (p = 0.056). The 10-year distant recurrence-free survival rate was 78.8% for patients treated with BCS/RT vs. 68.0% for those treated with TM/no-RT (p = 0.012). The 10-years overall survival rate for patients treated with BCT/RT and TM/no-RT was 87.5% and 73.9%, respectively (p = 0.035). After multivariate analysis, patients treated with BCT/RT had better distant recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.527; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.297-0.934; p = 0.028), with improving locoregional recurrence-free survival (HR, 0.491; 95% CI, 0.231-1.041; p = 0.064) and overall survival trend (HR, 0.544; 95% CI, 0.277-1.067; p = 0.076). Conclusions: This study provides additional evidence that adjuvant radiation substantially reduces local recurrence, distant recurrence, and mortality for patients with one to three involved nodes.

  3. Surgeon specialization and use of sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Tina W.F.; Laud, Purushuttom W.; Sparapani, Rodney A.; Nattinger, Ann B.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the standard of care for axillary staging in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients. It is not known whether SLNB rates differ by surgeon expertise. If surgeons with less breast cancer expertise are less likely to offer SLNB to clinically node-negative patients, this practice pattern could lead to unnecessary axillary lymph node dissections (ALND) and lymphedema. OBJECTIVE To explore potential measures of surgical expertise (including a novel objective specialization measure percentage of a surgeons operations devoted to breast cancer determined from claims) on the use of SLNB for invasive breast cancer. DESIGN Population-based prospective cohort study. Patient, tumor, treatment and surgeon characteristics were examined. SETTING California, Florida, Illinois PARTICIPANTS Elderly (65+ years) women identified from Medicare claims as having had incident invasive breast cancer surgery in 2003. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Type of axillary surgery performed. RESULTS Of the 1,703 women treated by 863 different surgeons, 56% underwent an initial SLNB, 37% initial ALND and 6% no axillary surgery. The median annual surgeon Medicare volume of breast cancer cases was 6 (range: 1.557); the median surgeon percentage of breast cancer cases was 4.6% (range: 0.7%100%). After multivariable adjustment of patient and surgeon factors, women operated on by surgeons with higher volumes and percentages of breast cancer cases had a higher likelihood of undergoing SLNB. Specifically, women were most likely to undergo SLNB if operated on by high volume surgeons (regardless of percentage) or by lower volume surgeons with a high percentage of cases devoted to breast cancer. In addition, membership in the American Society of Breast Surgeons (OR 1.98, CI 1.512.60) and Society of Surgical Oncology (OR 1.59, CI 1.092.30) were independent predictors of women undergoing an initial SLNB. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Patients treated by surgeons with more experience and focus in breast cancer were significantly more likely to undergo SLNB, highlighting the importance of receiving initial treatment by specialized providers. Factors relating to specialization in a particular area, including our novel surgeon percentage measure, require further investigation as potential indicators of quality of care. PMID:24369337

  4. Tangential Radiotherapy Without Axillary Surgery in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Results of a Prospective Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Julia S.; Winer, Eric P.

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the risk of regional-nodal recurrence in patients with early-stage, invasive breast cancer, with clinically negative axillary nodes, who were treated with breast-conserving surgery, 'high tangential' breast radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery or the use of a separate nodal radiation field. Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and November 2003, 74 patients who were {>=}55 years of age with Stage I-II clinically node-negative, hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer underwent tumor excision to negative margins without axillary surgery as a part of a multi-institutional prospective study. Postoperatively, all underwent high-tangential, whole-breast radiotherapy with a boost to the tumor bed, followed by 5 years of hormonal therapy. Results: For the 74 patients enrolled, the median age was 74.5 years, and the median pathologic tumor size was 1.2 cm. Lymphatic vessel invasion was present in 5 patients (7%). At a median follow-up of 52 months, no regional-nodal failures or ipsilateral breast recurrences had been identified (95% confidence interval, 0-4%). Eight patients died, one of metastatic disease and seven of other causes. Conclusion: In this select group of mainly older patients with early-stage hormone-responsive breast cancer and clinically negative axillary nodes, treatment with high-tangential breast radiotherapy and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery, yielded a low regional recurrence rate. Such patients might be spared more extensive axillary treatment (axillary surgery, including sentinel node biopsy, or a separate nodal radiation field), with its associated time, expense, and morbidity.

  5. Mediastinal lymph node size in lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Libshitz, H.I.; McKenna, R.J. Jr.

    1984-10-01

    Using a size criterion of 1 cm or greater as evidence for abnormality, the size of mediastinal lymph nodes identified by computed tomography (CT) was a poor predictor of mediastinal lymph node metastases in a series of 86 patients who had surgery for bronchogenic carcinoma. The surgery included full nodal sampling in all patients. Of the 86 patients, 36 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm identified by CT. Of the 21 patients with mediastinal metastases proven at surgery, 14 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm (sensitivity = 67%). Of the 65 patients without mediastinal metastases, 22 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm. Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse distal to the cancer was present in 39 patients (45%). Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse is a common occurrence in bronchogenic carcinoma, but mediastinal nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm in this circumstance cannot be presumed to represent metastatic disease. Metastatic mediastinal lymph node involvement was related to nodal size also in patients with evidence of prior granulomatous disease and in patients with no putative benign cause for nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm.

  6. [Particular features of lymph dissection in operations for gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Iaitski?, A N; Danilov, I N

    2008-01-01

    In order to optimize the technique of lymph dissection, a method of intraoperative mapping of lymph outflow tracts was used with a lymphotropic dye Blue patente V. It allowed better orientation during lymphodissection in operations for gastric cancer. The detection and investigation of the "signal" lymph node as the most probable object of lymphogenic metastazing can improve the accuracy of postoperative staging of gastric cancer. Visualization of the lymph nodes in the preparation made it possible to increase the number of lymph nodes sent for histological investigation. PMID:18522180

  7. Prediction of non-sentinel lymph node involvement in breast cancer patients with a positive sentinel lymph node.

    PubMed

    Reynders, Anneleen; Brouckaert, Olivier; Smeets, Ann; Laenen, Annouschka; Yoshihara, Emi; Persyn, Frederik; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Amant, Frederic; Soens, Julie; Van Ongeval, Chantal; Moerman, Philippe; Vergote, Ignace; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Staelens, Gracienne; Van Eygen, Koen; Vanneste, Alain; Van Dam, Peter; Colpaert, Cecile; Neven, Patrick

    2014-08-01

    Completion axillary lymph node dissection (cALND) is the golden standard if breast cancer involves the sentinel lymph node (SLN). However, most non-sentinel lymph nodes (NSLN) are not involved, cALND has a considerable complication rate and does not improve outcome. We here present and validate our predictive model for positive NSLNs in the cALND if the SLN is positive. Consecutive early breast cancer patients from one center undergoing cALND for a positive SLN were included. We assessed demographic and clinicopathological variables for NSLN involvement. Uni- and multivariate analysis was performed. A predictive model was built and validated in two external centers. 21.9% of 470 patients had at least one involved NSLN. In univariate analysis, seven variables were significantly correlated with NSLN involvement: tumor size, grade, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), number of positive and negative SLNs, size of SLN metastasis and intraoperative positive SLN. In multivariate analysis, LVI, number of negative SLNs, size of SLN metastasis and intraoperative positive pathological evaluation were independent predictors for NSLN involvement. The calculated risk resulted in an AUC of 0.76. Applied to the external data, the model was accurate and discriminating for one (AUC = 0.75) and less for the other center (AUC = 0.58). A discriminative predictive model was constructed to calculate the risk of NSLN involvement in case of a positive SLN. External validation of our model reveals differences in performance when applied to data from other institutions concluding that such a predictive model requires validation prior to use. PMID:24768478

  8. Sentinel Lymph Node Detection Using Carbon Nanoparticles in Patients with Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jianping; Zeng, Yi; Chen, Xia; Yan, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Carbon nanoparticles have a strong affinity for the lymphatic system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy using carbon nanoparticles in early breast cancer and to optimize the application procedure. Methods Firstly, we performed a pilot study to demonstrate the optimized condition using carbon nanoparticles for sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) detection by investigating 36 clinically node negative breast cancer patients. In subsequent prospective study, 83 patients with clinically node negative breast cancer were included to evaluate SLNs using carbon nanoparticles. Another 83 SLNs were detected by using blue dye. SLNs detection parameters were compared between the methods. All patients irrespective of the SLNs status underwent axillary lymph node dissection for verification of axillary node status after the SLN biopsy. Results In pilot study, a 1 ml carbon nanoparticles suspension used 1015min before surgery was associated with the best detection rate. In subsequent prospective study, with carbon nanoparticles, the identification rate, accuracy, false negative rate was 100%, 96.4%, 11.1%, respectively. The identification rate and accuracy were 88% and 95.5% with 15.8% of false negative rate using blue dye technique. The use of carbon nanoparticles suspension showed significantly superior results in identification rate (p = 0.001) and reduced false-negative results compared with blue dye technique. Conclusion Our study demonstrated feasibility and accuracy of using carbon nanoparticles for SLNs mapping in breast cancer patients. Carbon nanoparticles are useful in SLNs detection in institutions without access to radioisotope. PMID:26296136

  9. Increased lymph node yield in colorectal cancer is not necessarily associated with a greater number of lymph node positive cancers.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Aisling; Aly, Omar; Parnaby, Craig N; Loudon, Malcolm A; Samuel, Leslie M; Murray, Graeme I

    2014-01-01

    The presence of lymph node metastasis is a key prognostic factor in colorectal cancer and lymph node yield is an important parameter in assessing the quality of histopathology reporting of colorectal cancer excision specimens. This study assesses the trend in lymph node evaluation over time in a single institution and the relationship with the identification of lymph node positive tumours. It compares the lymph node yield of a contemporary dataset compiled from the histopathology reports of 2178 patients who underwent surgery for primary colorectal cancer between 2005 and 2012 with that of a historic dataset compiled from the histopathology reports of 1038 patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer at 5 yearly intervals from 1975 to 2000. The mean lymph node yield was 14.91 in 2005 rising to 21.38 in 2012. In 2012 92.9% of all cases had at least 12 lymph nodes examined. Comparison of the mean lymph node yield and proportion of Dukes C cases shows a significant increase (Pearson correlation = 0.927, p = 0.001) in lymph node yield while there is no corresponding significant trend in the proportion of Dukes C cases (Pearson correlation = ?-0.138, p = 0.745). This study shows that there is increasing yield of lymph nodes from colorectal cancer excision specimens. However, this is not necessarily associated with an increase number of lymph node positive cancers. Further risk stratifying of colorectal cancer requires consideration of other pathological parameters especially the presence of extramural venous invasion and relevant biomarkers. PMID:25118594

  10. Increased Lymph Node Yield in Colorectal Cancer Is Not Necessarily Associated with a Greater Number of Lymph Node Positive Cancers

    PubMed Central

    O'Shea, Aisling; Aly, Omar; Parnaby, Craig N.; Loudon, Malcolm A.; Samuel, Leslie M.; Murray, Graeme I.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of lymph node metastasis is a key prognostic factor in colorectal cancer and lymph node yield is an important parameter in assessing the quality of histopathology reporting of colorectal cancer excision specimens. This study assesses the trend in lymph node evaluation over time in a single institution and the relationship with the identification of lymph node positive tumours. It compares the lymph node yield of a contemporary dataset compiled from the histopathology reports of 2178 patients who underwent surgery for primary colorectal cancer between 2005 and 2012 with that of a historic dataset compiled from the histopathology reports of 1038 patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer at 5 yearly intervals from 1975 to 2000. The mean lymph node yield was 14.91 in 2005 rising to 21.38 in 2012. In 2012 92.9% of all cases had at least 12 lymph nodes examined. Comparison of the mean lymph node yield and proportion of Dukes C cases shows a significant increase (Pearson correlation?=?0.927, p?=?0.001) in lymph node yield while there is no corresponding significant trend in the proportion of Dukes C cases (Pearson correlation?=??0.138, p?=?0.745). This study shows that there is increasing yield of lymph nodes from colorectal cancer excision specimens. However, this is not necessarily associated with an increase number of lymph node positive cancers. Further risk stratifying of colorectal cancer requires consideration of other pathological parameters especially the presence of extramural venous invasion and relevant biomarkers. PMID:25118594

  11. Novel Methods of Lymph Node Evaluation for Predicting the Prognosis of Colorectal Cancer Patients with Inadequate Lymph Node Harvest

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Taek Soo; Choi, Sung Bong; Lee, Yoon Suk; Kim, Jun-Gi; Oh, Seong Taek; Lee, In Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Lymph node metastasis is an important factor for predicting the prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. However, approximately 60% of patients do not receive adequate lymph node evaluation (less than 12 lymph nodes). In this study, we identified a more effective tool for predicting the prognosis of patients who received inadequate lymph node evaluation. Materials and Methods The number of metastatic lymph nodes, total number of lymph nodes examined, number of negative metastatic lymph nodes (NL), lymph node ratio (LR), and the number of apical lymph nodes (APL) were examined, and the prognostic impact of these parameters was examined in patients with colorectal cancer who underwent surgery from January 2004 to December 2011. In total, 806 people were analyzed retrospectively. Results In comparison of different lymph node analysis methods for rectal cancer patients who did not receive adequate lymph node dissection, the LR showed a significant difference in overall survival (OS) and the APL predicted a significant difference in disease-free survival (DFS). In the case of colon cancer patients who did not receive adequate lymph node dissection, LR predicted a significant difference in DFS and OS, and the APL predicted a significant difference in DFS. Conclusion If patients did not receive adequate lymph node evaluation, the LR and NL were useful parameters to complement N stage for predicting OS in colon cancer, whereas LR was complementary for rectal cancer. The APL could be used for prediction of DFS in all patients. PMID:25943323

  12. Whole Genome Sequence Analysis Suggests Intratumoral Heterogeneity in Dissemination of Breast Cancer to Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Blighe, Kevin; Kenny, Laura; Patel, Naina; Guttery, David S.; Page, Karen; Gronau, Julian H.; Golshani, Cyrus; Stebbing, Justin; Coombes, R. Charles; Shaw, Jacqueline A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Intratumoral heterogeneity may help drive resistance to targeted therapies in cancer. In breast cancer, the presence of nodal metastases is a key indicator of poorer overall survival. The aim of this study was to identify somatic genetic alterations in early dissemination of breast cancer by whole genome next generation sequencing (NGS) of a primary breast tumor, a matched locally-involved axillary lymph node and healthy normal DNA from blood. Methods Whole genome NGS was performed on 12 g (range 11.113.3 g) of DNA isolated from fresh-frozen primary breast tumor, axillary lymph node and peripheral blood following the DNA nanoball sequencing protocol. Single nucleotide variants, insertions, deletions, and substitutions were identified through a bioinformatic pipeline and compared to CIN25, a key set of genes associated with tumor metastasis. Results Whole genome sequencing revealed overlapping variants between the tumor and node, but also variants that were unique to each. Novel mutations unique to the node included those found in two CIN25 targets, TGIF2 and CCNB2, which are related to transcription cyclin activity and chromosomal stability, respectively, and a unique frameshift in PDS5B, which is required for accurate sister chromatid segregation during cell division. We also identified dominant clonal variants that progressed from tumor to node, including SNVs in TP53 and ARAP3, which mediates rearrangements to the cytoskeleton and cell shape, and an insertion in TOP2A, the expression of which is significantly associated with tumor proliferation and can segregate breast cancers by outcome. Conclusion This case study provides preliminary evidence that primary tumor and early nodal metastasis have largely overlapping somatic genetic alterations. There were very few mutations unique to the involved node. However, significant conclusions regarding early dissemination needs analysis of a larger number of patient samples. PMID:25546409

  13. In stage II/III lymph node-positive breast cancer patients less than 55 years of age, keratin 8 expression in lymph node metastases but not in the primary tumour is an indicator of better survival.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Serena; Pracella, Danae; Barbazza, Renzo; Sulfaro, Sandro; Stanta, Giorgio

    2015-05-01

    Axillary lymph node status is one of the most important prognostic variables for breast cancer (BC). To investigate and understand the clinical, histopathological and biological factors that affect prognosis in node-positive young breast cancer patients, we compared the phenotype of 100 primary tumours with their corresponding loco-regional lymph node (LN) metastases using conventional immunohistochemistry (IHC) markers currently in use for molecular classification of breast cancer. By comparing the expression of ER, PR, HER-2, Ki67, K8, K5/6 and vimentin, we found that expression of HER-2, Ki67, K8 and vimentin is frequently lost in lymph node metastases. Between the primary tumour and corresponding lymph node metastases, expression of keratins K8 and K5/6 significantly changed. Expression of K8 in lymph node metastases, but not in primary tumours, segregates patients in two sub-groups with different outcomes. Survival of patients with K8-positive LN metastases at 5 years in comparison with patients with K8-negative LN metastases was 75 vs 48 %, at 10 years 62 vs 22 % and at 20 years 53 vs 14 % (p?lymph node metastasis allows defining a sub-group of lymph node-positive BC patients with a highly unfavourable outcome, for whom therapeutic options might have to be reconsidered. PMID:25724181

  14. Lymph node dissection for gastric cancer: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Thales Paulo; Martins, Mário Rino

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common neoplasms and an important cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Efforts to reduce its high mortality rates are currently focused on multidisciplinary management. However, surgery remains a cornerstone in the management of patients with resectable disease. There is still some controversy as to the extent of lymph node dissection for potentially curable stomach cancer. Surgeons in eastern countries favor more extensive lymph node dissection, whereas those in the West favor less extensive dissection. Thus, extent of lymph node dissection remains one of the most hotly discussed aspects of gastric surgery, particularly because most stomach cancers are now often comprehensively treated by adding some perioperative chemotherapy or chemo-radiation. We provide a critical review of lymph nodes dissection for gastric cancer with a particular focus on its benefits in a multimodal approach. PMID:25992202

  15. Nodal lymph flow quantified with afferent vessel input function allows differentiation between normal and cancer-bearing nodes

    PubMed Central

    DSouza, Alisha V.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Gunn, Jason R.; Barth, Richard J.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    Morbidity and complexity involved in lymph node staging via surgical resection and biopsy could ideally be improved using node assay techniques that are non-invasive. While visible blue dyes are often used to locate the sentinel lymph nodes from draining lymphatic vessels near a tumor, they do not provide an in situ metric to evaluate presence of cancer. In this study, the transport kinetics of methylene blue were analyzed to determine the potential for better in situ information about metastatic involvement in the nodes. A rat model with cancer cells in the axillary lymph nodes was used, with methylene blue injection to image the fluorescence kinetics. The lymphatic flow from injection sites to nodes was imaged and the relative kinetics from feeding lymphatic ducts relative to lymph nodes was quantified. Large variability existed in raw fluorescence and transport patterns within each cohort resulting in no systematic difference between average nodal uptake in normal, sham control and cancer-bearing nodes. However, when the signal from the afferent lymph vessel fluorescence was used to normalize the signal of the lymph nodes, the high signal heterogeneity was reduced. Using a model, the lymph flow through the nodes (FLN) was estimated to be 1.49 ± 0.64 ml/g/min in normal nodes, 1.53 ± 0.45 ml/g/min in sham control nodes, and reduced to 0.50 ± 0.24 ml/g/min in cancer-cell injected nodes. This summarizes the significant difference (p = 0.0002) between cancer-free and cancer-bearing nodes in normalized flow. This process of normalized flow imaging could be used as an in situ tool to detect metastatic involvement in nodes. PMID:25909014

  16. Surgical Management of Lymph Node Compartments in Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sturgeon, Cord; Yang, Anthony; Elaraj, Dina

    2016-01-01

    Although papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) commonly metastasizes to cervical lymph nodes, prophylactic central neck dissection is controversial. The primary treatment for lymph node metastases is surgical resection. Patients diagnosed with PTC should be assessed preoperatively by cervical ultrasound to evaluate central and lateral neck lymph node compartments. Sonographically suspicious lymph nodes in the lateral neck should be biopsied for cytology or thyroglobulin levels. Any compartment (central or lateral) that has definitive proof of nodal metastases should be formally dissected at the time of thyroidectomy. PMID:26610772

  17. The optimal number of lymph nodes removed in maximizing the survival of breast cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Lim Fong; Taib, Nur Aishah; Mohamed, Ibrahim; Daud, Noorizam

    2014-07-01

    The number of lymph nodes removed is one of the important predictors for survival in breast cancer study. Our aim is to determine the optimal number of lymph nodes to be removed for maximizing the survival of breast cancer patients. The study population consists of 873 patients with at least one of axillary nodes involved among 1890 patients from the University of Malaya Medical Center (UMMC) breast cancer registry. For this study, the Chi-square test of independence is performed to determine the significant association between prognostic factors and survival status, while Wilcoxon test is used to compare the estimates of the hazard functions of the two or more groups at each observed event time. Logistic regression analysis is then conducted to identify important predictors of survival. In particular, Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) are calculated from the logistic regression model for all thresholds of node involved, as an alternative measure for the Wald statistic (χ2), in order to determine the optimal number of nodes that need to be removed to obtain the maximum differential in survival. The results from both measurements are compared. It is recommended that, for this particular group, the minimum of 10 nodes should be removed to maximize survival of breast cancer patients.

  18. The Impact on Post-surgical Treatment of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy of Internal Mammary Lymph Nodes in Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, EVE; Gobardhan, PD; Bongers, V; Albregts, M; Burgmans, JPJ; De Hooge, P; Van Gorp, J

    2007-01-01

    Background Since the introduction of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in breast cancer patients there is a renewed interest in lymphatic drainage to the internal mammary (IM) chain nodes. We evaluated the frequency of lymphatic drainage to the IM chain, the rate of SLNs that contain metastases and the clinical implications of IM LN metastases. Methods Between June 1999 and April 2005 506 consecutive patients underwent SLN biopsy as a staging procedure for clinically T1-2N0 breast cancer. In all patients preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was combined with the intraoperative use of a gammaprobe. In patients with IM SLNs visualized on lymphoscintigraphy, LNs were extirpated through an intercostal parasternal incision. Results SLNs were visualized by preoperative lymphoscintigraphy in 99% of all patients (502/506): axillary SLNs in 499 patients (99%), ipsilateral IM LNs in 109 patients (22%). In 85 patients with visualized IM SLNs the IM nodes could be removed (78%). In 20 of the latter 85 patients IM SLNs contained metastases (24%). IM metastases were associated with axillary LN metastases (P<0.001). In 17 patients IM metastases led to extension of the radiotherapy field, while additional (adjuvant) systemic therapy was given in six patients. Conclusion SLNs in the IM chain are common in breast cancer patients and can be extirpated in the majority of these patients. The proportion of patients in whom radiotherapeutic treatment was adjusted due to IM LN metastases was substantial. We advocate retrieval of IM SLNs when visualized by preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. PMID:17253106

  19. An operative gamma camera for sentinel lymph node procedure in case of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, S.; Bekaert, V.; Mathelin, C.; Guyonnet, J. L.; Huss, D.

    2007-07-01

    Large field of view gamma cameras are widely used to perform lymphoscintigraphy in the sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) procedure in case of breast cancer. However, they are not specified for this application and their sizes do not enable their use in the operative room to control the excision of the all SLN. We present the results obtained with a prototype of a new mini gamma camera developed especially for the operative lymphoscintigraphy of the axillary area in case of breast cancer. This prototype is composed of 10 mm thick parallel lead collimator, a 2 mm thick GSO:Ce inorganic scintillating crystal from Hitachi and a Hamamatsu H8500 flat panel multianode (64 channels) photomultiplier tube (MAPMT) equipped with a dedicated electronics. Its actual field of view is 50 50mm2. The gamma interaction position in the GSO scintillating plate is obtained by calculating the center of gravity of the fired MAPMT channels. The measurements performed with this prototype demonstrate the usefulness of this mini gamma camera for the pre, per and post-operative identification of SLN's and how its complementary role with an intraoperative handheld gamma probe enables to improve the efficiency of this practice. A 100 100mm2 field of view camera designated to cover the entire axillary area is under investigation.

  20. Correlation between serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor-C and sentinel lymph node status in early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Prez, Diego; Rohde, Alexander; Callejn, Gonzalo; Prez-Ruiz, Elisabeth; Rodrigo, Isabel; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Ramos, Belen; Medina, Francisco; Villatoro, Rosa; Redondo, Maximino; Zarcos, Irene; Maan, Claudio; Rueda, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Axillary lymph nodes status is the most important prognosis factor in early breast cancer. This status is known by a selective sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and/or lymphadenectomy. Immunohistochemical studies of breast cancer tumour tissue have reported a relation between the increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) and the risk of lymph node metastasis. We researched whether serum levels of VEGF-C could be a predictor factor of sentinel lymph node status in these patients. A prospective analysis was performed on serum from 174 patients with early breast cancer who underwent SLNB. The level of VEGF-C was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clinical-pathologic variables were collected. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were conducted, taking SLNB positivity as the segmentation variable. The predictive value of VEGF-C was assessed using ROC curves. Of the sample group of 167 patients, 64 (38.3%) had affected lymph node. Eighteen patients (28.1%) presented micrometastasis; there were isolated tumour cells in 11 cases (17.2%) and macrometastasis in 35 (54.6%). The median value of VEGF-C was 6561.5pg/ml. These values did not correlate with any clinical variables, and there was no association between the level of VEGF-C and SLNB status (p?=?0.626). In the multivariate analysis, tumour size (p?=?0.009) and the presence of vascular invasion (p?lymph node affected. Serum levels of VEGF-C do not appear to predict sentinel lymph node status in patients with early breast cancer who undergo SLNB. PMID:26104766

  1. Extracapsular tumor spread and the risk of local, axillary and supraclavicular recurrence in node-positive, premenopausal patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, G.; Cole, B. F.; Castiglione-Gertsch, M.; Holmberg, S. B.; Lindtner, J.; Golouh, R.; Collins, J.; Crivellari, D.; Thrlimann, B.; Simoncini, E.; Fey, M. F.; Gelber, R. D.; Coates, A. S.; Price, K. N.; Goldhirsch, A.; Viale, G.; Gusterson, B. A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Extracapsular tumor spread (ECS) has been identified as a possible risk factor for breast cancer recurrence, but controversy exists regarding its role in decision making for regional radiotherapy. This study evaluates ECS as a predictor of local, axillary, and supraclavicular recurrence. Patients and methods: International Breast Cancer Study Group Trial VI accrued 1475 eligible pre- and perimenopausal women with node-positive breast cancer who were randomly assigned to receive three to nine courses of classical combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil. ECS status was determined retrospectively in 933 patients based on review of pathology reports. Cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using methods for competing risks analysis. Adjustment factors included treatment group and baseline patient and tumor characteristics. The median follow-up was 14 years. Results: In univariable analysis, ECS was significantly associated with supraclavicular recurrence (HR?=?1.96; 95% confidence interval 1.233.13; P = 0.005). HRs for local and axillary recurrence were 1.38 (P = 0.06) and 1.81 (P = 0.11), respectively. Following adjustment for number of lymph node metastases and other baseline prognostic factors, ECS was not significantly associated with any of the three recurrence types studied. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the decision for additional regional radiotherapy should not be based solely on the presence of ECS. PMID:18385202

  2. Association between Lymph Node Ratio and Disease Specific Survival in Breast Cancer Patients with One or Two Positive Lymph Nodes Stratified by Different Local Treatment Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenjie; Xu, Binghe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Results of the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Z0011 trial indicated that complete axillary node dissection (ALND) may not be warranted in some breast cancer patients with low tumor burden who are undergoing breast-conserving surgery following whole-breast irradiation. However, this study did not address patients undergoing mastectomy or those undergoing breast-conserving surgery without whole-breast radiotherapy. Given that lymph node ratio (LNR; ratio of positive lymph nodes to the total number removed) has been shown to be a prognostic factor in breast cancer, we first sought to determine the prognostic value of LNR in a low risk population comparable to that of the Z0011 trial and further to investigate whether the prognostic significance differs with local treatment modality. Method We used the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database to identify breast cancer patients with T1-T2 tumor and 12 positive nodes. Patients were subclassified by the local therapy they underwent for the primary tumor. The prognostic value of LNR in predicting disease-specific survival (DSS) was examined in each treatment group. Results A total of 53,109 patients were included. In the subgroup of 20,602 patients who underwent lumpectomy following radiotherapy, LNR was not found to be significantly associated with DSS in both the univariate and multivariate model. For the 4,664 patients treated with mastectomy following radiotherapy, 6,811 treated with lumpectomy without radiotherapy and 21,031 with mastectomy without radiotherapy, LNR independently predict DSS in each of these subgroups. Conclusions Our results add evidence to the concept that axillary dissection could be omitted in patients with one or two positive nodes following breast-conserving surgery and whole breast radiation. PMID:26513258

  3. Axillary lymphoscintigraphy in the management of patients with breast cancer: A study of 341 patients

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, R.G.; Ege, G.N.

    1985-05-01

    Axillary lymphoscintigraph (AxLS) has been proposed preoperatively to diagnose breast cancer and postoperatively to predict recurrence; its role in routine management of carcinoma of the breast has not yet been determined. In a population with predominantly Stage I or II disease AxLS was performed in 140 patients who underwent surgery without axillary dissection (GpI), and in 201 whose surgery included axillary dissection (GpII), 49 of whom were studied prior to surgery; 84% of all patients were studied within 2 months of operation. Bilateral interdigital injections of Tc-99mSb/sub 2/S/sub 3/ (20MBq) were given and anterior images obtained 2 hours later. Internal mammary lymphoscintigraphy (IMLS) was performed concurrently. Scans were classed as normal (NOR) or abnormal (ABN) by adapting criteria used in interpretation of IMLS. For analysis of prognostic value, only patients with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were assessed. In patients scanned prior to surgery, AxLS sensitivity and specificity in predicting nodal involvement were 74% and 77% respectively. Clinical correlation suggests that features in the AxLS can be recognized which may be predictive of disease outcome despite the lack of direct correlation between the image and histopathological findings.

  4. Conservative treatment of early breast cancer. Long-term results of 1232 cases treated with quadrantectomy, axillary dissection, and radiotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Veronesi, U; Salvadori, B; Luini, A; Banfi, A; Zucali, R; Del Vecchio, M; Saccozzi, R; Beretta, E; Boracchi, P; Farante, G

    1990-01-01

    One thousand two hundred and thirty-two women with invasive breast cancer lesions measuring less than 2 cm in diameter, clinically assessed as T1N0-1M0, were treated from 1970 to 1983 at the National Cancer Institute of Milan with quadrantectomy, axillary dissection, and radiotherapy (QUART). Pathologic evidence of lymph-nodes metastases was found in 32% of the patients. Overall survival at 5 and 10 years from surgery was 91% and 78%, respectively. The cumulative probability of survival tends to decrease with increasing tumor size: the 7-year survival rate was 84% in cases in which lesions measured from 1.6 to 2.0 cm, and 94% in cases in which the lesions were less than 0.5 cm. Tumor site in the treated breast did not affect distant outcome. No difference was found between the patients without node metastases and patients with one node involved, whereas the patients with more than one node showed a lower probability of survival. The survival curves of 352 cases treated inside a randomized trial and that of 880 cases routinely treated appear to be superimposable. Local recurrences and new primary ipsilateral tumors were, respectively, 35 (2.8%) and 19 (1.6%); 56 women with local recurrences or second tumors underwent second surgery (total mastectomy, 43; wide resection, 11). Five of them died from distant spread of breast cancer, while 49 are alive and well. In the contralateral breasts 45 carcinomas were recorded during the follow-up time. The results of the present analysis of a large number of T1 cases reconfirm the safety of integrated radiosurgical conservative treatments. PMID:2106841

  5. Current Status of Radiotherapy for the Management of Regional Nodes in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Manterola, Ana; Asin, Gemma; Arias, Fernando; Errasti, Marta; Barrado, Marta; Campo, Maider; Visus, Ignacio; Dominguez, Miguel Angel

    2016-02-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer in women. Breast cancer constitutes about 23% of invasive cancers in women. The management of breast cancer depends on various factors, including the cancer stage and patient age. Breast cancer is usually treated with surgery, which can be followed by chemotherapy or radiation therapy, or both. Until recently, the standard procedure for axillary study was axillary dissection. Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been validated as a less-aggressive axillary treatment without an impact on survival. In the present report, we review the current management of the axillary lymph nodes, especially from the viewpoint of an oncology radiotherapist. PMID:26464208

  6. Lessons Learned from the Initial 100 Patient Experience with Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping in the Evaluation of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fuhrman, George M.; Burch, Ernest G.; Farr, Gist H.; King, Tari A.; Farkas, Emily; Bolton, John S.

    2000-01-01

    The initial reports of sentinel lymph node mapping for breast cancer currently appearing in the surgical literature are demonstrating the practicality and accuracy of the technique to evaluate patients for axillary nodal disease. We reviewed our initial 100 patient experience with sentinel node mapping to evaluate our ability to employ this technique in breast cancer patients. We combined a peritumoral injection of a radioactive substance and blue dye. Each sentinel node was evaluated with frozen section analysis, hematoxylin and eosin staining, and, if still negative, five re-cuts were taken from deeper levels of the node and evaluated for immunohistochemical evidence of cytokeratin staining. Sentinel node(s) were identified in all but two patients with 51% demonstrating metastasis. We have demonstrated the ability to accurately perform sentinel node mapping in the evaluation of our breast cancer patients. This exciting advance should become a standard part of breast cancer surgery. PMID:21765657

  7. Long-term outcomes in breast cancer patients with ten or more positive axillary nodes treated with combined-modality therapy: The importance of radiation field selection

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Daniel T.; Feigenberg, Steven J.; Indelicato, Daniel J.; Morris, Christopher G.; Lightsey, Judith; Grobmyer, Stephen R.; Copeland, Edward M.; Mendenhall, Nancy P. . E-mail: mendenan@shands.ufl.edu

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To determine the long-term outcome of a consistent treatment approach with electron beam postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) in breast cancer patients with {>=}10 positive nodes treated with combined-modality therapy. Methods and Materials: TSixty-three breast cancer patients with {>=}10 positive lymph nodes were treated with combined-modality therapy using an electron beam en face technique for PMRT at University of Florida. Patterns of recurrence were studied for correlation with radiation fields. Potential clinical and treatment variables were tested for possible association with local-regional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: TAt 5, 10, and 15 years, OS rates were 57%, 36%, and 27%, respectively; DFS rates were 46%, 37%, and 34%; and LRC rates were 87%, 87%, and 87%. No clinical or treatment variables were associated with OS or DFS. The use of supplemental axillary radiation (SART) (p = 0.012) and pathologic N stage (p = 0.053) were associated with improved LRC. Patients who received SART had a higher rate of LRC than those who did not. Moderate to severe arm edema developed in 17% of patients receiving SART compared with 7% in patients not treated with SART (p = 0.28). Conclusions: TA substantial percentage of patients with {>=}10 positive lymph nodes survive breast cancer. The 10-year overall survival in these patients was 36%. The addition of SART was associated with better LRC.

  8. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Patients with Breast Cancer: Five-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Richard S; Holmes, Dennis R; Kumar, Anjali S; Kutner, Susan E

    2005-01-01

    Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is rapidly gaining acceptance as a diagnostic tool for staging breast cancer. Objective: Analyze trends among surgeons and facilities in Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) in adopting SLNB to stage cases of breast cancer and assess success in locating the sentinel node. Methods: Retrospective review of data for patients whose breast cancer was staged using SLNB and axillary lymph node dissection between July 1997 through December 2002 at KPNC. Rates of false-negative results were calculated and stratified by surgeons' experience with SLNB. Results: The number of SLNB procedures performed each month increased steadily from fewer than ten (in late 1998) to about 80 per month (in mid-2002) and were done at 17 facilities. Of the 132 surgeons who performed SLNB, most had done fewer than 15 procedures. The false-negative result rate overall was 6.53% (95% CI 4.75%, 8.73%); for surgeons who performed <30 procedures the rate was 8.58% (95% CI 5.52%, 12.60%); for surgeons who performed 20 to 30 procedures the rate was 13.08% (95% CI 7.34%, 20.98%); and for surgeons who performed more than 30 procedures the rate was 5.05% (95% CI 3.07%, 7.78%). Conclusions: SLNB is rapidly being adopted at KPNC to stage cases of breast cancer and surgeons achieve an acceptable 6.53% false-negative result rate overall. The higher false-negative rate for surgeons who performed 20 to 30 procedures suggests that departments should expand efforts to monitor and proctor these surgeons. PMID:21687490

  9. Sentinel lymph node biopsy under fluorescent indocyanin green guidance: Initial experience

    PubMed Central

    Aydoğan, Fatih; Arıkan, Akif Enes; Aytaç, Erman; Velidedeoğlu, Mehmet; Yılmaz, Mehmet Halit; Sager, Muhammet Sait; Çelik, Varol; Uras, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Sentinel lymph node biopsy can be applied by using either blue dye or radionuclide method or both in breast cancer. Fluorescent imaging with indocyanine green is a new defined method. This study evaluates the applicability of sentinel lymph node biopsy via fluorescent indocyanine green. Material and Methods: IC-VIEW (Pulsion Medical Systems AG, Munich, Germany) infrared visualization system was used for imaging. Two mL of indocyanine green was injected to visualize sentinel lymph nodes. After injection, subcutaneous lymphatics were traced and sentinel lymph nodes were found with simultaneous imaging. Sentinel lymph nodes were excised under fluorescent light guidance, and excised lymph nodes were examined histopathologically. Patients with sentinel lymph node metastases underwent axillary dissection. Results: Four patients with sentinel lymph node biopsy due to breast cancer were included in the study. Sentinel lymph nodes were visualized with indocyanine green in all patients. The median number of excised sentinel lymph node was 2 (2–3). Two patients with lymph node metastasis underwent axillary dissection. No metastasis was detected in lymph nodes other than the sentinel nodes in patients with axillary dissection. There was no complication during and after the operation related to the method. Conclusion: According to our limited experience, sentinel lymph node biopsy under fluorescent indocyanine green guidance, which has an advantage of simultaneous visualization, is technically feasible. PMID:26985159

  10. The Feasibility and Oncological Safety of Axillary Reverse Mapping in Patients with Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chao; Yang, Ben; Zuo, Wen-Shu; Zheng, Gang; Yang, Li; Zheng, Mei-Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Objective The axillary reverse mapping (ARM) technique has recently been developed to prevent lymphedema by preserving the arm lymphatic drainage during sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) procedures. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the feasibility and oncological safety of ARM. Methods We searched Medline, Embase, Web of science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library for relevant prospective studies. The identification rate of ARM nodes, the crossover rate of SLN-ARM nodes, the proportion of metastatic ARM nodes, and the incidence of complications were pooled into meta-analyses by the random-effects model. Results A total of 24 prospective studies were included into meta-analyses, of which 11 studies reported ARM during SLNB, and 18 studies reported ARM during SLNB. The overall identification rate of ARM nodes was 38.2% (95% CI 32.9%-43.8%) during SLNB and 82.8% (78.0%-86.6%) during ALND, respectively. The crossover rate of SLN-ARM nodes was 19.6% (95% CI 14.4%-26.1%). The metastatic rate of ARM nodes was 16.9% (95% CI 14.2%-20.1%). The pooled incidence of lymphedema was 4.1% (95% CI 2.9–5.9%) for patients undergoing ARM procedure. Conclusions The ARM procedure was feasible during ALND. Nevertheless, it was restricted by low identification rate of ARM nodes during SLNB. ARM was beneficial for preventing lymphedema. However, this technique should be performed with caution given the possibility of crossover SLN-ARM nodes and metastatic ARM nodes. ARM appeared to be unsuitable for patients with clinically positive breast cancer due to oncological safety concern. PMID:26919589

  11. Quantitative molecular diagnosis of axillary drainage fluid for prediction of locoregional failure in patients with one to three positive axillary nodes after mastectomy without adjuvant radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yong; Ma Qingyong . E-mail: sage2001china@yahoo.com.cn; Dang Chengxue; Moureau-Zabotto, M.; Chen Wuke

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: A quantitative multiple-marker reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for sensitive detection of cancer cells in axillary drainage fluid was developed to examine whether the presence of cancer cells in axillary drainage fluid can be used as a predictor of locoregional recurrence (LRR) in patients with breast cancer who had T1/2 primary tumors and one to three positive axillary lymph nodes treated with modified radical mastectomy without adjuvant radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Axillary drainage fluid was collected from 126 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast who were treated with modified radical mastectomy and were found to have one to three positive axillary nodes. Cancer cells in axillary drainage fluid were detected by RT-PCR assay using primers specific for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin-19 (CK-19) together with numerous clinicopathologic and treatment-related factors and were analyzed for their impact on LRR. Results: A total of 38 patients suffered LRR during follow-up and the multimarker RT-PCR assays for CEA and CK-19 in the axillary drainage fluid both were positive in 34 patients (27.0%), of which 29 patients had LRR. In univariate analysis, the 5-year LRR-free survival showed higher rates in patients with PCR-negative findings in axillary drainage fluid (p < 0.0001), age {>=}40 years old (p < 0.0001), tumor size <2.5 cm (p < 0.0001), negative lymph-vascular space invasion (p = 0.026), and T1 status (< 0.0001); in multivariate analysis, PCR-positive findings together with age and tumor size were found to be independent predictors of LRR (all p < 0.05). Conclusion: Multiplex RT-PCR assay for CEA and CK-19 was highly sensitive for detection and might be useful for prediction of LRR in such subgroup breast cancer patients.

  12. [Lymph node involvement in sophageal cancer: surgical approach].

    PubMed

    Gronnier, C; Mariette, C

    2014-10-01

    Lymph node invasion is an early event in the oesophageal carcinogenesis and represents the main prognostic factor in the curative setting. Even though the primacy of surgical resection has been challenged by the definitive radiochemotherapy for locally advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the oesophagus, surgery is now again a gold standard, in combination with (radio)chemotherapy, to improve locoregional disease control and long term survival. Surgery, especially lymphadenectomy, has consequently to be standardized through quality criteria. Lymph node stations invaded in sophageal and junctional cancers, lymphadenectomy, and its impact on outcomes are discussed in this review based on the highest level of evidence published data. PMID:25195112

  13. High-Frequency Quantitative Ultrasound Imaging of Cancerous Lymph Nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamou, Jonathan; Coron, Alain; Hata, Masaki; Machi, Junji; Yanagihara, Eugene; Laugier, Pascal; Feleppa, Ernest J.

    2009-07-01

    High-frequency ultrasound (HFU) offers a means of investigating biological tissue at the microscopic level. High-frequency, quantitative-ultrasound (QUS) methods were developed to characterize freshly-dissected lymph nodes of cancer patients. Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound data were acquired from lymph nodes using a 25.6-MHz center-frequency transducer. Each node was inked prior to 3D histological fixation to recover orientation after sectioning. Backscattered echo signals were processed to yield two QUS estimates associated with tissue microstructure: scatterer size and acoustic concentration. The QUS estimates were computed following established methods using a Gaussian scattering model. Four lymph nodes from a patient with stage-3 colon cancer were evaluated as an illustrative case. QUS images were generated for this patient by expressing QUS estimates as color-encoded pixels and overlaying them on conventional gray-scale B-mode images. The single metastatic node had an average scatterer size that was significantly larger than the average scatterer size of the other nodes, and the statistics of both QUS estimates in the metastatic node showed greater variance than the statistics of the other nodes. Results indicate that the methods may provide a useful means of identifying small metastatic foci in dissected lymph nodes that might not be detectable using current standard pathology procedures.

  14. Staging lymph node metastases from lung cancer in the mediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Tern, Mario D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The presence of tumor metastases in the mediastinum is one of the most important elements in determining the optimal treatment strategy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. This review is aimed at examining the current strategies for investigating lymph node metastases corresponding to an N2 classification delineated by The International Staging Committee of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC). Methods Extensive review of the existing scientific literature related to the investigation of mediastinal lymph node metastases was undertaken in order to summarize and report current best practices. Conclusions N2 disease is very heterogeneous requiring multiple modalities for thorough investigation. New research is now focusing on better identifying, defining, and classifying lymph node metastases in the mediastinum. Molecular staging and sub-classifying mediastinal lymph node metastases are being actively researched in order to provide better prognostic value and to optimize treatment strategies. Non-invasive imaging, such as PET/CT and minimally invasive techniques such as endobronchial and endoscopic ultrasound guided biopsy, are now the lead investigative methods in evaluating the mediastinum for metastatic presence. PMID:24624287

  15. Sentinel lymph node detection in breast cancer patients using surgical navigation system based on fluorescence molecular imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Chongwei; Kou, Deqiang; Ye, Jinzuo; Mao, Yamin; Qiu, Jingdan; Wang, Jiandong; Yang, Xin; Tian, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Introduction: Precision and personalization treatments are expected to be effective methods for early stage cancer studies. Breast cancer is a major threat to women's health and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is an effective method to realize precision and personalized treatment for axillary lymph node (ALN) negative patients. In this study, we developed a surgical navigation system (SNS) based on optical molecular imaging technology for the precise detection of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) in breast cancer patients. This approach helps surgeons in precise positioning during surgery. Methods: The SNS was mainly based on the technology of optical molecular imaging. A novel optical path has been designed in our hardware system and a feature-matching algorithm has been devised to achieve rapid fluorescence and color image registration fusion. Ten in vivo studies of SLN detection in rabbits using indocyanine green (ICG) and blue dye were executed for system evaluation and 8 breast cancer patients accepted the combination method for therapy. Results: The detection rate of the combination method was 100% and an average of 2.6 SLNs was found in all patients. Our results showed that the method of using SNS to detect SLN has the potential to promote its application. Conclusion: The advantage of this system is the real-time tracing of lymph flow in a one-step procedure. The results demonstrated the feasibility of the system for providing accurate location and reliable treatment for surgeons. Our approach delivers valuable information and facilitates more detailed exploration for image-guided surgery research.

  16. Nomogram for predicting lymph node metastasis rate of submucosal gastric cancer by analyzing clinicopathological characteristics associated with lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhixue; Zhang, Yinan; Zhang, Lianhai; Li, Ziyu; Wu, Aiwen; Wu, Xiaojiang; Liu, Yiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background To combine clinicopathological characteristics associated with lymph node metastasis for submucosal gastric cancer into a nomogram. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 262 patients with submucosal gastric cancer who underwent D2 gastrectomy between 1996 and 2012. The relationship between lymph node metastasis and clinicopathological features was statistically analyzed. With multivariate logistic regression analysis, we made a nomogram to predict the possibility of lymph node metastasis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was also performed to assess the predictive value of the model. Discrimination and calibration were performed using internal validation. Results A total number of 48 (18.3%) patients with submucosal gastric cancer have pathologically lymph node metastasis. For submucosal gastric carcinoma, lymph node metastasis was associated with age, tumor location, macroscopic type, size, differentiation, histology, the existence of ulcer and lymphovascular invasion in univariate analysis (all P<0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that age ?50 years old, macroscopic type III or mixed, undifferentiated type, and presence of lymphovascular invasion were independent risk factors of lymph node metastasis in submucosal gastric cancer (all P<0.05). We constructed a predicting nomogram with all these factors for lymph node metastasis in submucosal gastric cancer with good discrimination [area under the curve (AUC) =0.844]. Internal validation demonstrated a good discrimination power that the actual probability corresponds closely with the predicted probability. Conclusions We developed a nomogram to predict the rate of lymph node metastasis for submucosal gastric cancer. With good discrimination and internal validation, the nomogram improved individualized predictions for assisting clinicians to make appropriated treatment decision for submucosal gastric cancer patients. PMID:26752931

  17. Intraoperative frozen section assessment of sentinel lymph nodes in the operative management of women with symptomatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rohanna; Hanly, Ann M; Naughton, Peter; Castineira, Constantino F; Landers, Rob; Cahill, Ronan A; Watson, R Gordon

    2008-01-01

    Background Maximisation of the potential of sentinel lymph node biopsy as a minimally invasive method of axillary staging requires sensitive intraoperative pathological analysis so that rates of re-operation for lymphatic metastases are minimised. The aim of this study was to describe the test parameters of the frozen section evaluation of sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer compared to the gold standard of standard permanent pathological evaluation at our institution. Methods The accuracy of intraoperative frozen section (FS) of sentinel nodes was determined in 94 consecutive women undergoing surgery for clinically node negative, invasive breast cancer (37:T1 disease; 43:T2; 14:T3). Definitive evidence of lymphatic spread on FS indicated immediate level II axillary clearance while sentinel node "negativity" on intraoperative testing led to the operation being curtailed to allow formal H&E analysis of the remaining sentinel nodal tissue. Results Intraoperative FS correctly predicted axillary involvement in 23/30 patients with lymphatic metastases (76% sensitivity rate) permitting definitive surgery to be completed at the index operation in 87 women (93%) overall. All SN found involved on FS were confirmed as harbouring tumour cells on subsequent formal specimen examination (100% specificity and positive predictive value) with 16 patients having additional non-sentinel nodes found also to contain tumour. Negative Predictive Values were highest in women with T1 tumours (97%) and lessened with more local advancement of disease (T2 rates: 86%; T3: 75%). Of those with falsely negative FS, three had only micrometastatic disease. Conclusion Intraoperative FS reliably evaluates the status of the sentinel node allowing most women complete their surgery in a single stage. Thus SN can be offered with increased confidence to those less likely to have negative axillae hence expanding the population of potential beneficiaries. PMID:18582366

  18. Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery for early stage gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mitsumori, Norio; Nimura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Naoto; Kawamura, Masahiko; Aoki, Hiroaki; Shida, Atsuo; Omura, Nobuo; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    We attempted to evaluate the history of sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS), technical aspects, tracers, and clinical applications of SNNS using Infrared Ray Electronic Endoscopes (IREE) combined with Indocyanine Green (ICG). The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as a first lymph node (LN) which receives cancer cells from a primary tumor. Reports on clinical application of SNNS for gastric cancers started to appear since early 2000s. Two prospective multicenter trials of SNNS for gastric cancer have also been accomplished in Japan. Kitagawa et al reported that the endoscopic dual (dye and radioisotope) tracer method for SN biopsy was confirmed acceptable and effective when applied to the early-stage gastric cancer (EGC). We have previously reported the usefulness of SNNS in gastrointestinal cancer using ICG as a tracer, combined with IREE (Olympus Optical, Tokyo, Japan) to detect SLN. LN metastasis rate of EGC is low. Hence, clinical application of SNNS for EGC might lead us to avoid unnecessary LN dissection, which could preserve the patients quality of life after operation. The most ideal method of SNNS should allow secure and accurate detection of SLN, and real time observation of lymphatic flow during operation. PMID:24914329

  19. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: the role of micrometastasis.

    PubMed

    Prez-Callejo, David; Franco, Fernando; Nez, Beatriz; Gonzlez-Lois, Carmen; Cantos, Blanca; Provencio, Mariano

    2015-02-01

    Intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy is widely used in patients with early-stage breast cancer for staging the axilla. The conventional analysis of the SLN has classically been performed by frozen section or touch imprint with a rapid H&E (hematoxylin and eosin) staining. Because of the risk of false-negative results, it has been replaced by the one-step acid amplification (OSNA) assay, a molecular diagnostic assay for the detection of cytokeratin 19 mRNA expression. Due to the controversial for the use of OSNA to evaluate the SLN because of its cost-effective and the lack of consensus to perform or avoid a lymphadenectomy when there is micrometastasis, we analyze 410 patients subjected to SLN biopsy in Hospital Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain). Of the total of nodes, 223 (54.4%) were processed throughout frozen-section examination and imprint cytology and 187 (45.6%) throughout OSNA. The specificity of the frozen-section histological examination was of 100%, with a sensitivity of 83.33% (95% CI 73.07-93.60). Of the 40 patients with definitive micrometastasis in the SLN, axillary dissection was performed in 90% of the patients, with subsequent positive affectation in four of them (11.11%). Based on our result and taking into account that 10% of the lymphadenectomy performed after micrometastasis are positive, we do not believe that lymphadenectomy should be avoided after N(mi+) is detected in a SLN. PMID:25603951

  20. Predicting Likelihood of Having Four or More Positive Nodes in Patient With Sentinel Lymph Node-Positive Breast Cancer: A Nomogram Validation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, Bulent; Gur, Akif Serhat; Beriwal, Sushil; Tang Gong; Johnson, Ronald; Ahrendt, Gretchen; Bonaventura, Marguerite; Soran, Atilla

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Katz suggested a nomogram for predicting having four or more positive nodes in sentinel lymph node (SLN)-positive breast cancer patients. The findings from this formula might influence adjuvant radiotherapy decisions. Our goal was to validate the accuracy of the Katz nomogram. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 309 patients with breast cancer who had undergone completion axillary lymph node dissection. The factors associated with the likelihood of having four or more positive axillary nodes were evaluated in patients with one to three positive SLNs. The nomogram developed by Katz was applied to our data set. The area under the curve of the corresponding receiver operating characteristics curve was calculated for the nomogram. Results: Of the 309 patients, 80 (25.9%) had four or more positive axillary lymph nodes. On multivariate analysis, the number of positive SLNs (p < .0001), overall metastasis size (p = .019), primary tumor size (p = .0001), and extracapsular extension (p = .01) were significant factors predicting for four or more positive nodes. For patients with <5% probability, 90.3% had fewer than four positive nodes and 9.7% had four or more positive nodes. The negative predictive value was 91.7%, and sensitivity was 80%. The nomogram was accurate and discriminating (area under the curve, .801). Conclusion: The probability of four or more involved nodes is significantly greater in patients who have an increased number of positive SLNs, increased overall metastasis size, increased tumor size, and extracapsular extension. The Katz nomogram was validated in our patients. This nomogram will be helpful to clinicians making adjuvant treatment recommendations to their patients.

  1. Lymph node harvest in colon and rectal cancer: Current considerations

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, James R; Renehan, Andrew G; O’Dwyer, Sarah T; Haboubi, Najib Y

    2012-01-01

    The prognostic significance of identifying lymph node (LN) metastases following surgical resection for colon and rectal cancer is well recognized and is reflected in accurate staging of the disease. An established body of evidence exists, demonstrating an association between a higher total LN count and improved survival, particularly for node negative colon cancer. In node positive disease, however, the lymph node ratios may represent a better prognostic indicator, although the impact of this on clinical treatment has yet to be universally established. By extension, strategies to increase surgical node harvest and/or laboratory methods to increase LN yield seem logical and might improve cancer staging. However, debate prevails as to whether or not these extrapolations are clinically relevant, particularly when very high LN counts are sought. Current guidelines recommend a minimum of 12 nodes harvested as the standard of care, yet the evidence for such is questionable as it is unclear whether an increasing the LN count results in improved survival. Findings from modern treatments, including down-staging in rectal cancer using pre-operative chemoradiotherapy, paradoxically suggest that lower LN count, or indeed complete absence of LNs, are associated with improved survival; implying that using a specific number of LNs harvested as a measure of surgical quality is not always appropriate. The pursuit of a sufficient LN harvest represents good clinical practice; however, recent evidence shows that the exhaustive searching for very high LN yields may be unnecessary and has little influence on modern approaches to treatment. PMID:22347537

  2. Intraoperative Frozen Section Evaluation of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Carcinoma: Single-Institution Indian Experience.

