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Sample records for cancer bronchique localise

  1. Métastases musculaires squelettique asymptomatique d'un cancer bronchique non à petites cellules

    PubMed Central

    Raoufi, Mohammed; Oukabli, Mohamed; Biyi, Abdelhamid; Elouazzani, Hanane; Rhorfi, Ismail Abderrahman; Abid, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Le cancer bronchique reste parmi les cancers les plus agressifs malgré les avancées diagnostiques et thérapeutiques, les métastases à distance constituent l’élément majeur d'un mauvais pronostic. Nous rapportons une observation de métastases musculaires chez un patient porteur d'un cancer du poumon inopérable. La détection de cette métastase était grâce au TEP scan au 18 FDG. Ce bilan a conduit à un traitement par chimiothérapie systémique après biopsie exérèse de la localisation fessière. Les métastases musculaires squelettiques du cancer bronchique sont rares mais bien qu'indiquant un mauvais pronostic, elles sont accessibles à un traitement local efficace. PMID:26918076

  2. Métastases cutanées révélant un adénocarcinome bronchique

    PubMed Central

    Zemmez, Youssef; Zegmout, Adil; Hamama, Jalal; Bouhamidi, Ahmed; El Amraoui, Mohammed; El Azhari, Jaouad; Boui, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Nous rapportons le cas d'un cancer bronchique révélé par des nodules cutanés métastatiques du cuir chevelu. Ce mode de découverte assez fréquent est souvent associé à un mauvais pronostic. Cette observation souligne l'intérêt de rechercher un cancer primitif pulmonaire en cas de localisation secondaire cutanée.

  3. Cancer bronchique à petites cellules et grossesse: à propos d'un cas avec revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    Safini, Fatima; Jjouhadi, Hassan; Chehal, Asmaa; Mernissi, Farida; Wilfried, Akpoo; Bouchbika, Zineb; Taleb, Amina; Benchakroun, Nadia; Tawfiq, Nezha; Sahraoui, Souha; Benider, Abdellatif

    2016-01-01

    Le cancer broncho-pulmonaire (CBP) de la femme enceinte est une entité rare, d’évolution péjorative. Cette situation devient de plus en plus fréquente, du fait de l'augmentation du tabagisme chez la femme. La transmission tumorale trans-placentaire avec atteinte fœtale est décrite surtout chez les femmes non traitées. Le traitement est multidisciplinaire et n'est pas bien codifié. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente de 23 ans chez qui le diagnostic d'un carcinome bronchique à petites cellules a été fait au cours de sa grossesse. Elle avait bénéficié d'une chimiothérapie pendant la grossesse, bien tolérée. L’évaluation radiologique a objectivé une stabilisation du processus pulmonaire. Le traitement a été complété par une association radio-chimiothérapie concomitante après l'accouchement. PMID:27279957

  4. MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy for localised prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Rajiv; Burtnyk, Mathieu; N'djin, W Apoutou; Bronskill, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Minimally invasive treatments for localised prostate cancer are being developed with the aim of achieving effective disease control with low morbidity. High-temperature thermal therapy aimed at producing irreversible thermal coagulation of the prostate gland is attractive because of the rapid onset of thermal injury, and the immediate visualisation of tissue response using medical imaging. High-intensity ultrasound therapy has been shown to be an effective means of achieving thermal coagulation of prostate tissue using minimally invasive devices inserted into the rectum, urethra, or directly into the gland itself. The focus of this review is to describe the work done in our group on the development of MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy. This technology utilises high intensity ultrasound energy delivered from a transurethral device to achieve thermal coagulation of prostate tissue. Control over the spatial pattern of thermal damage is achieved through closed-loop temperature feedback using quantitative MR thermometry during treatment. The technology, temperature feedback algorithms, and results from numerical modelling, along with experimental results obtained in animal and human studies are described. Our experience suggests that this form of treatment is technically feasible, and compatible with existing MR imaging systems. Temperature feedback control algorithms using MR thermometry can achieve spatial treatment accuracy of a few millimetres in vivo. Patient-specific simulations predict that surrounding tissues can be spared from thermal damage if appropriate measures are taken into account during treatment planning. Recent human experience has been encouraging and motivates further evaluation of this technology as a potential treatment for localised prostate cancer. PMID:21043572

  5. Radical treatment of localised prostate cancer in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Everaerts, Wouter; Van Rij, Simon; Reeves, Fairleigh; Costello, Anthony

    2015-12-01

    Elderly men are more likely to be diagnosed with aggressive cancer, but are often inappropriately denied curative treatment. Biological rather than chronological age should be used to decide if a patient will profit from radical treatment. Therefore, every man aged >70 years should undergo a health assessment using a validated tool before making treatment decisions. Fit elderly men with intermediate- or high-risk disease should be offered standard curative local treatment in keeping with guidelines for younger men. Vulnerable and frail elderly men warrant geriatric intervention before treatment. In the case of vulnerable patients, this intervention may render them suitable for standard care. When considering radical prostatectomy outcomes a 'bifecta' of oncological control and continence is appropriate, as erectile dysfunction (although prevalent) has a much smaller impact on quality of life than in younger patients. Radiotherapy is an alternative to radical prostatectomy in men with a life expectancy of <10 years. Primary androgen-deprivation therapy is not associated with improved survival in localised prostate cancer and should only be used for symptom palliation. Further elderly-specific research is needed to guide prostate cancer care. PMID:25810141

  6. Une métastase intra-thyroïdienne révélant un cancer bronchique non à petites cellules

    PubMed Central

    Boukir, Anwar; El Kabous, Mustapha; Azghari, Ilham; Boutayeb, Saber; El Ghissassi, Ibrahim; Mrabti, Hind; Errrihani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Les métastases thyroïdiennes sont très peu fréquentes. Elles peuvent de façon exceptionnelle révéler le cancer primitif. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente qui a présenté une dysphonie secondaire à un gros nodule thyroïdien lobaire droit. L'examen anatomopathologique de la pièce de l'hémi thyroïdectomie a révélé la présence d'un adénocarcinome d'origine pulmonaire. Le bilan d'extension a confirmé la présence d'une masse au niveau du Fowler droit ainsi qu'une métastase du trochanter fémoral droit et une récidive au niveau de la loge thyroïdienne. Une chimiothérapie à base de Paclitaxel, Carboplatine et Bevacizumab a été débuté. L’évaluation après 4 cures est en faveur d'une stabilité radiologique avec amélioration des symptômes. PMID:26918084

  7. A randomised trial of robotic and open prostatectomy in men with localised prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer in the Western world however there is ongoing debate about the optimal treatment strategy for localised disease. While surgery remains the most commonly received treatment for localised disease in Australia more recently a robotic approach has emerged as an alternative to open and laparoscopic surgery. However, high level data is not yet available to support this as a superior approach or to guide treatment decision making between the alternatives. This paper presents the design of a randomised trial of Robotic and Open Prostatectomy for men newly diagnosed with localised prostate cancer that seeks to answer this question. Methods/design 200 men per treatment arm (400 men in total) are being recruited after diagnosis and before treatment through a major public hospital outpatient clinic and randomised to 1) Robotic Prostatectomy or 2) Open Prostatectomy. All robotic prostatectomies are being performed by one surgeon and all open prostatectomies are being performed by one other surgeon. Outcomes are being measured pre-operatively and at 6 weeks and 3, 6, 12 and 24 months post-surgery. Oncological outcomes are being related to positive surgical margins, biochemical recurrence +/− the need for further treatment. Non-oncological outcome measures include: pain, physical and mental functioning, fatigue, summary (preference-based utility scores) and domain-specific QoL (urinary incontinence, bowel function and erectile function), cancer specific distress, psychological distress, decision-related distress and time to return to usual activities. Cost modelling of each approach, as well as full economic appraisal, is also being undertaken. Discussion The study will provide recommendations about the relative benefits of Robotic and Open Prostatectomy to support informed patient decision making about treatment for localised prostate cancer; and to assist in treatment services planning for this patient group. Trial

  8. EphB4 localises to the nucleus of prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mertens-Walker, Inga; Lisle, Jessica E.; Nyberg, William A.; Stephens, Carson R.; Burke, Leslie; Rutkowski, Raphael; Herington, Adrian C.; Stephenson, Sally-Anne

    2015-04-10

    The EphB4 receptor tyrosine kinase is over-expressed in a variety of different epithelial cancers including prostate where it has been shown to be involved in survival, migration and angiogenesis. We report here that EphB4 also resides in the nucleus of prostate cancer cell lines. We used in silico methods to identify a bipartite nuclear localisation signal (NLS) in the extracellular domain and a monopartite NLS sequence in the intracellular kinase domain of EphB4. To determine whether both putative NLS sequences were functional, fragments of the EphB4 sequence containing each NLS were cloned to create EphB4NLS-GFP fusion proteins. Localisation of both NLS-GFP proteins to the nuclei of transfected cells was observed, demonstrating that EphB4 contains two functional NLS sequences. Mutation of the key amino residues in both NLS sequences resulted in diminished nuclear accumulation. As nuclear translocation is often dependent on importins we confirmed that EphB4 and importin-α can interact. To assess if nuclear EphB4 could be implicated in gene regulatory functions potential EphB4-binding genomic loci were identified using chromatin immunoprecipitation and Lef1 was confirmed as a potential target of EphB4-mediated gene regulation. These novel findings add further complexity to the biology of this important cancer-associated receptor. - Highlights: • The EphB4 protein can be found in the nucleus of prostate cancer cell lines. • EphB4 contains two functional nuclear localisation signals. • Chromatin immunoprecipitation has identified potential genome sequences to which EphB4 binds. • Lef1 is a confirmed target for EphB4-mediated gene regulation.

  9. Treatment of localised prostate cancer with transrectal high intensity focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Chapelon, J Y; Ribault, M; Vernier, F; Souchon, R; Gelet, A

    1999-03-01

    With the advent of PSA dosing, an increasing number of prostate cancers are being detected at a local stage. Since 1989, our group has been developing a research project with the aim of establishing treatment of localised prostate cancer by means of HIFU. The treatment is performed transrectally, using ultrasound imaging guidance only. The quality of HIFU treatment depends on four factors: the intensity of the transmitted pulse, the exposure time, the signal frequency, and the time between two firing bursts. The lesions are created by a thermal effect. Their slightly conical form is due to the absorption of ultrasound by tissue, enhanced by cavitation bubbles. Results obtained since 1993 demonstrate that transrectally administered HIFU treatment achieves local control of localised prostate cancer in 80% of cases, with 70% complete success and 30% partial response. The use of an annular array probe with variable focus and frequency should significantly improve results in the future. Finally, real time visual display of the damaged tissue via differential imaging of the attenuation coefficient should give the surgeon an instant appreciation of the result of the sequence. It would thus be possible to repeat treatment of insufficiently covered zones in the same session. PMID:10099164

  10. Nuclear localisation of LASP-1 correlates with poor long-term survival in female breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Frietsch, J J; Grunewald, T G P; Jasper, S; Kammerer, U; Herterich, S; Kapp, M; Honig, A; Butt, E

