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Sample records for cancer bc risk

  1. Evaluation of the pri-miR-34b/c rs4938723 polymorphism and its association with breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    SANAEI, SARA; HASHEMI, MOHAMMAD; REZAEI, MARYAM; HASHEMI, SEYED MEHDI; BAHARI, GHOLAMREZA; GHAVAMI, SAEID

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are a family of small non-coding RNAs that function as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Recent evidence suggests that the pri-miR-34b/c rs4938723 variant is associated with the development of cancer. At present, there is an inconsistent association between the single-nucleotide polymorphism in pri-miR-34b/c and cancer in the limited studies. The present study is a case-control investigation, with 263 breast cancer (BC) patients and 221 control women, which examined the potential association of the pri-miR-34b/c rs4938723 polymorphisms with BC susceptibility. The polymorphisms were genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method. No significant association between the pri-miR-34b/c rs4938723 variant and BC was identified [TC vs. TT: Odds ratio (OR), 0.87; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.60–1.26; P=0.506; CC vs. TT: OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.61–2.47; P=0.600; TC+CC vs. TT: OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.64–1.31; P=0.648; CC vs. TT+TC: OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.67–2.59; P=0.498; C vs. T: OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.75–1.31; P=0.986]. However, a significant association was observed between the pri-miR-34b/c rs4938723 genotypes and clinicopathological characteristics, such a grade, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status were observed (P<0.05). These findings suggest that the pri-miR-34b/c rs4938723 variant may not be a risk factor for the development of BC. PMID:27347415

  2. Downregulation of BC200 in ovarian cancer contributes to cancer cell proliferation and chemoresistance to carboplatin

    PubMed Central

    WU, DI; WANG, TIANZHEN; REN, CHENGCHENG; LIU, LEI; KONG, DAN; JIN, XIAOMING; LI, XIAOBO; ZHANG, GUANGMEI

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) serve an important role in carcinogenesis. BC200 is a lncRNA that is reportedly associated with ovarian cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate this potential association between BC200 and ovarian cancer, and to subsequently analyze the biological function of BC200 in the disease. BC200 expression was compared in ovarian cancer tissue and normal ovarian tissue samples through the use of quantitative polymerase chain reaction. To allow the biological function of BC200 in ovarian cancer to be analyzed, small interfering RNA was used to knock down the expression of BC200 in SKOV3 and A2780 ovarian cancer cells. The proliferative, invasive and migratory abilities of the cells were identified by means of cell counting kits and Transwell assays. Carboplatin was also used to treat the ovarian cancer cells, and a luminescent cell viability assay was subsequently used to detect the sensitivity of the cells to the carboplatin. The results demonstrated that BC200 expression was reduced in ovarian cancer compared with normal ovarian tissue samples. In the SKOV3 and A2780 cells, BC200 exerted no effect on invasive or migratory ability, however, the inhibition of BC200 was demonstrated to promote cell proliferation. Additionally, it was observed that carboplatin induced BC200 expression in the cell lines, and that the inhibition of BC200 decreased the sensitivity of the cells to the drug. BC200 is therefore likely to have a tumor suppressive function in ovarian cancer by affecting cell proliferation. Furthermore, BC200 appears to serve a role in the mediation of carboplatin-induced ovarian cancer cell death. PMID:26893717

  3. Regulation of alternative splicing of Bcl-x by BC200 contributes to breast cancer pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Singh, R; Gupta, S C; Peng, W-X; Zhou, N; Pochampally, R; Atfi, A; Watabe, K; Lu, Z; Mo, Y-Y

    2016-01-01

    BC200 is a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that has been implicated in the regulation of protein synthesis, yet whether dysregulation of BC200 contributes to the pathogenesis of human diseases remains elusive. In this study, we show that BC200 is upregulated in breast cancer; among breast tumor specimens there is a higher level of BC200 in estrogen receptor (ER) positive than in ER-negative tumors. Further experiments show that activation of estrogen signaling induces expression of BC200. To determine the significance of ER-regulated BC200 expression, we knockout (KO) BC200 by CRISPR/Cas9. BC200 KO suppresses tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo by expression of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-xS isoform. Mechanistically, BC200 contains a 17-nucleotide sequence complementary to Bcl-x pre-mRNA, which may facilitate its binding to Bcl-x pre-mRNA and recruitment of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2/B1, a known splicing factor. Consequently, hnRNP A2/B1 interferes with association of Bcl-x pre-mRNA with the Bcl-xS-promoting factor Sam68, leading to a blockade of Bcl-xS expression. Together, these results suggest that BC200 plays an oncogenic role in breast cancer. Thus, BC200 may serve as a prognostic marker and possible target for attenuating deregulated cell proliferation in estrogen-dependent breast cancer. PMID:27277684

  4. BcCluster: A Bladder Cancer Database at the Molecular Level

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Akshay; Mokou, Marika; Zoidakis, Jerome; Jankowski, Vera; Vlahou, Antonia; Mischak, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bladder Cancer (BC) has two clearly distinct phenotypes. Non-muscle invasive BC has good prognosis and is treated with tumor resection and intravesical therapy whereas muscle invasive BC has poor prognosis and requires usually systemic cisplatin based chemotherapy either prior to or after radical cystectomy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is not often used for patients undergoing cystectomy. High-throughput analytical omics techniques are now available that allow the identification of individual molecular signatures to characterize the invasive phenotype. However, a large amount of data produced by omics experiments is not easily accessible since it is often scattered over many publications or stored in supplementary files. Objective: To develop a novel open-source database, BcCluster (http://www.bccluster.org/), dedicated to the comprehensive molecular characterization of muscle invasive bladder carcinoma. Materials: A database was created containing all reported molecular features significant in invasive BC. The query interface was developed in Ruby programming language (version 1.9.3) using the web-framework Rails (version 4.1.5) (http://rubyonrails.org/). Results: BcCluster contains the data from 112 published references, providing 1,559 statistically significant features relative to BC invasion. The database also holds 435 protein-protein interaction data and 92 molecular pathways significant in BC invasion. The database can be used to retrieve binding partners and pathways for any protein of interest. We illustrate this possibility using survivin, a known BC biomarker. Conclusions: BcCluster is an online database for retrieving molecular signatures relative to BC invasion. This application offers a comprehensive view of BC invasiveness at the molecular level and allows formulation of research hypotheses relevant to this phenotype. PMID:27376128

  5. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  6. Uterine Cancer Risk Questionnaire

    MedlinePlus

    ... University School of Medicine Uterine cancer (also called endometrial cancer) is one of the most common cancers in ... help protect themselves. To estimate your risk of uterine cancer and learn about ways to lower that risk, ...

  7. The production and preclinical characterization of a chimeric anti-breast-cancer antibody, cBC2.

    PubMed

    Sutton, V R; Burgess, J; Pietersz, G A; Li, W J; McKenzie, I F; Trapani, J A

    1994-04-01

    A chimeric (mouse-human) BC2 antibody (cBC2) was produced which may be used in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. The BC2 variable region genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using oligonucleotide primers homologous to the framework sequences of mouse VH and V kappa genes. The PCR products were used to create cBC2 expression vectors containing the mouse BC2 VH and V kappa and human constant region (IgG1 and K) genes. Chimeric antibody was produced following transfection of these constructs into Sp2/0 myeloma cells. Binding assays in vitro demonstrated that cBC2 had the same specificity for human milk fat globule membrane (HMFGM) and MUC1+ cells as mBC2, and bound antigen with a similar affinity (cBC2, Ka 5.53 +/- 2.09 x 10(8); mBC2, Ka 1.44 +/- 0.98 x 10(9)). Functionally, only cBC2 (5-25 micrograms ml-1), was able to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) with human effector cells, with 25% maximal specific lysis of MUC1+ cells at an E/T ratio of 100:1. Human complement-mediated lysis was minimal (10-15% specific lysis) with both mBC2 and cBC2. Neither cBC2 nor mBC2 was able to inhibit tumour growth in vivo in the absence of covalently coupled anticancer drugs. However, biodistribution studies demonstrated that both antibodies preferentially targeted MUC1+ tumour cells, with 17% of the injected dose of cBC2, as compared to 27% of mBC2, localized to the MUC1+ tumour at 24 h (less than 6% detected in any other tissue). PMID:7584487

  8. Breast Density in Mammography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in High Risk Women and Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Marissa; Schnabel, Freya; Chun, Jennifer; Schwartz, Shira; Lee, Jiyon; Leite, Ana Paula Klautau; Moy, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Structured Abstract Purpose To evaluate the relationship between mammographic breast density (MBD), background parenchymal enhancement (BPE), and fibroglandular tissue (FGT) in women with breast cancer (BC) and at high risk for developing BC. Methods Our institutional database was queried for patients who underwent mammography and MRI. Results 403 (85%) had BC and 72 (15%) were at high risk. MBD (p=0.0005), BPE (p<0.0001), and FGT (p=0.02) were all higher in high risk women compared to the BC group. Conclusions Higher levels of MBD, BPE and FGT are seen in women at higher risk for developing BC when compared to women with BC. PMID:26351036

  9. Raman Spectroscopic Measurements of Dermal Carotenoids in Breast Cancer Operated Patients Provide Evidence for the Positive Impact of a Dietary Regimen Rich in Fruit and Vegetables on Body Oxidative Stress and BC Prognostic Anthropometric Parameters: A Five-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, A.; Pintaudi, A. M.; Traina, A.; Carruba, G.; Attanzio, A.; Gentile, C.; Tesoriere, L.; Livrea, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Dermal carotenoids are a feasible marker of the body antioxidative network and may reveal a moderate to severe imbalance of the redox status, thereby providing indication of individual oxidative stress. In this work noninvasive Resonance Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) measurements of skin carotenoids (skin carotenoid score (SCS)) were used to provide indications of individual oxidative stress, each year for five years, in 71 breast cancer (BC) patients at high risk of recurrence. Patients' SCS has been correlated with parameters relevant to BC risk, waist circumference (WC), and body mass index (BMI), in the aim of monitoring the effect of a dietary regimen intended to positively affect BC risk factors. The RRS methodological approach in BC patients appeared from positive correlation between patients' SCS and blood level of lycopene. The level of skin carotenoids was inversely correlated with the patients' WC and BMI. At the end of the 5 y observation BC patients exhibited a significant reduction of WC and BMI and increase of SCS, when strictly adhering to the dietary regimen. In conclusion, noninvasive measurements of skin carotenoids can (i) reveal an oxidative stress condition correlated with parameters of BC risk and (ii) monitor dietary-related variations in BC patients. PMID:27213029

  10. Raman Spectroscopic Measurements of Dermal Carotenoids in Breast Cancer Operated Patients Provide Evidence for the Positive Impact of a Dietary Regimen Rich in Fruit and Vegetables on Body Oxidative Stress and BC Prognostic Anthropometric Parameters: A Five-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Perrone, A; Pintaudi, A M; Traina, A; Carruba, G; Attanzio, A; Gentile, C; Tesoriere, L; Livrea, M A

    2016-01-01

    Dermal carotenoids are a feasible marker of the body antioxidative network and may reveal a moderate to severe imbalance of the redox status, thereby providing indication of individual oxidative stress. In this work noninvasive Resonance Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) measurements of skin carotenoids (skin carotenoid score (SCS)) were used to provide indications of individual oxidative stress, each year for five years, in 71 breast cancer (BC) patients at high risk of recurrence. Patients' SCS has been correlated with parameters relevant to BC risk, waist circumference (WC), and body mass index (BMI), in the aim of monitoring the effect of a dietary regimen intended to positively affect BC risk factors. The RRS methodological approach in BC patients appeared from positive correlation between patients' SCS and blood level of lycopene. The level of skin carotenoids was inversely correlated with the patients' WC and BMI. At the end of the 5 y observation BC patients exhibited a significant reduction of WC and BMI and increase of SCS, when strictly adhering to the dietary regimen. In conclusion, noninvasive measurements of skin carotenoids can (i) reveal an oxidative stress condition correlated with parameters of BC risk and (ii) monitor dietary-related variations in BC patients. PMID:27213029

  11. Stomach Cancer Risk Questionnaire

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine Stomach cancer is fairly rare in the US, but ... the early stages. To estimate your risk of stomach cancer and learn about ways to lower that ...

  12. Risk factors for second primary tumours in breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Luis; Lana, Alberto; Hidalgo, Agustín; Rodríguez, Jose María; Del Valle, María Del Olivo; Cueto, Antonio; Folgueras, María Victoria; Belyakova, Elena; Comendador, Miguel Angel; López, María Luisa

    2008-10-01

    Breast cancer (BC) survivors have an increased risk of developing second primary cancer (SPC). The aim of this study was to detect and compare SPC predictors linked to the host, the first BC and its treatment. Two hundred and seventeen patients with a nonbreast SPC and 465 matched controls, nested in the cohort of BC patients diagnosed in a Spanish region between 1975 and 2003, were involved in a case-control study. The Tumour Registry database provided information about the host, BC and its treatment factors. Their contribution to the risk of developing SPC was measured by means of a conditional logistic regression. After controlling for differences between cases and controls at baseline, obesity [odds ratio (OR): 7.48; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25-44.88], smoking (OR: 3.16; 95% CI: 1.23-8.15), high blood pressure (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.04-2.71) and having first-degree relatives suffering from cancer (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.05-2.72) were the best SPC predictors. The risk of SPC increases by 1% per month of survival from BC (OR: 1.01; 95% CI: 1.007-1.012), while having metastases (OR: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.14-0.37) and being premenopausal at diagnosis of the BC (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.247-0.792) diminish the risk, probably decreasing survival. The treatments were the regression model's worst predictors. Controlling modifiable factors linked to lifestyle such as obesity and smoking is essential to prevent SPC in survivors of BC. Health education to remove persistent risk factors should be included in the treatment protocol of BC patients, because they are important predictors of SPC. PMID:18714181

  13. Development and validation of the Female Sexual Function Index adaptation for breast cancer patients (FSFI-BC).

    PubMed

    Bartula, Iris; Sherman, Kerry A

    2015-08-01

    Sexual dysfunction following breast cancer treatment is common and screening for this is recommended. This study determined the reliability, validity, and acceptability of a breast cancer-specific adaptation of the Female Sexual Function Index, the FSFI-BC. This new measure addresses limitations in the FSFI when assessing sexual dysfunction of women with breast cancer regarding applicability to non-sexually active women, measuring distress and changes after cancer. Female breast cancer survivors (n = 596; 429 sexually active, 166 non-sexually active) completed an online survey including demographic/medical information, the FSFI-BC, and scales measuring sexual functioning, fatigue, body image, physical and mental health, and relationship adjustment (Time 1). Three weeks later, 326 women (245 sexually active; 81 non-sexually active) completed the Time 2 survey including the FSFI-BC, and questions regarding its acceptability and perceived change in sexual functioning. Reliability, construct validity, and acceptability were examined using standard scale validation techniques. Exploratory factor analysis delineated seven factors: Changes after cancer, desire/arousal, lubrication, orgasm, pain, satisfaction, and distress, accounting for 79.98 % (sexually active) and 77.19 % (non-active) variance in responses. Acceptable internal consistencies (non-active: α = 0.71-0.96; sexually active: α = 0.89-0.96) and test-retest reliabilities (non-active: r = 0.63-0.86; sexually active: r = 0.71-0.88) were evident. Inter-scale correlations provided evidence for convergent and divergent validities of the FSFI-BC. Both sexually active and non-active women provided positive feedback about the FSFI-BC. The optional partner questions demonstrated clinical utility. With desirable psychometric properties and acceptability to participants, the FSFI-BC is suitable for screening for sexual dysfunction in women with breast cancer. PMID:26198992

  14. Age and Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    White, Mary C.; Holman, Dawn M.; Boehm, Jennifer E.; Peipins, Lucy A.; Grossman, Melissa; Henley, S. Jane

    2015-01-01

    This article challenges the idea that cancer cannot be prevented among older adults by examining different aspects of the relationship between age and cancer. Although the sequential patterns of aging cannot be changed, several age-related factors that contribute to disease risk can be. For most adults, age is coincidentally associated with preventable chronic conditions, avoidable exposures, and modifiable risk behaviors that are causally associated with cancer. Midlife is a period of life when the prevalence of multiple cancer risk factors is high and incidence rates begin to increase for many types of cancer. However, current evidence suggests that for most adults, cancer does not have to be an inevitable consequence of growing older. Interventions that support healthy environments, help people manage chronic conditions, and promote healthy behaviors may help people make a healthier transition from midlife to older age and reduce the likelihood of developing cancer. Because the number of adults reaching older ages is increasing rapidly, the number of new cancer cases will also increase if current incidence rates remain unchanged. Thus, the need to translate the available research into practice to promote cancer prevention, especially for adults at midlife, has never been greater. PMID:24512933

  15. Vegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of breast cancer in a low-risk population.

    PubMed

    Penniecook-Sawyers, Jason A; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Beeson, Larry; Knutsen, Synnove; Herring, Patti; Fraser, Gary E

    2016-05-28

    Among cancers in American women, breast cancer (BC) has the second highest incidence and mortality. The association of BC with diet has been inconsistent. Studies that evaluate associations with dietary patterns are less common and reflect an individual's whole diet. We associated dietary patterns with the risk of BC in American women of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2), a prospective cohort of 96 001 subjects recruited between 2002 and 2007. Answers to a previously validated FFQ were used to classify subjects to vegan, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian and non-vegetarian dietary patterns. Incident BC were identified by matching AHS-2 subjects to data from forty-eight state cancer registries. Statistical analyses used proportional hazard regression analyses with covariates that were chosen a priori. From 50 404 female participants (26 193 vegetarians), we identified 892 incident BC cases, with 478 cases among vegetarians. As compared with non-vegetarians, all vegetarians combined did not have a significantly lower risk (hazard ratio (HR) 0·97; CI 0·84, 1·11; P=0·64). However, vegans showed consistently lower (but non-significant) point estimates when compared with non-vegetarians (all cases: HR 0·78; CI 0·58, 1·05; P=0·09). In summary, participants in this cohort who follow a vegetarian dietary pattern did not experience a lower risk of BC as compared with non-vegetarians, although lower risk in vegans is possible. These findings add to the very limited literature associating vegetarian diets with BC risk and can assist nutritionists when evaluating the impact of these diets. The findings will also motivate further evaluation of vegan diets and their special characteristics. PMID:26987270

  16. Vegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of breast cancer in a low-risk population

    PubMed Central

    Penniecook-Sawyers, Jason A.; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Beeson, Larry; Knutsen, Synnove; Herring, Patti; Fraser, Gary E.

    2016-01-01

    Among cancers in American women, breast cancer (BC) has the second highest incidence and mortality. The association of BC with diet has been inconsistent. Studies that evaluate associations with dietary patterns are less common and reflect an individual's whole diet. We associated dietary patterns with the risk of BC in American women of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2), a prospective cohort of 96 001 subjects recruited between 2002 and 2007. Answers to a previously validated FFQ were used to classify subjects to vegan, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian and non-vegetarian dietary patterns. Incident BC were identified by matching AHS-2 subjects to data from forty-eight state cancer registries. Statistical analyses used proportional hazard regression analyses with covariates that were chosen a priori. From 50 404 female participants (26 193 vegetarians), we identified 892 incident BC cases, with 478 cases among vegetarians. As compared with non-vegetarians, all vegetarians combined did not have a significantly lower risk (hazard ratio (HR) 0·97; CI 0·84, 1·11; P = 0·64). However, vegans showed consistently lower (but non-significant) point estimates when compared with non-vegetarians (all cases: HR 0·78; CI 0·58, 1·05; P = 0·09). In summary, participants in this cohort who follow a vegetarian dietary pattern did not experience a lower risk of BC as compared with non-vegetarians, although lower risk in vegans is possible. These findings add to the very limited literature associating vegetarian diets with BC risk and can assist nutritionists when evaluating the impact of these diets. The findings will also motivate further evaluation of vegan diets and their special characteristics. PMID:26987270

  17. Cancer Risk Assessment Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aidala, Jim

    1985-01-01

    Describes the scientific basis of cancer risk assessment, outlining the dominant controversies surrounding the use of different methods for identifying carcinogens (short-term tests, animal bioassays, and epidemiological studies). Points out that risk assessment is as much an art as it is a science. (DH)

  18. Role of Obesity in the Risk of Breast Cancer: Lessons from Anthropometry

    PubMed Central

    Amadou, Amina; Hainaut, Pierre; Romieu, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    An estimated 1.38 million new cases of breast cancer (BC) are diagnosed each year in women worldwide. Of these, the majority are categorized as invasive ductal cell carcinoma. Subgroups of BC are frequently distinguished into five “intrinsic” subtypes, namely, luminal A, luminal B, normal-like, HER2-positive, and basal-like subtypes. Epidemiological evidence has shown that anthropometric factors are implicated in BC development. Overall consistent positive associations have been observed between high body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and the risk of BC among postmenopausal women, while conflicting results persist for premenopausal BC, both for BMI and for other anthropometric parameters as well as across ethnic groups. Furthermore, some evidence suggests that body size, body shape, and weight gain during childhood or adolescence may play a role in the risk of BC. In this paper, we describe the evidence linking anthropometric indices at different ages and BC risk, in order to improve our understanding of the role of body fat distribution in the risk of BC, investigate differences in these associations according to menopausal status and ethnic groups, and discuss the potential biological mechanisms linking body size and BC risk. PMID:23431300

  19. Lifestyle and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2010-11-01

    The main behavioural and environmental risk factors for cancer mortality in the world are related to diet and physical inactivity, use of addictive substances, sexual and reproductive health, exposure to air pollution and use of contaminated needles. The population attributable fraction for all cancer sites worldwide considering the joint effect of these factors is about 35% (34 % for low-and middle-income countries and 37% for high-income countries). Seventy-one percent(71%) of lung cancer deaths are caused by tobacco use (lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally). The combined effects of tobacco use, low fruit and vegetable intake, urban air pollution, and indoor smoke from household use of solid fuels cause 76% of lung cancer deaths. Exposure to these behavioural and environmental factors is preventable; modifications in lifestyle could have a large impact in reducing the cancer burden worldwide (WHO, 2009). The evidence of association between lifestyle factors and cancer, as well as the main international recommendations for prevention are briefly reviewed and commented upon here. PMID:21139406

  20. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Factors Request Permissions Print to PDF Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/ ... anything that increases a person’s chance of developing cancer. Although risk factors often influence the development of cancer, most do ...

  1. Space Radiation Cancer Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    Space radiation presents major challenges to astronauts on the International Space Station and for future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Methods used to project risks on Earth need to be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting cancer risks from space radiation, and thus impact safety factors. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts: The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in the radiation cancer projection model. NASA s acceptable level of risk for ISS and their new lunar program have been set at the point-estimate of a 3-percent risk of exposure induced death (REID). Tissue-averaged organ dose-equivalents are combined with age at exposure and gender-dependent risk coefficients to project the cumulative occupational radiation risks incurred by astronauts. The 95% CL criteria in practice is a stronger criterion than ALARA, but not an absolute cut-off as is applied to a point projection of a 3% REID. We describe the most recent astronaut dose limits, and present a historical review of astronaut organ doses estimates from the Mercury through the current ISS program, and future projections for lunar and Mars missions. NASA s 95% CL criteria is linked to a vibrant ground based radiobiology program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and heavy ions. The near-term goal of research is new knowledge leading to the reduction of uncertainties in projection models. Risk projections involve a product of many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to lack of data and knowledge. The current model for projecting space radiation

  2. Cancer Risk Prediction and Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer prediction models provide an important approach to assessing risk and prognosis by identifying individuals at high risk, facilitating the design and planning of clinical cancer trials, fostering the development of benefit-risk indices, and enabling estimates of the population burden and cost of cancer.

  3. Understanding your breast cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... the chance that you could get cancer. Some risk factors you can control, such as drinking alcohol. Others, such as family ... Risk factors you cannot control includes: Age . Your risk for breast cancer increases as you age. Most cancers are found in ...

  4. Estrogen withdrawal, increased breast cancer risk and the KRAS-variant

    PubMed Central

    McVeigh, Terri P; Jung, Song-Yi; Kerin, Michael J; Salzman, David W; Nallur, Sunitha; Nemec, Antonio A; Dookwah, Michelle; Sadofsky, Jackie; Paranjape, Trupti; Kelly, Olivia; Chan, Elcie; Miller, Nicola; Sweeney, Karl J; Zelterman, Daniel; Sweasy, Joann; Pilarski, Robert; Telesca, Donatello; Slack, Frank J; Weidhaas, Joanne B

    2015-01-01

    The KRAS-variant is a biologically functional, microRNA binding site variant, which predicts increased cancer risk especially for women. Because external exposures, such as chemotherapy, differentially impact the effect of this mutation, we evaluated the association of estrogen exposures, breast cancer (BC) risk and tumor biology in women with the KRAS-variant. Women with BC (n = 1712), the subset with the KRAS-variant (n = 286) and KRAS-variant unaffected controls (n = 80) were evaluated, and hormonal exposures, KRAS-variant status, and pathology were compared. The impact of estrogen withdrawal on transformation of isogenic normal breast cell lines with or without the KRAS-variant was studied. Finally, the association and presentation characteristics of the KRAS-variant and multiple primary breast cancer (MPBC) were evaluated. KRAS-variant BC patients were more likely to have ovarian removal pre-BC diagnosis than non-variant BC patients (p = 0.033). In addition, KRAS-variant BC patients also appeared to have a lower estrogen state than KRAS-variant unaffected controls, with a lower BMI (P < 0.001). Finally, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) discontinuation in KRAS-variant patients was associated with a diagnosis of triple negative BC (P < 0.001). Biologically confirming our clinical findings, acute estrogen withdrawal led to oncogenic transformation in KRAS-variant positive isogenic cell lines. Finally, KRAS-variant BC patients had greater than an 11-fold increased risk of presenting with MPBC compared to non-variant patients (45.39% vs 6.78%, OR 11.44 [3.42–37.87], P < 0.001). Thus, estrogen withdrawal and a low estrogen state appear to increase BC risk and to predict aggressive tumor biology in women with the KRAS-variant, who are also significantly more likely to present with multiple primary breast cancer. PMID:25961464

  5. Estrogen withdrawal, increased breast cancer risk and the KRAS-variant.

    PubMed

    McVeigh, Terri P; Jung, Song-Yi; Kerin, Michael J; Salzman, David W; Nallur, Sunitha; Nemec, Antonio A; Dookwah, Michelle; Sadofsky, Jackie; Paranjape, Trupti; Kelly, Olivia; Chan, Elcie; Miller, Nicola; Sweeney, Karl J; Zelterman, Daniel; Sweasy, Joann; Pilarski, Robert; Telesca, Donatello; Slack, Frank J; Weidhaas, Joanne B

    2015-01-01

    The KRAS-variant is a biologically functional, microRNA binding site variant, which predicts increased cancer risk especially for women. Because external exposures, such as chemotherapy, differentially impact the effect of this mutation, we evaluated the association of estrogen exposures, breast cancer (BC) risk and tumor biology in women with the KRAS-variant. Women with BC (n = 1712), the subset with the KRAS-variant (n = 286) and KRAS-variant unaffected controls (n = 80) were evaluated, and hormonal exposures, KRAS-variant status, and pathology were compared. The impact of estrogen withdrawal on transformation of isogenic normal breast cell lines with or without the KRAS-variant was studied. Finally, the association and presentation characteristics of the KRAS-variant and multiple primary breast cancer (MPBC) were evaluated. KRAS-variant BC patients were more likely to have ovarian removal pre-BC diagnosis than non-variant BC patients (p = 0.033). In addition, KRAS-variant BC patients also appeared to have a lower estrogen state than KRAS-variant unaffected controls, with a lower BMI (P < 0.001). Finally, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) discontinuation in KRAS-variant patients was associated with a diagnosis of triple negative BC (P < 0.001). Biologically confirming our clinical findings, acute estrogen withdrawal led to oncogenic transformation in KRAS-variant positive isogenic cell lines. Finally, KRAS-variant BC patients had greater than an 11-fold increased risk of presenting with MPBC compared to non-variant patients (45.39% vs 6.78%, OR 11.44 [3.42-37.87], P < 0.001). Thus, estrogen withdrawal and a low estrogen state appear to increase BC risk and to predict aggressive tumor biology in women with the KRAS-variant, who are also significantly more likely to present with multiple primary breast cancer. PMID:25961464

  6. Understanding your breast cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... what you can do to help prevent breast cancer. Risk Factors You Cannot Control Risk factors you cannot control ... risk. Race . White women are diagnosed with breast cancer more often than African American/black, ... Can Control Risk factors you can control ...

  7. Low penetrance alleles as risk modifiers in familial and sporadic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Esteban Cardeñosa, Eva; de Juan Jiménez, Inmaculada; Palanca Suela, Sarai; Chirivella González, Isabel; Segura Huerta, Angel; Santaballa Beltran, Ana; Casals El Busto, María; Barragán González, Eva; Fuster Lluch, Oscar; Bermúdez Edo, José; Bolufer Gilabert, Pascual

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the relevance of rs1056663 and rs2708861 HUS1 polymorphisms, and rs104548, rs2981582 and rs2910164 polymorphisms of CASP8, FGFR2 and micro RNA 146A genes, respectively, as risk modifiers in hereditary breast or ovarian cancer (BC/OC) and risk factors in sporadic BC. We performed a case-control study in 189 healthy controls (CG) and 538 BC/OC cases, 340 with familial history of BC/OC (130 carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations and 210 non-carriers) and 198 sporadic BC/OC. The polymorphisms were assessed by real-time PCR using primers and fluorescent-labelled hybridization probes. We found statistically significant differences between familial BC/OC and CG for rs1056663 and rs2708861 HSU1 polymorphisms and rs2981582 FGFR2 polymorphism, particularly in non-carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations. In this group we found statistical differences for rs1056663 HSU1 and rs2981582 FGFR2 polymorphisms (p-trend < 0.006). The logistic regression confirmed that rs2981582 FGFR2 polymorphism (OR = 2.09; 95 % CI 1.35, 3.20) and the interaction between rs1056663 and rs2708861 HUS1 polymorphisms increased the risk of cancer (OR = 1.87; 95 % CI 1.19, 2.92). Furthermore, we found that the presence of rs1056663 and rs2708861 HUS1 polymorphisms is associated with early age of presentation of BC (p = 0.015) in the group of non-carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations. In addition, no association of the polymorphisms studied in sporadic BC was observed. In conclusion, the HUS1 and FGFR2 polymorphisms act as risk BC modifiers in familial BC/OC, particularly in the group of non-carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations. PMID:22926736

  8. bc-GenExMiner: an easy-to-use online platform for gene prognostic analyses in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jézéquel, Pascal; Campone, Mario; Gouraud, Wilfried; Guérin-Charbonnel, Catherine; Leux, Christophe; Ricolleau, Gabriel; Campion, Loïc

    2012-02-01

    Gene prognostic meta-analyses should benefit from breast tumour genomic data obtained during the last decade. The aim was to develop a user-friendly, web-based application, based on DNA microarrays results, called "breast cancer Gene-Expression Miner" (bc-GenExMiner) to improve gene prognostic analysis performance by using the same bioinformatics process. bc-GenExMiner was developed as a web-based tool including a MySQL relational database. Survival analyses are performed with R statistical software and packages. Molecular subtyping was performed by means of three single sample predictors (SSPs) and three subtype clustering models (SCMs). Twenty-one public data sets have been included. Among the 3,414 recovered breast cancer patients, 1,209 experienced a pejorative event. Molecular subtyping by means of three SSPs and three SCMs was performed for 3,063 patients. Furthermore, three robust lists of stable subtyped patients were built to maximize reliability of molecular assignment. Gene prognostic analyses are done by means of univariate Cox proportional hazards model and may be conducted on cohorts split by nodal (N), oestrogen receptor (ER), or molecular subtype status. To evaluate independent prognostic impact of genes relative to Nottingham Prognostic Index and Adjuvant! Online, adjusted Cox proportional hazards models are performed. bc-GenExMiner allows researchers without specific computation skills to easily and quickly evaluate the in vivo prognostic role of genes in breast cancer by means of Cox proportional hazards model on large pooled cohorts, which may be split according to different prognostic parameters: N, ER, and molecular subtype. Prognostic analyses by molecular subtype may also be performed in three robust molecular subtype classifications. PMID:21452023

  9. Micronutrients Involved in One-Carbon Metabolism and Risk of Breast Cancer Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Cancarini, Ilaria; Krogh, Vittorio; Agnoli, Claudia; Grioni, Sara; Matullo, Giuseppe; Pala, Valeria; Pedraglio, Samuele; Contiero, Paolo; Riva, Cristina; Muti, Paola; Sieri, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    Background Vitamins involved in one-carbon metabolism are hypothesized to influence breast cancer (BC) risk. However, epidemiologic studies that examined associations between B vitamin intake and BC risk have provided inconsistent results. We prospectively examined, in the Italian ORDET cohort, whether B vitamin consumption was associated with risk of BC and BC subtypes. Methods After a mean follow-up of 16.5 years, 391 BCs were diagnosed among 10,786 cohort women. B vitamin intakes were estimated from food frequency questionnaires. Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for energy intake and confounders, estimated hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for BC according to intake. Results RRs were 0.61 (95% CI 0.38–0.97 highest vs. lowest quartile; P trend 0.025) for thiamine; 0.48 (95% CI 0.32–0.71; P trend <0.001) for riboflavin; 0.59 (95% CI 0.39–0.90; P trend 0.008) for vitamin B6, and 0.65 (95% CI 0.44–0.95; P trend 0.021) for folate. As regards risk of BC subtypes, high riboflavin and folate were significantly associated with lower risk of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and progesterone receptor positive (PR+) cancers, and high thiamine was associated with lower risk of ER-PR- cancers. High riboflavin was associated with lower risk of both HER2+ and HER2- cancers, high folate with lower risk of HER2- disease, and high thiamine with HER2+ disease. Conclusions These findings support protective effects of thiamine and one-carbon metabolism vitamins (folate, riboflavin, and vitamin B6) against BC in general; while folate may also protect against ER+PR+ and HER2- disease; and thiamine against ER-PR-, and HER2+ disease. PMID:26376452

  10. Breast cancer risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ciszewski, Tomasz; Łopacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miotła, Paweł; Starosławska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110

  11. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk A woman’s hormone levels normally change throughout ... the development of breast cancer. Important Information about Breast Cancer Risk Factors At present, the factors known to ...

  12. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  13. Environmental cancer risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In a long-awaited report (‘Assessment of Technologies for Determining Cancer Risks From the Environment’), the U.S. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) has evaluated the role of environmental factors in cancer diseases. Environment is interpreted broadly as encompassing anything that interacts with humans, including the natural environment, food, radiation, the workplace, etc. Geologic factors range from geographic location to radiation and specific minerals. The report, however, is based on an inadequate data base in most instances, and its major recommendations are related to the establishment of a national cancer registry to record cancer statistics, as is done for many other diseases. Presently, hard statistics are lacking in the establishment of some association between the cause-effect relationship of most environmental factors and most carcinogens. Of particular interest, but unfortunately based on unreliable data, are the effects of mineral substances such as ‘asbestos.’ USGS mineralogist Malcolm Ross will review asbestos and its effects on human health in the forthcoming Mineralogical Society of America's Short Course on the Amphiboles (Reviews in Mineralogy, 9, in press, 1981).

  14. HIV Infection and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... Engels EA, Pfeiffer RM, Goedert JJ, et al. Trends in cancer risk among people with AIDS in ...

  15. Imaging surveillance programs for women at high breast cancer risk in Europe: Are women from ethnic minority groups adequately included? (Review).

    PubMed

    Belkić, Karen; Cohen, Miri; Wilczek, Brigitte; Andersson, Sonia; Berman, Anne H; Márquez, Marcela; Vukojević, Vladana; Mints, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Women from ethnic minority groups, including immigrants and refugees are reported to have low breast cancer (BC) screening rates. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is vital for increasing participation of these women in BC screening programs. Women at high BC risk and who belong to an ethnic minority group are of special concern. Such women could benefit from ongoing trials aimed at optimizing screening strategies for early BC detection among those at increased BC risk. Considering the marked disparities in BC survival in Europe and its enormous and dynamic ethnic diversity, these issues are extremely timely for Europe. We systematically reviewed the literature concerning European surveillance studies that had imaging in the protocol and that targeted women at high BC risk. The aim of the present review was thereby to assess the likelihood that women at high BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. Twenty-seven research groups in Europe reported on their imaging surveillance programs for women at increased BC risk. The benefit of strategies such as inclusion of magnetic resonance imaging and/or more intensive screening was clearly documented for the participating women at increased BC risk. However, none of the reports indicated that sufficient outreach was performed to ensure that women at increased BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. On the basis of this systematic review, we conclude that the specific screening needs of ethnic minority women at increased BC risk have not yet been met in Europe. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is needed to identify minority women at increased BC risk and to facilitate their inclusion in on-going surveillance programs. It is anticipated that these efforts would be most effective if coordinated with the development of European-wide, population-based approaches to BC screening. PMID:26134040

  16. Cancer risks: Strategies for elimination

    SciTech Connect

    Bannasch, P.

    1987-01-01

    This book deals with the possibilities for identifying and eliminating cancer risk factors. The current state of knowledge on the detection, assessment and elimination of chemical, physical (radiation), and biological (viruses) risk factors are comprehensively presented in 15 contributions. Chemical risk factors resulting from smoking and environmental contamination are given special attention. The coverage of cancer risks by radiation includes some of the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. Finally, the discussion of the possible risks that certain viruses hold for cancer in man is intended to further the development of vaccinations against these viral infections. The information is directed not only at specialists, but also at a wider interested audience. Its primary aim is to convey established findings that are already being used for cancer prevention. Furthermore, the book aims to promote more intense research in the field of primary cancer prevention. Contents: General aspects; chemical carcinogens: Risk assessment; chemical carcinogens: Primary prevention; physical carcinogens - Oncogenic viruses and subject index.

  17. Cigarette smoking, physical activity, and alcohol consumption as predictors of cancer incidence among women at high risk of breast cancer in the NSABP P-1 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Land, Stephanie R.; Liu, Qing; Wickerham, D. Lawrence; Costantino, Joseph P.; Ganz, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Background NSABP P-1 provides an opportunity to examine the association of behavioral factors with prospectively monitored cancer incidence and interactions with tamoxifen. Methods From 1992–1997, 13,388 women with estimated 5-year breast cancer (BC) risk greater than 1.66% or a history of lobular carcinoma in situ (87% under age 65; 67% post-menopausal) were randomly assigned to tamoxifen versus placebo. Invasive BC, lung (LC), colon (CC), and endometrial cancers (EC) were analyzed with Cox regression. Predictors were baseline cigarette smoking, leisure-time physical activity, alcohol consumption, and established risk factors. Results At median 7 years follow-up, we observed 395, 66, 35, and 74 BC, LC, CC, and EC, respectively. Women who had smoked were at increased risk of BC (P=.007; hazard ratio (HR)=1.3 for 15–35 years smoking, HR=1.6 for ≥35 years), LC (P<.001; HR=3.9 for 15–35 years; HR=18.4 for ≥35 years), and CC (P<.001; HR=5.1 for ≥35 years) versus never-smokers. Low activity predicted increased BC risk only among women assigned to placebo (P=.021 activity main effect, P=.013 activity-treatment interaction; HR=1.4 for placebo group) and EC among all women (P=.026, HR=1.7). Moderate alcohol (>0–1 drink/day) was associated with decreased risk of CC (P=.019; HR=.35) versus no alcohol. There were no other significant associations between these behaviors and cancer risk. Conclusion Among women with elevated risk of BC, smoking has an even greater impact on BC risk than observed in past studies in the general population. Impact Women who smoke or are inactive should be informed of the increased risk of multiple types of cancer. PMID:24569437

  18. Liver Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing liver cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  19. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  20. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing pancreatic cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  1. Prostate Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing prostate cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  2. Ovarian Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing ovarian cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  3. Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing lung cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  4. Bladder Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing bladder cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  5. Testicular Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of testicular cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  6. Colorectal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing colorectal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  7. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  8. Esophageal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing esophageal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  9. Combined effect of polymorphisms in Rad51 and Xrcc3 on breast cancer risk and chromosomal radiosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Vral, A; Willems, P; Claes, K; Poppe, B; Perletti, Gianpaolo; Thierens, H

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced in vitro chromosomal radiosensitivity (CRS) has been proposed as a marker for low-penetrance gene mutations predisposing to breast cancer (BC). Since the double strand break (DSB) is the most detrimental form of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation, it is possible that mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in DSB repair affect breast cancer risk. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Rad51 and Xrcc3 (rs1801320, rs1801321, rs1799796, rs861539 and rs1799794) exhibited an association with breast cancer susceptibility in a Belgian population of BC patients with a known or putative genetic predisposition. We also ascertained whether a relationship exists between the occurrence of the variant alleles of these variations and in vitro CRS. Blood samples were obtained from BC patients and from the control population that included healthy female individuals. Variations in the 5' UTR of Rad51 and Xrcc3 were genotyped, and statistical analysis was performed. The results showed that low-penetrant variations in Rad51 and Xrcc3, two proteins belonging to the homologous recombination DSB repair pathway, may modify BC risk in patients already carrying a pathological mutation in the highly penetrant BC genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. Combined risk genotype analysis revealed that Rad51 SNPs enhance BC risk in BRCA2 patients, whereas Xrcc3 SNPs significantly enhance BC risk in carriers of BRCA1 mutations and in patients with hereditary BC. When four putative risk genotypes of Rad51 and Xrcc3 were combined, positive significant odds ratios were obtained in the entire patient population and in patients with a hereditary history of disease. Although obtained from a limited number of patients, our data are supportive of a polygenic model whereby combinations of weak variations are responsible for an enhanced BC risk by acting jointly with high-penetrant mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2. PMID:21725594

  10. Cancer risk according to type and location of ATM mutation in ataxia-telangiectasia families.

    PubMed

    Cavaciuti, E; Laugé, A; Janin, N; Ossian, K; Hall, J; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D; Andrieu, N

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated that ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) heterozygotes in AT families have an increased risk of cancer, particularly of breast cancer (BC). However, in BC case-control studies, no significant differences were found in the frequency of ATM mutations between patients and controls. In such studies missense mutations were found more frequently than truncating mutations, suggesting that the cancer risk depends on mutation type. To investigate this possibility, we assessed the risk of BC according to the type and position of the ATM truncating mutation in extended AT families. DNA or RNA that had been isolated from blood or buccal cells of AT children and their relatives was screened for ATM germ-line mutations using restriction endonuclease fingerprinting, the protein truncation test, fluorescence-assisted mismatch analysis, and direct sequencing. The standardized incidence ratio of cancer associated with ATM heterozygosity status and type of mutation was estimated. We tested for genotype-phenotype correlations by simulations, permuting mutations among parental branches. No significant difference was found in the relative risk of breast cancer or any other type of cancer based on mutation type. However, the occurrence of BC may be associated with truncating mutations in certain binding domains of the ATM protein (e.g., P53/BRCA1, beta-adaptin, and FAT domains; P = 0.006). In this limited sample set, the presence of missense or truncating ATM mutations was not associated with different cancer risks. The risk of BC appeared to be associated with the alteration of binding domains rather than with the length of the predicted ATM protein. PMID:15390180

  11. Infective Endocarditis and Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li-Min; Wu, Jung-Nan; Lin, Cheng-Li; Day, Jen-Der; Liang, Ji-An; Liou, Li-Ren; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the possible relationship between endocarditis and overall and individual cancer risk among study participants in Taiwan. We used data from the National Health Insurance program of Taiwan to conduct a population-based, observational, and retrospective cohort study. The case group consisted of 14,534 patients who were diagnosed with endocarditis between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. For the control group, 4 patients without endocarditis were frequency matched to each endocarditis patient according to age, sex, and index year. Competing risks regression analysis was conducted to determine the effect of endocarditis on cancer risk. A large difference was noted in Charlson comorbidity index between endocarditis and nonendocarditis patients. In patients with endocarditis, the risk for developing overall cancer was significant and 119% higher than in patients without endocarditis (adjusted subhazard ratio = 2.19, 95% confidence interval = 1.98–2.42). Regarding individual cancers, in addition to head and neck, uterus, female breast and hematological malignancies, the risks of developing colorectal cancer, and some digestive tract cancers were significantly higher. Additional analyses determined that the association of cancer with endocarditis is stronger within the 1st 5 years after endocarditis diagnosis. This population-based cohort study found that patients with endocarditis are at a higher risk for colorectal cancer and other cancers in Taiwan. The risk was even higher within the 1st 5 years after endocarditis diagnosis. It suggested that endocarditis is an early marker of colorectal cancer and other cancers. The underlying mechanisms must still be explored and may account for a shared risk factor of infection in both endocarditis and malignancy. PMID:27015220

  12. Is breast cancer risk the same for all progestogens?

    PubMed

    Stute, Petra

    2014-08-01

    The population-based case–control study CECILE investigated the impact of various menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) products on breast cancer (BC) risk in 1,555 postmenopausal women [1]. The case group (n = 739) included incident cases of in situ (!) or invasive BC in postmenopausal women. The control group (n = 816) included women from the general population within predefined quotas by age and socio-economic status (SES). While quotas by age were applied to obtain similar distributions by age among controls and among cases, quotas by SES in control women were applied to reflect the distribution by SES of women in the general population in the study area. Data of participants were obtained by a structured questionnaire during in-person interviews, and from pathology reports if applicable, respectively. Women were divided into current and past MHT user. MHTs were classified in estrogen-only therapy (ET), estrogen combined with progestin therapy (EPT) and tibolone. EPT was subdivided in three subtypes according to the progestogen constituent: natural micronized progesterone, progesterone derivatives, and testosterone derivatives. In comparison to never MHT users, any current or past MHT use (ET, EPT, tibolone) was not associated with an increased BC risk. However, in subanalysis BC risk was significantly increased for current use of EPT for 4 or more years (n = 73 cases and n = 56 controls, adjusted OR 1.55; 95 % CI 1.02–2.36). Within the group of current EPT users for 4 or more years, 14 cases had used estrogens combined with micronized progesterone (n = 17 controls), and 55 a combination with a synthetic progestogen (n = 34 controls), respectively. Compared to never MHT use, current use of EPT containing a synthetic progestogen for 4 or more years was associated with a significantly increased BC risk (adjusted OR 2.07; 95 % CI 1.26–3.39), but EPT containing micronized progesterone was not (adjusted OR 0.79; 95 % CI 0.37–1.71). 73 % of current MHT users

  13. Fruits and Vegetables Intake and Risk of Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chang; Zeng, Xian-Tao; Liu, Tong-Zu; Zhang, Chao; Yang, Zhong-Hua; Li, Sheng; Chen, Xiao-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Clinical practice recommends eating ≥2.5 cups of fruits and vegetables (FVs) each day for cancer prevention, in which the evidence from epidemiological studies for the association between FVs intake and bladder cancer (BC) prevention is inconsistent. We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Willy online Library for relevant studies published up to September 27, 2014. Prospective cohort studies investigated FVs intake, and the risk of BC with ≥3 categories of exposure was included. A dose-response meta-analysis was carried out to evaluate the association between FVs intake and risk of BC. Fourteen cohorts with 17 studies including 9447 cases were identified. No evidence of nonlinear association was examined between FVs intake and risk of BC. The summarized relevant risk (RR) of every 0.2 serving increment a day was 1.00 (95%CI: 0.99, 1.00; P = 0.17; I2 = 41.7%; n = 14) for total fruits; 0.99 (95%CI: 0.96, 1.01; P = 0.28; I2 = 37.0%; n = 13) for total vegetables; and 0.99 (95%CI: 0.97, 1.01; P = 0.24; I2 = 57.5%; n = 8) for both FVs. In further analysis, we observed inverse association between every 0.2 serving increment of green leafy vegetables intake a day and risk of BC (RR = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.96, 0.99; I2 = 0.0%; P < 0.01; Power = 0.76; n = 6), but neither for cruciferous vegetables (RR = 0.97, 95%CI: 0.93, 1.01; P = 0.19; I2 = 55.8%; n = 8) nor for citrus (RR = 1.00, 95%CI: 1.00, 1.00; P = 0.83; I2 = 0.0%; n = 7). Subgroup analysis showed consistent results. Little evidence supports a beneficial effect for total fruits, vegetables, both FVs, and citrus intake against bladder cancer. Green leafy vegetables may help prevent bladder cancer. PMID:25929912

  14. On the Antiquity of Cancer: Evidence for Metastatic Carcinoma in a Young Man from Ancient Nubia (c. 1200BC)

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Michaela; Roberts, Charlotte; Spencer, Neal; Antoine, Daniel; Cartwright, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Cancer, one of the world’s leading causes of death today, remains almost absent relative to other pathological conditions, in the archaeological record, giving rise to the conclusion that the disease is mainly a product of modern living and increased longevity. This paper presents a male, young-adult individual from the archaeological site of Amara West in northern Sudan (c. 1200BC) displaying multiple, mainly osteolytic, lesions on the vertebrae, ribs, sternum, clavicles, scapulae, pelvis, and humeral and femoral heads. Following radiographic, microscopic and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) imaging of the lesions, and a consideration of differential diagnoses, a diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma secondary to an unknown soft tissue cancer is suggested. This represents the earliest complete example in the world of a human who suffered metastatic cancer to date. The study further draws its strength from modern analytical techniques applied to differential diagnoses and the fact that it is firmly rooted within a well-documented archaeological and historical context, thus providing new insights into the history and antiquity of the disease as well as its underlying causes and progression. PMID:24637948

  15. Reproduction and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Hanf, Volker; Hanf, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Summary Reproduction is doubtlessly one of the main biological meanings of life. It is therefore not surprising that various aspects of reproduction impact on breast cancer risk. Various developmental levels may become targets of breast tumorigenesis. This review follows the chronologic sequence of events in the life of a female at risk, starting with the intrauterine development. Furthermore, the influence of both contraceptive measures and fertility treatment on breast cancer development is dealt with, as well as various pregnancy-associated factors, events, and perinatal outcomes. Finally, the contribution of breast feeding to a reduced breast cancer risk is discussed. PMID:25759622

  16. Can Avoiding Light at Night Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer?

    PubMed

    Keshet-Sitton, Atalya; Or-Chen, Keren; Yitzhak, Sara; Tzabary, Ilana; Haim, Abraham

    2016-06-01

    Excessive exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) suppresses nocturnal melatonin (MLT) production in the pineal gland and is, therefore, associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (BC). We examined indoor and outdoor light habits of 278 women, BC patients (n = 93), and controls (n = 185; 2010-2014). Cases and controls were age and residential area matched. Data regarding behavior in the sleeping habitat in a 5-year period, 10 to 15 years prior to disease diagnosis, were collected using a questionnaire. Sleep quality, bedtime, sleep duration, TV watching habits, presleeping reading habits, subjective illumination intensity, and type of illumination were collected. Binary logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (ORs with 95% CIs) for BC patients in relation to those habits. OR results revealed that women who had slept longer (controls), 10 to 15 years before the time of the study, in a period of 5 years, had a significant (OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.57-0.97; P < .03) reduced BC risk. Likewise, women who had been moderately exposed to ALAN as a result of reading using bed light (reading lamp) illumination and women who had slept with closed shutters reduced their BC risk: OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.67-0.97, P < .02, and OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68-0.99, P < .04, respectively. However, women who had been exposed to ALAN as a result of living near strong illumination sources were at a significantly higher BC risk (OR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.10-2.12; P < .01). These data support the hypothesis that diminishing nighttime light exposure will diminish BC risk and incidence. This hypothesis needs to be tested directly using available testing strategies and technologies that continuously measure an individual's light exposure, its timing, and sleep length longitudinally and feed this information back to the individual, so that BC risk can be distinguished prospectively. PMID:26631258

  17. Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... oral contraceptives are available in the United States today? How could oral contraceptives influence cancer risk? How ... oral contraceptives are available in the United States today? Two types of oral contraceptives (birth control pills) ...

  18. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body's largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control body ... cancer risk factors include: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  19. Cancer risks after radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Voelz, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    A general overview of the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer induction is presented. The relationship between the degree of risk and absorbed dose is examined. Mortality from radiation-induced cancer in the US is estimated and percentages attributable to various sources are given. (ACR)

  20. Nutrition and primary prevention of breast cancer: foods, nutrients and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hanf, Volker; Gonder, Ulrike

    2005-12-01

    Worldwide, each year approximately one million women are newly diagnosed with breast cancer (BC), in Germany 65 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants are registered, yearly. The fact that incidence has been rising in parallel with economic development indicates that environmental factors might play a role in the causation of BC. Migrational data have pointed to nutrition as one of the more relevant external factors involved. Preventive dietary advice often includes a reduction of alcohol, red meat and animal fat and increasing the intake of vegetables, fruit and fibre and lately, phyto-estrogens from various sources. Clearly, the scientific basis for these recommendations appears sparse. The available prospective data from epidemiological studies and interventional trials do not support the overall hypothesis that higher fat-intakes are a relevant risk factor for BC development, more important seems the relative distribution of various fatty acids. A non-vegetarian eating habit (consumption of animal products) per se does not elevate BC risk, while consumption of broiled or deep fried meats cannot be ruled out as a risk factor in genetically susceptible individuals. It appears prudent to abstain from regular and increased alcohol consumption. This should be particularly true for pubescent girls, in whom glandular breast tissue is particularly vulnerable. In general, if alcohol is consumed on a regular basis, a sufficient supply of fresh vegetables and fruit is essential. While there is no overall protective effect of a high fruit and vegetable consumption speculation remains over possible beneficial effects of certain subcategories, especially brassica vegetables like broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage. In essence, regional differences in BC incidence are probably partially attributable to life long dietary habits. There is no need to adopt a foreign dietary plan in order to protect oneself against BC. Traditional western diets also have their beneficial ingredients

  1. Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159652.html Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk Too Women with BRCA1 may want to ... increased risk for a deadly form of uterine cancer, a new study finds. The BRCA1 gene mutation ...

  2. Breast Cancer After Treatment of Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Risk Factors That Really Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Alm El-Din, Mohamed A.; Hughes, Kevin S.; Finkelstein, Dianne M.; Betts, Keith A.; Yock, Torunn I.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Aisenberg, Alan C.; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the risk of breast cancer (BC) and the contributing risk factors in women after supradiaphragmatic irradiation (SDI) for Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). Subjects and Methods: Medical records of 248 women 60 years of age or less who received SDI for stage I/II HL between 1964 and 2001 at Massachusetts General Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Results: The median age at SDI was 26 years (range, 5.7-59.3). The median follow-up was 15.2 years (range, 0.1-41.3). In 36 patients, BC developed (bilaterally in 11 patients) at a median interval of 18.4 years (range, 4.3-33.8) after SDI. Based on data from the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program, the standardized morbidity ratio (SMR) for the first BC after SDI was 9.78 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.64-18.11, p < 0.0001). The SMR of patients who received radiation before age of 30 years was 19.05 (95% CI, 12.33-28.13) compared with 4.64 (95% CI, 2.31-8.30) for patients aged 30 years or more at the time of treatment (p < 0.00003). Risk for BC was significantly higher 15 years or more after SDI compared with the risk during the first 15 years (p = 0.0026). None of HL characteristics or treatment details was associated with higher risk of BC after adjusting for age and calendar time. Conclusions: Age at irradiation and time since therapy appear to be the only significant risk factors for development of BC after treatment of HL. The risk is significantly higher 15 years or more after radiation and for women treated before age 30 years. Long-term surveillance strategies are indicated for women at risk.

  3. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... the chance that you could get cancer. Some risk factors you can control, such as drinking alcohol. Others, such as family ... cannot be changed. But just because you have risk factors you cannot control does not mean you cannot take steps to ...

  4. Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles and the risk of breast cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: implications for risk prediction

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Beesley, Jonathan; McGuffog, Lesley; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Healey, Sue; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Lynch, Henry T.; Isaacs, Claudine; Ganz, Patricia A.; Tomlinson, Gail; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Lindor, Noralane M.; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Radice, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Barile, Monica; Viel, Alessandra; Allavena, Anna; Dall’Olio, Valentina; Peterlongo, Paolo; Szabo, Csilla I.; Zikan, Michal; Claes, Kathleen; Poppe, Bruce; Foretova, Lenka; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Sunde, Lone; Cruger, Dorthe; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Caligo, Maria; Friedman, Eitan; Kaufman, Bella; Laitman, Yael; Milgrom, Roni; Dubrovsky, Maya; Cohen, Shimrit; Borg, Ake; Jernström, Helena; Lindblom, Annika; Rantala, Johanna; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; Nathanson, Kate; Domchek, Susan; Jakubowska, Ania; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Osorio, Ana; Lasa, Adriana; Durán, Mercedes; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Godino, Javier; Benitez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Kriege, Mieke; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van der Luijt, Rob B; van Asperen, Christi J; Devilee, Peter; Meijers-Heijboer, E.J.; Blok, Marinus J; Aalfs, Cora M.; Hogervorst, Frans; Rookus, Matti; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Conroy, Don; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Pichert, Gabriella; Davidson, Rosemarie; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Paterson, Joan; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Porteous, Mary E.; Walker, Lisa; Kennedy, M. John; Dorkins, Huw; Peock, Susan; Godwin, Andrew K.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; de Pauw, Antoine; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Bonadona, Valérie; Lasset, Christine; Dreyfus, Hélène; Leroux, Dominique; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Faivre, Laurence; Loustalot, Catherine; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Sobol, Hagay; Rouleau, Etienne; Nogues, Catherine; Frénay, Marc; Vénat-Bouvet, Laurence; Hopper, John L.; Daly, Mary B.; Terry, Mary B.; John, Esther M.; Buys, Saundra S.; Yassin, Yosuf; Miron, Alex; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F.; Dressler, Anne Catharina; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Pfeiler, Georg; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Jønson, Lars; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Offit, Kenneth; Devlin, Vincent; Dutra-Clarke, Ana; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Wakeley, Katie; Boggess, John F.; Basil, Jack; Schwartz, Peter E.; Blank, Stephanie V.; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Montagna, Marco; Casella, Cinzia; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Tihomirova, Laima; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Ramus, Susan J.; Sucheston, Lara; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; Schmutzler, Rita; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Lochmann, Magdalena; Arnold, Norbert; Heidemann, Simone; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Deissler, Helmut; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Schönbuchner, Ines; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli; Simard, Jacques; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Holland, Helene; Chen, Xiaoqing; Platte, Radka; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.

    2010-01-01

    The known breast cancer (BC) susceptibility polymorphisms in FGFR2, TNRC9/TOX3, MAP3K1,LSP1 and 2q35 confer increased risks of BC for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We evaluated the associations of three additional SNPs, rs4973768 in SLC4A7/NEK10, rs6504950 in STXBP4/COX11 and rs10941679 at 5p12 and reanalyzed the previous associations using additional carriers in a sample of 12,525 BRCA1 and 7,409 BRCA2 carriers. Additionally, we investigated potential interactions between SNPs and assessed the implications for risk prediction. The minor alleles of rs4973768 and rs10941679 were associated with increased BC risk for BRCA2 carriers (per-allele Hazard Ratio (HR)=1.10, 95%CI:1.03-1.18, p=0.006 and HR=1.09, 95%CI:1.01-1.19, p=0.03, respectively). Neither SNP was associated with BC risk for BRCA1 carriers and rs6504950 was not associated with BC for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers. Of the nine polymorphisms investigated, seven were associated with BC for BRCA2 carriers (FGFR2, TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, 2q35, SLC4A7, 5p12, p-values:7×10−11-0.03), but only TOX3 and 2q35 were associated with the risk for BRCA1 carriers (p=0.0049, 0.03 respectively). All risk associated polymorphisms appear to interact multiplicatively on BC risk for mutation carriers. Based on the joint genotype distribution of the seven risk associated SNPs in BRCA2 mutation carriers, the 5% of BRCA2 carriers at highest risk (i.e. between 95th and 100th percentiles) were predicted to have a probability between 80% and 96% of developing BC by age 80, compared with 42-50% for the 5% of carriers at lowest risk. Our findings indicated that these risk differences may be sufficient to influence the clinical management of mutation carriers. PMID:21118973

  5. Occupational risk for laryngeal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Flanders, W.D.; Rothman, K.J.

    1982-04-01

    In a case-control analysis, we studied the effects of type of employment on laryngeal cancer risk using the interview data from the Third National Cancer Survey. Effects were measured relative to the risk for those employed in a group of arbitrarily defined industries and occupations with low risk. We excluded females and controlled for age, tobacco use, alcohol use, and race in the analysis. We found ratio estimates above 3.0 for workers in the railroad industry and the lumber industry; and for sheetmetal workers, grinding wheel operators, and automobile mechanics.

  6. A Meta-Analysis of the Association between ESR1 Genetic Variants and the Risk of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiaying; Ma, Xu; Dai, Qiaoyun; Huang, Hao; Wang, Lina; Liu, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the estrogen receptor gene (ESR1) play critical roles in breast cancer (BC) susceptibility. Genome-wide association studies have reported that SNPs in ESR1 are associated with BC susceptibility; however, the results of recent studies have been inconsistent. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to obtain more accurate and credible results. Methods We pooled published literature from PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science and calculated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the strength of associations using fixed effects models and random effects models. Twenty relevant case-control and cohort studies of the 3 related SNPs were identified. Results Three SNPs of the ESR1 gene, rs2077647:T>C, rs2228480:G>A and rs3798577:T>C, were not associated with increased BC risk in our overall meta-analysis. Stratified analysis by ethnicity showed that in Caucasians, the rs2228480 AA genotype was associated with a 26% decreased risk of BC compared with the GG genotype (OR = 0.740, 95% CI: 0.555–0.987). The C allele of the rs3798577:T>C variant was associated with decreased BC risk in Asians (OR = 0.828, 95% CI: 0.730–0.939), while Caucasians with this allele were found to experience significantly increased BC risk (OR = 1.551, 95% CI: 1.037–2.321). A non-significant association between rs2077647 and BC risk was identified in all of the evaluated ethnic populations. Conclusion Rs3798577 was associated with an increased risk of BC in Caucasian populations but a decreased risk in Asians. Rs2228480 had a large protective effect in Caucasians, while rs2077647 was not associated with BC risk. PMID:27070141

  7. Obesity and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer screening among obese adults. National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) NCCOR brings together four of the nation’s leading funders of childhood obesity research: the CDC, NIH, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, ...

  8. Endometrial Cancer Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Women with a condition called polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have abnormal hormone levels, such as higher androgen ( ... increase a woman's chance of getting endometrial cancer. PCOS is also a leading cause of infertility in ...

  9. [INFLUENCE OF REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS, BREASTFEEDING AND OBESITY ON THE RISK OF BREAST CANCER IN MEXICAN WOMEN].