    PubMed

    Somashekhar, S P; Naikoo, Zahoor Ahmed; Zaveri, Shabber S; Holla, Soumya; Chandra, Suresh; Mishra, Suniti; Parameswaran, R V

    2015-12-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is an established way of predicting axillary nodal metastasis in early breast cancer. Intraoperative frozen sections (FS) of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) can be used to detect metastatic disease, allowing immediate axillary lymph node dissection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of intraoperative frozen sections in evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in cases of breast cancer. Between March 2006 and August 2010, a total of 164 patients with clinically node-negative operable breast cancer were subjected to sentinel lymph node biopsy of axillary lymph nodes using preoperative peritumoral injection of radioactive colloid and methylene blue. Intraoperative identification of sentinel nodes was done using a handheld gamma probe and identification of blue-stained nodes. The nodes were sent for frozen section examination. The results of frozen section were compared with the final histopathology. Out of the 164 cases, metastases were detected in SLN by frozen section in 38 cases. There were three false-negative cases (all showing micrometastasis on final histopathology). FS had sensitivity of 92.6%, specificity of 100%, and overall accuracy of 98.1%. The positive predictive value was 100%, and the negative predictive value was 97.6%. FS for diagnosis of metastasis of SLNs is reliable. Patients with negative SLNs by the FS diagnosis can avoid reoperation for axillary lymph node dissection. However, FS may fail to detect micrometastases, especially in cases with small tumors. PMID:26730021

  3. Multifocality and multicentricity are not contraindications for sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Alberta; Dionigi, Paolo; Rovera, Francesca; Boni, Luigi; Limonta, Giorgio; Garancini, Silvana; De Palma, Diego; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Vanoli, Cristiana; Diurni, Mario; Carcano, Giulio; Dionigi, Renzo

    2006-01-01

    Background After the availability of the results of validation studies, the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has replaced routine axillary dissection (AD) as the new standard of care in early unifocal breast cancers. Multifocal (MF) and multicentric (MC) tumors have been considered a contraindication for this technique due to the possible incidence of a higher false-negative rate. This prospective study evaluates the lymphatic drainage from different tumoral foci of the breast and assesses the accuracy of SLNB in MF-MC breast cancer. Patients and methods Patients with preoperative diagnosis of MF or MC infiltrating and clinically node-negative (cN0) breast carcinoma were enrolled in this study. Two consecutive groups of patients underwent SLN mapping using a different site of injection of the radioisotope tracer: a) "2ID" Group received two intradermal (ID) injections over the site of the two dominant neoplastic nodules. A lymphoscintigraphic study was performed after each injection to evaluate the route of lymphatic spreading from different sites of the breast. b) "A" Group had periareolar (A) injection followed by a conventional lymphoscintigraphy. At surgery, both radioguided SLNB (with frozen section exam) and subsequent AD were planned, regardless the SLN status. Results A total 31 patients with MF (n = 12) or MC (n = 19) invasive, cN0 cancer of the breast fulfil the selection criteria. In 2 ID Group (n = 15) the lymphoscintigraphic study showed the lymphatic pathways from two different sites of the breast which converged into one major lymphatic trunk affering to the same SLN(s) in 14 (93.3%) cases. In one (6.7%) MC cancer two different pathways were found, each of them affering to a different SLN. In A Group (n = 16) lymphoscintigraphy showed one (93.7%) or two (6.3%) lymphatic channels, each connecting areola with one or more SLN(s). Identification rate of SLN was 100% in both Groups. Accuracy of frozen section exam on SLN was 96.8% (1 case of micrometastasis was missed). SLN was positive in 13 (41.9%) of 31 patients, including 4 cases (30.7%) of micrometastasis. In 7 of 13 (53.8%) patients the SLN was the only site of axillary metastasis. SLNB accuracy was 96.8% (30 of 31), sensitivity 92.8 (13 of 14), and false-negative rate 7.1% (1 of 14). Since the case of skip metastasis was identified by the surgeon intraoperatively, it would have been no impact in the clinical practice. Conclusion Our lymphoscintigraphic study shows that axillary SLN represents the whole breast regardless of tumor location within the parenchyma. The high accuracy of SLNB in MF and MC breast cancer demonstrates, according with the results of other series published in the literature, that both MF and MC tumors do not represent a contraindication for SLNB anymore. PMID:17116258

  4. Nuclear shape and axillary metastases in breast cancer. Analytic morphometry of aspiration smears.

    PubMed

    Giardina, C; Ricco, R; Serio, G; Vacca, E; Pennella, A; Renzulli, G; Punzo, C; Borzacchini, A M; Delfino, V P

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this work was to seek quantitative parameters other than dimensions to describe nuclear shape and, by this means, to determine the sum of contour irregularities and large asymmetries and seek a connection with the biologic behavior of the tumor. Nuclei of the cells obtained from 57 aspiration smears of breast cancers were studied. Dimensional parameters (area, perimeter, maximum diameter and roundness factor) and analytic parameters were computed by the Shape Analytical Morphometry software system to evaluate both contour irregularities and asymmetry of nuclear shape. All the tumors were subdivided according to their diameters into two groups: T1 tumors, the maximum diameter of which was < 2 cm (18 cases), and T2 tumors, the maximum diameter of which was > 2 cm and < 5 cm (39 cases). Among T1 tumors, both dimensional and analytic parameters were highly significant (P < .001) in distinguishing tumors with (N+) and tumors without (N-) axillary metastases, while among larger tumors (T2) only the analytic parameters showed degrees of significance, albeit variable. It could be inferred that in smaller tumors, aggressiveness is related to an increase in nuclear dimensions and shape distortions more so than in larger tumors. PMID:8191823

  5. Clinical trial of combined radio- and fluorescence-guided sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schaafsma, Boudewijn E.; Verbeek, Floris P.R.; Rietbergen, Daphne D.D.; van der Hiel, Bernies; van der Vorst, Joost R.; Liefers, Gerrit-Jan; Frangioni, John V.; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; van Leeuwen, Fijs W.B.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Combining radioactive colloids and a near-infrared (NIR) fluorophore permit preoperative planning and intraoperative localization of deeply located sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) with direct optical guidance by a single lymphatic tracer. The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate and optimize a hybrid NIR fluorescence and radioactive tracer for SLN detection in breast cancer patients. Method Patients with breast cancer undergoing SLN biopsy were enrolled. The day before surgery, indocyanine green (ICG)-99mTc-Nanocolloid was injected periareolarly and a lymphoscintigram was acquired. Directly before surgery, blue dye was injected. Intraoperative SLN localization was performed by a gamma probe and the Mini-FLARETM NIR fluorescence imaging system. Patients were divided into two dose groups, with one group receiving twice the particle density of ICG and nanocolloid, but the same dose of radioactive 99mTechnetium. Results Thirty-two patients were enrolled in the trial. At least one SLN was identified pre- and intraoperatively. All 48 axillary SLNs could be detected by gamma tracing and NIR fluorescence imaging, but only 42 of them stained blue. NIR fluorescence permitted detection of lymphatic vessels draining to the SLN up to 29 hours after injection. Increasing the particle density by two-fold did not yield a difference in fluorescence intensity, median 255 (range 98 542) vs. median 284 (90 921; P = 0.590), or signal- to- background ratio, median 5.4 (range 3.0 15.4) vs. median 4.9 (3.5 16.3; P = 1.000), of the SLN. Conclusion The hybrid NIR fluorescence and radioactive tracer ICG-99mTc-Nanocolloid permitted accurate pre- and intraoperative detection of the SLNs in patients with breast cancer. PMID:23696463

  6. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for prostate cancer: a hybrid approach.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Nynke S; Valds-Olmos, Renato A; van der Poel, Henk G; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B

    2013-04-01

    To provide surgeons with optimal guidance during interventions, it is crucial that the molecular imaging data generated in the diagnostic departments finds its way to the operating room. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy provides a textbook example in which molecular imaging data acquired in the department of nuclear medicine guides the surgical management of patients. For prostate cancer, in which SLNs are generally located deep in the pelvis, procedures are preferably performed via a (robot-assisted) laparoscopic approach. Unfortunately, in the laparoscopic setting the senses of the surgeon are reduced. This topical review discusses technologic innovations that can help improve surgical guidance during SLN biopsy procedures. PMID:23492883

  7. [Delineation of the lymph nodes for head neck cancers].

    PubMed

    Lapeyre, M; Miroir, J; Biau, J

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this article is to present the determination and delineation of nodal target volumes for head and neck cancers treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. The delineation on computerized tomography scanner (CT scan) requires a precise methodology. Different elements are necessary: clinical examination, diagram of the initially involved lymph nodes, surgical and pathological reports and medical imagings (CT scan, magnetic resonance imaging and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography). The different clinical target volumes are approached and the concept of selectivity of neck nodal targets is specified according to current literature. PMID:25179252

  8. Handheld array-based photoacoustic probe for guiding needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chulhong; Erpelding, Todd N.; Maslov, Konstantin; Jankovic, Ladislav; Akers, Walter J.; Song, Liang; Achilefu, Samuel; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Pashley, Michael D.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2010-01-01

    By modifying a clinical ultrasound array system, we develop a novel handheld photoacoustic probe for image-guided needle biopsy. The integration of optical fiber bundles for pulsed laser light delivery enables photoacoustic image-guided insertion of a needle into rat axillary lymph nodes with accumulated indocyanine green (ICG). Strong photoacoustic contrast of the needle is achieved. After subcutaneous injection of the dye in the left forepaw, sentinel lymph nodes are easily detected, in vivo and in real time, beneath 2-cm-thick chicken breast overlaying the axillary region. ICG uptake in axillary lymph nodes is confirmed with fluorescence imaging both in vivo and ex vivo. These results demonstrate the clinical potential of this handheld photoacoustic system for facile identification and needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes for cancer staging and metastasis detection in humans. PMID:20799812

  9. Sentinel lymph node biopsy after neoadjuvant treatment in breast cancer: Work in progress.

    PubMed

    Rubio, I T

    2016-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy has replaced axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in those patients with clinically node negative axilla and nowadays, patients with low burden disease in the SLNs may spare an ALND without compromising their oncologic outcomes. In the last decade, indications of neoadjuvant treatment (NAT) have been extended to patients with operable disease and with the use of targeted therapies, rates of pathologic complete response (pCR) after NAT have increased. In the neoadjuvant setting, SLN after NAT is feasible and accurate in clinically node negative patients and it has been explored in different randomized prospective studies in patients with clinically positive axilla in the continuous effort to avoid the morbidity of ALND. The importance of identifying patients with residual axillary disease may serve not only as indicator for selecting patients with pCR to be spared an ALND but also for selecting patients for additional therapy. Future research is needed to more accurately identify residual axillary disease and the SLN after NAT is the driver for this achievement. PMID:26774943

  10. Use of sentinel lymph node biopsy to select patients for local–regional therapy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Erdahl, Lillian M.; Boughey, Judy C.

    2014-01-01

    Use of sentinel lymph node biopsy for axillary staging of patients with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been widely debated. Questions arise regarding the accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy in axillary staging for these patients and its use to determine further local–regional therapy, including surgery and radiation therapy. For patients who are clinically node-negative at presentation, sentinel lymph node biopsy enables accurate staging of the axilla after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and determination of which patients should go on to further axillary surgery and regional nodal radiation therapy. Importantly, performing axillary staging after completion of chemotherapy, rather than before chemotherapy, enables assessment of response to chemotherapy and the extent of residual disease. This information can assist the planning of adjuvant treatment. Recent data indicate that sentinel node biopsy can also be used to assess disease response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for patients with clinical N1 disease at presentation. PMID:24683440

  11. Navigation surgery for intraoperative sentinel lymph node detection using Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence real-time imaging in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Toh, U; Iwakuma, N; Mishima, M; Okabe, M; Nakagawa, S; Akagi, Y

    2015-09-01

    A new sensitive fluorescence imaging system was developed for the real-time identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with early breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of a color charge-coupled device camera system for the intraoperative detection of SLNs and to determine its clinical efficacy and sensitivity in patients with operable breast cancer. We assessed a total of 168 patients diagnosed with or suspected of having early-stage breast cancer without metastasis in SLNs. The intraoperative detection of SLNs was performed using the conventional Indigo Carmine dye (indigotindisulfonate sodium) technique combined with a new Indocyanine green (ICG) imaging system (HyperEye Medical System: HEMS, MIZUHO IKAKOGYO, Japan) to map SLNs, in which the lymphatic vessels and SLNs were visualized transcutaneously with illuminating ICG fluorescence. Between January 2012 and May 2013, SLNs were successfully identified in all 168 patients (detection rate: 100%). By histopathology, the sensitivity was 93.8% for the detection of the metastatic involvement of SLNs (15 of 16 nodal-positive patients). After a median follow-up of 30.5 months, none of the patients presented with axillary recurrence. These results suggest that the HEMS imaging system is a feasible and effective method for the detection of SLNs in breast cancer. Furthermore, the HEMS device permitted the transcutaneous visualization of lymphatic vessels under light conditions, thus facilitating the identification and detection of SLNs without affecting the surgical procedure, together with a high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26267663

  12. [Risk factors influencing lymph nodes metastasis in lung cancer with stage I, II or IIIA].

    PubMed

    Hirayama, T; Kaneda, Y; Nawata, S; Tanaka, S; Esato, K

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk factors involved in the intrapulmonary, hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes metastases in seventy-eight patients with stage I, II or IIIA lung cancer postoperatively, which were resected from 1978 to 1988. In the histological type, the incidence of the mediastinal lymph nodes metastases in adenocarcinoma was higher than that in other types, such as squamous cell carcinoma and large cel carcinoma. In addition, the incidence of mediastinal lymph nodes metastases in the papillary type was significantly higher than that in the tubular type (p less than 0.05). The incidence of mediastinal lymph nodes metastases increased as invasion into the lymphatic duct and/or vessel was demonstrated (p less than 0.01, p less than 0.05). The proximal type, in which the cancer spread to the secondary segmental bronchus, metastasized to the hilar lymph nodes more frequently than the distal type, in which the cancer was located in the bronchus distal to the third segmental one. Although there was no significant relationship between the site of the cancer and the incidence of the metastatic lymph nodes, the hilar and superior mediastinal lymph nodes (#1-4, 3a, 3p) metastases were demonstrated regardless of the lobe in which the cancer was located. The primary tumor located in the left lower lobe of the lung tended to metastasize to the inferior mediastinal lymph nodes (#8, 9). Twenty-five out of 33 patients with the lymph nodes metastases had hilar metastatic lymph nodes. However, the mediastinal lymph nodes metastases were proved in 5 patients without any intrapulmonary and hilar lymph nodes metastases. No relationship between the histological differentiation, size of tumor, pT factor and the incidence of lymph nodes metastases was found. PMID:2176232

  13. Intraductal papilloma of ectopic breast tissue in axillary lymph node of a patient with a previous intraductal papilloma of ipsilateral breast: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The presence of ectopic breast tissue in axillary lymph nodes (ALN) is a benign condition that must be differentiated from primary or metastatic carcinoma. Here we report a patient who underwent excision of enlarged ALN 10 years after she had received surgical treatment of ipsilateral breast for an intracystic intraductal papilloma (IDP). Histological examination of the removed ALN revealed that the proliferative lesion consisted of papillary and tubular structures lined by luminal cuboidal cells and a distinct outer layer of myoepithelial cells resembling IDP of the breast. Immunostaining with a set of immunohistochemical markers including AE/AE3, alpha-smooth muscle actin and p63 in combination with estrogen and progesterone receptors confirmed the diagnosis of ectopic IDP. This case shows that even though benign proliferative change in ectopic breast tissue is an extremely rare phenomenon, this possibility should be taken into account for correct diagnosis. PMID:20222992

  14. [Re-discussion of lymph node metastasis from gastric cancer on prognostic evaluation].

    PubMed

    Deng, Jingyu; Liang, Han

    2016-02-25

    Lymph node metastasis from gastric cancer is one of the most important events in the progress of disease, which may reflect the disease situation and contribute to evaluate accurately prognosis. Although the detailed mechanism of lymph node metastasis from gastric cancer has not been clearly elucidated, nodal metastasis comprise of a series of events involving the alterations of tumor biological characteristics, including changes of cancer cell proliferation, invasion, chemotaxis, and pathway of lymphatic drainage. As we know, assessment of lymph node metastatic status is significantly associated with both therapeutic strategy and prognostic prediction, It is controversial to adopt the optimal category of lymph node metastasis in clinical practice. Category based on the number of lymph node metastasis (e.g. N stage of UICC TNM classification) is considered as a prominent variable to apply for gastric cancer worldwide, nevertheless, category based on extent of lymph node metastasis (e.g. N stage of JGCA classification) is capable of contributing to the appropriate surgical procedure for patients. It has not reached a consensus for the assessment impacts of several special variables on prognostic evaluation in gastric cancer, including nodal micrometastasis, isolated tumor cells (ITCs) in lymph nodes, and skipping metastasis of lymph nodes, which needs further investigations to determining the application values in gastric cancer. PMID:26831880

  15. Sentinel Lymph Node in Breast Cancer: Review Article from a Pathologist’s Point of View

    PubMed Central

    Apple, Sophia K.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer staging, in particular N-stage changed most significantly due to the advanced technique of sentinel lymph node biopsy two decades ago. Pathologists have more thoroughly examined and scrutinized sentinel lymph node and found increased number of small volume metastases. While pathologists use the strict criteria from the Tumor Lymph Node Metastasis (TNM) Classification, studies have shown poor reproducibility in the application of American Joint Committee on Cancer and International Union Against Cancer/TNM guidelines for sentinel lymph node classification in breast cancer. In this review article, a brief history of TNM with a focus on N-stage is described, followed by innate problems with the guidelines, and why pathologists may have difficulties in assessing lymph node metastases uniformly. Finally, clinical significance of isolated tumor cells, micrometastasis, and macrometastasis is described by reviewing historical retrospective data and significant prospective clinical trials. PMID:26757203

  16. Sentinel Lymph Node Surgery after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients With Node-Positive Breast Cancer: The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Z1071 Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Boughey, Judy C.; Suman, Vera J.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Ahrendt, Gretchen M.; Wilke, Lee G.; Taback, Bret; Leitch, A. Marilyn; Kuerer, Henry M.; Bowling, Monet; Flippo-Morton, Teresa S.; Byrd, David R.; Ollila, David W.; Julian, Thomas B.; McLaughlin, Sarah A.; McCall, Linda; Symmans, W. Fraser; Le-Petross, Huong T.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Nelson, Heidi; Hunt, Kelly K.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Sentinel lymph node (SLN) surgery provides reliable nodal staging information with less morbidity than axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for clinically node-negative (cN0) breast cancer patients. The application of SLN surgery for staging the axilla following chemotherapy for women who initially had node-positive breast cancer (cN1) is unclear because of high false negative results reported in previous studies. Objective To determine the false negative rate (FNR) for SLN surgery following chemotherapy in patients initially presenting with biopsy-proven node-positive breast cancer. Design, Setting, and Patients The ACOSOG Z1071 trial enrolled women with clinical T04 N12, M0 breast cancer who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Following chemotherapy, patients underwent both SLN surgery and ALND. SLN surgery using both blue dye and a radiolabeled colloid mapping agent was encouraged. Main Outcome Measure The primary endpoint was the FNR of SLN surgery after chemotherapy in women who presented with cN1 disease. We examined the likelihood that the FNR in those with 2 or more SLNs examined was greater than 10%, the rate expected for women undergoing SLN surgery who present with clinically node-negative disease. Results Seven hundred fifty-six patients were enrolled from 136 institutions. Of 663 evaluable patients with cN1 disease, 649 underwent chemotherapy followed by both SLN surgery and ALND. A SLN could not be identified in 46 patients (7.1%). Only one SLN was excised in 78 patients (12.0%). Of the remaining 525 patients with 2 or more SLNs removed, no cancer was identified in the axillary lymph nodes of 215 patients yielding a pathological complete nodal response of 41.0% (95% CI: 36.7%45.3%). In 39 patients, cancer was not identified in the SLNs but was found in lymph nodes obtained with ALND resulting in a FNR of 12.6% (90% Bayesian Credible Interval, 9.85%16.05%). Conclusions and Relevance Among women with cN1 breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy who had 2 or more SLNs examined, the FNR was not found to be 10% or less. Given this FNR threshold, changes in approach and patient selection that result in greater sensitivity would be necessary to support the use of SLN surgery as an alternative to ALND. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov; trial identifier NCT00881361. PMID:24101169

  17. Preoperative Axillary Staging with 3.0-T Breast MRI: Clinical Value of Diffusion Imaging and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient

    PubMed Central

    Rautiainen, Suvi; Könönen, Mervi; Sironen, Reijo; Masarwah, Amro; Sudah, Mazen; Hakumäki, Juhana; Vanninen, Ritva; Sutela, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The axillary staging in newly diagnosed breast cancer is under major evolution. The aims of this study were to define the diagnostic performance of 3.0-T diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the detection of axillary metastases in newly diagnosed breast cancer, to assess apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) for histopathologically confirmed metastatic lymph nodes in a clinical setting. Altogether 52 consecutive breast cancer patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging and DWI in addition to axillary ultrasound. ADCs of axillary lymph nodes were analysed by two breast radiologists and ultrasound-guided core biopsies were taken. In a separate reading by one radiologist two types of region of interests were used for a smaller group of patients. Altogether 56 axillae (121 lymph nodes) were included in the statistical analysis. Metastatic axillae (51.8%) had significantly lower ADCs (p<0.001). Mean ADCs were 0.663–0.676 x 10-3 mm2/s for the histologically confirmed metastatic LNs and 1.100–1.225 x 10-3 mm2/s for the benign. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of DWI were 72.4%, 79.6%, and 75.9%, respectively with threshold ADC 0.812 x 10-3 mm2/s. Region of interest with information on the minimum value increased the diagnostic performance (area under the curve 0.794 vs. 0.619). Even though ADCs are significantly associated with histopathologically confirmed axillary metastases the diagnostic performance of axillary DWI remains moderate and ultrasound-guided core biopsies or sentinel lymph node biopsies cannot be omitted. PMID:25823016

  18. New models and online calculator for predicting non-sentinel lymph node status in sentinel lymph node positive breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Kohrt, Holbrook E; Olshen, Richard A; Bermas, Honnie R; Goodson, William H; Wood, Douglas J; Henry, Solomon; Rouse, Robert V; Bailey, Lisa; Philben, Vicki J; Dirbas, Frederick M; Dunn, Jocelyn J; Johnson, Denise L; Wapnir, Irene L; Carlson, Robert W; Stockdale, Frank E; Hansen, Nora M; Jeffrey, Stefanie S

    2008-01-01

    Background Current practice is to perform a completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for breast cancer patients with tumor-involved sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), although fewer than half will have non-sentinel node (NSLN) metastasis. Our goal was to develop new models to quantify the risk of NSLN metastasis in SLN-positive patients and to compare predictive capabilities to another widely used model. Methods We constructed three models to predict NSLN status: recursive partitioning with receiver operating characteristic curves (RP-ROC), boosted Classification and Regression Trees (CART), and multivariate logistic regression (MLR) informed by CART. Data were compiled from a multicenter Northern California and Oregon database of 784 patients who prospectively underwent SLN biopsy and completion ALND. We compared the predictive abilities of our best model and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Breast Cancer Nomogram (Nomogram) in our dataset and an independent dataset from Northwestern University. Results 285 patients had positive SLNs, of which 213 had known angiolymphatic invasion status and 171 had complete pathologic data including hormone receptor status. 264 (93%) patients had limited SLN disease (micrometastasis, 70%, or isolated tumor cells, 23%). 101 (35%) of all SLN-positive patients had tumor-involved NSLNs. Three variables (tumor size, angiolymphatic invasion, and SLN metastasis size) predicted risk in all our models. RP-ROC and boosted CART stratified patients into four risk levels. MLR informed by CART was most accurate. Using two composite predictors calculated from three variables, MLR informed by CART was more accurate than the Nomogram computed using eight predictors. In our dataset, area under ROC curve (AUC) was 0.83/0.85 for MLR (n = 213/n = 171) and 0.77 for Nomogram (n = 171). When applied to an independent dataset (n = 77), AUC was 0.74 for our model and 0.62 for Nomogram. The composite predictors in our model were the product of angiolymphatic invasion and size of SLN metastasis, and the product of tumor size and square of SLN metastasis size. Conclusion We present a new model developed from a community-based SLN database that uses only three rather than eight variables to achieve higher accuracy than the Nomogram for predicting NSLN status in two different datasets. PMID:18315887

  19. A Model to Estimate the Risk of Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema: Combinations of Treatment-Related Factors of the Number of Dissected Axillary Nodes, Adjuvant Chemotherapy, and Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Myungsoo; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Sung Uk; Lee, Nam Kwon; Jung, So-Youn; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Eun Sook; Kang, Han-Sung; Shin, Kyung Hwan

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: The development of breast cancer-related lymphedema (LE) is closely related to the number of dissected axillary lymph nodes (N-ALNs), chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. In this study, we attempted to estimate the risk of LE based on combinations of these treatment-related factors. Methods and Materials: A total of 772 patients with breast cancer, who underwent primary surgery with axillary lymph node dissection from 2004 to 2009, were retrospectively analyzed. Adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) was performed in 677 patients (88%). Among patients who received radiation therapy (n=675), 274 (35%) received supraclavicular radiation therapy (SCRT). Results: At a median follow-up of 5.1 years (range, 3.0-8.3 years), 127 patients had developed LE. The overall 5-year cumulative incidence of LE was 17%. Among the 127 affected patients, LE occurred within 2 years after surgery in 97 (76%) and within 3 years in 115 (91%) patients. Multivariate analysis showed that N-ALN (hazard ratio [HR], 2.81; P<.001), ACT (HR, 4.14; P=.048), and SCRT (HR, 3.24; P<.001) were independent risk factors for LE. The total number of risk factors correlated well with the incidence of LE. Patients with no risk or 1 risk factor showed a significantly lower 5-year probability of LE (3%) than patients with 2 (19%) or 3 risk factors (38%) (P<.001). Conclusions: The risk factors associated with LE were N-ALN, ACT, and SCRT. A simple model using combinations of these factors may help clinicians predict the risk of LE.

  20. Secondary sentinel lymph node tracing technique: a new method for tracing lymph nodes in radical gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer*

    PubMed Central

    LI, Zong-lin; JIANG, Huai-wu; SONG, Min; XU, Liang; XIA, Dong; LIU, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility and clinical value of secondary sentinel lymph node (SSLN) tracing technique in radical gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer (AGC). Methods: From January 2009 to June 2011, 247 patients who suffered from gastric angle cancer with metastasis in No. 3 group lymph nodes were divided randomly into groups A and B. Methylthioninium chloride was injected into the peripheral tissue of the metastatic No. 3 group lymph nodes of 138 patients in group A before tumor resections. SSLNs were traced and individual lymphadenectomies were carried out based on the biopsy results of the SSLNs. Standard D2 radical gastrectomies were carried out directly on 109 patients in group B. Postoperative follow-up and survival analysis were carried out for patients in both groups. Results: SSLNs were found in 114 (82.6%) patients in group A. Ninety of those patients (78.9%) demonstrated existing metastasis in SSLNs. According to Kaplan-Meier’s method, the postoperative 3-year cumulative survival rates were 63.5% and 47.5%, and the median survival time were 40 and 36 months for the patients of groups A and B, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusions: The SSLN tracing technique is feasible in radical gastrectomy for AGC. It gives surgeons important information about the terminal status of lymph node metastasis and provides some scientific basis for individual lymphadenectomy. PMID:26537207

  1. Long-Term Effects of Complex Decongestive Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients With Arm Lymphedema After Axillary Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jung Min; Kim, Tae Won; Lee, Seung Yeol; Chang, Hyun Ju; Chu, In Ho

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the long-term effects of complex decongestive therapy (CDT) on edema reduction in breast cancer-related lymphedema patients after axillary dissection, according to the initial volume of edema. Methods A retrospective review of 57 patients with unilateral arm after an axillary dissection for breast cancer was performed. The patients, treated with two weeks of CDT and self-administered home therapy, were followed for 24 months. Arm volume was serially measured by using an optoelectronic volumeter prior to and immediately after CDT; and there were follow-up visits at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Patients were divided into two groups according to the percent excess volume (PEV) prior to CDT: group 1, PEV<20% and group 2, PEV?20%. Results In group 1, mean PEV before CDT was 11.45.0% and 14.110.6% at 24 months after CDT with no significant difference. At the end of CDT, PEV was 28.815.7% in group 2, which was significantly lower than the baseline (41.919.6%). The reduction of PEV was maintained for 24 months in group 2. Conclusion The long-term effects of CDT were well-maintained for 24 months, but there was a difference in progression of PEV between the two groups. The patients with more initial PEV showed significant volume-reducing effects of CDT. In patients with less initial PEV, the severity of lymphedema did not progress to higher grades. PMID:24236257

  2. Regional lymph node radiotherapy in breast cancer: single anterior supraclavicular field vs. two anterior and posterior opposed supraclavicular fields

    PubMed Central

    Houshyari, Mohammad; Kashi, Amir Shahram Yousefi; Varaki, Sakineh Soleimani; Rakhsha, Afshin; Blookat, Eftekhar Rajab

    2015-01-01

    Background: The treatment of lymph nodes engaged in breast cancer with radiotherapy leads to improved locoregional control and enhanced survival rates in patients after surgery. The aim of this study was to compare two treatment techniques, namely single anterior posterior (AP) supraclavicular field with plan depth and two anterior and posterior opposed (AP/PA) supraclavicular fields. In the study, we also examined the relationships between the depth of supraclavicular lymph nodes (SCLNs) and the diameter of the wall of the chest and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Forty patients with breast cancer were analyzed using computed tomography (CT) scans. In planning target volume (PTV), the SCLNs and axillary lymph nodes (AXLNs) were contoured, and, with the attention to PTV, supraclavicular (SC) depth was measured. The dosage that reached the aforementioned lymph nodes and the level of hot spots were investigated using two treatment methods, i.e., 1) AP/PA and 2) AP with three-dimensional (3D) planning. Each of these methods was analyzed using the program Isogray for the 6 MV compact accelerator, and the diameter of the wall of the chest was measured using the CT scan at the center of the SC field. Results: Placing the plan such that 95% of the target volume with 95% or greater of the prescribed dose of 50 Gy (V95) had ?95% concordance in both treatment techniques. According to the PTV, the depth of SCLNs and the diameter of the wall of the chest were 37 and 1221cm, respectively. Regression analysis showed that the mean SC depth (the mean Plan depth) and the mean diameter of the wall of the chest were related directly to BMI (p<0.0001, adjusted R2=0.67) and (p<0.0001, adjusted R2=0.71), respectively. Conclusion: The AP/PA treatment technique was a more suitable choice of treatment than the AP field, especially for overweight and obese breast cancer patients. However, in the AP/PA technique, the use of a single-photon, low energy (6 MV) caused more hot spots than usual. PMID:26120411

  3. Clinical characteristics of hepatoduodenal lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Taisuke; Komatsu, Shuhei; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Okamoto, Kazuma; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Otsuji, Eigo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the clinical features of hepatoduodenal lymph node (HDLN) metastasis and to clarify the optimal indication of HDLN dissection. METHODS: We investigated a total of 276 patients who underwent gastrectomy with extended lymphadenectomy, including HDLN dissection, for gastric cancer between 1999 and 2012. Of these, 26 patients (9.4%) had HDLN metastasis. First, we investigated the clinicopathological characteristics, their perioperative clinical outcomes, such as postoperative complications, and prognostic outcomes between patients with and without HDLN metastasis. Second, we detected the prognostic factors, particularly in patients with HDLN metastasis. Third, we assessed the therapeutic value of HDLN dissection to determine its optimal indication. RESULTS: The five-year overall survival rate of the patients with HDLN metastasis was 29%. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the tumour location (the middle or lower stomach [P = 0.005, OR = 5.88 (95%CI: 1.61-38.1)] and pT category [T3 or T4, P = 0.017, OR = 4.45 (95%CI: 1.28-21.3)] were independent risk factors for HDLN metastasis. Cox proportional hazard analysis identified pN3 as an independent poor prognostic factor in the patients with HDLN metastasis [P = 0.021, HR = 5.17 (95%CI: 1.8-292)]. For patients who underwent radical HDLN dissection, HDLN metastasis was a prognostic indicator in pN3 gastric cancer (P < 0.0001), but not pN1-2 (P = 0.602). Furthermore, the index of therapeutic value of HDLN dissection for gastric cancer in the middle or lower stomach and the upper stomach was 3.4 and 0.0, respectively. CONCLUSION: We suggest that HDLN dissection should be indicated for pN1 or pN2 gastric cancers located at the middle or lower stomach. PMID:26478677

  4. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery in gastric cancer patients with extensive lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ito, Seiji; Ito, Yuichi; Misawa, Kazunari; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Kinoshita, Taira

    2015-12-10

    Gastric cancer with extensive lymph node metastasis (ELM) is usually considered unresectable and is associated with poor outcomes. Cases with clinical enlargement of the para-aortic lymph nodes and/or bulky lymph node enlargement around the celiac artery and its branches are generally dealt with as ELM. A standard treatment for gastric cancer with ELM has yet to be determined. Two phase II studies of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery showed that neoadjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 plus cisplatin followed by surgical resection with extended lymph node dissection could represent a treatment option for gastric cancer with ELM. However, many clinical questions remain unresolved, including the criteria for diagnosing ELM, optimal regime, number of courses and extent of lymph node dissection. PMID:26677442

  5. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery in gastric cancer patients with extensive lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Seiji; Ito, Yuichi; Misawa, Kazunari; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Kinoshita, Taira

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer with extensive lymph node metastasis (ELM) is usually considered unresectable and is associated with poor outcomes. Cases with clinical enlargement of the para-aortic lymph nodes and/or bulky lymph node enlargement around the celiac artery and its branches are generally dealt with as ELM. A standard treatment for gastric cancer with ELM has yet to be determined. Two phase II studies of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery showed that neoadjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 plus cisplatin followed by surgical resection with extended lymph node dissection could represent a treatment option for gastric cancer with ELM. However, many clinical questions remain unresolved, including the criteria for diagnosing ELM, optimal regime, number of courses and extent of lymph node dissection. PMID:26677442

  6. Lymph node-independent liver metastasis in a model of metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Enquist, Ida B; Good, Zinaida; Jubb, Adrian M; Fuh, Germaine; Wang, Xi; Junttila, Melissa R; Jackson, Erica L; Leong, Kevin G

    2014-01-01

    Deciphering metastatic routes is critically important as metastasis is a primary cause of cancer mortality. In colorectal cancer (CRC), it is unknown whether liver metastases derive from cancer cells that first colonize intestinal lymph nodes, or whether such metastases can form without prior lymph node involvement. A lack of relevant metastatic CRC models has precluded investigations into metastatic routes. Here we describe a metastatic CRC mouse model and show that liver metastases can manifest without a lymph node metastatic intermediary. Colorectal tumours transplanted onto the colonic mucosa invade and metastasize to specific target organs including the intestinal lymph nodes, liver and lungs. Importantly, this metastatic pattern differs from that observed following caecum implantation, which invariably involves peritoneal carcinomatosis. Anti-angiogenesis inhibits liver metastasis, yet anti-lymphangiogenesis does not impact liver metastasis despite abrogating lymph node metastasis. Our data demonstrate direct hematogenous spread as a dissemination route that contributes to CRC liver malignancy. PMID:24667486

  7. [Study of the Identification Rate of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy after Partial Breast Resection].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shuhei; Sakurai, Kenichi; Adachi, Keita; Masuo, Yuki; Nagashima, Saki; Hara, Yukiko; Amano, Sadao; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Makishima, Makoto

    2015-11-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy using the dye method is generally performed for patients with breast cancer. However, identification of the sentinel lymph node in the mammary gland is occasionally difficult after breast partial resection, as lymph flow is changed under the influence of surgery. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for patients with breast cancer who underwent partial mastectomy without axillary lymph node dissection is grade C1 in the breast cancer clinical practice guideline ver.2 2013. We examined the identification rate of the sentinel lymph node for patients with breast cancer who underwent lumpectomy or partial mastectomy. Lumpectomy and partial mastectomy were performed in 4 and 3 patients, respectively. It was possible to identify the sentinel lymph node in 6 patients, and no metastasis of cancer cells was identified in any patient. In 1 patient who underwent partial mastectomy, it was impossible to identify the sentinel lymph node, and thus, Level Ⅰlymph node sampling was performed. However, the pathological diagnosis was no metastasis of cancer cells. This patient underwent partial mastectomy of the C area and a smaller volume of the mammary gland. Therefore, we consider that lymph flow changed under the influence of surgery. Sentinel lymph node biopsy using the dye method after partial breast resection is useful, but partial mastectomy of the C area makes it difficult to perform sentinel lymph node biopsy. PMID:26805174

  8. Endoscopic thyroidectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy via an anterior chest approach for papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Bae, Ja Seong; Park, Woo Chan; Song, Byung Joo; Jung, Sang Seol; Kim, Jeong Soo

    2009-01-01

    The clinical role of endoscopic thyroidectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for differentiated thyroid cancer remains open to debate. Conventional thyroidectomy requires a cervical incision and often leaves an unsightly scar on the anterior neck. Endoscopic thyroidectomy is technically feasible and safe, with much better cosmetic results. The prognostic importance of lymph node metastasis in thyroid cancer makes central lymph node dissection a crucial option in thyroid cancer surgery. However, it is associated with an increased risk of complications such as recurrent laryngeal nerve injury or hypoparathyroidism, even in expert hands. Thus, the feasibility and future role of SLNB in thyroid cancer remains controversial. We describe our technique of performing endoscopic thyroidectomy with SLNB and central lymph node dissection via a gasless anterior chest approach for thyroid cancer. PMID:19199002

  9. Laparoscopic para-aortic lymph node dissection for patients with primary colorectal cancer and clinically suspected para-aortic lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sung Ho; Park, Soo Yeun; Park, Jun Seok; Kim, Hye Jin; Yang, Chun-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Treatment of patients with para-aortic lymph node metastasis from colorectal cancer is controversial. The goal of this study was to investigate the technical feasibility of laparoscopic intrarenal para-aortic lymph node dissection in patients with colorectal cancer and clinically suspected para-aortic lymph node dissection. Methods The inclusion criteria for the laparoscopic approach were patients with infrarenal para-aortic lymph node metastasis from colorectal cancer. Patients who had any other distant metastatic lesion or metachronous para-aortic lymph node metastasis were excluded from this study. Perioperative outcomes and survival outcomes were analyzed. Results Between November 2004 and October 2013, 40 patients underwent laparoscopic para-aortic lymph node dissection. The mean operating time was 192.3 ± 68.8 minutes (range, 100-400 minutes) and the mean estimated blood loss was 65.6 ± 52.6 mL (range, 20-210 mL). No patient required open conversion. The postoperative complication rate was 15.0%. Sixteen patients (40.0%) had pathologically positive lymph nodes. In patients with metastatic para-aortic lymph nodes, the 3-year overall survival rate and disease-free survival rate were 65.7% and 40.2%, respectively. Conclusion The results of our study suggest that a laparoscopic approach for patients with colorectal cancer with metastatic para-aortic lymph nodes can be a reasonable option for selected patients. PMID:26793690

  10. Intraoperative photodynamic diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in esophageal cancer patients using 5-aminolevulinic acid

    PubMed Central

    MOTOORI, MASAAKI; YANO, MASAHIKO; TANAKA, KOJI; KISHI, KENTARO; TAKAHASHI, HIDENORI; INOUE, MASAHIRO; SAITO, TAKURO; SUGIMURA, KEIJIRO; FUJIWARA, YOSHIYUKI; ISHIKAWA, OSAMU; SAKON, MASATO

    2015-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis is the strongest prognostic factor in esophageal cancer patients who have undergone esophagectomy. The accurate diagnosis of lymph node metastasis is important, but the pre-operative diagnostic accuracy is poor. The intraoperative diagnosis based on histopathological examination of frozen tissue specimens is complicated and time-consuming. Therefore, the establishment of a simple and rapid intraoperative diagnostic method is essential. Exogenous application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) causes a selective accumulation of protoporphyrin IX, which is a fluorescent substrate, in cancer cells. The present study evaluated the feasibility of photodynamic diagnosis using ALA (ALA-PDD) for lymph node metastasis in esophageal cancer. A total of 292 lymph nodes were analyzed from 8 esophageal squamous cell cancer patients treated with esophagectomy. The patients were administered ALA orally prior to surgery. Excised lymph nodes were cut in half and examined by spectrometer. The diagnostic results of ALA-PDD were compared to those of the histopathological examination. Among the 292 lymph nodes, 19 nodes (6.5%) were histologically metastatic and 21 nodes (7.2%) were PDD-positive. The sensitivity and specificity of ALA-PDD were 84.2% (16/19) and 98.2% (268/273), respectively. The area of cancer nests of the PDD-negative lymph nodes was <2 mm2. Metastatic lymph nodes, including cancer nests >4 mm2, were correctly diagnosed by ALA-PDD. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that ALA-PDD of lymph node metastasis in patients with esophageal cancer is feasible. Further investigation would make this method a simple and rapid intraoperative diagnostic tool. PMID:26722285

  11. Molecular determinants for lymph node metastasis in clinically early-stage endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    BOU ZGHEIB, NADIM; MARCHION, DOUGLAS C.; BUSH, STEPHEN H.; JUDSON, PATRICIA L.; WENHAM, ROBERT M.; APTE, SACHIN M.; LANCASTER, JOHNATHAN M.; GONZALEZ-BOSQUET, JESUS

    2016-01-01

    Patients with occult lymph node metastasis in endometrioid-type endometrial cancer (EC) are prone to the development of recurrences and have worse outcomes compared with patients without lymph node metastasis. In the current study, the aim was to identify molecular parameters associated with lymph node metastasis in EC clinically early-stage disease. A univariate analysis of differentially expressed genes, proteins and clinicopathological parameters (including myometrial invasion and tumor grade) was performed, comparing EC patients with and without lymph node metastasis (n=262 patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas). Significant parameters were introduced in a multivariate model and a gene expression pathway analysis. Lymph node metastasis was associated with expression of 268 unique genes (P<0.001), 19 unique proteins (P<0.05), tumor grade and myometrial invasion in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis demonstrated 10 genes independently associated with lymph node metastasis and 4 independently associated proteins. Myometrial invasion was the only independent clinicopathological parameter associated with lymph node status. The enrichment pathway analysis demonstrated that expression of epidermal growth factor receptor, Bcl2 antagonist of cell death and phosphatase and tensin homolog pathways were significantly involved in lymph node metastasis (P≤0.001). A gene expression signature to predict lymph node status in EC was created for future validation. Few studies have focused on the association between EC's molecular characteristics and nodal metastasis. Defining molecular risk factors for EC lymphatic nodal metastasis may help to individualize treatment and improve patient outcomes. PMID:26870211

  12. Factors affecting sentinel lymph node identification rate after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer patients enrolled in ACOSOG Z1071 (Alliance)

    PubMed Central

    Boughey, Judy C.; Suman, Vera J.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Ahrendt, Gretchen M.; Wilke, Lee G.; Taback, Bret; Leitch, A. Marilyn; Flippo-Morton, Teresa S.; Kuerer, Henry M.; Bowling, Monet; Hunt, Kelly K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate factors affecting sentinel lymph node (SLN) identification after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with initial node-positive breast cancer. Summary Background Data SLN surgery is increasingly used for nodal staging after NAC and optimal technique for SLN identification is important. Methods The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1071 prospective trial enrolled clinical T0-4,N1-2,M0 breast cancer patients. Following NAC, SLN surgery and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) were planned. Multivariate logistic regression modeling assessing factors influencing SLN identification was performed. Results Of 756 patients enrolled, 34 women withdrew, 21 were ineligible, 12 underwent ALND only, and 689 had SLN surgery attempted. At least one SLN was identified in 639 patients (92.7%: 95%CI: 90.594.6%). Among factors evaluated, mapping technique was the only factor found to impact SLN identification; with use of blue dye alone increasing the likelihood of failure to identify the SLN relative to using radiolabelled colloid +/? blue dye (p=0.006; OR=3.82 95%CI: 1.47-9.92). The SLN identification rate was 78.6% with blue dye alone; 91.4% with radiolabelled colloid and 93.8% with dual mapping agents. Patient factors (age, BMI), tumor factors (clinical T or N stage), pathologic nodal response to chemotherapy, site of tracer injection and length of chemotherapy treatment did not significantly affect the SLN identification rate. Conclusions The SLN identification rate after NAC was higher when mapping was performed using radiolabelled colloid alone or with blue dye compared to blue dye alone. Optimal tracer use is important to ensure successful identification of SLN(s) after NAC. PMID:25664534

  13. [Mesorectal Lymph Node Metastasis Arising from Rectal Invasion by an Ovarian Cancer-A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Mizuki, Toru; Shimada, Yoshifumi; Yagi, Yutaka; Tajima, Yosuke; Nakano, Mae; Nakano, Masato; Tatsuda, Kumiko; Ishikawa, Takashi; Sakata, Jun; Kameyama, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Kosugi, Shinichi; Koyama, Yu; Wakai, Toshifumi; Enomoto, Takayuki

    2015-11-01

    A 58-year-old woman presenting with abdominal distension was diagnosed with a tumor in the right ovary. A chestabdominal- pelvic computed tomography scan revealed multiple lung metastases, multiple liver metastases, and peritoneal dissemination. Invasion of the rectum by peritoneal dissemination of the Douglas' pouch was suspected. She was diagnosed with Stage ? right ovarian cancer and was treated with preoperative chemotherapy. After chemotherapy, debulking surgery of the abdominal cavity(total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, partial omentectomy, and Hartmann's procedure) was performed. Because there was swelling observed in multiple mesorectal lymph nodes, lymph node dissection was performed based on methods used for rectal cancer surgery. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed multiple mesorectal lymph node metastases arising from ovarian cancer. We suggest that mesorectal lymph node dissection be considered a part of debulking surgery for ovarian cancers that have invaded the rectum. PMID:26805344

  14. Inhaled cisplatin deposition and distribution in lymph nodes in stage II lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Darwiche, Kaid; Krauss, Leslie; Huang, Haidong; Zachariadis, George A; Katsavou, Anna; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Vogl, Thomas J; Freitag, Lutz; Stamatis, George; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2013-09-01

    Lung cancer therapies during the last decade have focused on targeting the genome of cancer cells, and novel routes for administering lung cancer therapies have been investigated for decades. Aerosol therapies for several systematic diseases and systemic infections were introduced into the market a decade ago. One of the main issues of aerosol therapies has been the ability to investigate the deposition of a drug compound throughout the systematic circulation and lymph node circulation. Until now, none of the published studies have efficiently shown the deposition of a chemotherapy pharmaceutical within the lymph node tissue. In our current work we present, for the first time, with the novel CytoViva() (AL, USA) technique, the deposition of cisplatin aerosol therapy in surgically resected stage II lymph nodes from lung cancer patients. Finally, we present the distribution of cisplatin in correlation with the cisplatin concentration in different lymph stations and comment on the possible mechanisms of distribution. PMID:23980678

  15. Sentinel Lymph Node Occult Metastases Have Minimal Survival Effect in Some Breast Cancer Patients

    Cancer.gov

    Detailed examination of sentinel lymph node tissue from breast cancer patients revealed previously unidentified metastases in about 16% of the samples, but the difference in 5-year survival between patients with and without these metastases was very small

  16. Feasibility and Accuracy of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Clinically Node-Positive Breast Cancer after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiao; Yi, Cheng-Hao; Zheng, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has replaced conventional axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in axillary node-negative breast cancer patients. However, the use of SLNB remains controversial in patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). The aim of this review is to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of SLNB after NAC in clinically node-positive patients. Systematic searches were performed in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases from 1993 to December 2013 for studies on node-positive breast cancer patients who underwent SLNB after NAC followed by ALND. Of 436 identified studies, 15 were included in this review, with a total of 2,471 patients. The pooled identification rate (IR) of SLNB was 89% [95% confidence interval (CI) 85–93%], and the false negative rate (FNR) of SLNB was 14% (95% CI 10–17%). The heterogeneity of FNR was analyzed by meta-regression, and the results revealed that immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining may represent an independent factor (P = 0.04). FNR was lower in the IHC combined with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining subgroup than in the H&E staining alone subgroup, with values of 8.7% versus 16.0%, respectively (P = 0.001). Thus, SLNB was feasible after NAC in node-positive breast cancer patients. In addition, the IR of SLNB was respectable, although the FNR of SLNB was poor and requires further improvement. These findings indicate that IHC may improve the accuracy of SLNB. PMID:25210779

  17. Eight-year experience with the intraoperative frozen section examination of sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer in a North-Italian university center

    PubMed Central

    Cedolini, Carla; Bertozzi, Serena; Seriau, Luca; Londero, Ambrogio P; Concina, Serena; Cattin, Federico; Geatti, Onelio; Loreto, Carla Di; Risaliti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) completely changed the impact of breast surgery on patients psycho-physical wellness, reducing morbidity associated with complete axillary lymph node dissection (CALND) while granting an adequate breast cancer staging. We reviewed our experience with the SLNB in a University Clinic. We collected data about all breast cancer patients submitted to SLNB from 2002 to 2010, and analyzed them with R (version 2.15.2), considering significant p<0.05. We performed 615 SLNBs on 607 patients, with a mean age of 59.86 (10.76). Sentinel node detection rate resulted 99,7%, with a mean number of biopsied nodes of 1.64 (0.67), axillary localization in 98% of cases, and negative intraoperative histological finding in the 86.2% of cases. Prevalence of ITCs, micrometastasis, macrometastasis and pericapsular metastasis resulted respectively 0.6%, 4.9%, 7.5% and 8.8%. Among women who received CALND, mean number of examined nodes was 16.36 (6.19) and mean number of metastatic non-sentinel nodes was 0.97 in case of micrometastasis, 2.65 in case of macrometastasis, and up to 9.88 when pericapsular invasion was described. To conclude, our data confirm the role of nodal metastasis size in the prediction of non-sentinel node involvement, but further studies are required in order to better assess the role of ITCs and micrometastasis in the diagnostic and therapeutic management of breast cancer, with the final aim to reduce the surgical complications of axilla demolition when unnecessary. PMID:24427358

  18. Elevated expression of E-cadherin in primary breast cancer and its corresponding metastatic lymph node

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Jian, Wei; Lu, Leisheng; Zheng, Lijun; Yu, Zhen; Zhou, Donglei

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was to investigate the E-cadherin expression patterns in primary breast cancers and metastatic lymph node. Methods: Only lymph nodes which were pathologically identified as metastases were included in this study to pair up the primary tumors. E-cadherin RNA expression levels in invasive ductal breast cancer subjects were detected. E-cadherin gene copies were normalized using beta-actin gene copies. ER, PR, cerbB2 expressions in the primary tumor were routinely examined by immunohistochemistry method. Tumor characteristics and number of metastatic lymph nodes were gathered from the pathology reports. Results: We tried to explore the relationship between E-cadherin expression in 21 primary tumors and their corresponding metastatic lymph nodes. However, the Q-RT-PCR data show that an aberrant expression existed in both primary tumors and the corresponding lymph nodes (P=0.115), in which metastatic lymph nodes showed slight higher gene copies compared with primary sites (77.7794.74 vs 43.3540.03, respectively). It is noteworthy that nodal E-cadherin expression was closely but negatively correlated with tumor size (P<0.01, r=-0.775) and number of metastasized lymph nodes (P<0.05, r=-0.519), as tumor size and number of metastasized lymph nodes were already clinically proven to be important prognostic factors. There was no correlation between ER, PR, cerbB2 status in primary tumors and the nodal E-cadherin expression (P>0.05). Conclusions: It is indicated that E-cadherin expression is aberrant in invasive ductal cancers and their corresponding metastatic lymph nodes. E-cadherin expression in the metastasized lymph node is closely related to tumor size and number of metastasized lymph nodes. PMID:26380015

  19. Risk Factors Associated with Lymphedema among Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Survivors after Radical Mastectomy and Axillary Dissection in China

    PubMed Central

    Hua-Ping, Huang; Jian-Rong, Zhou; Zeng, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Lymphedema is the major complication following breast cancer treatment and can persist long periods of time and affect breast cancer survivors quality of life. Accurate estimation of the risk factors for lymphedema is of significant importance. In this article we report the factors for secondary lymphedema among postmenopausal breast cancer patients after radical mastectomy in China. Patients and Methods A total of 126 consecutive postmenopausal breast cancer patients who received radical mastectomy were admitted to the Chongqing Breast Cancer Center between July 2009 and June 2010. Circumferential measurement was used to diagnose lymphedema. Results Among the 126 postmenopausal women with breast cancer, 54 (42.9%) had lymphedema. Body mass index (BMI), lymph nodes status, and radiotherapy were associated with lymphedema. BMI ? 25 kg/m2 (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 7.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.820.1) and radiotherapy (adjusted OR = 3.0; 95% CI 2.09.2) were independent predictors of lymphedema. Conclusion BMI, lymph nodes status, and radiotherapy were the risk factors for lymphedema among Chinese postmenopausal breast cancer patients who underwent radical mastectomy. Clinicians should provide sufficient information for patients and their caregivers to prevent this complication, especially for those who are at high risk of developing lymphedema. PMID:24715827

  20. Insight into the differences in classification of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes between Wang’s lymph node map and the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer lymph node map

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ya-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of malignant-tumor-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) has for the past 30 years been an effective technique for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. Understanding the anatomy of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes is essential to improve the yield of TBNA. Wang’s lymph node map is based on the lymph node map of the American Thoracic Society (ATS), and on the TBNA technique; it was published in 1994, and has promoted the development of both conventional TBNA (cTBNA) and endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). In 2009, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) developed a new chest lymph node map to reconcile the differences between the Naruke and The Mountain-Dresler (MD)-ATS lymph node maps. The IASLC lymph node map was incorporated into the seventh edition of the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) staging system for lung cancer, which directly affected the treatment and prognosis of lung cancer. There are significant differences between Wang’s lymph node map and the IASLC lymph node map in TNM staging, and it is imperative to understand these differences and correlate these maps for the prognosis and staging of lung cancer using cTBNA or EBUS-TBNA. PMID:26807271

  1. A New Formula for Prostate Cancer Lymph Node Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, James B.; Makarov, Danil V.; Gross, Cary

    2011-05-01

    Introduction: The successful treatment of prostate cancer depends on the accurate estimation of the risk of regional lymph node (LN) involvement. The Roach formula (RF) has been criticized as overestimating LN risk. A modification of the RF has been attempted by other investigators using simplified adjustment ratios: the Nguyen formula (NF). Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was investigated for patients treated in 2004 through 2006 for whom at least 10 LN were examined at radical prostatectomy, cT1c or cT2 disease, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <26 ng/ml (N = 2,930). The Yale formula (YF) was derived from half of the sample (n = 1,460), and validated in the other half (n = 1,470). Results: We identified 2,930 patients. Only 4.6% of patients had LN+, and 72.6% had cT1c disease. Gleason (GS) 8-10 histology was found in 14.4% of patients. The YF for prediction of %LN+ risk is [GS - 5]x [PSA/3 + 1.5 x T], where T = 0, 1, and 2 for cT1c, cT2a, and cT2b/cT2c. Within each strata of predicted %LN+ risk, the actual %LN+ was closest to the YF. Using a >15% risk as an indicator of high-risk disease, the YF had increased sensitivity (39.0% vs. 13.6%) compared with the NF, without a significant reduction in specificity (94.9% vs. 98.8%). The NF was overly restrictive of the high-risk group, with only 2% of patients having a >15% risk of LN+ by that formula. Conclusion: The YF performed better than the RF and NF and was best at differentiating patients at high risk for LN+ disease.