    2010-01-01

    Background: LIM and SH3 protein 1 (LASP-1) is a nucleo-cytoplasmatic signalling protein involved in cell proliferation and migration and is upregulated in breast cancer in vitro studies have shown that LASP-1 might be regulated by prostate-derived ETS factor (PDEF), p53 and/or LASP1 gene amplification. This current study analysed the prognostic significance of LASP-1 on overall survival (OS) in 177 breast cancer patients and addressed the suggested mechanisms of LASP-1-regulation. Methods: Nucleo-cytoplasmatic LASP-1-positivity of breast carcinoma samples was correlated with long-term survival, clinicopathological parameters, Ki67-positivity and PDEF expression. Rate of LASP1 amplification was determined in micro-dissected primary breast cancer cells using quantitative RT–PCR. Cell-phase dependency of nuclear LASP-1-localisation was studied in synchronised cells. In addition, LASP-1, PDEF and p53 expression was compared in cell lines of different tumour entities to define principles for LASP-1-regulation. Results: We showed that LASP-1 overexpression is not due to LASP1 gene amplification. Moreover, no correlation between p53-mutations or PDEF-expression and LASP-1-status was observed. However, nuclear LASP-1-localisation in breast carcinomas is increased during proliferation with peak in G2/M-phase and correlated significantly with Ki67-positivity and poor OS. Conclusion: Our results provide evidence that nuclear LASP-1-positivity may serve as a negative prognostic indicator for long-term survival of breast cancer patients. PMID:20461080

  11. The Role of Focal Therapy in the Management of Localised Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Valerio, Massimo; Ahmed, Hashim U.; Emberton, Mark; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Lazzeri, Massimo; Montironi, Rodolfo; Nguyen, Paul L.; Trachtenberg, John; Polascik, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Context The incidence of localised prostate cancer is increasing worldwide. In light of recent evidence, current, radical, whole-gland treatments for organ-confined disease have being questioned with respect to their side effects, cancer control, and cost. Focal therapy may be an effective alternative strategy. Objective To systematically review the existing literature on baseline characteristics of the target population; preoperative evaluation to localise disease; and perioperative, functional, and disease control outcomes following focal therapy. Evidence acquisition Medline (through PubMed), Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Review databases were searched from inception to 31 October 2012. In addition, registered but not yet published trials were retrieved. Studies evaluating tissue-preserving therapies in men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer in the primary or salvage setting were included. Evidence synthesis A total of 2350 cases were treated to date across 30 studies. Most studies were retrospective with variable standards of reporting, although there was an increasing number of prospective registered trials. Focal therapy was mainly delivered to men with low and intermediate disease, although some high-risk cases were treated that had known, unilateral, significant cancer. In most of the cases, biopsy findings were correlated to specific preoperative imaging, such as multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging or Doppler ultrasound to determine eligibility. Follow-up varied between 0 and 11.1 yr. In treatment-naïve prostates, pad-free continence ranged from 95% to 100%, erectile function ranged from 54% to 100%, and absence of clinically significant cancer ranged from 83% to 100%. In focal salvage cases for radiotherapy failure, the same outcomes were achieved in 87.2–100%, 29–40%, and 92% of cases, respectively. Biochemical disease-free survival was reported using a number of definitions that were not validated in the focal-therapy setting

  12. Localisation endobronchique d'une leucémie aiguë lymphoblastique de phénotype T

    PubMed Central

    Sajiai, Hafsa; Fikal, Siham; Serhane, Hind; Aitbatahar, Salma; Amro, Lamyae; Yazidi, Abdelhaq Alaoui

    2015-01-01

    La localisation endobronchique des leucémies aigues lymphoblastiques est exceptionnelle, de rares cas ont été rapportés dans la littérature. Nous rapportons le cas d'une localisation endobronchique d'une leucémie aigue lymphoblastique de phénotype T révélée par une pleurésie purulente et confirmée par biopsie bronchique. Une chimiothérapie a été démarrée avec bonne évolution. PMID:26401199

  13. The cost-utility of open prostatectomy compared with active surveillance in early localised prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an on-going debate about whether to perform surgery on early stage localised prostate cancer and risk the common long term side effects such as urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Alternatively these patients could be closely monitored and treated only in case of disease progression (active surveillance). The aim of this paper is to develop a decision-analytic model comparing the cost-utility of active surveillance (AS) and radical prostatectomy (PE) for a cohort of 65 year old men with newly diagnosed low risk prostate cancer. Methods A Markov model comparing PE and AS over a lifetime horizon was programmed in TreeAge from a German societal perspective. Comparative disease specific mortality was obtained from the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group trial. Direct costs were identified via national treatment guidelines and expert interviews covering in-patient, out-patient, medication, aids and remedies as well as out of pocket payments. Utility values were used as factor weights for age specific quality of life values of the German population. Uncertainty was assessed deterministically and probabilistically. Results With quality adjustment, AS was the dominant strategy compared with initial treatment. In the base case, it was associated with an additional 0.04 quality adjusted life years (7.60 QALYs vs. 7.56 QALYs) and a cost reduction of €6,883 per patient (2011 prices). Considering only life-years gained, PE was more effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €96,420/life year gained. Sensitivity analysis showed that the probability of developing metastases under AS and utility weights under AS are a major sources of uncertainty. A Monte Carlo simulation revealed that AS was more likely to be cost-effective even under very high willingness to pay thresholds. Conclusion AS is likely to be a cost-saving treatment strategy for some patients with early stage localised prostate cancer. However, cost-effectiveness is

  14. Symptomatic and quality-of-life outcomes after treatment for clinically localised prostate cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Penny F; Moore, Theresa H M; Jameson, Catherine M; Davies, Philippa; Rowlands, Mari-Anne; Burke, Margaret; Beynon, Rebecca; Savovic, Jelena; Donovan, Jenny L

    2016-08-01

    To conduct a systematic review of the risks of short-term outcomes after major treatments for clinically localised prostate cancer. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched from 2004 to January 2013. Study arms that included ≥100 men with localised prostate cancer in receipt of surgery, radiotherapy or active surveillance and reported symptomatic and quality-of-life (QoL) data from 6 to 60 months after treatment were eligible. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by another. In all, 64 studies (80 treatment cohorts) were included. Most were single treatment cohorts from the USA or Europe. Radiotherapy was the most common treatment (40 cohorts, including 31 brachytherapy cohorts) followed by prostatectomy (39 cohorts), with only one active surveillance cohort. Most frequently measured symptoms were urinary, followed by sexual, and bowel; QoL was assessed in only 17 cohorts. Most studies used validated measures, although poor data reporting and differences between studies meant that it was not possible to pool data. Data on the precise impact of short-term symptomatic and QoL outcomes after treatment for localised prostate cancer are of insufficient quality for clear guidance to men about the risks to these aspects of their lives. It is important that future studies focus on collecting core outcomes through validated measures and comply with reporting guidelines, so that clear and accurate information can be derived for men considering screening or treatment for prostate cancer. PMID:27087414

  15. Survival gains needed to offset persistent adverse treatment effects in localised prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    King, M T; Viney, R; Smith, D P; Hossain, I; Street, D; Savage, E; Fowler, S; Berry, M P; Stockler, M; Cozzi, P; Stricker, P; Ward, J; Armstrong, B K

    2012-01-01

    Background: Men diagnosed with localised prostate cancer (LPC) face difficult choices between treatment options that can cause persistent problems with sexual, urinary and bowel function. Controlled trial evidence about the survival benefits of the full range of treatment alternatives is limited, and patients' views on the survival gains that might justify these problems have not been quantified. Methods: A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was administered in a random subsample (n=357, stratified by treatment) of a population-based sample (n=1381) of men, recurrence-free 3 years after diagnosis of LPC, and 65 age-matched controls (without prostate cancer). Survival gains needed to justify persistent problems were estimated by substituting side effect and survival parameters from the DCE into an equation for compensating variation (adapted from welfare economics). Results: Median (2.5, 97.5 centiles) survival benefits needed to justify severe erectile dysfunction and severe loss of libido were 4.0 (3.4, 4.6) and 5.0 (4.9, 5.2) months. These problems were common, particularly after androgen deprivation therapy (ADT): 40 and 41% overall (n=1381) and 88 and 78% in the ADT group (n=33). Urinary leakage (most prevalent after radical prostatectomy (n=839, mild 41%, severe 18%)) needed 4.2 (4.1, 4.3) and 27.7 (26.9, 28.5) months survival benefit, respectively. Mild bowel problems (most prevalent (30%) after external beam radiotherapy (n=106)) needed 6.2 (6.1, 6.4) months survival benefit. Conclusion: Emerging evidence about survival benefits can be assessed against these patient-based benchmarks. Considerable variation in trade-offs among individuals underlines the need to inform patients of long-term consequences and incorporate patient preferences into treatment decisions. PMID:22274410

  16. Pulmonary metastasis as sole manifestation of relapse in previously treated localised prostate cancer: three exceptional case reports.

    PubMed

    Gago, Joaquim Peres; Câmara, Gabriela; Dionísio, Jorge; Opinião, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer recurrence after definitive local therapy can occur in any tissue. Usually, the first affected site is the bone. Lung metastases without bone or lymph node involvement are extremely rare in patients with prostate cancer, and only a handful of cases are reported in the literature. In several other malignancies, such as breast cancer, sarcomas, colorectal cancer, and renal cell carcinoma, long-term disease-free survival has been reported after resection of solitary pulmonary metastases. We present three unusual cases of isolated pulmonary recurrence of prostate cancer after initial definitive local therapy. One of the patients underwent resection of the lung metastasis, resulting in a long-term disease-free survival. Both surgical excision of solitary and oligometastatic lung secondary lesions and systemic therapy can play an important role in long-term disease control. Surgery should be considered for selected and well-informed patients with pulmonary metastasis after primary localised treatment for prostate cancer. PMID:27350790

  17. Pulmonary metastasis as sole manifestation of relapse in previously treated localised prostate cancer: three exceptional case reports

    PubMed Central

    Gago, Joaquim Peres; Câmara, Gabriela; Dionísio, Jorge; Opinião, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer recurrence after definitive local therapy can occur in any tissue. Usually, the first affected site is the bone. Lung metastases without bone or lymph node involvement are extremely rare in patients with prostate cancer, and only a handful of cases are reported in the literature. In several other malignancies, such as breast cancer, sarcomas, colorectal cancer, and renal cell carcinoma, long-term disease-free survival has been reported after resection of solitary pulmonary metastases. We present three unusual cases of isolated pulmonary recurrence of prostate cancer after initial definitive local therapy. One of the patients underwent resection of the lung metastasis, resulting in a long-term disease-free survival. Both surgical excision of solitary and oligometastatic lung secondary lesions and systemic therapy can play an important role in long-term disease control. Surgery should be considered for selected and well-informed patients with pulmonary metastasis after primary localised treatment for prostate cancer. PMID:27350790

  18. The localisation of cancer in the sigmoid, rectum or rectosigmoid junction using endoscopy or radiology—What is the most accurate method?

