These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Patients with Recurrent Breast Cancer: Does the Primary Axillary Lymph node Status Predict more Aggressive Tumor Progression?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The extent of axillary lymph node involvement represents the foremost important prognostic parameter in primary breast cancer, and, thus, is one of the main determinants for subsequent systemic treatment. Nevertheless, the relevance of the initial axillary lymph node status on survival after disease recurrence is discussed controversially. Persisting prognostic impact after relapse would identify lymph node status as a

Brigitte Rack; Wolfgang Janni; Bernd Gerber; Barbara Strobl; Christian Schindlbeck; Elisabeth Klanner; Gerhard Rammel; Harald Sommer; Thomas Dimpfl; Klaus Friese

2003-01-01

2

Role of axillary lymph node dissection after tumor downstaging with induction chemotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Induction chemotherapy has become the standard of care for patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) and currently is being evaluated in prospective clinical trials in patients with earlier-stage disease. To better gauge the role of axillary lymph node dissection in patients with LABC this study was performed to assess initial axillary status on physical and ultrasound examination, axillary

Henry M. Kuerer; Lisa A. Newman; Bruno D. Fornage; Kapil Dhingra; Kelly K. Hunt; Aman U. Buzdar; Fred C. Ames; Merrick I. Ross; Barry W. Feig; Gabriel N. Hortobagyi; S. Eva Singletary

1998-01-01

3

Chalkley microvessel but not lymphatic vessel density correlates with axillary lymph node metastasis in primary breast cancers.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate tumor microvessel density (MVD) and lymphatic vessel density (LVD) using the Chalkley method as predictive markers for the risk of axillary lymph node metastasis and their relationship to other clinicopathological parameters in primary breast cancer cases. Forty two node-positive and eighty node-negative breast cancers were immunostained for CD34 and D2-40. MVD and LVD were counted by the Chalkley method at x400 magnification. There was a positive significant correlation of the MVD with the tumor size, coexisting ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lymph node metastases (P<0.05). In multivariate analysis, the MVD (2.86-4: OR 5.87 95%CI 1.05-32; >4: OR 20.03 95%CI 3.47-115.6), lymphovascular invasion (OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.13-10.6), and associated DCIS (OR 3.1, 95%CI 1.04-9.23) independently predicted axillary lymph node metastasis. There was no significant relationship between LVD and axillary lymph node metastasis. However, D2-40 was a good lymphatic vessel marker to enhance the detection of lymphatic invasion compared to H and E staining. In conclusion, MVD by the Chalkley method, lymphovascular invasion and associated DCIS can be additional predictive factors for axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer. No relationship was identified between LVD and clinicopathological variables, including axillary lymph node metastasis. PMID:23534799

Kanngurn, Samornmas; Thongsuksai, Paramee; Chewatanakornkul, Siripong

2013-01-01

4

Physiotherapeutic stimulation: Early prevention of lymphedema following axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer treatment  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to confirm the effectiveness of early physiotherapeutic stimulation for lymphatic flow progression in patients with breast cancer undergoing axillary dissection. This was a randomized experimental study on 22 patients who underwent lymphoscintigraphy in their arms on two different occasions, firstly without stimulation and secondly after randomization into two groups: without physiotherapeutic stimulation (WOPS; n=10) and with physiotherapeutic stimulation (WPS; n=12). The lymphoscintigraphy scan was performed with 99mTc-phytate administered into the second interdigital space of the hand, ipsilaterally to the dissected axilla, in three phases: dynamic, static, and delayed whole body imaging. Physiotherapeutic stimulation was carried out using Földi's technique. In both groups, images from the two examinations of each patient were compared. Flow progression was considered positive when, on the second examination, the radiopharmaceutical reached areas more distant from the injection site. Statistical analysis was used to evaluate frequencies, percentages and central trend measurements, and non-parametric tests were conducted. Descriptive analysis showed that the WPS and WOPS groups were similar in terms of mean age, weight, height, body mass index and number of lymph nodes removed. There were statistically significant associations between physiotherapeutic stimulation and radiopharmaceutical progression at all three phases of the study (p<0.0001). Early physiotherapeutic stimulation in breast cancer patients undergoing radical axillary dissection is effective, and can therefore be indicated as a preventive measure against lymphedema. PMID:23136607

SARRI, ALMIR JOSE; MORIGUCHI, SONIA MARTA; DIAS, ROGERIO; PERES, STELA VERZINHASSE; DA SILVA, EDUARDO TINOIS; KOGA, KATIA HIROMOTO; ZUCCA MATTHES, ANGELO GUSTAVO; DOS SANTOS, MARCELO JOSE; DA ROCHA, EUCLIDES TIMOTEO; HAIKEL, RAPHAEL LUIZ

2010-01-01

5

High-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell support for primary breast cancer in patients with 4–9 involved axillary lymph nodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer patients with more than three involved axillary lymph have a high likelihood of relapse after adjuvant therapy. Early results of administration of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and autologous peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) to patients with primary breast cancer and ?10 involved axillary nodes have been encouraging. We performed a multicenter trial to determine whether HDCT could be safely

SI Bearman; BA Overmoyer; BJ Bolwell; CW Taylor; EJ Shpall; PJ Cagnoni; BE Mechling; B Ronk; AE Barón; MH Purdy; M Ross; RB Jones

1997-01-01

6

Axillary lymph node metastasis as first presentation of peritoneal carcinomatosis from serous papillary ovarian cancer: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Ovarian cancer usually spreads into abdominal cavity and to the loco-regional lymph nodes. Extra-abdominal metastases are less frequent and isolated axillary metastases are very rare. The authors describe the case of a 49-year-old woman who was diagnosed with a peritoneal carcinomatosis from ovarian cancer by mean of an enlarged axillary lymph node biopsy, whose histological examination identified as a ovarian cancer metastasis. Patient was treated by peritonectomy and intraperitoneal chemohyperthermic perfusion (HIPEC). Although patients with axillary lymph node metastasis from ovarian cancer are though to be metastatic (FIGO Stage IV), surgical radical treatment and adjuvant systemic chemotherapy can achieve the same prognosis of Stage IIIb-c patients, suggesting they could be a particularly good prognosis subset of patients. Early differential diagnosis between ovarian or breast cancer in axillary lymph node metastasis is crucial but not always very simple, because of the very different course and treatment of these tumours. PMID:24772922

Sibio, S; Sammartino, P; Accarpio, F; Framarino dei Malatesta, M L; Biacchi, D; Sollazzo, B M; Di Giorgio, A

2014-01-01

7

Lymph-node staining with activated carbon CH40: a new method for axillary lymph-node dissection in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective To demonstrate the usefulness of activated carbon particles (CH40) as a vital staining dye for visualizing lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes in breast cancer. Design A retrospective evaluation. Setting Department of Surgery in Sendai National Hospital, Japan, a 716-bed teaching hospital. Methods To identify as many lymph nodes as possible in the axillary fat, by which we might decrease the possibility of the presence of undetected metastatic nodes, an emulsion of activated carbon particles (CH40) was injected into the centre of the mammary gland, close to the tumour site, 3 days before radical surgery. Main outcome measure The number of lymph nodes found by the traditional method and by the CH40-injection method were recorded. Results After injection, the CH40 was readily adsorbed into regional lymphatics and streamed along with the lymph flow to blacken regional lymph nodes. The CH40-guided method increased the mean number of nodes per case found in the axilla from 8.4, by the traditional method, to 14.0 nodes per case. Conclusions The use of the CH40 technique has two technical advantages; one is that it allows surgeons to locate the blackened lymph nodes at the time of surgery and the other is that it allows pathologists to look for the nodes in fatty tissue. Lymph-node dissection with the aid of activated carbon particles is inexpensive, easy to perform and enables the smallest lymph nodes to be easily recognized. CH40 is the technique of choice for the detection of axillary lymph nodes in cases where the number of lymph nodes detected by the traditional method is too small for accurate surgery. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that CH40 could be an appropriate tool for more accurate staging of breast cancer axillary specimens. PMID:10851412

Yokota, Takashi; Saito, Toshihiro; Narushima, Yoichi; Iwamoto, Kazutsugu; Iizuka, Masashi; Hagiwara, Akeo; Sawai, Kiyoshi; Kikuchi, Shu; Kunii, Yasuo; Yamauchi, Hidemi

2000-01-01

8

Spontaneous regression of breast cancer with axillary lymph node metastasis: a case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous regression (SR) of cancer is a rare but well-documented biological phenomenon. However, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. We herein report a case of the SR of breast cancer at both the primary site and metastatic axillary lymph node with spontaneously-induced T cell-mediated immunological responses. A 52-year-old female with a lump in the left axilla was diagnosed to have a small breast carcinoma with a distinct axillary lymph node metastasis. During the preoperative systemic examination, she was diagnosed to have severe type 2 diabetes mellitus, was treated with insulin, and the hyperglycemia was normalized after one month. Surgery for left breast cancer was then performed. The postoperative histopathological examination revealed the SR of breast cancer at both the primary site and metastatic axillary lymph node. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that estrogen receptor positive, AE1/AE3-positive ductal carcinoma completely underwent necrosis associated with extensive infiltration of CD3-positive T cells in the tumor nodule in the lymph node. In addition, primary ductal carcinoma cells also underwent single cell necrosis with infiltration of T cells with lymph follicle-like organization of B cells in the mammary gland. The features were suggestive that the tumor eradication in the metastatic lymph node and regression of the primary ductal carcinoma could be due to host T cell response to the ductal carcinoma. As far as we know it is the first report that shows the spontaneous regression of breast cancer, probably due to the spontaneously-induced T cell response. PMID:25120822

Tokunaga, Eriko; Okano, Shinji; Nakashima, Yuichiro; Yamashita, Nami; Tanaka, Kimihiro; Akiyoshi, Sauri; Taketani, Kenji; Shirouzu, Mitsunori; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Morita, Masaru; Maehara, Yoshihiko

2014-01-01

9

The number of tumor-free axillary lymph nodes removed as a prognostic parameter for node-negative breast cancer.  

PubMed

Recently, there has been controversy about the relationship between the number of lymph nodes removed and survival of patients diagnosed with lymph node-negative breast cancer. To assess this relationship, 603 cases of lymph node-negative breast cancer with a median of 126 months of follow-up data were studied. Patients were stratified into two groups (Group A, 10 or fewer tumor-free lymph nodes removed; Group B, more than 10 tumor-free lymph nodes removed). The number of tumor-free lymph nodes in ipsilateral axillary resections as well as 5 other disease parameters were analyzed for prognostic value. Our results revealed that the risk of death from breast cancer was significantly associated with patient age, marital status, histologic grade, tumor size, and adjuvant therapy. The 5- and 10-year survival rates for patients with 10 or fewer tumor-free lymph nodes removed was 88.0% and 66.4%, respectively, compared with 69.2% and 51.1%, respectively, for patients with more than 10 tumor-free lymph nodes removed. For patients with 10 or fewer tumor-free lymph nodes removed, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for risk of death from breast cancer was 0.579 (95% confidence interval, 0.492-0.687, P < 0.001), independent of patient age, marital status, histologic grade, tumor size, and adjuvant therapy. Our study suggests that the number of tumor-free lymph nodes removed is an independent predictor in cases of lymph node-negative breast cancer. PMID:25322865

Gao, Fei; He, Ni; Wu, Pei-Hong

2014-11-01

10

Women with Breast Cancer Micrometastases in Their Sentinel Lymph Nodes May Not Need Axillary Dissection  

MedlinePLUS

... Program Coordinating Center for Clinical Trials Women with Breast Cancer Micrometastases in Their Sentinel Lymph Nodes May Not ... Summary In a randomized clinical trial , women with breast cancer and only small numbers of cancer cells ( micrometastases ) ...

11

Optical characterization of ex-vivo axillary lymph nodes of breast-cancer patients using a custom-built spectrophotometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative photoacoustics is emerging as a new hybrid modality to investigate diseases and cells in human pathology and cytology studies. Optical absorption of light is the predominant mechanism behind the photoacoustic effect. Therefore, a need exits to characterize the optical properties of specimens and to identify the relevant operating wavelengths for photoacoustic imaging. We have developed a custom low-cost spectrophotometer to measure the optical properties of human axillary lymph nodes dissected for breast-cancer staging. Optical extinction curves of positive and negative nodes were determined in the spectral range of 400 to 1000 nm. We have developed a model to estimate tissue optical properties, taking into account the role of fat and saline. Our results enabled us to select the optimal optical wavelengths for maximizing the imaging contrast between metastatic and noncancerous tissue in axillary lymph nodes.

Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Saegusa-Beecroft, Emi; Mamou, Jonathan; Chitnis, Parag V.; Machi, Junji; Feleppa, Ernest J.

2014-03-01

12

In breast cancer patients sentinel lymph node metastasis characteristics predict further axillary involvement.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to correlate various primary tumor characteristics with lymph node status, to examine sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis size and non-SLN axillary involvement, to look for a cut-off size/number value possibly predicting additional axillary involvement with more accuracy and to examine the relationship of SLN metastasis size to overall survival. Of 301 patients who underwent SLN biopsy, 75 had positive SLNs. The size of the metastases was measured. For different size categories, association with the prevalence of non-SLN metastases was assessed. Associations between metastasis size and tumor characteristics and overall survival (OS) were studied. The prevalence of axillary lymph node (ALN) involvement was not significantly different between cases with micrometastasis or macrometastasis in SLNs (p = 0.124). However, for metastases larger than 6, 7, and 8 mm, the prevalence of ALN involvement was significantly higher (p = 0.046, 0.022, and 0.025). OS was significantly lower in SLN-positive than in SLN-negative cases (p = 0.0375). Primary tumor size larger than 20 mm was associated with a significantly higher incidence of SLN metastasis (p < 0.001), and primary tumor size over 26 mm was associated with additional positive non-SLN (p < 0.001). Higher mitotic index (? 7) in primary tumors was significantly (p < 0.001) associated with ALN involvement in SLN-positive cases, whereas higher Ki67 labeling index was not significantly correlated with SLN or ALN involvement. Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) in primary tumors was significantly correlated with SLN positivity (p < 0.001) but not with further ALN involvement or OS. Tumor size and LVI are predictive for SLN metastasis. Mitotic index, primary tumor size, and larger volume SLN involvement are determinants of further ALN involvement. SLN metastasis size over 6 mm is a strong predictor of further axillary involvement. OS is shorter in the presence of positive SLN. PMID:24809673

Illyes, Ildiko; Tokes, Anna-Maria; Kovacs, Attila; Szasz, A Marcell; Molnar, Bela A; Molnar, Istvan A; Kaszas, Ilona; Baranyak, Zsuzsanna; Laszlo, Zsolt; Kenessey, Istvan; Kulka, Janina

2014-07-01

13

How Many Sentinel Lymph Nodes Are Enough for Accurate Axillary Staging in T1-2 Breast Cancer?  

PubMed Central

Purpose During a sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for breast cancer, the appropriate number of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) to be removed for accurate axillary staging is still controversial. We hypothesized that there might be an optimal threshold number of SLNs. We investigated how many SLNs should be removed to achieve an acceptable accuracy and ensure minimal morbidity. Methods We reviewed data of 328 patients with invasive breast cancer who underwent SLNB followed by complete level I and II axillary dissection between January 2004 and December 2005. The false negative rate (FNR) and accuracy of SLNB according to the number of removed SLNs were evaluated. Results The mean number of SLNs removed was 3.0 (range, 1-14), and that of total retrieved axillary lymph nodes was 17.5 (range, 10-40). In total, 111 (33.8%) patients had positive nodes on the permanent pathological report. Among them, 12 patients had negative SLNs; thus, the overall FNR of SLNB was 10.8% (12/111) and the accuracy was 96.3% (316/328). The FNR was 26.6% for a single SLN, 8.0% for two, and 11.1% for three. In cases where four or more SLNs were removed, the FNR decreased to 0% and accuracy reached 100%. Conclusion Our data suggest that a SLNB should not only remove one or two of the hottest node(s) when other hot nodes exist. We also suggest that four might be an optimal threshold number of SLNs to be removed and that removal of more than four SLNs does not improve axillary staging accuracy. PMID:22323916

Ban, Eun Jeong; Lee, Jun Sang; Koo, Ja Seung; Park, Seho; Kim, Seung Il

2011-01-01

14

The use of FDG-PET in assessing axillary lymph node status in breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Axillary lymph node status is the most powerful prognostic indicator in patients with breast cancer. FDG-PET has been suggested\\u000a as a non-invasive method of staging the axilla. The aim of this study was to review and aggregate all studies that measured\\u000a the performance of FDG-PET in patients with breast cancer, using surgically obtained axillary histology as a reference, in\\u000a a

Rebecca PeareR; S. D. Heys

2010-01-01

15

[Intramammary lymph node sentinel metastasis without metastasis in axilla. Axillary lymph node dissection or conservative surgery?].  

PubMed

The sentinel lymph node biopsy is a standard treatment for patients with breast cancer and clinically negative axilla lymph node. The presence of an extra-axillary and intra-axillary (IM) sentinel lymph node (SLN) occurs in up to 2.6% of cases. In the presence of a metastatic IM SLN, axillary positivity may occur in up to 81% of cases. Due to the limited number of cases reported, there is no standard treatment for the association of metastatic SLN IM and non-metastatic axillary SLN . We add here two cases to the literature, one of them with metastatic disease in the axilla. The use of a nomogram demonstrated that the risk of axillary metastasis was less than 10% and the addition of these cases to the literature showed that in this situation the rate of axillary metastasis is 6.25%. We discuss the pros and cons of further axillary dissection in this situation. PMID:23288226

Vieira, René Aloisio da Costa; Viviani, Dionísio Nepomuceno; Ferreira, Suellen Strada; Bailão, Antônio; Kerr, Ligia Maria; Matthes, Angelo Gustavo Zucca; Moriguchi, Sonia Marta

2012-10-01

16

Sentinel lymph node biopsy examination for breast cancer patients with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe feasibility and accuracy of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy examination for breast cancer patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) have been investigated under the administration of a radiocolloid imaging agent injected intradermally over a tumor. In addition, conditions that may affect SLN biopsy detection and false-negative rates with respect to clinical tumor response and clinical

Takayuki Kinoshita; Miyuki Takasugi; Eriko Iwamoto; Sadako Akashi-Tanaka; Takashi Fukutomi; Shoji Terui

2006-01-01

17

Is Axillary Lymph Node Dissection Indicated for Early Stage Breast Cancer---A Decision Analysis  

E-print Network

tumors who might not be candidates for adjuvant chemotherapy if lymph nodes are negative. Virtually no benefit results in ER negative women, almost all of whom would receive adjuvant chemotherapy. Adjusting in the management of breast cancer. In a patient with a clinically negative axilla, ALND is performed primarily

West, Mike

18

Evaluation of the metastatic status of lymph nodes identified using axillary reverse mapping in breast cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background Axillary reverse mapping (ARM) is a new technique to preserve upper extremity lymphatic pathways during axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), thereby preventing lymphedema patients with breast cancer. However, the oncologic safety of sparing the nodes identified by ARM (ARM nodes), some of which are positive, has not been verified. We evaluated the metastatic status of ARM nodes and the efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in assessing ARM node metastasis. Methods Sixty patients with breast cancer who underwent ARM during ALND between January 2010 and July 2012 were included in this study. Twenty-five patients were clinically node-positive and underwent ALND without sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). Thirty-five patients were clinically node-negative but sentinel node-positive on the SLND. The lymphatic pathway was visualized using fluorescence imaging with indocyanine green. ARM nodes in ALND field, whose status was diagnosed using FNAC, were removed and processed for histology. We evaluated the correlation between the cytological findings of FNAC and the histological analysis of excised ARM nodes. Results The mean number of ARM nodes identified per patient was 1.6 ±0.9 in both groups. In most patients without (88%) and with (79%) SLNB, the ARM nodes were located between the axillary vein and the second intercostobrachial nerve. FNAC was performed for 45 ARM nodes, 10 of which could not be diagnosed. Six of the patients without SLNB (24%) and onewith SLNB (3%) had positive ARM nodes. Of these sevenpatients, four had >3 positive ARM nodes. There was no discordance between the cytological and histological diagnosis of ARM nodes status. Conclusions Positive ARM nodes were observed in the patients not only with extensive nodal metastasis but also in those with a few positive nodes. FNAC for ARM nodes was helpful in assessing ARM nodes metastasis, which can be beneficial in sparing nodes essential for lymphatic drainage, thereby potentially reducing the incidence of lymphedema. However, the success of sampling rates needs to be improved. PMID:23116152

2012-01-01

19

Risk factors for locoregional recurrence after postmastectomy radiotherapy in breast cancer patients with four or more positive axillary lymph nodes  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated risk factors for locoregional recurrence (lrr) in breast cancer patients with 4 or more positive axillary lymph nodes receiving postmastectomy radiotherapy (pmrt). Methods Medical records (1998–2007) were retrospectively reviewed for the population of interest. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to calculate the survival rate; Cox regression models were used for univariate and multivariate analysis of predictors of breast cancer lrr. Results The study enrolled 439 patients. Median duration of follow-up was 54 months. The 5-year rates of locoregional recurrence-free survival (lrrfs), distant metastasis–free survival (dmfs), and breast cancer–specific survival (bcss) were 87.8%, 59.5%, and 70.7% respectively. In patients with lrr and no concomitant metastasis, and in those without lrr, the 5-year rates of dmfs were 21.1% and 65.7% respectively (p < 0.001), and the 5-year rates of bcss were 34.5% and 76.4% respectively (p < 0.001). Univariate analysis showed that menopausal status (p = 0.041), pN stage (p = 0.006), and positivity for her2 [human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (p = 0.003)] or the triple-negative disease subtype (p < 0.001) were determinants of lrrfs. Multivariate analysis showed that pN3 stage [hazard ratio (hr): 2.241; 95% confidence interval (ci): 1.270 to 3.957; p = 0.005], her2 positivity (hr: 2.705; 95% ci: 1.371 to 5.335; p = 0.004), and triple-negative disease subtype (hr: 4.617; 95% ci: 2.192 to 9.723; p < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors of lrrfs. Conclusions In breast cancer patients with 4 or more positive axillary lymph nodes who undergo pmrt for breast cancer, lrr significantly influences survival. Patients who developed lrr carried a high risk for distant metastasis and death. Pathologic stage (pN3), her2 positivity, and the triple-negative disease subtype are risk factors that significantly influence lrrfs. PMID:25302039

Li, Q.; Wu, S.; Zhou, J.; Sun, J.; Li, F.; Lin, Q.; Guan, X.; Lin, H.; He, Z.

2014-01-01

20

HER2 Expression in Fine Needle Aspirates of Lymph Nodes Detected by Preoperative Axillary Ultrasound in Breast Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of HER2 levels in ultrasonographically guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNA) aspirates of axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) in the determination of lymph node metastasis or the characterization of primary breast cancer, and to correlate the HER2 levels in US-FNA aspirates (FNA-HER2s) of metastatic ALNs with the HER2 statuses of corresponding primary breast cancers. An institutional review board approved the study. Between January and October 2010, 164 patients with 167 ALNs examined by US-FNA were included. FNA-HER2s of ALNs were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay, and they were correlated with cytologic/final diagnoses. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic ability to differentiate benign and metastatic ALNs. Additionally, FNA-HER2s of metastatic ALNs were correlated with HER2 status and other clinicopathologic variables of the primary breast cancers. Among the 167 ALNs, 138 were metastatic and 29 were benign. The mean FNA-HER2 (6.3 ng/ml) of metastatic ALNs was higher than that of benign ALNs. All 29 benign ALNs showed no measurable value of FNA-HER2 (0.0 ng/ml). The area under the ROC curves of FNA-HER2 of ALNs was 0.679 for the diagnosis of ALN metastasis. The FNA-HER2 statuses of 108 metastatic ALNs (79.4%) were concordant with the HER2 statuses of the corresponding primary breast cancers. In a subgroup analysis of HER2-positive cancers with ALN metastasis, distant metastasis was significantly associated with FNA-HER2-negativity of metastatic ALNs (P?=?0.04). Although FNA-HER2 of ALNs did not improve the diagnostic performance of FNA cytology in preoperative diagnosis of ALN metastasis of overall patients, FNA-HER2-positive metastatic ALNs were significantly associated with HER2-positivity of primary breast cancers. Additionally, FNA-HER2 analysis of ALN may help to develop more personalized treatment protocol for breast cancer patients by determining the concordance or discordance of HER2 status between primary cancers and metastatic ALNs. PMID:25393693

Choi, Ji Soo; Kim, Hyun Ok; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Suh, Young Joo; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Moon, Hee Jung; Kim, Min Jung

2014-01-01

21

Detection of sentinel lymph node in breast cancer recurrence may change adjuvant treatment decision in patients with breast cancer recurrence and previous axillary surgery.  

PubMed

Use of sentinel lymph node dissection in patients with ipsilateral breast cancer recurrence is still controversial. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer recurrence (SLNBR) and whether the positivity had impact in the adjuvant treatment. Between 2008 and 2012 we performed SLNBR in patients with ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence. We included 53 patients in a prospective study. Forty-three patients (81%) had a previous axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and ten (19%) had a previous sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). Identification rate after SLNB was 50% and after ALND was 60.5% (p = 0.4). Nine patients (26%) had a positive SLNBR. Adjuvant systemic treatment was given to all the patients with a positive SLNBR and to 23 (85%) with a negative SLNBR (p = 0.29). Six patients (66%) with positive SLNBR and 4 patients (14%) with negative SLNBR underwent radiation therapy (p < 0.01). As conclusions of our study we conclude that sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast tumor recurrence is feasible and significant differences were found in the use of radiation therapy in patients with a positive SLNBR. PMID:24726837

Cordoba, Octavi; Perez-Ceresuela, Francesc; Espinosa-Bravo, Martin; Cortadellas, Tomas; Esgueva, Antonio; Rodriguez-Revuelto, Robert; Peg, Vicente; Reyes, Victoria; Xercavins, Jordi; Rubio, Isabel T

2014-08-01

22

Use of the dye-guided sentinel lymph node biopsy method alone for breast cancer metastasis to avoid unnecessary axillary lymph node dissection  

PubMed Central

For sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), a combination of dye-guided and ?-probe-guided methods is the most commonly used technique. However, the number of institutes in which the ?-probe-guided method is able to be performed is limited, since special equipment is required for the method. In this study, SLNB with the dye-guided method alone was evaluated, and the clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed to identify any factors that were predictive of whether the follow-up axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was able to be omitted. A total of 374 patients who underwent SLNB between 1999 and 2009 were studied. The SLN identification rate was analyzed, in addition to the false-positive and false-negative rates and the correlation between the clinicopathological characteristics and axillary lymph node metastases. The SLN was identified in 96.8% of cases, and, out of the patients who had SLN metastasis, 63.0% did not exhibit metastasis elsewhere. The sensitivity was 96.4% and the specificity was 100%. The false-negative rate was 3.6%. Univariate analyses revealed significant differences in the lymph vessel invasion (ly) status, nuclear grade (NG), maximum tumor size and the percentage of the area occupied by the tumor cells in the SLN (SLN occupation ratio) between the patients with and without non-SLN metastasis, indicating that these factors may be predictive of axillary lymph node metastasis. Multivariate analysis revealed that ly status was an independent risk factor for non-SLN metastasis. In conclusion, SLN with the dye-guided method alone provided a high detection rate. The study identified a predictive factor for axillary lymph node metastasis that may improve the patients’ quality of life. PMID:24396425

TAKAMARU, TOMOKO; KUTOMI, GORO; SATOMI, FUKINO; SHIMA, HIROAKI; OHNO, KEISUKE; KAMESHIMA, HIDEKAZU; SUZUKI, YASUYO; OHMURA, TOUSEI; TAKAMARU, HIROYUKI; NOJIMA, MASANORI; MORI, MITSURU; HIRATA, KOICHI

2014-01-01

23

Survival in 12,653 breast cancer patients with extensive axillary lymph node metastasis in the anthracycline era  

PubMed Central

Institutional data are conflicting regarding the prognosis of breast cancer patients with extensive (?10) axillary lymph node (ALN) metastases. We hypothesized that overall survival (OS) and disease specific survival (DSS) improved after the introduction of anthracycline-based therapy in 1997. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End results (SEER) database to identify breast cancer patients with ?10 ALN metastases diagnosed between 1988 and 2004. Patients were categorized according to whether they were diagnosed prior to the FDA approval of anthracyclines (pre-anthracycline era, pre-AE) or after approval (post-anthracycline era, post-AE). Univariate analyses of OS and DSS were performed using the Kaplan–Meier method and differences assessed via the log rank test. Anthracycline era as an independent predictor of OS and DSS was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models with patient age, hormone receptor status, tumor size, use of radiation therapy, and number of metastatic ALNs as covariates. Entry criteria were met by 12,653 patients. Of these, 5,655 (44.7%) and 6,998 (55.3%) were treated in the pre-AE and post-AE, respectively. On univariate analysis, post-AE patients experienced significantly improved rates of OS (P<0.001) and DSS (P<0.001) relative to pre-AE patients. On multivariate analysis, treatment in the post-AE favorably influenced both OS (Hazard Ratio [HR] 0.90, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.84–0.96) and DSS (HR 0.84, CI 0.79–0.91). Both OS and DSS are poor in patients with extensive ALN metastases. Patients with advanced breast cancer treated in the post-AE demonstrated superior OS and DSS. PMID:20049562

Beal, Shannon H.; Canter, Robert J.; Chen, Steven L.; Khatri, Vijay P.; Bold, Richard J.

2010-01-01

24

INTRODUCTION Assessment of axillary lymph node status is important in breast cancer staging. UK guidance  

E-print Network

images of the body in any plane and is a non-invasive technique with few adverse events. An MRI scan may, are associated with adverse effects such as arm lymphoedema. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides detailed provide information on whether a lymph node is suspicious for metastasis, avoiding the need for surgery

Oakley, Jeremy

25

Accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of axillary lymph nodes as a triage test in breast cancer staging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Axillary node fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has the potential to triage women with operable breast cancer to initial\\u000a nodal surgical procedure. Because of variability in the reported accuracy of this test its role and clinical utility in pre-operative\\u000a staging remains controversial.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We retrospectively evaluated the accuracy of ultrasound-guided axillary FNAC in all consecutive clinically T1–2 N0–1 breast\\u000a cancers that

Stefano Ciatto; Beniamino Brancato; Gabriella Risso; Daniela Ambrogetti; Paolo Bulgaresi; Cristina Maddau; Patricia Turco; Nehmat Houssami

2007-01-01

26

A prediction model for the presence of axillary lymph node involvement in women with invasive breast cancer: a focus on older women.  

PubMed

Axillary lymph node (ALN) status at diagnosis is the most powerful prognostic indicator for patients with breast cancer. Our aim is to examine the contribution of variables that lead to ALN metastases in a large dataset with a high proportion of patients greater than 70 years old. Using the data from two multicenter prospective studies, a retrospective review was performed on 2,812 patients diagnosed with clinically node-negative invasive breast cancer from 1996 to 2005 and who underwent ALN sampling. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify variables that were strongly associated with axillary metastases, and an equation was developed to estimate risk of ALN metastases. Of the 2,812 patients with invasive breast cancer, 18% had ALN metastases at diagnosis. Based on univariate analysis, tumor size, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), tumor grade, age at diagnosis, menopausal status, race, tumor location, tumor type, and estrogen and progesterone receptor status were statistically significant. The relationship between age and involvement of axillary metastases was nonlinear. In multivariate analysis, LVI, tumor size and menopausal status were the most significant factors associated with ALN metastases. Age, however, was not a significant contributing factor for axillary metastases. Tumor size, LVI, and menopausal status are strongly associated with ALN metastases. We believe that age may have been a strong factor in previous analyses because there was not an adequate representation of women in older age groups and because of the violation of the assumption of linearity in their multivariate analyses. PMID:24475876

Greer, Lauren T; Rosman, Martin; Charles Mylander, W; Liang, Wen; Buras, Robert R; Chagpar, Anees B; Edwards, Michael J; Tafra, Lorraine

2014-01-01

27

Postoperative radiation for women with cancer of the breast and positive axillary lymph nodes  

SciTech Connect

The author states his belief that further studies of routine radiation therapy of women with Stage II breast cancer are not waranted and further use of this treatment is not justified. He has not been able to find any systematic discussion within the medical community about what criteria will be used to reach some conclusion about the efficacy of radiation therapy in the large group of women with Stage II disease. (DAD)

Lipsett, M.B.

1981-01-08

28

Clinical Significance of the Axillary Arch in Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Purpose The axillary arch is an anomalous muscle that is not infrequently encountered during axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) of breast cancer patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate how often the axillary arch is found during SLNB and whether it affects the intraoperative sentinel lymph node (SLN) identification rate. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the correlation between the presence of the axillary arch and the SLN sampling failure rate during SLNB in 1,069 patients who underwent axillary SLNB for invasive breast cancer. Results Of 1,069 patients who underwent SLNB, 79 patients (7.4%) had the axillary arch present. The SLNB failure rate was high when the patient's body mass index was ?25 (p=0.026), when a single SLN mapping technique was used (p=0.012), and when the axillary arch was present (p<0.001). These three factors were also found to be statistically significant by multivariate analysis, and of these three factors, presence of the axillary arch most significantly increased the SLNB failure rate (hazard ratio, 10.96; 95% confidence interval, 4.42-27.21; p<0.001). Additionally, if the axillary arch was present, the mean operative time of SLNB was 20.8 minutes, compared to 12.5 minutes when the axillary arch was not present (p<0.001). If the axillary arch was present, the SLN was often located in a high axillary region (67%) rather than in a general low axillary location. Conclusion The axillary arch was found to be a significant factor affecting intraoperative SLN failure rate. It is necessary to keep in mind that carefully checking the high axillar region during SLNB in breast cancer patients with the axillary arch is important for reducing SLN sampling failure. PMID:25320622

Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin

2014-01-01

29

Axillary surgery in breast cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgeons have routinely removed ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes from women with breast cancer for over 100 years. The procedure\\u000a provides important staging information, enhances regional control of the malignancy and may improve survival. As screening\\u000a of breast cancer has increased, the mean size of newly diagnosed primary invasive breast cancers has steadily decreased and\\u000a so has the number of women

A. Millet; C. A. Fuster; A. Lluch; F. Dirbas

2007-01-01

30

The value of preoperative ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of radiologically suspicious axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: Preoperative ultrasound (US) and eventually US-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of suspicious axillary lymph nodes (ALN) is a standard procedure in the work-up of suspicious breast lesions. Preoperative US FNAC may prevent sentinel node biopsy (SNB) procedure in 24-30% of patients with early stage breast carcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the institutional results of this preoperative diagnostic procedure. Materials and Methods: A total of 182 cases of preoperative FNAC of suspicious ALN where retrieved from the pathology files. The results were compared with the final histology and staging. False negative (FN) FNAC cases were reviewed and possibly missed metastatic cases (2) were immunostained with the epithelial marker AE1/AE3. Results: There were no false positives, whereas 16 cases were FN. In all but one case the FN's represented sampling error. Half of the 16 FN cases in this series were macrometastases. Discussion: About 83% of the preoperatively aspirated cases were N+, indicating that a radiologically suspicious ALN has a very high risk of being metastatic. Preoperative US guided FNAC from radiologically suspicious ALN is highly efficient in detecting metastases. Depending on national guidelines, a preoperative, positive ALN FNAC might help to stratify the patients as to SNB and/or ALN dissection. PMID:25317197

Sauer, Torill; Karesen, Rolf

2014-01-01

31

Histologic evaluation of sentinel and non-sentinel axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer by multilevel sectioning and predictors of non-sentinel metastasis  

PubMed Central

Sentinel lymph node (SLN) provides accurate nodal staging for breast cancer. This technique has been introduced in Siriraj Hospital since 1998. The goal of this study is to assess its accuracy in predicting the state of the axilla, and compare the results of standard examination and multilevel sectioning. A retrospective analysis of 195 breast cancer patients who underwent both SLN biopsy (using dye alone as the lymphatic mapping) and axillary node dissection during 1998-2002 were analyzed. All slides including SLNs and the non-SLNs (NSLNs) were reviewed and multilevel study was performed on all SLNs and NSLNs [four levels of hematoxylin-eosin (HE) at 200 µm interval and keratin stains on the first and fourth levels]. Of 195 patients, 30% of cases were SLN-positive (32 NSLN-positive and 27 NSLN-negative). Additional study could detect positive axillary nodes 10.8% (4 SLN-positive and 5 NSLN-positive) more than standard HE stain. The false negative rate increased from 20.3% to 24.1%. The concordance between SLN and NSLN statuses was 89.7%. The sensitivity was 75.9%. By multivariate analysis, the significant predictors for axillary node metastasis were tumor size of more than 2.2 cm, histologic type of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), not otherwise specified (NOS) and lymphovascular invasion (LVI). By univariable analysis, the significant predictors of NSLN metastasis after positive-SLN were outer location of the tumor, LVI and perinodal extension. In conclusion, use of multilevel and immunohistochemistry increased detection of positive-SLNs. Caution should be kept in accepting SLN biopsy using peritumoral dye technique alone as the procedure for staging due to a high false-negative rate. The concordance rate of 89.7% confirmed the reliability of SLN. Outer location of tumor, LVI and perinodal extension is significant predictors of positive-NSLN after positive-SLN. PMID:25083488

Jeeravongpanich, Piyarat; Komoltri, Chulaluk; Ratanawichitrasin, Adune

2014-01-01

32

Breast Cancer Patients With 10 or More Involved Axillary Lymph Nodes Treated by Multimodality Therapy: Influence of Clinical Presentation on Outcome  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze tumor control and survival for breast cancer patients with 10 or more positive lymph nodes without systemic disease, treated by adjuvant radiation alone or combined-modality therapy. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 309 consecutive patients with these characteristics who received locoregional radiotherapy (RT) at our institution. The majority of patients had clinical Stage II or IIIA-B disease (43% and 48%, respectively). The median number of positive axillary lymph nodes was 15 (range, 10-78). Adjuvant therapy consisted of RT alone, with or without chemotherapy, tamoxifen, and/or ovarian castration. Results: The overall 5-year and 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 20% and 7%, respectively. Median DFS was higher for patients with Stage I-II compared with those with Stage IIIABC (28 vs. 19 months; p = 0.006). Median DFS for patients aged {<=}35 years was lower than that of older patients (12 vs. 24 months; p < 0.0001). Patients treated with a combination therapy had a higher 5-year DFS rate compared with those treated by RT alone (26% vs. 11%; p 0.03). In multivariate analysis, clinical stage (III vs. I, II; relative risk = 1.8, p = 0.002) and age ({<=}35 vs. others; relative risk = 2.6, p <0.001) were found to be independent variables for DFS. Conclusion: This retrospective data analysis identified young age and advanced clinical stage as pertinent and independent clinical prognostic factors for breast cancer patients with advanced axillary disease (10 or more involved nodes). These factors can be used for further prognostic classification.

Geara, Fady B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon)]. E-mail: fg00@aub.edu.lb; Nasr, Elie [Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Tucker, Susan L. [Department of Biomathematics, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Charafeddine, Maya [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Dabaja, Bouthaina [Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Eid, Toufic [Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Abbas, Jaber [Department of General Surgery, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Salem, Ziad [Department of Medical Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Shamseddine, Ali [Department of Medical Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Issa, Philip [Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); El Saghir, Nagi [Department of Medical Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon)

2007-06-01

33

Axillary Dissection in the Case of Positive Sentinel Lymph Nodes: Results of the Innsbruck Consensus Conference  

PubMed Central

The prognosis of breast cancer is most heavily influenced by the status of the axillary nodes. Until a few years ago, this knowledge was gained through radical axillary lymph node clearance. In the meantime, sentinel lymph node clearance has become an established part of the surgical treatment of breast cancer. With the development of this procedure, the morbidity caused by axillary dissection has been reduced significantly. Although comprehensive prospective, randomised data regarding the safe use of the sentinel concept are only now available, the focus currently, however, is on the question of whether in the case of positive sentinel lymph nodes, an axillary dissection can be done away with altogether without having any negative impact on the risk of loco-regional recurrence or on progression-free survival and overall survival. The results of the American ACOSOG-Z001 study have changed the fundamental perspective of this. In this study on the advantages of axillary dissection following the confirmation of tumour tissue in the sentinel lymph nodes, there were no statistically significant advantages from axillary dissection for women with a favourable overall risk profile who had received radiotherapy and systemic therapy. If this concept takes hold, the surgical treatment of node-positive breast cancer, at least in the axilla, would be reduced to a minimum, and the focus of treatment would in future lie more on the systemic treatment of this condition. As part of an interdisciplinary consensus meeting, a standardised approach for Austria with regard to this question was decided upon.

Hubalek, M.; Bartsch, R.; Gnant, M.; Kapp, K. S.; Lang, A.; Lax, S.; Lukas, P.; Neunteufel, W.; Pristauz, G.; Reitsamer, R.; Sandbichler, P.; Schrenk, P.; Singer, C.; Tamussino, K.; Tschmelitsch, J.; Zeimet, A. G.; Marth, C.

2012-01-01

34

Intradermal administration of fluorescent contrast agents for delivery to axillary lymph nodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this proof-of-concept study we seek to demonstrate the delivery of fluorescent contrast agent to the tumor-draining lymph node basin following intraparenchymal breast injections and intradermal arm injection of micrograms of indocyanine green in 20 breast cancer patients undergoing complete axillary lymph node dissection. Individual lymph nodes were assessed ex vivo for presence of fluorescent signal. In all, 88% of tumor-negative lymph nodes and 81% of tumor-positive lymph nodes were fluorescent. These results indicate that future studies utilizing targeted fluorescent contrast agents may demonstrate improved surgical and therapeutic intervention.

Rasmussen, John C.; Meric-Berstam, Funda; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Tan, I.-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Wagner, Jamie L.; Babiera, Gildy V.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

2014-05-01

35

Efficiency of a Preoperative Axillary Ultrasound and Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology to Detect Patients with Extensive Axillary Lymph Node Involvement  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have demonstrated that axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) does not affect patient survival, even in those with one or two positive sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). On the other hand, patients with 3 or more metastatic lymph nodes are eligible for chemotherapy. Therefore, it is crucial to identify a priori patients at risk of having a high number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes for their surgical and/or clinical management. Ultrasound (US) guided Fine-Needle Aspiration (FNA) has been proven to be a useful and highly specific method for detecting metastatic axillary lymph nodes. However, only one recent study has evaluated the efficiency of this method in identifying patients with high metastatic nodal involvement. Our aim was to validate US-guided FNA as a reliable method to discriminate a priori patients with >3 metastatic lymph nodes. Methods A retrospective series of 1287 breast cancer patients who underwent a simultaneous preoperative breast and axillary US to stage their axilla was collected. A total of 365 patients, with either positive SLNs (278) or positive axillary lymph nodes detected via US-guided FNA (87), underwent ALND. In these two subgroups, we compared the number of metastatic lymph nodes in the axilla. Results The number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes in patients who underwent US-guided FNA was significantly higher (63% had >3 metastatic lymph nodes) than that in patients with SLNs positive for micro- or macrometastases (3% and 27%, respectively) (P<0.001, ?2?=?117.897). Conclusions Preoperative axillary US-guided FNA could act as a reliable tool in identifying breast cancer patients with extensive nodal involvement. PMID:25207643

Castellano, Isabella; Deambrogio, Cristina; Muscara, Francesca; Chiusa, Luigi; Mariscotti, Giovanna; Bussone, Riccardo; Gazzetta, Guglielmo; Macri, Luigia; Cassoni, Paola; Sapino, Anna

2014-01-01

36

Pitt study finds breast cancer patients with positive ultrasound guided axillary node biopsy need dissection  

Cancer.gov

Contrary to a trend in treatment, breast cancer patients with suspicious lymph nodes should have an ultrasound-guided axillary node biopsy, and if that biopsy is positive these patients should undergo an axillary dissection, a new study shows. The study, conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, compared 199 patients with a positive ultrasound-guided axillary node biopsy to 434 patients with a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy.

37

Endocervicosis involving axillary lymph nodes: first case report.  

PubMed

The occurence of Mullerian epithelial inclusions, especially endosalpingiosis, in pelvic and other subdiaphragmatic lymph nodes is well known. In contrast, Mullerian inclusions involving lymph nodes above the diaphragm is uncommon, although occasional cases of endosalpingiosis have been reported. We report a case of benign Mullerian inclusions of mucinous endocervical type (endocervicosis) coexistent with metastatic breast-infiltrating ductal carcinoma in 2 axillary lymph nodes. The inclusions exhibited diffuse positive staining with CK7, PAX8, CA125, and estrogen receptor and were WT1 negative. To our knowledge, this is the first report of endocervicosis involving supradiaphragmatic lymph nodes. Close morphologic examination and immunohistochemistry assists in distinguishing Mullerian inclusions from metastatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:25272302

Mukonoweshuro, Pinias; McCluggage, W Glenn

2014-11-01

38

99mTc-Tetrofosmin pinhole-SPECT (P-SPECT) and radioguided sentinel node (SN) biopsy and in breast cancer axillary lymph node staging.  

PubMed

We compared 99mTc-Tetrofosmin P-SPECT with radioguided SN biopsy in 101 T1/T2 BC pts to predict axillary lymph node status. The day before surgery all pts underwent lymphoscintigraphy (LS) to mark the SN, following subdermal injection of 99mTc-colloidal sulphur surrounding the breast lesion. LS was combined with pre and intraoperative gamma probe. Previously, all pts had also undergone P-SPECT. ALND was performed in all cases. The SN(s) was detected in 97/101 cases (96%) by LS and gamma probe; in the 4 missed cases P-SPECT predicted lymph node status. In the 97 comparable cases, radioguided SN biopsy showed a slightly higher accuracy than P-SPECT (94.8% vs 93.8%), but a higher false-negative rate (14.3% vs 8.6%); P-SPECT had a higher NPV (95.2% vs 92.5%). The two procedures when combined achieved 100% accuracy. Radioguided SN biopsy alone had 100% accuracy only in pts with BC < 15 mm. P-SPECT had 3 false negative cases, 2 of which were micrometastatic SNs, and 3 false positives. P-SPECT identified 81.2% of cases with a single node, determined the exact number of nodes in 82.6% of cases with 1 to 3 node and correctly classified 93.7% of pts as having < or = 3 or > 3 metastatic nodes. Radioguided SN biopsy seems indicated in selected, early stage, small BC pts, while P-SPECT shows a high sensitivity independent of primary tumor size, giving additional important preoperative prognostic information. The two procedures combined provided a better axillary lymph node status prediction in T1/T2 carcinomas, and could thus improve ALND pt selection. PMID:11789027

Spanu, A; Dettori, G; Chessa, F; Porcu, A; Cottu, P; Solinas, P; Falchi, A; Solinas, M E; Scanu, A M; Nuvoli, S; Madeddu, G

2001-12-01

39

Pathology Case Study: Enlarged Right Axillary Lymph Node  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 40-year-old man was found to have an enlarged right axillary lymph node. Visitors are given the patient history, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical immunology.

Fung, Mark

2009-02-18

40

99mTc-labelled SM3 in the preoperative evaluation of axillary lymph nodes and primary breast cancer with change detection statistical processing as an aid to tumour detection.  

PubMed Central

The extent of primary surgery for breast cancer could be tailored to the patient if previous information on the presence or absence of lymph node involvement could be reliably determined. Prospective radioimmunoscintigraphy in 29 patients with primary breast cancer that was found on screening has been undertaken with 555 MBq (15 mCi) 99mTc SM3, an Imperial Cancer Research Fund (ICRF) murine monoclonal antibody, 0.5 mg with images at 10 min and 22 h, and analysis using a change detection algorithm. Sites of significant change between the early and later images were displayed as a map of probabilities. Image-positive and -negative axillary lymph nodes were compared by histology in the 28 evaluable patients. The correct identification of the presence or absence of node involvement, even if impalpable, has been shown in 24 out of 28 patients (29 lymph node groups). Sensitivity was 90% (nine out of ten), specificity 84% (16 out of 19) and accuracy 86%. These results encourage further assessment of this technique. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9459158

Biassoni, L.; Granowska, M.; Carroll, M. J.; Mather, S. J.; Howell, R.; Ellison, D.; MacNeill, F. A.; Wells, C. A.; Carpenter, R.; Britton, K. E.

1998-01-01

41

Infiltrating ductal carcinoma breast, metastatic to ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes harbouring primary tuberculous lymphadenitis: a case report  

PubMed Central

The coexistence of breast cancer and tuberculosis has been described in over 100 cases; however its coexistence in the axillary lymph node is rare with only a handful cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the left breast, metastatic to ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes harbouring tuberculous lymphadenitis without primary mammary or pulmonary tuberculosis. The case is presented for its rarity and illustrates that the simultaneous occurrence of tuberculosis and carcinoma can create a dilemma in the diagnosis and treatment, so surgeons and pathologists should keep such a combination on the back of their mind, especially in endemic areas.

Pandey, Pinki; Dixit, Alok; Tanwar, Aparna; Mahajan, NC

2014-01-01

42

Relevance and methods of interventional breast sonography in preoperative axillary lymph node staging.  

PubMed

Reduction of therapy-induced morbidity is an important goal for the improvement of the quality of breast cancer treatment. The introduction of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) significantly contributed to the reduction of surgery-induced morbidity in the shoulder-arm region. However, a clinically positive nodal status is still considered a contra-indication for SLNB. The current data constellation clearly shows that the clinical and also the sonographic malignancy assessment is insufficient for the accurate identification of the nodal status. A merely clinical and/or image-based appraisal of the axillary lymph node status would lead to overtreatment due to unnecessary axillary dissection in approximately 40 % of patients. In order to reduce the rate of unnecessary axillary dissection (AD), pretreatment interventional clarification is necessary to provide more detailed information about the histological condition of the lymph node. Comparing the currently available methods, fine needle aspiration (FNA) is the best in terms of cost and time requirement, practicability and complication rate. However, considering the sensitivity, it is inferior to ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (CNB). Thus, a negative FNA outcome requires further clarification, which possibly can be performed with CNB. With a specificity of nearly 100 % and therefore a low rate of false positive cases for FNA, complete AD can be indicated by a positive FNA result. In the context of the interventional procedure, it must be stressed that FNA requires a high level of expertise on the part of both the examiner and the cytologist. The prerequisite for optimal interventional diagnostics of lymph nodes is an adequate sonographic assessment on the basis of standardized sonomorphological criteria. PMID:21618166

Gruber, I; Hahn, M; Fehm, T; Hann von Weyhern, C; Stäbler, A; Winckelmann, A; Wallwiener, D; Kühn, T

2012-08-01

43

Toxoplasmosis presenting as a swelling in the axillary tail of the breast and a palpable axillary lymph node mimicking malignancy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Lymphadenopathy is a common finding in toxoplasmosis. A breast mass due to toxoplasmosis is very rare, and only a few cases have been reported. We present a case of toxoplasmosis that presented as a swelling in the axillary tail of the breast with a palpable axillary lymph node which mimicked breast cancer. Case presentation A 45-year-old otherwise healthy Caucasian woman presented with a lump on the lateral aspect of her left breast. Her mother had breast cancer that was diagnosed at the age of 66 years. During an examination, we discovered that our patient had a discrete, firm lump in the axillary tail of her left breast and an enlarged, palpable lymph node in her left axilla. Her right breast and axilla were normal. The clinical diagnosis was malignancy in the left breast. Ultrasound and mammographic examinations of her breast suggested a pathological process but were not conclusive. She had targeted fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core biopsy of the lesions. FNAC was indeterminate (C3) but suggested a possibility of toxoplasmosis. The core biopsy was not suggestive of malignancy but showed granulomatous inflammation. She had a wide local excision of the breast lump and an axillary lymph node biopsy. Histopathology and immunohistochemical studies excluded carcinoma or lymphoma but suggested the possibility of intramammary and axillary toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy. The results of Toxoplasma gondii IgM and IgG serology tests were positive, supporting a diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Conclusions Toxoplasmosis rarely presents as a pseudotumor of the breast. FNAC and histology are valuable tools for a diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, and serology is an important adjunct for confirmation. PMID:21816047

2011-01-01

44

Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Breast Cancer: Our Technique and Future Directions in Lymph Node Staging  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer remains a major cause of cancer death for women in the United States. Accurate cancer staging, especially of the axillary lymph nodes, is essential for predicting the prognosis of patients and for determining the appropriate multimodality treatment strategy. Historically, the traditional approach for staging the lymphatic metastasis in breast cancer has been Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). However, as the understanding of the lymphatic drainage of the breast has improved, the Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has replaced ALND as the gold standard for lymph node staging in breast cancer. Multiple studies have demonstrated the benefits of SLN biopsy compared to ALND in terms of morbidity, while maintaining the clinical ability to appropriately stage patients, but without any loss in therapeutic impact. In this review, we discuss the historical development of SLN biopsy, describe our technique in detail, and discuss the possible future directions of the lymphatic staging of breast cancer. PMID:23513181

Rashid, Omar M.; Takabe, Kazuaki

2012-01-01

45

A moat around castle walls. The role of axillary and facial hair in lymph node protection from mutagenic factors.  