    PubMed

    Navarro-Ibarra, María Jossé; Caire-Juvera, Graciela; Ortega-Vélez, María Isabel; Bolaños-Villar, Adriana Verónica; Saucedo-Tamayo, María Del Socorro

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is considered a global public health problem, and is the most frequently type diagnosed in Mexican women. Therefore, it is important to study the risk factors associated to this neoplasia in order to establish prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hormonal contraceptives and hormone therapy (HT) use and period of use, breastfeeding practice, abdominal obesity and weight gain in adulthood, on the risk of BC in adult women from Northwest Mexico. This was a case-control study that included 162 women (81 cases and 81 controls). A sociodemographic and health questionnaire, and a survey history of body weight were applied to participants. Measurements of body weight, height and waist circumference were performed. To assess the association between BC risk and exposing factors, a multivariate logistic regression model was used. Average age of cases and controls were 51.8 ± 11.7 and 51.4 ± 11.3 years, respectively. No significant association was found between the use and period of use of hormonal contraceptives and HT with the risk of BC. The practice of breastfeeding (OR=0.34, 95%CI: 0.12- 0.92) and the time of exclusive breastfeeding (OR=0.64, 95%CI: 0.42-0.97; crude) were protective against the risk of BC. Abdominal obesity (OR=0.93, 95%CI: 0.90-0.97) and weight gain in early adulthood (OR=0.90, 95%CI: 0.85-0.95) were inversely associated to the risk of BC. In conclusion, the practice of breastfeeding may help prevent BC in Mexican women. PMID:26262729

  10. Penetrance of ATM Gene Mutations in Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Different Measures of Risk.

    PubMed

    Marabelli, Monica; Cheng, Su-Chun; Parmigiani, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    The gene responsible for ataxia-telangiectasia syndrome, ATM, is also an intermediate-risk breast cancer (BC) susceptibility gene. Numerous studies have been carried out to determine the contribution of ATM gene mutations to BC risk. Epidemiological cohorts, segregation analyses, and case-control studies reported BC risk in different forms, including penetrance, relative risk, standardized incidence ratio, and odds ratio. Because the reported estimates vary both qualitatively and quantitatively, we developed a general model allowing the integration of the different types of cancer risk available in the literature. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis identifying 19 studies, and used our model to obtain a consensus estimate of BC penetrance. We estimated the cumulative risk of BC in heterozygous ATM mutation carriers to be 6.02% by 50 years of age (95% credible interval: 4.58-7.42%) and 32.83% by 80 years of age (95% credible interval: 24.55-40.43%). An accurate assessment of cancer penetrance is crucial to help mutation carriers make medical and lifestyle decisions that can reduce their chances of developing the disease. PMID:27112364

  11. Screening for Chemical Contributions to Breast Cancer Risk: A Case Study for Chemical Safety Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Janet M.; Dairkee, Shanaz H.; Fenton, Suzanne E.; Johnson, Dale; Navarro, Kathleen M.; Osborne, Gwendolyn; Rudel, Ruthann A.; Solomon, Gina M.; Zeise, Lauren; Janssen, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background Current approaches to chemical screening, prioritization, and assessment are being reenvisioned, driven by innovations in chemical safety testing, new chemical regulations, and demand for information on human and environmental impacts of chemicals. To conceptualize these changes through the lens of a prevalent disease, the Breast Cancer and Chemicals Policy project convened an interdisciplinary expert panel to investigate methods for identifying chemicals that may increase breast cancer risk. Methods Based on a review of current evidence, the panel identified key biological processes whose perturbation may alter breast cancer risk. We identified corresponding assays to develop the Hazard Identification Approach for Breast Carcinogens (HIA-BC), a method for detecting chemicals that may raise breast cancer risk. Finally, we conducted a literature-based pilot test of the HIA-BC. Results The HIA-BC identifies assays capable of detecting alterations to biological processes relevant to breast cancer, including cellular and molecular events, tissue changes, and factors that alter susceptibility. In the pilot test of the HIA-BC, chemicals associated with breast cancer all demonstrated genotoxic or endocrine activity, but not necessarily both. Significant data gaps persist. Conclusions This approach could inform the development of toxicity testing that targets mechanisms relevant to breast cancer, providing a basis for identifying safer chemicals. The study identified important end points not currently evaluated by federal testing programs, including altered mammary gland development, Her2 activation, progesterone receptor activity, prolactin effects, and aspects of estrogen receptor β activity. This approach could be extended to identify the biological processes and screening methods relevant for other common diseases. Citation Schwarzman MR, Ackerman JM, Dairkee SH, Fenton SE, Johnson D, Navarro KM, Osborne G, Rudel RA, Solomon GM, Zeise L, Janssen S. 2015

  12. Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and breast cancer risk according to menopause and hormone receptor status in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Ferrari, Pietro; González, Carlos A; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Bredsdorff, Lea; Overvad, Kim; Touillaud, Marina; Perquier, Florence; Fagherazzi, Guy; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Tikk, Kaja; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Dilis, Vardis; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Engeset, Dagrun; Menéndez, Virginia; Travier, Noémie; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Wallström, Peter; Sonestedt, Emily; Sund, Malin; Landberg, Rikard; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Travis, Ruth C; Scalbert, Augustin; Ward, Heather A; Riboli, Elio; Romieu, Isabelle

    2013-05-01

    Evidence on the association between dietary flavonoids and lignans and breast cancer (BC) risk is inconclusive, with the possible exception of isoflavones in Asian countries. Therefore, we investigated prospectively dietary total and subclasses of flavonoid and lignan intake and BC risk according to menopause and hormonal receptor status in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 334,850 women, mostly aged between 35 and 70 years from ten European countries. At baseline, country-specific validated dietary questionnaires were used. A flavonoid and lignan food composition database was developed from the US Department of Agriculture, the Phenol-Explorer and the UK Food Standards Agency databases. Cox regression models were used to analyse the association between dietary flavonoid/lignan intake and the risk of developing BC. During an average 11.5-year follow-up, 11,576 incident BC cases were identified. No association was observed between the intake of total flavonoids [hazard ratio comparing fifth to first quintile (HRQ5-Q1) 0.97, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.90-1.04; P trend = 0.591], isoflavones (HRQ5-Q1 1.00, 95 % CI: 0.91-1.10; P trend = 0.734), or total lignans (HRQ5-Q1 1.02, 95 % CI: 0.93-1.11; P trend = 0.469) and overall BC risk. The stratification of the results by menopausal status at recruitment or the differentiation of BC cases according to oestrogen and progesterone receptors did not affect the results. This study shows no associations between flavonoid and lignan intake and BC risk, overall or after taking into account menopausal status and BC hormone receptors. PMID:23572295

  13. Genetic testing for cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Ponder, B

    1997-11-01

    Genetic testing for cancer susceptibility is already part of the clinical management of families with some of the well-defined (but uncommon) inherited cancer syndromes. In cases where the risks associated with a predisposing mutation are less certain, or where there is no clearly effective intervention to offer those with a positive result, its use is more controversial. Careful evaluation of costs and benefits, and of the efficacy of interventions in those found to be at risk, is essential and is only just beginning. An immediate challenge is to ensure that both health professionals and the public understand clearly the issues involved. PMID:9353178

  14. Association Between Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene Polymorphisms with Breast Cancer Risk in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Maryam; Hashemi, Mohammad; Sanaei, Sara; Mashhadi, Mohammad Ali; Taheri, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most causes of death in women worldwide. It affects Iranian female population approximately a decade earlier than those in other parts of the world. Previous studies have shown that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene variants were associated with BC risk. The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of VEGF rs3025039 (+936C>T), rs2010963 (+405C>G), rs833061 (-460T>C), rs699947 (-2578C>A), and rs35569394 (18-bp I/D) polymorphisms on BC risk in an Iranian population in southeast of Iran. This case–control study was done on 250 BC patients and 215 healthy women. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) or PCR was used to genotype the polymorphisms. Our findings showed that VEGF rs699947 variant increased the risk of BC (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.15–2.54, P = 0.009, CA vs CC; OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.14–3.93, P = 0.021, AA vs CC; OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.22–2.60, P = 0.004, CA+AA vs CC; OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.12–1.92, P = 0.005, A vs C). The VEGF rs3025039, rs2010963, rs833061, and rs35569394 variants were not associated with risk/protection of BC. In conclusion, our results proposed that VEGF rs699947 polymorphism may increase the risk of BC development. Furthers studies with larger sample sizes and different ethnicities are necessary to confirm our findings. PMID:27398026

  15. Outcomes of Proton Radiation Therapy for Peripapillary Choroidal Melanoma at the BC Cancer Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Eric; Ma, Roy; Paton, Katherine; Blackmore, Ewart; Pickles, Tom

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To report toxicity, local control, enucleation, and survival rates for patients with peripapillary choroidal melanoma treated with proton therapy in Canada. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with peripapillary choroidal melanoma ({<=}2 mm from optic disc) treated between 1995 and 2007 at the only Canadian proton therapy facility. A prospective database was updated for follow-up information from a chart review. Descriptive and actuarial data are presented. Results: In total, 59 patients were treated. The median age was 59 years. According to the 2010 American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM classification, there were 20 T1 tumors (34%), 28 T2 tumors (48%), and 11 T3 tumors (19%). The median tumor diameter was 11.4 mm, and the median thickness was 3.5 mm. Median follow-up was 63 months. Nineteen patients received 54 cobalt gray equivalents (CGE) and forty patients received 60 CGE, each in 4 fractions. The 5-year actuarial local control rate was 91% (T1, 100%; T2, 93%; and T3, 59%) (p = 0.038). There was a suggestive relationship between local control and dose. The local control rate was 97% with 60 CGE and 83% with 54 CGE (p = 0.106). The metastasis-free survival rate was 82% and related to T stage (T1, 94%; T2, 84%; and T3, 47%) (p < 0.001). Twelve patients died, including eleven with metastases. The 5-year actuarial rate of neovascular glaucoma was 31% (23% for T1-T2 and 68% for T3, p < 0.001), and that of enucleation was 0% for T1, 14% for T2, and 72% for T3 (p < 0.001). Radiation retinopathy (74%) and optic neuropathy (64%) were common within-field effects. Conclusions: Proton therapy provides excellent local control with acceptable toxicity while conserving the globe in 80% of cases. These results are consistent with other single-institution series using proton radiotherapy, and toxicity rates were acceptable. T3 tumors carry a higher rate of both local recurrence and metastasis.

  16. Wait Times Experienced by Lung Cancer Patients in the BC Southern Interior to Obtain Oncologic Care: Exploration of the Intervals from First Abnormal Imaging to Oncologic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Rezwan; Boyce, Andrew; Halperin, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is associated with rapid disease progression, which can significantly progress over a duration of four to eight weeks. This study examines the time interval lung cancer patients from the interior of British Columbia (BC) experience while undergoing diagnostic evaluation, biopsy, staging, and preparation for treatment. Methods: A chart review of lung cancer patients (n=231) referred to the BC Cancer Agency Centre for the Southern Interior between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011 was performed. Time zero was defined as the date of the first abnormal chest imaging. Time intervals, expressed as median averages, to specialist consult, biopsy, oncologic referral, initial oncology consultation, and commencement of oncologic treatment were obtained. Results: The median time interval from first abnormal chest imaging to a specialist consultation was 18 days (interquartile range, IQR, 7-36). An additional nine days elapsed prior to biopsy in the form of bronchoscopy, CT-guided biopsy, or sputum cytology (median; IQR, 3-21); if lobectomy was required, 18 days elapsed (median; IQR, 9-28). Eight days were required for pathologic diagnosis and subsequent referral to the cancer centre (median; IQR, 3-16.5). Once referral was received, 10 days elapsed prior to consultation with either a medical or radiation oncologist (median, IQR 5-18). Finally, eight days was required for initiation of radiation and/or chemotherapy (median; IQR, 1-15). The median wait time from detection of lung cancer on imaging to oncologic treatment in the form of radiation and/or chemotherapy was 65.5 days (IQR, 41.5-104.3).  Interpretation: Patients in the BC Southern Interior experience considerable delays in accessing lung cancer care. During this time, the disease has the potential to significantly progress and it is possible that a subset of patients may lose their opportunity for curative intent treatment. PMID:26543688

  17. CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR CHLOROFORM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chloroform is a common chlorination by-product in drinking water. EPA has regulated chloroform as a probable human carcinogen under the Safe Drinking Water Act. The cancer risk estimate via ingestion was based on the 1985 Jorgenson study identifying kidney tumors in male Osborne ...

  18. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... and radiation fallout from power plant accidents or nuclear weapons. Having had head or neck radiation treatments in childhood is a risk factor for ... should be done using the lowest dose of radiation that still provides a clear ... from nuclear weapons or power plant accidents. For instance, thyroid ...

  19. Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview–for health professionals Research Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk On This Page Is there a relationship between pregnancy and breast cancer risk? Are any pregnancy-related factors associated with ...

  20. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Cancer.gov

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  1. Understanding the gender disparity in bladder cancer risk: The impact of sex hormones and liver on bladder susceptibility to carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuesheng

    2013-01-01

    It has long been known that bladder cancer (BC) incidence is approximately 4-fold higher in men than in women in the US, and a similar disparity also exists in other countries. The reason for this phenomenon is not known, which impedes progress in BC prevention. However, BC incidence is also significantly higher in male animals than in their female counterparts after treatment with aromatic amines, which are principal human bladder carcinogens. These animal studies and related studies in the context of available human data provide significant insight into what may drive the excessive BC risk in men, which is the focus of this article. The carcinogenicity and biotransformation of bladder carcinogens as well as the impact of sex hormones on these processes are discussed, highlighting the novel concept that the gender disparity in BC risk may result primarily from the interplay of androgen, estrogen and liver, with the liver functioning via its metabolic enzymes as the main decider of bladder exposure to carcinogens in the urine and the male and female hormones exerting opposing effects on carcinogenesis in the bladder and likely also on liver enzymes handling bladder carcinogens. The findings may facilitate further investigation into the mechanism of gender disparity in BC risk and may also have important implications for BC prevention. PMID:24171436

  2. Alcohol, Obesity Could Raise Esophageal Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160133.html Alcohol, Obesity Could Raise Esophageal Cancer Risk A third of ... at the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR). "Obesity is now linked to 11 types of cancer ...

  3. Long-Term Outcomes of Fractionated Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for Pituitary Adenomas at the BC Cancer Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Julian O.; Ma, Roy; Akagami, Ryojo; McKenzie, Michael; Johnson, Michelle; Gete, Ermias; Nichol, Alan

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To assess the long-term disease control and toxicity outcomes of fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (FSRT) in patients with pituitary adenomas treated at the BC Cancer Agency. Methods and Materials: To ensure a minimum of 5 years of clinical follow-up, this study identified a cohort of 76 patients treated consecutively with FSRT between 1998 and 2007 for pituitary adenomas: 71% (54/76) had nonfunctioning and 29% (22/76) had functioning adenomas (15 adrenocorticotrophic hormone-secreting, 5 growth hormone-secreting, and 2 prolactin-secreting). Surgery was used before FSRT in 96% (73/76) of patients. A median isocenter dose of 50.4 Gy was delivered in 28 fractions, with 100% of the planning target volume covered by the 90% isodose. Patients were followed up clinically by endocrinologists, ophthalmologists, and radiation oncologists. Serial magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess tumor response. Results: With a median follow-up time of 6.8 years (range, 0.6 - 13.1 years), the 7-year progression-free survival was 97.1% and disease-specific survival was 100%. Of the 2 patients with tumor progression, both had disease control after salvage surgery. Of the 22 patients with functioning adenomas, 50% (11/22) had complete and 9% (2/22) had partial responses after FSRT. Of the patients with normal pituitary function at baseline, 48% (14/29) experienced 1 or more hormone deficiencies after FSRT. Although 79% (60/76) of optic chiasms were at least partially within the planning target volumes, no patient experienced radiation-induced optic neuropathy. No patient experienced radionecrosis. No secondary malignancy occurred during follow-up. Conclusion: In this study of long-term follow-up of patients treated for pituitary adenomas, FSRT was safe and effective.

  4. Fruit and vegetables consumption and breast cancer risk: the EPIC Italy study.

    PubMed

    Masala, Giovanna; Assedi, Melania; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Ermini, Ilaria; Sieri, Sabina; Grioni, Sara; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Panico, Salvatore; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Giurdanella, Maria Concetta; Berrino, Franco; Saieva, Calogero; Palli, Domenico

    2012-04-01

    The role of fruit and vegetables in breast cancer (BC) development has long been debated. A large variety of vegetables and fruit are consumed by Mediterranean populations, a favourable setting for evaluating the effects of these foods. The association between vegetables and fruit consumption, overall and by specific types, and BC risk was studied in the Italian section of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Over 31,000 women, aged 36-64 years, recruited in five Italian centers between 1993 and 1998, were available for analyses with dietary and lifestyle information and anthropometric measurements. After a median follow-up of 11.25 years, 1,072 invasive and in situ incident BC cases were identified. Cox proportional hazard models (adjusted for education, anthropometry, reproductive history, hormone replacement therapy, physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking habits) showed an inverse association between consumption of all vegetables and BC risk (highest vs. lowest quintile HR 0.65; 95% CI 0.53-0.81, P for trend = 0.003). According to subtypes of vegetables, an inverse association emerged for increasing consumption of leafy vegetables (highest vs. lowest quintile HR 0.70; 95% CI 0.57-0.86, P for trend = 0.0001) and fruiting vegetables (highest vs. lowest quintile HR 0.75; 95% CI 0.60-0.94, P for trend = 0.01). An inverse association also emerged with increasing consumption of raw tomatoes (P for trend = 0.03). In contrast, no association of fruit, overall or by subtypes, with BC risk was found. In this Mediterranean population, a clear protective role of increasing vegetables consumption, mainly leafy and fruiting vegetables, on BC risk emerged. PMID:22215387

  5. Functional mechanisms underlying pleiotropic risk alleles at the 19p13.1 breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility locus.

    PubMed

    Lawrenson, Kate; Kar, Siddhartha; McCue, Karen; Kuchenbaeker, Karoline; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan; Beesley, Jonathan; Ramus, Susan J; Li, Qiyuan; Delgado, Melissa K; Lee, Janet M; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Arun, Banu K; Arver, Brita; Bandera, Elisa V; Barile, Monica; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Barrowdale, Daniel; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Berchuck, Andrew; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Blomqvist, Carl; Blot, William; Bogdanova, Natalia; Bojesen, Anders; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Bonanni, Bernardo; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brennan, Paul; Brenner, Hermann; Bruinsma, Fiona; Brunet, Joan; Buhari, Shaik Ahmad; Burwinkel, Barbara; Butzow, Ralf; Buys, Saundra S; Cai, Qiuyin; Caldes, Trinidad; Campbell, Ian; Canniotto, Rikki; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Claes, Kathleen B M; Cook, Linda S; Cox, Angela; Cramer, Daniel W; Cross, Simon S; Cybulski, Cezary; Czene, Kamila; Daly, Mary B; Damiola, Francesca; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Darabi, Hatef; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Diez, Orland; Doherty, Jennifer A; Domchek, Susan M; Dorfling, Cecilia M; Dörk, Thilo; Dumont, Martine; Ehrencrona, Hans; Ejlertsen, Bent; Ellis, Steve; Engel, Christoph; Lee, Eunjung; Evans, D Gareth; Fasching, Peter A; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Foretova, Lenka; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D; Fridley, Brooke L; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Gambino, Gaetana; Ganz, Patricia A; Garber, Judy; García-Closas, Montserrat; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Ghoussaini, Maya; Giles, Graham G; Glasspool, Rosalind; Godwin, Andrew K; Goldberg, Mark S; Goldgar, David E; González-Neira, Anna; Goode, Ellen L; Goodman, Marc T; Greene, Mark H; Gronwald, Jacek; Guénel, Pascal; Haiman, Christopher A; Hall, Per; Hallberg, Emily; Hamann, Ute; Hansen, Thomas V O; Harrington, Patricia A; Hartman, Mikael; Hassan, Norhashimah; Healey, Sue; Heitz, Florian; Herzog, Josef; Høgdall, Estrid; Høgdall, Claus K; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Hopper, John L; Hulick, Peter J; Huzarski, Tomasz; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Isaacs, Claudine; Ito, Hidemi; Jakubowska, Anna; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jensen, Allan; John, Esther M; Johnson, Nichola; Kabisch, Maria; Kang, Daehee; Kapuscinski, Miroslav; Karlan, Beth Y; Khan, Sofia; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Knight, Julia A; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Kwong, Ava; de la Hoya, Miguel; Laitman, Yael; Lambrechts, Diether; Le, Nhu; De Leeneer, Kim; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A; Li, Jingmei; Lindblom, Annika; Long, Jirong; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Loud, Jennifer T; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Mannermaa, Arto; Manoukian, Siranoush; Le Marchand, Loic; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; Massuger, Leon F A G; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mazoyer, Sylvie; McGuffog, Lesley; McLean, Catriona; McNeish, Iain; Meindl, Alfons; Menon, Usha; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Milne, Roger L; Montagna, Marco; Moysich, Kirsten B; Muir, Kenneth; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Nathanson, Katherine L; Ness, Roberta B; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nord, Silje; Nussbaum, Robert L; Odunsi, Kunle; Offit, Kenneth; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Olson, Janet E; Olswold, Curtis; O'Malley, David; Orlow, Irene; Orr, Nick; Osorio, Ana; Park, Sue Kyung; Pearce, Celeste L; Pejovic, Tanja; Peterlongo, Paolo; Pfeiler, Georg; Phelan, Catherine M; Poole, Elizabeth M; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Rantala, Johanna; Rashid, Muhammad Usman; Rennert, Gad; Rhenius, Valerie; Rhiem, Kerstin; Risch, Harvey A; Rodriguez, Gus; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rudolph, Anja; Salvesen, Helga B; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Sawyer, Elinor J; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Schmutzler, Rita K; Sellers, Thomas A; Seynaeve, Caroline; Shah, Mitul; Shen, Chen-Yang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Sieh, Weiva; Singer, Christian F; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Slager, Susan; Song, Honglin; Soucy, Penny; Southey, Melissa C; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sutter, Christian; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Teixeira, Manuel R; Teo, Soo H; Terry, Kathryn L; Terry, Mary Beth; Thomassen, Mads; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Tihomirova, Laima; Tognazzo, Silvia; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Tomlinson, Ian; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Tung, Nadine; Tworoger, Shelley S; Vachon, Celine; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; van Doorn, Helena C; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Van't Veer, Laura J; Vanderstichele, Adriaan; Vergote, Ignace; Vijai, Joseph; Wang, Qin; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S; Wildiers, Hans; Winqvist, Robert; Wu, Anna H; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Yoon, Sook-Yee; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Khanna, Kum Kum; Simard, Jacques; Monteiro, Alvaro N; French, Juliet D; Couch, Fergus J; Freedman, Matthew L; Easton, Douglas F; Dunning, Alison M; Pharoah, Paul D; Edwards, Stacey L; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C; Gayther, Simon A

    2016-01-01

    A locus at 19p13 is associated with breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) risk. Here we analyse 438 SNPs in this region in 46,451 BC and 15,438 OC cases, 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 73,444 controls and identify 13 candidate causal SNPs associated with serous OC (P=9.2 × 10(-20)), ER-negative BC (P=1.1 × 10(-13)), BRCA1-associated BC (P=7.7 × 10(-16)) and triple negative BC (P-diff=2 × 10(-5)). Genotype-gene expression associations are identified for candidate target genes ANKLE1 (P=2 × 10(-3)) and ABHD8 (P<2 × 10(-3)). Chromosome conformation capture identifies interactions between four candidate SNPs and ABHD8, and luciferase assays indicate six risk alleles increased transactivation of the ADHD8 promoter. Targeted deletion of a region containing risk SNP rs56069439 in a putative enhancer induces ANKLE1 downregulation; and mRNA stability assays indicate functional effects for an ANKLE1 3'-UTR SNP. Altogether, these data suggest that multiple SNPs at 19p13 regulate ABHD8 and perhaps ANKLE1 expression, and indicate common mechanisms underlying breast and ovarian cancer risk. PMID:27601076

  6. Body Mass Index and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Nonlinear Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xiaoping; Chen, Wei; Li, Jiaoyuan; Chen, Xueqin; Rui, Rui; Liu, Cheng; Sun, Yu; Liu, Li; Gong, Jing; Yuan, Peng

    2014-01-01

    The role of Body Mass Index (BMI) for Breast Cancer (BC) remains to be great interest for a long time. However, the precise effect of nonlinear dose-response for BMI and BC risk is still unclear. We conducted a dose-response meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the effect of BMI on BC risk. Twelve prospective studies with 4,699 cases identified among 426,199 participants and 25 studies of 22,809 cases identified among 1,155,110 participants in premenopausal and postmenopausal groups, respectively, were included in this meta-analysis. Significant non-linear dose-response (P < 0.001) association was identified between BMI and BC risk in postmenopausal women. Individuals with BMI of 25, 30, and 35 kg/m2 yielded relative risks (RRs) of 1.02 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98–1.06], 1.12 (95% CI: 1.01–1.24), and 1.26 (95% CI: 1.07–1.50), respectively, when compared to the mean level of the normal BMI range. However, inverse result though not significant was observed in premenopausal women. In conclusion, the results of this meta-analysis highlighted that obesity contributed to increased BC risk in a nonlinear dose-response manner in postmenopausal women, and it is important to realize that body weight control may be a crucial process to reduce BC susceptibility. PMID:25504309

  7. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  8. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ...

  9. Risks of Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ...

  10. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ...

  11. Topics in cancer risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Olin, S S; Neumann, D A; Foran, J A; Scarano, G J

    1997-01-01

    The estimation of carcinogenic risks from exposure to chemicals has become an integral part of the regulatory process in the United States within the past decade. With it have come considerable controversy and debate over the scientific merits and shortcomings of the methods and their impact on risk management decisions. In this paper we highlight selected topics of current interest in the debate. As an indication of the level of public concern, we note the major recent reports on risk assessment from the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S Environmental Protection Agency's proposed substantial revisions to its Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. We identify and briefly frame several key scientific issues in cancer risk assessment, including the growing recognition of the importance of understanding the mode of action of carcinogenesis in experimental animals and in humans, the methodologies and challenges in quantitative extrapolation of cancer risks, and the question of how to assess and account for human variability in susceptibility to carcinogens. In addition, we discuss initiatives in progress that may fundamentally alter the carcinogenesis testing paradigm. PMID:9114281

  12. A case-referent study: light at night and breast cancer risk in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Literature has identified detrimental health effects from the indiscriminate use of artificial nighttime light. We examined the co-distribution of light at night (LAN) and breast cancer (BC) incidence in Georgia, with the goal to contribute to the accumulating evidence that exposure to LAN increases risk of BC. Methods Using Georgia Comprehensive Cancer Registry data (2000–2007), we conducted a case-referent study among 34,053 BC cases and 14,458 lung cancer referents. Individuals with lung cancer were used as referents to control for other cancer risk factors that may be associated with elevated LAN, such as air pollution, and since this cancer type was not previously associated with LAN or circadian rhythm disruption. DMSP-OLS Nighttime Light Time Series satellite images (1992–2007) were used to estimate LAN levels; low (0–20 watts per sterradian cm2), medium (21–41 watts per sterradian cm2), high (>41 watts per sterradian cm2). LAN levels were extracted for each year of exposure prior to case/referent diagnosis in ArcGIS. Results Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression models controlling for individual-level year of diagnosis, race, age at diagnosis, tumor grade, stage; and population-level determinants including metropolitan statistical area (MSA) status, births per 1,000 women aged 15–50, percentage of female smokers, MSA population mobility, and percentage of population over 16 in the labor force. We found that overall BC incidence was associated with high LAN exposure (OR = 1.12, 95% CI [1.04, 1.20]). When stratified by race, LAN exposure was associated with increased BC risk among whites (OR = 1.13, 95% CI [1.05, 1.22]), but not among blacks (OR = 1.02, 95% CI [0.82, 1.28]). Conclusions Our results suggest positive associations between LAN and BC incidence, especially among whites. The consistency of our findings with previous studies suggests that there could be

  13. Mate Intake and Risk of Breast Cancer in Uruguay: a Case- Control Study.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Alvaro L; Stefani, Eduardo De; Mendoza, Beatriz; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Vazquez, Alvaro; Abbona, Estela

    2016-01-01

    Regarding 'mate' intake (infusion of Ilex paraguariensis herb, a staple beverage in temperate South American regions), most epidemiologic studies showed positive associations with risk of some cancers, (e.g. upper aerodigestive tract), but evidence on breast cancer (BC) risk is limited to a previous multi-site study, which reported a non significant odds ratio [OR]=0.85, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.67-1.09, p for trend=0.31) for the highest quartile of intake. The present study was conducted in order to further assess associations of 'mate' intake with BC risk. We combined two databases of women belonging to public and private healthcare hospitals. The sample included 572 BC incident cases and 889 controls interviewed with a specific questionnaire featured by socio-demographic, reproductive and lifestyle variables, and a food frequency questionnaire of 64 items, also analyzing 'mate' intake (consumer status, daily intake, age at start, age at quit, duration of habit, intensity of intake). ORs and their 95%CI were calculated through unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for relevant potential confounders. The highest quartile of 'mate' intake was inversely associated with BC risk (OR=0.40, 95%CI 0.26-0.57, p for trend <0.001). Stratified analyses also displayed strong significant inverse associations for 'mate' in frequent tea drinkers (OR=0.22), high energy intake (OR=0.23), high body mass index (OR=0.29) and in postmenopausal women (OR=0.36), among other results. As conclusions, we found evidence of a significant inverse association for 'mate' intake and BC risk. PMID:27039789

  14. Prospective cohort study of febrile neutropenia in breast cancer patients with neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy: CSPOR-BC FN study.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Takashi; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Narui, Kazutaka; Kaise, Hiroshi; Tsugawa, Koichiro; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Mukai, Hirofumi

    2016-07-01

    With the increasing use of adjuvant chemotherapy for treating early breast cancer, febrile neutropenia management has become crucial. Guidelines for febrile neutropenia management are mostly based on a Caucasian population survey although ethnic differences are reported in terms of adverse events. We survey the current status of febrile neutropenia and risk factors in Japanese female breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy regimens potential for febrile neutropenia. Subsequently, we plan to conduct a multicenter prospective cohort study involving 1000 patients with operable breast cancer. With the current state of oral antibiotics being routinely prescribed without hematology tests, we survey febrile neutropenia based on two different definitions, namely, true febrile neutropenia: ≥37.5°C and Grade 4 neutropenia, and surrogate febrile neutropenia: ≥37.5°C and oral antibiotic and antipyretic intake. The comparison of true febrile neutropenia and surrogate febrile neutropenia incidences is anticipated to provide information on the safety and feasibility of chemotherapy management without performing blood tests. PMID:27162322

  15. Bladder cancer risk associated with genotypic polymorphism of the matrix metalloproteinase-1 and 7 in North Indian population.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Priyanka; Gangwar, Ruchika; Kapoor, Rakesh; Mittal, Rama D

    2010-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to tumor invasion and microenvironment, hence are associated with bladder cancer risk. We therefore, tested whether polymorphisms in MMP genes modify the risk of bladder cancer (BC) and whether smoke exposure modifies this risk. Genotyping was performed in 200 BC patients and 200 controls by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). MMP1-1607 2G/2G and MMP7-181 GG genotype were associated with increased risk of BC (p < 0.001; OR, 3.04; 95% CI- 1.71-5.39 and p, 0.005; OR, 2.38; 95% CI- 1.30-4.34) respectively. Smokers in BC patients showed significant increased risk for the same SNPs (p, 0.006; OR, 3.20; 95% CI- 1.40-7.31 and p, 0.009; OR, 2.85; 95% CI- 1.30-6.23 respectively). Haplotype analysis too revealed significant association with G/2G of MMP1-519-1607 (p< 0.001; OR, 2.62; 95% CI- 1.68-4.09). The 2G allele carrier (1G/2G + 2G/2G) of MMP1-1607 showed a protective effect and high recurrence free survival in Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) treated non muscle invasive BC (NMIBC) patients (log rank p, 0.030). Our data suggested that MMP1-1607 2G and MMP7-181 G allele were associated with high risk of BC, which was quite evident amongst smokers too. BCG treated NMIBC patients reflected protective effect for 2G allele carrier (1G/2G + 2G/2G) of MMP1-1607. This study provided new support for the association of MMP1-1607 and MMP7-181 in bladder cancer development, the tumorigenic effect of which was observed to be more enhanced in case of tobacco exposure. PMID:20826916

  16. Imaging Radiation Doses and Associated Risks and Benefits in Subjects Participating in Breast Cancer Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Spera, Gonzalo; Meyer, Carlos; Cabral, Pablo; Mackey, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Medical imaging is commonly required in breast cancer (BC) clinical trials to assess the efficacy and/or safety of study interventions. Despite the lack of definitive epidemiological data linking imaging radiation with cancer development in adults, concerns exist about the risks of imaging radiation-induced malignancies (IRIMs) in subjects exposed to repetitive imaging. We estimated the imaging radiation dose and IRIM risk in subjects participating in BC trials. Materials and Methods. The imaging protocol requirements in 10 phase III trials in the adjuvant and advanced settings were assessed to estimate the effective radiation dose received by a typical and fully compliant subject in each trial. For each study, the excess lifetime attributable cancer risk (LAR) was calculated using the National Cancer Institute’s Radiation Risk Assessment Tool, version 3.7.1. Dose and risk calculations were performed for both imaging intensive and nonintensive approaches to reflect the variability in imaging performed within the studies. Results. The total effective imaging radiation dose was 0.4–262.2 mSv in adjuvant trials and 26–241.3 mSv in metastatic studies. The dose variability resulted from differing protocol requirements and imaging intensity approaches, with computed tomography, multigated acquisition scans, and bone scans as the major contributors. The mean LAR was 1.87–2,410/100,000 in adjuvant trials (IRIM: 0.0002%–2.41% of randomized subjects) and 6.9–67.3/100,000 in metastatic studies (IRIM: 0.007%–0.067% of subjects). Conclusion. IRIMs are infrequent events. In adjuvant trials, aligning the protocol requirements with the clinical guidelines’ surveillance recommendations and substituting radiating procedures with equivalent nonradiating ones would reduce IRIM risk. No significant risk has been observed in metastatic trials, and potential concerns on IRIMs are not justified. Implications for Practice: Medical imaging is key in breast cancer

  17. Fuzzy sets applications for cancer risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Molchanov, P A; Dudatiev, A V; Podobna, Y Y; Molchanova, O P

    2002-09-01

    The method of cancer risk assessment on the basis of the Fuzzy Set Theory is presented. The method is based on a multifactor risk assessment of cancer diseases. The individual risk of cancer disease is evaluated as the probability of disease multiplied by the value of an individual dose. An acupuncture method of cancer risk assessments was developed. The method is based on the analysis of changes of an electromagnetic field (biofield) of a person. The method allows to determine both cancer probability and probable location of the process. PMID:12298344

  18. Does the modern urbanized sleeping habitat pose a breast cancer risk?

    PubMed

    Kloog, Itai; Portnov, Boris A; Rennert, Hedy S; Haim, Abraham

    2011-02-01

    Due to its disruptive effects on circadian rhythms and sleep deprivation at night, shiftworking is currently recognized as a risk factor for breast cancer (BC). As revealed by the present analysis based on a comparative case-control study of 1679 women, exposure to light-at-night (LAN) in the "sleeping habitat" is significantly associated with BC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.220, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.118-1.311; p < .001), controlling for education, ethnicity, fertility, and alcohol consumption. The novelty of the present research is that, to the best of the authors' knowledge, it is the first study to have identified an unequivocal positive association between bedroom-light intensity and BC risk. Thus, according to the results of the present study, not only should artificial light exposure in the working environment be considered as a potential risk factor for BC, but also LAN in the "sleeping habitat." PMID:21182407

  19. Genetic variants in lncRNA SRA and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Rui; Wang, Kaijuan; Peng, Rui; Wang, Shuaibing; Cao, Jingjing; Wang, Peng; Song, Chunhua

    2016-04-19

    Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA) has been identified to activate steroid receptor transcriptional activity and participate in tumor pathogenesis. This case-control study evaluated the association between two haplotype tagging SNPs (htSNPs) (rs10463297, rs801460) of the whole SRA sequence and breast cancer risk. We found that rs10463297 TC genotype significantly increased BC risk compared with CC genotype in both the codominant (TC vs. TT: OR=1.43, 95 % CI=1.02-2.00) and recessive (TC+CC vs. TT: OR=1.39, 95 % CI=1.01-1.92) genetic models. Both TC, TC + CC genotypes of rs10463297 and GA, AA, GA+AA genotypes of rs801460 were significantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER) positivity status. rs10463297 TC (2.09 ± 0.41), CC (2.42 ± 0.51) and TC + CC (2.20 ± 0.47) genotypes were associated with higher blood plasma SRA mRNA levels compared with the TT genotype (1.45 ± 0.34). Gene-reproductive interaction analysis presented a best model consisted of four factors (rs10463297, age, post-menopausal, No. of pregnancy), which could increase the BC risk with 1.58-fold (OR=1.58, 95 % CI=1.23-2.03). These findings suggest that SRA genetic variants may contribute to BC risk and have apparent interaction with reproductive factors in BC progression. PMID:26967566

  20. Height and Prostate Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Zuccolo, Luisa; Harris, Ross; Gunnell, David; Oliver, Steven; Lane, Jane Athene; Davis, Michael; Donovan, Jenny; Neal, David; Hamdy, Freddie; Beynon, Rebecca; Savovic, Jelena; Martin, Richard Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background Height, a marker of childhood environmental exposures, is positively associated with prostate cancer risk, perhaps through the insulin-like growth factor system. We investigated the relationship of prostate cancer with height and its components (leg and trunk length) in a nested case-control study and with height in a dose-response meta-analysis. Methods We nested a case-control study within a population-based randomized controlled trial evaluating treatments for localized prostate cancer in British men ages 50 to 69 years, including 1,357 cases detected through prostate-specific antigen testing and 7,990 controls (matched on age, general practice, assessment date). Nine bibliographic databases were searched systematically for studies on the height-prostate cancer association that were pooled in a meta-analysis. Results Based on the nested case-control, the odds ratio (OR) of prostate-specific antigen-detected prostate cancer per 10 cm increase in height was 1.06 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.97-1.16; ptrend = 0.2]. There was stronger evidence of an association of height with high-grade prostate cancer (OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.06-1.43), mainly due to the leg component, but not with low-grade disease (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.90-1.10). In general, associations with leg or trunk length were similar. A meta-analysis of 58 studies found evidence that height is positively associated with prostate cancer (random-effects OR per 10 cm: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.03-1.09), with a stronger effect for prospective studies of more advanced/aggressive cancers (random-effects OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.05-1.19). Conclusion These data indicate a limited role for childhood environmental exposures—as indexed by adult height—on prostate cancer incidence, while suggesting a greater role for progression, through mechanisms requiring further investigation. PMID:18768501

  1. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Treatment Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Lung cancer is ... non- skin cancer in the United States. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and in women. ...

  2. What Are the Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidney cancer? What are the risk factors for kidney cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... not cancer). Other risk factors Family history of kidney cancer People with a strong family history of ...

  3. ADRA2A Germline Gene Polymorphism is Associated to the Severity, but not to the Risk, of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaabi, Batoul; Belaaloui, Ghania; Benbrahim, Wassila; Hamizi, Kamel; Sadelaoud, Mourad; Toumi, Wided; Bounecer, Hocine

    2016-04-01

    Breast cancer (BC) prognosis and risk were associated to obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Two Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of the adrenergic receptor-2a gene (ADRA2A): rs1800544 and rs553668, have been associated to these metabolic disorders. We investigated these SNPs in BC risk and prognosis. A total of 102 BC patients and 102 healthy controls were included. The rs1800544 and rs553668 were determined by real-time PCR. Genotypes and haplotypes frequencies between patients and controls, and for different clinico-pathologic parameters were compared. We found a significant association of rs1800544 GG genotype with young age at diagnosis, premenopausal status, higher tumor size, metastasis in lymph nodes, advanced TNM stages and higher Nottingham Prognosis Indicator (NPI) (p < 0.05). There was no association between rs1800544 and SBR stages, Her2, ER and PR statuses and the molecular classification. The rs553668 AA genotype was associated to young age at diagnosis and premenopausal status (p < 0.05). The haplotype GA was associated to the early age of diagnosis (p = 0.03), and the haplotype GG to higher tumor size, lymph node involvement, advanced TNM stages and Her2 positive status (p < 0.05). There was no polymorphism or haplotype association with BC risk (p > 0.05). ADRA2A polymorphism is associated with indicators BC poor prognosis but not with BC susceptibility. This is the first report suggesting that ADRA2A germline gene polymorphism could represent a predictor factor for BC outcome. Further investigation of other ADRA2A polymorphisms in BC risk or prognosis are needed and may lead to a genotype-based therapy. PMID:26563278

  4. Genetic testing and your cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000842.htm Genetic testing and your cancer risk To use the ... before you get tested. Which Cancers May Be Genetic Today, we know specific gene mutations that can ...

  5. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  6. The genetics of cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, Mark M; Freedman, Matthew L

    2011-01-01

    One hundred years ago, decades before the discovery of the structure of DNA, debate raged regarding how human traits were passed from one generation to the next. Phenotypes, including risk of disease, had long been recognized as having a familial component. Yet it was difficult to reconcile genetic segregation as described by Mendel with observations exhaustively documented by Karl Pearson and others regarding the normal distribution of human characteristics. In 1918, R. A. Fisher published his landmark article, "The Correlation Between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance," bridging this divide and demonstrating that multiple alleles, all individually obeying Mendel's laws, account for the phenotypic variation observed in nature.Since that time, geneticists have sought to identify the link between genotype and phenotype. Trait-associated alleles vary in their frequency and degree of penetrance. Some minor alleles may approach a frequency of 50% in the human population, whereas others are present within only a few individuals. The spectrum for penetrance is similarly wide. These characteristics jointly determine the segregation pattern of a given trait, which, in turn, determine the method used to map the trait. Until recently, identification of rare, highly penetrant alleles was most practical. Revolutionary studies in genomics reported over the past decade have made interrogation of most of the spectrum of genetic variation feasible.The following article reviews recent discoveries in the genetic basis of inherited cancer risk and how these discoveries inform cancer biology and patient management. Although this article focuses on prostate cancer, the principles are generic for any cancer and, indeed, for any trait. PMID:22157285

  7. Changing cancer risk pattern among Finnish hairdressers.

    PubMed

    Pukkala, E; Nokso-Koivisto, P; Roponen, P

    1992-01-01

    A cohort of 3637 female and 168 male hair-dressers in Finland was followed up for cancer through the Finnish Cancer Registry in 1970-1987. Compared with the total population, the women had a significantly elevated risk (standardized incidence ratio 1.7) during the first third of the observation period, but not thereafter. For the total follow-up period, the relative risks were highest for nonmelanoma skin cancer (2.0), lung cancer (1.7), ovarian cancer (1.6), cervical cancer (1.5), and cancer of the pancreas (1.5); only the risk of ovarian cancer was statistically significant. A decrease in relative risk with time was observed for many primary sites, e.g., pancreas, cervix uteri, central nervous system, and thyroid. The opposite was true for lung and skin: An increased risk was found only in 1982-1987. The excess was most prominent in the oldest age groups with the longest time span since the first employment as a hairdresser. Among men, too, the general cancer risk was highest (1.6) during the first third of the observation period. An excess of cancers of the lung and the pancreas was observed. The small numbers, however, did not allow any further conclusions. The changes in the cancer risk pattern over time may be associated with changes in working conditions in hairdressing salons. PMID:1399013

  8. Diet and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diet may play a role in both promoting and inhibiting human breast cancer development. In this review, nutritional risk factors such as consumption of dietary fat, meat, fiber, and alcohol, and intake of phytoestrogen, vitamin D, iron, and folate associated with breast cancer are reviewed. These nutritional factors have a variety of associations with breast cancer risk. Type of fat consumed has different effects on risk of breast cancer: consumption of meat is associated with heterocyclic amine (HCA) exposure; different types of plant fiber have various effects on breast cancer risk; alcohol consumption may increase the risk of breast cancer by producing acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species (ROS); intake of phytoestrogen may reduce risk of breast cancer through genomic and non-genomic action; vitamin D can reduce the risk of breast cancer by inhibiting the process of cancer invasion and metastasis; intake of dietary iron may lead to oxidative stress, DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation; and lower intake of folate may be linked to a higher risk of breast cancer. PMID:27095934

  9. Diet and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kotepui, Manas

    2016-01-01

    Diet may play a role in both promoting and inhibiting human breast cancer development. In this review, nutritional risk factors such as consumption of dietary fat, meat, fiber, and alcohol, and intake of phytoestrogen, vitamin D, iron, and folate associated with breast cancer are reviewed. These nutritional factors have a variety of associations with breast cancer risk. Type of fat consumed has different effects on risk of breast cancer: consumption of meat is associated with heterocyclic amine (HCA) exposure; different types of plant fiber have various effects on breast cancer risk; alcohol consumption may increase the risk of breast cancer by producing acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species (ROS); intake of phytoestrogen may reduce risk of breast cancer through genomic and non-genomic action; vitamin D can reduce the risk of breast cancer by inhibiting the process of cancer invasion and metastasis; intake of dietary iron may lead to oxidative stress, DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation; and lower intake of folate may be linked to a higher risk of breast cancer. PMID:27095934

  10. Influence of Lifestyle Factors on Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Dieterich, Max; Stubert, Johannes; Reimer, Toralf; Erickson, Nicole; Berling, Anika

    2014-01-01

    Summary Breast Cancer (BC) is a life-changing event. Compared to other malignancies in women, BC has received considerably more public attention. Despite improved neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and palliative treatment strategies for each characteristic molecular BC subtype, recommendations for evidence-based preventive strategies for BC treatment are not given equivalent attention. This may be partly due to the fact that high-quality long-term prevention studies are still difficult to carry out and are thus underrepresented in international studies. The aim of this review is to discuss the most relevant lifestyle factors associated with BC and to identify and discuss the evidence supporting practical prevention strategies that can be used in everyday clinical practice. PMID:25759623

  11. Variants in DNA double-strand break repair genes and risk of familial breast cancer in a South American population.

    PubMed

    Jara, Lilian; Dubois, Karen; Gaete, Daniel; de Mayo, Tomas; Ratkevicius, Nikalai; Bravo, Teresa; Margarit, Sonia; Blanco, Rafael; Gómez, Fernando; Waugh, Enrique; Peralta, Octavio; Reyes, Jose M; Ibáñez, Gladys; González-Hormazábal, Patricio

    2010-08-01

    The double-strand break (DSB) DNA repair pathway has been implicated in breast cancer (BC). RAD51 and its paralogs XRCC3 and RAD51D play an important role in the repair of DSB through homologous recombination (HR). Some polymorphisms including XRCC3-Thr241Met, RAD51-135G>C, and RAD51D-E233G have been found to confer increased BC susceptibility. In order to detect novel mutations that may contribute to BC susceptibility, 150 patients belonging to 150 Chilean BRCA1/2-negative families were screened for mutations in XRCC3. No mutations were detected in the XRCC3 gene. In addition, using a case-control design we studied the XRCC3-Thr241Met, and RAD51D-E233G polymorphisms in 267 BC cases and 500 controls to evaluate their possible association with BC susceptibility. The XRCC3 Met/Met genotype was associated with an increased BC risk (P = 0.003, OR = 2.44 [95%CI 1.34-4.43]). We did not find an association between E233G polymorphism and BC risk. We also analyzed the effect of combined genotypes among RAD51-135G>C, Thr241Met, and E233G polymorphisms on BC risk. No interaction was observed between Thr241Met and 135G>C. The combined genotype Thr/Met-E/G was associated with an increased BC risk among women who (a) have a family history of BC, (b) are BRCA1/2-negative, and (c) were <50 years at onset (n = 195) (P = 0.037, OR = 10.5 [95%CI 1.16-94.5]). Our results suggested that the variability of the DNA HR repair genes XRCC3 and RAD51D may play a role in BC risk, but this role may be underlined by a mutual interaction between these genes. These findings should be confirmed in other populations. PMID:20054644

  12. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    OBJECTIVES The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute is conducting a program of ongoing epidemiologic research to address cancer disparities in northeast Pennsylvania. Of particular concern are disparities in the incidence of, stage at diagnosis, and mortality from colorectal cancer. In northeast Pennsylvania, age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer are higher, and a significantly smaller proportion of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed with local stage disease than is observed in comparable national data. Further, estimates of the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening in northeast Pennsylvania are lower than the US average. The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s research program supports surveillance of common cancers, investigations of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors, and the development of resources to further cancer research in this community. This project has the following specific objectives: I. To conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor incidence and mortality for all common cancers, and colorectal cancer, in particular, and b. To document changes in the stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in this high-risk, underserved community. II. To conduct a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior in a six county region of northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor and document changes in colorectal cancer screening rates, and b. To document the prevalence of cancer risk factors (especially factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer) and to identify those risk factors that are unusually common in this community. APPROACH Cancer surveillance was conducted using data from the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s population-based Regional Cancer Registry, the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and NCI’s SEER program. For common cancers, incidence and mortality were examined by county within the region and compared to data for similar populations in the US

  13. Spanish Mediterranean diet and other dietary patterns and breast cancer risk: case–control EpiGEICAM study

    PubMed Central

    Castelló, A; Pollán, M; Buijsse, B; Ruiz, A; Casas, A M; Baena-Cañada, J M; Lope, V; Antolín, S; Ramos, M; Muñoz, M; Lluch, A; de Juan-Ferré, A; Jara, C; Jimeno, M A; Rosado, P; Díaz, E; Guillem, V; Carrasco, E; Pérez-Gómez, B; Vioque, J; Boeing, H; Martín, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although there are solid findings regarding the detrimental effect of alcohol consumption, the existing evidence on the effect of other dietary factors on breast cancer (BC) risk is inconclusive. This study aimed to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and risk of BC in Spanish women, stratifying by menopausal status and tumour subtype, and to compare the results with those of Alternate Healthy Index (AHEI) and Alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMED). Methods: We recruited 1017 incident BC cases and 1017 matched healthy controls of similar age (±5 years) without a history of BC. The association between ‘a priori' and ‘a posteriori' developed dietary patterns and BC in general and according to menopausal status and intrinsic tumour subtypes (ER+/PR+ and HER2− HER2+ and ER−/PR− and HER2−) was evaluated using logistic and multinomial regression models. Results: Adherence to the Western dietary pattern was related to higher risk of BC (OR for the top vs the bottom quartile 1.46 (95% CI 1.06–2.01)), especially in premenopausal women (OR=1.75; 95% CI 1.14–2.67). In contrast, the Mediterranean pattern was related to a lower risk (OR for the top quartile vs the bottom quartile 0.56 (95% CI 0.40–0.79)). Although the deleterious effect of the Western pattern was similarly observed in all tumour subtypes, the protective effect of our Mediterranean pattern was stronger for triple-negative tumours (OR=0.32; 95% CI 0.15–0.66 and Pheterogeneity=0.04). No association was found between adherence to the Prudent pattern and BC risk. The associations between ‘a priori' indices and BC risk were less marked (OR for the top vs the bottom quartile of AHEI=0.69; 95% CI 0.51–0.94 and aMED=0.74; 95% CI 0.46–1.18)). Conclusions: Our results confirm the harmful effect of a Western diet on BC risk, and add new evidence on the benefits of a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, legumes, oily fish and vegetable oils for preventing all BC subtypes

  14. Risk of Second Malignancies After Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: A Large-Scale, Single-Institution Review

    SciTech Connect

    Kirova, Youlia M. . E-mail: youlia.kirova@curie.net; Gambotti, Laetitia; De Rycke, Yann; Vilcoq, Jacques R.; Asselain, Bernard; Fourquet, Alain

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of second malignancies (SM) after radiation therapy (RT) for breast cancer (BC) in a large, institutional, homogeneous cohort of patients. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively studied 16,705 patients with nonmetastatic BC treated at the Institut Curie in Paris between 1981 and 1997. Adjuvant RT was given to 13,472 of these patients, and no RT was given to 3,233. The SM included all first nonBCs occurring during follow-up. Cumulative risks for each group were calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimates, censoring for contralateral cancer or death. Results: Median patient age at diagnosis of BC was 55 years for the whole population, and 53 and 60 years for patients who had and had not undergone irradiation, respectively. At the 10.5-year median follow-up, 709 patients were diagnosed with SM (113 in the non-RT and 596 in the RT group). There was a significant increase in the rate of sarcomas and lung cancers in the RT group compared with non-RT group (p 0.02). Treatment with RT was not found to increase the risk of other types of cancers such as thyroid cancer, malignant melanoma, gastrointestinal or genitourinary, and hematologic SM. Conclusions: This study suggests that adjuvant RT increased the rate of sarcomas and lung cancers, whereas it did not increase the rate of other malignancies.

  15. Long noncoding RNA BC032469, a novel competing endogenous RNA, upregulates hTERT expression by sponging miR-1207-5p and promotes proliferation in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Lü, M-H; Tang, B; Zeng, S; Hu, C-J; Xie, R; Wu, Y-Y; Wang, S-M; He, F-T; Yang, S-M

    2016-07-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as new players in gene regulation and are associated with the development of cancers. To investigate the important role and mechanism of lncRNAs in the progression of gastric cancer, we screened lncRNAs in gastric cancer tissues and corresponding adjacent tissues, and assessed the effects on gastric cancer. Here, we report that BC032469, a novel lncRNA, expressed highly in gastric cancer tissues, and the upregulation was clinically associated with larger tumor size, poor differentiation and shorter survival of gastric cancer patients. Downregulation of BC032469 resulted in a significant inhibition of proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, BC032469 could directly bind to miR-1207-5p and effectively functioned as a sponge for miR-1207-5p to modulate the derepression of hTERT. Thus, BC032469 may function as a ceRNA to impair miR-1207-5p-dependent hTERT downregulation, suggesting that it may be clinically valuable as a poor prognostic biomarker of gastric cancer. PMID:26549025

  16. Cancer associated thrombosis: risk factors and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Eichinger, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    Deep vein thrombosis of the leg and pulmonary embolism are frequent diseases and cancer is one of their most important risk factors. Patients with cancer also have a higher prevalence of venous thrombosis located in other parts than in the legs and/or in unusual sites including upper extremity, splanchnic or cerebral veins. Cancer also affects the risk of arterial thrombotic events particularly in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms and in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor recipients. Several risk factors need to interact to trigger thrombosis. In addition to common risk factors such as surgery, hospitalisation, infection and genetic coagulation disorders, the thrombotic risk is also driven and modified by cancer-specific factors including type, histology, and stage of the malignancy, cancer treatment and certain biomarkers. A venous thrombotic event in a cancer patient has serious consequences as the risk of recurrent thrombosis, the risk of bleeding during anticoagulation and hospitalisation rates are all increased. Survival of cancer patients with thrombosis is worse compared to that of cancer patients without thrombosis, and thrombosis is a leading direct cause of death in cancer patients. PMID:27067965

  17. [Chances and risks of prevention in elderly people for the three major cancers: breast-, prostate- and colorectal cancers].

    PubMed

    Kolb, G F

    2006-06-01

    The big three, breast cancer (BC), prostate cancer (PC) and colorectal carcinoma are the most frequent malignancies world wide and also typical tumors of advanced age. Therefore the question to screen and how to screen for these tumors in the elderly is the main question for reduction of the total cancer burden and mortality in all western countries. BREAST CANCER (BC): The age related risk of BC increases from 1 : 2,500 at age 30+ to > 1 : 10 at age 80. Nevertheless, most of the national BC-Screening-Programs stop at age 60 or earlier. Therefore the majority of all advanced i. e. T (4) stages of BC are found in women age > 60. Frequently it is suggested that age related comorbidity should eliminate the benefit of treatment. Recently two longitudinal studies have clearly shown that correct standard treatment is as effective in elderly as in younger individuals. Mammography (MG) has been shown to reduce mortality of BC significantly with best results for specificity and sensitivity at age 70+. PROSTATE CANCER (PC): The screening situation of PC is quite different to BC, because risk profiles are poorly defined and the benefit of radical prostatectomy is not clearly demonstrated in the early non symptomatic stages of PC. At the other side watchful waiting leads to an elevated frequency of incontinence and enuresis as well. Two studies are now under progress and may possibly change the situation; but the final results are expected 2005-2008 at the earliest. Therefore an assisted individual decision making is the only recommendation at this time. COLORECTAL CANCER (CC): Risk groups are clearly defined. Risk of the elderly (> 60) is the average risk. The incidence increases from < 50/10 (5) to more than 500 at age 75+(male) and 500 (female). When to start and when to stop screening? Experts give the advice to begin at age 50 and to end at age 80; but this is not really evidence based. There are several unanswered questions and open problems: we are not exactly informed

  18. Cancer risk-reduction behaviors of breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Ada M; Waltman, Nancy; Gross, Gloria; Ott, Carol D; Twiss, Jan

    2004-12-01

    Using secondary data analysis, the aim was to determine if postmenopausal women, who have survived breast cancer, have adopted healthy nutritional and physical activity behaviors recommended in the American Cancer Society guidelines as cancer risk-reduction strategies, and in guidelines for prevention of other chronic diseases or for improving general health. From their personal health history, women who have survived breast cancer would be likely candidates to adopt healthy behaviors recommended as cancer risk-reduction strategies or for prevention of other chronic diseases. A secondary aim was to determine the perceived general health and affective state of these women. These breast cancer survivors had a high perception of their general health, a positive affective state, and have adopted some healthy lifestyle behaviors, but they are not fully adhering to the ACS nutrition and physical activity guidelines or other health related guidelines for cancer risk reduction or prevention of other chronic diseases. PMID:15539533

  19. Meta-Analysis of Saturated Fatty Acid Intake and Breast Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hui; Ma, Shushu; Wang, Shaokang; Sun, Guiju

    2015-12-01

    The associations between saturated fatty acid (SFA) consumption and risk of breast cancer (BC) remains inconclusive. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to determine the quantitative relations between dietary SFA intake and incidence of BC.Literatures published up to April 2015 were systematically screened through Pubmed and Web of Science. Relevant publication quality was evaluated by conducting the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. We used fixed effects models or random effect models to calculate the summary relative risks (RRs) and odds ratios (ORs), and conducted sensitivity analyses and evaluated the publication bias.We identified a total of 52 studies (24 cohort studies and 28 case-control studies), with over 50,000 females diagnosed with BC. The associations between dietary SFA intake and risk of BC were 1.18 for case-control studies (high vs low intake, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-1.34) and 1.04 for cohort studies (95% CI = 0.97-1.11). When restricted analyses to population-based studies, positive associations were observed for both cohort (RR [95% CI] = 1.11 [1.01-1.21]) and case-control studies (OR [95% CI] = 1.26 [1.03-1.53]). Additionally, for case-control studies, significant positive associations between higher SFA intake and BC risk were observed for Asian (OR [95% CI] = 1.17 [1.02-1.34]) and Caucasian (OR [95% CI] = 1.19 [1.00-1.41]), as well as for postmenopausal women (OR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.02-1.73). In contrast, higher dietary SFA intake was not associated with risk of BC among premenopausal women, in cohort studies or hospital-based studies.A positive association between higher dietary SFA intake and postmenopausal BC risk was observed in case-control but not in cohort studies. More studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:26717389

  20. Mate and Tea Intake, Dietary Antioxidants and Risk of Breast Cancer: a Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Alvaro L; Stefani, Eduardo De; Mendoza, Beatriz; Vazquez, Alvaro; Abbona, Estela; Sanchez, Gustavo; Rosa, Alejandro De

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported an inverse association between high 'mate' intake (infusion of Ilex paraguariensis herb, a staple beverage in temperate South America) and breast cancer (BC) risk. Stronger inverse associations were found in high strata of tea, vegetable, fruit and energy intakes, and in overweight/obese women, suggesting possible roles for 'mate' mainly from its antioxidant contribution. The present study attempted to thoroughly explore possible associations among 'mate' and tea intake, dietary antioxidants and BC risk. Combining two databases of previous studies, 572 BC incident cases and 889 controls were interviewed with a specific questionnaire featuring socio-demographic, reproductive and lifestyle variables, and a food frequency questionnaire (64 items), focusing on 'mate' intake (consumer status, daily intake, age at start, age at quit, duration of habit). Food-derived nutrients were calculated from available databases. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated through unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for relevant potential confounders. The highest 'mate' intake was significantly inversely associated with BC risk for both low and high carotenoids (OR=0.40 vs. 0.41), vitamin C (OR=0.33 vs. 0.50), vitamin E (OR=0.37 vs. 0.45), flavonols (OR=0.38 vs. 0.48) and reduced glutathione (OR=0.48 vs. 0.46) strata. High tea intake showed significant inverse risk associations only with high carotenoids (OR=0.41), vitamin E (OR=0.48) and reduced glutathione (OR=0.43) strata. In conclusion, a strong and inverse association for 'mate' intake and BC was found, independent of dietary antioxidant levels. Also strong inverse associations with tea intake were more evident only at high levels of certain dietary antioxidants. PMID:27356713

  1. Different patterns of nuclear and mitochondrial penetration by the G3 PAMAM dendrimer and its biotin–pyridoxal bioconjugate BC-PAMAM in normal and cancer cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Uram, Łukasz; Szuster, Magdalena; Filipowicz, Aleksandra; Gargasz, Krzysztof; Wołowiec, Stanisław; Wałajtys-Rode, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    The intracellular localization and colocalization of a fluorescently labeled G3 amine-terminated cationic polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer and its biotin–pyridoxal (BC-PAMAM) bioconjugate were investigated in a concentration-dependent manner in normal human fibroblast (BJ) and squamous epithelial carcinoma (SCC-15) cell lines. After 24 hours treatment, both cell lines revealed different patterns of intracellular dendrimer accumulation depending on their cytotoxic effects. Cancer cells exhibited much higher (20-fold) tolerance for native PAMAM treatment than fibroblasts, whereas BC-PAMAM was significantly toxic only for fibroblasts at 50 µM concentration. Fibroblasts accumulated the native and bioconjugated dendrimers in a concentration-dependent manner at nontoxic range of concentration, with significantly lower bioconjugate loading. After reaching the cytotoxicity level, fluorescein isothiocyanate-PAMAM accumulation remains at high, comparable level. In cancer cells, native PAMAM loading at higher, but not cytotoxic concentrations, was kept at constant level with a sharp increase at toxic concentration. Mander’s coefficient calculated for fibroblasts and cancer cells confirmed more efficient native PAMAM penetration as compared to BC-PAMAM. Significant differences in nuclear dendrimer penetration were observed for both cell lines. In cancer cells, PAMAM signals amounted to ~25%–35% of the total nuclei area at all investigated concentrations, with lower level (15%–25%) observed for BC-PAMAM. In fibroblasts, the dendrimer nuclear signal amounted to 15% at nontoxic and up to 70% at toxic concentrations, whereas BC-PAMAM remained at a lower concentration-dependent level (0.3%–20%). Mitochondrial localization of PAMAM and BC-PAMAM revealed similar patterns in both cell lines, depending on the extracellular dendrimer concentration, and presented significantly lower signals from BC-PAMAM, which correlated well with the cytotoxicity. PMID:26379435

  2. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in the ... professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to- ...