    PubMed Central

    Flens, Marcel; Fransen, Gerwin; den Boer, Frank C.; van Bochove, Aart

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There is a difference in approach between colon and rectal cancer. Aim Evaluate the methods of localisation: endoscopy and radiology. Materials and methods Patients with cancer in the sigmoid or rectum diagnosed with endoscopy, were included. Patients underwent additional radiological examinations. The resection specimen served as the gold standard. A tumour surrounded by serosa was considered a sigmoid cancer, surrounded by perirectal fat, than it was rectal cancer. If the frontal edge of the tumour showed serosa and the dorsal plane perirectal fat than the tumour was located in the “rectosigmoid”. Results A total of 182 cancers were diagnosed. Of the 128 cancers with gold standard, endoscopy had the correct localisation in 112 (87.5%), and radiology in 114 (90.5%) cases. Concordance between both techniques was present in 80%. In 28 cases there was discordance. Radiology located 10 sigmoidal cancers wrongly in the rectum. One rectal cancer was placed in the sigmoid. In 16 cases the endoscopic localisation wrongly was the sigmoid. Sensitivity and specificity for endoscopy in sigmoidal cancer is 100% and 77% respectively, for rectal cancer 77% and 100%. Sensitivity of radiology for cancer in the sigmoid and rectum are 80% and 98% respectively. Specificity for both cancers is 98% and 80% respectively. Conclusions The endoscopist and the radiologist should not be too overconfident with localisation of the tumour in cases of high rectal or low sigmoidal cancer. PMID:25436127

  19. Efficacy and toxicity of external-beam radiation therapy for localised prostate cancer: a network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Z; Zhang, J; Liu, Y; Chen, M; Guo, P; Li, K

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many radiation regimens for treating prostate cancer have been used over the years, but which regimen is optimal for localised or locally advanced prostate cancer lacks consensus. We performed a network meta-analysis to identify the optimal radiation regimen. Methods: We systematically reviewed data from 27 randomised controlled trials and could group seven radiation regimens as follows: low- and high-dose radiation therapy (LDRT and HDRT), LDRT+ short- or long-term androgen deprivation therapy (LDRT+SADT and LDRT+LADT), HDRT+SADT, hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFRT), and HFRT+SADT. The main outcomes were overall mortality (OM), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure, cancer-specific mortality, and adverse events. Results: For the network meta-analysis of 27 trials, LDRT+LADT and LDRT+SADT were associated with decreased risk of OM as compared with LDRT alone as was LDRT+LADT compared with HDRT. Apart from HFRT, all other treatments were associated with decreased risk of PSA failure as compared with LDRT. HFRT+SADT was associated with decreased risk of cancer-specific mortality as compared with HFRT, LDRT+SADT, HDRT, and LDRT. Conclusions: HFRT+SADT therapy might be the most efficacious treatment but with worst toxicity for localised or locally advanced prostate cancer, and HDRT showed excellent efficacy but more adverse events. PMID:24736585

  20. High dose rate brachytherapy as monotherapy for localised prostate cancer: a hypofractionated two-implant approach in 351 consecutive patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To report the clinical outcome of high dose rate brachytherapy as sole treatment for clinically localised prostate cancer. Methods Between March 2004 and January 2008, a total of 351 consecutive patients with clinically localised prostate cancer were treated with transrectal ultrasound guided high dose rate brachytherapy. The prescribed dose was 38.0 Gy in four fractions (two implants of two fractions each of 9.5 Gy with an interval of 14 days between the implants) delivered to an intraoperative transrectal ultrasound real-time defined planning treatment volume. Biochemical failure was defined according to the Phoenix Consensus and toxicity evaluated using the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events version 3. Results The median follow-up time was 59.3 months. The 36 and 60 month biochemical control and metastasis-free survival rates were respectively 98%, 94% and 99%, 98%. Toxicity was scored per event with 4.8% acute Grade 3 genitourinary and no acute Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity. Late Grade 3 genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity were respectively 3.4% and 1.4%. No instances of Grade 4 or greater acute or late adverse events were reported. Conclusions Our results confirm high dose rate brachytherapy as safe and effective monotherapy for clinically organ-confined prostate cancer. PMID:23656899

  1. Fibulin-5 localisation in human endometrial cancer shifts from epithelial to stromal with increasing tumour grade, and silencing promotes endometrial epithelial cancer cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    WINSHIP, AMY LOUISE; RAINCZUK, KATE; TON, AMANDA; DIMITRIADIS, EVA

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common invasive gynaecological malignancy. While endocrine, genetic and inflammatory factors are thought to contribute to its pathogenesis, its precise etiology and molecular regulators remain poorly understood. Fibulin-5 is an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein that inhibits cell growth and invasion in several cancer cell types and is downregulated in a number of types of human cancer. However, it is unknown whether fibulin-5 plays a role in endometrial tumourigenesis. In the current report, the expression and localisation of fibulin-5 in type I endometrioid human endometrial cancers of grades (G) 1–3 was investigated using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Fibulin-5 mRNA was found to be significantly reduced in whole tumour tissues from women across G1-3 compared with benign endometrium (P<0.0001). Consistently, fibulin-5 protein was also reduced in the tumour epithelial compartment across increasing tumour grades. By contrast, increased protein localisation to the tumour stroma was observed with increasing grade. Knockdown by small interfering RNA in Ishikawa endometrial epithelial cancer cells expressing fibulin-5 stimulated cell adhesion and proliferation in vitro. Fibulin-5 mRNA expression in Ishikawa cells was induced by transforming growth factor-β and fibulin-5 in turn activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), suggesting that it may act via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. In summary, the present study identified fibulin-5 as a downregulated ECM gene in human endometrial cancer and observed a shift from epithelial to stromal protein localisation with increasing tumour grade in women. These data suggest that loss of fibulin-5 function may promote endometrial cancer progression by enhancing epithelial cell adhesion and proliferation. PMID:27347195

  2. Les corps étrangers laryngo-trachéo-bronchiques: expérience de l'hôpital d'instruction des armées Omar Bongo Ondimba (HIAOBO) de Libreville

    PubMed Central

    Nyeki, Adèle-Rose Ngo; Miloundja, Jérôme; Dalil, Asmaou Bouba; Lawson, Jean Marcel Mandji; Nzenze, Sylvie; Sougou, Emery; Nziengui, Annie; N'zouba, Léon

    2015-01-01

    L'inhalation accidentelle de corps étranger est fréquente chez l'enfant et exceptionnelle chez l'adulte. Elle représente une urgence respiratoire pouvant mettre en jeu le pronostic vital. L'objectif était de présenter les difficultés de prise en charge des corps étrangers laryngo-trachéo-bronchiques (CELTB). Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective réalisée sur une période de 6 ans (Avril 2006-Mars 2012), dans les services d'Oto-Rhino-Laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico-faciale (ORL-CCF) de l'HIA OBO de Libreville. Nous avons répertorié 21 dossiers de patients admis pour corps étrangers laryngo-trachéo-bronchiques. Leur âge moyen était de 8,95 ans avec des extrêmes de 3 et 37 ans. Les enfants représentaient 90% de cas. Le sex-ratio était de 2,30. Les corps étrangers étaient à 55% d'origine alimentaire et à 45% d'origine métallique. Leur localisation était laryngée dans 60% des cas, bronchique dans 35% et trachéale dans 5% des cas. Sur le plan clinique, la toux était retrouvée chez tous les patients. Il existait un syndrome de pénétration dans 60% de cas. La découverte était fortuite lors d'un syndrome de séjour broncho-pulmonaire dans 30% des cas. L'extraction des corps étrangers était réalisée par voie endoscopique et sous anesthésie générale. Chez 47,6% de cas, nous avons effectué une trachéotomie première. Les suites opératoires étaient favorables dans 95,24% et un décès a été noté. La prise en charge des CELTB doit être précoce et nécessite une parfaite collaboration entre anesthésistes et chirurgiens. Leur extraction se fait par voie endoscopique d'où l'intérêt de disposer, dans un service d'ORL-CCF, de matériel endoscopique adapté à l’âge. PMID:26161221

  3. Cutaneous adverse effects of hormonal adjuvant therapy for breast cancer: a case of localised urticarial vasculitis following anastrozole therapy and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bock, Vanessa L; Friedlander, Michael; Waring, Dale; Kossard, Steven; Wood, Glenda K

    2014-11-01

    Hormonal therapy with either tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors is commonly used to treat women with breast cancer in both the adjuvant and recurrent disease setting. Cutaneous adverse reactions to these drugs have been rarely reported in the literature. We report an unusual case of urticarial vasculitis following the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole that localised to the unilateral trunk and mastectomy scar, and review the literature on the cutaneous adverse effects of hormonal therapy for breast cancer. PMID:24575835

  4. Pneumopathie grave avec atteinte bronchique compliquant une varicelle chez un adulte immunocompétent

    PubMed Central

    Serghini, Issam; Chkoura, Khalid; Hjira, Nawfal; Zoubir, Mohamed; Lalaoui; Boughalem, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    La varicelle est une infection virale cosmopolite, très contagieuse, due au virus varicelle-zona (VZV) et caractérisée par de la fièvre et une éruption papulo-vésiculeuse prurigineuse. L'incidence de la varicelle a significativement augmenté dans les dernières décennies en Europe et aux États-Unis. Chez l'enfant, la varicelle est une infection habituellement bénigne. Chez l'adulte, son évolution peut être émaillée de complications. La pneumonie varicelleuse est la plus fréquente des complications graves de la varicelle chez l'adulte, avec une incidence estimée de 16 à 33% et une mortalité pouvant atteindre 20%. Nous rapportons un cas de varicelle compliquée d'une pneumopathie hypoxémiante. L'examen endoscopique bronchique met en évidence des lésions vésiculeuses de la muqueuse bronchique. Sous traitement antiviral, l’évolution est favorable. PMID:25829973

  5. Vascular targeted photochemotherapy using padoporfin and padeliporfin as a method of the focal treatment of localised prostate cancer - clinician's insight.

    PubMed

    Bugaj, Andrzej M

    2016-03-26

    Vascular targeted photochemotherapy (VTP) holds promise as a novel strategy of the focal treatment of localised prostate cancer (LPCa). It is convenient to perform, minimally invasive and can be conduct in ambulatory conditions. In this review, methodologic aspects of padoporfin- and padeliporfin-mediated VTP and its clinical application in focal treatment of LPCa as well as future perspective of this method were presented. Physicochemical and pharmacokinetic parameters of padoporphin and padeliporfin using as VTP photosensitizers were described, as well as methodologic question of radiation delivery and dosimetry, and oxygen monitoring in cancer tissue in context of VTP safety and efficiency of LPCa focal therapy were discussed. The results of clinical trials concerning application of padoporfin- and padeliporfin-mediated VTP in LPCa were also presented. The future of VTP is development of protocols, founded on the real-time feedback and rules-based approach to make this strategy a standard procedure in LPCa treatment. To evaluate clinical potential of this procedure, a cost-effectiveness analysis is also necessary. PMID:27019798

  6. Prognostic value of PTEN loss in men with conservatively managed localised prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cuzick, J; Yang, Z H; Fisher, G; Tikishvili, E; Stone, S; Lanchbury, J S; Camacho, N; Merson, S; Brewer, D; Cooper, C S; Clark, J; Berney, D M; Møller, H; Scardino, P; Sangale, Z

    2013-01-01

    Background: The natural history of prostate cancer is highly variable and difficult to predict. We report on the prognostic value of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) loss in a cohort of 675 men with conservatively managed prostate cancer diagnosed by transurethral resection of the prostate. Methods: The PTEN status was assayed by immunohistochemistry (PTEN IHC) and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (PTEN FISH). The primary end point was death from prostate cancer. Results: The PTEN IHC loss was observed in 18% cases. This was significantly associated with prostate cancer death in univariate analysis (hazard ratio (HR)=3.51; 95% CI 2.60–4.73; P=3.1 × 10−14). It was highly predictive of prostate cancer death in the 50% of patients with a low risk score based on Gleason score, PSA, Ki-67 and extent of disease (HR=7.4; 95% CI 2.2–24.6; P=0.012) ), but had no prognostic value in the higher risk patients. The PTEN FISH loss was only weakly associated with PTEN IHC loss (κ=0.5). Both PTEN FISH loss and amplification were univariately predictive of death from prostate cancer, but this was not maintained in the multivariate analyses. Conclusion: In low-risk patients, PTEN IHC loss adds prognostic value to Gleason score, PSA, Ki-67 and extent of disease. PMID:23695019

  7. The Subcellular Localisation of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E7 Protein in Cervical Cancer Cells and Its Perturbation by RNA Aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Cesur, Özlem; Nicol, Clare; Groves, Helen; Mankouri, Jamel; Blair, George Eric; Stonehouse, Nicola J.