PubMed

Axillary hair is a highly conserved phenotypical feature in humans, and as such deserves at least consideration of its functional significance. Protection from environmental factors is one of the main functions attributed to hair in furred vertebrates, but is believed to be inapplicable to humans. I considered the hypothesis that the phenotypic preservation of axillary hair is due to its unrecognized role in the organism protection. Two immediate questions arise--what exactly is being protected and what it is protected from. A large group of axillary lymph nodes represents a major difference between underarms and the adjacent areas of the trunk. The consideration of potential factors from which hair can offer protection identifies sunlight as the most likely candidate. Intense sweat production underarms may represent an independent defense mechanism, specifically protecting lymph nodes from overheating. Moreover, the pattern of facial hair growth in males strikingly overlaps with the distribution of superficial lymph nodes, suggesting potential role for facial hair in protection of lymph nodes, and possibly thymus and thyroid. The idea of lymph node protection from environmental mutagenic factors, such as UV radiation and heat, appears particularly important in light of wide association of lymph nodes with cancers. The position of contemporary fashion towards body hair is aggressively negative, including the social pressure for removal of axillary and bikini line hair for women, facial hair for men in many professional occupations, and even body hair for men. If this hypothesis is proven to be true, the implications will be significant for immunology (by providing new insights in lymph node physiology), health sciences (depilation is painful and therefore easily modifiable habit if proven to increase disease risk), as well as art, social fashion and economy. PMID:16690220

Komarova, Svetlana V

2006-01-01

46

Toward nodal staging of axillary lymph node basins through intradermal administration of fluorescent imaging agents  

PubMed Central

As part of a proof-of-concept study for future delivery of targeted near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) tracers, we sought to assess the delivery of micrograms of indocyanine green to all the axillary lymph nodes following intraparenchymal breast injections and intradermal arm injections in 20 subjects with advanced breast carcinoma and undergoing complete axillary lymph node dissection. Lymphatic vessels and nodes were assessed in vivo. Ex vivo images demonstrated that 87% of excised lymph nodes, including 81% of tumor-positive lymph nodes, were fluorescent. Future clinical studies using microdose amounts of tumor-targeting NIRF contrast agents may demonstrate improved surgical intervention with reduced morbidity. PMID:24466486

Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Rasmussen, John C.; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Tan, I-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Wagner, Jamie L.; Babiera, Gildy V.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

2013-01-01

47

An optimized posterior axillary boost technique in radiation therapy to supraclavicular and axillary lymph nodes: A comparative study  

SciTech Connect

To assess the advantages of an optimized posterior axillary (AX) boost technique for the irradiation of supraclavicular (SC) and AX lymph nodes. Five techniques for the treatment of SC and levels I, II, and III AX lymph nodes were evaluated for 10 patients selected at random: a direct anterior field (AP); an anterior to posterior parallel pair (AP-PA); an anterior field with a posterior axillary boost (PAB); an anterior field with an anterior axillary boost (AAB); and an optimized PAB technique (OptPAB). The target coverage, hot spots, irradiated volume, and dose to organs at risk were evaluated and a statistical analysis comparison was performed. The AP technique delivered insufficient dose to the deeper AX nodes. The AP-PA technique produced larger irradiated volumes and higher mean lung doses than the other techniques. The PAB and AAB techniques originated excessive hot spots in most of the cases. The OptPAB technique produced moderate hot spots while maintaining a similar planning target volume (PTV) coverage, irradiated volume, and dose to organs at risk. This optimized technique combines the advantages of the PAB and AP-PA techniques, with moderate hot spots, sufficient target coverage, and adequate sparing of normal tissues. The presented technique is simple, fast, and easy to implement in routine clinical practice and is superior to the techniques historically used for the treatment of SC and AX lymph nodes.

Hernandez, Victor, E-mail: vhernandezmasgrau@gmail.com [Department of Medical Physics, Hospital Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Tarragona (Spain); Arenas, Meritxell [Department of Radiation therapy, Hospital Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Tarragona (Spain); Müller, Katrin [Department of Medical Physics, Hospital Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Tarragona (Spain); Gomez, David; Bonet, Marta [Department of Radiation therapy, Hospital Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Tarragona (Spain)

2013-01-01

48

Sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer using methylene blue dye manifests a short learning curve among experienced surgeons: a prospective tabular cumulative sum (CUSUM) analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The benefits of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for breast cancer patients with histologically negative axillary nodes, in whom axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is thereby avoided, are now established. Low false negative rate, certainly with blue dye technique, mostly reflects the established high inherent accuracy of SLNB and low axillary nodal metastatic load (subject to patient selection). SLN

Jeffrey M East; Christopher SP Valentine; Emil Kanchev; Garfield O Blake

2009-01-01

49

Chemoendocrine Therapy for Premenopausal Women With Axillary Lymph Node-Positive, Steroid Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer: Results From INT 0101 (E5188)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose Chemotherapy, tamoxifen, and ovarian ablation\\/suppression (OA\\/OS) are effective adjuvant approaches for premenopausal, steroid hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. The value of combined therapy has not been clearly established.

Nancy E. Davidson; Anne M. O'Neill; Allen M. Vukov; C. Kent Osborne; Silvana Martino; Douglas R. White; Martin D. Abeloff

50

What is the burden of axillary disease after neoadjuvant therapy in women with locally advanced breast cancer?  

PubMed Central

Background The burden of axillary disease in patients with locally advanced breast cancer (labc) after neoadjuvant therapy (nat) has not been extensively described in a large modern cohort. Here, we describe the extent of nodal metastases after nat in patients with labc. Methods All patients with labc treated at a single institution during 2002–2007 were identified. Demographic, radiologic, and pathologic variables were extracted. To assess the extent of lymph node metastases after nat, patients were separated into two groups: those with and without clinical or radiologic evidence of lymph node metastases before nat. Axillary lymph nodes retrieved at surgery that had no evidence of metastases after hematoxylin and eosin (h&e) staining underwent further pathology evaluation. Results Of the 116 patients identified, 115 were female (median age: 48.5). Before nat, 26 patients were clinically and radiologically node-negative; of those 26, 14 were histologically negative on final pathology. After serial sectioning and immunohistochemistry, 9 of 26 (35%) were node-negative. Of the 90 patients who had clinical or radiologic evidence of lymph node metastases before nat, 23 (26%) had no evidence of lymph node metastases on h&e staining. After serial sectioning and immunohistochemistry, 19 (21%) had no further axillary lymph node metastases. Overall, 76% of patients had pathology evidence of lymph node metastases after nat. Conclusions Most patients with labc have axillary metastases after nat. Our findings support axillary lymph node dissection and locoregional radiation in most patients with labc after nat. PMID:23559874

Cox, C.; Holloway, C.M.; Shaheta, A.; Nofech-Mozes, S.; Wright, F.C.

2013-01-01

51

Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Early Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Summary The role of axillary surgery for the treatment of primary breast cancer is in a process of constant change. During the last decade, axillary dissection with removal of at least 10 lymph nodes (ALD) was replaced by sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) as a staging procedure. Since then, the indication for SLNB rapidly expanded. Today's surgical strategies aim to minimize the rate of patients with a negative axillary status who undergo ALD. For some subgroups of patients, the indication for SLNB (e.g. multicentric disease, large tumors) or its implication for treatment planning (micrometastatic involvement, neoadjuvant chemotherapy) is being discussed. Although the indication for ALD is almost entirely restricted to patients with positive axillary lymph nodes today, the therapeutic effect of completion ALD is more and more questioned. On the other hand, the diagnostic value of ALD in node-positive patients is discussed. This article reflects today's standards in axillary surgery and discusses open issues on the diagnostic and therapeutic role of SLNB and ALD in the treatment of early breast cancer. PMID:21779223

Kuhn, Thorsten

2011-01-01

52

Less-Invasive Lymph Node Surgery Safe for Women with Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Breast cancer patients who had sentinel lymph node biopsy followed by axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) only if cancer cells were detected in the sentinel nodes had the same overall survival as those  who underwent ALND regardless of sentinel node status, according to a randomized trial published online September 20, 2010, in Lancet Oncology.

53

Intramammary lymph node metastasis predicts poorer survival in breast cancer patients.  

PubMed

Involvement of an intramammary lymph node with metastatic breast cancer is an uncommon clinical or radiological presentation. Previously reported series of patients are small in number and the clinical advice is unclear. We identified 100 patients on our pathology database with intramammary lymph nodes in association with a primary breast cancer. Ten were identified pre-operatively on breast imaging and 90 were first discovered on pathological assessment of excised breast tissue. Twenty one contained metastasis. Factors that predicted for intramammary node metastasis were increasing age (p=0.017), lymphovascular invasion (p=0.002) and grade of tumour (p=0.012). The presence of metastasis within the intramammary lymph node was associated with a poorer disease free survival (p=0.007) and reduced overall survival (p=0.035). Sixty seven percent of patients with intramammary node metastasis had further axillary metastases. One patient had an intramammary node metastasis but uninvolved axillary sentinel node. She presented 19 months later with an axillary nodal recurrence. The presence of intramammary lymph node metastasis is associated with poorer outcome in breast cancer patients. Pre-operative detection of intramammary lymph node metastasis is helpful to guide breast and axillary surgeries. Intramammary lymph node metastasis predicts strongly for axillary metastatic disease and axillary node clearance is recommended. PMID:19171479

Hogan, Brian V; Peter, Mark B; Shenoy, Hrishikesh; Horgan, Kieran; Shaaban, Abeer

2010-03-01

54

Lymph nodes in gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Surgery is the only curative therapy for gastric cancer and controversy still exist on the extend of surgery. As the lymphatic distribution of stomach is very complex, the determination of the actual lymph node involvement is important for making the decision in order to avoid complications. Sentinel node navigation surgery has recently been introduced in gastrointestinal tract cancer. Present article reviews the detection techniques of lymph nodes and significance of lymphadenectomies in gastric cancer. PMID:18720367

Ozmen, M Mahir; Ozmen, Fusun; Zulfikaroglu, Bari?

2008-11-01

55

Large Axillary Defect after Lymph Node Dissection Directly Closed by Suturing the Pectoralis Major to the Latissimus Dorsi  

PubMed Central

Summary: In 2009, the Union for International Cancer Control defined lymph node (LN) metastasis ?6 cm in diameter as stage 4 in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. Lesions from such LNs become ulcerated and infected and bleed without treatment. A 67-year-old man suffered from skin cancer on his right back and a 7-cm-diameter LN metastasis. After axillary LN dissection, a large skin and soft tissue defect was apparent. To rectify the defect, we simply sutured the pectoralis major muscle to the latissimus dorsi muscle and covered the suture with a split-skin mesh graft. After the surgery, the range of motion of the upper limb on the side where surgery was performed remained in good condition. PMID:25289196

Konno, Takayuki; Suzuki, Tamio

2013-01-01

56

A Rapidly Enlarging Squamous Inclusion Cyst in an Axillary Lymph Node following Core Needle Biopsy  

PubMed Central

A 73-year-old woman was found to have a 1.7?cm axillary mass, for which a core needle biopsy was performed. The specimen revealed fragmented squamous epithelium surrounded by lymphoid tissue consistent with a squamous inclusion cyst in a lymph node, but a metastatic squamous cell carcinoma could not be excluded. Within one month, the lesion enlarged to 5?cm and was excised. Touch preparation cytology during intraoperative consultation displayed numerous single and sheets of atypical epithelioid cells with enlarged nuclei and occasional mitoses, suggesting a carcinoma. However, multinucleated giant cells and neutrophils in the background indicated reactive changes. We interpreted the touch preparation as atypical and recommended conservative surgical management. Permanent sections revealed a ruptured squamous inclusion cyst in a lymph node with extensive reactive changes. Retrospectively, the atypical epithelioid cells on touch preparation corresponded to reactive histiocytes. This is the first case report of a rapidly enlarging ruptured squamous inclusion cyst in an axillary lymph node following core needle biopsy. Our case demonstrates the diagnostic challenges related to a ruptured squamous inclusion cyst and serves to inform the readers to consider this lesion in the differential diagnosis for similar situations. PMID:22953131

Zhang, Cunxian; Xiong, Jinjun; Quddus, M. Ruhul; Ou, Joyce J.; Hansen, Katrine; Sung, C. James

2012-01-01

57

The efficacy of physiotherapy upon shoulder function following axillary dissection in breast cancer, a randomized controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many patients suffer from severe shoulder complaints after breast cancer surgery and axillary lymph node dissection. Physiotherapy has been clinically observed to improve treatment of these patients. However, it is not a standard treatment regime. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of physiotherapy treatment of shoulder function, pain and quality of life in patients who

Carien HG Beurskens; Caro JT van Uden; Luc JA Strobbe; Rob AB Oostendorp; Theo Wobbes

2007-01-01

58

Current trends of sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer —A surgeon’s perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is standard care for patients with early-stage breast cancer, and axillary lymph node dissection\\u000a (ALND) is considered unnecessary when sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are tumor-free. Additional non-SLN metastasis in patients\\u000a with positive SLNs can be estimated using several risk factors such as primary tumor size, metastatic tumor size in SLNs,\\u000a lymphatic vessel invasion, and so

Hiroyuki Takei; Masafumi Kurosumi; Takashi Yoshida; Jun Ninomiya; Yasutaka Hagiwara; Mari Kamimura; Yuji Hayashi; Katsunori Tozuka; Kimito Suemasu; Kenichi Inoue; Toshio Tabei

2007-01-01

59

Contraindications of sentinel lymph node biopsy: Áre there any really?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: One of the most exciting and talked about new surgical techniques in breast cancer surgery is the sentinel lymph node biopsy. It is an alternative procedure to standard axillary lymph node dissection, which makes possible less invasive surgery and side effects for patients with early breast cancer that wouldn't benefit further from axillary lymph node clearance. Sentinel lymph node

George M Filippakis; George Zografos

2007-01-01

60

Can mammographic and sonographic imaging features predict the Oncotype DX™ recurrence score in T1 and T2, hormone receptor positive, HER2 negative and axillary lymph node negative breast cancers?  

PubMed

To determine whether mammographic or sonographic features can predict the Oncotype DX™ recurrence scores (RS) in patients with TI-II, hormone receptor (HR) positive, HER2/neu negative and node negative breast cancers. Institutional board review was obtained and informed consent was waived for this retrospective study. Seventy-eight patients with stage I-II invasive breast cancer that was HR positive, HER2 negative, and lymph node negative for whom mammographic and or sonographic imaging and Oncotype DX™ assay scores were available were included in the study Four breast dedicated radiologists blinded to the RS retrospectively described the lesions according to BI-RADS lexicon descriptors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test for significant independent predictors of low (<18) versus intermediate to high range (?18). Two imaging features reached statistical significance in predicting low from intermediate or high risk RS: pleomorphic microcalcifications within a mass (P = 0.017); OR 8.37, 95 % CI (1.47-47.79) on mammography and posterior acoustic enhancement in a mass on ultrasound (P = 0.048); OR 4.35, 95 % CI (1.01-18.73) on multivariable logistic regression. A mass with pleomorphic microcalcifications on mammography or the presence of posterior acoustic enhancement on ultrasound may predict an intermediate to high RS as determined by the Oncotype DX(TM) assay in patients with stage I-II HR positive, HER2 negative, and lymph node negative invasive breast cancer. PMID:25262341

Yepes, Monica Maria; Romilly, Ada Pat; Collado-Mesa, Fernando; Net, Jose Miguel; Kiszonas, Richard; Arheart, Kristopher L; Young, Daniel; Glück, Stefan

2014-11-01

61

Quality of Life After Axillary or Groin Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy, With or Without Completion Lymph Node Dissection, in Patients With Cutaneous Melanoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The aim of this study was to asses quality of life (QoL) after axillary or inguinal sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) with\\u000a or without completion lymph node dissection (CLND) in patients with cutaneous melanoma by comparing patients to a norm group\\u000a of the general population and by comparing QoL between four patient groups depending on surgical procedure and location, i.e.,

Mattijs de Vries; Harald J. Hoekstra; Josette E. H. M. Hoekstra-Weebers

2009-01-01

62

Solitary bulky mediastinal lymph node metastasis from colon cancer.  

PubMed

A 75 year-old man underwent right hemicolectomy for colon cancer 3 yrs and 6 months ago, followed by chemotherapy with capecitabine. One year and 10 months later, solitary liver metastasis was resected. Five months later, a bulky mediastinal mass of 6 cm in diameter was detected by chest computed tomography and he was referred to our department. The tumor was successfully extirpated by videothoracoscopy-assisted right axillary approach. Histopathology disclosed poorly-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma and diagnosed as metastatic mediastinal lymph node from the colon cancer. He was discharged on the day 5 and alive without disease 13 months after the mediastinal surgery. PMID:23232303

Iwata, Takashi; Chung, Kyukwang; Hanada, Shoji; Toda, Michihito; Nakata, Ken; Kato, Takeshi; Miura, Takuya

2013-01-01

63

Cytological and Pathological Correlation of FNAC in Assessing Breast Lumps and Axillary Lymph Node Swellings in a Public Sector Hospital in India  

PubMed Central

Background. Breast lumps have varied pathology, and there are different techniques to prove the diagnosis. The aim of the present study is to analyze the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the breast lesions at our center. Methods. We had retrospectively analysed 854 patients who underwent FNAC for primary breast lumps and 190 patients who underwent FNAC for an axillary lymph node in the year 2010. Results. Of 854 patients, histological correlation was available in 723 patients. The analysis was done for 812 patients as medical records were not available for 42 patients. FNAC was false negative in seven cases; 2 cases of phyllodes were reported as fibroadenoma, and 5 cases of carcinoma were diagnosed as atypical hyperplasia. The sensitivity, specificity, and false negative value of FNAC in diagnosing breast lumps were 99% (715/723), 100%, and 1%, respectively. Of 190 patients for whom FNAC was performed for axilla, 170 had proven to have axillary lymph node metastases, and the rest had reactive hyperplasia or inflammatory cells. Conclusions. FNAC is rapid, accurate, outpatient based, and less complicated procedure and helps in diagnosis of breast cancer, benign diseases, and axillary involvement in experienced hands with less chance of false results. PMID:24455419

Challa, Vasu Reddy; Yale Guru, Basavanna Goud; Rangappa, Poornima; Deshmane, Vijayalakshmi; Gayathri, devi. M.

2013-01-01

64

Volume-Based Parameters of {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Improve Disease Recurrence Prediction in Postmastectomy Breast Cancer Patients With 1 to 3 Positive Axillary Lymph Nodes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether volume-based parameters on pretreatment {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy without adjuvant radiation therapy are predictive of recurrence. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 93 patients with 1 to 3 positive axillary nodes after surgery, who were studied with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography for initial staging. We evaluated the relationship between positron emission tomography parameters, including the maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and clinical outcomes. Results: The median follow-up duration was 45 months. Recurrence was observed in 11 patients. Metabolic tumor volume and TLG were significantly related to tumor size, number of involved nodes, nodal ratio, nuclear grade, estrogen receptor (ER) status, and triple negativity (TN) (all P values were <.05). In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, MTV and TLG showed better predictive performance than tumor size, ER status, or TN (area under the curve: 0.85, 0.86, 0.79, 0.74, and 0.74, respectively). On multivariate analysis, MTV was an independent prognostic factor of locoregional recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio 34.42, 95% confidence interval 3.94-882.71, P=.0008) and disease-free survival (DFS) (hazard ratio 13.92, 95% confidence interval 2.65-103.78, P=.0018). The 3-year DFS rate was 93.8% for the lower MTV group (<53.1; n=85) and 25.0% for the higher MTV group (?53.1; n=8; P<.0001, log–rank test). The 3-year DFS rate for patients with both ER-positive status and MTV <53.1 was 98.2%; and for those with ER-negative status and MTV ?53.1 it was 25.0% (P<.0001). Conclusions: Volume-based parameters improve recurrence prediction in postmastectomy breast cancer patients with 1 to 3 positive nodes. The addition of MTV to ER status or TN has potential benefits to identify a subgroup at higher risk for recurrence.

Nakajima, Naomi, E-mail: haruhi0321@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Hospital Organization Shikoku Cancer Center, Ehime (Japan); Department of Radiology, Ehime University, Ehime (Japan); Kataoka, Masaaki [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Hospital Organization Shikoku Cancer Center, Ehime (Japan); Sugawara, Yoshifumi [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Hospital Organization Shikoku Cancer Center, Ehime (Japan); Ochi, Takashi [Department of Radiology, Ehime University, Ehime (Japan); Kiyoto, Sachiko; Ohsumi, Shozo [Department of Breast Oncology, National Hospital Organization Shikoku Cancer Center, Ehime (Japan); Mochizuki, Teruhito [Department of Radiology, Ehime University, Ehime (Japan)

2013-11-15

65

Tamoxifen and Chemotherapy for Lymph Node-Negative, Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The B-20 study of the National Surgical Adju- vant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) was conducted to determine whether chemotherapy plus tamoxifen would be of greater benefit than tamoxifen alone in the treatment of patients with axillary lymph node-negative, estrogen recep- tor-positive breast cancer. Methods: Eligible patients (n = 2306) were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups

Bernard Fisher; James Dignam; Norman Wolmark; Arthur DeCillis; Birol Emir; D. Lawrence Wickerham; John Bryant; Nikolay V. Dimitrov; Neil Abramson; James N. Atkins; Henry Shibata; Luc Deschenes; Richard G. Margolese

1997-01-01

66

Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer: Guidelines and Pitfalls of Lymphoscintigraphy and Gamma Probe Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Sentinel node (SN) biopsy appears to offer an alternative to routine axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for staging patients with breast cancer. Various techniques have been studied for identifying the SN, using vital blue dye or radioactive colloid, and initial reports are promising. The inherent limitations and pitfalls must be clearly understood before SN biopsy can be implemented in

Paul J Borgstein; Rik Pijpers; Emile F Comans; Paul J van Diest; Rob P Boom; Sybren Meijer

1998-01-01

67

Multidisciplinary approach to selective sentinel lymph node mapping in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the role of axillary lymph node dissection is controversial with respect to survival benefits, its role as a staging\\u000a procedure has been well established since nodal involvement is the most reliable prognostic indicator for patients with breast\\u000a cancer. Selective sentinel lymph node (SLN) dissection is gaining acceptance as a useful staging procedure because it is minimally\\u000a invasive and spares

Stanley P. L. Leong; Engene T. Morita; Patrick A. Treseler; Jan H. Wong

2000-01-01

68

Sentinel Node Biopsy Alone versus Completion Axillary Node Dissection in Node Positive Breast Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction. There has been recent interest in validity of completion axillary node dissection after a positive sentinel node. This systematic review aims to ascertain if sentinel lymph node dissection alone was noninferior to axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer patients who have a positive sentinel node. Method. A systematic review of the electronic databases Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials was carried out. Only randomised trials that had patients with positive sentinel node as the study sample were included in the meta-analysis using the reported hazard ratios with a fixed effect model. Results. Three randomised controlled trials and five retrospective studies were identified. The pooled effect for overall survival was HR 0.94, 95% CI [0.79, 1.19], and for disease free survival was HR 0.83, 95% CI [0.60, 1.14]. The reported rates for locoregional recurrence were similar in both groups. The surgical morbidity was found to be significantly more in patients who had underwent axillary dissection. Conclusion. Amongst patients with micrometastasis in the sentinel node, no further axillary dissection is necessary. For patients with macrometastasis in the sentinel node, it is reasonable to consider omitting axillary dissection to avoid the morbidity of the procedure. PMID:25383226

Singh, Jasprit; McCaig, Eddie

2014-01-01

69

Clinical behavior of untreated axillary nodes after local treatment for primary breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the rate of axillary failure in patients with primary breast cancer treated without\\u000a axillary dissection or radiation and to determine what factors may be associated with axillary failure.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: We studied 112 patients with invasive breast cancer treated for primary disease with breast-conserving surgery without axillary\\u000a dissection or radiation to the

Nancy Baxter; David McCready; Judy-Anne Chapman; Edward Fish; Harriette Kahn; Wedad Hanna; Maureen Trudeau; H. Lavina Lickley

1996-01-01

70

Hazard of recurrence and adjuvant treatment effects over time in lymph node-negative breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background For patients with axillary lymph node-negative breast cancer, benefits from adjuvant therapy are smaller than in node-positive\\u000a disease and thus more selective use is warranted, prompting development of risk profiling to identify those most likely to\\u000a benefit. Examination of the magnitude and changes in the hazard of failure over time in node-negative breast cancer may also\\u000a be informative in

James J. Dignam; Vanja Dukic; Stewart J. Anderson; Eleftherios P. Mamounas; D. Lawrence Wickerham; Norman Wolmark

2009-01-01

71

Management of sentinel node re-mapping in patients who have second or recurrent breast cancer and had previous axillary procedures  

PubMed Central

Background In patients with recurrent or second primary ipsilateral breast cancer, axillary staging is the key factor in locoregional control and a strong prognostic characteristic. The efficient evaluation of lymphatic drainage of re-sentinel lymph node biopsies (re-SLNBs) has remained a challenge in the management of ipsilateral primary or recurrent breast cancer patients who are clinically lymph node negative. This study explores whether a SLNB for patients with primary or recurrent breast cancer is possible after previous axillary surgery. It evaluates potential reasons for mapping failure that might be associated with patients in this group. Methods Between March 2006 and November 2013, 458 patients were subjected to a breast SLNB. A lymphoscintigraphy procedure was performed on 330 patients for sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping on the day of surgery. Seven patients with either a second primary cancer in the same breast or recurrent breast cancer were described. Two of these seven patients had axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) during previous treatments and five had SLNB. A dual mapping method was used for all patients. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was performed four hours before surgery. Results SLNs were successfully remapped in six of seven (85.7%) patients, of whom five (71.43%) had previously undergone SLNB and two (28.57%) previous ALND. Localizations of SLNs were ipsilateral axillary in three patients, ipsilateral internal mammary in one patient, and contralateral axillary in two patients. An altered distribution of lymph nodes was discovered in both patients with previous ALND. In one of the two patients, metastases were found in an aberrant lymph drainage basin at the location of a non-ipsilateral axillary node (contralateral axillary SLN). The second previously ALND patient had an internal mammary SLN. In one patient, mapping was unsuccessful and the SLN was not identified. Conclusions Altered lymphatic drainage incidence increases following breast-conserving surgery for an initial breast cancer, and the location of SLNs becomes unpredictable at the time of a second primary or recurrent ipsilateral breast cancer. This leads to the necessity of using a radionuclide (lymphoscintigraphy) for a successful re-mapping procedure. A re-SLNB is precise and beneficial even though there are few patients. A lymphoscintigraphy can identify SLNs at their new unpredicted location. PMID:25016393

2014-01-01

72

Evaluation of a Single-Isocenter Technique for Axillary Radiotherapy in Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to develop a technique for axillary radiotherapy that minimizes the risk of radiation-induced damage to the surrounding normal tissue (i.e., arm, shoulder, lung, esophagus, and spinal cord) while keeping the risk of a nodal recurrence to a minimum. A planning study was performed in 20 breast cancer patients. The target volume of the axillary treatment encompassed the periclavicular and axillary lymph node areas. The 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) information in this study was used to outline the lymph node areas and the organs at risk (i.e., the esophagus, spinal cord, brachial plexus, and lung). A conventional AP-PA technique (with a transmission plate placed in the AP beam) was evaluated. In addition, a new single-isocenter technique consisting of AP/PA fields using a gantry rotation of {+-}20 deg. and a medial AP segment was developed. Both techniques were compared by evaluation of the calculated dose distributions and the dose-volume histograms of the target volume and surrounding organs at risk. The field borders and humeral shielding were redefined based on the 3D anatomical references. Adapting the humeral shielding reduced the irradiated volume by 19% and might contribute to a reduction of the incidence of arm edema and impairment of shoulder function. The maximum radiation dose in the esophagus and spinal cord was reduced by more than 50% using the single-isocenter technique. The difference between both techniques with respect to the mean doses in the target volume and lung, and the maximum dose in brachial plexus, was not statistically significant. Moreover, the single-isocenter technique allowed a fast and easy treatment preparation and reduced the execution time considerably (with approximately 10 minutes per fraction)

Beek, Suzanne van [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: s.v.beek@nki.nl; Jaeger, Katrien de [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mijnheer, Ben [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]|[INHOLLAND University of Professional Training, Haarlem (Netherlands); Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2008-10-01

73

Reoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy in ipsilateral breast cancer relapse.  

PubMed

Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is controversial following ipsilateral breast tumour relapse (IBTR) and previous axillary surgery. We retrospectively assessed the feasibility, outcomes and utility of this procedure. Eighteen patients with IBTR who underwent reoperative SLNB were identified. Fifteen women had previously undergone axillary lymph node dissection and three SLNB for breast cancer. Twelve of 16 patients underwent successful lymphoscintigraphy (LSG). Lymphatic drainage patterns varied widely - ipsilateral axilla (5), contralateral axilla (5), and ipsilateral internal mammary (5). Two patients had drainage to more than one nodal basin. Nine of 12 patients demonstrated drainage outside of the ipsilateral axilla. Reoperative SLNB was successful in 12/18 of patients - 4 ipsilateral axilla, 1 ipsilateral internal mammary, 1 ipsilateral intramammary, 4 contralateral axilla. Two patients had sentinel nodes in multiple nodal basins. Positive sentinel node was found in one successful case (contralateral axilla) and isolated tumour cells in two (1 contralateral axilla, 1 ipsilateral internal mammary). In conclusion, reoperative SLNB is feasible. Lymphatic drainage patterns vary widely and preoperative LSG is vital to facilitate identification of sentinel nodes in unusual sites. Its prognostic and therapeutic significance warrants further study. PMID:19819141

Tasevski, R; Gogos, A J; Mann, G B

2009-10-01

74

Familial Blood and Lymph Node Cancers Study  

Cancer.gov

A study of a group of familial blood and lymph node cancers (also called "lymphoproliferative disorders"), including: chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, and multiple myeloma

75

Axillary metastases from occult breast cancer. Our experience.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 63-year-old woman with occult breast cancer who presented with a hard metastatic nodule in the left axilla. Although histology identified a metastatic carcinoma in the lymph nodes, numerous tests failed to detect the primary tumor. Resected lymph node was positive for both estrogen and progesterone receptors, suggesting the breast as the site of the primary tumor. Left modified radical mastectomy was performed. Pathology revealed an invasive lobular carcinoma (2.5 x 2 mm in size) with extensive lymphatic involvement, which strongly expressed both vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) and VEGF-D. PMID:24576904

Sanguinetti, Alessandro; Polistena, Andrea; D'Ermo, Giuseppe; Lucchini, Roberta; Triola, Roberta; Conti, Claudia; Avenia, Stefano; Cavallaro, Giuseppe; De Toma, Giorgio; Avenia, Nicola

2014-02-01

76

Systematic review of breast cancer related lymphoedema: making a balanced decision to perform an axillary clearance  

PubMed Central

Aim: Breast cancer-related lymphoedema (BCRL) is a disabling complication developing after breast cancer treatment in a proportion of patients. Its impact on quality of life becomes more substantial as survival after breast cancer diagnosis increases. The incidence of BCRL following breast cancer treatment varies due to a lack of ­uniform definition and measurement criteria. This review aims to determine the prevalence of BCRL following axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) as a benchmark to be used in a risk-benefit medical decision whether to proceed with ALND or not. The risk of leaving unresected non-sentinel metastatic lymph nodes with a presumed inherent risk of local recurrence will be balanced against the risk of BCRL following a potentially unnecessary ALND. Methods: Pubmed and Embase databases were searched for all publications on BCRL in order to estimate its ­incidence and to decide on the most appropriate measurement method to use in clinical practice. Results: 51 articles were identified on BCRL incidence and measurement technique. Most studies measured BCRL based on differences in arm circumference (n?=?18) or by self-reported symptoms (n?=?18). The weighted average of BCRL incidence following ALND measured by self-report and circumference method was 28% and 16%, respectively. Conclusion: The importance of ALND and irradiation as part of the treatment of operable breast carcinoma is well established, but its morbidity is less well documented. We argue self-report as the most appropriate method to ­establish a diagnosis of BCRL. Therefore a 28% risk of finding non-sentinel lymph node metastases in a completion ALND will be regarded as the cut-off in a medical decision to proceed with ALND. PMID:24753936

Goker, M.; Devoogdt, N.; Van de Putte, G.; Schobbens, J.C.; Vlasselaer, J.; Van den Broecke, R.; de Jonge, E.T.M.

2013-01-01

77

Detection efficiency for measuring 241Am in axillary lymph nodes using different types and sizes of detectors.  

PubMed

The detection efficiency and interference susceptibility of four different types of low energy photon detectors, each with a unique geometric arrangement, were compared for direct measurement of Am deposited in the axillary lymph nodes. Although the most efficient detector was a single large 23,226 mm square phoswich detector, it was also the most susceptible to confounding depositions from activity deposited in adjacent organs. The array of two 2,800 mm high purity germanium detectors exhibited the highest efficiency per unit detector area with some resistance to confounding from activity deposited in the lungs. The array of two 4,560 mm NaI(Tl) detectors was the least susceptible to confounding and nearly as efficient per square millimeter as the high purity germanium detector array. Thus, selection of a detector system for in vivo measurement of activity deposited in the axillary lymph nodes should consider whether there is a likelihood for activity deposited in other organs, such as the lungs, skeleton, or liver, to create an interference that will confound the measurement result. PMID:22850233

Lobaugh, Megan L; Spitz, Henry B; Glover, Samuel E

2012-09-01

78

Cost Modeling of Preoperative Axillary Ultrasound and Fine-Needle Aspiration to Guide Surgery for Invasive Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Preoperative axillary lymph node ultrasound (US) and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy can identify a proportion of node-positive patients and avoid sentinel lymph node (SLN) surgery and direct surgical treatment. We compared the costs with preoperative US/FNA to without US/FNA (standard of care) for invasive breast cancer. Methods Using decision-analytic software we constructed a model to assess the costs associated with the two preoperative strategies. Diagnostic test sensitivities and specificities were obtained from literature review. Costs were derived from Medicare payment rates and actual resource utilization. Base-case results were fully probabilistic to capture parameter uncertainty in economic results. Results Base-case results estimate total mean costs per patient of $10,947 (“$” indicates US dollars throughout) with the US/FNA strategy and $10,983 with standard of care, an incremental cost savings of $36, on average, per patient [95% confidence interval (CI) of cost difference: ?$248 to $179]. Most (63%) of the simulations resulted in cost saving with axillary US/FNA. One-way sensitivity analyses suggest that results are sensitive to assumed diagnostic and surgical costs and selected diagnostic test parameters. US/FNA approach was similar in costs or cost saving relative to the standard of care for all tumor stages. Conclusions The additional cost of performing axillary US with possible FNA in every patient is balanced, on average, by the savings from avoiding SLN in cases where metastasis can be documented preoperatively. Routine use of preoperative axillary US with FNA to guide surgical planning can decrease the overall cost of patient care for invasive breast cancer. PMID:20127185

Boughey, Judy C.; Moriarty, James P.; Degnim, Amy C.; Gregg, Melissa S.; Egginton, Jason S.; Long, Kirsten Hall

2010-01-01

79

The significance of intramammary lymph nodes in breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Intramammary lymph nodes (IntraMLNs) are frequent mostly benign incidental findings. However, they are clinically important because they can be the primary sites of metastasis and sentinel lymph nodes. Literature data regarding the clinical significance of IntraMLNs metastasis, however, remains controversial. This study aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to better define the prognostic value of positive IntraMLNs in patients with breast cancer. A systematic review of the literature without date restrictions was conducted. Five electronic medical databases were searched, and a hand-search of the reference lists of the collected articles was also performed. Studies with sufficient and relevant pathologic and clinical survival data were included. Other studies with insufficient data or normal findings were excluded. This study found 18 studies eligible for systematic review, 3 of which were eligible for outcome meta-analysis. IntraMLNs metastases were strongly correlated with axillary lymph nodes involvement. Positive IntraMLNs are reliable predictors of axillary lymph node involvement and therefore a guide for further surgical management of the axillary nodes. Even though it could be concluded that IntraMLNs metastasis is an independent predictor of outcome, this meta-analysis was limited because of the scarcity of data and the inconsistencies and heterogeneity of the outcome studies. PMID:22649167

Abdullgaffar, Badr; Gopal, Parthasarathi; Abdulrahim, Manal; Ghazi, Esaaf; Mohamed, Eliza

2012-12-01

80

Solitary Lymph Node Metastasis in Gastric Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility and diagnostic reliability of sentinel node (SN) biopsy for gastric cancer are still controversial. We studied\\u000a the clinicopathological features and localization of solitary lymph node metastasis (SLM) in gastric cancer to provide useful\\u000a information for use of the SN concept in gastric cancer. From 2000 to 2004, 3,267 patients with gastric cancer underwent D2\\u000a radical gastrectomy. The clinicopathological

Chen Li; Sungsoo Kim; Ji Fu Lai; Sung Jin Oh; Woo Jin Hyung; Won Hyuk Choi; Seung Ho Choi; Sung Hoon Noh

2008-01-01

81

[Intramammary sentinel lymph node preoperative identification with SPECT/CT in a patient with breast cancer. Clinical meaning and relevance].  

PubMed

We present the case of a patient with breast cancer who underwent selective sentinel lymph node biopsy. An intramammary sentinel lymph node was identified with SPECT/CT in the preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. We describe our diagnostic and therapeutic procedure regarding this finding and the literature review to evaluate the clinical significance of their identification and metastases, especially in regards to more appropriate axillary management. Further studies with more statistical significance are necessary to elucidate the most suitable attitude when an intramammary sentinel lymph node is identified with the lymphoscintigraphy. PMID:21334108

Andrés, A; Prats, E; Santapau, A; Tardín, L; Razola, P; Parra, A; Rambalde, E F; Banzo, J

2011-01-01

82

The levels of Ki-67 positive are positively associated with lymph node metastasis in invasive ductal breast cancer.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. In this study, we evaluate the potential risk factors for lymph node metastasis in invasive breast cancer patients with axillary dissection. 147 patients were included into this prospective study. The prognostic biomarkers including Ki-67, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), hormone receptor status, p53, and lymph node involvement were determined by immunohistochemistry. The association between lymph node metastasis and these biomarkers was analyzed. Lymph node metastasis was found in 62 patients out of 147 patients. The high levels of Ki-67 positive (greater than 20 %) were positively correlated with a higher incidence of lymph node metastasis, including the numbers of lymph nodes that contain tumor cells and the lymph node metastatic rate. The high rate of positive lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is associated with lymph node metastasis. However, the levels of Ki-67 positive were not correlated with the positive rate of LVI. There was also no association between lymph node metastasis and other prognostic biomarkers, such as HER-2, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and p53. In addition, apart from p53, the levels of Ki-67 positive were correlated with other prognostic biomarkers. Our data suggest that Ki-67 positivity has value as a prognostic and predictive biomarker in breast cancer and may be a valuable proliferation marker in routine diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:24879617

Yin, Yongxiang; Zeng, Ke; Wu, Man; Ding, Yun; Zhao, Min; Chen, Qi

2014-11-01

83

Value of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer Patients with Previous Excisional Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast cancer patients with clinically negative axilla will ensure axillary dissection only for cases with lymph node metastasis and provide information about pathologic staging as accurate as the axillary dissection. It was shown that SLNB could be successfully performed regardless of the type of biopsy. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of SLNB after excisional biopsy. Methods One hundred patients diagnosed with excisional biopsy or guide wire-localization and operated on with SLNB between February 2007 and March 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. SLNB was performed with 10 cc of 1% methylene blue alone or both methylene blue and 1 mCi of Tc-99m nanocolloid combination. Age, tumor localization and size, length of the biopsy incision, size of the biopsy specimen, multifocality, lymphovascular invasion, tumor grade, staining with methylene blue, localization, number and metastatic status of the lymph nodes stained, and success rate with a gamma probe were evaluated. Results Sentinel lymph node (SLN) could not be identified in 9 (16.9%) of patients in the methylene blue group (n=53). In the combination group (n=47), SLN could not be identified in one patient. Of 32 patients with negative SLNB, metastatic involvement was found to be present in 5 patients after axillary lymph node dissection (false negatives). The average numbers of SLNs found in the methylene blue group and combination group were 1.4 and 1.6, respectively. SLN detection and false negative rates in the methylene blue group were 83% and 15.7%, respectively. The rates for the combination group were 98% and 6.4%, respectively. None of the parameters related to patient, tumor or process were found to affect detection rates of SLN. Conclusion Only SLNB using a combination method is a safe and reliable technique for breast cancer patients diagnosed with excisional biopsy. PMID:22493633

Coskun, Gokhan; Dogan, Lutfi; Ozaslan, Cihangir; Atalay, Can

2012-01-01

84

Methylation signature of lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background Invasion and metastasis are two important hallmarks of malignant tumors caused by complex genetic and epigenetic alterations. The present study investigated the contribution of aberrant methylation profiles of cancer related genes, APC, BIN1, BMP6, BRCA1, CST6, ESR-b, GSTP1, P14 (ARF), P16 (CDKN2A), P21 (CDKN1A), PTEN, and TIMP3, in the matched axillary lymph node metastasis in comparison to the primary tumor tissue and the adjacent normal tissue from the same breast cancer patients to identify the potential of candidate genes methylation as metastatic markers. Methods The quantitative methylation analysis was performed using the SEQUENOM’s EpiTYPER™ assay which relies on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Results The quantitative DNA methylation analysis of the candidate genes showed higher methylation proportion in the primary tumor tissue than that of the matched normal tissue and the differences were significant for the APC, BIN1, BMP6, BRCA1, CST6, ESR-b, P16, PTEN and TIMP3 promoter regions (P<0.05). Among those candidate methylated genes, APC, BMP6, BRCA1 and P16 displayed higher methylation proportion in the matched lymph node metastasis than that found in the normal tissue (P<0.05). The pathway analysis revealed that BMP6, BRCA1 and P16 have a role in prevention of neoplasm metastasis. Conclusions The results of the present study showed methylation heterogeneity between primary tumors and metastatic lesion. The contribution of aberrant methylation alterations of BMP6, BRCA1 and P16 genes in lymph node metastasis might provide a further clue to establish useful biomarkers for screening metastasis. PMID:22695536

2012-01-01

85

PRECLINICAL STUDY Prediction of lymph node involvement in breast cancer  

E-print Network

PRECLINICAL STUDY Prediction of lymph node involvement in breast cancer from primary tumor tissue- ther lymph node involvement in breast cancer is influenced by gene or miRNA expression of the primary tissue from a group of 96 breast cancer patients balanced for lymph node involvement using Affymetrix

86

Risk Factors for Regional Nodal Relapse in Breast Cancer Patients With One to Three Positive Axillary Nodes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In many centers, supraclavicular fossa radiotherapy (SCF RT) is not routinely offered to breast cancer patients with one to three positive lymph nodes. We aimed to identify a subgroup of these patients who are at high risk of supra or infraclavicular fossa relapse (SCFR) such that they can be offered SCFRT at the time of diagnosis to improve long term locoregional control. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective analysis of the pathological features of 1,065 cases of invasive breast cancer with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes. Patients underwent radical breast conserving surgery or mastectomy. A total of 45% of patients received adjuvant chest wall/breast RT. No patients received adjuvant SCFRT. The primary outcome was SCFR. Secondary outcomes were chest wall/breast recurrence, distant metastasis, all death, and breast-cancer specific death. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to calculate actuarial event rates and survival functions compared using log-rank tests. Multivariate analyses (MVA) of factors associated with outcome were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Median follow-up was 9.7 years. SCFR rate was 9.2%. Median time from primary diagnosis to SCFR was 3.4 years (range, 0.7-14.4 years). SCFR was associated with significantly lower 10-year survival (18% vs. 65%; p < 0.001). Higher grade and number of positive lymph nodes were the most significant predictors of SCFR on MVA (p < 0.001). 10 year SCFR rates were less than 1% in all patients with Grade 1 cancers compared with 30% in those having Grade 3 cancers with three positive lymph nodes. Additional factors associated with SCFR on univariate analysis but not on MVA included larger nodal deposits (p = 0.002) and proportion of positive nodes (p = 0.003). Conclusions: Breast cancer patients with one to three positive lymph nodes have a heterogenous risk of SCFR. Patients with two to three positive axillary nodes and/or high-grade disease may warrant consideration of SCFRT.

Yates, Lucy, E-mail: lucy.yates@gstt.nhs.uk [Guy's, King's, St Thomas' Cancer Centre, Guy's Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Kirby, Anna [Guy's, King's, St Thomas' Cancer Centre, Guy's Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Department of Clinical Oncology, Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (United Kingdom); Crichton, Siobhan [Department of Statistics, Kings College London (United Kingdom); Gillett, Cheryl [Breast Pathology, Kings College London (United Kingdom); Cane, Paul [Department of Histopathology, Guy's and St Thomas' Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Fentiman, Ian; Sawyer, Elinor [Guy's, King's, St Thomas' Cancer Centre, Guy's Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

2012-04-01

87

Comparison of different predictive tools of axillary status in breast cancer with micrometastatic sentinel node.  

PubMed

Aim. To compare the performance of six different nomograms and one score in the prediction of non-sentinel lymph node status in a subset of women with breast cancer and micrometastatic sentinel nodes (SN). Material and methods. Twenty-five patients were included in the study. Five different nomograms not specifically designed for micrometastatic SN, one recently published nomogram specially developed for this type of patients and one score were analyzed, and the corresponding receiver operating characteristic curves were obtained. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated, as well as the false negative and false positive results and their corresponding rates (FNR and FPR) for a cutoff of ?10% or ?4 points. Results. The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) nomogram showed the best performance in this low-risk group of patients (AUC 0.900, FPR 64%, FNR 0%), followed by the French nomogram. Conclusions. The MSKCC nomogram seems to have the highest accuracy in the identification of patients with low risk of further axillary disease in the subgroup of women with micrometastatic SN. PMID:25296590

Cordero García, José Manuel; Palomar Muñoz, Azahara; García Vicente, Ana María; Jiménez Londoño, Germán Andrés; León Martín, Antonio Alberto; Pardo García, Ricardo; Soriano Castrejón, Angel

2014-01-01

88

Recent development of sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer in Japan.  

PubMed

The number of breast cancer cases undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has been increasing with the number of articles published in Japan. SLNB using the dye method alone is performed in about one-third of patients. Analysis of questionnaire responses from 40 institutions in Japan revealed an identification rate by the dye method alone of 87%, compared with 96% using the combined method; the combined method is now recognized in Japan as superior to the dye method alone. No dyes have been specifically approved by the government for use in SLNB, and physicians have been using several inappropriate dyes as tracers for SLNB, such as indocyanine green, patent blue, indigo carmine, and isosulfan blue. The colloidal radiotracers used in Japan include tin colloid, stannous phytate, rhenium sulfate and human serum albumin. Albumin colloid and sulfur colloid are not commercially available in Japan. Small-size tin colloids, stannous phytate and rhenium sulfate all yield good results in terms of detection and false-negative rates. Provided that the surgeon has adequate experience in SLNB, a negative sentinel node can serve as a substitute for negative results from axillary lymph node dissection. Although many institutions have introduced SLNB, few reports have focused on the results of SLNB without axillary dissection because of short follow-up times and small number of patients. The final decision as to whether SLNB is an adequate substitute for axillary dissection awaits the results of prospective randomized trials. PMID:15564178

Ikeda, Tadashi; Jinno, Hiromitsu; Fujii, Hirofumi; Kitajima, Masaki

2004-10-01

89

Protein predictive signatures for lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Lymph node status remains one of most crucial indicators of gastric cancer prognosis and treatment planning. Current imaging methods have limited accuracy in predicting lymph node metastasis. We sought to identify protein markers in primary gastric cancer and to define a risk model to predict lymph node metastasis. The Protein Pathway Array (PPA) (initial selection) and Western blot (confirmation) were used to assess the protein expression in a total of 190 freshly frozen gastric cancer samples. The protein expression levels were compared between samples with lymph node metastasis (n = 73) and those without lymph node metastasis (n = 57) using PPA. There were 27 proteins differentially expressed between lymph node positive samples and lymph node negative samples. Five proteins (Factor XIII B, TFIIH p89, ADAM8, COX-2 and CUL-1) were identified as independent predictors of lymph node metastasis. Together with vascular/lymphatic invasion status, a risk score model was established to determine the risk of lymph node metastasis for each individual gastric cancer patient. The ability of this model to predict lymph node metastasis was further confirmed in a second cohort of gastric cancer patients (33 with and 27 without lymph node metastasis) using Western blot. This study indicated that some proteins differentially expressed in gastric cancer can be selected as clinically useful biomarkers. The risk score model is useful for determining patients' risk of lymph node metastasis and prognosis. PMID:23011604

Li, Wei; Ye, Fei; Wang, Daguang; Sun, Xuan; Tong, Weihua; Lian, Guodong; Jiang, Jing; Suo, Jian; Zhang, David Y

2013-04-15

90

Current applications and future prospects of fine-needle aspiration biopsy of locoregional lymph nodes in the management of breast cancer.  

PubMed

Staging of disease is routine in the evaluation of patients newly diagnosed with breast cancer. Assessment of palpable and/or nonpalpable locoregional lymph nodes is an important component of the initial staging. Ultrasound (US) is the favored imaging modality for the initial investigation of lymph nodes and results in a significant increase in the specificity of the overall evaluation when used in conjunction with fine-needle aspiration (FNA). This review provides a concise summary, based on published literature, of the current applications and future prospects of FNA biopsy of locoregional lymph nodes in the initial staging and subsequent surgical management of patients with breast cancer. Patients undergo either sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy or complete axillary lymph node dissection, based on whether the axillary lymph node status is determined to be negative or positive in the initial staging process. The status of lymph nodes in the supraclavicular, infraclavicular, and internal mammary regions provides more accurate staging information and also impacts subsequent surgical management. The identification and evaluation of intramammary lymph nodes can add value in the overall assessment of patients with breast cancer. The feasibility of noninvasive imaging modalities for SLN mapping in animal models has indicated a good potential for FNA biopsy in the subsequent investigation of SLNs identified noninvasively in humans. PMID:19813277

Krishnamurthy, Savitri

2009-12-25

91

Some Women May Not Need More Extensive Lymph Node Surgery for Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Results from a randomized clinical trial published February 9, 2011, in the Journal of the American Medical Association demonstrate that axillary lymph node dissection provided no additional survival benefit when compared with sentinel lymph node biopsy in women with small breast tumors and minimal lymph node metastasis who were treated with lumpectomy, whole-breast radiotherapy, and adjuvant systemic therapy.

92

Tangential Radiotherapy Without Axillary Surgery in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Results of a Prospective Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the risk of regional-nodal recurrence in patients with early-stage, invasive breast cancer, with clinically negative axillary nodes, who were treated with breast-conserving surgery, 'high tangential' breast radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery or the use of a separate nodal radiation field. Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and November 2003, 74 patients who were {>=}55 years of age with Stage I-II clinically node-negative, hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer underwent tumor excision to negative margins without axillary surgery as a part of a multi-institutional prospective study. Postoperatively, all underwent high-tangential, whole-breast radiotherapy with a boost to the tumor bed, followed by 5 years of hormonal therapy. Results: For the 74 patients enrolled, the median age was 74.5 years, and the median pathologic tumor size was 1.2 cm. Lymphatic vessel invasion was present in 5 patients (7%). At a median follow-up of 52 months, no regional-nodal failures or ipsilateral breast recurrences had been identified (95% confidence interval, 0-4%). Eight patients died, one of metastatic disease and seven of other causes. Conclusion: In this select group of mainly older patients with early-stage hormone-responsive breast cancer and clinically negative axillary nodes, treatment with high-tangential breast radiotherapy and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery, yielded a low regional recurrence rate. Such patients might be spared more extensive axillary treatment (axillary surgery, including sentinel node biopsy, or a separate nodal radiation field), with its associated time, expense, and morbidity.

Wong, Julia S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: jwong@lroc.harvard.edu; Taghian, Alphonse G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Bellon, Jennifer R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Keshaviah, Aparna [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Smith, Barbara L. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Winer, Eric P. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Silver, Barbara; Harris, Jay R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)

2008-11-01

93

Micrometastatic Breast Cancer Cells in Bone Marrow at Primary Surgery: Prognostic Value in Comparison With Nodal Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Approximately 30% of the patients with primary breast cancer who have no axillary lymph node in- volvement (i.e., lymph node negative) at the time of surgery will relapse within 10 years; 10% -20% of the patients with distant metastases will be lymph node negative at surgery. Axillary lymph node dissection, as a surgical procedure, is associated with frequent complications.

Ingo J. Diel; Manfred Kaufmann; Serban D. Costa; Erich F. Solomayer; Sepp Kaul; Gunther Bastert

94

A prospective comparative study to assess the contribution of radioisotope tracer method to dye-only method in the detection of sentinel lymph node in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Metastasis in the axillary lymph nodes is the most important known prognostic factor for breast cancer. We aimed to investigate the contribution of the radioisotope tracer method to the dye-only method by performing sentinel lymph node biopsy on the same patient group during a single surgical session. Methods Forty-two patients who underwent operations in our clinic from February 2010 to October 2011 and with masses of <5 cm and clinically and radiologicallly negative axilla (T1-2 N0) were prospectively included in this study. After paraffin examination results were obtained, the numbers and metastatic states of the lymph nodes that were unidentifiable during surgery (although they were stained) but were detected by a gamma probe, lymph nodes that were only stained, lymph nodes that were only radioactive (hot), and lymph nodes that were both stained and radioactive (stained-hot) were determined in all patients. In patients who underwent axillary lymph node dissection, the total numbers of lymph nodes removed and their metastatic states were determined separately. Results At least one blue-stained sentinel lymph node was identified in all patients during the blue-stained lymph node detection stage. The average number of sentinel nodes removed at this stage was 2.1?±?1.1. In the second surgical stage (the stage in which nodes with axillary counts were investigated with the gamma probe) in these 41 patients, at least one additional hot node was removed, or at least one of the nodes that was removed because it was blue was also hot. In addition to the lymph nodes removed in the dye stage, 34 hot lymph nodes were excised from 21 patients. Overall, the average number of hot lymph nodes removed was 2.9?±?1.5. In all patients, subsequent frozen sections and histopathological examinations were 100% concordant with the sentinel lymph nodes that were removed; the stained sentinel lymph nodes that were removed first did not affect the decision to perform axillary dissection. Conclusion The results of our study indicate that performing sentinel lymph node biopsy with dye only is sufficient and as effective as the combined method. PMID:23617459

2013-01-01

95

Clinicopathologic subtypes and compromise of lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer (BC) is currently a heterogeneous disease with variations in clinical behaviour. Classification according to subtypes has allowed progress in the individualisation of treatment. The objective of this study is to evaluate the risk of axillary node compromise in patients with BC, according to clinicopathologic subtypes. Materials and methods are a retrospective, descriptive-analytical study. All patients that had undergone surgery for invasive BC were included, with the study of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) at Hospital Clínico de la Pontificia Universidad Católica, between May 1999 and December 2012. The results showed 632 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, with the median age being 55 years (range: 28–95), and 559 (88.4%) patients presented with estrogen receptor and/or progesterone receptor positive tumours. Luminal A: 246 patients (38.9%), luminal B: 243 (38.4%), luminal not otherwise specified: 70 (11.1%) triple negative (TN): 60 (9.5%) and over expression of epidermal growth factor type 2 receptor (HER2 positive): 13 (2.1%). Luminal tumours displayed a greater risk of metastasis in the SLNs, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.67). TN and HER2 positive tumours presented the greatest proportion of metastatic compromise in non-sentinel lymph nodes (non-SLNs) (57.1% and 50%, respectively). The presence of macrometastasis (MAM) in the SLN was associated with a greater risk of compromise of the non-SLN. Conclusions: Luminal tumours are the most frequent and present a greater proportion of axillary lymph node compromise, without being statistically significant. TN and HER2 positive tumours tend to have a higher axillary compromise; however, this was not statistically significant in either. Only the presence of MAM in SLNs displayed a statistically significantly association in the compromise of non-SLNs. PMID:25114720

Jaime Jans, B; Nicolas Escudero, M; Dahiana Pulgar, B; Francisco Acevedo, C; Cesar Sanchez, R; Camus, A Mauricio

2014-01-01

96

The Efficacy of Arm Node Preserving Surgery Using Axillary Reverse Mapping for Preventing Lymphedema in Patients with Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose The axillary reverse mapping (ARM) technique to identify and preserve arm nodes during sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was developed to prevent lymphedema. The purpose of this study was to investigate the location and metastatic rate of the arm node, and to evaluate the short term incidence of lymphedema after arm node preserving surgery. Methods From January 2009 to October 2010, 97 breast cancer patients who underwent ARM were included. Blue-dye (2.5 mL) was injected into the ipsilateral upper-inner arm. At least 20 minutes after injection, SLNB or ALND was performed and blue-stained arm nodes and/or lymphatics were identified. Patients were divided into two groups, an arm node preserved group (70 patients had ALND, 10 patients had SLNB) and an unpreserved group (13 patients had ALND, 4 patients had SLNB). The difference in arm circumference between preoperative and postoperative time points was checked in both groups. Results The mean number of identified blue stained arm nodes was 1.4±0.6. In the majority of patients (92%), arm nodes were located between the lower level of the axillary vein and just below the second intercostobrachial nerve. In the arm node unpreserved group, 2 patients had metastasis in their arm node. Among ALND patients, in the arm node preserved group, the difference in arm circumference between preoperative and postoperative time points in ipsilateral and contralateral arms was 0.27 cm and 0.07 cm, respectively, whereas it was 0.47 cm and -0.03 cm in the unpreserved group; one case of lymphedema was found after 6 months. No difference was found between arm node preserved and unpreserved group among SLNB patients. Conclusion Arm node preserving was possible in all breast cancer patients with identifiable arm nodes, during ALND or SLNB, except for those with high surgical N stage, and lymphedema did not develop in patients with arm node preserving surgery. PMID:22493634

Han, Jung Woo; Seo, Yu Jeong; Choi, Jung Eun; Kang, Su Hwan; Bae, Young Kyung

2012-01-01

97

99mTc-dextran lymphoscintigraphy can detect sentinel lymph node in breast cancer patients  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to retrospectively determine the accuracy and feasibility of using 99mTc-dextran (DX) lymphoscintigraphy for the localization of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in breast cancer patients. The relevant factors affecting lymphoscintigraphy were also investigated. In this study, 235 breast cancer patients underwent 99mTc-DX lymphoscintigraphic imaging and examination by a ?-probe method in combination with blue dye staining to detect SLNs. The detection results were considered in combination with rapid frozen pathology results to determine whether SLN metastasis was positive or negative. SLNs were identified in 191 patients by ?-probe detection among the 202 patients that tested positive by lymphoscintigraphic imaging, a coincidence rate of 94.6%. This suggested that lymph node metastasis had occurred and could be detected using lymphoscintigraphy. The axillary status of the breast cancer patients was also predicted using lymphoscintigraphy and the false-negative rate, sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value were 13.3% (4/30), 90.7% (39/43), 23.4% (45/192) and 13.5% (21/155), respectively. The age of the patient, menstrual status, tumor location, tumor size, pathological type, preoperative biopsy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy were unrelated to the success of lymphoscintigraphy (P>0.05). 99mTc-DX lymphoscintigraphy is able to exactly determine the location of SLN in breast cancer patients, and can be used for guiding ?-probe methods and sentinel lymph node biopsy.