  3. What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in men? What are the risk factors for breast cancer in men? A risk factor is anything that ... old when they are diagnosed. Family history of breast cancer Breast cancer risk is increased if other members ...

  4. Investigation of gene-environment interactions between 47 newly identified breast cancer susceptibility loci and environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Anja; Milne, Roger L; Truong, Thérèse; Knight, Julia A; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dunning, Alison M; Shah, Mitul; Munday, Hannah R; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Brand, Judith S; Olson, Janet; Vachon, Celine M; Hallberg, Emily; Castelao, J Esteban; Carracedo, Angel; Torres, Maria; Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Yesilyurt, Betul T; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Engelhardt, Ellen G; Broeks, Annegien; Rutgers, Emiel J; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Cross, Simon; Reed, Malcolm; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Arias Perez, José Ignacio; Provenzano, Elena; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C; Spurdle, Amanda; Häberle, Lothar; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; McLean, Catriona; Baglietto, Laura; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E; Brüning, Thomas; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ashworth, Alan; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Mannermaa, Arto; Swerdlow, Anthony; Giles, Graham G; Brenner, Hermann; Fasching, Peter A; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hopper, John; Benítez, Javier; Cox, Angela; Andrulis, Irene L; Lambrechts, Diether; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Couch, Fergus; Czene, Kamila; Bojesen, Stig E; Easton, Doug F; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Guénel, Pascal; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D P; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2015-03-15

    A large genotyping project within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) recently identified 41 associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overall breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated whether the effects of these 41 SNPs, as well as six SNPs associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative BC risk are modified by 13 environmental risk factors for BC. Data from 22 studies participating in BCAC were pooled, comprising up to 26,633 cases and 30,119 controls. Interactions between SNPs and environmental factors were evaluated using an empirical Bayes-type shrinkage estimator. Six SNPs showed interactions with associated p-values (pint ) <1.1 × 10(-3) . None of the observed interactions was significant after accounting for multiple testing. The Bayesian False Discovery Probability was used to rank the findings, which indicated three interactions as being noteworthy at 1% prior probability of interaction. SNP rs6828523 was associated with increased ER-negative BC risk in women ≥170 cm (OR = 1.22, p = 0.017), but inversely associated with ER-negative BC risk in women <160 cm (OR = 0.83, p = 0.039, pint = 1.9 × 10(-4) ). The inverse association between rs4808801 and overall BC risk was stronger for women who had had four or more pregnancies (OR = 0.85, p = 2.0 × 10(-4) ), and absent in women who had had just one (OR = 0.96, p = 0.19, pint = 6.1 × 10(-4) ). SNP rs11242675 was inversely associated with overall BC risk in never/former smokers (OR = 0.93, p = 2.8 × 10(-5) ), but no association was observed in current smokers (OR = 1.07, p = 0.14, pint = 3.4 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, recently identified BC susceptibility loci are not strongly modified by established risk factors and the observed potential interactions require confirmation in independent studies. PMID:25227710

  5. Breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms and endometrial cancer risk: a Collaborative Endometrial Cancer Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Shahana; O’Mara, Tracy A.; Ferguson, Kaltin; Lambrechts, Diether; Garcia-Dios, Diego A.; Vergote, Ignace; Amant, Frederic; Howarth, Kimberley; Gorman, Maggie; Hodgson, Shirley; Tomlinson, Ian; Yang, Hannah P.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise A.; Chanock, Stephen; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Hall, Per; Liu, Jianjun; Shah, Mitul; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Thompson, Deborah J.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Strom, Brian L.; Dunning, Alison M.; Easton, Douglas F.; Spurdle, Amanda B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent large--scale association studies, both of genome-wide and candidate gene design, have revealed several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which are significantly associated with risk of developing breast cancer. As both breast and endometrial cancers are considered to be hormonally driven and share multiple risk factors, we investigated whether breast cancer risk alleles are also associated with endometrial cancer risk. We genotyped nine breast cancer risk SNPs in up to 4188 endometrial cases and 11 928 controls, from between three and seven Caucasian populations. None of the tested SNPs showed significant evidence of association with risk of endometrial cancer. PMID:21965274

  6. Breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms and endometrial cancer risk: a Collaborative Endometrial Cancer Study.

    PubMed

    Healey, Catherine S; Ahmed, Shahana; O'Mara, Tracy A; Ferguson, Kaltin; Lambrechts, Diether; Garcia-Dios, Diego A; Vergote, Ignace; Amant, Frederic; Howarth, Kimberley; Gorman, Maggie; Hodgson, Shirley; Tomlinson, Ian; Yang, Hannah P; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise A; Chanock, Stephen; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Hall, Per; Liu, Jianjun; Shah, Mitul; Pharoah, Paul D P; Thompson, Deborah J; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Strom, Brian L; Dunning, Alison M; Easton, Douglas F; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2011-12-01

    Recent large--scale association studies, both of genome-wide and candidate gene design, have revealed several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which are significantly associated with risk of developing breast cancer. As both breast and endometrial cancers are considered to be hormonally driven and share multiple risk factors, we investigated whether breast cancer risk alleles are also associated with endometrial cancer risk. We genotyped nine breast cancer risk SNPs in up to 4188 endometrial cases and 11,928 controls, from between three and seven Caucasian populations. None of the tested SNPs showed significant evidence of association with risk of endometrial cancer. PMID:21965274

  7. Resistin, Visfatin, Adiponectin, and Leptin: Risk of Breast Cancer in Pre- and Postmenopausal Saudi Females and Their Possible Diagnostic and Predictive Implications as Novel Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Assiri, Adel M. A.; Kamel, Hala F. M.; Hassanien, Mohamed F. R.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of obesity-induced breast carcinogenesis are not clear. One hypothesis is that high levels of adipokines could promote breast cancer (BC) development. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of resistin, visfatin, adiponectin, and leptin with BC risk in pre- and postmenopausal females. A total of 82 BC newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed patients and 68 age and BMI matched healthy controls were enrolled. Both groups were subdivided into post- and premenopausal subgroups. Resistin, visfatin, adiponectin, and leptin were measured by ELISA. There were significantly higher levels of leptin, resistin, and visfatin in postmenopausal BC patients than their respective controls. Only in postmenopausal subgroups, leptin, resistin, and visfatin levels were positively correlated with TNM staging, tumor size, lymph node (LN) metastasis, and histological grading. In postmenopausal females, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that adiponectin, leptin, visfatin, and resistin were risk factors for BC. Our results suggested that serum resistin, leptin, adiponectin, and visfatin levels as risk factors for postmenopausal BC may provide a potential link with clinicopathological features and are promising to be novel biomarkers for postmenopausal BC. PMID:25838618

  8. Genetic polymorphisms in the 9p21 region associated with risk of multiple cancers.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Qing; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Hyland, Paula L; Shi, Jianxin; Gu, Fangyi; Wang, Zhaoming; Bhattacharjee, Samsiddhi; Luo, Jun; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Yeager, Meredith; Deng, Xiang; Hu, Nan; Taylor, Philip R; Albanes, Demetrius; Caporaso, Neil E; Gapstur, Susan M; Amundadottir, Laufey; Chanock, Stephen J; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Landi, Maria Teresa; Tucker, Margaret A; Goldstein, Alisa M; Yang, Xiaohong R

    2014-12-01

    The chromosome 9p21 region has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple cancers. We analyzed 9p21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from eight genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with data deposited in dbGaP, including studies of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), gastric cancer (GC), pancreatic cancer, renal cell carcinoma (RCC), lung cancer (LC), breast cancer (BrC), bladder cancer (BC) and prostate cancer (PrC). The number of subjects ranged from 2252 (PrC) to 7619 (LC). SNP-level analyses for each cancer were conducted by logistic regression or random-effects meta-analysis. A subset-based statistical approach (ASSET) was performed to combine SNP-level P values across multiple cancers. We calculated gene-level P values using the adaptive rank truncated product method. We identified that rs1063192 and rs2157719 in the CDKN2A/2B region were significantly associated with ESCC and rs2764736 (3' of TUSC1) was associated with BC (P ≤ 2.59 × 10(-6)). ASSET analyses identified four SNPs significantly associated with multiple cancers: rs3731239 (CDKN2A intronic) with ESCC, GC and BC (P = 3.96 × 10(-) (4)); rs10811474 (3' of IFNW1) with RCC and BrC (P = 0.001); rs12683422 (LINGO2 intronic) with RCC and BC (P = 5.93 × 10(-) (4)) and rs10511729 (3' of ELAVL2) with LC and BrC (P = 8.63 × 10(-) (4)). At gene level, CDKN2B, CDKN2A and CDKN2B-AS1 were significantly associated with ESCC (P ≤ 4.70 × 10(-) (5)). Rs10511729 and rs10811474 were associated with cis-expression of 9p21 genes in corresponding cancer tissues in the expression quantitative trait loci analysis. In conclusion, we identified several genetic variants in the 9p21 region associated with the risk of multiple cancers, suggesting that this region may contribute to a shared susceptibility across different cancer types. PMID:25239644

  9. Genetic Variation in Metastasis-Associated in Colon Cancer-1 and the Risk of Breast Cancer Among the Chinese Han Population: A STROBE-Compliant Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhi-Jun; Liu, Xing-Han; Kang, Hua-Feng; Wang, Xi-Jing; Jin, Tian-Bo; Zhang, Shu-Qun; Feng, Tian; Ma, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Meng; Feng, Yan-Jing; Liu, Kang; Xu, Peng; Guan, Hai-Tao

    2016-02-01

    Metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 (MACC1), a newly identified oncogene, is involved in angiogenesis, invasiveness, and metastasis in many cancers. Epidemiological studies have indicated the associations between MACC1 polymorphisms and cancer risk. However, the association between genetic polymorphisms in MACC1 and breast cancer (BC) was not clear. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between MACC1 polymorphisms and BC risk.We genotyped 4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MACC1 (rs975263, rs1990172, rs3735615, rs4721888) to determine the haplotypes in 560 BC patients and 583 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched healthy individuals. Genotypes were determined using the Sequenom MassARRAY method. We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using the chi-square test.There were significant differences between patients and controls in the MACC1 rs975263 allelic (T vs C: OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.61-0.95, P = 0.014) and genotypic groups (TC vs TT: OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.54-0.92, P = 0.009; TC+CC vs TT: OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.55-0.92, P = 0.008). Analysis of clinical features demonstrated significant associations between rs975263 and Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR) grade 3 cancer (P = 0.006) and postmenopausal women (P = 0.018). Compared with the rs4721888 CC genotype, the frequency of rs4721888 GC and GC+CC variants was higher in patients. Further analysis revealed that the variant genotypes were positively associated with lymph node metastasis. However, we failed to find any relationships between rs1990172 or rs3735615 polymorphism and BC risk. In addition, haplotype analysis indicated that the CTGG and CTCG haplotypes (rs975263, rs1990172, rs3735615, rs4721888) were significantly associated with decreased susceptibility to BC (P = 0.029 and 0.019 respectively).Our results suggest that rs975263 and rs4721888 polymorphisms in MACC1 are associated with the risk of BC susceptibility and

  10. Birth Weight and Subsequent Risk of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Spracklen, Cassandra N; Wallace, Robert B; Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Robinson, Jennifer G; Freudenheim, Jo L; Wellons, Melissa F; Saftlas, Audrey F; Snetselaar, Linda G; Manson, JoAnn E; Hou, Lifang; Qi, Lihong; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Ryckman, Kelli K

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine the association between self-reported birth weight and incident cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study cohort, a large multiethnic cohort of postmenopausal women. Methods 65,850 women reported their birth weight by category (<6 lbs., 6 lbs.–7 lbs. 15 oz., 8 lbs.–9 lbs. 15 oz., and ≥10 lbs.). All self-reported, incident cancers were adjudicated by study staff. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate crude and adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for associations between birth weight and: 1) all cancer sites combined, 2) gynecologic cancers, and 3) several site-specific cancer sites. Results After adjustments, birth weight was positively associated with the risk of lung cancer (p=0.01), and colon cancer (p=0.04). An inverse trend was observed between birth weight and risk for leukemia (p=0.04). A significant trend was not observed with breast cancer risk (p=0.67); however, women born weighing ≥10 lbs. were less likely to develop breast cancer compared to women born between 6 lbs.–7 lbs. 15 oz (aHR 0.77, 95% CI 0.63, 0.94). Conclusion Birth weight category appears to be significantly associated with the risk of any postmenopausal incident cancer, though the direction of the association varies by cancer type. PMID:25096278

  11. Apolipoproteins, lipids and risk of cancer.

    PubMed

    Borgquist, Signe; Butt, Talha; Almgren, Peter; Shiffman, Dov; Stocks, Tanja; Orho-Melander, Marju; Manjer, Jonas; Melander, Olle

    2016-06-01

    The epidemiological evidence for an obesity-cancer association is solid, whereas the association between obesity-associated lipoprotein levels and cancer is less evident. We investigated circulating levels of Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), Apolipoprotein B (ApoB), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and association to risk of overall cancer and common cancer forms. The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, a population-based prospective cohort study, enrolled 17,035 women and 11,063 men (1991-1996). Incident cancer cases were ascertained by record linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry until end of follow-up, January 1, 2012. Baseline serum levels of ApoA1 and ApoB were analyzed for the entire cohort and HDL-C and LDL-C levels in 5,281 participants. Hazard ratios, with 95% confidence interval, were calculated using Cox's proportional hazards analysis. In the entire cohort, none of the exposures were related to overall cancer risk (HRadj ApoA1 = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.95,1.01; HRadj ApoB = 1.01, 95%CI: 0.98-1.04). Among men, ApoB was positively associated with cancer risk (HRadj ApoB = 1.06, 95%CI: 1.01,1.10). Female breast cancer risk was inversely associated with ApoB (HRadj = 0.92, 95%CI: 0.86,0.99). Among both genders, ApoA1 was inversely associated with lung cancer risk (HRadj = 0.88, 95%CI: 0.80,0.97), whereas high ApoB increased lung cancer risk (HRadj = 1.08, 95%CI: 0.99,1.18). Colorectal cancer risk was increased with high ApoB (HRadj = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.01,1.16) among both genders. Apolipoprotein levels were not associated with prostate cancer incidence. Circulating levels of apolipoproteins are associated with overall cancer risk in men and across both genders with breast, lung and colorectal cancer risk. Validation of these findings may facilitate future primary prevention strategies for cancer. PMID:26804063

  12. Adolescent meat intake and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Chen, Wendy Y; Eliassen, A Heather; Willett, Walter C

    2015-04-15

    The breast is particularly vulnerable to carcinogenic influences during adolescence due to rapid proliferation of mammary cells and lack of terminal differentiation. We investigated consumption of adolescent red meat and other protein sources in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. We followed prospectively 44,231 women aged 33-52 years who, in 1998, completed a detailed questionnaire about diet during adolescence. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. We documented 1132 breast cancer cases during 13-year follow-up. In multivariable Cox regression models with major breast cancer risk factors adjustment, greater consumption of total red meat in adolescence was significantly associated with higher premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintiles, RR, 1.43; 95%CI, 1.05-1.94; Ptrend  = 0.007), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. Adolescent intake of poultry was associated with lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.76; 95%CI, 0.60-0.97; for each serving/day). Adolescent intakes of iron, heme iron, fish, eggs, legumes and nuts were not associated with breast cancer. Replacement of one serving/day of total red meat with one serving of combination of poultry, fish, legumes, and nuts was associated with a 15% lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.85; 95%CI, 0.74-0.96) and a 23% lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer (RR, 0.77; 95%CI, 0.64-0.92). In conclusion, higher consumption of red meat during adolescence was associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Substituting other dietary protein sources for red meat in adolescent diet may decrease premenopausal breast cancer risk. PMID:25220168

  13. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    FENGA, CONCETTINA

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are defined environmental factors for breast cancer, particularly at young ages. However, the mechanisms by which occupational factors can promote breast cancer initiation and progression remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the evaluation of occupational factors for breast cancer, particularly in the workplace, also remains to be explained. The present review summarizes the occupational risk factors and the associated mechanisms involved in breast cancer development, in order to highlight new environmental exposures that could be correlated to breast cancer and to provide new insights for breast cancer prevention in the occupational settings. Furthermore, this review suggests that there is a requirement to include, through multidisciplinary approaches, different occupational exposure risks among those associated with breast cancer development. Finally, the design of new epigenetic biomarkers may be useful to identify the workers that are more susceptible to develop breast cancer. PMID:26998264

  14. Estrogen receptor alpha (ERS1) SNPs c454-397T>C (PvuII) and c454-351A>G (XbaI) are risk biomarkers for breast cancer development.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Klesia Pirola; Daltoé, Renata Dalmaschio; Sirtoli, Gabriela Modenesi; Carvalho, Alex Assis; Rangel, Leticia Batista Azevedo; Silva, Ian Victor

    2014-08-01

    There are several risk factors related to Breast Cancer (BC) risks and response to chemotherapy with SERMs. Recently some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on ESR1 gene have been associated to this disease. However, data are still inconclusive. The present study aimed to investigate the association of SNPs c454-397T>C (also called PvuII) and c454-351A>G (so called XbaI) to incidence of sporadic BC; ERα expression in BC; tamoxifen hormonetherapy (HT-TMX) responsiveness. To do so, a cohort of BC patients was analyzed through retrospective data collection, immunohistochemistry to ERα protein, and genotyping for PvuII and XbaI SNPs by PCR-RFLP, confirmed by sequencing. Significant difference in PvuII alleles frequencies were found BC patients when compared to control samples. Patients with P allele have a 5.14-fold increased BC risk. We found higher P and X alleles frequencies in ERα positive BC and the pp and xx genotypes were observed exclusively in patients with HT-TMX-responsive BC. Taken together, data indicates that P allele as a novel sporadic BC biomarker whereas p and x alleles enhanced chemotherapy responsiveness. PMID:24928087

  15. Body Mass Index Genetic Risk Score and Endometrial Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Jennifer; Setiawan, Veronica W.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Schumacher, Fredrick; Yu, Herbert; Delahanty, Ryan; Bernstein, Leslie; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Chu; Cook, Linda S.; Friedenreich, Christine; Garcia-Closas, Monserrat; Haiman, Christopher A.; Le Marchand, Loic; Liang, Xiaolin; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Olson, Sara H.; Risch, Harvey A.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ursin, Giske; Yang, Hannah P.; Kraft, Peter; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common variants that predispose individuals to a higher body mass index (BMI), an independent risk factor for endometrial cancer. Composite genotype risk scores (GRS) based on the joint effect of published BMI risk loci were used to explore whether endometrial cancer shares a genetic background with obesity. Genotype and risk factor data were available on 3,376 endometrial cancer case and 3,867 control participants of European ancestry from the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium GWAS. A BMI GRS was calculated by summing the number of BMI risk alleles at 97 independent loci. For exploratory analyses, additional GRSs were based on subsets of risk loci within putative etiologic BMI pathways. The BMI GRS was statistically significantly associated with endometrial cancer risk (P = 0.002). For every 10 BMI risk alleles a woman had a 13% increased endometrial cancer risk (95% CI: 4%, 22%). However, after adjusting for BMI, the BMI GRS was no longer associated with risk (per 10 BMI risk alleles OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.07; P = 0.78). Heterogeneity by BMI did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.06), and no effect modification was noted by age, GWAS Stage, study design or between studies (P≥0.58). In exploratory analyses, the GRS defined by variants at loci containing monogenic obesity syndrome genes was associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk independent of BMI (per BMI risk allele OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.96; P = 2.1 x 10−5). Possessing a large number of BMI risk alleles does not increase endometrial cancer risk above that conferred by excess body weight among women of European descent. Thus, the GRS based on all current established BMI loci does not provide added value independent of BMI. Future studies are required to validate the unexpected observed relation between monogenic obesity syndrome genetic variants and endometrial cancer risk. PMID:26606540

  16. A risk management model for familial breast cancer: A new application using Fuzzy Cognitive Map method.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Elpiniki I; Jayashree Subramanian; Karmegam, Akila; Papandrianos, Nikolaos

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most deadly disease affecting women and thus it is natural for women aged 40-49 years (who have a family history of breast cancer or other related cancers) to assess their personal risk for developing familial breast cancer (FBC). Besides, as each individual woman possesses different levels of risk of developing breast cancer depending on their family history, genetic predispositions and personal medical history, individualized care setting mechanism needs to be identified so that appropriate risk assessment, counseling, screening, and prevention options can be determined by the health care professionals. The presented work aims at developing a soft computing based medical decision support system using Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM) that assists health care professionals in deciding the individualized care setting mechanisms based on the FBC risk level of the given women. The FCM based FBC risk management system uses NHL to learn causal weights from 40 patient records and achieves a 95% diagnostic accuracy. The results obtained from the proposed model are in concurrence with the comprehensive risk evaluation tool based on Tyrer-Cuzick model for 38/40 patient cases (95%). Besides, the proposed model identifies high risk women by calculating higher accuracy of prediction than the standard Gail and NSAPB models. The testing accuracy of the proposed model using 10-fold cross validation technique outperforms other standard machine learning based inference engines as well as previous FCM-based risk prediction methods for BC. PMID:26220142

  17. An investigation of gene-environment interactions between 47 newly identified breast cancer susceptibility loci and environmental risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Anja; Milne, Roger L.; Truong, Thérèse; Knight, Julia A.; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Munday, Hannah R.; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Brand, Judith S.; Olson, Janet; Vachon, Celine M.; Hallberg, Emily; Castelao, J. Esteban; Carracedo, Angel; Torres, Maria; Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Yesilyurt, Betul T.; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Engelhardt, Ellen G.; Broeks, Annegien; Rutgers, Emiel J.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Cross, Simon; Reed, Malcolm; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Perez, José Ignacio Arias; Provenzano, Elena; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Spurdle, Amanda; Investigators, kConFab; Group, AOCS; Häberle, Lothar; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; McLean, Catriona; Baglietto, Laura; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E.; Brüning, Thomas; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ashworth, Alan; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Mannermaa, Arto; Swerdlow, Anthony; Giles, Graham G.; Brenner, Hermann; Fasching, Peter A.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hopper, John; Benítez, Javier; Cox, Angela; Andrulis, Irene L.; Lambrechts, Diether; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Couch, Fergus; Czene, Kamila; Bojesen, Stig E.; Easton, Doug F.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Guénel, Pascal; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    A large genotyping project within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) recently identified 41 associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overall breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated whether the effects of these 41 SNPs, as well as six SNPs associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative BC risk are modified by 13 environmental risk factors for BC. Data from 22 studies participating in BCAC were pooled, comprising up to 26,633 cases and 30,119 controls. Interactions between SNPs and environmental factors were evaluated using an empirical Bayes-type shrinkage estimator. Six SNPs showed interactions with associated p-values (pint) <1.1×10−3. None of the observed interactions was significant after accounting for multiple testing. The Bayesian False Discovery Probability was used to rank the findings, which indicated three interactions as being noteworthy at 1% prior probability of interaction. SNP rs6828523 was associated with increased ER-negative BC risk in women ≥170cm (OR=1.22, p=0.017), but inversely associated with ER-negative BC risk in women <160cm (OR=0.83, p=0.039, pint=1.9×10−4). The inverse association between rs4808801 and overall BC risk was stronger for women who had had four or more pregnancies (OR=0.85, p=2.0×10−4), and absent in women who had had just one (OR=0.96, p=0.19, pint = 6.1×10−4). SNP rs11242675 was inversely associated with overall BC risk in never/former smokers (OR=0.93, p=2.8×10−5), but no association was observed in current smokers (OR=1.07, p=0.14, pint = 3.4×10−4). In conclusion, recently identified breast cancer susceptibility loci are not strongly modified by established risk factors and the observed potential interactions require confirmation in independent studies. PMID:25227710

  18. Radon exposure and oropharyngeal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Espinosa, Tania; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Oropharyngeal cancer is a multifactorial disease. Alcohol and tobacco are the main risk factors. Radon is a human carcinogen linked to lung cancer risk, but its influence in other cancers is not well known. We aim to assess the effect of radon exposure on the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer through a systematic review of the scientific literature. This review performs a qualitative analysis of the available studies. 13 cohort studies were included, most of them mortality studies, which analysed the relationship between occupational or residential radon exposure with oropharyngeal cancer mortality or incidence. Most of the included studies found no association between radon exposure and oral and pharyngeal cancer. This lack of effect was observed in miners studies and in general population studies. Further research is necessary to quantify if this association really exists and its magnitude, specially performing studies in general population, preferably living in areas with high radon levels. PMID:26335172

  19. Helicobacter pylori Diversity and Gastric Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this malignancy. An important goal is to identify H. pylori-infected persons at high risk for gastric cancer, so that these individuals can be targeted for therapeutic intervention. H. pylori exhibits a high level of intraspecies genetic diversity, and over the past two decades, many studies have endeavored to identify strain-specific features of H. pylori that are linked to development of gastric cancer. One of the most prominent differences among H. pylori strains is the presence or absence of a 40-kb chromosomal region known as the cag pathogenicity island (PAI). Current evidence suggests that the risk of gastric cancer is very low among persons harboring H. pylori strains that lack the cag PAI. Among persons harboring strains that contain the cag PAI, the risk of gastric cancer is shaped by a complex interplay among multiple strain-specific bacterial factors as well as host factors. This review discusses the strain-specific properties of H. pylori that correlate with increased gastric cancer risk, focusing in particular on secreted proteins and surface-exposed proteins, and describes evidence from cell culture and animal models linking these factors to gastric cancer pathogenesis. Strain-specific features of H. pylori that may account for geographic variation in gastric cancer incidence are also discussed. PMID:26814181

  20. Adherence to cancer prevention guidelines and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Catsburg, Chelsea; Miller, Anthony B; Rohan, Thomas E

    2014-11-15

    Healthy eating patterns and keeping physically active are potentially more important for chronic disease prevention than intake or exclusion of specific food items or nutrients. To this end, many health organizations routinely publish dietary and lifestyle recommendations aimed at preventing chronic disease. Using data from the Canadian National Breast Screening Study, we investigated the association between breast cancer risk and adherence to two sets of guidelines specific for cancer prevention, namely the American Cancer Society (ACS) Guidelines and the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) Recommendations. At baseline, 49,613 women completed dietary and lifestyle questionnaires and height and weight measurements were taken. During a mean follow-up of 16.6 years, 2,503 incident cases of breast cancer were ascertained. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of meeting each guideline, and number of guidelines met, with breast cancer risk. The two sets of guidelines yielded similar results. Specifically, adherence to all six ACS guidelines was associated with a 31% reduction in breast cancer risk when compared to subjects adhering to at most one guideline (HR=0.69; 95% CI=0.49-0.97); similarly, adherence to six or seven of the WCRF/AICR guidelines was also associated with a 31% reduction in breast cancer risk (HR=0.69; 95% CI=0.47-1.00). Under either classification, meeting each additional guideline was associated with a 4-6% reduction in breast cancer risk. These results suggest that adherence to cancer prevention guidelines is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. PMID:24723234

  1. Dietary microbes modulate transgenerational cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Poutahidis, Theofilos; Varian, Bernard J; Levkovich, Tatiana; Lakritz, Jessica R; Mirabal, Sheyla; Kwok, Caitlin; Ibrahim, Yassin M; Kearney, Sean M; Chatzigiagkos, Antonis; Alm, Eric J; Erdman, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors are suspected in the rise of obesity and cancer in industrialized countries but poorly understood. Here we used animal models to test how future generations may be affected by Westernized diets. We discover long-term consequences of grandmothers’ in-utero dietary exposures leading to high rates of obesity and frequent cancers of lung and liver in two subsequent generations of mice. Transgenerational effects were transplantable using diet-associated bacteria communities alone. Consequently, feeding of beneficial microbes was sufficient to lower transgenerational risk for cancer and obesity regardless of diet history. Targeting microbes may be a highly effective population-based approach to lower risk for cancer. PMID:25716681

  2. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase A1298C Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-analysis of 33 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rai, V

    2014-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme is essential for DNA synthesis and DNA methylation, and its gene polymorphisms have been implicated as risk factors for birth defects, neurological disorders, and different types of cancers. Several studies have investigated the association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and breast cancer (BC) risk, but the results were inconclusive. To assess the risk associated with MTHFR A1298C polymorphism, a comprehensive meta-analysis was performed. PubMed, Google Scholar, Elsevier and Springer Link databases were searched for case-control studies relating the association between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and BC risk and estimated summary odds ratios (ORs) with confidence intervals (CIs) for assessment. Up to January 2014, 33 case-control studies involving 15,919 BC patients and 19,700 controls were included in the present meta-analysis. The results showed that the A1298C polymorphism was not associated with BC risk in all the five genetic models (C vs. A allele (allele contrast): OR = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93–1.05; AC versus AA (heterozygote/codominant): OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89–1.04; CC versus AA (homozygote): OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91–1.06; CC + AC versus AA (dominant model): OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.90–1.05; and CC versus AC + AA (recessive model): OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91–1.07). The present meta-analysis did not support any association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and BC risk. PMID:25506474

  3. Smoking and risk of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Knekt, P.; Hakama, M.; Järvinen, R.; Pukkala, E.; Heliövaara, M.

    1998-01-01

    Tobacco smoking was studied in relation to colorectal cancer in 56 973 Finnish men and women initially free from cancer. Smoking status was determined by a health questionnaire. During a follow-up period of 28 years, from the baseline in 1966-72 to the end of 1994, 457 cases of colorectal cancer occurred. There was no significant association between baseline smoking status and colorectal cancer risk over the total follow-up period. The sex- and age-adjusted relative risk of colorectal cancer between smokers and non-smokers was 1.06 (95% confidence interval 0.84-1.33). For follow-up periods of 11-20 years, however, the relative risk was 1.57 (95% confidence interval 1.09-2.24). In a subgroup in which smoking habits were assessed twice, the relative risk of colorectal cancer among persistent smokers was 1.71 (95% confidence interval 1.09-2.68) compared with others. The results of the present prospective study are consistent with the possibility that smoking increases the risk of colorectal cancer after a relatively long induction period. To clarify the role of smoking in colorectal cancer development, further cohort studies are needed with long follow-up periods and allowing for control of dietary and other potential confounding factors. PMID:9662264

  4. Predicting cancer risks from dental computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Wu, T-H; Lin, W-C; Chen, W-K; Chang, Y-C; Hwang, J-J

    2015-01-01

    Dental computed tomography (CT) has become a common tool when carrying out dental implants, yet there is little information available on its associated cancer risk. The objective of this study was to estimate the lifetime-attributable risk (LAR) of cancer incidence that is associated with the radiation dose from dental CT scans and to evaluate the effect of scan position, sex, and age on the cancer risk. This retrospective cohort study involved 505 participants who underwent CT scans. The mean effective doses for male and female patients in the maxilla group were 408 and 389 µSv (P = 0.055), respectively, whereas the mean effective doses for male and female patients in the mandible groups were 475 and 450 µSv (P < 0.001), respectively. The LAR for cancer incidence after mandible CT scanning varied from 1 in 16,196 for a 30-y-old woman to 1 in 114,680 for a 70-y-old man. The organ-specific cancer risks for thyroid cancer, other cancers, leukemia, and lung cancer account for 99% of the LAR. Among patients of all ages, the estimated LAR of a mandible scan was higher than that of a maxilla scan. Furthermore, the LAR for female thyroid cancer had a peak before age 45 y. The risk for a woman aged 30 y is roughly 8 times higher than that of a woman aged 50 y. After undergoing a dental CT scan, the possible cancer risks related to sex and age across various different anatomical regions are not similar. The greatest risk due to a dental CT scan is for a mandible scan when the woman is younger than 45 y. Given the limits of the sample size, machine parameters, and the retrospective nature of this study, the results need to be interpreted within the context of this patient population. Future studies will be of value to corroborate these findings. PMID:25359782

  5. [Infertility, fertility treatment and breast cancer risk].

    PubMed

    Riskin-Mashiah, Shlomit

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in Israel and throughout the world. It is the leading cause of death from cancer in women. The cause of breast cancer is unknown; however gynecological history and hormonal factors have a major impact on the risk to develop breast cancer. Infertility affects 15-20% of couples in developed countries and most of them will need fertility treatment. The variety of fertility treatments and their use has been widespread during the last 50 years and especially since the introduction of in vitro fertilization. During fertility treatment, and depending on the type of treatment, there is ovarian hyperstimulation with maturation of several follicles and higher than normal estradiol levels. This article reviews the leading studies that evaluated the possible link between fertility treatment and the development of breast cancer. Most studies showed no association between fertility drugs and breast cancer. Whereas other researchers demonstrated a possible link between some fertility drugs and increased risk for breast cancer in certain subgroups. Therefore, larger studies with longer follow-up periods and better control for all possible confounding factors are needed in order to confirm the safety of fertility treatments in the long run. The combination of infertility and fertility treatment might cause harm, such as an increased risk for breast cancer Therefore, one has to consider carefully, together with the woman, the need for fertility treatment and give the lowest possible dosage for the shortest duration in order to minimize the risk. PMID:24450034

  6. Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rectal Cancer Home Page Colon and Rectal Cancer: Prevention, Genetics, Causes Tests to ... corresponding to answers “medications that do not contain aspirin unknown" (page 4 of 7). Things to know ...

  7. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Broeders, M J; Verbeek, A L

    1997-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in our summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point in time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women. PMID:9274126

  8. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high rate of breast cancer (142.7 per 100,000 in Suffolk County) and in a representative sample of US women (NHANES 1999-2008, 92 with breast cancer and 2,884 without). In a multivariable logistic model, both samples showed a significant trend for increased odds of breast cancer across increasing UCd quartiles (NHANES, p=0.039 and LI, p=0.023). Compared to those in the lowest quartile, LI women in the highest quartile had increased risk for breast cancer (OR=2.69; 95% CI=1.07, 6.78) and US women in the two highest quartiles had increased risk (OR=2.50; 95% CI=1.11, 5.63 and OR=2.22; 95% CI=.89, 5.52, respectively). Further research is warranted on the impact of environmental cadmium on breast cancer risk in specific populations and on identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:21071816

  9. Healthy Living Slashes Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... the study were published online June 23 in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention . SOURCES: Lindsay Kohler, doctoral student, epidemiology, Mel ... nutritional epidemiology, American Cancer Society; June 23, 2016, Cancer Epidemiology, ... Prevention HealthDay Copyright (c) 2016 HealthDay . All rights ...

  10. Association study of hsa-mir-603 rs11014002 polymorphism and risk of breast cancer in a sample of Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, M; Sanaei, S; Mashhadi, M A; Hashemi, S M; Taheri, M; Ghavami, S

    2015-01-01

    Accumulated evidence have proposed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNAs) are connected to breast cancer (BC) risk. We have done a case-control study with 258 BC patients and 209 control women to examine the potential association of Hsa-mir-603 rs11014002 C>T polymorphisms with BC susceptibility. The polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Our findings showed that the rs11014002 C>T variant was not associated with an increased risk of BC in codominant (OR=0.67, 95%CI=0.42-1.08, P=0.121, CT vs CC; and OR=0.18, 95%CI=0.02-1.67, P=0.170, TT vs CC), dominant (OR=0.64, 95%CI=0.41-1.01, P=0.062, CT+TT vs CC), and recessive (OR=0.20, 95%CI=0.02-1.81, P=0.178, TT vs CC+CT) inheritance models tested. While, the T allele significantly decreased the risk of BC (OR= 0.63; 95% CI =0.41-0.95; P=0.032) compared to C allele. In conclusion, the findings indicated that Mir603 rs11014002 T allele might contribute to decrease the risk of BC in a sample of Iranian population. Further studies with larger sample sizes and different ethnicities are warranted to confirm our findings. PMID:26718432

  11. Association Between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in DNA Polymerase Kappa Gene and Breast Cancer Risk in Chinese Han Population: A STROBE-Compliant Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhi-Jun; Liu, Xing-Han; Ma, Yun-Feng; Kang, Hua-Feng; Jin, Tian-Bo; Dai, Zhi-Ming; Guan, Hai-Tao; Wang, Meng; Liu, Kang; Dai, Cong; Yang, Xue-Wen; Wang, Xi-Jing

    2016-01-01

    DNA polymerases are responsible for ensuring stability of the genome and avoiding genotoxicity caused by a variety of factors during DNA replication. Consequently, these proteins have been associated with an increased cancer risk. DNA polymerase kappa (POLK) is a specialized DNA polymerase involved in translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) that allows DNA synthesis over the damaged DNA. Recently, some studies investigated relationships between POLK polymorphisms and cancer risk, but the role of POLK genetic variants in breast cancer (BC) remains to be defined. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of POLK polymorphisms on BC risk.We used the Sequenom MassARRAY method to genotype 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in POLK (rs3213801, rs10077427, and rs5744533), in order to determine the genotypes of 560 BC patients and 583 controls. The association of genotypes and BC was assessed by computing the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) from logistic regression analyses.We found a statistically significant difference between patient and control groups in the POLK rs10077427 genotypic groups, excluding the recessive model. A positive correlation was also found between positive progesterone receptor (PR) status, higher Ki67 index, and rs10077427 polymorphism. For rs5744533 polymorphism, the codominant, dominant, and allele models frequencies were significantly higher in BC patients compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, our results indicated that rs5744533 SNP has a protective role in the postmenopausal women. However, we failed to find any associations between rs3213801 polymorphism and susceptibility to BC.Our results indicate that POLK polymorphisms may influence the risk of developing BC, and, because of this, may serve as a prognostic biomarker among Chinese women. PMID:26765445

  12. Weight Loss Might Reduce Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... evidence in the jigsaw of the benefits of losing weight, and how important weight loss is to ... Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle. In general, losing weight reduces the risk of breast, colon and ...

  13. Cancer risks related to electricity production.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, P; Cardis, E; Vainio, H; Coleman, M P; Kogevinas, M; Nordberg, G; Parkin, D M; Partensky, C; Shuker, D; Tomatis, L

    1991-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has previously evaluated the cancer risks associated with fossil fuel-based industrial processes such as coal gastification and coke production, substances and mixtures such as coal tars, coal tar pitch and mineral oils, and a number of substances emitted from fossil-fuelled plants such as benzo[a]pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead and formaldehyde. Based on these evaluations and other evidence from the literature, the carcinogenic risks to the general population and occupational groups from the fossil fuel cycle, the nuclear fuel cycle and renewable cycles are reviewed. Cancer risks from waste disposal, accidents and misuses, and electricity distribution are also considered. No cycle appears to be totally free from cancer risk, but the quantification of the effects of such exposures (in particular of those involving potential exposure to large amounts of carcinogens, such as coal, oil and nuclear) requires the application of methods which are subject to considerable margins of error. Uncertainties due to inadequate data and unconfirmed assumptions are discussed. Cancer risks related to the operation of renewable energy sources are negligible, although there may be some risks from construction of such installations. The elements of knowledge at our disposal do not encourage any attempt toward a quantitative comparative risk assessment. However, even in the absence of an accurate quantification of risk, qualitative indication of carcinogenic hazards should lead to preventive measures. PMID:1835869

  14. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco.

    PubMed

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer - either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents. PMID:25520574

  15. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer – either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents. PMID:25520574

  16. Radiation to supraclavicular and internal mammary lymph nodes in breast cancer increases the risk of stroke

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, G; Holmberg, L; Garmo, H; Terent, A; Blomqvist, C

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether adjuvant treatment of breast cancer (BC) affects the risk of stroke, and to explore radiation targets and fraction doses regarding risk and location of stroke. In a Swedish BC cohort diagnosed during 1970–2003, we carried out a nested case–control study of stroke after BC, with relevant details extracted from medical records. The odds ratio (OR) for radiotherapy (RT) vs that of no RT did not differ between cases and controls (OR=0.85; confidence interval, CI=0.6–1.3). Radiotherapy to internal mammary chain (IMC) and supraclavicular (SCL) lymph nodes vs that of no RT was associated with a higher, although not statistically significant, risk of stroke (OR=1.3; CI=0.8–2.2). In a pooled analysis, RT to IMC and SCL vs the pooled group of no RT and RT to breast/chest wall/axilla (but not IMC and SCL), showed a significant increase of stroke (OR=1.8; CI=1.1–2.8). There were no associations between cancer laterality, targets of RT, and location of stroke. The radiation targets, IMC and SCL, showed a statistically significant trend for an increased risk of stroke with daily fraction dose. Our finding of a target-specific increased risk of stroke and a dose-response relationship for daily fraction dose, indicate that there may be a causal link between RT to the IMC and SCL and risk of stroke. PMID:19259096

  17. Tamoxifen and Risk of Contralateral Breast Cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Milne, Roger L.; Rookus, Matti A.; Daly, Mary B.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Easton, Douglas F.; Ellis, Steve; Friedlander, Michael L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Andrieu, Nadine; Noguès, Catherine; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Bonadona, Valérie; Pujol, Pascal; McLachlan, Sue Anne; John, Esther M.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Tollenaar, Rob A.E.M.; Goldgar, David E.; Beth Terry, Mary; Caldes, Trinidad; Weideman, Prue C.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Singer, Christian F.; Birch, Kate; Simard, Jacques; Southey, Melissa C.; Olsson, Håkan L.; Jakubowska, Anna; Olah, Edith; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Foretova, Lenka; Hopper, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether adjuvant tamoxifen treatment for breast cancer (BC) is associated with reduced contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Methods Analysis of pooled observational cohort data, self-reported at enrollment and at follow-up from the International BRCA1, and BRCA2 Carrier Cohort Study, Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer, and Breast Cancer Family Registry. Eligible women were BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers diagnosed with unilateral BC since 1970 and no other invasive cancer or tamoxifen use before first BC. Hazard ratios (HRs) for CBC associated with tamoxifen use were estimated using Cox regression, adjusting for year and age of diagnosis, country, and bilateral oophorectomy and censoring at contralateral mastectomy, death, or loss to follow-up. Results Of 1,583 BRCA1 and 881 BRCA2 mutation carriers, 383 (24%) and 454 (52%), respectively, took tamoxifen after first BC diagnosis. There were 520 CBCs over 20,104 person-years of observation. The adjusted HR estimates were 0.38 (95% CI, 0.27 to 0.55) and 0.33 (95% CI, 0.22 to 0.50) for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, respectively. After left truncating at recruitment to the cohort, adjusted HR estimates were 0.58 (95% CI, 0.29 to 1.13) and 0.48 (95% CI, 0.22 to 1.05) based on 657 BRCA1 and 426 BRCA2 mutation carriers with 100 CBCs over 4,392 person-years of prospective follow-up. HRs did not differ by estrogen receptor status of the first BC (missing for 56% of cases). Conclusion This study provides evidence that tamoxifen use is associated with a reduction in CBC risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Further follow-up of these cohorts will provide increased statistical power for future prospective analyses. PMID:23918944

  18. Industrial risk factors for colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lashner, B.A.; Epstein, S.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy in the United States, and its incidence rates have sharply increased recently, especially in males. Industrial exposures, both occupational and environmental, are important colorectal cancer risk factors that are generally unrecognized by clinicians. Migration studies have documented that colorectal cancer is strongly associated with environmental risk factors. The causal role of occupational exposures is evidenced by a substantial literature associating specific work practices with increased colorectal cancer risks. Industrially related environmental exposures, including polluted drinking water and ionizing radiation, have also been associated with excess risks. Currently, there is a tendency to attribute colorectal cancer, largely or exclusively, to dietary and other lifestyle factors, thus neglecting these industrially related effects. Concerted efforts are needed to recognize the causal role of industrial risk factors and to encourage government and industry to reduce carcinogenic exposures. Furthermore, cost-effective screening programs for high-risk population groups are critically needed to further reduce deaths from colorectal cancer. 143 references.

  19. Progestins and progesterone in hormone replacement therapy and the risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Campagnoli, Carlo; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Kaaks, Rudolf; Peris, Clementina; Berrino, Franco

    2005-01-01

    Controlled studies and most observational studies published over the last 5 years suggest that the addition of synthetic progestins to estrogen in hormone replacement therapy (HRT), particularly in continuous-combined regimen, increases the breast cancer (BC) risk compared to estrogen alone. By contrast, a recent study suggests that the addition of natural progesterone in cyclic regimens does not affect BC risk. This finding is consistent with in vivo data suggesting that progesterone does not have a detrimental effect on breast tissue. The increased BC risk found with the addition of synthetic progestins to estrogen could be due to the regimen and/or the kind of progestin used. Continuous-combined regimen inhibits the sloughing of mammary epithelium that occurs after progesterone withdrawal in a cyclic regimen. More importantly, the progestins used (medroxyprogesterone acetate and 19-Nortestosterone-derivatives) are endowed with some non-progesterone-like effects, which can potentiate the proliferative action of estrogens. Particularly relevant seem to be the metabolic and hepatocellular effects (decreased insulin sensitivity, increased levels and activity of insulin-like growth factor-I, and decreased levels of SHBG), which contrast the opposite effects induced by oral estrogen. PMID:15908197

  20. Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jinfu; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva; Mery, Les

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between dietary intake of protein, fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates, and the risk of colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1731 individuals with histologically confirmed cases of colon cancer and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurements included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire was used to provide data on eating habits from two years before the study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The nutrients were categorized by quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. Intake of polyunsaturated fat, trans-fat and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of colon cancer; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.80), 1.37 (95% CI, 1.10–1.71) and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.84), respectively. The association was stronger with proximal colon cancer (PCC). An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose for both proximal and distal colon cancers; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.22–2.29) for PCC and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.18–2.10) for distal colon cancer (DCC). An elevated risk of PCC was also found with increased lactose intake. Our findings provide evidence that a diet low in fat and sucrose could reduce the risk of various colon cancers. PMID:24281033

  1. Cancer Risk in Patients With Empyema

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Chung-Jen; Hu, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Liu, Chia-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate cancer risk and possible risk factors in patients diagnosed with empyema. A total of 31,636 patients with newly diagnosed empyema between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2010 were included in this study. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to compare the cancer incidence in these empyema patients to that in the general population. Adjusted hazard ratios were also calculated to investigate whether characteristics increased cancer risk. During the 12-year study period, 2,654 cancers occurred in 31,636 patients with empyema, yielding an SIR of 2.67 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.57–2.78). We excluded cancer that occurred within 1 year to avoid surveillance bias. The cancer risk remained significantly increased (SIR 1.50, 95% CI 1.41–1.58). Specifically, patients with empyema had higher SIR of cancers of the head and neck (1.50, 95% CI 1.41–1.58), esophagus (2.56, 95% CI 1.92–3.33), stomach (1.49, 95% CI 1.16–1.89), liver and biliary tract (2.18, 95% CI 1.93–2.45), and lung and mediastinum (1.62, 95% CI 1.39–1.86). Age ≥ 60, male sex, diabetes mellitus, and liver cirrhosis were independent risk factors for cancer development. Our study demonstrates an increased incidence of cancer development in patients with empyema, and patients’ age ≥ 60, men, and those with diabetes mellitus and liver cirrhosis showed a higher incidence of developing cancer compared to the general population. The association between such kind of infection and secondary malignancy may be elucidated by further study. PMID:26945399

  2. Diabetes and Risk of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Samy L.; Rojna, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes and cancer represent two complex, diverse, chronic, and potentially fatal diseases. Cancer is the second leading cause of death, while diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death with the latter still likely underreported. There is a growing body of evidence published in recent years that suggest substantial increase in cancer incidence in diabetic patients. The worldwide prevalence of diabetes was estimated to rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. About 26.9% of all people over 65 have diabetes and 60% have cancer. Overall, 8–18% of cancer patients have diabetes. In the context of epidemiology, the burden of both diseases, small association between diabetes and cancer will be clinically relevant and should translate into significant consequences for future health care solutions. This paper summarizes most of the epidemiological association studies between diabetes and cancer including studies relating to the general all-site increase of malignancies in diabetes and elevated organ-specific cancer rate in diabetes as comorbidity. Additionally, we have discussed the possible pathophysiological mechanisms that likely may be involved in promoting carcinogenesis in diabetes and the potential of different antidiabetic therapies to influence cancer incidence. PMID:23476808

  3. Genetic variants in lncRNA SRA and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Rui; Wang, Kaijuan; Peng, Rui; Wang, Shuaibing; Cao, Jingjing; Wang, Peng; Song, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA) has been identified to activate steroid receptor transcriptional activity and participate in tumor pathogenesis. This case-control study evaluated the association between two haplotype tagging SNPs (htSNPs) (rs10463297, rs801460) of the whole SRA sequence and breast cancer risk. We found that rs10463297 TC genotype significantly increased BC risk compared with CC genotype in both the codominant (TC vs. TT: OR=1.43, 95 % CI=1.02–2.00) and recessive (TC+CC vs. TT: OR=1.39, 95 % CI=1.01–1.92) genetic models. Both TC, TC + CC genotypes of rs10463297 and GA, AA, GA+AA genotypes of rs801460 were significantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER) positivity status. rs10463297 TC (2.09 ± 0.41), CC (2.42 ± 0.51) and TC + CC (2.20 ± 0.47) genotypes were associated with higher blood plasma SRA mRNA levels compared with the TT genotype(1.45 ± 0.34). Gene–reproductive interaction analysis presented a best model consisted of four factors (rs10463297, age, post-menopausal, No. of pregnancy), which could increase the BC risk with 1.58-fold (OR=1.58, 95 % CI=1.23–2.03). These findings suggest that SRA genetic variants may contribute to BC risk and have apparent interaction with reproductive factors in BC progression. PMID:26967566

  4. [Diabetes and cancer risk: oncologic considerations].

    PubMed

    Rosta, András

    2011-07-17

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus and malignant tumors are frequent diseases worldwide. The incidence of these two diseases is growing continuously and causes serious health care problem. Population based epidemiologic studies show that the coexistence of type 2 diabetes and malignant tumors is more frequent than expected by the age-corrected incidence and prevalence of each disease. Epidemiologic studies and meta-analyses show that type 2 diabetes increases the risk and tumor specific mortality of certain cancers. The overlapping risk factors of the diseases suggest a relationship between type 2 diabetes and malignant tumors, with a significant role of obesity as a major risk factor. In the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes there are several biological processes, which may explain the higher cancer risk in type 2 diabetes. In vitro experiments, and in vivo animal studies show that the mitotic effect of hyperinsulinemia plays an important role in the relationship of cancer and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recent studies show that the different treatment modalities, antidiabetic drugs and their combinations used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes can modify cancer risk. The majority of the data show that metformin therapy decreases, while insulin secretagog drugs slightly increase the risk of certain types of cancers in type 2 diabetes. Metformin can decrease cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in certain cancer cell lines. Endogenous and exogenous (therapy induced) hyperinsulinemia may be mitogenic and may increase the risk of cancer in type 2 diabetes. Human studies showed that the analogue insulin glargin increases the risk of certain cancers. As a result of conceptual weaknesses in study design, data collection, and statistical methods the results of these studies are questionable. According to present knowledge, obtaining and maintaining optimal metabolic target values with the appropriate choice of treatment modality is the aim of treatment in type 2 diabetes

  5. Combination oral contraceptives and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Gast, K; Snyder, T

    1990-07-01

    Substantial evidence exists to suggest that the use of oral contraceptives alters the risk for some types of cancer. Use of oral contraceptives for one year or more will reduce the risk of endometrial cancer and epithelial ovarian cancer by 50%, with the protective effect lasting for at least 10 years. The risk for developing cervical cancer in women who have used oral contraceptives appears to be slightly increased, although two independent studies actually found a protective effect associated with oral contraceptive use. The protective effect was probably related to the increased screening frequency found in oral contraceptive users and not related to a biologically protective effect. Therefore, women should be encouraged to undergo regular Pap tests. Data regarding breast cancer, in general, show no increased risk associated with oral contraceptive use. The latency associated with the development of breast cancer does not allow a definitive conclusion, and further study will be required. Oral contraceptives appear to increase the risk for developing benign hepatocellular adenoma, but not hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:2202849

  6. Cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Jane A; Shafer, Martin M; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Hampton, John M; Newcomb, Polly A

    2006-06-21

    Cadmium, a highly persistent heavy metal, has been categorized as a probable human carcinogen by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Primary exposure sources include food and tobacco smoke. We carried out a population-based case-control study of 246 women, aged 20-69 years, with breast cancer and 254 age-matched control subjects. We measured cadmium levels in urine samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and conducted interviews by telephone to obtain information on known breast cancer risk factors. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer by creatinine-adjusted cadmium levels were calculated by multivariable analysis. Statistical tests were two-sided. Women in the highest quartile of creatinine-adjusted cadmium level (> or = 0.58 microg/g) had twice the breast cancer risk of those in the lowest quartile (<0.26 microg/g; OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.3 to 4.2) after adjustment for established risk factors, and there was a statistically significant increase in risk with increasing cadmium level (P(trend) = .01). Based on this study, the absolute risk difference is 45 (95% CI = 0 to 77) per 100,000 given an overall breast cancer rate of 124 per 100,000. Whether increased cadmium is a causal factor for breast cancer or reflects the effects of treatment or disease remains to be determined. PMID:16788160

  7. Reducing Your Risk of Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the following areas: •Lung • Breast (see FAQ178 “Mammography and Screening for Breast Problems” ) • Colon and rectum • ... Tests Type of Cancer Test or Exam Breast Mammography Cancer of the cervix* Pap test Co-testing ( ...

  8. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... including aromatic amines that were found to cause cancer in animals. In the mid- to late 1970s, however, manufacturers changed the components in dye products to eliminate some of these chemicals ... in hair dyes can cause cancer. Given the widespread use of hair dye products, ...

  9. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  10. Breast cancer risk in mothers of twins.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, M. F.; Broeders, M. J.; Carpenter, L. M.; Gunnarskog, J.; Leon, D. A.

    1997-01-01

    The risk of breast cancer associated with delivering a twin birth was examined in a population-based nested case-control study of nearly 4800 Swedish women with breast cancer and 47000 age-matched control subjects. All were aged less than 50 years and parous. After adjustment for age at first birth and parity, a 29% reduction in breast cancer risk was observed in mothers of twins relative to those who were not (odds ratio = 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.55-0.91). These results provide evidence that women who bear twins are at reduced risk of breast cancer, one explanation for which may be their unusual levels of hormonal exposure. PMID:9083344

  11. Mitochondrial dysfunction and risk of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lund, M; Melbye, M; Diaz, L J; Duno, M; Wohlfahrt, J; Vissing, J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mitochondrial mutations are commonly reported in tumours, but it is unclear whether impaired mitochondrial function per se is a cause or consequence of cancer. To elucidate this, we examined the risk of cancer in a nationwide cohort of patients with mitochondrial dysfunction. Methods: We used nationwide results on genetic testing for mitochondrial disease and the Danish Civil Registration System, to construct a cohort of 311 patients with mitochondrial dysfunction. A total of 177 cohort members were identified from genetic testing and 134 genetically untested cohort members were matrilineal relatives to a cohort member with a genetically confirmed maternally inherited mDNA mutation. Information on cancer was obtained by linkage to the Danish Cancer Register. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to assess the relative risk of cancer. Results: During 7334 person-years of follow-up, 19 subjects developed a primary cancer. The corresponding SIR for any primary cancer was 1.06 (95% confidence interval 0.68–1.63). Subgroup analyses according to mutational subtype yielded similar results, for example, a SIR of 0.94 (95% CI 0.53 to 1.67) for the m.3243A>G maternally inherited mDNA mutation, cases=13. Conclusions: Patients with mitochondrial dysfunction do not appear to be at increased risk of cancer compared with the general population. PMID:25742477

  12. Toxicogenetic profile and cancer risk in Lebanese.

    PubMed

    Dhaini, Hassan R; Kobeissi, Loulou

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of genetic polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes (DME) were identified among different ethnic groups. Some of these polymorphisms are associated with an increased cancer risk, while others remain equivocal. However, there is sufficient evidence that these associations become significant in populations overexposed to environmental carcinogens. Hence, genetic differences in expression activity of both Phase I and Phase II enzymes may affect cancer risk in exposed populations. In Lebanon, there has been a marked rise in reported cancer incidence since the 1990s. There are also indicators of exposure to unusually high levels of environmental pollutants and carcinogens in the country. This review considers this high cancer incidence by exploring a potential gene-environment model based on available DME polymorphism prevalence, and their impact on bladder, colorectal, prostate, breast, and lung cancer in the Lebanese population. The examined DME include glutathione S-transferases (GST), N-acetyltransferases (NAT), and cytochromes P-450 (CYP). Data suggest that these DME influence bladder cancer risk in the Lebanese population. Evidence indicates that identification of a gene-environment interaction model may help in defining future research priorities and preventive cancer control strategies in this country, particularly for breast and lung cancer. PMID:24627976

  13. What Are the Risk Factors for Ovarian Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Different cancers have different risk factors. For example, unprotected exposure to strong sunlight is a risk factor ... in the stomach and intestine while they are teenagers. They also have a high risk of cancer, ...

  14. Insulin resistance and breast-cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Bruning, P F; Bonfrèr, J M; van Noord, P A; Hart, A A; de Jong-Bakker, M; Nooijen, W J

    1992-10-21

    Life-style has a major influence on the incidence of breast cancer. To evaluate the effects of life-style related metabolic-endocrine factors on breast cancer risk we conducted a case-control study comparing 223 women aged 38 to 75 years presenting with operable (stage I or II) breast cancer and 441 women of the same age having no breast cancer, who participated in a population-based breast cancer screening program. Women reporting diabetes mellitus were excluded. Sera from 110 women of the same age group presenting with early stage melanoma, lymphoma or cervical cancer were used as a second 'other-cancer control group'. Serum levels of C-peptide were significantly higher in early breast cancer cases compared to controls. The same was found for the ratios C-peptide to glucose or C-peptide to fructosamine, indicating insulin resistance. Sex hormone binding globulin was inversely, triglycerides and available estradiol were positively related to C-peptide. Serum C-peptide levels were related to body mass index (BMI), and to waist/hip ratio (WHR), in particular in controls. However, the relative increase of C-peptide, C-peptide to glucose or C-peptide to fructosamine in cases was independent of BMI or WHR. The log relative risk was linearly related to the log C-peptide levels. Relative risk according to quintiles, and adjusted for age, family history, BMI and WHR, for women at the 80% level was 2.9 as compared with those at the 20% level for C-peptide. Elevated C-peptide or C-peptide to fructosamine values were not observed in the sera from women belonging to the 'other-cancer control group'. This study suggests that hyperinsulinemia with insulin resistance is a significant risk factor for breast cancer independent of general adiposity or body fat distribution. PMID:1399128

  15. Environmental survey of RCMP detachment building in Powell River, B.C., implicated in a cancer cluster.

    PubMed

    van Netten, C; Brands, R; Teschke, K E; Ashwood-Smith, M J; Morley, D R; Ross, R N

    1995-01-01

    The rationale and approach are presented that were used to investigate the Powell River RCMP detachment building, perceived to have a higher than normal cancer incidence and whose occupants demanded to know whether the building was safe to work in. On the basis of the history of the building and the cancers observed, a set of carcinogens were looked for in areas where the worst conditions were expected. A positive result would initiate a second more in-depth survey. This was done for Fyrol-PCF, which was shown to be a contaminant of the charcoal adsorption tubes used. The results of the survey indicated a safe work environment. The chemical analyses, complemented by the bioassay and comparison with a recognizable control site, were found to be most effective in the acceptance of the results by the public. The conclusions from this survey were confirmed by the findings of an epidemiological survey. PMID:7728718

  16. Ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFAs and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of 274135 adult females from 11 independent prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased ratio of n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in diet or serum may have a protective effect on the risk of breast cancer (BC); however, the conclusions from prospective studies are still controversial. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the relationship between intake ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFAs and the risk of BC, and estimate the potential summarized dose–response trend. Methods Relevant English-language studies were identified through Cochrane Library, PubMed and EMBASE database till April 2013. Eligible prospective studies reporting the multivariate adjusted risk ratios (RRs) for association of n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratio in diet or serum with BC risk. Data extraction was conducted independently by 2 investigators; disagreements were reconciled by consensus. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Study-specific RRs were combined via a random-effects model. Results Six prospective nested case–control and 5 cohort studies, involving 8,331 BC events from 274,135 adult females across different countries, were included in present study. Subjects with higher dietary intake ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFAs have a significantly lower risk of BC among study populations (pooled RR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.99), and per 1/10 increment of ratio in diet was associated with a 6% reduction of BC risk (pooled RR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.90, 0.99; P for linear trend = 0.012). USA subjects with higher ratio of n-3/n-6 in serum phospholipids (PL) have a significantly lower risk of BC (pooled RR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.97; I2 = 0.00%; P for metaregression = 0.103; P for a permutation test = 0.100), and per 1/10 increment of ratio in serum PL was associated with 27% reduction of BC risk (pooled RR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.91; P for linear trend = 0.004; P for metaregression = 0.082; P for a permutation test = 0.116). Conclusions Higher intake ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFAs is associated with lower risk of BC among females, which implies an important evidence for

  17. DNA repair variants and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; Schuetz, Johanna M; Burstyn, Igor; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    A functional DNA repair system has been identified as important in the prevention of tumour development. Previous studies have hypothesized that common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes could play a role in breast cancer risk and also identified the potential for interactions between these polymorphisms and established breast cancer risk factors such as physical activity. Associations with breast cancer risk for 99 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes in ten DNA repair pathways were examined in a case-control study including both Europeans (644 cases, 809 controls) and East Asians (299 cases, 160 controls). Odds ratios in both additive and dominant genetic models were calculated separately for participants of European and East Asian ancestry using multivariate logistic regression. The impact of multiple comparisons was assessed by correcting for the false discovery rate within each DNA repair pathway. Interactions between several breast cancer risk factors and DNA repair SNPs were also evaluated. One SNP (rs3213282) in the gene XRCC1 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the dominant model of inheritance following adjustment for the false discovery rate (P < 0.05), although no associations were observed for other DNA repair SNPs. Interactions of six SNPs in multiple DNA repair pathways with physical activity were evident prior to correction for FDR, following which there was support for only one of the interaction terms (P < 0.05). No consistent associations between variants in DNA repair genes and breast cancer risk or their modification by breast cancer risk factors were observed. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:269-281, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27060854

  18. Impact of radiotherapy in the risk of esophageal cancer as subsequent primary cancer after breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Salminen, Eeva K. . E-mail: eevsal@utu.fi; Pukkala, Eero; Kiel, Krys D.; Hakulinen, Timo T.

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To assess the risk of esophageal cancer as second cancer among breast-cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The records of the Finnish Cancer Registry from 1953 to 2000 were used to assess the risk of esophageal cancer as second cancer among 75,849 breast-cancer patients. Patients were treated with surgery (n = 33,672), radiotherapy (n = 35,057), chemotherapy and radiotherapy (n = 4673), or chemotherapy (n = 2,447). The risk of a new primary cancer was expressed as standardized incidence ratio (SIR), defined as the ratio of observed to expected cases. Results: By the end of 2000, the number of observed cases esophageal cancers was 80 vs. 72 expected cases (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) = 1.1, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.9 to 1.5). Among patients followed for 15 years and treated with radiotherapy, the SIR for esophageal cancer was 2.3 (95% CI = 1.4 to 5.4). No increase in risk was seen for patients treated without radiotherapy. The risk of esophageal cancer was increased among patients diagnosed during 1953 to 1974, although age at the treatment did not have marked effect on the risk estimate. Conclusion: Increased risk of second cancer in the esophagus was observed for breast-cancer patients in Finland, especially among patients with over 15 years of follow-up and treated in the earliest period, which may relate to the type of radiotherapy.