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common viral infection of the reproductive tract, affecting both men and women. High-risk oncogenic types are responsible for almost 90% of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers including cervical cancer. Some of the HPV “early” genes, particularly E6 and E7, are known to act as oncogenes that promote tumour growth and malignant transformation. Most notably, HPV-16 E7 interacts with the tumour suppressor protein pRb, promoting its degradation, leading to cell cycle dysregulation in infected cells. We have previously shown that an RNA aptamer (termed A2) selectively binds to HPV16 E7 and is able to induce apoptosis in HPV16-transformed cervical carcinoma cell lines (SiHa) through reduction of E7 levels. In this study, we investigated the effects of the A2 aptamer on E7 localisation in order to define its effects on E7 activity. We demonstrate for the first time that E7 localised to the plasma membrane. In addition, we show that A2 enhanced E7 localisation in the ER and that the A2-mediated reduction of E7 was not associated with proteasomal degradation. These data suggest that A2 perturbs normal E7 trafficking through promoting E7 ER retention. PMID:26131956

  8. My Road Ahead study protocol: a randomised controlled trial of an online psychological intervention for men following treatment for localised prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a need for psychosocial interventions for men with prostate cancer to promote adaptive coping with the challenges and distress associated with diagnosis, treatment and recovery. In addition, interventions are needed that help to overcome barriers to psychosocial treatment such as limited face-to-face psychosocial support services, a shortage of adequately trained professionals, geographical distance, perceived and personal stigma and a preference for consumer-centric and self-directed learning. My Road Ahead is an online cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) intervention for prostate cancer. This protocol describes a randomised controlled trial (RCT) that will evaluate the efficacy of this online intervention alone, the intervention in combination with a moderated online forum, and the moderated online forum alone. Methods/design This study utilises a RCT design with three groups receiving: 1) the 6-module My Road Ahead intervention alone; 2) the My Road Ahead intervention plus a moderated online forum; and 3) the moderated online forum alone. It is expected that 150 men with localised prostate cancer will be recruited into the RCT. Online measures will assess men’s psychological distress as well as sexual and relationship adjustment at baseline, post-intervention, 3 month follow-up and 6 month follow-up. The study is being conducted in Australia and participants will be recruited from April 2012 to Feb 2014. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of My Road Ahead in reducing psychological distress. Discussion To our knowledge, My Road Ahead is the first self-directed online psychological intervention developed for men who have been treated for localised prostate cancer. The RCT will assess the efficacy of this intervention in improving psychological well-being, sexual satisfaction, relationship satisfaction and overall quality of life. If successful, this intervention could provide much needed support to men receiving

  9. Establishing nurse-led active surveillance for men with localised prostate cancer: development and formative evaluation of a model of care in the ProtecT trial

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Julia; Holding, Peter N; Bonnington, Susan; Rooshenas, Leila; Lane, J Athene; Salter, C Elizabeth; Tilling, Kate; Speakman, Mark J; Brewster, Simon F; Evans, Simon; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C; Donovan, Jenny L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To develop a nurse-led, urologist-supported model of care for men managed by active surveillance or active monitoring (AS/AM) for localised prostate cancer and provide a formative evaluation of its acceptability to patients, clinicians and nurses. Nurse-led care, comprising an explicit nurse-led protocol with support from urologists, was developed as part of the AM arm of the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial. Design Interviews and questionnaire surveys of clinicians, nurses and patients assessed acceptability. Setting Nurse-led clinics were established in 9 centres in the ProtecT trial and compared with 3 non-ProtecT urology centres elsewhere in UK. Participants Within ProtecT, 22 men receiving AM nurse-led care were interviewed about experiences of care; 11 urologists and 23 research nurses delivering ProtecT trial care completed a questionnaire about its acceptability; 20 men managed in urology clinics elsewhere in the UK were interviewed about models of AS/AM care; 12 urologists and three specialist nurses working in these clinics were also interviewed about management of AS/AM. Results Nurse-led care was commended by ProtecT trial participants, who valued the flexibility, accessibility and continuity of the service and felt confident about the quality of care. ProtecT consultant urologists and nurses also rated it highly, identifying continuity of care and resource savings as key attributes. Clinicians and patients outside the ProtecT trial believed that nurse-led care could relieve pressure on urology clinics without compromising patient care. Conclusions The ProtecT AM nurse-led model of care was acceptable to men with localised prostate cancer and clinical specialists in urology. The protocol is available for implementation; we aim to evaluate its impact on routine clinical practice. Trial registration numbers NCT02044172; ISRCTN20141297. PMID:26384727

  10. Changes in subcellular localisation of MI-ER1α, a novel oestrogen receptor-α interacting protein, is associated with breast cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, P L; Mercer, F C; Savicky, M W J; Carter, B A; Paterno, G D; Gillespie, L L

    2008-01-01

    The oestrogen receptor-α (ERα) plays a key role in breast development and tumorigenesis and inhibiting its activity remains a prime strategy in the treatment of ERα-positive breast cancers. Thus, elucidation of the molecular mechanisms responsible for regulating ERα activity may facilitate the design of new, more effective breast cancer therapies. The MI-ER1α is a novel transcriptional repressor that contains an LXXLL motif for interaction with nuclear hormone receptors. We investigated the ability of MI-ER1α to bind to ERα in HEK293 and MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells, using co-immunoprecipitation assays. In both cell lines, MI-ER1α interacted with ERα in the presence and absence of oestrogen, but the interaction was stronger in the absence of ligand. Functional analysis revealed that overexpression of MI-ER1α in T47D breast carcinoma cells results in inhibition of oestrogen-stimulated anchorage-independent growth, suggesting that MI-ER1α may play a role in regulating breast carcinoma cell proliferation in vivo. To explore this further, we performed an immunohistochemical analysis of normal breast tissue and breast carcinoma; a total of 110 cases were examined in whole tissue sections and 771 cases were analysed in tissue microarrays. No consistent difference in the MI-ER1α expression level between normal breast tissue and breast carcinoma was discernible. However, there was a dramatic shift in the subcellular localisation: nuclear MI-ER1α was detectable in 75% of normal breast samples and in 77% of hyperplasia, but in breast carcinoma, only 51% of DCIS, 25% of ILC and 4% of IDC contained nuclear staining. This shift from nuclear to cytoplasmic localisation of MI-ER1α during breast cancer progression suggests that loss of nuclear MI-ER1α might contribute to the development of invasive breast carcinoma. PMID:18665173

  11. Prognostic significance of SUV on PET/CT in patients with localised oesophagogastric junction cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy/chemoradiation: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, W; Xing, L; Yue, J; Sun, X; Sun, X; Zhao, H; Yu, J

    2012-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to comprehensively review the evidence for use of pre-treatment, post-treatment and changes in tumour glucose uptake that were assessed by 18-fludeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) early, during or immediately after neoadjuvant chemotherapy/chemoradiation to predict prognosis of localised oesophagogastric junction (AEG) cancer. Methods We searched for articles published in English; limited to AEG; 18F-FDG uptake on PET performed on a dedicated device; dealt with the impact of standard uptake value (SUV) on survival. We extracted an estimate of the log hazard ratios (HRs) and their variances and performed meta-analysis. Results 798 patients with AEG were included. And the scan time for 18F-FDG-PET was as follows: prior to therapy (PET1, n=646), exactly 2 weeks after initiation of neoadjuvant therapy (PET2, n=245), and pre-operatively (PET3, n=278). In the two meta-analyses for overall survival, including the studies that dealt with reduction of tumour maximum SUV (SUVmax) (from PET1 to PET2/PET3 and from PET1 to PET2), the results were similar, with the overall HR for non-responders being 1.83 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.41–2.36] and 2.62 (95% CI, 1.61–4.26), respectively; as for disease-free survival, the combined HR was 2.92 (95% CI, 2.08–4.10) and 2.39 (95% CI, 1.57–3.64), respectively. The meta-analyses did not attribute significant prognostic values to SUVmax before and during therapy in localised AEG. Conclusion Relative changes in FDG-uptake of AEG are better prognosticators. Early metabolic changes from PET1 to PET2 may provide the same accuracy for prediction of treatment outcome as late changes from PET1 to PET3. PMID:22337686

  12. Vascular targeted photochemotherapy using padoporfin and padeliporfin as a method of the focal treatment of localised prostate cancer - clinician’s insight

    PubMed Central

    Bugaj, Andrzej M

    2016-01-01

    Vascular targeted photochemotherapy (VTP) holds promise as a novel strategy of the focal treatment of localised prostate cancer (LPCa). It is convenient to perform, minimally invasive and can be conduct in ambulatory conditions. In this review, methodologic aspects of padoporfin- and padeliporfin-mediated VTP and its clinical application in focal treatment of LPCa as well as future perspective of this method were presented. Physicochemical and pharmacokinetic parameters of padoporphin and padeliporfin using as VTP photosensitizers were described, as well as methodologic question of radiation delivery and dosimetry, and oxygen monitoring in cancer tissue in context of VTP safety and efficiency of LPCa focal therapy were discussed. The results of clinical trials concerning application of padoporfin- and padeliporfin-mediated VTP in LPCa were also presented. The future of VTP is development of protocols, founded on the real-time feedback and rules-based approach to make this strategy a standard procedure in LPCa treatment. To evaluate clinical potential of this procedure, a cost-effectiveness analysis is also necessary. PMID:27019798

  13. ProsCan for Couples: Randomised controlled trial of a couples-based sexuality intervention for men with localised prostate cancer who receive radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Suzanne K; Schover, Leslie; Halford, Kim; Clutton, Samantha; Ferguson, Megan; Gordon, Louisa; Gardiner, RA; Occhipinti, Stefano; Dunn, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer in the Western world. The most substantial long term morbidity from this cancer is sexual dysfunction with consequent adverse changes in couple and intimate relationships. Research to date has not identified an effective way to improve sexual and psychosocial adjustment for both men with prostate cancer and their partners. As well, the efficacy and cost effectiveness of peer counselling as opposed to professional models of service delivery has not yet been empirically tested. This paper presents the design of a three arm randomised controlled trial (peer vs. nurse counselling vs. usual care) that will evaluate the efficacy of two couples-based sexuality interventions (ProsCan for Couples: Peer support vs. nurse counselling) on men's and women's sexual and psychosocial adjustment after surgical treatment for localised prostate cancer; in addition to cost-effectiveness. Methods/design Seventy couples per condition (210 couples in total) will be recruited after diagnosis and before treatment through urology private practices and hospital outpatient clinics and randomised to (1) usual care; (2) eight sessions of peer-delivered telephone support with DVD education; and (3) eight sessions of oncology nurse-delivered telephone counselling with DVD education. Two intervention sessions will be delivered before surgery and six over the six months post-surgery. The intervention will utilise a cognitive behavioural approach along with couple relationship education focussed on relationship enhancement and helping the couple to conjointly manage the stresses of cancer diagnosis and treatment. Participants will be assessed at baseline (before surgery) and 3, 6 and 12 months post-surgery. Outcome measures include: sexual adjustment; unmet sexuality supportive care needs; attitudes to sexual help seeking; psychological adjustment; benefit finding and quality of life. Discussion The study will provide recommendations about

  14. AB043. Cryosurgery could be an effective option for clinically localised prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of comparative studies and comprehensively systematic review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Liang; Yuan, Jiuhong

    2016-01-01

    Objective Clinical studies evaluating effectiveness and safety of cryosurgery (CS) for clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa) have reported conflicting results. We aim to obtain systematic and comprehensive evidence regarding the potential benefits and safety of CS compared with those of radiotherapy (RT) and radical prostatectomy (RP), respectively. Methods All controlled trials comparing CS with RT or RP and single-arm studies reporting results of CS therapy were identified through comprehensive searches of PubMed, the Cochrane Library and Embase, and a meta-analysis and systematic review of these studies were chosen. Results Ten publications from seven trials, with a total of 1,252 patients, were included for meta-analysis, which revealed no significant differences in comparisons of CS vs. RT and CS vs. RP for overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS) and biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS), except for a significantly lower bDFS for CS than RP [risk ratio (RR) 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73–0.99, P=0.03]. Moreover, dynamic analysis of pooled complications in months of 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 demonstrated significantly a higher occurrence for urinary and sexual bothers in CS then RT at most disease stages. Furthermore, a systematic review of the literature focusing on comparative data of databases and materials of single-arm trials revealed satisfactory survival results in both primary and salvage CS. Furthermore, following CS, we observed an increasing incidence of 41% compared to which in the initial phase and maximum overall value of >53.3% for urinary complications; similarly, we observed an increasing incidence of 56.8% and a maximum overall value of 100% for erectile dysfunction. Conclusions Our results showed that CS could be an effective method for clinically localised PCa with survival results satisfactory and comparable to other modalities. However, the large percentage of complications caused by CS should be carefully

  15. Domain walls inside localised orientifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blåbäck, J.; van der Woerd, E.; Van Riet, T.; Williams, M.