WEI, LINLIN; CHEN, FANGNI; ZHANG, XUEHUI; LI, DANGSHENG; YAO, ZHONGQIANG; DENG, LIYAN; XIAO, GUOYOU

2015-01-01

98

Pathologic diagnosis of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung in an axillary lymph node: a case report with immunohistochemical and molecular genetic studies.  

PubMed

The author herein reports a large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the lung diagnosed in an axillary lymph node without clinical data, with an emphasis of KIT and PDGFRA. A 64-year-old woman presented with axillary and cervical lymph nodes swelling. An excisional biopsy of an axillary lymph node was performed under the clinical diagnosis of malignant lymphoma. The HE section showed a presence of large malignant cells arranged in a medullary pattern. The tumor cells had nucleoli. The HE diagnosis was large cell lymphoma or metastatic undifferentiated carcinoma, in particular large cell carcinoma of the lung. The tumor cells were positive for cytokeratins, p53 protein, thyroid transcriptional factor-1, neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin, CD56, KIT, and PDGFRA. In contrast, they were negative for CD3, CD15, CD30, CD45, CD20, CD45RO, CEA, CA19-9, and chromogranin (Dako). Ki-67 labeling (Dako) was 100%. Therefore, a diagnosis of LCNEC of the lung was made. A molecular genetic analysis for KIT (exons 9, 11, 13, and 17) and PDGFRA (exons 12 and 18) identified no mutations. Later, a lung tumor and pleural effusion were detected, and the cytology of the effusion and sputum revealed carcinoma cells compatible with LCNEC. The patient was diagnosed as lung LCNEC, and treated by chemotherapy (cisplatin) and radiation (45 Gray). The present report is the first one with an examination of protein expression and gene mutations of KIT and PDGFRA in a metastatic focus of LCNEC of the lung. PMID:23696939

Terada, Tadashi

2013-01-01

99

Supraclavicular failure after breast-conserving therapy in patients with four or more positive axillary lymph nodes when prophylactic supraclavicular irradiation is omitted  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The incidence of supraclavicular metastasis as the initial failure and the failure patterns in patients with four or more\\u000a positive axillary lymph nodes (PALNs) after breast-conserving therapy (BCT) without prophylactic supraclavicular irradiation\\u000a were investigated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Between 1991 and 2002, a total of 48 women with four or more PALNs underwent BCT without prophylactic supraclavicular irradiation\\u000a (33 patients with 4–9

Yasushi Hamamoto; Masaaki Kataoka; Takatoshi Semba; Kotaro Uwatsu; Yoshifumi Sugawara; Takeshi Inoue; Shinya Sakai; Shoji Aono; Tadaaki Takahashi; Shogo Oda

2009-01-01

100

The Value of Ultrasound in Detecting Extra-Axillary Regional Node Involvement in Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Assessment of the regional lymphatics is important for accurate staging and treatment of breast cancer patients. We sought to determine the role of regional ultrasound in providing clinically relevant information. We retrospectively analyzed data from patients who were treated curatively in 1996–2006 at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center for clinical stage III breast cancer. We compared differences in regional lymph node staging based on ultrasound versus mammography and physical examination in the 865 of 1,200 patients who had external-beam radiation as part of their treatment and regional ultrasound studies as part of their initial evaluation. Ultrasound uniquely identified additional lymph node involvement beyond the level I or II axilla in 37% of the patients (325 of 865), leading to a change in clinical nodal stage. Ninety-one percent of these abnormalities that could be biopsied (266 or 293) were confirmed to contain disease. The sites of additional regional nodal disease were: infraclavicular disease, 32% (275 of 865); supraclavicular disease, 16% (140 of 865); and internal mammary disease, 11% (98 of 865). All patients with involvement in the extra-axillary regional nodal basins received a radiation boost to the involved areas ?10 Gy. Thus, over one third of patients with advanced breast cancer had their radiation plan altered by the ultrasound findings. Regional ultrasound evaluation in patients with advanced breast cancer commonly revealed abnormalities within and beyond the axilla, which changed the clinical stage of disease and the radiation treatment strategy. Therefore, regional ultrasound is beneficial in the initial staging evaluation for such patients. PMID:22982581

Strom, Eric A.; Zhang, Yu-Jing; Whitman, Gary J.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Woodward, Wendy A.; Yu, Tse-Kuan; Buchholz, Thomas A.

2012-01-01

101

Reoperative Selective Sentinel Lymphadenectomy Combined With Lymphoscintigraphy Is Technically Feasible for Cutaneous Tumors of the Upper Extremity After Radical Dissection of Regional Lymph Node Basins for Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective: The rising incidence of melanoma and the high prevalence of breast cancer have generated a new scientific problem—how do the regional lymph node basins function after radical lymphadenectomy and are lymphatic drainage patterns altered after radical lymphadenectomy? Furthermore, after radical lymphadenectomy, selective sentinel lymphadenectomy is still a technically feasible and valid staging tool in the upper extremity? Thus, our study asks if selective sentinel lymph node dissection is technically feasible after radical lymph node dissection of the regional draining basin of the upper extremity (axilla). Methods: Retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of patients was reviewed to identify patients who had lymphoscintigraphy and sentinel lymph node biopsy of the upper extremity after a radical axillary node dissection procedure. Imaging and pathology results were analyzed. Results: Seven patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were identified. The patients all had either melanoma or invasive squamous cell carcinoma, and sentinel lymph nodes were identified in 6 out of 7 patients. One patient had metastases to 2 sentinel lymph nodes. Alternative drainage pathways were identified in 29% of patients, and 14% of patients had no identifiable drainage basin on lymphoscintigraphy. Conclusions: Sentinel lymph node dissection is technically feasible after previous axillary dissection. Lymphoscintigraphy is an important perioperative tool as lymphatic drainage may be altered or not observed as evidenced in 43% of the studied patients. However, when lymphatic drainage is detected by lymphoscintigraphy, pathologically significant sentinel lymph nodes are surgically identifiable.

Bellevue, Oliver C.; Leong, Stanley P.L.

2014-01-01

102

Radioguided Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer surgery relates to the fact that the tumor drains in a logical way through the lymphatic system, from the first to upper levels. Therefore, the first lymph node met (the sentinel node) will most likely be the first to be affected by metastasis, and a negative sentinel node makes it

Giuliano Mariani; Luciano Moresco; Giuseppe Viale; Giuseppe Villa; Marcello Bagnasco; Giuseppe Canavese; John Buscombe; H. William Strauss; Giovanni Paganelli

103

Clinical outcomes after sentinel lymph node biopsy in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate non-sentinel lymph node (LN) status after sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) in patients with breast cancer and to identify the predictive factors for disease failure. Materials and Methods From January 2006 to December 2007, axillary lymph node (ALN) dissection after SNB was performed for patients with primary invasive breast cancer who had no clinical evidence of LN metastasis. A total of 320 patients were treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy. Results The median age of patients was 48 years, and the median follow-up time was 72.8 months. Close resection margin (RM) was observed in 13 patients. The median number of dissected SNB was two, and that of total retrieved ALNs was 11. Sentinel node accuracy was 94.7%, and the overall false negative rate (FNR) was 5.3%. Eleven patients experienced treatment failure. Local recurrence, regional LN recurrence, and distant metastasis were identified in 0.9%, 1.9%, and 2.8% of these patients, respectively. Sentinel LN status were not associated with locoregional recurrence (p > 0.05). Close RM was the only significant factor for disease-free survival (DFS) in univariate and multivariate analysis. The 5-year overall survival, DFS, and locoregional DFS were 100%, 96.8%, and 98.1%, respectively. Conclusion In this study, SNB was performed with high accuracy and low FNR and high locoregional control was achieved.

Han, Hee Ji; Kim, Ju Ree; Nam, Hee Rim; Keum, Ki Chang; Suh, Chang Ok

2014-01-01

104

Clinical Significance of Axillary Microresiduals After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer Patients with Cytologically Proven Metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has been widely accepted for advanced breast cancer patients, and pathological complete remission\\u000a (pCR) was revealed to be an important prognostic factor. The pCR status of cytologically proven axillary metastases (ALN-pCR)\\u000a offers a more powerful prognostic predictor than pCR of the main tumor. This study evaluated the clinical significance of\\u000a residual micrometastases and discusses screening methods after

Masahiro Sakakibara; Takeshi Nagashima; Masami Kadowaki; Yasuhide Onai; Toshihiko Fujimori; Jissei Yokomizo; Hiroshi Suzuki; Koya Fushimi; Yukio Nakatani; Masaru Miyazaki

2009-01-01

105

The optimal number of lymph nodes removed in maximizing the survival of breast cancer patients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of lymph nodes removed is one of the important predictors for survival in breast cancer study. Our aim is to determine the optimal number of lymph nodes to be removed for maximizing the survival of breast cancer patients. The study population consists of 873 patients with at least one of axillary nodes involved among 1890 patients from the University of Malaya Medical Center (UMMC) breast cancer registry. For this study, the Chi-square test of independence is performed to determine the significant association between prognostic factors and survival status, while Wilcoxon test is used to compare the estimates of the hazard functions of the two or more groups at each observed event time. Logistic regression analysis is then conducted to identify important predictors of survival. In particular, Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) are calculated from the logistic regression model for all thresholds of node involved, as an alternative measure for the Wald statistic (?2), in order to determine the optimal number of nodes that need to be removed to obtain the maximum differential in survival. The results from both measurements are compared. It is recommended that, for this particular group, the minimum of 10 nodes should be removed to maximize survival of breast cancer patients.

Peng, Lim Fong; Taib, Nur Aishah; Mohamed, Ibrahim; Daud, Noorizam

2014-07-01

106

Implication of an Intramammary Sentinel Lymph Node in Breast Cancer: Is This a True Sentinel Node? A Case Report.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Intramammary lymph nodes (ILN) are often diagnosed by final histological examination. Recently, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has been developed as a new standard in the treatment of breast cancer. However, reports describing intramammary sentinel nodes (ISLNs) are relatively rare, and the clinical significance of metastases in ISLNs is still unclear. CASE REPORT: We herein report a patient with breast cancer with an ISLN that was detected prior to surgery. In the current case, the ISLN contained foci of carcinoma, but the axillary SLNs (aSLN) did not contain such foci. Previous reports related to ISLNs and aSLNs, including our case, are reviewed. Interestingly, there was no case with negative ISLNs and positive aSLNs. CONCLUSIONS: The current and previous cases have shown that axillary lymph node dissection (ALDN) might rely on the aSLN status but not on the ISLN status. The effect on the prognosis or clinical significance in cases with positive ISLNs has not been fully elucidated. Cases of ISLNs found by SLN navigation are discussed in relation to their clinical significance. PMID:20847822

Fujii, Takaaki; Yajima, Reina; Matsumoto, Asuka; Yamaki, Sayaka; Uchida, Nobuyuki; Tsutsumi, Soichi; Asao, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

2010-01-01

107

Pulmonary hilar lymph node metastasis of breast cancer induced bronchopleural fistula and superior vena cava syndrome.  

PubMed

Background It is extremely rare for pulmonary hilar lymph node metastasis (PHLNM) of a cancer to be independently lethal. Here, we report an exceedingly rare case of cavitation in PHLNM from breast cancer triggering broncho-pleural fistula and empyema (BPFE), complicated with superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). Case Report A 56-year-old woman who had undergone left segmental mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection due to left breast cancer was then treated for 1 year with postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Recurrence of right PHLNM was observed 2 years after the operation, for which 3 courses of bevacizumab (BEV) and paclitaxel combination chemotherapy were administered. The woman had dyspnea and fever during the washout period, and CT examination revealed fistula formation between the right PHLNM cavitation and right main bronchus, so she was admitted for further treatment. This fistula rapidly progressed to BPFE, and contralateral aspiration was observed to cause pneumonia of the left lung. In addition, edema of both upper limbs and head and neck were observed, and CT examination revealed SVCS caused by re-enlargement of PHLNM. Active treatment was performed, but the recommencement of chemotherapy was not possible, and she died on Day 150 of admission. Conclusions We think that PHLNM deteriorated to central necrosis due to chemotherapy with BEV taking effect, leading to formation of BPFE. The case was also made more difficult due to the complication of SVCS caused by the re-enlarged PHLNM. PMID:25399335

Nishinari, Yutaka; Kashiwaba, Masahiro; Umemura, Akira; Komatsu, Hideaki; Sasaki, Akira; Wakabayashi, Go

2014-01-01

108

Extracapsular tumor spread and the risk of local, axillary and supraclavicular recurrence in node-positive, premenopausal patients with breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: Extracapsular tumor spread (ECS) has been identified as a possible risk factor for breast cancer recurrence, but controversy exists regarding its role in decision making for regional radiotherapy. This study evaluates ECS as a predictor of local, axillary, and supraclavicular recurrence. Patients and methods: International Breast Cancer Study Group Trial VI accrued 1475 eligible pre- and perimenopausal women with node-positive breast cancer who were randomly assigned to receive three to nine courses of classical combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil. ECS status was determined retrospectively in 933 patients based on review of pathology reports. Cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using methods for competing risks analysis. Adjustment factors included treatment group and baseline patient and tumor characteristics. The median follow-up was 14 years. Results: In univariable analysis, ECS was significantly associated with supraclavicular recurrence (HR?=?1.96; 95% confidence interval 1.23–3.13; P = 0.005). HRs for local and axillary recurrence were 1.38 (P = 0.06) and 1.81 (P = 0.11), respectively. Following adjustment for number of lymph node metastases and other baseline prognostic factors, ECS was not significantly associated with any of the three recurrence types studied. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the decision for additional regional radiotherapy should not be based solely on the presence of ECS. PMID:18385202

Gruber, G.; Cole, B. F.; Castiglione-Gertsch, M.; Holmberg, S. B.; Lindtner, J.; Golouh, R.; Collins, J.; Crivellari, D.; Thürlimann, B.; Simoncini, E.; Fey, M. F.; Gelber, R. D.; Coates, A. S.; Price, K. N.; Goldhirsch, A.; Viale, G.; Gusterson, B. A.

2008-01-01

109

Reactivity of axillary lymph-nodes draining invasive breast carcinomas - immunohistochemical evidence of tumor-associated reactions of B-region and T-region.  

PubMed

The B and T regions in 495 axillary lymph nodes (TU-LN) draining 104 invasive breast carcinomas and 34 non-tumor-draining axillary/cervical lymph nodes (R-LN) were investigated immunohistochernically in frozen sections. The extents of the B regions and T regions were evaluated by staining with TO15 (CD22) and Leu-1 (CD5), respectively. Staining with Ki-M4, which specifically recognizes follicular dendritic cells, enabled determination of the number of lymphatic follicles. The germinal-center index (GCI), the numerical ratio of primary to secondary follicles, was determined to quantify the reactivity of the B regions. The number of Ki-67+ proliferating lymphoid cells per 0.5 mm(2) T region (PCT) was assessed as an index of the reactivity of the T regions. (i) In the TU-LN, the median GCI and PCT (0.1 and 18, respectively) were significantly lower than in the R-LN (0.6 and 26, respectively; both p<0.01). (ii) Greater TU-LN volumes were found to be associated with predominance of the T regions, high GCIs, and high PCTs. (iii) Higher GCIs and PCTs were associated with predominance of the T regions in TU-LN in general, but TU-LN partially destroyed by tumor metastases exhibited higher GCIs and PCTs when there was predominance of the B regions. The findings of the study show that LN draining breast carcinomas and reactive LN with signs of chronic nonspecific lymphadenitis exhibit significant immunohistochemical differences but it remains open to speculation whether the malignant tumor exerts suppressive effects on the lymphoreticular tissue or whether its antigenicity is low, particularly when compared with common, mostly infectious stimuli leading to chronic lymphadenitis. PMID:21607369

Horny, H; Horst, H

1994-03-01

110

Pleomorphic lobular carcinoma of the male breast with axillary lymph node involvement: a case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Background Carcinoma of the male breast is responsible for less than 1% of all malignancies in men but the incidence is rising. Invasive ductal carcinoma is the most common histological subtype while invasive lobular carcinoma is responsible for only 1.5% of the total cases of which pleomorpic lobular carcinoma is an extremely rare variant. We report the case of a gentleman with node positive, pleomorphic lobular carcinoma of the breast. Case presentation An elderly gentleman with a past history of type 2 diabetes and long term ethanol use presented to us with a self-discovered palpable lump in the left breast. Physical examination revealed bilateral gynaecomastia along with a well circumscribed subareolar mass and palpable lymphadenopathy in the ipsilateral axilla. The breast nodule revealed atypical cells on fine needle aspiration biopsy and the patient underwent a modified radical mastectomy after systemic surveillance was negative for metastatic disease. The lesion was reported as grade III pleomorphic lobular carcinoma with a lack of E-cadherin expression on immunohistochemistry and the neoplastic cells exhibited strong positivity for estrogen receptor in the absence of Her2 gene amplification. Six out of the eleven dissected regional lymph nodes showed evidence of disease. The patient completed 4 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy without evidence of recurrent disease and was subsequently lost to follow up. Conclusions Although invasive lobular carcinomas comprise 12% of all female breast cancers, they are very rare in males due to lack of acini and lobules in the normal male breast. Pleomorphic lobular carcinoma, an aggressive variant of ILC is even rarer in males. Chronic consumption of ethanol by our patient may have resulted in some degree of hepatic impairment with resultant hyperestrogenism. This in theory may have been the cause of his gynaecomastia, resultant breast cancer and is a plausible explanation for development of the invasive lobular subtype in a male. The prognosis and clinicopatholocial features of pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in men are less clearly defined due to its rarity. Additional studies are hence necessary to improve our understanding of this disease in males. PMID:24795533

2014-01-01

111

Sentinel Lymph Node Detection in Patients with Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. We investigated the validity of sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection after radioactive isotope and\\/or blue dye injection in patients with cervical cancer.Patients and methods. Between December 1998 and May 2000, 50 patients (mean age 44 years) with cervical cancer FIGO stage I (n = 32), stage II (n = 16), or stage IV (n = 2) underwent SLN detection

Sabine Malur; Norman Krause; Christhardt Köhler; Achim Schneider

2001-01-01

112

Axillary lymphoscintigraphy in the management of patients with breast cancer: A study of 341 patients  

SciTech Connect

Axillary lymphoscintigraph (AxLS) has been proposed preoperatively to diagnose breast cancer and postoperatively to predict recurrence; its role in routine management of carcinoma of the breast has not yet been determined. In a population with predominantly Stage I or II disease AxLS was performed in 140 patients who underwent surgery without axillary dissection (GpI), and in 201 whose surgery included axillary dissection (GpII), 49 of whom were studied prior to surgery; 84% of all patients were studied within 2 months of operation. Bilateral interdigital injections of Tc-99mSb/sub 2/S/sub 3/ (20MBq) were given and anterior images obtained 2 hours later. Internal mammary lymphoscintigraphy (IMLS) was performed concurrently. Scans were classed as normal (NOR) or abnormal (ABN) by adapting criteria used in interpretation of IMLS. For analysis of prognostic value, only patients with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were assessed. In patients scanned prior to surgery, AxLS sensitivity and specificity in predicting nodal involvement were 74% and 77% respectively. Clinical correlation suggests that features in the AxLS can be recognized which may be predictive of disease outcome despite the lack of direct correlation between the image and histopathological findings.

McLean, R.G.; Ege, G.N.

1985-05-01

113

Prevention of Lymphorrhea by Means of Fibrin Glue after Axillary Lymphadenectomy in Breast Cancer: Prospective Randomized Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective randomized trial was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of fibrin glue in preventing lymphorrhea after axillary lymphadenectomy in breast cancer. One hundred and eight breast cancer patients, operated on by two senior surgeons, were randomized into two groups: group 1 (n = 58) without fibrin glue and group 2 (n = 50) with 2 ml of fibrin

F. N. Gilly; Y. François; A. C. Sayag-Beaujard; O. Glehen; A. Brachet; J. Vignal

1998-01-01

114

Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

The management of lymph nodes in nonmelanoma skin cancer patients is currently still debated. Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM), and other rare skin neoplasms have a well-known risk to spread to regional lymph nodes. The use of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) could be a promising procedure to assess this risk in clinically N0 patients. Metastatic SNs have been observed in 4.5–28% SCC (according to risk factors), in 9–42% MCC, and in 14–57% PEM. We observed overall 30.8% positive SNs in 13 consecutive patients operated for high-risk nonmelanoma skin cancer between 2002 and 2011 in our institution. These high rates support recommendation to implement SLNB for nonmelanoma skin cancer especially for SCC patients. Completion lymph node dissection following positive SNs is also a matter of discussion especially in PEM. It must be remembered that a definitive survival benefit of SLNB in melanoma patients has not been proven yet. However, because of its low morbidity when compared to empiric elective lymph node dissection or radiation therapy of lymphatic basins, SLNB has allowed sparing a lot of morbidity and could therefore be used in nonmelanoma skin cancer patients, even though a significant impact on survival has not been demonstrated. PMID:23476781

Matthey-Gie, Marie-Laure; Boubaker, Ariane; Letovanec, Igor; Demartines, Nicolas; Matter, Maurice

2013-01-01

115

Laparoscopic gastrectomy with lymph node dissection for gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1991, laparoscopic surgery has been adopted for the treatment of gastric cancer, and it has been performed worldwide,\\u000a especially in Japan and Korea. We reviewed the English-language literature to clarify the current status of and problems associated\\u000a with laparoscopic gastrectomy with lymph node dissection as treatment for gastric cancer. In Japan, early-stage gastric cancer\\u000a (T1\\/T2, N0) is considered the

Norio Shiraishi; Kazuhiro Yasuda; Seigo Kitano

2006-01-01

116

Imaging in assessing lymph node status in gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Accurate assessment of lymph node status is of crucial importance for appropriate treatment planning and determining prognosis\\u000a in patients with gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to systematically review the current role of imaging in assessing\\u000a lymph node (LN) status in gastric cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A systematic literature search was performed in the PubMed\\/MEDLINE and Embase databases. The methodological quality

Robert Michael Kwee; Thomas Christian Kwee

2009-01-01

117

One-step nucleic acid amplification assay for intraoperative prediction of non-sentinel lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients with sentinel lymph node metastasis.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to construct the intra-operative prediction model of non-sentinel lymph node (non-SLN) metastasis in breast cancer patients with SLN metastasis using one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA). Of 833 breast cancer patients (T1-T2, N0) who underwent SLN biopsy and had their SLNs examined intra-operatively with the OSNA assay, 161 with SLN metastasis and treated with completion axillary lymph node dissection (cALND) were randomly divided into a training (n = 81) and a validation (n = 80) cohort. Non-SLN metastasis of the training cohort was associated with the number of positive SLNs (P = 0.001), CK19 mRNA copy number (P = 0.001), and clinical tumor size (P = 0.055). These parameters were used to construct the intra-operative prediction model of non-SLN metastasis. Its diagnostic accuracy (AUC of ROC curve) was 0.809 and 0.704 for the training and validation cohorts, respectively. The intra-operative prediction model using OSNA may have a diagnostic accuracy of non-SLN metastasis comparable to that of the conventional, post-operative prediction model, indicating that it might help decide the indication for cALND. PMID:24973902

Teramoto, Atsuko; Shimazu, Kenzo; Naoi, Yasuto; Shimomura, Atsushi; Shimoda, Masafumi; Kagara, Naofumi; Maruyama, Naomi; Kim, Seung Jin; Yoshidome, Katsuhide; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Tamaki, Yasuhiro; Noguchi, Shinzaburo

2014-10-01

118

Evolution of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer, in and out of vogue?  

PubMed

Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) was introduced 2 decades ago and thereafter validated for routine surgical management of breast cancer, including cases treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. As the number of lymph nodes for staging has decreased, pathologists have scrutinized SLN with a combination of standard hematoxylin and eosin, levels, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and molecular methods. An epidemic of small-volume metastases thereby arose, leading to modifications in the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging to accommodate findings such as isolated tumor cells (ITC) and micrometastases. With the goal of determining the significance of these findings, retrospective followed by prospective trials were performed, showing mixed results. The ACOSOG Z10 and NSABP B-32 trials both independently showed that ITC and micrometastases were not significant and thus discouraged the use of levels and IHC for detecting them. However, the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database showed that patients with micrometastases had an overall decreased survival. In addition, the MIRROR (Micrometastases and ITC: Relevant and Robust or Rubbish?) trial, showed that patients with ITC and micrometastases treated with adjuvant therapy had lower hazard ratios compared with untreated patients. Subsequently, the ACOSOG Z0011 trial randomized patients with up to 2 positive SLN to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) or not, all treated with radiation and chemotherapy, showing no difference in survival or recurrence rates between the 2 groups and causing a shift from ALND. As the rate of ALND has declined, the necessity of performing levels, IHC, frozen section, and molecular studies on SLN needs to be revisited. PMID:25299312

Jaffer, Shabnam; Bleiweiss, Ira J

2014-11-01

119

Radiotherapy of Internal Mammary Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Radiotherapy of internal mammary lymph nodes (IMN) in breast cancer is discussed controversially due to its potential toxicity and debatable efficacy. Aim of the present study was to assess the cardiac and lung dose in 3-D planned radiotherapy and to discuss these results with regard to arguments pro and contra IMN irradiation. Patients and Methods: 32 patients underwent 3-D

Marie-Luise Sautter-Bihl; Beatrix Hültenschmidt; Ute Melcher; Hans Ulrich Ulmer

2002-01-01

120

Lymph node metastasis in nasal vestibule cancer: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal vestibule (SCCNV) is an uncommon malignancy. Our purpose is to define the incidence of simultaneous and delayed regional metastasis in SCCNV according to the available literature. METHODS: Articles discussing SCCNV and addressing the issue of regional lymph node metastases were reviewed. CONCLUSION: SCCNV is an uncommon form of cancer, possibly originating in the

Y. P. Talmi; A. Ferlito; R. P. Takes; P. Strojan; J. A. Langendijk; A. R. Shaha; A. Rinaldo

2011-01-01

121

Recurrent ovarian cancer presenting in the right supraclavicular lymph node with isolated metastasis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction The majority of ovarian cancer recurrences are in the abdomen. However, some cases relapse as isolated lymph node metastases, mostly in pelvic or para-aortic nodes. Peripheral isolated lymph node metastasis is rare. Case presentation A 69-year-old Japanese woman had recurrent ovarian cancer presenting with isolated right supraclavicular lymph node metastasis. After surgical resection and combination chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel, her right supraclavicular lymph node completely regressed. Conclusions Peripheral isolated lymph nodes, including right supraclavicular lymph node, can recur without a macroscopic abdominal lesion. Clinicians should carefully examine peripheral lymph nodes for recurrence. PMID:22747642

2012-01-01

122

Discordance rate of HER2 status in primary breast carcinomas versus synchronous axillary lymph node metastases: a multicenter retrospective investigation  

PubMed Central

Background Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is considered to be a therapeutic and prognostic marker in the management of breast carcinoma (BC), although discordance rates between primary and metastatic or locally recurrent lesions have been reported. Methods One hundred and forty-eight paraffin-embedded BC tissues from patients of mean age 59.27 (33–96) years and corresponding synchronous lymph node metastases were collected and retrospectively studied using immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization to evaluate HER2 status. Fleiss-Cohen weighted k statistics were used to assess the concordance rate between HER2 status of the primary BC and the synchronous metastatic lesions. Results The overall concordance rate for HER2 was 95.28%. Eighty-nine cases were concordantly HER2-negative in primary BC and nodal metastases, and 52 cases were HER2-positive in both primary and metastatic tumors. Changes in HER2 status between primary BC and corresponding synchronous metastases were observed in seven (4.72%) cases. Three of the discordant cases were HER2-negative in the primary tumor and HER2-positive in the metastases, while four cases were HER2-positive in the primary BC and HER2-negative in the metastases. No significant correlations were identified between HER2 status and expression of hormone receptors, growth fraction (Ki-67), or other histopathological parameters (pT, pN, grade). Conclusion Simultaneous determination of HER2 in BC and corresponding metastatic lymph nodes is not mandatory, but may strongly influence the therapeutic management. It was demonstrated that loss of HER2 amplification results in worse post-relapse survival and overall survival in BC patients and, on the other hand, a gain in HER2 expression in metastatic lymph nodes of BC may allow the possibility of a targeted treatment. Thus, our opinion is that significant prognostic information may be obtained by simultaneous assessment of HER2 status in both primary and synchronous metastatic BC. PMID:25050068

Ieni, Antonio; Barresi, Valeria; Caltabiano, Rosario; Cascone, Anna Maria; Del Sordo, Rachele; Cabibi, Daniela; Zeppa, Pio; Lanzafame, Salvatore; Sidoni, Angelo; Franco, Vito; Tuccari, Giovanni

2014-01-01

123

Seven synchronous early gastric cancer with 28 lymph nodes metastasis  

PubMed Central

An 85 year male patient complaining epigastric discomfort was admitted. From the esophagogastroduodenoscopy, three early gastric cancer (EGCa) lesions had been identified and these were diagnosed as adenocarcinoma with poorly differentiated cell type. The patient underwent operation. From the post-operative mapping, however, additional 4 EGCa lesions were found, and the patient was diagnosed with 7 synchronous EGCa. Out of the 7 EGCa lesions, 6 had shown invasion only to the mucosal layer and one had shown invasion into the 1/3 layer of submucosa. In spite of such superficial invasions, 28 of 48 lymph nodes had been identified as metastases. The multiple lesions of EGCa do not increase the risk of lymph node metastasis, but if their differentiations are poor or if they have lympho-vascular invasion, multiple lymph node metastases could incur even if the depth of invasion is limited to the mucosal layer or the upper portion of the submucosal layer. PMID:24307810

Seong, Hyeonjin; Kim, Jin Il; Lee, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Hyun Jin; Cho, Hyung Joon; Kim, Hye Kang; Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Wook; Kim, Tae-Jung

2013-01-01

124

Axillary node dissection in patients with breast cancer diagnosed through the Ontario Breast Screening Program: a need for minimally invasive techniques  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the role of axillary node dissection by studying patient and tumour characteristics of invasive breast cancer through the Ontario Breast Screening Program (OBSP). Design A retrospective evaluation. Setting The London, Ont., branch of the OBSP. Patients Three groups of women seen were studied: 50 women with screen-detected breast cancers, which were palpable and detected by the nurse-examiner, 62 women with occult screen-detected breast cancers and 353 age-matched women with invasive breast cancer from the LRCC prospective database, who served as controls. Main outcome measure The proportion of involved axillary nodes within the 3 groups based on patient and tumour characteristics. Results Twenty-five (22.3%) of the 112 women had screen-detected tumours less than 1 cm in dimension, but only 1 had an involved axillary node. Twelve (19%) of the 62 women with occult screen-detected tumours had involved lymph nodes compared with 17 (34%) of the 50 women with palpable screen-detected cancers (NS). In the control group tumour dimension less than 1 cm versus 1 cm or larger had a marked effect on the probability of axillary node involvement (12.5% v. 40.7%, p = 0.001). In the palpable screen-detected group 3 times as many women with outer quadrant or central lesions had involved nodes as those with inner quadrant lesions (38% v. 12%) and for those with a family history of breast cancer almost twice as many had involved axillary nodes. In occult screen-detected patients there was more nodal involvement in patients aged 60 years or less than in those older than 60 years (35% v. 10%, p = 0.042); only 4 of 41 patients older than 60 years had involved nodes at surgery. A significant difference in nodal involvement was found with respect to high or intermediate grade versus low grade lesions in the occult group (44% v. 12%, p = 0.033). In the control group, tumour grade (intermediate and high [45.3%] v. low [20.0%]) and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (current or recent use [56.5%] v. no use [34.5%]) were significant findings (p < 0.001 and p = 0.005 respectively). Conclusions Women older than 60 years with tumours smaller than 1 cm had a low probability of nodal positivity (0% to 8.7%), but there is insufficient information in this group to give a 95% or better prediction of nodal status at the time of surgery. Studies of minimally invasive techniques such as sentinel node biopsy are needed in this group to minimize surgical morbidity in these women who, as a result of early diagnosis, have an excellent long-term outlook. PMID:9336528

Singhal, Hemant; O'Malley, Frances P.; Tweedie, Edward; Stitt, Lawrence; Tonkin, Katia S.

1997-01-01

125

Staging lymph node metastases from lung cancer in the mediastinum  

PubMed Central

Background The presence of tumor metastases in the mediastinum is one of the most important elements in determining the optimal treatment strategy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. This review is aimed at examining the current strategies for investigating lymph node metastases corresponding to an “N2” classification delineated by The International Staging Committee of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC). Methods Extensive review of the existing scientific literature related to the investigation of mediastinal lymph node metastases was undertaken in order to summarize and report current best practices. Conclusions N2 disease is very heterogeneous requiring multiple modalities for thorough investigation. New research is now focusing on better identifying, defining, and classifying lymph node metastases in the mediastinum. Molecular staging and sub-classifying mediastinal lymph node metastases are being actively researched in order to provide better prognostic value and to optimize treatment strategies. Non-invasive imaging, such as PET/CT and minimally invasive techniques such as endobronchial and endoscopic ultrasound guided biopsy, are now the lead investigative methods in evaluating the mediastinum for metastatic presence. PMID:24624287

Teran, Mario D.

2014-01-01

126

Omics-based profiling of carcinoma of the breast and matched regional lymph node metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Axillary lymph node (ALN) status is currently used as an important clinical indicator of breast cancer prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying lymph node metastasis are poorly understood and the relationship between ALN metastasis and the primary tumor remains unclear. In an effort to reveal structural changes in the genome and related protein responses that may drive regional metastatic progression

Jian Li; Pavel Gromov; Irina Gromova; José M. Moreira; Vera Timmermans-Wielenga; Fritz Rank; Kai Wang; Shengting Li; Heng Li; Carsten Wiuf; Huanming Yang; Xiuqing Zhang; Lars Bolund; Julio E. Celis

2008-01-01

127

Predicting lymph node status in early gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate prediction of lymph node (LN) status is of crucial importance for appropriate treatment planning in patients with\\u000a early gastric cancer (EGC). However, there is no definitive consensus yet on which patient and\\/or tumor characteristics are\\u000a associated with LN metastasis. A systematic search for studies investigating the relationship between patient and\\/or tumor\\u000a characteristics and LN metastasis in EGC was performed

Robert Michael Kwee; Thomas Christian Kwee

2008-01-01

128

Uracil-tegafur and tamoxifen vs cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, fluorouracil, and tamoxifen in post-operative adjuvant therapy for stage I, II, or IIIA lymph node-positive breast cancer: a comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:It has been reported that treatment with uracil-tegafur (UFT) has shown significantly better survival and relapse-free survival (RFS) than surgery alone. Therefore, we compared UFT with a combination therapy of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil (CMF) in patients who had undergone curative surgery for axillary lymph node-positive breast cancer.Methods:A total of 377 node-positive patients with stage I, II, or IIIA disease

K Okamura; S Mitsuyama; T Saito; J Koh; S Kyono; K Higaki; M Ogita; T Asaga; H Inaji; H Komichi; N Kohno; K Yamazaki; F Tanaka; T Ito; H Nishikawa; A Osaki; H Koyama; T Suzuki

2009-01-01

129

Randomized Multicenter Trial of Sentinel Node Biopsy Versus Standard Axillary Treatment in Operable Breast Cancer: The ALMANAC Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy in women with operable breast cancer is routinely used in some countries for staging the axilla despite limited data from randomized trials on morbidity and mortality outcomes. We conducted a multi- center randomized trial to compare quality-of-life outcomes between patients with clinically node-negative invasive breast cancer who received sentinel lymph node biopsy and patients who

Robert E. Mansel; Amit Goyal; Robert G. Newcombe; J. Michael Dixon; Constantinos Yiangou; Kieran Horgan; Nigel Bundred; Ian Monypenny; David England; Mark Sibbering; Tholkifl I. Abdullah; Lester Barr; Dudley H. Sinnett; Anne Fleissig; Dayalan Clarke; Peter J. Ell

2006-01-01

130

Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery for early stage gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

We attempted to evaluate the history of sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS), technical aspects, tracers, and clinical applications of SNNS using Infrared Ray Electronic Endoscopes (IREE) combined with Indocyanine Green (ICG). The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as a first lymph node (LN) which receives cancer cells from a primary tumor. Reports on clinical application of SNNS for gastric cancers started to appear since early 2000s. Two prospective multicenter trials of SNNS for gastric cancer have also been accomplished in Japan. Kitagawa et al reported that the endoscopic dual (dye and radioisotope) tracer method for SN biopsy was confirmed acceptable and effective when applied to the early-stage gastric cancer (EGC). We have previously reported the usefulness of SNNS in gastrointestinal cancer using ICG as a tracer, combined with IREE (Olympus Optical, Tokyo, Japan) to detect SLN. LN metastasis rate of EGC is low. Hence, clinical application of SNNS for EGC might lead us to avoid unnecessary LN dissection, which could preserve the patient’s quality of life after operation. The most ideal method of SNNS should allow secure and accurate detection of SLN, and real time observation of lymphatic flow during operation. PMID:24914329

Mitsumori, Norio; Nimura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Naoto; Kawamura, Masahiko; Aoki, Hiroaki; Shida, Atsuo; Omura, Nobuo; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

2014-01-01

131

Predictors of recurrence in breast cancer subtypes with negative lymph node in a Chinese population  

PubMed Central

To establish a series of objective parameters to predict the risk of relapse from axillary lymph node-negative (ANN) breast cancer, and evaluate the patterns of recurrence according to molecular subtypes, we collected information on 2126 consecutive breast cancer patients operated between 2002 and 2006. In this case-control study, 212 patients experiencing recurrence or breast cancer related death were defined as ‘poor group’. Another 212 patients were selected from the remaining cases with stratified sampling method to comprise the ‘good group’. Significant differences were found in vascular invasion, grade and molecular subtype between the two groups. Expression of ER and PR in the ‘poor group’ was lower (P < 0.05). However, positive rates of Ki67, p53 and VEGF in the ‘poor group’ were higher (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that molecular subtype, expression of VEGF, tumor grade, and vascular invasion were closely correlated with bad outcome. Analysis of the ‘poor group’ demonstrated that ‘HER2 positive’ and ‘triple negative’ subtypes more commonly suffered from distant metastases and death. No metastasis was found in patients with pure invasive papillary carcinoma, invasive cribriform carcinoma or adenoid cystic carcinoma, whereas the diagnoses of invasive micropapillary carcinoma, invasive apocrine carcinoma, invasive papillary carcinoma mixed with invasive ductal carcinoma, or metaplastic carcinoma were correlated with distant metastasis and death. In conclusion, molecular subtype and expression of VEGF are useful markers for predicting prognosis of ANN breast cancer patients. ‘Luminal A-like’ subtype has better outcome than others. Moreover, molecular subtypes have different recurrence patterns. PMID:25031741

Liu, Xia; Guan, Yong; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Shan; Liu, Junjun; Wang, Li; Niu, Yun

2014-01-01

132

Near infrared optical lymphography for cancer diagnostics  

E-print Network

A new molecular imaging modality has been developed to detect and locate positive axillary and sentinel lymph nodes non-invasively in breast cancer patients undergoing lymphoscintigraphy. The modality is based on fluorescent photon detection...

Houston, Jessica Perea

2007-04-25

133

Mayo Clinic study finds less invasive surgery detects residual breast cancer in lymph nodes after chemotherapy  

Cancer.gov

Most patients whose breast cancer has spread to their lymph nodes have most of the lymph nodes in their armpit area removed after chemotherapy to see if any cancer remains. A study conducted through the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group and led by the Mayo Clinic shows that a less invasive procedure known as sentinel lymph node surgery successfully identified whether cancer remained in lymph nodes in 91 percent of patients with node-positive breast cancer who received chemotherapy before their surgery. In sentinel lymph node surgery, only a few lymph nodes, the ones most likely to contain cancer, are removed. The findings are being presented at the 2012 CTRC-AACR San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.

134

Predicting Likelihood of Having Four or More Positive Nodes in Patient With Sentinel Lymph Node-Positive Breast Cancer: A Nomogram Validation Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Katz suggested a nomogram for predicting having four or more positive nodes in sentinel lymph node (SLN)-positive breast cancer patients. The findings from this formula might influence adjuvant radiotherapy decisions. Our goal was to validate the accuracy of the Katz nomogram. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 309 patients with breast cancer who had undergone completion axillary lymph node dissection. The factors associated with the likelihood of having four or more positive axillary nodes were evaluated in patients with one to three positive SLNs. The nomogram developed by Katz was applied to our data set. The area under the curve of the corresponding receiver operating characteristics curve was calculated for the nomogram. Results: Of the 309 patients, 80 (25.9%) had four or more positive axillary lymph nodes. On multivariate analysis, the number of positive SLNs (p < .0001), overall metastasis size (p = .019), primary tumor size (p = .0001), and extracapsular extension (p = .01) were significant factors predicting for four or more positive nodes. For patients with <5% probability, 90.3% had fewer than four positive nodes and 9.7% had four or more positive nodes. The negative predictive value was 91.7%, and sensitivity was 80%. The nomogram was accurate and discriminating (area under the curve, .801). Conclusion: The probability of four or more involved nodes is significantly greater in patients who have an increased number of positive SLNs, increased overall metastasis size, increased tumor size, and extracapsular extension. The Katz nomogram was validated in our patients. This nomogram will be helpful to clinicians making adjuvant treatment recommendations to their patients.

Unal, Bulent; Gur, Akif Serhat [Department of Surgical Oncology, Magee-Womens Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Beriwal, Sushil [Department of Radiation Oncology, Magee-Womens Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tang Gong [Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Johnson, Ronald; Ahrendt, Gretchen; Bonaventura, Marguerite [Department of Surgical Oncology, Magee-Womens Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Soran, Atilla, E-mail: asoran@magee.ed [Department of Surgical Oncology, Magee-Womens Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

2009-11-15

135

Hazard of recurrence and adjuvant treatment effects over time in lymph node-negative breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background For patients with axillary lymph node-negative breast cancer, benefits from adjuvant therapy are smaller than in node-positive disease and thus more selective use is warranted, prompting development of risk profiling to identify those most likely to benefit. Examination of the magnitude and changes in the hazard of failure over time in node-negative breast cancer may also be informative in this regard. Methods Among 9,444 participants from five randomized trials (accrual 1982–1998) investigating chemotherapy and tamoxifen for node-negative breast cancer, we estimated recurrence hazards over time by tumor estrogen receptor (ER) status and adjuvant treatment. Results In patients treated by surgery only, we observed the previously noted larger hazard peak followed by a rapid decrease in ER-negative patients and smaller but more persistent hazard in ER-positive patients. After approximately 48 months, the ER-positive hazard is greater. For adjuvant treatment, while tamoxifen decreases the early hazard in ER-positive patients to that of the chemotherapy-treated ER-negative group, in later follow-up (beyond 5 years) the hazard for ER-positive patients again exceeds that of ER-negative patients. Adding chemotherapy to tamoxifen in ER-positive patients results in large early hazard reduction, but in later follow-up the hazard converges with those of patients treated by surgery only or tamoxifen. Conclusions Recurrence hazards over time reveal changes in risk that may have biologic and therapeutic strategy relevance. In ER-negative tumors, a large early chemotherapy benefit is followed by a consistently low recurrence hazard over time. In ER-positive patients, the chemotherapy benefit appears concentrated mostly in earlier follow-up, and a greater recurrence risk remains. PMID:18830816

Dukic, Vanja M.; Anderson, Stewart J.; Mamounas, Eleftherios P.; Wickerham, D. Lawrence; Wolmark, Norman

2008-01-01

136

Risk Factors of Lymph Edema in Breast Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Background. Lymphedema secondary to breast cancer treatment is a common and serious problem for disease survivors. The objective of the current study was to identify the risk factors of secondary lymphedema after breast carcinoma treatment. Materials & Methods. The breast cancer patients who were followed up in three centers in Tehran and Mashhad in 2010 were recruited in the study. The circumference measurement was used for defining lymphedema. Results. Among 410 breast cancer patients, 123 cases (30%) developed lymphedema. Variables such as low educational level, body mass index (BMI), higher stage of disease, number of involved lymph nodes, comorbid diseases, trauma, infection, and the time after surgery showed significant correlation with the development of lymphedema. In logistic regression analysis, increase of 1?kg/m2 in BMI (OR?=?1.09; 95%??CI 1.05–1.15), each number increase in lymph node involvement (OR?=?1.15; 95%??CI 1.08–1.21) and the increase of every 1 month after surgery (OR?=?1.01; 95%??CI 1.01–1.02) significantly increased the risk of lymphedema. Conclusion. The results of this study demonstrated that preserving a fitted BMI, emphasis on self-care, and educating preventive activities may have important roles in decreasing the lymphedema incidence and improving the patients' quality of life. PMID:23862068

Shahpar, Haghighat; Atieh, Akbari; Maryam, Ansari; Fatemeh, Homaei Shandiz; Massoome, Najafi; Mandana, Ebrahimi; Masud, Yunesian; Hamid Reza, Mirzaei; Mohammad Esmaeil, Akbari

2013-01-01

137

Importance of Metastatic Lymph Node Ratio in Non-Metastatic, Lymph Node-Invaded Colon Cancer: A Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic importance of the metastatic lymph node ratio for stage III colon cancer patients and to find a cut-off value at which the overall survival and disease-free survival change. Material/Methods Patients with pathological stage III colon cancer were retrospectively evaluated for: age; preoperative values of Crp, Cea, Ca 19-9, and Afp; pathologic situation of vascular, perineural, lymphatic, and serosal involvement; and metastatic lymph node ratio values were calculated. Results The study included 58 stage III colon cancer patients: 20 (34.5%) females and 38 (65.5%) males were involved in the study. Multivariate analysis was applied to the following variables to evaluate significance for overall survival and disease-free survival: age, Crp, Cea, perineural invasion, and metastatic lymph node ratio. The metastatic lymph node ratio (<0.25 or ?0.25) is the only independent variable significant for overall and disease-free survival. Conclusions Metastatic lymph node ratio is an ideal prognostic marker for stage III colon cancer patients, and 0.25 is the cut-off value for prognosis. PMID:25087904

Isik, Arda; Peker, Kemal; Firat, Deniz; Yilmaz, Bahri; Sayar, Ilyas; Idiz, Oguz; Cakir, Coskun; Demiryilmaz, Ismail; Yilmaz, Ismayil

2014-01-01

138

Exploring molecular links between lymph node invasion and cancer prognosis in human breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Lymph node invasion is one of the most powerful clinical factors in cancer prognosis. However, molecular level signatures of their correlation are remaining poorly understood. Here, we propose a new approach, monotonically expressed gene analysis (MEGA), to correlate transcriptional patterns of lymph node invasion related genes with clinical outcome of breast cancer patients. Results Using MEGA, we scored all genes with their transcriptional patterns over progression levels of lymph node invasion from 278 non-metastatic breast cancer samples. Applied on 65 independent test data, our gene sets of top 20 scores (positive and negative correlations) showed significant associations with prognostic measures such as cancer metastasis, relapse and survival. Our method showed better accuracy than conventional two class comparison methods. We could also find that expression patterns of some genes are strongly associated with stage transition of pathological T and N at specific time. Additionally, some pathways including T-cell immune response and wound healing serum response are expected to be related with cancer progression from pathway enrichment and common motif binding site analyses of the inferred gene sets. Conclusions By applying MEGA, we can find possible molecular links between lymph node invasion and cancer prognosis in human breast cancer, supported by evidences of feasible gene expression patterns and significant results of meta-analysis tests. PMID:22784575

2011-01-01

139

Determination of Indication for Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Clinical Node-negative Breast Cancer Using Preoperative 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography\\/ Computed Tomography Fusion Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is indicated for axillary lymph node metastasis- negative cases (N0), but clarification of the indication may increase treatment efficiency. Fluorine-18-labeled 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) may have a high positive predictive value in diagnosis of axillary lymph node metastasis. Methods: Ninety-two breasts\\/axillae were analyzed retrospectively in 90 patients (median age 54.6-year old, median primary tumor

Naruto Taira; Shozo Ohsumi; Daisuke Takabatake; Fumikata Hara; Seiki Takashima; Kenjiro Aogi; Shigemitsu Takashima; Takeshi Inoue; Shigenori Sugata; Rieko Nishimura

140

Power Doppler Sonography of Cervical Lymph Nodes in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate the usefulness of power Doppler sonography in differentiating metastatic from nonmetastatic cervical lymph nodes in patients with cancer. METHODS: Histologically proved metastatic (n 5 71) and nonmetastatic (n 5 220) lymph nodes were examined with power Doppler sonography in 77 patients with head and neck cancer. Power Doppler sonography was

Yoshiko Ariji; Yasuo Kimura; Nobuyuki Hayashi; Tetsuro Onitsuka; Koichi Yonetsu; Kuniaki Hayashi; Eiichiro Ariji; Toshimitsu Kobayashi; Takashi Nakamura

141

Handheld array-based photoacoustic probe for guiding needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By modifying a clinical ultrasound array system, we develop a novel handheld photoacoustic probe for image-guided needle biopsy. The integration of optical fiber bundles for pulsed laser light delivery enables photoacoustic image-guided insertion of a needle into rat axillary lymph nodes with accumulated indocyanine green (ICG). Strong photoacoustic contrast of the needle is achieved. After subcutaneous injection of the dye in the left forepaw, sentinel lymph nodes are easily detected, in vivo and in real time, beneath 2-cm-thick chicken breast overlaying the axillary region. ICG uptake in axillary lymph nodes is confirmed with fluorescence imaging both in vivo and ex vivo. These results demonstrate the clinical potential of this handheld photoacoustic system for facile identification and needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes for cancer staging and metastasis detection in humans.

Kim, Chulhong; Erpelding, Todd N.; Maslov, Konstantin; Jankovic, Ladislav; Akers, Walter J.; Song, Liang; Achilefu, Samuel; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Pashley, Michael D.; Wang, Lihong V.

2010-07-01

142

Sentinel lymph node biopsy in esophageal cancer: an essential step towards individualized care  

PubMed Central

Lymph node status is the most important prognostic factor in esophageal cancer. Through improved detection of lymph node metastases, using the sentinel lymph node concept, accurate staging and more tailored therapy may be achieved. This review article outlines two principle ways in which the sentinel lymph node concept could dramatically influence current standard of care for patients with esophageal cancer. We discuss three limitations to universal acceptance of the technique, and propose next steps for increasing enthusiasm amongst physicians and surgeons including the development of a universal tracer, and improved contrast agents with novel dual-modality ‘visibility’. PMID:24829610

2014-01-01

143

Sentinel lymph node mapping technique in colon cancer.  