  19. Cell Phones and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at NCI (Intramural) ... is heating. The ability of microwave ovens to heat food is one example of this effect of ...

  20. Healthy Living Slashes Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... lead researcher Lindsay Kohler, a doctoral student in epidemiology at the University of Arizona's Mel and Enid ... benefit, said Marjorie McCullough, strategic director of nutritional epidemiology for the American Cancer Society. "The benefits really ...

  1. Cancer risks in the optical manufacturing industry.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J D; Wegman, D H; Smith, T J

    1983-01-01

    A mortality odds ratio (MOR) study has been conducted to explore the cancer risks of exposures experienced in the production of optical lenses and metal spectacle frames. Male death certificates were obtained from a Massachusetts town where a large optical industry is located. Craftsmen, foremen, and operatives of non-optical industries, such as woollen textile workers and workers in the optical company with short-term or no exposure, were chosen as reference workers their incomes were similar to those of the exposed workers. Cardiovascular disease (total 714) is chosen as the reference disease to explore cancers (total 232). An excess risk of total cancers observed = 70, expected = 48) has formed among lens workers. The excess may be accounted for mainly by the excess risk of gastrointestinal cancers; the standardised MORs (sMOR) for medium and long-term exposure were 2.2 and 2.5. The excess was especially evident for colorectal cancers; the sMORs for medium and long-term exposures were 3.2 and 2.6. Excess risks of gastrointestinal cancers (sMOR = 2.9) and colorectal cancers (sMOR = 3.4) were found among metal frame workers with long-term (employed for more than 29 years) exposure, but the number of exposed cases was small (9 and 6 respectively). These results suggest that exposure to abrasives or cutting oil mists or both, possibly by ingestion, might increase the risk of gastrointestinal (especially colorectal) cancers among lens and metal spectacle frame manufacturers. PMID:6830714

  2. The SLC4A7 variant rs4973768 is associated with breast cancer risk: evidence from a case-control study and a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Zhong, Rong; Ming, Jie; Zou, Li; Zhu, Beibei; Lu, Xuzai; Ke, Juntao; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Li; Miao, Xiaoping; Huang, Tao

    2012-12-01

    Recent genome-wide association study has identified a genetic variant rs4973768, located in 3'-UTR of solute carrier family 4, sodium bicarbonate cotransporter, member 7 (SLC4A7), was associated with increased risk of breast cancer (BC). However, several following replication studies cannot yield consistent results. We thus conducted a hospital-based case-control study including 485 patients and 514 controls, combined a meta-analysis including 108,632 cases and 135,818 controls to explore the relationship between this variant and BC risk. Our case-control study showed that rs4973768 was significantly associated with increased BC risk with the odds ratio (OR) of 1.29 (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-1.60) under the allelic model. In addition, the meta-analysis also indicated that the variant slightly increased the risk of BC with the pooled OR of the per-allele effect being 1.08 (95 % CI: 1.04-1.11) although with significant heterogeneity between studies. Stratified analyses showed that ethnicity, sample size, and study design may explain part of the heterogeneity. Moreover, the bioinformatics analysis suggested that this variant may influence the transcriptional capacity of SLC4A7. In summary, our results showed that the SLC4A7 variant, rs4973768, is associated with risk of BC although the underlying biologic mechanism warrants further studies. PMID:23117855

  3. Korean Risk Assessment Model for Breast Cancer Risk Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Park, Boyoung; Ma, Seung Hyun; Shin, Aesun; Chang, Myung-Chul; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Kim, Sungwan; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Park, Sue K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the performance of the Gail model for a Korean population and developed a Korean breast cancer risk assessment tool (KoBCRAT) based upon equations developed for the Gail model for predicting breast cancer risk. Methods Using 3,789 sets of cases and controls, risk factors for breast cancer among Koreans were identified. Individual probabilities were projected using Gail's equations and Korean hazard data. We compared the 5-year and lifetime risk produced using the modified Gail model which applied Korean incidence and mortality data and the parameter estimators from the original Gail model with those produced using the KoBCRAT. We validated the KoBCRAT based on the expected/observed breast cancer incidence and area under the curve (AUC) using two Korean cohorts: the Korean Multicenter Cancer Cohort (KMCC) and National Cancer Center (NCC) cohort. Results The major risk factors under the age of 50 were family history, age at menarche, age at first full-term pregnancy, menopausal status, breastfeeding duration, oral contraceptive usage, and exercise, while those at and over the age of 50 were family history, age at menarche, age at menopause, pregnancy experience, body mass index, oral contraceptive usage, and exercise. The modified Gail model produced lower 5-year risk for the cases than for the controls (p = 0.017), while the KoBCRAT produced higher 5-year and lifetime risk for the cases than for the controls (p<0.001 and <0.001, respectively). The observed incidence of breast cancer in the two cohorts was similar to the expected incidence from the KoBCRAT (KMCC, p = 0.880; NCC, p = 0.878). The AUC using the KoBCRAT was 0.61 for the KMCC and 0.89 for the NCC cohort. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the KoBCRAT is a better tool for predicting the risk of breast cancer in Korean women, especially urban women. PMID:24204664

  4. Industrialization, electromagnetic fields, and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kheifets, L I; Matkin, C C

    1999-01-01

    The disparity between the rates of breast cancer in industrialized and less-industrialized regions has led to many hypotheses, including the theory that exposure to light-at-night and/or electromagnetic fields (EMF) may suppress melatonin and that reduced melatonin may increase the risk of breast cancer. In this comprehensive review we consider strengths and weaknesses of more than 35 residential and occupational epidemiologic studies that investigated the association between EMF and breast cancer. Although most of the epidemiologic data do not provide strong support for an association between EMF and breast cancer, because of the limited statistical power as well as the possibility of misclassification and bias present in much of the existing data, it is not possible to rule out a relationship between EMF and breast cancer. We make several specific recommendations for future studies carefully designed to test the melatonin-breast cancer and EMF-breast cancer hypotheses. Future study designs should have sufficient statistical power to detect small to moderate associations; include comprehensive exposure assessments that estimate residential and occupational exposures, including shift work; focus on a relevant time period; control for known breast cancer risks; and pay careful attention to menopausal and estrogen receptor status. PMID:10229714

  5. Breast Cancer Risk Reduction, Version 2.2015.

    PubMed

    Bevers, Therese B; Ward, John H; Arun, Banu K; Colditz, Graham A; Cowan, Kenneth H; Daly, Mary B; Garber, Judy E; Gemignani, Mary L; Gradishar, William J; Jordan, Judith A; Korde, Larissa A; Kounalakis, Nicole; Krontiras, Helen; Kumar, Shicha; Kurian, Allison; Laronga, Christine; Layman, Rachel M; Loftus, Loretta S; Mahoney, Martin C; Merajver, Sofia D; Meszoely, Ingrid M; Mortimer, Joanne; Newman, Lisa; Pritchard, Elizabeth; Pruthi, Sandhya; Seewaldt, Victoria; Specht, Michelle C; Visvanathan, Kala; Wallace, Anne; Bergman, Mary Ann; Kumar, Rashmi

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in women in the United States and is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death. To assist women who are at increased risk of developing breast cancer and their physicians in the application of individualized strategies to reduce breast cancer risk, NCCN has developed these guidelines for breast cancer risk reduction. PMID:26150582

  6. Assessing the cancer risk from environmental PCBs.

    PubMed Central

    Cogliano, V J

    1998-01-01

    A new approach to assessing the cancer risk from environmental polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) considers both toxicity and environmental processes to make distinctions among environmental mixtures. New toxicity information from a 1996 cancer study of four commercial mixtures strengthens the case that all PCB mixtures can cause cancer, although different mixtures have different potencies. Environmental processes alter PCB mixtures through partitioning, chemical transformation, and preferential bioaccumulation; these processes can increase or decrease toxicity considerably. Bioaccumulated PCBs are of greatest concern because they appear to be more toxic than commercial PCBs and more persistent in the body. The new approach uses toxicity studies of commercial mixtures to develop a range of cancer potency estimates and then considers the effect of environmental processes to choose appropriate values for representative classes of environmental mixtures. Guidance is given for assessing risks from different exposure pathways, less-than-lifetime and early-life exposures, and mixtures containing dioxinlike compounds. PMID:9618347

  7. Risk of cancer among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Y; Kato, H; Schull, W J

    1991-12-01

    This report describes the risk of cancer and in particular cancers other than leukemia among the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Attention focuses primarily on the risk of death from cancer among individuals in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effect Research Foundation in the period 1950-1985 based on the recently revised dosimetry, termed the DS86 doses. Mortality from malignant tumors is increased among A-bomb survivors as a late effect of A-bomb radiation. Besides the well-known increase of leukemia, there also has been demonstrated increase of cancer of the lung, breast, esophagus, stomach, colon, ovary, urinary bladder, thyroid, and of multiple myeloma, but no increase has yet been observed in mortality from cancer of the rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, prostate and uterus, and of malignant lymphoma. The pattern of appearance over time of radiation-induced cancer other than leukemia differs from that of leukemia. In general, radiation-induced solid cancer begins to appear after attaining the age at which the cancer is normally prone to develop (so-called cancer age), and continues to increase proportionately with the increase in mortality of the control group as it ages. Sensitivity to radiation, in terms of cancer induction, is higher for persons who were young at the time of the bomb (ATB) in general than for those who were older ATB. Furthermore, susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer tends to be higher in pre- than in post-natally exposed survivors (at least those exposed as adults). Other radiation effect modifiers and the shape of the dose response curve will also be discussed. PMID:1823367

  8. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... siblings, or children Gene changes (mutations) in certain genes (rare) African American or Ashkenazi Jews (people of Eastern European Jewish descent) Type II diabetes Diet high in red and processed meats Physical inactivity Obesity Smoking Heavy alcohol use How to Reduce Your Risk Some risk ...

  9. Risk Stratification System for Oral Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Lutécia H Mateus; Reis, Isildinha M; Reategui, Erika P; Gordon, Claudia; Saint-Victor, Sandra; Duncan, Robert; Gomez, Carmen; Bayers, Stephanie; Fisher, Penelope; Perez, Aymee; Goodwin, W Jarrard; Hu, Jennifer J; Franzmann, Elizabeth J

    2016-06-01

    Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer (oral cancer) is a deadly disease that is increasing in incidence. Worldwide 5-year survival is only 50% due to delayed intervention with more than half of the diagnoses at stage III and IV, whereas earlier detection (stage I and II) yields survival rates up to 80% to 90%. Salivary soluble CD44 (CD44), a tumor-initiating marker, and total protein levels may facilitate oral cancer risk assessment and early intervention. This study used a hospital-based design with 150 cases and 150 frequency-matched controls to determine whether CD44 and total protein levels in oral rinses were associated with oral cancer independent of age, gender, race, ethnicity, tobacco and alcohol use, and socioeconomic status (SES). High-risk subjects receiving oral cancer prevention interventions as part of a community-based program (n = 150) were followed over 1 year to determine marker specificity and variation. CD44 ≥5.33 ng/mL was highly associated with case status [adjusted OR 14.489; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.973-35.145; P < .0001, vs. reference group CD44 <2.22 ng/mL and protein <1.23 mg/mL]. Total protein aided prediction above CD44 alone. Sensitivity and specificity in the frequency-matched study was 80% and 48.7%, respectively. However, controls were not representative of the target screening population due, in part, to a high rate of prior cancer. In contrast, specificity in the high-risk community was 74% and reached 95% after annual retesting. Simple and inexpensive salivary CD44 and total protein measurements may help identify individuals at heightened risk for oral cancer from the millions who partake in risky behaviors. Cancer Prev Res; 9(6); 445-55. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27020654

  10. Dietary acrylamide and risk of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kathryn M; Giovannucci, Edward; Stampfer, Meir J; Mucci, Lorelei A

    2012-07-15

    Acrylamide has been designated by IARC as a "probable human carcinogen." High levels are formed during cooking of many commonly consumed foods including French fries, potato chips, breakfast cereal and coffee. Two prospective cohort studies and two case-control studies in Europe found no association between acrylamide intake and prostate cancer. We examined this association in a large prospective cohort of 47,896 US men in the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study, using updated dietary acrylamide intake from food frequency questionnaires in 1986, 1990, 1994, 1998 and 2002. From 1986 through 2006, we documented 5025 cases of prostate cancer, and 642 lethal cancers. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between acrylamide intake from diet and prostate cancer risk overall as well as risk of advanced or lethal cancer. Acrylamide intake ranged from a mean of 10.5 mcg/day in the lowest quintile to 40.1 mcg/day in the highest quintile; coffee and potato products were largest contributors to intake. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk of prostate cancer was 1.02 (95% confidence interval: 0.92-1.13) for the highest versus lowest quintile of acrylamide intake (p-value for trend = 0.90). Results were similar when restricted to never smokers and to men who had prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests. There was no significant association for dietary acrylamide and risk of lethal, advanced or high-grade disease, or for different latency periods ranging from 0-4 years to 12-16 years. We found no evidence that acrylamide intake, within the range of US diets, is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. PMID:21866549

  11. Circulating Adiponectin and Risk of Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qiaoli; Wu, Haijian; Cao, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing hormone produced by adipocytes. It has been suggested to be involved in endometrial tumorigenesis. Published data have shown inconsistent results for the association between circulating adiponectin levels and endometrial cancer. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the predictive value of circulating adiponectin levels on the development of endometrial cancer. Methods PubMed, Embase, ISI web of knowledge, and Cochrane databases were searched for all eligible studies, and the summary relative risk (SRR) was calculated. Additionally, we performed dose-response analysis with eight eligible studies. Results A total of 1,955 cases and 3,458 controls from 12 studies were included. The SRR for the ‘highest’ vs ‘lowest’ adiponectin levels indicated high adiponectin level reduced the risk of endometrial cancer [SRR = 0.40, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.33–0.66]. Results from the subgroup analyses were consistent with the overall analysis. The SRR for each 1 µg/ml increase of adiponectin indicated a 3% reduction in endometrial cancer risk (95% CI: 2%–4%), and a 14% reduction for each increase of 5 µg/ml (95% CI: 9%–19%). No evidence of publication bias was found. Conclusions This meta-analysis demonstrates that low level of circulating adiponectin is a risk factor for endometrial cancer. PMID:26030130

  12. Antidiabetic drugs and risk of cancer.

    PubMed

    Tokajuk, Anna; Krzyżanowska-Grycel, Edyta; Tokajuk, Adrian; Grycel, Sławomir; Sadowska, Anna; Car, Halina

    2015-12-01

    Antidiabetic drugs are an important group of medications used worldwide. They differ from each other in the mechanisms of lowering blood glucose as well as in adverse effects that may affect the course of the treatment and its efficacy. In recent years, new drugs have been discovered in order to improve the maintenance of proper blood glucose level and to reduce unwanted effects of these drugs. Their growing administration is related to the increasing incidence of diabetes observed in all countries in the world. Epidemiological data indicate that diabetes increases the risk of cancer, as well as the risk of death linked with neoplasms. It is still unknown whether this is an effect of antidiabetic drugs or just the effect of diabetes itself. In recent years there have been numerous investigations and meta-analyzes, based on both comparative and cohort studies trying to establish the relationship between antidiabetic pharmacotherapy and the incidence and mortality due to cancer. According to their findings, most of antidiabetic drugs increase the risk of cancer while only few of them show antitumor properties. Different mechanisms of action of glucose-lowering drugs may be responsible for these effects. However, most of the published studies concerning the influence of these drugs on cancer incidence were designed with some limitations and differed from each other in the approach. In this review, we discuss the association between antidiabetic drugs used in monotherapy or polytherapy and cancer risk, and consider potential mechanisms responsible for the observed effects. PMID:26481548

  13. Multi-organ Mapping of Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liqin; Finkelstein, David; Gao, Culian; Shi, Lei; Wang, Yongdong; López-Terrada, Dolores; Wang, Kasper; Utley, Sarah; Pounds, Stanley; Neale, Geoffrey; Ellison, David; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Gilbertson, Richard James

    2016-08-25

    Cancers are distributed unevenly across the body, but the importance of cell intrinsic factors such as stem cell function in determining organ cancer risk is unknown. Therefore, we used Cre-recombination of conditional lineage tracing, oncogene, and tumor suppressor alleles to define populations of stem and non-stem cells in mouse organs and test their life-long susceptibility to tumorigenesis. We show that tumor incidence is determined by the life-long generative capacity of mutated cells. This relationship held true in the presence of multiple genotypes and regardless of developmental stage, strongly supporting the notion that stem cells dictate organ cancer risk. Using the liver as a model system, we further show that damage-induced activation of stem cell function markedly increases cancer risk. Therefore, we propose that a combination of stem cell mutagenesis and extrinsic factors that enhance the proliferation of these cell populations, creates a "perfect storm" that ultimately determines organ cancer risk. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:27565343

  14. Cancer prevention strategies greatly exaggerate risks

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, B.N. ); Gold, L.S. )

    1991-01-07

    This paper reports on the attempt to prevent cancer by regulating low levels of synthetic chemicals by risk assessment. Testing chemicals for carcinogenicity at near-toxic doses in rodents does not provide enough information to predict the excess numbers of human cancers that might occur at low-dose exposures. In addition, this cancer prevention strategy is enormously costly, is counterproductive because it diverts resources from much more important risks, and, in the case of synthetic pesticides, makes fruits and vegetables more expensive, thus serving to decrease consumption of foods that help prevent cancer. The regulatory process doesn't take into account that: The world of natural chemicals makes up the vast bulk of chemicals humans are exposed to. The toxicology of synthetic and natural toxins is not fundamentally different. About half the natural chemicals tested chronically in rats and mice at the maximum tolerated dose are carcinogens. Testing at the maximum tolerated dose frequently can cause chronic cell killing and consequent cell replacement (a risk factor for cancer that can be limited to high doses), and ignoring this greatly exaggerates risks. An extrapolation from high to low doses should be based on an understanding of the mechanisms of carcinogenesis.

  15. Geocost-Bc

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1981-03-24

    GEOCOST calculates the cost of generating electricity from geothermal energy. The version of GEOCOST in this release, GEOCOST-BC, simulates the production of electricity using a binary fluid cycle based upon a hydrothermal resource.

  16. Breast cancer risk in MEN1 - a cancer genetics perspective.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Paul

    2015-03-01

    The tumour spectrum associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) has been known for many years. New data suggest that females with MEN1 may face an additional, hitherto unrecognized, risk of early-onset breast cancer. The menin protein is certainly known to have a role in regulating oestrogen receptor activity; but how robust are the data linking MEN1 to breast cancer? This article examines the published data from the viewpoint of a cancer geneticist and considers whether there really is a justifiable indication for enhanced breast surveillance in women with MEN1. PMID:25279812

  17. Adjuvant radiotherapy for primary breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and risk of contralateral breast cancer with special attention to patients irradiated at younger age.

    PubMed

    Drooger, Jan; Akdeniz, Delal; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Koppert, Linetta B; McCool, Danielle; Seynaeve, Caroline M; Hooning, Maartje J; Jager, Agnes

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the influence of adjuvant radiotherapy for primary breast cancer (BC) on the risk of contralateral BC (CBC) in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutation carriers, with special attention to patients irradiated at age younger than 40 years. Additionally, tendencies in locoregional treatments and rates of contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy over time were explored. In this retrospective cohort study, 691 BRCA1/2-associated BC patients treated between 1980 and 2013 were followed from diagnosis until CBC or censoring event including ipsilateral BC recurrence, distant metastasis, contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy, other invasive cancer diagnosis, death, or loss to follow up. Hazard ratios (HR) for CBC associated with radiotherapy were estimated using Cox regression. Median follow-up time was 8.6 years [range 0.3–34.3 years]. No association between radiotherapy for primary BC and risk of CBC was found, neither in the total population (HR 0.82, 95 % CI 0.45–1.49) nor in the subgroup of patients younger than 40 years at primary diagnosis (HR 1.36, 95 % CI 0.60–3.09). During follow-up, the number of patients at risk decreased substantially since a large proportion of patients were censored after contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy or BC recurrence. Over the years, increasing preference for mastectomy without radiotherapy compared to breast-conserving surgery with radiotherapy was found ranging from less than 30 % in 1995 to almost 50 % after 2010. The rate of contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy increased over the years from less than 40 % in 1995 to more than 60 % after 2010. In this cohort of BRCA1/2-associated BC patients, no association between radiotherapy for primary BC and risk of CBC was observed in the total group, nor in the patients irradiated before the age of 40 years. The number of patients at risk after 10 and 15 years of follow-up, however, was too small to definitively exclude harmful effects of adjuvant

  18. Academic-Community Partnership to Develop a Patient-Centered Breast Cancer Risk Reduction Program for Latina Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda, Sheila F.; Giacinto, Rebeca E.; Medeiros, Elizabeth A.; Brongiel, Ilana; Cardona, Olga; Perez, Patricia; Talavera, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    This collaborative study sought to address Latina breast cancer (BC) disparities by increasing health literacy (HL) in a community health center situated on the US-Mexico border region of San Diego County. An academic-community partnership conducted formative research to develop a culturally tailored promotora-based intervention with 109 individuals. The Spanish language program, entitled Nuestra Cocina: Mesa Buena, Vida Sana (Our Kitchen: Good Table, Healthy Life), included six sessions targeting HL, women’s health, BC risk reduction, and patient-provider communication; sessions include cooking demonstrations of recipes with cancer-risk-reducing ingredients. A pilot study with 47 community health center Latina patients was conducted to examine the program’s acceptability, feasibility, and ability to impact knowledge and skills. Pre- and post-analyses demonstrated that participants improved their self-reported cancer screening, BC knowledge, daily fruit and vegetable intake, and ability to read a nutrition label (p<0.05). Results of the pilot study demonstrate the importance of utilizing patient-centered culturally appropriate noninvasive means to educate and empower Latina patients. PMID:27271058

  19. Academic-Community Partnership to Develop a Patient-Centered Breast Cancer Risk Reduction Program for Latina Primary Care Patients.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Sheila F; Giacinto, Rebeca E; Medeiros, Elizabeth A; Brongiel, Ilana; Cardona, Olga; Perez, Patricia; Talavera, Gregory A

    2016-06-01

    This collaborative study sought to address Latina breast cancer (BC) disparities by increasing health literacy (HL) in a community health center situated on the US-Mexico border region of San Diego County. An academic-community partnership conducted formative research to develop a culturally tailored promotora-based intervention with 109 individuals. The Spanish language program, entitled Nuestra Cocina: Mesa Buena, Vida Sana (Our Kitchen: Good Table, Healthy Life), included six sessions targeting HL, women's health, BC risk reduction, and patient-provider communication; sessions include cooking demonstrations of recipes with cancer-risk-reducing ingredients. A pilot study with 47 community health center Latina patients was conducted to examine the program's acceptability, feasibility, and ability to impact knowledge and skills. Pre- and post-analyses demonstrated that participants improved their self-reported cancer screening, BC knowledge, daily fruit and vegetable intake, and ability to read a nutrition label (p < 0.05). Results of the pilot study demonstrate the importance of utilizing patient-centered culturally appropriate noninvasive means to educate and empower Latina patients. PMID:27271058

  20. Mitochondrial DNA Content and Lung Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Matthew R.; Shen, Min; Liu, Chin-San; DiVita, Margaret; He, Xingzhou; Lan, Qing

    2010-01-01

    Smoky coal contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and has been strongly implicated in etiology of lung cancer in Xuan Wei, China. While PAHs have been demonstrated to form bulky adducts in nuclear DNA, they have a 90-fold greater affinity for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). To compensate for mitochondrial dysfunction or damage, mtDNA content is thought to increase. We conducted a population-based case-control study of lung cancer in Xuan Wei, China hypothesizing that mtDNA content is associated with lung cancer risk. Cases (n = 122) and controls (n = 121) were individually matched on age (±2yrs), sex, village of residence, and type of heating/cooking fuel currently used. Lifetime smoky coal use and potential confounders were determined with questionnaires. mtDNA was extracted from sputum and content was determined with quantitative RT-PCR. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated with unconditional logistic regression. mtDNA content was dichotomized at the median based on the distribution among the controls. mtDNA content > 157 was associated with a 2-fold increase in lung cancer risk (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.0–3.2) compared with those with ≤157 copies. Risk was higher among those >57 years of age compared with those ≤ 57 years (p interaction = 0.01). In summary, mtDNA content was positively associated with lung cancer risk. Furthermore, there was some evidence that mtDNA content was more strongly associated with lung cancer risk among older individuals. However, due to the small sample size, additional studies are needed to evaluate these associations. PMID:18691788

  1. Treatment and Outcomes in Patients With Primary Cutaneous B-Cell Lymphoma: The BC Cancer Agency Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Sarah N.; Wai, Elaine S.; Tan, King; Alexander, Cheryl; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Connors, Joseph M.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To review the treatment and outcomes of patients with primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (CBCL). Methods and Materials: Clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes were analyzed for all patients referred to our institution from 1981 through 2011 with primary CBCL without extracutaneous or distant nodal spread at diagnosis (n=136). Hematopathologists classified 99% of cases using the World Health Organization-European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (WHO-EORTC) guidelines. Results: Median age at diagnosis was 62 years. Classification was 18% diffuse large B-cell leg-type (DLBCL-leg), 32% follicle center (FCCL), 45% marginal zone (MZL), and 6% nonclassifiable (OTHER). Of the 111 subjects with indolent lymphoma (FCCL, MZL, OTHER), 79% received radiation alone (RT), 11% surgery alone, 3% chemotherapy alone, 4% chemotherapy followed by RT, and 3% observation. Following treatment, 29% of subjects relapsed. In-field recurrence occurred in 2% treated with RT and in 33% treated with surgery alone. Of the 25 subjects with DLBCL-leg, 52% received chemotherapy followed by RT, 24% chemotherapy, 20% RT, and 4% surgery alone. Seventy-nine percent received CHOP-type chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin or epirubicin, vincristine, prednisone), 47% with rituximab added. Overall and disease-specific survival and time to progression at 5 years were 81%, 92%, and 69% for indolent and 26%, 61%, and 54% for DLBCL-leg, respectively. On Cox regression analysis of indolent subjects, RT was associated with better time to progression (P=.05). RT dose, chemo, age >60 y, and >1 lesion were not significantly associated with time to progression. For DLBCL-leg, disease-specific survival at 5 years was 100% for those receiving rituximab versus 67% for no rituximab (P=.13). Conclusions: This review demonstrates better outcomes for indolent histology compared with DLBCL-leg, validating the prognostic utility of the WHO-EORTC classification. In the indolent group

  2. Defining chromosomal translocation risks in cancer.

    PubMed

    Hogenbirk, Marc A; Heideman, Marinus R; de Rink, Iris; Velds, Arno; Kerkhoven, Ron M; Wessels, Lodewyk F A; Jacobs, Heinz

    2016-06-28

    Chromosomal translocations are a hallmark of cancer. Unraveling the molecular mechanism of these rare genetic events requires a clear distinction between correlative and causative risk-determinants, where technical and analytical issues can be excluded. To meet this goal, we performed in-depth analyses of publicly available genome-wide datasets. In contrast to several recent reports, we demonstrate that chromosomal translocation risk is causally unrelated to promoter stalling (Spt5), transcriptional activity, or off-targeting activity of the activation-induced cytidine deaminase. Rather, an open chromatin configuration, which is not promoter-specific, explained the elevated translocation risk of promoter regions. Furthermore, the fact that gene size directly correlates with the translocation risk in mice and human cancers further demonstrated the general irrelevance of promoter-specific activities. Interestingly, a subset of translocations observed in cancer patients likely initiates from double-strand breaks induced by an access-independent process. Together, these unexpected and novel insights are fundamental in understanding the origin of chromosome translocations and, consequently, cancer. PMID:27303044

  3. Chemical Mixtures: Cancer Risk Assessment Approaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will describe how EPA uses linear and nonlinear methods to derive cancer slope factors and reference doses,respectively, for single carcinogens, as described in EPA's 2005 Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. Then, the presentation will show how these toxicity ...

  4. Defining chromosomal translocation risks in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hogenbirk, Marc A.; Heideman, Marinus R.; de Rink, Iris; Velds, Arno; Kerkhoven, Ron M.; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.; Jacobs, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations are a hallmark of cancer. Unraveling the molecular mechanism of these rare genetic events requires a clear distinction between correlative and causative risk-determinants, where technical and analytical issues can be excluded. To meet this goal, we performed in-depth analyses of publicly available genome-wide datasets. In contrast to several recent reports, we demonstrate that chromosomal translocation risk is causally unrelated to promoter stalling (Spt5), transcriptional activity, or off-targeting activity of the activation-induced cytidine deaminase. Rather, an open chromatin configuration, which is not promoter-specific, explained the elevated translocation risk of promoter regions. Furthermore, the fact that gene size directly correlates with the translocation risk in mice and human cancers further demonstrated the general irrelevance of promoter-specific activities. Interestingly, a subset of translocations observed in cancer patients likely initiates from double-strand breaks induced by an access-independent process. Together, these unexpected and novel insights are fundamental in understanding the origin of chromosome translocations and, consequently, cancer. PMID:27303044

  5. Gene variant linked to lung cancer risk

    Cancer.gov

    A variation of the gene NFKB1, called rs4648127, is associated with an estimated 44 percent reduction in lung cancer risk. When this information, derived from samples obtained as part of a large NCI-sponsored prevention clinical trial, was compared with d

  6. Nutrition and Gastric Cancer Risk: An Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from epidemiologic, experimental, and animal studies indicate that diet plays an important role in the etiology of gastric cancer. High intake of fresh fruit and vegetable, lycopene and lycopene-containing food products, and potentially vitamin C and selenium may reduce the risk for gastric can...

  7. Endocrine disruptors and prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Gail S

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence both from epidemiology studies and animal models that specific endocrine-disrupting compounds may influence the development or progression of prostate cancer. In large part, these effects appear to be linked to interference with estrogen signaling, either through interacting with ERs or by influencing steroid metabolism and altering estrogen levels within the body. In humans, epidemiologic evidence links specific pesticides, PCBs and inorganic arsenic exposures to elevated prostate cancer risk. Studies in animal models also show augmentation of prostate carcinogenesis with several other environmental estrogenic compounds including cadmium, UV filters and BPA. Importantly, there appears to be heightened sensitivity of the prostate to these endocrine disruptors during the critical developmental windows including in utero and neonatal time points as well as during puberty. Thus infants and children may be considered a highly susceptible population for ED exposures and increased risk of prostate cancers with aging. PMID:18524946

  8. Genetic modifiers of menopausal hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer risk: A genome-wide interaction study

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Anja; Hein, Rebecca; Lindström, Sara; Beckmann, Lars; Behrens, Sabine; Liu, Jianjun; Aschard, Hugues; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Jean; Truong, Thérèse; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Brüning, Thomas; Harth, Volker; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Southey, Melissa; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Eriksson, Mikael; Humpreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Olson, Janet E.; Stevens, Kristen N.; Vachon, Celine M.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk; Webb, Penny M.; Guénel, Pascal; Brauch, Hiltrud; Giles, Graham; García-Closas, Montserrat; Czene, Kamila; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Couch, Fergus J.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Hunter, David J.; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Easton, Douglas F.; Hall, Per; Nevanlinna, Heli; Kraft, Peter; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Women using menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) are at increased risk to develop breast cancer (BC). To detect genetic modifiers of the association between current use of MHT and BC risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of four genome-wide case-only studies followed by replication in eleven case-control studies. We used a case-only design to assess interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and current MHT use on risk of overall and lobular BC. The discovery stage included 2,920 cases (541 lobular) from four genome-wide association studies. The top 1,391 SNPs showing P-values for interaction (Pint) <3.0×10−03 were selected for replication using pooled case-control data from eleven studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, including 7,689 cases (676 lobular) and 9,266 controls. Fixed effects meta-analysis was used to derive combined Pint. No SNP reached genome-wide significance in either the discovery or combined stage. We observed effect modification of current MHT use on overall BC risk by two SNPs on chr13 near POMP (combined Pint≤8.9×10−06), two SNPs in SLC25A21 (combined Pint≤4.8×10−05), and three SNPs in PLCG2 (combined Pint≤4.5×10−05). The association between lobular BC risk was potentially modified by one SNP in TMEFF2 (combined Pint≤2.7×10−05), one SNP in CD80 (combined Pint≤8.2×10−06), three SNPs on chr17 near TMEM132E (combined Pint≤2.2×10−06), and two SNPs on chr18 near SLC25A52 (combined Pint≤4.6×10−05). In conclusion, polymorphisms in genes related to solute transportation in mitochondria, transmembrane signaling and immune cell activation are potentially modifying BC risk associated with current use of MHT. These findings warrant replication in independent studies. PMID:24080446

  9. Breast and Ovarian Cancer and Family History Risk Categories

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases Genomic Resources Breast and Ovarian Cancer and Family History Risk Categories Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Screening. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. February 2016. Family Health History, Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk, and ...

  10. Aromatase Inhibitors and Other Compounds for Lowering Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... References Aromatase inhibitors and other compounds for lowering breast cancer risk Aromatase inhibitors (drugs that lower estrogen levels) ... day. Can aromatase inhibitors lower the risk of breast cancer? Aromatase inhibitors are used mainly to treat hormone ...

  11. Healthy Living May Offset Genetic Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159053.html Healthy Living May Offset Genetic Breast Cancer Risk Lifestyle may matter even more ... be especially powerful for women at relatively high genetic risk of breast cancer, researchers found. "Those genetic ...

  12. What Are the Risk Factors for Bone Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... bone cancer? What are the risk factors for bone cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your ... are caused by defects (mutations) in certain genes. Osteosarcomas Children with certain rare inherited syndromes have an ...

  13. Breast Cancer Risk Assessment SAS Macro (Gail Model)

    Cancer.gov

    A SAS macro (commonly referred to as the Gail Model) that projects absolute risk of invasive breast cancer according to NCI’s Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) algorithm for specified race/ethnic groups and age intervals.

  14. Healthy Living May Offset Genetic Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159053.html Healthy Living May Offset Genetic Breast Cancer Risk Lifestyle may matter even more when your ... Women who carry common gene variants linked to breast cancer can still cut their risk of the disease ...

  15. GERD, Barrett's Esophagus and the Risk for Esophageal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facts About Common Colon Cancer Screening Tests PATIENTS GERD, Barrett's Esophagus and the Risk for Esophageal Cancer ... commonly in Caucasians as well as people with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This cancer is increasing in frequency. ...

  16. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  17. Inactive Women May Face Higher Risk for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the department of cancer prevention and control at Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, N.Y. "Our ... reduce cervical cancer risk," Moysich said in a Roswell release. According to study author Dr. J. Brian ...

  18. Reprocessed uranium exposure and lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Canu, Irina Guseva; Jacob, Sophie; Cardis, Elisabeth; Wild, Pascal; Caër-Lorho, Sylvaine; Auriol, Bernard; Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated the risk of lung cancer in regards to protracted occupational exposure to reprocessed uranium compounds. Two thousand seven hundred and nine male workers employed at the AREVA NC uranium processing plant between 1960 and 2005 in France were included in the cohort. Historical exposure to reprocessed uranium compounds classified by their solubility type was assessed on the basis of the plant's specific job-exposure matrix. Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for attained age, calendar period, and socioeconomic status were used to estimate relative risks in regards of each type of uranium compound. The relative risk of lung cancer tended to increase with decreasing solubility of reprocessed uranium compounds. The highest-though not statistically significant-relative risk was observed among workers exposed to slowly soluble reprocessed uranium dioxide. This study is the first suggesting an increasing risk of lung cancer associated with exposure to reprocessed uranium. Our results are consistent with data from experimental studies of biokinetics and the action mechanism of slowly soluble uranium compounds, but need to be confirmed in larger studies with more detailed dose-response analyses. PMID:20699691

  19. Pancreatic cancer risk in hereditary pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Frank U.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is part of the body's immune response in order to remove harmful stimuli—like pathogens, irritants or damaged cells—and start the healing process. Recurrent or chronic inflammation on the other side seems a predisposing factor for carcinogenesis and has been found associated with cancer development. In chronic pancreatitis mutations of the cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) gene have been identified as risk factors of the disease. Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) is a rare cause of chronic pancreatic inflammation with an early onset, mostly during childhood. HP often starts with recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis and the clinical phenotype is not very much different from other etiologies of the disease. The long-lasting inflammation however generates a tumor promoting environment and represents a major risk factor for tumor development This review will reflect our knowledge concerning the specific risk of HP patients to develop pancreatic cancer. PMID:24600409

  20. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene C677T polymorphism and breast cancer risk: Evidence for genetic susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pradeep; Yadav, Upendra; Rai, Vandana

    2015-01-01

    There are several evidences supporting the role of 5–10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms in breast cancer (BC). Case control association studies on breast cancer have been repeatedly performed over the last two decades, but results are inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis to confirm the association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and BC risk. The articles were retrieved by searching the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Springer Link databases. Crude odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was used to assess the strength of association between C677T polymorphism and BC. Publication bias was assessed by Egger's and Begg-Mazumdar tests. Meta-analysis was performed with Open Meta Analyst. Total 75 studies with 31,315 cases and 35, 608 controls were found suitable for the inclusion in the present meta-analysis. The results of meta-analysis suggested that there were moderate significant association between C677T polymorphism and BC risk using overall comparisons in five genetic models (T vs. C: OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.03–1.13, p = < 0.001; TT + CT vs. CC: OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02–1.09, p = < 0.001; TT vs. CC: OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.06–1.28, p = 0.001; CT vs. CC OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.01–1.08, p = 0.005; TT vs. CT + CC: OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03–1.22, p = 0.005). In conclusion, results of present meta-analysis showed modest association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism with breast cancer in total studies. However, sub-group analysis results based on ethnicity showed strong significant association between TT genotype and breast cancer (TT vs. CC; OR°=°1.26; 95% CI: 1.06–1.51; p = 0.009) in Asian population but in Caucasian population such association was not observed (TT vs. CC; OR°=°1.08; 95% CI: 0.99–1.14; p = 0.05). PMID:26629412

  1. On statistical relationship between ADRA2A expression and the risk of breast cancer relapse.

    PubMed

    Shkurnikov, M Yu; Galatenko, V V; Lebedev, A E; Podol'skii, V E; Tonevitskii, E A; Mal'tseva, D V

    2014-08-01

    The search for novel parameters to predict the risk of relapse in breast cancer was conducted. Significant correlation between the risk of relapse and α-2A adrenergic receptor (ADRA2A) expression was revealed using public microarray datasets. This relationship was confirmed by validation on independent microarray dataset. It was found that when assessing the risk of BC relapse, the accuracy of prediction based solely on the expression of ADRA2A gene is close to that made using OncotypeDX and MammaPrint test systems. In this case, addition of only one or two supplemental prognostic markers (for instance, expression of SQLE gene or SQLE and DSCC1genes) to ADRA2A ensures the accuracy of prediction not inferior to reliability of these test systems. PMID:25110082

  2. Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers and Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yun-Tao; Li, Peng-Yang; Zhang, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Lei; Yi, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) are widely used drugs that are proven to reduce cardiovascular disease events; however, several recent meta-analyses yielded conflicting conclusions regarding the relationship between ARB and cancer incidence, especially when ARB are combined with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI). We investigated the risk of cancer associated with ARB at different background ACEI levels. Search of PubMed and EMBASE (1966 to December 17, 2015) without language restriction. Randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) had at least 12 months of follow-up data and reported cancer incidence was included. Study characteristics, quality, and risk of bias were assessed by 2 reviewers independently. Nineteen RCTs including 148,334 patients were included in this study. Random-effects model meta-analyses were used to estimate the risk ratio (RR) of cancer risk. No excessive cancer risk was observed in our analyses of ARB alone versus placebo alone without background ACEI use (risk ratio [RR] 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00–1.18, P = 0.05); ARB alone versus ACEI alone (RR 1.03, 95%CI 0.94–1.14, P = 0.50); ARB plus partial use of ACEI versus placebo plus partial use of ACEI (RR 0.97, 95%CI 0.90–1.04, P = 0.33); and ARB plus ACEI versus ACEI (RR 0.99, 95%CI 0.79–1.24, P = 0.95). Lack of long-term data, inadequate reporting of safety data, significant heterogeneity in underlying study populations, and treatment regimens. ARB have a neutral effect on cancer incidence in randomized trials. We observed no significant differences in cancer incidence when we compared ARB alone with placebo alone, ARB alone with ACEI alone, ARB plus partial use of ACEI with placebo plus partial use of ACEI, or ARB plus ACEI combination with ACEI. PMID:27149494

  3. What Are the Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer? What are the risk factors for thymus cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Thymus Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  4. Committee opinion no. 634: Hereditary cancer syndromes and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    A hereditary cancer syndrome is a genetic predisposition to certain types of cancer, often with onset at an early age, caused by inherited mutations in one or more genes. Cases of cancer commonly encountered by obstetrician-gynecologists or other obstetric-gynecologic providers--such as breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and endometrial cancer--are features of specific hereditary cancer syndromes. The most common hereditary cancer syndromes related to gynecologic cancer include hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, Lynch syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Cowden syndrome, and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. A hereditary cancer risk assessment is the key to identifying patients and families who may be at increased risk of developing certain types of cancer. Screening should include, at minimum, a personal cancer history and a first- and second-degree relative cancer history that includes a description of the type of primary cancer, the age of onset, and the lineage (paternal versus maternal) of the family member. In addition, a patient's ethnic background can influence her genetic risk. If a hereditary cancer risk assessment suggests an increased risk of a hereditary cancer syndrome, referral to a specialist in cancer genetics or a health care provider with expertise in genetics is recommended for expanded gathering of family history information, risk assessment, education, and counseling, which may lead to genetic testing. PMID:26000542

  5. Cancer-Risk Module Identification and Module-Based Disease Risk Evaluation: A Case Study on Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wan; Zhang, Liangcai; Feng, Chenchen; He, Yuehan; Bi, Xiaoman; Wang, Liqiang; Du, Youwen; Hou, Min; Hao, Dapeng; Xiao, Yun; Chen, Lina; Li, Kongning

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression profiles have drawn broad attention in deciphering the pathogenesis of human cancers. Cancer-related gene modules could be identified in co-expression networks and be applied to facilitate cancer research and clinical diagnosis. In this paper, a new method was proposed to identify lung cancer-risk modules and evaluate the module-based disease risks of samples. The results showed that thirty one cancer-risk modules were closely related to the lung cancer genes at the functional level and interactional level, indicating that these modules and genes might synergistically lead to the occurrence of lung cancer. Our method was proved to have good robustness by evaluating the disease risk of samples in eight cancer expression profiles (four for lung cancer and four for other cancers), and had better performance than the WGCNA method. This method could provide assistance to the diagnosis and treatment of cancers and a new clue for explaining cancer mechanisms. PMID:24643254

  6. Risk of Ovarian Cancer Relapse Score

    PubMed Central

    Rizzuto, Ivana; Stavraka, Chara; Chatterjee, Jayanta; Borley, Jane; Hopkins, Thomas Glass; Gabra, Hani; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Huson, Les; Blagden, Sarah P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to construct a prognostic index that predicts risk of relapse in women who have completed first-line treatment for ovarian cancer (OC). Methods A database of OC cases from 2000 to 2010 was interrogated for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, grade and histological subtype of cancer, preoperative and posttreatment CA-125 level, presence or absence of residual disease after cytoreductive surgery and on postchemotherapy computed tomography scan, and time to progression and death. The strongest predictors of relapse were included into an algorithm, the Risk of Ovarian Cancer Relapse (ROVAR) score. Results Three hundred fifty-four cases of OC were analyzed to generate the ROVAR score. Factors selected were preoperative serum CA-125, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage and grade of cancer, and presence of residual disease at posttreatment computed tomography scan. In the validation data set, the ROVAR score had a sensitivity and specificity of 94% and 61%, respectively. The concordance index for the validation data set was 0.91 (95% confidence interval, 0.85-0.96). The score allows patient stratification into low (<0.33), intermediate (0.34–0.67), and high (>0.67) probability of relapse. Conclusions The ROVAR score stratifies patients according to their risk of relapse following first-line treatment for OC. This can broadly facilitate the appropriate tailoring of posttreatment care and support. PMID:25647256

  7. Hereditary cancer risk assessment: essential tools for a better approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary cancer risk assessment (HCRA) is a multidisciplinary process of estimating probabilities of germline mutations in cancer susceptibility genes and assessing empiric risks of cancer, based on personal and family history. It includes genetic counseling, testing and management of at-risk individuals so that they can make well-informed choices about cancer surveillance, surgical treatment and chemopreventive measures, including biomolecular cancer therapies. Providing patients and family members with an appropriate HCRA will contribute to a better process of making decisions about their personal and family risks of cancer. Following individuals at high risk through screening protocols, reassuring those at low risk, and referring those at increased risk of hereditary cancer to a cancer genetics center may be the best suitable approach of HCRA. PMID:24165150

  8. Char BC amendments for soil and sediment amelioration: BC quantification and field pilot trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelissen, G.; Braendli, R. C.; Eek, E.; Henriksen, T.; Hartnik, T.; Breedveld, G. D.

    2008-12-01

    Background Activated char BC binds organic contaminants and possibly mercury so strongly that their bioaccumulation and transport to other environmental compartments are reduced. The advantages of black carbon amendment over many other remediation methods include i) it can be used as an in situ risk reduction method, ii) the price is low, and iii) it overcomes significant controversies associated with disposal of dredged and excavated materials. In this study BC amendment is used in pilot trials in the field for soil and sediment amelioration. Quantification of amended char BC Two methods for char BC quantification were tested: i) chemothermal oxidation (CTO) at a range of temperatures and ii) wet chemical oxidation with a potassium dichromate/sulfuric acid solution. The amount of BC amended to three soils was accurately determined by CTO at 375°C. For two sediments, much of the BC disappeared during combustion at 375°C, which could probably be explained by catalytic effects caused by sediment constituents such as metals, mineral oxides and salts. Attempts to avoid these effects through rinsing with acid before combustion did not result in higher char BC recoveries. CTO at lower temperatures (325-350°C) was a feasible alternative for one of the sediments. Wet oxidation with potassium dichromate/sulfuric acid proved to effectively function for BC quantification in sediments, since almost complete BC recovery (81-92 %) was observed for both sediments, while the amount of organic carbon remaining was low (5-16 %). Field pilots Earlier, we showed the effectiveness of BC amendment in the laboratory. In the laboratory it was shown that BC amendments (2 %) reduced freely dissolved porewater concentrations (factor of 10-50) and bioaccumulation (factor of 5). This presentation will describe 50 × 50 m pilot field trials in Norway (2007-2008): Trondheim Harbor (sediment) and Drammen (soil). The presentation will focus on physical monitoring (distribution of BC in the

  9. Plasma and urinary alkylresorcinol metabolites as potential biomarkers of breast cancer risk in Finnish women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Koskela, Anja; Samaletdin, Adile; Adlercreutz, Herman

    2010-01-01

    Alkylresorcinols (ARs) are shown to be good biomarkers of consumption of rye and whole-grain wheat products in man. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate AR metabolites as potential biomarkers of breast cancer (BC) risk in Finnish women since intake of cereal fiber and its components has been proposed to reduce this risk through an effect on the enterohepatic circulation of estrogens. This was a cross-sectional and observational pilot study. A total of 20 omnivores, 20 vegetarians, and 16 BC women (6-12 mo after operation) were investigated on 2 occasions 6 mo apart. Dietary intake (5-days record), plasma/urinary AR metabolites [3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-propanoic acid (DHPPA)] and plasma/urinary enterolactone were measured. The groups were compared using nonparametric tests. We observed that plasma DHBA (P = 0.007; P = 0.03), plasma DHPPA (P = 0.02; P = 0.01), urinary DHBA (P = 0.001; P = 0.003), urinary DHPPA (P = 0.001; P = 0.001), and cereal fiber intake (P = 0.007; P = 0.003) were significantly lower in the BC group compared to the vegetarian and omnivore groups, respectively. Based on measurements of AR metabolites in urine and in plasma, whole-grain rye and wheat cereal fiber intake is low in BC subjects. Thus, urinary and plasma AR metabolites may be used as potential biomarkers of BC risk in women. This novel approach will likely also facilitate studies of associations between rye and whole-grain wheat cereal fiber intake and other diseases. Our findings should, however, be confirmed with larger subject populations. PMID:20661824

  10. Association of breast cancer risk loci with breast cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Lindström, Sara; Shui, Irene; Black, Amanda; Hoover, Robert N; Ziegler, Regina G; Buring, Julie E; Chanock, Stephen J; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Giles, Graham G; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian E; Hankinson, Susan; Hunter, David J; Joshi, Amit D; Kraft, Peter; Lee, I-Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L; Southey, Melissa C; Willett, Walter; Gunter, Marc; Panico, Salvatore; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sánchez, María-José; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Peeters, Petra H; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele

    2015-12-15

    The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of evidence suggest that alleles influencing breast cancer risk might also be associated with breast cancer survival. We examined the associations between 35 breast cancer susceptibility loci and the disease over-all survival (OS) in 10,255 breast cancer patients from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) of which 1,379 died, including 754 of breast cancer. We also conducted a meta-analysis of almost 35,000 patients and 5,000 deaths, combining results from BPC3 and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) and performed in silico analyses of SNPs with significant associations. In BPC3, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was significantly associated with improved OS (HRper-allele =0.70; 95% CI: 0.58-0.85; ptrend  = 2.84 × 10(-4) ; HRheterozygotes  = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.55-0.92; HRhomozygotes  = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.76; p2DF  = 1.45 × 10(-3) ). In silico, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was predicted to increase expression of the tumor suppressor cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C). In the meta-analysis, TNRC9-rs3803662 was significantly associated with increased death hazard (HRMETA =1.09; 95% CI: 1.04-1.15; ptrend  = 6.6 × 10(-4) ; HRheterozygotes  = 0.96 95% CI: 0.90-1.03; HRhomozygotes  = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.35; p2DF =1.25 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, we show that there is little overlap between the breast cancer risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified so far and the SNPs associated with breast cancer prognosis, with the possible exceptions of LSP1-rs3817198 and TNRC9-rs3803662. PMID:25611573

  11. Higher cancer risk continues after Chernobyl

    Cancer.gov

    Nearly 25 years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine, exposure to radioactive iodine-131(I-131, a radioactive isotope) from fallout may be responsible for thyroid cancers that are still occurring among people who lived in the Chernobyl area and were children or adolescents at the time of the accident, researchers say. An international team of researchers led by the NCI found a clear dose-response relationship, in which higher absorption of radiation from I-131 led to an increased risk for thyroid cancer that has not seemed to diminish over time.

  12. Leukemia risk following radiotherapy for breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, R.E.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Stovall, M.; Flannery, J.T.; Moloney, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate further the relationship between high-dose radiotherapy and leukemia incidence, a nested case-control study was conducted in a cohort of 22,753 women who were 18-month survivors of invasive breast cancer diagnosed from 1935 to 1972. Women treated for breast cancer after 1973 were excluded to minimize the possible confounding influence of treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. The cases had histologically confirmed leukemia reported to the Connecticut Tumor Registry (CTR) between 1935 and 1984. A total of 48 cases of leukemia following breast cancer were included in the study. Two controls were individually matched to each leukemia case on the basis of age, calendar year when diagnosed with breast cancer, and survival time. Leukemia diagnoses were verified by one hematologist. Radiation dose to active bone marrow was estimated by medical physicists on the basis of the original radiotherapy records of study subjects. Local radiation doses to each of the 16 bone marrow components for each patient were reconstructed; the dose averaged over the entire body was 530 rad (5.3 Gy). Based on this dosage and assuming a linear relationship between dose and affect, a relative risk (RR) in excess of 10 would have been expected. However, there was little evidence that radiotherapy increased the overall risk of leukemia (RR = 1.16; 90% confidence interval (CI), 0.6 to 2.1). The risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, one of the few malignancies without evidence for an association with ionizing radiation, was not significantly increased (RR = 1.8; n = 10); nor was the risk for all other forms of leukemia (RR = 1.0; n = 38). There was no indication that risk varied over categories of radiation dose.

  13. Awareness Levels about Breast Cancer Risk Factors, Early Warning Signs, and Screening and Therapeutic Approaches among Iranian Adult Women: A large Population Based Study Using Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tazhibi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective. Breast cancer (BC) continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality among women throughout the world and in Iran. Lack of awareness and early detection program in developing country is a main reason for escalating the mortality. The present research was conducted to assess the Iranian women's level of knowledge about breast cancer risk factors, early warning signs, and therapeutic and screening approaches, and their correlated determinants. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, 2250 women before participating at a community based screening and public educational program in an institute of cancer research in Isfahan, Iran, in 2012 were investigated using a self-administered questionnaire about risk factors, early warning signs, and therapeutic and screening approaches of BC. Latent class regression as a comprehensive statistical method was used for evaluating the level of knowledge and its correlated determinants. Results. Only 33.2%, 31.9%, 26.7%, and 35.8% of study participants had high awareness levels about screening approaches, risk factors, early warning signs and therapeutic modalities of breast cancer, respectively, and majority had poor to moderate knowledge levels. Most effective predictors of high level of awareness were higher educational qualifications, attending in screening and public educational programs, personal problem, and family history of BC, respectively. Conclusion. Results of current study indicated that the levels of awareness among study population about key elements of BC are low. These findings reenforce the continuing need for more BC education through conducting public and professional programs that are intended to raise awareness among younger, single women and those with low educational attainments and without family history. PMID:25295257

  14. Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding And Risk of Gastrointestinal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Viborg, Søren; Søgaard, Kirstine Kobberøe; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Nørrelund, Helene; Pedersen, Lars; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a well-known symptom of colorectal cancer (CRC). Whether incident GI bleeding is also a marker of other GI cancers remains unclear. METHODS: This nationwide cohort study examined the risk of various GI cancer types in patients with lower GI bleeding. We used Danish medical registries to identify all patients with a first-time hospital diagnosis of lower GI bleeding during 1995–2011 and followed them for 10 years to identify subsequent GI cancer diagnoses. We computed absolute risks of cancer, treating death as a competing risk, and calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) by comparing observed cancer cases with expected cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: Among 58,593 patients with lower GI bleeding, we observed 2,806 GI cancers during complete 10-year follow-up. During the first year of follow-up, the absolute GI cancer risk was 3.6%, and the SIR of any GI cancer was 16.3 (95% confidence interval (CI): 15.6–17.0). Colorectal cancers accounted for the majority of diagnoses, but risks of all GI cancers were increased. During 1–5 years of follow-up, the SIR of any GI cancer declined to 1.36 (95% CI: 1.25–1.49), but risks remained increased for several GI cancers. Beyond 5 years of follow-up, the overall GI cancer risk was close to unity, with reduced risk of rectal cancer and increased risk of liver and pancreatic cancers. CONCLUSIONS: A hospital-based diagnosis of lower GI bleeding is a strong clinical marker of prevalent GI cancer, particularly CRC. It also predicts an increased risk of any GI cancer beyond 1 year of follow-up. PMID:27054580

  15. BC Jurisdictional Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report was submitted by the BC Council on Admissions (BCCAT) to the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC). This report is a summary of projects and activities completed by BCCAT during the period from April 1, 2009, to March 31, 2010. The purpose of this report is to inform the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC) of…

  16. Occupational exposure and lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Kvåle, G; Bjelke, E; Heuch, I

    1986-02-15

    The importance of occupation held longest as a risk factor for lung cancer was examined in a prospective study in Norway of 11,995 men, among whom 125 cases occurred in a follow-up from 1966 through 1978. Based on information about occupation held longest, the respondents were classified into 3 groups according to suspected exposure to respiratory carcinogens at the workplace. After stratification for age, place of residence and cigarette smoking, we found a highly significant relative risk of 2.6 for those judged to have experienced definite exposure versus the group with no workplace exposure. The apparent risk-enhancing effect of occupational exposure was observed for all histologic subtypes. Stratification including a socioeconomic factor score led to a moderate reduction in the relative risk estimate. High risk estimates still obtained, however, for a limited number of occupations, the highest for workers in the mining and quarrying industries. Although the interpretation of the observed effect associated with a crude index of occupational exposure may be difficult, our results suggest that between 13 and 27% of the lung cancer cases observed among Norwegian men in the relevant time period can be attributed to harmful work-place exposure. PMID:3943919

  17. Perceived risk for cancer in an urban sexual minority

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Jennifer L.; Coups, Elliot; Warren, Barbara; Li, Yuelin; Ostroff, Jamie S.

    2013-01-01

    Lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals are a sexual minority experiencing elevated cancer risk factors and health disaparites, e.g., elevated tobacco use, disproportionate rates of infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Little attention has been paid to cancer prevention, education, and control in sexual minorities. This study describes cancer risk perceptions and their correlates so as to generate testable hypotheses and provide a foundation for targeting cancer prevention and risk reduction efforts in this high risk population. A cross-sectional survey of affiliates of a large urban community center serving sexual minority persons yielded a study sample of 247 anonymous persons. The survey assessed demographics, absolute perceived cancer risk, cancer risk behaviors, desired lifestyle changes to reduce cancer risk, and psychosocial variables including stress, depression, and stigma. Univariate and multivariate nonparametric statistics were used for analyses. The sample was primarily white non-Hispanic, middle-aged, and > 80% had at least a high school education. Mean values for absolute perceived cancer risk (range 0–100% risk), were 43.0 (SD = 25.4) for females, and for males, 49.3 (SD = 24.3). For females, although the multivariate regression model for absolute perceived cancer risk was statistically significant (P < .05), no single model variable was significant. For men, the multivariate regression model was significant (P < .001), with endorsement of “don't smoke/quit smoking” to reduce personal cancer risk (P < .001), and greater number of sexual partners (P = .054), positively associated with absolute perceived risk for cancer. This study provides novel data on cancer risk perceptions in sexual minorities, identifying correlates of absolute perceived cancer risk for each gender and several potential foci for cancer prevention interventions with this at-risk group. PMID:20872174

  18. Perceived risk for cancer in an urban sexual minority.

    PubMed

    Burkhalter, Jack E; Hay, Jennifer L; Coups, Elliot; Warren, Barbara; Li, Yuelin; Ostroff, Jamie S

    2011-06-01

    Lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals are a sexual minority experiencing elevated cancer risk factors and health disaparites, e.g., elevated tobacco use, disproportionate rates of infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Little attention has been paid to cancer prevention, education, and control in sexual minorities. This study describes cancer risk perceptions and their correlates so as to generate testable hypotheses and provide a foundation for targeting cancer prevention and risk reduction efforts in this high risk population. A cross-sectional survey of affiliates of a large urban community center serving sexual minority persons yielded a study sample of 247 anonymous persons. The survey assessed demographics, absolute perceived cancer risk, cancer risk behaviors, desired lifestyle changes to reduce cancer risk, and psychosocial variables including stress, depression, and stigma. Univariate and multivariate nonparametric statistics were used for analyses. The sample was primarily white non-Hispanic, middle-aged, and > 80% had at least a high school education. Mean values for absolute perceived cancer risk (range 0-100% risk), were 43.0 (SD = 25.4) for females, and for males, 49.3 (SD = 24.3). For females, although the multivariate regression model for absolute perceived cancer risk was statistically significant (P < .05), no single model variable was significant. For men, the multivariate regression model was significant (P < .001), with endorsement of "don't smoke/quit smoking" to reduce personal cancer risk (P < .001), and greater number of sexual partners (P = .054), positively associated with absolute perceived risk for cancer. This study provides novel data on cancer risk perceptions in sexual minorities, identifying correlates of absolute perceived cancer risk for each gender and several potential foci for cancer prevention interventions with this at-risk group. PMID:20872174

  19. Poor periodontal health: A cancer risk?

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, K. S.; Thomas, Deepak; Hegde, Shashikanth; Kumar, M. S. Arun

    2013-01-01

    Evidence indicates that chronic infections and inflammation are associated with increased risk of cancer development. There has also been considerable evidence that proves the interrelationship between bacterial and viral infections and carcinogenesis. Periodontitis is a chronic oral infection thought to be caused by gram-negative anaerobic bacteria in the dental biofilm. Periodontal bacteria and viruses may act synergistically to cause periodontitis. Many studies have shown that periodontal pockets may act as reservoirs for human papilloma virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus, and suspected agents associated with oral cancer. Periodontitis, characterized by epithelial proliferation and migration, results in a chronic release of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, prostaglandins, and enzymes, all of which are associated with cancer development. This review article intends to shed light on the association between periodontal health and carcinogenesis. PMID:24554877

  20. Risk stratification strategies for cancer-associated thrombosis: an update.

    PubMed

    Khorana, Alok A; McCrae, Keith R

    2014-05-01

    Rates of venous thromboembolism (VTE) vary substantially between cancer patients. Multiple clinical risk factors including primary site of cancer and systemic therapy, and biomarkers including leukocyte and platelet counts and tissue factor are associated with increased risk of VTE. However, risk cannot be reliably predicted based on single risk factors or biomarkers. New American Society of Clinical Guidelines recommend that patients with cancer be assessed for VTE risk at the time of chemotherapy initiation and periodically thereafter. This narrative review provides an update on risk stratification approaches including a validated Risk Score. Potential applications of risk assessment including targeted thromboprophylaxis are outlined. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. PMID:24862143

  1. Blood Type Influences Pancreatic Cancer Risk | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    A variation in the gene that determines ABO blood type influences the risk of pancreatic cancer, according to the results of the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) for this highly lethal disease. The genetic variation, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), was discovered in a region of chromosome 9 that harbors the gene that determines blood type, the researchers reported August 2 online in Nature Genetics. |

  2. Inhalation cancer risk assessment of cobalt metal.

    PubMed

    Suh, Mina; Thompson, Chad M; Brorby, Gregory P; Mittal, Liz; Proctor, Deborah M

    2016-08-01

    Cobalt compounds (metal, salts, hard metals, oxides, and alloys) are used widely in various industrial, medical and military applications. Chronic inhalation exposure to cobalt metal and cobalt sulfate has caused lung cancer in rats and mice, as well as systemic tumors in rats. Cobalt compounds are listed as probable or possible human carcinogens by some agencies, and there is a need for quantitative cancer toxicity criteria. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has derived a provisional inhalation unit risk (IUR) of 0.009 per μg/m(3) based on a chronic inhalation study of soluble cobalt sulfate heptahydrate; however, a recent 2-year cancer bioassay affords the opportunity to derive IURs specifically for cobalt metal. The mechanistic data support that the carcinogenic mode of action (MOA) is likely to involve oxidative stress, and thus, non-linear/threshold mechanisms. However, the lack of a detailed MOA and use of high, toxic exposure concentrations in the bioassay (≥1.25 mg/m(3)) preclude derivation of a reference concentration (RfC) protective of cancer. Several analyses resulted in an IUR of 0.003 per μg/m(3) for cobalt metal, which is ∼3-fold less potent than the provisional IUR. Future research should focus on establishing the exposure-response for key precursor events to improve cobalt metal risk assessment. PMID:27177823

  3. Cancer Risks in Aluminum Reduction Plant Workers

    PubMed Central

    Labrèche, France

    2014-01-01

    Objective and Methods: This review examines epidemiological evidence relating to cancers in the primary aluminum industry where most of what is known relates to Söderberg operations or to mixed Söderberg/prebake operations. Results and Conclusions: Increased lung and bladder cancer risks have been reported in Söderberg workers from several countries, but not in all. After adjustment for smoking, these cancer risks still increase with cumulative exposure to benzo(a)pyrene, used as an index of coal tar pitch volatiles exposure. Limited evidence has been gathered in several cohorts for an increased risk of tumors at other sites, including stomach, pancreas, rectum/rectosigmoid junction, larynx, buccal cavity/pharynx, kidney, brain/nervous system, prostate, and lymphatic/hematopoietic tissues (in particular non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin disease, and leukemia). Nevertheless, for most of these tumor sites, the relationship with specific exposures has not been demonstrated clearly and further follow-up of workers is warranted. PMID:24806725

  4. Genetic polymorphisms and esophageal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hiyama, Toru; Yoshihara, Masaharu; Tanaka, Shinji; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2007-10-15

    The aim of this paper is to review and evaluate, in a comprehensive manner, the published data regarding the contribution of genetic polymorphisms to risk of esophageal cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma, in humans. All relevant studies available in MEDLINE and published before February 2007 were identified. Studies carried out in humans and that compared esophageal cancer patients with at least 1 standard control group were considered for analysis. One-hundred studies and 3 meta-analyses were identified. Eighty (80%) studies were conducted in Asian countries, particularly China including Taiwan (60 (60%) studies). The most intensively examined genes were those encoding carcinogen metabolic enzymes. The most widely studied gene was GSTM1 (15 studies), followed by ALDH2 (11 studies). ALDH2, MTHFR C677T, CYP1A1 Ile/Val, CYP1A1MspI, CYP2E1, GSTP1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 were examined by meta-analyses and significant relations were found between ALDH2*1*2 and the CYP1A1 Val allele and increased risk of esophageal cancer. In addition, increased risk of esophageal SCC was consistently associated with the ADH2*1*2 and the p53 codon 72 Pro/Pro genotypes. Cohort studies that simultaneously consider multiple genetic and environmental factors possibly involved in esophageal carcinogenesis are needed to ascertain not only the relative contribution of these factors to tumor development but also the contributions of their putative interactions. PMID:17674367

  5. Residential Radon: The Neglected Risk Factor in Lung Cancer Risk Scores.

    PubMed

    Torres-Duran, María; Fernandez-Villar, Alberto; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    There are some published scores to estimate lung cancer risk of mortality or incidence. Nevertheless, no score has included residential radon as a variable to be considered when estimating lung cancer risk. In this commentary we discuss the importance of including residential radon as a factor to be taken into account when calculating lung cancer risk. PMID:27565403

  6. Dietary factors associated with bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Piyathilake, Chandrika

    2016-06-01

    It is biologically plausible for dietary factors to influence bladder cancer risk considering that beneficial as well as harmful components of a diet are excreted through the urinary tract and in direct contact with the epithelium of the bladder. However, studies that investigated the association between dietary factors and bladder cancer (BC) risk have largely reported inconsistent results. The macronutrient intake and risk of BC could have yield inconsistent results across studies because of lack of details on the type, source and the quantities of different dietary fatty acids consumed. There is evidence to suggest that consumption of processed meat may increase BC risk. Dietary carbohydrate intake does not appear to be directly associated with BC risk. Even though a large number of studies have investigated the association between fruit/vegetable consumption/micronutrients in those and BC risk, they have yielded inconsistent results. Gender-specific subgroup analysis, details of how fruits and vegetables are consumed (raw vs. cooked), adequate control for smoking status/aggressiveness of the cancer and consideration of genetic make-up may clarify these inconsistent results. There is no strong evidence to suggest that supplementation with any common micronutrient is effective in reducing BC risk. These limitations in published research however do not totally eclipse the observation that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables and low in processed meat along with especially smoking cessation may convey some protective effects against BC risk. PMID:27326403

  7. Dietary factors associated with bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It is biologically plausible for dietary factors to influence bladder cancer risk considering that beneficial as well as harmful components of a diet are excreted through the urinary tract and in direct contact with the epithelium of the bladder. However, studies that investigated the association between dietary factors and bladder cancer (BC) risk have largely reported inconsistent results. The macronutrient intake and risk of BC could have yield inconsistent results across studies because of lack of details on the type, source and the quantities of different dietary fatty acids consumed. There is evidence to suggest that consumption of processed meat may increase BC risk. Dietary carbohydrate intake does not appear to be directly associated with BC risk. Even though a large number of studies have investigated the association between fruit/vegetable consumption/micronutrients in those and BC risk, they have yielded inconsistent results. Gender-specific subgroup analysis, details of how fruits and vegetables are consumed (raw vs. cooked), adequate control for smoking status/aggressiveness of the cancer and consideration of genetic make-up may clarify these inconsistent results. There is no strong evidence to suggest that supplementation with any common micronutrient is effective in reducing BC risk. These limitations in published research however do not totally eclipse the observation that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables and low in processed meat along with especially smoking cessation may convey some protective effects against BC risk. PMID:27326403

  8. Functional annotation of colon cancer risk SNPs

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Lijing; Tak, Yu Gyoung; Berman, Benjamin P.; Farnham, Peggy J.