    2015-12-01

    The equations of motion of toroidal orientifold compactifications with fluxes are in one-to-one correspondence with gauged supergravity if the orientifold (and D-brane) sources are smeared over the compact space. This smeared limit is identical to the approximation that ignores warping. It is therefore relevant to compare quantities obtained from the gauged supergravity with the true 10d solution with localised sources. In this paper we find the correspondence between BPS domain walls in gauged SUGRA and 10D SUGRA with localised sources. Our model is the simplest orientifold with fluxes we are aware of: an O6/D6 compactification on {T}^3/{Z}_2 in massive IIA with H 3-flux. The BPS domain walls correspond to a O6/D6/NS5/D8 bound state. Our analysis reveals that the domain wall energy computed in gauged SUGRA is unaffected by the localisation of the O6/D6 sources.

  16. Braneworld localisation in hyperbolic spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crampton, B.; Pope, C. N.; Stelle, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    We present a construction employing a type IIA supergravity and 3-form flux background together with an NS5-brane that localises massless gravity near the 5-brane worldvolume. The nonsingular underlying type IIA solution is a lift to 10D of the vacuum solution of the 6D Salam-Sezgin model and has a hyperbolic structure in the lifting dimensions. A fully back-reacted solution including the NS5-brane is constructed by recognising the 10D Salam-Sezgin vacuum solution as a "brane resolved through transgression." The background hyperbolic structure plays a key rôle in generating a mass gap in the spectrum of the transverse-space wave operator, which gives rise to the localisation of gravity on the 6D NS5-brane worldvolume, or, equally, in a further compactification to 4D. Also key to the successful localisation of gravity is the specific form of the corresponding transverse wavefunction Schrödinger problem, which asymptotically involves a V = -1 /(4 ρ 2) potential, where ρ is the transverse-space radius, and for which the NS5-brane source gives rise to a specific choice of self-adjoint extension for the transverse wave operator. The corresponding boundary condition as ρ → 0 ensures the masslessness of gravity in the effective braneworld theory. Above the mass gap, there is a continuum of massive states which give rise to small corrections to Newton's law.

  17. Hypofractionated radiotherapy versus conventionally fractionated radiotherapy for patients with intermediate-risk localised prostate cancer: 2-year patient-reported outcomes of the randomised, non-inferiority, phase 3 CHHiP trial

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Anna; Mossop, Helen; Syndikus, Isabel; Khoo, Vincent; Bloomfield, David; Parker, Chris; Logue, John; Scrase, Christopher; Patterson, Helen; Birtle, Alison; Staffurth, John; Malik, Zafar; Panades, Miguel; Eswar, Chinnamani; Graham, John; Russell, Martin; Kirkbride, Peter; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Gao, Annie; Cruickshank, Clare; Griffin, Clare; Dearnaley, David; Hall, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) might detect more toxic effects of radiotherapy than do clinician-reported outcomes. We did a quality of life (QoL) substudy to assess PROs up to 24 months after conventionally fractionated or hypofractionated radiotherapy in the Conventional or Hypofractionated High Dose Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer (CHHiP) trial. Methods The CHHiP trial is a randomised, non-inferiority phase 3 trial done in 71 centres, of which 57 UK hospitals took part in the QoL substudy. Men with localised prostate cancer who were undergoing radiotherapy were eligible for trial entry if they had histologically confirmed T1b–T3aN0M0 prostate cancer, an estimated risk of seminal vesicle involvement less than 30%, prostate-specific antigen concentration less than 30 ng/mL, and a WHO performance status of 0 or 1. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive a standard fractionation schedule of 74 Gy in 37 fractions or one of two hypofractionated schedules: 60 Gy in 20 fractions or 57 Gy in 19 fractions. Randomisation was done with computer-generated permuted block sizes of six and nine, stratified by centre and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk group. Treatment allocation was not masked. UCLA Prostate Cancer Index (UCLA-PCI), including Short Form (SF)-36 and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P), or Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) and SF-12 quality-of-life questionnaires were completed at baseline, pre-radiotherapy, 10 weeks post-radiotherapy, and 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-radiotherapy. The CHHiP trial completed accrual on June 16, 2011, and the QoL substudy was closed to further recruitment on Nov 1, 2009. Analysis was on an intention-to-treat basis. The primary endpoint of the QoL substudy was overall bowel bother and comparisons between fractionation groups were done at 24 months post-radiotherapy. The CHHiP trial is registered with ISRCTN registry

  18. Biodistribution and tumour localisation of 131I SWA11 recognising the cluster w4 antigen in patients with small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ledermann, J A; Marston, N J; Stahel, R A; Waibel, R; Buscombe, J R; Ell, P J

    1993-07-01

    The biodistribution of radiolabelled SWA11, a mouse monoclonal antibody recognising the cluster w4 group antigen associated with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) was studied in patients with SCLC. Five patients were injected intravenously with approximately 5 mCi of 131I conjugated to 1 mg of SWA11. The half-life of the radiolabel in blood was short but there was a prolonged second phase of clearance with a half-life of about 40 h. Tumour was detected by gamma camera imaging two patients. However, most of the whole body radioactivity was located in the bone marrow. At least 35% of the radioactivity in blood 18 h after injection was bound to circulating granulocytes and this probably accounted for the unusual biodistribution of the radiolabel in man. This study shows that the biodistribution of radiolabelled SWA11 in man differs from human tumour xenograft models and that the antibody in unsuitable for targeting therapy to SCLC in man. PMID:8391302

  19. Can TRUS Power Doppler Predict the Preservation of Erectile Function in HIFU Treatment of Localised Prostate Cancer? — A Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoh, I. M.; Calleary, J. G.; Moore, C.; Emberton, M.; Allen, C.

    2006-05-01

    Perhaps the single most significant unifying feature in men diagnosed with organ confined prostate cancer is the hope of erectile preservation in the treatment that offers cure. Although it is not 100% certain that the preservation of neurovascular bundle (NVB) can actually lead to intact sexual function, there is evidence that non-sparing nerve radical prostatectomy has a much higher incidence of impotence compared to nerve-sparing ones. The idea to monitor NVB flow can be realized using a simple power Doppler technique that was done before and after HIFU. The NVB flow was found intact in all patients (n=14). Tumescence returned in 93% of patients with a mean time of 6 weeks for this to occur. The erectile function score, IIEF-15 decreased by a third but shows a trend towards recovery. This preliminary study demonstrates the feasibility of transrectal power Doppler as a monitoring tool to provide immediate feedback on the NVB flow which was found intact in all patients. Although early reports of the tumescence proved encouraging, its full impact on erectile function will require longer follow-up.

  20. Relative sound localisation abilities in human listeners

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Katherine C.; Bizley, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial acuity varies with sound-source azimuth, signal-to-noise ratio, and the spectral characteristics of the sound source. Here, the spatial localisation abilities of listeners were assessed using a relative localisation task. This task tested localisation ability at fixed angular separations throughout space using a two-alternative forced-choice design across a variety of listening conditions. Subjects were required to determine whether a target sound originated to the left or right of a preceding reference in the presence of a multi-source noise background. Experiment 1 demonstrated that subjects' ability to determine the relative location of two sources declined with less favourable signal-to-noise ratios and at peripheral locations. Experiment 2 assessed performance with both broadband and spectrally restricted stimuli designed to limit localisation cues to predominantly interaural level differences or interaural timing differences (ITDs). Predictions generated from topographic, modified topographic, and two-channel models of sound localisation suggest that for low-pass stimuli, where ITD cues were dominant, the two-channel model provides an adequate description of the experimental data, whereas for broadband and high frequency bandpass stimuli none of the models was able to fully account for performance. Experiment 3 demonstrated that relative localisation performance was uninfluenced by shifts in gaze direction. PMID:26328685

  1. Addition of docetaxel or bisphosphonates to standard of care in men with localised or metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analyses of aggregate data

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Claire L; Burdett, Sarah; Rydzewska, Larysa H M; Albiges, Laurence; Clarke, Noel W; Fisher, David; Fizazi, Karim; Gravis, Gwenaelle; James, Nicholas D; Mason, Malcolm D; Parmar, Mahesh K B; Sweeney, Christopher J; Sydes, Matthew R; Tombal, Bertrand; Tierney, Jayne F

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Results from large randomised controlled trials combining docetaxel or bisphosphonates with standard of care in hormone-sensitive prostate cancer have emerged. In order to investigate the effects of these therapies and to respond to emerging evidence, we aimed to systematically review all relevant trials using a framework for adaptive meta-analysis. Methods For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, trial registers, conference proceedings, review articles, and reference lists of trial publications for all relevant randomised controlled trials (published, unpublished, and ongoing) comparing either standard of care with or without docetaxel or standard of care with or without bisphosphonates for men with high-risk localised or metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. For each trial, we extracted hazard ratios (HRs) of the effects of docetaxel or bisphosphonates on survival (time from randomisation until death from any cause) and failure-free survival (time from randomisation to biochemical or clinical failure or death from any cause) from published trial reports or presentations or obtained them directly from trial investigators. HRs were combined using the fixed-effect model (Mantel-Haenzsel). Findings We identified five eligible randomised controlled trials of docetaxel in men with metastatic (M1) disease. Results from three (CHAARTED, GETUG-15, STAMPEDE) of these trials (2992 [93%] of 3206 men randomised) showed that the addition of docetaxel to standard of care improved survival. The HR of 0·77 (95% CI 0·68–0·87; p<0·0001) translates to an absolute improvement in 4-year survival of 9% (95% CI 5–14). Docetaxel in addition to standard of care also improved failure-free survival, with the HR of 0·64 (0·58–0·70; p<0·0001) translating into a reduction in absolute 4-year failure rates of 16% (95% CI 12–19). We identified 11 trials of

  2. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-01-01

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction. PMID:27075559

  3. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-01-01

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction. PMID:27075559

  4. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-04-01

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction.