PubMed

Current conventional surgical and pathological techniques substantially understage colon cancer. This is evidenced by the fact that a significant subset of patients who are stage I and II at the time of colectomy return with distant metastases and ultimately succumb to the disease within the next 5 years. The identification of more nodes within a specimen and the detailed analysis of lymph nodes with advanced pathological techniques such as immunohistochemistry and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) can improve the staging of colon cancer, but are also associated with tremendous financial, time, and labor constraints. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping has provided an avenue of staging colon cancer with high success rates and accuracy rates, while maintaining cost- and time-effectiveness. The ability to reproduce these results is dependent on adherence to the technical details of the procedure, and thereby providing the pathologist with the true SLNs, upon which the advanced pathological studies can be applied. We report our experience of SLN mapping for colon tumors in 209 patients, elaborating on the materials used, technical details, pitfalls, and results of the procedure. Our results show a success rate of 100% (209/209) and an overall accuracy rate for predicting positive or negative metastatic disease of 96.2% (201/209). Nodal metastases were identified in 46.2% (85/184) of patients with invasive disease (stage T1 to T4). The SLN was the exclusive site of metastases in 38.8% (33/85) of these patients, and the nodal disease was detected only as micrometastases in 22.4% (19/85). The skip metastases rate (false negatives) was 9.4% (8/85). SLN mapping is a powerful tool for accurate staging of colon cancer with a high success rate. The upstaging associated with this procedure may reveal disease that might otherwise go undetected by conventional surgical and pathological methods. Those patients who are upstaged can then benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy, which has been shown to improve survival of colon cancer patients with nodal disease by at least 33%. PMID:15190495

Saha, Sukamal; Dan, Adrian G; Beutler, Thomas; Wiese, David; Schochet, Elie; Badin, Julio; Branigan, Timothy; Ng, Peter; Bassily, Nader; David, Doina

2004-06-01

144

Lymph node metastasis as a significant prognostic factor in early gastric cancer: Analysis of 1,136 early gastric cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Gastric cancer is the most frquent cancer and the leading cause of death from cancer in Korea. Early gastric cancer has been defined as a gastric carcinoma confined to mucosa or submucosa, regardless of lymph node status, and has an excellent prognosis with a >90% 5-year survival rate. From 1974 to 1992, we encountered 7,606 cases of gastric cancer

Jin-Pok Kim; Yoon Seok Hur; Han-Kwang Yang

1995-01-01

145

A Model to Estimate the Risk of Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema: Combinations of Treatment-Related Factors of the Number of Dissected Axillary Nodes, Adjuvant Chemotherapy, and Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The development of breast cancer-related lymphedema (LE) is closely related to the number of dissected axillary lymph nodes (N-ALNs), chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. In this study, we attempted to estimate the risk of LE based on combinations of these treatment-related factors. Methods and Materials: A total of 772 patients with breast cancer, who underwent primary surgery with axillary lymph node dissection from 2004 to 2009, were retrospectively analyzed. Adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) was performed in 677 patients (88%). Among patients who received radiation therapy (n=675), 274 (35%) received supraclavicular radiation therapy (SCRT). Results: At a median follow-up of 5.1 years (range, 3.0-8.3 years), 127 patients had developed LE. The overall 5-year cumulative incidence of LE was 17%. Among the 127 affected patients, LE occurred within 2 years after surgery in 97 (76%) and within 3 years in 115 (91%) patients. Multivariate analysis showed that N-ALN (hazard ratio [HR], 2.81; P<.001), ACT (HR, 4.14; P=.048), and SCRT (HR, 3.24; P<.001) were independent risk factors for LE. The total number of risk factors correlated well with the incidence of LE. Patients with no risk or 1 risk factor showed a significantly lower 5-year probability of LE (3%) than patients with 2 (19%) or 3 risk factors (38%) (P<.001). Conclusions: The risk factors associated with LE were N-ALN, ACT, and SCRT. A simple model using combinations of these factors may help clinicians predict the risk of LE.

Kim, Myungsoo; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Sung Uk; Lee, Nam Kwon; Jung, So-Youn; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Eun Sook; Kang, Han-Sung [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)] [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyung Hwan, E-mail: shin.kyunghwan@gmail.com [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01

146

The role of lymph node dissection in the management of prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Lymph node dissection is a standard procedure for treatment of several cancers, but its role in prostate cancer (PCa) as an adjunct of radical prostatectomy is still debated and controversial. Pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) is currently the most reliable means of diagnosis of lymph node metastases. A uniform PLND surgical template cannot be determined, but recent evidence shows that extended PLND provides more lymph nodes, increases the accuracy of detection of lymph node metastases, and affects decision making with regard to adjuvant therapy. Several nomograms have been developed to predict those who may need more extensive PLND, while sparing the rest. Importantly, no prospective data indicate that extension of PLND improves cancer control or benefits survival. A well designed prospective randomized study is needed to resolve these issues. We present a comprehensive literature review and critical discussion of the diagnostic and therapeutic role of PLND in PCa. PMID:21556799

Miki, Jun; Egawa, Shin

2011-06-01

147

Laparoscopic Assessment of the Sentinel Lymph Node in Early Stage Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The aim of this study was to describe a minimally invasive technique enabling us to identify the sentinel lymph node in patients affected by early stage cervical cancer and to report the preliminary data.Method. Patent Blue Violet was injected around the tumor. Laparoscopy was undertaken and the blue-dyed lymph nodes (BDLN) were sought. The evidenced BDLN were removed, and

D. Dargent; X. Martin; P. Mathevet

2000-01-01

148

Esophageal cancer staging: improved accuracy by endoscopic ultrasound of celiac lymph nodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Clinical staging of esophageal cancer is required for optimal therapy but remains imprecise. Pathologic verification of involved lymph nodes could potentially direct treatment allocation. With the rising incidence of distal and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinomas, assessment of the celiac axis lymph nodes (CLNs) becomes important because it is a common nodal drainage basin. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) permits evaluation of CLNs

Carolyn E Reed; Girish Mishra; Anand V Sahai; Brenda J Hoffman; Robert H Hawes

1999-01-01

149

Altered lymphatic drainage after breast-conserving surgery and axillary node dissection: local recurrence with contralateral intramammary nodal metastases.  

PubMed

A review of the literature shows that lymphoscintigraphy and sentinel node biopsy are feasible in patients with previous breast and axillary surgery and could be especially warranted because in these patients, lymphatic drainage might not include the axillary basin. We report a case of a woman with recurrent breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery. The patient was found to have metastases in the contralateral intramammary lymph nodes. Demonstrating that such patterns do occur after previous treatment for breast cancer carries implications for the staging and management of these patients. PMID:17386126

Wellner, Rachel; Dave, Jasmine; Kim, Unsup; Menes, Tehillah S

2007-02-01

150

Significance of intramammary lymph nodes in the staging of breast cancer: correlation with tumor characteristics and outcome.  

PubMed

Intramammary lymph nodes (intraMLNs) have received little attention as potential prognostic indicators for patients with breast carcinoma. Patients with stage I breast carcinoma and positive intraMLN metastases have been reported to have a poorer prognosis compared to patients with similar stage and negative intraMLN metastases. However, the presence of intraMLN metastases does not appear to influence the survival of patients with stage II breast carcinoma. In the current retrospective analysis, we assessed the clinical significance of intraMLNs and evaluated their role in predicting outcome in patients with breast carcinoma. Between 1995 and 2005, 116 intraMLN specimens were identified. In all, 59 patients (50.8%) were found in association with benign breast conditions and the remaining 57 (49.2%) with primary breast carcinoma. Primary tumor characteristics and axillary lymph node (AxLN) status were recorded. Outcome data were documented. Statistical analysis was performed to detect correlation between intraMLN and tumor characteristics as well as outcome. IntraMLN metastases were found in 26% of all in-situ and invasive cancer cases (15/57), and 32% (15/47) of invasive cancer cases only. Most patients (80%) who had intraMLN metastases also had axillary metastases; however, an isolated intraMLN metastasis was documented in one patient (7%). Univariate analysis revealed that predictors of intraMLN metastases include: tumor size (p = 0.04), tumor grade (p = 0.04), tumor stage (p < 0.001), and AxLN status (p < 0.001). Furthermore patients with intraMLN positive for metastases have a poorer 4-year overall (40% versus 88%; p < 0.001) and disease-free survival (37% versus 83%; p < 0.001) than patients with negative intraMLN. On multivariate analysis, intraMLN metastasis is not an independent predictor of outcome (disease-free survival: p = 0.350; and overall survival p = 0.138). IntraMLN metastasis is a poor prognostic marker but not an independent predictor of poor outcome in patients with breast carcinoma. PMID:18248563

Nassar, Aziza; Cohen, Cynthia; Cotsonis, George; Carlson, Grant

2008-01-01

151

Axillary Reverse Mapping Using 99mTc-SC: A Case Illustration.  

PubMed

Lymphedema is a common complication in breast carcinoma patients undergoing axillary lymph node dissection. Although there is a significant reduction in the lymphedema rate with sentinel lymph node biopsy compared to axillary lymph node dissection, there is some risk after sentinel lymph node biopsy. Axillary reverse mapping, an emerging concept aims at identifying and preserving the draining lymph node of the arm that is invariably devoid of malignancy. This concept if validated may prevent lymphedema in breast carcinoma patients. Axillary reverse mapping node can be identified using a radiotracer or blue dye. We describe the procedure using filtered Tc-SC. PMID:24152646

Gandhi, Sunny J; Satish, C; Sundaram, P Shanmuga; Subramanyam, Padma; Vijaykumar, D K

2014-10-01

152

Eight-year experience with the intraoperative frozen section examination of sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer in a North-Italian university center  

PubMed Central

Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) completely changed the impact of breast surgery on patients psycho-physical wellness, reducing morbidity associated with complete axillary lymph node dissection (CALND) while granting an adequate breast cancer staging. We reviewed our experience with the SLNB in a University Clinic. We collected data about all breast cancer patients submitted to SLNB from 2002 to 2010, and analyzed them with R (version 2.15.2), considering significant p<0.05. We performed 615 SLNBs on 607 patients, with a mean age of 59.86 (±10.76). Sentinel node detection rate resulted 99,7%, with a mean number of biopsied nodes of 1.64 (±0.67), axillary localization in 98% of cases, and negative intraoperative histological finding in the 86.2% of cases. Prevalence of ITCs, micrometastasis, macrometastasis and pericapsular metastasis resulted respectively 0.6%, 4.9%, 7.5% and 8.8%. Among women who received CALND, mean number of examined nodes was 16.36 (±6.19) and mean number of metastatic non-sentinel nodes was 0.97 in case of micrometastasis, 2.65 in case of macrometastasis, and up to 9.88 when pericapsular invasion was described. To conclude, our data confirm the role of nodal metastasis size in the prediction of non-sentinel node involvement, but further studies are required in order to better assess the role of ITCs and micrometastasis in the diagnostic and therapeutic management of breast cancer, with the final aim to reduce the surgical complications of axilla demolition when unnecessary. PMID:24427358

Cedolini, Carla; Bertozzi, Serena; Seriau, Luca; Londero, Ambrogio P; Concina, Serena; Cattin, Federico; Geatti, Onelio; Loreto, Carla Di; Risaliti, Andrea

2014-01-01

153

Intramammary lymph node metastasis in a patient with ovarian carcinoma and a brief review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Metastasis from serous carcinoma of the ovary usually occurs in the subdiaphragmatic region. Metastasis to the breast and/or axillary-intramammary lymph node is very rare. It usually occurs in advanced disease, and it is important to distinguish a primary breast cancer from an ovarian cancer metastasis since the management of these two entities is totally different. Here we present a patient with metastasis to the breast and intramammary lymph nodes from ovarian serous carcinoma 25 months after diagnosis. PMID:23788864

Erten, Cigdem; Yigit, Seyran Ceri; Can, Alper; Dirican, Ahmet; Bayoglu, Vedat; Kucukzeybek, Yuksel; Somali, Isil; Tarhan, M Oktay

2012-01-01

154

Intramammary lymph node metastasis in a patient with ovarian carcinoma and a brief review of the literature.  

PubMed

Metastasis from serous carcinoma of the ovary usually occurs in the subdiaphragmatic region. Metastasis to the breast and/or axillary-intramammary lymph node is very rare. It usually occurs in advanced disease, and it is important to distinguish a primary breast cancer from an ovarian cancer metastasis since the management of these two entities is totally different. Here we present a patient with metastasis to the breast and intramammary lymph nodes from ovarian serous carcinoma 25 months after diagnosis. PMID:23788864

Demir, Lutfiye; Erten, Cigdem; Yigit, Seyran Ceri; Can, Alper; Dirican, Ahmet; Bayoglu, Vedat; Kucukzeybek, Yuksel; Somali, Isil; Tarhan, M Oktay

2012-01-01

155

Mitotic indexes as prognostic predictors in female breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A series of 688 women with breast cancer were followed-up for a mean of 13 years. Tumour size, axillary lymph node status, histological grade, histological type and two mitotic indexes (M\\/V; MAI) were assessed and related to disease outcome. Primary tumour size (PPP=0.0001), and histological grade (P=0.0074) predicted axillary lymph node status. Recurrence as well as recurrence-free survival was

S. Aaltomaa; P. Lipponen; M. Eskelinen; V.-M. Kosma; S. Marin; E. Alhava; K. Syrjänen

1992-01-01

156

Improvement in intramammary sentinel lymph node removal using a novel prototype hand held probe during breast conservative surgery.  

PubMed

Intramammary sentinel lymph node excision during breast conservative surgery was performed, in this case report, using a prototype intraoperative gamma probe. In contrast to the four axillary sentinel lymph nodes that were subnormal, the excised intramammary sentinel lymph node was massively invaded by cancer cells. Therefore this finding had profound implication for the staging of the tumor and for treatment selection. This case report illustrates that an efficient intraoperative gamma probe is useful to locate and remove intramammary sentinel lymph node in breast cancer patients treated with breast conservation. PMID:15754130

Mathelin, Carole; Tomasetto, Catherine; Rio, Marie-Christine; Chenard, Marie-Pierre; Brettes, Jean-Philippe; Guyonnet, Jean-Louis

2005-02-01

157

Intramammary sentinel lymph node in patients with breast cancer: report of four cases.  

PubMed

To analyze breast cancer patients with intramammary sentinel lymph node, we reviewed T1-T2N0 breast cancer patients who underwent sentinel lymph node mapping using radioisotope methods. Intramammary sentinel lymph (ISN) nodes were detected in 4 of 166 patients. Three of four ISNs were present in completely different quadrants of the breast from those of primary lesions. Although two patients had no involved nodes, including ISNs, the remaining two with T2 tumor had metastasis of ISNs alone with resulting upstaging. We should keep in mind the presence of intramammary SN in regions apart from the primary tumor, particularly when performing breast conservative surgery. PMID:18516534

Kijima, Yuko; Yoshinaka, Heiji; Uenosono, Yoshikazu; Funasako, Yawara; Ehi, Katsuhiko; Yanagita, Shigehiro; Arima, Hideo; Kozono, Tsutomu; Arigami, Takaaki; Natsugoe, Shoji; Aikou, Takashi

2008-01-01

158

Metastatic lymph node in gastric cancer; Is it a real distant metastasis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Currently, the TNM staging system is a widely accepted method for assessing the prognosis of the disease and planning therapeutic strategies for cancer. Of the TNM system, the extent of lymph node involvement is the most important independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer. The aim of our study is to evaluate the survival and prognosis of gastric cancer patients

Do Hyoung Lim; Hyeong Su Kim; Young Suk Park; Jeeyun Lee; Se Hoon Park; Ho Yeong Lim; Sang Hoon Ji; Min Jae Park; Seong Yoon Yi; Ji Yeong An; Tae Sung Sohn; Jae Hyoung Noh; Jae Moon Bae; Sung Kim; Cheol Keun Park; Won Ki Kang

2010-01-01

159

A New Formula for Prostate Cancer Lymph Node Risk  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: The successful treatment of prostate cancer depends on the accurate estimation of the risk of regional lymph node (LN) involvement. The Roach formula (RF) has been criticized as overestimating LN risk. A modification of the RF has been attempted by other investigators using simplified adjustment ratios: the Nguyen formula (NF). Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was investigated for patients treated in 2004 through 2006 for whom at least 10 LN were examined at radical prostatectomy, cT1c or cT2 disease, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <26 ng/ml (N = 2,930). The Yale formula (YF) was derived from half of the sample (n = 1,460), and validated in the other half (n = 1,470). Results: We identified 2,930 patients. Only 4.6% of patients had LN+, and 72.6% had cT1c disease. Gleason (GS) 8-10 histology was found in 14.4% of patients. The YF for prediction of %LN+ risk is [GS - 5]x [PSA/3 + 1.5 x T], where T = 0, 1, and 2 for cT1c, cT2a, and cT2b/cT2c. Within each strata of predicted %LN+ risk, the actual %LN+ was closest to the YF. Using a >15% risk as an indicator of high-risk disease, the YF had increased sensitivity (39.0% vs. 13.6%) compared with the NF, without a significant reduction in specificity (94.9% vs. 98.8%). The NF was overly restrictive of the high-risk group, with only 2% of patients having a >15% risk of LN+ by that formula. Conclusion: The YF performed better than the RF and NF and was best at differentiating patients at high risk for LN+ disease.

Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.ed [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, CT (United States); Makarov, Danil V. [Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Section of Urology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Department of Veterans Affairs Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT (United States); Gross, Cary [Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

2011-05-01

160

Magnetic Resonance Lymphography-Guided Selective High-Dose Lymph Node Irradiation in Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL) -guided delineation of a boost volume and an elective target volume for pelvic lymph node irradiation in patients with prostate cancer. The feasibility of irradiating these volumes with a high-dose boost to the MRL-positive lymph nodes in conjunction with irradiation of the prostate using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was also investigated. Methods and Materials: In 4 prostate cancer patients with a high risk of lymph node involvement but no enlarged lymph nodes on CT and/or MRI, MRL detected pathological lymph nodes in the pelvis. These lymph nodes were identified and delineated on a radiotherapy planning CT to create a boost volume. Based on the location of the MRL-positive lymph nodes, the standard elective pelvic target volume was individualized. An IMRT plan with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) was created with dose prescriptions of 42 Gy to the pelvic target volume, a boost to 60 Gy to the MRL-positive lymph nodes, and 72 Gy to the prostate. Results: All MRL-positive lymph nodes could be identified on the planning CT. This information could be used to delineate a boost volume and to individualize the pelvic target volume for elective irradiation. IMRT planning delivered highly acceptable radiotherapy plans with regard to the prescribed dose levels and the dose to the organs at risk (OARs). Conclusion: MRL can be used to select patients with limited lymph node involvement for pelvic radiotherapy. MRL-guided delineation of a boost volume and an elective pelvic target volume for selective high-dose lymph node irradiation with IMRT is feasible. Whether this approach will result in improved outcome for these patients needs to be investigated in further clinical studies.

Meijer, Hanneke J.M., E-mail: H.Meijer@rther.umcn.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Debats, Oscar A. [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kunze-Busch, Martina; Kollenburg, Peter van; Leer, Jan Willem [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Witjes, J. Alfred [Department of Urology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Barentsz, Jelle O. [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lin, Emile N.J.Th. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

2012-01-01

161

Use of Fluorescence Imaging in Combination with Patent Blue Dye versus Patent Blue Dye Alone in Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Near-infrared fluorescence imaging with indocyanine green (ICG) has the potential to improve sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in breast cancer. In this clinical trial, we compared the potential value of ICG combined with blue dye with that of blue dye alone for detecting SLNs. Methods Patients undergoing SLN biopsy (SLNB) between November 2010 and November 2013 were included. Up to December 2011, SLNs were detected by using patent blue (PB) alone, and since January 2012, by using PB in combination with ICG. The patients were divided into the following two groups: group A (ICG-PB; n=96) and group B (PB; n=73), and SLN detection parameters were compared between the groups. All patients underwent level I and II axillary dissections after SLNB. Results In group A, the SLN detection rate was 96.9% (93/96), the accuracy of detection was 98.9% (92/93), and the false-negative rate (FNR) was 3.4% (1/29). In group B, the SLN detection rate was 84.9% (62/73), the accuracy of detection was 96.8% (60/62), and the FNR was 11.1% (2/18). The ICG-PB group showed significantly superior results compared to the PB group for SLN detection (p=0.005) and a greatly improved FNR. Conclusion The combined fluorescence and blue dye-based tracer technique was superior to the use of blue dye alone for identifying SLNs, and for predicting axillary lymph node status in patients with breast cancer; in addition, the combined technique had reduced false-negative results. PMID:25320623

Tong, Meng; Gao, Wei

2014-01-01

162

The clinical relevance of axillary reverse mapping (ARM): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in patients with breast cancer has the potential to induce side-effects, including upper-limb lymphedema. Axillary reverse mapping (ARM) is a technique that enables discrimination of the lymphatic drainage of the breast from that of the upper limb in the axillary lymph node (LN) basin. If lymphedema is caused by removing these lymphatics and nodes in the upper limb, the possibility of identifying these lymphatics would enable surgeons to preserve them. The aim of this study is to determine the clinical relevance of selective axillary LN and lymphatic preservation by means of ARM. To minimize the risk of overlooking tumor-positive ARM nodes and the associated risk of undertreatment, we will only include patients with a tumor-positive sentinel lymph node (SLN). Patients who are candidates for ALND because of a proven positive axillary LN at clinical examination can be included in a registration study. Methods/design The study will enroll 280 patients diagnosed with SLN biopsy-proven metastasis of invasive breast cancer with an indication for a completion ALND. Patients will be randomized to undergo standard ALND or an ALND in which the ARM nodes and their corresponding lymphatics will be left in situ. Primary outcome is the presence of axillary surgery-related lymphedema at 6, 12, and 24 months post-operatively, measured by the water-displacement method. Secondary outcome measures include pain, paresthesia, numbness, and loss of shoulder mobility, quality of life, and axillary recurrence risk. Discussion The benefit of ALND in patients with a positive SLN is a subject of debate. For many patients, an ALND will remain the treatment of choice. This multicenter randomized trial will provide evidence of whether or not axillary LN preservation by means of ARM decreases the side-effects of an ALND. Enrolment of patients will start in April 2013 in five breast-cancer centers in the Netherlands, and is expected to conclude by April 2016. Trial registration TC3698 PMID:23782712

2013-01-01

163

Alternative paratracheal lymph node dissection in left-sided hilar lung cancer patients: comparing the number of lymph nodes dissected to the number of lymph nodes dissected in right-sided mediastinal dissections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Removing or sampling lymph nodes from the bilateral paratracheal area through a left thoracotomy is not a standard procedure in patients with lung cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a technique without ductus arteriosus division and mobilization of the aortic arch and to compare the number of lymph nodes resected in left-sided dissections

Alper Toker; Serhan Tanju; Sedat Ziyade; Serkan Kaya; Suat Erus; Berker Ozkan; Dilek Yilmazbayhan

2011-01-01

164

Molecular Changes in Pre-Metastatic Lymph Nodes of Esophageal Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Lymph node metastasis indicates poor prognosis in esophageal cancer. To understand the underlying mechanisms, most studies so far focused on investigating the tumors themselves and/or invaded lymph nodes. However they neglected the potential events within the metastatic niche, which precede invasion. Here we report the first description of these regulations in patients on transcription level. We determined transcriptomic profiles of still metastasis-free regional lymph nodes for two patient groups: patients classified as pN1 (n?=?9, metastatic nodes exist) or pN0 (n?=?5, no metastatic nodes exist). All investigated lymph nodes, also those from pN1 patients, were still metastasis-free. The results show that regional lymph nodes of pN1 patients differ decisively from those of pN0 patients – even before metastasis has taken place. In the pN0 group distinct immune response patterns were observed. In contrast, lymph nodes of the pN1 group exhibited a clear profile of reduced immune response and reduced proliferation, but increased apoptosis, enhanced hypoplasia and morphological conversion processes. DKK1 was the most significant gene associated with the molecular mechanisms taking place in lymph nodes of patients suffering from metastasis (pN1). We assume that the two molecular profiles observed constitute different stages of a progressive disease. Finally we suggest that DKK1 might play an important role within the mechanisms leading to lymph node metastasis. PMID:25048826

Otto, Benjamin; Koenig, Alexandra M.; Tolstonog, Genrich V.; Jeschke, Anke; Klaetschke, Kristin; Vashist, Yogesh K.; Wicklein, Daniel; Wagener, Christoph; Izbicki, Jakob R.; Streichert, Thomas

2014-01-01

165

Involvement of level IIb lymph node metastasis and dissection in thyroid cancer  

PubMed Central

Thyroid neoplasms are the most frequent neoplasm in the head and neck region. Most thyroid carcinomas are well-differentiated tumors of follicular cell origin. Thyroid papillary carcinoma (TPC) is the most common thyroid malignancy. It constitutes 60% to 90% of all the thyroid carcinomas and cervical lymph node metastases are commonly seen in these patients. Although cervical lymph node metastases are common in this cancer, the management and the prognostic role of lymph nodes in TPC remains controversial. In this paper we reviewed the currently available literature regarding the extent of lateral neck dissection in papillary thyroid carcinoma patients with lateral neck metastasis. PMID:25083481

Ozcan, Cengiz

2013-01-01

166

Technical Details of Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping in Colorectal Cancer and Its Impact on Staging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping for melanoma and breast cancer has greatly enhanced the identification of micrometastases in many patients, thereby upstaging a subset of these patients. The purpose of this study was to see if SLN mapping technique could be used to identify SLNs in colorectal cancer and to assess its impact on pathological staging and treatment.Methods: At

Sukamal Saha; David Wiese; Julio Badin; Thomas Beutler; Dean Nora; B. K. Ganatra; Dilip Desai; S. Kaushal; M. Nagaraju; Madan Arora; Trevor Singh

2000-01-01

167

Effect of sizofiran on regional lymph nodes in patients with head and neck cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immunomodulating effects of preoperative sizofiran (SPG) administration on regional lymph nodes were studied in patients\\u000a with stage III or IV head and neck cancer, by comparing the immunofunction of peripheral blood. The regional lymph nodes were\\u000a dissected surgically, and freshly obtained mononuclear cells were studied to investigate the interleukin-2 (IL-2) production,\\u000a the LAK and NK activities, and the quantitative

Yuji Kano; Hiroyuki Kakuta; Junichi Hashimoto

1996-01-01

168

Prediction of risk factors for lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To explore risk factors for lymph node metastases in early gastric cancer (EGC) and to confirm the appropriate range of lymph node dissection. METHODS: A total of 202 patients with EGC who underwent curative gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy in the Department of Surgery, Xinhua Hospital and Ruijin Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical School between November 2003 and July 2009, were retrospectively reviewed. Both the surgical procedure and the extent of lymph node dissection were based on the recommendations of the Japanese gastric cancer treatment guidelines. The macroscopic type was classified as elevated (type?I?or IIa), flat (IIb), or depressed (IIc or III). Histopathologically, papillary and tubular adenocarcinomas were grouped together as differentiated adenocarcinomas, and poorly differentiated and signet-ring cell adenocarcinomas were regarded as undifferentiated adenocarcinomas. Univariate and multivariate analyses of lymph node metastases and patient and tumor characteristics were undertaken. RESULTS: The lymph node metastases rate in patients with EGC was 14.4%. Among these, the rate for mucosal cancer was 5.4%, and 8.9% for submucosal cancer. Univariate analysis showed an obvious correlation between lymph node metastases and tumor location, depth of invasion, morphological classification and venous invasion (?2 = 122.901, P = 0.001; ?2 = 7.14, P = 0.008; ?2 = 79.523, P = 0.001; ?2 = 8.687, P = 0.003, respectively). In patients with submucosal cancers, the lymph node metastases rate in patients with venous invasion (60%, 3/5) was higher than in those without invasion (20%, 15/75) (?2 = 4.301, P = 0.038). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the depth of invasion was the only independent risk factor for lymph node metastases in EGC [P = 0.018, Exp (B) = 2.744]. Among the patients with lymph node metastases, 29 cases (14.4%) were at N1, seven cases were at N2 (3.5%), and two cases were at N3 (1.0%). Univariate analysis of variance revealed a close relationship between the depth of invasion and lymph node metastases at pN1 (P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: The depth of invasion was the only independent risk factor for lymph node metastases. Risk factors for metastases should be considered when choosing surgery for EGC. PMID:23716990

Ren, Gang; Cai, Rong; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Ou, Jin-Ming; Jin, Ye-Ning; Li, Wen-Hua

2013-01-01

169

Lymph Nodes  

MedlinePLUS

... Citation Help Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Lymphatic System » Components of the Lymphatic System » Lymph Nodes Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life ...

170

Use of Axillary Deodorant and Effect on Acute Skin Toxicity During Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: A Prospective Randomized Noninferiority Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To prospectively determine the effect of deodorant use on acute skin toxicity and quality of life during breast radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Before breast RT, 84 patients were randomly assigned to the deodorant group (n = 40) or the no-deodorant group (n = 44). The patients were stratified by axillary RT and previous chemotherapy. Toxicity evaluations were always performed by the principal investigator, who was unaware of the group assignment, at the end of RT and 2 weeks after completion using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute skin toxicity criteria. Symptoms of acute skin toxicity (i.e., discomfort, pain, pruritus, sweating) and quality of life were self-evaluated. For each criterion, the point estimate of rate difference with the 95% one-sided upper confidence limit was computed. To claim noninferiority owing to deodorant use, the 95% one-sided upper confidence limit had to be lower than the noninferiority margin, fixed to 12.8%. Results: In the deodorant vs. no-deodorant groups, Grade 2 axillary radiodermatitis occurred in 23% vs. 30%, respectively, satisfying the statistical criteria for noninferiority (p = .019). Grade 2 breast radiodermatitis occurred in 30% vs. 34% of the deodorant vs. no-deodorant groups, respectively, also satisfying the statistical criteria for noninferiority (p = .049). Similar results were observed for the self-reported evaluations. The deodorant group reported less sweating (18% vs. 39%, p = .032). No Grade 3 or 4 radiodermatitis was observed. Conclusion: According to our noninferiority margin definition, the occurrence of skin toxicity and its related symptoms were statistically equivalent in both groups. No evidence was found to prohibit deodorant use (notwithstanding the use of an antiperspirant with aluminum) during RT for breast cancer.

Theberge, Valerie, E-mail: valerie.theberge.1@ulaval.c [Departement de Radio-Oncologie, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec, QB (Canada); Harel, Francois [Centre de Recherche de L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec, QB (Canada); Dagnault, Anne [Departement de Radio-Oncologie, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec, QB (Canada); Centre de Recherche de L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec, QB (Canada)

2009-11-15

171

Radical lymph node dissection for gallbladder cancer: indications and limitations.  

PubMed

Radical lymph node dissection provides survival benefit for patients with pT2 or more advanced gallbladder carcinoma tumors only if potentially curative resection is feasible; it must always be considered when planning a resection or re-resection for robust patients with pT2 or more advanced gallbladder carcinoma tumors. The degree of radical lymphadenectomy depends on clinically assessed nodal status: portal lymph node dissection is limited to cN0 disease; extended portal nodal dissection is indicated for cN0 and a modest degree of cN1 disease; peripancreatic lymph node dissection with pancreaticoduodenectomy is indicated for selected cases of evident peripancreatic nodal disease and/or direct organ involvement. Extended resection with extensive lymphadenectomy should be limited to expert surgeons because it may cause serious morbidity and mortality. PMID:17336245

Shirai, Yoshio; Wakai, Toshifumi; Hatakeyama, Katsuyoshi

2007-01-01

172

Sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer patients using fluorescence navigation with indocyanine green  

PubMed Central

Background There are various methods for detecting sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) using a vital dye is a convenient and safe, intraoperatively preparative method to assess lymph node status. However, the disadvantage of the dye method is that the success rate of sentinel lymph node detection depend on the surgeon's skills and preoperative mapping of the sentinel lymph node is not feasible. Currently, a vital dye, radioisotope, or a combination of both is used to detect sentinel nodes. Many surgeons have reported successful results using either method. In this study we have analyzed breast lymphatic drainage pathways using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging. Methods We examined the lymphatic courses, or lymphatic vessels, in the breast using ICG fluorescence imaging, and applied this method to SLNB in patients who underwent their first operative treatment for breast cancer between May 2006 and April 2008. Fluorescence images were obtained using a charge coupled device camera with a cut filter used as a detector, and light emitting diodes at 760 nm as a light source. When ICG was injected into the subareola and periareola, subcutaneous lymphatic vessels from the areola to the axilla became visible by fluorescence within a few minutes. The sentinel lymph node was then dissected with the help of fluorescence imaging navigation. Results The detection rate of sentinel nodes was 100%. 0 to 4 states of lymphatic drainage pathways from the areola were observed. The number of sentinel nodes was 3.41 on average. Conclusions This method using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging may possibly improve the detection rate of sentinel lymph nodes with high sensitivity and compensates for the deficiencies of other methods. The ICG fluorescence imaging technique enables observation of breast lymph vessels running in multiple directions and easily and accurately identification of sentinel lymph nodes. Thus, this technique can be considered useful. PMID:22132943

2011-01-01

173

Quality of life of breast cancer patients with lymphedema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Quality of life has increasingly become an important issue in breast cancer treatment. One of the impetuses for sentinel lymph node biopsy or selective axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is the assumed decreased incidence of lymphedema compared with standard ALND. This is based on the assumption that ALND is associated with a clinically significant incidence of lymphedema and that

Vic Velanovich; Wanda Szymanski

1999-01-01

174

Distribution of Mast Cells in Mediastinal Lymph Nodes from Lung Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Mast cells have been documented to have several key functions with regards to malignant neoplasms. However, the functional significance of their accumulation is largely unknown. An analysis of the mast cell profile in mediastinal lymph nodes from lung cancer patients is reported here. Methods One hundred thirty-four, randomly selected lymph nodes (63 with positive pathological lymph node status) from 39 surgically treated lung cancer patients were examined. All cancer negative nodes were obtained from stage I patients. Mast cells were stained with Alcian blue and safranin O. Metastatic cancer cells were stained using anti-cytokeratin antibody. Results Immunohistochemical studies with cytokeratin revealed micro metastasis in 9/71 (12.68%) nodes previously diagnosed as histological negative. In tumor-free mediastinal lymph nodes, the mast cell count was significantly higher than in metastatic nodes. In all cases, mast cells were observed primarily in the T-cell area. Conclusions An inverse relationship was observed between the number of mast cells and the amount of tumor tissue. The presence of mast cells primarily in the T-cell area implies a relationship between mast cells and the T-cell system. From the present study it is not possible to conclude whether mast cells in lymph nodes are for or against tumor spread. PMID:14624697

Tomita, Masaki; Matsuzaki, Yasunori; Edagawa, Masao; Shimizu, Tetsuya; Hara, Masaki; Onitsuka, Toshio

2003-01-01

175

Lymphoscintigraphy in Detection of the Regional Lymph Node Involvement in Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Involvement of regional lymph node is a critical sign in prognosis of gastric cancer. Radiological techniques are commonly used to evaluate the extension of gastric cancer. But their sensitivity and specificity are low especially in the early stage. Our aim was to assess the value of gastric lymphoscintigraphy in identifying regional lymph node involvement in patients with gastric cancer, as compared to the abdominal ultrasonography, computed tomography and postoperative histopathological evaluation. PATIENTS AND METHODS 50 patients (12 females) with a median age of 61 years (range, 35–73 years) were included in the study. Pre-operative staging in all cases included upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy, followed by ultrasound, computed tomography and lymphoscintigraphy. 148 MBq Technetium-99m lymphoscint was injected around the tumour during endoscopy and immediately after injection, anterior, lateral and posterior images were taken in 5-min intervals using a gamma camera. Findings were compared to the findings of other tests. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of each test were calculated and compared. RESULTS Histologically, 68% of cases (34/50) had metastasis in regional lymph nodes and all cases were accurately diagnosed by lymphoscintigraphy. Lymphoscintigraphy was significantly more sensitive for detecting lymph node involvement (P < 0.01). Both abdominal ultrasonography and CT had very low sensitivity in identifying lymph nodes. CONCLUSIONS Lymphoscintigraphy is a promising test in the identification of regional lymph nodes pre-operatively in patients with gastric cancer. It might help the surgeon to plan the extent of dissection before surgery which may decrease postoperative complications related to unnecessary extensive lymph node dissection. PMID:17132310

Ozmen, M Mahir; Zulfikaroglu, Baris; Kucuk, N Ozlem; Ozalp, Necdet; Aras, Gulseren; Koseoglu, Tankut; Koc, Mahmut

2006-01-01

176

Spontaneous regression of metastatic cancer cells in the lymph node: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Spontaneous regression of a malignant tumor is the phenomenon of disappearance of cancer cells without any treatments and it can be induced by an enhanced tumor-targeting immune response. However, there has not been a comprehensive immunological overview to compare the tumor-regressed lymph nodes and metastatic lymph nodes in the same patient. Case presentation We conducted a histologic analysis of various immune cells in an Asian female patient with buccal cancer (squamous cell carcinomas), in which the spontaneous regression of metastatic lymphadenopathy was confirmed by surgical pathology. The immune cell profiles between the metastatic nodes and the tumor-regressed nodes were compared. Tumor regression was confirmed by hematoxylin & eosin and cytokeratin/Ki-67 staining. Distinct differences were observed in Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells and CD56(+) natural killer (NK) cells; a higher density of Foxp3(+) Treg cells was found in metastatic lymph nodes and more infiltration of CD56(+) NK cells in tumor regressed lymph nodes. Other immune cell populations (CD4, CD8, CD20, CD68, CD86, CD123, CD11c, and mannose receptor) showed no discernible differences in marker expression in the nodes examined. Conclusion Less recruitment of Treg and high infiltration of NK cells were key features in tumor-regressed lymph nodes. Modulation of Treg or NK cells may be a good therapeutic method to control lymph node metastasis. PMID:24885770

2014-01-01

177

Colon cancer metastasis to mediastinal lymph nodes without liver or lung involvement: A case report  

PubMed Central

Colon cancer is the second most common type of cancer in females and the third in males, worldwide. The most common sites of colon cancer metastasis are the regional lymph nodes, liver, lung, bone and brain. In this study, an extremely rare case of colon adenocarcinoma with extensive metastasis to the mediastinal lymph nodes without any other organ involvement is presented. A 44-year-old Caucasian male presented with abdominal pain, a change in bowel habits, melena and weight loss. Colonoscopy revealed a large friable, ulcerated, circumferential mass in the ascending colon. Biopsies were consistent with the diagnosis of invasive moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Subsequently, right colon resection was performed, and pathological analysis revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the right colon with extensive regional lymph node involvement. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest, abdomen and pelvis were performed preoperatively as part of routine staging for colon cancer. No liver or lung pathology was identified; however, multiple pathologically enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes were observed. Endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration of the largest mediastinal lymph node, which measured 5.2×3.5 cm on CT scans, was performed. The pathology was again consistent with the diagnosis of metastatic colorectal primary adenocarcinoma. At present, no optimum treatment has been identified for metastatic colon cancer to the mediastinal lymph nodes. The patient in the current case received chemotherapy with folinic acid, fluorouracil and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX), as well as with bevacizumab. Initial follow-up CT scans of the chest revealed a positive response to treatment. Physicians, in particular, radiologists, must consider the mediastinum during the first evaluation and further follow-up of patients with colorectal carcinoma even in the absence of metastasis.

EL-HALABI, MUSTAPHA M.; CHAABAN, SAID A.; MEOUCHY, JOSEPH; PAGE, SETH; SALYERS, WILLIAM J.

2014-01-01

178

Clinical relevance of lymph node ratio in breast cancer patients with one to three positive lymph nodes  

PubMed Central

Background: To test the hypotheses that breast cancer patients with one to three positive lymph nodes (pN1) consist of heterogeneous prognostic subsets and that the ratio of positive nodes to total nodes dissected (lymph node ratio, LNR) might discriminate patients with a higher risk as candidates for post-mastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT). Methods: Using information from 7741 node-positive patients, we first identified cutoff values of the LNR using the nonparametric bootstrap method. Focusing on 3477 patients with pN1 disease, we then evaluated the clinical relevance of the LNR categorised by the estimated cutoff values (categorised LNR, cLNR). Results: Among 3477 patients with pN1 disease, 3059 and 418 patients were assigned into the low and intermediate cLNR groups, respectively, based on a cutoff value of 0.18. The prognostic factors associated with poor overall survival (OS) included younger age, T2 stage, negative oestrogen/progesterone receptors, high histologic grade, and intermediate cLNR. Post-mastectomy radiation therapy significantly increased OS in patients assigned to the intermediate cLNR (hazard ratio, 0.39; 95% confidence interval, 0.17–0.89; P=0.0248), whereas patients in the low cLNR group derived no additional survival benefit from PMRT. Conclusion: This study suggests that PMRT should be recommended for patients with pN1 disease and an intermediate cLNR. PMID:23942073

Kim, S I; Cho, S-H; Lee, J S; Moon, H-G; Noh, W C; Youn, H J; Ko, B K; Park, B-W

2013-01-01

179

False negative rate of sentinel lymph node biopsy in multicentric and multifocal breast cancers may be higher in cases with large additive tumor burden.  

PubMed

We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in multicentric/ multifocal breast cancer. In this prospective study, 23 women with multicentric/multifocal breast cancer underwent SLNB at our institution from April 2002 to February 2006. Presence of preoperative axillary metastases was confirmed by FNA. Patients underwent sub-areolar radiopharmaceutical injection +/- isosulfan blue to perform SLNB, then completion ALND. The false-negative (FN) rate of SLNB was determined based upon final pathology. Twenty women with multicentric and three with multifocal invasive carcinoma were enrolled. The SLN identification rate was 100%. The overall FN rate of SLNB was 15% (95% CI 0.0466, 0.4281). Both cases with FN SLNB had multicentric disease, pathologic stage III breast cancer and a larger tumor burden compared with the study population. SLNB using sub-areolar injection is feasible for patients with multicentric/multifocal breast cancer yet may be associated with a higher FN rate in patients with large additive tumor burden. PMID:19735388

Fearmonti, Regina M; Batista, Larissa I; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Bedrosian, Isabelle; Kuerer, Henry M; Hunt, Kelly K; Eva Singletary, S; Babiera, Gildy V

2009-01-01

180

GENE EXPRESSION PREDICTORS OF BREAST CANCER OUTCOMES Erich Huang2  

E-print Network

's prognosis is central to effective oncologic treatment. In breast cancer, invasion into axillary lymph nodes accurately predicting breast cancer disease course and recurrence. Though current clinical predictorsGENE EXPRESSION PREDICTORS OF BREAST CANCER OUTCOMES Erich Huang2 , Skye H Cheng1 , Holly Dressman2

West, Mike

181

Refining Post-Surgical Therapy for Women with Lymph Node-Positive Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In this phase III trial, women with HER2-negative, HR-positive breast cancer and 1-3 positive lymph nodes with recurrence scores of 25 or lower will be randomly assigned either to undergo adjuvant chemotherapy before starting endocrine therapy or to begin endocrine therapy without chemotherapy.

182

Three-dimensional High-frequency Characterization of Cancerous Lymph Nodes  

PubMed Central

High-frequency ultrasound (HFU) offers a means of investigating biological tissue at the microscopic level. High-frequency, three-dimensional (3D) quantitative-ultrasound (QUS) methods were developed to characterize freshly-dissected lymph nodes of cancer patients. 3D ultrasound data were acquired from lymph nodes using a 25.6-MHz center-frequency transducer. Each node was inked prior to tissue fixation to recover orientation after sectioning for 3D histological evaluation. Backscattered echo signals were processed using 3D cylindrical regions-of-interest to yield four QUS estimates associated with tissue microstructure (i.e., effective scatterer size, acoustic concentration, intercept, and slope). QUS estimates were computed following established methods using two scattering models. In this study, 46 lymph nodes acquired from 27 patients diagnosed with colon cancer were processed. Results revealed that fully-metastatic nodes could be perfectly differentiated from cancer-free nodes using slope or scatterer-size estimates. Specifically, results indicated that metastatic nodes had an average effective scatterer size (i.e., 37.1 ± 1.7 um) significantly larger (p <0.05) than that in cancer-free nodes (i.e., 26 ± 3.3 um). Therefore, the 3D QUS methods could provide a useful means of identifying small metastatic foci in dissected lymph nodes that might not be detectable using current standard pathology procedures. PMID:20133046

Mamou, Jonathan; Coron, Alain; Hata, Masaki; Machi, Junji; Yanagihara, Eugene; Laugier, Pascal; Feleppa, Ernest J.

2009-01-01

183

Sentinel Lymph Node Occult Metastases Have Minimal Survival Effect in Node-Negative Breast Cancer Patients  

Cancer.gov

Detailed examination of sentinel lymph node tissue from breast cancer patients revealed previously unidentified metastases in about 16% of the samples, but the difference in 5-year survival between patients with and without these metastases was very small and likely not clinically meaningful. The results were published in the February 3, 2011 New England Journal of Medicine.

184

Cervical bronchogenic cysts mimic metastatic lymph nodes during thyroid cancer surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose Although congenital bronchogenic cysts in the cervical region, especially in the thyroid or perithyroidal area, are rare, distinguishing them from other cervical cystic lesions (e.g., thyroglossal duct and branchial cleft cysts) and metastatic cervical lymph nodes is difficult preoperatively. Additionally, cystic degeneration of metastatic lymph nodes is common in patients with thyroid cancer. We investigated the clinical characteristics and proper treatment for individuals with cervical bronchogenic cysts. Methods Of the 18,900 patients treated for thyroid cancer, 18 patients with pathologically confirmed bronchogenic cysts were retrospectively reviewed. Bilateral total thyroidectomy or less than total thyroidectomy with central compartment node dissection, including cystic mass excision was done and cystic mass was confirmed by postoperative pathologic examination. Results All cervical bronchogenic cysts were asymptomatic. Their mean size was 1.2 cm (range, 0.3 to 3 cm). Of these 18 patients, 15 did not have any abnormal radiological findings, except for lymphadenopathy during preoperative evaluations. Most bronchogenic cysts were detected around the thyroid and paratracheal areas. On preoperative imaging and intraoperatively, most were indistinguishable from metastatic cervical lymph nodes or other cystic lesions. Conclusion Although cervical bronchogenic cysts are rare and benign, they should be distinguished from other cystic cervical masses, especially metastatic cervical lymph nodes associated with thyroid cancer. Possible cervical bronchogenic cysts found during thyroid cancer evaluation or surgery should be surgically excised. PMID:24851222

Jun, Hak Hoon; Kim, Seok Mo; Lee, Yong Sang; Hong, Soon Won; Park, Cheong Soo

2014-01-01

185

Importance of sentinel lymph nodes in colorectal cancer: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Accurate identification of lymph nodes involved in metastases is vitally important for predicting survival, and it facilitates decision making with regard to adjuvant therapy. The study described here, which was undertaken to evaluate the role of sentinel lymph node mapping in refining the staging of colorectal cancer, was performed prospectively in 19 patients with colorectal cancer who underwent surgery from January to July 2005. Sentinel lymph node sampling was performed during each operation with isosulfan blue dye. Additional immunohistochemical staining was performed only if the sentinel nodes were negative for metastasis. In 18 of 19 patients, at least 1 sentinel node was identified. In 5 of 18 patients, sentinel nodes were positive for metastasis, and in 3 of 5, the sentinel node was the only node containing metastasis that was detected by immunohistochemical staining. In 3 patients, metastases in nonsentinel lymph nodes were detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining; these were determined to be false-negative results. Upstaging associated with sentinel lymph node mapping may reveal disease that might otherwise remain undetected by conventional methods. Patients who are upstaged may benefit from adjuvant therapies that have been shown to improve survival. PMID:17660167

Köksal, Hande; Bostanci, Hasan; Mentes, B Bülent

2007-01-01

186

Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients with previous breast augmentation surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of breast augmentation surgeries (BAS) has increased. Therefore, the number of breast cancer patients with history\\u000a of BAS has also increased. In this paper, we present two cases of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with previous\\u000a BAS who were diagnosed with breast cancer. The patients were augmented using different approach; the first case was augmented\\u000a through

Tomoya Nagao; Takashi Hojo; Hiroaki Kurihara; Hitoshi Tsuda; Sadako Tanaka-Akashi; Takayuki Kinoshita

187

RTOG GU Radiation Oncology Specialists Reach Consensus on Pelvic Lymph Node Volumes for High-Risk Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiation therapy to the pelvic lymph nodes in high-risk prostate cancer is required on several Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) clinical trials. Based on a prior lymph node contouring project, we have shown significant disagreement in the definition of pelvic lymph node volumes among genitourinary radiation oncology specialists involved in developing and executing current RTOG trials. Materials and Methods: A consensus meeting was held on October 3, 2007, to reach agreement on pelvic lymph node volumes. Data were presented to address the lymph node drainage of the prostate. Extensive discussion ensued to develop clinical target volume (CTV) pelvic lymph node consensus. Results: Consensus was obtained resulting in computed tomography image-based pelvic lymph node CTVs. Based on this consensus, the pelvic lymph node volumes to be irradiated include: distal common iliac, presacral lymph nodes (S{sub 1}-S{sub 3}), external iliac lymph nodes, internal iliac lymph nodes, and obturator lymph nodes. Lymph node CTVs include the vessels (artery and vein) and a 7-mm radial margin being careful to 'carve out' bowel, bladder, bone, and muscle. Volumes begin at the L5/S1 interspace and end at the superior aspect of the pubic bone. Consensus on dose-volume histogram constraints for OARs was also attained. Conclusions: Consensus on pelvic lymph node CTVs for radiation therapy to address high-risk prostate cancer was attained and is available as web-based computed tomography images as well as a descriptive format through the RTOG. This will allow for uniformity in evaluating the benefit and risk of such treatment.

Lawton, Colleen A.F. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee WI (United States)], E-mail: clawton@mcw.edu; Michalski, Jeff [Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); El-Naqa, Issam [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Buyyounouski, Mark K. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Lee, W. Robert [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Menard, Cynthia [PMH-UHN University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); O'Meara, Elizabeth [American College of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Rosenthal, Seth A. [Radiation Oncology Center, Radiological Associates of Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (United States); Ritter, Mark [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Seider, Michael [Akron City Hospital, Akron, OH (United States)

2009-06-01

188

The Prognosis of T3N0 Colon Cancer Is Dependent on the Number of Lymph Nodes Examined  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: T3N0 colon cancer is the target of many adjuvant studies. Very few studies have examined the relationship of the number of lymph nodes examined to the prognosis of this stage. We examined data from the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) to determine whether the number of examined lymph nodes is prognostic for T3N0 colon cancer.Methods: A total of 35,787

Richard S. Swanson; Carolyn C. Compton; Andrew K. Stewart; Kirby I. Bland

2003-01-01

189

Pattern, predictors, and recurrence of cervical lymph node metastases in papillary thyroid cancer  

PubMed Central

Aim of the study This study investigated the pattern, predictors, and recurrence of node metastasis in papillary thyroid cancer patients. Material and methods One hundred and 65 papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and cervical lymph node (LN) dissection (LND), in which more than 12 lymph nodes were dissected, were examined. The nodes were classified from levels I to VI. Final pathologic diagnosis of positive lymph node metastases in the differential node levels was determined. Results Cervical metastases of PTC were most commonly encountered in level VI, followed by levels III and IV, and then levels II and V. Metastases in level I seldom occurred. Skip metastases occurred in nine patients. Univariate analysis suggested that multifocality and extracapsular invasion were associated with LN metastases. The metastatic ratio for micro PTC and local canceration derived from benign lesions and encapsulation was low. Multivariate analysis showed that LN metastases were closely related to invasion of the thyroid capsule and primary PTC. Standardized estimation showed that the encapsulating pattern had the greatest impact on developing cervical LN metastases. Lymph node recurrence was observed in 11 patients. Conclusions The metastatic pattern of PTC assists in delineating the extent of selective LND. Routine bilateral central node dissection at the time of thyroidectomy is recommended. Comprehensive selective LND is recommended in multifocal PTC and with capsular invasion. PMID:24592137

Song, Haiping; Zhu, Huiping; Li, Dapeng; Zhang, Ning

2013-01-01

190

Methylene blue dye--a safe and effective alternative for sentinel lymph node localization.  

PubMed

Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has emerged as an effective diagnostic tool in axillary staging in breast cancer. The commonly used technique employs isosulfan blue/patent blue V combined with radioactive colloid tracer. Methylene blue (MB) is a less expensive and readily available alternative dye. The study evaluated the safety and efficacy of MB in SLN localization. A retrospective study of 329 patients with early breast cancer who had SLN localization as part of an ethically approved prospective evaluation study of SLN localization technique was carried out. Lymph node positive, tumors >2 cm on clinical and radiological evaluation, those with previous breast and axillary surgery, neo-adjuvant chemotherapy were excluded from the study. One hundred seventy three patients underwent SLN localization using 1 mL of 1% MB, and a combined MB-radio colloid tracer technique was used in the other 156 patients. Allocation to the groups was by simple randomization. Injection of the dye and radioisotope was into the subdermal plane in the sub-areolar region. Patients underwent breast conservation surgery or mastectomy with SLN directed four node axillary sampling +/- axillary clearance. The lymph node was examined by standard microscopy. There were no reported complications with the use of MB aside from temporary tattooing. The technique failed in eight patients giving an identification rate of 97.6%. Ten of the 258 (3.9%) patients had false-negative SLN, with negative predictive value of 96.1%, sensitivity of predicting further axillary disease of 73%, specificity of 87.3%, and overall accuracy of 85.7%. Reported adverse reaction to isosulfan blue/patent blue V varied from minor to severe anaphylactic reactions (1-3%) requiring vigorous resuscitation. Subdermal sub-areolar injection of MB is safe and effective readily available dye for SLN localization in axillary staging of breast cancer with no major adverse reaction. PMID:18186867

Varghese, Philip; Abdel-Rahman, Alaa Talaat; Akberali, Samira; Mostafa, Azad; Gattuso, Jennifer May; Carpenter, Robert

2008-01-01

191

[Two cases of lymph node recurrence after endoscopic mucosal resection of esophageal cancer].  

PubMed

Here, we reported two cases of lymph node recurrence after endoscopic mucosal resection of esophageal cancer. Case 1: A patient was a 49-year-old man. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) was performed to the 0-IIc type esophageal cancer in October 2005. The pathological findings were moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, pT1b-SM3, ly0, and v0. Therefore, additional therapy of definitive chemoradiation was conducted. However, he complained a difficulty in swallowing in June 2007 and computed tomography (CT) revealed a lymph node measuring 4 cm in diameter at the right side of cardia ( #1). Therefore, a radical operation to the lymph node recurrence was performed in August 2007. Pathological findings revealed metastases of cancer were not only in #1 LN but also in #8a. Unfortunately, the patient died on the 37th day after the operation due to a respiratory failure and anastomotic leakage. Case 2: A patient was a 68-year-old man. EMR was performed to the 0-IIa type esophageal cancer in August 2006. The pathological findings were poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, pT1a-MM, ly0, v0. Therefore, adjuvant chemotherapy was added. However, in February 2009, a follow-up CT showed a metastatic lymph node measuring 2 cm in diameter at the right side of cardia (#1) and a radical operation was performed in June 2009. Pathological findings revealed the metastatic lymph nodes were at the right side of cardia (#1) and middle thoracic paraesophagus (#108). PMID:21224579

Morimoto, Junya; Kubo, Naoshi; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Ohira, Masaichi; Muguruma, Kazuya; Sawada, Tetsuji; Yamada, Nobuya; Yashiro, Masakazu; Yamashita, Yoshito; Nishiguchi, Yukio; Hirakawa, Kosei

2010-11-01

192

Near infrared imaging to identify sentinel lymph nodes in invasive urinary bladder cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximately 12,000 people are diagnosed with invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (InvTCC) each year in the United States. Surgical removal of the bladder (cystectomy) and regional lymph node dissection are considered frontline therapy. Cystectomy causes extensive acute morbidity, and 50% of patients with InvTCC have occult metastases at the time of diagnosis. Better staging procedures for InvTCC are greatly needed. This study was performed to evaluate an intra-operative near infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF) system (Frangioni laboratory) for identifying sentinel lymph nodes draining InvTCC. NIRF imaging was used to map lymph node drainage from specific quadrants of the urinary bladder in normal dogs and pigs, and to map lymph node drainage from naturally-occurring InvTCC in pet dogs where the disease closely mimics the human condition. Briefly, during surgery NIR fluorophores (human serum albumen-fluorophore complex, or quantum dots) were injected directly into the bladder wall, and fluorescence observed in lymphatics and regional nodes. Conditions studied to optimize the procedure including: type of fluorophore, depth of injection, volume of fluorophore injected, and degree of bladder distention at the time of injection. Optimal imaging occurred with very superficial injection of the fluorophore in the serosal surface of the moderately distended bladder. Considerable variability was noted from dog to dog in the pattern of lymph node drainage. NIR fluorescence was noted in lymph nodes with metastases in dogs with InvTCC. In conclusion, intra-operative NIRF imaging is a promising approach to improve sentinel lymph node mapping in invasive urinary bladder cancer.