  2. Stage migration vs immunology: The lymph node count story in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Märkl, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Lymph node staging is of crucial importance for the therapy stratification and prognosis estimation in colon cancer. Beside the detection of metastases, the number of harvested lymph nodes itself has prognostic relevance in stage II/III cancers. A stage migration effect caused by missed lymph node metastases has been postulated as most likely explanation for that. In order to avoid false negative node staging reporting of at least 12 lymph nodes is recommended. However, this threshold is met only in a minority of cases in daily practice. Due to quality initiatives the situation has improved in the past. This, however, had no influence on staging in several studies. While the numbers of evaluated lymph nodes increased continuously during the last decades the rate of node positive cases remained relatively constant. This fact together with other indications raised doubts that understaging is indeed the correct explanation for the prognostic impact of lymph node harvest. Several authors assume that immune response could play a major role in this context influencing both the lymph node detectability and the tumor’s behavior. Further studies addressing this issue are need. Based on the findings the recommendations concerning minimal lymph node numbers and adjuvant chemotherapy should be reconsidered. PMID:26604632

  3. Magnetic Resonance Lymphography-Guided Selective High-Dose Lymph Node Irradiation in Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Meijer, Hanneke J.M.; Debats, Oscar A.; Kunze-Busch, Martina; Kollenburg, Peter van; Leer, Jan Willem; Witjes, J. Alfred; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Barentsz, Jelle O.; Lin, Emile N.J.Th. van

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL) -guided delineation of a boost volume and an elective target volume for pelvic lymph node irradiation in patients with prostate cancer. The feasibility of irradiating these volumes with a high-dose boost to the MRL-positive lymph nodes in conjunction with irradiation of the prostate using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was also investigated. Methods and Materials: In 4 prostate cancer patients with a high risk of lymph node involvement but no enlarged lymph nodes on CT and/or MRI, MRL detected pathological lymph nodes in the pelvis. These lymph nodes were identified and delineated on a radiotherapy planning CT to create a boost volume. Based on the location of the MRL-positive lymph nodes, the standard elective pelvic target volume was individualized. An IMRT plan with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) was created with dose prescriptions of 42 Gy to the pelvic target volume, a boost to 60 Gy to the MRL-positive lymph nodes, and 72 Gy to the prostate. Results: All MRL-positive lymph nodes could be identified on the planning CT. This information could be used to delineate a boost volume and to individualize the pelvic target volume for elective irradiation. IMRT planning delivered highly acceptable radiotherapy plans with regard to the prescribed dose levels and the dose to the organs at risk (OARs). Conclusion: MRL can be used to select patients with limited lymph node involvement for pelvic radiotherapy. MRL-guided delineation of a boost volume and an elective pelvic target volume for selective high-dose lymph node irradiation with IMRT is feasible. Whether this approach will result in improved outcome for these patients needs to be investigated in further clinical studies.

  4. Management of the Regional Lymph Nodes Following Breast-Conservation Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: An Evolving Paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Laura E.G.; Punglia, Rinaa S.; Wong, Julia S.; Bellon, Jennifer R.

    2014-11-15

    Radiation therapy to the breast following breast conservation surgery has been the standard of care since randomized trials demonstrated equivalent survival compared to mastectomy and improved local control and survival compared to breast conservation surgery alone. Recent controversies regarding adjuvant radiation therapy have included the potential role of additional radiation to the regional lymph nodes. This review summarizes the evolution of regional nodal management focusing on 2 topics: first, the changing paradigm with regard to surgical evaluation of the axilla; second, the role for regional lymph node irradiation and optimal design of treatment fields. Contemporary data reaffirm prior studies showing that complete axillary dissection may not provide additional benefit relative to sentinel lymph node biopsy in select patient populations. Preliminary data also suggest that directed nodal radiation therapy to the supraclavicular and internal mammary lymph nodes may prove beneficial; publication of several studies are awaited to confirm these results and to help define subgroups with the greatest likelihood of benefit.

  5. Relationship between lymph node sinuses with blood and lymphatic metastasis of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Tong; Ji, Xiao-Long; Shen, Min-Shi

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the relationship between lymph node sinuses with blood and lymphatic metastasis of gastric cancer. METHODS: Routine autopsy was carried out in the randomly selected 102 patients (among them 100 patients died of various diseases, and 2 patients died of non-diseased reasons), their superficial lymph nodes locating in bilateral necks (include supraclavicle), axilla, inguina, thorax, and abdomen were sampled. Haematoxylin-Eosin staining was performed on 10% formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded lymph node tissue sections (5 ?m). The histological patterns of the lymph sinuses containing blood were observed under light microscope. The expression of CD31, a marker for endothelial cell, was detected both in blood and non-blood containing lymph node sinuses with the method of immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Among the 1322 lymph nodes sampled from the autopsies of 100 diseased cases, lymph node sinuses containing blood were found in 809 lymph nodes sampled from 91 cases, but couldnt be seen in the lymph nodes sampled from the non-diseased cases. According to histology, we divided the blood containing lymph node sinuses into five categories: vascular-opening sinus, blood-deficient sinus, erythrophago-sinus, blood-abundant sinus, vascular-formative sinus. Immunohistochemical findings showed that the expression of CD31 was strongly positive in vascular-formative sinuses and some vascular-opening sinuses while it was faint in blood-deficient sinuses, erythrophago-sinuses and some vascular-opening sinuses. It was almost negative in blood-abundant sinus and non-blood containing sinus. CONCLUSION: In the state of disease, the phenomenon of blood present in the lymph sinus is not uncommon. Blood could possibly enter into the lymph sinuses through the lymphaticovenous communications between the veins and the sinuses in the node. Lymph circulation and the blood circulation could communicate with each other in the lymph node sinuses. The skipping and distal lymphatic metastasis of gastric cancer may have some connection with the blood containing lymph node sinuses. PMID:12508348

  6. LYMPH NODE YIELD AFTER COLECTOMY FOR CANCER: IS ABSENCE OF MMR A FACTOR?

    PubMed Central

    Samdani, Tushar; Schultheis, Molly; Stadler, Zsofia; Shia, Jinru; Fancher, Tiffany; Misholy, Justine; Weiser, Martin R.; Nash, Garrett M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nodal staging is crucial in determining use of adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer. Number of metastatic lymph nodes has been positively correlated with number of lymph nodes examined. Current guidelines recommend that at minimum 12–14 lymph nodes be assessed. In some studies, mismatch-repair-deficiency has been associated with lymph node yield. Objective To determine whether mismatch-repair-deficient colorectal tumors are associated with increased lymph node yield. Design We queried an institutional database to analyze colectomy specimens with immunohistochemistry for mismatch-repair genes in patients treated for colorectal cancer 1999–2012. Before 2006, immunohistochemistry was done at the request of an oncologist or surgeon. After 2006, it was routinely performed for patients younger than 50. We measured association of clinical and pathological features with lymph node quantity. Fourteen predictors and confounders were jointly analyzed in a multivariable linear regression model. Setting A single tertiary care institution. Patients Tissue specimens from 256 patients. Main Outcome Measures Correlation of tumor, patient, operative variables to yield of mesenteric lymph nodes. Results Of 256 colectomy specimens reviewed, 94 had mismatch-repair-deficiency. On univariate analysis, mismatch-repair-deficiency was associated with lower lymph node yield, older patient age, right-sided tumors, poor differentiation. Linear regression model identified 5 variables with independent relationships to lymph node yield: patient age, specimen length, lymph node ratio, perineural invasion, tumor size. Positive correlation was observed with tumor size, specimen length, perineural invasion. Tumor location had a more complex, nonlinear, quadratic relationship with lymph node yield; proximal tumors were associated with higher yield than more distal lesions. Mismatch-repair-deficiency was not independently associated with lymph node yield. Limitations Mismatch-repair immunohistochemistry based on patient age, family history, pathologic features may reduce the generalizability of these results. Our sample size is too small to identify variables with small measures of effect. The study’s retrospective nature did not permit true assessment of extent of mesenteric resection. Conclusions Patient age, length of bowel resected, lymph node ratio, perineural invasion, tumor size, tumor location were significant predictors of lymph node yield. However, when controlling for surgical and pathological factors, mismatch-repair protein expression did not predict lymph node yield. PMID:25664706

  7. Endometrial Cancer with Sarcoidosis in Regional Lymph Nodes: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tamauchi, Satoshi; Shimomura, Yuji; Hayakawa, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic, multisystemic disease commonly affecting the lungs and lymphatic system and is characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas. Although several reports are available on cases developing both sarcoidosis and cancer metachronously, cases of simultaneous diagnosis of these diseases have rarely been reported. A 67-year-old woman diagnosed with endometrial cancer had developed systemic lymph node swelling, including bilateral hilar, paraaortic, and a few pelvic lymph nodes, as observed on preoperative imaging. During surgery, frozen sections of a paraaortic lymph node were examined, revealing noncaseating granulomas compatible with sarcoidosis. Next, modified radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and pelvic lymphadenectomy were performed. Postoperative pathological analysis revealed endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus, and no metastasis but noncaseating granulomas were detected in the resected lymph nodes. Postoperatively, we identified cutaneous sarcoidosis and uveitis in the presence of a tuberculin-negative test. On the basis of these findings, we diagnosed the patients with endometrial cancer complicated by sarcoidosis. She underwent adjuvant chemotherapy, and at the 1-year follow-up, the lymph node swelling due to sarcoidosis was stable, and no recurrence of the cancer was observed. This turned out to be a case of early endometrial cancer mimicking advanced cancer by sarcoidosis. Histological confirmation and additional examination for sarcoidosis are necessary in cancer patients suspected of sarcoidosis. PMID:26557079

  8. Sentinel lymph node biopsy: technique validation at the Setbal Medical Centre, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, P; Baa, R; Antnio, A; Almeida, J; Simes, J; Amaro, JC; Quintana, C; Branco, L; Rigueira, MV; Gonalves, M; Pereira, EV; Ferreira, LM

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients at this institution, using combined technetium-99m (99mTc) sulphur colloid and patent blue vital dye. Methods: From March 2007 to July 2008, 50 patients with a tumour of less than 3 cm and with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), followed by axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Sub-areolar 99mTc sulphur colloid injection was performed the day before surgery, and patent blue vital dye was also injected sub-areolarly at least 5 minutes before surgery. Sentinel lymph node was identified during the surgical procedure, using a gamma probe and direct vision. All sentinel nodes underwent frozen section analysis. Later haematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical analysis were performed. Finally, SLNB was compared with standard ALND for its ability to accurately reflect the final pathological status of the axillary nodes. Results: The sentinel lymph node (SLN) was identified in 48 of 50 patients (96%). The number of sentinel lymph nodes ranged from one to four (mean 1.48) and non-sentinel nodes ranged from seven to 27 (mean 14.33). Of the 48 patients with successfully identified SLNs, 29.17% (14/48) were histologically positive. Sensivity of the SLN to predict axilla was 93.75%; accuracy was 97.96%. The SLN was falsely negative in one patient6.25% (1/16). Conclusions: The SLNB represents a major advance in the surgical treatment of breast cancer as a minimally invasive procedure predicting the axillary lymph node status. This validation study demonstrates the accuracy of the SLNB and its reasonable false negative rate when performed in our institute. It can now be used as the standard method of staging in patients with early breast cancer at this institution. PMID:22275996

  9. Assessment of lymph node involvement in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Mark L H; Schofield, John B

    2016-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis informs prognosis and is a key factor in deciding further management, particularly adjuvant chemotherapy. It is core to all contemporary staging systems, including the widely used tumor node metastasis staging system. Patients with node-negative disease have 5-year survival rates of 70%-80%, implying a significant minority of patients with occult lymph node metastases will succumb to disease recurrence. Enhanced staging techniques may help to identify this subset of patients, who might benefit from further treatment. Obtaining adequate numbers of lymph nodes is essential for accurate staging. Lymph node yields are affected by numerous factors, many inherent to the patient and the tumour, but others related to surgical and histopathological practice. Good lymph node recovery relies on close collaboration between surgeon and pathologist. The optimal extent of surgical resection remains a subject of debate. Extended lymphadenectomy, extra-mesenteric lymph node dissection, high arterial ligation and complete mesocolic excision are amongst the surgical techniques with plausible oncological bases, but which are not supported by the highest levels of evidence. With further development and refinement, intra-operative lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy may provide a guide to the optimum extent of lymphadenectomy, but in its present form, it is beset by false negatives, skip lesions and failures to identify a sentinel node. Once resected, histopathological assessment of the surgical specimen can be improved by thorough dissection techniques, step-sectioning of tissue blocks and immunohistochemistry. More recently, molecular methods have been employed. In this review, we consider the numerous factors that affect lymph node yields, including the impact of the surgical and histopathological techniques. Potential future strategies, including the use of evolving technologies, are also discussed.

  10. Chylous Fistula following Axillary Lymphadenectomy: Benefit of Octreotide Treatment

    PubMed Central

    González-Sánchez-Migallón, Elena; Aguilar-Jiménez, José; García-Marín, José Andrés; Aguayo-Albasini, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Chyle leak following axillary lymph node clearance is a rare yet important complication. The treatment of postoperative chyle fistula still remains unclear. Conservative management is the first line of treatment. It includes axillary drains on continuous suction, pressure dressings, bed rest, and nutritional modifications. The use of somatostatin analogue is well documented as a treatment for chylous fistulas after neck surgery. We present a case of chylous fistula after axillary surgery resolved with the use of octreotide. PMID:26925285

  11. The predictive factors for lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinzhong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To detect the clinicopathological factors associated with lymph node metastases in early gastric cancer. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the distribution of metastatic nodes in 198 patients with early gastric cancer treated in our hospital between May 2008 and January 2015, the clinicopathological factors including age, gender, tumor location, tumor size, macroscopic type, depth of invasion, histological type and venous invasion were studied, and the relationship between various parameters and lymph node metastases was analyzed. Results: In this study, one hundred and ninety-eight patients with early gastric cancer were included, and lymph node metastasis was detected in 28 patients. Univariate analysis revealed a close relationship between tumor size, depth of invasion, histological type, venous invasion, local ulceration and lymph node metastases. Multivariate analysis revealed that the five factors were independent risk factors for lymph node metastases. Conclusion: The clinicopathological parameters including tumor size, depth of invasion, local ulceration, histological type and venous invasion are closely correlated with lymph node metastases, should be paid high attention in early gastric cancer patients. PMID:26870111

  12. Polymorphisms in checkpoint kinase 2 may contribute to lymph node metastasis from esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Hui; Li, Xiang-Nan; Pan, Xue; Hou, Xiao-Xu; Liang, Bao-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal cancer, which is commonly accompanied by lymph node metastasis, is among the deadliest of cancers and carries a grim prognosis. We investigated the association between genetic variation in checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2), which has been linked to metastasis in other cancers, and the risk of developing lymph node metastasis from esophageal cancer. CHEK2-122 G/C genotypes were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) in 296 subjects with esophageal cancer (67 cases with and 229 cases without lymph node metastasis). The associations between CHEK2 genotypes and the risk of lymph node metastasis from esophageal cancer were estimated by computing odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). The CHEK2 GG, GC, and CC genotype frequencies in patients with and without lymph node metastasis were 47.8%, 40.3%, and 11.9% and 31.0%, 50.7%, and 18.3% respectively, and were statistically significant (?2=6.591, P=0.037). Logistic regression analyses revealed that the CHEK2-122 GC genotype significantly reduced the risk of lymph node metastasis (adjusted OR=0.54, 95% CI=0.29-0.93, P=0.028) compared to the GG genotype. Subsequently, we propose that the CHEK2-122 G/C polymorphism may play a protective role in preventing lymph node metastasis from esophageal cancer, and may also provide insight toward determining patient prognosis without the use of surgery. PMID:26550343

  13. Polymorphisms in checkpoint kinase 2 may contribute to lymph node metastasis from esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Hui; Li, Xiang-Nan; Pan, Xue; Hou, Xiao-Xu; Liang, Bao-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal cancer, which is commonly accompanied by lymph node metastasis, is among the deadliest of cancers and carries a grim prognosis. We investigated the association between genetic variation in checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2), which has been linked to metastasis in other cancers, and the risk of developing lymph node metastasis from esophageal cancer. CHEK2-122 G/C genotypes were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) in 296 subjects with esophageal cancer (67 cases with and 229 cases without lymph node metastasis). The associations between CHEK2 genotypes and the risk of lymph node metastasis from esophageal cancer were estimated by computing odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). The CHEK2 GG, GC, and CC genotype frequencies in patients with and without lymph node metastasis were 47.8%, 40.3%, and 11.9% and 31.0%, 50.7%, and 18.3% respectively, and were statistically significant (?(2) =6.591, P=0.037). Logistic regression analyses revealed that the CHEK2-122 GC genotype significantly reduced the risk of lymph node metastasis (adjusted OR=0.54, 95% CI=0.29-0.93, P=0.028) compared to the GG genotype. Subsequently, we propose that the CHEK2-122 G/C polymorphism may play a protective role in preventing lymph node metastasis from esophageal cancer, and may also provide insight toward determining patient prognosis without the use of surgery. PMID:26550343

  14. Ultrasonography of the axilla in the follow-up of breast cancer patients who have a negative sentinel node biopsy and who avoid axillary clearance.

    PubMed

    Leikola, Junnu; Saarto, Tiina; Joensuu, Heikki; Sarvas, Krista; Vironen, Jaana; Von Smitten, Karl; Virkkunen, Pekka; Vanharanta, Brita; Mäkelä, Pekka; Leidenius, Marjut

    2006-01-01

    The clinical value of ultrasonography of the axilla in detection of breast cancer recurrence is not known among patients who have a negative sentinel node biopsy and avoid axillary clearance. We studied a cohort of 205 such patients using ultrasonography one and three years after breast surgery. A recurrent tumour was found in the axilla in only two (0.5%) of the total of 383 ultrasound examinations performed during the study, and only one (0.3%) of the 369 examinations performed at the scheduled study visits revealed cancer. None of the ultrasound examinations was false positive, and no study participant was subjected to unnecessary surgery due to ultrasound monitoring. We conclude that the rate of breast cancer recurrence in the ipsilateral axilla is low following sparing of the axillary contents, and that monitoring of such patients with repeated ultrasound examinations is unlikely to be cost-effective. PMID:16864171

  15. Use of Axillary Deodorant and Effect on Acute Skin Toxicity During Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: A Prospective Randomized Noninferiority Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Theberge, Valerie; Harel, Francois; Dagnault, Anne

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To prospectively determine the effect of deodorant use on acute skin toxicity and quality of life during breast radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Before breast RT, 84 patients were randomly assigned to the deodorant group (n = 40) or the no-deodorant group (n = 44). The patients were stratified by axillary RT and previous chemotherapy. Toxicity evaluations were always performed by the principal investigator, who was unaware of the group assignment, at the end of RT and 2 weeks after completion using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute skin toxicity criteria. Symptoms of acute skin toxicity (i.e., discomfort, pain, pruritus, sweating) and quality of life were self-evaluated. For each criterion, the point estimate of rate difference with the 95% one-sided upper confidence limit was computed. To claim noninferiority owing to deodorant use, the 95% one-sided upper confidence limit had to be lower than the noninferiority margin, fixed to 12.8%. Results: In the deodorant vs. no-deodorant groups, Grade 2 axillary radiodermatitis occurred in 23% vs. 30%, respectively, satisfying the statistical criteria for noninferiority (p = .019). Grade 2 breast radiodermatitis occurred in 30% vs. 34% of the deodorant vs. no-deodorant groups, respectively, also satisfying the statistical criteria for noninferiority (p = .049). Similar results were observed for the self-reported evaluations. The deodorant group reported less sweating (18% vs. 39%, p = .032). No Grade 3 or 4 radiodermatitis was observed. Conclusion: According to our noninferiority margin definition, the occurrence of skin toxicity and its related symptoms were statistically equivalent in both groups. No evidence was found to prohibit deodorant use (notwithstanding the use of an antiperspirant with aluminum) during RT for breast cancer.

  16. Confocal laser endoscopy in the diagnosis for abdominal lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing; Huang, Jin; Yang, Yunsheng; Fan, Nannan; Zhang, Xiuli; Wang, Shufang; Li, Jie; Meng, Jiangyun

    2015-01-01

    Confocal laser endoscopy (CLE) diagnostic criteria for lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer was established and evaluated to provide a basis for CLE clinical application in the diagnosis of abdominal lymph node metastasis. CLE scanning (surface scanning and sectional scanning) and pathology examination were conducted in gastric cancer tissues and lymph nodes of 5 cases. Characteristics of lymphatic metastasis in CLE imaging were observed and summarized in combination with pathology. The diagnostic criteria were corroborated in 124 lymph nodes of another 14 cases and CLE detection time needed for diagnosis was recorded. The CLE diagnostic criteria were tested and evaluated, and the effect of lymph node size on the diagnosis accuracy was determined. All the 19 participants were confirmed as gastric cancer. Sectional scanning can get comprehensive observation for internal structures of lymph nodes, in which abnormal large heterocyst appeared with special structural changes. CLE scanning could detect 88.75% of the positive metastasis and 68.18% of the negative metastasis examined by the pathology methods based on the established CLE diagnostic criteria. In comparison with pathological diagnosis, specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of CLE diagnosis were 88.75%, 68.18% and 81.45%, respectively. Accuracies of CLE diagnosis on the lymph nodes grouped by size were 85.29%, 77.78% and 88.89%, respectively, with no significant difference between groups (P > 0.05). Complete internal structures of lymph nodes can be observed clearly by CLE sectional scanning. The size of lymph nodes had no effects on diagnosis accuracy. CLE shows better sensitivity and specificity than traditional pathological diagnosis. PMID:26309544

  17. The Expression of Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) IX/XII and Lymph Node Metastasis in Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Keun-Yong; Jang, Min Hye; Park, So Yeon; Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Sung Won; Kim, Jee Hyun; Kim, Jae-Sung; Kim, In Ah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of study was to test by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining whether carbonic anhydrase (CA) 9 and 12 have an effect on sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis in early breast cancer and to find clinicopathologic factors associated with SLN metastasis. Materials and Methods Between June 2003 and June 2011, medical records of 470 patients diagnosedwith breast cancer with pT1-2, pN0-2, and M0 were reviewed. Of these 470, 314 patients who underwent SLN biopsyaxillary dissection were subjects of this study. Using tissue microarray, IHC staining for CA9 and CA12 was performed. Clinicopathologic factors such as patient age, tumour size, lymphatic invasion, hormone receptor status, and the Ki-67 labeling index were analysed together. Results The mean age of all patients was 51.7 years. The mean number of harvested SLN was 3.62, and 212 patients (67.5%) had negative SLN. Lymphatic invasion, the Ki-67 labelling index of primary tumours, and CA9 staining of stromal cells, were independent risk factors for SLN metastasis in the multivariate analysis. In 33 patients (10.5%) without the three risk factors, no patient had SLN metastasis. In 80 patients without lymphatic invasion of primary tumours or CA9 staining of stromal cells, only four patients (5%) had positive SLN. Conclusion CA9 staining of stromal cells is an independent risk factor for SLN metastasis as well as lymphatic invasion and a low Ki-67 labelling index of primary tumours in patients with early breast cancer. IHC staining of primary tumours for CA12was not associatedwith SLN metastasis. PMID:25761481

  18. ICG Fluorescence Technique for the Detection of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer: Results of a Prospective Open-label Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Grischke, E.-M.; Rhm, C.; Hahn, M.; Helms, G.; Brucker, S.; Wallwiener, D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Detection of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) is the standard procedure to evaluate axillary lymph node status in breast cancer. In addition to known and established procedures such as the blue dye method and scintigraphy, this study investigated the efficacy of a method based on use of the fluorescent dye indocyanine green (ICG). Patients and Method: A total of 126 women with breast cancer histologically verified by punch biopsy were studied during surgical removal of SLN. In addition to SLN marking with technetium and scintigraphy, intra-individual comparison was done using indocyanine green (ICG) for marking instead of the standard blue dye. Results: Scintigraphy had a detection rate of 96?%; the detection rate with ICG was just under 89?%. A body mass index (BMI) >?40 was found to be a limiting factor for the fluorescent method. Investigation into potential toxicities associated with the use of the fluorescent dye ICG revealed no systemic or even local side effects. The fluorescent method was found to be significantly less expensive than the scintigraphy method. Conclusion: The ICG fluorescence technique for the detection of SLN was found to be a valid and feasible method in clinical practice when compared directly with the blue dye method and scintigraphy. PMID:26500370

  19. Prediction of risk factors for lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Gang; Cai, Rong; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Ou, Jin-Ming; Jin, Ye-Ning; Li, Wen-Hua

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To explore risk factors for lymph node metastases in early gastric cancer (EGC) and to confirm the appropriate range of lymph node dissection. METHODS: A total of 202 patients with EGC who underwent curative gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy in the Department of Surgery, Xinhua Hospital and Ruijin Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical School between November 2003 and July 2009, were retrospectively reviewed. Both the surgical procedure and the extent of lymph node dissection were based on the recommendations of the Japanese gastric cancer treatment guidelines. The macroscopic type was classified as elevated (type?I?or IIa), flat (IIb), or depressed (IIc or III). Histopathologically, papillary and tubular adenocarcinomas were grouped together as differentiated adenocarcinomas, and poorly differentiated and signet-ring cell adenocarcinomas were regarded as undifferentiated adenocarcinomas. Univariate and multivariate analyses of lymph node metastases and patient and tumor characteristics were undertaken. RESULTS: The lymph node metastases rate in patients with EGC was 14.4%. Among these, the rate for mucosal cancer was 5.4%, and 8.9% for submucosal cancer. Univariate analysis showed an obvious correlation between lymph node metastases and tumor location, depth of invasion, morphological classification and venous invasion (?2 = 122.901, P = 0.001; ?2 = 7.14, P = 0.008; ?2 = 79.523, P = 0.001; ?2 = 8.687, P = 0.003, respectively). In patients with submucosal cancers, the lymph node metastases rate in patients with venous invasion (60%, 3/5) was higher than in those without invasion (20%, 15/75) (?2 = 4.301, P = 0.038). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the depth of invasion was the only independent risk factor for lymph node metastases in EGC [P = 0.018, Exp (B) = 2.744]. Among the patients with lymph node metastases, 29 cases (14.4%) were at N1, seven cases were at N2 (3.5%), and two cases were at N3 (1.0%). Univariate analysis of variance revealed a close relationship between the depth of invasion and lymph node metastases at pN1 (P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: The depth of invasion was the only independent risk factor for lymph node metastases. Risk factors for metastases should be considered when choosing surgery for EGC. PMID:23716990

  20. Vascular endothelial growth factor and lymph node metastasis in primary lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Murakami, S.; Oda, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Nonomura, A.; Endo, Y.; Sasaki, T.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and lymph node metastasis was studied in 90 cases of primary lung cancer without distant metastasis. As a result of quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, the VEGF121 mRNA expression levels in lung cancer tissues with nodal metastasis (n = 35) were higher than in those without nodal metastasis (n = 55). However, no significant difference could be found in VEGF121 mRNA expression levels as stratified by tumour size (T1N0M0 vs T2N0M0). Simultaneously, ten lymph nodes (four node positive and six node negative) together with the corresponding primary lung tumours and adjacent normal lung tissue, were studied for VEGF expression. The VEGF mRNA expression in metastatic lymph nodes was intense in three out of the four cases examined. Further, while VEGF expression levels in metastatic lymph nodes were conspicuously higher than those for the primary site, all its expression levels in non-metastatic nodes were inferior to those of the primary tumours. Except for macrophages, the VEGF antigen was identified mainly in the cytoplasm of metastatic cancer cells and the endothelial cells of blood or lymphatic vessels in lymph nodes. Although the detailed mechanisms and the significance of strong VEGF expressions in metastatic lymph nodes are still unknown, these data are consistent with a model whereby VEGF increases the opportunity for nodal metastasis through neoblood and lymphatic vessels. Images Figure 2 Figure 1 PMID:9376264

  1. Does Lymphovascular Invasion Predict Regional Nodal Failure in Breast Cancer Patients With Zero to Three Positive Lymph Nodes Treated With Conserving Surgery and Radiotherapy? Implications for Regional Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Boutrus, Rimoun; Abi-Raad, Rita; Niemierko, Andrzej; Brachtel, Elena F.; Rizk, Levi; Kelada, Alexandra; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To examine the relationship between lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and regional nodal failure (RNF) in breast cancer patients with zero to three positive nodes treated with breast-conservation therapy (BCT). Methods and Materials: The records of 1,257 breast cancer patients with zero to three positive lymph nodes were reviewed. All patients were treated with BCT at Massachusetts General Hospital from 1980 to December 2003. Lymphovascular invasion was diagnosed by hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections and in some cases supported by immunohistochemical stains. Regional nodal failure was defined as recurrence in the ipsilateral supraclavicular, axillary, or internal mammary lymph nodes. Regional nodal failure was diagnosed by clinical and/or radiologic examination. Results: The median follow-up was 8 years (range, 0.1-21 years). Lymphovascular invasion was present in 211 patients (17%). In univariate analysis, patients with LVI had a higher rate of RNF (3.32% vs. 1.15%; p = 0.02). In multivariate analysis, only tumor size, grade, and local failure were significant predictors of RNF (p = 0.049, 0.013, and 0.0001, respectively), whereas LVI did not show a significant relationship with RNF (hazard ratio = 2.07; 95% CI, 0.8-5.5; p = 0.143). The presence of LVI in the T2/3 population did not increase the risk of RNF over that for those with no LVI (p = 0.15). In addition, patients with Grade 3 tumors and positive LVI did not have a higher risk of RNF than those without LVI (p = 0.96). Conclusion: These results suggest that LVI can not be used as a sole indicator for regional nodal irradiation in breast cancer patients with zero to three positive lymph nodes treated with BCT.

  2. Optimization of surgical approach and lymph node dissection in patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Angelov, K

    2014-01-01

    In 2012 there were nearly 1 million new gastric cancer cases (952,000 cases or 6.8% of all cancer cases). That has put the gastric cancer on 5th place in frequency, and on 3th placeas leading cause of death in both sexes in the world--723,000 fatalities or 8.8% of all. According to the data of the World Health Organization, in 2005 Bulgaria was on 23rd place in absolute number of gastric cancer deaths among the men and on 25th place among the women. In 2011, we were on 11th place in absolute number of gastric cancer deaths among the men and on 12th place among the women. According to NCCN (National Comprehensive Cancer Network) there are 2 basic types of surgical interventions that are used for radical gastric cancer treatment- total and subtotal gastrectomy. The scientific society however is still divided on the matter of the volume of lymph dissection. The gastrectomy with D2 lymph dissection is the standard treatment for resectable gastric carcinoma in Asia. In the Western countries, the D2 lymph dissection is considered an advisable, but not mandatory procedure. Despite that, there is a rule that the removal of more than 15 lymph nodes is in favor of the NCCN. Nowadays in Japan the comparative studies between D1 and D2 gastrectomy are considered unethical. PMID:25417273

  3. Targeting COX-2 and EP4 to control tumor growth, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and metastasis to the lungs and lymph nodes in a breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Xin, Xiping; Majumder, Mousumi; Girish, Gannareddy V; Mohindra, Vik; Maruyama, Takayuki; Lala, Peeyush K

    2012-08-01

    We reported that cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 expression in human breast cancer stimulated cancer cell migration and invasiveness, production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and lymphangiogenesis in situ, largely from endogenous PGE2-mediated stimulation of prostaglandin E (EP)1 and EP4 receptors, presenting them as candidate therapeutic targets against lymphatic metastasis. As human breast cancer xenografts in immuno-compromised mice have limitations for preclinical testing, we developed a syngeneic murine breast cancer model of spontaneous lymphatic metastasis mimicking human and applied it for mechanistic and therapeutic studies. We tested the roles of COX-2 and EP receptors in VEGF-C and -D production by a highly metastatic COX-2 expressing murine breast cancer cell line C3L5. These cells expressed all EP receptors and produced VEGF-C and -D, both inhibited with COX-2 inhibitors or EP4 (but not EP1, EP2 or EP3) antagonists. C3H/HeJ mice, when implanted SC in both inguinal regions with C3L5 cells suspended in growth factor-reduced Matrigel, exhibited rapid tumor growth, tumor-associated angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis (respectively measured with CD31 and LYVE-1 immunostaining), metastasis to the inguinal and axillary lymph nodes and the lungs. Chronic oral administration of COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor indomethacin, COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib and an EP4 antagonist ONO-AE3-208, but not an EP1 antagonist ONO-8713 at nontoxic doses markedly reduced tumor growth, lymphangiogenesis, angiogenesis, and metastasis to lymph nodes and lungs. Residual tumors in responding mice revealed reduced VEGF-C and -D proteins, AkT phosphorylation and increased apoptotic/proliferative cell ratios consistent with blockade of EP4 signaling. We suggest that EP4 antagonists deserve clinical testing for chemo-intervention of lymphatic metastasis in human breast cancer. PMID:22641101

  4. Axillary Web Syndrome after Sentinel Node Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Aydogan, Fatih; Belli, Ahmet Korkut; Baghaki, Semih; Karabulut, Kagan; Tahan, Gulgun; Uras, Cihan

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Axillary web syndrome (AWS) is a self-limiting cause of morbidity in the early postoperative period after axillary surgery, but it is encountered also after sentinel lymph node biopsy. The syndrome is characterized by cords of subcutaneous tissue extending from the axilla into the medial arm. Case Report Here, we report a patient presenting with AWS several weeks after sentinel lymph node biopsy. Conclusion AWS has been reported to be resolved spontaneously in all patients 816 weeks after axillary surgery, and shoulder movements improve in this period. There is no definitive treatment modality for AWS. Patients should be reassured and informed that this condition will improve even without treatment. PMID:21076609

  5. STAT-3 correlates with lymph node metastasis and cell survival in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jing-Yu; Sun, Dan; Liu, Xiang-Yu; Pan, Yi; Liang, Han

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the correlation between gastric cancer growth and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) expression. METHODS: We assessed the expressions of STAT3, phosphor-STAT3 (pSTAT3), suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1), survivin and Bcl-2 in gastric cancer patients after gastrectomy by immunohistochemical method. In addition, in situ hybridization was used to further demonstrate the mRNA expression of STAT3 in gastric cancer. RESULTS: With the univariate analysis, expressions of STAT3, pSTAT3, SOCS-1, survivin and Bcl-2, the size of primary tumor and the lymph node metastasis were found to be associated with the overall survival (OS) of gastric cancer patients. However, only pSTAT3 expression and the lymph node metastasis were identified as the independent factors of OS of gastric cancer with multivariate analysis. STAT3 expression was correlated with the lymph node metastasis. There were positive correlations between expressions of STAT3, survivin, Bcl-2 and pSTAT3 in gastric cancer, whereas there was negative correlation between STAT3 expression and SOCS-1 expression in gastric cancer. CONCLUSION: STAT3 can transform into pSTAT3 to promote the survival and inhibit the apoptosis of gastric cancer cells. SOCS-1 might be the valid molecular antagonist to inhibit the STAT3 expression in gastric cancer. PMID:21072904

  6. Occult Pelvic Lymph Node Involvement in Bladder Cancer: Implications for Definitive Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Benjamin; Baumann, Brian C.; He, Jiwei; Tucker, Kai; Bekelman, Justin; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha; Vaughn, David; Keefe, Stephen M.; Guzzo, Thomas; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Christodouleas, John P.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To inform radiation treatment planning for clinically staged, node-negative bladder cancer patients by identifying clinical factors associated with the presence and location of occult pathologic pelvic lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: The records of patients with clinically staged T1-T4N0 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder undergoing radical cystectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy at a single institution were reviewed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between preoperative clinical variables and occult pathologic pelvic or common iliac lymph nodes. Percentages of patient with involved lymph node regions entirely encompassed within whole bladder (perivesicular nodal region), small pelvic (perivesicular, obturator, internal iliac, and external iliac nodal regions), and extended pelvic clinical target volume (CTV) (small pelvic CTV plus common iliac regions) were calculated. Results: Among 315 eligible patients, 81 (26%) were found to have involved pelvic lymph nodes at the time of surgery, with 38 (12%) having involved common iliac lymph nodes. Risk of occult pathologically involved lymph nodes did not vary with clinical T stage. On multivariate analysis, the presence of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) on preoperative biopsy was significantly associated with occult pelvic nodal involvement (odds ratio 3.740, 95% confidence interval 1.865-7.499, P<.001) and marginally associated with occult common iliac nodal involvement (odds ratio 2.307, 95% confidence interval 0.978-5.441, P=.056). The percentages of patients with involved lymph node regions entirely encompassed by whole bladder, small pelvic, and extended pelvic CTVs varied with clinical risk factors, ranging from 85.4%, 95.1%, and 100% in non-muscle-invasive patients to 44.7%, 71.1%, and 94.8% in patients with muscle-invasive disease and biopsy LVI. Conclusions: Occult pelvic lymph node rates are substantial for all clinical subgroups, especially patients with LVI on biopsy. Extended coverage of pelvic lymph nodes up to the level of the common iliac nodes may be warranted in subsets of patients.

  7. Metastatic lymph node ratio, 6th or 7th AJCC edition: witch is the best lymph node classification for esophageal cancer? Prognosis factor analysis in 487 patients

    PubMed Central

    CORAL, Roberto V.; BIGOLIN, Andr V.; CORAL, Roberto P.; HARTMANN, Antonio; DRANKA, Carolina; ROEHE, Adriana V.

    2015-01-01

    Background The esophageal cancer is one of the most common and aggressive worldwide. Recently, the AJCC changed the staging system, considering, among others, the important role of the lymph node metastasis on the prognosis. Aim To discuss the applicability of different forms of lymph node staging in a western surgical center. Methods Four hundred eighty seven patients with esophageal cancer were enrolled. Three staging systems were evaluated, the 6th and the 7th AJCC editions and the Lymph Node Metastatic Ratio. Results The majority of the cases were squamous cell carcinoma. The mean lymph node sample was eight. Considering the survival, there was no significant difference between the patients when they were classified by the 7th AJCC edition. Analysis of the Lymph Node Metastatic Ratio, just on the group of patients with 0 to 25%, has shown significant difference (p=0,01). The 6th AJCC edition shows the major significant difference between among the classifications evaluated. Conclusion In this specific population, the 7th AJCC edition for esophageal cancer was not able to find differences in survival when just the lymph node analysis was considered. PMID:26176242

  8. Colon cancer metastasis to mediastinal lymph nodes without liver or lung involvement: A case report.

    PubMed

    El-Halabi, Mustapha M; Chaaban, Said A; Meouchy, Joseph; Page, Seth; Salyers, William J

    2014-11-01

    Colon cancer is the second most common type of cancer in females and the third in males, worldwide. The most common sites of colon cancer metastasis are the regional lymph nodes, liver, lung, bone and brain. In this study, an extremely rare case of colon adenocarcinoma with extensive metastasis to the mediastinal lymph nodes without any other organ involvement is presented. A 44-year-old Caucasian male presented with abdominal pain, a change in bowel habits, melena and weight loss. Colonoscopy revealed a large friable, ulcerated, circumferential mass in the ascending colon. Biopsies were consistent with the diagnosis of invasive moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Subsequently, right colon resection was performed, and pathological analysis revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the right colon with extensive regional lymph node involvement. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest, abdomen and pelvis were performed preoperatively as part of routine staging for colon cancer. No liver or lung pathology was identified; however, multiple pathologically enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes were observed. Endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration of the largest mediastinal lymph node, which measured 5.23.5 cm on CT scans, was performed. The pathology was again consistent with the diagnosis of metastatic colorectal primary adenocarcinoma. At present, no optimum treatment has been identified for metastatic colon cancer to the mediastinal lymph nodes. The patient in the current case received chemotherapy with folinic acid, fluorouracil and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX), as well as with bevacizumab. Initial follow-up CT scans of the chest revealed a positive response to treatment. Physicians, in particular, radiologists, must consider the mediastinum during the first evaluation and further follow-up of patients with colorectal carcinoma even in the absence of metastasis. PMID:25289100

  9. Feasibility study of axillary reverse mapping lymphoscintigraphy in carcinoma breast: A concept toward preventing lymphedema

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Sunny J.; Satish, C.; Sundaram, Palaniswamy Shanmuga; Subramanyam, Padma; Vijaykumar, D. K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In the surgery of breast cancer, axillary reverse mapping (ARM) is the identification and preservation of arm draining lymph node (ARM node) during an axillary dissection. The assumption is that the ARM node is different from node draining breast and is unlikely to be involved even in the patients with axillary nodal metastases. If we can identify and preserve ARM node using lymphoscintigraphy; morbidity of lymphedema, as seen with axillary dissection, may be avoided. Materials and Methods: Pathologically proven 50 breast cancer patients undergoing initial surgery (cTx-4, cN0-2, and Mx-0) were included in this study. Less than 37 MBq, 0.5 ml in equally divided doses of filtered 99mTc sulfur colloid was injected intradermally into the second and third web spaces. ARM nodes in the axilla were identified with the help of Gamma Probe intraoperatively; however, their location was noted with the reference to specific anatomical landmarks and sent for histopathological examination after excision. Results: The ARM node was successfully identified in 47/50 cases (sensitivity - 94%). In 40 out of 47 cases (85%), the location of the ARM node was found to lateral to the subscapular pedicle, above the second intercostobrachial nerve and just below the axillary vein. Of the 47 patients in whom ARM node/s were identified, metastasis was noted in 5 of them (10%). Four out of these 5 patients had the pN3 disease. Conclusion: ARM node exists, and it is feasible to identify ARM node using radio isotope technique with an excellent sensitivity. ARM node seems to have a fairly constant location in more than 80% cases. It is involved with metastasis (10% cases) only when there are multiple lymph nodal metastases in the axilla. PMID:26917887

  10. Does Metastatic Lymph Node SUVmax Predict Survival in Patients with Esophageal Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Vatankulu, Betül; Şanlı, Yasemin; Kaytan Sağlam, Esra; Kuyumcu, Serkan; Özkan, Zeynep Gözde; Yılmaz, Ebru; Purisa, Sevim; Adalet, Işık

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to investigate the SUVmax of primary tumor and metastatic lymph node in predicting survival in patients with esophageal cancer. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients with esophageal cancer between 2009 and 2011 who had FDG positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). All patients were followed-up to 2013. Clinical staging, SUVmax of primary tumor and metastatic lymph node were evaluated. Results: One hundred seven patients were included in the study. All patients were followed-up between 2 and 49 months. The mean SUVmax of primary tumor and metastatic lymph node were 19.3±8.8 and 10.4±9.1, respectively. Metastatic lymph node SUVmax had an effect in predicting survival whereas primary tumor SUVmax did not have an effect (p=0.014 and p=0.262, respectively). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that clinical stage of the disease was the only independent factor predicting survival (p=0.001). Conclusion: Among patients with esophageal cancer, the value of primary tumor SUVmax did not have an effect on survival. Clinical stage assessed with FDG PET/CT imaging was found to predict survival in esophageal carcinoma. Additionally, lymph node SUVmax was identified as a new parameter in predicting survival in the present study.

  11. Symptomatic Lymphocele Formation After Sentinel Lymph NodeBiopsy for Early Stage Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Nasuh Utku; Garagozova, Nigar; Pfiffer, Tatiana; Beier, Anna; Khler, Christhardt; Favero, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    In early stage cervical cancer, nodal status is the most important prognostic factor, and execution of retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy is currently an integral part of surgical therapy. Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been progressively incorporated with surgical therapy and could reduce morbidity. However, the current incidence of complications exclusively related to the procedure is unknown. We report on a 29-year-old woman affected by cervical cancer (Fdration Internationale de Gyncologie et d'Obsttrique Stage 1b1), who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy in combination with radical vaginal trachelectomy, and who later developed a symptomatic pelvic lymphocele that required surgical therapy. Conservative procedures in the pelvic lymph nodes are not free of complications, especially with regard to the formation of symptomatic lymphoceles. This report brings to light an important discussion about the exact magnitude of the complications associated with the procedure. PMID:26260297

  12. Anatomic Distribution of FDG-Avid Paraaortic Lymph Nodes in Patients with Cervical Cancer1

    PubMed Central

    Takiar, Vinita; Fontanilla, Hiral P.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Jhingran, Anuja; Kelly, Patrick; Iyer, Revathy B.; Levenback, Charles F.; Zhang, Yongbin; Dong, Lei; Klopp, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Summary This study presents a map of PET-positive paraaortic nodes (PAN) in cervical cancer. Available information about the location of PAN metastases in cervical cancer is not adequately detailed to guide treatment planning for highly conformal radiation therapy. Our population based atlas outlines the spatial distribution of these lymph nodes to facilitate target delineation and treatment planning. Suggested clinical target volume contours are included, which provide coverage of PAN nodes for the treatment of cervical cancer. Purpose Conformal treatment of paraaortic lymph nodes (PAN) in cervical cancer allows dose escalation and reduces normal tissue toxicity. Currently, data documenting the precise location of involved PAN are lacking. We define the spatial distribution of this high-risk nodal volume by analyzing FDG-avid lymph nodes (LNs) on PET/CT scans in patients with cervical cancer. Materials/Methods We identified 72 PANs on pretreatment PET/CT of 30 patients with newly-diagnosed stage IB-IVA cervical cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation. LNs were classified as left-lateral paraaortic (LPA), aortocaval (AC), right paracaval (RPC). Distances from the LN center to the closest vessel and adjacent vertebral body were calculated. Using deformable image registration, nodes were mapped to a template CT to provide a visual impression of nodal frequencies and anatomic distribution. Results We identified 72 PET positive paraaortic lymph nodes (37 LPA, 32 AC, 3 RPC). All RPC lymph nodes were in the inferior 1/3 of the paraaortic region. The mean distance from aorta for all lymph nodes was 8.3 mm (range 3 to 17 mm), and from the inferior vena cava was 5.6 mm (range 2 to 10 mm). Of the 72 lymph nodes, 60% were in the inferior third, 36% were in the middle third and 4% were in the upper third of the paraaortic region. 29/30 patients also had FDG-avid pelvic lymph nodes. Conclusions 96% of PET positive nodes were adjacent to the aorta; PET positive nodes to the right of the IVC were rare and were all located distally, within 3 cm of the aortic bifurcation. Our findings suggest that circumferential margins around the vessels do not accurately define the nodal region at risk. Instead, the anatomical extent of the nodal basin should be contoured on each axial image in order to provide optimal coverage of the paraaortic nodal compartment. PMID:23332221

  13. Results of optical Monte Carlo simulations of a compact γ camera for the detection of sentinel lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Dean; Truman, Andrew; Kwok, Harry; Bergman, Alanah

    2001-07-01

    Breast cancer is most often treatable when detected in the early stages, before the primary disease spreads to sentinel lymph nodes in the axilla and supraclavicular region. A sentinel lymph node is the closest adjacent lymph node to receive lymphatic drainage from a primary breast tumour. It is from these nodes that cancer cells metastasise throughout the lymphatic system, spreading the disease. This work details the optical Monte Carlo modelling of an ultra compact, nuclear medicine γ camera that will be used intra-operatively to detect malignant sentinel lymph nodes. This development will improve the identification and localisation of these sentinel nodes, thereby facilitating improved techniques for axillary lymph node dissection, and sentinel lymph node biopsy.

  14. Nationwide prevalence of lymph node metastases in Gleason score 3?+?3?=?6 prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jen-Jane; Lichtensztajn, Daphne Y; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Sieh, Weiva; Chung, Benjamin I; Cheng, Iona; Brooks, James D

    2014-06-01

    Based on revisions of Gleason scoring in 2005, it has been reported that nodal metastases at radical prostatectomy in Gleason 3?+?3?=?6 (GS6) prostate cancer are extremely rare, and that GS6 cancers with nodal metastases are invariably upgraded upon review by academic urological pathologists. We analysed the prevalence and determinants of nodal metastases in a national sample of patients with GS6 cancer.We utilised the SEER database to identify patients diagnosed with GS6 prostate cancer during 2004-2010 who had radical prostatectomy and ?1 lymph node(s) examined. We calculated the prevalence of nodal metastases and constructed a multivariable logistic regression model to identify factors associated with nodal metastases. Among 21,960 patients, the prevalence of nodal metastases was 0.48%. Older age, preoperative PSA >10 ?ng/mL, and advanced stage were positively associated with nodal metastases. Lymph node metastases in GS6 cancer are more prevalent in a nationwide population compared to academic centres. Revised guidelines for Gleason scoring have made GS6 cancer a more homogeneously indolent disease, which may be relevant in the era of active surveillance. We submit that lymph node metastases in GS6 cancer be used as a proxy for adherence to the 2005 ISUP consensus on Gleason grading. PMID:24798166

  15. Refining Post-Surgical Therapy for Women with Lymph Node-Positive Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In this trial, women with HER2-negative, HR-positive breast cancer and 1-3 positive lymph nodes with recurrence scores of 25 or lower will be randomized to undergo adjuvant chemotherapy before starting endocrine therapy or to begin endocrine therapy.

  16. Three-dimensional High-frequency Characterization of Cancerous Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Mamou, Jonathan; Coron, Alain; Hata, Masaki; Machi, Junji; Yanagihara, Eugene; Laugier, Pascal; Feleppa, Ernest J.

    2009-01-01

    High-frequency ultrasound (HFU) offers a means of investigating biological tissue at the microscopic level. High-frequency, three-dimensional (3D) quantitative-ultrasound (QUS) methods were developed to characterize freshly-dissected lymph nodes of cancer patients. 3D ultrasound data were acquired from lymph nodes using a 25.6-MHz center-frequency transducer. Each node was inked prior to tissue fixation to recover orientation after sectioning for 3D histological evaluation. Backscattered echo signals were processed using 3D cylindrical regions-of-interest to yield four QUS estimates associated with tissue microstructure (i.e., effective scatterer size, acoustic concentration, intercept, and slope). QUS estimates were computed following established methods using two scattering models. In this study, 46 lymph nodes acquired from 27 patients diagnosed with colon cancer were processed. Results revealed that fully-metastatic nodes could be perfectly differentiated from cancer-free nodes using slope or scatterer-size estimates. Specifically, results indicated that metastatic nodes had an average effective scatterer size (i.e., 37.1 1.7 um) significantly larger (p <0.05) than that in cancer-free nodes (i.e., 26 3.3 um). Therefore, the 3D QUS methods could provide a useful means of identifying small metastatic foci in dissected lymph nodes that might not be detectable using current standard pathology procedures. PMID:20133046

  17. Laparoscopic sentinel lymph node mapping after cervical injection of indocyanine green for endometrial cancer preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Reinholz-Jaskolska, Malgorzata; Bidzinski, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Endometrial cancer (EC) has an increasing incidence worldwide, with lymph node metastases as the main prognostic factor. Systemic lymphadenectomy is connected with elevated morbidity. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is intended to avoid extensive lymphadenectomy and provide significant oncologic information. Aim To evaluate the accuracy of laparoscopic SLN biopsy guided by indocyanine green (ICG) injection into the cervix in EC patients and to develop ideas to improve this method. The optimal time from dye injection to lymph node visualization was assessed. Material and methods This retrospective study was conducted between July 2014 and March 2015 in a group of 9 women with EC, at low and intermediate risk of recurrence, scheduled for total laparoscopic hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. All patients underwent cervical ICG injection and SLN biopsy, followed by surgery. Pelvic lymph nodes were located using an ICG endoscopic camera. Results The following data were collected: There were 9 patients with endometrial cancer at low and intermediate risk of recurrence. Median patient age was 59 years, median body mass index (BMI) 28 kg/m2, endometrioid adenocarcinoma in 9 cases, grading: G1 1 patient, G2 8 patients. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were noted. Median time from ICG injection and SLN detection during surgery was 25 min. There were no lymph nodes metastasis, all identified by the SLN protocol using ICG injection. Conclusions Sentinel lymph node mapping can play a significant role in lymph node assessment and staging in early-stage EC patients with low risk of recurrence according to the ESMO classification. The use of SLN mapping in EC is much needed and the therapeutic benefit is high. PMID:26649087

  18. Long-term outcomes among breast cancer patients with extensive regional lymph node involvement: implications for locoregional management.