  5. Localised manifold learning for cardiac image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Kanwal K.; Price, Anthony N.; Hajnal, Jo V.; Rueckert, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Manifold learning is increasingly being used to discover the underlying structure of medical image data. Traditional approaches operate on whole images with a single measure of similarity used to compare entire images. In this way, information on the locality of differences is lost and smaller trends may be masked by dominant global differences. In this paper, we propose the use of multiple local manifolds to analyse regions of images without any prior knowledge of which regions are important. Localised manifolds are created by partitioning images into regular subsections with a manifold constructed for each patch. We propose a framework for incorporating information from the neighbours of each patch to calculate a coherent embedding. This generates a simultaneous dimensionality reduction of all patches and results in the creation of embeddings which are spatially-varying. Additionally, a hierarchical method is presented to enable a multi-scale embedding solution. We use this to extract spatially-varying respiratory and cardiac motions from cardiac MRI. Although there is a complex interplay between these motions, we show how they can be separated on a regional basis. We demonstrate the utility of the localised joint embedding over a global embedding of whole images and over embedding individual patches independently.

  6. An innovative localisation algorithm for railway vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allotta, B.; D'Adamio, P.; Malvezzi, M.; Pugi, L.; Ridolfi, A.; Rindi, A.; Vettori, G.

    2014-11-01

    In modern railway automatic train protection and automatic train control systems, odometry is a safety relevant on-board subsystem which estimates the instantaneous speed and the travelled distance of the train; a high reliability of the odometry estimate is fundamental, since an error on the train position may lead to a potentially dangerous overestimation of the distance available for braking. To improve the odometry estimate accuracy, data fusion of different inputs coming from a redundant sensor layout may be used. The aim of this work has been developing an innovative localisation algorithm for railway vehicles able to enhance the performances, in terms of speed and position estimation accuracy, of the classical odometry algorithms, such as the Italian Sistema Controllo Marcia Treno (SCMT). The proposed strategy consists of a sensor fusion between the information coming from a tachometer and an Inertial Measurements Unit (IMU). The sensor outputs have been simulated through a 3D multibody model of a railway vehicle. The work has provided the development of a custom IMU, designed by ECM S.p.a, in order to meet their industrial and business requirements. The industrial requirements have to be compliant with the European Train Control System (ETCS) standards: the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS), a project developed by the European Union to improve the interoperability among different countries, in particular as regards the train control and command systems, fixes some standard values for the odometric (ODO) performance, in terms of speed and travelled distance estimation. The reliability of the ODO estimation has to be taken into account basing on the allowed speed profiles. The results of the currently used ODO algorithms can be improved, especially in case of degraded adhesion conditions; it has been verified in the simulation environment that the results of the proposed localisation algorithm are always compliant with the ERTMS requirements

  7. Localising News: Translation and the "Global-National" Dichotomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orengo, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Due to the peculiar nature of news texts, the adoption of a theory of "localisation" rather than conventional translation theories accounts more easily for both the commercial nature and the global scale of news distribution. News texts are global products which are distributed through a localisation process involving not only reception by locales…

  8. PHD filtering with localised target number variance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delande, Emmanuel; Houssineau, Jérémie; Clark, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    Mahler's Probability Hypothesis Density (PHD filter), proposed in 2000, addresses the challenges of the multipletarget detection and tracking problem by propagating a mean density of the targets in any region of the state space. However, when retrieving some local evidence on the target presence becomes a critical component of a larger process - e.g. for sensor management purposes - the local target number is insufficient unless some confidence on the estimation of the number of targets can be provided as well. In this paper, we propose a first implementation of a PHD filter that also includes an estimation of localised variance in the target number following each update step; we then illustrate the advantage of the PHD filter + variance on simulated data from a multiple-target scenario.

  9. To localise or to be localised with WiFi in the Hubei museum?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbree, E.; Zlatanova, S.; van Winden, K. B. A.; van der Laan, E. B.; Makri, A.; Taizhou, L.; Haojun, A.

    2013-11-01

    Indoor localisation is in demand for a variety of applications within the built environment. An overall solution based on a single technology has not yet been determined. The aim of this paper is to gain insight on Signal Strength monitoring by a special kind of WiFi Monitors in comparison to the commonly known fingerprinting method for the purpose of a 3D indoor navigation system. Ttwo different WiFi based localisation techniques are tested during the MSc Geomatics DaRen Syntheses Project in the Hubei Provincial Museum, China. The first method detects the beacon frames send by smartphones, laptops and other WiFi enabled devices in range using Libelium Meshlium Xtreme monitors. Their MAC addresses and the signal strength is measured by the Meshlium Xtreme and stored on an external database. We call this method WiFi monitoring. The second method a Wifi enabled device, like a smartphone, measures the signal strength of multiple Wifi Access Points in range to localise itself based on a previously created radio map. This method is known as WiFi fingerprinting. Both methods have some advantages and disadvantages. Advantages of the common way of WiFi fingerprinting are that the implementation costs are relatively low, because it is usually possible to use (a part of) the existing WiFi AP infrastructure. WiFi fingerprinting can reach a relatively high accuracy in the order of magnitude of meters. Finally, the location granularity can be adjusted to what is necessary for the purpose of the indoor localisation. This makes it employable for a wide range of purposes. The question remains how suitable these methods are for a 3D indoor navigation system for the Hubei provincial museum. One important aspect is the localisation-granularity necessary for the application. In a museum it is not necessary to know the exact X,Y position of a user (such high accuracy is unnecessary), more important is to know in which room the user is located so the information on exhibitions can be

  10. Localisation of atomic populations in the optical radiation field

    SciTech Connect

    Efremova, E A; Gordeev, M Yu; Rozhdestvensky, Yu V

    2014-10-31

    The possibility of two-dimensional spatial localisation of atomic populations under the influence of the travelling wave fields in the tripod-configuration of quantum states is studied for the first time. Three travelling waves propagating in the same plane at an angle of 120° to each other form a system of standing waves under the influence of which atomic populations are localised. The size of the region of spatial localisation of the populations, in principle, can be hundredths of a wavelength of optical radiation. (quantum optics)

  11. Localised anti-branes in flux backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartnett, Gavin S.

    2015-06-01

    Solutions corresponding to finite temperature (anti)-D3 and M2 branes localised in flux backgrounds are constructed in a linear approximation. The flux backgrounds considered are toy models for the IR of the Klebanov-Strassler solution and its M-theory analogue, the Cvetič-Gibbons-Lü-Pope solution. Smooth solutions exist for either sign charge, in stark contrast with the previously considered case of smeared black branes. That the singularities of the anti-branes in the zero temperature extremal limit can be shielded behind a finite temperature horizon indicates that the singularities are physical and resolvable by string theory. As the charge of the branes grows large and negative, the flux at the horizon increases without bound and diverges in the extremal limit, which suggests a resolution via brane polarisation à la Polchinski-Strassler. It therefore appears that the anti-brane singularities do not indicate a problem with the SUSY-breaking metastable states corresponding to expanded anti-brane configurations in these backgrounds, nor with the use of these states in constructing the de Sitter landscape.

  12. Acquired localised hypertrichosis in a Chinese child after cast immobilisation.

    PubMed

    Yuen, M W; Lai, Loretta K P; Chan, P F; Chao, David V K

    2015-08-01

    Hypertrichosis refers to excessive hair growth that is independent of any androgen effect. Hypertrichosis could be congenital or acquired, localised or generalised. The phenomenon of acquired localised hypertrichosis following cast application for a fracture is well known to orthopaedic surgeons, but is rarely encountered by primary care physicians. We describe a 28-month-old Chinese boy who had fracture of right leg as a result of an injury. He had a cast applied by an orthopaedic surgeon as treatment. On removal of the cast 6 weeks later, he was noticed to have significant hair growth on his right leg compared with the left leg. The patient was reassessed 3 months after removal of the cast. The hypertrichosis resolved completely with time. This patient was one of the youngest among the reported cases of acquired localised hypertrichosis after cast application. We illustrate the significance of management of post-cast-acquired localised hypertrichosis in the primary care setting. PMID:26238136

  13. Localised fibrous mesothelioma arising in an intralobar pulmonary sequestration.

    PubMed Central

    Paksoy, N; Demircan, A; Altiner, M; Artvinli, M

    1992-01-01

    A localised fibrous mesothelioma arising from an intralobar lung sequestration occurred in a 64 year old Turkish woman. This appears to be the first report of a mesothelioma occurring within a pulmonary sequestration. Images PMID:1481189

  14. Localised pulmonary resection for bronchiectasis in hypogammaglobulinaemic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, A. J.; Roifman, C.; Brendan, J.; Mullen, M.; Reid, B.; Weisbrod, G.; Downey, G. P.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Bronchiectasis and pulmonary infections are common in patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia. Despite intravenous gammaglobulin treatment and appropriate antibiotics, a subgroup of patients remains with persistent localised pulmonary infection in segments where bronchiectasis had developed before appropriate treatment. As such localised pulmonary suppuration (segmental or lobar) may serve as a focus for progression of bronchiectasis, surgical resection of the involved segments may be considered. The outcome of pulmonary resection in four such patients is reported. RESULTS--Surgery was well tolerated except for one postoperative empyema. Information on follow up is available from 3.5 to 5 years. All patients experienced considerable reduction of symptoms including cough, sputum production, antibiotic use, and hospital admissions. CONCLUSIONS--Surgical resection of localised bronchiectatic segments should be considered in patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia with persistent localised suppuration and symptoms refractory to medical treatment. PMID:8016776

  15. Aegean tectonics: Strain localisation, slab tearing and trench retreat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolivet, Laurent; Faccenna, Claudio; Huet, Benjamin; Labrousse, Loïc; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Lacombe, Olivier; Lecomte, Emmanuel; Burov, Evguenii; Denèle, Yoann; Brun, Jean-Pierre; Philippon, Mélody; Paul, Anne; Salaün, Gwenaëlle; Karabulut, Hayrullah; Piromallo, Claudia; Monié, Patrick; Gueydan, Frédéric; Okay, Aral I.; Oberhänsli, Roland; Pourteau, Amaury; Augier, Romain; Gadenne, Leslie; Driussi, Olivier

    2013-06-01

    We review the geodynamic evolution of the Aegean-Anatolia region and discuss strain localisation there over geological times. From Late Eocene to Present, crustal deformation in the Aegean backarc has localised progressively during slab retreat. Extension started with the formation of the Rhodope Metamorphic Core Complex (Eocene) and migrated to the Cyclades and the northern Menderes Massif (Oligocene and Miocene), accommodated by crustal-scale detachments and a first series of core complexes (MCCs). Extension then localised in Western Turkey, the Corinth Rift and the external Hellenic arc after Messinian times, while the North Anatolian Fault penetrated the Aegean Sea. Through time the direction and style of extension have not changed significantly except in terms of localisation. The contributions of progressive slab retreat and tearing, basal drag, extrusion tectonics and tectonic inheritance are discussed and we favour a model (1) where slab retreat is the main driving engine, (2) successive slab tearing episodes are the main causes of this stepwise strain localisation and (3) the inherited heterogeneity of the crust is a major factor for localising detachments. The continental crust has an inherited strong heterogeneity and crustal-scale contacts such as major thrust planes act as weak zones or as zones of contrast of resistance and viscosity that can localise later deformation. The dynamics of slabs at depth and the asthenospheric flow due to slab retreat also have influence strain localisation in the upper plate. Successive slab ruptures from the Middle Miocene to the Late Miocene have isolated a narrow strip of lithosphere, still attached to the African lithosphere below Crete. The formation of the North Anatolian Fault is partly a consequence of this evolution. The extrusion of Anatolia and the Aegean extension are partly driven from below (asthenospheric flow) and from above (extrusion of a lid of rigid crust).