Knapp, Deborah W.; Adams, Larry G.; Niles, Jacqueline D.; Lucroy, Michael D.; Ramos-Vara, Jose; Bonney, Patty L.; deGortari, Amalia E.; Frangioni, John V.

2006-02-01

193

Breast Cancer Molecular Signatures as Determined by SAGE: Correlation with Lymph Node Status  

PubMed Central

Global gene expression measured by DNA microarray platforms have been extensively used to classify breast carcinomas correlating with clinical characteristics, including outcome. We generated a breast cancer Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) high-resolution database of ~2.7 million tags to perform unsupervised statistical analyses to obtain the molecular classification of breast-invasive ductal carcinomas in correlation with clinicopathologic features. Unsupervised statistical analysis by means of a random forest approach identified two main clusters of breast carcinomas, which differed in their lymph node status (P = 0.01); this suggested that lymph node status leads to globally distinct expression profiles. A total of 245 (55 up-modulated and 190 down-modulated) transcripts were differentially expressed between lymph node (+) and lymph node (?) primary breast tumors (fold change, ?2; P < 0.05). Various lymph node (+) up-modulated transcripts were validated in independent sets of human breast tumors by means of real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). We validated significant overexpression of transcripts for HOXC10 (P = 0.001), TPD52L1 (P = 0.007), ZFP36L1 (P = 0.011), PLINP1 (P = 0.013), DCTN3 (P = 0.025), DEK (P = 0.031), and CSNK1D (P = 0.04) in lymph node (+) breast carcinomas. Moreover, the DCTN3 (P = 0.022) and RHBDD2 (P = 0.002) transcripts were confirmed to be overexpressed in tumors that recurred within 6 years of follow-up by real-time RT-PCR. In addition, meta-analysis was used to compare SAGE data associated with lymph node (+) status with publicly available breast cancer DNA microarray data sets. We have generated evidence indicating that the pattern of gene expression in primary breast cancers at the time of surgical removal could discriminate those tumors with lymph node metastatic involvement using SAGE to identify specific transcripts that behave as predictors of recurrence as well. PMID:17855657

Abba, Martin C.; Sun, Hongxia; Hawkins, Kathleen A.; Drake, Jeffrey A.; Hu, Yuhui; Nunez, Maria I.; Gaddis, Sally; Shi, Tao; Horvath, Steve; Sahin, Aysegul; Aldaz, C. Marcelo

2014-01-01

194

A New Model for Predicting Non-Sentinel Lymph Node Status in Chinese Sentinel Lymph Node Positive Breast Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Our goal is to validate the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) nomogram and Stanford Online Calculator (SOC) for predicting non-sentinel lymph node (NSLN) metastasis in Chinese patients, and develop a new model for better prediction of NSLN metastasis. Methods The MSKCC nomogram and SOC were used to calculate the probability of NSLN metastasis in 120 breast cancer patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between NSLN metastasis and clinicopathologic factors, using the medical records of the first 80 breast cancer patients. A new model predicting NSLN metastasis was developed from the 80 patients. Results The MSKCC and SOC predicted NSLN metastasis in a series of 120 patients with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.688 and 0.734, respectively. For predicted probability cut-off points of 10%, the false-negative (FN) rates of MSKCC and SOC were both 4.4%, and the negative predictive value (NPV) 75.0% and 90.0%, respectively. Tumor size, Kiss-1 expression in positive SLN and size of SLN metastasis were independently associated with NSLN metastasis (p<0.05). A new model (Peking University People's Hospital, PKUPH) was developed using these three variables. The MSKCC, SOC and PKUPH predicted NSLN metastasis in the second 40 patients from the 120 patients with an AUC of 0.624, 0.679 and 0.795, respectively. Conclusion MSKCC nomogram and SOC did not perform as well as their original researches in Chinese patients. As a new predictor, Kiss-1 expression in positive SLN correlated independently with NSLN metastasis strongly. PKUPH model achieved higher accuracy than MSKCC and SOC in predicting NSLN metastasis in Chinese patients. PMID:25111296

Liu, Miao; Wang, Shu; Pan, Lu; Yang, Deqi; Xie, Fei; Liu, Peng; Guo, Jiajia; Zhang, Jiaqing; Zhou, Bo

2014-01-01

195

New approach to anal cancer: Individualized therapy based on sentinel lymph node biopsy  

PubMed Central

Oncological treatment is currently directed toward a tailored therapy concept. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal could be considered a suitable platform to test new therapeutic strategies to minimize treatment morbidity. Standard of care for patients with anal canal cancer consists of a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This treatment has led to a high rate of local control and a 60% cure rate with preservation of the anal sphincter, thus replacing surgical abdominoperineal resection. Lymph node metastases represent a critical independent prognostic factor for local recurrence and survival. Mesorectal and iliac lymph nodes are usually included in the radiation field, whereas the inclusion of inguinal regions still remains controversial because of the subsequent adverse side effects. Sentinel lymph node biopsies could clearly identify inguinal node-positive patients eligible for therapeutic groin irradiation. A sentinel lymph node navigation procedure is reported here to be a feasible and effective method for establishing the true inguinal node status in patients suffering from anal canal cancer. Based on the results of sentinel node biopsies, a selective approach could be proposed where node-positive patients could be selected for inguinal node irradiation while node-negative patients could take advantage of inguinal sparing irradiation, thus avoiding toxic side effects. PMID:23197880

De Nardi, Paola; Carvello, Michele; Staudacher, Carlo

2012-01-01

196

A New Model for Lymphatic Metastasis: Development of a Variant of the MDA-MB-468 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line that Aggressively Metastasizes to Lymph Nodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer often spreads from the primary tumor to regional lymph nodes. Lymph node status provides clinically important information for making treatment decisions. Spread via lymphatics is also important for the biology of breast cancer, as tumor cells in lymph nodes may provide a reservoir of cells leading to distant, lethal metastases. Improved understanding of the biology of lymphatic spread

Sharon A. Vantyghem; Alison L. Allan; Carl O. Postenka; Waleed Al-Katib; Michael Keeney; Alan B. Tuck; Ann F. Chambers

2005-01-01

197

Lymph node tissue kallikrein-related peptidase 6 mRNA: a progression marker for colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: A most important characteristic feature for poor prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) is the presence of lymph node metastasis. Determination of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) mRNA levels in lymph nodes has proven powerful for quantification of disseminated tumour cells. Here, we investigate the utility of human tissue kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) mRNA as a progression biomarker to complement CEA mRNA, for improved selection of patients in need of adjuvant therapy and intensified follow-up after surgery. Methods: Lymph nodes of pTNM stage I-IV CRC- (166 patients/503 lymph nodes) and control (23/108) patients were collected at surgery and analysed by quantitative RT–PCR. Results: Lymph node KLK6 positivity was an indicator of poor outcome (hazard ratio 3.7). Risk of recurrence and cancer death increased with KLK6 lymph node levels. Patients with KLK6 lymph node levels above the 90th percentile had a hazard ratio of 6.5 and 76 months shorter average survival time compared to patients with KLK6 negative nodes. The KLK6 positivity in lymph nodes with few tumour cells, that is, low CEA mRNA levels, also indicated poor prognosis (hazard ratio 2.8). Conclusion: In CRC patients, lymph node KLK6 positivity indicated presence of aggressive tumour cells associated with poor prognosis and high risk of tumour recurrence. PMID:22699826

Ohlsson, L; Lindmark, G; Israelsson, A; Palmqvist, R; Oberg, A; Hammarstrom, M-L; Hammarstrom, S

2012-01-01

198

Adding Taxol to Initial Chemotherapy May Be New Option When Breast Cancer Has Spread to Lymph Nodes  

Cancer.gov

Early findings from a large, multicenter trial suggest that the drug Taxol (paclitaxel), in combination with other standard chemotherapy agents, may have a small but significant benefit for breast cancer patients whose disease has spread to nearby lymph nodes.

199

Splicing mutation analysis reveals previously unrecognized pathways in lymph node-invasive breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Somatic mutations reported in large-scale breast cancer (BC) sequencing studies primarily consist of protein coding mutations. mRNA splicing mutation analyses have been limited in scope, despite their prevalence in Mendelian genetic disorders. We predicted splicing mutations in 442 BC tumour and matched normal exomes from The Cancer Genome Atlas Consortium (TCGA). These splicing defects were validated by abnormal expression changes in these tumours. Of the 5,206 putative mutations identified, exon skipping, leaky or cryptic splicing was confirmed for 988 variants. Pathway enrichment analysis of the mutated genes revealed mutations in 9 NCAM1-related pathways, which were significantly increased in samples with evidence of lymph node metastasis, but not in lymph node-negative tumours. We suggest that comprehensive reporting of DNA sequencing data should include non-trivial splicing analyses to avoid missing clinically-significant deleterious splicing mutations, which may reveal novel mutated pathways present in genetic disorders. PMID:25394353

Dorman, Stephanie N.; Viner, Coby; Rogan, Peter K.

2014-01-01

200

Splicing mutation analysis reveals previously unrecognized pathways in lymph node-invasive breast cancer.  

PubMed

Somatic mutations reported in large-scale breast cancer (BC) sequencing studies primarily consist of protein coding mutations. mRNA splicing mutation analyses have been limited in scope, despite their prevalence in Mendelian genetic disorders. We predicted splicing mutations in 442 BC tumour and matched normal exomes from The Cancer Genome Atlas Consortium (TCGA). These splicing defects were validated by abnormal expression changes in these tumours. Of the 5,206 putative mutations identified, exon skipping, leaky or cryptic splicing was confirmed for 988 variants. Pathway enrichment analysis of the mutated genes revealed mutations in 9 NCAM1-related pathways, which were significantly increased in samples with evidence of lymph node metastasis, but not in lymph node-negative tumours. We suggest that comprehensive reporting of DNA sequencing data should include non-trivial splicing analyses to avoid missing clinically-significant deleterious splicing mutations, which may reveal novel mutated pathways present in genetic disorders. PMID:25394353

Dorman, Stephanie N; Viner, Coby; Rogan, Peter K

2014-01-01

201

Impact of boost irradiation on pelvic lymph node control in patients with cervical cancer  

PubMed Central

Radiation therapy (RT) for metastatic pelvic lymph nodes (PLNs) is not well established in cervical cancer. In this study the correlation between size of lymph nodes and control doses of RT was analyzed. Between January 2002 and December 2007, 245 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix treated with a combination of external beam irradiation with or without boost irradiation and high-dose rate brachytherapy were investigated. Size of lymph node was measured by computed tomography before RT and just after 50 Gy RT. Of the 245 patients, 78 had PLN metastases, and a total of 129 had enlarged PLNs diagnosed as metastases; 22 patients had PLN failure. The PLN control rate at 5 years was 79.5% for positive cases and 95.8% for negative cases. In cases with positive PLNs, 12 of 129 nodes (9.3%) developed recurrences. There was significant correlation between PLN control rate and size of PLN after 50 Gy (<10 mm: 96.7%, ? 10 mm: 75.7 % (P<0.001)). In addition, the recurrence in these poor-response nodes was significantly correlated with dose of RT. Nine of 16 nodes receiving ? 58 Gy had recurrence, but none of 21 nodes receiving > 58 Gy had recurrence (P = 0.0003). These results suggested that the response of lymph nodes after RT was a more significant predictive factor for recurrence than size of lymph node before RT, and poor-response lymph nodes might require boost irradiation at a total dose of > 58 Gy. PMID:23912599

Wakatsuki, Masaru; Ohno, Tatsuya; Kato, Shingo; Ando, Ken; Noda, Shin-ei; Kiyohara, Hiroki; Shibuya, Kei; Karasawa, Kumiko; Kamada, Tadashi; Nakano, Takashi

2014-01-01

202

Detection of Telomerase Expression in Mediastinal Lymph Nodes of Patients with Lung Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mediastinal lymph nodes are the most common site of tumor spread nodes by a transesophageal approach by fine-needle aspiration in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We hypothesized that micro- and can be performed under conscious sedation on an outpa- metastatic disease could be detected by reverse transcription-poly- tient basis. Others and we have shown that EUS-guided fine- merase chain reaction

Michael B. Wallace; Mark Block; Brenda J. Hoffman; Robert H. Hawes; Gerard Silvestri; Carolyn E. Reed; Michael Mitas; James Ravenel; Mostafa Fraig; Scott Miller; Edward T. Jones; Alice Boylan

203

Boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent oral cancer and metastasis of cervical lymph node.  

PubMed

We treated 6 patients with recurrent oral cancer and metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes after conventional treatments in 5 and non-conventional in 1 using BNCT, and herein report our results. The clinical response in our patients ranged from CR to PD. In 5 cases, spontaneous pain decreased immediately after BNCT. Three of the 6 are alive at the time of writing and we found that BNCT contributed to QOL improvement in all. PMID:19395269

Kimura, Y; Ariyoshi, Y; Shimahara, M; Miyatake, S; Kawabata, S; Ono, K; Suzuki, M; Maruhashi, A

2009-07-01

204

Screening of lymph nodes metastasis associated lncRNAs in colorectal cancer patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To screen lymph nodes metastasis associated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in colorectal cancer through microarray analysis. METHODS: Metastatic lymph node (MLN), normal lymph node (NLN) and tumor tissues of 3 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients were collected during the operation and validated by pathological examinations. RNAs were extracted from MLN, NLN, and cancer tissues separately. RNA quantity and quality were measured with a NanoDrop ND-1000 spectrophotometer and RNA integrity was assessed by standard denaturing agarose electrophoresis. Agilent Feature Extraction Software (Version 11.0.1.1) was used to analyze acquired array images. Four differently expressed lncRNAs were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in 26 subsets of MLN, NLN, and tumor tissues. RESULTS: Of 33045 lncRNAs, 1133 were differentially expressed in MLN compared with NLN, of which 260 were up-regulated and 873 down-regulated (? 2 fold-change). Five hundred and forty-five lncRNAs were differentially expressed in MLN compared with tumor tissues, of which 460 were up-regulated and 85 down-regulated (? 2 fold-change). Compared with NLN and cancer tissues, 14 lncRNAs were specifically up-regulated and 5 specifically down-regulated in MLN. AK307796, ENST00000425785, and AK021444 were confirmed to be specifically up-regulated in MLN and ENST00000465846 specifically down-regulated in MLN by qRT-PCR in 26 CRC patients. CONCLUSION: The specifically expressed lncRNAs in MLN may exert a partial or key role in the progress of lymph nodes metastasis of CRC. PMID:25009386

Han, Jun; Rong, Long-Fei; Shi, Chuan-Bin; Dong, Xiao-Gang; Wang, Jie; Wang, Bao-Lin; Wen, Hao; He, Zhen-Yu

2014-01-01

205

To Do or Not to Do: Axillary Nodal Evaluation after ACOSOG Z0011 Trial.  

PubMed

Methods of axillary evaluation in invasive breast cancer continue to evolve. The recent American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0011 Trial is a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial that compared the survival and locoregional recurrence rates after complete axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) versus sentinel node biopsy (SNB) alone in women with a positive sentinel node in an effort to avoid the complications associated with ALND. As the results of this trial are implemented clinically, affecting surgical management of axillary metastatic disease, radiologists may need to redefine their role in the preoperative assessment of the axilla. Before the Z0011 trial, breast imagers worked to identify axillary metastases preoperatively, allowing appropriate patients to proceed directly to ALND and avoiding the need for SNB. However, the Z0011 trial concluded that ALND may not be necessary in women with metastatic axillary disease who meet the trial criteria. In the Z0011 trial, after 6 years of median follow-up there was no difference in either locoregional recurrence or survival among the women who underwent SNB alone compared with those who underwent ALND, suggesting that ALND is unnecessary in a subset of women with a positive node at SNB. These results raise questions about how aggressively radiologists should pursue percutaneous sampling of axillary nodes, as some practitioners conclude that, in an otherwise eligible woman, positive results from imaging-guided percutaneous biopsy preclude a Z0011 trial-directed pathway. Debate about the best way to implement the results of the Z0011 trial into daily clinical practice exists. It is important for breast imagers to work closely with breast surgeons to provide the most appropriate treatment course for each patient. ©RSNA, 2014. PMID:25384280

Humphrey, Kathryn L; Saksena, Mansi A; Freer, Phoebe E; Smith, Barbara L; Rafferty, Elizabeth A

2014-01-01

206

Association between Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C, Chemokine Receptor CXCR4 and Lymph Node Metastasis in Colorectal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Lymph node metastasis is one of the determining factors of a poor prognosis for colorectal cancer. Recent studies have reported that cancer cells can promote lymphangiogenesis and that chemokine receptors expressed by cancer cells might play a role in metastasis. In this study, we examined the correlation between the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) C, the chemokine

S. Fukunaga; K. Maeda; E. Noda; T. Inoue; K. Wada; K. Hirakawa

2006-01-01

207

Perigastric Lymph Node Metastasis from Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in a Patient with Early Gastric Cancer: The First Case Report  

PubMed Central

Distant metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), particularly from papillary thyroid microcarcinoma, is rare. We present a case of perigastric lymph node metastasis from PTC in a patient with early gastric cancer and breast cancer. During post-surgical follow-up for breast cancer, a 56-year-old woman was diagnosed incidentally with early gastric cancer and synchronous left thyroid cancer. Therefore, laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with lymph node dissection and left thyroidectomy were performed. On the basis of the pathologic findings of the surgical specimens, the patient was diagnosed to have papillary thyroid microcarcinoma with perigastric lymph node metastasis and early gastric cancer with mucosal invasion. Finally, on the basis of immunohistochemical staining with galectin-3, the diagnosis of perigastric lymph node metastasis from PTC was made. When a patient has multiple primary malignancies with lymph node metastasis, careful pathologic examination of the surgical specimen is necessary; immunohistochemical staining may be helpful in determining the primary origin of lymph node metastasis. PMID:25328769

Jeong, Gui-Ae; Kim, Hyung-Chul; Kim, Hee-Kyung

2014-01-01

208

Perigastric lymph node metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma in a patient with early gastric cancer: the first case report.  

PubMed

Distant metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), particularly from papillary thyroid microcarcinoma, is rare. We present a case of perigastric lymph node metastasis from PTC in a patient with early gastric cancer and breast cancer. During post-surgical follow-up for breast cancer, a 56-year-old woman was diagnosed incidentally with early gastric cancer and synchronous left thyroid cancer. Therefore, laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with lymph node dissection and left thyroidectomy were performed. On the basis of the pathologic findings of the surgical specimens, the patient was diagnosed to have papillary thyroid microcarcinoma with perigastric lymph node metastasis and early gastric cancer with mucosal invasion. Finally, on the basis of immunohistochemical staining with galectin-3, the diagnosis of perigastric lymph node metastasis from PTC was made. When a patient has multiple primary malignancies with lymph node metastasis, careful pathologic examination of the surgical specimen is necessary; immunohistochemical staining may be helpful in determining the primary origin of lymph node metastasis. PMID:25328769

Jeong, Gui-Ae; Kim, Hyung-Chul; Kim, Hee-Kyung; Cho, Gyu-Seok

2014-09-01

209

250 Years of Advances Against Cancer - 1930s  

Cancer.gov

David H. Patey develops the modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer. This surgical procedure, which involves removal of the entire breast, the axillary lymph nodes under the adjacent arm, and the pectoralis minor muscle behind the breast, is less disfiguring than the radical mastectomy and would eventually replace it as the standard surgical treatment for breast cancer.

210

Quality of adjuvant CMF chemotherapy for node-positive primary breast cancer: a population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose Adjuvant ‘classical’ oral cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil (CMF) has long been the mainstay of adjuvant chemotherapy for premenopausal breast cancer patients. The Comprehensive Cancer Center North Netherlands (CCCN) breast cancer working group performed a retrospective audit of treatment guideline adherence and quality of CMF in hospitals in the CCCN area.Methods The CMF treatment data of 251 consecutive axillary lymph

Michael Schaapveld; Elisabeth G. E. de Vries; Renée Otter; Pax H. B. Willemse

2004-01-01

211

Lymph node ratio and pN staging in patients with node-positive breast cancer: a report from the Korean breast cancer society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with node-positive breast cancer are currently classified according to pN stage. Lymph node ratio (LNR), the ratio\\u000a of positive to total removed lymph nodes, maybe a more useful prognostic factor in these patients. We therefore compared LNR\\u000a and pN staging as prognostic factors in patients with node-positive breast cancer. Using two large prospective databases of\\u000a the Korean Breast Cancer

Sei Hyun Ahn; Hee Jeong Kim; Jong Won Lee; Gyung-Yub Gong; Dong-Yong Noh; Jung Hyun Yang; Sang Seol Jung; Ho Yong Park

212

Detection of sentinel lymph nodes in patients with early stage cervical cancer.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of identifying the sentinel lymph nodes (SNs) as well as to evaluate factors that might influence the SN detection rate in patients with cervical cancer of the uterus. Eighty nine patients underwent intracervical injection of 1% isosulfan blue dye at the time of planned radical hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy between January 2003 and December 2003. With the visual detection of lymph nodes that stained blue, SNs were identified and removed separately. Then all patients underwent complete pelvic lymph node dissection and/or para-aortic lymph node dissection. SNs were identified in 51 of 89 (57.3%) patients. The most common site for SN detection was the external iliac area. Metastatic nodes were detected in 21 of 89 (23.5%) patients. One false negative SN was obtained. Successful SN detection was more likely in patients younger than 50 yr (p=0.02) and with a history of preoperative conization (p=0.05). However, stage, histological type, surgical procedure and neoadjuvant chemotherapy showed no significant difference for SN detection rate. Therefore, the identification of SNs with isosulfan blue dye is feasible and safe. The SN detection rate was high in patients younger than 50 yr or with a history of preoperative conization. PMID:17297260

Seong, Seok Ju; Park, Hyun; Yang, Kwang Moon; Kim, Tae Jin; Lim, Kyung Taek; Shim, Jae Uk; Park, Chong Taik; Lee, Ki Heon

2007-02-01

213

Serum testosterone is not a correlate of prostate cancer lymph node involvement, but does predict biochemical failure for lymph node positive disease.  

PubMed

Previously we found that serum testosterone (serum-T) correlated with the development of distant metastasis in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy. In this report, the relationship of serum-T to lymph node positivity and to patient outcome for patients with regional lymph node involvement treated with androgen ablation alone was investigated. Serum-T was available in 514 of 854 men with clinically localized prostate cancer who underwent pelvic lymphadenectomy at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center between 1984 and 1993. Pretreatment prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) were assayed in 98% and 95% of patients, respectively. Androgen ablation was achieved via orchiectomy or a luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonist. Median follow-up was 66 months for the node positive subgroup (n = 92). Serum-T did not correlate with palpable stage, Gleason score, pretreatment PSA, or lymph node involvement. Age ? 60 years and pretreatment PAP > 0.8 mU/ml correlated significantly with higher serum-T. In lymph node positive patients treated with androgen ablation, higher serum-T levels corresponded to both pretreatment PSA > 10 ng/ml and PAP > 0.8 mU/ml. Serum-T predicted for biochemical failure, but not metastatic relapse or overall survival. Actuarial 5-year biochemical failure rate was 73% for serum T > 500 ng/dl and 57% for serum-T ? 500 (p = 0.009). Multivariate analysis showed serum-T to be an independent correlate of rising PSA, both as a continuous (p = 0.001) or categorical (p = 0.037) variable. Serum-T did not significantly correlate with lymph node positivity, and therefore is not a marker for regional disease spread. However, serum-T was significantly associated with biochemical failure in node-positive patients treated with androgen ablation alone. PMID:21227292

Kelly, J F; Pollack, A; Zagars, G K

2000-01-01

214

NCI Cancer Bulletin for February 22, 2011  

Cancer.gov

Clinical trials have shown that surgeons can remove less tissue from women who have early-stage, lymph node-negative breast cancer without harming their chances of the disease returning or their overall survival. Now, a study led by Dr. Armando Giuliano of the John Wayne Cancer Institute in Santa Monica, CA, adds to that knowledge by demonstrating that a surgical practice called axillary lymph node dissection isn’t necessary for some women with early-stage disease when cancer cells are found in the adjacent lymph nodes.

215

Effect of Gleason scores of lymph node metastases on prognosis of patients with prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

The long-term mortality risk from prostate cancer increases in lymph node (LN) positive patients. This study was done to assess the effect of lymph node Gleason score (LNGS) on prognosis in patients with LN-positive prostate cancer. Among the 1,415 patients who received pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND), 117 (8.4%) patients had a positive LN. The PGS of the prostate specimens and the LNGS of the positive LNs were assessed by uropathologists. The median age of patients at surgery was 67 years (interquartile range [IQR], 62-71 years) and the median follow-up duration was 44.3 months (IQR, 27.0-78.5 months). Pathologic Gleason scores (PGS) of 6-9 included one (0.9%), 53 (49.5%), 22 (20.6%), and 31 (29.0%) patients. The median total number of retrieved LNs was 9.0 (IQR, 5.3-12.8). The median number of positive LNs was one (IQR, 1-2). Cancer architecture with a Gleason pattern and score were observed in LNs as in ordinary prostate specimens. LNGS 6-9 included nine (8.1%), 57 (51.4%), 31 (27.9%), and 14 (12.6%) patients. The speaman’s analysis showed the meaningful correlation between PGS and LNGS (P = 0.249, P = 0.011). The univariate analysis showed that the number of positive LNs and LNGS were significantly associated with prostate cancer-specific survival (P = 0.028; P = 0.005). The same architecture that is seen in the prostate was seen in positive LNs, and LNGS may be a significant prognostic factor in patients with LN-positive prostate cancer.

Ko, Kyungtae; Jeong, In Gab; Choi, Woo Suk; Lim, Ju Hyun; Suh, Ja Hee; Ku, Ja Hyeon; Park, Yangsoon; Moon, Kyung Cheol; Kim, Hyeon Hoe; Kim, Choung-Soo; Kwak, Cheol

2014-01-01

216

[An anatomical and pathological study of autopsy material on the metastasis of pancreatic cancer to para-aortic lymph nodes].  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to clarify the anatomy of the lymphatic system of the para-aortic region with special reference to lymphatic pathways from the pancreas, and the incidence and extent of lymphatic metastases of pancreatic cancer to para-aortic lymph nodes. Lymph nodes were found mostly on the bilateral and anterior sides of the aorta, and rarely on its posterior side. Lymphatic vessels from the pancreas (peripancreatic nodes) were closely related to the para-aortic lymph nodes on the bilateral and anterior surfaces of the aorta ranging from the root of the celiac artery and that of the inferior mesenteric artery. Out of 10 autopsy cases of relatively small pancreatic cancer, 4 cases were found to have microscopic metastases in a few para-aortic lymph nodes. The localization of involved para-aortic nodes was compatible with that of anatomically related para-aortic lymph nodes. Lymph node dissection of the para-aortic region, if carried out in a patient with a possibility of radical resection of the primary pancreatic cancer, should be an en bloc resection of lymph nodes and surrounding soft tissues in the area ranging between the root of the celiac artery and that of the inferior mesenteric artery. PMID:3600584

Nagai, H

1987-03-01

217

Sentinel lymph node study in colorectal cancer using serial sectioning and Hematoxylin-Eosin staining: importance and limitations.  

PubMed

The lymph node involvement represents an important predictor for survival in colorectal cancer; consequently, the best pathologic evaluation is necessary in order to adequately assess the lymph node status. This study aims to evaluate the impact of sentinel lymph node technique in colorectal cancer in lymphatic basin staging. The study included 43 consecutive operated cases, in which the identification of sentinel lymph node was performed during surgery (in vivo procedure - colon cancer) or immediately after the removal of the resection specimen (ex vivo procedure - rectal cancer). These cases were matched with 45 control cases. The identified sentinel lymph node was separately examined using multiple sections and Hematoxylin-Eosin staining method. The detection rate, accuracy, sensitivity and false negative rate were better for colon cancer (86.36%; 84.21%; 66.66%; 23.07%) vs. rectal cancer (61.9%; 84.61%; 50%; 18.18%), but there are no arguments for the feasibility of the technique in every day practice. Further studies and methods are mandatory in order to improve the staging of the pN status in colon and rectal cancer. PMID:21424078

Vîlcea, I D; Vasile, I; Mirea, C S; Me?in?, C; Enache, S D; Tenovici, Mihaela; Mogoant?, S; Ghi??, C

2011-01-01

218

Clinical significance of molecular diagnosis for gastric cancer lymph node micrometastasis  

PubMed Central

Advances in molecular diagnostic tools have allowed the identification of lymph node micrometastasis (LNM), including isolated tumor cells, in cancer patients. While immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction have been used to identify LNM in patients with gastric cancer, the clinical significance of this finding remains unclear. Recently, minimally invasive treatments, such as endoscopic submucosal dissection and laparoscopic surgery, are widely performed to help improve postsurgical quality of life (QOL). However, it is important to maintain the balance between QOL and curability when making treatments decision for patients with gastric cancer. If minimally invasive surgery based on accurate intraoperative LNM diagnosis was established, it could be performed safely. Therefore, we reviewed the clinical significance of LNM detected by molecular techniques as an important target for treatment decision making with gastric cancer patients. PMID:25320510

Sonoda, Hiromichi; Tani, Tohru

2014-01-01

219

Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients with previous breast augmentation surgery.  

PubMed

The number of breast augmentation surgeries (BAS) has increased. Therefore, the number of breast cancer patients with history of BAS has also increased. In this paper, we present two cases of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with previous BAS who were diagnosed with breast cancer. The patients were augmented using different approach; the first case was augmented through transaxillary incision, whereas the second case was augmented through periareolar incision. Lymphoscintigraphy (LPG) was performed on the patients 1 day prior to operation, enabling confirmation of lymphatic flow and SLN in both patients. SLNB was successfully performed in both cases. In one patient, SLNB was performed using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence and the Photodynamic Eye (PDE) system. Regardless of history of BAS, ICG and PDE system showed lymphatic flow and SLN in real time. LPG and ICG fluorescence were useful methods for SLN detection in patients with previous BAS, being able to confirm lymph flow before operation. Biopsy methods using LPG and PDE system were considered useful for difficult confirmation of lymph flow after breast augmentation. This is the first report of SLNB using ICG and PDE system for patients with previous BAS. PMID:21671037

Nagao, Tomoya; Hojo, Takashi; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Tanaka-Akashi, Sadako; Kinoshita, Takayuki

2014-09-01

220

Fluorescence diagnostics of metastatic lesion of regional lymph nodes upon surgical treatment of breast cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed intraoperative fluorescence diagnostics of 60 patients for metastases of breast cancer to regional lymph nodes. All the patients were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 50 patients, which were surgically treated at the first stage. The second group consisted of ten patients, which underwent combined treatment. At the first stage, they received from two to four courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and, at the second stage, the surgical intervention was performed. The intraoperative fluorescence diagnostics was performed using the preparation alasens (precursor of protoporphyrin IX in the human organism). The occurrence of fluorescence of alasens-induced protoporphyrin IX was determined visually and using the local fluorescence spectroscopy method. Altogether, 498 lymph nodes were examined: 408 in the first group and 90 in the second one. For the first group, the sensitivity of the method was found to be 87.2%, and its specificity, 94.8%; in the second group, these parameters were determined to be 77 and 78%, respectively. The first experience of the application of the intraoperative fluorescence diagnostics of metastatic lesion of lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer has shown its high efficiency and application potential.

Filonenko, E. V.; Pak, D. D.; Yanikova, A. G.

2013-06-01

221

Sentinel lymph node detection and accuracy in vulvar cancer: Experience of a tertiary center in Turkey  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the accuracy of sentinel lymph node (SLN) dissection in predicting regional lymph node status by using either only Technetium-99m-labelled (Tc-99m) or in combination with a blue dye in patients with squamous cell cancer of vulva. Material and Methods Twenty-one patients who had T1 (?2 cm) or T2 (>2cm) tumors that did not encroach into the urethra, vagina or anus were included in the study. For the first twelve patients, Tc-99m was used for SLN identification, and the combined technique was used in subsequent patients. Preoperatively, Tc-99m and a blue dye was injected intradermally around the tumor. Following SLN dissection, complete inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy was performed. Results We could detect SLN in all 21 patients (100%) by either Tc-99m or the combined method. SLN was found to be histopathologically negative in 13 groins via Tc-99m and 10 groins via the combined method. Twenty-one of these 23 (91.3%) groin non-SLN were also negative, but in two groins, we detected metastatic non-SLN. Conclusion Although SLN dissection appears promising in vulvar cancer, false negative cases are reported in the literature. Sentinel lymph node dissection without complete lymphadenectomy does not seem appropriate for routine clinical use, since it is known that groin metastasis is fatal. PMID:24592094

Boran, Nurettin; C?r?k, Derya Akdag; Is?kdogan, Zuhal; K?r, Metin; Turan, Taner; Tulunay, Gokhan; Kose, Mehmet Faruk

2013-01-01

222

Five-Year Update of an Expanded Phase II Study of Dose-Dense and Intense Doxorubicin, Paclitaxel and Cyclophosphamide (ATC) in High-Risk Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of dose-dense and -intense sequential doxorubicin (A), paclitaxel (T) and cyclophosphamide (C) as adjuvant therapy for breast cancer (BC) with ?4 ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes.Methods: Patients were recruited after BC surgery if ?4 axillary nodes were involved by metastatic cancer. Planned treatment was A 90 mg\\/m2 three times every 14 days (q14d×3),

Maysa M. Abu-Khalaf; Stephen Windsor; Keita Ebisu; Saritha Salikooti; Gowri Ananthanarayanan; Gina G. Chung; Michael P. DiGiovanna; Bruce G. Haffty; Martin Abrams; Leonard R. Farber; Arlene D. Hsu; Michael Reiss; Daniel Zelterman; Barbara A. Burtness

2005-01-01

223

MD Anderson study finds African American women with breast cancer less likely to have newer, recommended surgical procedure  

Cancer.gov

African American women with early stage, invasive breast cancer were 12 percent less likely than Caucasian women with the same diagnosis to receive a minimally invasive technique, axillary sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy, years after the procedure had become the standard of surgical practice, according to research from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. The study, presented at the 2012 CTRC-AACR San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, also found that those African American women who underwent the older, more invasive procedure, axillary lymph node (ALN) dissection, had higher rates of lymphedema.

224

The first and second echelon sentinel lymph node evaluation in oral cancer.  

PubMed

Sentinel lymph node biopsy shows promise as a minimally invasive technique that samples the first echelon (station) of nodes to predict the need for more extensive neck dissection. This paper discusses the accuracy and feasibility of sentinel node and "station II node" biopsy for predicting the status of neck in 20 patients of oral cancer. We identified sentinel node in these patients. The next higher-order nodes, that is, second echelon of nodes known as "station II nodes" were delineated by further injecting 0.1 ml of isosulfan blue dye in sentinel lymph node. Identification rate for station I nodes was 95 %. Station II nodes were identified in 84 % of patients. One patient had false negative station I node. Station II node status was false negative in two patients. "Station I and station II concept" is feasible in early-stage tumors of oral cavity. PMID:24426480

Bassi, Kuldeep Kumar; Srivastava, Anurag; Seenu, Vuthaluru; Kumar, Rakesh; Parshad, Rajinder; Chumber, Sunil; Gupta, Siddarth Datta; Bahadur, Sudhir

2013-10-01

225

Mapping lymph nodes in cancer management - role of 99mTc-tilmanocept injection  

PubMed Central

Two decades ago, lymphatic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) was introduced into surgical cancer management and was termed sentinel node navigated surgery. Although this technique is now routinely performed in the management of breast cancer and malignant melanoma, it is still under investigation for use in other cancers. The radioisotope technetium (99mTc) and vital blue dyes are among the most widely used enhancers for SLN mapping, although near-infrared fluorescence imaging of indocyanine green is also becoming more commonly used. 99mTc-tilmanocept is a new synthetic radioisotope with a relatively small molecular size that was specifically developed for lymphatic mapping. Because of its small size, 99mTc-tilmanocept quickly migrates from its site of injection and rapidly accumulates in the SLN. The mannose moieties of 99mTc-tilmanosept facilitate its binding to mannose receptors (CD206) expressed in reticuloendothelial cells of the SLN. This binding prevents transit to second-echelon lymph nodes. In Phase III trials of breast cancer and malignant melanoma, and Phase II trials of other malignancies, 99mTc-tilmanocept had superior identification rates and sensitivity compared with blue dye. Trials comparing 99mTc-tilmanocept with other 99mTc-based agents are required before it can be routinely used in clinical settings. PMID:25028560

Tausch, Christoph; Baege, Astrid; Rageth, Christoph

2014-01-01

226

Ten-Year Locoregional Recurrence Risks in Women With Nodal Micrometastatic Breast Cancer Staged With Axillary Dissection  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare the locoregional recurrence (LRR) rates in patients with nodal mirometastases (pNmic) with those in patients with node-negative (pN0) and macroscopic node-positive (pNmac) breast cancer; and to evaluate the LRR rates according to locoregional treatment of pNmic disease. Methods and Materials: The subjects were 9,616 women diagnosed between 1989 and 1999 with Stage pT1-T2, pN0, pNmic, or pNmac, M0 breast cancer. All women had undergone axillary dissection. The Kaplan-Meier local recurrence, regional recurrence, and LRR rates were compared among those with pN0 (n = 7,977), pNmic (n = 490) and pNmac (n = 1,149) and according to locoregional treatment. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the significant factors associated with LRR. Results: The median follow-up was 11 years. The 10-year Kaplan-Meier recurrence rate in the pN0, pNmic, and pNmac cohorts was 6.1%, 6.8%, and 8.7% for local recurrence; 3.1%, 6.2%, and 10.3% for regional recurrence; and 8.0%, 11.6%, and 15.2% for LRR, respectively (all p < .001). In the pNmic patients, the 10-year regional recurrence rate was 6.4% with breast-conserving surgery plus breast radiotherapy (RT), 5.4% with breast-conserving surgery plus locoregional RT, 4.6% with mastectomy alone, 11.1% with mastectomy plus chest wall RT, and 10.7% with mastectomy plus locoregional RT. In patients with pNmic disease and age <45 years, Grade 3 histologic features, lymphovascular invasion, nodal ratio >0.25, and estrogen receptor-negative disease, the 10-year LRR rates were 15-20%. On multivariate analysis of the entire cohort, pNmic was associated with greater LRR than Stage pN0 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.6; p = .002). On multivariate analysis of pNmic patients only, age <45 years was associated with significantly greater LRR (HR, 1.9; p = .03), and trends for greater LRR were observed with a nodal ratio >0.25 (HR, 2.0; p = .07) and lymphovascular invasion (HR, 1.7; p = .07). Conclusion: Women with pNmic had a greater risk of LRR than those with pN0 disease. Patients with pNmic in association with young age, Grade 3 histologic features, lymphovascular invasion, nodal ratio >0.25, and estrogen receptor-negative disease experienced 10-year LRR rates of {approx}15-20%, warranting consideration of locoregional RT.

Lupe, Krystine [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, BC (Canada); Truong, Pauline T., E-mail: ptruong@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, BC (Canada); Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Victoria, BC (Canada); Alexander, Cheryl; Speers, Caroline [Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, BC (Canada); Tyldesley, Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, BC (Canada); Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Victoria, BC (Canada)

2011-12-01

227

Feasibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound-guided biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes in dogs.  

PubMed

Our goal was to develop and validate a technique to identify the sentinel lymph nodes of the mammary glands of healthy dogs with contrast-enhanced ultrasound, and evaluate the feasibility of obtaining representative samples of a sentinel lymph node under ultrasound guidance using a new biopsy device. Three healthy intact female adult hounds were anesthetized and each received an injection of octafluoropropane-filled lipid microspheres and a separate subcutaneous injection of methylene blue dye around a mammary gland. Ultrasound was then used to follow the contrast agent through the lymphatic channel to the sentinel lymph node. Lymph node biopsy was performed under ultrasound guidance, followed by an excisional biopsy of the lymph nodes and a regional mastectomy procedure. Excised tissues were submitted for histopathologic examination and evaluated as to whether they were representative of the node. The ultrasound contrast agent was easily visualized with ultrasound leading up to the sentinel lymph nodes. Eight normal lymph nodes (two inguinal, one axillary in two dogs; two inguinal in one dog) were identified and biopsied. Lymphoid tissue was obtained from all biopsy specimens. Samples from four of eight lymph nodes contained both cortical and medullary lymphoid tissue. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound can be successfully used to image and guide minimally invasive biopsy of the normal sentinel lymph nodes draining the mammary glands in healthy dogs. Further work is needed to evaluate whether this technique may be applicable in patients with breast cancer or other conditions warranting evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in animals. PMID:21158235

Gelb, Hylton R; Freeman, Lynetta J; Rohleder, Jacob J; Snyder, Paul W

2010-01-01

228

Prognostic value of axillary lymphoscintigraphy in breast carcinoma patients  

SciTech Connect

Axillary lymphoscintigraphy (AxLS) with bilateral interdigital injection of (99mTc)antimony sulfide colloid carried out concurrently with internal mammary lymphoscintigraphy in 488 patients with breast carcinoma was evaluated. Patterns of radiocolloid distribution within the ipsilateral axilla and supraclavicular fossa were compared with similar features on the contralateral side to determine whether image characteristics are significantly disrupted by prior surgery, reflect the presence of metastases, and can predict treatment failure. Interpretive criteria for AxLS were refined after correlation of the identified image components with clinical parameters including axillary surgery, lymph node histology and relapse within a follow-up period of 2 years from the study. Results indicate that AxLS is at least as accurate as clinical assessment and provides data predictive of relapse to complement axillary lymph node status although the technique cannot presently replace lymph node sampling for patient staging.

McLean, R.G.; Ege, G.N.

1986-07-01

229

Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Uterine Cervical Cancer Patients: Ready for Clinical Use? A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been widely studied in a number of cancer types. As far as cervical cancer is concerned, this technique has already been used, revealing both positive results and several issues to be solved. The debate on the role of sentinel lymph node biopsy in cervical cancer is still open although most of the studies have already revealed its superiority over complete lymphadenectomy and the best handling possible of the emerging practical problems. Further research should be made in order to standardize this method and include it in the clinical routine. PMID:24527233

Palla, Viktoria-Varvara; Karaolanis, Georgios; Moris, Demetrios; Antsaklis, Aristides

2014-01-01

230

Re-sentinel node biopsy after previous breast and axillary surgery.  

PubMed

There is no consensus regarding the strategy for managing the regional lymph nodes in patients with local breast cancer recurrence. This paper reviews the updated data on re-sentinel lymph node biopsy (re-SLNB) after previous surgery. The identification rate of re-SLNB varied from 29 to 100 % (mean 67 %). The success rate of re-SLNB depends on the method used for the previous axillary surgery and the number of lymph nodes harvested. Re-SLNB may be feasible even after mastectomy. A relationship between post-operative radiotherapy and identification of re-SLNB was not seen. A longer disease-free interval may correlate with a lower identification rate, but this finding is not definitive. Based on data regarding back-up dissection after re-SLNB, the accuracy of re-SLNB may be as good as SLNB in primary cases. Altered lymphatic drainage was reported in 2-89 % (mean 32 %) of cases. Because the altered lymphatic drainage can be detected only by lymphoscintigraphy, the radioisotope method, followed by lymphoscintigraphy, should be used. There are not many reported cases of axillary recurrence after re-SLNB, and the follow-up periods have been short. Because re-SLNB cases have a wide variety of backgrounds, it is necessary to accumulate a larger number of cases and to obtain data from longer follow-up period in order to make clear recommendations. PMID:24254062

Ikeda, Tadashi

2014-11-01

231

STAT1 and survivin expression in full lymph node examined gastric cancer by using tissue microarray technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To characterize the relationship between STAT1 and Survivin expression, and the relationship between them and lymph\\u000a node metastasis, depth of invasion and prognosis in fully lymph node examined gastric cancer patients of China. Methods: Specimens\\u000a of curative dissection between 1988 and 2003 were collected from the affiliated hospital of Jianghan University. All 140 patients\\u000a had complete examination data. All

Hao Deng; Renliang Wu; Ying Chen; Lijiang Liu

2006-01-01

232

Regulation of activator protein-1 activity in the mediastinal lymph node metastasis of lung cancer.  

PubMed

Orthotopic implantation of a metastatic cell line of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC-MLN), which was isolated by an in vivo selection method, resulted in greater metastatic growth in mediastinal lymph nodes as compared with that of the original LLC cells. LLC-MLN cells also had increased invasive ability and activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcriptional activity as compared with the original LLC cells. This is well consistent with the previously reported finding that overexpression of AP-1 is associated with lymphatic metastasis in lung cancer patients. Oral administration of curcumin, which downregulates AP-1 transcription, significantly inhibited the mediastinal lymph node metastasis of orthotopically implanted LLC cells in a dose-dependent manner, but did not affect the tumor growth at the implantation site. Combined treatment with curcumin and an anti-cancer drug, cis-diamine-dichloroplatinum (CDDP), resulted in a marked inhibition of tumor growth at the implanted site and of lymphatic metastasis, and a significant prolongation of the survival time. The downregulation of transcriptional AP-1 activity by curcumin as seen in the dual luciferase assay caused inhibition of LLC cell invasion through the repression of expression of the mRNAs for urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) and its receptor (u-PAR). Inhibition of AP-1 transcriptional activity may offer improved therapeutic efficacy for lung cancer patients with lymphatic metastasis. PMID:11688958

Ichiki, K; Mitani, N; Doki, Y; Hara, H; Misaki, T; Saiki, I

2000-01-01

233

Dermal Injection of Radioactive Colloid Is Superior to Peritumoral Injection for Breast Cancer Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy: Results of a Multiinstitutional Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the optimal radioactive colloid injection technique for sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for breast cancer. Summary Background Data The optimal radioactive colloid injection technique for breast cancer SLN biopsy has not yet been defined. Peritumoral injection of radioactive colloid has been used in most studies. Although dermal injection of radioactive colloid has been proposed, no published data exist to establish the false-negative rate associated with this technique. Methods The University of Louisville Breast Cancer Sentinel Lymph Node Study is a multiinstitutional study involving 229 surgeons. Patients with clinical stage T1–2, N0 breast cancer were eligible for the study. All patients underwent SLN biopsy, followed by level I/II axillary dissection. Peritumoral, subdermal, or dermal injection of radioactive colloid was performed at the discretion of the operating surgeon. Peritumoral injection of isosulfan blue dye was performed concomitantly in most patients. The SLN identification rates and false-negative rates were compared. The ratios of the transcutaneous and ex vivo radioactive SLN count to the final background count were calculated as a measure of the relative degree of radioactivity of the nodes. One-way analysis of variance and chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. Results A total of 2,206 patients were enrolled. Peritumoral, subdermal, or dermal injection of radioactive colloid was performed in 1,074, 297, and 511 patients, respectively. Most of the patients (94%) who underwent radioactive colloid injection also received peritumoral blue dye injection. The SLN identification rate was improved by the use of dermal injection compared with subdermal or peritumoral injection of radioactive colloid. The false-negative rates were 9.5%, 7.8%, and 6.5% (not significant) for peritumoral, subdermal, and dermal injection techniques, respectively. The relative degree of radioactivity of the SLN was five- to sevenfold higher with the dermal injection technique compared with peritumoral injection. Conclusions Dermal injection of radioactive colloid significantly improves the SLN identification rate compared with peritumoral or subdermal injection. The false-negative rate is also minimized by the use of dermal injection. Dermal injection also is associated with SLNs that are five- to sevenfold more radioactive than with peritumoral injection, which simplifies SLN localization and may shorten the learning curve. PMID:11360892

McMasters, Kelly M.; Wong, Sandra L.; Martin, Robert C. G.; Chao, Celia; Tuttle, Todd M.; Noyes, R. Dirk; Carlson, David J.; Laidley, Alison L.; McGlothin, Terre Q.; Ley, Philip B.; Brown, C. Matthew; Glaser, Rebecca L.; Pennington, Robert E.; Turk, Peter S.; Simpson, Diana; Cerrito, Patricia B.; Edwards, Michael J.

2001-01-01

234

Pathologic reporting of lymph node metastases in differentiated thyroid cancer: a call to action for the College of American Pathologists.  

PubMed

Lymph nodes in differentiated thyroid cancer have many different histomorphologic features. The current AJCC staging system does not distinguish between different lymph node characteristics and is based entirely on the presence of metastatic disease to upstage pN0 to pN1. However, clinicians involved in the management of thyroid cancer recognize that there is a difference in the clinical significance of finding macroscopic versus microscopic nodes. There appears to be a difference in disease biology that allows lymph nodes to reach different sizes and to manifest disease extension outside the capsule, which has led clinicians, and even clinical practice guidelines, to stratify nodal metastases on the basis of these features. The inherent presumption is that all lymph node metastases in differentiated thyroid cancer do not have the same clinical significance with respect to the risk of recurrence and the risk of death. However, the College of American Pathology (CAP) has not mandated that pathologists include these findings as part of their standard reporting protocol in thyroid cancer. In order to arm clinicians with the tools to design clinical trials and to make important patient management decisions in the presence of lymph node metastases, it is imperative that the CAP adopt a strategy for more detailed reporting that is similar to the protocol currently utilized in breast cancer pathologic reporting. PMID:24292975

Urken, Mark L; Mechanick, Jeffery I; Sarlin, Jonathan; Scherl, Sophie; Wenig, Bruce M

2014-09-01

235

Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping of Breast Cancer via Intradermal Administration of Lymphoseek  

PubMed Central

Lymphoseek™ is a molecular imaging agent specifically designed for sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping. We conducted a Phase I trial which measured the injection site clearance and sentinel lymph node accumulation after a single intra-dermal injection of Lymphoseek or [99mTc]sulfur colloid protocol. Ten patients with breast cancer participated in this study. Five patients received an intradermal administration of 1.0 nmole of 99mTc-labeled Lymphoseek and five patients received an intra-dermal administration of filtered [99mTc]sulfur colloid (fTcSC). Lymphoseek, exhibited a significantly (P < .001) faster injection site clearance than fTcSC. The mean Lymphoseek clearance half-time was 2.61 ± 0.72 hr compared to 24.1 ± 17.7 hr for fTcSC. The mean sentinel lymph node uptake of Lymphoseek (1.1 ± .5%), and TcSC (2.5 ± 4.9%) were statistically equivalent (P = 0.28). When an intra-dermal injection was employed, Lymphoseek demonstrated faster injection site clearance than filtered [99mTc]sulfur colloid. PMID:17921035

Wallace, Anne M.; Hoh, Carl K.; Darrah, Denise D.; Schulteis, Gery; Vera, David R.

2014-01-01

236

Metastatic lymph node ratio (LNR) as a prognostic variable in colorectal cancer patients undergoing laparoscopic resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Lymph node ratio (LNR: the ratio of metastatic to total retrieved nodes) has shown prognostic significance in several tumors.\\u000a Its role in patients with colorectal cancer submitted to laparoscopic resection is still not clearly defined. The aim of this\\u000a study was to evaluate the impact of LNR on long-term outcome in patients undergoing curative laparoscopic resection.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Patients’ data were retrieved

R. Greenberg; R. Itah; R. Ghinea; E. Sacham-Shmueli; R. Inbar; S. Avital

237

The lateral thoracic fasciocutaneous island flap for treatment of recurrent hidradenitis axillaris suppurativa and other axillary skin defects.  

PubMed

A series of eight axillary skin defect reconstructions in seven patients using the lateral thoracic island fasciocutaneous flap is presented. The defects originated from wide excision of recurrent hidradenitis axillaris suppurativa and in one case from radical melanoma resection with axillary lymph node clearance. The technique used to cover the resulting large defects is advancement or transposition of an island flap from the lateral thoracic wall, pedicled on two or three nourishing vessels arising from the lateral thoracic or thoracodorsal vessels. No flap complications occurred and the results with respect to donor site morbidity, functional and aesthetic outcome were very satisfactory. PMID:11090324

Schwabegger, A H; Herczeg, E; Piza, H

2000-12-01

238

Intratumor genomic heterogeneity in breast cancer with clonal divergence between primary carcinomas and lymph node metastases.  

PubMed

Conflicting theories of epithelial carcinogenesis disagree on the clonal composition of primary tumors and on the time at which metastases occur. In order to study the spatial distribution of disparate clonal populations within breast carcinomas and the extent of the genetic relationship between primary tumors and regional metastases, we have analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization 122 tissue samples from altogether 60 breast cancer patients, including 34 tumor samples obtained from different quadrants of 9 breast carcinomas, as well as paired primary-metastatic samples from 12 patients. The median intratumor genetic heterogeneity score (HS) was 17.4% and unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis comparing the genetic features to those of an independent series of 41 breast carcinomas confirmed intratumor clonal divergence in a high proportion of cases. The median HS between paired primary breast tumors and lymph node metastases was 33.3%, but the number of genomic imbalances did not differ significantly. Clustering analysis confirmed extensive clonal divergence between primary carcinomas and lymph node metastases in several cases. In the independent series of 41 breast carcinomas, the number of genomic imbalances in primary tumors was significantly higher in patients presenting lymph node metastases (median = 15.5) than in the group with no evidence of disease spreading at diagnosis (median = 5.0). We conclude that primary breast carcinomas may be composed of several genetically heterogeneous and spatially separated cell populations and that paired primary breast tumors and lymph node metastases often present divergent clonal evolution, indicating that metastases may occur relatively early during breast carcinogenesis. PMID:16906480

Torres, Lurdes; Ribeiro, Franclim R; Pandis, Nikos; Andersen, Johan A; Heim, Sverre; Teixeira, Manuel R

2007-04-01

239

Near-Infrared Fluorescence Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping of the Oral Cavity in Head and Neck Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives Elective neck dissection is frequently performed during surgery in head and neck cancer patients. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure can prevent the morbidity of a neck dissection and improve lymph node staging by fine pathology. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging is a promising technique to identify the sentinel lymph node (SLN) intraoperatively. This feasibility study explored the use of indocyanine green adsorbed to human serum albumin (ICG:HSA) for SLN mapping in head and neck cancer patients. Materials and Methods A total of 10 consecutive patients with oral cavity or oropharyngeal cancer and a clinical N0 neck were included. After exposure of the neck, 1.6 mL of ICG:HSA (500 ?M) was injected at 4 quadrants around the tumor. During the neck dissection, levels I, II, III and IV were measured for fluorescence using the Mini-FLARE imaging system. Results In all 10 patients, NIR fluorescence imaging enabled visualization of one or more SLNs. A total of 17 SLNs were identified. The mean contrast between the fluorescent signal of the lymph nodes and of the surrounding tissue was 8.7 ± 6.4. In 3 patients, of which 1 was false-negative, lymph node metastases were found. After administration of ICG:HSA, the average number of fluorescent lymph nodes significantly increased over time (P < 0.001). Conclusion This study demonstrated feasibility to detect draining lymph nodes in head and neck cancer patients using NIR fluorescence imaging. However, the fluorescent tracer quickly migrated beyond the SLN to higher tier nodes. PMID:22939692

van der Vorst, Joost R.; Schaafsma, Boudewijn E.; Verbeek, Floris P.R.; Keereweer, Stijn; Jansen, Jeroen C.; van der Velden, Lilly-Ann; Langeveld, Antonius; Hutteman, Merlijn; Lowik, Clemens; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; Frangioni, John V.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.