    PubMed

    Braunstein, Lior Z; Galland-Girodet, Sigolene; Goldberg, Saveli; Warren, Laura E G; Sadek, Betro T; Shenouda, Mina N; Abi-Raad, Rita F; MacDonald, Shannon M; Taghian, Alphonse G

    2015-12-01

    Extensive lymph node (LN) involvement portends significant risk for distant metastasis (DM) among breast cancer patients. As a result, local management may be of secondary import to systemic control in this population. We analyzed patients with ?10 involved LNs (N3) to evaluate the feasibility of breast conserving therapy (BCT) vs modified radical mastectomy (MRM) in this high-risk cohort. Among 98 women with N3 disease 46 (46.9%) underwent BCT and 52 (53.1%) received MRM. Nearly all patients (92%) received comprehensive radiotherapy (RT) including axillary and supraclavicular fields. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses were used to analyze time-to-event outcomes. Median follow-up was 76months, with a 5-year DFS of 64.9% and OS of 71.9% among the cohort. Poorly differentiated (p=0.007), ER-negative tumors (p=0.015) had adverse DFS outcomes. Treatment groups did not differ with regard to 10-year DFS (45.4% for MRM vs. 57.6% for BCT; p=0.31), or OS (61.4 vs. 63.7%; p=0.79). DM-free survival was 48.9% following MRM and 60.6% following BCT (p=0.19). Patients with ?10 involved LNs have similar outcomes following BCT or MRM, suggesting that RT may obviate the need for more-extensive surgery. While local control is comparably favorable regardless of surgical approach, systemic control remains a challenge in this population. PMID:26585579

  19. Chromosomal Copy Number Alterations are Associated with Persistent Lymph Node Metastasis after Chemoradiation in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhenbin; Liu, Zheng; Deng, Xutao; Warden, Charles; Li, Wenyan; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Background Lymph node metastasis is an important indicator of oncologic outcome for patients with rectal cancer. Identifying predictive biomarkers of lymph node metastasis could therefore be clinically useful. Objective To assess whether chromosomal copy number alterations can assist in predicting lymph node metastasis in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with pre-operative chemoradiation therapy. Design Non-randomized, prospective Phase II study. Setting Multi-institutional. Patients 95 patients with stage II (cT3-4, cN0) or stage III (any cT, cN1-2) rectal cancer. Intervention Patients were treated with pre-operative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) followed by total mesorectal excision. Pretreatment biopsy tumor DNA and surgical margin control DNA was extracted and analyzed by oligonucleotide array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Chromosomal copy number alterations were correlated with lymph node metastasis. Finally, a model for predicting lymph node metastasis was built. Main outcome measures To determine if chromosomal copy number alterations are associated with lymph node metastasis in patients with rectal cancer, and to assess the accuracy of oligonucleotide array-based comparative genomic hybridization for predicting lymph node metastasis. Results Twenty-five of 95 (26%) patients had lymph node metastasis after chemoradiation. Losses of 28 chromosomal regions, most notably in chromosome 4, were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis. Our predictive model contained 65 probes and predicted lymph node metastasis with 68% sensitivity, 93% specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 77% and 89%. Using this model lymph node status (positive or negative) after CRT was predicted accurately in 82 out of 95 patients (86%). Limitations The patient cohort was not completely homogeneous which may have influenced their clinical outcome. Additionally, while we performed rigorous statistically sound internal validation, external validation will be important to further corroborate our findings. Conclusions Copy number alterations can help identify rectal cancer patients at risk of lymph node metastasis after chemoradiation. PMID:22595848

  20. Differential Motion Between Mediastinal Lymph Nodes and Primary Tumor in Radically Irradiated Lung Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Schaake, Eva E.; Rossi, Maddalena M.G.; Buikhuisen, Wieneke A.; Burgers, Jacobus A.; Smit, Adrianus A.J.; Belderbos, José S.A.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2014-11-15

    Purpose/Objective: In patients with locally advanced lung cancer, planning target volume margins for mediastinal lymph nodes and tumor after a correction protocol based on bony anatomy registration typically range from 1 to 1.5 cm. Detailed information about lymph node motion variability and differential motion with the primary tumor, however, is lacking from large series. In this study, lymph node and tumor position variability were analyzed in detail and correlated to the main carina to evaluate possible margin reduction. Methods and Materials: Small gold fiducial markers (0.35 × 5 mm) were placed in the mediastinal lymph nodes of 51 patients with non-small cell lung cancer during routine diagnostic esophageal or bronchial endoscopic ultrasonography. Four-dimensional (4D) planning computed tomographic (CT) and daily 4D cone beam (CB) CT scans were acquired before and during radical radiation therapy (66 Gy in 24 fractions). Each CBCT was registered in 3-dimensions (bony anatomy) and 4D (tumor, marker, and carina) to the planning CT scan. Subsequently, systematic and random residual misalignments of the time-averaged lymph node and tumor position relative to the bony anatomy and carina were determined. Additionally, tumor and lymph node respiratory amplitude variability was quantified. Finally, required margins were quantified by use of a recipe for dual targets. Results: Relative to the bony anatomy, systematic and random errors ranged from 0.16 to 0.32 cm for the markers and from 0.15 to 0.33 cm for the tumor, but despite similar ranges there was limited correlation (0.17-0.71) owing to differential motion. A large variability in lymph node amplitude between patients was observed, with an average motion of 0.56 cm in the cranial-caudal direction. Margins could be reduced by 10% (left-right), 27% (cranial-caudal), and 10% (anteroposterior) for the lymph nodes and −2%, 15%, and 7% for the tumor if an online carina registration protocol replaced a protocol based on bony anatomy registration. Conclusions: Detailed analysis revealed considerable lymph node position variability, differential motion, and respiratory motion. Planning target volume margins can be reduced up to 27% in lung cancer patients when the carina registration replaces bony anatomy registration.

  1. Early diagnosis of lymph node metastasis: Importance of intranodal pressures.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yoshinobu; Mikada, Mamoru; Ouchi, Tomoki; Horie, Sachiko; Takeda, Kazu; Yamaki, Teppei; Sakamoto, Maya; Mori, Shiro; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2016-03-01

    Regional lymph node status is an important prognostic indicator of tumor aggressiveness. However, early diagnosis of metastasis using intranodal pressure, at a stage when lymph node size has not changed significantly, has not been investigated. Here, we use an MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr mouse model of lymph node metastasis to show that intranodal pressure increases in both the subiliac lymph node and proper axillary lymph node, which are connected by lymphatic vessels, when tumor cells are injected into the subiliac lymph node to induce metastasis to the proper axillary lymph node. We found that intranodal pressure in the subiliac lymph node increased at the stage when metastasis was detected by in vivo bioluminescence, but when proper axillary lymph node volume (measured by high-frequency ultrasound imaging) had not increased significantly. Intravenously injected liposomes, encapsulating indocyanine green, were detected in solid tumors by in vivo bioluminescence, but not in the proper axillary lymph node. Basic blood vessel and lymphatic channel structures were maintained in the proper axillary lymph node, although sinus histiocytosis was detected. These results show that intranodal pressure in the proper axillary lymph node increases at early stages when metastatic tumor cells have not fully proliferated. Intranodal pressure may be a useful parameter for facilitating early diagnosis of lymph node metastasis. PMID:26716604

  2. Synchronous Resectable Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Lymph Node Involvement Predicts Poor Outcome.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jianfei; Jiang, Mengjie; Tan, Yinuo; Yang, Jiao; Wu, Lunpo; Feng, Lin; Zheng, Shu; Yuan, Ying

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the value of lymph node status of primary tumors in predicting the prognosis of synchronous resectable metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).The characteristics of resectable mCRC are substantially different from other cancers, and the prognostic factors of resectable mCRC are still controversial.The data of 2007 patients with mCRC who received resection of the primary tumors and metastatic lesions synchronously were reviewed from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Result database. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to evaluate the capacity of different prognostic factors. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between the lymph node status and other factors. The mRNA profiles of primary resectable mCRC tumors were obtained by microarray at our center.The median survival times were 50, 36, 32, 27, and 19 months in the N0-stage, N1a-stage, N1b-stage, N2a-stage, and N2b-stage subgroups according to the 7th American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Tumor Lymph Node Metastasis (TNM) N-classification (P = 0.000), and 40, 29, 22, and 15 months in patients with metastatic lymph node ratio (LNR) <0.25, 0.25-0.49, 0.5-0.74, and ≥0.75 subgroups (P = 0.000). In the COX model, the 7th AJCC TNM N-stage and LNR were independent prognostic factors. The mRNA profile was not associated with lymph node involvement.Both the N-stage according to the 7th AJCC TNM staging system and LNR had the capacity to subclassify synchronous resectable mCRC with different prognoses. The lymph node might be integrated into the AJCC staging system as a diagnose-delay prognostic factor for stage IV disease. PMID:26222850

  3. The significance of CD44 variants expression in colorectal cancer and its regional lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Chun, S Y; Bae, O S; Kim, J B

    2000-12-01

    CD44 is a cell adhesion molecule with numerous isoforms created by mRNA alternative splicing. Expression of CD44 variants has been suggested to play a potential role in tumor progression and metastasis. We designed primers CD44V, CD44V6/7, CD44R1 and CD44V6-10 to analyze and compare the roles of each CD44 variants. Expressions of CD44 variants were investigated in normal colonic mucosa, the lymph nodes which was histopathologically free of cancer cell, and cancer tissues of 44 human colorectal cancer patients by RT-PCR method. The expression of CD44V was observed in 28 out of 39 (71.8%) tumors and 7 out of 11 (63.6%) N1 normal regional lymph nodes, and CD44V6/7 was observed in 28 out of 39 (71.8%) tumors and 9 out of 11 (81.8%) N1 normal regional lymph nodes. The expressions of CD44V and CD44V6/7 were most frequently observed compared with any other CD44 variants. In normal colonic mucosa, the expression of CD44 variants are low but in cancer tissue and its regional lymph node, the expression of CD44V and CD44V6/7 were significantly higher and more frequent than any other CD44 variants (p<0.05). These results suggest that CD44V and CD44V6/7 can be a molecular marker for colorectal cancer and its micrometastasis to the regional normal lymph node. PMID:11194197

  4. RTOG GU Radiation Oncology Specialists Reach Consensus on Pelvic Lymph Node Volumes for High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Colleen A.F. Michalski, Jeff; El-Naqa, Issam; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Lee, W. Robert; Menard, Cynthia; O'Meara, Elizabeth; Rosenthal, Seth A.; Ritter, Mark; Seider, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy to the pelvic lymph nodes in high-risk prostate cancer is required on several Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) clinical trials. Based on a prior lymph node contouring project, we have shown significant disagreement in the definition of pelvic lymph node volumes among genitourinary radiation oncology specialists involved in developing and executing current RTOG trials. Materials and Methods: A consensus meeting was held on October 3, 2007, to reach agreement on pelvic lymph node volumes. Data were presented to address the lymph node drainage of the prostate. Extensive discussion ensued to develop clinical target volume (CTV) pelvic lymph node consensus. Results: Consensus was obtained resulting in computed tomography image-based pelvic lymph node CTVs. Based on this consensus, the pelvic lymph node volumes to be irradiated include: distal common iliac, presacral lymph nodes (S{sub 1}-S{sub 3}), external iliac lymph nodes, internal iliac lymph nodes, and obturator lymph nodes. Lymph node CTVs include the vessels (artery and vein) and a 7-mm radial margin being careful to 'carve out' bowel, bladder, bone, and muscle. Volumes begin at the L5/S1 interspace and end at the superior aspect of the pubic bone. Consensus on dose-volume histogram constraints for OARs was also attained. Conclusions: Consensus on pelvic lymph node CTVs for radiation therapy to address high-risk prostate cancer was attained and is available as web-based computed tomography images as well as a descriptive format through the RTOG. This will allow for uniformity in evaluating the benefit and risk of such treatment.

  5. MetasinAn Intra-Operative RT-qPCR Assay to Detect Metastatic Breast Cancer in Sentinel Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ramadhani, Salma; Sai-Giridhar, Priya; George, Dilushana; Gopinath, Preethi; Arkoumani, Evdokia; Jader, Samar; Sundaresan, Maryse; Salgado, Roberto; Larsimont, Dennis; Bustin, Stephen A.; Sundaresan, Vasi

    2013-01-01

    Nodal status is one of the most important prognostic factors in breast cancer. Established tests such as touch imprint cytology and frozen sections currently used in the intra-operative setting show variations in sensitivity and specificity. This limitation has led to the development of molecular alternatives, such as GeneSearch, a commercial intra-operative real-time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) assay that allows the surgeon to carry out axillary clearance as a one-step process. Since GeneSearch has been discontinued, we have developed the replacement Metasin assay, which targets the breast epithelial cell markers CK19 and mammaglobin mRNA and identifies metastatic disease in sentinel lymph nodes. The optimised assay can be completed within 32 min (6 min for RNA preparation and 26 min instrument run time), making its use feasible in the intraoperative setting. An analysis by Metasin of 154 archived lymph node homogenates previously analysed by both parallel histology and GeneSearch showed concordance for 148 cases. The sensitivity and specificity of Metasin compared with GeneSearch were 95% (CI 83%99%) and 97% (CI 91%99%) respectively; compared with histology they were 95% (CI 83%99%) and 97% (CI 91%99%), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of GeneSearch compared with histology were 90% (CI 77%96%) and 97% (CI 93%99%) respectively. The positive predictive value of Metasin was 90% and negative predictive value was 98% for both histology and GeneSearch. The positive predictive value of GeneSearch was 92% and the negative predictive value was 97% compared to histology. The discordance rates of Metasin with both GeneSearch and histology were 3.89%. In comparison, the discordance rate of GeneSearch with histology was 4.5%. Metasins robustness was independently evaluated on 193 samples previously analysed by GeneSearch from the Jules Bordet Institute, where Metasin yielded comparable results. PMID:23797656

  6. Current advances in diagnosis and surgical treatment of lymph node metastasis in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Teymoortash, A.; Werner, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Still today, the status of the cervical lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor for head and neck cancer. So the individual treatment concept of the lymphatic drainage depends on the treatment of the primary tumor as well as on the presence or absence of suspect lymph nodes in the imaging diagnosis. Neck dissection may have either a therapeutic objective or a diagnostic one. The selective neck dissection is currently the method of choice for the treatment of patients with advanced head and neck cancers and clinical N0 neck. For oncologic reasons, this procedure is generally recommended with acceptable functional and aesthetic results, especially under the aspect of the mentioned staging procedure. In this review article, current aspects on pre- and posttherapeutic staging of the cervical lymph nodes are described and the indication and the necessary extent of neck dissection for head and neck cancer is discussed. Additionally the critical question is discussed if the lymph node metastasis bears an intrinsic risk of metastatic development and thus its removal in a most possible early stage plays an important role. PMID:23320056

  7. Effect of lymph node metastasis size on breast cancer-specific and overall survival in women with node-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rose, Brent S; Jiang, Wei; Punglia, Rinaa S

    2015-07-01

    We investigated whether increasing size of lymph nodes (LN) metastases is associated with lower breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and overall survival (OS) independent of the number of positive LNs. Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry data, we identified 8791 women diagnosed between 1990 and 2003 with node-positive, non-metastatic invasive breast cancer treated with surgery and axillary LN dissection. Size of the largest involved LN metastasis was categorized as ?2 mm, >2 mm to <2 cm, and ?2 cm. BCSS and OS were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using log-rank statistics. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. Median follow-up was 109 months. Largest LN size was ?2 mm, >2 mm to <2 cm, and ?2 cm in 2219 (25.2 %), 5047 (57.4 %), and 1525 (17.3 %) women, respectively. The 10-year BCSS for women with LNs ?2 mm, >2 mm to <2 cm, and ?2 cm was 82.9, 75.5, 64.8 %, respectively (p < 0.001). On multivariable analysis, large (?2 cm) LN size was significantly associated with worsened BCSS (HR: 1.169; p = 0.026) and OS (HR: 1.169; p = 0.006) in addition to age, race, grade, PR status, adjuvant radiation, T-stage, and number of positive LNs. Large (?2 cm) LNs metastases were associated with lower BCSS and OS after controlling for other known prognostic factors including number of positive LNs. LN size could be useful to risk-stratify patients for adjuvant therapy if these results are validated in future prospective studies. PMID:26041688

  8. Near infrared imaging to identify sentinel lymph nodes in invasive urinary bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Deborah W.; Adams, Larry G.; Niles, Jacqueline D.; Lucroy, Michael D.; Ramos-Vara, Jose; Bonney, Patty L.; deGortari, Amalia E.; Frangioni, John V.

    2006-02-01

    Approximately 12,000 people are diagnosed with invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (InvTCC) each year in the United States. Surgical removal of the bladder (cystectomy) and regional lymph node dissection are considered frontline therapy. Cystectomy causes extensive acute morbidity, and 50% of patients with InvTCC have occult metastases at the time of diagnosis. Better staging procedures for InvTCC are greatly needed. This study was performed to evaluate an intra-operative near infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF) system (Frangioni laboratory) for identifying sentinel lymph nodes draining InvTCC. NIRF imaging was used to map lymph node drainage from specific quadrants of the urinary bladder in normal dogs and pigs, and to map lymph node drainage from naturally-occurring InvTCC in pet dogs where the disease closely mimics the human condition. Briefly, during surgery NIR fluorophores (human serum albumen-fluorophore complex, or quantum dots) were injected directly into the bladder wall, and fluorescence observed in lymphatics and regional nodes. Conditions studied to optimize the procedure including: type of fluorophore, depth of injection, volume of fluorophore injected, and degree of bladder distention at the time of injection. Optimal imaging occurred with very superficial injection of the fluorophore in the serosal surface of the moderately distended bladder. Considerable variability was noted from dog to dog in the pattern of lymph node drainage. NIR fluorescence was noted in lymph nodes with metastases in dogs with InvTCC. In conclusion, intra-operative NIRF imaging is a promising approach to improve sentinel lymph node mapping in invasive urinary bladder cancer.

  9. Adenovirus-mediated gene expression imaging to directly detect sentinel lymph node metastasis of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Burton, Jeremy B; Johnson, Mai; Sato, Makoto; Koh, Sok Boon S; Mulholland, David J; Stout, David; Chatziioannou, Arion F; Phelps, Michael E; Wu, Hong; Wu, Lily

    2008-08-01

    The accurate assessment of nodal involvement in prostate cancer is crucial to planning treatment, yet there is a shortage of noninvasive imaging techniques capable of visualizing nodal lesions directly. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using recombinant human adenoviral vectors to detect nodal metastases in a human prostate cancer model. This was achieved by the prostate-restricted expression of optical and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging reporter genes by the viral vector coupled with the innate lymphotropic properties of adenovirus. We show that peritumoral administration of these vectors results in the direct detection of reporter gene expression in metastatic lesions within sentinel lymph nodes. Notably, this approach parallels the current lymphoscintigraphy method but enables the direct PET visualization of sentinel lymph node metastases, eliminating the need for invasive lymphadenectomy. These findings may lead to more effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for individuals with advanced-stage prostate cancer. PMID:18622403

  10. Collagen I fiber density increases in lymph node positive breast cancers: pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakkad, Samata M.; Solaiyappan, Meiyappan; Argani, Pedram; Sukumar, Saraswati; Jacobs, Lisa K.; Leibfritz, Dieter; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.; Glunde, Kristine

    2012-11-01

    Collagen I (Col1) fibers are a major structural component in the extracellular matrix of human breast cancers. In a preliminary pilot study, we explored the link between Col1 fiber density in primary human breast cancers and the occurrence of lymph node metastasis. Col1 fibers were detected by second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy in primary human breast cancers from patients presenting with lymph node metastasis (LN+) versus those without lymph node metastasis (LN-). Col1 fiber density, which was quantified using our in-house SHG image analysis software, was significantly higher in the primary human breast cancers of LN+ (fiber volume=29.22%4.72%, inter-fiber distance=2.250.45 ?m) versus LN- (fiber volume=20.33%5.56%, inter-fiber distance=2.881.07 ?m) patients. Texture analysis by evaluating the co-occurrence matrix and the Fourier transform of the Col1 fibers proved to be significantly different for the parameters of co-relation and energy, as well as aspect ratio and eccentricity, for LN+ versus LN- cases. We also demonstrated that tissue fixation and paraffin embedding had negligible effect on SHG Col1 fiber detection and quantification. High Col1 fiber density in primary breast tumors is associated with breast cancer metastasis and may serve as an imaging biomarker of metastasis.

  11. Tumor Lymphangiogenesis and Metastasis to Lymph Nodes Induced by Cancer Cell Expression of Podoplanin

    PubMed Central

    Cueni, Leah N.; Hegyi, Ivan; Shin, Jay W.; Albinger-Hegyi, Andrea; Gruber, Silke; Kunstfeld, Rainer; Moch, Holger; Detmar, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The membrane glycoprotein podoplanin is expressed by several types of human cancers and might be associated with their malignant progression. Its exact biological function and molecular targets are unclear, however. Here, we assessed the relevance of tumor cell expression of podoplanin in cancer metastasis to lymph nodes, using a human MCF7 breast carcinoma xenograft model. We found that podoplanin expression promoted tumor cell motility in vitro and, unexpectedly, increased tumor lymphangiogenesis and metastasis to regional lymph nodes in vivo, without promoting primary tumor growth. Importantly, high cancer cell expression levels of podoplanin correlated with lymph node metastasis and reduced survival times in a large cohort of 252 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Based on comparative transcriptional profiling of tumor xenografts, we identified endothelin-1, villin-1, and tenascin-C as potential mediators of podoplanin-induced tumor lymphangiogenesis and metastasis. These unexpected findings identify a novel mechanism of tumor lymphangiogenesis and metastasis induced by cancer cell expression of podoplanin, suggesting that reagents designed to interfere with podoplanin function might be developed as therapeutics for patients with advanced cancer. PMID:20616339

  12. Gene Expression Signatures of Lymph Node Metastasis in Oral Cancer: Molecular Characteristics and Clinical Significances

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiqiang; Kolokythas, Antonia; Wang, Jianguang; Huang, Hongzhang; Zhou, Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    Even though lymph node metastasis accounts for the vast majority of cancer death in patients with oral cancer (OC), the molecular mechanisms of lymph node metastasis remain elusive. Genome-wide microarray analyses and functional studies in vitro and in vivo, along with detailed clinical observations, have identified a number of molecules that may contribute to lymph node metastasis. These include lymphangionenic cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, basement membrane-interacting molecules, matrix enzymes and relevant downstream signaling pathways. However, defined gene signatures from different studies are highly variable, which hinders their translation to clinically relevant applications. To date, none of the identified signatures or molecular biomarkers has been successfully implemented as a diagnostic or prognostic tool applicable to routine clinical practice. In this review, we will first introduce the significance of lymph node metastasis in OC, and clinical/experimental evidences that support the underlying molecular mechanisms. We will then provide a comprehensive review and integrative analysis of the existing gene expression studies that aim to identify the metastasis-related signatures in OC. Finally, the remaining challenges will be discussed and our insights on future directions will be provided. PMID:21709736

  13. Decreased expression of key tumour suppressor microRNAs is associated with lymph node metastases in triple negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common malignancy that develops in women, responsible for the highest cancer-associated death rates. Triple negative breast cancers represent an important subtype that have an aggressive clinical phenotype, are associated with a higher likelihood of metastasis and are not responsive to current targeted therapies. miRNAs have emerged as an attractive candidate for molecular biomarkers and treatment targets in breast cancer, but their role in the progression of triple negative breast cancer remains largely unexplored. Methods This study has investigated miRNA expression profiles in 31 primary triple negative breast cancer cases and in 13 matched lymph node metastases compared with 23 matched normal breast tissues to determine miRNAs associated with the initiation of this disease subtype and those associated with its metastasis. Results 71 miRNAs were differentially expressed in triple negative breast cancer, the majority of which have previously been associated with breast cancer, including members of the miR-200 family and the miR-17-92 oncogenic cluster, suggesting that the majority of miRNAs involved in the initiation of triple negative breast cancer are not subtype specific. However, the repertoire of miRNAs expressed in lymph node negative and lymph node positive triple negative breast cancers were largely distinct from one another. In particular, miRNA profiles associated with lymph node negative disease tended to be up-regulated, while those associated with lymph node positive disease were down-regulated and largely overlapped with the profiles of their matched lymph node metastases. From this, 27 miRNAs were identified that are associated with metastatic capability in the triple negative breast cancer subtype. Conclusions These results provide novel insight into the repertoire of miRNAs that contribute to the initiation of and progression to lymph node metastasis in triple negative breast cancer and have important implications for the treatment of this breast cancer subtype. PMID:24479446

  14. Novel genes associated with lymph node metastasis in triple negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mathe, Andrea; Wong-Brown, Michelle; Morten, Brianna; Forbes, John F.; Braye, Stephen G.; Avery-Kiejda, Kelly A.; Scott, Rodney J.

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive breast cancer subtype with the worst prognosis and no targeted treatments. TNBC patients are more likely to develop metastases and relapse than patients with other breast cancer subtypes. We aimed to identify TNBC-specific genes and genes associated with lymph node metastasis, one of the first signs of metastatic spread. A total of 33 TNBCs were used; 17 of which had matched normal adjacent tissues available, and 15 with matched lymph node metastases. Gene expression microarray analysis was used to reveal genes that were differentially expressed between these groups. We identified and validated 66 genes that are significantly altered when comparing tumours to normal adjacent samples. Further, we identified 83 genes that are associated with lymph node metastasis and correlated these with miRNA-expression. Pathway analysis revealed their involvement in DNA repair, recombination and cell death, chromosomal instability and other known cancer-related pathways. Finally, four genes were identified that were specific for TNBC, of which one was associated with overall survival. This study has identified novel genes involved in LN metastases in TNBC and genes that are TNBC specific that may be used as treatment targets or prognostic indicators in the future. PMID:26537449

  15. Novel genes associated with lymph node metastasis in triple negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mathe, Andrea; Wong-Brown, Michelle; Morten, Brianna; Forbes, John F; Braye, Stephen G; Avery-Kiejda, Kelly A; Scott, Rodney J

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive breast cancer subtype with the worst prognosis and no targeted treatments. TNBC patients are more likely to develop metastases and relapse than patients with other breast cancer subtypes. We aimed to identify TNBC-specific genes and genes associated with lymph node metastasis, one of the first signs of metastatic spread. A total of 33 TNBCs were used; 17 of which had matched normal adjacent tissues available, and 15 with matched lymph node metastases. Gene expression microarray analysis was used to reveal genes that were differentially expressed between these groups. We identified and validated 66 genes that are significantly altered when comparing tumours to normal adjacent samples. Further, we identified 83 genes that are associated with lymph node metastasis and correlated these with miRNA-expression. Pathway analysis revealed their involvement in DNA repair, recombination and cell death, chromosomal instability and other known cancer-related pathways. Finally, four genes were identified that were specific for TNBC, of which one was associated with overall survival. This study has identified novel genes involved in LN metastases in TNBC and genes that are TNBC specific that may be used as treatment targets or prognostic indicators in the future. PMID:26537449

  16. Anatomic Distribution of Fluorodeoxyglucose-Avid Para-aortic Lymph Nodes in Patients With Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Takiar, Vinita; Fontanilla, Hiral P.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Jhingran, Anuja; Kelly, Patrick; Iyer, Revathy B.; Levenback, Charles F.; Zhang, Yongbin; Dong, Lei; Klopp, Ann

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Conformal treatment of para-aortic lymph nodes (PAN) in cervical cancer allows dose escalation and reduces normal tissue toxicity. Currently, data documenting the precise location of involved PAN are lacking. We define the spatial distribution of this high-risk nodal volume by analyzing fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid lymph nodes (LNs) on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We identified 72 PANs on pretreatment PET/CT of 30 patients with newly diagnosed stage IB-IVA cervical cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation. LNs were classified as left-lateral para-aortic (LPA), aortocaval (AC), or right paracaval (RPC). Distances from the LN center to the closest vessel and adjacent vertebral body were calculated. Using deformable image registration, nodes were mapped to a template computed tomogram to provide a visual impression of nodal frequencies and anatomic distribution. Results: We identified 72 PET-positive para-aortic lymph nodes (37 LPA, 32 AC, 3 RPC). All RPC lymph nodes were in the inferior third of the para-aortic region. The mean distance from aorta for all lymph nodes was 8.3 mm (range, 3-17 mm), and from the inferior vena cava was 5.6 mm (range, 2-10 mm). Of the 72 lymph nodes, 60% were in the inferior third, 36% were in the middle third, and 4% were in the upper third of the para-aortic region. In all, 29 of 30 patients also had FDG-avid pelvic lymph nodes. Conclusions: A total of 96% of PET positive nodes were adjacent to the aorta; PET positive nodes to the right of the IVC were rare and were all located distally, within 3 cm of the aortic bifurcation. Our findings suggest that circumferential margins around the vessels do not accurately define the nodal region at risk. Instead, the anatomical extent of the nodal basin should be contoured on each axial image to provide optimal coverage of the para-aortic nodal compartment.

  17. Breast Cancer Subtype as a Predictor of Lymph Node Metastasis according to the SEER Registry

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Jay K.; Metzger, Daniel; Ashamalla, Hani; Katsoulakis, Evangelia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Breast cancer subtype correlates with response to systemic therapy and overall survival (OS), but its impact on lymphatic spread is incompletely understood. In this study, we used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry to assess whether the subtype can predict the presence of nodal metastasis or advanced nodal stage in breast cancer. Methods A total of 7,274 eligible patients diagnosed with T1-3 infiltrating ductal carcinoma with known estrogen or progesterone hormone receptor (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, who underwent surgical excision of the primary tumor and pathologic lymph node evaluation, were included in this analysis. Patients were categorized into four breast cancer subtypes: HR+/HER2-; HR+/HER2+; HR-/HER2+; and HR-/HER2-. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine whether breast cancer subtype, tumor size, tumor grade, patient race, and patient age at diagnosis are independently predictive of lymph node positivity or advanced nodal stage. The Pearson chi-square test was used to determine whether progesterone receptor (PR) status had an impact on the incidence of lymph node positivity in estrogen receptor (ER) positive patients. Results Independent predictors of nodal positivity included breast cancer subtype (p=0.040), tumor size (p<0.001), tumor grade (p<0.001), and patient age (p<0.001), whereas only tumor size (p<0.001), grade (p=0.001), and patient age (p=0.005) predicted advanced nodal stage. Triple-negative cancers had a significantly lower risk of nodal positivity than the HR+/HER2- subtype (odds ratio, 0.686; p=0.004), but no other significant differences between subtypes were observed. There was also no difference in lymph node positivity between PR+ and PR- tumors amongst ER+/HER2- (p=0.228) or ER+/HER2+ tumors (p=0.713). Conclusion The HR+/HER2-breast cancer subtype has a higher rate of lymph node involvement at diagnosis than the triple-negative subtype. These findings may play a role in guiding regional management considerations if confirmed in further studies. PMID:26155290

  18. Splicing mutation analysis reveals previously unrecognized pathways in lymph node-invasive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dorman, Stephanie N.; Viner, Coby; Rogan, Peter K.

    2014-01-01

    Somatic mutations reported in large-scale breast cancer (BC) sequencing studies primarily consist of protein coding mutations. mRNA splicing mutation analyses have been limited in scope, despite their prevalence in Mendelian genetic disorders. We predicted splicing mutations in 442 BC tumour and matched normal exomes from The Cancer Genome Atlas Consortium (TCGA). These splicing defects were validated by abnormal expression changes in these tumours. Of the 5,206 putative mutations identified, exon skipping, leaky or cryptic splicing was confirmed for 988 variants. Pathway enrichment analysis of the mutated genes revealed mutations in 9 NCAM1-related pathways, which were significantly increased in samples with evidence of lymph node metastasis, but not in lymph node-negative tumours. We suggest that comprehensive reporting of DNA sequencing data should include non-trivial splicing analyses to avoid missing clinically-significant deleterious splicing mutations, which may reveal novel mutated pathways present in genetic disorders. PMID:25394353

  19. Screening of lymph nodes metastasis associated lncRNAs in colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jun; Rong, Long-Fei; Shi, Chuan-Bin; Dong, Xiao-Gang; Wang, Jie; Wang, Bao-Lin; Wen, Hao; He, Zhen-Yu

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To screen lymph nodes metastasis associated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in colorectal cancer through microarray analysis. METHODS: Metastatic lymph node (MLN), normal lymph node (NLN) and tumor tissues of 3 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients were collected during the operation and validated by pathological examinations. RNAs were extracted from MLN, NLN, and cancer tissues separately. RNA quantity and quality were measured with a NanoDrop ND-1000 spectrophotometer and RNA integrity was assessed by standard denaturing agarose electrophoresis. Agilent Feature Extraction Software (Version 11.0.1.1) was used to analyze acquired array images. Four differently expressed lncRNAs were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in 26 subsets of MLN, NLN, and tumor tissues. RESULTS: Of 33045 lncRNAs, 1133 were differentially expressed in MLN compared with NLN, of which 260 were up-regulated and 873 down-regulated (? 2 fold-change). Five hundred and forty-five lncRNAs were differentially expressed in MLN compared with tumor tissues, of which 460 were up-regulated and 85 down-regulated (? 2 fold-change). Compared with NLN and cancer tissues, 14 lncRNAs were specifically up-regulated and 5 specifically down-regulated in MLN. AK307796, ENST00000425785, and AK021444 were confirmed to be specifically up-regulated in MLN and ENST00000465846 specifically down-regulated in MLN by qRT-PCR in 26 CRC patients. CONCLUSION: The specifically expressed lncRNAs in MLN may exert a partial or key role in the progress of lymph nodes metastasis of CRC. PMID:25009386

  20. Boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent oral cancer and metastasis of cervical lymph node.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Y; Ariyoshi, Y; Shimahara, M; Miyatake, S; Kawabata, S; Ono, K; Suzuki, M; Maruhashi, A

    2009-07-01

    We treated 6 patients with recurrent oral cancer and metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes after conventional treatments in 5 and non-conventional in 1 using BNCT, and herein report our results. The clinical response in our patients ranged from CR to PD. In 5 cases, spontaneous pain decreased immediately after BNCT. Three of the 6 are alive at the time of writing and we found that BNCT contributed to QOL improvement in all. PMID:19395269

  1. Cranial location of level II lymph nodes in laryngeal cancer: Implications for elective nodal target volume delineation

    SciTech Connect

    Braam, Petra M. . E-mail: P.M.Braam@umcutrecht.nl; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.; Terhaard, Chris

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze the cranial distribution of level II lymph nodes in patients with laryngeal cancer to optimize the elective radiation nodal target volume delineation. Methods and Materials: The most cranially located metastatic lymph node was delineated in 67 diagnostic CT data sets. The minimum distance from the base of the skull (BOS) to the lymph node was determined. Results: A total of 98 lymph nodes were delineated including 62 ipsilateral and 36 contralateral lymph nodes. The mean ipsilateral and contralateral distance from the top of the most cranial metastatic lymph node to the BOS was 36 mm (range, -9-120; standard deviation [SD], 17.9) and 35 mm (range, 14-78; SD 15.0), respectively. Only 5% and 12% of the ipsilateral and 3% and 9% of the contralateral metastatic lymph nodes were located within 15 mm and 20 mm below the BOS, respectively. No significant differences were found between patients with only ipsilateral metastatic lymph nodes and patients with bilateral metastatic lymph nodes. Between tumors that do cross the midline and those that do not, no significant difference was found in the distance of the most cranial lymph node to the BOS and the occurrence ipsilateral or contralateral. Conclusions: Setting the cranial border of the nodal target volume 1.5 cm below the base of the skull covers 95% of the lymph nodes and should be considered in elective nodal irradiation for laryngeal cancer. Bilateral neck irradiation is mandatory, including patients with unilateral laryngeal cancer, when elective irradiation is advised.

  2. Intraoperative fluorescence imaging to localize tumors and sentinel lymph nodes in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Handgraaf, Henricus J M; Boogerd, Leonora S F; Verbeek, Floris P R; Tummers, Quirijn R J G; Hardwick, James C H; Baeten, Coen I M; Frangioni, John V; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L

    2016-02-01

    Tumor involvement at the resection margin remains the most important predictor for local recurrence in patients with rectal cancer. A careful description of tumor localization is therefore essential. Currently, endoscopic tattooing with ink is customary, but visibility during laparoscopic resections is limited. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green (ICG) could be an improvement. In addition to localize tumors, ICG can also be used to identify sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). The feasibility of this new technique was explored in five patients undergoing laparoscopic low anterior resection for rectal cancer. Intraoperative tumor visualization was possible in four out of five patients. Fluorescence signal could be detected 3218 minutes after incision, while ink could be detected 42 21 minutes after incision (p = 0.53). No recurrence was diagnosed within three months after surgery. Ex vivo imaging identified a mean of 4.2 2.7 fluorescent lymph nodes, which were appointed SLNs. One out of a total of 83 resected lymph nodes contained a micrometastasis. This node was not fluorescent. This technical note describes the feasibility of endoscopic tattooing of rectal cancer using ICG:nanocolloid and NIR fluorescence imaging during laparoscopic resection. Simultaneous SLN mapping was also feasible, but may be less reliable due to neoadjuvant therapy. PMID:25950124

  3. Role of CXC chemokine receptor type 7 in carcinogenesis and lymph node metastasis of colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    WANG, HONG XIAN; TAO, LIN YU; QI, KE; ZHANG, HAO YUN; FENG, DUO; WEI, WEN JUN; KONG, HENG; CHEN, TIAN WEN; LIN, QIU SHENG; CHEN, DAO JIN

    2015-01-01

    Upregulated expression of the CXC chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR7) promotes breast, lung and prostate cancer progression and metastasis. However, the role of CXCR7 in colon cancer has not been determined. We hypothesized that increased CXCR7 expression may contribute to human colon cancer occurrence and progression. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were performed on 34 malignant and 18 normal colon tissue specimens. The specimens were obtained from 19 male and 15 female patients, with a mean age of 52 years (range, 3479 years). Of the 34 patients, 20 had lymph node metastases. None of the patients had received adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy prior to surgery. This study demonstrated that CXCR7 levels were significantly higher in colon tumors compared with those in normal colon tissue (P?0.01). In addition, lymph node metastatic colon tumors exhibited significantly higher CXCR7 expression compared with non-metastatic tumors (P?0.01); however, there were no differences in CXCR7 expression among distinct histopathological types (well-differentiated vs. moderately-to-poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, P?0.01). Therefore, the evidence obtained from the present study supports involvement of the upregulated CXCR7 expression in colon tumorigenesis and lymph node metastasis. PMID:26807225

  4. Noninvasive photoacoustic sentinel lymph node mapping using Au nanocages as a lymph node tracer in a rat model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Chulhong; Cobley, Claire M.; Xia, Younan; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-02-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has been widely performed and become the standard procedure for axillary staging in breast cancer patients. In current SLNB, identification of SLNs is prerequisite, and blue dye and/or radioactive colloids are clinically used for mapping. However, these methods are still intraoperative, and especially radioactive colloids based method is ionizing. As a result, SLNB is generally associated with ill side effects. In this study, we have proposed near-infrared Au nanocages as a new tracer for noninvasive and nonionizing photoacoustic (PA) SLN mapping in a rat model as a step toward clinical applications. Au nanocages have great features: biocompatibility, easy surface modification for biomarker, a tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) which allows for peak absorption to be optimized for the laser being used, and capsule-type drug delivery. Au nanocage-enhanced photoacoustic imaging has the potential to be adjunctive to current invasive SLNB for preoperative axillary staging in breast cancer patients.

  5. Can CA-125 Predict Lymph Node Metastasis in Epithelial Ovarian Cancers in Turkish Population?

    PubMed Central

    Kro?lu, Nadiye; Y?ld?r?m, Gkhan; lker, Volkan; Glk?l?k, Ahmet; Dansuk, Ramazan

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The role of single preoperative serum CA-125 levels in predicting pelvic or paraaortic lymph node metastasis in patients operated for epithelial ovarian cancer has been investigated. Methods. 176 patients diagnosed with epithelial ovarian carcinoma after staging laparotomy between January 2002 and May 2010 were evaluated retrospectively. Results. The mean, geometric mean, and median of preoperative serum CA-125 levels were 632,6, 200,29, and 191,5?U/mL, respectively. The cut-off value predicting lymph node metastases in the ROC curve was 71,92?U/mL, which is significant in logistic regression analysis (P = 0.005). The preoperative log CA-125 levels were also statistically significant in predicting lymph node metastasis in logistic regression analysis (P = 0.008). Conclusions. The tumor marker CA-125, which increases with grade independent of the effect of stage in EOC, is predictive of lymph node metastasis with a high rate of false positivity in Turkish population. The high false positive rate may obscure the predictive value of CA-125. PMID:24795494

  6. Prognosis of vulval cancer with lymph node status and size of primary lesion: A survival study

    PubMed Central

    Deka, Pankaj; Barmon, Debabrata; Shribastava, Sushrata; Kataki, Amal Chandra; Sharma, J. D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Squamous cell cancer of the vulva is a rare disease with an annual incidence of two to three per 100,000 women. Lymph node metastasis is the most important prognostic factor for the recurrence and survival in vulval carcinoma. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective study of 18 cases, operated in our institute from 2006 to 2009 and followed up till July, 2012. These patients were divided into two group of node positive and node negative and compared for recurrence and survival. Result: Ten patients had lymph node metastasis and eight had no lymph node metastasis. Recurrence rate was 40% and 12.5% in node positive and negative groups, respectively. Adjuvant radiation when given to node negative bulky tumor showed no recurrence compared to one out of two in the non-irradiated group. Survival was only 25% in node positive recurrent cases. Conclusion: Lymph node positivity added a great risk for future recurrence. Prophylactic radiation in node negative, bulky tumor is helpful. PMID:24672200

  7. The pattern of lymphatic metastasis of breast cancer and its influence on the delineation of radiation fields

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Jinming . E-mail: jn7984729@public.jn.sd.cn; Li Gong; Li Jianbin; Wang Yongsheng

    2005-03-01

    Purpose: The delineation of radiation fields should cover the clinical target volume (CTV) and minimally irradiate the surrounding normal tissues and organs. This study was designed to explore the pattern of lymphatic metastasis of breast cancer and indications for radiotherapy after radical or modified radical mastectomy and to discuss the rational delineation of radiation fields. Methods and materials: Between September 1980 and December 2003, 78 breast cancer patients receiving extended radical mastectomy in the Margottini model and 61 cases with complete data were analyzed to investigate the internal mammary lymphatic metastatic status. Between March 1988 and December 1988, 46 patients with clinical negative supraclavicular nodes received radical mastectomy plus supraclavicular lymph node dissection. The supraclavicular lymph nodes and axillary lymph nodes were labeled as S and levels I, II, or III, respectively, and examined pathologically. Between January 1996 and April 1999, 412 patients who had radical or modified radical mastectomy underwent the pathologic examination of axillary or levels I, II, or III nodes. Results: The incidence of internal mammary lymph node metastasis was 24.6%. It was 36.7% for the patients with positive axillary lymph nodes and 12.9% for the patients with negative axillary lymph nodes. All the metastatic internal mammary lymph nodes were located at the first, second, and third intercostal spaces. Skipping metastasis of the supraclavicular and axillary lymph nodes was observed in 3.8% and 8.1% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: According to our data, we suggest that the radiation field for internal mammary lymph nodes should exclude the fourth and fifth intercostal spaces, which may help to reduce the radiation damage to heart. It is unnecessary to irradiate the supraclavicular lymph nodes for the patients with negative axillary level III nodes, even with positive level I and level II nodes.

  8. A Lymph Node Staging System for Gastric Cancer: A Hybrid Type Based on Topographic and Numeric Systems

    PubMed Central

    Katai, Hitoshi; Seto, Yasuyuki; Fukagawa, Takeo; Okumura, Yasuhiro; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Hyoung-Il; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Hyung, Woo Jin; Noh, Sung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Although changing a lymph node staging system from an anatomically based system to a numerically based system in gastric cancer offers better prognostic performance, several problems can arise: it does not offer information on the anatomical extent of disease and cannot represent the extent of lymph node dissection. The purpose of this study was to discover an alternative lymph node staging system for gastric cancer. Data from 6025 patients who underwent gastrectomy for primary gastric cancer between January 2000 and December 2010 were reviewed. The lymph node groups were reclassified into lesser-curvature, greater-curvature, and extra-perigastric groups. Presence of any metastatic lymph node in one group was considered positive. Lymph node groups were further stratified into four (new N0–new N3) according to the number of positive lymph node groups. Survival outcomes with this new N staging were compared with those of the current TNM system. For validation, two centers in Japan (large center, n = 3443; medium center, n = 560) were invited. Even among the same pN stages, the more advanced new N stage showed worse prognosis, indicating that the anatomical extent of metastatic lymph nodes is important. The prognostic performance of the new staging system was as good as that of the current TNM system for overall advanced gastric cancer as well as lymph node—positive gastric cancer (Harrell C-index was 0.799, 0.726, and 0.703 in current TNM and 0.799, 0.727, and 0.703 in new TNM stage). Validation sets supported these outcomes. The new N staging system demonstrated prognostic performance equal to that of the current TNM system and could thus be used as an alternative. PMID:26967161

  9. Laparoscopic Indocyanine Green Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping in Pregnant Cervical Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Papadia, Andrea; Mohr, Stefan; Imboden, Sara; Lanz, Susanne; Bolla, Daniele; Mueller, Michael D

    2016-02-01

    We present cases of 2 pregnant patients with early-stage cervical cancer who have undergone indocyanine green (ICG) sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping followed by laparoscopic SLN biopsy, pelvic lymphadenectomy, and cervical conization. Eight milliliters of ICG were injected in the 4 quadrants of the cervix after having obtained an adequate pneumoperitoneum and having inspected the abdominal cavity. SLNs were identified in both hemipelvises in both patients. In the final pathologic analysis, both SLNs and non-SLNs were negative for metastatic disease. No adverse events from ICG injection were recorded. ICG SLN mapping seems to be feasible in pregnant cervical cancer patients. PMID:26476388

  10. Prognostic value of axillary lymphoscintigraphy in breast carcinoma patients

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, R.G.; Ege, G.N.

    1986-07-01

    Axillary lymphoscintigraphy (AxLS) with bilateral interdigital injection of (99mTc)antimony sulfide colloid carried out concurrently with internal mammary lymphoscintigraphy in 488 patients with breast carcinoma was evaluated. Patterns of radiocolloid distribution within the ipsilateral axilla and supraclavicular fossa were compared with similar features on the contralateral side to determine whether image characteristics are significantly disrupted by prior surgery, reflect the presence of metastases, and can predict treatment failure. Interpretive criteria for AxLS were refined after correlation of the identified image components with clinical parameters including axillary surgery, lymph node histology and relapse within a follow-up period of 2 years from the study. Results indicate that AxLS is at least as accurate as clinical assessment and provides data predictive of relapse to complement axillary lymph node status although the technique cannot presently replace lymph node sampling for patient staging.

  11. A comparative analysis of endoscopic thyroidectomy versus conventional thyroidectomy in clinically lymph node negative thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Min Ji; Cho, Min Jeng; Yoo, Young Bum; Yang, Jung Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Differentiated thyroid cancer has a good prognosis and high incidence in young women. Since endoscopic techniques were first recorded in 1996, surgical indications of endoscopic thyroidectomy have broadened. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the usefulness of endoscopic thyroidectomy in clinically lymph node negative (cN0) thyroid cancer patients, based on oncologic completeness and safety, considering cosmetic outcomes. Methods From July 2009 to June 2011, a total of 166 cases had undergone endoscopic thyroidectomy using the BABA (bilateral axillo-breast approach) method or conventional open thyroidectomy by one surgeon. Finally, excluding 72 patients, 94 patients with cN0 thyroid cancer were divided into two groups according to operative methods and analyzed to compare differences between the two methods retrospectively (endoscopic group, n = 49; conventional open group, n = 45). Results We practiced comparative analysis for clinicopathologic characteristics, surgical outcomes including postoperative complications, and recurred cases during follow-up periods of each group. The results showed there was a tendency for patients, young, women rather than men, and having small size of thyroid cancer, to prefer endoscopic surgery to open surgery. Meanwhile, in postoperative complications, there were no statistically significant differences. During short follow-up periods, no recurrence or mortality case was observed. Conclusion Endoscopic thyroidectomy is a feasible and safe method for the treatment of clinically lymph node negative (cN0) thyroid cancer. PMID:25692117

  12. Micrometastatic cancer cells in lymph nodes, bone marrow, and blood: Clinical significance and biologic implications.

    PubMed

    Leong, Stanley P L; Tseng, William W

    2014-01-01

    Cancer metastasis may be regarded as a progressive process from its inception in the primary tumor microenvironment to distant sites by way of the lymphovascular system. Although this type of tumor dissemination often occurs in an orderly fashion via the sentinel lymph node (SLN), acting as a possible gateway to the regional lymph nodes, bone marrow, and peripheral blood and ultimately to distant metastatic sites, this is not a general rule as tumor cells may enter the blood and spread to distant sites, bypassing the SLN. Methods of detecting micrometastatic cancer cells in the SLN, bone marrow, and peripheral blood of patients have been established. Patients with cancer cells in their SLN, bone marrow, or peripheral blood have worse clinical outcomes than patients with no evidence of spread to these compartments. The presence of these cells also has important biologic implications for disease progression and the clinician's understanding of the process of cancer metastasis. Further characterization of these micrometastatic cancer cells at each stage and site of metastasis is needed to design novel selective therapies for a more "personalized" treatment. PMID:24500995

  13. Ten-Year Locoregional Recurrence Risks in Women With Nodal Micrometastatic Breast Cancer Staged With Axillary Dissection

    SciTech Connect

    Lupe, Krystine; Truong, Pauline T.; Alexander, Cheryl; Speers, Caroline; Tyldesley, Scott

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To compare the locoregional recurrence (LRR) rates in patients with nodal mirometastases (pNmic) with those in patients with node-negative (pN0) and macroscopic node-positive (pNmac) breast cancer; and to evaluate the LRR rates according to locoregional treatment of pNmic disease. Methods and Materials: The subjects were 9,616 women diagnosed between 1989 and 1999 with Stage pT1-T2, pN0, pNmic, or pNmac, M0 breast cancer. All women had undergone axillary dissection. The Kaplan-Meier local recurrence, regional recurrence, and LRR rates were compared among those with pN0 (n = 7,977), pNmic (n = 490) and pNmac (n = 1,149) and according to locoregional treatment. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the significant factors associated with LRR. Results: The median follow-up was 11 years. The 10-year Kaplan-Meier recurrence rate in the pN0, pNmic, and pNmac cohorts was 6.1%, 6.8%, and 8.7% for local recurrence; 3.1%, 6.2%, and 10.3% for regional recurrence; and 8.0%, 11.6%, and 15.2% for LRR, respectively (all p < .001). In the pNmic patients, the 10-year regional recurrence rate was 6.4% with breast-conserving surgery plus breast radiotherapy (RT), 5.4% with breast-conserving surgery plus locoregional RT, 4.6% with mastectomy alone, 11.1% with mastectomy plus chest wall RT, and 10.7% with mastectomy plus locoregional RT. In patients with pNmic disease and age <45 years, Grade 3 histologic features, lymphovascular invasion, nodal ratio >0.25, and estrogen receptor-negative disease, the 10-year LRR rates were 15-20%. On multivariate analysis of the entire cohort, pNmic was associated with greater LRR than Stage pN0 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.6; p = .002). On multivariate analysis of pNmic patients only, age <45 years was associated with significantly greater LRR (HR, 1.9; p = .03), and trends for greater LRR were observed with a nodal ratio >0.25 (HR, 2.0; p = .07) and lymphovascular invasion (HR, 1.7; p = .07). Conclusion: Women with pNmic had a greater risk of LRR than those with pN0 disease. Patients with pNmic in association with young age, Grade 3 histologic features, lymphovascular invasion, nodal ratio >0.25, and estrogen receptor-negative disease experienced 10-year LRR rates of {approx}15-20%, warranting consideration of locoregional RT.

  14. German, Austrian and Swiss consensus conference on the diagnosis and local treatment of the axilla in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Jürgen; Souchon, Rainer; Lebeau, Annette; Öhlschlegel, Christian; Gruber, Günther; Rageth, Christoph; Weber, Walter; Harbeck, Nadia; Janni, Wolfgang; Kreipe, Hans; Fitzal, Florian; Resch, Alexandra; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Peintinger, Florentia

    2013-07-01

    The German, Austrian and Swiss (D.A.CH) Societies of Senology gathered together in 2012 to address dwelling questions regarding axillary clearance in breast cancer patients. The Consensus Panel consisted of 14 members of these societies and included surgical oncologists, gynaecologists, pathologists and radiotherapists. With regard to omitting axillary lymph node dissection in sentinel lymph node macrometastases, the Panel consensually accepted this option for low-risk patients only. A simple majority voted against extending radiotherapy to the axilla after omitting axillary dissection in N1 disease. Consensus was yielded for the use of axillary ultrasound and prospective registers for such patients in the course of follow-up. The questions regarding neoadjuvant therapy and the timing of sentinel lymph node biopsy failed to yield consensus, yet both options (before or after) are possible in clinically node-negative disease. PMID:23490652

  15. The Usefulness of Diffusion MRI in Detection of Lymph Node Metastases of Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Masaichi; Ichiba, Noriatsu; Watanabe, Michiaki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of preoperative diagnosis by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (D-MRI) for lymph node metastasis of colorectal cancer. The b-value represents the diffusion factor (measured in s/mm(2)) and the strength of the diffusion gradients. The b-value used in this study was 1,000 s/mm(2). A total of 119 patients underwent D-MRI before resection of primary colorectal cancer (52 of the rectum, 67 of the colon) at our hospital between February 2005 and April 2006. Lymph node metastases judged by D-MRI were compared with postoperative pathological results. The form of lymph node metastasis was classified either as abundant or scarce type. The predictive values for lymph-node metastasis (sensitivity and specificity) by D-MRI were calculated from the result of this classification and lymph-node size. The study was divided into two periods: before the consensus meeting in January 2006, (n=79) (P-I), and after the adjustment of the criteria to improve the sensitivity and specificity based on the results of P-I (n=40) (P-II). Detection of lymph node metastasis using D-MRI in P-I had sensitivity of 61%, specificity of 73%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 55%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 77%, while in P-II, these values improved to 79%, 95%, 94%, and 83%, respectively. Specificity and PPV for P-II were significantly higher than those for P-I (p<0.05). The diameter of lymph nodes judged to be metastatic on D-MRI (P-I vs. P-II: n=32 vs. 16) was 10.3±5.4 (3-28) vs. 9.1±3.0 (4-14) mm; 11.5±6.2 (4-28) vs. 9.2±3.1 (4-14) mm for truly positive nodes (n=18 vs. 15), and 6±3.8 (3-14) vs. 8 mm for false-positive nodes (n=14 vs. 1). On the other hand, lymph nodes judged negative by D-MRI (n=47 vs. 24) was 5.9±2.4 (3-16) vs. 5.7±2.8 (2-15) mm; 5.9±2.1 (3-16) vs. 5.3±2.1 (2-8) mm for truly negative (n=36 vs. 20), and 5.7±2.7 (3-12) vs. 7.8±4.9 (4-15) mm for false negative (n=11 vs. 4). As to the form of metastasis, all truly positive nodes were of the abundant type, and 6/11 (55%) in P-I and 1/4 (25%) in P-II false-negatives were of the scarce type. In conclusion, D-MRI seems useful for preoperative detection of metastatic lymph nodes in colorectal cancer, especially if the node is hyperintense and more than 9 mm in diameter. PMID:26851045

  16. Systemic blockade of the hyaluronan receptor for endocytosis prevents lymph node metastasis of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Melanie A; Weigel, Janet A; Weigel, Paul H

    2012-09-01

    Tumor progression and metastasis are promoted by the remodeling of organized tissue architecture and engagement of molecular interactions that support tumor cell passage through endothelial barriers. Prostate tumor cells that secrete and turn over excessive quantities of pericellular hyaluronan (HA) exhibit accelerated growth kinetics and spontaneous lymph node metastasis in mice. The HA receptor for endocytosis (HARE) is an endocytic clearance receptor for HA in the liver that is also highly expressed in sinusoidal endothelium of lymph nodes and bone marrow, which are frequent sites of prostate cancer metastasis. In our study, we tested the hypothesis that HARE can act as an endothelial receptor for metastatic tumor cells with pericellular HA. In an orthotopic mouse model of prostate cancer, we delivered a monoclonal antibody against HARE that specifically blocks HA binding and internalization. This treatment fully blocked the formation of metastatic tumors in lymph nodes. No effects on primary tumor growth were observed and the antibody did not induce toxic outcomes in any other tissue. Our results implicate HARE for the first time in potentiation of tumor metastasis and suggest a novel mechanism by which tumor cell-associated HA could promote tissue-specific dissemination. "Published 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This article is a US Government work, and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America." PMID:22234863

  17. Oestrogen receptors ?1 and ?cx have divergent roles in breast cancer survival and lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Rosin, G; de Boniface, J; Karthik, G M; Frisell, J; Bergh, J; Hartman, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: The expression of oestrogen receptor (ER) ? characterises a subset of breast cancers associated with good response to endocrine therapy. However, the clinical significance of the second ER, ER?1, and its splice variant ER?cx is still unclear. Methods: We here report an assessment of ER?, ER?1 and ER?cx by immunohistochemistry using quantitative digital image analysis of 340 primary tumours and corresponding sentinel lymph nodes. Results: No differences were seen in ER levels in primary tumours vs lymph node metastases. ER?1 and ER?cx were equally distributed among age groups and tumour histological grades. Loss of ER?1 in the primary tumour was strongly associated with poor survival. Its prognostic impact was particularly evident in young patients and in high-grade tumours. The worst outcome was seen in the tumours lacking both ER? and ER?1. ER?cx expression in the primary tumour correlated with a higher risk of lymph node metastasis, and with poor survival when expressed in sentinel node lymphocytes. Conclusions: Our study reveals highly significant although antagonising roles of ER?1 and ER?cx in breast cancer. Consequently, we suggest that the histopathological assessment of ER?1 is of value as a prognostic and potentially predictive biomarker. PMID:25025959

  18. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in bladder cancer: Systematic review and technology update.