  16. Localising and lateralising value of ictal piloerection

    PubMed Central

    Loddenkemper, T; Kellinghaus, C; Gandjour, J; Nair, D; Najm, I; Bingaman, W; Luders, H

    2004-01-01

    Background: Piloerection is a rare clinical symptom described during seizures. Previous reports suggested that the temporal lobe is the ictal onset zone in many of these cases. One case series concluded that there is a predominant left hemispheric representation of ictal cold. The aim of this study is to evaluate the localising and lateralising value of pilomotor seizures. Methods: Medical records of patients who underwent video electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring at the Cleveland Clinic between 1994 and 2001 were reviewed for the presence of ictal piloerection. The clinical history, physical and neurological examination, video EEG data, neuroimaging data, cortical stimulation results, and postoperative follow ups were reviewed and used to define the epileptogenic zone. Additionally, all previously reported cases of ictal piloerection were reviewed. Results: Fourteen patients with ictal piloerection were identified (0.4%). Twelve out of 14 patients had temporal lobe epilepsy. In seven patients (50%), the ictal onset was located in the left hemisphere. Four out of five patients with unilateral ictal piloerection had ipsilateral temporal lobe epilepsy as compared with the ipsilateral side of pilomotor response. Three patients became seizure free after left temporal lobectomy for at least 12 months of follow up. An ipsilateral left leg pilomotor response with simultaneously recorded after-discharges was elicited in one patient during direct cortical stimulation of the left parahippocampal gyrus. Conclusions: Ictal piloerection is a rare ictal manifestation that occurs predominantly in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Unilateral piloerection is most frequently associated with ipsilateral focal epilepsy. No hemispheric predominance was found in patients with bilateral ictal piloerection. PMID:15146005

  17. Localised hydrogen peroxide sensing for reproductive health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purdey, Malcolm S.; Schartner, Erik P.; Sutton-McDowall, Melanie L.; Ritter, Lesley J.; Thompson, Jeremy G.; Monro, Tanya M.; Abell, Andrew D.

    2015-05-01

    The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to affect the developmental competence of embryos. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) an important reactive oxygen species, is also known to causes DNA damage and defective sperm function. Current techniques require incubating a developing embryo with an organic fluorophore which is potentially hazardous for the embryo. What we need is a localised ROS sensor which does not require fluorophores in solution and hence will allow continuous monitoring of H2O2 production without adversely affect the development of the embryo. Here we report studies on such a fibre-based sensor for the detection of H2O2 that uses a surface-bound aryl boronate fluorophore carboxyperoxyfluor-1(CPF1). Optical fibres present a unique platform due to desirable characteristics as dip sensors in biological solutions. Attempts to functionalise the fibre tips using polyelectrolyte layers and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) coatings resulted in a limited signal and poor fluorescent response to H2O2 due to a low tip surface density of the fluorophore. To increase the surface density, CPF1 was integrated into a polymer matrix formed on the fibre tip by a UV-catalysed polymerisation process of acrylamide onto a methacrylate silane layer. The polyacrylamide containing CPF1 gave a much higher surface density than previous surface attachment methods and the sensor was found to effectively detect H2O2. Using this method, biologically relevant concentrations of H2O2 were detected, enabling remote sensing studies into ROS releases from embryos throughout early development.

  18. Edge Localised Modes (ELMs): Experiments and Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, J. W.; Kirk, A.

    2008-05-14

    Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) are periodic disturbances of the plasma periphery occurring in tokamaks with an H-mode edge transport barrier. As a result, a fraction of the plasma energy present in the confined hot edge plasma is transferred to the open field lines in the divertor region, ultimately appearing at the divertor target plates. These events can result in high transient heat loads being deposited on the divertor target plates in large tokamaks, potentially causing damage in devices such as ITER. Consequently it is important to find means to mitigate their effects, either avoiding them or, at least, controlling them. This in turn means it is essential to understand the physics causing ELMs so that appropriate steps can be taken. It is generally agreed that ELMs originate as MHD instability caused by the steep plasma pressure gradients or edge plasma current present in H-mode, the so-called 'peeling-ballooning' model. Normally this is considered to be an ideal MHD instability but resistivity may be involved. Much less clear is the non-linear evolution of these instabilities and the mechanisms by which the confined edge plasma is transferred to the divertor plasma. There is evidence for the non-linear development of 'filamentary' structures predicted by theory, but the reconnection processes by which these are detached from the plasma core remain uncertain. In this paper the experimental and theoretical evidence for the peeling-ballooning model is presented, drawing data from a number of tokamaks, e.g. JET, DIII-D, ASDEX-Upgrade, MAST etc. Some theoretical models for the non-linear evolution of ELMs are discussed; as well as ones related to the 'peeling-ballooning' model, other candidate models for the ELM cycle are mentioned. The consequential heat loads on divertor target plates are discussed. Based on our current understanding of the physics of ELMs, means to avoid them, or mitigate their consequences, are described, e.g. the use of plasma shaping or

  19. Subcellular mRNA localisation at a glance.

    PubMed

    Parton, Richard M; Davidson, Alexander; Davis, Ilan; Weil, Timothy T

    2014-05-15

    mRNA localisation coupled to translational regulation provides an important means of dictating when and where proteins function in a variety of model systems. This mechanism is particularly relevant in polarised or migrating cells. Although many of the models for how this is achieved were first proposed over 20 years ago, some of the molecular details are still poorly understood. Nevertheless, advanced imaging, biochemical and computational approaches have started to shed light on the cis-acting localisation signals and trans-acting factors that dictate the final destination of localised transcripts. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and accompanying poster, we provide an overview of mRNA localisation, from transcription to degradation, focusing on the microtubule-dependent active transport and anchoring mechanism, which we will use to explain the general paradigm. However, it is clear that there are diverse ways in which mRNAs become localised and target protein expression, and we highlight some of the similarities and differences between these mechanisms. PMID:24833669

  20. On localised hotspots of an urban crime model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, David J. B.; O'Farrell, Hayley

    2013-06-01

    We investigate stationary, spatially localised crime hotspots on the real line and the plane of an urban crime model of Short et al. [M. Short, M. DÓrsogna, A statistical model of criminal behavior, Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences 18 (2008) 1249-1267]. Extending the weakly nonlinear analysis of Short et al., we show in one-dimension that localised hotspots should bifurcate off the background spatially homogeneous state at a Turing instability provided the bifurcation is subcritical. Using path-following techniques, we continue these hotspots and show that the bifurcating pulses can undergo the process of homoclinic snaking near the singular limit. We analyse the singular limit to explain the existence of spike solutions and compare the analytical results with the numerical computations. In two-dimensions, we show that localised radial spots should also bifurcate off the spatially homogeneous background state. Localised planar hexagon fronts and hexagon patches are found and depending on the proximity to the singular limit these solutions either undergo homoclinic snaking or act like “multi-spot” solutions. Finally, we discuss applications of these localised patterns in the urban crime context and the full agent-based model.

  1. Bayesian Joint Modelling for Object Localisation in Weakly Labelled Images.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhiyuan; Hospedales, Timothy M; Xiang, Tao

    2015-10-01

    We address the problem of localisation of objects as bounding boxes in images and videos with weak labels. This weakly supervised object localisation problem has been tackled in the past using discriminative models where each object class is localised independently from other classes. In this paper, a novel framework based on Bayesian joint topic modelling is proposed, which differs significantly from the existing ones in that: (1) All foreground object classes are modelled jointly in a single generative model that encodes multiple object co-existence so that "explaining away" inference can resolve ambiguity and lead to better learning and localisation. (2) Image backgrounds are shared across classes to better learn varying surroundings and "push out" objects of interest. (3) Our model can be learned with a mixture of weakly labelled and unlabelled data, allowing the large volume of unlabelled images on the Internet to be exploited for learning. Moreover, the Bayesian formulation enables the exploitation of various types of prior knowledge to compensate for the limited supervision offered by weakly labelled data, as well as Bayesian domain adaptation for transfer learning. Extensive experiments on the PASCAL VOC, ImageNet and YouTube-Object videos datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our Bayesian joint model for weakly supervised object localisation. PMID:26340253

  2. Localising the auditory N1m with event-related beamformers: localisation accuracy following bilateral and unilateral stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Gascoyne, Lauren; Furlong, Paul L.; Hillebrand, Arjan; Worthen, Siân F.; Witton, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The auditory evoked N1m-P2m response complex presents a challenging case for MEG source-modelling, because symmetrical, phase-locked activity occurs in the hemispheres both contralateral and ipsilateral to stimulation. Beamformer methods, in particular, can be susceptible to localisation bias and spurious sources under these conditions. This study explored the accuracy and efficiency of event-related beamformer source models for auditory MEG data under typical experimental conditions: monaural and diotic stimulation; and whole-head beamformer analysis compared to a half-head analysis using only sensors from the hemisphere contralateral to stimulation. Event-related beamformer localisations were also compared with more traditional single-dipole models. At the group level, the event-related beamformer performed equally well as the single-dipole models in terms of accuracy for both the N1m and the P2m, and in terms of efficiency (number of successful source models) for the N1m. The results yielded by the half-head analysis did not differ significantly from those produced by the traditional whole-head analysis. Any localisation bias caused by the presence of correlated sources is minimal in the context of the inter-individual variability in source localisations. In conclusion, event-related beamformers provide a useful alternative to equivalent-current dipole models in localisation of auditory evoked responses. PMID:27545435

  3. Localising the auditory N1m with event-related beamformers: localisation accuracy following bilateral and unilateral stimulation.

    PubMed

    Gascoyne, Lauren; Furlong, Paul L; Hillebrand, Arjan; Worthen, Siân F; Witton, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The auditory evoked N1m-P2m response complex presents a challenging case for MEG source-modelling, because symmetrical, phase-locked activity occurs in the hemispheres both contralateral and ipsilateral to stimulation. Beamformer methods, in particular, can be susceptible to localisation bias and spurious sources under these conditions. This study explored the accuracy and efficiency of event-related beamformer source models for auditory MEG data under typical experimental conditions: monaural and diotic stimulation; and whole-head beamformer analysis compared to a half-head analysis using only sensors from the hemisphere contralateral to stimulation. Event-related beamformer localisations were also compared with more traditional single-dipole models. At the group level, the event-related beamformer performed equally well as the single-dipole models in terms of accuracy for both the N1m and the P2m, and in terms of efficiency (number of successful source models) for the N1m. The results yielded by the half-head analysis did not differ significantly from those produced by the traditional whole-head analysis. Any localisation bias caused by the presence of correlated sources is minimal in the context of the inter-individual variability in source localisations. In conclusion, event-related beamformers provide a useful alternative to equivalent-current dipole models in localisation of auditory evoked responses. PMID:27545435

  4. Modelling of edge localised modes and edge localised mode control [Modelling of ELMs and ELM control

    SciTech Connect

    Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Chang, C. S.; Ferraro, N.; Sugiyama, L.; Waelbroeck, F.; Xu, X. Q.; Loarte, A.; Futatani, S.

    2015-02-07

    Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) in ITER Q = 10 H-mode plasmas are likely to lead to large transient heat loads to the divertor. In order to avoid an ELM induced reduction of the divertor lifetime, the large ELM energy losses need to be controlled. In ITER, ELM control is foreseen using magnetic field perturbations created by in-vessel coils and the injection of small D2 pellets. ITER plasmas are characterised by low collisionality at a high density (high fraction of the Greenwald density limit). These parameters cannot simultaneously be achieved in current experiments. Thus, the extrapolation of the ELM properties and the requirements for ELM control in ITER relies on the development of validated physics models and numerical simulations. Here, we describe the modelling of ELMs and ELM control methods in ITER. The aim of this paper is not a complete review on the subject of ELM and ELM control modelling but rather to describe the current status and discuss open issues.