2013-01-01

240

[Para-aortic lymph node dissection for far-advanced gastric cancer followed by chemotherapy].  

PubMed

We evaluated the safety of preoperative chemotherapy against advanced gastric cancer with para-aortic lymph node metastasis. In this study, we compared 11 patients who received preoperative chemotherapy(PC group) to 56 patients who did not receive preoperative chemotherapy (NPC group). We performed 47 total gastrectomies and 2 distal gastrectomies in the PC group and 9 total gastrectomies and 9 distal gastrectomies in the NPC group. In the PC group, the mean operation time was 275 min for distal gastrectomy and 297 min for total gastrectomy. In the NPC group, the mean operation time was 265 min for distal gastrectomy and 296 min for total gastrectomy. Regarding blood loss during operation, in the PC group, the mean blood loss was 650 mL for distal gastrectomy and 760 mL for total gastrectomy. In the NPC group, the mean blood loss was 530 mL for distal gastrectomy and 825 mL for total gastrectomy. No significant differences were seen between the 2 groups. In conclusion, preoperative chemotherapy against advanced gastric cancer with para-aortic lymph node metastasis appears to be a safe treatment, but we need to conduct clinical trials for confirmation. PMID:23268063

Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Ohashi, Manabu; Iwanaga, Tomohiro; Ohinata, Ryouki; Takahashi, Keiichi; Yamaguchi, Tatsuro; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Nakano, Daisuke

2012-11-01

241

Automatic FDG-PET-based tumor and metastatic lymph node segmentation in cervical cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Treatment of cervical cancer, one of the three most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide, often relies on delineations of the tumour and metastases based on PET imaging using the contrast agent 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). We present a robust automatic algorithm for segmenting the gross tumour volume (GTV) and metastatic lymph nodes in such images. As the cervix is located next to the bladder and FDG is washed out through the urine, the PET-positive GTV and the bladder cannot be easily separated. Our processing pipeline starts with a histogram-based region of interest detection followed by level set segmentation. After that, morphological image operations combined with clustering, region growing, and nearest neighbour labelling allow to remove the bladder and to identify the tumour and metastatic lymph nodes. The proposed method was applied to 125 patients and no failure could be detected by visual inspection. We compared our segmentations with results from manual delineations of corresponding MR and CT images, showing that the detected GTV lays at least 97.5% within the MR/CT delineations. We conclude that the algorithm has a very high potential for substituting the tedious manual delineation of PET positive areas.

Arbonès, Dídac R.; Jensen, Henrik G.; Loft, Annika; Munck af Rosenschöld, Per; Hansen, Anders Elias; Igel, Christian; Darkner, Sune

2014-03-01

242

[A case of rectal cancer which showed complete response to chemotherapy for para-aortic lymph node metastases remaining after surgery, for which resection of Virchow's lymph node recurrence led to long-term survival].  

PubMed

A 55-year-old man with a positive fecal occult blood test visited our department, and after a thorough medical evaluation, was diagnosed with Stage IV Rs rectal cancer with marked para-aortic lymph node metastasis. In December 2007, the patient underwent low anterior rectal resection with D3 lymph node dissection, but the para-aortic lymph nodes were left. The metastatic lymph nodes showed a complete response(CR)to post-operative chemotherapy with FOLFOX, FOLFIRI, IRIS, and irinotecan+cetuximab, and the complete response was sustained for 18 months after surgery. Later, he developed Virchow's lymph node metastasis, which was also resected. At present, 5 years after the first surgery, the patient, whose chemotherapy has been discontinued, is alive without recurrence. It appears that using key drugs, such as 5-fluorouracil, leukovorin, oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and cetuximab, and performing aggressive salvage surgery for Virchow's lymph node recurrence, led to long-term recurrence-free survival. PMID:24047787

Imamura, Hiroshi; Iino, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Akihiko; Kuwahata, Taisaku; Yonemori, Keiichi; Onishi, Shun; Higashi, Hiroshi; Sakita, Hironori; Tanabe, Gen; Natsugoe, Shouji

2013-09-01

243

Application of Nano-Carbon in Lymph Node Dissection for Thyroid Cancer and Protection of Parathyroid Glands  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to explore a new method to identify and protect parathyroid glands in neck lymph node dissection for patients with thyroid cancer. Material/Methods One hundred patients with thyroid cancer underwent total thyroidectomy combined with central neck lymph node dissection. During the operation, 50 patients receiving nano-carbon suspension were included in the experiment group, and 50 patients without nano-carbon suspension were included in the control group. We compared changes in parathyroid hormone levels before surgery and at 48 h after surgery between the 2 groups and of serum Ca2+ level within 48 h after surgery, as well as postoperative parathyroid pathological and lymph node dissection results. Results Eight and 1 parathyroid glands were detected pathologically in the control and experimental group, respectively. Decrease in parathyroid hormone level at 48 h occurred in 7 patients in the control group and 1 patient in the experimental group. Hypocalcemia was found at 48 h after surgery in 10 patients in the control group and 2 patients in the experimental group. Conclusions Nano-carbon suspension can cause development of the thyroid gland and the central lymph node and a negative development of parathyroid glands. Careful identification and removal of black-stained lymphatic tissues in the process of total thyroidectomy with neck lymph node dissection can ensure a complete lymph node dissection and prevent parathyroid damage, thus effectively reducing the incidence of hypoparathyroidism. PMID:25311844

Tian, Wuguo; Jiang, Yan; Gao, Bo; Zhang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Shu; Zhao, Jianjie; He, Yujun; Luo, Donglin

2014-01-01

244

Sentinel Lymph Node (SLN) Biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

... 1 BREAST CANCER LUMPECTOMY AND SENTINEL LYMPH NODE BIOPSY GENESIS MEDICAL CENTER DAVENPORT, IOWA October 10. 2007 ... breast cancer lumpectomy and subsequent sentinel lymph node biopsy. The procedure will be performed by Dr. David ...

245

The utility of EUS and EUS-guided fine needle aspiration in detecting celiac lymph node metastasis in patients with esophageal cancer: A single-center experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aims of this study were to determine the utility of EUS and EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in the detection and confirmation of celiac lymph node metastasis in patients with esophageal cancer and to define EUS features predictive of celiac lymph node metastasis in these patients. Methods: The records of 211 patients with esophageal cancer who underwent EUS

Mohamad A. Eloubeidi; Michael B. Wallace; Carolyn E. Reed; Neven Hadzijahic; David N. Lewin; Annette Van Velse; Margaret B. Leveen; Babak Etemad; Koji Matsuda; Rig S. Patel; Robert H. Hawes; Brenda J. Hoffman

2001-01-01

246

Optimal size criteria of malignant lymph nodes in the treatment planning of radiotherapy for esophageal cancer: Evaluation by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine the optimal size criterion for detection of lymph node metastases from esophageal cancer for radiotherapy by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging.Methods and Materials: In 58 patients with esophageal cancer treated with subtotal esophagectomy and radical lymph node dissection the preoperative Mr (n = 58) images and CT scans (n = 41) were reviewed. The

Takashi Mizowaki; Yasumasa Nishimura; Yutaka Shimada; Yoshihisa Nakano; Masayuki Imamura; Junji Konishi; Masahiro Hiraoka

1996-01-01

247

CDO1 Promoter Methylation is a Biomarker for Outcome Prediction of Anthracycline Treated, Estrogen Receptor-Positive, Lymph Node-Positive Breast Cancer Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Various biomarkers for prediction of distant metastasis in lymph-node negative breast cancer have been described; however, predictive biomarkers for patients with lymph-node positive (LNP) disease in the context of distinct systemic therapies are still very much needed. DNA methylation is aberrant in breast cancer and is likely to play a major role in disease progression. In this study, the

Dimo Dietrich; Manuel Krispin; Jörn Dietrich; Anne Fassbender; Jörn Lewin; Nadia Harbeck; Manfred Schmitt; Serenella Eppenberger-Castori; Vincent Vuaroqueaux; Frédérique Spyratos; John A Foekens; Ralf Lesche; John WM Martens

2010-01-01

248

The effectiveness of extended lymph node dissection for gastric cancer performed in Costa Rica under the supervision of a Japanese surgeon: a comparison with surgical results in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveIn 1996, the Gastric Cancer Detection Center in Costa Rica (CR) initiated extended lymph node (D2) dissection for gastric cancer patients. We present an analysis of the surgical results compared with those in Japan.

Tsuyoshi Sasagawa; Horacio Solano; Walter Vega; Fernando Mena

2008-01-01

249

Significance of the lymph nodes in the 7th station in rational dissection for metastasis of distal gastric cancer with different T categories  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the clinicopathological characteristics, and evaluate the appropriate extent of lymph node dissection in distal gastric cancer patients with comparable T category. Methods A retrospective study was conducted on 570 distal gastric cancer patients, who underwent gastric resection with D2 nodal dissection, which was performed by the same surgical team from January 1997 to January 2011. We compared the differences in lymph node metastasis rates and metastatic lymph node ratios between different T categories. Additionally, we investigated the impact of lymph node metastasis in the 7th station on survival rate of distal gastric cancer patients with the same TNM staging. Results Among the 570 patients, the overall lymph node metastasis rate of advanced distal gastric cancer was 78.1%, and the metastatic lymph node ratio was 27%. The lymph node metastasis rate in the 7th station was similar to that of perigastric lymph nodes. There was no statistical significance in patients with the same TNM stage (stage II and III), irrespective of the metastatic status in the 7th station. Conclusions Our results suggest that to a certain extent, it is reasonable to include lymph nodes in the 7th station in the D1 lymph node dissection. PMID:25232215

Song, Wu; Wang, Shaochuan; He, Weiling; Xu, Jianbo

2014-01-01

250

Radical lymph node dissection and assessment: Impact on gallbladder cancer prognosis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the lymph node metastasis patterns of gallbladder cancer (GBC) and evaluate the optimal categorization of nodal status as a critical prognostic factor. METHODS: From May 1995 to December 2010, a total of 78 consecutive patients with GBC underwent a radical resection at Liaocheng People’s Hospital. A radical resection was defined as removing both the primary tumor and the regional lymph nodes of the gallbladder. Demographic, operative and pathologic data were recorded. The lymph nodes retrieved were examined histologically for metastases routinely from each node. The positive lymph node count (PLNC) as well as the total lymph node count (TLNC) was recorded for each patient. Then the metastatic to examined lymph nodes ratio (LNR) was calculated. Disease-specific survival (DSS) and predictors of outcome were analyzed. RESULTS: With a median follow-up time of 26.50 mo (range, 2-132 mo), median DSS was 29.00 ± 3.92 mo (5-year survival rate, 20.51%). Nodal disease was found in 37 patients (47.44%). DSS of node-negative patients was significantly better than that of node-positive patients (median DSS, 40 mo vs 17 mo, ?2 = 14.814, P < 0.001), while there was no significant difference between N1 patients and N2 patients (median DSS, 18 mo vs 13 mo, ?2 = 0.741, P = 0.389). Optimal TLNC was determined to be four. When node-negative patients were divided according to TLNC, there was no difference in DSS between TLNC < 4 subgroup and TLNC ? 4 subgroup (median DSS, 37 mo vs 54 mo, ?2 = 0.715, P = 0.398). For node-positive patients, DSS of TLNC < 4 subgroup was worse than that of TLNC ? 4 subgroup (median DSS, 13 mo vs 21 mo, ?2 = 11.035, P < 0.001). Moreover, for node-positive patients, a new cut-off value of six nodes was identified for the number of TLNC that clearly stratified them into 2 separate survival groups (< 6 or ? 6, respectively; median DSS, 15 mo vs 33 mo, ?2 = 11.820, P < 0.001). DSS progressively worsened with increasing PLNC and LNR, but no definite cut-off value could be identified. Multivariate analysis revealed histological grade, tumor node metastasis staging, TNLC and LNR to be independent predictors of DSS. Neither location of positive lymph nodes nor PNLC were identified as an independent variable by multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Both TLNC and LNR are strong predictors of outcome after curative resection for GBC. The retrieval and examination of at least 6 nodes can influence staging quality and DSS, especially in node-positive patients. PMID:23964151

Liu, Gui-Jie; Li, Xue-Hua; Chen, Yan-Xin; Sun, Hui-Dong; Zhao, Gui-Mei; Hu, San-Yuan

2013-01-01

251

Predicting Pelvic Lymph Node Involvement in Current-Era Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The Roach formula [2/3 Multiplication-Sign prostate-specific antigen + (Gleason score - 6) Multiplication-Sign 10], derived in 1993 during the early prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening era, has been used to predict the risk of pelvic lymph node involvement in patients with prostate cancer. In the current era of widespread PSA screening with a shift to earlier disease stages, there is evidence to suggest that the Roach score overestimates risk of nodal metastasis. This study retrospectively reviews the validity of this formula as a prediction tool. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective institutional review including men with clinical T1c-T3 prostate cancer, with baseline PSA levels and biopsy-obtained Gleason scores who underwent radical prostatectomy with pelvic node dissection from 2001 through 2009 (N = 1,022). The predicted risk of nodal involvement was calculated for each patient using the Roach formula and then compared with actual rates following surgery. Results: The study included 1,022 patients; 99.6% had clinical T1c/T2 disease, with a mean of 10.3 lymph nodes surgically evaluated. Overall, 42 patients (4.1%) had nodal metastasis. For every range of scores, the Roach formula overestimates the risk of nodal involvement. Observed nodal positivity was 1%, 6.3%, 10%, 15.2%, and 16.7% for Roach scores {<=}10%, >10%-20%, >20%-30%, >30%-40%, and >40%, respectively. The Roach score overestimates the risk by approximately 4.5-fold in patients with scores {<=}10%, by 2.5-fold for all scores between 10% and 40%, and by 4-fold for scores >40%. Conclusion: The Roach formula overpredicts the risk of pelvic nodal involvement in current-era prostate cancer patients undergoing regular PSA screening and with mainly T1c/T2 disease. Contemporary patients are much less likely to have nodal involvement for a given PSA and Gleason score.

Rahman, Sophia, E-mail: sophs1578@yahoo.com [Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Cosmatos, Harry [Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Dave, Giatri [Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Fresno, CA (United States); Williams, Stephen [Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Department of Urology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Tome, Michael [Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

2012-02-01

252

Any detectable thyroglobulin in lymph node biopsy washouts suggests local recurrence in differentiated thyroid cancer.  

PubMed

The sensitivity of local recurrence detection in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is increased by measuring thyroglobulin in needle washouts from lymph node fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNA-Tg). Recent studies have proposed minimum diagnostic threshold values for FNA-Tg and have reported interference from Tg antibodies (Tg Ab), leading to low or false-negative results. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of FNA-Tg in the diagnosis of local DTC recurrence in patients referred to a single pathology service used by our tertiary teaching hospital, the first such study in an Australian cohort. Data were collected from the pathology service database for FNA-Tg over an 18-month period, and the results of 69 FNA-Tg samples from 57 patients were obtained. FNA-Tg findings were compared with cytology and histology when patients proceeded to surgery. Using the functional sensitivity as the cut-off, detectable FNA-Tg (?0.9??g/l) had a sensitivity of 95.7%, specificity of 50% and positive predictive value of 95.7%. Our results suggest that detectable FNA-Tg leads to histological confirmation of local nodal DTC recurrence and would support a decision to proceed to surgery. Serum Tg Ab can, however, interfere with FNA-Tg measurements. Thus, we now recommend routine use of FNA-Tg washouts in all lymph node FNA biopsies for the detection of DTC recurrence. PMID:25125556

Yap, Natalie Su-Jing; Maher, Richard; Learoyd, Diana Louise

2014-12-01

253

Anatomic Aspects of Inguinal Lymph Nodes Applied to Lymphadenectomy in Penile Cancer  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To provide a better understanding of the distribution of inguinal nodes in order to prevent the complications of unnecessary and extended dissections in penile cancer. Methods. The bilateral inguinal regions of 19 male cadavers were dissected. Nodal distribution was noted and quantified based on anatomical location. The superficial nodes were subdivided into quarters as follows: superomedial, superolateral, inferomedial, and inferolateral. Statistical analysis was performed comparing node distribution between quarters using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the unpaired T-test was used between superficial and deep nodes. Results. Superficial nodes were found in all inguinal regions studied (mean = 13.60), and their distribution was more prominent in the superomedial quarter (mean = 3.94) and less in the inferolateral quarter (mean = 2.73). There was statistical significance between quarters when comparing the upper group with the lower one (P = 0.02). Nodes were widely distributed in the superficial region compared with deep lymph nodes (mean = 13.60 versus 1.71, P < 0.001). Conclusions. A great number of inguinal lymph nodes are distributed near the classical anatomical landmarks for inguinal lymphadenectomy, more prominent in upper quadrants. PMID:22110493

de Carvalho, Joao Paulo Martins; Patricio, Bruno F.; Medeiros, Jorge; Sampaio, Francisco J. B.; Favorito, Luciano A.

2011-01-01

254

Epitrochlear Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Melanoma: Interval or Independent?  

PubMed Central

Most primary melanomas on the distal upper extremity metastasize to a sentinel lymph node (SLN) in the axillary basin, but occasionally a primary melanoma will drain to the epitrochlear basin. The relationship between tumor-draining axillary and epitrochlear SLNs is unclear. We hypothesize that the epitrochlear SLN functions in an interval manner with the axillary lymph node basin. We queried our melanoma database to identify patients who underwent SLN biopsy for a distal upper-extremity melanoma. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, patterns of nodal drainage and incidence of SLN metastasis were analyzed. Of 255 patients identified, 38 (14.9%) had an epitrochlear SLN. Mean Breslow thickness was 2.26 mm. All patients with epitrochlear drainage had concurrent axillary drainage and underwent axillary and epitrochlear SLN biopsies. Of these 38 patients, two (5.2%) had epitrochlear and axillary SLN metastasis, four (10.5%) had epitrochlear metastasis only, four (10.5%) had axillary metastasis only, and the remaining 28 (73.7%) had tumor-free SLNs. The invariable association of epitrochlear and axillary drainage in this study suggests that epitrochlear nodes function in an interval role with the axillary lymph node basin. Therefore we recommend that all patients with a positive epitrochlear SLN undergo completion axillary dissection. PMID:22643268

Kidner, Travis; Yoon, Jeong; Faries, Mark; Morton, Donald

2012-01-01

255

Proposal of a new lymph node staging system for gastric cancer: study from two institutions in China.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify the best cutoff points for lymph node classification to improve the prognostic prediction of gastric cancer in China. Patients who had undergone surgery for gastric cancer were retrospectively evaluated in two high-volume institutions from Peking University People's Hospital (PKUPH, N=503) and Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University (AHQU, N=1,003). The prognosis of these patients was assessed according to the number of metastatic lymph nodes with an increment of one node at one time. A new lymph node classification was proposed based on the relation between prognosis and the number of metastatic lymph nodes. According to the prognostic value, the proposed node (N) stage was categorized as N0 (no regional LNs metastasis), N1 (1-3 involved regional LNs), N2 (4-6 involved regional LNs), and N3 (?7 involved regional LNs). The hazard ratio for the proposed N classification increased steadily and reasonably compared with the 7th edition. Moreover, the Cox regression multivariate analysis showed that the proposed N classification was superior to the 7th N classification as an independent prognostic factor. The proposed N category was superior to 7th edition N category of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) for assessing the prognosis for gastric cancer patients in China. PMID:25213762

Zhang, Jizhun; Jiang, Kewei; Liu, Yong; Ye, Yingjiang; Lv, Liang; Shen, Zhanlong; Zhou, Yangbing; Wang, Shan

2014-10-01

256

Correlation of histopathologic findings with clinical and radiologic assessments of cervical lymph-node metastases in oral cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy of preoperative diagnosis of cervical lymph-node metastasis in oral cancer was assessed by comparing the histopathologic findings in 136 sides of neck dissection with physical examination under anaesthesia (EUA) and computerized tomography (CT) assessments of the metastatic status. The overall accuracy of EUA and CT assessments was 72% and 73%, respectively, and a combination of both methods resulted

Julia A. Woolgar; J. C. Beirne; E. D. Vaughan; H. G. Lewis-Jones; J. Scott; J. S. Brown

1995-01-01

257

Risk Factors of Synchronous Inguinal Lymph Nodes Metastasis for Lower Rectal Cancer Involving the Anal Canal  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of the study is to identify the risk factors of synchronous ILN metastasis for lower rectal cancer involving the anal canal. Methods Patients with lower rectal cancer who underwent radical resection at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center were retrospectively analyzed. The synchronous ILN metastasis was defined as the metastasis occurring within 6 months after the diagnosis of rectal cancer. Patients’ gender, age, tumor diameter, dentate line invasion, differentiation level, histological type, depth of invasion, perirectal LN metastasis, lymphovascular invasion or perineural invasion were analyzed in the study. The correlation between synchronous ILN involvement and clinicopathological features were analyzed with Chi-square test/fisher’s exact test. Variables with p<0.05 in univariate analysis were then analyzed in a multivariate logistic model. Odds ratio (OR) along with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Results A total of 325 patients (182 men and 143 women) with lower rectal cancer met the criteria and were enrolled in the study. Among them, 20 patients (6.2%) had synchronous ILN metastasis. Both univariate and multivariate analysis showed the invasion of the dentate line had a strong correlation with synchronous ILN metastasis with the odds ratio (OR) of 23.558 [95% confidence interval (CI) 6.380–86.982] (p<0.001). The presence of lymphovascular invasion also showed a significant correlation synchronous ILN metastasis with odds ratio (OR) of 5.260 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.818–15.212] (p?=?0.002). Conclusions The invasion of dentate line and lymphovascular invasion are two independent risk factors of inguinal lymph node metastasis for lower rectal cancer involving the anal canal. PMID:25409168

Shi, Debing; Zheng, Hongtu; Huang, Liyong; Gu, Weilie; Xu, Ye; Cai, Sanjun; Cai, Guoxiang

2014-01-01

258

Isolated tumor cells in sentinel lymph nodes of invasive breast cancer: cell displacement or metastasis?  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to determine whether the presence of isolated tumoral cells (ITCs) in sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) after core needle biopsy (CNB) is related to the time interval between CNB and surgery and to histopathologic features of invasive breast cancer. Data from 633 consecutive patients with no micrometastasis or metastasis on both frozen sections and definitive pathologic examination of SLNs were retrieved from a prospective data base. No association was found between ITCs and the time interval between CNB and SLNB. The association was significant with tumor size, the tumor lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and the histologic type of the tumor. This study adds supplementary data to the association between tumoral LVI and ITCs in SLNs, The time interval between CNB procedure and SLNB was not related to affect presence of ITCs, which might not suggest the iatrogenic origin of these cells. PMID:24979547

Tille, Jean-Christophe; Loubeyre, Pierre; Bodmer, Alexandre; Jannot Berthier, Anne-Sophie; Rozenholc, Alexandre; Tabouret-Viaud, Claire; Monnier, Sindy; Castiglione, Monica

2014-01-01

259

Evaluation of Breast Sentinel Lymph Node Coverage by Standard Radiation Therapy Fields  

SciTech Connect

Background: Biopsy of the breast sentinel lymph node (SLN) is now a standard staging procedure for early-stage invasive breast cancer. The anatomic location of the breast SLN and its relationship to standard radiation fields has not been described. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of radiotherapy treatment planning data sets was performed in patients with breast cancer who had undergone SLN biopsy, and those with a surgical clip at the SLN biopsy site were identified. The location of the clip was evaluated relative to vertebral body level on an anterior-posterior digitally reconstructed radiograph, treated whole-breast tangential radiation fields, and standard axillary fields in 106 data sets meeting these criteria. Results: The breast SLN varied in vertebral body level position, ranging from T2 to T7 but most commonly opposite T4. The SLN clip was located below the base of the clavicle in 90%, and hence would be excluded from standard axillary radiotherapy fields where the inferior border is placed at this level. The clip was within the irradiated whole-breast tangent fields in 78%, beneath the superior-posterior corner multileaf collimators in 12%, and outside the tangent field borders in 10%. Conclusions: Standard axillary fields do not encompass the lymph nodes at highest risk of containing tumor in breast cancer patients. Elimination of the superior-posterior corner MLCs from the tangent field design would result in inclusion of the breast SLN in 90% of patients treated with standard whole-breast irradiation.

Rabinovitch, Rachel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, CO (United States)], E-mail: Rachel.rabinovitch@uchsc.edu; Ballonoff, Ari; Newman, Francis M.S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, CO (United States); Finlayson, Christina [Department of GI, Tumor, and Endocrine Surgery, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, CO (United States)

2008-04-01

260

Scanning elastic scattering spectroscopy detects metastatic breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method for rapidly detecting metastatic breast cancer within excised sentinel lymph node(s) of the axilla is presented. Elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS) is a point-contact technique that collects broadband optical spectra sensitive to absorption and scattering within the tissue. A statistical discrimination algorithm was generated from a training set of nearly 3000 clinical spectra and used to test clinical spectra collected from an independent set of nodes. Freshly excised nodes were bivalved and mounted under a fiber-optic plate. Stepper motors raster-scanned a fiber-optic probe over the plate to interrogate the node's cut surface, creating a 20×20 grid of spectra. These spectra were analyzed to create a map of cancer risk across the node surface. Rules were developed to convert these maps to a prediction for the presence of cancer in the node. Using these analyses, a leave-one-out cross-validation to optimize discrimination parameters on 128 scanned nodes gave a sensitivity of 69% for detection of clinically relevant metastases (71% for macrometastases) and a specificity of 96%, comparable to literature results for touch imprint cytology, a standard technique for intraoperative diagnosis. ESS has the advantage of not requiring a pathologist to review the tissue sample.

Austwick, Martin R.; Clark, Benjamin; Mosse, Charles A.; Johnson, Kristie; Chicken, D. Wayne; Somasundaram, Santosh K.; Calabro, Katherine W.; Zhu, Ying; Falzon, Mary; Kocjan, Gabrijela; Fearn, Tom; Bown, Stephen G.; Bigio, Irving J.; Keshtgar, Mohammed R. S.

2010-07-01

261

Ultrastaging of colorectal cancer by sentinel lymph node mapping technique--a multicenter trial.  

PubMed

Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping accurately diagnoses the status of nodal basin with >95% accuracy in melanoma and breast cancer. A multicenter trial for SLN mapping was performed on 203 patients with colorectal cancer to determine accuracy, upstaging, skip metastasis, and aberrant drainage. Lymphazurin 1% was injected subserosally around the tumor and 1-4 blue staining nodes were marked as SLNs for detailed histological analysis. SLN mapping was successful in 98% of patients with an average of 1.7 SLNs per patient. SLNs were negative in 63% of the patients and positive in 37% of the patients. Skip metastasis was seen in 8 of the patients. Occult micrometastasis was found in 14% of patients. In 5% of the patients, unusual lymphatic drainage lead to an alteration of the extent of lymphadenectomy. This multicenter trial proved that SLN mapping in patients with colorectal cancer is simple, cost effective, and upstages at least 14% of patients from AJCC stage I/II to stage III. These patients may then benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:11599912

Saha, S; Bilchik, A; Wiese, D; Espinosa, M; Badin, J; Ganatra, B K; Desai, D; Kaushal, S; Singh, T; Arora, M

2001-10-01

262

The Role of Lymphovascular Invasion as a Prognostic Factor in Patients with Lymph Node-Positive Operable Invasive Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is an important prognostic factor in patients with lymph node-negative patients with invasive breast cancer. However, the prognostic value of LVI it is unclear and controversial about its prognostic value in patients with lymph node-positive breast cancer patients. So, we report the an analysis of the prognostic significance of LVI in a large cohort study of patients with lymph node-positive patients with invasive breast cancer. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 967 patients with invasive breast cancer that had undergone surgical treatment at our hospital, from January 2004 to December 2007. Among these thempatients, 349 patients with lymph node-positive breast cancer patients are were included in this study. We evaluated clinical and pathological data in these patients, we compared with 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival between an LVI-present group and an LVI-absent group. Results The median follow-up was 48 months (range, 12-78 months), and the mean age of the patients was 48 years (range, 23-78 years). LVI was present in 192 patients (55%) of with tumors and was associated with age ?40 years (p=0.009), high histologichistological grade (p=0.007), estrogen receptor status (p=0.001), tumor size ?2 cm (p<0.001), and number of involved lymph nodes (p<0.001), but not with progesterone receptor status, HER2 status, p53 status, or tumor multiplicity. LVI was a significant independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival (p<0.001) and overall survival (p=0.006). By multivariate analysis revealed that LVI (p=0.003), number of involved lymph nodes (?4; p=0.005), and high histological grade (II and III; p=0.02) was were an independent significant predictors of disease-free survival and overall survival in the whole group of patients. Conclusion In this case, we demonstrated that LVI is a significant predictor of poor prognosis in patients with lymph node-positive patients with primary invasive breast cancer, LVI is a significant predictive predictor value of poor prognosis. So, LVI should be considered in the therapeutic strategy as a decision making tool in the adjuvant chemotherapy setting. PMID:22031801

Song, Young Ju; Shin, Sun Hyoung; Cho, Jin Seong; Yoon, Jung Han; Jegal, Young Jong

2011-01-01

263

Ex vivo localization and immunohistochemical detection of sentinel lymph node micrometastasis in patients with colorectal cancer can upgrade tumor staging  

PubMed Central

Background It is not clear if sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping can improve outcomes in patients with colorectal cancers. The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic values of ex vivo sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping and immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of SLN micrometastasis in colorectal cancers. Methods Colorectal cancer specimens were obtained during radical resections and the SLN was identified by injecting a 1% isosulfan blue solution submucosally and circumferentially around the tumor within 30?min after surgery. The first node to stain blue was defined as the SLN. SLNs negative by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining were further examined for micrometastasis using cytokeratin IHC. Results A total of 54 patients between 25 and 82?years of age were enrolled, including 32 males and 22 females. More than 70% of patients were T3 or above, about 86% of patients were stage II or III, and approximately 90% of patients had lesions grade II or above. Sentinel lymph nodes were detected in all 54 patients. There were 32 patients in whom no lymph node micrometastasis were detected by HE staining and 22 patients with positive lymph nodes micrometastasis detected by HE staining in non-SLNs. In contrast only 7 SLNs stained positive with HE. Using HE examination as the standard, the sensitivity, non-detection rate, and accuracy rate of SLN micrometastasis detection were 31.8% (7/22), 68.2% (15/22), and 72.2%, respectively. Micrometastasis were identified by ICH in 4 of the 32 patients with HE-negative stained lymph nodes, resulting in an upstaging rate 12.5% (4/32). The 4 patients who were upstaged consisted of 2 stage I patients and 2 stage II patients who were upstaged to stage III. Those without lymph node metastasis by HE staining who were upstaged by IHC detection of micrometastasis had a significantly poorer disease-free survival (p?=?0.001) and overall survival (p?=?0.004). Conclusion Ex vivo localization and immunohistochemical detection of sentinel lymph node micrometastasis in patients with colorectal cancer can upgrade tumor staging, and may become a factor affecting prognosis and guiding treatment. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1350200526694475. PMID:22726450

2012-01-01

264

Downregulation of miR-193a-5p correlates with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the correlation of miR-193a-5p with lymph node metastasis and postoperative survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. METHODS: A total of 304 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens (69 paired cancer and normal tissues, 55 primary tumors of stage III CRC and matched lymph nodes, and 56 primary tumors of stage II CRC) were included in this study. The relative expression levels of miR-193a-5p in the normal mucosa, primary cancer, and metastatic lymph node lesions were measured by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We evaluated the association of its expression with colorectal cancer lymph node metastasis, clinicopathological factors, and patient survival. RESULTS: The relative expression level of miR-193a-5p was significantly lower in CRC tissues than in the normal mucosa (P = 0.0060). The expression levels of miR-193a-5p were lower in primary CRC tissues with lymph node metastases than in those without metastases (P = 0.0006), and decreased expression of miR-193a-5p correlated with advanced lymph node metastatic stage (P = 0.0007). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with low miR-193a-5p expression had decreased disease-free survival (DFS) (P = 0.0026) and poor overall survival (OS) (P = 0.0003). Interestingly, for the group of patients with lymph node metastases, miR-193a-5p expression was also related to survival. Patients with low miR-193a-5p expression had decreased DFS (P = 0.0262) and poor OS (P = 0.0230). Moreover, multivariate analysis indicated that downregulation of miR-193a-5p was an independent predictor of poor OS. CONCLUSION: Downregulation of miR-193a-5p correlates with lymph node metastasis and poor survival of CRC. miR-193a-5p may be a useful biomarker for CRC diagnosis, metastasis and prognosis prediction.

Zhang, Peng; Ji, Deng-Bo; Han, Hai-Bo; Shi, Yun-Fei; Du, Chang-Zheng; Gu, Jin

2014-01-01

265

Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy  

Cancer.gov

A fact sheet that describes the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) procedure, its use in determining the extent, or stage, of cancer in the body, and the results of research on the use of SLNB in breast cancer and melanoma.

266

Equivalent cross relaxation rate image for decreasing a false negative case of sentinel lymph node biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the breast carcinamas, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) attracts attention as technique to be settled by axillary lymph node metastasis, but existence of a false negative case is a problem. Equivalent cross relaxation rate image (ECRI) is the measurement method that we can evaluate a change of organization structure quantitatively by magnetic resonance imaging. We executed axillary ECRI as

Shigeru Matsushima; Fumio Sasaki; Shuhei Sarumaru; Daisuke Ohta; Seiichi Era; Masaru Sogami; Tadashi Inaba; Yasutomi Kinosada

2003-01-01

267

Increased expression of gap junction protein--connexin 32 in lymph node metastases of human ductal breast cancer.  

PubMed

Gap junctions are specialized cell membrane channels composed of connexins (Cxs), which mediate the direct passage of small molecules between adjacent cells. They are involved in the regulation of cell cycle, cell signaling and differentiation as well as probably invasion and metastasis. Up to now, Cx32 status in human breast cancer has not been studied. Consequently, the aim of the present study was the evaluation of the expression of connexin 32 (Cx32) in primary breast tumors (PTs) and matched-paired metastases to lymph nodes (MLNs) in correlation with selected clinicopathological features. Tissue samples from 79 women were examined by immunohistochemistry, using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex technique for Cx32. Cytoplasmic expression of Cx32 was detected in 31 of 79 breast cancers (39.2%). Both epithelial and myoepithelial cells of normal ducts adjacent to the tumor did not express Cx32. Increased expression of studied Cx was observed in metastases to lymph nodes relative to primary tumors. Additionally, Cx32-negative primary tumors developed Cx32-positive metastases. Statistical comparisons of Cx32 expression in the matched pairs indicate that this protein significantly increased in lymph node metastases compared to primary tumors (p<0.001). The expression of Cx32 in primary breast cancer was not statistically associated with age of patients, tumor size, lymph node status, but we observed a tendency toward association between Cx32 expression and histological differentiation. In conclusion, transformed cells may have an ability to produce Cxs also atypical for normal cells. Increased expression of Cx32 in metastases to the lymph nodes might reflect alteration in connexin gene transcription during breast carcinogenesis and finally, it may be a sign of more malignant phenotype of cancerous cells. PMID:18292829

Kanczuga-Koda, Luiza; Sulkowska, Mariola; Koda, Mariusz; Rutkowski, Ryszard; Sulkowski, Stanislaw

2007-01-01

268

Photoacoustic image-guided needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have implemented a hand-held photoacoustic and ultrasound probe for image-guided needle biopsy using a modified clinical ultrasound array system. Pulsed laser light was delivered via bifurcated optical fiber bundles integrated with the hand-held ultrasound probe. We photoacoustically guided needle insertion into rat sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) following accumulation of indocyanine green (ICG). Strong photoacoustic image contrast of the needle was achieved. After intradermal injection of ICG in the left forepaw, deeply positioned SLNs (beneath 2-cm thick chicken breast) were easily indentified in vivo and in real time. Further, we confirmed ICG uptake in axillary lymph nodes with in vivo and ex vivo fluorescence imaging. These results demonstrate the clinical potential of this hand-held photoacoustic system for facile identification and needle biopsy of SLNs for cancer staging and metastasis detection in humans.

Kim, Chulhong; Erpelding, Todd N.; Akers, Walter J.; Maslov, Konstantin; Song, Liang; Jankovic, Ladislav; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Achilefu, Samuel; Wang, Lihong V.

2011-03-01

269

Predictive Factors for Lymph Node Metastasis in Signet Ring Cell Gastric Cancer and the Feasibility of Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection  

PubMed Central

Purpose Endoscopic submucosal dissection has recently been practiced on a differentiated type of early gastric cancer. However, there is no clear evidence for endoscopic treatments of signet ring cell carcinoma. The aim of this study is to identify the predictive clinicopathological factors for lymph node metastasis in signet ring cell carcinoma for assisting endoscopic submucosal dissection trials. Materials and Methods A total of 186 patients with early signet ring cell carcinoma who underwent radical curative gastrectomy between January 2001 and September 2009 were enrolled in this study. Retrospective reviews of their medical records are being conducted. Several clinicopathologic factors were being investigated in order to identify predictive factors for lymph nodes metastasis: age, gender, tumor size, type of operation, tumor location, gross type, ulceration, Lauren's classification, depth of invasion, and lymphatic invasion. Results The lymph node metastasis rate for signet ring cell carcinoma was 4.3% (n=8). Of the 186 lesions with early signet ring cell carcinoma, 91 (48.9%) tumors were larger than 15 mm in size and 40 (21.5%) showed submucosal invasions in the resection specimens. In multivariate analysis, only the lymphatic invasion (P<0.0001) showed an association with lymph node metastasis. To evaluate cutoff values for tumor sizes in the presence of lymph node metastasis, early signet ring cell carcinomas with lymphatic invasions were excluded. In the absence of lymphatic invasion, mucosal cancer with tumor sizes <15 mm had no lymph node metastasis. Conclusions Endoscopic submucosal dissection can be performed on patients with early signet ring cell carcinoma limited to the mucosa and less than 15 mm. PMID:23844323

Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Yi Young; Kim, Se Jin; Park, Jung Chul; Kwon, Yong Hwan; Jung, Min Kyu; Kwon, Oh Kyoung; Chung, Ho Young; Yu, Wansik; Park, Ji Young; Lee, Yong Kook; Park, Sung Sik

2013-01-01

270

Classification and prognosis of invasive breast cancer: from morphology to molecular taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, patient age, axillary lymph node status, tumor size, histological features (especially histological grade and lymphovascular invasion), hormone receptor status, and HER2 status have been the major factors used to categorize patients with breast cancer in order to assess prognosis and determine the appropriate therapy. These factors are most often viewed in combination to group patients into various

Stuart J Schnitt

2010-01-01

271

Sentinel lymph node biopsy for gastric cancer: Where do we stand?  

PubMed

Development of sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS) and advances in minimally invasive surgical techniques have greatly shaped the modern day approach to gastric cancer surgery. An extensive body of knowledge now exists on this type of clinical application but is principally composed of single institute studies. Certain dye tracers, such as isosulfan blue or patent blue violet, have been widely utilized with a notable amount of success; however, indocyanine green is gaining popularity. The double tracer method, a synchronized use of dye and radio-isotope tracers, appears to be superior to any of the dyes alone. In the meantime, the concepts of infrared ray electronic endoscopy, florescence imaging, nanoparticles and near-infrared technology are emerging as particularly promising alternative techniques. Hematoxylin and eosin staining remains the main method for the detection of sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases. Several specialized centers have begun to employ immunohistochemical staining for this type of clinical analysis but the equipment costs involving the associated ultra-rapid processing systems is limiting its widespread application. Laparoscopic function-preserving resection of primary tumor from the stomach in conjunction with lymphatic basin dissection navigated by SLN identification represents the current paramount of SNNS for early gastric cancer. Patients with cT3 stage or higher still require standard D(2) dissection. PMID:22007282

Can, Mehmet Fatih; Yagci, Gokhan; Cetiner, Sadettin

2011-09-27

272

Sentinel lymph node biopsy for gastric cancer: Where do we stand?  

PubMed Central

Development of sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS) and advances in minimally invasive surgical techniques have greatly shaped the modern day approach to gastric cancer surgery. An extensive body of knowledge now exists on this type of clinical application but is principally composed of single institute studies. Certain dye tracers, such as isosulfan blue or patent blue violet, have been widely utilized with a notable amount of success; however, indocyanine green is gaining popularity. The double tracer method, a synchronized use of dye and radio-isotope tracers, appears to be superior to any of the dyes alone. In the meantime, the concepts of infrared ray electronic endoscopy, florescence imaging, nanoparticles and near-infrared technology are emerging as particularly promising alternative techniques. Hematoxylin and eosin staining remains the main method for the detection of sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases. Several specialized centers have begun to employ immunohistochemical staining for this type of clinical analysis but the equipment costs involving the associated ultra-rapid processing systems is limiting its widespread application. Laparoscopic function-preserving resection of primary tumor from the stomach in conjunction with lymphatic basin dissection navigated by SLN identification represents the current paramount of SNNS for early gastric cancer. Patients with cT3 stage or higher still require standard D2 dissection. PMID:22007282

Can, Mehmet Fatih; Yagci, Gokhan; Cetiner, Sadettin

2011-01-01

273

Intraoperative Evaluation of Sentinel Lymph Nodes for Metastatic Breast Carcinoma by Imprint Cytology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The increasing utilization of lymphatic mapping techniques for breast carcinoma has made intraoperative evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes attractive. Axillary lymph node dissection can be performed during the initial surgery if the sentinel lymph node is positive, potentially avoiding a second operative procedure. At present the optimal technique for rapid sentinel lymph node assessment has not been determined. Both

Andrew J. Creager; Kim R. Geisinger; Stephen A. Shiver; Nancy D. Perrier; Perry Shen; Jo Ann Shaw; Peter R. Young; Edward A. Levine

2002-01-01

274

Tattoo Pigment Mimics Positive Sentinel Lymph Node in Melanoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 42-year-old man with metastasizing melanoma from an unknown primary is presented. Initially a subcutaneous metastasis in the scapular region and a single lung metastasis were resected. Thorough examinations did not show any evidence of a primary tumour. From the site of the metastasis on the right scapular region, lymphoscintigraphy with axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed. One axillary

M. Moehrle; H. J. Blaheta; P. Ruck

2001-01-01

275

Axillary Metastasis from an Occult Tubal Serous Carcinoma in a Patient with Ipsilateral Breast Carcinoma: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall  

PubMed Central

Axillary nodal metastasis from a nonmammary neoplasia is much rarer than diseases associated with a primary breast carcinoma. However, this has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of nodal disease in patients with a history of breast cancer. Here, we report the case of a 73-year-old female with a past medical history of breast cancer, presenting with an ipsilateral axillary metastatic carcinoma. The immunohistochemical profile of the metastatic lesion was consistent with a high grade serous carcinoma. After undergoing a total abdominal hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy, thorough pathological examination revealed two microscopic foci of serous carcinoma in the right fallopian tube, not detectable by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. In this context, the poorly differentiated appearance of the metastatic tumor and positive staining for estrogen receptor, might lead to a misdiagnosis of metastatic breast carcinoma. As the therapeutic implications differ, it is important for the pathologist to critically assess axillary lymph node metastases, even in patients with a past history of ipsilateral breast carcinoma and no other known primary tumors. PMID:25110596

Altinel, Gulbeyaz; Arseneau, Jocelyne; Omeroglu, Atilla

2014-01-01

276

A dual-modality photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system for noninvasive sentinel lymph node detection: preliminary clinical results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has emerged as an accurate, less invasive alternative to axillary lymph node dissection, and it has rapidly become the standard of care for patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) hypothesis states that the pathological status of the axilla can be accurately predicted by determining the status of the first (i.e., sentinel) lymph nodes that drain from the primary tumor. Physicians use radio-labeled sulfur colloid and/or methylene blue dye to identify the SLN, which is most likely to contain metastatic cancer cells. However, the surgical procedure causes morbidity and associated expenses. To overcome these limitations, we developed a dual-modality photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system to noninvasively detect SLNs based on the accumulation of methylene blue dye. Ultimately, we aim to guide percutaneous needle biopsies and provide a minimally invasive method for axillary staging of breast cancer. The system consists of a tunable dye laser pumped by a Nd:YAG laser, a commercial ultrasound imaging system (Philips iU22), and a multichannel data acquisition system which displays co-registered photoacoustic and ultrasound images in real-time. Our clinical results demonstrate that real-time photoacoustic imaging can provide sensitive and specific detection of methylene blue dye in vivo. While preliminary studies have shown that in vivo detection of SLNs by using co-registered photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging is feasible, further investigation is needed to demonstrate robust SLN detection.

Erpelding, Todd N.; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Krumholz, Arie; Ke, Haixin; Maslov, Konstantin; Appleton, Catherine; Margenthaler, Julie; Wang, Lihong V.

2014-03-01

277

Long-Term Results of Radiochemotherapy for Solitary Lymph Node Metastasis After Curative Resection of Esophageal Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and toxicity of definitive radiochemotherapy for solitary lymph node metastasis after curative surgery of esophageal cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of 35 patients who underwent definitive radiochemotherapy at Tohoku University Hospital between 2000 and 2009 for solitary lymph node metastasis after curative esophagectomy with lymph node dissection for esophageal cancer. Radiotherapy doses ranged from 60 to 66 Gy (median, 60 Gy). Concurrent chemotherapy was platinum based in all patients. The endpoints of the present study were overall survival, cause-specific survival, progression-free survival, irradiated-field control, overall tumor response, and prognostic factors. Results: The median observation period for survivors was 70.0 months. The 5-year overall survival was 39.2% (median survival, 39.0 months). The 5-year cause-specific survival, progression-free survival, and irradiated-field control were 43.3%, 31.0% and 59.9%, respectively. Metastatic lesion, size of the metastatic lymph node, and performance status before radiochemotherapy were significantly correlated with prognosis. Complete response and partial response were observed in 22.9% and 57.1% of the patients, respectively. There was no Grade 3 or higher adverse effect based on theCommon Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE v3.0) in the late phase. Conclusions: Based on our study findings, approximately 40% of patients with solitary lymph node metastasis after curative resection for esophageal cancer have a chance of long-term survival with definitive radiochemotherapy.

Jingu, Keiichi, E-mail: kjingu-jr@rad.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Ariga, Hisanori [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Nemoto, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan); Narazaki, Kakutaro; Umezawa, Rei; Takeda, Ken; Koto, Masashi; Sugawara, Toshiyuki; Kubozono, Masaki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Miyata, Go; Onodera, Ko [Division of Advanced Surgical Science and Technology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Yamada, Shogo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

2012-05-01

278

Primary axillary hydatid cyst.  

PubMed

Echinococcosis (hydatid disease) is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus (or Taenia echinococcus). The adult form of the parasite lives in the gut of the dog, while the intermediate hosts, where the tapeworm develops to larval stage are cats, cattle, pigs and humans(considered to be accidental intermediate hosts). The parasite has a worldwide distribution, but the endemic areas are Canada and Alaska, Australia, New Zealand, South America and the Mediterranean region. Hydatid cyst can grow many years before the symptoms and clinical signs appear. The liver and the lungs are the most affected organs, but primary location of the hydatid disease in the axilla is extremely rare. In our country we did not find any records of axillary hydatid disease, while the literature contains only 12 cases of axillary location. We present the case of a woman, 60 years old, with a primary axillary location of hydatid cyst, who underwent a total cystectomy. PMID:25149625

Mercu?, D; Andri?oiu, A; Tra?c?, Et; Silo?i, C; Resceanu, A; Mercu?, R

2014-01-01

279

L1 Cell Adhesion Molecule Expression Is Associated With Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis and Advanced Stage in Diabetic Patients With Endometrial Cancer: A Matched Case Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetic patients with endometrial cancer had more lymph node metastasis than non-diabetic patients with endometrial cancer. L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) could be possibly associated with lymph node metastasis in diabetic patients with endometrial cancer via epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We aimed to investigate the association between L1CAM expression and lymph node metastasis in diabetic patients with endometrial cancer. Methods: We conducted a matched case control study of 68 endometrial cancer patients who comprise each 34 diabetic and non-diabetic patients. L1CAM expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using fresh formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue block of the patients. The association between L1CAM expression and pelvic lymph node metastasis was assessed according to the presence of diabetes. Results: Of the 68 patients, 13 (19.1%) were positive for L1CAM immunostaining. Positive rate of L1CAM expression in diabetic endometrial cancer patients was similar to that in non-diabetic endometrial cancer patients (14.7% vs. 23.5%, P = 0.355). Tumor recurred more frequently in patients with positive L1CAM expression than those with negative L1CAM expression (33.3% vs. 1.6%, P = 0.019). However, we failed to find any significant association between L1CAM expression and lymph node metastasis. Only for the diabetic patients (n = 34), patients with pelvic lymph node metastasis had more L1CAM expression than those without lymph node metastasis (50.0% vs. 3.6%, P = 0.035). Advanced stage was the only risk factor for recurrence that showed a significant association with L1CAM expression for the diabetic endometrial cancer patients (P = 0.006), as well as all the enrolled patients (P = 0.014). Conclusion: L1CAM expression is associated with pelvic lymph node metastasis and advanced stage in diabetic patients with endometrial cancer. PMID:25337593

Suh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Min A; Kim, Hee Seung; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Park, Noh Hyun; Song, Yong Sang; Kang, Soon-Beom

2014-01-01

280

Carbon-ion radiotherapy for marginal lymph node recurrences of cervical cancer after definitive radiotherapy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Recurrences of cervical cancer after definitive radiotherapy often occur at common iliac or para-aortic lymph nodes as marginal lymph node recurrences. Patients with these recurrences have a chance of long-term survival by optimal re-treatment with radiotherapy. However, the re-irradiation often overlaps the initial and the secondary radiotherapy fields and can result in increased normal tissue toxicities in the bowels or the stomach. Carbon-ion radiotherapy, a form of particle beam radiotherapy using accelerated carbon ions, offers more conformal and sharp dose distribution than X-ray radiotherapy. Therefore, this approach enables the delivery of high radiation doses to the target while sparing its surrounding normal tissues. Marginal lymph node recurrences in common iliac lymph nodes after radiotherapy were treated successfully by carbon-ion radiotherapy in two patients. These two patients were initially treated with a combination of external beam radiotherapy and intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy. However, the diseases recurred in the lymph nodes near the border of the initial radiotherapy fields after 22 months and 23 months. Because re-irradiation with X-ray radiotherapy may deliver high doses to a section of the bowels, carbon-ion radiotherapy was selected to treat the lymph node recurrences. A total dose of 48 Gy (RBE) in 12 fractions over 3 weeks was given to the lymph node recurrences, and the tumors disappeared completely with no severe acute toxicities. The two patients showed no evidence of disease for 75 months and 63 months after the initial radiotherapy and for 50 months and 37 months after the carbon-ion radiotherapy, respectively. No severe late adverse effects are observed in these patients. The two presented cases suggest that the highly conformal dose distribution of carbon-ion radiotherapy may be beneficial in the treatment of marginal lymph node recurrences after radiotherapy. In addition, the higher biological effect of carbon-ion radiotherapy and its superior dose distribution may provide more effective tumor control in treatment for re-irradiation of the marginal recurrences in radiation resistant tumors other than cervical cancer. PMID:23561250

2013-01-01

281

18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positive Warthin tumor in a contralateral cervical lymph node mimicking metastasis in tongue cancer staging with PET/CT.  

PubMed

We report 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positive Warthin tumor in a contralateral cervical lymph node mimicking metastasis in tongue cancer staging with positron emission tomography/computed tomography. PMID:22976724

Iwai, Toshinori; Baba, Junichi; Shibasaki, Maiko; Omura, Susumu; Hirota, Makoto; Mitsudo, Kenji; Tohnai, Iwai

2012-09-01

282

Scanning elastic scattering spectroscopy detects metastatic breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes  

E-print Network

planning regarding additional treatment after surgery adju- vant treatment , which includes chemotherapy . However, this has associated complications, particularly lymph edema, a painful swelling of the arms

Bigio, Irving J.

283

Activin type IB receptor signaling in prostate cancer cells promotes lymph node metastasis in a xenograft model  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ActRIB signaling induces Snail and S100A4 expressions in prostate cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prostate cancer cell lines expressing an active form of ActRIB were established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ActRIB signaling promotes EMT and lymph node metastasis in xenograft model. -- Abstract: Activin, a member of the transforming growth factor-{beta} family, has been known to be a growth and differentiating factor. Despite its pluripotent effects, the roles of activin signaling in prostate cancer pathogenesis are still unclear. In this study, we established several cell lines that express a constitutive active form of activin type IB receptor (ActRIBCA) in human prostate cancer cells, ALVA41 (ALVA-ActRIBCA). There was no apparent change in the proliferation of ALVA-ActRIBCA cells in vitro; however, their migratory ability was significantly enhanced. In a xenograft model, histological analysis revealed that the expression of Snail, a cell-adhesion-suppressing transcription factor, was dramatically increased in ALVA-ActRIBCA tumors, indicating epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Finally, mice bearing ALVA-ActRIBCA cells developed multiple lymph node metastases. In this study, we demonstrated that ActRIBCA signaling can promote cell migration in prostate cancer cells via a network of signaling molecules that work together to trigger the process of EMT, and thereby aid in the aggressiveness and progression of prostate cancers.