    PubMed

    Liss, Michael A; Noguchi, Jonathan; Lee, Hak J; Vera, David R; Kader, A Karim

    2015-01-01

    A sentinel lymph node (SLN) is the first lymph node to drain a solid tumor and likely the first place metastasis will travel. SLN biopsy has been well established as a staging tool for melanoma and breast cancer to guide lymph node dissection (LND); its utility in bladder cancer is debated. We performed a systematic search of PubMed for both human and animal studies that looked at SLN detection in cases of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. We identified a total of nine studies that assessed a variety of imaging techniques to identify SLNs in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Eight studies investigated human patients while one looked at animal (dog) models. Seven studies representing 156 patients noted the negative predictive value of the SLN to predict a metastasis free state was 92% (92/100). The SLN biopsy was less accurate in metastatic patients with a positive predictive value of only 77% (43/56) with a false negative range of in individual studies of 0-19%. Clinically, positive nodes routinely do not take up the pharmaceutical agent for SLN. Therefore, SLN biopsy is a promising concept with a 92% negative predictive value; however, the false negative rates are high which may be improved by standardizing populations and indications. Novel technologies are improving the detection of SLN and may provide the surgeon with an improved ability to detect micrometastasis, guide surgery, and reduce patient morbidity. PMID:26166959

  19. Fluorescence diagnostics of metastatic lesion of regional lymph nodes upon surgical treatment of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filonenko, E. V.; Pak, D. D.; Yanikova, A. G.

    2013-06-01

    We have performed intraoperative fluorescence diagnostics of 60 patients for metastases of breast cancer to regional lymph nodes. All the patients were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 50 patients, which were surgically treated at the first stage. The second group consisted of ten patients, which underwent combined treatment. At the first stage, they received from two to four courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and, at the second stage, the surgical intervention was performed. The intraoperative fluorescence diagnostics was performed using the preparation alasens (precursor of protoporphyrin IX in the human organism). The occurrence of fluorescence of alasens-induced protoporphyrin IX was determined visually and using the local fluorescence spectroscopy method. Altogether, 498 lymph nodes were examined: 408 in the first group and 90 in the second one. For the first group, the sensitivity of the method was found to be 87.2%, and its specificity, 94.8%; in the second group, these parameters were determined to be 77 and 78%, respectively. The first experience of the application of the intraoperative fluorescence diagnostics of metastatic lesion of lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer has shown its high efficiency and application potential.

  20. IMP3 expression in biopsy specimens of colorectal cancer predicts lymph node metastasis and TNM stage

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Qingzhu; Huang, Xiaoping; Fu, Bo; Liu, Jianghuan; Zhong, Ling; Yang, Qiao; Zhao, Tong

    2015-01-01

    IMP3 is associated with lymph node metastasis and TNM stage and is a good independent prognostic biomarker for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the expression status and clinical implication of IMP3 in biopsy specimens have not yet been studied. We aim to address whether the presence of IMP3 expression in preoperative biopsies of CRC could predict lymph node metastasis and TNM stage. In this study, we examined IMP3 expression in paired biopsy and resection specimens of 71 CRC and analyzed the correlation of IMP3 expression with clinicopathological parameters. In the biopsy specimens, IMP3 positive expression was observed in 56 of 71 cases (78.9%) whereas negative expression was observed in 15 of 71 cases (21.1%). In the resection specimens, IMP3 positive expression was detected in 83.1% cases (59/71) whereas negative expression was detected in 16.9% cases (12/71). The absolute concordance rate between biopsy and resection specimens was 90.1% (64/71). The Spearman correlation test documented the existence of a strong linear correlation between the percentage of IMP3-positive cells in the biopsy and resection specimen (r = 0.629; P < 0.001). IMP3 expression in resection specimens was significantly related to histological grade (P = 0.043), T classification (P = 0.035), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.023), TNM stage (P = 0.007), tumor border (P = 0.049) and tumor budding (P = 0.012). IMP3 expression in biopsy specimens was significantly related to lymph node metastasis (P = 0.004), TNM stage (P = 0.005) and tumor budding (P = 0.001). In conclusion, IMP3 expression in biopsy specimens could be used to predict lymph node metastasis and TNM stage in CRC patients. PMID:26617820

  1. [Treatment of cervical lymph nodes in lip cancers].

    PubMed

    Cowen, D; Essomba, M; Richaud, P; Renaud-Salis, J L; Pigneux, J

    1990-01-01

    From 1970 to 1985, 299 patients with lip cancer were examined, treated and followed-up at the Bergonié Foundation. In most cases, interstitial radiotherapy was used and the local control rate reached 94%. Local recurrences could usually be treated again, so that the final local control rate was 99%. However, the management of neck nodes remains controversial in some cases: 5.6% only of T1-2 N0 stages developed neck nodes, which were successfully controlled in 78.9% of cases and it was therefore considered that the preferred option should be to maintain the patients under close follow-up. For T3 N0 cases, of which 17.6% would evolve, it was considered that a sub-mental and sub-maxillary neck node dissection was advisable when performance status was satisfactory and when a close follow-up was difficult. The recurrence rate was 40% for patients with palpable neck nodes who were often submitted to a combined radio-surgical treatment. In such cases, recurrences were controlled in 22% of patients who died 7 times out of nine. PMID:8703546

  2. Gastric cancer: Current status of lymph node dissection.

    PubMed

    Degiuli, Maurizio; De Manzoni, Giovanni; Di Leo, Alberto; D'Ugo, Domenico; Galasso, Erica; Marrelli, Daniele; Petrioli, Roberto; Polom, Karol; Roviello, Franco; Santullo, Francesco; Morino, Mario

    2016-03-14

    D2 procedure has been accepted in Far East as the standard treatment for both early (EGC) and advanced gastric cancer (AGC) for many decades. Recently EGC has been successfully treated with endoscopy by endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection, when restricted or extended Gotoda's criteria can be applied and D1+ surgery is offered only to patients not fitted for less invasive treatment. Furthermore, two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have been demonstrating the non inferiority of minimally invasive technique as compared to standard open surgery for the treatment of early cases and recently the feasibility of adequate D1+ dissection has been demonstrated also for the robot assisted technique. In case of AGC the debate on the extent of nodal dissection has been open for many decades. While D2 gastrectomy was performed as the standard procedure in eastern countries, mostly based on observational and retrospective studies, in the west the Medical Research Council (MRC), Dutch and Italian RCTs have been conducted to show a survival benefit of D2 over D1 with evidence based medicine. Unfortunately both the MRC and the Dutch trials failed to show a survival benefit after the D2 procedure, mostly due to the significant increase of postoperative morbidity and mortality, which was referred to splenopancreatectomy. Only 15 years after the conclusion of its accrual, the Dutch trial could report a significant decrease of recurrence after D2 procedure. Recently the long term survival analysis of the Italian RCT could demonstrate a benefit for patients with positive nodes treated with D2 gastrectomy without splenopancreatectomy. As nowadays also in western countries D2 procedure can be done safely with pancreas preserving technique and without preventive splenectomy, it has been suggested in several national guidelines as the recommended procedure for patients with AGC. PMID:26973384

  3. Gastric cancer: Current status of lymph node dissection

    PubMed Central

    Degiuli, Maurizio; De Manzoni, Giovanni; Di Leo, Alberto; D’Ugo, Domenico; Galasso, Erica; Marrelli, Daniele; Petrioli, Roberto; Polom, Karol; Roviello, Franco; Santullo, Francesco; Morino, Mario

    2016-01-01

    D2 procedure has been accepted in Far East as the standard treatment for both early (EGC) and advanced gastric cancer (AGC) for many decades. Recently EGC has been successfully treated with endoscopy by endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection, when restricted or extended Gotoda's criteria can be applied and D1+ surgery is offered only to patients not fitted for less invasive treatment. Furthermore, two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have been demonstrating the non inferiority of minimally invasive technique as compared to standard open surgery for the treatment of early cases and recently the feasibility of adequate D1+ dissection has been demonstrated also for the robot assisted technique. In case of AGC the debate on the extent of nodal dissection has been open for many decades. While D2 gastrectomy was performed as the standard procedure in eastern countries, mostly based on observational and retrospective studies, in the west the Medical Research Council (MRC), Dutch and Italian RCTs have been conducted to show a survival benefit of D2 over D1 with evidence based medicine. Unfortunately both the MRC and the Dutch trials failed to show a survival benefit after the D2 procedure, mostly due to the significant increase of postoperative morbidity and mortality, which was referred to splenopancreatectomy. Only 15 years after the conclusion of its accrual, the Dutch trial could report a significant decrease of recurrence after D2 procedure. Recently the long term survival analysis of the Italian RCT could demonstrate a benefit for patients with positive nodes treated with D2 gastrectomy without splenopancreatectomy. As nowadays also in western countries D2 procedure can be done safely with pancreas preserving technique and without preventive splenectomy, it has been suggested in several national guidelines as the recommended procedure for patients with AGC. PMID:26973384

  4. Predictive markers in primary breast cancer compared with lymph node and bloodspread metastases.

    PubMed

    El-Sibai, Mohammad F; Cohen, Cynthia; Nassar, Aziza; Bryant, Sandra C; Siddiqui, Momin T

    2009-01-01

    High levels of HER2 expression identify those patients who might benefit from treatments that target HER2. Among women with metastatic breast cancer, the predictive markers may be different from the primary tumor. We compared predictive markers: Estrogen Receptor (ER), Progesterone Receptor (PR) and HER2 of primary breast carcinomas with those of lymph node (LN) and blood spread metastases (BM). ER, PR and HER2 status were compared between the primary breast tumor and the LN metastasis and blood spread metastasis. ER, PR and HER2 were performed on primary tumor core biopsies and available FNA cell blocks and on metastatic lesions using FDA approved antibodies and HercepTest (Dako). ER and PR were positive when >/=10%. Her2 was positive (amplified/expressed) when 3+ >30% by immunostain or >2.2 by FISH. Sixty four metastatic breast cancer patients were included in this analysis. Forty-eight patients had LN metastases (35 [73 %] diagnosed by FNA) and twenty seven patients had BM (16 [60 %] diagnosed by FNA). P value was determined comparing primary breast with BM and LN for ER, PR and HER2. ER p values when compared for primary breast with BM and LN were 0.45 and 0.57 respectively, and for PR were 0.31 and 0.06 and for HER2 were 0.45 and 0.07. All three predictive markers are similar in the primary and two metastatic sites (lymph node, bloodspread). Only in primary versus lymph node metastases is there a tendency for PR and HER2 (P values 0.06, 0.07) to be different. For HER2, the majority of lymph node metastases are in cell blocks (FNA), fixed in ethanol rather than formalin, which may have caused false positive HER2 expression. PMID:21383878

  5. Ultrasonic Detection of Metastases in Dissected Lymph Nodes of Cancer Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feleppa, E. J.; Mamou, J.; Machi, J.; Hata, M.; Coron, A.; Yanagihara, E.; Laugier, P.

    Current histological methods can miss micrometastases (< 2.0 mm) in dissected lymph nodes because nodes are cut into sections that are at least 2-mm thick for examination, and the entire node volume cannot be evaluated microscopically. In this study, high-frequency, quantitative ultrasound (HFU, QUS) methods were applied to freshly dissected lymph nodes to detect micrometastases based on their microstructural properties. 3-D ultrasound data were acquired from 40 nodes from 22, colorectal-cancer patients using a single-element, 25 MHz transducer. Significant cancer was detected subsequently in 7 of the 40 nodes. Node images were segmented semi-automatically in 3-D, and echo signals were processed to yield basic spectral parameters (slope, intercept, and midband) values plus QUS estimates associated with tissue microstructural properties (scatterer size and acoustic concentration). Images were formed by expressing local QUS estimates as color-encoded pixels and overlaying the color on conventional, gray-scale ultrasound images. Linear discriminant analysis classified nodes based on intercept, midband, size, and acoustic concentration. ROC methods assessed classification performance. 3-D QUS images interactively displayed spectral-parameter and QUS values. Linear-discriminant methods produced an area under the ROC curve of 1.000 based on size and intercept; interestingly, the areas for size alone and for intercept alone were 0.986. These initial results appear to validate spectrum-analysis-based QUS methods for distinguishing cancerous from non-cancerous tissue in lymph nodes. The Areas under the ROC curves suggest that this approach can be valuable clinically to identify nodal micrometastases that current histologic methods can miss.

  6. Evaluation of Tumor Cell Proliferation by Ki-67 Expression and Mitotic Count in Lymph Node Metastases from Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Sura; Wik, Elisabeth; Davidsen, Benedicte; Aas, Hans; Aas, Turid; Akslen, Lars A.

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have addressed the risk of recurrence by assessing proliferation markers in lymph node metastasis from breast cancer. Here, we aimed to examine Ki-67 expression and mitotic count in lymph nodes in comparison with primary tumors. A cohort of node positive breast cancer (n = 168) was studied as a part of the prospective Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (1996–2009). The percentage of Ki-67 positivity was counted per 500 tumor cells in hot-spot areas (x630). Mitotic count was conducted in the most cellular and mitotic active areas in 10 high power fields (x400). Our results showed that Ki-67 and mitotic count were significantly correlated between primary tumor and lymph nodes (Spearman`s correlation 0. 56 and 0.46, respectively) and were associated with most of the histologic features of the primary tumor. Univariate survival analysis (log-rank test) showed that high Ki-67 and mitotic count in the primary tumor and lymph node metastasis significantly predicted risk of recurrence. In multivariate analysis, mitotic count in the lymph node metastasis was an independent predictor of tumor recurrence. In conclusion, proliferation markers in lymph node metastases significantly predicted disease free survival in node positive breast cancer. PMID:26954367

  7. Successful resection of metachronous para-aortic, Virchow lymph node and liver metastatic recurrence of rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Nobuyoshi; Fukunaga, Toru; Kimura, Masayuki; Sugamoto, Yuji; Tasaki, Kentaro; Hoshino, Isamu; Ota, Takumi; Maruyama, Tetsuro; Tamachi, Tomohide; Hosokawa, Takashi; Asai, Yo; Matsubara, Hisahiro

    2015-01-01

    A 66-year-old female presented with the main complaint of defecation trouble and abdominal distention. With diagnosis of rectal cancer, cSS, cN0, cH0, cP0, cM0 cStage II, Hartmanns operation with D3 lymph node dissection was performed and a para-aortic lymph node and a disseminated node near the primary tumor were resected. Histological examination showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, pSS, pN3, pH0, pP1, pM1 (para-aortic lymph node, dissemination) fStage IV. After the operation, the patient received chemotherapy with FOLFIRI regimen. After 12 cycles of FOLFIRI regimen, computed tomography (CT) detected an 11 mm of liver metastasis in the postero-inferior segment of right hepatic lobe. With diagnosis of liver metastatic recurrence, we performed partial hepatectomy. Histological examination revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma as a metastatic rectal cancer with cut end microscopically positive. After the second operation, the patient received chemotherapy with TS1 alone for 2 years. Ten months after the break, CT detected a 20 mm of para-aortic lymph node metastasis and a 10 mm of lymph node metastasis at the hepato-duodenal ligament. With diagnosis of lymph node metastatic recurrences, we performed lymph node dissection. Histological examination revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma as metastatic rectal cancer in para-aortic and hepato-duodenal ligament areas. After the third operation, we started chemotherapy with modified FOLFOX6 regimen. After 2 cycles of modified FOLFOX6 regimen, due to the onset of neutropenia and liver dysfunction, we switched to capecitabine alone and continued it for 6 mo and then stopped. Eleven months after the break, CT detected two swelling 12 mm of lymph nodes at the left supraclavicular region. With diagnosis of Virchow lymph node metastatic recurrence, we started chemotherapy with capecitabine plus bevacizumab regimen. Due to the onset of neutropenia and hand foot syndrome (Grade 3), we managed to continue capecitabine administration with extension of interval period and dose reduction. After 2 years and 2 mo from starting capecitabine plus bevacizumab regimen, Virchow lymph nodes had slowly grown up to 17 mm. Because no recurrence had been detected besides Virchow lymph nodes for this follow up period, considering the side effects and quality of life, surgical resection was selected. We performed left supraclavicular lymph node dissection. Histological examination revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma as a metastatic rectal cancer. After the fourth operation, the patient selected follow up without chemotherapy. Now we follow up her without recurrence and keep her quality of life high. PMID:26640350

  8. Noninvasive photoacoustic identification of sentinel lymph nodes containing methylene blue in vivo in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kwang Hyun; Stein, Erich W.; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become the standard method of axillary staging for patients with breast cancer and clinically negative axillae. Even though SLNB using both methylene blue and radioactive tracers has a high identification rate, it still relies on an invasive surgical procedure with associated morbidity. Axillary ultrasound has emerged as a diagnostic tool to evaluate the axilla, but it can only assess morphology and cannot specifically sidentify sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). In this pilot study, we propose a noninvasive photoacoustic SLN identification system using methylene blue injection in a rat model. We successfully image a SLN with high optical contrast (14641, standard deviation) and good ultrasonic resolution (~500 m) in vivo We also show potential feasibility for clinical applications by imaging 20- and 31-mm-deep SLNs in 3-D and 2-D, respectively. Our results suggest that this technology would be a useful clinical tool, allowing clinicians to identify SLNs noninvasively in vivo. PMID:19021413

  9. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer: Impact on extracapsular lymph node involvement

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Ralf; Bollschweiler, Elfriede; Drebber, Uta; Mnig, Stefan P; Schrder, Wolfgang; Alakus, Hakan; Kocher, Martin; Baldus, Stephan E; Hlscher, Arnulf H

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effects of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) on the presence of extracapsular lymph node involvement (LNI) and its prognostic value in patients with resected esophageal cancer. METHODS: Two hundred and ninety-eight patients with advanced esophageal cancer underwent esophagectomy between 1997 and 2006. One hundred and ninety patients (63.8%) were treated with neoadjuvant CRT prior to resection. A total of 986 metastatic LNs were examined. Survival of the patients was analyzed according to intra- and extra-capsular LNI. RESULTS: Five-year survival rate was 22.5% for the entire patient population. Patients with extracapsular LNI had a 5-year survival rate of 16.7%, which was comparable to the 15.8% in patients with infiltrated nodes of the celiac trunk (pM1lymph). In contrast to patients treated with surgery alone, neoadjuvant therapy resulted in significantly (P = 0.001) more patients with pN0/M0 (51.6% vs 25.0%). In 17.6% of the patients with surgery alone vs 16.8% with neoadjuvant CRT, extracapsular LNI was detected. Neoadjuvant therapy does not reduce the occurrence of extracapsular LNI. CONCLUSION: Extracapsular LNI is an independent negative prognostic factor not influenced by neoadjuvant CRT. In a revised staging system for esophageal cancer, extracapsular LNI should be considered. PMID:20419835

  10. Recursive Partitioning Analysis of Lymph Node Ratio in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yao-Jen; Chung, Kuo-Piao; Chen, Li-Ju; Chang, Yun-Jau

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lymph node ratio (LNR) is a powerful prognostic factor for breast cancer. We conducted a recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) of the LNR to identify the prognostic risk groups in breast cancer patients. Records of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients between 2002 and 2006 were searched in the Taiwan Cancer Database. The end of follow-up was December 31, 2009. We excluded patients with distant metastases, inflammatory breast cancer, survival <1 month, no mastectomy, or missing lymph node status. Primary outcome was 5-year overall survival (OS). For univariate significant predictors, RPA were used to determine the risk groups. Among the 11,349 eligible patients, we identified 4 prognostic factors (including LNR) for survival, resulting in 8 terminal nodes. The LNR cutoffs were 0.038, 0.259, and 0.738, which divided LNR into 4 categories: very low (LNR???0.038), low (0.038?cancer patients. PMID:25569639

  11. Recursive partitioning analysis of lymph node ratio in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Jen; Chung, Kuo-Piao; Chen, Li-Ju; Chang, Yun-Jau

    2015-01-01

    Lymph node ratio (LNR) is a powerful prognostic factor for breast cancer. We conducted a recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) of the LNR to identify the prognostic risk groups in breast cancer patients. Records of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients between 2002 and 2006 were searched in the Taiwan Cancer Database. The end of follow-up was December 31, 2009. We excluded patients with distant metastases, inflammatory breast cancer, survival <1 month, no mastectomy, or missing lymph node status. Primary outcome was 5-year overall survival (OS). For univariate significant predictors, RPA were used to determine the risk groups. Among the 11,349 eligible patients, we identified 4 prognostic factors (including LNR) for survival, resulting in 8 terminal nodes. The LNR cutoffs were 0.038, 0.259, and 0.738, which divided LNR into 4 categories: very low (LNR???0.038), low (0.038?cancer patients. PMID:25569639

  12. [Use of combined treatment of rectal cancer involving metastases to regional lymph nodes].

    PubMed

    Barsukov, Iu A; Vlasov, O A; Tkachëv, S I; Nikolaev, A V; Tamrazov, R I; Malikhov, A G; Iskhagi, S Kh

    2006-01-01

    Use of combined pre- and intraoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer involving metastases to regional lymph nodes failed to lower incidence of loco-regional recurrences or improve 5-year results, as compared with pre-operative radiotherapy alone. Besides, distant metastasis rates remained rather high (ca.30%). However, pre-operative radiotherapy plus local SHF-hyperthermia were followed by a significant drop in loco-regional recurrence incidence (to 2.3%), as compared with surgery alone and combined treatment using pre-operative hyper-fractionated-radiotherapy (TTD 25 Gy). Distant metastasis rates dropped to 25%. Also, 5-year survival increased significantly. PMID:17168359

  13. [Sentinel lymph node detection in breast cancer. Experience of the Institut Curie].

    PubMed

    Nos, C; Frneaux, P; Clough, K B

    2000-05-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a recently developed, minimally invasive technique for staging the axilla in breast cancer. This new procedure of selective lymphadenectomy has been the subject of several studies, and a consensus of opinion is starting to form to define indications and methods of identification concerning the use of this technique. At the Institut Curie since 1996, we have been using the Patent blue dye technique and from 1998 we have used the combination of blue dye and technetium labeled sulfur colloid. This article summarizes the principales aspect of this technique. PMID:10804363

  14. Evaluating the Effects of Aluminum-Containing and Non-Aluminum Containing Deodorants on Axillary Skin Toxicity During Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer: A 3-Armed Randomized Controlled Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Lucy; Carson, Sharron; Bydder, Sean; Athifa, Mariyam; Williams, Anne M.; Bremner, Alexandra

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Deodorant use during radiation therapy for breast cancer has been controversial as there are concerns deodorant use may exacerbate axillary skin toxicity. The present study prospectively determined the use of both aluminum-containing and non aluminum containing deodorants on axillary skin toxicity during conventionally fractionated postoperative radiation therapy for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: This 3-arm randomized controlled study was conducted at a single center, tertiary cancer hospital between March 2011 and April 2013. Participants were randomized to 1 of 2 experimental groups (aluminum-containing deodorant and soap or non–aluminum containing deodorant and soap) or a control group (soap). A total of 333 participants were randomized. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate and compare the odds of experiencing high levels of sweating and skin toxicity in each of the deodorant groups to the odds in the control group. The study evaluated a range of endpoints including objective measurements of axilla sweating, skin toxicity, pain, itch and burning. Quality of life was assessed with a validated questionnaire. Results: Radiation characteristics were similar across all groups. Patients in the deodorant groups did not report significantly different ratings for axillary pain, itch, or burning compared with the control group. Patients in the aluminum-containing deodorant group experienced significantly less sweating than the control; the odds of their sweating being barely tolerable and frequently or always interfering with their daily activities was decreased by 85% (odds ratio, 0.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.91). Conclusions: We found no evidence that the use of either aluminum-containing or non–aluminum containing deodorant adversely effects axillary skin reaction during conventionally fractionated radiation therapy for breast cancer. Our analysis also suggests patients in the aluminum-containing deodorant arm had significantly less sweating without increased symptoms of axillary radiation skin toxicity. These results add to the evidence that the prescription of deodorants during radiation therapy for breast cancer is now questionable.

  15. Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery for gastric cancer: Does it really benefit the patient?

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Tohru; Sonoda, Hiromichi; Tani, Masaji

    2016-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) navigation surgery is accepted as a standard treatment procedure for malignant melanoma and breast cancer. However, the benefit of reduced lymphadenectomy based on SLN examination remains unclear in cases of gastric cancer. Here, we review previous studies to determine whether SLN navigation surgery is beneficial for gastric cancer patients. Recently, a large-scale prospective study from the Japanese Society of Sentinel Node Navigation Surgery reported that the endoscopic dual tracer method, using a dye and radioisotope for SLN biopsy, was safe and effective when applied to cases of superficial and relatively small gastric cancers. SLN mapping with SLN basin dissection was preferred for early gastric cancer since it is minimally invasive. However, previous studies reported that limited gastrectomy and lymphadenectomy may not improve the patient’s postoperative quality of life (QOL). As a result, the benefit of SLN navigation surgery for gastric cancer patients, in terms of their QOL, is limited. Thus, endoscopic and laparoscopic limited gastrectomy combined with SLN navigation surgery has the potential to become the standard minimally invasive surgery in early gastric cancer. PMID:26973385

  16. Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery for gastric cancer: Does it really benefit the patient?

    PubMed

    Tani, Tohru; Sonoda, Hiromichi; Tani, Masaji

    2016-03-14

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) navigation surgery is accepted as a standard treatment procedure for malignant melanoma and breast cancer. However, the benefit of reduced lymphadenectomy based on SLN examination remains unclear in cases of gastric cancer. Here, we review previous studies to determine whether SLN navigation surgery is beneficial for gastric cancer patients. Recently, a large-scale prospective study from the Japanese Society of Sentinel Node Navigation Surgery reported that the endoscopic dual tracer method, using a dye and radioisotope for SLN biopsy, was safe and effective when applied to cases of superficial and relatively small gastric cancers. SLN mapping with SLN basin dissection was preferred for early gastric cancer since it is minimally invasive. However, previous studies reported that limited gastrectomy and lymphadenectomy may not improve the patient's postoperative quality of life (QOL). As a result, the benefit of SLN navigation surgery for gastric cancer patients, in terms of their QOL, is limited. Thus, endoscopic and laparoscopic limited gastrectomy combined with SLN navigation surgery has the potential to become the standard minimally invasive surgery in early gastric cancer. PMID:26973385

  17. Quantitative photoacoustic assessment of ex-vivo lymph nodes of colorectal cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Mamou, Jonathan; Saegusa-Beercroft, Emi; Chitnis, Parag V.; Machi, Junji; Feleppa, Ernest J.

    2015-03-01

    Staging of cancers and selection of appropriate treatment requires histological examination of multiple dissected lymph nodes (LNs) per patient, so that a staggering number of nodes require histopathological examination, and the finite resources of pathology facilities create a severe processing bottleneck. Histologically examining the entire 3D volume of every dissected node is not feasible, and therefore, only the central region of each node is examined histologically, which results in severe sampling limitations. In this work, we assess the feasibility of using quantitative photoacoustics (QPA) to overcome the limitations imposed by current procedures and eliminate the resulting under sampling in node assessments. QPA is emerging as a new hybrid modality that assesses tissue properties and classifies tissue type based on multiple estimates derived from spectrum analysis of photoacoustic (PA) radiofrequency (RF) data and from statistical analysis of envelope-signal data derived from the RF signals. Our study seeks to use QPA to distinguish cancerous from non-cancerous regions of dissected LNs and hence serve as a reliable means of imaging and detecting small but clinically significant cancerous foci that would be missed by current methods. Dissected lymph nodes were placed in a water bath and PA signals were generated using a wavelength-tunable (680-950 nm) laser. A 26-MHz, f-2 transducer was used to sense the PA signals. We present an overview of our experimental setup; provide a statistical analysis of multi-wavelength classification parameters (mid-band fit, slope, intercept) obtained from the PA signal spectrum generated in the LNs; and compare QPA performance with our established quantitative ultrasound (QUS) techniques in distinguishing metastatic from non-cancerous tissue in dissected LNs. QPA-QUS methods offer a novel general means of tissue typing and evaluation in a broad range of disease-assessment applications, e.g., cardiac, intravascular, musculoskeletal, endocrine-gland, etc.

  18. Radiation dose to the lymph drainage area in esophageal cancer with involved-field irradiation

    PubMed Central

    SHEN, WENBIN; GAO, HONGMEI; ZHU, SHUCHAI; LI, YOUMEI; LI, JUAN; LIU, ZHIKUN; SU, JINWEI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the radiation dose to the corresponding lymph drainage area in esophageal cancer using three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) with involvED-field IRradiation (IFI) and to analyze associated factors. A retrospective analysis oF 81 patients with esophageal cancer was conducted. According to the location of the lesions, the lymph drainage area was delineated and the dosimetric parameters were calculated. The 1-, 3-, 5- and 8-year survival rates of the patients were 67.90, 33.33, 20.99 and 11.11%, respectively. Based on the dose-volume histogram in the treatment plan, we calculated the volume percentage of the planning target volume including clinically positive lymph nodes (PTV-N) receiving radiation doses of 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 Gy (VPTV-N30-50). The median values of VPTV-N30-50 were 73, 70, 67, 64 and 58%, respectively. The prescribed dose size exhibited no correlation with VPTV-N30-35, but did exhibit a significant correlation with VPTV-N40-50; the radiation field was not correlated with VPTV-N30-45, but exhibited a significant correlation with VPTV-N50; The length of the lesion on esophageal barium meal X-ray and the PTV were significantly correlated with VPTV-N30–50. The analysis of variance revealed that the VPTV-NX value in the upper thoracic segment was higher compared with that in the middle and lower thoracic segments; VPTV-N30-35 values differed significantly according to the different locations of the lesions, whereas VPTV-N40-50 values exhibited no significant differences. The value of VPTV-NX exerted no significant effect on long-term patient survival. Therefore, the corresponding lymph drainage area of esophageal cancer IS subjected to a certain Radiation dose when patients undergo 3D-CRT with IFI, which may play a role in the prevention of regional nodal metastasis. However, this hypothesis requires confirmation by further clinical studies. PMID:26870295

  19. A Prognostic Index for Predicting Lymph Node Metastasis in Minor Salivary Gland Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, Shane; Yu, James B.; Ross, Douglas A.; Wilson, Lynn D.; Decker, Roy H.

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: Large studies examining the clinical and pathological factors associated with nodal metastasis in minor salivary gland cancer are lacking in the literature. Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, we identified 2,667 minor salivary gland cancers with known lymph node status from 1988 to 2004. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with the use of neck dissection, the use of external beam radiation therapy, and the presence of cervical lymph node metastases. Results: Four hundred twenty-six (16.0%) patients had neck nodal involvement. Factors associated with neck nodal involvement on univariate analysis included increasing age, male sex, increasing tumor size, high tumor grade, T3-T4 stage, adenocarcinoma or mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and pharyngeal site of primary malignancy. On multivariate analysis, four statistically significant factors were identified, including male sex, T3-T4 stage, pharyngeal site of primary malignancy, and high-grade adenocarcinoma or high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas. The proportions (and 95% confidence intervals) of patients with lymph node involvement for those with 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 of these prognostic factors were 0.02 (0.01-0.03), 0.09 (0.07-0.11), 0.17 (0.14-0.21), 0.41 (0.33-0.49), and 0.70 (0.54-0.85), respectively. Grade was a significant predictor of metastasis for adenocarcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma but not for adenoid cystic carcinoma. Conclusions: A prognostic index using the four clinicopathological factors listed here can effectively differentiate patients into risk groups of nodal metastasis. The precision of this index is subject to the limitations of SEER data and should be validated in further clinical studies.

  20. SU-E-T-596: Axillary Nodes Radiotherapy Boost Field Dosimetric Impact Study: Oblique Field and Field Optimization in 3D Conventional Breast Cancer Radiation Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Su, M; Sura, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dosimetric impact of two axillary nodes (AX) boost techniques: (1) posterior-oblique optimized field boost (POB), (2) traditional posterior-anterior boost (PAB) with field optimization (O-PAB), for a postmastectomy breast patient with positive axillary lymph nodes. Methods: Five patients, 3 left and 2 right chest walls, were included in this study. All patients were simulated in 5mm CT slice thickness. Supraclavicular (SC) and level I/II/III AX were contoured based on the RTOG atlas guideline. Five treatment plans, (1) tangential chest wall, (2) oblique SC including AX, (3) PAB, O-PAB and POB, were created for each patient. Three plan sums (PS) were generated by sum one of (3) plan with plan (1) and (2). The field optimization was done through PS dose distribution, which included a field adjustment, a fractional dose, a calculation location and a gantry angle selection for POB. A dosimetric impact was evaluated by comparing a SC and AX coverage, a PS maximum dose, an irradiated area percentage volume received dose over 105% prescription dose (V105), an ipsi-laterial mean lung dose (MLD), an ipsi-laterial mean humeral head dose (MHHD), a mean heart dose (MHD) (for left case only) and their DVH amount these three technique. Results: O-PAB, POB and PAB dosimetric results showed that there was no significant different on SC and AX coverage (p>0.43) and MHD (p>0.16). The benefit of sparing lung irradiation from PAB to O-PAB to POB was significant (p<0.004). PAB showed a highest PS maximum dose (p<0.005), V105 (p<0.023) and MLD (compared with OPAB, p=0.055). MHHD showed very sensitive to the patient arm positioning and anatomy. O-PAB convinced a lower MHHD than PAB (p=0.03). Conclusion: 3D CT contouring plays main role in accuracy radiotherapy. Dosimetric advantage of POB and O-PAB was observed for a better normal tissue irradiation sparing.

  1. Using the K-nearest neighbor algorithm for the classification of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Shuheng; Zhang, Huan; Pang, Lifang; Lam, Kinman; Hui, Chun; Zhang, Su

    2012-01-01

    Accurate tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) staging, especially N staging in gastric cancer or the metastasis on lymph node diagnosis, is a popular issue in clinical medical image analysis in which gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) can provide more information to doctors than conventional computed tomography (CT) does. In this paper, we apply machine learning methods on the GSI analysis of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer. First, we use some feature selection or metric learning methods to reduce data dimension and feature space. We then employ the K-nearest neighbor classifier to distinguish lymph node metastasis from nonlymph node metastasis. The experiment involved 38 lymph node samples in gastric cancer, showing an overall accuracy of 96.33%. Compared with that of traditional diagnostic methods, such as helical CT (sensitivity 75.2% and specificity 41.8%) and multidetector computed tomography (82.09%), the diagnostic accuracy of lymph node metastasis is high. GSI-CT can then be the optimal choice for the preoperative diagnosis of patients with gastric cancer in the N staging. PMID:23150740

  2. Using the K-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm for the Classification of Lymph Node Metastasis in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Shuheng; Zhang, Huan; Pang, Lifang; Lam, Kinman; Hui, Chun; Zhang, Su

    2012-01-01

    Accurate tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) staging, especially N staging in gastric cancer or the metastasis on lymph node diagnosis, is a popular issue in clinical medical image analysis in which gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) can provide more information to doctors than conventional computed tomography (CT) does. In this paper, we apply machine learning methods on the GSI analysis of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer. First, we use some feature selection or metric learning methods to reduce data dimension and feature space. We then employ the K-nearest neighbor classifier to distinguish lymph node metastasis from nonlymph node metastasis. The experiment involved 38 lymph node samples in gastric cancer, showing an overall accuracy of 96.33%. Compared with that of traditional diagnostic methods, such as helical CT (sensitivity 75.2% and specificity 41.8%) and multidetector computed tomography (82.09%), the diagnostic accuracy of lymph node metastasis is high. GSI-CT can then be the optimal choice for the preoperative diagnosis of patients with gastric cancer in the N staging. PMID:23150740

  3. Nomogram to Predict Occult N2 Lymph Nodes Metastases in Patients With Squamous Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Long; Jiang, Shanshan; Lin, Yongbin; Yang, Han; Xie, Zehua; Lin, Yaobin; Long, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract For nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients without distant metastases, occult involvement of N2 lymph nodes would be of the utmost importance in determining both treatment and survival. The key to optimal treatment strategies relied on accurate diagnosis, in particular accurate clinical tumor staging. Patients with clinical N0 or N1 staging preoperatively had a sizeable risk to have occult N2 lymph nodes metastases. From November 2004 to March 2007, the entire database in a tertiary hospital of all patients with a pathologic diagnosis of squamous NSCLC underwent anatomical pulmonary resection and systematic mediastinal lymph node dissection were retrospectively collected and reviewed. A nomogram was developed on the basis of a multivariable logistic regression model with a combination of all potential variables. In order to surmount the potential of overestimating predictive performance, both bootstrapping for internal validation and an independent external validation set were employed. A nomogram incorporating the significant risk factors was created to predict the probability of occult N2 lymph nodes metastases. The calibration plot for the probability of occult N2 lymph nodes metastases showed an optimal agreement between the predicted probabilities by nomogram and actual observed probabilities. An objective and accurate nomogram predictive model for occult N2 lymph nodes metastases was drawn up and validated internally and externally in patients with squamous NSCLC. The nomogram model, as a robust tool in predicting occult N2 lymph nodes involvement, could be involved in a cost-effective application of specific diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:26579815

  4. Automatic FDG-PET-based tumor and metastatic lymph node segmentation in cervical cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbonès, Dídac R.; Jensen, Henrik G.; Loft, Annika; Munck af Rosenschöld, Per; Hansen, Anders Elias; Igel, Christian; Darkner, Sune

    2014-03-01

    Treatment of cervical cancer, one of the three most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide, often relies on delineations of the tumour and metastases based on PET imaging using the contrast agent 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). We present a robust automatic algorithm for segmenting the gross tumour volume (GTV) and metastatic lymph nodes in such images. As the cervix is located next to the bladder and FDG is washed out through the urine, the PET-positive GTV and the bladder cannot be easily separated. Our processing pipeline starts with a histogram-based region of interest detection followed by level set segmentation. After that, morphological image operations combined with clustering, region growing, and nearest neighbour labelling allow to remove the bladder and to identify the tumour and metastatic lymph nodes. The proposed method was applied to 125 patients and no failure could be detected by visual inspection. We compared our segmentations with results from manual delineations of corresponding MR and CT images, showing that the detected GTV lays at least 97.5% within the MR/CT delineations. We conclude that the algorithm has a very high potential for substituting the tedious manual delineation of PET positive areas.

  5. Surgery for gallbladder cancer in the US: a need for greater lymph node clearance

    PubMed Central

    Nissen, Nicholas N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a rare malignancy with a dismal prognosis. Often identified incidentally after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for presumably benign biliary disease, reoperation with partial hepatic resection and periportal lymph node dissection (LND) is frequently performed. The impact of lymph node (LN) clearance for GBC remains unclear. Methods The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was queried for patients diagnosed with GBC between 1988 and 2009. Survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier method and compared using log-rank test. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors of survival. Results A total of 11,815 patients diagnosed with GBC were identified. Cancer-directed surgery was performed in 8,436 (71.3%) patients. Optimal LN clearance (defined as ?4 LNs) is associated with young age, advanced T-stage, no radiation therapy, and radical surgery (all <0.001). Greater LND improves survival for all stages (P<0.001). After adjusting for confounding factors, multivariable analysis of patients with node-negative disease demonstrated that early stage, greater LND, and radical surgery were strong independent predictors of survival. Conclusions Extensive lymphadenectomy correlates with longer survival even in node negative patients. Extensive LND should be performed in patients with GBC as many patients in the USA are undertreated. PMID:26487937

  6. The prognostic impact of extracapsular lymph node involvement in rectal cancer patients: Implications for staging and adjuvant treatment strategies

    PubMed Central

    Brabender, J.; Hlscher, A.H.; Strobel, K.; Gutschow, C.; Prenzel, K.; Grimminger, P.; Drebber, U.; Schrder, W.; Metzger, R.; Vallbhmer, D.

    2012-01-01

    Limited data suggest that extracapsular lymph node involvement (LNI) has a negative prognostic impact in gastrointestinal malignancies. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and prognostic impact of LNI in patients with primary resected rectal cancer. Between 1997 and 2007, 243 rectal cancer patients underwent surgical therapy without neoadjuvant treatment at our Department. Of these, 12 (5%) patients received transanal endoscopic microsurgery and were not included for further analyses. In the remaining patients, a (low) anterior resection was performed in 79% and an abdominoperineal rectal amputation in 21%. The total number of analyzed lymph nodes and the number of metastatic lymph nodes with/without extracapsular LNI were determined and the prognostic impact of LNI was assessed. The median number of analyzed lymph nodes was 14. In total, 59% of patients were node-negative, 18% of patients were node-positive without extracapsular LNI and 23% of patients were node-positive with extracapsular LNI. A positive lymph node status with extracapsular LNI was significantly correlated with a poorer T-, N- and M-category, grading and more frequent lymphatic vessel infiltration compared with node-negative or node-positive without extracapsular LNI patients (p<0.001). The overall 5-year survival rate of node-negative patients was 75%, for node-positive without extracapsular LNI patients 69% and for node-positive with extracapsular LNI patients 36% (p<0.001). By multivariate analysis, the N-category with extracapsular LNI was characterized as an independent prognostic factor. Extracapsular lymph node involvement reveals an independent negative prognostic impact in patients with rectal cancer undergoing surgical therapy. Staging systems for rectal cancer should include the implementation of extracapsular lymph node involvement. PMID:22741001

  7. [Feasibility and accuracy of the combined radioisotope and blue-dye guided sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Pley, G; Farkas, E; Tgls, M; Orosz, Z; Andcs, G

    2000-12-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a minimally invasive operation for staging regional lymph nodes in breast cancer. This method was introduced in the last decade. However there are some remaining questions regarding labelling, surgical technique, indications, and the pathological examination of the removed sentinel lymph nodes which have to be answered before can be introduced as the routine clinical practice. 98 patients with primary breast cancer underwent double guided (radioisotope and blue-dye) sentinel lymph node biopsy in our department during a surgical feasibility study between December 1997 and February 2000. The operation was successful in 92 patients (94%). False negative rate, sensitivity and accuracy were 15%, 85% and 95% retrospectively. During the learning curve the success rate improved from 83% to 99%, the sensitivity from 79% to 89% and the accuracy from 88% to 97% and the false negative rate decreased from 21% to 11%. In T1 tumors the false negative rate and accuracy were 6% and 98%, while in T2 tumors these were 24% and 86%. Application of a larger particle sized colloid (200-600 nm), subareolar injection and next day operation technique had no effects on the results. Double guided sentinel lymph node biopsy is a sensitive surgical staging procedure which accurately predicts the lymph node status in T1 breast tumors. The technique used by us is easy to reproduce, and learn and is beneficial in technical and radiation protection aspects. PMID:11299488

  8. [Lymph node and distant metastases of thyroid gland cancer : Metastases in the thyroid glands].

    PubMed

    Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The different biological features of the various major entities of thyroid cancer, e.g. papillary, follicular, poorly differentiated, anaplastic and medullary, depend to a large extent on their different metastatic spread. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has a propensity for cervical lymphatic spread that occurs in 20-50 % of patients whereas distant metastasis occurs in < 5 % of cases. Cervical lymphadenopathy may be the first symptom particularly of (micro) PTC. In contrast follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) has a marked propensity for vascular but not lymphatic invasion and 10-20 % of FTC develop distant metastases. At the time of diagnosis approximately one third of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cases show lymph node metastases, in 10-15 % distant metastases and 25 % develop metastases during the course of the disease. Poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) spread via both lymphatic and vascular invasion. Thus distant metastases are relatively uncommon in DTC and when they occur, long-term stable disease is the typical clinical course. The major sites of distant metastases are the lungs and bone. Metastases to the brain, breasts, liver, kidneys, muscle and skin are relatively rare or even rare. The thyroid gland itself can be a site of metastases from a variety of other tumors. In autopsy series of patients with disseminated cancer disease, metastases to the thyroid gland were found in up to 10 % of cases. Metastases from other primary tumors to the thyroid gland have been reported in 1.4-3 % of patients who have surgery for suspected cancer of the thyroid gland. The most common primary cancers that metastasize to the thyroid gland are renal cell (48.1 %), colorectal (10.4 %), lung (8.3 %) and breast cancer (7.8 %) and surprisingly often sarcomas (4.0 %). PMID:26357953

  9. Optimal Extent of Prophylactic Irradiation of Paraaortic Lymph Nodes in Patients with Uterine Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jinhyun; Yoon, Hong In; Lee, Jeongshim; Keum, Ki Chang; Kim, Gwi Eon; Kim, Yong Bae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine optimal extent of prophylactic irradiation of paraaortic lymph nodes (PALN) in patients with uterine cervical cancer who had metastatic pelvic LNs. Methods and Materials We retrospectively evaluated 103 patients with cervical cancer and pelvic lymph node metastasis who were treated with prophylactic semi-extended field radiotherapy (SEFRT) between 1990 and 2012. The semi-extended field included PALN below the second lumbar spine with prescribed doses of 45 to 50 Gy. Survival outcomes were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and acute and late toxicities were scored using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer toxicity criteria. Results The median follow-up after SEFRT was 61 (range 5296) months. Overall, 28 patients (27.2%) experienced treatment failures, which were classified as local in 8 patients (7.8%), regional in 8 patients (7.8%), and distant in 13 patients (12.6%). Of the regional failures, only two involved PALN failure around the renal artery or the renal hilum area at the upper margin of the semi-extended field. At 5 years, the overall survival was 82%. Grade 3 or higher acute gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicities occurred in one and two patients, respectively. As a late toxicity, one patient developed grade 3 small bowel obstruction. Conclusion Prophylactic SEFRT provided favorable outcomes with little acute or late gastrointestinal toxicity. For prophylaxis of PALN recurrences, upper part of PALN might not need to be included in patients with uterine cervical cancer and metastatic pelvic LNs. PMID:26659867

  10. Log odds of positive lymph nodes are superior to other measures for evaluating the prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Peng; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate the ability of the log odds of positive lymph nodes to predict prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Correlations between the log odds of positive lymph nodes, numbers of dissected lymph nodes, dissected lymph node stations, positive lymph nodes, positive lymph node ratio, and positive lymph node stations were retrospectively evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients (r), survival analysis by KaplanMeier, Cox hazard ratio model, and log-rank tests. Results The numbers of dissected lymph nodes, positive lymph nodes, dissected lymph node stations and positive lymph node stations significantly correlated with the log odds of positive lymph nodes (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively). The five-year survival ratio of postoperative patients with the log odds of positive lymph nodes <11.412 and >?1.412 were 63.9% and 32.5%, respectively (P < 0.001). According to multivariate analysis, age and log odds of positive lymph nodes are independent risk factors for overall survival (hazard ratio = 2.660, 95% confidence interval 2.1143.346, P < 0.001). A new staging system featuring a combination of log odds of positive lymph nodes and a tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging system was established for predicting survival. Conclusion The log odds of positive lymph nodes are superior to the positive lymph node ratio and p-N-stage for predicting prognosis of NSCLC. A new staging system that combines log odds of positive lymph nodes and the current TNM staging system predicts prognosis more accurately than the TNM system alone.

  11. Optimized Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Versus 3D-CRT for Early Stage Mediastinal Hodgkin Lymphoma Without Axillary Involvement: A Comparison of Second Cancers and Heart Disease Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Ragona, Riccardo; Piva, Cristina; Scafa, Davide; Fiandra, Christian; Fusella, Marco; Giglioli, Francesca Romana; Lohr, Frank; Ricardi, Umberto

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risks of second cancers and cardiovascular diseases associated with an optimized volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning solution in a selected cohort of stage I/II Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients treated with either involved-node or involved-site radiation therapy in comparison with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: Thirty-eight patients (13 males and 25 females) were included. Disease extent was mediastinum alone (n=8, 21.1%); mediastinum plus unilateral neck (n=19, 50%); mediastinum plus bilateral neck (n=11, 29.9%). Prescription dose was 30 Gy in 2-Gy fractions. Only 5 patients had mediastinal bulky disease at diagnosis (13.1%). Anteroposterior 3D-CRT was compared with a multiarc optimized VMAT solution. Lung, breast, and thyroid cancer risks were estimated by calculating a lifetime attributable risk (LAR), with a LAR ratio (LAR{sub VMAT}-to-LAR{sub 3D-CRT}) as a comparative measure. Cardiac toxicity risks were estimated by calculating absolute excess risk (AER). Results: The LAR ratio favored 3D-CRT for lung cancer induction risk in mediastinal alone (P=.004) and mediastinal plus unilateral neck (P=.02) presentations. LAR ratio for breast cancer was lower for VMAT in mediastinal plus bilateral neck presentations (P=.02), without differences for other sites. For thyroid cancer, no significant differences were observed, regardless of anatomical presentation. A significantly lower AER of cardiac (P=.038) and valvular diseases (P<.0001) was observed for VMAT regardless of disease extent. Conclusions: In a cohort of patients with favorable characteristics in terms of disease extent at diagnosis (large prevalence of nonbulky presentations without axillary involvement), optimized VMAT reduced heart disease risk with comparable risks of thyroid and breast cancer, with an increase in lung cancer induction probability. The results are however strongly influenced by the different anatomical presentations, supporting an individualized approach.