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with increased risk for CRC. A molecular understanding of the functional consequences of this genetic variation has been complicated because each GWAS SNP is a surrogate for hundreds of other SNPs, most of which are located in non-coding regions. Here we use genomic and epigenomic information to test the hypothesis that the GWAS SNPs and/or correlated SNPs are in elements that regulate gene expression, and identify 23 promoters and 28 enhancers. Using gene expression data from normal and tumour cells, we identify 66 putative target genes of the risk-associated enhancers (10 of which were also identified by promoter SNPs). Employing CRISPR nucleases, we delete one risk-associated enhancer and identify genes showing altered expression. We suggest that similar studies be performed to characterize all CRC risk-associated enhancers. PMID:25268989

  9. Outcome of T1N0M0 breast cancer in relation to St. Gallen risk assignment criteria for adjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Garassino, I; Gullo, G; Orefice, S; Tondulli, L; Masci, G; Salvini, P; Eboli, M; Di Tommaso, L; Giordano, L; Alloisio, M; Roncalli, M; Santoro, A

    2009-08-01

    T1N0M0 (stage I) breast cancer (BC) has been increasing in recent decades but the optimal adjuvant approach remains controversial. To assess the outcome of BC patients stratified and treated with multimodal therapies according to St. Gallen consensus meeting recommendations, we retrospectively evaluated an unselected cohort of T1N0M0 BC patients, with respect to the St. Gallen criteria. At a median follow-up of 5 years, the recurrence rate, recurrence-free survival and overall survival were 7%, 94% and 96% respectively, and 60% of relapses were locoregional. No statistically significant difference was observed between T1a,b/T1c groups, or among risk categories (high/intermediate/low). The very low rate of distant recurrences even in patients with unfavorable prognostic factors seems to support the use of adjuvant systemic therapies but better prognostic and predictive factors are strongly needed for this subset of patients. PMID:19682903

  10. [Cancer risk associated to ionizing radiation].

    PubMed

    Laurier, Dominique; Hill, Catherine

    2013-10-01

    This article presents an update of the available data on the risk of cancer associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. The epidemiological studies conducted or continued during the last 10 years have led to improved quantification of radiation induced risks at low dose levels, notably by extension of the follow-up duration. The results comfort the underlying hypotheses of the radiation protection system in use. In particular, they show the existence of an increased risk for doses below 100 mSv of for exposures protracted over time. These results highlight the relevance of measures to reduce all exposures: accidental, medical, occupational or natural, and reinforce the importance of a prudent use of medical radiation, particularly for children. PMID:24298833

  11. Moving Forward in Human Cancer Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Paules, Richard S.; Aubrecht, Jiri; Corvi, Raffaella; Garthoff, Bernward; Kleinjans, Jos C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The current safety paradigm for assessing carcinogenic properties of drugs, cosmetics, industrial chemicals, and environmental exposures relies mainly on in vitro genotoxicity testing followed by 2-year rodent bioassays. This testing battery is extremely sensitive but has low specificity. Furthermore, rodent bioassays are associated with high costs, high animal burden, and limited predictive value for human risks. Objectives We provide a response to a growing appeal for a paradigm change in human cancer risk assessment. Methods To facilitate development of a road map for this needed paradigm change in carcinogenicity testing, a workshop titled “Genomics in Cancer Risk Assessment” brought together toxicologists from academia and industry and government regulators and risk assessors from the United States and the European Union. Participants discussed the state-of-the-art in developing alternative testing strategies for carcinogenicity, with emphasis on potential contributions from omics technologies. Results and Conclusions The goal of human risk assessment is to decide whether a given exposure to an agent is acceptable to human health and to provide risk management measures based on evaluating and predicting the effects of exposures on human health. Although exciting progress is being made using genomics approaches, a new paradigm that uses these methods and human material when possible would provide mechanistic insights that may inform new predictive approaches (e.g., in vitro assays) and facilitate the development of genomics-derived biomarkers. Regulators appear to be willing to accept such approaches where use is clearly defined, evidence is strong, and approaches are qualified for regulatory use. PMID:21147607

  12. Circumcision and the risk of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jonathan L; Lin, Daniel W; Stanford, Janet L

    2011-01-01

    Background Several lines of evidence support a role for infectious agents in the development of prostate cancer (PCa). In particular, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have been implicated in PCa etiology, and studies have found that the risk of acquiring a STI can be reduced with circumcision. Therefore, circumcision may reduce PCa risk. Methods Participant data collected as part of two population-based case-control studies of PCa were analyzed. Self-reported circumcision status, age at circumcision and age at first sexual intercourse were recorded along with a history of STIs or prostatitis. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the relative risk of PCa by circumcision status. Results Data from 1,754 cases and 1,645 controls were available. Circumcision before first sexual intercourse was associated with a 15% reduction in risk of PCa compared to uncircumcised men (95% CI 0.73 – 0.99). This risk reduction was observed for cases with both less aggressive (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.74 – 1.04) and more aggressive (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.66 – 1.00) PCa features. Conclusions Circumcision before first sexual intercourse is associated with a reduction in the relative risk of PCa in this study population. These findings are consistent with research supporting the infectious/inflammation pathway in prostate carcinogenesis. PMID:22411189

  13. Urologic cancer risks for veterans exposed to Agent Orange.

    PubMed

    Hoenemeyer, Lori A

    2013-01-01

    Agent Orange, an herbicide widely used during the Vietnam War, has been linked to various health risks, including urologic malignancy. Exposed veterans are at risk for prostate cancer and may be entitled to compensation if diagnosed with prostate cancer. Current research studies are aimed at mitigating prostate dysplasia and prostate cancer PMID:23734554

  14. Time course of risk factors in cancer etiology and progression.

    PubMed

    Wei, Esther K; Wolin, Kathleen Y; Colditz, Graham A

    2010-09-10

    Patients with cancer increasingly ask what they can do to change their lifestyles and improve outcomes. Risk factors for onset of cancer may differ substantially from those that modify survival with implications for counseling. This review focuses on recent data derived from population-based studies of causes of cancer and of patients with cancer to contrast risk factors for etiology with those that impact survival. For different cancer sites, the level of information to inform the timing of lifestyle exposures and risk of disease onset or progression after diagnosis is often limited. For breast cancer, timing of some exposures, such as radiation, is particularly important. For other exposures, such as physical activity, higher levels may prevent onset and also improve survival. For colon cancer, study of precursor polyps has provided additional insight to timing. Extensive data indicate that physical activity reduces risk of colon cancer, and more limited data suggest that exposure after diagnosis improves survival. Dietary factors including folate and calcium may also reduce risk of onset. More limited data on prostate cancer point to obesity increasing risk of aggressive or advanced disease. Timing of change in lifestyle for change in risk of onset and for survival is important but understudied among patients with cancer. Counseling patients with cancer to increase physical activity and avoid weight gain may improve outcomes. Advice to family members on lifestyle may become increasingly important for breast and other cancers where family history is a strong risk factor. PMID:20644083

  15. Time Course of Risk Factors in Cancer Etiology and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Esther K.; Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Colditz, Graham A.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with cancer increasingly ask what they can do to change their lifestyles and improve outcomes. Risk factors for onset of cancer may differ substantially from those that modify survival with implications for counseling. This review focuses on recent data derived from population-based studies of causes of cancer and of patients with cancer to contrast risk factors for etiology with those that impact survival. For different cancer sites, the level of information to inform the timing of lifestyle exposures and risk of disease onset or progression after diagnosis is often limited. For breast cancer, timing of some exposures, such as radiation, is particularly important. For other exposures, such as physical activity, higher levels may prevent onset and also improve survival. For colon cancer, study of precursor polyps has provided additional insight to timing. Extensive data indicate that physical activity reduces risk of colon cancer, and more limited data suggest that exposure after diagnosis improves survival. Dietary factors including folate and calcium may also reduce risk of onset. More limited data on prostate cancer point to obesity increasing risk of aggressive or advanced disease. Timing of change in lifestyle for change in risk of onset and for survival is important but understudied among patients with cancer. Counseling patients with cancer to increase physical activity and avoid weight gain may improve outcomes. Advice to family members on lifestyle may become increasingly important for breast and other cancers where family history is a strong risk factor. PMID:20644083

  16. Late mortality, secondary malignancy and hospitalisation in teenage and young adult survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma: report of the Childhood/Adolescent/Young Adult Cancer Survivors Research Program and the BC Cancer Agency Centre for Lymphoid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bhuller, Kaljit S; Zhang, Yang; Li, Dongdong; Sehn, Laurie H; Goddard, Karen; McBride, Mary L; Rogers, Paul C

    2016-03-01

    Late complications affecting Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors are well described in paediatric and adult-based publications. This study determined the late morbidity and mortality risk for 442 teenage and young adult (TYAs) 5-year HL survivors, diagnosed at 15-24 years of age between 1970 and 1999, identified from the British Columbia Cancer Registry. Treatment details were abstracted from charts. Survivors and a matched comparison cohort were linked to provincial administrative health datasets until December 2006 and regression analysis was performed, providing risk ratios regarding mortality, secondary malignancy and morbidity causing hospitalisation. Sixty (13·6%) survivors experienced late mortality with excess deaths from secondary cancer [standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 18·6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 11-29·4] and non-malignant disease (SMR 3·6; 95% CI 2·2-5·5). Excess secondary cancers (standardised incidence ratio 7·8; 95% CI 5·6-10·5) were associated with radiotherapy [Hazard ratio (HR) 2·7; 95% CI 1-7·7] and female gender (HR 1·8; 95% CI 1-3·4). Of 281 survivors treated between 1981 and 1999, 143 (51%) had morbidity resulting in hospitalisation (relative risk 1·45; 95% CI 1·22-1·73). Hospitalisation significantly increased with combined modality therapy, chemotherapy alone and recent treatment era. TYA HL survivors have excess risk of mortality and secondary malignancy continuing 30 years from diagnosis. Radiotherapy is associated with secondary malignancy and current response-adapted protocols attempt to minimise exposure, but late morbidity causing hospitalisation remains significant. PMID:26727959

  17. How to reduce your cancer risk: mechanisms and myths

    PubMed Central

    Nahleh, Zeina; Bhatti, Narinder Singh; Mal, Meenakshi

    2011-01-01

    Cancer prevention continues to be a high research priority and the most optimal way to ultimately lower the economic and psychological burden of cancer. Many known risk factors associated with cancer are related to dietary and lifestyle factors and can be avoided. These risk factors include among others, smoking, obesity, alcohol, physical inactivity, and carcinogens in diet. This article reviews the biological mechanisms leading to cancer in association with these factors, highlights important achievable cancer prevention methods, addresses commonly asked questions about lifestyle and cancer, and dispels some of the myths about cancer prevention. PMID:21556314

  18. Cancer Risk Assessment for Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, Robert C.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Predicting the occurrence of human cancer following exposure to any agent causing genetic damage is a difficult task. This is because the uncertainty of uniform exposure to the damaging agent, and the uncertainty of uniform processing of that damage within a complex set of biological variables, degrade the confidence of predicting the delayed expression of cancer as a relatively rare event within any given clinically normal individual. The radiation health research priorities for enabling long-duration human exploration of space were established in the 1996 NRC Report entitled "Radiation Hazards to Crews of Interplanetary Missions: Biological Issues and Research Strategies". This report emphasized that a 15-fold uncertainty in predicting radiation-induced cancer incidence must be reduced before NASA can commit humans to extended interplanetary missions. That report concluded that the great majority of this uncertainty is biologically based, while a minority is physically based due to uncertainties in radiation dosimetry and radiation transport codes. Since that report, the biologically based uncertainty has remained large, and the relatively small uncertainty associated with radiation dosimetry has increased due to the considerations raised by concepts of microdosimetry. In a practical sense, however, the additional uncertainties introduced by microdosimetry are encouraging since they are in a direction of lowered effective dose absorbed through infrequent interactions of any given cell with the high energy particle component of space radiation. The biological uncertainty in predicting cancer risk for space radiation derives from two primary facts. 1) One animal tumor study has been reported that includes a relevant spectrum of particle radiation energies, and that is the Harderian gland model in mice. Fact #1: Extension of cancer risk from animal models, and especially from a single study in an animal model, to humans is inherently uncertain. 2) One human database

  19. Whole Grain Intake Reduces Pancreatic Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Qiucheng; Zheng, Huazhen; Bi, Jingcheng; Wang, Xinying; Jiang, Tingting; Gao, Xuejin; Tian, Feng; Xu, Min; Wu, Chao; Zhang, Li; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mounting evidence from epidemiology studies suggests that whole grain intake may reduce pancreatic cancer risk, but convincing evidence is scarce. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between whole grain intake and pancreatic cancer risk. Relevant observational studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane library databases for the period from January 1980 to July 2015, with no restrictions. We calculated the summary odds ratios (ORs) for pancreatic cancer using random-effects model meta-analysis. Between-study heterogeneity was analyzed using the I2 statistic. A total of 8 studies regarding whole grain intake were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled OR of pancreatic cancer for those with high versus low whole grain intake was 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64–0.91; P = 0.002). There was no significant heterogeneity across these studies (I2 = 11.7%; Pheterogeneity = 0.339). In the subgroup analysis by geographic area, the summary ORs of developing pancreatic cancer were 0.64 (95% CI, 0.53–0.79; P < 0.001; I2 = 0%; Pheterogeneity = 0.482) in the United States (n = 4) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.63–1.43; P = 0.803; I2 = 45.6%; Pheterogeneity = 0.175) in Europe (n = 2). In the subgroup analysis by type of whole grain, the summary ORs were 0.72 (95% CI, 0.60–0.87; P = .001; I2 = 0; Pheterogeneity = 0.876) for grains (n = 4) and 0.74 (95% CI, 0.27–2.02; P = 0.554; I2 = 86.3%; Pheterogeneity = 0.007) for wheat (n = 2). A high intake of whole grains was associated with a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Because of the absent of more cohort studies, further prospective studies need to be conducted to ensure conclusions that are more robust. PMID:26945361

  20. Asphalt and risk of cancer in man.

    PubMed

    Chiazze, L; Watkins, D K; Amsel, J

    1991-08-01

    Epidemiological publications regarding the carcinogenic potential of asphalt (bitumen) are reviewed. In 1984 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) stated that there is "inadequate evidence that bitumens alone are carcinogenic to humans." They did, however, conclude that animal data provided sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of certain extracts of steam refined and air refined bitumens. In the absence of data on man, IARC considered it reasonable to regard chemicals with sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals as if they presented a carcinogenic risk to man. Epidemiological data for man accumulated since the IARC report do not fulfil the criteria for showing a causal association between exposure to asphalt and development of cancer. The studies cited all suffer from a lack of data on exposure or potential confounders, which are necessary to establish whether or not such an association may or may not exist. In view of the evidence (or lack thereof) regarding asphalt today, an appropriate public health attitude suggests at least that action be taken to protect those working with asphalt by monitoring the workplace, taking whatever steps are possible to minimise exposures and to inform workers of potential hazards. At the same time, a need exists for well designed analytical epidemiological studies to determine whether a risk of cancer in man exists from exposure to asphalt. PMID:1878310

  1. Asphalt and risk of cancer in man.

    PubMed Central

    Chiazze, L; Watkins, D K; Amsel, J

    1991-01-01

    Epidemiological publications regarding the carcinogenic potential of asphalt (bitumen) are reviewed. In 1984 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) stated that there is "inadequate evidence that bitumens alone are carcinogenic to humans." They did, however, conclude that animal data provided sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of certain extracts of steam refined and air refined bitumens. In the absence of data on man, IARC considered it reasonable to regard chemicals with sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals as if they presented a carcinogenic risk to man. Epidemiological data for man accumulated since the IARC report do not fulfil the criteria for showing a causal association between exposure to asphalt and development of cancer. The studies cited all suffer from a lack of data on exposure or potential confounders, which are necessary to establish whether or not such an association may or may not exist. In view of the evidence (or lack thereof) regarding asphalt today, an appropriate public health attitude suggests at least that action be taken to protect those working with asphalt by monitoring the workplace, taking whatever steps are possible to minimise exposures and to inform workers of potential hazards. At the same time, a need exists for well designed analytical epidemiological studies to determine whether a risk of cancer in man exists from exposure to asphalt. PMID:1878310

  2. Risks of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a ...

  3. Colorectal cancer risk in hamartomatous polyposis syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Fábio Guilherme; Figueiredo, Marleny Novaes; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world, and approximately 5% of them develop in a context of inherited mutations leading to some form of familial colon cancer syndromes. Recognition and characterization of these patients have contributed to elucidate the genetic basis of CRC. Polyposis Syndromes may be categorized by the predominant histological structure found within the polyps. The aim of the present paper is to review the most important clinical features of the Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes, a rare group of genetic disorders formed by the peutz-Jeghers syndrome, juvenil polyposis syndrome and PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome (Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalacaba and Cowden Syndromes). A literature search was performed in order to retrieve the most recent and important papers (articles, reviews, clinical cases and clinical guidelines) regarding the studied subject. We searched for terms such as “hamartomatous polyposis syndromes”, “Peutz-Jeghers syndrome”, “juvenile polyposis syndrome”, “juvenile polyp”, and “PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome” (Cowden syndrome, Bananyan-Riley-Ruvalcaba). The present article reports the wide spectrum of disease severity and extraintestinal manifestations, with a special focus on their potential to develop colorectal and other neoplasia. In the literature, the reported colorectal cancer risk for Juvenile Polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers and PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndromes are 39%-68%, 39%-57% and 18%, respectively. A review regarding cancer surveillance recommendations is also presented. PMID:25848489

  4. Canadian adolescents' perspectives of cancer risk: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Woodgate, Roberta L.; Safipour, Jalal; Tailor, Ketan

    2015-01-01

    Research examining adolescents' understandings of cancer and cancer risk is limited. Accordingly, we conducted an ethnographic study that sought to extend our limited understanding of Canadian adolescents' perspectives of cancer and cancer prevention including how adolescents conceptualize and understand cancer risk. This article addresses findings specific to adolescents' perspectives of cancer risk. Seventy-five adolescents (11–19 years old) took part in the study. Two individual open-ended interviews were planned for each adolescent with the second interview occurring 4 to 5 weeks after the first interview. The second interview was complemented by the use of photovoice. Four focus groups, composed of the adolescents who took part in the individual interviews, were also conducted. Data analysis involved both thematic and content analysis. Findings revealed that adolescents conceptualized cancer risk in terms of specific risk factors, with lifestyle factors (e.g., smoking, diet/nutrition and physical inactivity) dominating their discourse. Adolescents rationalized risky health behaviours through use of cognitive strategies that included questioning and evaluating risk information, considering the benefits costs of the cancer risk, and downplaying the impact of the cancer risk. Use of these cognitive strategies helped to make cancer risks more acceptable to adolescents. While adolescents felt that cancer could not always be prevented, they did feel it was possible for individuals to delay getting cancer by lowering the impact of cancer risks through making the right choices. Although more research in this area is needed, the findings from this study may help inform cancer prevention and risk communication programmes and policies. PMID:24637456

  5. Review on risk factors of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Chou, P

    1991-08-01

    This article reviews risk factors of cervical cancer which have been studied in the following aspects: (1) sociodemographic factors including educational level, urbanizational level, socioeconomic status, race and marriage; (2) sexual activity including age at first marriage, age at first coitus, multiple marriage, multiple sexual partners, broken marriage, unstable sex relationship, syphilis/gonorrhea history, coital frequency, multiple pregnancies and age at menarche; (3) factors related to husband including circumcision, sperm, smegma, previous wife with cervical cancer and occupations entailed mobility of husband and periods away from home; (4) psychosocial factors including stressful emotional status, deprived economic background and discontent home situation; (5) virus including herpes simplex type 2 and papilloma virus; (6) other factors including smoking, barrier and oral contraceptives. PMID:1654190

  6. Six Ways to Reduce Your Risk of Colon Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Six Ways to Reduce Your Risk of Colon Cancer Diet, weight and physical activity play a significant ... March 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Half of the colon cancer cases in the United States could be prevented ...

  7. Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer May Carry Certain Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157587.html Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer May Carry Certain Risks ... 3, 2016 THURSDAY, March 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Radiation treatment for prostate cancer may put men at ...

  8. Inactive Women May Face Higher Risk for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Inactive Women May Face Higher Risk for Cervical Cancer But study found just 30 minutes of exercise ... who are sedentary appear more likely to develop cervical cancer, but just 30 minutes of exercise each week ...

  9. Plasma Cysteinylglycine Levels and Breast Cancer Risk in Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cysteinylglycine, a prooxidant generated during the catabolism of glutathione, has been suggested to induce oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, leading to the development of human cancers. Observational data relating cysteinylglycine status to breast cancer risk are lacking. We prospectively ev...

  10. Hypofractionated Radiotherapy for Favorable Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Rene, Nicholas; Faria, Sergio; Cury, Fabio; David, Marc; Duclos, Marie; Shenouda, George; Souhami, Luis

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: Since the recognition that prostate cancer probably has a low {alpha}/{beta} ratio, hypofractionated radiotherapy has become an attractive treatment option for localized prostate cancer. However, there is little experience with the use of hypofractionation delivering a high biologically equivalent dose. We report our experience with high-dose hypofractionated radiotherapy. Material and Methods: A total of 129 patients with favorable risk prostate cancer were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy treatment plans to the dose of 66 Gy in 22 fractions, prescribed at the isocenter. Planning target volume consisted of the prostate plus a uniform 7-mm margin, including the rectal margin. No patient received hormonal therapy. Toxicity was prospectively graded by the Common Toxicity Criteria version3. Biochemical relapse was defined as postradiotherapy nadir prostate-specific antigen + 2 ng/mL. Results: With a median follow-up of 51 months, the 5-year actuarial biochemical control rate is 98%. The only 3 cases with biochemical failure did not have a clinical local relapse. More than 50% of patients did not develop acute toxicity. For late toxicity, the worst crude rate of Grade {>=}2 genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity seen at any time during follow-up were 32% and 25%, respectively. There was no Grade 4 or 5 toxicity. At the last follow-up, persistent Grade {>=}2 late GU and GI toxicity were 2% and 1.5%, respectively. Conclusions: This hypofractionated regimen provides excellent biochemical control in favorable risk prostate cancer with an acceptable rate of late toxicity. Further studies exploring this hypofractionation regimen are warranted.

  11. Cancer Risk Assessment for the Primary Care Physician

    PubMed Central

    Korde, Larissa A.; Gadalla, Shahinaz M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Cancer risk assessment can be divided into two major categories: assessment of familial or genetic risk and assessment of environmental factors that may be causally related to cancer. Identification of individuals with a suspected heritable cancer syndrome can lead to additional evaluation and to interventions that can substantially decrease cancer risk. Special attention should also be paid to potentially modifiable cancer risk factors in the course of advising primary care patients regarding a healthy lifestyle. Clinical guidelines targeting both genetic and modifiable cancer risk factors are available, and can facilitate applying these health care principles in the primary care setting. PMID:19616151

  12. Fertility drugs, reproductive strategies and ovarian cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Tomao, Federica; Lo Russo, Giuseppe; Spinelli, Gian Paolo; Stati, Valeria; Prete, Alessandra Anna; Prinzi, Natalie; Sinjari, Marsela; Vici, Patrizia; Papa, Anselmo; Chiotti, Maria Stefania; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi; Tomao, Silverio

    2014-01-01

    Several adverse effects have been related to infertility treatments, such as cancer development. In particular, the relationship between infertility, reproductive strategies, and risk of gynecological cancers has aroused much interest in recent years. The evaluation of cancer risk among women treated for infertility is very complex, mainly because of many factors that can contribute to occurrence of cancer in these patients (including parity status). This article addresses the possible association between the use of fertility treatments and the risk of ovarian cancer, through a scrupulous search of the literature published thus far in this field. Our principal objective was to give more conclusive answers on the question whether the use of fertility drug significantly increases ovarian cancer risk. Our analysis focused on the different types of drugs and different treatment schedules used. This study provides additional insights regarding the long-term relationships between fertility drugs and risk of ovarian cancer. PMID:24829615

  13. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    SciTech Connect

    Boukheris, Houda; Stovall, Marilyn; Gilbert, Ethel S.; Stratton, Kayla L.; Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita; Hammond, Sue; Mertens, Ann C.; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Inskip, Peter D.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies.

  14. Spatiotemporal Co-existence of Female Thyroid and Breast Cancers in Hangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Fei, Xufeng; Christakos, George; Lou, Zhaohan; Ren, Yanjun; Liu, Qingmin; Wu, Jiaping

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid and breast cancers (TC, BC) are common female malignant tumors worldwide. Studies suggest that TC patients have a higher BC risk, and vice versa. However, it has not been investigated quantitatively if there is an association between the space-time TC and BC incidence distributions at the population level. This work aims to answer this question. 5358 TC and 8784 BC (female) cases were diagnosed in Hangzhou (China, 2008-2012). Pearson and Spearman rank correlation coefficients of the TC and BC incidences were high, and their patterns were geographically similar. The spatiotemporal co-existence of TC and BC distributions was investigated using the integrative disease predictability (IDP) criterion: if TC-BC association is part of the disease mapping knowledge bases, it should yield improved space-time incidence predictions. Improved TC (BC) incidence predictions were generated when integrating both TC and BC data than when using only TC (BC) data. IDP consistently demonstrated the spatiotemporal co-existence of TC and BC distributions throughout Hangzhou (2008-2012), which means that when the population experiences high incidences of one kind of cancer attention should be paid to the other kind of cancer too. The strength of TC-BC association was measured by the IDP coefficients and incidence prediction accuracy. PMID:27341638

  15. Spatiotemporal Co-existence of Female Thyroid and Breast Cancers in Hangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xufeng; Christakos, George; Lou, Zhaohan; Ren, Yanjun; Liu, Qingmin; Wu, Jiaping

    2016-06-01

    Thyroid and breast cancers (TC, BC) are common female malignant tumors worldwide. Studies suggest that TC patients have a higher BC risk, and vice versa. However, it has not been investigated quantitatively if there is an association between the space-time TC and BC incidence distributions at the population level. This work aims to answer this question. 5358 TC and 8784 BC (female) cases were diagnosed in Hangzhou (China, 2008–2012). Pearson and Spearman rank correlation coefficients of the TC and BC incidences were high, and their patterns were geographically similar. The spatiotemporal co-existence of TC and BC distributions was investigated using the integrative disease predictability (IDP) criterion: if TC-BC association is part of the disease mapping knowledge bases, it should yield improved space-time incidence predictions. Improved TC (BC) incidence predictions were generated when integrating both TC and BC data than when using only TC (BC) data. IDP consistently demonstrated the spatiotemporal co-existence of TC and BC distributions throughout Hangzhou (2008–2012), which means that when the population experiences high incidences of one kind of cancer attention should be paid to the other kind of cancer too. The strength of TC-BC association was measured by the IDP coefficients and incidence prediction accuracy.

  16. Spatiotemporal Co-existence of Female Thyroid and Breast Cancers in Hangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Xufeng; Christakos, George; Lou, Zhaohan; Ren, Yanjun; Liu, Qingmin; Wu, Jiaping

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid and breast cancers (TC, BC) are common female malignant tumors worldwide. Studies suggest that TC patients have a higher BC risk, and vice versa. However, it has not been investigated quantitatively if there is an association between the space-time TC and BC incidence distributions at the population level. This work aims to answer this question. 5358 TC and 8784 BC (female) cases were diagnosed in Hangzhou (China, 2008–2012). Pearson and Spearman rank correlation coefficients of the TC and BC incidences were high, and their patterns were geographically similar. The spatiotemporal co-existence of TC and BC distributions was investigated using the integrative disease predictability (IDP) criterion: if TC-BC association is part of the disease mapping knowledge bases, it should yield improved space-time incidence predictions. Improved TC (BC) incidence predictions were generated when integrating both TC and BC data than when using only TC (BC) data. IDP consistently demonstrated the spatiotemporal co-existence of TC and BC distributions throughout Hangzhou (2008–2012), which means that when the population experiences high incidences of one kind of cancer attention should be paid to the other kind of cancer too. The strength of TC-BC association was measured by the IDP coefficients and incidence prediction accuracy. PMID:27341638

  17. Risk assessment in Stage II colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Marshall, John L

    2010-01-01

    In the treatment of colon cancer today, the decision-making involved in the treatment of stage II disease is probably the most challenging aspect. The major question is whether or not these patients should receive postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Approximately 75% of stage II colon cancer is cured by surgery alone. For the remaining 25% of cases, there is great debate over whether adjuvant chemotherapy is sufficiently effective in enough patients to warrant the exposure to potentially toxic treatments. In the important QUASAR clinical trial, stage II patients were randomized to either fluorouracil (5-FU)-based therapy or observation. The results demonstrated an approximate 3% improvement in outcome for the 5-FU-treated patients. This leads to the assumption that treating all stage II patients with adjuvant chemotherapy is gross overtreatment, when essentially 97% of these patients will not benefit. Clearly the only way to approach this decision is through risk determination. In this article, I will describe the current state of defining high- and low-risk disease, which is mainly through histopathologic characteristics, as well as discuss emerging approaches such as molecular markers and genomic profiling. PMID:20225606

  18. NBS1 Heterozygosity and Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    di Masi, Alessandra; Antoccia, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Biallelic mutations in the NBS1 gene are responsible for the Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by chromosome instability and hypersensitivity to ionising radiation (IR). Epidemiological data evidence that the NBS1 gene can be considered a susceptibility factor for cancer development, as demonstrated by the fact that almost 40% of NBS patients have developed a malignancy before the age of 21. Interestingly, also NBS1 heterozygotes, which are clinically asymptomatic, display an elevated risk to develop some types of malignant tumours, especially breast, prostate and colorectal cancers, lymphoblastic leukaemia, and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). So far, nine mutations in the NBS1 gene have been found, at the heterozygous state, in cancer patients. Among them, the 657del5, the I171V and the R215W mutations are the most frequently described. The pathogenicity of these mutations is presumably connected with their occurrence in the highly conserved BRCT tandem domains of the NBS1 protein, which are present in a large superfamily of proteins, and are recognized as major mediators of processes related to cell-cycle checkpoint and DNA repair. This review will focus on the current state-of-knowledge regarding the correlation between carriers of NBS1 gene mutations and the proneness to the development of malignant tumours. PMID:19452044

  19. Mammographic density and risk of breast cancer according to tumor characteristics and mode of detection: a Spanish population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction It is not clear whether high mammographic density (MD) is equally associated with all subtypes of breast cancer (BC). We investigated the association between MD and subsequent BC, considering invasiveness, means of detection, pathologic subtype, and the time elapsed since mammographic exploration and BC diagnosis. Methods BC cases occurring in the population of women who attended screening from 1997 through 2004 in Navarre, a Spanish region with a fully consolidated screening program, were identified via record linkage with the Navarre Cancer Registry (n = 1,172). Information was extracted from the records of their first attendance at screening in that period. For each case, we randomly selected four controls, matched by screening round, year of birth, and place of residence. Cases were classified according to invasiveness (ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) versus invasive tumors), pathologic subtype (considering hormonal receptors and HER2), and type of diagnosis (screen-detected versus interval cases). MD was evaluated by a single, experienced radiologist by using a semiquantitative scale. Data on BC risk factors were obtained by the screening program in the corresponding round. The association between MD and tumor subtype was assessed by using conditional logistic regression. Results MD was clearly associated with subsequent BC. The odds ratio (OR) for the highest MD category (MD >75%) compared with the reference category (MD <10%) was similar for DCIS (OR = 3.47; 95% CI = 1.46 to 8.27) and invasive tumors (OR = 2.95; 95% CI = 2.01 to 4.35). The excess risk was particularly high for interval cases (OR = 7.72; 95% CI = 4.02 to 14.81) in comparison with screened detected tumors (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.40 to 3.36). Sensitivity analyses excluding interval cases diagnosed in the first year after MD assessment or immediately after an early recall to screening yielded similar results. No differences were seen regarding pathologic subtypes. The excess risk

  20. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycInfo, and Scopus from inception through April 2009 for English-language, original investigations in humans using core concepts of "risk" and "cancer." We abstracted key information and then further restricted articles dealing with perceived risk of developing cancer due to inherited risk. Results Of 1028 titles identified, 53 articles met our criteria. Most (92%) used an observational design and focused on women (70%) with a family history of or contemplating genetic testing for breast cancer. Of the 53 studies, 36 focused on patients who had not had genetic testing for cancer risk, 17 included studies of patients who had undergone genetic testing for cancer risk. Family history of cancer, previous prophylactic tests and treatments, and younger age were associated with cancer risk perception. In addition, beliefs about the preventability and severity of cancer, personality factors such as "monitoring" personality, the ability to process numerical information, as well as distress/worry also were associated with cancer risk perception. Few studies addressed non-breast cancer or risk perception in specific demographic groups (e.g. elderly or minority groups) and few employed theory-driven analytic strategies to decipher interrelationships of factors. Conclusions Several factors influence cancer risk perception in patients at elevated risk for cancer. The science of characterizing and improving risk perception in cancer for high risk groups, although evolving, is still

  1. Treatment for childhood cancer -- long-term risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000849.htm Treatment for childhood cancer - long-term risks To use the sharing features on ... has. Being aware of your child's risk of long-term health problems can help you follow-up ...

  2. Statins Might Not Lower Colon Cancer Risk: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158506.html Statins Might Not Lower Colon Cancer Risk: Study But ... HealthDay News) -- Long-term use of cholesterol-lowering statins does not appear to reduce the risk of ...

  3. Exercise May Cut Risk of 13 Cancers, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158854.html Exercise May Cut Risk of 13 Cancers, Study Suggests ... 16, 2016 MONDAY, May 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Exercise may significantly reduce your risk for many types ...

  4. Cancer risk management decision making for BRCA+ women.

    PubMed

    Leonarczyk, Terri Jabaley; Mawn, Barbara E

    2015-01-01

    Women with pathogenic BRCA genetic mutations face high risks for cancer development. Estimates vary among mutation carriers, with lifetime risks ranging from 41% to 90% for breast cancer and 8% to 62% for ovarian cancer. Cancer risk management options for BRCA mutation positive (BRCA+) women have life-altering implications. This qualitative, phenomenological study explored the experience of cancer risk management decision making for women who are unaffected carriers of a BRCA mutation (previvors). Fifteen previvors recruited from Facing Our Risk of Cancer Empowered (FORCE), an online informational and support group, were interviewed. Findings consisted of four major themes: the early previvor experience, intense emotional upheaval; the decisional journey, navigating a personal plan for survival; lack of knowledge and experience among health care providers; and support is essential. Findings highlight the different decisional perspectives of previvors based on age and individual factors and the need for increased competence among health care providers. PMID:24470135

  5. Lower Breast Cancer Risk among Women following the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research Lifestyle Recommendations: EpiGEICAM Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Castelló, Adela; Martín, Miguel; Ruiz, Amparo; Casas, Ana M.; Baena-Cañada, Jose M; Lope, Virginia; Antolín, Silvia; Sánchez, Pedro; Ramos, Manuel; Antón, Antonio; Muñoz, Montserrat; Bermejo, Begoña; De Juan-Ferré, Ana; Jara, Carlos; Chacón, José I; Jimeno, María A.; Rosado, Petra; Díaz, Elena; Guillem, Vicente; Lluch, Ana; Carrasco, Eva; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Vioque, Jesús; Pollán, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Background According to the “World Cancer Research Fund” and the “American Institute of Cancer Research” (WCRF/AICR) one in four cancer cases could be prevented through a healthy diet, weight control and physical activity. Objective To explore the association between the WCRF/AICR recommendations and risk of breast cancer. Methods During the period 2006 to 2011 we recruited 973 incident cases of breast cancer and 973 controls from 17 Spanish Regions. We constructed a score based on 9 of the WCRF/AICR recommendations for cancer prevention:: 1)Maintain adequate body weight; 2)Be physically active; 3)Limit the intake of high density foods; 4)Eat mostly plant foods; 5)Limit the intake of animal foods; 6)Limit alcohol intake; 7)Limit salt and salt preserved food intake; 8)Meet nutritional needs through diet; S1)Breastfeed infants exclusively up to 6 months. We explored its association with BC by menopausal status and by intrinsic tumor subtypes (ER+/PR+ & HER2-; HER2+; ER&PR-&HER2-) using conditional and multinomial logistic models respectively. Results Our results point to a linear association between the degree of noncompliance and breast cancer risk. Taking women who met 6 or more recommendations as reference, those meeting less than 3 showed a three-fold excess risk (OR=2.98(CI95%:1.59-5.59)), especially for postmenopausal women (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.24;10.47)) and ER+/PR+&HER2- (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.84;7.05)) and HER2+ (OR=4.23(CI95%:1.66;10.78)) tumors. Noncompliance of recommendations regarding the consumption of foods and drinks that promote weight gain in premenopausal women (OR=2.24(CI95%:1.18;4.28); p for interaction=0.014) and triple negative tumors (OR=2.93(CI95%:1.12-7.63)); the intake of plant foods in postmenopausal women (OR=2.35(CI95%:1.24;4.44)) and triple negative tumors (OR=3.48(CI95%:1.46-8.31)); and the alcohol consumption in ER+/PR+&HER2- tumors (OR=1.52 (CI95%:1.06-2.19)) showed the strongest associations. Conclusion Breast cancer prevention might

  6. Selected aspects of Mediterranean diet and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Pelucchi, Claudio; Bosetti, Cristina; Rossi, Marta; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    European Mediterranean populations have a high life expectancy. Several aspects of their diet are considered favorable on health. We considered the role of various aspects of the Mediterranean diet on cancer risk in a series of Italian case-control studies including about 10,000 cases of cancer at 13 different sites and over 17,000 controls. For most epithelial cancers, the risk decreased with increasing vegetable consumption. Allium vegetables were also favorably related to cancer risk. Fruit intake was inversely associated with digestive tract and laryngeal cancers. For digestive tract cancers, the population attributable risks for low intake of vegetables and fruit ranged between 15% and 40%. Olive oil and unsaturated fats, which are typical aspects of the Mediterranean diet, were inversely related to the risk of several cancers, particularly of the upper aerodigestive tract. Whole grain food (and hence possibly fiber) intake was also related to reduced risk of various cancers. In contrast, refined grains and, consequently, glycemic load and index were associated to increased risks. Several micronutrients and food components (including folate, flavonoids, and carotenoids) showed inverse relations with cancer risk, but the main component(s) responsible for the favorable effect of a diet rich in vegetables and fruit remain undefined. PMID:20155613

  7. Substantial contribution of extrinsic risk factors to cancer development | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Recent research has highlighted a strong correlation between tissue-specific cancer risk and the lifetime number of tissue-specific stem-cell divisions. Whether such correlation implies a high unavoidable intrinsic cancer risk has become a key public health debate with the dissemination of the 'bad luck' hypothesis. Here we provide evidence that intrinsic risk factors contribute only modestly (less than ~10-30% of lifetime risk) to cancer development.

  8. Breast cancer risk calculator updated for Asian-Americans

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have developed a more accurate method for estimating breast cancer risk for Asian and Pacific Islander American (APA) women. Most current risk estimates rely on data from non-Hispanic white women, but researchers have now come up with a statistical model that more specifically assesses risk for American women who identify themselves as Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hawaiian, other Pacific Islander, or other Asian. NCI’s Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) has now been updated to include the new model.

  9. Tea, Coffee, and Milk Consumption and Colorectal Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Green, Chadwick John; de Dauwe, Palina; Boyle, Terry; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Fritschi, Lin; Heyworth, Jane Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Background Data regarding the effects of tea, coffee, and milk on the risk of colorectal cancer are inconsistent. We investigated associations of tea, coffee, and milk consumption with colorectal cancer risk and attempted to determine if these exposures were differentially associated with the risks of proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancers. Methods Data from 854 incident cases and 948 controls were analyzed in a case-control study of colorectal cancer in Western Australia during 2005–07. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the associations of black tea (with and without milk), green tea, herbal tea, hot coffee, iced coffee, and milk with colorectal cancer. Results Consumption of 1 or more cups of herbal tea per week was associated with a significantly decreased risk of distal colon cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16–0.82; PTrend = 0.044), and consumption of 1 or more cups of iced coffee per week was associated with increased risk of rectal cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.91–2.54; PTrend = 0.004). Neither herbal tea nor iced coffee was associated with the risk of proximal colon cancer. Hot coffee was associated with a possible increased risk of distal colon cancer. Black tea (with or without milk), green tea, decaffeinated coffee, and milk were not significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Conclusions Consumption of herbal tea was associated with reduced risk of distal colon cancer, and consumption of iced coffee was associated with increased rectal cancer risk. PMID:24531002

  10. Childhood CT scans and cancer risk: impact of predisposing factors for cancer on the risk estimates.

    PubMed

    Journy, N; Roué, T; Cardis, E; Le Pointe, H Ducou; Brisse, H; Chateil, J-F; Laurier, D; Bernier, M-O

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the role of cancer predisposing factors (PFs) on the associations between paediatric computed tomography (CT) scan exposures and subsequent risk of central nervous system (CNS) tumours and leukaemia. A cohort of children who underwent a CT scan in 2000-2010 in 23 French radiology departments was linked with the national childhood cancers registry and national vital status registry; information on PFs was retrieved through hospital discharge databases. In children without PF, hazard ratios of 1.07 (95% CI 0.99-1.10) for CNS tumours (15 cases) and 1.16 (95% CI 0.77-1.27) for leukaemia (12 cases) were estimated for each 10 mGy increment in CT x-rays organ doses. These estimates were similar to those obtained in the whole cohort. In children with PFs, no positive dose-risk association was observed, possibly related to earlier non-cancer mortality in this group. Our results suggest a modifying effect of PFs on CT-related cancer risks, but need to be confirmed by longer follow-up and other studies. PMID:26878249

  11. Polymorphisms of the coagulation system and risk of cancer.

    PubMed

    Tinholt, Mari; Sandset, Per Morten; Iversen, Nina

    2016-04-01

    Hypercoagulability is a frequently finding in patients with cancer, and is associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis (VT). Cancer-associated VT is associated with poor prognosis and represents the leading non-cancer cause of death among these patients. Conversely, patients experiencing VT are at increased risk of subsequent cancer, suggesting an epidemiological bidirectional link between cancer and hemostasis, and indicating a role of the hemostatic system in cancer development. How the coagulation system relates to cancer etiology at the genetic level is largely unexplored. Data on the association of polymorphisms in genes involved in coagulation with cancer development is important to clarify the role of the coagulation system in cancer pathogenesis. Effects of coagulation-related gene polymorphisms on cancer risk may possibly be translated into novel treatment- and prevention strategies of cancer-associated thrombosis and the cancer itself. This article reviews the current knowledge of the relation between polymorphisms in genes involved in coagulation and cancer risk in solid tumors. PMID:27067978

  12. Cancer risk following radiotherapy for infertility or menstrual disorders.

    PubMed

    Ron, E; Auvinen, A; Alfandary, E; Stovall, M; Modan, B; Werner, A

    1999-09-01

    A cohort of 968 Israeli women treated with radiotherapy for infertility was followed up for cancer incidence. The majority of the subjects were irradiated to both the ovaries and the pituitary gland. Mean doses to the brain, colon, ovary and bone marrow were 0. 8, 0.6, 1.0 and 0.4 Gy, respectively. More than 10 years after radiation treatment, 60 cancers were observed compared with 74.5 expected based on national cancer incidence rates (standardized incidence ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.61-1.04). No statistically significant excess or deficit was seen for any individual type of cancer; however, a non-significant 60% increased risk of colon cancer was observed. Risk of colon cancer was higher among women with 2 or more treatments and increased with length of follow-up. A decreased risk of breast cancer was suggested. Neither age at exposure nor attained age modified subsequent cancer risk. No clear excess of any cancer site was observed among women at organ doses above the median compared with subjects at doses below the median, except a slight increase in colon cancer. No significant excess incidence of cancer was demonstrated in this small cohort of patients treated with radiotherapy for infertility. Our results are consistent with those from an earlier study of cancer mortality among women receiving radiotherapy for infertility conducted in New York City. Int. J. Cancer 82:795-798, 1999. Published 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:10446443

  13. Breast cancer risk assessment using genetic variants and risk factors in a Singapore Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Genetic variants for breast cancer risk identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Western populations require further testing in Asian populations. A risk assessment model incorporating both validated genetic variants and established risk factors may improve its performance in risk prediction of Asian women. Methods A nested case-control study of female breast cancer (411 cases and 1,212 controls) within the Singapore Chinese Health Study was conducted to investigate the effects of 51 genetic variants identified in previous GWAS on breast cancer risk. The independent effect of these genetic variants was assessed by creating a summed genetic risk score (GRS) after adjustment for body mass index and the Gail model risk factors for breast cancer. Results The GRS was an independent predictor of breast cancer risk in Chinese women. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of breast cancer for the second, third, and fourth quartiles of the GRS were 1.26 (0.90 to 1.76), 1.47 (1.06 to 2.04) and 1.75 (1.27 to 2.41) respectively (P for trend <0.001). In addition to established risk factors, the GRS improved the classification of 6.2% of women for their absolute risk of breast cancer in the next five years. Conclusions Genetic variants on top of conventional risk factors can improve the risk prediction of breast cancer in Chinese women. PMID:24941967

  14. Competing risks of death in women treated with adjuvant aromatase inhibitors for early breast cancer on NCIC CTG MA.27.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Judith-Anne W; Shepherd, Lois E; Ingle, James N; Muss, Hyman B; Pritchard, Kathleen I; Gelmon, Karen A; Whelan, Timothy J; Elliott, Catherine; Goss, Paul E

    2016-04-01

    Baseline patient and tumor characteristics differentially affected type of death in the MA.17 placebo-controlled letrozole trial where cardiovascular death was not separately identified. The MA.27 trial allowed competing risks analysis of breast cancer (BC), cardiovascular, and other type (OT) of death. MA.27 was a phase III adjuvant breast cancer trial of exemestane versus anastrozole. Effects of baseline patient and tumor characteristics were tested for whether factors were associated with (1) all cause mortality and (2) cause-specific mortality. We also fit step-wise forward cause-specific-adjusted models. 7576 women (median age 64 years; 5417 (72 %) < 70 years and 2159 (28 %) ≥ 70 years) were enrolled and followed for median 4.1 years. The 432 deaths comprised 187 (43 %) BC, 66 (15 %) cardiovascular, and 179 (41 %) OT. Five baseline factors were differentially associated with type of death. Older patients had greater BC (p = 0.03), cardiovascular (p < 0.001), and other types (p < 0.001) of mortality. Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular history had worse cardiovascular mortality (p < 0.001); those with worse ECOG performance status had worse OT mortality (p < 0.001). Patients with T1 tumors (p < 0.001) and progesterone receptor positive had less BC mortality (p < 0.001). Fewer BC deaths occurred with node-negative disease (p < 0.001), estrogen receptor-positive tumors (p = 0.001), and without adjuvant chemotherapy (p = 0.005); worse cardiovascular mortality (p = 0.01), with trastuzumab; worse OT mortality, for non-whites (p = 0.03) and without adjuvant radiotherapy (p = 0.003). Overall, 57 % of deaths in MA.27 AI-treated patients were non-breast cancer related. Baseline patient and tumor characteristics differentially affected type of death with women 70 or older experiencing more non-breast cancer death. PMID:27006189

  15. Cancer recurrence worry, risk perception, and informational-coping styles among Appalachian cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kimberly M; Shedlosky-Shoemaker, Randi; Porter, Kyle; Desimone, Philip; Andrykowski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing literature on the psychosocial impact of the threat of cancer recurrence, underserved populations, such as those from the Appalachian region, have been understudied. To examine worry and perceived risk in cancer survivors, Appalachian and non-Appalachian cancer patients at an ambulatory oncology clinic in a university hospital were surveyed. Appalachians had significantly higher worry than non-Appalachians. Cancer type and lower need for cognition were associated with greater worry. Those with missing perceived risk data were generally older, less educated, and lower in monitoring, blunting, and health literacy. Additional resources are needed to assist Appalachians and those with cancers with poor prognoses (e.g., liver cancer, pancreatic cancer) to cope with worry associated with developing cancer again. More attention for cancer prevention is critical to improve quality of life in underserved populations where risk of cancer is greater. PMID:21240722

  16. Type 2 diabetes mellitus, glycemic control, and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Onitilo, Adedayo A; Stankowski, Rachel V; Berg, Richard L; Engel, Jessica M; Glurich, Ingrid; Williams, Gail M; Doi, Suhail A

    2014-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by prolonged hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and progressive hyperglycemia. Disease management relies on glycemic control through diet, exercise, and pharmacological intervention. The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of glycemic control and the use of glucose-lowering medication on the risk of breast, prostate, and colon cancer. Patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (N=9486) between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2009 were identified and data on glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c, glucose), glucose-lowering medication use (insulin, metformin, sulfonylurea), age, BMI, date of diabetes diagnosis, insurance status, comorbidities, smoking history, location of residence, and cancer diagnoses were electronically abstracted. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to examine the relationship between glycemic control, including medication use, and cancer risk. The results varied by cancer type and medication exposure. There was no association between glycemic control and breast or colon cancer; however, prostate cancer risk was significantly higher with better glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c ≤ 7.0%). Insulin use was associated with increased colon cancer incidence in women, but not with colon cancer in men or breast or prostate cancer risk. Metformin exposure was associated with reduced breast and prostate cancer incidence, but had no association with colon cancer risk. Sulfonylurea exposure was not associated with risk of any type of cancer. The data reported here support hyperinsulinemia, rather than hyperglycemia, as a major diabetes-related factor associated with increased risk of breast and colon cancer. In contrast, hyperglycemia appears to be protective in the case of prostate cancer. PMID:23962874

  17. Risk Factors for Premenopausal Breast Cancer in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Javaid; Ferdousy, Tahmina; Dipi, Rahela; Salim, Reza; Wu, Wei; Narod, Steven A.; Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Mostafa, Mohammad G.; Ginsburg, Ophira

    2015-01-01

    Background. The incidence of premenopausal breast cancer is rising throughout South Asia. Our objective was to determine the role of risk factors associated with Westernization for premenopausal breast cancer in Bangladesh. Methods. We conducted a matched case-control study between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, at four hospitals in Bangladesh. Cases were premenopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Controls were premenopausal women with no personal history of breast cancer. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR) for breast cancer. Results. We identified 129 age-matched pairs. The mean age of breast cancer diagnosis was 37.5 years. Each year decrease in the age of menarche significantly increased the risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.09–2.56, P = 0.02). The risk was also increased with a current body mass index of ≥25 kg/m2 (OR = 5.24, 95% CI 1.10–24.9, P = 0.04). Age at first childbirth, parity, and breastfeeding were not significantly associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Age at menarche and adult weight gain were associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk. Other factors associated with Westernization may not be relevant to premenopausal breast cancer risk in Bangladesh. PMID:26229688

  18. Risk Factors for Premenopausal Breast Cancer in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Javaid; Ferdousy, Tahmina; Dipi, Rahela; Salim, Reza; Wu, Wei; Narod, Steven A; Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Mostafa, Mohammad G; Ginsburg, Ophira

    2015-01-01

    Background. The incidence of premenopausal breast cancer is rising throughout South Asia. Our objective was to determine the role of risk factors associated with Westernization for premenopausal breast cancer in Bangladesh. Methods. We conducted a matched case-control study between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, at four hospitals in Bangladesh. Cases were premenopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Controls were premenopausal women with no personal history of breast cancer. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR) for breast cancer. Results. We identified 129 age-matched pairs. The mean age of breast cancer diagnosis was 37.5 years. Each year decrease in the age of menarche significantly increased the risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.09-2.56, P = 0.02). The risk was also increased with a current body mass index of ≥25 kg/m(2) (OR = 5.24, 95% CI 1.10-24.9, P = 0.04). Age at first childbirth, parity, and breastfeeding were not significantly associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Age at menarche and adult weight gain were associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk. Other factors associated with Westernization may not be relevant to premenopausal breast cancer risk in Bangladesh. PMID:26229688

  19. Exploring perceptions of cancer risk, neighborhood environmental risks, and health behaviors of blacks.

    PubMed

    Rice, LaShanta J; Brandt, Heather M; Hardin, James W; Ingram, Lucy Annang; Wilson, Sacoby M

    2015-06-01

    Cancer risk perceptions and cancer worry are shaped by race/ethnicity, and social, economic, and environmental factors, which in turn shape health decision-making. A paucity of studies has explored risk perceptions and worry in metropolitan areas with disparate environmental conditions and cancer outcomes. This study examined perceptions of cancer risk, neighborhood environmental health risks, and risk-reducing health behaviors among Blacks. A 59-item survey was administered to respondents in Metropolitan Charleston, South Carolina from March to September 2013. A convenience sample of males and females was recruited at local venues and community events. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses (Chi square tests), and logistic regression models were estimated using SAS 9.3 software. Respondents (N = 405) were 100% Black, 81% female (n = 323), and ranged from 18 to 87 years of age (M = 49.55, SD = 15.27). Most respondents reported lower perceptions of cancer risk (37%) and equated their cancer beliefs to direct or indirect (i.e. personal or family) experiences. Low perceived cancer risk (absolute risk) was significantly associated (p < .05) with non-alcohol consumption, having a colon cancer screening test, being female, and being age 25-44 or 45-64. Cancer worry was significantly associated (p < .05) with being a current smoker, having a "fair" diet, non-alcohol consumption, and having any colon cancer screening test. Perceived cancer risk is an important indicator of health behaviors among Blacks. Direct or indirect experiences with cancer and/or the environment and awareness of family history of cancer may explain cancer risk perceptions. PMID:25315713

  20. NATO PILOT STUDY ON ADVANCED CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    NCEA scientists are participating in a study of advanced cancer risk assessment methods, conducted under the auspices of NATO's Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society. The product will be a book of case studies that illustrate advanced cancer risk assessment methods, avail...

  1. Communicating Cancer Risk Information: The Challenges of Uncertainty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottorff, Joan L.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Johnson, Joy L.; Lovato, Chris Y.; Joab, S. Amanda

    1998-01-01

    Accurate and sensitive communication of cancer-risk information is important. Based on a literature review of 75 research reports, expert opinion papers, and clinical protocols, a synthesis of what is known about the communication of cancer-risk information is presented. Relevance of information to those not tested is discussed. (Author/EMK)

  2. Risk Prediction Models for Other Cancers or Multiple Sites

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing other multiple cancers over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  3. What Are the Risk Factors for Stomach Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... compounds that have been shown to cause stomach cancer in lab animals. On the other hand, eating lots of fresh fruits and vegetables appears to lower the risk of stomach cancer. (See “ Can stomach cancer be prevented ?”) Tobacco use ...

  4. Colorectal (Colon) Cancer: What Are the Risk Factors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Are the Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Cancer Institute) Learning About Colon Cancer Stay Informed Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

  5. FGFR2 variants and breast cancer risk: fine-scale mapping using African American studies and analysis of chromatin conformation.