Nomura, Masatoshi, E-mail: nomura@med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)] [Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Tanaka, Kimitaka; Wang, Lixiang; Goto, Yutaka; Mukasa, Chizu; Ashida, Kenji; Takayanagi, Ryoichi [Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)] [Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

2013-01-04

284

In vivo photoacoustic and ultrasonic mapping of rat sentinel lymph nodes with a modified commercial ultrasound imaging system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become the standard method for axillary staging in breast cancer patients, relying on invasive identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) following injection of blue dye and radioactive tracers. While SLNB achieves a low false negative rate (5-10%), it is an invasive procedure requiring ionizing radiation. As an alternative to SLNB, ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy has been tested clinically. However, ultrasound alone is unable to accurately identify which lymph nodes are sentinel. Therefore, a non-ionizing and noninvasive detection method for accurate SLN mapping is needed. In this study, we successfully imaged methylene blue dye accumulation in vivo in rat axillary lymph nodes using a Phillips iU22 ultrasound imaging system adapted for photoacoustic imaging with an Nd:YAG pumped, tunable dye laser. Photoacoustic images of rat SLNs clearly identify methylene blue dye accumulation within minutes following intradermal dye injection and co-registered photoacoustic/ultrasound images illustrate lymph node position relative to surrounding anatomy. To investigate clinical translation, the imaging depth was extended up to 2.5 cm by adding chicken breast tissue on top of the rat skin surface. These results raise confidence that photoacoustic imaging can be used clinically for accurate, noninvasive SLN mapping.

Erpelding, Todd N.; Kim, Chulhong; Pramanik, Manojit; Guo, Zijian; Dean, John; Jankovic, Ladislav; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

2010-02-01

285

Surgical sentinel lymph node biopsy in early breast cancer. Could it be avoided by performing a preoperative staging procedure? A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The aim of this pilot trial was to study the feasibility of sentinel node percutaneous preoperative gamma probe-guided biopsy as a valid preoperative method of assessment of nodal status compared to surgical sentinel lymph node biopsy. Material/Methods This prospective study enrolled 10 consecutive patients without evidence of axillary lymph node metastases at preoperative imaging. All patients underwent sentinel node occult lesion localization (SNOLL) using radiotracer intradermic injection that detected a “hot spot” corresponding to the sentinel node in all cases. Gamma probe over the skin detection with subsequent ultrasonographically guided needle biopsy of the sentinel node were performed. The percutaneous needle core histopathological diagnosis was compared to the results of the surgical biopsy. Results Preoperative sentinel node identification was successful in all patients. Conclusions The combination of preoperative gamma probe sentinel node detection and ultrasound-guided biopsy could represent a valid alternative to intraoperative sentinel node biopsy in clinically and ultrasonographically negative axillary nodes, resulting in shorter duration of surgery and lower intraoperative risks. PMID:22936189

Testori, Alberto; Meroni, Stefano; Moscovici, Oana Codrina; Magnoni, Paola; Malerba, Paolo; Chiti, Arturo; Rahal, Daoud; Travaglini, Roberto; Cariboni, Umberto; Alloisio, Marco; Orefice, Sergio

2012-01-01

286

Is retrieval of at least 15 lymph nodes sufficient recommendation in early gastric cancer?  

PubMed Central

Purpose The evaluation and extent of lymph node (LN) retrieval is clinically relevant for staging because lymphatic invasion is the most common mechanism leading to up-staging of carcinoma. However, the optimal number of LN retrievals for early gastric cancer (EGC) is unclear. With the aim of clarification, we analyzed our database to investigate the optimal number of retrieved LNs in EGC. Methods Three hundred twenty-six gastric cancer patients who underwent curative gastrectomy with D2 LN dissection at Ewha Womans University Hospital (Dongdaemun and Mokdong) were analyzed according to sex, age, tumor location, size of tumor, macroscopic type, histological classification, depth of invasion, LNs metastasis, TNM stage and type of surgery. Results In LN negative cases, patients with 15-25 retrieved LNs had a 5- and 10-year survival rate of 88% and 54%, respectively, whereas retrieval of ?26 LNs was associated with 5- and 10-year survival rate of 90% and 75%, respectively (P = 0.105). In LN positive cases, the 5- and 10-year survival rate was 50% and 30% for the 15-25 group, and 77% and 67% for the ?26 group, respectively (P = 0.044). Conclusion LN metastasis is an independent factor of survival and the number of retrieved LNs significantly relate to the long-term survival benefit in node metastatic EGC. Also, our data suggest that the retrieval of at least 15 LNs may not be sufficient to warrant recommendation for more curative surgery, and that qualified LN dissection should be considered if LN metastasis is in doubt, even in EGC. PMID:25317412

2014-01-01

287

Radiotherapy Treatment Plans With RapidArc for Prostate Cancer Involving Seminal Vesicles and Lymph Nodes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Dosimetric results and treatment delivery efficiency of RapidArc plans to those of conventional intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans were compared using the Eclipse treatment planning system for high-risk prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: This study included 10 patients. The primary planning target volume (PTV{sub P}) contained prostate, seminal vesicles, and pelvic lymph nodes with a margin. The boost PTV (PTV{sub B}) contained prostate and seminal vesicles with a margin. The total prescription dose was 75.6 Gy (46.8 Gy to PTV{sub P} and an additional 28.8 Gy to PTV{sub B}; 1.8 Gy/fraction). Three plans were generated for each PTV: Multiple-field IMRT, one-arc RapidArc (1ARC), and two-arc RapidArc (2ARC). Results: In the primary IMRT with PTV{sub P}, average mean doses to bladder, rectum and small bowel were lower by 5.9%, 7.7% and 4.3%, respectively, than in the primary 1ARC and by 3.6%, 4.8% and 3.1%, respectively, than in the primary 2ARC. In the boost IMRT with PTV{sub B}, average mean doses to bladder and rectum were lower by 2.6% and 4.8% than with the boost 1ARC and were higher by 0.6% and 0.2% than with the boost 2ARC. Integral doses were 7% to 9% higher with RapidArc than with IMRT for both primary and boost plans. Treatment delivery time was reduced by 2-7 minutes using RapidArc. Conclusion: For PTVs including prostate, seminal vesicles, and lymph nodes, IMRT performed better in dose sparing for bladder, rectum, and small bowel than did RapidArc. For PTVs including prostate and seminal vesicles, RapidArc with two arcs provided plans comparable to those for IMRT. The treatment delivery is more efficient with RapidArc.

Yoo, Sua, E-mail: sua.yoo@duke.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Wu, Q. Jackie; Lee, W. Robert; Yin Fangfang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

2010-03-01

288

beta(2)microglobulin mRNA expression levels are prognostic for lymph node metastasis in colorectal cancer patients.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common non-cutaneous malignancy in the United States and the second most frequent cause of cancer-related death. One of the most important determinants of CRC survival is lymph node metastasis. To determine whether molecular markers might be prognostic for lymph node metastases, we measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR the expression levels of 15 cancer-associated genes in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary tissues derived from stage I-IV CRC patients with (n=20) and without (n=18) nodal metastases. Using the mean of the 15 genes as an internal reference control, we observed that low expression of beta(2)microglobulin (B2M) was a strong prognostic indicator of lymph node metastases (area under the curve (AUC)=0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.69-0.94). We also observed that the expression ratio of B2M/Spint2 had the highest prognostic accuracy (AUC=0.87; 95% CI=0.71-0.96) of all potential two-gene combinations. Expression values of Spint2 correlated with the mean of the entire gene set at an R(2) value of 0.97, providing evidence that Spint2 serves not as an independent prognostic gene, but rather as a reliable reference control gene. These studies are the first to demonstrate a prognostic role of B2M at the mRNA level and suggest that low B2M expression levels might be useful for identifying patients with lymph node metastasis and/or poor survival. PMID:18506145

Shrout, J; Yousefzadeh, M; Dodd, A; Kirven, K; Blum, C; Graham, A; Benjamin, K; Hoda, R; Krishna, M; Romano, M; Wallace, M; Garrett-Mayer, E; Mitas, M

2008-06-17

289

?2microglobulin mRNA expression levels are prognostic for lymph node metastasis in colorectal cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common non-cutaneous malignancy in the United States and the second most frequent cause of cancer-related death. One of the most important determinants of CRC survival is lymph node metastasis. To determine whether molecular markers might be prognostic for lymph node metastases, we measured by quantitative real-time RT–PCR the expression levels of 15 cancer-associated genes in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary tissues derived from stage I–IV CRC patients with (n=20) and without (n=18) nodal metastases. Using the mean of the 15 genes as an internal reference control, we observed that low expression of ?2microglobulin (B2M) was a strong prognostic indicator of lymph node metastases (area under the curve (AUC)=0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.69–0.94). We also observed that the expression ratio of B2M/Spint2 had the highest prognostic accuracy (AUC=0.87; 95% CI=0.71–0.96) of all potential two-gene combinations. Expression values of Spint2 correlated with the mean of the entire gene set at an R2 value of 0.97, providing evidence that Spint2 serves not as an independent prognostic gene, but rather as a reliable reference control gene. These studies are the first to demonstrate a prognostic role of B2M at the mRNA level and suggest that low B2M expression levels might be useful for identifying patients with lymph node metastasis and/or poor survival. PMID:18506145

Shrout, J; Yousefzadeh, M; Dodd, A; Kirven, K; Blum, C; Graham, A; Benjamin, K; Hoda, R; Krishna, M; Romano, M; Wallace, M; Garrett-Mayer, E; Mitas, M

2008-01-01

290

[Papillary thyroid carcinoma synchronous with breast cancer: an incidental finding in an (18)F-FDG PET-CT study carried out in a search for occult breast cancer].  

PubMed

The most common cause of metastatic involvement of axillary lymph nodes in women is ipsilateral breast cancer. The definition of occult breast malignancy has changed over time. Nowadays, it is considered to exist when it coincides with an isolated metastatic axillary abnormal lymph node in the absence of a palpable tumor in the ipsilateral breast, non-diagnostic breast tumor mammography and no detection of other malignancies outside the breast which could potentially affect the axillary nodes. The value of (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan in these patients has not been established, but it could be useful in those patients with a non-diagnostic MRI. It is not uncommon in (18)F-FDG PET/CT studies to identify incidental hypermetabolic focal image in the thyroid. The high prevalence of cancer in these lesions makes it recommendable to perform a US study and/or FNAP biopsy. PMID:23067689

Banzo, J; Ubieto, M A; González, C; Razola, P; Tardín, L; Andrés, A; Santapau, A; Parra, A; Rambalde, E F; Prats, E

2012-01-01

291

Protease-activated receptor 2 suppresses lymphangiogenesis and subsequent lymph node metastasis in a murine pancreatic cancer model.  

PubMed

Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is a G protein-coupled receptor that functions as a cell-surface sensor for coagulation factors and other proteases associated with the tumour microenvironment. Pancreatic cancer cells express high levels of PAR-2 and activation of PAR-2 may induce their proliferation and migration. Interestingly, however, PAR-2 expression is increased in stroma-rich pancreatic cancer regions, suggesting a potential role of PAR-2 in the tumour microenvironment. Here, we assessed the importance of PAR-2 in the stromal compartment by utilizing an orthotopic pancreatic cancer model, in which tumour cells are PAR-2-positive, whereas stromal cells are PAR-2-negative. We assessed tumour weight and volume and analysed proliferation and (lymph)angiogenesis both in vivo and in vitro. We show that genetic ablation of PAR-2 from the stromal compartment inhibits primary tumour growth, which is accompanied by reduced vascularization in primary tumours and reduced in tube formation of vascular endothelial cells in vitro. In contrast to smaller primary tumours, the number of lymph node metastases was increased in PAR-2-deficient animals, which was accompanied by an increased number of lymphatic vessels. In vitro tube-formation assays show that PAR-2 does not inhibit the intrinsic tube-forming capacity of lymphatic endothelial cells, but that PAR-2 actually inhibits cancer cell-induced tube formation. Overall, stromal PAR-2 thus plays a dual role in pancreatic cancer development by potentiating primary tumour growth but limiting lymphangiogenesis and subsequent lymph node metastasis. Our data identify a novel role of PAR-2 in the tumour microenvironment and pinpoint PAR-2 as a negative regulator of lymphangiogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25065357

Shi, Kun; Queiroz, Karla Cs; Roelofs, Joris Jth; van Noesel, Carel Jm; Richel, Dirk J; Spek, C Arnold

2014-11-01

292

Prognostic Value of Gene Signatures and Proliferation in Lymph-Node-Negative Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction The overall survival rate is good for lymph-node-negative breast cancer patients, but they still suffer from serious over- and some undertreatments. Prognostic and predictive gene signatures for node-negative breast cancer have a high number of genes related to proliferation. The prognostic value of gene sets from commercial gene-expression assays were compared with proliferation markers. Methods Illumina WG6 mRNA microarray analysis was used to examine 94 fresh-frozen tumour samples from node-negative breast cancer patients. The patients were divided into low- and high-risk groups for distant metastasis based on the MammaPrint-related genes, and into low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups based on the recurrence score algorithm with genes included in Oncotype DX. These data were then compared to proliferation status, as measured by the mitotic activity index, the expressions of phosphohistone H3 (PPH3), and Ki67. Results Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for distant-metastasis-free survival revealed that patients with weak and strong PPH3 expressions had 14-year survival rates of 87% (n?=?45), and 65% (n?=?49, p?=?0.014), respectively. Analysis of the MammaPrint classification resulted in 14-year survival rates of 80% (n?=?45) and 71% (n?=?49, p?=?0.287) for patients with low and high risks of recurrence, respectively. The Oncotype DX categorization yielded 14-year survival rates of 83% (n?=?18), 79% (n?=?42) and 68% (n?=?34) for those in the low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups, respectively (p?=?0.52). Supervised hierarchical cluster analysis for distant-metastasis-free survival in the subgroup of patients with strong PPH3 expression revealed that the genes involved in Notch signalling and cell adhesion were expressed at higher levels in those patients with distant metastasis. Conclusion This pilot study indicates that proliferation has greater prognostic value than the expressions of either MammaPrint- or Oncotype-DX-related genes. Furthermore, in the subgroup of patients with high proliferation, Notch signalling pathway genes appear to be expressed at higher levels in patients who develop distant metastasis. PMID:24599057

Jonsdottir, Kristin; Assmus, Jorg; Slewa, Aida; Gudlaugsson, Einar; Skaland, Ivar; Baak, Jan P. A.; Janssen, Emiel A. M.

2014-01-01

293

Increased expression of Slug and Vimentin as novel predictive biomarkers for lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

Slug and Vimentin genes play a critical role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via downregulation of epithelial markers and upregulation of mesenchymal markers. The present study evaluated the clinical significance of Slug and Vimentin expression as potential disease biomarkers in colorectal cancer (CRC). At first, the biological role of Slug in CRC was assessed by RNA interference in CRC cell lines to assess tumor progression, invasion and migration. Next, we analyzed Slug and Vimentin expression in surgical tissue specimens from 181 CRC patients (Cohort 1) by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and 208 patients (Cohort 2) by immunohistochemistry. Knockdown of Slug using small interfering RNA in CRC cell lines resulted in inhibition of EMT, reduced cell proliferation, invasion and migration in CRC cells. Interestingly, Slug and Vimentin expression in cancer tissues was significantly higher in patients with higher T stage, lymph node involvement, liver metastasis and advanced tumor node metastasis stages. A significant correlation was observed between Slug and Vimentin expression in CRC (messenger RNA: ? = 0.546, protein: ? = 0.405), and increased expression of Slug and Vimentin was significantly associated with poor prognosis. Furthermore, increased expression of Slug emerged as an independent prognostic factor and a predictive marker of lymph node metastasis in CRC patients. Our data provide novel evidence for the biological and clinical significance of Slug and Vimentin expression as potential predictive biomarkers for identifying patients with lymph node metastasis or poor prognosis in CRC. PMID:24001454

Toiyama, Yuji; Yasuda, Hiromi; Saigusa, Susumu; Tanaka, Koji; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Goel, Ajay; Kusunoki, Masato

2013-11-01

294

Scintigraphic visualization of an epigastric sentinel node in recurrent breast cancer after lumpectomy and postoperative radiation therapy.  

PubMed

Sentinel node imaging and biopsy have become standard procedures for staging early breast cancer. Positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy necessitates the need for axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Failure to visualize a sentinel lymph node in recurrent breast cancer after treatment by surgery, chemotherapy, and high-dose postoperative radiation therapy is almost the case in every patient. The reason for failure to visualize the sentinel node is the fibrosis that follows high-dose radiotherapy and blocks the lymphatics preventing spread of the tumor cells to the lymph nodes. Alternative pathways for the drainage of lymph from the breast are developed in these patients. We have previously reported on the alternative pathways of lymphatics to the contralateral axilla, supraclavicular area, and also reported on the development of intramammary lymph nodes. In this report, we are presenting another alternative pathway of lymphatics to the region of the epigastrium below the lower end of the sternum. PMID:16550014

Milardovic, Renata; Castellon, Ivan; Mills, Christopher; Altinyay, M Erkan; Raphael, Barbara; Abdel-Dayem, Hussein M

2006-04-01

295

Tumor, Lymph Node, and Lymph Node-to-Tumor Displacements Over a Radiotherapy Series: Analysis of Interfraction and Intrafraction Variations Using Active Breathing Control (ABC) in Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To estimate errors in soft tissue-based image guidance due to relative changes between primary tumor (PT) and affected lymph node (LN) position and volume, and to compare the results with bony anatomy-based displacements of PTs and LNs during radiotherapy of lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Weekly repeated breath-hold computed tomography scans were acquired in 17 lung cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. PTs and affected LNs were manually contoured on all scans after rigid registration. Interfraction and intrafraction displacements in the centers of mass of PTs and LNs relative to bone, as well as LNs relative to PTs (LN-PT), were calculated. Results: The mean volume after 5 weeks was 65% for PTs and 63% for LNs. Systematic and random interfraction displacements were 2.6 to 4.6 mm and 2.7 to 2.9 mm, respectively, for PTs; 2.4 to 3.8 mm and 1.4 to 2.7 mm, respectively, for LNs; and 2.3 to 3.9 mm and 1.9 to 2.8 mm, respectively, for LN-PT. Systematic and random intrafraction displacements were less than 1 mm except in the superoinferior direction. Interfraction LN-PT displacements greater than 3 mm were observed in 67% of fractions and require a safety margin of 12 mm in the lateral direction, 11 mm in the anteroposterior direction, and 9 mm in the superoinferior direction. LN-PT displacements displayed significant time trends (p < 0.0001) and depended on the presence of pathoanatomic conditions of the ipsilateral lung, such as atelectasis. Conclusion: Interfraction LN-PT displacements were mostly systematic and comparable to bony anatomy-based displacements of PTs or LNs alone. Time trends, large volume changes, and the influence of pathoanatomic conditions underline the importance of soft tissue-based image guidance and the potential of plan adaptation.

Weiss, Elisabeth, E-mail: eweiss@mcvh-vcu.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Robertson, Scott P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Mukhopadhyay, Nitai [Department of Biostatistics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Hugo, Geoffrey D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

2012-03-15

296

High Occurrence of Aberrant Lymph Node Spread on Magnetic Resonance Lymphography in Prostate Cancer Patients With a Biochemical Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the pattern of lymph node spread in prostate cancer patients with a biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy, eligible for salvage radiotherapy; and to determine whether the clinical target volume (CTV) for elective pelvic irradiation in the primary setting can be applied in the salvage setting for patients with (a high risk of) lymph node metastases. Methods and Materials: The charts of 47 prostate cancer patients with PSA recurrence after prostatectomy who had positive lymph nodes on magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL) were reviewed. Positive lymph nodes were assigned to a lymph node region according to the guidelines of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) for delineation of the CTV for pelvic irradiation (RTOG-CTV). We defined four lymph node regions for positive nodes outside this RTOG-CTV: the para-aortal, proximal common iliac, pararectal, and paravesical regions. They were referred to as aberrant lymph node regions. For each patient, clinical and pathologic features were recorded, and their association with aberrant lymph drainage was investigated. The distribution of positive lymph nodes was analyzed separately for patients with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <1.0 ng/mL. Results: MRL detected positive aberrant lymph nodes in 37 patients (79%). In 20 patients (43%) a positive lymph node was found in the pararectal region. Higher PSA at the time of MRL was associated with the presence of positive lymph nodes in the para-aortic region (2.49 vs. 0.82 ng/mL; p = 0.007) and in the proximal common iliac region (1.95 vs. 0.59 ng/mL; p = 0.009). There were 18 patients with a PSA <1.0 ng/mL. Ten of these patients (61%) had at least one aberrant positive lymph node. Conclusion: Seventy-nine percent of the PSA-recurrent patients had at least one aberrant positive lymph node. Application of the standard RTOG-CTV for pelvic irradiation in the salvage setting therefore seems to be inappropriate.

Meijer, Hanneke J.M., E-mail: H.Meijer@rther.umcn.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lin, Emile N. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Debats, Oscar A. [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Witjes, J. Alfred [Department of Urology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Span, Paul N.; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Barentsz, Jelle O. [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

2012-03-15

297

[Nonspecific cell-mediated immunity in gastric cancer patients - with special reference to immuno-reactivity of the regional lymph node and preoperative immunotherapy].  

PubMed

Cell-mediated systemic immunity and immuno-reactivity of the regional lymph node in patients with gastric cancer were investigated. The studies were undertaken on the parameters such as skin test (PHA, PPD, Candida and SK-SD), T-cell subpopulation and lymphocyte blast formation . And concerning the regional lymph node, percentage of T-cell and blast formation were examined. The following results were obtained. There were correlations between the nonspecific parameters (PHA skin test, count of active T-cell and PHA blast formation ) and the staging according to the Japanese Research Society for Gastric Cancer. There were also correlations between the stage and the percentage of T-cell, PHA blast formation with and without autoserum in the immunity of the proximal regional lymph node. Correlations between the PHA blast formation in the proximal lymph node and the nonspecific parameters such as PHA, Candida skin test, count of the active T-cell and PHA blast formation in the peripheral lymphocyte were observed. The immunity of the distant regional lymph node was impaired in the patients of stage IV and III with 4 metastatic lymph nodes or more. Preoperative administration of PSK prevented impairment of cell-mediated immunity after operation. Patients administrated lentinan before operation got rid of depression of immunity in the proximal regional lymph node. PMID:6610095

Takeshita, M

1983-08-01

298

Lymph node spread of gallbladder cancer from the perspective of embryologically-based anatomy and significance of the lymphatic basin along the embryonic right hepatic artery  

PubMed Central

Lymph node metastasis from gallbladder cancer is often found in the pericholedochal area; however, these regional lymph nodes are not typically accompanied by arteries. We hypothesized that the artery accompanying pericholedochal lymph nodes was either the regressed embryonic right hepatic artery (eRHA) or an aberrant right hepatic artery (aRHA) remaining without regression. This study aimed to determine the artery supplying pericholedochal lymph nodes. We obtained serial tissue sections of resected specimens from 10 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy with combined resection of the superior mesenteric artery and vein and investigated the association between the distribution of enlarged lymph nodes and the course of blood vessels in each section. In 2 cases with aRHA, enlarged lymph nodes were distributed in the posterosuperior area, pancreaticoduodenal region and retroportal area along this artery. By contrast, no blood vessels accompanied enlarged lymph nodes in 8 patients exhibiting a normal hepatic artery branching pattern, although these nodes exhibited a distribution pattern similar to that of patients with the aRHA. Thus, the artery supplying pericholedochal lymph nodes appears to be either the regressed eRHA or an aRHA persisting without regression.

NAKAGAWARA, HISATOSHI; TAJIMA, HIDEHIRO; MIYASHITA, TOMOHARU; KITAGAWA, HIROHISA; MAKINO, ISAMU; SAKAI, SEISHO; HAYASHI, HIRONORI; NAKANUMA, SHINICHI; OYAMA, KATSUNOBU; TAKAMURA, HIROYUKI; FUSHIDA, SACHIO; FUJIMURA, TAKASHI; OHTA, TETSUO

2014-01-01

299

Lymphatic vessel invasion detected by monoclonal antibody D2-40 as a predictor of lymph node metastasis in T1 colorectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  When selecting patients who are at high risk for lymph node metastasis, the detection of lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI) is\\u000a important. We investigated LVI detected by D2-40 staining as a predictor of lymph node metastasis in T1 colorectal cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Clinicopathological factors including LVI were investigated in 136 patients who underwent colectomy with lymph node dissection\\u000a for T1 colorectal

M. Ishii; M. Ota; S. Saito; Y. Kinugasa; S. Akamoto; I. Ito

2009-01-01

300

[A case of advanced gastric cancer with regional lymph node metastasis showing pathological complete response after preoperative chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin, and S-1].  

PubMed

A 64-year-old man was diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer type 3 and regional celiac trunk lymph node metastases. We performed preoperative chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin, and S-1(DCS therapy). Total gastrectomy with lymph node dissection was performed after 2 courses of DCS. Pathologically, no viable cells were found in the primary lesion or in the dissected lymph nodes. The pathological response to preoperative DCS therapy was classified as grade 3. The postoperative course was uneventful; the patient is currently healthy and receives periodic medical examinations. PMID:24231710

Fukai, Yasuyuki; Ojima, Hitoshi; Sano, Akihiko; Akao, Takahiko; Sohda, Makoto; Tanabe, Akiko; Fukuda, Takahiro

2013-11-01

301

Mediastinal Lymph Node Dissection versus Mediastinal Lymph Node Sampling for Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the overall survival, local recurrence, distant metastasis, and complications of mediastinal lymph node dissection (MLND) versus mediastinal lymph node sampling (MLNS) in stage I–IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods A systematic search of published literature was conducted using the main databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases) to identify relevant randomized controlled trials that compared MLND vs. MLNS in NSCLC patients. Methodological quality of included randomized controlled trials was assessed according to the criteria from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Review of Interventions (Version 5.1.0). Meta-analysis was performed using The Cochrane Collaboration’s Review Manager 5.3. The results of the meta-analysis were expressed as hazard ratio (HR) or risk ratio (RR), with their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Results We included results reported from six randomized controlled trials, with a total of 1,791 patients included in the primary meta-analysis. Compared to MLNS in NSCLC patients, there was no statistically significant difference in MLND on overall survival (HR?=?0.77, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.08; P?=?0.13). In addition, the results indicated that local recurrence rate (RR?=?0.93, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.28; P?=?0.67), distant metastasis rate (RR?=?0.88, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.04; P?=?0.15), and total complications rate (RR?=?1.10, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.79; P?=?0.72) were similar, no significant difference found between the two groups. Conclusions Results for overall survival, local recurrence rate, and distant metastasis rate were similar between MLND and MLNS in early stage NSCLC patients. There was no evidence that MLND increased complications compared with MLNS. Whether or not MLND is superior to MLNS for stage II–IIIA remains to be determined. PMID:25296033

Huang, Xiongfeng; Wang, Jianmin; Chen, Qiao; Jiang, Jielin

2014-01-01

302

Whole-Pelvis or Bladder-Only Chemoradiation for Lymph Node-Negative Invasive Bladder Cancer: Single-Institution Experience  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Whole-pelvis (WP) concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) is the standard bladder preserving option for patients with invasive bladder cancer. The standard practice is to treat elective pelvic lymph nodes, so our aim was to evaluate whether bladder-only (BO) CCRT leads to results similar to those obtained by standard WP-CCRT. Methods and Materials: Patient eligibility included histopathologically proven muscle-invasive bladder cancer, lymph nodes negative (T2-T4, N-) by radiology, and maximal transurethral resection of bladder tumor with normal hematologic, renal, and liver functions. Between March 2005 and May 2006, 230 patients were accrued. Patients were randomly assigned to WP-CCRT (120 patients) and BO-CCRT (110 patients). Data regarding the toxicity profile, compliance, initial complete response rates at 3 months, and occurrence of locoregional or distant failure were recorded. Results: With a median follow-up time of 5 years (range, 3-6), WP-CCRT was associated with a 5-year disease-free survival of 47.1% compared with 46.9% in patients treated with BO-CCRT (p = 0.5). The bladder preservation rates were 58.9% and 57.1% in WP-CCRT and BO-CCRT, respectively (p = 0.8), and the 5-year overall survival rates were 52.9% for WP-CCRT and 51% for BO-CCRT (p = 0.8). Conclusion: BO-CCRT showed similar rates of bladder preservation, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates as those of WP-CCRT. Smaller field sizes including bladder with 2-cm margins can be used as bladder preservation protocol for patients with muscle-invasive lymph node-negative bladder cancer to minimize the side effects of CCRT.

Tunio, Mutahir A., E-mail: drmutahirtonio@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi (Pakistan); Hashmi, Altaf [Department of Urology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi (Pakistan); Qayyum, Abdul [Department of Medical Oncology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi (Pakistan); Mohsin, Rehan [Department of Urology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi (Pakistan); Zaeem, Ahmed [Department of Medical Physics, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi (Pakistan)

2012-03-01

303

Impact of preoperative radiation for rectal cancer on subsequent lymph node evaluation: A population-based analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the impact of preoperative radiotherapy (RT) on the accuracy of lymph node staging (LNS). Preoperative RT is a well-established component of rectal cancer treatment but its impact on LNS is unknown. Methods and materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry, representing 14% of the U.S. population, was used to assess the impact of preoperative RT on LNS. Our study population consisted of adults with rectal cancer between 1998 and 2000 who underwent radical resection. Results: In our 3-year study period, 5647 patients met the selection criteria and 1034 (19.5%) underwent preoperative RT. The preoperative RT group was younger (average age, 61 years) than those who did not undergo preoperative RT (average age, 69 years) and more likely to be male (22% of men vs. 16% of women). On average, fewer nodes were examined in patients who underwent preoperative RT (7 nodes) vs. those who did not (10 nodes); this difference was statistically significant, controlling for potential confounders (p {<=} 0.0001). In 16% of the preoperative RT patients (vs. 7.5% without), no nodes were identified (p {<=} 0.0001). If one used a minimum of 12 nodes as the standard, only 20% of patients who underwent preoperative RT underwent adequate LNS. Conclusion: Lymph node staging in patients who undergo preoperative RT must be interpreted with caution. Studies are needed to evaluate the clinical relevance of node number and pathologic staging after preoperative RT for rectal cancer.

Baxter, Nancy N. [Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)]. E-mail: baxte025@umn.edu; Morris, Arden M. [Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Rothenberger, David A. [Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Tepper, Joel E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

2005-02-01

304

Newer Imaging Modalities to Assist With Target Localization in the Radiation Treatment of Prostate Cancer and Possible Lymph Node Metastases  

SciTech Connect

Precise localization of prostate cancer and the drainage lymph nodes is mandatory to define an accurate clinical target volume for conformal radiotherapy. Better target definition and delineation on a daily basis is surely important in quality assurance for fractionated radiation therapy. This article reviews the evidence for major emerging techniques that show promise in better identifying the clinical target volume. Partial prostate boost by brachytherapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, or protons has become possible not only with standard imaging techniques but also with the availability of metabolic images obtained by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Even though fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography has not been found to be useful, novel radiolabeled tracers may eventually prove of value in the diagnosis and treatment planning of prostate cancer. For the metastatic lymph nodes, lymphotropic nanoparticle-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging using ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles has greater accuracy as compared with conventional techniques and has been instrumental in delineating the lymphatic drainage of the prostate gland. These novel investigational techniques could further help in optimizing conformal radiotherapy for patients with prostate cancer. The concepts of biologic target volume, real target volume, and multidimensional conformal radiotherapy are being explored.

John, Subhash S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: subhashjohn@hotmail.com; Zietman, Anthony L.; Shipley, William U. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Harisinghani, Mukesh G. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

2008-05-01

305

Newer imaging modalities to assist with target localization in the radiation treatment of prostate cancer and possible lymph node metastases.  

PubMed

Precise localization of prostate cancer and the drainage lymph nodes is mandatory to define an accurate clinical target volume for conformal radiotherapy. Better target definition and delineation on a daily basis is surely important in quality assurance for fractionated radiation therapy. This article reviews the evidence for major emerging techniques that show promise in better identifying the clinical target volume. Partial prostate boost by brachytherapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, or protons has become possible not only with standard imaging techniques but also with the availability of metabolic images obtained by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Even though fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography has not been found to be useful, novel radiolabeled tracers may eventually prove of value in the diagnosis and treatment planning of prostate cancer. For the metastatic lymph nodes, lymphotropic nanoparticle-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging using ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles has greater accuracy as compared with conventional techniques and has been instrumental in delineating the lymphatic drainage of the prostate gland. These novel investigational techniques could further help in optimizing conformal radiotherapy for patients with prostate cancer. The concepts of biologic target volume, real target volume, and multidimensional conformal radiotherapy are being explored. PMID:18406936

John, Subhash S; Zietman, Anthony L; Shipley, William U; Harisinghani, Mukesh G

2008-01-01

306

First experience with gamma probe guided sentinel lymph node surgery in penile cancer.  

PubMed

Because of the curative approach, the detection of lymph node metastases in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis is of significant clinical relevance. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) identification by means of lymphangiography has been proven to be insufficiently safe. However, the high morbidity of inguinal lymphadenectomy and the considerable individual variability regarding the location of lymph node metastases justify the necessity of a technique that enables the identification of SLNs. Since 1998, SLNs have been intraoperatively identified and selectively dissected, after peritumoral injection of technetium-99m nanocolloid and using lymphoscintigraphy, in three patients (one with malignant melanoma and two with SCC). At least one SLN could be detected in each patient. The maximum surgical time was 30 min. There were no severe complications. Lymph node metastases did not occur in any patient. Upon a mean follow-up of 10 months, all patients are currently free of tumor. Owing to the long-term results of sentinel lymphadenectomy in malignant melanoma of other locations and our preliminary results with respect to penile carcinoma. we consider the current method appropriate as the only primary operation for lymph node staging in early stages and, in combination with modified inguinal lymphadenectomy, in locally advanced stages. PMID:11011963

Wawroschek, F; Vogt, H; Bachter, D; Weckermann, D; Hamm, M; Harzmann, R

2000-08-01

307

Lymph node dissection in bladder cancer. Impact on staging and prognosis.  

PubMed

The present thesis consists of 8 original articles focusing on lymph node dissection (LND) in patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) because of bladder cancer. LND is considered an essential part of the surgical procedure when performing an RC to achieve the correct staging and for prognostic reasons. However, the boundaries of LND have been the subject of debate. Proximal limit above, at, or below the aortic bifurcation has been suggested to define the perfect LND. Two questions have driven the present thesis. First, which extent of LND is needed to make the most accurate identification of patients with nodal involvement? And second, which extent of LND is needed to provide the most favourable prognosis in patients undergoing RC? During a 5-year period, all patients undergoing RC and LND to the level of the inferior mesenteric artery at the Department of Urology, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, were prospectively enrolled in meticulous registration of several LN variables including burden and location of metastasis based on standard pathological examination. From these patients, mapping of the metastatic LNs were made. Moreover, we included patients from a historical cohort undergoing limited LND to evaluate the possible prognostic impact of a more extended LND. Standard pathological examination was found to be reliable regarding identification of LN metastasis. A proximal limit of LND at the aortic bifurcation was found to be sufficient from a staging perspective, whereas less extensive LND was associated with a risk of under-staging. From a prognostic perspective, LND at least to the aortic bifurcation should be performed. It is still controversial and unclarified whether LND above the aortic bifurcation has any prognostic value. By extending the limits of LND from a limited dissection involving only the LNs in the obturator fossae to a dissection including all pelvic and lower lumbar LNs, a survival benefit in at least 5% of the patients was found. We also found that an extensive LND should be performed in all patients irrespective of T-stage of the primary tumour and in patients undergoing chemotherapy before RC. Previous radiotherapy, on the other hand, apparently eradicated LN metastasis in the irradiation field within the pelvic region and made subsequent LND difficult and possibly superfluous. In evaluation of a molecular marker, KPNA2, we found that the more accurate staging and more favourable prognosis achieved by extended LND compared to a limited LND was essential in evaluation of the prognostic impact of KPNA2. PMID:23290294

Jensen, Jørgen Bjerggaard

2012-12-01

308

SERPINE2 is a possible candidate promotor for lymph node metastasis in testicular cancer  

SciTech Connect

Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) commonly metastasize to the lymph node or lung. However, it remains unclear which genes are associated with TGCT metastasis. The aim of this study was to identify gene(s) that promoted human TGCT metastasis. We intraperitoneally administered conditioned medium (CM) from JKT-1, a cell-line from a human testicular seminoma, or JKT-HM, a JKT-1 cell sub-line with high metastatic potential, into mice with JKT-1 xenografts. Administration of CM from JKT-HM significantly promoted lymph node metastasis. A cDNA microarray analysis showed that JKT-HM cells highly expressed the Serpine peptidase inhibitor, clade E, member 2 (SERPINE2), which encodes a secreted protein. Administration of CM from SERPINE2-silenced JKT-HM cells inhibited lymph node metastasis in the xenograft model, compared with administration of CM from JKT-HM cells. There was no significant difference in xenograft volume. Moreover, administration of CM from SERPINE2-over-expressing JKT-1 was likely to promote lymph node metastasis in the xenograft model. There was no difference in the in vitro proliferation or migration of JKT-1 cells cultured with CM from JKT-HM cells, compared to that with CM from JKT-1. There was no promotion of proliferation or lymphangiogenesis in the xenografts, as measured by Ki-67 and LYVE-1 immunohistochemistry, respectively. Although we could not clarify how SERPINE2 promoted lymph node metastasis, it may be a promoter in the development of lymph node metastasis in the human seminoma cells in a mouse xenograft model.

Nagahara, Akira; Nakayama, Masashi; Oka, Daizo; Tsuchiya, Mutsumi; Kawashima, Atsunari; Mukai, Masatoshi; Nakai, Yasutomo; Takayama, Hitoshi [Department of Urology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-City, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Department of Urology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-City, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nishimura, Kazuo [Department of Urology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, 1-3-3 Nakamachi, Higashinari-ku, Osaka, 537-8511 (Japan)] [Department of Urology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, 1-3-3 Nakamachi, Higashinari-ku, Osaka, 537-8511 (Japan); Jo, Yoshimasa; Nagai, Atsushi [Department of Urology, Kawasaki Medical University, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki-City, Okayama 701-0192 (Japan)] [Department of Urology, Kawasaki Medical University, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki-City, Okayama 701-0192 (Japan); Okuyama, Akihiko [Department of Urology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-City, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Department of Urology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-City, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nonomura, Norio, E-mail: nono@uro.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Urology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-City, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Department of Urology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-City, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2010-01-22

309

Spectral imaging as a potential tool for optical sentinel lymph node biopsies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLNB) is an increasingly standard procedure to help oncologists accurately stage cancers. It is performed as an alternative to full axillary lymph node dissection in breast cancer patients, reducing the risk of longterm health problems associated with lymph node removal. Intraoperative analysis is currently performed using touchprint cytology, which can introduce significant delay into the procedure. Spectral imaging is forming a multi-plane image where reflected intensities from a number of spectral bands are recorded at each pixel in the spatial plane. We investigate the possibility of using spectral imaging to assess sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer patients with a view to eventually developing an optical technique that could significantly reduce the time required to perform this procedure. We investigate previously reported spectra of normal and metastatic tissue in the visible and near infrared region, using them as the basis of dummy spectral images. We analyse these images using the spectral angle map (SAM), a tool routinely used in other fields where spectral imaging is prevalent. We simulate random noise in these images in order to determine whether the SAM can discriminate between normal and metastatic pixels as the quality of the images deteriorates. We show that even in cases where noise levels are up to 20% of the maximum signal, the spectral angle map can distinguish healthy pixels from metastatic. We believe that this makes spectral imaging a good candidate for further study in the development of an optical SLNB.

O'Sullivan, Jack D.; Hoy, Paul R.; Rutt, Harvey N.

2011-07-01

310

Comparative Assessment of Lymph Node Micrometastasis in Cervical, Endometrial and Vulvar Cancer: Insights on the Real Time qRT-PCR Approach versus Immunohistochemistry, Employing Dual Molecular Markers  

PubMed Central

To address the value of qRT-PCR and IHC in accurately detecting lymph node micrometastasis in gynecological cancer, we performed a systematic approach, using a set of dual molecular tumor-specific markers such as cytokeratin 19 (CK19) and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9), in a series of 46 patients (19 with cervical cancer, 18 with endometrial cancer, and 9 with vulvar cancer). A total of 1281 lymph nodes were analyzed and 28 were found positive by histopathology. Following this documentation, 82 lymph nodes, 11 positive and 71 negative, were randomly selected and further analyzed both by IHC and qRT-PCR for CK19 and CA9 expression. All 11 (100%) expressed CK19 by IHC, while only 6 (54.5%) expressed CA9. On the contrary, all the histologically negative for micrometastases lymph nodes were also negative by IHC analysis for both markers. The comparative diagnostic efficacy of the two markers using qRT-PCR, however, disclosed that the analysis of the same aliquots of the 82 lymph nodes led to 100% specificity for the CK19 biomarker, while, in contrast, CA9 failed to recapitulate a similar pattern. These data suggest that qRT-PCR exhibits a better diagnostic accuracy compared to IHC, while CK19 displays a consistent pattern of detection compared to CA9. PMID:24527437

Pappa, Kalliopi I.; Rodolakis, Alexandros; Christodoulou, Ioanna; Gazouli, Maria; Markaki, Sofia; Antsaklis, Aris; Anagnou, Nicholas P.

2014-01-01

311

Automatic detection of axillary lymphadenopathy on CT scans of untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have an increased frequency of axillary lymphadenopathy. Pretreatment CT scans can be used to upstage patients at the time of presentation and post-treatment CT scans can reduce the number of complete responses. In the current clinical workflow, the detection and diagnosis of lymph nodes is usually performed manually by examining all slices of CT images, which can be time consuming and highly dependent on the observer's experience. A system for automatic lymph node detection and measurement is desired. We propose a computer aided detection (CAD) system for axillary lymph nodes on CT scans in CLL patients. The lung is first automatically segmented and the patient's body in lung region is extracted to set the search region for lymph nodes. Multi-scale Hessian based blob detection is then applied to detect potential lymph nodes within the search region. Next, the detected potential candidates are segmented by fast level set method. Finally, features are calculated from the segmented candidates and support vector machine (SVM) classification is utilized for false positive reduction. Two blobness features, Frangi's and Li's, are tested and their free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curves are generated to assess system performance. We applied our detection system to 12 patients with 168 axillary lymph nodes measuring greater than 10 mm. All lymph nodes are manually labeled as ground truth. The system achieved sensitivities of 81% and 85% at 2 false positives per patient for Frangi's and Li's blobness, respectively.

Liu, Jiamin; Hua, Jeremy; Chellappa, Vivek; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Farooqui, Mohammed; Marti, Gerald; Wiestner, Adrian; Summers, Ronald M.

2012-03-01

312

Efficacy of high-dose alkylating chemotherapy in HER2\\/neu-negative breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: High-dose chemotherapy in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer has been abandoned by many. Patients and methods: 885 patients with stage III primary breast cancer and four or more axillary lymph node\\u000ametastases were randomised to receive either five courses of FEC (fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide) followed by radiation therapy and tamoxifen, or the same treatment but with high-dose

S. Rodenhuis; M. Bontenbal; Q. G. C. M. van Hoesel; W. M. Smit; M. A. Nooij; E. E. Voest; E. van der Wall; P. Hupperets; H. van Tinteren; J. L. Peterse; M. J. van de Vijver; E. G. E. de Vries

2006-01-01

313

Effects of HLEC on the secreted proteins of epithelial ovarian cancer cells prone to metastasize to lymph nodes  

PubMed Central

Objective To study explores the effect of HLEC on the secreted proteins of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells (SKOV3-PM4) with directional highly lymphatic metastasis. Methods Supernatants of four groups of cultured cells, namely, SKOV3 (A), SKOV3+HLEC (B), SKOV3-PM4 (C), SKOV3-PM4+HLEC (D), were collected, and their proteins were detected by antibody arrays and iTRAQ-2D-LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF/MS. Significantly differential proteins were further analyzed via bioinformatics and validated in human serums and cell media via ELISA. Results Results of antibody arrays and mass spectrometry demonstrated that GRN and VEGFA were upregulated in group C (compared with group A), whereas IGFBP7 and SPARC were downregulated in group D (compared with group C). Comprehensive bioinformatics analysis results showed that IGFBP7 and VEGFA were closely linked to each other. Further validation with serums showed statistical significance in VEGFA and IGFBP7 levels among groups of patients with ovarian cancers, benign tumors, and control groups. Two proteins were upegulated in the first group. VEGFA in the control group was downregulated. For IGFBP, upregulation in the control group and down-regulation in the first group were also observed. Conclusion The HLEC microenvironment is closely associated with directional metastasis to lymph nodes and with differential proteins including cell stromal proteins and adhesion factors. The upregulation of VEGFA and GRN and the downregulation of SPARC and IGFBP7 are closely associated with directional metastasis to lymph nodes in EOC cells. PMID:24349832

Zhang, Xin-Ying; Yin, Fu-Qiang; Liu, Li; Gao, Ting; Ruan, He-Yun; Guan, Xiao; Lu, Ying-Xin; Li, Dan-Rong

2013-01-01

314

Anticoagulant medication at time of needle biopsy for breast cancer in relation to risk of lymph node metastasis.  

PubMed

Anticoagulant treatment might enhance the natural defense against tumor cell dissemination caused by diagnostic needle biopsy by counteracting thrombocyte coating of such cells. To clarify whether women using anticoagulant treatment at the time of biopsy have a lower occurrence of lymph node metastasis, we conducted a nationwide Swedish cohort study of 26,528 female incident breast cancer patients in 2006-2011. Point risk ratio (RR) of risk of lymph node metastasis among users of anticoagulant treatment adjusted for age, T-stage, socioeconomic factors, and concomitant medication was RR?=?0.94, (95% CI: 0.87-1.03), and lower in younger women (RR?=?0.80, 95% CI 0.50-1.29). Although nonsignificant, these associations may underestimate a true negative association since women using anticoagulant treatment are likely to have more concomitant diseases, lead an unhealthier lifestyle, and have lower participation in mammography screening. These findings provide some support for the hypothesis that anticoagulant medications might counteract breast cancer spread caused by needle biopsy. PMID:24346771

Ljung, Rickard; Sennerstam, Roland; Mattsson, Fredrik; Auer, Gert; Lagergren, Jesper

2014-07-01

315

How I do it: Simple and effortless approach to identify thoracodorsal nerve on axillary clearance procedure  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer surgery frequently involves an axillary clearance procedure for nodal metastases. Injury to the thoracodorsal nerve is one of the complications related to the axillary dissection. The thoracodorsal nerve innervates the latissimus dorsi muscle which facilitates in certain movements of the arm. Moreover, it can be used as a nerve graft in long thoracic nerve injury whether in trauma or surgery. Understanding the anatomy structures and good surgical technique in the axillary clearance procedure can identify and prevent such an injury to the thoracodorsal nerve. Here, we demonstrate a simple and effortless technique for identification of the thoracodorsal nerve during axillary surgery. PMID:22675404

Zin, T; Maw, M; Oo, SM; Pai, DR; Paijan, RB; Kyi, M

2012-01-01

316

A pilot study to assess the utility of SPECT\\/CT-based lymph node imaging to localize lymph nodes that drain the arm in patients undergoing treatment for breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image-guided treatment planning that minimizes irradiation of critical lymph nodes (LNs) may reduce the incidence and severity\\u000a of long term complications following breast cancer treatment. This localization cannot be obtained with conventional imaging\\u000a techniques and we undertook this proof of concept study to determine whether a coordinated use of SPECT and CT has sufficient\\u000a precision to inform radiation planning and

Andrea L. Cheville; Indra Das; Shyam Srinivas; Josh Schuerman; Luke Velders; Lawrence J. Solin; Sandip Basu; Abass Alavi

2009-01-01

317

Measurement of Intra-Fraction Displacement of the Mediastinal Metastatic Lymph Nodes Using Four-Dimensional CT in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective To measure the intra-fraction displacements of the mediastinal metastatic lymph nodes by using four-dimensional CT (4D-CT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods Twenty-four patients with NSCLC, who were to be treated by using three dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), underwent a 4D-CT simulation during free breathing. The mediastinal metastatic lymph nodes were delineated on the CT images of 10 phases of the breath cycle. The lymph nodes were grouped as the upper, middle and lower mediastinal groups depending on the mediastinal regions. The displacements of the center of the lymph node in the left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) directions were measured. Results The mean displacements of the center of the mediastinal lymph node in the LR, AP, and SI directions were 2.24 mm, 1.87 mm, and 3.28 mm, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between the displacements in the SI and LR, and the SI and AP directions (p < 0.05). For the middle and lower mediastinal lymph nodes, the displacement difference between the AP and SI was statistically significant (p = 0.005; p = 0.015), while there was no significant difference between the LR and AP directions (p < 0.05). Conclusion The metastatic mediastinal lymph node movements are different in the LR, AP, and SI directions in patients with NSCLC, particularly for the middle and lower mediastinal lymph nodes. The spatial non-uniform margins should be considered for the metastatic mediastinal lymph nodes in involved-field radiotherapy. PMID:22778563

Wang, Suzhen; Zhang, Yingjie; Wang, Wei; Li, Fengxiang; Fan, Tingyong; Xu, Min; Shao, Qian

2012-01-01

318

Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression as a Predictor of Para-Aortic Lymph Node Recurrence in Uterine Cervical Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is associated with a worse prognosis and the development of distant metastases in cervical cancer. This matched-pair analysis examined whether COX-2 expression is associated with para-aortic lymph node (PALN) recurrence in uterine cervical cancer treated with radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: For this study, we matched 20 patients with PALN recurrence after definitive or postoperative RT by stage with 20 others who did not have PALN recurrence. Of the 20 patients with PALN recurrence, definitive or postoperative RT was performed in 11 and 9 patients, respectively. COX-2 expression was assessed immunohistochemically using a mouse monoclonal antibody on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor specimens taken before RT. A logistic regression model was used to predict for PALN recurrence. Results: COX-2 was expressed in 28 (70%) of the 40 patients. The staining intensity was as follows: weak in 19 (47%), moderate in 6 (15%), and strong in 3 (8%) patients. The patients with PALN recurrence had much greater expression of COX-2 (17 patients, 85%) than did the control group (11 patients, 55%; p = 0.04). Strong staining intensity of COX-2 was seen only in the PALN recurrence group. The statistically significant factors associated with PALN recurrence were positive pelvic lymph nodes (odds ratio, 7.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.55-37.37; p = 0.01) and COX-2 expression (odds ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.09; p = 0.03). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that COX-2 overexpression in the initial tumor tissue might be associated with PALN recurrence after RT in cervical cancer patients.

Kim, Jun-Sang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: k423j@cnu.ac.kr; Li Shengjin [Department of Pathology, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin-Man [Cancer Research Institute, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pathology, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, Seung-Gu; Kim, Ki-Hwan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Moon-June [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2008-04-01

319

Is extended-field concurrent chemoradiation an option for radiologic negative paraaortic lymph node, locally advanced cervical cancer?  

PubMed Central

Background The aim was to evaluate whether extended-field concurrent chemoradiation (EF-CCRT) leads to results better than those obtained by standard whole-pelvis concurrent chemoradiation (WP-CCRT) in locally advanced cervical cancer with radiologic negative paraaortic lymph nodes (PALNs). Patients and methods A total of 102 patients with histopathologically proven squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, or adenosquamous cell carcinoma, and radiologic negative PALN locally advanced cervical cancer, stage IIB-IVA, were accrued between July 2007 and April 2008 and were randomly assigned to WP-CCRT (50 patients) or EF-CCRT (52 patients), followed by high-dose rate brachytherapy. Data regarding the safety profile, response rates, and occurrence of local, PALN, or distant failure were recorded. Results During a median follow-up time of 60 months (18–66), 74/102 patients completed the treatment protocol and were analyzed. Overall PALN, distant-metastasis control, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were 97.1%, 86.9%, 80.3%, and 72.4% in EF-CCRT respectively in comparison with WP-CCRT (82.1%,74.7%, 69.1%, and 60.4%), with P-values of 0.02, 0.03, 0.03 and 0.04 respectively. No difference in acute toxicity profile was seen between the groups, and late toxicities were mild and minimal. Conclusion Prophylactic EF-CCRT can be a reasonable option in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer with radiologic positive pelvic lymph nodes and radiologic negative PALN. PMID:25228820

Asiri, Mushabbab Al; Tunio, Mutahir A; Mohamed, Reham; Bayoumi, Yasser; Alhadab, Abdulrehman; Saleh, Rasha M; AlArifi, Muhannad Saud; Alobaid, Abdelaziz

2014-01-01

320

Correlation of Point B and Lymph Node Dose in 3D-Planned High-Dose-Rate Cervical Cancer Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare high dose rate (HDR) point B to pelvic lymph node dose using three-dimensional-planned brachytherapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients with FIGO Stage IB-IIIB cervical cancer received 70 tandem HDR applications using CT-based treatment planning. The obturator, external, and internal iliac lymph nodes (LN) were contoured. Per fraction (PF) and combined fraction (CF) right (R), left (L), and bilateral (Bil) nodal doses were analyzed. Point B dose was compared with LN dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters by paired t test and Pearson correlation coefficients. Results: Mean PF and CF doses to point B were R 1.40 Gy +- 0.14 (CF: 7 Gy), L 1.43 +- 0.15 (CF: 7.15 Gy), and Bil 1.41 +- 0.15 (CF: 7.05 Gy). The correlation coefficients between point B and the D100, D90, D50, D2cc, D1cc, and D0.1cc LN were all less than 0.7. Only the D2cc to the obturator and the D0.1cc to the external iliac nodes were not significantly different from the point B dose. Significant differences between R and L nodal DVHs were seen, likely related to tandem deviation from irregular tumor anatomy. Conclusions: With HDR brachytherapy for cervical cancer, per fraction nodal dose approximates a dose equivalent to teletherapy. Point B is a poor surrogate for dose to specific nodal groups. Three-dimensional defined nodal contours during brachytherapy provide a more accurate reflection of delivered dose and should be part of comprehensive planning of the total dose to the pelvic nodes, particularly when there is evidence of pathologic involvement.

Lee, Larissa J. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Sadow, Cheryl A. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Russell, Anthony [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Viswanathan, Akila N., E-mail: aviswanathan@lroc.harvard.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

2009-11-01

321

The Impact of the Size of Nodal Metastases on Recurrence Risk in Breast Cancer Patients With 1-3 Positive Axillary Nodes After Mastectomy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Use of postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) in breast cancer patients with 1-3 positive nodes is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine whether the size of nodal metastases in this subset could predict who would benefit from PMRT. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 250 breast cancer patients with 1-3 positive nodes after mastectomy treated with contemporary surgery and systemic therapy at our institution. Of these patients, 204 did not receive PMRT and 46 did receive PMRT. Local and regional recurrence risks were stratified by the size of the largest nodal metastasis measured as less than or equal to 5 mm or greater than 5 mm. Results: The median follow-up was 65.6 months. In the whole group, regional recurrences occurred in 2% of patients in whom the largest nodal metastasis measured 5 mm or less vs 6% for those with metastases measuring greater than 5 mm. For non-irradiated patients only, regional recurrence rates were 2% and 9%, respectively. Those with a maximal nodal size greater than 5 mm had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of regional recurrence (P=.013). The 5-year cumulative incidence of a regional recurrence in the non-irradiated group was 2.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7%-7.2%) for maximal metastasis size of 5 mm or less, 6.9% (95% CI, 1.7%-17.3%) for metastasis size greater than 5 mm, and 16% (95% CI, 3.4%-36.8%) for metastasis size greater than 10 mm. The impact of the maximal nodal size on regional recurrences became insignificant in the multivariable model. Conclusions: In patients with 1-3 positive lymph nodes undergoing mastectomy without radiation, nodal metastasis greater than 5 mm was associated with regional recurrence after mastectomy, but its effect was modified by other factors (such as tumor stage). The size of the largest nodal metastasis may be useful to identify high-risk patients who may benefit from radiation therapy after mastectomy.