  12. Stress Exposure in Significant Relationships Is Associated with Lymph Node Status in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Renzi, Chiara; Vadilonga, Valeria; Gandini, Sara; Perinel, Giada; Rotmensz, Nicole; Didier, Florence; Rescigno, Maria; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Objective Life stress exposure may impact on health and disease. Previous literature showed that stressful life events are associated with cancer incidence, survival and mortality. In animal models, patterns of maternal care have been shown to critically affect stress sensitivity and immunity trajectories later in life, by modifying DNA methylation during critical periods early in life. However, the role of parental care in breast cancer progression and survival has only limitedly been explored. Here, we investigated whether these factors may be linked to biological prognostic variables. Methods One hundred twenty-three women hospitalized for surgery of primary breast cancer completed a questionnaire assessing parental bonding. Stressful events throughout the life span were also assessed. Results We found that the absence of optimal parental relationships is significantly associated with an increased risk of lymph node involvement, adjusting for confounders, while cumulative stress in the area of sentimental relationships is borderline significantly associated with the same prognostic factor. Conclusions Our results suggest that parental bonding and sentimental relations may have a role in breast cancer progression. These variables represent an important evolutionary aspect which may modulate cancer progression through psycho-physiological stress pathways and influence the immune system. PMID:26910901

  13. Radical lymph node dissection and assessment: Impact on gallbladder cancer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gui-Jie; Li, Xue-Hua; Chen, Yan-Xin; Sun, Hui-Dong; Zhao, Gui-Mei; Hu, San-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the lymph node metastasis patterns of gallbladder cancer (GBC) and evaluate the optimal categorization of nodal status as a critical prognostic factor. METHODS: From May 1995 to December 2010, a total of 78 consecutive patients with GBC underwent a radical resection at Liaocheng People’s Hospital. A radical resection was defined as removing both the primary tumor and the regional lymph nodes of the gallbladder. Demographic, operative and pathologic data were recorded. The lymph nodes retrieved were examined histologically for metastases routinely from each node. The positive lymph node count (PLNC) as well as the total lymph node count (TLNC) was recorded for each patient. Then the metastatic to examined lymph nodes ratio (LNR) was calculated. Disease-specific survival (DSS) and predictors of outcome were analyzed. RESULTS: With a median follow-up time of 26.50 mo (range, 2-132 mo), median DSS was 29.00 ± 3.92 mo (5-year survival rate, 20.51%). Nodal disease was found in 37 patients (47.44%). DSS of node-negative patients was significantly better than that of node-positive patients (median DSS, 40 mo vs 17 mo, χ2 = 14.814, P < 0.001), while there was no significant difference between N1 patients and N2 patients (median DSS, 18 mo vs 13 mo, χ2 = 0.741, P = 0.389). Optimal TLNC was determined to be four. When node-negative patients were divided according to TLNC, there was no difference in DSS between TLNC < 4 subgroup and TLNC ≥ 4 subgroup (median DSS, 37 mo vs 54 mo, χ2 = 0.715, P = 0.398). For node-positive patients, DSS of TLNC < 4 subgroup was worse than that of TLNC ≥ 4 subgroup (median DSS, 13 mo vs 21 mo, χ2 = 11.035, P < 0.001). Moreover, for node-positive patients, a new cut-off value of six nodes was identified for the number of TLNC that clearly stratified them into 2 separate survival groups (< 6 or ≥ 6, respectively; median DSS, 15 mo vs 33 mo, χ2 = 11.820, P < 0.001). DSS progressively worsened with increasing PLNC and LNR, but no definite cut-off value could be identified. Multivariate analysis revealed histological grade, tumor node metastasis staging, TNLC and LNR to be independent predictors of DSS. Neither location of positive lymph nodes nor PNLC were identified as an independent variable by multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Both TLNC and LNR are strong predictors of outcome after curative resection for GBC. The retrieval and examination of at least 6 nodes can influence staging quality and DSS, especially in node-positive patients. PMID:23964151

  14. The Association between Abnormal Long Noncoding RNA MALAT-1 Expression and Cancer Lymph Node Metastasis: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Pan, Yongsheng; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Cheng; Huang, Yuan; Zhao, Ruizhe; Cheng, Gong; Liu, Jinliang; Shao, Pengfei; Hua, Lixin; Wang, Zengjun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated that the expression levels of MALAT-1 were higher in cancerous tissues than matched histologically normal tissues. And, to some extent, overexpression of MALAT-1 was inclined to lymph node metastasis. This meta-analysis collected all relevant articles and explored the association between MALAT-1 expression levels and lymph node metastasis. We searched PubMed, EmBase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and OVID to address the level of MALAT-1 expression in cancer cases and noncancerous controls (accessed February 2015). And 8 studies comprising 696 multiple cancer patients were included to assess this association. The odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to assess the strength of the association using Stata 12.0 version software. The results revealed there was a significant difference in the incidence of lymph node metastasis between high MALAT-1 expression group and low MALAT-1 expression group (OR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.15–3.28, P = 0.013 random-effects model). Subgroup analysis indicated that MALAT-1 high expression had an unfavorable impact on lymph node metastasis in Chinese patients (OR = 1.87, 95% CI 1.01–2.46). This study demonstrated that the incidence of lymph node metastasis in patients detected with high MALAT-1 expression was higher than that in patients with low MALAT-1 expression in China. PMID:26989678

  15. Isolated tumor cells and micrometastases in regional lymph nodes in stage I to II endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Minobe, Shinichiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical significance of isolated tumor cells (ITCs) or micrometastasis (MM) in regional lymph nodes in patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I to II endometrial cancer. Methods In this study, a series of 63 patients with FIGO stage I to II were included, who had at least one of the following risk factors for recurrence: G3 endometrioid/serous/clear cell adenocarcinomas, deep myometrial invasion, cervical involvement, lympho-vascular space invasion, and positive peritoneal cytology. These cases were classified as intermediate-risk endometrial cancer. Ultrastaging by multiple slicing, staining with hematoxylin and eosin and cytokeratin, and microscopic examination was performed on regional lymph nodes that had been diagnosed as negative for metastases. Results Among 61 patients in whom paraffin-embedded block was available, ITC/MM was identified in nine patients (14.8%). Deep myometrial invasion was significantly associated with ITC/MM (p=0.028). ITC/MM was an independent risk factor for extrapelvic recurrence (hazard ratio, 17.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 232.2). The 8-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were more than 20% lower in the ITC/MM group than in the node-negative group (OS, 71.4% vs. 91.9%; RFS, 55.6% vs. 84.0%), which were statistically not significant (OS, p=0.074; RFS, p=0.066). Time to recurrence tended to be longer in the ITC/MM group than in the node-negative group (median, 49 months vs. 16.5 months; p=0.080). Conclusions It remains unclear whether ITC/MM have an adverse influence on prognosis of intermediate-risk endometrial cancer. A multicenter cooperative study is needed to clarify the clinical significance of ITC/MM. PMID:25925293

  16. Predicting Pelvic Lymph Node Involvement in Current-Era Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Sophia; Cosmatos, Harry; Dave, Giatri; Williams, Stephen; Tome, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: The Roach formula [2/3 Multiplication-Sign prostate-specific antigen + (Gleason score - 6) Multiplication-Sign 10], derived in 1993 during the early prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening era, has been used to predict the risk of pelvic lymph node involvement in patients with prostate cancer. In the current era of widespread PSA screening with a shift to earlier disease stages, there is evidence to suggest that the Roach score overestimates risk of nodal metastasis. This study retrospectively reviews the validity of this formula as a prediction tool. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective institutional review including men with clinical T1c-T3 prostate cancer, with baseline PSA levels and biopsy-obtained Gleason scores who underwent radical prostatectomy with pelvic node dissection from 2001 through 2009 (N = 1,022). The predicted risk of nodal involvement was calculated for each patient using the Roach formula and then compared with actual rates following surgery. Results: The study included 1,022 patients; 99.6% had clinical T1c/T2 disease, with a mean of 10.3 lymph nodes surgically evaluated. Overall, 42 patients (4.1%) had nodal metastasis. For every range of scores, the Roach formula overestimates the risk of nodal involvement. Observed nodal positivity was 1%, 6.3%, 10%, 15.2%, and 16.7% for Roach scores {<=}10%, >10%-20%, >20%-30%, >30%-40%, and >40%, respectively. The Roach score overestimates the risk by approximately 4.5-fold in patients with scores {<=}10%, by 2.5-fold for all scores between 10% and 40%, and by 4-fold for scores >40%. Conclusion: The Roach formula overpredicts the risk of pelvic nodal involvement in current-era prostate cancer patients undergoing regular PSA screening and with mainly T1c/T2 disease. Contemporary patients are much less likely to have nodal involvement for a given PSA and Gleason score.

  17. Assessment of methylation status of locoregional lymph nodes in lung cancer using EBUS-NA.

    PubMed

    Millares, Laura; Serra, Mireia; Andreo, Felipe; Sanz-Santos, Jose; Montón, Concepción; Grimau, Carles; Gallego, Miguel; Setó, Laia; Combalia, Neus; Llatjos, Mariona; Escoda, Rosa; Castellà, Eva; Monsó, Eduard

    2015-10-01

    Hypermethylation of the promoter region of tumor suppressor genes is associated with carcinogenesis in lung cancer (LC). Endobronchial ultrasound with needle aspiration (EBUS-NA) is a semi-invasive method for obtaining cell blocks from lymph nodes, which can be used for epigenetic analyses. To establish the relationship between methylation status of p16, DAPK, RASSF1a, APC and CDH13 genes in lymph nodes sampled by EBUS-NA, tumor staging and prognosis. Methylation status of DAPK, p16, RASSF1a, APC and CDH13 genes was assessed in EBUS-NA cell blocks from LC patients and related to stage and survival. Eighty-five consecutive patients [mean age 67 (SD 8)] were included. Methylation of ≥1 gene was found in 43 malignant nodes (67 %). A higher prevalence of RASSF1a methylation was observed in small cell lung cancer patients [9/10 (90 %) vs. 15/53 (28 %); p < 0.001 χ(2) test]. Methylation of APC and/or p16 was related to advanced staging in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [15/29 (52 %) vs. 6/24 (25 %), p = 0.048, χ(2) test]. Patients with NSCLC showing methylation of APC and/or p16 had also lower 6-month survival (p = 0.019, log rank test), which persisted after adjustment for age and subtyping (HR = 6, 95 % CI [1.8-19.5], p = 0.003, Cox regression). Epigenetic analyses are feasible in EBUS-NA cell blocks and may identify methylation patterns associated with worse prognosis. Methylation of p16 and APC genes in NSCLC patients was associated with advanced staging and lower 6-month survival. PMID:26119430

  18. Evaluation of Breast Sentinel Lymph Node Coverage by Standard Radiation Therapy Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovitch, Rachel Ballonoff, Ari; Newman, Francis M.S.; Finlayson, Christina

    2008-04-01

    Background: Biopsy of the breast sentinel lymph node (SLN) is now a standard staging procedure for early-stage invasive breast cancer. The anatomic location of the breast SLN and its relationship to standard radiation fields has not been described. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of radiotherapy treatment planning data sets was performed in patients with breast cancer who had undergone SLN biopsy, and those with a surgical clip at the SLN biopsy site were identified. The location of the clip was evaluated relative to vertebral body level on an anterior-posterior digitally reconstructed radiograph, treated whole-breast tangential radiation fields, and standard axillary fields in 106 data sets meeting these criteria. Results: The breast SLN varied in vertebral body level position, ranging from T2 to T7 but most commonly opposite T4. The SLN clip was located below the base of the clavicle in 90%, and hence would be excluded from standard axillary radiotherapy fields where the inferior border is placed at this level. The clip was within the irradiated whole-breast tangent fields in 78%, beneath the superior-posterior corner multileaf collimators in 12%, and outside the tangent field borders in 10%. Conclusions: Standard axillary fields do not encompass the lymph nodes at highest risk of containing tumor in breast cancer patients. Elimination of the superior-posterior corner MLCs from the tangent field design would result in inclusion of the breast SLN in 90% of patients treated with standard whole-breast irradiation.

  19. The value of immunohistochemistry in sentinel lymph node histopathology in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Klevesath, M B; Bobrow, L G; Pinder, S E; Purushotham, A D

    2005-01-01

    The optimal protocol for the histopathological examination of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in breast cancer has not been determined. The value of more detailed examination using immunohistochemistry (IHC) is controversial. A total of 476 SLNs from 216 patients were reviewed. Sentinel lymph nodes were sectioned at three levels at 100??m intervals and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E). If the H&E sections showed no evidence of metastasis, then the three serial sections were stained with a murine monoclonal anti-cytokeratin antibody (CAM 5.2). Metastatic deposits were classified as macrometastasis (>2.0?mm), micrometastasis (0.22.0?mm) or isolated tumour cells (ITC, <0.2?mm). Of the 216 patients, 56 (26%) had metastasis as identified by H&E. Immunohistochemistry detected metastatic deposits in a further nine patients (4%), of whom four (2%) had micrometastasis and five (2%) had ITC only. Those cases with micrometastases were all, on review, visible on the H&E sections. Immunohistochemistry detects only a small proportion of metastasis in SLNs. All metastatic deposits identified by IHC were either micrometastasis or ITC. Until the prognostic significance of these deposits has been determined, IHC may be of limited value in the histopathological examination of SLNs. PMID:15942633

  20. Any detectable thyroglobulin in lymph node biopsy washouts suggests local recurrence in differentiated thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Natalie Su-Jing; Maher, Richard; Learoyd, Diana Louise

    2014-01-01

    The sensitivity of local recurrence detection in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is increased by measuring thyroglobulin in needle washouts from lymph node fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNA-Tg). Recent studies have proposed minimum diagnostic threshold values for FNA-Tg and have reported interference from Tg antibodies (Tg Ab), leading to low or false-negative results. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of FNA-Tg in the diagnosis of local DTC recurrence in patients referred to a single pathology service used by our tertiary teaching hospital, the first such study in an Australian cohort. Data were collected from the pathology service database for FNA-Tg over an 18-month period, and the results of 69 FNA-Tg samples from 57 patients were obtained. FNA-Tg findings were compared with cytology and histology when patients proceeded to surgery. Using the functional sensitivity as the cut-off, detectable FNA-Tg (?0.9??g/l) had a sensitivity of 95.7%, specificity of 50% and positive predictive value of 95.7%. Our results suggest that detectable FNA-Tg leads to histological confirmation of local nodal DTC recurrence and would support a decision to proceed to surgery. Serum Tg Ab can, however, interfere with FNA-Tg measurements. Thus, we now recommend routine use of FNA-Tg washouts in all lymph node FNA biopsies for the detection of DTC recurrence. PMID:25125556

  1. Colorectal cancer and lymph nodes: The obsession with the number 12

    PubMed Central

    Li Destri, Giovanni; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Scilletta, Roberto; Scilletta, Beniamino; Puleo, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Lymphadenectomy of colorectal cancer is a decisive factor for the prognostic and therapeutic staging of the patient. For over 15 years, we have asked ourselves if the minimum number of 12 examined lymph nodes (LNs) was sufficient for the prevention of understaging. The debate is certainly still open if we consider that a limit of 12 LNs is still not the gold standard mainly because the research methodology of the first studies has been criticized. Moreover many authors report that to date both in the United States and Europe the number “12” target is uncommon, not adequate, or accessible only in highly specialised centres. It should however be noted that both the pressing nature of the debate and the dissemination of guidelines have been responsible for a trend that has allowed for a general increase in the number of LNs examined. There are different variables that can affect the retrieval of LNs. Some, like the surgeon, the surgery, and the pathology exam, are without question modifiable; however, other both patient and disease-related variables are non-modifiable and pose the question of whether the minimum number of examined LNs must be individually assigned. The lymph nodal ratio, the sentinel LNs and the study of the biological aspects of the tumor could find valid application in this field in the near future. PMID:24587671

  2. Identification of Regional Lymph Node Involvement of Colorectal Cancer by Serum SELDI Proteomic Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Nai-Jun; Gao, Chun-Fang; Wang, Xiu-Li

    2011-01-01

    Background. To explore the application of serum proteomic patterns for the preoperative detection of regional lymph node involvement of colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods. Serum samples were applied to immobilized metal affinity capture ProteinChip to generate mass spectra by Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). Proteomic spectra of serum samples from 70 node-positive CRC patients and 75 age- and gender-matched node-negative CRC patients were employed as a training set, and a classification tree was generated by using Biomarker Pattern Software package. The validity of the classification tree was then challenged with a blind test set including another 65 CRC patients. Results. The software identified an average of 46 mass peaks/spectrum and 5 of the identified peaks at m/z 3,104, 3,781, 5,867, 7,970, and 9,290 were used to construct the classification tree. The classification tree separated effectively node-positive CRC patients from node-negative CRC patients, achieving a sensitivity of 94.29% and a specificity of 100.00%. The blind test challenged the model independently with a sensitivity of 91.43% a specificity of 96.67%. Conclusions. The results indicate that SELDI-TOF-MS can correctly distinguish node-positive CRC patients from node-negative ones and show great potential for preoperative screening for regional lymph node involvement of CRC. PMID:22253617

  3. Mediastinal lymph node dissection in resected lung cancer: morbidity and accuracy of staging.

    PubMed

    Bollen, E C; van Duin, C J; Theunissen, P H; vt Hof-Grootenboer, B E; Blijham, G H

    1993-04-01

    A study was performed to investigate the morbidity of mediastinal lymph node dissection (MND) and to establish its contribution to the accuracy of staging in surgically treated non-small cell lung cancer. Between 1988 and the middle of 1991 a systematic sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes was done in 20 patients and a MND was carried out in 65 patients. Data from these patients were compared with those from a control group of 70 patients operated on in 1986 and 1987, who would have had MND if they had been treated in the years after 1988. The groups were comparable according to important clinical characteristics. There was a significantly greater fluid production via the drains in the groups with systematic sampling and MND, compared with the controls. Volume of blood lost during the operation and number of units blood transfused perioperatively were not significantly different between the groups. Three lesions of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and two episodes of chylothorax were observed, all probably caused by MND. The discovery ratio for N2 disease in the MND and systematic sampling groups together compared with the control group was 2.1, with a 95% confidence interval from 1.04 to 4.2. PMID:8385446

  4. Sentinel lymph node metastases in cancer: causes, detection and their role in disease progression.

    PubMed

    Nathanson, S D; Shah, R; Rosso, K

    2015-02-01

    Malignant tumors of ectodermal or endodermal origin may metastasize to the sentinel lymph node, the first lymph node encountered by tumor cells that enter lymphatics in the organ of origin. This pathway is enabled by the anatomy of the disease and the causes of metastasis are the result of complex interactions that include mechanical forces within the tumor and host tissues, and molecular factors initiated by tumor cell proliferation, elaboration of cytokines and changes in the tumor microenvironment. Mechanical stresses may influence complex biochemical, genetic and other molecular events and enhance the likelihood of metastasis. This paper summarizes our understanding of interacting molecular, anatomical and mechanical processes which facilitate metastasis to SLNs. Our understanding of these interacting events is based on a combination of clinical and basic science research, in vitro and in vivo, including studies in lymphatic embryology, anatomy, micro-anatomy, pathology, physiology, molecular biology and mechanobiology. The presence of metastatic tumor in the SLN is now more accurately identifiable and, based upon prospective clinical trials, paradigm-changing SLN biopsy has become the standard of clinical practice in breast cancer and melanoma. PMID:25444847

  5. Pre-operative lymph node status of gastric cancer evaluated by multidetector computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Ye, Yanwei; Yang, Qing; Li, Jingjing; Han, Chao; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Chunlin; Wen, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to perform a meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic value of Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in the pre-operative lymph node (N) staging in gastric cancer (GC) patients. The Medline, Embase and Web of Knowledge were searched for studies assessing the diagnostic value of MDCT in the pre-operative evaluation of TNM staging in GC patients. We pooled the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative Likelihood ratio (LR+ and LR-), Diagnostic Odds Ratio (DOR) and constructed summary receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC). A total of 30 studies including 6637 GC patients were analyzed. The pooled estimates of sensitivity, specificity, LR+, LR- and DOR of MDCT in the detection of pre-operative N staging in GC patients were 0.67 (95% CI: 0.66-0.69 ), 0.84 (95% CI: 0.83-0.85), 3.25 (95% CI: 2.69-3.93), 0.36 (95% CI: 0.28-0.46) and 10.31 (95% CI: 7.66-13.88), respectively. The results of a summary ROC showed that the AUC and Q* were 0.8338 and 0.7661, respectively. As a control, the AUC and Q* of endoscopic ultrasonography were 0.8063 and 0.7414, respectively. Currently, it is necessary to recommend the routine clinical application of MDCT in the preoperative evaluation of lymph node status in GC patients. PMID:26770423

  6. Biologic profiling of lymph node negative breast cancers by means of microRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Emiel A M; Slewa, Aida; Gudlaugsson, Einar; Jonsdottir, Kristin; Skaland, Ivar; Søiland, Håvard; Baak, Jan P A

    2010-12-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease. Different subgroups can be recognized on the basis of the steroid receptors, HER-2, cytokeratin expression and proliferation patterns. As a result of mRNA-profiling studies, five major groups can be recognized, of which the triple-negative and basal-like tumors have the worst prognosis. Many of these tumors have a high proliferation that has the strongest prognostic value in node negative breast cancer. In the current study we analyzed the microRNA pattern in 103 lymph node negative breast cancers and compared these profiles with different biological characteristics and clinicopathological features. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis divides the patients into four main groups, of which the basal-like/triple-negative group is the most prominent (11% of all cases), the luminal A cancers containing the Her2 negative and estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor-positive tumors is the largest group (57%), and the group of luminal B (32%) is more heterogeneous and contains the Her2 positive/estrogen receptor-negative patients as well. The highest overall classification values by analysis of variance followed by cross validation (leave one sample out and reselect genes) were found for cytokeratin 5 and 6, triple-negative and estrogen receptor, with 97, 90 and 90% accuracy, respectively. MiR-106b gene is prominent in all of these signatures and correlates strongest with high proliferation. Other interesting observations are the presence of several microRNAs (miR532-5p, miR-500, miR362-5p, and miR502-3p) located at Xp11.23 in cancers with a triple-negative signature, and the upregulation of several miR-17 cluster members in estrogen receptor-negative tumors. The current study shows that estrogen receptor negativity and cytokeratin 5 and 6 expression are important, and specific biological processes in lymph node negative breast cancer, as microRNA signatures are strongest in these subgroups. PMID:20818337

  7. Effects of phase I complex decongestive physiotherapy on physical functions and depression levels in breast cancer related lymph edema.

    PubMed

    Atalay, Orçin Telli; Özkir, Anıl; Çalik, Bilge Başakçi; Baskan, Emre; Taşkin, Harun

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] Breast cancer-related upper extremity lymph edema is known to cause physical, functional and psychological impairments in women after modified radical mastectomy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of phase I Complex Decongestive Physiotherapy (CDP) on physical functions and depression levels in women with breast cancer-related upper extremity lymph edema. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-eight subjects with breast cancer-related upper extremity lymph edema were the subjects of this study. The arm circumference, shoulder range of motion (ROM), muscle strength and depression levels of the subjects were assessed before and after phase I CDP treatment. [Results] After phase I CDP, there was a statistically significant reduction in circumference measurements at all levels of the affected arm. There was not any statistically significant difference in muscle strength after CDP. The shoulder ROM improved after treatment. There was a significant reduction in the Beck Depression Inventory score. A significant positive correlation was found between depression levels and circumference measurement. [Conclusion] Based on the results we suggest that by reducing limb volume, beside improving physical functions, phase I CDP can affect psychological status, especially depression which is very common in women with breast cancer-related upper extremity lymph edema. PMID:25931748

  8. Effects of phase I complex decongestive physiotherapy on physical functions and depression levels in breast cancer related lymph edema

    PubMed Central

    Atalay, Orin Telli; zkir, An?l; alik, Bilge Ba?aki; Baskan, Emre; Ta?kin, Harun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Breast cancer-related upper extremity lymph edema is known to cause physical, functional and psychological impairments in women after modified radical mastectomy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of phase I Complex Decongestive Physiotherapy (CDP) on physical functions and depression levels in women with breast cancer-related upper extremity lymph edema. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-eight subjects with breast cancer-related upper extremity lymph edema were the subjects of this study. The arm circumference, shoulder range of motion (ROM), muscle strength and depression levels of the subjects were assessed before and after phase I CDP treatment. [Results] After phase I CDP, there was a statistically significant reduction in circumference measurements at all levels of the affected arm. There was not any statistically significant difference in muscle strength after CDP. The shoulder ROM improved after treatment. There was a significant reduction in the Beck Depression Inventory score. A significant positive correlation was found between depression levels and circumference measurement. [Conclusion] Based on the results we suggest that by reducing limb volume, beside improving physical functions, phase I CDP can affect psychological status, especially depression which is very common in women with breast cancer-related upper extremity lymph edema. PMID:25931748

  9. The importance of determining surgical indications in cases of lung cancer and interstitial pneumonia with multiple intrapulmonary lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Yuki; Akiyama, Hirohiko; Kinoshita, Hiroyasu; Atari, Maiko; Fukuhara, Mitsuro; Sakai, Hiroshi; Uramoto, Hidetaka

    2015-01-01

    Introduction When considering treatment for pulmonary cancer complicated by interstitial pneumonia, the greatest problem is acute exacerbation. We report two cases of pulmonary cancer complicated by interstitial pneumonia in which multiple intrapulmonary lymph nodes were noted. Case presentations Cases 1 and 2 were 76- and 62-year-old males, respectively. Both cases were diagnosed as pulmonary cancer complicated by interstitial pneumonia, and upon chest CT, it was noted that, in addition to the primary lesions, there were multiple nodule shadows under the pleura in the lung lobe, which required identification in order to rule out lung metastasis. In Case 1, the pulmonary nodules were first resected during surgery and a swift diagnosis was made, determining them to be intrapulmonary lymph nodes, which were then operated on curatively. In Case 2, the patient underwent thoracoscopic observation during surgery, the shadows were diagnosed visually as intrapulmonary lymph nodes, and curative surgery was implemented. Discussion and conclusions The greatest problem in treating pulmonary cancer complicated with interstitial pneumonia is acute exacerbation, wherein, in the absence of any surgical indications, alternative treatment is limited. Thus, contra-indicating surgery for a patient due to a diagnosis of metastasis within the lungs, based only on nodule images, should be avoided. If nodules are noted in the area of the pleura, the possibility exists that these could be intrapulmonary lymph nodes, along with metastasis within the lung, and thoracoscopic surgery should be implemented proactively while keeping these in mind. PMID:26656149

  10. [A Case of Combined Modality Therapy for a Cervical Lymph Node Recurrence after Surgery for Esophageal Cancer].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Hirotomo; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Hirao, Motohiro; Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Maeda, Sakae; Uemura, Mamoru; Miyake, Masakazu; Hama, Naoki; Ohmiya, Hideyasu; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Miyazaki, Michihiko; Ikeda, Masataka; Takami, Koji; Nakamori, Shoji; Sekimoto, Mitsugu

    2015-11-01

    In the present report, we describe a man with type 2 progressive squamous cell carcinoma (cT3N1M0, cStage ?) that was detected in the esophago-gastric junction during follow-up after ESD for early gastric cancer. We performed a middle inferior part esophagectomy, a 2-region dissection, and a posterior mediastinum gastric tube reconstruction after preoperative chemotherapy (docetaxel plus cisplatin plus 5-FU). The patient only received 1 course of preoperative chemotherapy because of neutropenia. The pathology results were pT3N2M0, pStage ?. Six months later, we started chemotherapy (nedaplatin plus adriamycin plus 5-FU) owing to an abdominal lymph node recurrence. We administered 3 courses, but then switched to radiotherapy because of AEs. After receiving a radiation dose of 50.4 Gy, the patient experienced a para-aortic lymph node recurrence and was administered 50.4 Gy for the new lesion, resulting in a CR. Six months later, we identified lymph node recurrences under the left superficialis neck muscle and performed left cervical lymph node resection. All 3 of the enlarged lymph nodes that we resected were found to contain a metastasis of esophageal cancer. Currently (after 6 months), there are no signs of recurrence. PMID:26805118

  11. Isolated tumor cells in sentinel lymph nodes of invasive breast cancer: cell displacement or metastasis?

    PubMed

    Tille, Jean-Christophe; Loubeyre, Pierre; Bodmer, Alexandre; Jannot Berthier, Anne-Sophie; Rozenholc, Alexandre; Tabouret-Viaud, Claire; Monnier, Sindy; Castiglione, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether the presence of isolated tumoral cells (ITCs) in sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) after core needle biopsy (CNB) is related to the time interval between CNB and surgery and to histopathologic features of invasive breast cancer. Data from 633 consecutive patients with no micrometastasis or metastasis on both frozen sections and definitive pathologic examination of SLNs were retrieved from a prospective data base. No association was found between ITCs and the time interval between CNB and SLNB. The association was significant with tumor size, the tumor lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and the histologic type of the tumor. This study adds supplementary data to the association between tumoral LVI and ITCs in SLNs, The time interval between CNB procedure and SLNB was not related to affect presence of ITCs, which might not suggest the iatrogenic origin of these cells. PMID:24979547

  12. Adjuvant Therapy in Lymph NodePositive Vulvar Cancer: The AGO-CaRE-1 Study

    PubMed Central

    Jueckstock, Julia; Hilpert, Felix; Neuser, Petra; Harter, Philipp; de Gregorio, Nikolaus; Hasenburg, Annette; Sehouli, Jalid; Habermann, Annika; Hillemanns, Peter; Fuerst, Sophie; Strauss, Hans-Georg; Baumann, Klaus; Thiel, Falk; Mustea, Alexander; Meier, Werner; du Bois, Andreas; Griebel, Lis-Femke; Woelber, Linn

    2015-01-01

    Background: Women with node-positive vulvar cancer have a high risk for disease recurrence. Indication criteria for adjuvant radiotherapy are controversial. This study was designed to further understand the role of adjuvant therapy in node-positive disease. Methods: Patients with primary squamous-cell vulvar cancer treated at 29 gynecologic cancer centers in Germany from 1998 through 2008 were included in this retrospective exploratory multicenter cohort study. Of 1618 documented patients, 1249 had surgical groin staging and known lymph node status and were further analyzed. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Four hundred forty-seven of 1249 patients (35.8%) had lymph node metastases (N+). The majority of N+ patients had one (172 [38.5%]) or two (102 [22.8%]) positive nodes. The three-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate of N+ patients was 35.2%, and the overall survival (OS) rate 56.2% compared with 75.2% and 90.2% in node-negative patients (N-). Two hundred forty-four (54.6%) N+ patients had adjuvant therapy, of which 183 (40.9%) had radiotherapy directed at the groins (+/-other fields). Three-year PFS and OS rates in these patients were better compared with N+ patients without adjuvant treatment (PFS: 39.6% vs 25.9%, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI[= 0.51 to 0.88, P = .004; OS: 57.7% vs 51.4%, HR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.56 to 1.11, P = .17). This effect was statistically significant in multivariable analysis adjusted for age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, Union internationale contre le cancer stage, grade, invasion depth, and number of positive nodes (PFS: HR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.43 to 0.78, P < .001; OS: HR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.43 to 0.91, P = .01). Conclusion: This large multicenter study in vulvar cancer observed that adjuvant radiotherapy was associated with improved prognosis in node-positive patients and will hopefully help to overcome concerns regarding adjuvant treatment. However, outcome after adjuvant radiotherapy remains poor compared with node-negative patients. Adjuvant chemoradiation could be a possible strategy to improve therapy because it is superior to radiotherapy alone in other squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:25618900

  13. Does skip metastasis or other lymph node parameters have additional effects on survival of patients undergoing radical cystectomy for bladder cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Baltaci, Sumer; Aslan, Guven; Can, Cavit; Cal, Cag; Elhan, Atilla; Turkeri, Levent; Mungan, Aydin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of lymph node metastasis, skip metastasis, and other factors related to lymph node status on survival in patients who underwent radical cystectomy (RC) and extended lymph node dissection (eLND). Materials and Methods RC and eLND were performed in 85 patients with a diagnosis of bladder cancer. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were determined by using a Cox proportional hazards model that included the number of excised lymph nodes, the presence of pathological lymph node metastasis, the anatomical level of positive nodes, the number of positive lymph nodes, lymph node density, and the presence of skip metastasis. Results The mean number of lymph nodes removed per patient was 29.4±9.3. Lymph node positivity was detected in 85 patients (34.1%). The mean follow-up duration was 44.9±27.4 months (2-93 months). Five-year estimated OS and DFS for the 85 patients were 62.6% and 57%, respectively. Three of 29 lymph node-positive patients (10.3%) had skip metastasis. Only lymph node positivity had a significant effect on 5-year OS and DFS (p<0.001). No difference in OS and DFS was found between the three patients with skip metastasis and other lymph node-positive patients. Other factors related to lymph node status had no significant effect on 5-year OS and DFS. Conclusions No factors related to lymph node status predict DFS and OS, except for lymph node positivity. OS and DFS were comparable between patients with skip metastasis and other lymph node-positive patients. PMID:25964836

  14. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Cervical Lymph Node Metastases From Unknown Primary Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Madani, Indira Vakaet, Luc; Bonte, Katrien; Boterberg, Tom; Neve, Wilfried de

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and conventional (two-dimensional) radiotherapy in the treatment of cervical lymph node metastases from unknown primary cancer (UPC). Methods and Materials: Between February 2003 and September 2006, 23 patients with UPC of squamous cell carcinoma were treated with IMRT. Extended putative mucosal and bilateral nodal sites were irradiated to a median dose of 66 Gy. In 19 patients, IMRT was performed after lymph node dissection, and in 4 patients primary radiotherapy was given. The conventional radiotherapy group (historical control group) comprised 18 patients treated to a median dose of 66 Gy between August 1994 and October 2003. Results: Twenty patients completed treatment. As compared with conventional radiotherapy, the incidence of Grade 3 acute dysphagia was significantly lower in the IMRT group (4.5% vs. 50%, p = 0.003). By 6 months, Grade 3 xerostomia was detected in 11.8% patients in the IMRT group vs. 53.4% in the historical control group (p = 0.03). No Grade 3 dysphagia or skin fibrosis was observed after IMRT but these were noted after conventional radiotherapy (26.7%, p = 0.01) and 26.7%, p = 0.03) respectively). With median follow-up of living patients of 17 months, there was no emergence of primary cancer. One patient had persistent nodal disease and another had nodal relapse at 5 months. Distant metastases were detected in 4 patients. The 2-year overall survival and distant disease-free probability after IMRT did not differ significantly from those for conventional radiotherapy (74.8% vs. 61.1% and 76.3% vs. 68.4%, respectively). Conclusions: Use of IMRT for UPC resulted in lower toxicity than conventional radiotherapy, and was similar in efficacy.

  15. Robotic Image-Guided Stereotactic Radiotherapy, for Isolated Recurrent Primary, Lymph Node or Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja; Beltramo, Giancarlo; Fariselli, Laura; Fodor, Cristiana; Santoro, Luigi; Vavassori, Andrea; Zerini, Dario; Gherardi, Federica; Ascione, Carmen; Bossi-Zanetti, Isa; Mauro, Roberta; Bregantin, Achille; Bianchi, Livia Corinna; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Orecchia, Roberto

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of robotic CyberKnife (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA)-based stereotactic radiotherapy (CBK-SRT) for isolated recurrent primary, lymph node, or metastatic prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between May 2007 and December 2009, 34 consecutive patients/38 lesions were treated (15 patients reirradiated for local recurrence [P], 4 patients reirradiated for anastomosis recurrence [A], 16 patients treated for single lymph node recurrence [LN], and 3 patients treated for single metastasis [M]). In all but 4 patients, [{sup 11}C]choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography was performed. CBK-SRT consisted of reirradiation and first radiotherapy in 27 and 11 lesions, respectively. The median CBK-SRT dose was 30 Gy in 4.5 fractions (P, 30 Gy in 5 fractions; A, 30 Gy in 5 fractions; LN, 33 Gy in 3 fractions; and M, 36 Gy in 3 fractions). In 18 patients (21 lesions) androgen deprivation was added to CBK-SRT (median duration, 16.6 months). Results: The median follow-up was 16.9 months. Acute toxicity included urinary events (3 Grade 1, 2 Grade 2, and 2 Grade 3 events) and rectal events (1 Grade 1 event). Late toxicity included urinary events (3 Grade 1, 2 Grade 2, and 2 Grade 3 events) and rectal events (1 Grade 1 event and 1 Grade 2 event). Biochemical response was observed in 32 of 38 evaluable lesions. Prostate-specific antigen stabilization was seen for 4 lesions, and in 2 cases prostate-specific antigen progression was reported. The 30-month progression-free survival rate was 42.6%. Disease progression was observed for 14 lesions (5, 2, 5, and 2 in Groups P, A, LN, and M respectively). In only 3 cases, in-field progression was seen. At the time of analysis (May 2010), 19 patients are alive with no evidence of disease and 15 are alive with disease. Conclusions: CyberKnife-based stereotactic radiotherapy is a feasible approach for isolated recurrent primary, lymph node, or metastatic prostate cancer, offering excellent in-field tumor control and a low toxicity profile. Further investigation is warranted to identify the patients who benefit most from this treatment modality. The optimal combination with androgen deprivation should also be defined.

  16. Photoacoustic image-guided needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chulhong; Erpelding, Todd N.; Akers, Walter J.; Maslov, Konstantin; Song, Liang; Jankovic, Ladislav; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Achilefu, Samuel; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-03-01

    We have implemented a hand-held photoacoustic and ultrasound probe for image-guided needle biopsy using a modified clinical ultrasound array system. Pulsed laser light was delivered via bifurcated optical fiber bundles integrated with the hand-held ultrasound probe. We photoacoustically guided needle insertion into rat sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) following accumulation of indocyanine green (ICG). Strong photoacoustic image contrast of the needle was achieved. After intradermal injection of ICG in the left forepaw, deeply positioned SLNs (beneath 2-cm thick chicken breast) were easily indentified in vivo and in real time. Further, we confirmed ICG uptake in axillary lymph nodes with in vivo and ex vivo fluorescence imaging. These results demonstrate the clinical potential of this hand-held photoacoustic system for facile identification and needle biopsy of SLNs for cancer staging and metastasis detection in humans.

  17. Specific upregulation of RHOA and RAC1 in cancer-associated fibroblasts found at primary tumor and lymph node metastatic sites in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rozenchan, Patricia Bortman; Pasini, Fatima Solange; Roela, Rosimeire A; Katayama, Maria Lcia Hirata; Mundim, Fiorita Gonzles Lopes; Brentani, Helena; Lyra, Eduardo C; Brentani, Maria Mitzi

    2015-12-01

    The importance of tumor-stromal cell interactions in breast tumor progression and invasion is well established. Here, an evaluation of differential genomic profiles of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) compared to fibroblasts derived from tissues adjacent to fibroadenomas (NAFs) revealed altered focal adhesion pathways. These data were validated through confocal assays. To verify the possible role of fibroblasts in lymph node invasion, we constructed a tissue microarray consisting of primary breast cancer samples and corresponding lymph node metastasis and compared the expression of adhesion markers RhoA and Rac1 in fibroblasts located at these different locations. Two distinct tissue microarrays were constructed from the stromal component of 43 primary tumors and matched lymph node samples, respectively. Fibroblasts were characterized for their expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and vimentin. Moreover, we verified the level of these proteins in the stromal compartment from normal adjacent tissue and in non-compromised lymph nodes. Our immunohistochemistry revealed that 59% of fibroblasts associated with primary tumors and 41% of the respective metastatic lymph nodes (p?=?0.271) displayed positive staining for RhoA. In line with this, 57.1% of fibroblasts associated with primary tumors presented Rac1-positive staining, and the frequency of co-positivity within the lymph nodes was 42.9% (p?=?0.16). Expression of RhoA and Rac1 was absent in fibroblasts of adjacent normal tissue and in compromised lymph nodes. Based on our findings that no significant changes were observed between primary and metastatic lymph nodes, we suggest that fibroblasts are active participants in the invasion of cancer cells to lymph nodes and support the hypothesis that metastatic tumor cells continue to depend on their microenvironment. PMID:26142737

  18. Scanning elastic scattering spectroscopy detects metastatic breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austwick, Martin R.; Clark, Benjamin; Mosse, Charles A.; Johnson, Kristie; Chicken, D. Wayne; Somasundaram, Santosh K.; Calabro, Katherine W.; Zhu, Ying; Falzon, Mary; Kocjan, Gabrijela; Fearn, Tom; Bown, Stephen G.; Bigio, Irving J.; Keshtgar, Mohammed R. S.

    2010-07-01

    A novel method for rapidly detecting metastatic breast cancer within excised sentinel lymph node(s) of the axilla is presented. Elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS) is a point-contact technique that collects broadband optical spectra sensitive to absorption and scattering within the tissue. A statistical discrimination algorithm was generated from a training set of nearly 3000 clinical spectra and used to test clinical spectra collected from an independent set of nodes. Freshly excised nodes were bivalved and mounted under a fiber-optic plate. Stepper motors raster-scanned a fiber-optic probe over the plate to interrogate the node's cut surface, creating a 2020 grid of spectra. These spectra were analyzed to create a map of cancer risk across the node surface. Rules were developed to convert these maps to a prediction for the presence of cancer in the node. Using these analyses, a leave-one-out cross-validation to optimize discrimination parameters on 128 scanned nodes gave a sensitivity of 69% for detection of clinically relevant metastases (71% for macrometastases) and a specificity of 96%, comparable to literature results for touch imprint cytology, a standard technique for intraoperative diagnosis. ESS has the advantage of not requiring a pathologist to review the tissue sample.

  19. Normal Fibroblasts Induce E-Cadherin Loss and Increase Lymph Node Metastasis in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wen; Hu, Xinlei; Chen, Zhongting; Zheng, Xiaoping; Zhang, Chenjing; Wang, Gang; Chen, Yu; Zhou, Xinglu; Tang, Xiaoxiao; Luo, Laisheng; Xu, Xiang; Pan, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    Background A tumor is considered a heterogeneous complex in a three-dimensional environment that is flush with pathophysiological and biomechanical signals. Cell-stroma interactions guide the development and generation of tumors. Here, we evaluate the contributions of normal fibroblasts to gastric cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings By coculturing normal fibroblasts in monolayers of BGC-823 gastric cancer cells, tumor cells sporadically developed short, spindle-like morphological characteristics and demonstrated enhanced proliferation and invasive potential. Furthermore, the transformed tumor cells demonstrated decreased tumor formation and increased lymphomatic and intestinal metastatic potential. Non-transformed BGC-823 cells, in contrast, demonstrated primary tumor formation and delayed intestinal and lymph node invasion. We also observed E-cadherin loss and the upregulation of vimentin expression in the transformed tumor cells, which suggested that the increase in metastasis was induced by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Conclusion Collectively, our data indicated that normal fibroblasts sufficiently induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in cancer cells, thereby leading to metastasis. PMID:24845259

  20. [Research on Application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry in the Diagnosis of Lymph Node Metastasis in Gastric Cancer].

    PubMed

    Bai, Yue-kui; Yu, Li-wei; Zhang, Le; Fu, Jing; Leng, Hui; Yang, Xiao-jun; Ma, Jun-qiang; Li, Xiao-juan; Li, Xiu-juan; Zhu, Qing; Zhang, Yuan-fu; Ling, Xiao-feng; Cao, Wen-lan

    2015-03-01

    To explore the feasibility of quick intraoperative in situ and noninvasive diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. FTIR spectra of surgically removed fresh lymph nodes were measured by FTIR via probe of attenuated total reflection (ATR). For each spectrum, 13 bands were indentified and assigned between 3 000 and 1 000 cm(-1). Peaks in the spectra were measured and relative intensity ratios were calculated and compared between the spectra of Metastatic lymph nodes (MLN) and Non-metastatic lymph nodes (NMLN). Standard statistic analysis was performed. 720 lymph nodes were measured in 38 gastric cancer patients. Results show that there were significant differences between the FTIR of 540 MLN and 180 NMLN. (1) For the band related to nucleic acid: The ratios of I1240/I1460 (p = 0.015) and I1080/I1460 (p = 0.034) increased in MLN, which shows that the relative quantity of nucleic acid was more in MLN than that in NMLN. (2) For the bands related to protein: The ratios of I1640 /I1460 (p = 0.001) and I146/I1460 (p = 0.027) increased in MLN, which shows that the relative quantity of protein was more in MLN. (3) For the bands related to lipid: The ratio of I2855/I460 and I1740/I1460 decreased in MLN FTIR spectrum, indicating the lower relative quantity of lipid in MLN. (4) For the bands related to carbohydrate: The ratio of I1160/I1460 (p = 0.023) decreased in MLN FTIR spectrum, indicating the lower relative quantity of carbohydrate in MLN. The results demonstrate that the FTIR spectroscopy technique maybe develop into a promising method for in situ and quick intraoperative differential diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer. PMID:26117862

  1. Downregulation of miR-193a-5p correlates with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Ji, Deng-Bo; Han, Hai-Bo; Shi, Yun-Fei; Du, Chang-Zheng; Gu, Jin

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the correlation of miR-193a-5p with lymph node metastasis and postoperative survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. METHODS: A total of 304 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens (69 paired cancer and normal tissues, 55 primary tumors of stage III CRC and matched lymph nodes, and 56 primary tumors of stage II CRC) were included in this study. The relative expression levels of miR-193a-5p in the normal mucosa, primary cancer, and metastatic lymph node lesions were measured by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We evaluated the association of its expression with colorectal cancer lymph node metastasis, clinicopathological factors, and patient survival. RESULTS: The relative expression level of miR-193a-5p was significantly lower in CRC tissues than in the normal mucosa (P = 0.0060). The expression levels of miR-193a-5p were lower in primary CRC tissues with lymph node metastases than in those without metastases (P = 0.0006), and decreased expression of miR-193a-5p correlated with advanced lymph node metastatic stage (P = 0.0007). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with low miR-193a-5p expression had decreased disease-free survival (DFS) (P = 0.0026) and poor overall survival (OS) (P = 0.0003). Interestingly, for the group of patients with lymph node metastases, miR-193a-5p expression was also related to survival. Patients with low miR-193a-5p expression had decreased DFS (P = 0.0262) and poor OS (P = 0.0230). Moreover, multivariate analysis indicated that downregulation of miR-193a-5p was an independent predictor of poor OS. CONCLUSION: Downregulation of miR-193a-5p correlates with lymph node metastasis and poor survival of CRC. miR-193a-5p may be a useful biomarker for CRC diagnosis, metastasis and prognosis prediction. PMID:25232258

  2. Prostate Cancer Metastases to Inguinal Lymph Nodes Detected by Attenuation-Corrected 11C-Acetate PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Shah, Veer A; Rixey, Allison; Dusing, Reginald

    2016-03-01

    The inguinal lymph nodes are an unusual site of metastases for prostate adenocarcinoma. We present a case in which a 61-y-old man with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer underwent attenuation-corrected (11)C-acetate PET/CT, which demonstrated multiple foci of increased activity in the left inguinal, left iliac chain, and right inguinal regions. The attenuation-corrected CT portion of the scan also showed anterior wall thickening of the rectum. The imaging findings were suggestive of metastatic involvement of the rectum below the dentate line with subsequent spread to the inguinal lymph nodes. PMID:26111708

  3. Near-infrared fluorescence sentinel lymph node mapping in breast cancer: a multicenter experience

    PubMed Central

    Verbeek, Floris P.R.; Troyan, Susan L.; Mieog, J. Sven D.; Liefers, Gerrit-Jan; Moffitt, Lorissa A.; Rosenberg, Mireille; Hirshfield-Bartek, Judith; Gioux, Sylvain; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Frangioni, John V.

    2014-01-01

    NIR fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green (ICG) has the potential to improve the SLN procedure by facilitating percutaneous and intraoperative identification of lymphatic channels and SLNs. Previous studies suggested that a dose of 0.62 mg (1.6 ml of 0.5 mM) ICG is optimal for SLN mapping in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence for sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in breast cancer patients when used in conjunction with conventional techniques. Study subjects were 95 breast cancer patients planning to undergo SLN procedure at either the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center (Boston, MA, USA) or the Leiden University Medical Center (Leiden, the Netherlands) between July 2010 and January 2013. Subjects underwent the standard-of-care SLN procedure at each institution using 99Technetium-colloid in all subjects and patent blue in 27 (28%) of the subjects. NIR fluorescence-guided SLN detection was performed using the Mini-FLARE imaging system. SLN identification was successful in 94 of 95 subjects (99%) using NIR fluorescence imaging or a combination of both NIR fluorescence imaging and radioactive guidance. In 2 of 95 subjects, radioactive guidance was necessary for initial in vivo identification of SLNs. In 1 of 95 subjects, NIR fluorescence was necessary for initial in vivo identification of SLNs. A total of 177 SLNs (mean = 1.9, range = 15) were resected: 100% NIR fluorescent, 88% radioactive, and 78% (of 40 nodes) blue. In 2 of 95 subjects (2.1%), SLNs containing macrometastases were found only by NIR fluorescence, and in 1 patient this led to upstaging to N1. This study demonstrates the safe and accurate application of NIR fluorescence imaging for the identification of SLNs in breast cancer patients, but calls into question what technique should be used as the gold standard in future studies. PMID:24337507

  4. Positive lymph node retrieval ratio optimises patient staging in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moug, S J; Saldanha, J D; McGregor, J R; Balsitis, M; Diament, R H

    2009-01-01

    Alternative lymph node (LN) parameters have been proposed to improve staging in colorectal cancer. This study compared these alternative parameters with conventional TNM staging in predicting long-term survival in patients undergoing curative resection. A total of 295 consecutive patients (mean age 70 years; range 39–95; s.d. 10.4) underwent resection for colorectal cancer from 2001 to 2004. Age, sex, primary tumour site, TNM stage and chemotherapy/radiotherapy were recorded. Patients with colon and rectal cancers were analysed separately for LN parameters: LN total; adequate LN retrieval (⩾12) and inadequate (<12); total number of negative LN; total number of positive LN and the ratio of positive LN to total LN (pLNR). Univariate and multivariate survival analysis was performed. The median number of LN retrieved was 10 (1–57) with adequate LN retrieval in 147 cases (49.8%). For each T and N stage, inadequate LN retrieval did not adversely affect long-term survival (P>0.05). On multivariate analysis, only pLNR was an independent predictor of overall survival in both colon and rectal cancers (HR 11.65, 95% CI 5.00–27.15, P<0.001 and HR 13.40, 95% CI 3.64–49.10, P<0.001, respectively). Application of pLNR subdivided patients into four prognostic groups. Application of the pLNR improved patient stratification in colorectal cancer and should be considered in future staging systems. PMID:19401684

  5. A lymph node ratio of 10% is predictive of survival in stage III colon cancer: a French regional study.

    PubMed

    Sabbagh, Charles; Mauvais, Franois; Cosse, Cyril; Rebibo, Lionel; Joly, Jean-Paul; Dromer, Didier; Aubert, Christine; Carton, Sophie; Dron, Bernard; Dadamessi, Innocenti; Maes, Bernard; Perrier, Guillaume; Manaouil, David; Fontaine, Jean-Franois; Gozy, Michel; Panis, Xavier; Foncelle, Pierre Henri; de Fresnoy, Hugues; Leroux, Fabien; Vaneslander, Pierre; Ghighi, Caroline; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Lymph node ratio (LNR) (positive lymph nodes/sampled lymph nodes) is predictive of survival in colon cancer. The aim of the present study was to validate the LNR as a prognostic factor and to determine the optimum LNR cutoff for distinguishing between "good prognosis" and "poor prognosis" colon cancer patients. From January 2003 to December 2007, patients with TNM stage III colon cancer operated on with at least of 3 years of follow-up and not lost to follow-up were included in this retrospective study. The two primary endpoints were 3-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) as a function of the LNR groups and the cutoff. One hundred seventy-eight patients were included. There was no correlation between the LNR group and 3-year OS (P=0.06) and a significant correlation between the LNR group and 3-year DFS (P=0.03). The optimal LNR cutoff of 10% was significantly correlated with 3-year OS (P=0.02) and DFS (P=0.02). The LNR was not an accurate prognostic factor when fewer than 12 lymph nodes were sampled. Clarification and simplification of the LNR classification are prerequisites for use of this system in randomized control trials. An LNR of 10% appears to be the optimal cutoff. PMID:25058763

  6. Visualization of the primo vascular system afloat in a lymph duct.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Bae, Kyoung-Hee; Kwon, Hee Min; Song, Yoon Kyu; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2014-12-01

    Because of the potential roles of the primo vascular system (PVS) in cancer metastasis, immune function, and regeneration, understanding the molecular biology of the PVS is desirable. The current state of PVS research is comparable to that of lymph research prior to the advent of Lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1). There is very little knowledge of the molecular biology of the PVS due to difficulties in identifying and isolating primo endothelial cells. Present investigations rely on the morphology and the use of differential staining procedures to identify the PVS within tissues, making detailed molecular studies all but impossible. To overcome such difficulties, one may emulate the explosive development of lymph molecular biology. For this purpose, there is a need for a reliable method to obtain PVS specimens to initiate the molecular investigation. One of the most reliable methods is to detect the primo vessels and primo nodes afloat in the lymph flow. The protocols for observation of the PVS in the large lymph ducts in the abdominal cavity and the thoracic cavity were reported earlier. These methods require a laparectomy and skillful techniques. In this work, we present a protocol to identify and harvest PVS specimens from the lymph ducts connecting the inguinal and the axillary nodes, which are located entirely in the skin. Thus, the PVS specimen is more easily obtainable. This method is a stepping-stone toward development of a system to monitor migration of cancer cells in metastasis from a breast tumor to the axillary nodes, where cancer cells use the PVS as a survival rope in hostile lymph flow. PMID:25499568

  7. Axillary Metastasis from an Occult Tubal Serous Carcinoma in a Patient with Ipsilateral Breast Carcinoma: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall

    PubMed Central

    Altinel, Gulbeyaz; Arseneau, Jocelyne; Omeroglu, Atilla

    2014-01-01

    Axillary nodal metastasis from a nonmammary neoplasia is much rarer than diseases associated with a primary breast carcinoma. However, this has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of nodal disease in patients with a history of breast cancer. Here, we report the case of a 73-year-old female with a past medical history of breast cancer, presenting with an ipsilateral axillary metastatic carcinoma. The immunohistochemical profile of the metastatic lesion was consistent with a high grade serous carcinoma. After undergoing a total abdominal hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy, thorough pathological examination revealed two microscopic foci of serous carcinoma in the right fallopian tube, not detectable by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. In this context, the poorly differentiated appearance of the metastatic tumor and positive staining for estrogen receptor, might lead to a misdiagnosis of metastatic breast carcinoma. As the therapeutic implications differ, it is important for the pathologist to critically assess axillary lymph node metastases, even in patients with a past history of ipsilateral breast carcinoma and no other known primary tumors. PMID:25110596

  8. Multifocal/multicentric breast carcinomas showing intertumoural heterogeneity: a comparison of histological tumour type and Nottingham histological grade of primary tumour and lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Boros, Monica; Podoleanu, Cristian; Georgescu, Rares; Moldovan, Cosmin; Molnar, Calin; Stolnicu, Simona

    2015-06-01

    Our study aimed to compare the histological tumour type and Nottingham histological grade of invasive tumour foci in multifocal/multicentric breast carcinomas with those in corresponding axillary lymph node (LN) metastases. We reassessed slides from consecutive multiple breast carcinomas surgically treated with axillary LN dissection (2007-2012). 155 (19.23%) of 806 cases had multiple breast cancer, of which 115 (74.19%) cases had identical morphology. Of these, 85 (73.91%) cases had axillary LN metastases morphologically identical to the originating breast tumours. 32 of the 40 (80%) cases with different morphology had axillary LN metastases; in most heterogeneous cases with differences in grade (87.5%), the grade of metastases was identical to the grade of the tumour foci with the highest histological grade, and in 33.33% of cases the grade in LN was concordant with the grade of smaller foci. Among the 18 cases heterogeneous in histological type with axillary metastases, 33.33% presented heterogeneous histological types in LN, and 22.22% of them were only concordant with the histological type of the smaller tumour foci. The morphological aspects of axillary LN metastases correspond to the highest histological grade and/or histological tumour type with unfavourable prognosis, which does not necessarily appear in the largest tumour focus. PMID:26247525

  9. Integration of single-fiber reflectance spectroscopy into ultrasound-guided endoscopic lung cancer staging of mediastinal lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanick, Stephen Chad; van der Leest, Cor; Aerts, Joachim G. J. V.; Hoogsteden, Henk C.; Kaščáková, Slávka; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Amelink, Arjen

    2010-01-01

    We describe the incorporation of a single-fiber reflectance spectroscopy probe into the endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) procedure utilized for lung cancer staging. A mathematical model is developed to extract information about the physiological and morphological properties of lymph tissue from single-fiber reflectance spectra, e.g., microvascular saturation, blood volume fraction, bilirubin concentration, average vessel diameter, and Mie slope. Model analysis of data from a clinical pilot study shows that the single-fiber reflectance measurement is capable of detecting differences in the physiology between normal and metastatic lymph nodes. Moreover, the clinical data show that probe manipulation within the lymph node can perturb the in vivo environment, a concern that must be carefully considered when developing a sampling strategy. The data show the feasibility of this novel technique; however, the potential clinical utility has yet to be determined.