    PubMed

    Udler, Miriam S; Meyer, Kerstin B; Pooley, Karen A; Karlins, Eric; Struewing, Jeffery P; Zhang, Jinghui; Doody, David R; MacArthur, Stewart; Tyrer, Jonathan; Pharoah, Paul D; Luben, Robert; Bernstein, Leslie; Kolonel, Laurence N; Henderson, Brian E; Le Marchand, Loic; Ursin, Giske; Press, Michael F; Brennan, Paul; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Odefrey, Fabrice; Shen, Chen-Yang; Wu, Pei-Ei; Wang, Hui-Chun; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Ponder, Bruce A J; Haiman, Christopher A; Malone, Kathleen E; Dunning, Alison M; Ostrander, Elaine A; Easton, Douglas F

    2009-05-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified FGFR2 as a breast cancer (BC) susceptibility gene in populations of European and Asian descent, but a causative variant has not yet been conclusively identified. We hypothesized that the weaker linkage disequilibrium across this associated region in populations of African ancestry might help refine the set of candidate-causal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously identified by our group. Eight candidate-causal SNPs were evaluated in 1253 African American invasive BC cases and 1245 controls. A significant association with BC risk was found with SNP rs2981578 (unadjusted per-allele odds ratio = 1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.41, P(trend) = 0.02), with the odds ratio estimate similar to that reported in European and Asian subjects. To extend the fine-mapping, genotype data from the African American studies were analyzed jointly with data from European (n = 7196 cases, 7275 controls) and Asian (n = 3901 cases, 3205 controls) studies. In the combined analysis, SNP rs2981578 was the most strongly associated. Five other SNPs were too strongly correlated to be excluded at a likelihood ratio of < 1/100 relative to rs2981578. Analysis of DNase I hypersensitive sites indicated that only two of these map to highly accessible chromatin, one of which, SNP rs2981578, has previously been implicated in up-regulating FGFR2 expression. Our results demonstrate that the association of SNPs in FGFR2 with BC risk extends to women of African American ethnicity, and illustrate the utility of combining association analysis in datasets of diverse ethnic groups with functional experiments to identify disease susceptibility variants. PMID:19223389

  6. Isoflavones - Mechanism of Action and Impact on Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Stubert, Johannes; Gerber, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    Summary Isoflavones are plant-derived substances with weak es-trogenic effects. Asian populations are high consumers of soy products which are rich in isoflavones. The lower breast cancer incidence in Asian women compared with Western women has been associated with the possibility of a preventive isoflavone effect on cancer risk. The aim of this review is to give an overview of current research data on the influence of isoflavones on the risk of primary breast cancer development as well as the risk of recurrence in breast cancer patients. Despite inconsistencies in the available data, an inverse correlation between isoflavone intake and risk of breast cancer is likely. However, a negative impact on breast cancer disease, especially on hormone receptor-positive tumors, cannot be excluded at present. PMID:20877680

  7. Venous thromboembolism in cancer patients: risk assessment, prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Tukaye, Deepali N; Brink, Heidi; Baliga, Ragavendra

    2016-03-01

    Thrombosis and thromboembolic events contribute to significant morbidity in cancer patients. Venous thrombosis embolism (which includes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) accounts for a large percentage of thromboembolic events. Appropriate identification of cancer patients at high risk for venous thromboembolism and management of thromboembolic event is crucial in improving the quality of care for cancer patients. However, thromboembolism in cancer patients is a complex problem and the management has to be tailored to each individual. The focus of this review is to understand the complex pathology, physiology and risk factors that drive the process of venous thrombosis and embolism in cancer patients and the current guidelines in management. PMID:26919091

  8. Breast cancer messaging for younger women: gender, femininity, and risk.

    PubMed

    Haines, Rebecca J; Bottorff, Joan L; Barclay McKeown, Stephanie; Ptolemy, Erin; Carey, Joanne; Sullivan, Kelli

    2010-06-01

    Evidence linking both active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure to premenopausal breast cancer makes the development of health messages specific to younger women a pressing priority. To determine how to communicate information about this modifiable breast cancer risk to young women, we analyzed a selection of 32 recent English-language breast cancer messages and campaigns that targeted young women. In addition, we obtained young women's responses to three breast cancer campaign images during focus group discussions. A visual analysis of messages points to an explicitly gendered discourse within contemporary campaigns, one that entails conflicting messages regarding breast cancer, health, feminine beauty, and risk. Although the intent might be to educate and empower young women to "fight" against breast cancer, paradoxically, the messages employ imagery that sexually objectifies young women's breasts and bodies. Recommendations are made for messaging about tobacco and breast cancer risk to avoid reproducing one-dimensional or stereotypical presentations of gender and femininity. PMID:20354237

  9. Reducing cancer risk in rural communities through supermarket interventions.

    PubMed

    McCool, Barent N; Lyford, Conrad P; Hensarling, Natalie; Pence, Barbara; McCool, Audrey C; Thapa, Janani; Belasco, Eric; Carter, Tyra M

    2013-09-01

    Cancer risk is high, and prevention efforts are often minimal in rural communities. Feasible means of encouraging lifestyles that will reduce cancer risk for residents of rural communities are needed. This project developed and tested a model that could be feasibly adopted by rural communities to reduce cancer risk. This model focuses on incorporating multi-faceted cancer risk education in the local supermarket. As the supermarket functions both as the primary food source and an information source in small rural communities, the supermarket focus encourages the development of a community environment supportive of lifestyles that should reduce residents' risk for cancer. The actions taken to implement the model and the challenges that communities would have in implementing the model are identified. PMID:23677516

  10. Racial/ethnic differences in cancer risk after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hall, E C; Segev, D L; Engels, E A

    2013-03-01

    Transplant recipients have elevated cancer risk, but it is unknown if cancer risk differs across race and ethnicity as in the general population. US kidney recipients (N = 87,895) in the Transplant Cancer Match Study between 1992 and 2008 were evaluated for racial/ethnic differences in risk for six common cancers after transplantation. Compared to white recipients, black recipients had lower incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] 0.60, p<0.001) and higher incidence of kidney (aIRR 2.09, p<0.001) and prostate cancer (aIRR 2.14, p<0.001); Hispanic recipients had lower incidence of NHL (aIRR 0.64, p = 0.001), lung (aIRR 0.41, p < 0.001), breast (aIRR 0.53, p = 0.003) and prostate cancer (aIRR 0.72, p = 0.05). Colorectal cancer incidence was similar across groups. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) measured the effect of transplantation on cancer risk and were similar for most cancers (p≥0.1). However, black and Hispanic recipients had larger increases in kidney cancer risk with transplantation (SIRs: 8.96 in blacks, 5.95 in Hispanics vs. 4.44 in whites), and only blacks had elevated prostate cancer risk following transplantation (SIR: 1.21). Racial/ethnic differences in cancer risk after transplantation mirror general population patterns, except for kidney and prostate cancers where differences reflect the effects of end-stage renal disease or transplantation. PMID:23331953

  11. Dietary flavonoid intake and risk of stomach and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hae Dong; Kim, Jeongseon

    2013-01-01

    Stomach and colorectal cancers are common cancers and leading causes of cancer deaths. Because the alimentary tract can interact directly with dietary components, stomach and colorectal cancer may be closely related to dietary intake. We systematically searched published literature written in English via PubMed by searching for terms related to stomach and colorectal cancer risk and dietary flavonoids up to June 30, 2012. Twenty-three studies out of 209 identified articles were finally selected for the analysis. Log point effect estimates and the corresponding standard errors were calculated using covariate-adjusted point effect estimates and 95%CIs from the selected studies. Total dietary flavonoid intake was not associated with a reduced risk of colorectal or stomach cancer [odds ratio (OR) (95%CI) = 1.00 (0.90-1.11) and 1.07 (0.70-1.61), respectively]. Among flavonoid subclasses, the intake of flavonols, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanidins, and proanthocyanidins showed a significant inverse association with colorectal cancer risk [OR (95%CI) = 0.71 (0.63-0.81), 0.88 (0.79-0.97), 0.68 (0.56-0.82), and 0.72 (0.61-0.85), respectively]. A significant association was found only between flavonols and stomach cancer risk based on a limited number of selected studies [OR (95%CI) = 0.68 (0.46-0.99)]. In the summary estimates from case-control studies, all flavonoid subclasses except flavones and flavanones were inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, whereas neither total flavonoids nor any subclasses of flavonoids were associated with colorectal cancer risk in the summary estimates based on the cohort studies. The significant association between flavonoid subclasses and cancer risk might be closely related to bias derived from the case-control design. There was no clear evidence that dietary flavonoids are associated with reduced risk of stomach and colorectal cancer. PMID:23467443

  12. Body fatness, related biomarkers and cancer risk: an epidemiological perspective.

    PubMed

    Nimptsch, Katharina; Pischon, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    Higher body fatness is not only associated with a higher risk of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and coronary heart disease but also with certain types of cancer. The scope of this review is to summarize the epidemiological evidence for an association between body fatness and specific types of cancer and to outline the mediating role of obesity-related biomarkers in this context. Epidemiological studies have gathered convincing evidence that greater body fatness is associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer, endometrial cancer, esophageal adenocarcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, and pancreatic cancer. Further, evidence for an association between higher body fatness and higher risk of ovarian cancer, advanced prostate cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma is growing. Abdominal obesity is an independent risk factor for colorectal cancer beyond general obesity, whereas an independent role is less clear for other obesity-related cancer types. Epidemiological biomarker studies have shown that the positive association between body fatness and risk of cancer may be partly explained by hyperinsulinemia and altered concentrations in adipokines and sex-steroid hormones. In addition, obesity-associated low-grade inflammation plays a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. While epidemiology has contributed substantially to the understanding of the role of higher body fatness and related metabolic alterations in the development of cancer, further epidemiological biomarker studies are necessary to elucidate the complex interrelations between mediating pathways as well as to study novel pathways. Knowledge resulting from this research may help identify an obesity phenotype that is particularly strongly associated with cancer risk and thus pave the way for targeted prevention of cancer morbidity and mortality. PMID:25781710

  13. Targeted Cancer Screening in Average-Risk Individuals.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Pamela M; Freedman, Andrew N; Khoury, Muin J

    2015-11-01

    Targeted cancer screening refers to use of disease risk information to identify those most likely to benefit from screening. Researchers have begun to explore the possibility of refining screening regimens for average-risk individuals using genetic and non-genetic risk factors and previous screening experience. Average-risk individuals are those not known to be at substantially elevated risk, including those without known inherited predisposition, without comorbidities known to increase cancer risk, and without previous diagnosis of cancer or pre-cancer. In this paper, we describe the goals of targeted cancer screening in average-risk individuals, present factors on which cancer screening has been targeted, discuss inclusion of targeting in screening guidelines issued by major U.S. professional organizations, and present evidence to support or question such inclusion. Screening guidelines for average-risk individuals currently target age; smoking (lung cancer only); and, in some instances, race; family history of cancer; and previous negative screening history (cervical cancer only). No guidelines include common genomic polymorphisms. RCTs suggest that targeting certain ages and smoking histories reduces disease-specific cancer mortality, although some guidelines extend ages and smoking histories based on statistical modeling. Guidelines that are based on modestly elevated disease risk typically have either no or little evidence of an ability to affect a mortality benefit. In time, targeted cancer screening is likely to include genetic factors and past screening experience as well as non-genetic factors other than age, smoking, and race, but it is of utmost importance that clinical implementation be evidence-based. PMID:26165196

  14. Metabolic Risk Profile and Cancer in Korean Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, A-Rim; Kim, Eun-Jung; Seo, Hye-Young

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Associations between metabolic syndrome and several types of cancer have recently been documented. Methods: We analyzed the sample cohort data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2002, with a follow-up period extending to 2013. The cohort data included 99 565 individuals who participated in the health examination program and whose data were therefore present in the cohort database. The metabolic risk profile of each participant was assessed based on obesity, high serum glucose and total cholesterol levels, and high blood pressure. The occurrence of cancer was identified using Korean National Health Insurance claims data. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age group, smoking status, alcohol intake, and regular exercise. Results: A total of 5937 cases of cancer occurred during a mean follow-up period of 10.4 years. In men with a high-risk metabolic profile, the risk of colon cancer was elevated (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.71). In women, a high-risk metabolic profile was associated with a significantly increased risk of gallbladder and biliary tract cancer (HR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.24 to 3.42). Non-significantly increased risks were observed in men for pharynx, larynx, rectum, and kidney cancer, and in women for colon, liver, breast, and ovarian cancer. Conclusions: The findings of this study support the previously suggested association between metabolic syndrome and the risk of several cancers. A high-risk metabolic profile may be an important risk factor for colon cancer in Korean men and gallbladder and biliary tract cancer in Korean women. PMID:27255073

  15. Polygenic risk score is associated with increased disease risk in 52 Finnish breast cancer families.

    PubMed

    Muranen, Taru A; Mavaddat, Nasim; Khan, Sofia; Fagerholm, Rainer; Pelttari, Liisa; Lee, Andrew; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Easton, Douglas F; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-08-01

    The risk of developing breast cancer is increased in women with family history of breast cancer and particularly in families with multiple cases of breast or ovarian cancer. Nevertheless, many women with a positive family history never develop the disease. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) based on the risk effects of multiple common genetic variants have been proposed for individual risk assessment on a population level. We investigate the applicability of the PRS for risk prediction within breast cancer families. We studied the association between breast cancer risk and a PRS based on 75 common genetic variants in 52 Finnish breast cancer families including 427 genotyped women and pedigree information on ~4000 additional individuals by comparing the affected to healthy family members, as well as in a case-control dataset comprising 1272 healthy population controls and 1681 breast cancer cases with information on family history. Family structure was summarized using the BOADICEA risk prediction model. The PRS was associated with increased disease risk in women with family history of breast cancer as well as in women within the breast cancer families. The odds ratio (OR) for breast cancer within the family dataset was 1.55 [95 % CI 1.26-1.91] per unit increase in the PRS, similar to OR in unselected breast cancer cases of the case-control dataset (1.49 [1.38-1.62]). High PRS-values were informative for risk prediction in breast cancer families, whereas for the low PRS-categories the results were inconclusive. The PRS is informative in women with family history of breast cancer and should be incorporated within pedigree-based clinical risk assessment. PMID:27438779

  16. Young women's responses to smoking and breast cancer risk information.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-08-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer and obtain their advice about messaging approaches. Data were collected in focus groups with 46 women, divided in three age cohorts: 15-17, 18-19 and 20-24 and organized according to smoking status (smoking, non-smoking and mixed smoking status groups). The discussion questions were preceded by information about passive and active smoking and its associated breast cancer risk. The study findings show young women's interest in this risk factor for breast cancer. Three themes were drawn from the analysis: making sense of the information on smoking and breast cancer, personal susceptibility and tobacco exposure and suggestions for increasing awareness about tobacco exposure and breast cancer. There was general consensus on framing public awareness messages about this risk factor on 'protecting others' from breast cancer to catch smokers' attention, providing young women with the facts and personal stories of breast cancer to help establish a personal connection with this information and overcome desensitization related to tobacco messages, and targeting all smokers who may place young women at risk. Cautions were also raised about the potential for stigmatization. Implications for raising awareness about this modifiable risk factor for breast cancer are discussed. PMID:20080807

  17. Examining intuitive risk perceptions for cancer in diverse populations

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Jennifer L.; Baser, Raymond; Weinstein, Neil D.; Li, Yuelin; Primavera, Louis; Kemeny, M. Margaret

    2014-01-01

    In this article we examine intuitive dimensions of personal cancer risk likelihood, which theory and empirical evidence indicate may be important elements in the risk perception process. We draw on data from a study of risk perceptions in three social groups, university students, men living in the community, and primary care patients living in urban area. The study took place in 2007-2011, in New York State (Garden City and New York City) and Boston, Massachusetts. This study used items developed from categories identified in prior qualitative research specifying emotions and attitudes activated in cancer risk determination to examine perception of cancer risks. Across three samples - university students (N=568), community men (N=182), and diverse, urban primary care patients (N=127) - we conducted exploratory factor and construct analyses. We found that the most reliable two factors within the five-factor solution were Cognitive Causation, tapping beliefs that risk thoughts may encourage cancer development, and Negative Affect in Risk, assessing negative feelings generated during the risk perception process. For these factors, there were high levels of item endorsement, especially in minority groups, and only modest associations with established cancer risk perception and worry assessments, indicating novel content. These items may prove useful in measuring and comparing intuitive cancer risk perceptions across diverse population subgroups. PMID:24999304

  18. Managing patients at genetic risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pederson, Holly J; Padia, Shilpa A; May, Maureen; Grobmyer, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    Hereditary syndromes that increase the risk of breast cancer are not common, but it is critical to recognize and manage them appropriately. This paper reviews the management of patients with the most common hereditary breast cancer syndromes, ie, hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, hereditary diffuse gastric cancer, Cowden syndrome (PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome), Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, and Li-Fraumeni syndrome. PMID:26974991

  19. Lifestyle risk factors for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    The "style of life is the unique way in which individuals try to realize their fictional final goal and meet or avoid the three main tasks of life: work, community, love" (Alfred Adler, founder of the Individual Psychology). Lifestyle refers to the way individuals live their lives and how they handle problems and interpersonal relations. The lifestyle behaviours associated to oral cancer with convincing evidence are tobacco use, betel quid chewing, alcohol drinking, low fruit and vegetable consumption (the detrimental lifestyle is high fat and/or sugar intake, resulting in low fruit and/or vegetable intake). Worldwide, 25% of oral cancers are attributable to tobacco usage (smoking and/or chewing), 7-19% to alcohol drinking, 10-15% to micronutrient deficiency, more than 50% to betel quid chewing in areas of high chewing prevalence. Carcinogenicity is dose-dependent and magnified by multiple exposures. Conversely, low and single exposures do not significantly increase oral cancer risk. These behaviours have common characteristics: (i) they are widespread: one billion men, 250 million women smoke cigarettes, 600-1200 million people chew betel quid, two billion consume alcohol, unbalanced diet is common amongst developed and developing countries; (ii) they were already used by animals and human forerunners millions of years ago because they were essential to overcome conditions such as cold, hunger, famine; their use was seasonal and limited by low availability, in contrast with the pattern of consumption of the modern era, characterized by routine, heavy usage, for recreational activities and with multiple exposures; (iii) their consumption in small doses is not recognized as detrimental by the human body and activates the dopaminergic reward system of the brain, thus giving instant pleasure, "liking" (overconsumption) and "wanting" (craving). For these reasons, effective Public Health measures aimed at preventing oral cancer and other lifestyle-related conditions

  20. Exemestane Reduces Breast Cancer Risk in High-Risk Postmenopausal Women

    Cancer.gov

    Clinical trial results presented at the 2011 ASCO annual meeting showed that the aromatase inhibitor exemestane—used to treat early and advanced breast cancer—substantially reduced the risk of invasive breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women.

  1. Risk of Cancer Among Children of Cancer Patients - A Nationwide Study in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Madanat-Harjuoja, Laura-Maria S.; Malila, Nea; Lähteenmäki, Päivi; Pukkala, Eero; Mulvihill, John J; Boice, John D.; Sankila, Risto

    2009-01-01

    Cancer treatments have the potential to cause germline mutations that might increase the risk of cancer in the offspring of former cancer patients. This risk was evaluated in a population-based study of early onset cancer patients in Finland. Using nationwide registry data, 26,331 children of pediatric and early onset cancer patients (diagnosed under age 35 between 1953 and 2004) were compared to 58,155 children of siblings. Cancer occurrence among the children was determined by linkage with the cancer registry, and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated comparing the observed number of cancers with that expected, based on rates in the general population of Finland. Among the 9877 children born after their parent’s diagnosis, cancer risk was increased (SIR 1.67; 95% CI 1.29–2.12). However, after removing those with hereditary cancer syndromes, this increase disappeared (SIR 1.03; 95% CI 0.74–1.40). The overall risk of cancer among the offspring of siblings (SIR 1.07; 95% CI 0.94–1.21) was the same as among the offspring of the patients with non-hereditary cancer. Risk of cancer in offspring born prior to their parents cancer diagnosis was elevated (SIR 1.37, 95% CI 1.20–1.54), but removing hereditary syndromes resulted in a diminished and non-significant association (SIR 1.08, 95% CI 0.93–1.25). This study shows that offspring of cancer patients are not at an increased risk of cancer except when the patient has a cancer-predisposing syndrome. These findings are directly relevant to counseling cancer survivors with regard to family planning. PMID:19728329

  2. Cancer Worry, Perceived Risk and Cancer Screening in First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Familial Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Jenny; Hart, Tae L; Aronson, Melyssa; Crangle, Cassandra; Govindarajan, Anand

    2016-06-01

    Currently, there is a lack of evidence evaluating the psychological impact of cancer-related risk perception and worry in individuals at high risk for gastric cancer. We examined the relationships between perceived risk, cancer worry and screening behaviors among first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with familial gastric cancer. FDRs of patients diagnosed with familial gastric cancer with a non-informative genetic analysis were identified and contacted. Participants completed a telephone interview that assessed socio-demographic information, cancer risk perception, cancer worry, impact of worry on daily functioning, and screening behaviors. Twenty-five FDRs completed the telephone interview. Participants reported high levels of comparative and absolute cancer risk perception, with an average perceived lifetime risk of 54 %. On the other hand, cancer-related worry scores were low, with a significant minority (12 %) experiencing high levels of worry. Study participants exhibited high levels of confidence (median = 70 %) in the effectiveness of screening at detecting a curable cancer. Participants that had undergone screening in the past showed significantly lower levels of cancer-related worry compared to those that had never undergone screening. In conclusion, individuals at high-risk for gastric cancer perceived a very high personal risk of cancer, but reported low levels of cancer worry. This paradoxical result may be attributed to participants' high levels of confidence in the effectiveness of screening. These findings highlight the importance for clinicians to discuss realistic risk appraisals and expectations towards screening with unaffected members of families at risk for gastric cancer, in an effort to help mitigate anxiety and help with coping. PMID:26493173

  3. Association of Germline Variation in CCNE1 and CDK2 with Breast Cancer Risk, Progression and Survival among Chinese Han Women

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ji-Yuan; Wang, Hui; Xie, Yun-Tao; Li, Yan; Zheng, Li-Yuan; Ruan, Yuan; Song, Ai-Ping; Tian, Xin-Xia; Fang, Wei-Gang

    2012-01-01

    Background Somatic alterations of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2)-cyclin E complex have been shown to contribute to breast cancer (BC) development and progression. This study aimed to explore the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CDK2 and CCNE1 (a gene encoding G1/S specific cyclin E1 protein, formerly called cyclin E) on BC risk, progression and survival in a Chinese Han population. Methodology/Principal Findings We herein genotyped 6 haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPs) of CCNE1 and 2 htSNPs of CDK2 in 1207 BC cases and 1207 age-matched controls among Chinese Han women, and then reconstructed haplotype blocks according to our genotyping data and linkage disequilibrium status of these htSNPs. For CCNE1, the minor allele homozygotes of three htSNPs were associated with BC risk (rs3218035: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.69–6.67; rs3218038: aOR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.22–2.70; rs3218042: aOR = 2.64, 95% CI = 1.31–5.34), and these three loci showed a dose-dependent manner in increasing BC risk (Ptrend = 0.0001). Moreover, the 5-SNP haplotype CCGTC, which carried none of minor alleles of the 3 at-risk SNPs, was associated with a favorable event-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.32–0.90). Stratified analysis suggested that the minor-allele homozygote carriers of rs3218038 had a worse event-free survival among patients with aggressive tumours (in tumour size>2 cm group: HR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.06–3.99; in positive lymph node metastasis group: HR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.15–5.03; in stage II–IV group: HR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.09–3.79). For CDK2, no significant association was found. Conclusions/Significance This study indicates that genetic variants in CCNE1 may contribute to BC risk and survival in Chinese Han population. They may become molecular markers for individual evaluation of BC susceptibility and prognosis. Nevertheless, further

  4. Evaluating Shielding Effectiveness for Reducing Space Radiation Cancer Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Ren, Lei

    2007-01-01

    We discuss calculations of probability distribution functions (PDF) representing uncertainties in projecting fatal cancer risk from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE). The PDF s are used in significance tests of the effectiveness of potential radiation shielding approaches. Uncertainties in risk coefficients determined from epidemiology data, dose and dose-rate reduction factors, quality factors, and physics models of radiation environments are considered in models of cancer risk PDF s. Competing mortality risks and functional correlations in radiation quality factor uncertainties are treated in the calculations. We show that the cancer risk uncertainty, defined as the ratio of the 95% confidence level (CL) to the point estimate is about 4-fold for lunar and Mars mission risk projections. For short-stay lunar missions (<180 d), SPE s present the most significant risk, however one that is mitigated effectively by shielding, especially for carbon composites structures with high hydrogen content. In contrast, for long duration lunar (>180 d) or Mars missions, GCR risks may exceed radiation risk limits, with 95% CL s exceeding 10% fatal risk for males and females on a Mars mission. For reducing GCR cancer risks, shielding materials are marginally effective because of the penetrating nature of GCR and secondary radiation produced in tissue by relativistic particles. At the present time, polyethylene or carbon composite shielding can not be shown to significantly reduce risk compared to aluminum shielding based on a significance test that accounts for radiobiology uncertainties in GCR risk projection.

  5. Helping women to good health: breast cancer, omega-3/omega-6 lipids, and related lifestyle factors.

    PubMed

    de Lorgeril, Michel; Salen, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    In addition to genetic predisposition and sex hormone exposure, physical activity and a healthy diet play important roles in breast cancer (BC). Increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) associated with decreased omega-6 (n-6), resulting in a higher n-3/n-6 ratio compared with the western diet, are inversely associated with BC risk, as shown by Yang et al. in their meta-analysis in BMC Cancer. High consumption of polyphenols and organic foods increase the n-3/n-6 ratio, and in turn may decrease BC risk. Intake of high fiber foods and foods with low glycemic index decreases insulin resistance and diabetes risk, and in turn may decrease BC risk. The modernized Mediterranean diet is an effective strategy for combining these recommendations, and this dietary pattern reduces overall cancer risk and specifically BC risk. High-risk women should also eliminate environmental endocrine disruptors, including those from foods. Drugs that decrease the n-3/n-6 ratio or that are suspected of increasing BC or diabetes risk should be used with great caution by high-risk women and women wishing to decrease their BC risk.Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/14/105/abstract. PMID:24669767

  6. Associations between vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; He, Qi; Shao, Yu-Guo; Ji, Min; Bao, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have investigated the association between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk, but the results were inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis of 31 studies on VDR polymorphisms, including FokI, BsmI, TaqI, and ApaI, and breast cancer risk published before May 2013. For FokI, the allele of f was found to be associated with increased risk of breast cancer compared with F (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.03-1.36). Patients with ff genotype were at significantly higher risk of breast cancer compared with those with FF genotype (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.66-2.29). In subgroup analysis by race, Fok1 polymorphism was significantly associated with breast cancer risk for Caucasian population (f vs. F: OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.14-1.59; ff vs. FF: OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.86-2.54; ff vs. FF + Ff: OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.30). For ApaI, aa genotype was associated with increased breast cancer risk in Asian population based on four studies (aa vs. Aa + AA, OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.12-1.98). No significant association was found between breast cancer risk and ApaI and TaqI polymorphism in different models and populations. Our updated meta-analysis showed that Fok1 polymorphism is associated with breast cancer risk both in general population and in Caucasian population. ApaI polymorphism might be associated with breast cancer risk in Asian population. Large well-designed epidemiological studies are necessary to clarify the risk identified in the current meta-analysis. PMID:23900677

  7. Anti-diabetic therapies affect risk of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Donghui; Yeung, Sai-Ching J.; Hassan, Manal M.; Konopleva, Marina; Abbruzzese, James L.

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims Anti-diabetic drugs have been found to have various effects on cancer in experimental systems and in epidemiological studies, although the association between these therapeutics and the risk of human pancreatic cancer has not been explored. We investigated the effect of anti-diabetic therapies on the risk of pancreatic cancer. Methods A hospital-based, case-control study was conducted at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center from 2004 through 2008 involving 973 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (including 259 diabetics) and 863 controls (including 109 diabetics). Information on diabetes history and other risk factors was collected by personal interview. The frequencies of use of insulin, insulin secretagogues, thiazolidinediones, metformin and other antidiabetic medications among diabetics were compared between cases and controls. The risk of pancreatic cancer was estimated using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Results Diabetics that had taken metformin had a significantly lower risk of pancreatic cancer, compared with those that had not taken metformin (OR=0.38; 95% CI, 0.22–0.69; P=0.001) with adjustments for demographic, clinical and risk factors. This difference remained statistically significant when the analysis was restricted to patients with a duration of diabetes >2 years or those never used insulin. In contrast, diabetics that had taken insulin or insulin secretagogues had a significantly higher risk of pancreatic cancer, compared with diabetics that had not take these drugs. Use of thiazolidinediones did not significantly modify pancreatic cancer risk. Conclusions Metformin use was associated with reduced risk, and insulin or insulin secretagogues use were associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer in diabetics. PMID:19375425

  8. [Risk of second cancer after radiation therapy].

    PubMed

    Kakinuma, Shizuko; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the secondary cancer after radiotherapy. Secondary cancer is a great concern for cancer survivors, especially for childhood cancer survivors not only because of their intrinsic high susceptibility to radiation but also because of successful achievement of longer survival. Recent advance of molecular biology reveals unique genomic changes, which distinguish radiation-induced tumors from spontaneous or chemically induced tumors. PMID:25693295

  9. Risk of Cancer in Diabetes: The Effect of Metformin

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Mojtaba; Emami, Zahra; Khamseh, Mohammad E.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is the second cause of death. Association of diabetes as a growing and costly disease with cancer is a major health concern. Meanwhile, preexisting diabetes is associated with an increased risk of all-cause and cancer-specific mortalities. Presence of diabetes related comorbidities, poorer response to cancer treatment, and excess mortality related to diabetes are among the most important explanations. Although diabetes appear to be a risk factor for cancer and is associated with the mortality risk in cancer patients, several factors such as diabetes duration, multiple drug therapy, and the presence of diabetes comorbidities make the assessment of the effect of diabetes treatment on cancer risk and mortality difficult. Metformin is the drug of choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The available evidence from basic science, clinical, and population-based research supports the anticancer effect of metformin. However, randomized controlled clinical trials do not provide enough evidence for a strong protective effect of metformin on cancer incidence or mortality. One of the most important limitations of these trials is the short duration of the followup. Further long-term randomized controlled clinical trials specifically designed to determine metformin effect on cancer risk are needed to provide the best answer to this challenge. PMID:24224094

  10. Shared Risk Factors in Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Koene, Ryan J; Prizment, Anna E; Blaes, Anne; Konety, Suma H

    2016-03-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer are the 2 leading causes of death worldwide. Although commonly thought of as 2 separate disease entities, CVD and cancer possess various similarities and possible interactions, including a number of similar risk factors (eg, obesity, diabetes mellitus), suggesting a shared biology for which there is emerging evidence. Although chronic inflammation is an indispensable feature of the pathogenesis and progression of both CVD and cancer, additional mechanisms can be found at their intersection. Therapeutic advances, despite improving longevity, have increased the overlap between these diseases, with millions of cancer survivors now at risk of developing CVD. Cardiac risk factors have a major impact on subsequent treatment-related cardiotoxicity. In this review, we explore the risk factors common to both CVD and cancer, highlighting the major epidemiological studies and potential biological mechanisms that account for them. PMID:26976915

  11. Salpingectomy as a Means to Reduce Ovarian Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Mary B.; Dresher, Charles W.; Yates, Melinda S.; Jeter, Joanne M.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Alberts, David S.; Lu, Karen H.

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) has become the standard of care for risk reduction in women at hereditary risk of ovarian cancer. While this procedure significantly decreases both the incidence of and mortality from ovarian cancer, it impacts quality of life, and the premature cessation of ovarian function may have long term health hazards. Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular pathways of ovarian cancer point to the fallopian tube epithelium as the origin of most high grade serous cancers (HGSC). This evolving appreciation of the role of the fallopian tube in HGSC has led to the consideration of salpingectomy alone as an option for risk management, especially in premenopausal women. In addition, it is postulated that bilateral salpingectomy with ovarian retention (BSOR), may have a public health benefit for women undergoing benign gynecologic surgery. In this review we provide the rationale for salpingectomy as an ovarian cancer risk reduction strategy. PMID:25586903

  12. Recreational Physical Activity and Ovarian Cancer Risk and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Moorman, Patricia G.; Jones, Lee W.; Akushevich, Lucy; Schildkraut, Joellen M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Physical activity may influence ovarian cancer risk and outcomes through effects on ovulation, inflammatory markers and other processes. We examined associations between self-reported physical activity and ovarian cancer risk and survival in a population-based, case-control study in North Carolina. Methods The analyses involved 638 epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 683 controls recruited between 1999-2008. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess ovarian cancer risk in relation to reported average physical activity at various time periods. Kaplan-Meier analyses and proportional hazards modeling were used to assess associations between physical activity and survival among ovarian cancer cases. Results Modestly reduced risks for ovarian cancer were observed in some categories of physical activity, but there were no consistent patterns of greater reductions in risk with higher activity levels. Physical activity prior to diagnosis was not significantly related to ovarian cancer survival overall, but survival was better for women who reported >2 hours of activity/week as compared to those reporting <1 hour/week among women who were non-obese (multivariable hazard ratio=0.69, 95% CI 0.47 – 1.00) Conclusions Our data provide weak evidence in support of beneficial effects of physical activity on ovarian cancer risk and survival, but results should be interpreted cautiously because of the lack of a clear dose response relation with higher levels of exercise and the likely misclassification of self-reported activity. PMID:21296269

  13. Potential role of gastrointestinal microbiota composition in prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Among men in the U.S., prostate cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death. Despite its prevalence, there are few established risk factors for prostate cancer. Some studies have found that intake of certain foods/nutrients may be associated with prostate cancer risk, but few have accounted for how intake and metabolic factors may interact to influence bioavailable nutrient levels and subsequent disease risk. Presentation of the hypothesis The composition of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome may influence metabolism of dietary compounds and nutrients (e.g., plant phenols, calcium, choline) that may be relevant to prostate cancer risk. We, therefore, propose the hypothesis that GI microbiota may have a markedly different composition among individuals with higher prostate cancer risk. These individuals could have microbial profiles that are conducive to intestinal inflammation and/or are less favorable for the metabolism and uptake of chemopreventive agents. Testing the hypothesis Because very little preliminary data exist on this potential association, a case–control study may provide valuable information on this topic. Such a study could evaluate whether the GI microbial profile is markedly different between three groups of individuals: healthy men, those with latent prostate cancer, and those with invasive prostate cancer. Any findings could then be validated in a larger study, designed to collect a series of specimens over time. Implications of the hypothesis Given the plethora of information emerging from the Human Microbiome Project, this is an opportune time to explore associations between the microbiome and complex human diseases. Identification of profiles that alter the host’s risk for disease may clarify inconsistencies in the literature on dietary factors and cancer risk, and could provide valuable targets for novel cancer prevention strategies. PMID:24180596

  14. Circulating Adipokines and Inflammatory Markers and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Cushman, Mary; Xue, Xiaonan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Strickler, Howard D.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; McTiernan, Anne; Kaplan, Robert C.; Scherer, Philipp E.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Snetselaar, Linda; Wang, Dan; Ho, Gloria Y. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adipokines and inflammation may provide a mechanistic link between obesity and postmenopausal breast cancer, yet epidemiologic data on their associations with breast cancer risk are limited. Methods: In a case-cohort analysis nested within the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study, a prospective cohort of postmenopausal women, baseline plasma samples from 875 incident breast cancer case patients and 839 subcohort participants were tested for levels of seven adipokines, namely leptin, adiponectin, resistin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, hepatocyte growth factor, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and for C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker. Data were analyzed by multivariable Cox modeling that included established breast cancer risk factors and previously measured estradiol and insulin levels. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The association between plasma CRP levels and breast cancer risk was dependent on hormone therapy (HT) use at baseline (P interaction = .003). In a model that controlled for multiple breast cancer risk factors including body mass index (BMI), estradiol, and insulin, CRP level was positively associated with breast cancer risk among HT nonusers (hazard ratio for high vs low CRP levels = 1.67, 95% confidence interval = 1.04 to 2.68, P trend = .029). None of the other adipokines were statistically significantly associated with breast cancer risk. Following inclusion of CRP, insulin, and estradiol in a multivariable model, the association of BMI with breast cancer was attenuated by 115%. Conclusion: These data indicate that CRP is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer among HT nonusers. Inflammatory mediators, together with insulin and estrogen, may play a role in the obesity–breast cancer relation. PMID:26185195

  15. A meta-analysis on depression and subsequent cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background The authors tested the hypothesis that depression is a possible factor influencing the course of cancer by reviewing prospective epidemiological studies and calculating summary relative risks. Methods Studies were identified by computerized searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO. as well as manual searches of reference lists of selected publications. Inclusion criteria were cohort design, population-based sample, structured measurement of depression and outcome of cancer known for depressed and non-depressed subjects Results Thirteen eligible studies were identified. Based on eight studies with complete crude data on overall cancer, our summary relative risk (95% confidence interval) was 1.19 (1.06–1.32). After adjustment for confounders we pooled a summary relative risk of 1.12 (0.99–1.26). No significant association was found between depression and subsequent breast cancer risk, based on seven heterogeneous studies, with or without adjustment for possible confounders. Subgroup analysis of studies with a follow-up of ten years or more, however, resulted in a statistically significant summary relative risk of 2.50 (1.06–5.91). No significant associations were found for lung, colon or prostate cancer. Conclusion This review suggests a tendency towards a small and marginally significant association between depression and subsequent overall cancer risk and towards a stronger increase of breast cancer risk emerging many years after a previous depression. PMID:18053168

  16. Trajectory of body shape across the lifespan and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Song, Mingyang; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B; Spiegelman, Donna; Must, Aviva; Wu, Kana; Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-05-15

    The influence of adiposity over life course on cancer risk remains poorly understood. We assessed trajectories of body shape from age 5 up to 60 using a group-based modeling approach among 73,581 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 32,632 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. After a median of approximately 10 years of follow-up, we compared incidence of total and obesity-related cancers (cancers of the esophagus [adenocarcinoma only], colorectum, pancreas, breast [after menopause], endometrium, ovaries, prostate [advanced only], kidney, liver and gallbladder) between these trajectories. We identified five distinct trajectories of body shape: lean-stable, lean-moderate increase, lean-marked increase, medium-stable, and heavy-stable/increase. Compared with women in the lean-stable trajectory, those in the lean-marked increase and heavy-stable/increase trajectories had a higher cancer risk in the colorectum, esophagus, pancreas, kidney, and endometrium (relative risk [RR] ranged from 1.22 to 2.56). Early life adiposity was inversely while late life adiposity was positively associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk. In men, increased body fatness at any life period was associated with a higher risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma and colorectal cancer (RR ranged from 1.23 to 3.01), and the heavy-stable/increase trajectory was associated with a higher risk of pancreatic cancer, but lower risk of advanced prostate cancer. The trajectory-cancer associations were generally stronger for non-smokers and women who did not use menopausal hormone therapy. In conclusion, trajectories of body shape throughout life were related to cancer risk with varied patterns by sex and organ, indicating a role for lifetime adiposity in carcinogenesis. PMID:26704725

  17. Do Environmental Factors Modify the Genetic Risk of Prostate Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Stacy; Peskoe, Sarah B.; Joshu, Corinne E.; Huang, Wen-Yi; Hayes, Richard B.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Isaacs, William B.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many SNPs influence prostate cancer risk. To what extent genetic risk can be reduced by environmental factors is unknown. Methods We evaluated effect modification by environmental factors of the association between susceptibility SNPs and prostate cancer in 1,230 incident prostate cancer cases and 1,361 controls, all white and similar ages, nested in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Trial. Genetic risk scores were calculated as number of risk alleles for 20 validated SNPs. We estimated the association between higher genetic risk (≥ 12 SNPs) and prostate cancer within environmental factor strata and tested for interaction. Results Men with ≥12 risk alleles had 1.98, 2.04, and 1.91 times the odds of total, advanced, and nonadvanced prostate cancer, respectively. These associations were attenuated with the use of selenium supplements, aspirin, ibuprofen, and higher vegetable intake. For selenium, the attenuation was most striking for advanced prostate cancer: compared with <12 alleles and no selenium, the OR for ≥12 alleles was 2.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.67–2.55] in nonusers and 0.99 (0.38–2.58) in users (Pinteraction = 0.031). Aspirin had the most marked attenuation for nonadvanced prostate cancer: compared with <12 alleles and nonusers, the OR for ≥12 alleles was 2.25 (1.69–3.00) in nonusers and 1.70 (1.25–2.32) in users (Pinteraction = 0.009). This pattern was similar for ibuprofen (Pinteraction = 0.023) and vegetables (Pinteraction = 0.010). Conclusions This study suggests that selenium supplements may reduce genetic risk of advanced prostate cancer, whereas aspirin, ibuprofen, and vegetables may reduce genetic risk of nonadvanced prostate cancer. PMID:25342390

  18. Assessing the risk for suicide in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Aiello-Laws, Lisa B

    2010-12-01

    The Joint Commission publishes its annual National Patient Safety Goals to guide accredited organizations in addressing high-risk, low-volume concerns related to patient safety. The 2010 list includes a goal to identify patients at risk for suicide, but do oncology nurses need to be concerned about the risk of suicide in patients with cancer? PMID:21112846

  19. Obesity and Diabetes: The Increased Risk of Cancer and Cancer-Related Mortality.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Emily Jane; LeRoith, Derek

    2015-07-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide, and both are associated with an increased incidence and mortality from many cancers. The metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes develop many years before the onset of diabetes and, therefore, may be contributing to cancer risk before individuals are aware that they are at risk. Multiple factors potentially contribute to the progression of cancer in obesity and type 2 diabetes, including hyperinsulinemia and insulin-like growth factor I, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, adipokines and cytokines, and the gut microbiome. These metabolic changes may contribute directly or indirectly to cancer progression. Intentional weight loss may protect against cancer development, and therapies for diabetes may prove to be effective adjuvant agents in reducing cancer progression. In this review we discuss the current epidemiology, basic science, and clinical data that link obesity, diabetes, and cancer and how treating obesity and type 2 diabetes could also reduce cancer risk and improve outcomes. PMID:26084689

  20. Obesity and Diabetes: The Increased Risk of Cancer and Cancer-Related Mortality

    PubMed Central

    LeRoith, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide, and both are associated with an increased incidence and mortality from many cancers. The metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes develop many years before the onset of diabetes and, therefore, may be contributing to cancer risk before individuals are aware that they are at risk. Multiple factors potentially contribute to the progression of cancer in obesity and type 2 diabetes, including hyperinsulinemia and insulin-like growth factor I, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, adipokines and cytokines, and the gut microbiome. These metabolic changes may contribute directly or indirectly to cancer progression. Intentional weight loss may protect against cancer development, and therapies for diabetes may prove to be effective adjuvant agents in reducing cancer progression. In this review we discuss the current epidemiology, basic science, and clinical data that link obesity, diabetes, and cancer and how treating obesity and type 2 diabetes could also reduce cancer risk and improve outcomes. PMID:26084689

  1. Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Using Framingham Risk Score in Korean Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    So, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Jin-Young; Park, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to investigate the modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors and 10-year probability of the disease based on the Framingham risk score in cancer survivors, compared with the general population. Methods A total of 1,225 cancer survivors and 5,196 non-cancer controls who participated in the 2007–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were enrolled. We assessed modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors including smoking, body mass index, physical inactivity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and elevated blood glucose level. The 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease was determined by applying the Framingham cardiovascular disease risk equation among cancer survivors and non-cancer controls, ranging from 30 to 74 years old who had no overt cardiovascular diseases. Results The proportion of subjects who had higher fasting glucose levels, hemoglobin A1c levels, systolic blood pressure, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and those who had lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels was significantly higher in the cancer survivors than in the non-cancer controls. The average 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease among the cancer survivors was higher than that in the non-cancer controls in both men and women. The average 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease in relation to the cancer type was significantly higher in patients with hepatic, colon, lung, breast, and gastric cancer. Conclusion Cancer survivors have a higher cardiovascular disease risk and 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease than non-cancer controls. Control of cardiovascular disease risk factors and implementation of a well-defined cardiovascular disease prevention program are needed for treating cancer survivors. PMID:27468342

  2. Refining Breast Cancer Risk Stratification: Additional Genes, Additional Information.

    PubMed

    Kurian, Allison W; Antoniou, Antonis C; Domchek, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in genomic technology have enabled far more rapid, less expensive sequencing of multiple genes than was possible only a few years ago. Advances in bioinformatics also facilitate the interpretation of large amounts of genomic data. New strategies for cancer genetic risk assessment include multiplex sequencing panels of 5 to more than 100 genes (in which rare mutations are often associated with at least two times the average risk of developing breast cancer) and panels of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), combinations of which are generally associated with more modest cancer risks (more than twofold). Although these new multiple-gene panel tests are used in oncology practice, questions remain about the clinical validity and the clinical utility of their results. To translate this increasingly complex genetic information for clinical use, cancer risk prediction tools are under development that consider the joint effects of all susceptibility genes, together with other established breast cancer risk factors. Risk-adapted screening and prevention protocols are underway, with ongoing refinement as genetic knowledge grows. Priority areas for future research include the clinical validity and clinical utility of emerging genetic tests; the accuracy of developing cancer risk prediction models; and the long-term outcomes of risk-adapted screening and prevention protocols, in terms of patients' experiences and survival. PMID:27249685

  3. Cancer trends and risk factors in Cyprus

    PubMed Central

    Farazi, Paraskevi A.

    2014-01-01

    Cyprus, a European Union member state, is a small island in the Mediterranean with a population approaching 900,000 people. Cancer is the second leading cause of death; more therapeutic options for any patient with the disease are available in a central oncology centre in the capital of the island (Nicosia) and fewer therapeutic options (e.g. chemotherapy and hormone therapy only) in a few other public hospitals. Palliative care is offered in several hospices and hospitals, although the field needs improvement. With regards to screening, a national breast cancer screening programme has been in place countrywide since 2007 and is offered free of charge to women between the ages of 50 and 69 years, while colorectal and prostate cancer screening is performed on an individual basis (a pilot programme for colorectal cancer screening was recently initiated). Genetic testing is available for breast and colon cancer. To improve understanding of the causes of cancer in the country, a cancer research centre was established in 2010 (Mediterranean Centre for Cancer Research). Recent epidemiologic work has revealed increasing cancer trends in Cyprus; prostate cancer is the most common in men and breast cancer is the most common in women. Interestingly, thyroid cancer incidence in women has been rising from 1998 to 2008. Cancer of the colon and rectum is also on the rise affecting both sexes. Overall, cancer incidence in Cyprus is lower than other EuroMed countries with similar lifestyle and geography. PMID:24678344

  4. Risk of Nongenitourinary Cancers in Patients With Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Chia-Hong; Sun, Li-Min; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liang, Ji-An; Kao, Chia-Hung; Weng, Ming-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Little information is available regarding the risk of nongenitourinary (GU) cancers in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). The authors conducted a nationwide population-based study to investigate whether a higher risk of non-GU cancer is seen among patients with SCI. Data retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan were used in this study. A total of 41,900 patients diagnosed with SCI between 2000 and 2011 were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database and comprised the SCI cohort. Each of these patients was randomly frequency matched with 4 people from the general population (without SCI) according to age, sex, comorbidities, and index year. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals and determine how SCI affected non-GU cancer risk. No significant difference in overall non-GU cancer risk was observed between the SCI and control groups. The patients with SCI exhibited a significantly higher risk of developing esophageal, liver, and hematologic malignancies compared with those without SCI. By contrast, the SCI cohort had a significantly lower risk of colorectal cancer compared with the non-SCI cohort (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.80, 95% confidence interval = 0.69–0.93). Additional stratified analyses by sex, age, and follow-up duration revealed various correlations between SCI and non-GU cancer risk. The patients with SCI exhibited higher risk of esophageal, liver, and hematologic malignancies but a lower risk of colorectal cancer compared with those without SCI. The diverse patterns of cancer risk among the patients with SCI may be related to the complications of chronic SCI. PMID:26765443

  5. Healthy eating index and breast cancer risk among Malaysian women.

    PubMed

    Shahril, Mohd Razif; Sulaiman, Suhaina; Shaharudin, Soraya Hanie; Akmal, Sharifah Noor

    2013-07-01

    Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), an index-based dietary pattern, has been shown to predict the risk of chronic diseases among Americans. This study aims to examine the ability of HEI-2005 in predicting the probability for risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer among Malaysian women. Data from a case-control nutritional epidemiology study among 764 participants including 382 breast cancer cases and 382 healthy women were extracted and scored. Multivariate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to evaluate the relationship between the risk of breast cancer and quartiles (Q) of HEI-2005 total scores and its component, whereas the risk prediction ability of HEI-2005 was investigated using diagnostics analysis. The results of this study showed that there is a significant reduction in the risk of breast cancer, with a higher HEI-2005 total score among premenopausal women (OR Q1 vs. Q4=0.34, 95% CI; 0.15-0.76) and postmenopausal women (OR Q1 vs. Q4=0.20, 95% CI; 0.06-0.63). However, HEI-2005 has a sensitivity of 56-60%, a specificity of 55-60%, and a positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 57-58%, which indicates a moderate ability to predict the risk of breast cancer according to menopausal status. The breast cancer incidence observed poorly agrees with risk outcomes from HEI-2005 as shown by low κ statistics (κ=0.15). In conclusion, although the total HEI-2005 scores were associated with a risk of breast cancer among Malaysian women, the ability of HEI-2005 to predict risk is poor as indicated by the diagnostic analysis. A local index-based dietary pattern, which is disease specific, is required to predict the risk of breast cancer among Malaysian women for early prevention. PMID:23702680

  6. Epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors for renal cell cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lipworth, Loren; Tarone, Robert E; Lund, Lars; McLaughlin, Joseph K

    2009-01-01

    Incidence rates of renal cell cancer, which accounts for 85% of kidney cancers, have been rising in the United States and in most European countries for several decades. Family history is associated with a two- to four-fold increase in risk, but the major forms of inherited predisposition together account for less than 4% of renal cell cancers. Cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the most consistently established risk factors. Analgesics have not been convincingly linked with renal cell cancer risk. A reduced risk of renal cell cancer among statin users has been hypothesized but has not been adequately studied. A possible protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption is the only moderately consistently reported dietary finding, and, with the exception of a positive association with parity, evidence for a role of hormonal or reproductive factors in the etiology of renal cell cancer in humans is limited. A recent hypothesis that moderate levels of alcohol consumption may be protective for renal cell cancer is not strongly supported by epidemiologic results, which are inconsistent with respect to the categories of alcohol consumption and the amount of alcohol intake reportedly associated with decreased risk. For occupational factors, the weight of the evidence does not provide consistent support for the hypotheses that renal cell cancer may be caused by asbestos, gasoline, or trichloroethylene exposure. The established determinants of renal cell cancer, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension, account for less than half of these cancers. Novel epidemiologic approaches, including evaluation of gene–environment interactions and epigenetic mechanisms of inherited and acquired increased risk, are needed to explain the increasing incidence of renal cell cancer. PMID:20865085

  7. Nottingham prognostic index plus (NPI+) predicts risk of distant metastases in primary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Green, Andrew R; Soria, D; Powe, D G; Nolan, C C; Aleskandarany, M; Szász, M A; Tőkés, A M; Ball, G R; Garibaldi, J M; Rakha, E A; Kulka, J; Ellis, I O

    2016-05-01

    The Nottingham prognostic index plus (NPI+) is based on the assessment of biological class combined with established clinicopathologic prognostic variables providing improved patient outcome stratification for breast cancer superior to the traditional NPI. This study aimed to determine prognostic capability of the NPI+ in predicting risk of development of distant disease. A well-characterised series of 1073 primary early-stage BC cases treated in Nottingham and 251 cases from Budapest were immunohistochemically assessed for cytokeratin (Ck)5/6, Ck18, EGFR, oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, HER2, HER3, HER4, Mucin 1 and p53 expression. NPI+ biological class and prognostic scores were assigned using individual algorithms for each biological class incorporating clinicopathologic parameters and investigated in terms of prediction of distant metastases-free survival (MFS). The NPI+ identified distinct prognostic groups (PG) within each molecular class which were predictive of MFS providing improved patient outcome stratification superior to the traditional NPI. NPI+ PGs, between series, were comparable in predicting patient outcome between series in luminal A, basal p53 altered and HER2+/ER+ (p > 0.01) tumours. The low-risk groups were similarly validated in luminal B, luminal N, basal p53 normal tumours (p > 0.01). Due to small patient numbers the remaining PGs could not be validated. NPI+ was additionally able to predict a higher risk of metastases at certain distant sites. This study may indicate the NPI+ as a useful tool in predicting the risk of metastases. The NPI+ provides accurate risk stratification allowing improved individualised clinical decision making for breast cancer. PMID:27116185

  8. Latent Tuberculosis Infection and the Risk of Subsequent Cancer.

    PubMed

    Su, Vincent Yi-Fong; Yen, Yung-Feng; Pan, Sheng-Wei; Chuang, Pei-Hung; Feng, Jia-Yih; Chou, Kun-Ta; Chen, Yuh-Min; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Su, Wei-Juin

    2016-01-01

    The association of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) with subsequent cancer remains unclear. We investigated the risk of future cancer among tuberculosis (TB) contacts with or without subsequent TB activation. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we conducted a nationwide population-based study. TB contacts during 1997 to 2012 were included as the study cohort. Patients with antecedent cancer and TB were excluded. Data from 11,522 TB contacts and 46,088 age-, sex-, and enrollment date-matched subjects during 1997 to 2012 were analyzed. The 2 cohorts were monitored until December 31, 2012 for incidence of cancer and TB infection. LTBI was defined as a TB contact with subsequent TB activation. The primary endpoint was occurrence of newly diagnosed cancer. There was no difference in cancer development between the TB contact cohort and comparison cohort (log-rank test, P = 0.714). After multivariate adjustment, the hazard ratio (HR) for cancer among the LTBI patients was 2.29 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.26-4.17; P = 0.007]. There was increase in cancer incidences for several specific cancer types, including multiple myeloma (HR 340.28), lung (HR 2.69), kidney and bladder (HR 6.16), hepatobiliary (HR 2.36), and gastrointestinal (HR 2.99) cancers. None of the 136 TB contacts who received isoniazid prophylaxis developed cancer. LTBI patients had a higher risk of future cancer. PMID:26825880

  9. Reduced cancer risk in vegetarians: an analysis of recent reports.

    PubMed

    Lanou, Amy Joy; Svenson, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews current evidence regarding the relationship between vegetarian eating patterns and cancer risk. Although plant-based diets including vegetarian and vegan diets are generally considered to be cancer protective, very few studies have directly addressed this question. Most large prospective observational studies show that vegetarian diets are at least modestly cancer protective (10%-12% reduction in overall cancer risk) although results for specific cancers are less clear. No long-term randomized clinical trials have been conducted to address this relationship. However, a broad body of evidence links specific plant foods such as fruits and vegetables, plant constituents such as fiber, antioxidants and other phytochemicals, and achieving and maintaining a healthy weight to reduced risk of cancer diagnosis and recurrence. Also, research links the consumption of meat, especially red and processed meats, to increased risk of several types of cancer. Vegetarian and vegan diets increase beneficial plant foods and plant constituents, eliminate the intake of red and processed meat, and aid in achieving and maintaining a healthy weight. The direct and indirect evidence taken together suggests that vegetarian diets are a useful strategy for reducing risk of cancer. PMID:21407994

  10. Factors affecting recognition of cancer risks of nuclear workers.

    PubMed Central

    Kneale, G W; Stewart, A M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To discover whether direct estimates of the risks of cancer for nuclear workers agree with indirect estimates based on survivors of the atomic bomb; whether relations between age at exposure and risk of cancer are the same for workers and survivors, and whether dosimetry standards are sufficiently uniform to allow pooling of data from different nuclear industrial sites. METHOD--Data from five nuclear sites in the United States were included in a cohort analysis that as well as controlling for all the usual factors also allowed for possible effects of three cancer modulating factors (exposure age, cancer latency, and year of exposure). This analysis was first applied to three distinct cohorts, and then to two sets of pooled data. RESULTS--From each study cohort there was evidence of a risk of cancer related to dose, and evidence that the extra radiogenic cancers had the same overall histological manifestations as naturally occurring cancers and were largely the result of exposures after 50 years of age causing deaths after 70 years. There were, however, significant differences between the five sets of risk estimates. CONCLUSIONS--Although the risks of cancer in nuclear workers were appreciably higher than estimates based on the cancer experiences of survivors of the atomic bomb, some uncertainties remained as there were non-uniform standards of dosimetry in the nuclear sites. The differences between nuclear workers and survivors of the atomic bomb were largely the result of relations between age at exposure and risk of cancer being totally different for workers and survivors and, in the occupational data, there were no signs of the special risks of leukaemia found in atomic bomb data and other studies of effects of high doses. PMID:7663636

  11. Vigorous physical activity and risk of breast cancer in the African American breast cancer epidemiology and risk consortium.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhihong; Hong, Chi-Chen; Bandera, Elisa V; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Troester, Melissa A; Park, Song-Yi; McInerney, Kathryn A; Zirpoli, Gary; Olshan, Andrew F; Palmer, Julie R; Ambrosone, Christine B; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between physical activity and breast cancer risk has been extensively studied among women of European descent, with most studies reporting inverse associations. However, data on American women of African ancestry (AA) and by tumor subtypes are sparse. Thus, we examined associations of vigorous exercise and breast cancer risk overall, and by estrogen receptor (ER) status, in the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk Consortium. We pooled data from four large studies on 2482 ER+ cases, 1374 ER- cases, and 16,959 controls. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the risk of breast cancer overall, and polytomous logistic regression was used to model the risk of ER+ and ER- cancer. Recent vigorous exercise was associated with a statistically significant, modestly decreased risk for breast cancer overall (OR 0.88, 95 % CI 0.81-0.96) and for ER+ cancer (OR 0.88, 95 % CI 0.80-0.98), but not for ER- cancer (OR 0.93, 95 % CI 0.82-1.06). Overall, there was no strong evidence of effect modification by age, menopausal status, body mass index, and parity. However, our data were suggestive of modification by family history, such that an inverse association was present among women without a family history but not among those with a relative affected by breast cancer. Results from this large pooled analysis provide evidence that vigorous physical activity is associated with a modestly reduced risk of breast cancer in AA women, specifically ER+ cancer. PMID:27514396

  12. Hypertension and Subsequent Genitourinary and Gynecologic Cancers Risk

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li-Min; Kuo, Huang-Tsung; Jeng, Long-Bin; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liang, Ji-An; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although a relationship between hypertension and the development of renal cancer and other types of cancer have been proposed for decades, the results of epidemiologic studies remain inconclusive. This study was conducted to evaluate the association between hypertension and genitourinary and gynecologic cancers in Taiwan. In this study, we conducted a populated-based retrospective cohort study by using data from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance program. The study period was from 2000 to 2011, and the cohort comprised 111,704 insurants: 57,961 patients with hypertension and 53,743 patients without hypertension. A Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed to estimate the effects of hypertension on genitourinary and gynecologic cancers risk. Among the patients with hypertension, the risks of developing renal and uterine corpus cancers were significantly higher in the hypertension group than they were in the nonhypertension group. Further stratified analyses by sex, age, and hypertension duration revealed distinct cancer-specific patterns. Higher cancer risk appears to be more obvious among younger hypertensive patients with longer follow-up time. The results of this study indicate that Taiwanese patients with hypertension have higher risks for some types of cancer, and cancer-specific patterns vary by sex, age, and hypertension duration. PMID:25906108

  13. Dietary Factors and the Risk of Thyroid Cancer: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Wook Jin

    2014-01-01

    In the past few decades, the incidence of thyroid cancer has rapidly increased worldwide. Thyroid cancer incidence is relatively high in regions where the population's daily iodine intake is insufficient. While low dietary iodine has been considered as a risk factor for thyroid cancer development, previous studies found controversial results across different food types. Among different ethnic groups, dietary factors are influenced by various dietary patterns, eating habits, life-styles, nutrition, and other environmental factors. This review reports the association between dietary factors and thyroid cancer risk among ethnic groups living in different geologic regions. Iodine-rich food such as fish and shellfish may provide a protective role in populations with insufficient daily iodine intake. The consumption of goitrogenic food, such as cruciferous vegetables, showed a positive association with risk. While considered to be a risk factor for other cancers, alcohol intake showed a protective role against thyroid cancer. High consumption of meat such as chicken, pork, and poultry showed a positive association with the risk, but dairy products showed no significant association. Regular use of multivitamins and dietary nitrate and nitrite also showed a positive association with thyroid cancer risk. However, the study results are inconsistent and investigations into the mechanism for how dietary factors change thyroid hormone levels and influence thyroid function are required. PMID:25136535

  14. Dietary acrylamide intake and risk of premenopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kathryn M; Mucci, Lorelei A; Cho, Eunyoung; Hunter, David J; Chen, Wendy Y; Willett, Walter C

    2009-04-15

    Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is formed during high-temperature cooking of many commonly consumed foods. It is widespread; approximately 30% of calories consumed in the United States are from foods containing acrylamide. In animal studies, acrylamide causes mammary tumors, but it is unknown whether the level of acrylamide in foods affects human breast cancer risk. The authors studied the association between acrylamide intake and breast cancer risk among 90,628 premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study II. They calculated acrylamide intake from food frequency questionnaires in 1991, 1995, 1999, and 2003. From 1991 through 2005, they documented 1,179 cases of invasive breast cancer. They used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between acrylamide and breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted relative risk of premenopausal breast cancer was 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.76, 1.11) for the highest versus the lowest quintile of acrylamide intake (P(trend) = 0.61). Results were similar regardless of smoking status or estrogen and progesterone receptor status of the tumors. The authors found no associations between intakes of foods high in acrylamide, including French fries, coffee, cereal, potato chips, potatoes, and baked goods, and breast cancer risk. They found no evidence that acrylamide intake, within the range of US diets, is associated with increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer. PMID:19224978

  15. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer: Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Manal M.; Bondy, Melissa L.; Wolff, Robert A.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Pisters, Peter W.; Evans, Douglas B.; Khan, Rabia; Chou, Ta-Hsu; Lenzi, Renato; Jiao, Li; Li, Donghui

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Although cigarette smoking is the most well-established environmental risk factor for pancreatic cancer, the interaction between smoking and other risk factors has not been assessed. We evaluated the independent effects of multiple risk factors for pancreatic cancer and determined whether the magnitude of cigarette smoking was modified by other risk factors in men and women. METHODS We conducted a hospital-based case-control study involving 808 patients with pathologically diagnosed pancreatic cancer and 808 healthy frequency-matched controls. Information on risk factors was collected by personal interview, and unconditional logistic regression was used to determine adjusted odds ratios (AORs) by the maximum-likelihood method. RESULTS Cigarette smoking, family history of pancreatic cancer, heavy alcohol consumption (>60 mL ethanol/day), diabetes mellitus, and history of pancreatitis were significant risk factors for pancreatic cancer. We found synergistic interactions between cigarette smoking and family history of pancreatic cancer (AOR 12.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6–108.9) and diabetes mellitus (AOR 9.3, 95% CI 2.0–44.1) in women, according to an additive model. Approximately 23%, 9%, 3%, and 5% of pancreatic cancer cases in this study were related to cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, heavy alcohol consumption, and family history of pancreatic cancer, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The significant synergy between these risk factors suggests a common pathway for carcinogenesis of the pancreas. Determining the underlying mechanisms for such synergies may lead to the development of pancreatic cancer prevention strategies for high-risk individuals. PMID:17764494

  16. Five families living with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Norris, Joan; Spelic, Stephanie Stockard; Snyder, Carrie; Tinley, Susan

    2009-02-01

    This qualitative study explores the communication and decision-making strategies of five families with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) risk.Investigators asked female carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic mutations to recall early knowledge and experiences concerning cancer risk.Husbands and children (aged 15-25 years) of women with HBOC risk also were interviewed on knowledge, experiences, and expectations for future decisions regarding their risk.Themes derived from the interviews suggested a need for additional studies of families with HBOC risk to address how family history and other factors influence decision making.Nurses should assess patients and their families for issues with body image and adjustment after cancer treatment and offer appropriate support.In addition, parents should be advised on when and how to tell children about their potential risk and support their testing and health-promotion decisions. PMID:19193551

  17. Risks of Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States than in other parts of the world. Liver cancer is uncommon in the United States, ... is the fourth most common cancer in the world. In the United States, men, especially Chinese American ...