Harris, Eleanor E.R., E-mail: Eleanor.harris@moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Freilich, Jessica [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Lin, Hui-Yi [Biostatistics Core, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States)] [Biostatistics Core, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Chuong, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Acs, Geza [Department of Anatomic Pathology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States)] [Department of Anatomic Pathology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States)

2013-03-01

322

Spatial organization of dendritic cells within tumor draining lymph nodes impacts clinical outcome in breast cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background Dendritic cells (DCs) are important mediators of anti-tumor immune responses. We hypothesized that an in-depth analysis of dendritic cells and their spatial relationships to each other as well as to other immune cells within tumor draining lymph nodes (TDLNs) could provide a better understanding of immune function and dysregulation in cancer. Methods We analyzed immune cells within TDLNs from 59 breast cancer patients with at least 5 years of clinical follow-up using immunohistochemical staining with a novel quantitative image analysis system. We developed algorithms to analyze spatial distribution patterns of immune cells in cancer versus healthy intra-mammary lymph nodes (HLNs) to derive information about possible mechanisms underlying immune-dysregulation in breast cancer. We used the non-parametric Mann–Whitney test for inter-group comparisons, Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed Ranks test for intra-group comparisons and log-rank (Mantel-Cox) test for Kaplan Maier analyses. Results Degree of clustering of DCs (in terms of spatial proximity of the cells to each other) was reduced in TDLNs compared to HLNs. While there were more numerous DC clusters in TDLNs compared to HLNs,DC clusters within TDLNs tended to have fewer member DCs and also consisted of fewer cells displaying the DC maturity marker CD83. The average number of T cells within a standardized radius of a clustered DC was increased compared to that of an unclustered DC, suggesting that DC clustering was associated with T cell interaction. Furthermore, the number of T cells within the radius of a clustered DC was reduced in tumor-positive TDLNs compared to HLNs. Importantly, clinical outcome analysis revealed that DC clustering in tumor-positive TDLNs correlated with the duration of disease-free survival in breast cancer patients. Conclusions These findings are the first to describe the spatial organization of DCs within TDLNs and their association with survival outcome. In addition, we characterized specific changes in number, size, maturity, and T cell co-localization of such clusters. Strategies to enhance DC function in-vivo, including maturation and clustering, may provide additional tools for developing more efficacious DC cancer vaccines. PMID:24088396

2013-01-01

323

Accuracy of Endoscopic Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Distal and Celiac Axis Lymph Node Metastasis in Esophageal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Published data on the accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for staging distant and celiac axis lymph node (CLN) metastasis\\u000a in patients with esophageal cancer (ECA) has varied. Aim To evaluate the accuracy of EUS in diagnosing distal and CLN metastasis in ECA patients. Method Study selection: EUS studies confirmed by surgery were selected. Statistical method: Pooling was conducted by

Srinivas R. Puli; Jyotsna B. K. Reddy; Matthew L. Bechtold; Mainor R. Antillon; Jamal A. Ibdah

2008-01-01

324

Circulating tumor cells in patients with breast cancer: possible predictor of micro-metastasis in bone marrow but not in sentinel lymph nodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. -Blood and lymphatic circulation are the major routes during metastatic spread of breast cancer cells. Despite the predictive and prognostic value of bone marrow (BM) micro-metastasis, repeated and frequent BM aspirations may not be easily accepted by patients. We try to establish the role of circulating tumor cells as a predictor for micro-metastasis in BM and sentinel lymph node

L. Zhu; W. T. Y. Loo; L. W. C. Chow

2005-01-01

325

Clinical stage B non-seminomatous germ cell testis cancer: The Indiana University experience (1965–1989) using routine primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1965 and 1989, 1180 patients at Indiana University, U.S.A., underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) for non-seminomatous germ cell (NSGC) testis cancer of whom 638 cases had primary RPLND. A subset of 174 cases were considered clinical stage B (or II) before surgery (retroperitoneal nodal metastases by clinical staging). Surgery revealed that 23% (n = 41) had pathological stage

J. P. Donohue; J. A. Thornhill; R. S. Foster; R. G. Rowland; R. Bihrle

1995-01-01

326

Intraoperative Subareolar Radioisotope Injection for Immediate Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the identification of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast cancer patients after intraoperative injection of unfiltered technetium-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-99) and blue dye. Background: SLNB guided by a combination of radioisotope and blue dye injection yields the best identification rates in breast cancer patients. Radioisotope is given preoperatively, without local anesthesia, whereas blue dye is given intraoperatively. We hypothesized that, because of the rapid drainage noted with the subareolar injection technique of radioisotope, intraoperative injection would be feasible and less painful for SLN localization in breast cancer patients. Methods: Intraoperative injection of Tc-99 and confirmation blue dye was performed using the subareolar technique for SLNB in patients with operable breast cancer. The time lapse between injection and axillary incision, the background count, the preincision and ex vivo counts of the hot nodes, and the axillary bed counts were documented. The identification rate was recorded. Results: Ninety-six SLNB procedures were done in 88 patients with breast cancer employing intraoperative subareolar injection technique for both radioisotope (all 96 procedures) and blue dye (93 procedures) injections. Ninety-three (97%) procedures had successful identification; all SLNs were hot; 91 (of 93 procedures with blue dye) were blue and hot. The mean time from radioisotope injection to incision was 19.9 minutes (SD 8.5 minutes). The mean highest 10 second count was 88,544 (SD 55,954). Three of 96 (3%) patients with failure of localization had previous excisional biopsies: 1 circumareolar and 2 upper outer quadrant incisions that may have disrupted the lymphatic flow. Conclusion: Intraoperative subareolar injection of radioisotope rapidly drains to the SLNs and allows immediate staging of the axilla, avoiding the need to coordinate diagnostic services and a painful preoperative procedure. PMID:15166963

Layeeque, Rakhshanda; Kepple, Julie; Henry-Tillman, Ronda S.; Adkins, Laura; Kass, Rena; Colvert, Maureen; Gibson, Regina; Mancino, Anne; Korourian, Soheila; Klimberg, V Suzanne

2004-01-01

327

Accurate and rapid novel genetic diagnosis for detection of sentinel lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background: The transcription-reverse transcription concerted reaction (TRC) test is a novel molecular-based procedure, which can assess nodal metastasis accurately and quickly. We examined the usefulness of the TRC test with a double marker, cytokeratin 19 (CK19) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) mRNA, to detect sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) metastasis in breast cancer patients. Methods: A total of 264 SLNs from 131 breast cancer patients were assigned to a training set (109 SLNs from 50 patients) and validation set (155 SLNs from 81 patients). Cytokeratin 19 and CEA mRNA were detected by TRC tests, and the sensitivity and specificity of the SLN metastasis between the TRC and histology cohorts were compared. Results: Mean copy numbers of CK19 and CEA by TRC tests were increased according to the metastatic size. In the training set, TRC test showed 100% sensitivity, specificity and concordance rates against the permanent histopathology test. In the validation set, sensitivity was 97.1%, specificity was 99.2% and the concordance rate was 99.4%. Conclusion: Our results showed that the detection of CK19 and CEA mRNA using the TRC test is, an accurate and rapid method for detection of SLN metastasis and can be applied as an intraoperative molecular diagnosis in breast cancer patients. PMID:22782345

Iinuma, H; Tamura, J; Omoto, D; Kamo, N; Ohnaka, S; Mitoma, Y; Miyazawa, Y; Okinaga, K; Imamura, T; Fukushima, R; Watanabe, T; Ikeda, T

2012-01-01

328

Overexpression of Snail is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a significant role in tumor progression and invasion. Snail is a known regulator of EMT in various malignant tumors. This study investigated the role of Snail in gastric cancer. Methods We examined the effects of silenced or overexpressed Snail using lenti-viral constructs in gastric cancer cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarrays from 314 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (GC) was used to determine Snail’s clinicopathological and prognostic significance. Differential gene expression in 45 GC specimens with Snail overexpression was investigated using cDNA microarray analysis. Results Silencing of Snail by shRNA decreased invasion and migration in GC cell lines. Conversely, Snail overexpression increased invasion and migration of gastric cancer cells, in line with increased VEGF and MMP11. Snail overexpression (?75% positive nuclear staining) was also significantly associated with tumor progression (P?lymph node metastases (P?=?0.002), lymphovascular invasion (P?=?0.002), and perineural invasion (P?=?0.002) in the 314 GC patients, and with shorter survival (P?=?0.023). cDNA microarray analysis revealed 213 differentially expressed genes in GC tissues with Snail overexpression, including genes related to metastasis and invasion. Conclusion Snail significantly affects invasiveness/migratory ability of GCs, and may also be used as a predictive biomarker for prognosis or aggressiveness of GCs. PMID:23151184

2012-01-01

329

Use of indocyanine green for detecting the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer patients: from preclinical evaluation to clinical validation.  

PubMed

Assessment of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) in patients with early stage breast cancer is vital in selecting the appropriate surgical approach. However, the existing methods, including methylene blue and nuclides, possess low efficiency and effectiveness in mapping SLNs, and to a certain extent exert side effects during application. Indocyanine green (ICG), as a fluorescent dye, has been proved reliable usage in SLN detection by several other groups. In this paper, we introduce a novel surgical navigation system to detect SLN with ICG. This system contains two charge-coupled devices (CCD) to simultaneously capture real-time color and fluorescent video images through two different bands. During surgery, surgeons only need to follow the fluorescence display. In addition, the system saves data automatically during surgery enabling surgeons to find the registration point easily according to image recognition algorithms. To test our system, 5 mice and 10 rabbits were used for the preclinical setting and 22 breast cancer patients were utilized for the clinical evaluation in our experiments. The detection rate was 100% and an average of 2.7 SLNs was found in 22 patients. Our results show that the usage of our surgical navigation system with ICG to detect SLNs in breast cancer patients is technically feasible. PMID:24358319

Chi, Chongwei; Ye, Jinzuo; Ding, Haolong; He, De; Huang, Wenhe; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Tian, Jie

2013-01-01

330

[A case of gastric cancer with N2 lymph node metastasis and pancreatic invasion effectively treated with docetax-el/S-1 as a neoadjuvant chemotherapy].  

PubMed

A 74-year-old man was diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer(cStage III B). Laparotomy showed N2 lymph node metastasis and pancreatic invasion. Radical resection appeared impossible and was thus not performed. Chemotherapy consisting of a combination of S-1(80mg/m 2, 2-week administration and 1-week rest), and docetaxel(40mg/m2day 1)was administered with the expectation of tumor downstaging. A partial response(PR)was obtained after five courses of this regimen in which the primary lesion and lymph node swelling remarkably improved. Total gastrectomy, splenectomy, partial colectomy, and D2 lymph node dissection were then performed. Pathological analysis revealed very few cancer cells in the primary lesion and that the lymph nodes had become scarred and fibrotic. The histological appearance was judged to be grade 2 and the final diagnosis was T1N0H0P0CY0M0, fStage I A, curability A. Currently, more than 6 years and 4 months after the operation, the patient is alive without any evidence of recurrence. Thus, docetaxel/S-1 combination therapy was an effective neoadjuvant chemotherapy for this case of advanced gastric cancer. PMID:25132034

Omori, Keita; Wakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Ishibashi, Yuji; Ito, Yutaka

2014-08-01

331

The use of neural networks in identifying risk factors for lymph node metastasis and recommending management of t1b esophageal cancer.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to establish a prediction model of lymph node status in T1b esophageal carcinoma and define the best squamous and adenocarcinoma predictors. The literature lacks a satisfactory level of evidence of T1b esophageal cancer management. We performed an analysis pooling the effects of outcomes of 2098 patients enrolled into 37 retrospective studies using "neural networks" as data mining techniques. The percentages for lymph node, lymphatic (L+), and vascular (V+) invasion in Sm1 esophageal cancers were 24, 46, and 20 per cent, respectively. The same parameters apply to Sm2 with 34, 63, and 38 per cent as opposed to Sm3 with 51, 69, and 47 per cent. The respective number of patients with well, moderate, and poor histologic differentiation totaled 267, 752, and 582. The rank order of the predictors of lymph node positivity was, respectively: Grade III, (L+), (V+), Sm3 invasion, Sm2 invasion, and Sm1 invasion. Histologic-type squamous and adenocarcinoma (ADC/SCC) was not included in the model. The best predictors for SCC lymph node positivity were sm3 invasion and (V+). As concerns ADC, the most important predictor was (L+). Submucosal esophageal cancer should be managed with surgical resection. However, this is subject to the histologic type and presence of specific predictors that could well alter the perspective of multimodality management. PMID:22369829

Sgourakis, George; Gockel, Ines; Lyros, Orestis; Lanitis, Sophocles; Dedemadi, Georgia; Polotzek, Ursula; Karaliotas, Constantine; Lang, Hauke

2012-02-01

332

Lymph node dissection in the resection of gastric cancer: Review of existing evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Surgery is the only curative therapy for localized\\u000a gastric cancer, but the extent of regional lymphadenectomy has been a matter of considerable debate. Extended resections that\\u000a are regarded as standard procedures in some Asian countries, including Japan and Korea, have not been shown to be as effective\\u000a in

Yutaka Tanizawa; Masanori Terashima

2010-01-01

333

Optimized Dose Coverage of Regional Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer: The Role of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether the use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) would lead to improved dosimetry for the breast and regional nodes. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with left-sided breast cancer were selected. The clinical target volume included left breast and internal mammillary (IM), supraclavicular (SC), and axillary (AX) nodes. The critical structures included heart, right and left lungs, contralateral breast, esophagus, thyroid, and humeral head. Conventional and a series of IMRT plans were generated for comparison. Results: The average heart D{sub 3} was reduced from 31.4 {+-} 18.9 with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) to 15 {+-} 7.2 Gy with 9-field (9-FLD IMRT). The average left lung D{sub 30} was also decreased from 27.9 {+-} 11.5 Gy (3D-CRT) to 12.6 {+-} 8.2 Gy (9-FLD IMRT). The average contralateral breast D{sub 2} was reduced from 4.4 {+-} 5.3 Gy (3D-CRT) to 1.8 {+-} 1.2 Gy (4-FLD IMRT). Esophagus D{sub 2} was increased from 9.3 {+-} 8.1 Gy (3D-CRT) to 29.4 {+-} 5.4 (9-FLD IMRT); thyroid D{sub 50} was increased from 0.9 {+-} 0.6 Gy (3D-CRT) to 11.9 {+-} 6.6 (9-FLD IMRT); humeral head D{sub 2} was increased from 36.1 {+-} 13.1 Gy (3D-CRT) to 39.9 {+-} 6.5 (9-FLD IMRT). Conclusions: The use of IMRT improves breast and regional node coverage while decreasing doses to the lungs, heart, and contralateral breast when compared with 3D-CRT. Doses to esophagus, thyroid, and humeral head, however, were increased with IMRT.

Dogan, Nesrin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, VA (United States)]. E-mail: ndogan@mcvh-vcu.edu; Cuttino, Laurie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, VA (United States); Lloyd, Rick C [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, VA (United States); Bump, Edward A. C [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, VA (United States); Arthur, Douglas W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, VA (United States)

2007-07-15

334

Feasibility of Eradication of Breast Cancer Cells Remaining in Post-Lumpectomy Cavity and Draining Lymph Nodes Following Intracavitary Injection of Radioactive Immunoliposomes  

PubMed Central

Most diagnosed early stage breast cancer cases are treated by lumpectomy and adjuvant radiation therapy, which significantly decreases the locoregional recurrence but causes inevitable toxicity to normal tissue. By using a technique of preparing liposomes carrying technetium-99m (99mTc), rhenium-186 (186Re), or rhenium-188 (188Re) radionuclides, as well as chemotherapeutic agents, or their combination, for cancer therapy with real time image-monitoring of pharmacokinetics and prediction of therapy effect, this study investigated the potential of a novel targeted focal radiotherapy with low systemic toxicity using radioactive immunoliposomes to treat both the surgical cavity and draining lymph nodes in a rat breast cancer xenograft positive surgical margin model. Immunoliposomes modified with either panitumumab (anti-EGFR), or bevacizumab (anti-VEGF) were remote loaded with 99mTc diagnostic radionuclide, and injected into the surgical cavity of female nude rats with positive margins post lumpectomy. Locoregional retention and systemic distribution of 99mTc-immunoliposomes were investigated by nuclear imaging, stereofluorescent microscopic imaging and gamma counting. Histopathological examination of excised draining lymph nodes was performed. The locoregional retention of 99mTc-immunoliposomes in each animal was influenced by the physiological characteristics of surgical site of individual animals. Panitumumab- and bevacizumab-liposome groups had higher intracavitary retention compared with the control liposome groups. Draining lymph node uptake was influenced by both the intracavitary radioactivity retention level and metastasis status. Panitumumab-liposome group had higher accumulation on the residual tumor surface and in the metastatic lymph nodes. Radioactive liposomes that were cleared from the cavity were metabolized quickly and accumulated at low levels in vital organs. Therapeutic radionuclide-carrying specifically targeted panitumumab- and bevacizumab- liposomes have increased potential compared to non-antibody targeted liposomes for post-lumpectomy focal therapy to eradicate remaining breast cancer cells inside the cavity and draining lymph nodes with low systemic toxicity. PMID:22894603

Li, Shihong; Goins, Beth; Hrycushko, Brian A.; Phillips, William T.; Bao, Ande

2012-01-01

335

In vivo carbon nanotube-enhanced non-invasive photoacoustic mapping of the sentinel lymph node  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), a less invasive alternative to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), has become the standard of care for patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer. In SLNB, lymphatic mapping with radio-labeled sulfur colloid and/or blue dye helps identify the sentinel lymph node (SLN), which is most likely to contain metastatic breast cancer. Even though SLNB, using both methylene blue and radioactive tracers, has a high identification rate, it still relies on an invasive surgical procedure, with associated morbidity. In this study, we have demonstrated a non-invasive single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-enhanced photoacoustic (PA) identification of SLN in a rat model. We have successfully imaged the SLN in vivo by PA imaging (793 nm laser source, 5 MHz ultrasonic detector) with high contrast-to-noise ratio (=89) and good resolution (~500 µm). The SWNTs also show a wideband optical absorption, generating PA signals over an excitation wavelength range of 740-820 nm. Thus, by varying the incident light wavelength to the near infrared region, where biological tissues (hemoglobin, tissue pigments, lipids and water) show low light absorption, the imaging depth is maximized. In the future, functionalization of the SWNTs with targeting groups should allow the molecular imaging of breast cancer.

Pramanik, Manojit; Song, Kwang Hyun; Swierczewska, Magdalena; Green, Danielle; Sitharaman, Balaji; Wang, Lihong V.

2009-06-01

336

Prognostic significance and surgical management of locoregional lymph node metastases in papillary thyroid cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the records of 342 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma out of a total of 728 thyroid cancer patients treated at the Medical School of Hannover (MHH) from 1972 through 1992. The comprehensive data-abstracting forms were designed, and the acquired information was coded, stored, maintained, and evaluated by the Clinical Cancer Registry of the MHH. A total of 160

Georg F. W. Scheumann; Oliver Gimm; Gerd Wegener; H. Hundeshagen; Henning Dralle

1994-01-01

337

Outcome Analysis of Patients With Oral Cavity Cancer and Extracapsular Spread in Neck Lymph Nodes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Extracapsular spread (ECS) in neck lymph nodes is a major adverse prognostic factor in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We conducted a retrospective analysis of prognostic factors in this patient group and tried to identify a subset of patients with a worse prognosis suitable for more aggressive therapeutic interventions. Methods and Materials: Enrolled in the study were 255 OSCC patients with ECS in neck nodes and without evidence of distant metastasis. All participants were followed-up for at least 2 years or censored at last follow-up. The 5-year rates of control, distant metastasis, and survival were the main outcome measures. Results: Level IV/V lymph node metastases and tumor depth {>=}12 mm were independent predictors of 5-year survival and identified three prognostic groups. In the low-risk group (no level IV/V metastases and tumor depth <12 mm), the 5-year disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates were 60%, 66%, and 50%, respectively. In the intermediate-risk group (no level IV/V metastases and tumor depth {>=}12 mm), the 5-year disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates were 39%, 41%, and 28%, respectively. In the high-risk group (evidence of level IV/V metastases), the 5-year disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates were 14%, 12%, and 10%, respectively. Conclusions: Among OSCC patients with ECS, those with level IV/V metastases appear to have the worst prognosis followed by without level IV/V metastases and tumor depth {>=}12 mm. An aggressive therapeutic approach may be suitable for intermediate- and high-risk patients.

Liao, Chun-Ta, E-mail: liaoct@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lee, Li-Yu [Department of Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Huang, Shiang-Fu; Chen, I-How; Kang, Chung-Jan [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chien-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing [Department of Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences of Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wang, Hung-Ming [Department of Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Hema-Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Ng, Shu-Hang [Department of Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Yen, Tzu-Chen, E-mail: yen1110@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Department of Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

2011-11-15

338

Clinical utility of ultrasound-needle biopsy for preoperative staging of the axilla in invasive breast cancer.  

PubMed

Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) has largely replaced axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) as the standard-of-care for nodal staging in invasive breast cancer. Preoperative imaging-based staging of the axilla using ultrasound with selective ultrasound-guided needle biopsy (UNB) is moderately-sensitive and identifies approximately 50% of patients (pooled estimate from meta-analysis 50%; 95% confidence interval=43%-57%) with axillary nodal metastases prior to surgical intervention. It is also a highly specific staging strategy that allows patients to be triaged to ALND based on a positive result (positive predictive value approximates 100%), thus avoiding two-stage axillary surgery and unnecessary SNB. Axillary UNB has a good clinical utility: based on an updated meta-analysis, we found that a median proportion of 18.4% (inter-quartile range=13.3%-27.4%) from 7,097 patients can be effectively triaged to axillary treatment and can avoid SNB. However, the changing algorithm of axillary surgical treatment means that UNB will have relatively less utility where surgeons omit ALND for minimal nodal metastatic disease. Research that allows enhanced application of ultrasound and UNB to specifically identify and biopsy sentinel nodes and to discriminate between patients with minimal versus advanced nodal metastatic involvement is likely to have the most impact on future management of the axilla in breast cancer. PMID:24596347

Houssami, Nehmat; Diepstraten, Suzanne C E; Cody, Hiram S; Turner, Robin M; Sever, Ali R

2014-03-01

339

Factors related to survival rates for breast cancer patients  

PubMed Central

This study is to analyze the relationship between clinical parameters and prognosis and survival rates of breast cancer patients. A total of 1541 cases of breast cancer were retrospectively reviewed with respect to clinical parameters and the correlation with prognosis and survival rates. Among these patients, follow-up investigation was performed for 1381 cases. Clinical parameters including disease sites (the lesion quadrant), incidences, the number of axillary lymph node metastasis, maximum diameter of tumor, tumor regional lymph node metastasis (TNM) stages, pathological types were investigated. The estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2 levels were correlated with long term disease-free survival. Lymph node metastases, tumor diameter, TNM stage, and hormone receptor status are correlated with survival rates of breast cancer patients.

Dong, Guizhi; Wang, Deguang; Liang, Xiaolin; Gao, Huiquan; Wang, Ling; Yu, Xinjiao; Liu, Jingjun

2014-01-01

340

Efficacy of lapatinib monotherapy on occult breast cancer presenting with cutaneous metastases: A case report  

PubMed Central

The case of a 72-year-old female who identified a lymph node enlargement in the left axilla is reported in the present study. A lymph node biopsy revealed a metastatic adenocarcinoma of the axillary lymph node. Following various assessments, the patient was diagnosed with occult breast cancer and lymph node metastases, for which treatment was initiated. Trastuzumab monotherapy was administered as the patient was elderly, positive for the hepatitis B virus and exhibited the following immunostaining/immunohistochemical analysis results: Estrogen receptor (ER) negative (?), progesterone receptor (PgR) negative (?) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive (3+). Breast ultrasonography was performed 10 months after the initial trastuzumab administration and the left axillary lymph node enlargement had reduced in size and severity. However, a skin rash (erythema) was observed encompassing the left breast and extending into the axilla. As determined by the result of a skin biopsy of this area, the patient was diagnosed with occult breast cancer with cutaneous metastases. The immunohistochemical analysis results obtained from the skin biopsy were similar to those obtained from the lymph nodes: ER (?), PgR (?) and HER2 (3+). Therefore, the patient was switched from trastuzumab to lapatinib monotherapy. The erythema completely disappeared after two months of treatment. At present (34 months following lapatinib monotherapy initiation) no new lesions or severe side-effects have been observed. PMID:25360168

NOGUCHI, EIICHIRO; KAMIO, TAKAKO; KAMIO, HIDENORI; MIURA, HIROKO; TAMAKI, MASAKO; NISHIZAWA, MASAKO; AOYAMA, KEI; OOCHI, TETSUYA; KAMEOKA, SHINGO

2014-01-01

341

Validation of Expression Patterns for Nine miRNAs in 204 Lymph-Node Negative Breast Cancers  

PubMed Central

Introduction Although lymph node negative (LN-) breast cancer patients have a good 10-years survival (?85%), most of them still receive adjuvant therapy, while only some benefit from this. More accurate prognostication of LN- breast cancer patient may reduce over- and under-treatment. Until now proliferation is the strongest prognostic factor for LN- breast cancer patients. The small molecule microRNA (miRNA) has opened a new window for prognostic markers, therapeutic targets and/or therapeutic components. Previously it has been shown that miR-18a/b, miR-25, miR-29c and miR-106b correlate to high proliferation. Methods The current study validates nine miRNAs (miR-18a/b miR-25, miR-29c, miR-106b, miR375, miR-424, miR-505 and let-7b) significantly correlated with established prognostic breast cancer biomarkers. Total RNA was isolated from 204 formaldehyde-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) LN- breast cancers and analyzed with quantitative real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). Independent T-test was used to detect significant correlation between miRNA expression level and the different clinicopathological features for breast cancer. Results Strong and significant associations were observed for high expression of miR-18a/b, miR-106b, miR-25 and miR-505 to high proliferation, oestrogen receptor negativity and cytokeratin 5/6 positivity. High expression of let-7b, miR-29c and miR-375 was detected in more differentiated tumours. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients with high miR-106b expression had an 81% survival rate vs. 95% (P?=?0.004) for patients with low expression. Conclusion High expression of miR-18a/b are strongly associated with basal-like breast cancer features, while miR-106b can identify a group with higher risk for developing distant metastases in the subgroup of Her2 negatives. Furthermore miR-106b can identify a group of patients with 100% survival within the otherwise considered high risk group of patients with high proliferation. Using miR-106b as a biomarker in conjunction to mitotic activity index could thereby possibly save 18% of the patients with high proliferation from overtreatment. PMID:23144930

Jonsdottir, Kristin; Janssen, Susanne R.; Da Rosa, Fabiana C.; Gudlaugsson, Einar; Skaland, Ivar; Baak, Jan P. A.; Janssen, Emiel A. M.

2012-01-01

342

18 F-FDG PET\\/CT in mediastinal lymph node staging of non-small-cell lung cancer in a tuberculosis-endemic country: consideration of lymph node calcification and distribution pattern to improve specificity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET\\/CT in mediastinal lymph node staging of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in\\u000a a region with a high prevalence of granulomatous disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Between March 2004 and February 2006, all patients with NSCLC underwent FDG PET\\/CT and contrast-enhanced thoracic CT, and\\u000a subsequent surgical resection. PET\\/CT and contrast-enhanced

Jeong Won Lee; Bom Sahn Kim; Dong Soo Lee; June-Key Chung; Myung Chul Lee; Soonhag Kim; Won Jun Kang

2009-01-01

343

Management of accidentally found pathological lymph nodes on routine screening mammography.  

PubMed

Normal lymph nodes in the anterior part of the axilla are readily seen on routine mammography. It is important, however, to recognize pathological lymph nodes, characterized by increased attenuation, high density, a round or irregular shape and lack of fat in the hilus, as they often indicate significant diseases. We examined the final diagnosis in 22 patients referred for clinical examination from a mammographic screening programme because of pathological lymph nodes without concomitant breast malignancy. Ten of them were found to have a malignant lesion, and one had sarcoidosis. None of the malignancies had been diagnosed before screening. Among women with abnormal but impalpable nodes, only one malignancy was found (in a woman with previous breast cancer), whereas nine of 13 women with palpable nodes had malignancies. Seven malignant lymphomas were discovered, but among all 60 women of the age group in question with newly diagnosed lymphomas in the region, only 13 had pathological axillary nodes. Mammography cannot therefore be used as a screening method for lymphoma. We conclude that mammographically pathological lymph nodes in the axilla should be examined clinically and propose a simple programme for patient management. PMID:8654606

Bergkvist, L; Frodis, E; Hedborg-Mellander, C; Hansen, J

1996-06-01

344

Lymph Node Ratio as a Prognostic Factor in Patients With Stage III Rectal Cancer Treated With Total Mesorectal Excision Followed by Chemoradiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the prognostic impact of lymph node ratio (LNR) on survival in the patients with Stage III rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 421 consecutive patients who underwent total mesorectal excision followed by chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer from 1996 to 2006. The 232 patients with positive lymph nodes (LNs) were divided into four groups according to LNR quartiles: LNR {<=}0.1 (n = 69), {<=}0.2 (n = 49), {<=}0.4 (n = 54), and >0.4 (n = 60). The association between LNR and survival was evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate analysis with covariates of prognostic significance in univariate analysis. Results: The median numbers of examined and positive LNs were 17 and 3, respectively, and the median LNR was 0.20 (range, 0.03-1). There was a strong correlation between the number of positive LNs and LNR (r = 0.724, p < 0.001). After a median follow-up of 53 months (range, 9-138 months), the actuarial overall survival and disease-free survival rates at 5 years were 69% and 56%, respectively. The 5-year survival rate decreased as LNR increased ({<=}0.1, 89%; {<=}0.2, 67%; {<=}0.4, 64%; >0.4, 50%; p < 0.001). Lymph node ratio was also a significant prognostic factor on Cox regression analysis ({<=}0.1, hazard ratio [HR] = 1; {<=}0.2, HR = 1.3, p = 0.623; {<=}0.4, HR = 2.4, p = 0.047; >0.4, HR = 3.7, p = 0.005). Lymph node ratio had a prognostic effect on overall survival in subgroups of patients with N1 (p = 0.032) and N2 (p = 0.034) tumors. Conclusion: Lymph node ratio was the most significant predictor of survival in the patients with Stage III rectal cancer who had undergone postoperative chemoradiation.

Kim, Young Seok [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hoon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jhkim2@amc.seoul.kr; Yoon, Sang Min; Choi, Eun Kyung; Ahn, Seung Do; Lee, Sang-wook [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Cheon; Yu, Chang Sik; Kim, Hee Chul [Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Won; Chang, Heung Moon [Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2009-07-01

345

Prognostic factors associated with radiotherapy for cervical cancer with computed tomography-detected para-aortic lymph node metastasis  

PubMed Central

Patients with cervical cancer diagnosed with a para-aortic lymph node (PALN) metastasis by computed tomography (CT) scan were analyzed to identify associated prognostic factors. A total of 55 patients were reviewed, and 27 of these patients underwent extended-field radiotherapy (EFRT). The median PALN dose in patients receiving EFRT was 45 Gy (range, 27–57.6 Gy). Of the 55 patients, 28 underwent pelvic radiotherapy (RT); concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) was administered to 41 patients. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to calculate the actuarial rate. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazards model. Five-year overall survival (OS) rates were 41% and 17.9% in patients undergoing EFRT and pelvic RT (P = 0.030), respectively. Age < 53 years (P = 0.023), FIGO Stage I–II (P = 0.002), and treatment with EFRT (P = 0.003) were independent predictors of better OS. The use of CCRT (P = 0.014), Stage I–II (P = 0.002), and treatment using EFRT (P = 0.036) were independent predictors of distant metastasis. In patients undergoing EFRT plus CCRT, the 5-year OS was 50%. Three-year PALN disease-free rates were 8.8%, 57.9% and 100% (P < 0.001) in CCRT patients who received PALN doses of 0 Gy, ?45 Gy and ?50.4 Gy, respectively. Although PALN metastasis is thought to be distant metastasis in cervical cancer, EFRT plus CCRT shows a good outcome, particularly in younger patients in an early FIGO stage. Cervical cancer with a PALN metastasis should not be considered incurable. Doses ?50.4 Gy for treating PALN may result in better disease control. PMID:23814113

Wu, Szu-Yuan; Huang, Eng-Yen; Chanchien, Chan-Chao; Lin, Hao; Wang, Chong-Jong; Sun, Li-Min; Chen, Hui-Chun; Fang, Fu-Min; Hsu, Hsuan-Chih; Huang, Yu-Jie

2014-01-01

346

Botulinum toxin for axillary hyperhidrosis.  

PubMed

Botulinum toxin is a safe and effective treatment option for axillary hyperhidrosis. Although its pathophysiology is not clear and somewhat controversial, the beneficial effect of neuromodulators in inhibiting localized sweating temporarily is well known. Before the procedure, correct identification of the affected area is mandatory to avoid wastage of drug and neglect of target areas, and to enhance efficacy, as the hyperhidrotic location may not match the hairy axillary region. Utilization of this medication, such as dilution and injection techniques, depends on medical experience and may have some variations, including methods to make the procedure as painless as possible. PMID:25152343

de Almeida, Ada Regina Trindade; Montagner, Suelen

2014-10-01

347

Preoperative [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Standardized Uptake Value of Neck Lymph Nodes Predicts Neck Cancer Control and Survival Rates in Patients With Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Pathologically Positive Lymph Nodes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Survival in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) depends heavily on locoregional control. In this prospective study, we sought to investigate whether preoperative maximum standardized uptake value of the neck lymph nodes (SUVnodal-max) may predict prognosis in OSCC patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 120 OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes were investigated. All subjects underwent a [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scan within 2 weeks before radical surgery and neck dissection. All patients were followed up for at least 24 months after surgery or until death. Postoperative adjuvant therapy was performed in the presence of pathologic risk factors. Optimal cutoff values of SUVnodal-max were chosen based on 5-year disease-free survival (DFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS). Independent prognosticators were identified by Cox regression analysis. Results: The median follow-up for surviving patients was 41 months. The optimal cutoff value for SUVnodal-max was 5.7. Multivariate analyses identified the following independent predictors of poor outcome: SUVnodal-max {>=}5.7 for the 5-year neck cancer control rate, distant metastatic rate, DFS, DSS, and extracapsular spread (ECS) for the 5-year DSS and OS. Among ECS patients, the presence of a SUVnodal-max {>=}5.7 identified patients with the worst prognosis. Conclusion: A SUVnodal-max of 5.7, either alone or in combination with ECS, is an independent prognosticator for 5-year neck cancer control and survival rates in OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes.

Liao, C.-T. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chang, J.T.-C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wang, H.-M. [Department of Medical Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Ng, S.-H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, C.; Lee, L.-Y. [Department of Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lin, C.-H. [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chen, I-H.; Huang, S.-F. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)] (and others)

2009-07-15

348

Axillary and intramammary lymphadenopathy caused by Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease mimicking malignant lymphoma.  

PubMed

We describe a rare case of intramammary and axillary lymphadenopathy caused by Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD). A 30-year-old woman presented with enlarged axillary lymph nodes and a right breast mass with tenderness. Computed tomography, ultrasonography, F-2-deoxy-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography and fine-needle aspiration cytology were performed, and malignant lymphoma (ML) was suspected. Histological diagnosis of a needle biopsy and surgical specimen showed histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis. It is important to differentiate KFD from ML because of differences in treatment choice and clinical outcome. PMID:19943128

Ohta, Kouji; Endo, Naoki; Kaizaki, Yasuharu

2013-01-01

349

In vivo photoacoustic (PA) mapping of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a contrast agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), a less invasive alternative to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), is routinely used in clinic for staging breast cancer. In SLNB, lymphatic mapping with radio-labeled sulfur colloid and/or blue dye helps identify the sentinel lymph node (SLN), which is most likely to contain metastatic breast cancer. Even though SLNB, using both methylene blue and radioactive tracers, has a high identification rate, it still relies on an invasive surgical procedure, with associated morbidity. In this study, we have demonstrated a non-invasive single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-enhanced photoacoustic (PA) identification of SLN in a rat model. We have used single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as a photoacoustic contrast agent to map non-invasively the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in a rat model in vivo. We were able to identify the SLN non-invasively with high contrast to noise ratio (~90) and high resolution (~500 ?m). Due to the broad photoacoustic spectrum of these nanotubes in the near infrared wavelength window we could easily choose a suitable light wavelength to maximize the imaging depth. Our results suggest that this technology could be a useful clinical tool, allowing clinicians to identify SLNs non-invasively in vivo. In the future, these contrast agents could be functionalized to do molecular photoacoustic imaging.

Pramanik, Manojit; Song, Kwang Hyun; Swierczewska, Magdalena; Green, Danielle; Sitharaman, Balaji; Wang, Lihong V.

2009-02-01

350

Cervical lymph node metastasis in oral cancer: the importance of even microscopic extracapsular spread  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prognostic significance of extracapsular spread of cervical metastases in oral cancer is still controversial. To investigate the importance of extent of extracapsular spread; the relationship between extracapsular spread and both traditional measures of metastatic disease and clinical\\/histological features of the primary tumour, and to determine their relative prognostic significance. The survival of 173 patients undergoing radical surgery and simultaneous

J. A. Woolgar; S. N. Rogers; D. Lowe; J. S. Brown; E. D. Vaughan

2003-01-01

351

Site-specific cancer deaths in cancer of unknown primary diagnosed with lymph node metastasis may reveal hidden  

E-print Network

, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 4 Cancer Gene Therapy Group, Molecular Cancer Biology response. For CUP, identification of the primary site would be of utmost importance because therapy with cervical nodal squamous cell carcinoma should undergo positron emission computed tomography (PET

Hemminki, Akseli

352

FDG-PET scan in potentially operable non-small cell lung cancer: do anatometabolic PET-CT fusion images improve the localisation of regional lymph node metastases?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exact localisation of thoracic lymph nodes (LNs) on fluorine-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) can be hampered by the paucity of anatomical landmarks. In non-small cell\\u000a lung cancer (NSCLC) patients referred for locoregional LN staging, we prospectively examined to what extent localisation of\\u000a LNs at PET reading could be improved by visual correlation with computed tomography (CT), or by anatometabolic

Johan F. Vansteenkiste; Sigrid G. Stroobants; Patrick J. Dupont; Paul R. De Leyn; Walter F. De Wever; Eric K. Verbeken; Johan L. Nuyts; Frederik P. Maes; Jan G. Bogaert

1998-01-01

353

Is Regional Lymph Node Irradiation Necessary in Stage II to III Breast Cancer Patients With Negative Pathologic Node Status After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) generally induces significant changes in the pathologic extent of disease. This potential down-staging challenges the standard indications of adjuvant radiation therapy. We assessed the utility of lymph node irradiation (LNI) in breast cancer (BC) patients with pathologic N0 status (pN0) after NAC and breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Methods and Materials: Among 1,054 BC patients treated with NAC

Caroline Daveau; Denise Stevens; Etienne Brain; Oscar Berges; Sylviane Villette; Patricia Moisson; Miriam Gardner; Brigitte De la Lande; Serge Lasry; Alain Labib; Romuald Le Scodan

2010-01-01

354

Computed tomography of cervical and retropharyngeal lymph nodes: normal anatomy, variants of normal, and applications in staging head and neck cancer. Part 1. Normal anatomy  

SciTech Connect

The retropharyngeal and cervical lymph-node-bearing areas in 30 patients were examined with computed tomography (CT) to determine the range of normal variation in these nodal groups. The data agree with those in the pathologic, anatomic, and surgical literature, and indicate that CT can very precisely determine the size and gross morphology of normal nodes in the retropharyngeal region and the neck. This should have important applications in the management of patients with head and neck cancer.

Mancuso, A.A.; Harnsberger, H.R.; Muraki, A.S.; Stevens, M.H.

1983-09-01

355

A tattoo pigmented node and breast cancer.  

PubMed

Over the last decade, the axillary SLNB has replaced routine ALND for clinical staging in early breast cancer. Studies describe a potential pitfall in the identification of a true sentinel node during surgery due to lymph node pigmentation secondary to migration of tattoo dye. These pigmented “pseudo-sentinel” nodes, if located superficially in the axilla, may mimic the blue sentinel node on visual inspection, therefore missing the true sentinel node and potentially understaging the patient. Here, we present a case report of a breast cancer patient with a tattoo and discuss the importance of tattoo pigment in the LN (Fig. 1, Ref. 8). PMID:25174062

Soran, A; Kanbour-Shakir, A; Bas, O; Bonaventura, M

2014-01-01

356

Staging of Regional Lymph Nodes in Melanoma: A Case for Including Nonsentinel Lymph Node Positivity in the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Staging System  

PubMed Central

Importance Survival varies widely in Stage III melanoma. The existence of clinical significance for positive NSLN status would warrant consideration for incorporation into the AJCC staging system and better prediction of survival. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate whether disease limited to the sentinel lymph node (SLN) represents different clinical significance than disease spread into nonsentinel lymph nodes (NSLN). Design, Setting, and Participants Our database was queried for all patients with positive SLN for cutaneous melanoma who subsequently underwent completion lymph node dissection. Main Outcome Measures Disease-free, melanoma-specific, and overall survival Results 4,223 patients underwent SLN biopsy from 1986–2012. 329 patients had a tumor positive SLN. 250 (76%) had no additional positive nodes. 79 (24%) had a positive NSLN. Factors predictive of NSLN positivity included older age (p=0.04), thicker breslow (p<0.0001), and ulceration (p<0.015). Median overall survival (OS) was 178 months for the SLN+ only group and 42.2 months for the NSLN+ group (5-yr OS, 72.3% and 46.4% respectively.) Median disease-specific survival (DSS) was not reached for the SLN+ only group and was 60 months for the NSLN+ group (5-yr DSS 77.8% and 49.5% respectively.) On multivariate analysis, NSLN positivity had a strong association with recurrence, {HR: 1.754 (1.228–2.505); p=0.002}, shorter OS {HR: 2.24 (1.476–3.404); p=0.0002} and shorter DSS {HR: 2.225 (1.456–3.072); p<0.0001}. To further control for the effects of total positive nodes, comparison was done for those with N2 disease only (2–3 total positive LN), this confirmed the independent effect of NSLN status (DSS; p=0.04). Conclusions NSLN positivity is one of the most significant prognostic factors in patients with Stage III melanoma. An AJCC sub classification of nodal stage based on NSLN positivity should be considered. PMID:23903435

Leung, Anna M.; Morton, Donald L; Ozao-Choy, Junko; Hari, Danielle M.; Shin-Sim, Myung; Difronzo, Andrew L.; Faries, Mark B.

2013-01-01

357

Post-nephrectomy foreign-body granuloma in the retroperitoneum mimicking lymph node metastasis of renal cell cancer  

PubMed Central

Recently, iatrogenic foreign-body granuloma has been increasingly reported. The asymptomatic presentation and confusing appearance of granuloma can lead to misdiagnosis of a secondary malignancy, especially for a patient with a corresponding past medical history. Sometimes, surgical treatment is unavoidable, and the diagnosis relies upon the pathologic result. Herein, we report an unusual case of a 43-year-old man who underwent a nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma (clear cell type) 5 years ago. A secondary granuloma was identified behind the inferior vena cava in the retroperitoneum 6 months after the surgery, but the radiologists had failed to identify it throughout the 4 years of routine examination. Later on, the lesion was identified by positron emission tomography, which classified it as a highly 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-avid lesion. Considering no visible foreign-bodies identified on images, the lesion was arguably diagnosed as a lymph node metastasis of renal cancer. Finally, it was confirmed as a foreign-body granuloma encasing surgical suture and adipose tissue by the pathological analysis.

Luo, Jindan; Mao, Yeqing; Cai, Songliang; Shen, Xiaoyong; Chen, Shanwen; Xie, Liping

2014-01-01

358

The utility of hyperthermia for local recurrence of breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Hyperthermia has long been used in combination with chemotherapy or radiation therapy for the treatment of superficial malignancies, in part due to its sensitizing capabilities. Patients who suffer from superficial recurrences of breast cancer have poor clinical outcomes. Skin metastases may particularly impair the quality of life due to the physical appearance, odor and bleeding. Case presentation A 66-year-old woman underwent mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer. Nine years post-operatively, local metastases developed in the left axillary area (measuring 5 cm in diameter). Initially the tumor did not respond to radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, we added hyperthermia combined with them. Eight weeks later, the tumor became nearly flat and the patient noted improved activity in her daily life. Conclusion Hyperthermia may accelerate the antitumor effects of radiation therapy and chemotherapy. This treatment provides an alternative for unresectable breast cancer skin metastases. PMID:23017037

2012-01-01

359

Introduction About 6070% of patients with lymph-node-negative  

E-print Network

Articles Introduction About 60­70% of patients with lymph-node-negative breast cancer are cured predictions on disease outcome for patients with lymph-node-negative breast cancer. Methods Patients' samples samples from patients with lymph-node- negative breast cancer who were treated during 1980­95, but who did

Tian, Qi

360

Is Prophylactic Irradiation to Para-aortic Lymph Nodes in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Necessary?  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study evaluated the efficacy of extended field irradiation (EFI) in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer without para-aortic nodal involvement. Materials and Methods A total of 203 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics [FIGO] stage, IB2-IIIB) treated with radiotherapy at Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center from 1996 to 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The median patient age was 59 years (range, 29 to 83 years). None of the patients had para-aortic node metastases. Of the 203 patients, 88 underwent EFI and 115 underwent irradiation of the pelvis only. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) was administered to 133 patients. EFI field was used for treatment of 26 patients who received radiotherapy alone and 62 who received CCRT. Results The median follow-up period was 60 months. The 2- and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 87.8% and 73.5%, respectively, and the 2- and 5-year disease-free survival rates were 81.7% and 75.0%, respectively, however, no survival differences were observed between the two treatment field groups. EFI tended to increase OS in the radiotherapy alone group, but not in the CCRT group. Conclusion These findings suggest that EFI does not have a significant effect in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, especially in patients receiving CCRT. Conduct of additional studies will be required in order to confirm these findings. PMID:25043821

Park, Seung Gyu; Kim, Jin Hee; Oh, Young Kee; Byun, Sang Jun; Kim, Mi Young; Kwon, Sang Hoon; Kim, Ok Bae

2014-01-01

361

Effectiveness of early physiotherapy to prevent lymphoedema after surgery for breast cancer: randomised, single blinded, clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine the effectiveness of early physiotherapy in reducing the risk of secondary lymphoedema after surgery for breast cancer.Design Randomised, single blinded, clinical trial.Setting University hospital in Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain.Participants 120 women who had breast surgery involving dissection of axillary lymph nodes between May 2005 and June 2007.Intervention The early physiotherapy group was treated by a physiotherapist

María Torres Lacomba; María José Yuste Sánchez; Álvaro Zapico Goñi; David Prieto Merino; Orlando Mayoral del Moral; Ester Cerezo Téllez; Elena Minayo Mogollón

2010-01-01

362

Sublingual lymph node metastasis of early tongue cancer: report of two cases and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sublingual lymph node metastasis of early stage squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue (SCCT) is seldom reported. Lymphatic tissue in the floor of mouth, which intervenes between the tongue and neck, will be left behind by a primary tumour resection with discontinuous neck dissection. The authors present two cases of early stage SCCT with sublingual lymph node metastasis, review the

T. Zhang; R. A. Ord; W. I. Wei; J. Zhao

2011-01-01

363

Results of the First Austrian Multidisciplinary Expert Panel on Controversies in Local Treatment of Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

At the first Austrian multidisciplinary expert panel on controversies in local treatment of breast cancer, 22 experts of all relevant disciplines discussed current areas of debate (surgery of the breast, surgery and pathology of the axilla, reconstructive surgery, radiotherapy, and imaging) in local therapy. The most controversial area of debate was the area of axillary surgery. The panel agreed that it was no longer necessary to perform completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) when micrometastases are diagnosed in the sentinel lymph node. The only prospective trial comparing patients with sentinel node macrometastases with or without completion ALND had to be terminated early due to failure in sufficient patient recruitment. As long as the frequently discussed issues have not been solved and in light of the lack of any clear level 1 evidence, the panel decided not to recommend omitting axillary dissection in patients with 1 or 2 macrometastases meeting the inclusion criteria of the ACOSOG Z0011 trial. The Austrian panel similarly decided not to recommend omitting axillary dissection in patients with macrometastases and low-risk breast cancer in general. These decisions reflect the increasing skepticism of the scientific community against rapidly shifting paradigms without sufficient and clear evidence. PMID:22553475

Knauer, Michael; Gnant, Michael; Fitzal, Florian

2012-01-01

364

Magnetic graphene-based nanotheranostic agent for dual-modality mapping guided photothermal therapy in regional lymph nodal metastasis of pancreatic cancer.  

PubMed

Although regional lymph nodes (RLN) dissection remains the only way to cure pancreatic cancer metastasis, it is unavoidably associated with sizable trauma, multiple complications, and low surgical resection rates. Thus, exploring a treatment approach for the ablation of drug-resistant pancreatic cancer is always of great concern. Moreover, reoperative and intraoperative mapping of RLN is also important during treatment, because only a few lymph nodes can be detected by the naked eye. In our study, graphene oxides modified with iron oxide nanoparticles (GO-IONP) as a nanotheranostic agent is firstly developed to diagnose and treat RLN metastasis of pancreatic cancer. The approach was designed based on clinical practice, the GO-IONP agent directly injected into the tumor was transported to RLN via lymphatic vessels. Compared to commercial carbon nanoparticles currently used in the clinic operation, the GO-IONP showed powerful ability of dual-modality mapping of regional lymphatic system by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as dark color of the agent providing valuable information that was instrumental for surgeon in making the preoperative plan before operation and intraoperatively distinguish RLN from surrounding tissue. Under the guidance of dual-modality mapping, we further demonstrated that metastatic lymph nodes including abdominal nodes could be effectively ablated by near-infrared (NIR) irradiation with an incision operation. The lower systematic toxicity of GO-IONP and satisfying safety of photothermal therapy (PTT) to neighbor tissues have also been clearly illustrated in our animal experiments. Using GO-IONP as a nanotheranostic agent presents an approach for mapping and photothermal ablation of RLN, the later may serve as an alternative to lymph node dissection by invasive surgery. PMID:25175596

Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Qin; Luo, Xian F; Li, Ji; He, Hang; Yang, Feng; Di, Yang; Jin, Chen; Jiang, Xin G; Shen, Shun; Fu, De L

2014-11-01

365

A 346 Case Analysis for Laparoscopic Spleen-Preserving No.10 Lymph Node Dissection for Proximal Gastric Cancer: A Single Center Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study was designed to formulate a model that efficiently predicts splenic hilar lymph node metastasis (SHLNM) in patients with proximal gastric cancer and to assess indications for laparoscopic spleen-preserving no.10 lymph node dissection (LSPNo.10LND) based on this model. Methods Patients (N?=?346) with proximal gastric cancer who underwent LSPNo.10LND from January 2010 to October 2013 were prospectively enrolled and retrospectively evaluated. Groups of patients with and without SHLNM were compared, and independent risk factors for SHLNM determined. An optimal predictive model of SHLNM in patients with proximal gastric cancer was well established. Results Of the 346 patients with proximal gastric cancer, only 35 (10.1%) were diagnosed with SHLNM. Depth of invasion, tumor location and metastases to No.7 and No.11 lymph nodes (LNs) were independent risk factors for SHLNM (p<0.0001 each). A model involving depth of invasion, tumor location and metastasis to No.7 and 11 LNs yielded a lowest Akaike’s information criterion (AIC) of ?913.535 and a highest area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.897(95%CI:0.851–0.944). Stratification analysis showed no SHLNMs in the absence of serosal invasion of the lesser curvature and metastases at No.7 and No.11 LNs (T2-3?0/87, 95% CI: 0.00–4.15). Conclusions A model including depth of invasion, tumor location and metastases at No.7 and No.11 LNs was found optimal for predicting SHLNM for proximal gastric cancers. LSPNo.10LND may be avoided when tumors on the lesser curvature did not show serosal invasion or metastases at No.7 and No.11 LNs. PMID:25264673

Huang, Chang-Ming; Zhang, Jun-Rong; Zheng, Chao-Hui; Li, Ping; Xie, Jian-Wei; Wang, Jia-Bin; Lin, Jian-Xian; Lu, Jun; Chen, Qi-Yue

2014-01-01

366

Radiotherapy for Stage II and Stage III Breast Cancer Patients With Negative Lymph Nodes After Preoperative Chemotherapy and Mastectomy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in Stage II-III breast cancer patients with negative lymph nodes (pN0) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Patients and Materials: Of 1,054 breast cancer patients treated with NAC at our institution between 1990 and 2004, 134 had pN0 status after NAC and mastectomy. The demographic data, tumor characteristics, metastatic sites, and treatments were prospectively recorded. The effect of PMRT on locoregional recurrence-free survival and overall survival (OS) was evaluated by multivariate analysis, including known prognostic factors. Results: Of the 134 eligible patients, 78 (58.2%) received PMRT and 56 (41.8%) did not. At a median follow-up time of 91.4 months, the 5-year locoregional recurrence-free survival and OS rate was 96.2% and 88.3% with PMRT and 92.5% and 94.3% without PMRT, respectively (p = NS). The corresponding values at 10 years were 96.2% and 77.2% with PMRT and 86.8% and 87.7% without PMRT (p = NS). On multivariate analysis, PMRT had no effect on either locoregional recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.09-1.61; p = .18) or OS (hazard ratio, 2.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-6; p = .18). This remained true in the subgroups of patients with clinical Stage II or Stage III disease at diagnosis. A trend was seen toward poorer OS among patients who had not had a pathologic complete in-breast tumor response after NAC (hazard ratio, 6.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-54.12; p = .076). Conclusions: The results from the present retrospective study showed no increase in the risk of distant metastasis, locoregional recurrence, or death when PMRT was omitted in breast cancer patients with pN0 status after NAC and mastectomy. Whether the omission of PMRT is acceptable for these patients should be addressed prospectively.

Le Scodan, Romuald, E-mail: lescodan@crh1.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Selz, Jessica [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie-Hopital Rene Huguenin, S