  10. Axillary nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... muscle of the shoulder may show signs of muscle atrophy . Tests that may be used to check axillary nerve dysfunction include: EMG and nerve conduction tests, will be ... the injury or symptoms start MRI or x-rays of the shoulder

  11. A dual-modality photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system for noninvasive sentinel lymph node detection: preliminary clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erpelding, Todd N.; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Krumholz, Arie; Ke, Haixin; Maslov, Konstantin; Appleton, Catherine; Margenthaler, Julie; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has emerged as an accurate, less invasive alternative to axillary lymph node dissection, and it has rapidly become the standard of care for patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) hypothesis states that the pathological status of the axilla can be accurately predicted by determining the status of the first (i.e., sentinel) lymph nodes that drain from the primary tumor. Physicians use radio-labeled sulfur colloid and/or methylene blue dye to identify the SLN, which is most likely to contain metastatic cancer cells. However, the surgical procedure causes morbidity and associated expenses. To overcome these limitations, we developed a dual-modality photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system to noninvasively detect SLNs based on the accumulation of methylene blue dye. Ultimately, we aim to guide percutaneous needle biopsies and provide a minimally invasive method for axillary staging of breast cancer. The system consists of a tunable dye laser pumped by a Nd:YAG laser, a commercial ultrasound imaging system (Philips iU22), and a multichannel data acquisition system which displays co-registered photoacoustic and ultrasound images in real-time. Our clinical results demonstrate that real-time photoacoustic imaging can provide sensitive and specific detection of methylene blue dye in vivo. While preliminary studies have shown that in vivo detection of SLNs by using co-registered photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging is feasible, further investigation is needed to demonstrate robust SLN detection.

  12. Hypofractionated Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy for Lymph Node Metastasized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fonteyne, Valerie; De Gersem, Werner; De Neve, Wilfried; Jacobs, Filip; Lumen, Nicolaas; Vandecasteele, Katrien; Villeirs, Geert; De Meerleer, Gert

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the planning results and acute toxicity after hypofractionated intensity-modulated arc radiotherapy and androgen deprivation for lymph node metastasized (Stage N1) prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 31 patients with Stage T1-T4N1M0 prostate cancer were treated with intensity-modulated arc radiotherapy and 3 years of androgen deprivation as primary treatment. The clinical target volume (CTV{sub p}) was the prostate and seminal vesicles. Elective lymph node areas ({sub e}) were delineated and expanded by 2 mm to create the CTV{sub e}. The planning target volumes (PTV{sub p} and PTV{sub e}) were created using a three-dimensional expansion of the CTV{sub p} and CTV{sub e}, respectively, of 7 mm. A median dose of 69.3 Gy and 50 Gy was prescribed to the PTV{sub p} and PTV{sub e} respectively, to be delivered in 25 fractions. Upper and lower gastrointestinal toxicity was scored using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group toxicity and radiotherapy-induced lower intestinal toxicity scoring system. Genitourinary toxicity was scored using a combined Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, LENT-SOMA (late effects normal tissue-subjective, objective, management, analytic), and Common Toxicity Criteria toxicity scoring system. Results: The median follow-up time was 3 months. The mean prescription dose to the CTV{sub p} and PTV{sub p} was 70.4 Gy and 68.6 Gy, respectively. The minimal dose to the CTV{sub e} and PTV{sub e} was 49.0 Gy and 47.0 Gy, respectively. No acute Grade 2 or greater gastrointestinal toxicity occurred. Fourteen patients developed acute Grade 2 lower gastrointestinal toxicity. Acute Grade 3 and 2 genitourinary toxicity developed in 2 and 14 patients, respectively. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that hypofractionated intensity-modulated arc radiotherapy as primary therapy for N1 prostate cancer is feasible with low toxicity.

  13. Optimal Cut-Off Values of Lymph Node Ratio Predicting Recurrence in Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seul Gi; Ho, Joon; Choi, Jung Bum; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, Min Jhi; Ban, Eun Jeong; Lee, Cho Rok; Kang, Sang-Wook; Jeong, Jong Ju; Nam, Kee-Hyun; Jung, Sang Geun; Jo, Young Suk; Lee, Jandee; Chung, Woong Youn

    2016-02-01

    Regional lymph node (LN) metastasis has a significant impact for prediction of recurrence in patients with papillary thyroid cancers (PTC); however, the prognostic value of the lymph node ratio (LNR), which is defined as the ratio of the number of metastatic LNs to the total number of investigated LNs, is controversial. In this study, we determined the optimal cut-off values of LNRs for the prediction of recurrence in PTC patients.This large cohort study retrospectively evaluated 2294 patients who had undergone total thyroidectomy for PTC at a single institution from October 1985 to June 2009. The prediction probability of central LNR (cLNR, level VI) and total LNR (tLNR, levels II-VI) were estimated by binominal logistic regression analysis. Hazard ratios of the cut-off LNR values for cancer recurrence were calculated for relevant covariates using multivariate Cox regression analyses. Kaplan-Meier analyses were also utilized to assess the effects of estimated LNR cut-off values on recurrence-free survival (RFS).Of the 2294 patients, 138 (6.0%) presented cancer recurrence during the follow-up period (median duration = 107.1 months). The prediction probability indicated that LNRs of 0.4 and 0.5 for central LN and total LN, respectively, are optimal cut-off values for precise prediction with minimization of outliers. Multivariate Cox regression analyses revealed that cLNR ≥0.4 was independently predictive of recurrence in patients with N0 and N1a PTCs (hazard ratio [HR]: 7.016, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.72-12.986, P < 0.001) and that tLNR ≥0.5 indicated a significantly increased risk of recurrence in patients with N1b PTCs (HR: 2.372, 95% CI: 1.458-3.860, P < 0.001). In addition, Kaplan-Meier analyses clearly demonstrated that these LNR cut-off values are precisely operational in RFS estimation.The cut-off LNR values of 0.4 and 0.5 for cLNR and tLNR, respectively, were identified. Risk stratification combined with these LNR cut-off values may prove useful to determine treatment and follow-up strategies for PTC patients. PMID:26844509

  14. Widespread lymph node recurrence of major duodenal papilla cancer following pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Li, Bai-Sen; Shi, Hui; Wen, Min; Xiao, Ming-Yong; Wang, Jian

    2015-12-28

    Major duodenal papilla cancer (MDPC) represents the primary type of duodenal cancer, and is typically considered a periampullary carcinoma as most tumors arise in this region. This report describes an extremely rare case involving a patient with rapidly and extensively recurrent MDPC following pancreaticoduodenectomy, who achieved complete response by concurrent image-guided radiation and intravenous oxaliplatin plus oral capecitabine therapies. The patient was a 50-year-old female who was admitted to our hospital 6 wk after resection for MDPC for evaluation of a nontender and enlarged node in the left side of her neck. After clinical work-up, the patient was diagnosed with postoperatively recurrent MDPC with widespread lymph node metastases at the bilateral cervix, mediastinum, abdominal cavity, and retroperitoneal area. She was administered whole field image-guided radiation therapy along with four cycles of the intravenous oxaliplatin plus oral capecitabine regimen. A complete response by positron emission tomography with 18-fluorodeoxyglucose was observed 4 months after treatment. The patient continues to be disease-free 2 years after the diagnosis of recurrence. PMID:26730173

  15. Widespread lymph node recurrence of major duodenal papilla cancer following pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bai-Sen; Shi, Hui; Wen, Min; Xiao, Ming-Yong; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Major duodenal papilla cancer (MDPC) represents the primary type of duodenal cancer, and is typically considered a periampullary carcinoma as most tumors arise in this region. This report describes an extremely rare case involving a patient with rapidly and extensively recurrent MDPC following pancreaticoduodenectomy, who achieved complete response by concurrent image-guided radiation and intravenous oxaliplatin plus oral capecitabine therapies. The patient was a 50-year-old female who was admitted to our hospital 6 wk after resection for MDPC for evaluation of a nontender and enlarged node in the left side of her neck. After clinical work-up, the patient was diagnosed with postoperatively recurrent MDPC with widespread lymph node metastases at the bilateral cervix, mediastinum, abdominal cavity, and retroperitoneal area. She was administered whole field image-guided radiation therapy along with four cycles of the intravenous oxaliplatin plus oral capecitabine regimen. A complete response by positron emission tomography with 18-fluorodeoxyglucose was observed 4 months after treatment. The patient continues to be disease-free 2 years after the diagnosis of recurrence. PMID:26730173

  16. Histological evaluation for chemotherapeutic responses of metastatic lymph nodes in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Osamu; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Ichijo, Yusuke; Komatsu, Shuhei; Okamoto, Kazuma; Kishimoto, Mitsuo; Yanagisawa, Akio; Otsuji, Eigo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of preoperative chemotherapy (pre-CTx) for metastatic lymph nodes (MLNs) of gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: A retrospective cohort of patients with advanced GC, who underwent pre-CTx followed by gastrectomy, was reviewed. The histological tumor regression grade (TRG), which considered the percentage of residual cancer in the visible tumor bed, was applied to primary tumors and individual MLNs: G1a (complete response), G1b (< 10%), G2 (10%-50%) and G3 (> 50%). The clinical response to pre-CTx was retrospectively evaluated using only MLNs information, and we compared the histological and clinical evaluations of MLNs. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients were enrolled. A total of 438 MLNs were retrieved, and 22 (5%), 48 (11%), 63 (14%) and 305 (70%) LNs were assigned as G1a, G1b, G2 and G3, respectively. Stratification of the residual MLNs based on the TRGs was as follows: 28 G1b MLNs (9%), 48 G2 MLNs (15%), and 253 G3 MLNs (76%) in the D1 region; 20 (23%), 15 (17%), and 52 (60%) in the D2 region, respectively. However, no significant correlation was found between TRGs in MLNs and clinical response in the subgroup for which evaluation of clinical response was available. CONCLUSION: Pre-CTx does not provide any outstanding histological benefit for MLNs, and an appropriate D2 lymphadenectomy should routinely be performed to offer the chance of curative resection. PMID:26730161

  17. Effect of Lymph Node Count on Pathological Stage III Rectal Cancer with Preoperative Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingguo; Liang, Lei; Gan, Lu; Cai, Guoxiang; Li, Xinxiang; Cai, Sanjun

    2015-01-01

    Lymph node (LN) status after surgery for rectal cancer is affected by preoperative radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to perform a population-based evaluation of the impact of pathologic LN status after neoadjuvant radiotherapy on survival. A total of 1,650 patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER)-registered ypIII stage rectal cancer was analyzed. We identified the optimal cutoff for retrieved LNs as 10 (?2?=?14.006, P?

  18. Overall Survival of Stage III Colon Cancer with Only One Lymph Node Metastasis Is Independently Predicted by Preoperative Carcinoembryonic Antigen Level and Lymph Node Sampling Status

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Been-Ren; Lin, Yu-Lin; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Lee, Po-Huang; Chang, King-Jen; Liang, Jin-Tung

    2015-01-01

    Background This study identified predictors of favorable overall survival (OS) for stage III colon cancer patients who had only one lymph node (LN) metastasis (N1a). Methods Variables, including preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level, LN sampling status, and the choices of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, were recorded. Prognostic significance was determined using the log-rank test and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results The median 42-month follow-up period included 363 eligible patients. Among them, 230 (63.3%) received only 5-flurouracil (5-FU) adjuvant chemotherapy; 76 (20.9%) underwent oxaliplatin-based regimens; and 57 (15.7%) chose surgery alone. The 5-year survival rate of these evaluated patients was 75%, 63%, and 77%, respectively (P = 0.823). Multivariate analysis revealed that normal preoperative CEA level (?5 ng/mL) and adequate LN sampling (LN ? 12) were significant predictors for higher 5-year OS (P < 0.001; P = 0.007, respectively). However, the use of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in these N1a colon cancer patients did not significantly affect their 5-year OS. Conclusions A preoperative CEA level of less than or equal to 5 ng/mL, and curative surgery with an adequate lymphadenectomy determined a favorable OS outcome in stage III colon cancer with only one LN metastasis. PMID:26381396

  19. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early stage lung cancer delivers clinically significant radiation to the draining lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Parashar, Bhupesh; Singh, Prabhsimranjot; Christos, Paul; Arora, Shruthi; Desai, Prashant; Wernicke, A Gabriella; Delamerced, Marylynn; Boothe, Dustin; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chao, KSC

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate clinically significant radiotherapy (RT) dose to draining lymph nodes (LN) in patients treated with SBRT. Findings Early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with SBRT were selected for analysis. Patients received SBRT if they were not considered eligible for surgical resection. RT plans for 29 patients (32 lesions) were analyzed. For each patient, ipsilateral and contralateral levels 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and ipsilateral hilar LN stations were contoured. Dose volume histograms and dosimetric coverage of each lymph node region were obtained for each patient. There were 14 males and 15 females. Median age was 75 (range 6089). Clinically significant RT was received at the corresponding draining lymph node station depending on the primary tumor location. Friedmans non-parametric test revealed a statistically significant difference in RT dose to LN stations depending on the location of the tumor (p<0.0001). Conclusion SBRT for early stage lung cancer results in significant RT dose to the draining LN. This RT dose may be sufficient to eliminate subclinical microscopic disease despite being a highly conformal treatment. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate if SBRT is comparable to lobectomy plus mediastinal lymph node dissection as a treatment option. PMID:24383044

  20. Long-Term Results of Radiochemotherapy for Solitary Lymph Node Metastasis After Curative Resection of Esophageal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jingu, Keiichi; Ariga, Hisanori; Nemoto, Kenji; Narazaki, Kakutaro; Umezawa, Rei; Takeda, Ken; Koto, Masashi; Sugawara, Toshiyuki; Kubozono, Masaki; Miyata, Go; Onodera, Ko; Yamada, Shogo

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and toxicity of definitive radiochemotherapy for solitary lymph node metastasis after curative surgery of esophageal cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of 35 patients who underwent definitive radiochemotherapy at Tohoku University Hospital between 2000 and 2009 for solitary lymph node metastasis after curative esophagectomy with lymph node dissection for esophageal cancer. Radiotherapy doses ranged from 60 to 66 Gy (median, 60 Gy). Concurrent chemotherapy was platinum based in all patients. The endpoints of the present study were overall survival, cause-specific survival, progression-free survival, irradiated-field control, overall tumor response, and prognostic factors. Results: The median observation period for survivors was 70.0 months. The 5-year overall survival was 39.2% (median survival, 39.0 months). The 5-year cause-specific survival, progression-free survival, and irradiated-field control were 43.3%, 31.0% and 59.9%, respectively. Metastatic lesion, size of the metastatic lymph node, and performance status before radiochemotherapy were significantly correlated with prognosis. Complete response and partial response were observed in 22.9% and 57.1% of the patients, respectively. There was no Grade 3 or higher adverse effect based on theCommon Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE v3.0) in the late phase. Conclusions: Based on our study findings, approximately 40% of patients with solitary lymph node metastasis after curative resection for esophageal cancer have a chance of long-term survival with definitive radiochemotherapy.

  1. Tracking nonpalpable breast cancer for breast-conserving surgery with carbon nanoparticles: implication in tumor location and lymph node dissection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanyan; Lin, Nan; Huang, Sheng; Lin, Chongping; Jin, Na; Zhang, Zaizhong; Ke, Jun; Yu, Yinghao; Zhu, Jianping; Wang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    To examine the feasibility of using carbon nanoparticles to track nonpalpable breast cancer for breast-conserving surgery. During breast-conserving surgery, it is often very challenging to determine the boundary of tumor and identify involved lymph nodes. Currently used methods are useful in identifying tumor location, but do not provide direct visual guidance for resection margin during surgery. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Fuzhou General Hospital (Fuzhou, China). The current retrospective analysis included 16 patients with nonpalpable breast cancer receiving breast-conserving surgery under the guidance of preoperative marking using a carbon nanoparticle, as well as 3 patients receiving carbon nanoparticle marking followed by neoadjuvant treatment and then breast-conserving surgery. The Tumor Node Metastasis stage in the 16 cases included: T1N0M0 in 7, T1N1M0 in 2, T2N0M0 in 4, and T2N1M0 in the remaining 3 cases. The nanoparticle was injected at 12 sites at 0.5 cm away from the apparent edge under colored ultrasonography along 6 tracks separated by 60 degrees (2 sites every track). Lymph node status was also examined. The resection edge was free from cancer cells in all 16 cases (and the 3 cases with neoadjuvant treatment). Cancer cells were identified in majority of stained lymph nodes, but not in any of the unstained lymph nodes. No recurrence or metastasis was noticed after the surgery (2 to 22-month follow-up; median: 6 months). Tracking nonpalpable breast cancer with carbon nanoparticle could guide breast-conserving surgery. PMID:25761181

  2. Lymph Node Involvement in Immunohistochemistry-Based Molecular Classifications of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Nicholas K.; Driver, Teryn D.; Sedrak, Michael P.; Wen, Xianfeng; Dong, Wenli; Hatch, Sandra; Eltorky, Mahmoud A.; Chao, Celia

    2014-01-01

    Background Prognosis and treatment options differ for each molecular subtype of breast cancer, but risk of regional lymph node (LN) metastasis for each subtype has not been well-studied. Since LN status is the most important predictor for prognosis, the aim of this study is to investigate the propensity for LN metastasis in each of the five breast cancer molecular subtypes. Methods Under an IRB-approved protocol, we retrospectively reviewed the charts of all pathologically confirmed breast cancer cases from 1/2004 to 6/2012. Five subtypes were defined as luminal A (hormone receptor +, Ki67 low), luminal B (hormone receptor+, Ki67 high), luminal-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), HER-2-enriched (hormone receptor negative), and triple negative (TN). Results A total of 375 patients with complete data were classified by subtype: 95 (25.3%) luminal A, 120 (32%) luminal B, 69 (18.4%) luminal-HER-2, 26 (6.9%) HER-2-enriched, and 65 (17.3%) TN. On univariate analysis, age (<50), higher tumor grade, HER-2 + status, tumor size, and molecular subtype were significant for LN positivity. Molecular subtype correlated strongly with tumors size (X2; p=0.0004); therefore, multivariable logistic regression did not identify molecular subtype as an independent variable to predict LN positivity. Conclusions Luminal A tumors have the lowest risk of LN metastasis, while luminal HER-2 subtype has the highest risk of LN metastasis. Immunohistochemical-based molecular classification can be readily performed and knowledge of the factors that affect LN status may help with treatment decisions. PMID:24095025

  3. High Prevalence of Human Cytomegalovirus Proteins and Nucleic Acids in Primary Breast Cancer and Metastatic Sentinel Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Taher, Chato; de Boniface, Jana; Mohammad, Abdul-Aleem; Religa, Piotr; Hartman, Johan; Yaiw, Koon-Chu; Frisell, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is a leading cause of death among women worldwide. Increasing evidence implies that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is associated with several malignancies. We aimed to examine whether HCMV is present in breast cancer and sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases. Materials and Methods Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from breast cancer and paired sentinel lymph node (SLN) samples were obtained from patients with (n?=?35) and without SLN metastasis (n?=?38). HCMV immediate early (IE) and late (LA) proteins were detected using a sensitive immunohistochemistry (IHC) technique and HCMV DNA by real-time PCR. Results HCMV IE and LA proteins were abundantly expressed in 100% of breast cancer specimens. In SLN specimens, 94% of samples with metastases (n?=?34) were positive for HCMV IE and LA proteins, mostly confined to neoplastic cells while some inflammatory cells were HCMV positive in 60% of lymph nodes without metastases (n?=?35). The presence of HCMV DNA was confirmed in 12/12 (100%) of breast cancer and 10/11 (91%) SLN specimens from the metastatic group, but was not detected in 5/5 HCMV-negative, SLN-negative specimens. There was no statistically significant association between HCMV infection grades and progesterone receptor, estrogen receptor alpha and Elston grade status. Conclusions The role of HCMV in the pathogenesis of breast cancer is unclear. As HCMV proteins were mainly confined to neoplastic cells in primary breast cancer and SLN samples, our observations raise the question whether HCMV contributes to the tumorigenesis of breast cancer and its metastases. PMID:23451089

  4. Impact of lymph node status in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma treated by major hepatectomy: areview of the National Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Jutric, Zeljka; Johnston, W. Cory; Hoen, Helena M.; Newell, Pippa H.; Cassera, Maria A.; Hammill, Chet W.; Wolf, Ronald F.; Hansen, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Routine lymphadenectomy in the surgical treatment of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is not routinely performed. We aim to define predictive indicators of survival in patients with positive lymph nodes. Methods The National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) was queried for patients who underwent major hepatectomy for ICC between 1998 and 2011. Clinical and pathologic data were assessed using uni- and multi-variate analyses. A sub-analysis was performed on the 160 patients with positive lymph nodes. Results Of 849 patients with lymph node data, 57% had at least one lymph node examined. Median survival for lymph node negative patients was 37 months versus 15 months for lymph node positive patients. In lymph node positive patients, poorer survival was associated with not receiving chemotherapy (HR 1.83, p = 0.003), tumor size > 5 cm (p = 0.029), and older age (p < 0.0001). Lymph node positive patients age less than 45 had a median survival of 27 months. Conclusions Overall survival in patients with lymph node metastases from ICC is poor. Adjuvant therapy was associated with a longer survival in lymph node positive patients, although prospective data are needed. Routine lymphadenectomy should be strongly considered to provide prognostic information and guidance for adjuvant therapy. PMID:26776855

  5. Axillary Brachial Plexus Block

    PubMed Central

    Satapathy, Ashish R.; Coventry, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The axillary approach to brachial plexus blockade provides satisfactory anaesthesia for elbow, forearm, and hand surgery and also provides reliable cutaneous anaesthesia of the inner upper arm including the medial cutaneous nerve of arm and intercostobrachial nerve, areas often missed with other approaches. In addition, the axillary approach remains the safest of the four main options, as it does not risk blockade of the phrenic nerve, nor does it have the potential to cause pneumothorax, making it an ideal option for day case surgery. Historically, single-injection techniques have not provided reliable blockade in the musculocutaneous and radial nerve territories, but success rates have greatly improved with multiple-injection techniques whether using nerve stimulation or ultrasound guidance. Complete, reliable, rapid, and safe blockade of the arm is now achievable, and the paper summarizes the current position with particular reference to ultrasound guidance. PMID:21716725

  6. Computed tomography–based distribution of involved lymph nodes in patients with upper esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, M.; Liu, Y.; Xu, L.; Huang, Y.; Li, W.; Yu, J.; Kong, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Delineating the nodal clinical target volume (ctvn) remains a challenging task in patients with cervical or upper thoracic esophageal carcinoma (ec). In particular, the extent of the lymph area that should be included in the irradiation field remains controversial. In the present study, the extent of the ctvn was determined based on the incidence of lymph node involvement mapped by computed tomography (ct) imaging. Methods Our study included 468 patients who were diagnosed with cervical and upper thoracic ec and who received staging information between June 2005 and April 2011. The anatomic distribution of metastatic regional lymph nodes was mapped using ct images and grouped using the levels established by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. The probability of the various groups being involved was examined. If a lymph node group had a probability of 10% or more of being involved, it was considered at high risk for metastasis, and elective treatment as part of the ctvn was recommended. Results Lymph node involvement was mapped by ct in 256 patients (54.7%). Not all lymph node groups should be included in the ctvn. For cervical lesions, the involved lymph nodes were located mainly between the hyoid bone and the arcus aortae; the recommended ctvn should consist of the neck lymph nodes at levels iii and iv (supraclavicular group) and thoracic groups 2 and 3P. In upper thoracic ec patients, most of the involved lymph nodes were distributed between the cricoid cartilage and the subcarinal area; the ctvn should cover the supraclavicular group and thoracic nodal groups 2, 3P, 4, 5, and 7. Conclusions Our ct-based study indicates a specific distribution and incidence of metastatic lymph node groups in patients with cervical and upper thoracic ec. The results suggest that regional lymph node groups should be electively included in the ctvn for precise radiation administration. PMID:26089729

  7. Bilateral axillary arterial obstruction

    PubMed Central

    van der Matten, Beatrice; Zandbergen, Adrienne Anne Marie; Dees, Adriaan

    2014-01-01

    A 74-year-old patient with longstanding diabetes mellitus and hypertension presented with obstruction in both axillary arteries. Although atherosclerotic obstructive disease would have been the most likely diagnosis in this patient, clinical findings were highly suggestive of extracranial giant-cell arteritis. Prompt treatment with systemic corticosteroids resulted in an excellent clinical response, avoiding the risks of endovascular or surgical intervention. PMID:24451232

  8. Worldwide experience with lymphatic mapping for invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pendas, Solange; Giuliano, Rosemary; Swor, Gray; Gardner, Mary; Jakub, James; Reintgen, Douglas S

    2004-06-01

    Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy have changed the standard of surgical care for women with invasive breast cancer. The rate of successful axillary SLN identification varies from 90% to 99%. Recurrence rates after a negative SLN biopsy have been remarkably low. Internal mammary node drainage has been noted in 8% to 22% of cases, but whether to harvest these extra-axillary sites of drainage remains controversial. Because of the low morbidity associated with the lymphatic mapping procedure, all women with invasive breast cancer should be considered as candidates for this more accurate staging technique. PMID:15190488

  9. The Impact of Definitive Local Therapy for Lymph Node-Positive Prostate Cancer: A Population-Based Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rusthoven, Chad G.; Carlson, Julie A.; Waxweiler, Timothy V.; Raben, David; Dewitt, Peter E.; Crawford, E. David; Maroni, Paul D.; Kavanagh, Brian D.

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the survival outcomes for patients with lymph node-positive, nonmetastatic prostate cancer undergoing definitive local therapy (radical prostatectomy [RP], external beam radiation therapy [EBRT], or both) versus no local therapy (NLT) in the US population in the modern prostate specific antigen (PSA) era. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried for patients with T1-4N1M0 prostate cancer diagnosed from 1995 through 2005. To allow comparisons of equivalent datasets, patients were analyzed in separate clinical (cN+) and pathologically confirmed (pN+) lymph node-positive cohorts. Kaplan-Meier overall survival (OS) and prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS) estimates were generated, with accompanying univariate log-rank and multivariate Cox proportional hazards comparisons. Results: A total of 796 cN+ and 2991 pN+ patients were evaluable. Among cN+ patients, 43% underwent EBRT and 57% had NLT. Outcomes for cN+ patients favored EBRT, with 10-year OS rates of 45% versus 29% (P<.001) and PCSS rates of 67% versus 53% (P<.001). Among pN+ patients, 78% underwent local therapy (RP 57%, EBRT 10%, or both 11%) and 22% had NLT. Outcomes for pN+ also favored local therapy, with 10-year OS rates of 65% versus 42% (P<.001) and PCSS rates of 78% versus 56% (P<.001). On multivariate analysis, local therapy in both the cN+ and pN+ cohorts remained independently associated with improved OS and PCSS (all P<.001). Local therapy was associated with favorable hazard ratios across subgroups, including patients aged ?70 years and those with multiple positive lymph nodes. Among pN+ patients, no significant differences in survival were observed between RP versus EBRT and RP with or without adjuvant EBRT. Conclusions: In this large, population-based cohort, definitive local therapy was associated with significantly improved survival in patients with lymph node-positive prostate cancer.

  10. Curative Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Stage IVB Cervical Cancer Presenting With Paraortic and Left Supraclavicular Lymph Node Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji-Yoon; Kim, Joo-Young; Kim, Jin Hee; Yoon, Mee Sun; Kim, Juree; Kim, Young Seok

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) with curative intent in patients with stage IVB cervical cancer initially presenting with paraortic and left supraclavicular lymph node metastases. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 25 patients with both paraortic and left supraclavicular lymph nodal metastases (group I) were reviewed and compared with those of 101 women with paraortic lymph node metastases alone (group II). Group I received a mean 59.4 Gy to the paraortic and left supraclavicular areas and 50.4 Gy to the pelvis, followed by 30 Gy of high-dose-rate brachytherapy in 6 fractions. Group II received the same dose to the paraortic area and pelvis followed by intracavitary brachytherapy. All patients received platinum-based chemotherapy simultaneously. Results: Of the 25 patients in group I, 16 (64%) experienced acute grade 3-4 hematologic toxicities, and 1 had a late grade 3 genitourinary toxicity. Complete responses, including the primary mass and pelvic, paraortic, and left supraclavicular lymph nodes, were observed in 13 patients (52%). At a median follow-up of 32 months for surviving patients, 3 experienced in-field failure, 6 showed distant failure, and 9 showed both. The 3-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 49% and 33%, respectively. In comparison, of the 101 patients in group II, 16 showed in-field failure, 14 experienced distant failure, and 11 showed both. The 3-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 69% and 57%, respectively. Conclusions: Curative CCRT is feasible in patients with stage IVB cervical cancer presenting with paraortic and left supraclavicular lymph nodal metastases, with acceptable late toxicity and high response rates, despite high rates of acute hematologic toxicity.

  11. Comparison of Nodal Risk Formula and MR Lymphography for Predicting Lymph Node Involvement in Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Deserno, Willem M.L.L.G.; Debats, Oscar A.; Rozema, Tom; Fortuin, Ansje S.; Heesakkers, Roel A.M.; Hoogeveen, Yvonne; Peer, Petronella G.M.; Barentsz, Jelle O.; Lin, Emile N.J.T. van

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: To compare the nodal risk formula (NRF) as a predictor for lymph node (LN) metastasis in patients with prostate cancer with magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL) using Ultrasmall Super-Paramagnetic particles of Iron Oxide (USPIO) and with histology as gold standard. Methods and Materials: Logistic regression analysis was performed with the results of histopathological evaluation of the LN as dependent variable and the nodal risk according to the NRF and the result of MRL as independent input variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to assess the performance of the models. Results: The analysis included 375 patients. In the single-predictor regression models, the NRF and MRL results were both significantly (p <0.001) predictive of the presence of LN metastasis. In the models with both predictors included, NRF was nonsignificant (p = 0.126), but MRL remained significant (p <0.001). For NRF, sensitivity was 0.79 and specificity was 0.38; for MRL, sensitivity was 0.82 and specificity was 0.93. After a negative MRL result, the probability of LN metastasis is 4% regardless of the NRF result. After a positive MRL, the probability of having LN metastasis is 68%. Conclusions: MRL is a better predictor of the presence of LN metastasis than NRF. Using only the NRF can lead to a significant overtreatment on the pelvic LN by radiation therapy. When the MRL result is available, the NRF is no longer of added value.

  12. Evaluation of lymph node metastasis in lung cancer: who is the chief justice?

    PubMed

    Xia, Yang; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Hao; Li, Wen; Wang, Ko-Pen; Shen, Huahao

    2015-12-01

    Accurate determination of the diagnosis and the stage of lung cancer play a critical role to ensure that patients are provided the optimal treatment. However, the process is usually beyond complex. Early studies have suggested lymph nodes (LNs) >1.0 cm in size on computed tomography (CT) are considered as metastatic nodes, while the sensitivity of this criterion is not satisfied. Subsequently, positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) was shown to be superior to CT alone on assessment of nodal involvement and was widely used to estimate suitability for resection with curative intent, but the dependability also remains controversial. Furthermore, transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) with and without endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS), as a well-accepted minimally invasive approach for LN biopsy, has been documented as an efficient tool in evaluation of CT and PET-CT negative LNs. Additionally, radiographic features including ground-glass/solid nodules ratio, referring as imaging biomarker, were indicated to be correlated with metastasis. Hence, we highlight the importance of comprehensive estimation of mediastinal and hilar LNs, and we suggested the judgment of LNs by radiographic tools alone might not be reliable and TBNA is indispensable in certain circumstances. PMID:26807270

  13. Extended salvage pelvic lymph node dissection in patients with recurrent prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Osmonov, Daniar K; Aksenov, Alexey V; Boller, Annkathrin; Kalz, Almut; Heimann, Diana; Janssen, Isa; Jnemann, Klaus-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background. Treatment of patients with a biochemical recurrence (BCR) of prostate cancer (PCa) is generally difficult and without valid treatment options. Since 2004 we have been developing therapeutic possibilities for these patients. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 41 patients with a BCR of PCa and a mean followup of 40.3 20.8 months. Group 1 (n = 10): salvage radical prostatectomy (sRP) with SePLND (salvage extended pelvic lymph nodes dissection) (initial treatment: combined brachytherapy). Group 2 (n = 22): SePLND (initial treatment: radical prostatectomy (RP)). Group 3 (n = 9): SePLND (initial treatment: RP and adjuvant radiation therapy (RT)). We observed PSA, PSA-velocity, localization of LNs and LNs+, BCR-free period, and BR (biochemical response). Results. Group 1: 60% with BCR-freedom (mean 27.2 months). Group 2: 63.6% with BCR-freedom (mean 17.5 months). Group 3: 33.3% with BCR-freedom (mean 17.6 months). In total, BCR-freedom was observed in 23 of 41 patients (56.1%) after salvage surgery. 75.6% of all patients showed a BR. 765?LNs were removed and 14.8% of these were LN+. Conclusions. The BCR-free period and BR are comparable in all three groups. Sensibility to ADT can be reestablished and prolonged as a result of SePLND. Multicenter studies are needed for a reliable output. PMID:24688536

  14. Lymph node ratio is a prognostic factor for non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guangyuan; Xue, Lei; Wang, Mingdong; Zhao, Xuewei

    2015-01-01

    The lymph node ratio (LNR) is defined as the number of pathologically positive LNs divided by the number of LNs examined. Some studies reported that high LNR was significantly associated with poor survival of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, other studies could not confirm this result. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials were searched for relevant studies published up to July 2015. Primary outcome was the relationship between LNR and disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS). Twelve studies with 25138 NSCLC patients were included in this meta-analysis. Higher LNR was significantly associated with decreased OS (HR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.64 – 2.28; P < 0.00001) and DSS (HR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.55 – 2.14; P < 0.00001). In the subgroup analysis, N1 stage NSCLC patients with higher LNR also showed decreased OS (HR = 1.60; 95% CI 1.25 – 2.28; P = 0.0002) and DSS (HR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.55 – 2.21; P < 0.0001). This meta-analysis indicated that LNR was an independent predictor of survival in patients with NSCLC. PMID:26393881

  15. Evaluation of lymph node metastasis in lung cancer: who is the chief justice?

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yang; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Hao; Li, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Accurate determination of the diagnosis and the stage of lung cancer play a critical role to ensure that patients are provided the optimal treatment. However, the process is usually beyond complex. Early studies have suggested lymph nodes (LNs) >1.0 cm in size on computed tomography (CT) are considered as metastatic nodes, while the sensitivity of this criterion is not satisfied. Subsequently, positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) was shown to be superior to CT alone on assessment of nodal involvement and was widely used to estimate suitability for resection with curative intent, but the dependability also remains controversial. Furthermore, transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) with and without endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS), as a well-accepted minimally invasive approach for LN biopsy, has been documented as an efficient tool in evaluation of CT and PET-CT negative LNs. Additionally, radiographic features including ground-glass/solid nodules ratio, referring as imaging biomarker, were indicated to be correlated with metastasis. Hence, we highlight the importance of comprehensive estimation of mediastinal and hilar LNs, and we suggested the judgment of LNs by radiographic tools alone might not be reliable and TBNA is indispensable in certain circumstances. PMID:26807270

  16. Nodal metastasis in cervical cancer occurs in clearly delineated fields of immune suppression in the pelvic lymph catchment area

    PubMed Central

    Heeren, A. Marijne; de Boer, Eline; Bleeker, Maaike C.G.; Musters, René J.P.; Buist, Marrije R.; Kenter, Gemma G.; de Gruijl, Tanja D.; Jordanova, Ekaterina S.

    2015-01-01

    In cervical cancer, high frequencies of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and immunosuppressive PD-L1+CD14+ antigen-presenting cells dominate the microenvironment of tumor-positive lymph nodes (LN+). It is unknown whether this is restricted to LN+ or precedes metastasis, emanating from the primary tumor and spreading through tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs). To investigate immunosuppression in the lymphatic basin of cervical tumors, all dissected TDLNs of five cervical cancer patients (in total 9 LN+ and 74 tumor-negative lymph nodes (LN−)) were analyzed for FoxP3+ Tregs, CD8+ T cells, HLA-DR+- and PD-L1+ myeloid cells by immunohistochemistry. Tregs and PD-L1+ cells were found to form an immunosuppressive cordon around metastatic tumor cells. Importantly, whereas high HLA-DR+- and PD-L1+ cell rates were strongly associated with LN+, elevated Treg levels and decreased CD8+ T cell/Treg ratios were found similar in LN+ and adjacent LN−, as compared to LN− at more distant anatomical localizations. These data suggest that delineated fields of Treg-associated immune suppression in anatomically co-localized TDLNs enable metastasis by creating metastatic niches. This may be of importance for decision-making regarding (surgical) intervention in cervical cancer. Future efforts should include the implementation of immunotherapeutic regimens to overcome this immune suppression, establish loco-regional control and halt systemic tumor spread. PMID:26431490

  17. Can the Tumor Deposits Be Counted as Metastatic Lymph Nodes in the UICC TNM Staging System for Colorectal Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen-Ning; Liang, Ji-Wang; Sun, Zhe; Wang, Mei-Xian; Dong, Yu-Lan; Wang, Xin-Fang; Xu, Hui-Mian

    2012-01-01

    Objective The 7th edition of AJCC staging manual implicitly states that only T1 and T2 lesions that lack regional lymph node metastasis but have tumor deposit(s) will be classified in addition as N1c, though it is not consistent in that pN1c is also an option for pT3/T4a tumors in the staging table. Nevertheless, in this TNM classification, how to classify tumor deposits (TDs) in colorectal cancer patients with lymph node metastasis (LNM) and TDs simultaneously is still not clear. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of counting TDs as metastatic lymph nodes in TNM classification and to indentify its prognostic value for colorectal cancer patients. Methods and Results In this retrospective study, 513 cases of colorectal cancer with LNM were reviewed. We proposed a novel pN (npN) category in which TDs were counted as metastatic lymph nodes in the TNM classification. Cancer-specific survival according to the npN or pN category was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to indentify significant prognostic factors. Harrell's C statistic was used to test the predictive capacity of the prognostic models. The results revealed that the TD was a significant prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. Univariate and multivariate analyses uniformly indicated that the npN category was significantly correlated with prognosis. The results of Harrell's C statistical analysis demonstrated that the npN category exhibited a superior predictive capacity compared to the pN category of the 7th edition TNM classification. Moreover, we also found no significant prognostic differences in patients with or without TD in the same npN categories. Conclusions The counting of TDs as metastatic lymph nodes in the TNM classification system is potentially superior to the classification in the 7th edition of the TNM staging system to assess prognosis and survival for colorectal cancer patients. PMID:22461900

  18. Overexpression of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 in Advanced Gastric Cancer with Aggressive Lymph Node Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Yun-Suhk; Yu, Jieun; Kim, Byung Chul; Choi, Boram; Han, Tae-Su; Ahn, Hye Seong; Kong, Seong-Ho; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Kim, Woo Ho; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate differentially expressed genes using DNA microarray between advanced gastric cancer (AGC) with aggressive lymph node (LN) metastasis and that with a more advanced tumor stage but without LN metastasis. Materials and Methods Five sample pairs of gastric cancer tissue and normal gastric mucosa were taken from three patients with T3N3 stage (highN) and two with T4N0 stage (lowN). Data from triplicate DNA microarray experiments were analyzed, and candidate genes were identified using a volcano plot that showed ? 2-fold differential expression and were significant by Welch's t test (p < 0.05) between highN and lowN. Those selected genes were validated independently by reverse-transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using five AGC patients, and tissue-microarray (TMA) comprising 47 AGC patients. Results CFTR, LAMC2, SERPINE2, F2R, MMP7, FN1, TIMP1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), ITGB8, SDS, and TMPRSS4 were commonly up-regulated over 2-fold in highN. REG3A, CD24, ITLN1, and WBP5 were commonly down-regulated over 2-fold in lowN. Among these genes, overexpression of PAI-1 was validated by RT-PCR, and TMA showed 16.7% (7/42) PAI-1 expression in T3N3, but none (0/5) in T4N0 (p=0.393). Conclusion DNA microarray analysis and validation by RT-PCR and TMA showed that overexpression of PAI-1 is related to aggressive LN metastasis in AGC. PMID:25687870

  19. Activin type IB receptor signaling in prostate cancer cells promotes lymph node metastasis in a xenograft model

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Kimitaka; Wang, Lixiang; Goto, Yutaka; Mukasa, Chizu; Ashida, Kenji; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ActRIB signaling induces Snail and S100A4 expressions in prostate cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prostate cancer cell lines expressing an active form of ActRIB were established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ActRIB signaling promotes EMT and lymph node metastasis in xenograft model. -- Abstract: Activin, a member of the transforming growth factor-{beta} family, has been known to be a growth and differentiating factor. Despite its pluripotent effects, the roles of activin signaling in prostate cancer pathogenesis are still unclear. In this study, we established several cell lines that express a constitutive active form of activin type IB receptor (ActRIBCA) in human prostate cancer cells, ALVA41 (ALVA-ActRIBCA). There was no apparent change in the proliferation of ALVA-ActRIBCA cells in vitro; however, their migratory ability was significantly enhanced. In a xenograft model, histological analysis revealed that the expression of Snail, a cell-adhesion-suppressing transcription factor, was dramatically increased in ALVA-ActRIBCA tumors, indicating epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Finally, mice bearing ALVA-ActRIBCA cells developed multiple lymph node metastases. In this study, we demonstrated that ActRIBCA signaling can promote cell migration in prostate cancer cells via a network of signaling molecules that work together to trigger the process of EMT, and thereby aid in the aggressiveness and progression of prostate cancers.

  20. The microRNA-218~Survivin axis regulates migration, invasion, and lymph node metastasis in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Kogo, Ryunosuke; How, Christine; Chaudary, Naz; Bruce, Jeff; Shi, Wei; Hill, Richard P; Zahedi, Payam; Yip, Kenneth W; Liu, Fei-Fei

    2015-01-20

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide. In the present study, global microRNA profiling for 79 cervical cancer patient samples led to the identification of miR-218 down-regulation in cervical cancer tissues compared to normal cervical tissues. Lower miR-218 expression was associated significantly with worse overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and pelvic/aortic lymph node recurrence. In vitro, miR-218 over-expression decreased clonogenicity, migration, and invasion. Survivin (BIRC5) was subsequently identified as an important cervical cancer target of miR-218 using in silico prediction, mRNA profiling, and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Concordant with miR-218 over-expression, survivin knockdown by siRNA decreased clonogenicity, migration, and invasion. YM155, a small molecule survivin inhibitor, significantly suppressed tumor growth and lymph node metastasis in vivo. Our findings demonstrate that the miR-218~survivin axis inhibits cervical cancer progression by regulating clonogenicity, migration, and invasion, and suggest that the inhibition of survivin could be a potential therapeutic strategy to improve outcome in this disease. PMID:25473903

  1. Radiotherapy Treatment Plans With RapidArc for Prostate Cancer Involving Seminal Vesicles and Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Sua; Wu, Q. Jackie; Lee, W. Robert; Yin Fangfang

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: Dosimetric results and treatment delivery efficiency of RapidArc plans to those of conventional intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans were compared using the Eclipse treatment planning system for high-risk prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: This study included 10 patients. The primary planning target volume (PTV{sub P}) contained prostate, seminal vesicles, and pelvic lymph nodes with a margin. The boost PTV (PTV{sub B}) contained prostate and seminal vesicles with a margin. The total prescription dose was 75.6 Gy (46.8 Gy to PTV{sub P} and an additional 28.8 Gy to PTV{sub B}; 1.8 Gy/fraction). Three plans were generated for each PTV: Multiple-field IMRT, one-arc RapidArc (1ARC), and two-arc RapidArc (2ARC). Results: In the primary IMRT with PTV{sub P}, average mean doses to bladder, rectum and small bowel were lower by 5.9%, 7.7% and 4.3%, respectively, than in the primary 1ARC and by 3.6%, 4.8% and 3.1%, respectively, than in the primary 2ARC. In the boost IMRT with PTV{sub B}, average mean doses to bladder and rectum were lower by 2.6% and 4.8% than with the boost 1ARC and were higher by 0.6% and 0.2% than with the boost 2ARC. Integral doses were 7% to 9% higher with RapidArc than with IMRT for both primary and boost plans. Treatment delivery time was reduced by 2-7 minutes using RapidArc. Conclusion: For PTVs including prostate, seminal vesicles, and lymph nodes, IMRT performed better in dose sparing for bladder, rectum, and small bowel than did RapidArc. For PTVs including prostate and seminal vesicles, RapidArc with two arcs provided plans comparable to those for IMRT. The treatment delivery is more efficient with RapidArc.

  2. Risk factors associated with splenic hilar lymph node metastasis in patients with advanced gastric cancer in northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhenqiang; Wang, Qisan; Yu, Xianbo; Ou, Chunlin; Yao, Lizhong; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lin; Ge, Lei; Fang, Fa; Zhao, Zeliang; Wang, Haijiang

    2015-01-01

    There are plenty of risk factors associated with splenic hilar lymph node metastasis (SHLNM) in patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC). Whereas, their main influencing factors have not reached a consensus yet. The aim of the study is to investigate the related clinicopathological factors influencing SHLNM in AGC. A retrospective study was performed to investigate 150 patients who underwent D2 curative partial or total gastrectomy for gastric carcinoma from January 2007 to November 2012. Clinicopathological factors were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 10.7% (16/150) of the patients had SHLNM. The overall ratio of metastatic lymph node (positive lymph nodes/lymph nodes harvested) in the splenic hilum was 17.5% (38/217). Univariate analysis results showed SHLNM was related with depth of invasion, tumor grade, tumor size, tumor location and Bormann type, with significant difference (P<0.05); Multivariate analysis demonstrated that SHLNM was related with depth of invasion and tumor size, with significant difference (P<0.05). Consequently, depth of invasion, tumor grade, tumor size, tumor location and Bormann type were associated with SHLNM in AGC, meanwhile depth of invasion and tumor size are independent risk factors. Preoperative predicting risk factors of SHLNM greatly benefits making more rational surgical scheme of treating AGC.

  3. Design and development of a dedicated mammary and axillary region positron emission tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doshi, Niraj Kumar

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women. Currently, mammography and physical breast examination, both non-invasive techniques, provide the two most effective methods available for screening potential breast cancer patients. During the management of patients, however, several invasive techniques such as axillary lymph node dissection, core biopsies and lumpectomies, are utilized to determine the stage or malignancy of the disease with significant cost and morbidity associated with them. Positron Emission Tomography (PET), using [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tracer is a sensitive and non-invasive imaging modality that may be a cost-effective alternative to certain invasive procedures. In this project we have developed a low cost, high performance, dedicated PET camera (maxPET) for mammary and axillary region imaging. The system consists of two 15x15 cm2 planar scintillation detector arrays composed of modular detectors operating in coincidence. The modular detectors are comprised of a 9x9 array of 3x3x20 mm3 lutetiurn oxyorthosilicate (LSO) detector elements, read out by a 5x5 array of position- sensitive photomultiplier tubes. The average measured intrinsic spatial resolution of a detector module is 2.26 mm with a sensitivity of up to 40% for a central point source. The measured coincidence timing resolution for two modules is 2.4 ns. The average energy resolution measured across the entire two detector plates is 21.6%. The coincidence timing resolution for the entire system is 8.1 ns. A line bar phantom was imaged and images were reconstructed using the focal plane tomography algorithm. A 4 mm projection image resolution was measured based on profiles taken through the line bar phantom images. The goal of the maxPET system will be to aid in breast cancer patient management by assisting in imaging women with dense, fibro-glandular breasts, detecting axillary lymph node metastases without surgery, monitoring chemotherapy effectiveness and assisting in visualization of recurrence and tumoral boundaries.

  4. [Papillary thyroid carcinoma synchronous with breast cancer: an incidental finding in an (18)F-FDG PET-CT study carried out in a search for occult breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Banzo, J; Ubieto, M A; Gonzlez, C; Razola, P; Tardn, L; Andrs, A; Santapau, A; Parra, A; Rambalde, E F; Prats, E

    2012-01-01

    The most common cause of metastatic involvement of axillary lymph nodes in women is ipsilateral breast cancer. The definition of occult breast malignancy has changed over time. Nowadays, it is considered to exist when it coincides with an isolated metastatic axillary abnormal lymph node in the absence of a palpable tumor in the ipsilateral breast, non-diagnostic breast tumor mammography and no detection of other malignancies outside the breast which could potentially affect the axillary nodes. The value of (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan in these patients has not been established, but it could be useful in those patients with a non-diagnostic MRI. It is not uncommon in (18)F-FDG PET/CT studies to identify incidental hypermetabolic focal image in the thyroid. The high prevalence of cancer in these lesions makes it recommendable to perform a US study and/or FNAP biopsy. PMID:23067689

  5. Efficacy and feasibility of the immunomagnetic separation based diagnosis for detecting sentinel lymph node metastasis from breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, Xiang-Cheng; Zhang, Min; Meng, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Xiao-Bei; Shi, Zhen-Dong; Liu, Yan; Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    A purpose of this study was to establish a novel molecular diagnostic model and provide new insight into the intraoperative evaluation of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis in breast cancer. A total of 124 breast cancer patients who met the criteria of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and underwent intraoperative biopsy were consecutively enrolled in this study. After the SLNs obtained from each patient were labeled, MOC-31 monoclonal antibody-mediated immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and flow cytometry were used to determine the expressions of breast cancer metastasis-related markers, including Mucin 1 (MUC1), CD44v6, and HER2. Alternatively, conventional intraoperative hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and cytokeratin immunohistochemistry (CK-IHC) were performed to detect potential SLN metastasis. The sensitivity, specificity, and false-negative rate of the three intraoperative diagnostic methods were compared and analyzed. A total of 55 positive-SLNs were found in 38 breast cancer patients using IMS, yielding a sensitivity of 86.4% (38/44), specificity of 94.7% (36/38), accuracy of 93.5% (116/124), false-positive rate of 2.5% (2/80), false-negative rate of 13.6% (6/44), positive predictive value of 95.5% (42/44), and negative predictive value of 93.0% (80/86). Patients with high expressions of CD44v6, MUC1, and HER2 in SLNs tended to have higher number of positive lymph nodes, among which the MUC1 and HER2 showed significant differences (P<0.05). Therefore, compared with conventional HE staining and CK-IHC, IMS technology has remarkably higher sensitivity and specificity and relative lower false-negative rate, thus making it an effective and feasible intraoperative detection method of SLN for breast cancer diagnosis to some extent. PMID:25897222

  6. [Begnin naevus cell inclusions in two patients treated for cancer].

    PubMed

    Amrani, Mariam; Jahid, Ahmed; Benkirane, Leila; Tijami, Ahmed; Gamra, Lamia; Labrousse, Francois; Catanzano, Gilbert; Belabbas, Mohamed Alaoui; Elhachimi, Azzouz

    2002-09-01

    In 1897, Reis was the first to describe benign nevus inclusions in the lymph node of patients undergoing surgery for genital neoplasia. These inclusions are very rarely encountered and can be misleading in the absence of careful analysis. We report on two cases of nevus cell inclusions in axillary and inguinal lymph nodes dissected in the context of breast cancer and thigh sarcoma respectively. Cautious morphological analysis should be compared with histochemistry and immunohistochemistry data to avoid erroneous diagnosis of metastasis. We also should bare in mind the possible occurrance of primitive lymph node melanoma. PMID:12410156

  7. [A Case of Resection of Para-Aortic Lymph Node Recurrence and Peritoneal Recurrence Following Sigmoid Colon Cancer Surgery].

    PubMed

    Yabe, Nobushige; Murai, Shinji; Yokose, Takahiro; Oto, Ippei; Yoshikawa, Takahisa; Kitasato, Kenjiro; Shimizu, Hirotomo; Kojima, Kenji; Hasegawa, Hirotoshi; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2015-11-01

    In June 2010, a 73-year old man diagnosed with sigmoid colon cancer underwent laparoscopic sigmoidectomy. The histopathological diagnosis was tub2, pSS, n (-), stage?.Vascular invasion was present; however, at the patient's request, no adjuvant chemotherapy was administered.Computed tomography (CT) performed at the outpatient follow-up 4 years and 6 months after the surgery revealed a para-aortic lymph node metastasis in the caudal aspect of the left renal artery branch point. No other definite mass shadows were detected. Positron emission (PET)-CT revealed high tracer accumulation (SUVmax) not only in the CT-identified lymph node, but also near the site of the anastomosis in the bowel. Considering that no tracer accumulation was detected at any other sites and the patient's compliance with medication and scheduled visits was poor, surgical resection rather than chemotherapy was adopted as the treatment strategy. No metastases other than at the sites identified by the diagnostic imaging were found during the surgery. Since the findings on palpation did not rule out the possibility that the nodule near the anastomotic site was present inside the intestinal tract, lymph node dissection, resection of the intestinal tract including the anastomotic site, and re-anastomosis were performed. The most likely diagnosis based on the histopathological findings was dissemination for both the adenocarcinoma and the nodule near the anastomotic site. At present, the patient is being treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. In the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum (JSCCR) Guidelines for the Treatment of Colorectal Cancer, the recommended therapeutic intervention is surgical resection of hematogenous metastases; however, no treatment is specified for lymph node metastases. In general, chemotherapy is administered for distant metastases. However, we have found no reports of cases in which a complete remission has been achieved. There are reports of improvement of survival by surgical resection in cases with solitary lymph node metastasis or isolated dissemination of colorectal cancer. These observations suggest that surgical therapy may have contributed to the improved prognosis in the present case. PMID:26805110

  8. Some Women May Not Need More Extensive Lymph Node Surgery for Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Results from a randomized clinical trial demonstrate that ALND provided no additional survival benefit when compared with SLNB in women with small breast tumors and minimal lymph node metastasis who followed a specific treatment regimen.