  18. Disparities in Cancer Genetic Risk Assessment and Testing.

    PubMed

    Underhill, Meghan L; Jones, Tarsha; Habin, Karleen

    2016-07-01

    Scientific and technologic advances in genomics have revolutionized genetic counseling and testing, targeted therapy, and cancer screening and prevention. Among younger women, African American and Hispanic women have a higher rate of cancers that are associated with hereditary cancer risk, such as triple-negative breast cancer, which is linked to poorer outcomes. Therefore, genetic testing is particularly important in diverse populations. Unfortunately, all races and ethnic groups are not well represented in current genetic testing practices, leading to disparities in cancer prevention and early detection. PMID:27314195

  19. Risk factors for subsequent endocrine-related cancer in childhood cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Wijnen, M; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M M; Medici, M; Peeters, R P; van der Lely, A J; Neggers, S J C M M

    2016-06-01

    Long-term adverse health conditions, including secondary malignant neoplasms, are common in childhood cancer survivors. Although mortality attributable to secondary malignancies declined over the past decades, the risk for developing a solid secondary malignant neoplasm did not. Endocrine-related malignancies are among the most common secondary malignant neoplasms observed in childhood cancer survivors. In this systematic review, we describe risk factors for secondary malignant neoplasms of the breast and thyroid, since these are the most common secondary endocrine-related malignancies in childhood cancer survivors. Radiotherapy is the most important risk factor for secondary breast and thyroid cancer in childhood cancer survivors. Breast cancer risk is especially increased in survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma who received moderate- to high-dosed mantle field irradiation. Recent studies also demonstrated an increased risk after lower-dose irradiation in other radiation fields for other childhood cancer subtypes. Premature ovarian insufficiency may protect against radiation-induced breast cancer. Although evidence is weak, estrogen-progestin replacement therapy does not seem to be associated with an increased breast cancer risk in premature ovarian-insufficient childhood cancer survivors. Radiotherapy involving the thyroid gland increases the risk for secondary differentiated thyroid carcinoma, as well as benign thyroid nodules. Currently available studies on secondary malignant neoplasms in childhood cancer survivors are limited by short follow-up durations and assessed before treatment regimens. In addition, studies on risk-modifying effects of environmental and lifestyle factors are lacking. Risk-modifying effects of premature ovarian insufficiency and estrogen-progestin replacement therapy on radiation-induced breast cancer require further study. PMID:27229933

  20. Insights from epidemiology into dichloromethane and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Glinda S; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Bale, Ambuja S

    2011-08-01

    Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) is a widely used chlorinated solvent. We review the available epidemiology studies (five cohort studies, 13 case-control studies, including seven of hematopoietic cancers), focusing on specific cancer sites. There was little indication of an increased risk of lung cancer in the cohort studies (standardized mortality ratios ranging from 0.46 to 1.21). These cohorts are relatively small, and variable effects (e.g., point estimates ranging from 0.5 to 2.0) were seen for the rarer forms of cancers such as brain cancer and specific hematopoietic cancers. Three large population-based case-control studies of incident non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Europe and the United States observed odds ratios between 1.5 and 2.2 with dichloromethane exposure (ever exposed or highest category of exposure), with higher risk seen in specific subsets of disease. More limited indications of associations with brain cancer, breast cancer, and liver and biliary cancer were also seen in this collection of studies. Existing cohort studies, given their size and uneven exposure information, are unlikely to resolve questions of cancer risks and dichloromethane exposure. More promising approaches are population-based case-control studies of incident disease, and the combination of data from such studies, with robust exposure assessments that include detailed occupational information and exposure assignment based on industry-wide surveys or direct exposure measurements. PMID:21909313

  1. Insights from Epidemiology into Dichloromethane and Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Glinda S.; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Bale, Ambuja S.

    2011-01-01

    Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) is a widely used chlorinated solvent. We review the available epidemiology studies (five cohort studies, 13 case-control studies, including seven of hematopoietic cancers), focusing on specific cancer sites. There was little indication of an increased risk of lung cancer in the cohort studies (standardized mortality ratios ranging from 0.46 to 1.21). These cohorts are relatively small, and variable effects (e.g., point estimates ranging from 0.5 to 2.0) were seen for the rarer forms of cancers such as brain cancer and specific hematopoietic cancers. Three large population-based case-control studies of incident non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Europe and the United States observed odds ratios between 1.5 and 2.2 with dichloromethane exposure (ever exposed or highest category of exposure), with higher risk seen in specific subsets of disease. More limited indications of associations with brain cancer, breast cancer, and liver and biliary cancer were also seen in this collection of studies. Existing cohort studies, given their size and uneven exposure information, are unlikely to resolve questions of cancer risks and dichloromethane exposure. More promising approaches are population-based case-control studies of incident disease, and the combination of data from such studies, with robust exposure assessments that include detailed occupational information and exposure assignment based on industry-wide surveys or direct exposure measurements. PMID:21909313

  2. Native Women at Risk: Addressing Cancer Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiemann, Kay M. B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses outcomes of a conference that brought together representatives from Indian tribes, state health departments, the Indian Health Service, the Mayo Clinic, and the American Cancer Society, to address the high rate of cervical cancer among American Indian women. Describes barriers to health care and plans to promote cancer screening among…

  3. Perceptions of cancer controllability and cancer risk knowledge: the moderating role of race, ethnicity, and acculturation.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, A Susana; Rutten, Lila J Finney; Oh, April; Vengoechea, Bryan Leyva; Moser, Richard P; Vanderpool, Robin C; Hesse, Bradford W

    2013-06-01

    Literature suggests racial/ethnic minorities, particularly those who are less-acculturated, have stronger fatalistic attitudes toward cancer than do non-Latino Whites. Knowledge of cancer prevention is also lower among racial/ethnic minorities. Moreover, low knowledge about cancer risk factors is often associated with fatalistic beliefs. Our study examined fatalism and cancer knowledge by race/ethnicity and explored whether race/ethnicity moderate the association of fatalism with knowledge of cancer prevention and risk factors. We analyzed data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (2008), a national probability survey, to calculate population estimates of the associations among race/ethnicity, fatalistic beliefs, and knowledge about cancer from multivariable logistic regression. Racial/ethnic minorities had higher odds of holding fatalistic beliefs and lower odds of having knowledge of cancer risk factors than non-Hispanic Whites, and important differences by acculturation among Latinos were observed. Limited evidence of the moderating effect of race/ethnicity on the relationship between fatalistic beliefs and cancer risk factor knowledge was observed. Knowledge of cancer risk factors is low among all race/ethnicities, while fatalistic beliefs about cancer are higher among racial/ethnic minorities compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Implications for cancer education efforts are discussed. PMID:23355279

  4. Long-Term Survival and Risk of Second Cancers After Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Tatsuya; Kato, Shingo; Sato, Shinichiro; Fukuhisa, Kenjiro; Nakano, Takashi; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Arai, Tatsuo

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the risk of second cancers after cervical cancer treated with radiotherapy for Asian populations. Methods and Materials: We reviewed 2,167 patients with cervical cancer undergoing radiotherapy between 1961 and 1986. Intracavitary brachytherapy was performed with high-dose rate source (82%) or low-dose rate source (12%). Relative risk (RR), absolute excess risk (AR), and cumulative risk of second cancer were calculated using the Japanese disease expectancy table. For 1,031 patients, the impact of smoking habit on the increasing risk of second cancer was also evaluated. Results: The total number of person-years of follow-up was 25,771, with 60 patients being lost to follow-up. Among the 2,167 patients, 1,063 (49%) survived more than 10 years. Second cancers were observed in 210 patients, representing a significant 1.2-fold risk (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.4) of developing second cancer compared with the general population, 1.6% excess risk per person per decade of follow-up, and elevating cumulative risk up to 23.8% (95% CI, 20.3-27.3) at 30 years after radiotherapy. The RR of second cancer was 1.6-fold for patients with the smoking habit and 1.4-fold for those without. Conclusions: Small but significant increased risk of second cancer was observed among Japanese women with cervical cancer mainly treated with high-dose rate brachytherapy. Considering the fact that about half of the patients survived more than 10 years, the benefit of radiotherapy outweighs the risk of developing second cancer.

  5. Chlorination Disinfection By-products and Pancreatic Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Do, Minh T.; Birkett, Nicholas J.; Johnson, Kenneth C.; Krewski, Daniel; Villeneuve, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Chlorination disinfection by-products (CDBPs) are produced during the treatment of water with chlorine to remove bacterial contamination. CDBPs have been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer. There is also some evidence that they may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. We report results from a population-based case–control study of 486 incident cases of pancreatic cancer and 3,596 age- and sex-matched controls. Exposure to chlorination by-products was estimated by linking lifetime residential histories to two different databases containing information on CDBP levels in municipal water supplies. Logistic regression analysis found no evidence of increased pancreatic cancer risk at higher CDBP concentrations (all odds ratios < 1.3). Null findings were also obtained assuming a latency period for pancreatic cancer induction of 3, 8, or 13 years. PMID:15811832

  6. Overweight, obesity, oxidative stress and the risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    There is growing scientific evidence linking excess body weight to breast cancer risk. However, there is no common consensus on this relation due partly to methodologies used, populations studied and the cancer subtype. We report here a summary of the present state of knowledge on the role of overweight and obesity in pathogenesis of breast cancer and possible mechanisms through which excess body weight might influence the risk, focusing on the role of oxidative stress in breast cancer etiology. The findings demonstrate duality of excess body weight action in dependence on menopausal status: a statistically significant increased risk in postmenopausal overweight/ obese women and non-significant preventive effect among premenopausal women. Due to several gaps in the literature on this topic, additional studies are needed. Future research should address factors influencing the excess body weight - breast cancer relationship, such as race/ethnicity, tumor subtype, receptor status, the most appropriate measure of adiposity, reproductive characteristics, and lifestyle components. PMID:25520070

  7. [European Code against Cancer: 12 ways to reduce your cancer risk].

    PubMed

    Döbrőssy, Lajos; Cornides, Ágnes

    2016-03-20

    Recently, the Word Health Organization/International Agency for Research on Cancer published the 4th edition of European Code against Cancer with 12 personal advices on how to diminish the risk of development of cancer. A proportion of advices refers to risk factors which are connected to our everyday lifestyle; another admonishes to comply with the services offered by the health care system. In Hungary, the European Code has not received adequate publicity so far. As common risk factors play a major role in the development of chronic non-communicable diseases, the advice may contribute to the prevention of both cardiovascular diseases and cancer. PMID:26971645

  8. The readability of online breast cancer risk assessment tools.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Sarah; Milbrandt, Melissa; Kaphingst, Kimberly; James, Aimee; Colditz, Graham

    2015-11-01

    Numerous breast cancer risk assessment tools that allow users to input personal risk information and obtain a personalized breast cancer risk estimate are available on the Internet. The goal of these tools is to increase screening awareness and identify modifiable health behaviors; however, the utility of this risk information is limited by the readability of the material. We undertook this study to assess the overall readability of breast cancer risk assessment tools and accompanying information, as well as to identify areas of suggested improvement. We searched for breast cancer risk assessment tools, using five search terms, on three search engines. All searches were performed on June 12, 2014. Sites that met inclusion criteria were then assessed for readability using the suitability assessment of materials (SAM) and the SMOG readability formula (July 1, 2014–January 31, 2015). The primary outcomes are the frequency distribution of overall SAM readability category (superior, adequate, or not suitable) and mean SMOG reading grade level. The search returned 42 sites were eligible for assessment, only 9 (21.4 %) of which achieved an overall SAM superior rating, and 27 (64.3 %) were deemed adequate. The average SMOG reading grade level was grade 12.1 (SD 1.6, range 9–15). The readability of breast cancer risk assessment tools and the sites that host them is an important barrier to risk communication. This study demonstrates that most breast cancer risk assessment tools are not accessible to individuals with limited health literacy skills. More importantly, this study identifies potential areas of improvement and has the potential to heighten a physician’s awareness of the Internet resources a patient might navigate in their quest for breast cancer risk information. PMID:26475705

  9. Risk-optimized proton therapy to minimize radiogenic second cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechner, Laura A.; Eley, John G.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Zhang, Rui; Mirkovic, Dragan; Newhauser, Wayne D.

    2015-05-01

    Proton therapy confers substantially lower predicted risk of second cancer compared with photon therapy. However, no previous studies have used an algorithmic approach to optimize beam angle or fluence-modulation for proton therapy to minimize those risks. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate the feasibility of risk-optimized proton therapy and to determine the combination of beam angles and fluence weights that minimizes the risk of second cancer in the bladder and rectum for a prostate cancer patient. We used 6 risk models to predict excess relative risk of second cancer. Treatment planning utilized a combination of a commercial treatment planning system and an in-house risk-optimization algorithm. When normal-tissue dose constraints were incorporated in treatment planning, the risk model that incorporated the effects of fractionation, initiation, inactivation, repopulation and promotion selected a combination of anterior and lateral beams, which lowered the relative risk by 21% for the bladder and 30% for the rectum compared to the lateral-opposed beam arrangement. Other results were found for other risk models.

  10. Risk-optimized proton therapy to minimize radiogenic second cancers

    PubMed Central

    Rechner, Laura A.; Eley, John G.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Zhang, Rui; Mirkovic, Dragan; Newhauser, Wayne D.

    2015-01-01

    Proton therapy confers substantially lower predicted risk of second cancer compared with photon therapy. However, no previous studies have used an algorithmic approach to optimize beam angle or fluence-modulation for proton therapy to minimize those risks. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate the feasibility of risk-optimized proton therapy and to determine the combination of beam angles and fluence weights that minimize the risk of second cancer in the bladder and rectum for a prostate cancer patient. We used 6 risk models to predict excess relative risk of second cancer. Treatment planning utilized a combination of a commercial treatment planning system and an in-house risk-optimization algorithm. When normal-tissue dose constraints were incorporated in treatment planning, the risk model that incorporated the effects of fractionation, initiation, inactivation, and repopulation selected a combination of anterior and lateral beams, which lowered the relative risk by 21% for the bladder and 30% for the rectum compared to the lateral-opposed beam arrangement. Other results were found for other risk models. PMID:25919133

  11. Indoor radon and lung cancer. Estimating the risks.

    PubMed Central

    Samet, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Radon is ubiquitous in indoor environments. Epidemiologic studies of underground miners with exposure to radon and experimental evidence have established that radon causes lung cancer. The finding that this naturally occurring carcinogen is present in the air of homes and other buildings has raised concern about the lung cancer risk to the general population from radon. I review current approaches for assessing the risk of indoor radon, emphasizing the extrapolation of the risks for miners to the general population. Although uncertainties are inherent in this risk assessment, the present evidence warrants identifying homes that have unacceptably high concentrations. PMID:1734594

  12. Discrimination, Affect, and Cancer Risk Factors among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Adolfo G.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Adams, Claire E.; Cao, Yumei; Nguyen, Nga; Wetter, David W.; Watkins, Kellie L.; Regan, Seann D.; McNeill, Lorna H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether stress or depressive symptoms mediated associations between perceived discrimination and multiple modifiable behavioral risk factors for cancer among 1363 African American adults. Methods Nonparametric bootstrapping procedures, adjusted for sociodemographics, were used to assess mediation. Results Stress and depressive symptoms each mediated associations between discrimination and current smoking, and discrimination and the total number of behavioral risk factors for cancer. Depressive symptoms also mediated the association between discrimination and overweight/obesity (p values < .05). Conclusions Discrimination may influence certain behavioral risk factors for cancer through heightened levels of stress and depressive symptoms. Interventions to reduce cancer risk may need to address experiences of discrimination, as well as the stress and depression they engender. PMID:24034678

  13. Panel Endorses Active Monitoring for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    An independent panel convened this week by NIH has concluded that many men with localized, low-risk prostate cancer should be closely monitored, permitting treatment to be delayed until warranted by disease progression. However, monitoring strategies—such

  14. Risk of Skin Cancer from Space Radiation. Chapter 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; George, Kerry A.; Wu, Hong-Lu

    2003-01-01

    We review the methods for estimating the probability of increased incidence of skin cancers from space radiation exposure, and describe some of the individual factors that may contribute to risk projection models, including skin pigment, and synergistic effects of combined ionizing and UV exposure. The steep dose gradients from trapped electrons, protons, and heavy ions radiation during EVA and limitations in EVA dosimetry are important factors for projecting skin cancer risk of astronauts. We estimate that the probability of increased skin cancer risk varies more than 10-fold for individual astronauts and that the risk of skin cancer could exceed 1 % for future lunar base operations for astronauts with light skin color and hair. Limitations in physical dosimetry in estimating the distribution of dose at the skin suggest that new biodosimetry methods be developed for responding to accidental overexposure of the skin during future space missions.

  15. Cancer risks in Swedish Lapps who breed reindeer

    SciTech Connect

    Wiklund, K.; Holm, L.E.; Eklund, G. )

    1990-12-01

    Cancer risks during the period 1961-1984 were studied in a cohort of 2,034 Swedish reindeer-breeding Lapps, a unique group whose culture and life-style differ considerably from those in the rest of the Swedish population. A total of 100 cases of cancer were observed versus 163 expected. Statistically significantly decreased risks were found for cancers of the colon, respiratory organs, female breast, male genital organs, and kidneys, and for malignant lymphomas. The stomach was the only site with a significantly increased risk. Reindeer-breeding Lapps have ingested fallout products via the lichen-reindeer-man food chain since the 1950s. However, no increased risk was found for the cancer sites considered to be most sensitive to radiation.

  16. Alcohol, Processed Meats May Raise Stomach Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158407.html Alcohol, Processed Meats May Raise Stomach Cancer Risk Excess ... 21, 2016 WEDNESDAY, April 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Alcohol, processed meats -- such as hot dogs, ham and ...

  17. Alcohol Intake and Breast Cancer Risk: Weighing the Overall Evidence

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jasmine A.; Goyal, Abhishek; Terry, Mary Beth

    2013-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption has been linked to an approximate 30-50% increased risk in breast cancer. Case-control and cohort studies have consistently observed this modest increase. We highlight recent evidence from molecular epidemiologic studies and studies of intermediate markers like mammographic density that provide additional evidence that this association is real and not solely explained by factors/correlates of the exposure and outcome present in non-randomized studies. We also review evidence from studies of higher risk women including BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Given the incidence of heart disease is higher than breast cancer and modest alcohol consumption is associated with reduced risk of heart disease, we examine the latest evidence to evaluate if alcohol reduction should be targeted to women at high risk for breast cancer. We also review the most recent evidence on the effect of alcohol use on tumor recurrence and survival for those diagnosed with breast cancer. PMID:24265860

  18. Doctors Should Bone Up on CT Scan Cancer Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159909.html Doctors Should Bone Up on CT Scan Cancer Risks Many not aware of exact radiation ... July 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Doctors routinely order CT scans as diagnostic tools. But many are ill-informed ...

  19. What Are the Risk Factors for Anal Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... have few or no known risk factors. Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection Most squamous cell anal cancers ... to be linked to infection by the human papilloma virus (HPV), the same virus that causes cervical ...

  20. Lung cancer in never smokers Epidemiology and risk prediction models

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, William J.; Meza, Rafael; Jeon, Jihyoun; Moolgavkar, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter we review the epidemiology of lung cancer incidence and mortality among never smokers/ nonsmokers and describe the never smoker lung cancer risk models used by CISNET modelers. Our review focuses on those influences likely to have measurable population impact on never smoker risk, such as secondhand smoke, even though the individual-level impact may be small. Occupational exposures may also contribute importantly to the population attributable risk of lung cancer. We examine the following risk factors in this chapter: age, environmental tobacco smoke, cooking fumes, ionizing radiation including radon gas, inherited genetic susceptibility, selected occupational exposures, preexisting lung disease, and oncogenic viruses. We also compare the prevalence of never smokers between the three CISNET smoking scenarios and present the corresponding lung cancer mortality estimates among never smokers as predicted by a typical CISNET model. PMID:22882894

  1. Submission Form for Peer-Reviewed Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    If you have information about a peer-reviewd cancer risk prediction model that you would like to be considered for inclusion on this list, submit as much information as possible through the form on this page.

  2. Uneven Magnitude of Disparities in Cancer Risks from Air Toxics

    PubMed Central

    James, Wesley; Jia, Chunrong; Kedia, Satish

    2012-01-01

    This study examines race- and income-based disparities in cancer risks from air toxics in Cancer Alley, LA, USA. Risk estimates were obtained from the 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment and socioeconomic and race data from the 2005 American Community Survey, both at the census tract level. Disparities were assessed using spatially weighted ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and quantile regression (QR) for five major air toxics, each with cancer risk greater than 10−6. Spatial OLS results showed that disparities in cancer risks were significant: People in low-income tracts bore a cumulative risk 12% more than those in high-income tracts (p < 0.05), and those in black-dominant areas 16% more than in white-dominant areas (p < 0.01). Formaldehyde and benzene were the two largest contributors to the disparities. Contributions from emission sources to disparities varied by compound. Spatial QR analyses showed that magnitude of disparity became larger at the high end of exposure range, indicating worsened disparity in the poorest and most highly concentrated black areas. Cancer risk of air toxics not only disproportionately affects socioeconomically disadvantaged and racial minority communities, but there is a gradient effect within these groups with poorer and higher minority concentrated segments being more affected than their counterparts. Risk reduction strategies should target emission sources, risk driver chemicals, and especially the disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:23208297

  3. Risk assessment methodologies for passive smoking-induced lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Repace, J.L.; Lowrey, A.H. )

    1990-03-01

    Risk assessment methodologies have been successfully applied to control societal risk from outdoor air pollutants. They are now being applied to indoor air pollutants such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and radon. Nonsmokers' exposures to ETS have been assessed based on dosimetry of nicotine, its metabolite, continine, and on exposure to the particulate phase of ETS. Lung cancer responses have been based on both the epidemiology of active and of passive smoking. Nine risk assessments of nonsmokers' lung cancer risk from exposure to ETS have been performed. Some have estimated risks for lifelong nonsmokers only; others have included ex-smokers; still others have estimated total deaths from all causes. To facilitate interstudy comparison, in some cases lung cancers had to be interpolated from a total, or the authors' original estimate had to be adjusted to include ex-smokers. Further, all estimates were adjusted to 1988. Excluding one study whose estimate differs from the mean of the others by two orders of magnitude, the remaining risk assessments are in remarkable agreement. The mean estimate is approximately 5000 +/- 2400 nonsmokers' lung cancer deaths (LCDSs) per year. This is a 25% greater risk to nonsmokers than is indoor radon, and is about 57 times greater than the combined estimated cancer risk from all the hazardous outdoor air pollutants currently regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency: airborne radionuclides, asbestos, arsenic, benzene, coke oven emissions, and vinyl chloride. 48 references.

  4. Cancer Research Repository for Individuals With Cancer Diagnosis and High Risk Individuals.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-12

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma

  5. Cancer Risk Map for the Surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss calculations of the median and 95th percentile cancer risks on the surface of Mars for different solar conditions. The NASA Space Radiation Cancer Risk 2010 model is used to estimate gender and age specific cancer incidence and mortality risks for astronauts exploring Mars. Organ specific fluence spectra and doses for large solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) at various levels of solar activity are simulated using the HZETRN/QMSFRG computer code, and the 2010 version of the Badhwar and O Neill GCR model. The NASA JSC propensity model of SPE fluence and occurrence is used to consider upper bounds on SPE fluence for increasing mission lengths. In the transport of particles through the Mars atmosphere, a vertical distribution of Mars atmospheric thickness is calculated from the temperature and pressure data of Mars Global Surveyor, and the directional cosine distribution is implemented to describe the spherically distributed atmospheric distance along the slant path at each elevation on Mars. The resultant directional shielding by Mars atmosphere at each elevation is coupled with vehicle and body shielding for organ dose estimates. Astronaut cancer risks are mapped on the global topography of Mars, which was measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter. Variation of cancer risk on the surface of Mars is due to a 16-km elevation range, and the large difference is obtained between the Tharsis Montes (Ascraeus, Pavonis, and Arsia) and the Hellas impact basin. Cancer incidence risks are found to be about 2-fold higher than mortality risks with a disproportionate increase in skin and thyroid cancers for all astronauts and breast cancer risk for female astronauts. The number of safe days on Mars to be below radiation limits at the 95th percent confidence level is reported for several Mission design scenarios.

  6. Progestin and breast cancer risk: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Samson, Marsha; Porter, Nancy; Orekoya, Olubunmi; Hebert, James R; Adams, Swann Arp; Bennett, Charles L; Steck, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review summarizes research on the use of progestin and breast cancer risk. Although mainly used for contraception, progestin can help treat menstrual disorders, and benign breast, uterine, and ovarian diseases. Breast cancer is the leading site of new, non-skin, cancers in females in the United States, and possible factors that may modulate breast cancer risk need to be identified. ProQuest (Ann Arbor, MI) and PubMed-Medline (US National Library of Medicine, Bethesda MD, USA) databases were used to search for epidemiologic studies from 2000 to 2015 that examined the association between progestin and breast cancer. Search terms included epidemiologic studies + progesterone or progestin or progestogen or contraceptive or contraceptive agents + breast cancer or breast neoplasms. A total of six studies were included in the review. Five of the six studies reported no association between progestin-only formulations (including norethindrone oral contraceptives, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, injectable, levonorgestrel system users, implantable and intrauterine devices) and breast cancer risk. Duration of use was examined in a few studies with heterogeneous results. Unlike studies of other oral contraceptives, studies indicate that progestin-only formulations do not increase the risk of breast cancer, although the literature is hampered by small sample sizes. Future research is needed to corroborate these findings, as further understanding of synthetic progesterone may initiate new prescription practices or guidelines for women's health. PMID:26700034

  7. Starting Hormone Therapy at Menopause Increases Breast Cancer Risk

    Cancer.gov

    According to a January 28, 2011 article in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, women who start taking menopausal hormone therapy around the time of menopause have a higher risk of breast cancer than women who begin taking hormones a few years later.

  8. Alcohol and risk of breast cancer in Mexican women

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, Jeannette M.; Coronado, Gloria D.; Livaudais, Jennifer; Angeles-Llerenas, Angélica; Ortega-Olvera, Carolina; Romieu, Isabelle; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about the relationship between alcohol intake and breast cancer risk among Mexican women. This association may be modified by folate and Vitamin B12. METHODS A population-based case control study conducted in Mexico recruited 1000 incident breast cancer cases aged 35–69 and 1074 controls matched on age, region, and health care system. In-person interviews were conducted to assess breast cancer risk factors and recent diet using a food frequency questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression models estimated adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS Over one-half (57%) of cases and less than one-half of controls (45%) reported any lifetime alcohol consumption. Compared with never drinkers, women reporting ever drinking (Adjusted OR=1.25, 95% CI=0.99–1.58) had a greater odds of breast cancer. There was evidence for interaction in the association between ever consuming any alcohol and breast cancer by folate (p for interaction=0.04) suggesting women with lower folate intake had a higher odds of breast cancer (Adjusted OR=1.99, 95% CI= 1.26–3.16) compared to women with higher folate intake (OR=1.12, 95% CI = 0.69–1.83). CONCLUSIONS Our findings support emerging evidence that any alcohol intake increases risk of breast cancer. Insufficient intake of folate may further elevate risk for developing breast cancer among women who consume alcohol. PMID:20155314

  9. Radiation and cancer risk in atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kodama, K; Ozasa, K; Okubo, T

    2012-03-01

    With the aim of accurately assessing the effects of radiation exposure in the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has, over several decades, conducted studies of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, comprising 93 000 atomic-bomb survivors and 27 000 controls. Solid cancer: the recent report on solid cancer incidence found that at age 70 years following exposure at age 30 years, solid cancer rates increase by about 35%  Gy(-1) for men and 58% Gy(-1) for women. Age-at-exposure is an important risk modifier. In the case of lung cancer, cigarette smoking has been found to be an important risk modifier. Radiation has similar effects on first-primary and second-primary cancer risks. Finally, radiation-associated increases in cancer rates appear to persist throughout life. Leukaemia: the recent report on leukaemia mortality suggests that radiation effects on leukaemia mortality persisted for more than 50 years. Moreover, significant dose-response for myelodysplastic syndrome was observed in Nagasaki LSS members even 40-60 years after radiation exposure. Future perspective: given the continuing solid cancer increase in the survivor population, the LSS will likely continue to provide important new information on radiation exposure and solid cancer risks for another 15-20 years, especially for those exposed at a young age. PMID:22394591

  10. Plasma prolactin and breast cancer risk: a meta- analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minghao; Wu, Xiujuan; Chai, Fan; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and its incidence is on a constant rise. Previous studies suggest that higher levels of plasma prolactin are associated with escalated risk of breast cancer, however, these results are contradictory and inconclusive. PubMed and Medline were used to search and identify published observational studies that assessed the relationship between plasma prolactin levels and the risk of breast cancer. The pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a fixed-effects or random-effects model. A total of 7 studies were included in our analysis. For the highest versus lowest levels of plasma prolactin, the pooled RR (95% CI) of breast cancer were 1.16 (1.04, 1.29). In subgroup analyses, we found a positive association between plasma prolactin levels and the risk of breast cancer among the patients who were postmenopausal, ER+/PR+ or in situ and invasive carcinoma. However, this positive association was not detected in the premenopausal and ER-/PR- patients. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence supporting a significantly positive association between plasma prolactin levels and the risk of breast cancer. PMID:27184120

  11. Childbearing Recency and Modifiers of Premenopausal Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Neeraja B.; Huang, Yifan; Newcomb, Polly A.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Anic, Gabriella; Egan, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the risk of premenopausal breast cancer for women in relation to childbearing recency, and whether this association differs by breastfeeding history and/or the amount of weight gained during pregnancy. This analysis was based on data from a population-based case-control study comprised of 1,706 incident cases of invasive breast cancer and 1,756 population controls from Wisconsin, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts. In a telephone interview conducted from 1996 to 2001, information was gathered on established breast cancer risk factors, as well as reproductive history, including amount of weight gained during the last full-term pregnancy, and whether or not the child was breast-fed. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and Wald 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of breast cancer. When compared to nulliparous women, women that had given birth within the past 5 years prior to breast cancer diagnosis in the cases or a comparable period in controls had a non-significant 35% increased risk of invasive breast cancer (OR=1.35; 95% CI: 0.90–2.04) adjusting for age and known breast cancer risk factors (p trend = 0.14). We did not find a significant interaction with breast-feeding (p for interaction = 0.30) or pregnancy weight gain (p for interaction = 0.09). PMID:18990773

  12. Plasma prolactin and breast cancer risk: a meta- analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minghao; Wu, Xiujuan; Chai, Fan; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and its incidence is on a constant rise. Previous studies suggest that higher levels of plasma prolactin are associated with escalated risk of breast cancer, however, these results are contradictory and inconclusive. PubMed and Medline were used to search and identify published observational studies that assessed the relationship between plasma prolactin levels and the risk of breast cancer. The pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a fixed-effects or random-effects model. A total of 7 studies were included in our analysis. For the highest versus lowest levels of plasma prolactin, the pooled RR (95% CI) of breast cancer were 1.16 (1.04, 1.29). In subgroup analyses, we found a positive association between plasma prolactin levels and the risk of breast cancer among the patients who were postmenopausal, ER(+)/PR(+) or in situ and invasive carcinoma. However, this positive association was not detected in the premenopausal and ER(-)/PR(-) patients. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence supporting a significantly positive association between plasma prolactin levels and the risk of breast cancer. PMID:27184120

  13. Metformin use and lung cancer risk in patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sakoda, Lori C.; Ferrara, Assiamira; Achacoso, Ninah S.; Peng, Tiffany; Ehrlich, Samantha F.; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Habel, Laurel A.

    2015-01-01

    Methodologic biases may explain why observational studies examining metformin use in relation to lung cancer risk have produced inconsistent results. We conducted a cohort study to further investigate this relationship, accounting for potential biases. For 47,351 patients with diabetes aged ≥40 years, who completed a health-related survey administered between 1994 and 1996, data on prescribed diabetes medications were obtained from electronic pharmacy records. Follow-up for incident lung cancer occurred from January 1, 1997, until June 30, 2012. Using Cox regression, we estimated lung cancer risk associated with new use of metformin, along with total duration, recency, and cumulative dose (all modeled as time-dependent covariates), adjusting for potential confounding factors. During 428,557 person-years of follow-up, 747 patients were diagnosed with lung cancer. No association was found with duration, dose, or recency of metformin use and overall lung cancer risk. Among never smokers, however, ever use was inversely associated with lung cancer risk (hazard ratio (HR) 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.33-0.99), and risk appeared to decrease monotonically with longer use (≥5 years: HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.21-1.09). Among current smokers, corresponding risk estimates were >1.0, although not statistically significant. Consistent with this variation in effect by smoking history, longer use was suggestively associated with lower adenocarcinoma risk (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.40-1.17), but higher small cell carcinoma risk (HR, 1.82; 95% CI, 0.85-3.91). In this population, we found no evidence that metformin use affects overall lung cancer risk. The observed variation in association by smoking history and histology requires further confirmation. PMID:25644512

  14. Folate and alcohol consumption and the risk of lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bandera, E.V.; Graham, S.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Marshall, J.R.; Haughey, B.P.; Swanson, M.; Brasure, J.; Wilkinson, G. )

    1991-03-11

    Because both folate deficiency and alcohol intake have been hypothesized to be lung cancer risk factors, the authors examined the effect of folate and alcohol consumption on risk of lung cancer in a case-control study conducted 1980-1984. Usual dietary intake of 450 histologically confirmed lung cancer cases and 902 controls, all Western New York residents, was ascertained using a modified food frequency questionnaire. Folate intake was not associated with lung cancer risk. After adjusting for age, cigarette smoking, education, and carotene intake, the odds ratio (OR) for the highest category of folate intake was 1.59 in males and 1.34 in females. There was some indication of a protective effect of folate only among women who never smoked. There was a suggestion of a positive association of alcohol intake with lung cancer risk in males, independent of age, education, cigarette smoking, and carotene. Consumers of more than 9 beers per month had an OR of 1.51 compared to non-drinkers. In both sexes, there was an indication of an interaction between beer ingestion and cigarette smoking. While folate intake did not appear to affect risk of lung cancer, the association of alcohol intake with risk independent of cigarette smoking deserves further inquiry.

  15. Association Between COX-2 Polymorphisms and Lung Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiwei; Fan, Xinyun; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Yi; Yang, Siyuan; Li, Gaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple relevant risk factors for lung cancer have been reported in different populations, but results of previous studies were not consistent. Therefore, a meta-analysis is necessary to summarize these outcomes and reach a relatively comprehensive conclusion. Material/Methods STATA 12.0 software was used for all statistical of the relationship between COX-2 polymorphisms and lung cancer risk. Inter-study heterogeneity was examined with the Q statistic (significance level at P<0.1). The publication bias among studies in the meta-analysis was analyzed with Begg’s funnel plot and Egger’s test. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested in all controls of the studies. Results COX-2 rs20417 polymorphism had a significant association with reduced risk of lung cancer under homozygous and recessive models, and similar results were observed in white and population-based subgroups under 2 and 3 contrasts, respectively. Additionally, rs2066826 polymorphism manifested a strong correlation with increased risk of lung cancer under 5 genetic models. Conclusions In COX-2 gene, rs20417 may have a certain relationship with reduced risk of lung cancer, while rs2066826 may increase the risk of lung cancer. PMID:26624903

  16. Dietary acrylamide and risk of renal cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Mucci, Lorelei A; Lindblad, Per; Steineck, Gunnar; Adami, Hans-Olov

    2004-05-01

    The detection of acrylamide, classified as a probable human carcinogen, in commonly consumed foods created public health alarm. Thus far, only 2 epidemiologic studies have examined the effect of dietary acrylamide on cancer risk. Presently, we reanalyzed data from a large population-based Swedish case-control study of renal cell cancer. Food frequency data were linked with national food databases on acrylamide content, and daily acrylamide intake was estimated for participants. The risk of renal cell cancer was evaluated for intake of food items with elevated acrylamide levels and for total daily acrylamide dose. Adjusting for potential confounders, there was no evidence that food items with elevated acrylamide, including coffee (OR(highest vs. lowest quartile) = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.4-1.1), crisp breads (OR(highest vs. lowest quartile) = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.6-1.6) and fried potatoes (OR(highest vs. lowest quartile) = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.7-1.7), were associated with a higher risk of renal cell cancer risk. Furthermore, there was no association between estimated daily acrylamide intake through diet and cancer risk (OR(highest vs. lowest quartile) = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.7-1.8; p for trend = 0.8). The results of this study are in line with the 2 previous studies examining dietary acrylamide and suggest there is no association between dietary acrylamide and risk of renal cell cancer. PMID:14999788

  17. Cancer Risks Associated with External Radiation From Diagnostic Imaging Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Linet, Martha S.; Slovis, Thomas L.; Miller, Donald L.; Kleinerman, Ruth; Lee, Choonsik; Rajaraman, Preetha; de Gonzalez, Amy Berrington

    2012-01-01

    The 600% increase in medical radiation exposure to the US population since 1980 has provided immense benefit, but potential future cancer risks to patients. Most of the increase is from diagnostic radiologic procedures. The objectives of this review are to summarize epidemiologic data on cancer risks associated with diagnostic procedures, describe how exposures from recent diagnostic procedures relate to radiation levels linked with cancer occurrence, and propose a framework of strategies to reduce radiation from diagnostic imaging in patients. We briefly review radiation dose definitions, mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis, key epidemiologic studies of medical and other radiation sources and cancer risks, and dose trends from diagnostic procedures. We describe cancer risks from experimental studies, future projected risks from current imaging procedures, and the potential for higher risks in genetically susceptible populations. To reduce future projected cancers from diagnostic procedures, we advocate widespread use of evidence-based appropriateness criteria for decisions about imaging procedures, oversight of equipment to deliver reliably the minimum radiation required to attain clinical objectives, development of electronic lifetime records of imaging procedures for patients and their physicians, and commitment by medical training programs, professional societies, and radiation protection organizations to educate all stakeholders in reducing radiation from diagnostic procedures. PMID:22307864

  18. Age and cancer risk: a potentially modifiable relationship.

    PubMed

    White, Mary C; Holman, Dawn M; Boehm, Jennifer E; Peipins, Lucy A; Grossman, Melissa; Henley, S Jane

    2014-03-01

    This article challenges the idea that cancer cannot be prevented among older adults by examining different aspects of the relationship between age and cancer. Although the sequential patterns of aging cannot be changed, several age-related factors that contribute to disease risk can be. For most adults, age is coincidentally associated with preventable chronic conditions, avoidable exposures, and modifiable risk behaviors that are causally associated with cancer. Midlife is a period of life when the prevalence of multiple cancer risk factors is high and incidence rates begin to increase for many types of cancer. However, current evidence suggests that for most adults, cancer does not have to be an inevitable consequence of growing older. Interventions that support healthy environments, help people manage chronic conditions, and promote healthy behaviors may help people make a healthier transition from midlife to older age and reduce the likelihood of developing cancer. Because the number of adults reaching older ages is increasing rapidly, the number of new cancer cases will also increase if current incidence rates remain unchanged. Thus, the need to translate the available research into practice to promote cancer prevention, especially for adults at midlife, has never been greater. PMID:24512933

  19. Cancer in first-degree relatives and risk of testicular cancer in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R.; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Familial aggregation of testicular cancer has been reported consistently, but it is less clear if there is any association between risk of testicular cancer and other cancers in the family. We conducted a population based case-control study to examine the relationship between risk of testicular cancer and 22 different cancers in first-degree relatives. We included 3297 cases of testicular cancer notified to the Danish Cancer Registry between 1991 and 2003. 6594 matched controls were selected from the Danish Civil Registration System, which also provided the identity of 40,104 first-degree relatives of case and controls. Familial cancer was identified by linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry, and we used conditional logistic regression to analyse whether cancer among first-degree relatives was associated with higher risk of testicular cancer. Rate ratio (RR) for testicular cancer was 4.63 (95% CI: 2.41–8.87) when a father, 8.30(95% CI: 3.81–18.10) when a brother and 5.23 (95% CI: 1.35–20.26) when a son had testicular cancer compared with no familial testicular cancer. Results were similar when analyses were stratified by histologic subtypes of testicular cancer. Familial Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and oesophageal cancer were associated with testicular cancer; however these may be chance findings. The familial aggregation of testicular and possibly other cancers may be explained by shared genes and/or shared environmental factors, but the mutual importance of each of these is difficult to determine. PMID:21207375

  20. Cancer in first-degree relatives and risk of testicular cancer in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2011-11-15

    Familial aggregation of testicular cancer has been reported consistently, but it is less clear if there is any association between risk of testicular cancer and other cancers in the family. We conducted a population-based case-control study to examine the relationship between risk of testicular cancer and 22 different cancers in first-degree relatives. We included 3,297 cases of testicular cancer notified to the Danish Cancer Registry between 1991 and 2003. A total of 6,594 matched controls were selected from the Danish Civil Registration System, which also provided the identity of 40,104 first-degree relatives of case and controls. Familial cancer was identified by linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry, and we used conditional logistic regression to analyze whether cancer among first-degree relatives was associated with higher risk of testicular cancer. Rate ratio for testicular cancer was 4.63 (95% CI: 2.41-8.87) when a father, 8.30 (95% CI: 3.81-18.10) when a brother and 5.23 (95% CI: 1.35-20.26) when a son had testicular cancer compared to no familial testicular cancer. Results were similar when analyses were stratified by histologic subtypes of testicular cancer. Familial non-Hodgkin lymphoma and esophageal cancer were associated with testicular cancer; however, these may be chance findings. The familial aggregation of testicular and possibly other cancers may be explained by shared genes and/or shared environmental factors, but the mutual importance of each of these is difficult to determine. PMID:21207375

  1. Dietary consumption patterns and laryngeal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Vlastarakos, Petros V; Vassileiou, Andrianna; Delicha, Evie; Kikidis, Dimitrios; Protopapas, Dimosthenis; Nikolopoulos, Thomas P

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a case-control study to investigate the effect of diet on laryngeal carcinogenesis. Our study population was made up of 140 participants-70 patients with laryngeal cancer (LC) and 70 controls with a non-neoplastic condition that was unrelated to diet, smoking, or alcohol. A food-frequency questionnaire determined the mean consumption of 113 different items during the 3 years prior to symptom onset. Total energy intake and cooking mode were also noted. The relative risk, odds ratio (OR), and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by multiple logistic regression analysis. We found that the total energy intake was significantly higher in the LC group (p < 0.001), and that the difference remained statistically significant after logistic regression analysis (p < 0.001; OR: 118.70). Notably, meat consumption was higher in the LC group (p < 0.001), and the difference remained significant after logistic regression analysis (p = 0.029; OR: 1.16). LC patients also consumed significantly more fried food (p = 0.036); this difference also remained significant in the logistic regression model (p = 0.026; OR: 5.45). The LC group also consumed significantly more seafood (p = 0.012); the difference persisted after logistic regression analysis (p = 0.009; OR: 2.48), with the consumption of shrimp proving detrimental (p = 0.049; OR: 2.18). Finally, the intake of zinc was significantly higher in the LC group before and after logistic regression analysis (p = 0.034 and p = 0.011; OR: 30.15, respectively). Cereal consumption (including pastas) was also higher among the LC patients (p = 0.043), with logistic regression analysis showing that their negative effect was possibly associated with the sauces and dressings that traditionally accompany pasta dishes (p = 0.006; OR: 4.78). Conversely, a higher consumption of dairy products was found in controls (p < 0.05); logistic regression analysis showed that calcium appeared to be protective at the micronutrient level (p < 0

  2. Relative cancer risks of chemical contaminants in the great lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bro, Kenneth M.; Sonzogni, William C.; Hanson, Mark E.

    1987-08-01

    Anyone who drinks water or eats fish from the Great Lakes consumes potentially carcinogenic chemicals. In choosing how to respond to such pollution, it is important to put the risks these contaminants pose in perspective. Based on recent measurements of carcinogens in Great Lakes fish and water, calculations of lifetime risks of cancer indicate that consumers of sport fish face cancer risks from Great Lakes contaminants that are several orders of magnitude higher than the risks posed by drinking Great Lakes water. But drinking urban groundwater and breathing urban air may be as hazardous as frequent consumption of sport fish from the Great Lakes. Making such comparisons is difficult because of variation in types and quality of information available and in the methods for estimating risk. Much uncertainty pervades the risk assessment process in such areas as estimating carcinogenic potency and human exposure to contaminants. If risk assessment is to be made more useful, it is important to quantify this uncertainty.

  3. Minimizing second cancer risk following radiotherapy: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ng, John; Shuryak, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Secondary cancer risk following radiotherapy is an increasingly important topic in clinical oncology with impact on treatment decision making and on patient management. Much of the evidence that underlies our understanding of secondary cancer risks and our risk estimates are derived from large epidemiologic studies and predictive models of earlier decades with large uncertainties. The modern era is characterized by more conformal radiotherapy technologies, molecular and genetic marker approaches, genome-wide studies and risk stratifications, and sophisticated biologically based predictive models of the carcinogenesis process. Four key areas that have strong evidence toward affecting secondary cancer risks are 1) the patient age at time of radiation treatment, 2) genetic risk factors, 3) the organ and tissue site receiving radiation, and 4) the dose and volume of tissue being irradiated by a particular radiation technology. This review attempts to summarize our current understanding on the impact on secondary cancer risks for each of these known risk factors. We review the recent advances in genetic studies and carcinogenesis models that are providing insight into the biologic processes that occur from tissue irradiation to the development of a secondary malignancy. Finally, we discuss current approaches toward minimizing the risk of radiation-associated secondary malignancies, an important goal of clinical radiation oncology. PMID:25565886

  4. Minimizing second cancer risk following radiotherapy: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ng, John; Shuryak, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Secondary cancer risk following radiotherapy is an increasingly important topic in clinical oncology with impact on treatment decision making and on patient management. Much of the evidence that underlies our understanding of secondary cancer risks and our risk estimates are derived from large epidemiologic studies and predictive models of earlier decades with large uncertainties. The modern era is characterized by more conformal radiotherapy technologies, molecular and genetic marker approaches, genome-wide studies and risk stratifications, and sophisticated biologically based predictive models of the carcinogenesis process. Four key areas that have strong evidence toward affecting secondary cancer risks are 1) the patient age at time of radiation treatment, 2) genetic risk factors, 3) the organ and tissue site receiving radiation, and 4) the dose and volume of tissue being irradiated by a particular radiation technology. This review attempts to summarize our current understanding on the impact on secondary cancer risks for each of these known risk factors. We review the recent advances in genetic studies and carcinogenesis models that are providing insight into the biologic processes that occur from tissue irradiation to the development of a secondary malignancy. Finally, we discuss current approaches toward minimizing the risk of radiation-associated secondary malignancies, an important goal of clinical radiation oncology. PMID:25565886

  5. Widely Used Type 2 Diabetes Drug May Reduce Cancer Death Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Used Type 2 Diabetes Drug May Reduce Cancer Death Risk Older women taking metformin saw a boost ... a risk factor for cancer and cancer-related death, and metformin therapy, compared to other diabetes medications, ...

  6. Risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Wu, P C; Lang, J H; Ge, W J; Hartge, P; Brinton, L A

    1992-02-01

    A study in Beijing, China of 112 pathologically confirmed epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 224 age-matched community controls enabled evaluation of risk in relation to reproductive, medical, familial, and selected lifestyle factors. An inverse relationship was observed between the number of full-term pregnancies and ovarian cancer risk. Compared to nulliparous women, subjects with one, two, or three full-term pregnancies were at 50%, 70%, or 90% reduced risks, respectively (P for trend less than 0.01). A positive correlation was found between the number of ovulatory years and risk, with a 2.6-fold increased risk for women with 30 or more compared to less than 10 ovulatory years (P for trend less than 0.01). Infertility, as estimated in various ways, was also found to be an important risk factor. When parity was taken into account, age at first pregnancy was not related to ovarian cancer risk. No protective effect was associated with mumps virus infection. In contrast, risk increased significantly as serum mumps virus antibody titres increased (P for trend less than 0.01). An elevated risk was found in women with a history of long-term (greater than 3 months) application of talc-containing dusting powder to the lower abdomen and perineum (Relative risk 3.9, 95% confidence interval: 0.9-10.63). These findings suggest that Chinese women have risk factors similar to those of occidental women. PMID:1544753

  7. Active Smoking, Passive Smoking, and Breast Cancer Risk: Findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yingsong; Kikuchi, Shogo; Tamakoshi, Koji; Wakai, Kenji; Kondo, Takaaki; Niwa, Yoshimitsu; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Nishio, Kazuko; Suzuki, Sadao; Tokudome, Shinkan; Yamamoto, Akio; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Mori, Mitsuru; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2008-01-01

    Background Evidence is lacking regarding the relationship between cigarette smoking and breast cancer in Japanese women. We examined the association between breast cancer incidence and active and passive smoking in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk. Methods Our study comprised 34,401 women aged 40-79 years who had not been diagnosed previously with breast cancer and who provided information on smoking status at baseline (1988-1990). The subjects were followed from enrollment until December 31, 2001. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between breast cancer incidence and tobacco smoke. Results During 271,412 person-years of follow-up, we identified 208 incident cases of breast cancer. Active smoking did not increase the risk of breast cancer, with a HR for current smokers of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.32-1.38). Furthermore, an increased risk of breast cancer was not observed in current smokers who smoked a greater number of cigarettes each day. Overall, passive smoking at home or in public spaces was also not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among nonsmokers. Women who reported passive smoking during childhood had a statistically insignificant increase in risk (HR: 1.24; 95% CI: 0.84-1.85), compared with those who had not been exposed during this time. Conclusion Smoking may not be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in this cohort of Japanese women. PMID:18403857

  8. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: 12 ways to reduce your cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Schüz, Joachim; Espina, Carolina; Villain, Patricia; Herrero, Rolando; Leon, Maria E; Minozzi, Silvia; Romieu, Isabelle; Segnan, Nereo; Wardle, Jane; Wiseman, Martin; Belardelli, Filippo; Bettcher, Douglas; Cavalli, Franco; Galea, Gauden; Lenoir, Gilbert; Martin-Moreno, Jose M; Nicula, Florian Alexandru; Olsen, Jørgen H; Patnick, Julietta; Primic-Zakelj, Maja; Puska, Pekka; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Wiestler, Otmar; Zatonski, Witold

    2015-12-01

    This overview describes the principles of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer and provides an introduction to the 12 recommendations to reduce cancer risk. Among the 504.6 million inhabitants of the member states of the European Union (EU28), there are annually 2.64 million new cancer cases and 1.28 million deaths from cancer. It is estimated that this cancer burden could be reduced by up to one half if scientific knowledge on causes of cancer could be translated into successful prevention. The Code is a preventive tool aimed to reduce the cancer burden by informing people how to avoid or reduce carcinogenic exposures, adopt behaviours to reduce the cancer risk, or to participate in organised intervention programmes. The Code should also form a base to guide national health policies in cancer prevention. The 12 recommendations are: not smoking or using other tobacco products; avoiding second-hand smoke; being a healthy body weight; encouraging physical activity; having a healthy diet; limiting alcohol consumption, with not drinking alcohol being better for cancer prevention; avoiding too much exposure to ultraviolet radiation; avoiding cancer-causing agents at the workplace; reducing exposure to high levels of radon; encouraging breastfeeding; limiting the use of hormone replacement therapy; participating in organised vaccination programmes against hepatitis B for newborns and human papillomavirus for girls; and participating in organised screening programmes for bowel cancer, breast cancer, and cervical cancer. PMID:26164654

  9. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    PubMed

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study. PMID:23316078

  10. Young women's responses to smoking and breast cancer risk information

    PubMed Central

    Bottorff, Joan L.; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C.; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer and obtain their advice about messaging approaches. Data were collected in focus groups with 46 women, divided in three age cohorts: 15–17, 18–19 and 20–24 and organized according to smoking status (smoking, non-smoking and mixed smoking status groups). The discussion questions were preceded by information about passive and active smoking and its associated breast cancer risk. The study findings show young women's interest in this risk factor for breast cancer. Three themes were drawn from the analysis: making sense of the information on smoking and breast cancer, personal susceptibility and tobacco exposure and suggestions for increasing awareness about tobacco exposure and breast cancer. There was general consensus on framing public awareness messages about this risk factor on ‘protecting others’ from breast cancer to catch smokers’ attention, providing young women with the facts and personal stories of breast cancer to help establish a personal connection with this information and overcome desensitization related to tobacco messages, and targeting all smokers who may place young women at risk. Cautions were also raised about the potential for stigmatization. Implications for raising awareness about this modifiable risk factor for breast cancer are discussed. PMID:20080807

  11. Optical transillumination spectroscopy of breast tissue for cancer risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilge, Lothar; Blyschak, Kristina; Simick, Michelle; Jong, Roberta A.

    2003-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in women. The lifetime risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer is approximately 1 in 10 thereby the highest out of all cancers. Breast cancer screening programs have been shown to decrease the mortality rates of women between ages 50-69, since cancers are detected at an earlier, more favourable stage. It is apparent that the development of breast cancer is a slow process following initial transformation of the breast tissue. Hence, there has been a strong effort within the research community to understand risk factors for the disease. Risk factors are defined as those characteristics that are more common in people with the disease when compared to the normal population. Quantification of an individual's breast cancer rate may lead that individual to modify her lifestyle and/or diet. Lifestyle changes could lead to a reduction in the incidence of breast cancer. Anatomically, the presence of increased amounts of fibroglandular tissue raises the estimated risk by up to 6 fold (correct for age), hence representing one of the strongest known risk factors pertaining to the entire female population. In this study the relative area of mammographic densities within a mammogram will be used as a global risk assessment tool. It has been shown previously that quantification of water, lipids, haemoglobin and other tissue chromophores of the optically interrogated breast tissue, which also gives rise to the mammographic densities, is feasible through near-infrared spectroscopy. Thus, the hypothesis for this study is that optical transillumination spectroscopy provides consistent and/or complementary information to conventional mammography in quantifying breast tissue density.

  12. Cancer clinical trial participants' assessment of risk and benefit

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Connie M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Wallen, Gwenyth R.; Zhou, Qiuping (Pearl); Knafl, Kathleen; Grady, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which cancer clinical trial participants assess the benefits and risks of research participation before enrollment. Methods One hundred and ten oncology research participants enrolled in cancer clinical research in a large Northeastern cancer center responded to a self-administered questionnaire on perceptions about cancer clinical trials. Results Of the participants, 51.6% reported they did not directly assess the benefits or risks. Educational level, age, employment, treatment options, insurance, and spiritual–religious beliefs were significantly associated with whether participants assessed risk and benefits. Those who felt well informed were more likely to have assessed the benefits and risks at enrollment than those who did not feel well informed (odds ratio [OR] = 3.92, p = .014); of those who did not assess the risks and benefits, 21% did not feel well informed at enrollment (p = .001). Those who agreed that the clinical trial helped pay the costs of the care had nearly three times the odds of not assessing risks and benefits compared to those who disagreed. Conclusion Our findings have important implications for understanding the role of assessing risks and benefits in the research participation decisions of patients with cancer and call for further understanding of why participants are not assessing information believed to be essential for autonomous informed decisions. PMID:26709381

  13. Physical Activity and Risk of Male Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Arem, Hannah; Brinton, Louise A; Moore, Steven C; Gapstur, Susan M; Habel, Laurel A; Johnson, Kenneth; Kolonel, Laurence N; McCormack, Valerie A; Michels, Karin B; Sesso, Howard D; Ursin, Giske; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Cook, Michael B; Matthews, Charles E

    2015-12-01

    The association between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and male breast cancer risk is unclear. In the Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project, with 449 cases and 13,855 matched controls, we used logistic regression with study stratification to generate adjusted ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for LTPA tertiles and male breast cancer risk. Compared with low LTPA, medium and high LTPA were not associated with male breast cancer risk (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.79-1.29; 0.90, 0.69-1.18, respectively). In joint-effects analyses, compared with the referent of high body mass index (BMI; ≥25 kg/m(2))/low LTPA, neither medium nor high PA was associated with risk among high BMI men, but normal BMI men (<25 kg/m(2)) with low or medium LTPA were at a nonsignificant ∼16% reduced risk and those with high LTPA were at a 27% reduced risk (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.50-1.07). Physical activity alone may not confer protection against male breast cancer risk. PMID:26404962

  14. Prospective Association between Dietary Fiber Intake and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Zelek, Laurent; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Background Mechanistic hypotheses suggest a potential effect of dietary fiber on breast carcinogenesis through the modulation of insulin-like growth factor bioactivity, estrogen metabolism and inflammation. An association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk has been suggested in epidemiological studies but remains inconclusive. In particular, data is lacking regarding the different types of dietary fibers. Objective The objective was to investigate the prospective relationship between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk, taking into account different types of dietary fiber (overall, insoluble, soluble and from different food sources: cereals, vegetables, fruits and legumes). Design 4684 women from the SU.VI.MAX cohort were included in this analysis as they completed at least three 24h-dietary records within the first two years of follow-up. Among them, 167 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed during a median follow-up of 12.6 years (between 1994 and 2007). The associations between quartiles of dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk were characterized using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Results Total fiber intake was not associated with breast cancer risk (HRQuartile4vs.Quartile1 = 1.29 (95%CI 0.66–2.50), P-trend = 0.5), nor was fiber intake from cereals (P-trend = 0.1), fruits (P-trend = 0.9) and legumes (P-trend = 0.3). In contrast, vegetable fiber intake was related to a decreased risk of breast cancer (HRQ4vs.Q1 = 0.50 (0.29-0.88), P-trend = 0.03). Overall vegetable intake (in g/day) was not associated with breast cancer risk (P-trend = 0.2). Conclusion This prospective study suggests that vegetable fiber intake may contribute to reduce breast cancer risk, in line with experimental mechanistic data. PMID:24244548

  15. Lung cancer risk among textile workers in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmickiene, Irena; Stukonis, Mecys

    2007-01-01

    Background The textile industry is one of the largest employers in Lithuania. IARC monograph concludes that working in the textile manufacturing industry entails exposures that are possibly carcinogenic to humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate risk of lung cancer incidence in textile industry workers by the type of job and evaluate the relation between occupational textile dusts exposure and lung cancer risk in a cohort. Methods Altogether 14650 textile workers were included in this retrospective study and were followed from 1978 to 2002. Lung cancer risk was analyzed using the standardized incidence ratios (SIR) calculated by the person-years method. The expected number of cases was calculated by indirect methods using Lithuanian incidence rates. Results During the period of 25 years 70 cancer cases for male and 15 for female were identified. The SIR for male was 0.94 (95% CI PI 0.73–1.19), for female 1.36 (95% CI 0.76–2.25). The lung cancer risk for male in the cotton textile production unit was significantly lower after 10 years of employment (SIR = 0.34; 95% CI 0.12–0.73). The lung cancer risk decreased with level of exposure to textile dust (p for trends was <0.05): the SIR for the low, medium, high and very high level of cumulative exposure were 1.91 (95% CI 0.92–3.51), 1.30 (95% CI 0.52–2.69), 0.77 (95% CI 0.21–1.96), and 0.24 (95% CI 0.03–0.86) respectively. Conclusion In our study the exposure to cotton textile dust at workplaces for male is associated with adverse lung cancer risk effects. High level of exposure to cotton dusts appears to be associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer in cotton textile workers. PMID:18021389

  16. Cancer risks in second-generation immigrants to Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Kari; Li, Xinjun

    2002-05-10

    We used the nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to analyze cancer risks in Sweden-born descendants of immigrants from European and North American countries. Our study included close to 600,000 0-66-year-old descendants of an immigrant father or mother. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 17 cancer sites using native Swedes as a reference. All cancer was marginally below the Swedish incidence in offspring of immigrant origin. Decreased SIRs were observed for breast cancer among Norwegian descendants, melanoma among descendants of Hungarian fathers and ovarian and bladder cancer among descendents of Finnish mothers, all consistent with the difference in cancer incidence between Swedes and the indigenous populations. Cervical cancer was increased in daughters of Danish men, whereas thyroid cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were in excess in offspring of parents of Yugoslav and Asian descent. Even these results agreed with the high incidence rates in parents compared to Swedes, except that for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma other explanations are needed; these may be related to immune malfunction. Comparison of the results between the first- and the second-generation immigrants suggest that the first 2 decades of life are important in setting the pattern for cancer development in subsequent life. Birth in Sweden sets the Swedish pattern for cancer incidence, irrespective of the nationality of descent, while entering Sweden in the 20s is already too late to influence the environmentally imprinted program for the cancer destiny. PMID:11979438

  17. Cancer Risks for Relatives of Children with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Heath, John A.; Smibert, Elizabeth; Algar, Elizabeth M.; Dite, Gillian S.; Hopper, John L.

    2014-01-01

    We determined the extent and distribution of cancers in relatives of 379 children newly diagnosed with cancer. Family history was collected from 1,337 first-degree and 3,399 second-degree relatives and incidence compared with national age- and gender-specific rates. Overall, 14 children (3.7%) had a relative with a history of childhood cancer and 26 children (6.9%) had a first-degree relative with a history of cancer, with only one of these having an identifiable familial cancer syndrome. There was a higher than expected incidence of childhood cancer among first-degree relatives (parents and siblings) (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 1.43; 95% CI 0.54–5.08). There was also a higher than expected incidence of adult cancers among first-degree relatives (SIR 1.45; 95% CI 0.93–2.21), particularly in females (SIR 1.82; 95% CI 1.26–3.39). The increased family cancer history in first-degree females was largely attributable to an effect in mothers (SIR 1.78; 95% CI 1.27–3.33). The gender-specific association was reflected in higher than expected incidence rates of breast cancer in both mothers (SIR 1.92; 95% CI 0.72–6.83) and aunts (SIR 1.64; 95% CI 0.98–2.94). These findings support the hypothesis that previously undetected familial cancer syndromes contribute to childhood cancer. PMID:24799902

  18. Stem cells from adipose tissue and breast cancer: hype, risks and hope

    PubMed Central

    Bertolini, F; Petit, J-Y; Kolonin, M G

    2015-01-01

    Several recent papers have generated new hope about the use of white adipose tissue (WAT)-derived progenitor cells for soft tissue reconstruction in a variety of diseases including breast cancer (BC), a procedure that is increasingly used worldwide. We revised the available literature about WAT cells and BC. In the BC field, we believe that the hype for the exciting results in terms of WAT progenitor cell engraftment and tissue augmentation should be tempered when considering the recent and abundant preclinical studies, indicating that WAT progenitors may promote BC growth and metastasis. White adipose tissue progenitors can contribute to tumour vessels, pericytes and adipocytes, and were found to stimulate local and metastatic BC progression in several murine models. Moreover, there are clinical retrospective data showing a significant increase in the local recurrence frequency in patients with intraepithelial neoplasia who received a lipofilling procedure for breast reconstruction compared with controls. Retrospective and prospective clinical trials are warranted to investigate in depth the safety of this procedure in BC. Preclinical models should be used to find mechanisms able to inhibit the tumour-promoting activity of WAT progenitors while sparing their tissue reconstruction potential. PMID:25584493

  19. Risk of Cancer Among Firefighters in California, 1988–2007

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Rebecca J.; Luckhaupt, Sara E.; Schumacher, Pam; Cress, Rosemary D.; Deapen, Dennis M.; Calvert, Geoffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Most studies of firefighter cancer risks were conducted prior to 1990 and do not reflect risk from advances in building materials. Methods A case–control study using California Cancer Registry data (1988–2007) was conducted to evaluate the risk of cancer among firefighters, stratified by race. Results This study identified 3,996 male firefighters with cancer. Firefighters were found to have a significantly elevated risk for melanoma (odds ratio [OR]=1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–2.1), multiple myeloma (OR 1.4; 95%CI 1.0–1.8), acute myeloid leukemia (OR 1.4; 95%CI 1.0–2.0), and cancers of the esophagus (OR 1.6;95%CI 1.2–2.1), prostate (OR 1.5; 95%CI 1.3–1.7), brain (OR 1.5; 95%CI 1.2–2.0), and kidney (OR 1.3; 95%CI 1.0–1.6). Conclusions In addition to observing cancer findings consistent with previous research, this study generated novel findings for firefighters with race/ethnicity other than white. It provides additional evidence to support the association between firefighting and several specific cancers. PMID:25943908

  20. Cancer risks from exposure to radon in homes.

    PubMed Central

    Axelson, O

    1995-01-01

    Exposure to radon and its decay products in mines is a well recognized risk of lung cancer in miners. A large number of epidemiologic studies from various countries are quite consistent in this respect even it the magnitude of the risk differs according to exposure levels. Indoor radon became a concern in the 1970s and about a dozen studies have been conducted since 1979, mainly of the case-control design. From first being of a simple pilot character, the designs have become increasingly sophisticated, especially with regard to exposure assessment. Crude exposure estimates based on type of house, building material and geological features have been supplemented or replaced by quite extensive measurements. Still, exposure assessment remains a difficult and uncertain issue in these studies, most of which indicate a lung cancer risk from indoor radon. Also a recent large scale study has confirmed a lung cancer risk from indoor radon. More recently there are also some studies, mainly of the correlation type, suggesting other cancers also to be related to indoor radon, especially leukemia, kidney cancer, and malignant melanoma, and some other cancers as well. The data are less consistent and much more uncertain than for indoor radon and lung cancer, however; and there is no clear support from studies of miners in this respect. PMID:7614945

  1. Sun Protection Motivational Stages and Behavior: Skin Cancer Risk Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagoto, Sherry L.; McChargue, Dennis E.; Schneider, Kristin; Cook, Jessica Werth

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To create skin cancer risk profiles that could be used to predict sun protection among Midwest beachgoers. Method: Cluster analysis was used with study participants (N=239), who provided information about sun protection motivation and behavior, perceived risk, burn potential, and tan importance. Participants were clustered according to…

  2. INTEGRATED QUANTITATIVE CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT OF INORGANIC ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper attempts to make an integrated risk assessment of arsenic, using data on humans exposed to arsenic via inhalation and ingestion. he data useful for making an integrated analysis and data gaps are discussed. rsenic provides a rare opportunity to compare the cancer risk ...