  9. Axillary granular parakeratosis.

    PubMed

    Mehregan, D A; Vandersteen, P; Sikorski, L; Mehregan, D R

    1995-08-01

    We report two cases of axillary granular parakeratosis, which is a unique eruption involving the axilla that has distinctive histopathologic features. Both of our patients had slightly pruritic, hyperpigmented patches in the axilla. The biopsy specimens revealed severe compact parakeratosis with maintenance of the stratum granulosum and retention of keratohyalin granules throughout the stratum corneum, which was markedly thickened and measured between 90 to 185 microns. The exact etiology is not known, but this conditions is believed to represent a contact reaction to an antiperspirant or deodorant. PMID:7615889

  10. Elevated expression of L-selectin ligand in lymph node-derived human prostate cancer cells correlates with increased tumorigenicity

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Prakash; Lin, Ming-Fong

    2009-01-01

    Human prostate cancer LNCaP cells including C-33 and C-81 cells were originally derived from the lymph nodes of a patient with metastatic prostate cancer. These two cells were employed for characterization of L-selectin ligand and in vitro tumorigenicity, because they mimic the clinical conditions of early and late-stage human prostate cancer. C-81 cells exhibit higher in vitro migratory and invasive properties as compared with C-33 cells. We find that the L-selectin ligand and mucin glycan-associated MECA-79 epitope were elevated in C-81 cells. An increase of these glycotopes positively correlates with elevated tumorigenicity and expression of key glycosyl- and sulfotransferase genes. These results suggest that modulated expression of selective glycogenes correlates with altered tumorigenicity of cancer cells. PMID:18670876

  11. Autologous Lymph Node Transfers.

    PubMed

    Becker, C

    2016-01-01

    Lymphedema is a common chronic and progressive condition complicating cancer treatment. Patients undergoing lymph node dissection and radiation therapy required for oncological treatment in breast and pelvic cancers are at high risk for secondary lymphedema. Reconstruction of the damaged region with a fatty flap containing lymph nodes may restore the anatomy. It has been postulated that the cytokines included in the fat surrounding the nodes VEGF-c allow regrowth of the lymphatic vessels. Hypoplasic congenital lymphedema are also positively improved by the autologous lymph node transfer, thanks to the same principles. PMID:26372688

  12. Stratifying the risk of lymph node metastasis in undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Yukiko; Ohtaka, Masahiko; Maekawa, Shinya; Fukasawa, Mitsuharu; Nakayama, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Tatsuya; Inoue, Taisuke; Uetake, Tomoyoshi; Sakamoto, Minoru; Sato, Tadashi; Kawaguchi, Yoshihiko; Fujii, Hideki; Mochizuki, Kunio; Hada, Masao; Oyama, Toshio; Yasumura, Tomotaka; Omata, Kosaku; Nishiyama, Atsushi; Naito, Keiichi; Hata, Hideo; Haba, Yoshiaki; Miyata, Kazuyuki; Saitoh, Haruhisa; Yamadera, Yoichi; Miura, Kazuo; Kawaoi, Akira; Abe, Tohru; Tsunoda, Hajime; Honda, Yuji; Kurosaki, Masayuki; Enomoto, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study how lymph node metastasis (LNM) risk is stratified in undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer (undiff-EGC) dependent on combinations of risk factors. METHODS: Five hundred and sixty-seven cases with undiff-EGC undergoing gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy were examined retrospectively. Using clinicopathological factors of patient age, location, size, an endoscopic macroscopic tumor form, ulceration, depth, histology, lymphatic involvement (LI) and venous involvement (VI), LNM risk was examined and stratified by conventional statistical analysis and data-mining analysis. RESULTS: LNM was positive in 44 of 567 cases (7.8%). Univariate analysis revealed > 2 cm, protrusion, submucosal (sm), mixed type, LI and VI as significant prognostic factors and > 2 cm and LI-positive were independent factors by multivariate analysis. In preoperatively evaluable factors excluding LVI, sm and > 2 cm were independent factors. According to the depth and size, cases were categorized into the low-risk group [m and ? 2 cm, 0% (LNM incidence)], the moderate-risk group (m and > 2 cm, 5.6%; and sm and ? 2 cm, 6.0%), and the high-risk group (sm and > 2 cm, 19.3%). On the other hand, LNM occurred in 1.4% in all LI-negative cases, greatly lower than 28.2% in all LI-positive cases, and LNM incidence was low in LI-negative cases even in the moderate- and high-risk groups. CONCLUSION: LNM-related factors in undiff-EGC were depth and size preoperatively while those were LI and size postoperatively. Among these factors, LI was the most significantly correlated factor. PMID:25759537

  13. Telomerase reverse transcriptase methylation predicts lymph node metastasis and prognosis in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yongxin; Li, Guichao; He, Dong; Yang, Fengping; He, Guang; He, Lin; Zhang, Hui; Deng, Yun; Fan, Ming; Shen, Lijun; Zhou, Daizhan; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Telomerase activity is associated with cellular immortalization and is present in most human tumors but absent in normal tissues. The activity of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), a catalytic telomerase subunit, correlates with telomerase activity in tumors. The objective of this study was to investigate TERT promoter methylation and its prognostic impact in gastric cancer (GC). Patients and methods The analysis of TERT promoter methylation was performed in tumors and corresponding normal tissues of 116 patients with GC using a highly sensitive Sequenom Epityper assay. The expression of TERT in GC tissues was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results The levels of TERT promoter methylation in GC samples were significantly higher than in normal adjacent tissues (P=0.002). Hypermethylation of TERT promoter was associated with high T-stage (P=0.024), late N-stage (P=0.006), and lymphovascular/neural invasion (P=0.035), without correlation with age, sex, or histological grade. Simple linear regression analysis showed that TERT mRNA correlated positively with TERT methylation (R2=0.562, P=0.001). Also, higher TERT mRNA expression was related to hypermethylation of TERT promoter in GC samples (P=0.005). Univariate analysis demonstrated that N-stage (P=0.002) and TERT promoter methylation (P=0.004) were predictive of overall survival. Furthermore, multivariate analysis confirmed that N-stage (P=0.013) and TERT promoter methylation (P=0.031) were independent prognostic indicators for overall survival. Conclusion Our data suggested that hypermethylation of TERT promoter may contribute to gastric wall invasion, lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular/neural invasion, and poor prognosis in GC. GC patients with hypermethylation of TERT promoter could be eligible for close follow-up. PMID:26834487

  14. Evaluation of Automatic Atlas-Based Lymph Node Segmentation for Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stapleford, Liza J.; Lawson, Joshua D.; Perkins, Charles; Edelman, Scott; Davis, Lawrence

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate if automatic atlas-based lymph node segmentation (LNS) improves efficiency and decreases inter-observer variability while maintaining accuracy. Methods and Materials: Five physicians with head-and-neck IMRT experience used computed tomography (CT) data from 5 patients to create bilateral neck clinical target volumes covering specified nodal levels. A second contour set was automatically generated using a commercially available atlas. Physicians modified the automatic contours to make them acceptable for treatment planning. To assess contour variability, the Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation (STAPLE) algorithm was used to take collections of contours and calculate a probabilistic estimate of the 'true' segmentation. Differences between the manual, automatic, and automatic-modified (AM) contours were analyzed using multiple metrics. Results: Compared with the 'true' segmentation created from manual contours, the automatic contours had a high degree of accuracy, with sensitivity, Dice similarity coefficient, and mean/max surface disagreement values comparable to the average manual contour (86%, 76%, 3.3/17.4 mm automatic vs. 73%, 79%, 2.8/17 mm manual). The AM group was more consistent than the manual group for multiple metrics, most notably reducing the range of contour volume (106-430 mL manual vs. 176-347 mL AM) and percent false positivity (1-37% manual vs. 1-7% AM). Average contouring time savings with the automatic segmentation was 11.5 min per patient, a 35% reduction. Conclusions: Using the STAPLE algorithm to generate 'true' contours from multiple physician contours, we demonstrated that, in comparison with manual segmentation, atlas-based automatic LNS for head-and-neck cancer is accurate, efficient, and reduces interobserver variability.

  15. Foamy Macrophage Deposition in Lymph Nodes Mimicking Lung Cancer Recurrence Diagnosed via Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiaoling; West, Douglas G; Shelley-Fraser, Golda; Medford, Andrew R L

    2015-11-01

    The radiological finding of mediastinal lymph node enlargement following surgery for lung cancer often signifies locoregional recurrence. The use of oxidised cellulose haemostatic agents (OCHAs) during staging mediastinoscopy is common. We report a case of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose-avid subcarinal lymphadenopathy in a patient in whom OCHAs had been used at mediastinoscopy 5 months earlier. Histopathological examination of suspected nodal recurrence is facilitated by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). The technique is particularly useful after previous mediastinoscopy, when repeat surgical exploration can be challenging. EBUS-TBNA samples showed extensive foamy macrophage deposition, with no evidence of malignancy. The association between the use of OCHAs and subsequent intranodal foamy macrophage deposition is new. Clinicians should consider this possibility in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy after surgical exploration, where OCHAs have been left in situ; it remains important to resample the lymph nodes before assuming disease recurrence to prevent unnecessary treatment. PMID:26337366

  16. Tumor, Lymph Node, and Lymph Node-to-Tumor Displacements Over a Radiotherapy Series: Analysis of Interfraction and Intrafraction Variations Using Active Breathing Control (ABC) in Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Elisabeth; Robertson, Scott P.; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To estimate errors in soft tissue-based image guidance due to relative changes between primary tumor (PT) and affected lymph node (LN) position and volume, and to compare the results with bony anatomy-based displacements of PTs and LNs during radiotherapy of lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Weekly repeated breath-hold computed tomography scans were acquired in 17 lung cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. PTs and affected LNs were manually contoured on all scans after rigid registration. Interfraction and intrafraction displacements in the centers of mass of PTs and LNs relative to bone, as well as LNs relative to PTs (LN-PT), were calculated. Results: The mean volume after 5 weeks was 65% for PTs and 63% for LNs. Systematic and random interfraction displacements were 2.6 to 4.6 mm and 2.7 to 2.9 mm, respectively, for PTs; 2.4 to 3.8 mm and 1.4 to 2.7 mm, respectively, for LNs; and 2.3 to 3.9 mm and 1.9 to 2.8 mm, respectively, for LN-PT. Systematic and random intrafraction displacements were less than 1 mm except in the superoinferior direction. Interfraction LN-PT displacements greater than 3 mm were observed in 67% of fractions and require a safety margin of 12 mm in the lateral direction, 11 mm in the anteroposterior direction, and 9 mm in the superoinferior direction. LN-PT displacements displayed significant time trends (p < 0.0001) and depended on the presence of pathoanatomic conditions of the ipsilateral lung, such as atelectasis. Conclusion: Interfraction LN-PT displacements were mostly systematic and comparable to bony anatomy-based displacements of PTs or LNs alone. Time trends, large volume changes, and the influence of pathoanatomic conditions underline the importance of soft tissue-based image guidance and the potential of plan adaptation.

  17. Rapid Stereology Based Quantitative Immunohistochemistry of Dendritic Cells in Lymph Nodes: A Methodological Study

    PubMed Central

    van Hensbergen, Yvette; Luykx?de Bakker, Sylvia A.; Heideman, Danille A. M.; Meijer, Gerrit A.; Pinedo, Herbert M.; van Diest, Paul J.

    2001-01-01

    This study was done to arrive at a fast and reliable protocol for assessment of fractional volumes of immunohistochemically stained dendritic cells in lymph nodes. Twenty axillary lymph nodes of patients with locally advanced breast cancer were immuno?histochemically stained with an S100 antibody. Fractional volumes of dendritic cells were assessed by stereology based quantitative immunohistochemistry using an interactive video overlay system including an automated microscope. The gold standard percentage of dendritic cells was the fractional volume of S100 stained cells in 500 fields systematically spread over the whole lymph node. Then, in a computer simulation, different sample sizes (1200 fields of vision) were tested and the coefficient of variation (CV) for each sample size was calculated. The CV dropped with increasing sample size. A sample size of 100 fields of vision appeared to be optimal. Intra? and interobserver reproducibility appeared to be good (correlation coefficients of 0.95 and 0.86, respectively) when re?analyzing the cases with the established protocol. In conclusion, a fast and reliable assessment of the fractional volume of dendritic cells in lymph nodes is possible with semi?automated quantitative immuno?histochemistry. This method will form the base for further clinical studies into the immunological response in lymph nodes of patients with locally advanced breast cancer. PMID:11455033

  18. Histomolecular Structural Aspects of High Endothelial Vessels in Lymph Node and Its Significance in Oral Cancer and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Poosarla, Chandrasekar; Rajendra Santosh, Arvind Babu; Gudiseva, Swetha; Meda, Indira; Reddy Baddam, Venkat Ramana

    2015-01-01

    Molecular cancer research studies focus on identifying diagnostic, screening, and metastatic indicators, and monitoring therapeutic responses. Migration of tumor cells and lymphocytes are important aspects in metastasis. High endothelial vessels are specialized histological structures identified in the blood vessels in lymphoid organs, which allow the migration of lymphocytes. In the recent decades, the role of high endothelial vessels is being addressed in cancer metastatic research. This review article is to highlight the histological and molecular structural aspects of high endothelial venules (HEVs) in the lymph node, and to demonstrate the role of HEVs in oral cancer metastasis, specifically oral and pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The literature for the present paper were searched from the data sources such as Medline/PubMed, CINAHL plus, and gray literature sources from inception to May 2015. Searches were conducted using both free texts and medical subject headings related to the title of the present paper. Only the full text manuscripts of the search results that support the objective(s) of the paper and papers written in English were included. HEVs are unique structures that are identified in the lymphocytes and primarily assist in the lymphocytic migration from the blood stream into the lymph node. Understanding the histomolecular characteristics of HEV will allow researchers to develop novel therapeutic approaches in cancer tissues. PMID:26942129

  19. Histomolecular Structural Aspects of High Endothelial Vessels in Lymph Node and Its Significance in Oral Cancer and Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Poosarla, Chandrasekar; Rajendra Santosh, Arvind Babu; Gudiseva, Swetha; Meda, Indira; Reddy Baddam, Venkat Ramana

    2015-12-01

    Molecular cancer research studies focus on identifying diagnostic, screening, and metastatic indicators, and monitoring therapeutic responses. Migration of tumor cells and lymphocytes are important aspects in metastasis. High endothelial vessels are specialized histological structures identified in the blood vessels in lymphoid organs, which allow the migration of lymphocytes. In the recent decades, the role of high endothelial vessels is being addressed in cancer metastatic research. This review article is to highlight the histological and molecular structural aspects of high endothelial venules (HEVs) in the lymph node, and to demonstrate the role of HEVs in oral cancer metastasis, specifically oral and pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The literature for the present paper were searched from the data sources such as Medline/PubMed, CINAHL plus, and gray literature sources from inception to May 2015. Searches were conducted using both free texts and medical subject headings related to the title of the present paper. Only the full text manuscripts of the search results that support the objective(s) of the paper and papers written in English were included. HEVs are unique structures that are identified in the lymphocytes and primarily assist in the lymphocytic migration from the blood stream into the lymph node. Understanding the histomolecular characteristics of HEV will allow researchers to develop novel therapeutic approaches in cancer tissues. PMID:26942129

  20. [Axillary granular parakeratosis].

    PubMed

    Rodrguez, Gerzan

    2002-12-01

    Axillary granular parakeratosis is an alteration of keratin characterized by a thick parakeratotic horny layer with abundant intracellular keratohyalin granules. It was first described in 1991 and since then 32 cases have been reported from USA, Europe and Australia. Lesions may affect intertriginous areas other than the axilla. The disease has apparently not been previously described in Latin America. Three overweight Colombian women were diagnosed with axillary granular parakeratosis. They presented encrusted, hyperkeratotic, hyperpigmented and pruriginous papules and plaques which affected both axillae in two women and only one in the other. Lesions had persisted for two and four months in two patients and for one year in the third. Clinical diagnoses were benign familiar pemphigus and tinea nigra. Skin biopsies showed a thick parakeratotic basophilic horny layer. Electron microscopy demonstrated a high content of keratohyalin granules. No Langerhans cells were demonstrated in the lesions using IHC for S-100 protein. No fungi were seen with the PAS stain. Infundibula showed thick horny plugs with changes similar to those seen in the epidermis. Dermal tissue showed few perivascular lymphocytes. These findings suggest that the disease has an irritative pathogenesis. Clinical histories indicated that the three women were overweight and used several types of antiperspirants. These factors plus local irritation and humidity apparently triggered the keratinization response. PMID:12596449

  1. High Occurrence of Aberrant Lymph Node Spread on Magnetic Resonance Lymphography in Prostate Cancer Patients With a Biochemical Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Meijer, Hanneke J.M.; Lin, Emile N. van; Debats, Oscar A.; Witjes, J. Alfred; Span, Paul N.; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Barentsz, Jelle O.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the pattern of lymph node spread in prostate cancer patients with a biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy, eligible for salvage radiotherapy; and to determine whether the clinical target volume (CTV) for elective pelvic irradiation in the primary setting can be applied in the salvage setting for patients with (a high risk of) lymph node metastases. Methods and Materials: The charts of 47 prostate cancer patients with PSA recurrence after prostatectomy who had positive lymph nodes on magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL) were reviewed. Positive lymph nodes were assigned to a lymph node region according to the guidelines of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) for delineation of the CTV for pelvic irradiation (RTOG-CTV). We defined four lymph node regions for positive nodes outside this RTOG-CTV: the para-aortal, proximal common iliac, pararectal, and paravesical regions. They were referred to as aberrant lymph node regions. For each patient, clinical and pathologic features were recorded, and their association with aberrant lymph drainage was investigated. The distribution of positive lymph nodes was analyzed separately for patients with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <1.0 ng/mL. Results: MRL detected positive aberrant lymph nodes in 37 patients (79%). In 20 patients (43%) a positive lymph node was found in the pararectal region. Higher PSA at the time of MRL was associated with the presence of positive lymph nodes in the para-aortic region (2.49 vs. 0.82 ng/mL; p = 0.007) and in the proximal common iliac region (1.95 vs. 0.59 ng/mL; p = 0.009). There were 18 patients with a PSA <1.0 ng/mL. Ten of these patients (61%) had at least one aberrant positive lymph node. Conclusion: Seventy-nine percent of the PSA-recurrent patients had at least one aberrant positive lymph node. Application of the standard RTOG-CTV for pelvic irradiation in the salvage setting therefore seems to be inappropriate.

  2. Regional lymph node metastases; a singular manifestation of the process of clinical metastases in cancer: contemporary animal research and clinical reports suggest unifying concepts.

    PubMed

    Cady, Blake

    2007-06-01

    Research results from laboratory animals and human clinical reports provide insight into cancer cell disseminations and elaborate the complex metastatic cascade of cells into both regional lymph nodes and other distant organs. Critical appraisal of clinical trials indicates that lymph node metastases are themselves non-lethal, but indicate prognosis, confirming laboratory conclusions. Distant vital organ metastases can be resected with long term survival in highly selective situations, demonstrating metastatic specificity in oligometastatic disease. Appreciating lymphatic system embryology, anatomy, and physiology is necessary for understanding lymph node metastases. The primary lymphatic system function was to return interstitial fluid to the circulation. Later evolutionary insertion of lymphocyte collections in lymph nodes interrupting lymph flow completed a system of analyzing external antigens to enable adaptive immunologic responses. Human cancers seldom elicit major immunological responses; they are not generally "foreign" enough. Therefore, lymphatic metastases have little meaning in evolutionary terms. Organ specificity of both lymphatic and distant metastases occurs as metastatic cells lie dormant, but grow selectively only in liver, lung, bone, or lymph nodes. These organ specific metastatic cells have little ability to produce different organ site clinical metastases. Thus, laboratory findings and clinical correlations emphasize that surgical lymph node removal should be de-emphasized or omitted. More physiological approaches to the highly manipulable multi-step processes of clinical metastases arising from host microenvironments will eventually prevail. PMID:17342568

  3. Scintigraphic visualization of an epigastric sentinel node in recurrent breast cancer after lumpectomy and postoperative radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Milardovic, Renata; Castellon, Ivan; Mills, Christopher; Altinyay, M Erkan; Raphael, Barbara; Abdel-Dayem, Hussein M

    2006-04-01

    Sentinel node imaging and biopsy have become standard procedures for staging early breast cancer. Positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy necessitates the need for axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Failure to visualize a sentinel lymph node in recurrent breast cancer after treatment by surgery, chemotherapy, and high-dose postoperative radiation therapy is almost the case in every patient. The reason for failure to visualize the sentinel node is the fibrosis that follows high-dose radiotherapy and blocks the lymphatics preventing spread of the tumor cells to the lymph nodes. Alternative pathways for the drainage of lymph from the breast are developed in these patients. We have previously reported on the alternative pathways of lymphatics to the contralateral axilla, supraclavicular area, and also reported on the development of intramammary lymph nodes. In this report, we are presenting another alternative pathway of lymphatics to the region of the epigastrium below the lower end of the sternum. PMID:16550014

  4. Automatic detection of axillary lymphadenopathy on CT scans of untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiamin; Hua, Jeremy; Chellappa, Vivek; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Farooqui, Mohammed; Marti, Gerald; Wiestner, Adrian; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-03-01

    Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have an increased frequency of axillary lymphadenopathy. Pretreatment CT scans can be used to upstage patients at the time of presentation and post-treatment CT scans can reduce the number of complete responses. In the current clinical workflow, the detection and diagnosis of lymph nodes is usually performed manually by examining all slices of CT images, which can be time consuming and highly dependent on the observer's experience. A system for automatic lymph node detection and measurement is desired. We propose a computer aided detection (CAD) system for axillary lymph nodes on CT scans in CLL patients. The lung is first automatically segmented and the patient's body in lung region is extracted to set the search region for lymph nodes. Multi-scale Hessian based blob detection is then applied to detect potential lymph nodes within the search region. Next, the detected potential candidates are segmented by fast level set method. Finally, features are calculated from the segmented candidates and support vector machine (SVM) classification is utilized for false positive reduction. Two blobness features, Frangi's and Li's, are tested and their free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curves are generated to assess system performance. We applied our detection system to 12 patients with 168 axillary lymph nodes measuring greater than 10 mm. All lymph nodes are manually labeled as ground truth. The system achieved sensitivities of 81% and 85% at 2 false positives per patient for Frangi's and Li's blobness, respectively.

  5. Nodal Ratios in Node-Positive Breast Cancer-Long-Term Study to Clarify Discrepancy of Role of Supraclavicular and Axillary Regional Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Patricia . E-mail: patricia.tai@scf.sk.ca; Joseph, Kurian; Sadikov, Evgeny; Mahmood, Shazia; Lien, Francis; Yu, Edward

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: To study the absolute number of involved nodes/the number of nodes examined or the nodal ratio (NR) in breast cancer. The primary study endpoint was to evaluate the role of supraclavicular and axillary radiotherapy (SART) according to the NR. Methods and Materials: From the Saskatchewan provincial registry of 1981-1995, the charts of 5,996 consecutive patients were retrieved to collect detailed prognostic factors. Among these patients, 1,985 were node positive. Because the NRs are more reliable the greater the number of nodes examined, we analyzed 1,255 patients with {>=}10 nodes examined. Of these 1,255 patients, 667, 389, and 199 were categorized into three NR groups-low ({<=}25%), medium (>25% to {<=}75%), and high (>75%) nodal involvement, respectively. Results: The NR correlated significantly with the primary tumor size ({<=}2 cm, >2 to {<=}5 cm, and >5 cm; p = 2.2 x 10{sup -16}), clinical stage group (p = 5.5 x 10{sup -16}), pathologic stage group (p < 2.2 x 10{sup -16}), and the risk of any first recurrence (p = 5.0 x 10{sup -15}) using chi-square tests. For a low NR, the 10-year overall survival rate with and without SART was 57% and 58% (p 0.18), and the cause-specific survival rate was 68% and 71% (p = 0.32), respectively. For a medium NR, the 10-year overall survival rate with and without SART was 48% and 34% (p = 0.007), and the cause-specific survival rate was 57% and 43% (p = 0.002), respectively. For a high NR, the 10-year overall survival rate with and without SART was 19% and 10% (p = 0.005), and the cause-specific survival rate was 26% and 14% (p = 0.005), respectively. Conclusion: This is the first study demonstrating that for patients with {>=}10 nodes examined, SART significantly improved the survival for the median and high NR groups but not for the low NR group.

  6. Whole-Pelvis or Bladder-Only Chemoradiation for Lymph Node-Negative Invasive Bladder Cancer: Single-Institution Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Tunio, Mutahir A.; Hashmi, Altaf; Qayyum, Abdul; Mohsin, Rehan; Zaeem, Ahmed

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Whole-pelvis (WP) concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) is the standard bladder preserving option for patients with invasive bladder cancer. The standard practice is to treat elective pelvic lymph nodes, so our aim was to evaluate whether bladder-only (BO) CCRT leads to results similar to those obtained by standard WP-CCRT. Methods and Materials: Patient eligibility included histopathologically proven muscle-invasive bladder cancer, lymph nodes negative (T2-T4, N-) by radiology, and maximal transurethral resection of bladder tumor with normal hematologic, renal, and liver functions. Between March 2005 and May 2006, 230 patients were accrued. Patients were randomly assigned to WP-CCRT (120 patients) and BO-CCRT (110 patients). Data regarding the toxicity profile, compliance, initial complete response rates at 3 months, and occurrence of locoregional or distant failure were recorded. Results: With a median follow-up time of 5 years (range, 3-6), WP-CCRT was associated with a 5-year disease-free survival of 47.1% compared with 46.9% in patients treated with BO-CCRT (p = 0.5). The bladder preservation rates were 58.9% and 57.1% in WP-CCRT and BO-CCRT, respectively (p = 0.8), and the 5-year overall survival rates were 52.9% for WP-CCRT and 51% for BO-CCRT (p = 0.8). Conclusion: BO-CCRT showed similar rates of bladder preservation, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates as those of WP-CCRT. Smaller field sizes including bladder with 2-cm margins can be used as bladder preservation protocol for patients with muscle-invasive lymph node-negative bladder cancer to minimize the side effects of CCRT.

  7. Internal Mammary Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy With Modified Injection Technique

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Peng-Fei; Cong, Bin-Bin; Zhao, Rong-Rong; Yang, Guo-Ren; Liu, Yan-Bing; Chen, Peng; Wang, Yong-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer incorporated the internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) concept, there has been little change in surgical practice patterns because of the low visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes (IMSLN) with the traditional radiotracer injection technique. In this study, various injection techniques were evaluated in term of the IMSLN visualization rate, and the impact of IM-SLNB on the diagnostic and prognostic value were analyzed. Clinically, axillary lymph nodes (ALN) negative patients (n = 407) were divided into group A (traditional peritumoral intraparenchymal injection) and group B (modified periareolar intraparenchymal injection). Group B was then separated into group B1 (low volume) and group B2 (high volume) according to the injection volume. Clinically, ALN-positive patients (n = 63) were managed as group B2. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed for patients with IMSLN visualized. The IMSLN visualization rate was significantly higher in group B than that in group A (71.1% versus 15.5%, P < 0.001), whereas the axillary sentinel lymph nodes were reliably identified in both groups (98.9% versus 98.3%, P = 0.712). With high injection volume, group B2 was found to have higher IMSLN visualization rate than group B1 (75.1% versus 45.8%, P < 0.001). The IMSLN metastasis rate was only 8.1% (12/149) in clinically ALN-negative patients with successful IM-SLNB, and adjuvant treatment was altered in a small proportion. The IMSLN visualization rate was 69.8% (44/63) in clinically ALN-positive patients with the IMSLN metastasis rate up to 20.5% (9/44), and individual radiotherapy strategy could be guided with the IM-SLNB results. The modified injection technique (periareolar intraparenchymal, high volume, and ultrasound guidance) significantly improved the IMSLN visualization rate, making the routine IM-SLNB possible in daily practice. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy could provide individual minimally invasive staging, prognosis, and decision making of the internal mammary radiotherapy, especially for clinically ALN-positive patients. PMID:26469922

  8. Impact of preoperative radiation for rectal cancer on subsequent lymph node evaluation: A population-based analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Nancy N. . E-mail: baxte025@umn.edu; Morris, Arden M.; Rothenberger, David A.; Tepper, Joel E.

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of preoperative radiotherapy (RT) on the accuracy of lymph node staging (LNS). Preoperative RT is a well-established component of rectal cancer treatment but its impact on LNS is unknown. Methods and materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry, representing 14% of the U.S. population, was used to assess the impact of preoperative RT on LNS. Our study population consisted of adults with rectal cancer between 1998 and 2000 who underwent radical resection. Results: In our 3-year study period, 5647 patients met the selection criteria and 1034 (19.5%) underwent preoperative RT. The preoperative RT group was younger (average age, 61 years) than those who did not undergo preoperative RT (average age, 69 years) and more likely to be male (22% of men vs. 16% of women). On average, fewer nodes were examined in patients who underwent preoperative RT (7 nodes) vs. those who did not (10 nodes); this difference was statistically significant, controlling for potential confounders (p {<=} 0.0001). In 16% of the preoperative RT patients (vs. 7.5% without), no nodes were identified (p {<=} 0.0001). If one used a minimum of 12 nodes as the standard, only 20% of patients who underwent preoperative RT underwent adequate LNS. Conclusion: Lymph node staging in patients who undergo preoperative RT must be interpreted with caution. Studies are needed to evaluate the clinical relevance of node number and pathologic staging after preoperative RT for rectal cancer.

  9. Transcriptional profile of fibroblasts obtained from the primary site, lymph node and bone marrow of breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Del Valle, Paulo Roberto; Milani, Cintia; Brentani, Maria Mitzi; Katayama, Maria Lucia Hirata; de Lyra, Eduardo Carneiro; Carraro, Dirce Maria; Brentani, Helena; Puga, Renato; Lima, Leandro A.; Rozenchan, Patricia Bortman; Nunes, Brbara dos Santos; Ges, Joo Carlos Guedes Sampaio; Azevedo Koike Folgueira, Maria Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) influence tumor development at primary as well as in metastatic sites, but there have been no direct comparisons of the transcriptional profiles of stromal cells from different tumor sites. In this study, we used customized cDNA microarrays to compare the gene expression profile of stromal cells from primary tumor (CAF, n = 4), lymph node metastasis (N+, n = 3) and bone marrow (BM, n = 4) obtained from breast cancer patients. Biological validation was done in another 16 samples by RT-qPCR. Differences between CAF vs N+, CAF vs BM and N+ vs BM were represented by 20, 235 and 245 genes, respectively (SAM test, FDR < 0.01). Functional analysis revealed that genes related to development and morphogenesis were overrepresented. In a biological validation set, NOTCH2 was confirmed to be more expressed in N+ (vs CAF) and ADCY2, HECTD1, HNMT, LOX, MACF1, SLC1A3 and USP16 more expressed in BM (vs CAF). Only small differences were observed in the transcriptional profiles of fibroblasts from the primary tumor and lymph node of breast cancer patients, whereas greater differences were observed between bone marrow stromal cells and the other two sites. These differences may reflect the activities of distinct differentiation programs. PMID:25249769

  10. Transcriptional profile of fibroblasts obtained from the primary site, lymph node and bone marrow of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Del Valle, Paulo Roberto; Milani, Cintia; Brentani, Maria Mitzi; Katayama, Maria Lucia Hirata; de Lyra, Eduardo Carneiro; Carraro, Dirce Maria; Brentani, Helena; Puga, Renato; Lima, Leandro A; Rozenchan, Patricia Bortman; Nunes, Brbara Dos Santos; Ges, Joo Carlos Guedes Sampaio; Azevedo Koike Folgueira, Maria Aparecida

    2014-09-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) influence tumor development at primary as well as in metastatic sites, but there have been no direct comparisons of the transcriptional profiles of stromal cells from different tumor sites. In this study, we used customized cDNA microarrays to compare the gene expression profile of stromal cells from primary tumor (CAF, n = 4), lymph node metastasis (N+, n = 3) and bone marrow (BM, n = 4) obtained from breast cancer patients. Biological validation was done in another 16 samples by RT-qPCR. Differences between CAF vs N+, CAF vs BM and N+ vs BM were represented by 20, 235 and 245 genes, respectively (SAM test, FDR < 0.01). Functional analysis revealed that genes related to development and morphogenesis were overrepresented. In a biological validation set, NOTCH2 was confirmed to be more expressed in N+ (vs CAF) and ADCY2, HECTD1, HNMT, LOX, MACF1, SLC1A3 and USP16 more expressed in BM (vs CAF). Only small differences were observed in the transcriptional profiles of fibroblasts from the primary tumor and lymph node of breast cancer patients, whereas greater differences were observed between bone marrow stromal cells and the other two sites. These differences may reflect the activities of distinct differentiation programs. PMID:25249769

  11. Newer Imaging Modalities to Assist With Target Localization in the Radiation Treatment of Prostate Cancer and Possible Lymph Node Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    John, Subhash S. Zietman, Anthony L.; Shipley, William U.; Harisinghani, Mukesh G.

    2008-05-01

    Precise localization of prostate cancer and the drainage lymph nodes is mandatory to define an accurate clinical target volume for conformal radiotherapy. Better target definition and delineation on a daily basis is surely important in quality assurance for fractionated radiation therapy. This article reviews the evidence for major emerging techniques that show promise in better identifying the clinical target volume. Partial prostate boost by brachytherapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, or protons has become possible not only with standard imaging techniques but also with the availability of metabolic images obtained by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Even though fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography has not been found to be useful, novel radiolabeled tracers may eventually prove of value in the diagnosis and treatment planning of prostate cancer. For the metastatic lymph nodes, lymphotropic nanoparticle-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging using ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles has greater accuracy as compared with conventional techniques and has been instrumental in delineating the lymphatic drainage of the prostate gland. These novel investigational techniques could further help in optimizing conformal radiotherapy for patients with prostate cancer. The concepts of biologic target volume, real target volume, and multidimensional conformal radiotherapy are being explored.

  12. SERPINE2 is a possible candidate promotor for lymph node metastasis in testicular cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Nagahara, Akira; Nakayama, Masashi; Oka, Daizo; Tsuchiya, Mutsumi; Kawashima, Atsunari; Mukai, Masatoshi; Nakai, Yasutomo; Takayama, Hitoshi; Nishimura, Kazuo; Jo, Yoshimasa; Nagai, Atsushi; Okuyama, Akihiko; Nonomura, Norio

    2010-01-22

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) commonly metastasize to the lymph node or lung. However, it remains unclear which genes are associated with TGCT metastasis. The aim of this study was to identify gene(s) that promoted human TGCT metastasis. We intraperitoneally administered conditioned medium (CM) from JKT-1, a cell-line from a human testicular seminoma, or JKT-HM, a JKT-1 cell sub-line with high metastatic potential, into mice with JKT-1 xenografts. Administration of CM from JKT-HM significantly promoted lymph node metastasis. A cDNA microarray analysis showed that JKT-HM cells highly expressed the Serpine peptidase inhibitor, clade E, member 2 (SERPINE2), which encodes a secreted protein. Administration of CM from SERPINE2-silenced JKT-HM cells inhibited lymph node metastasis in the xenograft model, compared with administration of CM from JKT-HM cells. There was no significant difference in xenograft volume. Moreover, administration of CM from SERPINE2-over-expressing JKT-1 was likely to promote lymph node metastasis in the xenograft model. There was no difference in the in vitro proliferation or migration of JKT-1 cells cultured with CM from JKT-HM cells, compared to that with CM from JKT-1. There was no promotion of proliferation or lymphangiogenesis in the xenografts, as measured by Ki-67 and LYVE-1 immunohistochemistry, respectively. Although we could not clarify how SERPINE2 promoted lymph node metastasis, it may be a promoter in the development of lymph node metastasis in the human seminoma cells in a mouse xenograft model.

  13. Lymph nodes

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... a complex network of thin vessels, valves, ducts, nodes, and organs. It helps to protect and maintain ... lymph and by producing various blood cells. Lymph nodes play an important part in the body's defense ...

  14. Preoperative mediastinal lymph node staging for non-small cell lung cancer: 2014 update of the 2007 ESTS guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Dooms, Christophe; Kuzdzal, Jaroslaw; Lardinois, Didier; Passlick, Bernward; Rami-Porta, Ramon; Turna, Akif; Van Schil, Paul; Venuta, Frederico; Waller, David; Weder, Walter; Zielinski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Accurate preoperative staging and restaging of mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with potentially resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is of paramount importance. In 2007, the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) published an algorithm on preoperative mediastinal staging integrating imaging, endoscopic and surgical techniques. Over the last years more evidence of the different mediastinal staging technique has become available. Therefore, a revision of the ESTS guidelines was needed. In case of CT-enlarged or PET-positive mediastinal lymph nodes, tissue confirmation is indicated. Endosonography (EBUS/EUS) with fine needle aspiration is the first choice (when available) since it is minimally invasive and has a high sensitivity to rule in mediastinal nodal disease. If negative, surgical staging with nodal dissection or biopsy is indicated. Video-assisted mediastinoscopy is preferred over mediastinoscopy. The combined use of endoscopic staging and surgical staging results in the highest accuracy. When there are no enlarged lymph nodes on CT and when there is no uptake in lymph nodes on PET or PET-CT, direct surgical resection with systematic nodal dissection is indicated for tumors ≤3 cm located in the outer third of the lung. In central tumors or N1 nodes, preoperative mediastinal staging is indicated. The choice between endoscopic staging with EBUS/EUS and fine needle aspiration or video-assisted mediastinoscopy depends on local expertise to adhere to minimal requirements for staging. For tumors larger than 3 cm, preoperative mediastinal staging is advised, mainly in adenocarcinoma with high SUV uptake. PMID:25806304

  15. Spectral imaging as a potential tool for optical sentinel lymph node biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, Jack D.; Hoy, Paul R.; Rutt, Harvey N.

    2011-07-01

    Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLNB) is an increasingly standard procedure to help oncologists accurately stage cancers. It is performed as an alternative to full axillary lymph node dissection in breast cancer patients, reducing the risk of longterm health problems associated with lymph node removal. Intraoperative analysis is currently performed using touchprint cytology, which can introduce significant delay into the procedure. Spectral imaging is forming a multi-plane image where reflected intensities from a number of spectral bands are recorded at each pixel in the spatial plane. We investigate the possibility of using spectral imaging to assess sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer patients with a view to eventually developing an optical technique that could significantly reduce the time required to perform this procedure. We investigate previously reported spectra of normal and metastatic tissue in the visible and near infrared region, using them as the basis of dummy spectral images. We analyse these images using the spectral angle map (SAM), a tool routinely used in other fields where spectral imaging is prevalent. We simulate random noise in these images in order to determine whether the SAM can discriminate between normal and metastatic pixels as the quality of the images deteriorates. We show that even in cases where noise levels are up to 20% of the maximum signal, the spectral angle map can distinguish healthy pixels from metastatic. We believe that this makes spectral imaging a good candidate for further study in the development of an optical SLNB.

  16. The clinical significance of minimal breast cancer: a pathologist's viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Wirman, J A

    1985-01-01

    We can draw the following conclusions about minimal breast cancer: The concept of minimal breast cancer as a stage of cancer that is 95% curable is a valid one, if minimal breast cancer is defined by strict parameters. Both 0.5 and 1.0 cm have been defined as the upper limit of size for minimal invasive cancer. Some data indicate that 0.5 cm is the preferable dividing line and that 1-cm cancers are no longer minimal. Other data suggest that the most important factor is axillary lymph node status. One-centimeter cancers are probably 95% curable if axillary lymph nodes are negative. Cancers of 0.5 cm and smaller in size are probably not 95% curable if axillary lymph nodes are involved. Carcinoma in situ appears to be highly curable, even if axillary lymph nodes are involved. Minimal breast cancer should include lobular carcinoma in situ (lobular neoplasia) and ductal carcinoma in situ regardless of nodal status, and (tentatively) invasive carcinoma smaller than 1 cm in total diameter, if axillary lymph nodes are not involved. Many cases of minimal breast cancer are asymptomatic. If special screening is not used, less than 10% of women with breast cancer will be at the minimal stage when diagnosed. Screening programs can increase this ratio to as much as one third of patients, perhaps even more. While serious questions about cost effectiveness of mass screening remain, screening programs appear to represent the best way of detecting minimal breast cancer. Screening programs should include careful history and physical examination, of course. The role of mammography is still controversial. It is probable that at least 50% of all minimal cancers would be missed without mammography. After a period of significant worry about the risk of radiation, opinion seems to be changing now and many authors are willing to accept the fact that mammography is of more benefit than risk for younger women. The HIP study would indicate that the risk/benefit ratio becomes favorable at age 50. Many authorities would now comfortably include mammography in the screening of women age 40 or older. Some authors believe that the benefits of mammography outweight the risks for patients of all ages. This question needs to be tested, and several randomized prospective clinical trials now in progress are doing just that. The legitimate worry over the risks of mammography should not obscure a very important fact.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2990747

  17. The Effect of Extent of Surgery and Number of Lymph Node Metastases on Overall Survival in Patients with Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, David T.; Yin, Huiying; Banerjee, Mousumi; Haymart, Megan R.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Total thyroidectomy with central lymph node dissection is recommended in patients with medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). However, the relationship between disease severity and extent of resection on overall survival remains unknown. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify the effect of surgery on overall survival in MTC patients. Methods: Using data from 2968 patients with MTC diagnosed between 1998 and 2005 from the National Cancer Database, we determined the relationship between the number of cervical lymph node metastases, tumor size, distant metastases, and extent of surgery on overall survival in patients with MTC. Results: Older patient age (5.69 [95% CI, 3.349.72]), larger tumor size (2.89 [95% CI, 2.143.90]), presence of distant metastases (5.68 [95% CI, 4.616.99]), and number of positive regional lymph nodes (for ?16 lymph nodes, 3.40 [95% CI, 2.414.79]) were independently associated with decreased survival. Overall survival rate for patients with cervical lymph nodes resected and negative, cervical lymph nodes not resected, and 15, 610, 1116, and ?16 cervical lymph node metastases was 90, 76, 74, 61, 69, and 55%, respectively. There was no difference in survival based on surgical intervention in patients with tumor size ? 2 cm without distant metastases. In patients with tumor size > 2.0 cm and no distant metastases, all surgical treatments resulted in a significant improvement in survival compared to no surgery (P < .001). In patients with distant metastases, only total thyroidectomy with regional lymph node resection resulted in a significant improvement in survival (P < .001). Conclusions: The number of lymph node metastases should be incorporated into MTC staging. The extent of surgery in patients with MTC should be tailored to tumor size and distant metastases. PMID:24276457

  18. Expression of SIRT1 and apoptosis-related proteins is predictive for lymph node metastasis and disease-free survival in luminal A breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojin; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Park, In Ae; Chung, Yul Ri; Im, Seock-Ah; Noh, Dong-Young; Han, Wonshik; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Jung, Yoon Yang; Ryu, Han Suk

    2015-11-01

    Luminal A breast cancer can present with early, unexpected lymph node metastasis, and sentinel lymph node biopsy has been reported false negative in some cases. We aimed to construct a biomarker-based model that predicts lymph node metastasis in luminal A breast cancer, using expression of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) and apoptosis-related factors, which are known to be closely related. We selected tissue samples of 278 cases of luminal A invasive ductal carcinoma, constructed tissue microarrays, and performed immunohistochemical staining for SIRT1 and four apoptosis-related proteins. In constructing the best predictive model for lymph node metastasis, six clinicopathological parameters and five molecular markers were considered. Independent factors predictive of lymph node metastasis were pT stage (OR 1.829, p = 0.027), lymphovascular invasion (OR 4.128, p < 0.001), and decreased expression of caspase-3 (OR 0.535, p = 0.034) and of SIRT1 (OR 0.526, p = 0.053). A combination nuclear grade, lymphovascular invasion, increased B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression, and reduced expression of caspase-3 and of SIRT1 yielded the strongest predictive performance for lymph node metastasis with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.696. This combination was also predictive of shortened disease-free survival (73.1 vs. 67.7 months, p = 0.003). Our data support a role of SIRT1 protein as tumor suppressor in luminal A breast cancer, in association with apoptosis-related proteins. Our model based upon a combination of these biomarkers is expected to increase accuracy of prediction of lymph node metastasis in luminal A breast cancer. This might serve as a valuable tool in determining the optimal surgical strategy in breast cancer patients. PMID:26280894

  19. Cyclo-oxygenase 2 expression is associated with angiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Costa, C; Soares, R; Reis-Filho, J S; Leito, D; Amendoeira, I; Schmitt, F C

    2002-01-01

    Aims: Cyclo-oxygenases 1 and 2 (COX-1 and COX-2) are key enzymes in prostaglandin biosynthesis. COX-2 is induced by a wide variety of stimuli, and present during inflammation. COX-2 overexpression has been observed in colon, head and neck, lung, prostate, stomach, and breast cancer. In colon and gastric cancer, COX-2 expression was associated with angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between COX-2 expression and angiogenesis in breast cancer, and to correlate the expression of this enzyme with classic clinicopathological parameters. Methods: COX-2 expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis. The expression of COX-2 was then related to age, histological grade, nodal status, oestrogen receptor status, p53 expression,c-erb-B2 overexpression, mitotic counts, MIB-1 labelling index, apoptotic index, sialyl-Tn expression, transforming growth factor ? expression, microvessel density, and disease free survival in 46 patients with invasive ductal breast carcinoma. Results: By means of immunohistochemistry, COX-2 expression was detected in eight of the 46 carcinomas studied. Western blotting showed COX-2 protein expression in the same breast tumours, but not in normal adjacent tissues. The density of microvessels immunostained with anti-F-VIII related antigen was significantly higher in patients with COX-2 expression than in those without expression (p = 0.03). In addition, COX-2 was significantly associated with the presence of sialyl-Tn expression (p = 0.02), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.03), a high apoptotic index (p = 0.03), and a short disease free survival (p = 0.03) in univariate analyses. Conclusions: These data suggest that COX-2 expression is associated with angiogenesis, lymph node metastasis, and apoptosis in human breast cancer. Moreover, these results warrant further studies with larger series of patients to confirm the association with short disease free survival in patients with breast cancer. PMID:12037025

  20. Radiation Therapy Field Extent for Adjuvant Treatment of Axillary Metastases From Malignant Melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Beadle, Beth M.; Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh Ballo, Matthew T.; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Cormier, Janice N.; Mansfield, Paul F.; Ross, Merrick I.; Zagars, Gunar K.

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To compare treatment-related outcomes and toxicity for patients with axillary lymph node metastases from malignant melanoma treated with postoperative radiation therapy (RT) to either the axilla only or both the axilla and supraclavicular fossa (extended field [EF]). Methods and Materials: The medical records of 200 consecutive patients treated with postoperative RT for axillary lymph node metastases from malignant melanoma were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received postoperative hypofractionated RT for high-risk features; 95 patients (48%) received RT to the axilla only and 105 patients (52%) to the EF. Results: At a median follow-up of 59 months, 111 patients (56%) had sustained relapse, and 99 patients (50%) had died. The 5-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival rates were 51%, 43%, and 46%, respectively. The 5-year axillary control rate was 88%. There was no difference in axillary control rates on the basis of the treated field (89% for axilla only vs. 86% for EF; p = 0.4). Forty-seven patients (24%) developed treatment-related complications. On both univariate and multivariate analyses, only treatment with EF irradiation was significantly associated with increased treatment-related complications. Conclusions: Adjuvant hypofractionated RT to the axilla only for metastatic malignant melanoma with high-risk features is an effective method to control axillary disease. Limiting the radiation field to the axilla only produced equivalent axillary control rates to EF and resulted in lower treatment-related complication rates.

  1. Effect of tumor-associated macrophages on gastric cancer stem cell in omental milky spots and lymph node micrometastasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chi; Hu, Xiang; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Liang, Pin; Zhang, Jian; Cao, Liang; Wang, Zheng-Lin; Liu, Huan-Ran; Yin, Xun-Guo; Dong, Cheng-Yong; Wang, Li-Ming

    2015-01-01

    We observed whether the effect of tumor-associated macrophages on gastric cancer stem cell in omental milky spots and lymph nodes micrometastasis and research its possible mechanism. Macrophage THP-1 cells and Human gastric adenocarcinoma SGC-7901 cells were collectively cultivated in vivo. We found macrophage could suppress the proliferation and accelerated cell death of MFC cell. Meanwhile, these effects may be concerned with many signaling pathways, and we detected MCP-1 and COX-2 miRNA expressions, PGE-2 release levels, IL-4 and IL-10 activities, and TGF-β, IFN-γ, VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein expressions in collectively cultivated cell. We found that MCP-1 and COX-2 miRNA expressions, and PGE-2 release levels were suppressed, IL-4 activity was inhibited and IL-10 activity was activated in collectively cultivated cell. Meanwhile, TGF-β, MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein expressions were inhibited and IFN-γ and VEGF protein expressions were activated in collectively cultivated cell. Taken together, these results suggest that the effect of tumor-associated macrophages on gastric cancer stem cell in omental milky spots and lymph nodes micrometastasis via COX-2/PGE-2/TGF-β/VEGF signal pathways. PMID:26823693

  2. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Cyclophosphamide, and Paclitaxel With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Lymph Node-Positive or High-Risk, Lymph Node-Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-31

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  3. Application of Endobronchial Ultrasonography for the Preoperative Detecting Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Lymph Node Metastasis of Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Rong; Li, Yin; Gao, Xiao-Yan; Lin, Shi-Yong; Luo, Guang-Yu; Li, Jian-Jun; Xu, Guo-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background The preoperative detection of recurrent laryngeal nerve lymph node (RLN LN) metastasis provides important information for the treatment of esophageal cancer. We investigated the possibility of applying endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS) with conventional preoperative endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and computerized tomography (CT) examination to evaluate RLN LN metastasis in patients with esophageal cancer. Methods A total of 115 patients with advanced thoracic esophageal cancer underwent EBUS examinations. Patients also underwent EUS and CT imaging as reference diagnostic methods. Positron emission tomography /computed tomography (PET/CT) was also introduced in partial patients as reference method. The preoperative evaluation of RLN LN metastasis was compared with the surgical and pathological staging in 94 patients who underwent radical surgery. Results The sensitivities of the preoperative evaluations of RLN LN metastasis by EBUS, EUS and CT were 67.6%, 32.4% and 29.4%, respectively. The sensitivity of EBUS was significantly different from that of EUS or CT, especially in the detection of right RLN LNs. In addition, according to the extra data from reference method, PET/CT was not superior to EBUS or EUS in detecting RLN LN metastasis. Among all 115 patients, 21 patients who were diagnosed with tracheal invasions by EUS or EBUS avoided radical surgery. Another 94 patients who were diagnosed as negative for tracheobronchial tree invasion by EUS and EBUS had no positive findings in radical surgery. Conclusions EBUS can enhance the preoperative sensitivity of the detection of RLN LN metastasis in cases of thoracic esophageal cancer and is a useful complementary examination to conventional preoperative EUS and CT, which can alert thoracic surgeons to the possibility of a greater range of preoperative lymph node dissection. EBUS may also indicate tracheal invasion in cases of esophageal stricture. PMID:26372339

  4. Lymph Node Metastasis from Tall-Cell Thyroid Cancer Negative on 18F-FDG PET/CT and Detected by 18F-Choline PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Piccardo, Arnoldo; Massollo, Michela; Bandelloni, Roberto; Arlandini, Anselmo; Foppiani, Luca

    2015-08-01

    A 77-year-old woman underwent thyroidectomy and (131)I remnant ablation for tall-cell differentiated cancer (DTC) of the left lobe. Detectable Tg levels (4.1 ?g/L) under TSH suppression, with undetectable serum Tg-antibody levels, prompted neck ultrasonography, which revealed a lymph node in the left laterocervical region and in the right retroclavicular region. (18)F-FDG PET/CT showed uptake by the left lymph node. (18)F-choline PET/CT showed increased uptake by both lymph nodes. Histopathology revealed DTC solid metastasis in the left lymph node and solid and cystic metastasis in the right one. (18)F-choline PET/CT can locate virulent DTC recurrence, thereby increasing (18)F-FDG PET/CT information. PMID:26053727

  5. [Axillary web syndrome--a variant of Mondor's disease, following excision of an accessory breast].

    PubMed

    Shoham, Yaron; Rosenberg, Nir; Krieger, Yuval; Silberstein, Eldad; Arnon, Ofer; Bogdanov-Berezovsky, Alex

    2011-12-01

    Cording, an unusual form of superficial thrombophlebitis, is a variant of the disease first described by Fage in 1870 and subsequently characterized by Henry Mondor in 1939 as sclerosing thrombophlebitis of the subcutaneous veins of the anterior chest wall. Similar lesions have also been found in the penis, groin, abdomen, arm, and axilla and have been reported under a variety of names. In the axilla the condition is termed axillary web syndrome (AWS) and is seen after axillary lymph node dissection and sentinel lymph node biopsy. A recent report suggests that pathophysiology of AWS is lymphatic in origin rather than venous. We report a unique case of unilateral AWS after excision of an axillary accessory breast and discuss the pathophysiology. PMID:22352279

  6. Axillary lymphadenopathy 17 years after digital silicone implants: study with x-ray microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Paplanus, S.H.; Payne, C.M.

    1988-05-01

    Axillary lymphadenopathy developed in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis 17 years after the placing of Swanson implants in the hand. Foreign material in the lymph nodes was identified as silicone by energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis. This emphasizes the long latent period that may be associated with this clinical phenomenon which may mimic other, more serious, diseases.

  7. Do all patients with sentinel node metastasis from breast carcinoma need complete axillary node dissection?

    PubMed Central

    Chu, K U; Turner, R R; Hansen, N M; Brennan, M B; Bilchik, A; Giuliano, A E

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the likelihood of nonsentinel axillary metastasis in the presence of sentinel node metastasis from a primary breast carcinoma. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Sentinel lymphadenectomy is a highly accurate technique for identifying axillary metastasis from a primary breast carcinoma. Our group has shown that nonsentinel axillary lymph nodes are unlikely to contain tumor cells if the axillary sentinel node is tumor-free, but as yet no study has examined the risk of nonsentinel nodal involvement when the sentinel node contains tumor cells. METHODS: Between 1991 and 1997, axillary lymphadenectomy was performed in 157 women with a tumor-involved sentinel node. Fifty-three axillae (33.5%) had at least one tumor-involved nonsentinel node. The authors analyzed the incidence of nonsentinel node involvement according to clinical and tumor characteristics. RESULTS: Only two variables had a significant impact on the likelihood of nonsentinel node metastasis: the size of the sentinel node metastasis and the size of the primary tumor. The rate of nonsentinel node involvement was 7% when the sentinel node had a micrometastasis (< or =2 mm), compared with 55% when the sentinel