  3. MINI REVIEW - EPIGENETIC PROCESSES AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment encourages the use of mechanistic data in the assessment of human cancer risk at low (environmental) exposure levels. The key events that define a particular mode of action for tumor fo...

  4. Risk factors and biomarkers of life-threatening cancers

    PubMed Central

    Autier, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that risk factors for cancer occurrence and for cancer death are not necessarily the same. Knowledge of cancer aggressiveness risk factors (CARF) may help in identifying subjects at high risk of developing a potentially deadly cancer (and not just any cancer). The availability of CARFs may have positive consequences for health policies, medical practice, and the search for biomarkers. For instance, cancer chemoprevention and cancer screening of subjects with CARFs would probably be more ethical and cost-effective than recommending chemoprevention and screening to entire segments of the population. Also, the harmful consequences of chemoprevention and of screening would be reduced while effectiveness would be optimised. We present examples of CARF already in use (e.g. mutations of the breast cancer (BRCA) gene), of promising avenues for the discovery of biomarkers thanks to the investigation of CARFs (e.g. breast radiological density and systemic inflammation), and of biomarkers commonly used that are not real CARFs (e.g. certain mammography images, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration, nevus number). PMID:26635900

  5. Cancer-related fatigue: Mechanisms, risk factors, and treatments

    PubMed Central

    Bower, Julienne E.

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and its treatment, and may persist for years after treatment completion in otherwise healthy survivors. Cancer-related fatigue causes disruption in all aspects of quality of life and may be a risk factor for reduced survival. The prevalence and course of fatigue in cancer patients has been well characterized, and there is growing understanding of underlying biological mechanisms. Inflammation has emerged as a key biological pathway for cancer-related fatigue, with studies documenting links between markers of inflammation and fatigue before, during, and particularly after treatment. There is considerable variability in the experience of cancer-related fatigue that is not explained by disease- or treatment-related characteristics, suggesting that host factors may play an important role in the development and persistence of this symptom. Indeed, longitudinal studies have begun to identify genetic, biological, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors for cancer-related fatigue. Given the multi-factorial nature of cancer-related fatigue, a variety of intervention approaches have been examined in randomized controlled trials, including physical activity, psychosocial, mind-body, and pharmacological treatments. Although there is currently no gold standard for treating fatigue, several of these approaches have shown beneficial effects and can be recommended to patients. This report provides a state of the science review of mechanisms, risk factors, and interventions for cancer-related fatigue, with a focus on recent longitudinal studies and randomized trials that have targeted fatigued patients. PMID:25113839

  6. [Cancer morbidity risks among workers of asbestos-cement productions].

    PubMed

    Nagornaia, A M; Varivonchik, D V; Kundiev, Iu I; Fedorenko, Z P; Gorokh, E L; Gulak, L O; Vitte, P N; Karakashian, A N; Lepeshkina, T R; Martynovskaia, T Iu

    2008-01-01

    The retrospective assessment of morbidity rates and cancer pathology risks in workers of asbestosis-cement enterprises of Ukraine has been made. It was established that annual cancer morbidity among workers makes 88,1 per 100 000 of workers (RR = 0.26, CI 95 % 0.06-1.01). The most often cancer pathology was located in digestive organs (48.1%), respiratory organs (18.5%) (lung cancer--11.1%). The mesothelioma of pleura, peritoneum and pericardium were not found. The risks (odds ratio--OR) of cancer morbidity were increased for such organs as: respiratory organs (OR = 2.37), skin (OR = 1.78), digestive organs (OR = 1.34). PMID:18467971

  7. Radiation-related cancer risks from CT colonography screening: a risk-benefit analysis

    PubMed Central

    de González, Amy Berrington; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Knudsen, Amy B.; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Rutter, Carolyn M.; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca; Yee, Judy; Kuntz, Karen M.; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Zauber, Ann G.; Berg, Christine D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to estimate the ratio of cancers prevented to induced (benefit-risk ratio) for CT colonography screening every five years from age 50-80. Materials and methods Radiation-related cancer risk was estimated using risk projection models based on the National Research Council's BEIR VII committee's report and screening protocols from the American College of Radiology Imaging Network's National CT Colonography Trial. Uncertainty limits (UL) were estimated using Monte-Carlo simulation methods. Comparative modelling with three colorectal cancer microsimulation models was used to estimate the potential reduction in colorectal cancer cases and deaths. Results The estimated mean effective dose per CT colonography screen was 8mSv for females and 7mSv for males. The estimated number of radiation-related cancers from CT colonography screening every 5 years from age 50-80 was 150 cases/100,000 individuals (95%UL:80-280) for males and females. The estimated number of colorectal cancers prevented by CT colonography every 5 years from age 50-80 ranged across the three microsimulation models from 3580 to 5190/100,000, yielding a benefit-risk ratio that varied from 24:1(95%UL=13:1-45:1) to 35:1(95%UL=19:1-65:1). The benefit-risk ratio for cancer deaths was even higher than the ratio for cancer cases. Inclusion of radiation-related cancer risks from CT scans following-up extracolonic findings did not materially alter the results. Conclusions Concerns have been raised about recommending CT colonography as a routine screening tool because of the potential harms, including the radiation risks. Based on these models the benefits from CT colonography screening every five years from age 50-80 clearly outweigh the radiation risks. PMID:21427330

  8. Finasteride Concentrations and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Chen, Xiaohong; Leach, Robin J.; Johnson-Pais, Teresa L.; Hsing, Ann W.; Hoque, Ashraful; Tangen, Catherine M.; Chu, Lisa; Parnes, Howard L.; Schenk, Jeannette M.; Reichardt, Juergen K. V.; Thompson, Ian M.; Figg, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by 25%, even though high-grade prostate cancer was more common in the finasteride group. However, it remains to be determined whether finasteride concentrations may affect prostate cancer risk. In this study, we examined the association between serum finasteride concentrations and the risk of prostate cancer in the treatment arm of the PCPT and determined factors involved in modifying drug concentrations. Methods Data for this nested case-control study are from the PCPT. Cases were drawn from men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer and matched controls. Finasteride concentrations were measured using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry validated assay. The association of serum finasteride concentrations with prostate cancer risk was determined by logistic regression. We also examine whether polymorphisms in the enzyme target and metabolism genes of finasteride are related to drug concentrations using linear regression. Results and Conclusions Among men with detectable finasteride concentrations, there was no association between finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk, low-grade or high-grade, when finasteride concentration was analyzed as a continuous variable or categorized by cutoff points. Since there was no concentration-dependent effect on prostate cancer, any exposure to finasteride intake may reduce prostate cancer risk. Of the twenty-seven SNPs assessed in the enzyme target and metabolism pathway, five SNPs in two genes, CYP3A4 (rs2242480; rs4646437; rs4986910), and CYP3A5 (rs15524; rs776746) were significantly associated with modifying finasteride concentrations. These results suggest that finasteride exposure may reduce prostate cancer risk and finasteride concentrations are affected by genetic variations in genes responsible for altering its metabolism pathway. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00288106 PMID:25955319

  9. Is cancer risk of radiation workers larger than expected?

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, P; Rühm, W; Walsh, L; Blettner, M; Hammer, G; Zeeb, H

    2009-01-01

    Occupational exposures to ionising radiation mainly occur at low-dose rates and may accumulate effective doses of up to several hundred milligray. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the evidence of cancer risks from such low-dose-rate, moderate-dose (LDRMD) exposures. Our literature search for primary epidemiological studies on cancer incidence and mortality risks from LDRMD exposures included publications from 2002 to 2007, and an update of the UK National Registry for Radiation Workers study. For each (LDRMD) study we calculated the risk for the same types of cancer among the atomic bomb survivors with the same gender proportion and matched quantities for dose, mean age attained and mean age at exposure. A combined estimator of the ratio of the excess relative risk per dose from the LDRMD study to the corresponding value for the atomic bomb survivors was 1.21 (90% CI 0.51 to 1.90). The present analysis does not confirm that the cancer risk per dose for LDRMD exposures is lower than for the atomic bomb survivors. This result challenges the cancer risk values currently assumed for occupational exposures. PMID:19570756

  10. What are the real risks for breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Bluming, A Z; Tavris, C

    2012-04-01

    There is a steady drumbeat of peer-reviewed medical articles relating risks of breast cancer from a variety of factors. Whether or not the reported factors are under the control of any given individual, they have been trumpeted by the lay media and are responsible for the understandable finding among women that breast cancer generates more anxiety than heart disease, even though the number of US women who died of heart disease in 2010 is over seven and a half times the number who fell victim to breast cancer. This article attempts to reduce the anxiety-inducing barrage of these reports by orienting physicians to better understand the validity of reported breast cancer risk factors. We hope to provide this understanding by: explaining the difference between relative and absolute risk, encouraging application of the 95% confidence interval to better evaluate the statistical validity of any given risk factor; placing the reported risk factors in the context of an accepted risk factor like cigarette smoking and lung cancer; and communicating the limits of statistical validity in the absence of reproducibility. This review will, to a small degree, provide a balance to the reports currently dominating the literature. PMID:22142402

  11. Is cancer risk of radiation workers larger than expected?

    PubMed

    Jacob, P; Rühm, W; Walsh, L; Blettner, M; Hammer, G; Zeeb, H

    2009-12-01

    Occupational exposures to ionising radiation mainly occur at low-dose rates and may accumulate effective doses of up to several hundred milligray. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the evidence of cancer risks from such low-dose-rate, moderate-dose (LDRMD) exposures. Our literature search for primary epidemiological studies on cancer incidence and mortality risks from LDRMD exposures included publications from 2002 to 2007, and an update of the UK National Registry for Radiation Workers study. For each (LDRMD) study we calculated the risk for the same types of cancer among the atomic bomb survivors with the same gender proportion and matched quantities for dose, mean age attained and mean age at exposure. A combined estimator of the ratio of the excess relative risk per dose from the LDRMD study to the corresponding value for the atomic bomb survivors was 1.21 (90% CI 0.51 to 1.90). The present analysis does not confirm that the cancer risk per dose for LDRMD exposures is lower than for the atomic bomb survivors. This result challenges the cancer risk values currently assumed for occupational exposures. PMID:19570756

  12. Bone mineral density and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Debjani; Cooke, Andrew L; Lix, Lisa; Metge, Colleen; Lu, Huimin; Leslie, William D

    2011-04-01

    To determine if higher bone mineral density (BMD) is a risk factor for breast cancer in women age 50 years and older. 37,860 women ≥ 50-year old with no previous breast cancer diagnosis had baseline BMD assessment between January 1999 and December 2007. Cox proportional hazards models were created for time to a new breast cancer as a function of lumbar spine or femoral neck BMD quartile (1st = lowest as reference) with adjustment for relevant covariates. A secondary analysis was performed to look for an association with estrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive) breast cancers. 794 invasive and in situ breast cancers (484 ER-positive) occurred with a median follow up of 5.4 years. Increased breast cancer risk was seen for the 3rd and 4th quartiles of lumbar spine BMD with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.01-1.58) and 1.45 (95% CI, 1.16-1.81), respectively and for the 3rd quartile of femoral neck BMD with a HR of 1.33 (95% CI, 1.07-1.64). A test for linear trend showed that lumbar spine BMD (P < 0.001) and femoral neck BMD (P = 0.04) were associated with increased risk. Higher lumbar spine BMD was also associated with increased risk of ER-positive breast cancer with HR of 1.45 (95% CI, 1.08-1.94), and 1.68 (95% CI, 1.24-2.27) for women in the 2nd and 4th quartiles, respectively. A test for linear trend showed lumbar spine BMD was associated with increasing risk of ER-positive breast cancer (P = 0.003). Increased ER-positive breast cancer risk was seen for the 3rd quartile of femoral neck BMD with a HR of 1.43 (95% CI, 1.08-1.89). Higher lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD are associated with higher risk of breast cancer in women ≥50-year old. Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD are associated with increased risk of ER-positive breast cancer. PMID:20838879

  13. Inflammatory bowel disease, cancer and medication: Cancer risk in the Dutch population-based IBDSL cohort.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Tim R A; Wintjens, Dion S J; Jeuring, Steven F G; Wassink, Maartje H H; Romberg-Camps, Marielle J L; Oostenbrug, Liekele E; Sanduleanu, Silvia; Hameeteman, Wim H; Zeegers, Maurice P; Masclee, Ad A; Jonkers, Daisy M; Pierik, Marie J

    2016-09-15

    The management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has changed since the mid-1990s (e.g., use of thiopurines/anti-TNFα agents, improved surveillance programs), possibly affecting cancer risk. To establish current cancer risk in IBD, updates are warranted from cohorts covering this time span, and detailed enough to study associations with phenotype and medication. We studied intestinal-, extra-intestinal- and overall cancer risk in the Dutch population-based IBDSL cohort. In total, 1,157 Crohn's disease (CD) and 1,644 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were diagnosed between 1991 and 2011, and followed until 2013. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for CD and UC separately, as well as for gender-, phenotype-, disease duration-, diagnosis era- and medication groups. We found an increased risk for colorectal cancer in CD patients with colon involvement (SIR 2.97; 95% CI 1.08-6.46), but not in the total CD or UC population. In addition, CD patients were at increased risk for hematologic- (2.41; 1.04-4.76), overall skin- (1.55; 1.06-2.19), skin squamous cell- (SCC; 3.83; 1.83-7.04) and overall cancer (1.28; 1.01-1.60), whereas UC patients had no increased risk for extra-intestinal- and overall cancer. Finally, in a medication analysis on CD and UC together, long-term immunosuppression exposure (>12 months) was associated with an increased risk for hematologic cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, SCC and overall cancer, and this increase was mainly attributed to thiopurines. IBD patients with long-term immunosuppression exposure can be considered as having a higher cancer risk, and our data support the advice in recent IBD guidelines to consider skin cancer screening in these patients. PMID:27170593

  14. Assessing absolute changes in breast cancer risk due to modifiable risk factors.

    PubMed

    Quante, Anne S; Herz, Julia; Whittemore, Alice S; Fischer, Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Terry, Mary Beth

    2015-07-01

    Clinical risk assessment involves absolute risk measures, but information on modifying risk and preventing cancer is often communicated in relative terms. To illustrate the potential impact of risk factor modification in model-based risk assessment, we evaluated the performance of the IBIS Breast Cancer Risk Evaluation Tool, with and without current body mass index (BMI), for predicting future breast cancer occurrence in a prospective cohort of 665 postmenopausal women. Overall, IBIS's accuracy (overall agreement between observed and assigned risks) and discrimination (AUC concordance between assigned risks and outcomes) were similar with and without the BMI information. However, in women with BMI > 25 kg/m(2), adding BMI information improved discrimination (AUC = 63.9 % and 61.4 % with and without BMI, P < 0.001). The model-assigned 10-year risk difference for a woman with high (27 kg/m(2)) versus low (21 kg/m(2)) BMI was only 0.3 % for a woman with neither affected first-degree relatives nor BRCA1 mutation, compared to 4.5 % for a mutation carrier with three such relatives. This contrast illustrates the value of using information on modifiable risk factors in risk assessment and in sharing information with patients of their absolute risks with and without modifiable risk factors. PMID:26012643

  15. Tool Weighs Benefits, Risks of Raloxifene or Tamoxifen to Prevent Breast Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have developed a benefit-risk index to help guide decisions on whether postmenopausal women at increased risk of developing breast cancer should take raloxifene or tamoxifen to reduce that risk. |

  16. Cancer Genetics Risk Assessment and Counseling (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary in which cancer risk perception, risk communication, and risk counseling are discussed. The summary also contains information about recording and analyzing a family history of cancer and factors to consider when offering genetic testing.

  17. Progesterone receptor gene variants and risk of endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    O'Mara, Tracy A.; Fahey, Paul; Ferguson, Kaltin; Marquart, Louise; Lambrechts, Diether; Despierre, Evelyn; Vergote, Ignace; Amant, Frederic; Hall, Per; Liu, Jianjun; Czene, Kamila; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Ahmed, Shahana; Dunning, Alison M.; Gregory, Catherine S.; Shah, Mitul; Webb, Penelope M.; Spurdle, Amanda B.

    2011-01-01

    Prolonged excessive estrogen exposure unopposed by progesterone is widely accepted to be a risk factor for endometrial cancer development. The physiological function of progesterone is dependent upon the presence of its receptor [progesterone receptor (PGR)] and several studies have reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PGR gene to be associated with endometrial cancer risk. We sought to confirm the associations with endometrial cancer risk previously reported for four different PGR polymorphisms. A maximum of 2888 endometrial cancer cases and 4483 female control subjects from up to three studies were genotyped for four PGR polymorphisms (rs1042838, rs10895068, rs11224561 and rs471767). Logistic regression with adjustment for age, study, ethnicity and body mass index was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and P-values. Of the four SNPs investigated, only rs11224561 in the 3′ region of the PGR gene was found to be significantly associated with endometrial cancer risk. The A allele of the rs11224561 SNP was associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer (OR per allele 1.31; 95% CI 1.12–1.53, P = 0.001, adjusted for age and study), an effect of the same magnitude and direction as reported previously. We have validated the endometrial cancer risk association with a tagSNP in the 3′ untranslated region of PGR previously reported in an Asian population. Replication studies will be required to refine the risk estimate and to establish if this, or a correlated SNP, is the underlying causative variant. PMID:21148628

  18. Performance of an Adipokine Pathway-Based Multilocus Genetic Risk Score for Prostate Cancer Risk Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Ricardo J. T.; Monteiro, Cátia P. D.; Azevedo, Andreia S. M.; Cunha, Virgínia F. M.; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V.; Fraga, Avelino M.; Pina, Francisco M.; Lopes, Carlos M. S.; Medeiros, Rui M.; Franco, Eduardo L.

    2012-01-01

    Few biomarkers are available to predict prostate cancer risk. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tend to have weak individual effects but, in combination, they have stronger predictive value. Adipokine pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis. We used a candidate pathway approach to investigate 29 functional SNPs in key genes from relevant adipokine pathways in a sample of 1006 men eligible for prostate biopsy. We used stepwise multivariate logistic regression and bootstrapping to develop a multilocus genetic risk score by weighting each risk SNP empirically based on its association with disease. Seven common functional polymorphisms were associated with overall and high-grade prostate cancer (Gleason≥7), whereas three variants were associated with high metastatic-risk prostate cancer (PSA≥20 ng/mL and/or Gleason≥8). The addition of genetic variants to age and PSA improved the predictive accuracy for overall and high-grade prostate cancer, using either the area under the receiver-operating characteristics curves (P<0.02), the net reclassification improvement (P<0.001) and integrated discrimination improvement (P<0.001) measures. These results suggest that functional polymorphisms in adipokine pathways may act individually and cumulatively to affect risk and severity of prostate cancer, supporting the influence of adipokine pathways in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. Use of such adipokine multilocus genetic risk score can enhance the predictive value of PSA and age in estimating absolute risk, which supports further evaluation of its clinical significance. PMID:22792137

  19. A Genome-wide Pleiotropy Scan for Prostate Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Panagiotou, Orestis A; Travis, Ruth C; Campa, Daniele; Berndt, Sonja I.; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Siddiq, Afshan; Papatheodorou, Stefania I.; Stanford, Janet L.; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Kaaks, Rudolf; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Krogh, Vittorio; Overvad, Kim; Riboli, Elio; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Giovannucci, Edward; Stampfer, Meir; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian; Le Marchand, Loic; Gaziano, J. Michael; Hunter, DavidJ.; Koutros, Stella; Yeager, Meredith; Hoover, Robert N.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Wacholder, Sholom; Key, Timothy J.; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K

    2014-01-01

    Background No single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) specific for aggressive prostate cancer have been identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Objective To test if SNPs associated with other traits may also affect the risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Design, setting, and participants SNPs implicated in any phenotype other than prostate cancer (p ≤ 10−7) were identified through the catalog of published GWAS and tested in 2891 aggressive prostate cancer cases and 4592 controls from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). The 40 most significant SNPs were followed up in 4872 aggressive prostate cancer cases and 24 534 controls from the Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for aggressive prostate cancer were estimated. Results and limitations A total of 4666 SNPs were evaluated by the BPC3. Two signals were seen in regions already reported for prostate cancer risk. rs7014346 at 8q24.21 was marginally associated with aggressive prostate cancer in the BPC3 trial (p = 1.6 × 10-6), whereas after meta-analysis by PRACTICAL the summary OR was 1.21 (95%CI 1.16–1.27; p = 3.22 × 10−18). rs9900242 at 17q24.3 was also marginally associated with aggressive disease in the meta-analysis (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.86–0.94; p = 2.5 × 10−6). Neither of these SNPs remained statistically significant when conditioning on correlated known prostate cancer SNPs. The meta-analysis by BPC3 and PRACTICAL identified a third promising signal, marked by rs16844874 at 2q34, independent of known prostate cancer loci (OR 1.12,95% CI 1.06–1.19; p = 4.67 × 10−5); it has been shown that SNPs correlated with this signal affect glycine concentrations. The main limitation is the heterogeneity in the definition of aggressive prostate cancer between BPC3 and PRACTICAL. Conclusions We did

  20. Air pollution: a potentially modifiable risk factor for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Fajersztajn, Laís; Veras, Mariana; Barrozo, Ligia Vizeu; Saldiva, Paulo

    2013-09-01

    Economic growth and increased urbanization pose a new risk for cancer development: the exposure of high numbers of people to ambient air pollution. Epidemiological evidence that links air pollution to mortality from lung cancer is robust. An ability to produce high-quality scientific research that addresses these risks and the ability of local health authorities to understand and respond to these risks are basic requirements to solve the conflict between economic development and the preservation of human health. However, this is currently far from being achieved. Thus, this Science and Society article addresses the possibilities of expanding scientific networking to increase awareness of the risk of lung cancer that is promoted by air pollution. PMID:23924644

  1. Germline Mutations in HOXB13 and Prostate-Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Ewing, Charles M.; Ray, Anna M.; Lange, Ethan M.; Zuhlke, Kimberly A.; Robbins, Christiane M.; Tembe, Waibhav D.; Wiley, Kathleen E.; Isaacs, Sarah D.; Johng, Dorhyun; Wang, Yunfei; Bizon, Chris; Yan, Guifang; Gielzak, Marta; Partin, Alan W.; Shanmugam, Vijayalakshmi; Izatt, Tyler; Sinari, Shripad; Craig, David W.; Zheng, S. Lilly; Walsh, Patrick C.; Montie, James E.; Xu, Jianfeng; Carpten, John D.; Isaacs, William B.; Cooney, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Family history is a significant risk factor for prostate cancer, although the molecular basis for this association is poorly understood. Linkage studies have implicated chromosome 17q21-22 as a possible location of a prostate-cancer susceptibility gene. METHODS We screened more than 200 genes in the 17q21-22 region by sequencing germline DNA from 94 unrelated patients with prostate cancer from families selected for linkage to the candidate region. We tested family members, additional case subjects, and control subjects to characterize the frequency of the identified mutations. RESULTS Probands from four families were discovered to have a rare but recurrent mutation (G84E) in HOXB13 (rs138213197), a homeobox transcription factor gene that is important in prostate development. All 18 men with prostate cancer and available DNA in these four families carried the mutation. The carrier rate of the G84E mutation was increased by a factor of approximately 20 in 5083 unrelated subjects of European descent who had prostate cancer, with the mutation found in 72 subjects (1.4%), as compared with 1 in 1401 control subjects (0.1%) (P = 8.5×10−7). The mutation was significantly more common in men with early-onset, familial prostate cancer (3.1%) than in those with late-onset, nonfamilial prostate cancer (0.6%) (P = 2.0×10−6). CONCLUSIONS The novel HOXB13 G84E variant is associated with a significantly increased risk of hereditary prostate cancer. Although the variant accounts for a small fraction of all prostate cancers, this finding has implications for prostate-cancer risk assessment and may provide new mechanistic insights into this common cancer. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.) PMID:22236224

  2. Occurrence of Breast Cancer After Chest Wall Irradiation for Pediatric Cancer, as Detected by a Multimodal Screening Program

    SciTech Connect

    Terenziani, Monica; Casalini, Patrizia; Scaperrotta, Gianfranco; Gandola, Lorenza; Trecate, Giovanna; Catania, Serena; Cefalo, Graziella; Conti, Alberto; Massimino, Maura; Meazza, Cristina; Podda, Marta; Spreafico, Filippo; Suman, Laura; Gennaro, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the occurrence of breast cancer (BC) after exposure to ionizing radiation for pediatric cancer, by means of a multimodal screening program. Patients and Methods: We identified 86 patients who had received chest wall radiation therapy for pediatric cancer. Clinical breast examination (CBE), ultrasound (US), and mammography (MX) were performed yearly. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was added as of October 2007. We calculated the risk of developing BC by radiation therapy dose, patient age, and menarche before or after primary treatment. Results: Eleven women developed a BC from July 2002-February 2010. The sensitivity of the screening methods was 36% for CBE, 73% for MX, 55% for US, and 100% for MRI; the specificity was 91%, 99%, 95%, and 80% for CBE, MX, US, and MRI, respectively. The annual BC detection rate was 2.9%. The median age at BC diagnosis was 33 years. Although age had no influence, menarche before as opposed to after radiation therapy correlated significantly with BC (P=.027): the annual BC detection rate in the former subgroup was 5.3%. Conclusions: Mammography proved more sensitive and specific in our cohort of young women than CBE or US. Magnetic resonance imaging proved 100% sensitive (but this preliminary finding needs to be confirmed). Our cohort of patients carries a 10-fold BC risk at an age more than 20 years younger than in the general population.

  3. Building risk-on-a-chip models to improve breast cancer risk assessment and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Vidi, Pierre-Alexandre; Leary, James; Lelièvre, Sophie A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Preventive actions for chronic diseases hold the promise of improving lives and reducing healthcare costs. For several diseases, including breast cancer, multiple risk and protective factors have been identified by epidemiologists. The impact of most of these factors has yet to be fully understood at the organism, tissue, cellular and molecular levels. Importantly, combinations of external and internal risk and protective factors involve cooperativity thus, synergizing or antagonizing disease onset. Models are needed to mechanistically decipher cancer risks under defined cellular and microenvironmental conditions. Here, we briefly review breast cancer risk models based on 3D cell culture and propose to improve risk modeling with lab-on-a-chip approaches. We suggest epithelial tissue polarity, DNA repair and epigenetic profiles as endpoints in risk assessment models and discuss the development of ‘risks-on-chips’ integrating biosensors of these endpoints and of general tissue homeostasis. Risks-on-chips will help identify biomarkers of risk, serve as screening platforms for cancer preventive agents, and provide a better understanding of risk mechanisms, hence resulting in novel developments in disease prevention. PMID:23681255

  4. Green tea and the risk of gastric cancer: Epidemiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Hou, I-Chun; Amarnani, Saral; Chong, Mok T; Bishayee, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the world. Numerous efforts are being made to find chemoprotective agents able to reduce its risk. Amongst these, green tea has been reported to have a protective effect against stomach cancer. This article aims to critically evaluate all epidemiological studies reporting an association between green tea consumption and GC risk. MEDLINE, EBSCOHOST and Google Scholar were used to search for clinical trials of green tea and its correlation to stomach cancer. Studies include cohort and case-control studies. Outcome of interests are inverse association, no association, and positive association. Seventeen epidemiologic studies were reviewed. Eleven studies were conducted in Japan, five in China, and one with Japanese descendent in Hawaii. Ten case-control studies and seven cohort studies were included. The relative risks or odds ratio of GC for the highest level of green tea consumption was compared. Seven studies suggested no association, eight an inverse association, and one a positive association. One study had shown a significantly lowered GC risk when tea was served warm to cold. Another study also showed a significantly risk with lukewarm tea. All studies that analyzed men and women separately have suggested a reduced risk in women than in men, albeit no significant difference. This review demonstrates that there is insufficient information to support green tea consumption reduces the risk of GC. More studies on the subject matter are warranted. PMID:23840110

  5. Colonoscopy Reduces Risk of Death from Colorectal Cancer in High-Risk Patients

    Cancer.gov

    Long-term results from the National Polyp Study confirm that removing precancerous adenomas not only reduces the risk of colorectal cancer but also reduces the number of deaths from the disease by more than half.

  6. Genetic risk profiles for cancer susceptibility and therapy response.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Helmut; Dally, Heike; Popanda, Odilia; Risch, Angela; Schmezer, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Cells in the body are permanently attacked by DNA-reactive species, both from intracellular and environmental sources. Inherited and acquired deficiencies in host defense mechanisms against DNA damage (metabolic and DNA repair enzymes) can modify cancer susceptibility as well as therapy response. Genetic profiles should help to identify high-risk individuals who subsequently can be enrolled in preventive measures or treated by tailored therapy regimens. Some of our attempts to define such risk profiles are presented. Cancer susceptibility: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in metabolic and repair genes were investigated in a hospital-based lung cancer case-control study. When evaluating the risk associated with different genotypes for N-acetyltransferases (Wikman et al. 2001) and glutathione-S-transferases (Risch et al. 2001), it is mandatory to distinguish between the three major histological subtypes of lung tumors. A promoter polymorphism of the myeloperoxidase gene MPO was shown to decrease lung cancer susceptibility mainly in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) (Dally et al. 2002). The CYP3A4*1B allele was also linked to an increased SCLC risk and in smoking women increased the risk of lung cancer eightfold (Dally et al. 2003b). Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes were shown to modulate lung cancer risk in smokers, and reduced DNA repair capacity elevated the disease risk (Rajaee-Behbahani et al. 2001). Investigations of several DNA repair gene variants revealed that lung cancer risk was only moderately affected by a single variant but was enhanced up to approximately threefold by specific risk allele combinations (Popanda et al. 2004). Therapy response: Inter-individual differences in therapy response are consistently observed with cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Initial results from ongoing studies showed that certain polymorphisms in drug transporter genes (ABCB1) differentially affect response outcome in histological subgroups of lung cancer. Stronger

  7. Green tea and risk of breast cancer in Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anna H; Yu, Mimi C; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Hankin, Jean; Pike, Malcolm C

    2003-09-10

    There is substantial in vitro and in vivo evidence implicating tea polyphenols as chemopreventive agents against various cancers. However, epidemiologic data obtained from mainly Western populations are not supportive of a protective role of tea, mainly black tea, in the etiology of breast cancer. Much less is known about the relationship between green tea and breast cancer risk. During 1995-1998, we conducted a population-based, case-control study of breast cancer among Chinese, Japanese and Filipino women in Los Angeles County and successfully interviewed 501 breast cancer patients and 594 control subjects. Detailed information on menstrual and reproductive factors; dietary habits, including intake of black and green tea; and other lifestyle factors was collected. Risk of breast cancer was not related to black tea consumption. In contrast, green tea drinkers showed a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer, and this was maintained after adjusting for age, specific Asian ethnicity, birthplace, age at menarche, parity, menopausal status, use of menopausal hormones, body size and intake of total calories and black tea. Compared to women who did not drink green tea regularly (i.e., less than once a month), there was a significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing amount of green tea intake, adjusted odds ratios being 1.00, 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.99) and 0.53 (95% CI 0.35-0.78), respectively, in association with no, 0-85.7 and >85.7 ml of green tea per day. The significant inverse association between risk of breast cancer and green tea intake remained after further adjustment for other potential confounders, including smoking; alcohol, coffee and black tea intake; family history of breast cancer; physical activity; and intake of soy and dark green vegetables. While both green tea and soy intake had significant, independent protective effects on breast cancer risk, the benefit of green tea was primarily observed among subjects who were low

  8. Smog May Boost Risk for Several Cancers

    MedlinePlus

    ... dying from cancer." Thomas said the solution is simple. "We should therefore be aiming to limit our exposure, for instance, through legislation to force machine manufacturers, particularly for cars and trucks, into maximizing ...

  9. Genetic testing and your cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells begin to act abnormally. Changes in genes (mutations) tell the cells to divide rapidly and stay ... This leads to cancer growth and tumors. Gene mutations may be the result of damage to the ...

  10. Smog May Boost Risk for Several Cancers

    MedlinePlus

    ... News) -- Long-term exposure to fine particles of air pollution -- from cars, trucks, power plants and manufacturing facilities -- ... several kinds of cancer, a new study suggests. "Air pollution remains a clear, modifiable public health concern," said ...

  11. Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Genes and Gene Therapy Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Genes and Gene Therapy Uterine Cancer About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ...

  12. Risks of Lynch Syndrome Cancers for MSH6 Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Baglietto, Laura; Dowty, James G.; White, Darren M.; Wagner, Anja; Gomez Garcia, Encarna B.; Vriends, Annette H. J. T.; Cartwright, Nicola R.; Barnetson, Rebecca A.; Farrington, Susan M.; Tenesa, Albert; Hampel, Heather; Buchanan, Daniel; Arnold, Sven; Young, Joanne; Walsh, Michael D.; Jass, Jeremy; Macrae, Finlay; Antill, Yoland; Winship, Ingrid M.; Giles, Graham G.; Goldblatt, Jack; Parry, Susan; Suthers, Graeme; Leggett, Barbara; Butz, Malinda; Aronson, Melyssa; Poynter, Jenny N.; Baron, John A.; Le Marchand, Loic; Haile, Robert; Gallinger, Steve; Hopper, John L.; Potter, John; de la Chapelle, Albert; Vasen, Hans F.; Dunlop, Malcolm G.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Jenkins, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Germline mutations in MSH6 account for 10%–20% of Lynch syndrome colorectal cancers caused by hereditary DNA mismatch repair gene mutations. Because there have been only a few studies of mutation carriers, their cancer risks are uncertain. Methods We identified 113 families of MSH6 mutation carriers from five countries that we ascertained through family cancer clinics and population-based cancer registries. Mutation status, sex, age, and histories of cancer, polypectomy, and hysterectomy were sought from 3104 of their relatives. Age-specific cumulative risks for carriers and hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer risks of carriers, compared with those of the general population of the same country, were estimated by use of a modified segregation analysis with appropriate conditioning depending on ascertainment. Results For MSH6 mutation carriers, the estimated cumulative risks to ages 70 and 80 years, respectively, were as follows: for colorectal cancer, 22% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14% to 32%) and 44% (95% CI = 28% to 62%) for men and 10% (95% CI = 5% to 17%) and 20% (95% CI = 11% to 35%) for women; for endometrial cancer, 26% (95% CI = 18% to 36%) and 44% (95% CI = 30% to 58%); and for any cancer associated with Lynch syndrome, 24% (95% CI = 16% to 37%) and 47% (95% CI = 32% to 66%) for men and 40% (95% CI = 32% to 52%) and 65% (95% CI = 53% to 78%) for women. Compared with incidence for the general population, MSH6 mutation carriers had an eightfold increased incidence of colorectal cancer (HR = 7.6, 95% CI = 5.4 to 10.8), which was independent of sex and age. Women who were MSH6 mutation carriers had a 26-fold increased incidence of endometrial cancer (HR = 25.5, 95% CI = 16.8 to 38.7) and a sixfold increased incidence of other cancers associated with Lynch syndrome (HR = 6.0, 95% CI = 3.4 to 10.7). Conclusion We have obtained precise and accurate estimates of both absolute and relative

  13. Cancer risk and residential proximity to cranberry cultivation in Massachusetts.

    PubMed Central

    Aschengrau, A; Ozonoff, D; Coogan, P; Vezina, R; Heeren, T; Zhang, Y

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the relationship between cancer risk and residential proximity to cranberry cultivation. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted. Cases, diagnosed during 1983 through 1986 among residents of the Upper Cape Cod area of Massachusetts, involved incident cancers of the lung (n = 252), breast (n = 265), colon-rectum (n = 326), bladder (n = 63), kidney (n = 35), pancreas (n = 37), and brain (n = 37), along with leukemia (n = 35). Control subjects were randomly selected from among telephone subscribers (n = 184), Medicare beneficiaries (n = 464), and deceased individuals (n = 723). RESULTS: No meaningful increases in risk were seen for any of the cancer sites except for the brain. When latency was considered, subjects who had ever lived within 2600 ft (780 m) of a cranberry bog had a twofold increased risk of brain cancer overall (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.8, 4.9) and a 6.7-fold increased risk of astrocytoma (95% CI = 1.6, 27.8). CONCLUSIONS: Residential proximity to cranberry bog cultivation was not associated with seven of the eight cancers investigated; however, an association was observed with brain cancer, particularly astrocytoma. Larger, more detailed studies are necessary to elucidate this relationship. PMID:8806382

  14. Fertility drugs and the risk of breast and gynecologic cancers.

    PubMed

    Brinton, Louise A; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Scoccia, Bert

    2012-04-01

    The evaluation of cancer risk among patients treated for infertility is complex, given the need to consider indications for use, treatment details, and the effects of other factors (including parity status) that independently affect cancer risk. Many studies have had methodologic limitations. Recent studies that have overcome some of these limitations have not confirmed a link between drug use and invasive ovarian cancers, although there is still a lingering question as to whether borderline tumors might be increased. It is unclear whether this merely reflects increased surveillance. Investigations regarding breast cancer risk have produced inconsistent results. In contrast, an increasing number of studies suggest that fertility drugs may have a special predisposition for the development of uterine cancers, of interest given that these tumors are recognized as particularly hormonally responsive. Additional studies are needed to clarify the effects on cancer risk of fertility drugs, especially those used in conjunction with in vitro fertilization. Because many women who have received such treatments are still relatively young, further monitoring should be pursued in large well-designed studies that enable assessment of effects within a variety of subgroups defined by both patient and disease characteristics. PMID:22549713

  15. Citrus Fruit Intake Substantially Reduces the Risk of Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Anqiang; Zhu, Chengpei; Fu, Lilan; Wan, Xueshuai; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haohai; Miao, Ruoyu; He, Lian; Sang, Xinting; Zhao, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many epidemiologic studies indicate a potential association between fruit and vegetable intake and various cancers. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to investigate the association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The authors conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from inception until July 2014. Studies presenting information about citrus intake and esophageal cancer were analyzed. The authors extracted the categories of citrus intake, study-specific odds ratio or relative risk, and the P value and associated 95% confidence intervals for the highest versus lowest dietary intake of citrus fruit level. The association was quantified using meta-analysis of standard errors with a random-effects model. Thirteen case–control studies and 6 cohort studies were eligible for inclusion. Citrus intake may significantly reduce risk of esophageal cancer (summary odds ratio = 0.63; 95% confidence interval = 0.52–0.75; P = 0), without notable publication bias (intercept = −0.79, P = 0.288) and with significant heterogeneity across studies (I2 = 52%). The results from epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The significant effect is consistent between case–control and cohort studies. Larger prospective studies with rigorous methodology should be considered to validate the association between citrus fruits and esophageal cancer. PMID:26426606

  16. Risk Stratification in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: An Ongoing Process

    PubMed Central

    Omry-Orbach, Gal

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is an increasingly common malignancy, with a rapidly rising prevalence worldwide. The social and economic ramifications of the increase in thyroid cancer are multiple. Though mortality from thyroid cancer is low, and most patients will do well, the risk of recurrence is not insignificant, up to 30%. Therefore, it is important to accurately identify those patients who are more or less likely to be burdened by their disease over years and tailor their treatment plan accordingly. The goal of risk stratification is to do just that. The risk stratification process generally starts postoperatively with histopathologic staging, based on the AJCC/UICC staging system as well as others designed to predict mortality. These do not, however, accurately assess the risk of recurrence/persistence. Patients initially considered to be at high risk may ultimately do very well yet be burdened by frequent unnecessary monitoring. Conversely, patients initially thought to be low risk, may not respond to their initial treatment as expected and, if left unmonitored, may have higher morbidity. The concept of risk-adaptive management has been adopted, with an understanding that risk stratification for differentiated thyroid cancer is dynamic and ongoing. A multitude of variables not included in AJCC/UICC staging are used initially to classify patients as low, intermediate, or high risk for recurrence. Over the course of time, a response-to-therapy variable is incorporated, and patients essentially undergo continuous risk stratification. Additional tools such as biochemical markers, genetic mutations, and molecular markers have been added to this complex risk stratification process such that this is essentially a continuum of risk. In recent years, additional considerations have been discussed with a suggestion of pre-operative risk stratification based on certain clinical and/or biologic characteristics. With the increasing prevalence of thyroid cancer but stable mortality

  17. Population Cancer Risks Associated with Coal Mining: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Wiley D.; Christian, W. Jay; Mueller, Georgia; Robbins, K. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Coal is produced across 25 states and provides 42% of US energy. With production expected to increase 7.6% by 2035, proximate populations remain at risk of exposure to carcinogenic coal products such as silica dust and organic compounds. It is unclear if population exposure is associated with increased risk, or even which cancers have been studied in this regard. Methods We performed a systematic review of English-language manuscripts published since 1980 to determine if coal mining exposure was associated with increased cancer risk (incidence and mortality). Results Of 34 studies identified, 27 studied coal mining as an occupational exposure (coal miner cohort or as a retrospective risk factor) but only seven explored health effects in surrounding populations. Overall, risk assessments were reported for 20 cancer site categories, but their results and frequency varied considerably. Incidence and mortality risk assessments were: negative (no increase) for 12 sites; positive for 1 site; and discordant for 7 sites (e.g. lung, gastric). However, 10 sites had only a single study reporting incidence risk (4 sites had none), and 11 sites had only a single study reporting mortality risk (2 sites had none). The ecological study data were particularly meager, reporting assessments for only 9 sites. While mortality assessments were reported for each, 6 had only a single report and only 2 sites had reported incidence assessments. Conclusions The reported assessments are too meager, and at times contradictory, to make definitive conclusions about population cancer risk due to coal mining. However, the preponderance of this and other data support many of Hill’s criteria for causation. The paucity of data regarding population exposure and risk, the widespread geographical extent of coal mining activity, and the continuing importance of coal for US energy, warrant further studies of population exposure and risk. PMID:23977014

  18. Diet, Supplement Use, and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results From the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kristal, Alan R.; Arnold, Kathryn B.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Goodman, Phyllis; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Albanes, Demetrius; Thompson, Ian M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined nutritional risk factors for prostate cancer among 9,559 participants in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (United States and Canada, 1994–2003). The presence or absence of cancer was determined by prostate biopsy, which was recommended during the trial because of an elevated prostate-specific antigen level or an abnormal digital rectal examination and was offered to all men at the trial's end. Nutrient intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and a structured supplement-use questionnaire. Cancer was detected in 1,703 men; 127 cancers were high-grade (Gleason score 8–10). There were no associations of any nutrient or supplement with prostate cancer risk overall. Risk of high-grade cancer was associated with high intake of polyunsaturated fats (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: odds ratio = 2.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33, 4.38). Dietary calcium was positively associated with low-grade cancer but inversely associated with high-grade cancer (for quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, odds ratios were 1.27 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.57) and 0.43 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.89), respectively). Neither dietary nor supplemental intakes of nutrients often suggested for prostate cancer prevention, including lycopene, long-chain n-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin E, and selenium, were significantly associated with cancer risk. High intake of n-6 fatty acids, through their effects on inflammation and oxidative stress, may increase prostate cancer risk. PMID:20693267

  19. Association Between Cd Exposure and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ju-Kun, Song; Yuan, Dong-Bo; Rao, Hao-Fu; Chen, Tian-Fei; Luan, Bo-Shi; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Jiang, Fu-Neng; Zhong, Wei-De; Zhu, Jian-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several observational studies on the association between Cd exposure and risk of prostate cancer have yielded inconsistent results. To address this issue, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the correlation between Cd exposure and risk of prostate cancer. Relevant studies in PubMed and Embase databases were retrieved until October 2015. We compared the highest and lowest meta-analyses to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between Cd exposure and risk of prostate cancer. Summary estimates were obtained using a random-effects model. In the general population, high Cd exposure was not associated with increased prostate cancer (OR 1.21; 95% CI 0.91–1.64), whereas the combined standardized mortality ratio of the association between Cd exposure and risk of prostate cancer was 1.66 (95% CI 1.10–2.50) in populations exposed to occupational Cd. In addition, high D-Cd intake (OR 1.07; 95% CI 0.96–1.20) and U-Cd concentration (OR 0.86; 95% CI 0.48–1.55) among the general population was not related to the increased risk of prostate cancer. In the dose analysis, the summary relative risk was 1.07 (95% CI 0.73–1.57) for each 0.5 μg/g creatinine increase in U-Cd and 1.02 (95% CI 0.99–1.06) for each 10 μg/day increase of dietary Cd intake. However, compared with nonoccupational exposure, high occupational Cd exposure may be associated with the increased risk of prostate cancer. This meta-analysis suggests high Cd exposure as a risk factor for prostate cancer in occupational rather than nonoccupational populations. However, these results should be carefully interpreted because of the significant heterogeneity among studies. Additional large-scale and high-quality prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between Cd exposure and risk of prostate cancer. PMID:26871808

  20. Childhood and adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Niehoff, Nicole M.; Nichols, Hazel B; White, Alexandra J.; Parks, Christine G.; D’Aloisio, Aimee A; Sandler, Dale P.

    2016-01-01

    Background To date, epidemiological studies have not strongly supported an association between pesticide exposure and breast cancer. However, few previous studies had the ability to assess specific time periods of exposure. Studies that relied on adult serum levels of metabolites of organochlorine pesticides may not accurately reflect exposure during developmental periods. Further, exposure assessment often occurred after diagnosis and key tumor characteristics, such as hormone receptor status, have rarely been available to evaluate tumor-subtype specific associations. We examine the association between pesticide exposure during childhood and adolescence and breast cancer risk in the prospective Sister Study cohort (N=50,844 women) to assess this relation by tumor subtype. Methods During an average 5-year follow-up, 2,134 incident invasive and in situ breast cancer diagnoses were identified. Residential and farm exposure to pesticides were self-reported at study enrollment during standardized interviews. Multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for breast cancer risk were calculated with Cox proportional hazards regression. Results HRs were near null for the association between childhood/adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk overall or among ER+/PR+ invasive tumors. However, among women who were ages 0–18 before the ban of DDT in the U.S., exposure to fogger trucks or planes was associated with a HR=1.3 for premenopausal breast cancer (95% CI: 0.92, 1.7). Conclusion These findings do not support an overall association between childhood and adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk. However, modest increases in breast cancer risk were associated with acute events in a subgroup of young women. PMID:26808595

  1. Plasma matrix metalloproteinase 2 levels and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Aroner, Sarah A; Rosner, Bernard A; Tamimi, Rulla M; Tworoger, Shelley S; Baur, Nadja; Joos, Thomas O; Hankinson, Susan E

    2015-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) is an enzyme with important functions in breast cancer invasion and metastasis. However, it is unclear whether circulating MMP2 levels may predict breast cancer risk. We conducted a prospective nested case-control analysis in the Nurses' Health Study among 1136 cases who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1992 and 2004 and 1136 matched controls. All participants provided blood samples in 1989-1990, and a subset (170 cases, 170 controls) contributed an additional sample in 2000-2002. Pre-diagnostic plasma MMP2 levels were measured via immunoassay, and conditional logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), adjusted for breast cancer risk factors. No association was observed between plasma MMP2 levels and risk of total invasive breast cancer (top vs. bottom quartile, OR=1.0; 95% CI: 0.7, 1.2; p-trend=0.89). Findings did not vary significantly by time since blood draw, body mass index, postmenopausal hormone use, or menopausal status at either blood draw or breast cancer diagnosis. MMP2 was associated with a greater risk of nodal metastases at diagnosis (top vs. bottom quartile, OR=1.5; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.2; p-heterogeneity, any vs. no lymph nodes=0.002), but no significant associations were observed with other tumor characteristics or with recurrent or fatal cancers. Plasma MMP2 levels do not appear to be predictive of total invasive breast cancer risk, although associations with aggressive disease warrant further study. PMID:25799912

  2. Plasma matrix metalloproteinase 2 levels and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Aroner, Sarah A.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Baur, Nadja; Joos, Thomas O.; Hankinson, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) is an enzyme with important functions in breast cancer invasion and metastasis. However, it is unclear whether circulating MMP2 levels may predict breast cancer risk. We conducted a prospective nested case-control analysis in the Nurses’ Health Study among 1136 cases who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1992 and 2004 and 1136 matched controls. All participants provided blood samples in 1989-1990, and a subset (170 cases, 170 controls) contributed an additional sample in 2000 – 2002. Pre-diagnostic plasma MMP2 levels were measured via immunoassay, and conditional logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), adjusted for breast cancer risk factors. No association was observed between plasma MMP2 levels and risk of total invasive breast cancer (top vs. bottom quartile, OR = 1.0; 95% CI: 0.7, 1.2; p-trend = 0.89). Findings did not vary significantly by time since blood draw, body mass index, postmenopausal hormone use, or menopausal status at either blood draw or breast cancer diagnosis. MMP2 was associated with a greater risk of nodal metastases at diagnosis (top vs. bottom quartile, OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.2; p-heterogeneity, any vs. no lymph nodes = 0.002), but no significant associations were observed with other tumor characteristics or with recurrent or fatal cancers. Plasma MMP2 levels do not appear to be predictive of total invasive breast cancer risk, although associations with aggressive disease warrant further study. PMID:25799912

  3. Mediterranean Diet and cancer risk: an open issue.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Annunziata; De Pergola, Giovanni; Silvestris, Franco

    2016-09-01

    The traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s meets the characteristics of an anticancer diet defined by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AIRC). A diet rich of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits, limited in high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat), red meat and foods high in salt, without sugary drinks and processed meat is recommended by the WCRF/AIRC experts to reduce the risk of cancer. The aim of this review was to examine whether Mediterranean Diet is protective or not against cancer risk. Three meta-analyses of cohort studies reported that a high adherence to the Mediterranean Diet significantly reduces the risk of cancer incidence and/or mortality. Nevertheless, the Mediterranean dietary pattern defined in the studies' part of the meta-analyses has qualitative and/or quantitative differences compared to the Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s. Therefore, the protective role of the Mediterranean Diet against cancer has not definitely been established. In epidemiological studies, a universal definition of the Mediterranean Diet, possibly the traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s, could be useful to understand the role of this dietary pattern in cancer prevention. PMID:27251477

  4. Polymorphisms of human N-acetyltransferases and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Agúndez, José A G

    2008-07-01

    Human arylamine N-acetyltransferases (CoASAc; NAT, EC 2.3.1.5) NAT1 and NAT2 play a key role in the metabolism of drugs and environmental chemicals and in the metabolic activation and detoxification of procarcinogens. Phenotyping analyses have revealed an association between NAT enzyme activities and the risk of developing several forms of cancer. As genotyping procedures have become available for NAT1 and NAT2 gene variations, hundreds of association studies on NAT polymorphisms and cancer risk have been conducted. Here we review the findings obtained from these studies. Evidence for a putative association of NAT1 polymorphism and myeloma, lung and bladder cancer, as well as association of NAT2 polymorphisms with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, liver, colorectal and bladder cancer have been reported. In contrast, no consistent evidence for a relevant association of NAT polymorphisms with brain, head & neck, breast, gastric, pancreatic or prostate cancer have been described. Although preliminary data are available, further well-powered studies are required to fully elucidate the role of NAT1 in most human cancers, and that of NAT2 in astrocytoma, meningioma, esophageal, renal, cervical and testicular cancers, as well as in leukaemia and myeloma. This review discusses controversial findings on cancer risk and putative causes of heterogeneity in the proposed associations, and it identifies topics that require further investigation, particularly mechanisms underlying association of NAT polymorphisms and risk for subsets of cancer patients with specific exposures, putative epistatic contribution of polymorphism for other xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes such as glutathione S-transferases of Cytochrome P450 enzymes, and genetic plus environmental interaction. PMID:18680472

  5. Testing different formats for communicating colorectal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Lipkus, I M; Crawford, Y; Fenn, K; Biradavolu, M; Binder, R A; Marcus, A; Mason, M

    1999-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which different formats of informing men and women age 50 and over of the risks of colorectal cancer (CRC) affected their perceptions of their absolute and comparative (self versus other) 10-year and lifetime risks; emotional reactions about getting CRC; and screening intentions. Forty-four men and 78 women received information about the absolute lifetime risk of getting CRC. In addition, participants either did or did not receive information about (1) lifetime risk of getting CRC compared with other cancers, and (2) risk factors for CRC (age and polyps). Participants who received risk factors information were more likely to increase their perceived absolute 10-year and lifetime risks of getting CRC compared with participants who did not receive risk factors information. In addition, participants who received risk factors information were more likely to believe age was related to getting CRC and felt at greater risk for having polyps compared with participants who did not receive this information. None of the experimental conditions affected how worried, anxious, and fearful participants felt about getting CRC, nor did they affect screening intentions. Independent of experimental condition, participants tended to increase their intentions to get screened for CRC in the next year or two. Intention to be screened was more pronounced among participants who had been screened via a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) or sigmoidoscopy (SIG). Implications for the design of interventions involving the communication of CRC risks are discussed. PMID:10790787

  6. Analysis of novel mutations in BRCA1 in Iranian families with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sadr-Nabavi, Ariane; Dastpak, Mahtab; Homaei-Shandiz, Fatemeh; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza; Bidkhori, Hamid-Reza; Raeesolmohaddeseen, Mahmood

    2014-06-01

    In Iran and the rest of the world, breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy in women. Familial history and age are significant risk factors for the development of this disease in Iran. Most hereditary BCs are associated with inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Some recent studies demonstrated that BRCA1 mutations are seen in high-risk women with family histories of BC. In this report we investigated all BRCA1 exons from 40 female patients with family histories of BC and one BC twin, and report a novel mutation in this gene in one patient. As controls, BRCA1 exons from 100 normal women and the BC-free twin of the BC twin were also examined for this mutation. None of the women in the normal group harbored the mutation. Whether this variation is specific for the Iranian population or for special subgroups remains to be determined. PMID:25041116

  7. [Folate and breast cancer risk: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Castillo-L, Cecilia; Tur, Josep A; Uauy, Ricardo

    2012-02-01

    An increased folate intake may be beneficial in deficient populations. However, in women with adequate levels it may not deliver additional benefits while it may increase the risk for some forms of cancer. A systematic literature review of benefits or risks of folate in the development of breast cancer was performed using MEDLINE, systematic review of selected articles and references of the selected articles looking specifically at serum folate levels, dietary folate intake or total folate intake and the risk of developing breast cancer. Fourteen case-control studies, fourteen cohort studies, seven case-control nested studies, two randomized trials and two meta-analyses were selected for analysis based on pre-established criteria. The reviewed evidence does not support the hypothesis that higher intakes of dietary folate reduce the risk for breast cancer. Some studies showed a higher risk of breast cancer in populations exposed to high folate intake post fortification, especially when folic acid is used. The results support the need to be cautious and to limit the exposure of women to high intakes of folic acid, especially in countries with mandatory food fortification. PMID:22739957

  8. Estimating Skin Cancer Risk: Evaluating Mobile Computer-Adaptive Testing

    PubMed Central

    Djaja, Ngadiman; Janda, Monika; Olsen, Catherine M; Whiteman, David C

    2016-01-01

    Background Response burden is a major detriment to questionnaire completion rates. Computer adaptive testing may offer advantages over non-adaptive testing, including reduction of numbers of items required for precise measurement. Objective Our aim was to compare the efficiency of non-adaptive (NAT) and computer adaptive testing (CAT) facilitated by Partial Credit Model (PCM)-derived calibration to estimate skin cancer risk. Methods We used a random sample from a population-based Australian cohort study of skin cancer risk (N=43,794). All 30 items of the skin cancer risk scale were calibrated with the Rasch PCM. A total of 1000 cases generated following a normal distribution (mean [SD] 0 [1]) were simulated using three Rasch models with three fixed-item (dichotomous, rating scale, and partial credit) scenarios, respectively. We calculated the comparative efficiency and precision of CAT and NAT (shortening of questionnaire length and the count difference number ratio less than 5% using independent t tests). Results We found that use of CAT led to smaller person standard error of the estimated measure than NAT, with substantially higher efficiency but no loss of precision, reducing response burden by 48%, 66%, and 66% for dichotomous, Rating Scale Model, and PCM models, respectively. Conclusions CAT-based administrations of the skin cancer risk scale could substantially reduce participant burden without compromising measurement precision. A mobile computer adaptive test was developed to help people efficiently assess their skin cancer risk. PMID:26800642

  9. Cancer risks in Nordic immigrants and their offspring in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, K; Li, X

    2002-12-01

    Numerous migrant studies on cancer have been carried out, but little data are available on cancer incidence upon inter-European migration. We used the nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to analyse cancer risk among Nordic immigrants and their offspring in Sweden. The parental population had entered Sweden in their 20s and they had become parents in Sweden. Finns were the largest immigrant group including approximately 183,000 parents and 278,000 offspring. We calculated the standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) and 90 or 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 26 cancer sites using native Swedes as a reference. Cancers in the first generation immigrants followed the rates in the countries of origin, reaching high SIRs for tobacco-related, cervical and testicular cancer among Danes and for stomach cancer among Finns. Only a few cancers, such as cervical cancer was increased in the second generation. At many sites, particularly among the Finns, protection was observed in the first generation. At three sites, breast, ovary and urinary bladder, where plausible evidence for protection was found even among offspring, this was not reinforced among the offspring of compatriot parents, which is inconsistent with heritable effects. Protection against melanoma was strongest among the offspring of compatriots, but the contribution of cultural factors cannot be excluded. As the parents immigrated to Sweden in their 20s, their cancer pattern, including habits and life style, appeared to be set before that age because the differences to Swedes persisted even in cancers that predominate in old age. Immigrant populations would appear to be attractive subjects to study etiological factors of cancer at sites where causes remain poorly understood, such as testicular cancer. PMID:12460788

  10. Adjuvant high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell support for high-risk primary breast cancer: results from the Italian national registry.

    PubMed

    Pedrazzoli, Paolo; Martinelli, Giovanni; Gianni, Alessandro Massimo; Da Prada, Gian Antonio; Ballestrero, Alberto; Rosti, Giovanni; Frassineti, Giovanni Luca; Aieta, Michele; Secondino, Simona; Cinieri, Saverio; Fedele, Roberta; Bengala, Carmelo; Bregni, Marco; Grasso, Donatella; De Giorgi, Ugo; Lanza, Francesco; Castagna, Luca; Bruno, Barbara; Martino, Massimo

    2014-04-01

    The efficacy of high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous hemopoietic progenitor cell transplantation (AHPCT) for breast cancer (BC) patients has been an area of intense controversy among the medical oncology community. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity and efficacy of this procedure in a large cohort of high-risk primary BC patients who underwent AHPCT in Italy. A total of 1183 patients receiving HDC for high-risk BC (HRBC) (>3 positive nodes) were identified in the Italian registry. The median age was 46 years, 62% of patients were premenopausal at treatment, 60.1% had endocrine-responsive tumors, and 20.7% had a human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive tumor. The median number of positive lymph nodes (LN) at surgery was 15, with 71.5% of patients having ≥ 10 positive nodes. Seventy-three percent received an alkylating agent-based HDC as a single procedure, whereas 27% received epirubicin or mitoxantrone-containing HDC, usually within a multitransplantation program. The source of stem cells was peripheral blood in the vast majority of patients. Transplantation-related mortality was .8%, whereas late cardiac and secondary tumor-related mortality were around 1%, overall. With a median follow-up of 79 months, median disease-free and overall survival (OS) in the entire population were 101 and 134 months, respectively. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that OS was significantly better in patients with endocrine-responsive tumors and in patients receiving multiple transplantation procedures. HER2 status did not affect survival probability. The size of the primary tumor and number of involved LN negatively affected OS. Adjuvant HDC with AHPCT has a low mortality rate and provides impressive long-term survival rates in patients with high-risk primary BC. Our results suggest that this treatment modality should be proposed in selected HRBC patients and further investigated in clinical trials. PMID:24374214

  11. Risk of Second Cancers According to Radiation Therapy Technique and Modality in Prostate Cancer Survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Wong, Jeannette; Kleinerman, Ruth; Kim, Clara; Morton, Lindsay; Bekelman, Justin E.

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) techniques for prostate cancer are evolving rapidly, but the impact of these changes on risk of second cancers, which are an uncommon but serious consequence of RT, are uncertain. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of risks of second cancer according to RT technique (>10 MV vs ≤10 MV and 3-dimensional [3D] vs 2D RT) and modality (external beam RT, brachytherapy, and combined modes) in a large cohort of prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: The cohort was constructed using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database. We included cases of prostate cancer diagnosed in patients 66 to 84 years of age from 1992 to 2004 and followed through 2009. We used Poisson regression analysis to compare rates of second cancer across RT groups with adjustment for age, follow-up, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and comorbidities. Analyses of second solid cancers were based on the number of 5-year survivors (n=38,733), and analyses of leukemia were based on number of 2-year survivors (n=52,515) to account for the minimum latency period for radiation-related cancer. Results: During an average of 4.4