  5. Modelling of edge localised modes and edge localised mode control [Modelling of ELMs and ELM control

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Chang, C. S.; Ferraro, N.; Sugiyama, L.; Waelbroeck, F.; Xu, X. Q.; Loarte, A.; Futatani, S.

    2015-02-07

    Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) in ITER Q = 10 H-mode plasmas are likely to lead to large transient heat loads to the divertor. In order to avoid an ELM induced reduction of the divertor lifetime, the large ELM energy losses need to be controlled. In ITER, ELM control is foreseen using magnetic field perturbations created by in-vessel coils and the injection of small D2 pellets. ITER plasmas are characterised by low collisionality at a high density (high fraction of the Greenwald density limit). These parameters cannot simultaneously be achieved in current experiments. Thus, the extrapolation of the ELM properties andmore » the requirements for ELM control in ITER relies on the development of validated physics models and numerical simulations. Here, we describe the modelling of ELMs and ELM control methods in ITER. The aim of this paper is not a complete review on the subject of ELM and ELM control modelling but rather to describe the current status and discuss open issues.« less

  6. Chinese Localisation of Evergreen: An Open Source Integrated Library System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Qing; Liu, Guoying

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate various issues related to Chinese language localisation in Evergreen, an open source integrated library system (ILS). Design/methodology/approach: A Simplified Chinese version of Evergreen was implemented and tested and various issues such as encoding, indexing, searching, and sorting…

  7. Nationalisation, Localisation and Globalisation in Finnish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valimaa, Jussi

    2004-01-01

    This article analyses and discusses the interplay between the social processes of nationalisation, localisation and globalisation in a single European nation state. The view of nationalisation put forward draws on a national case study based on historical and sociological research findings. The second part of the article presents a case study of…

  8. Raman micro spectroscopy for in vitro drug screening: subcellular localisation and interactions of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Farhane, Z; Bonnier, F; Casey, A; Byrne, H J

    2015-06-21

    Vibrational spectroscopy, including Raman micro spectroscopy, has been widely used over the last few years to explore potential biomedical applications. Indeed, Raman micro spectroscopy has been demonstrated to be a powerful non-invasive tool in cancer diagnosis and monitoring. In confocal microscopic mode, the technique is also a molecularly specific analytical tool with optical resolution which has potential applications in subcellular analysis of biochemical processes, and therefore as an in vitro screening tool of the efficacy and mode of action of, for example, chemotherapeutic agents. In order to demonstrate and explore the potential in this field, established, model chemotherapeutic agents can be valuable. In this study paper, Raman micro spectroscopy coupled with confocal microscopy were used for the localization and tracking of the commercially available drug, doxorubicin (DOX), in the intracellular environment of the lung cancer cell line, A549. Cytotoxicity assays were employed to establish clinically relevant drug doses for 24 h exposure, and Confocal Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscopy was conducted in parallel with Raman micro spectroscopy profiling to confirm the drug internalisation and localisation. Multivariate statistical analysis, consisting of PCA (principal components analysis) was used to highlight doxorubicin interaction with cancer cells and spectral variations due to its effects before and after DOX spectral features subtraction from nuclear and nucleolar spectra, were compared to non-exposed control spectra. Results show that Raman micro spectroscopy is not only able to detect doxorubicin inside cells and profile its specific subcellular localisation, but, it is also capable of elucidating the local biomolecular changes elicited by the drug, differentiating the responses in different sub cellular regions. Further analysis clearly demonstrates the early apoptotic effect in the nuclear regions and the initial responses of cells to this

  9. Germ plasm localisation of the HELICc of Vasa in Drosophila: analysis of domain sufficiency and amino acids critical for localisation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Szu-Chieh; Hsu, Hao-Jen; Lin, Gee-way; Wang, Ting-Fang; Chang, Chun-che; Lin, Ming-Der

    2015-01-01

    Formation of the germ plasm drives germline specification in Drosophila and some other insects such as aphids. Identification of the DEAD-box protein Vasa (Vas) as a conserved germline marker in flies and aphids suggests that they share common components for assembling the germ plasm. However, to which extent the assembly order is conserved and the correlation between functions and sequences of Vas remain unclear. Ectopic expression of the pea aphid Vas (ApVas1) in Drosophila did not drive its localisation to the germ plasm, but ApVas1 with a replaced C-terminal domain (HELICc) of Drosophila Vas (DmVas) became germ-plasm restricted. We found that HELICc itself, through the interaction with Oskar (Osk), was sufficient for germ-plasm localisation. Similarly, HELICc of the grasshopper Vas could be recruited to the germ plasm in Drosophila. Nonetheless, germ-plasm localisation was not seen in the Drosophila oocytes expressing HELICcs of Vas orthologues from aphids, crickets, and mice. We further identified that glutamine (Gln) 527 within HELICc of DmVas was critical for localisation, and its corresponding residue could also be detected in grasshopper Vas yet missing in the other three species. This suggests that Gln527 is a direct target of Osk or critical to the maintenance of HELICc conformation. PMID:26419889

  10. Germ plasm localisation of the HELICc of Vasa in Drosophila: analysis of domain sufficiency and amino acids critical for localisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Szu-Chieh; Hsu, Hao-Jen; Lin, Gee-Way; Wang, Ting-Fang; Chang, Chun-Che; Lin, Ming-Der

    2015-09-01

    Formation of the germ plasm drives germline specification in Drosophila and some other insects such as aphids. Identification of the DEAD-box protein Vasa (Vas) as a conserved germline marker in flies and aphids suggests that they share common components for assembling the germ plasm. However, to which extent the assembly order is conserved and the correlation between functions and sequences of Vas remain unclear. Ectopic expression of the pea aphid Vas (ApVas1) in Drosophila did not drive its localisation to the germ plasm, but ApVas1 with a replaced C-terminal domain (HELICc) of Drosophila Vas (DmVas) became germ-plasm restricted. We found that HELICc itself, through the interaction with Oskar (Osk), was sufficient for germ-plasm localisation. Similarly, HELICc of the grasshopper Vas could be recruited to the germ plasm in Drosophila. Nonetheless, germ-plasm localisation was not seen in the Drosophila oocytes expressing HELICcs of Vas orthologues from aphids, crickets, and mice. We further identified that glutamine (Gln) 527 within HELICc of DmVas was critical for localisation, and its corresponding residue could also be detected in grasshopper Vas yet missing in the other three species. This suggests that Gln527 is a direct target of Osk or critical to the maintenance of HELICc conformation.

  11. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Leukemia Liver cancer Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ovarian cancer Pancreatic cancer Testicular cancer Thyroid cancer Uterine cancer ... have any symptoms. In certain cancers, such as pancreatic cancer, symptoms often do not start until the disease ...

  12. Capsule-odometer: A concept to improve accurate lesion localisation

    PubMed Central

    Karargyris, Alexandros; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve lesion localisation in small-bowel capsule endoscopy, a modified capsule design has been proposed incorporating localisation and - in theory - stabilization capabilities. The proposed design consists of a capsule fitted with protruding wheels attached to a spring-mechanism. This would act as a miniature odometer, leading to more accurate lesion localization information in relation to the onset of the investigation (spring expansion e.g., pyloric opening). Furthermore, this capsule could allow stabilization of the recorded video as any erratic, non-forward movement through the gut is minimised. Three-dimensional (3-D) printing technology was used to build a capsule prototype. Thereafter, miniature wheels were also 3-D printed and mounted on a spring which was attached to conventional capsule endoscopes for the purpose of this proof-of-concept experiment. In vitro and ex vivo experiments with porcine small-bowel are presented herein. Further experiments have been scheduled. PMID:24124345

  13. Localised plasma density enhancements around comet CG/67P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henri, Pierre; Broiles, Tom; Eriksson, Anders; Béghin, Christian; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Vallieres, Xavier; More, Jerome; Wattieaux, Gaetan; Engelhardt, Ilka A. D.; Edberg, Niklas; Odelstad, Elias; Vigren, Erik; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Goetz, Charlotte; Koenders, Christoph; Richter, Ingo; Volwerk, Martin; Burch, James L.; Goldstein, Ray; Mandt, Kathleen

    2016-04-01

    Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, target of the ESA's Rosetta mission, reached its perihelion at 1.3 AU from the Sun in August 2015. Its plasma environment will go on being monitored by the Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC) as the distance to the sun increases, until end of mission in September 2016. Combining observations from the different RPC sensors, we investigate localised, strong enhancements of the cometary plasma density over short timescales (~ minutes to seconds) observed during the period April 2015 - January 2016. These strong plasma density variations (RPC-MIP and RPC-LAP) are likely associated to cold electrons (RPC-IES) and generally observed during magnetic field rotations (RPC-MAG). The location of such events, both in the rotating comet frame and with regard to the magnetic field direction, is discussed to better constrain the mechanism at the origin of these localised plasma density enhancements.

  14. [Frequency and most common localisation of root canal curvature].

    PubMed

    Blasković-Subat, V

    1991-01-01

    The root canal therapy of the curved canals is a complex operative procedure. Therefore 260 root canals were analysed radiologically to determine the frequency and the most common localisation of the root canal curvature. The frequency of the curved canals averaged at 59%, being greater in the sample of posterior than in the anterior teeth (p less than 0.05). The root canal curvature was most frequently localised at the apical third part (53.9%), followed by the cervical (33.3%) and the middle (12.8%) third part. The apical curvature was predominant in the sample of the anterior, while the cervical predominant (45.2%) in the sample of the posterior teeth. This study pointed out that the frequency of the curved canals is rather high. Consequently, the necessity for practising the modern root canal preparation techniques, bearing in mind their potential danger, is emphasized. PMID:1819932

  15. Strain localisation in mechanically Layered Rocks, insights from numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pourhiet, L.; Huet, B.; Agard, P.; Labrousse, L.; Jolivet, L.; Yao, K.

    2012-09-01

    Small scale deformation in stratified rocks displays a large diversity of micro-structures, from the microscopic scale to the scale of orogens. We have designed a series of fully dynamic numerical simulations aimed at assessing which parameters control this structural diversity and which underlying mechanisms lead to strain localisation. The influence of stratification orientation on the occurrence and mode of strain localisation is tested by varying the initial dip of inherited layering versus the large scale imposed simple shear. The detailed study of the models indicates that (1) the results are length-scale independent, (2) the new shear zones are always compatible with the kinematics imposed at the boundary (3) micro-structures formed encompass the full diversity of micro-structures observed in the field and chiefly depend on the direction of the initial anisotropy versus shear direction, (4) depending on the orientation of the anisotropy, the layers may deform along subtractive or additive shear bands, (5) the deformation in anisotropic media results in non-lithostatic pressure values that are on the order of the deviatoric stress in the strong layers and (6) the introduction of brittle rheology is necessary to form localised shear bands in the ductile regime.

  16. Fully localised nonlinear energy growth optimals in pipe flow

    SciTech Connect

    Pringle, Chris C. T.; Willis, Ashley P.; Kerswell, Rich R.

    2015-06-15

    A new, fully localised, energy growth optimal is found over large times and in long pipe domains at a given mass flow rate. This optimal emerges at a threshold disturbance energy below which a nonlinear version of the known (streamwise-independent) linear optimal [P. J. Schmid and D. S. Henningson, “Optimal energy density growth in Hagen-Poiseuille flow,” J. Fluid Mech. 277, 192–225 (1994)] is selected and appears to remain the optimal up until the critical energy at which transition is triggered. The form of this optimal is similar to that found in short pipes [Pringle et al., “Minimal seeds for shear flow turbulence: Using nonlinear transient growth to touch the edge of chaos,” J. Fluid Mech. 702, 415–443 (2012)], but now with full localisation in the streamwise direction. This fully localised optimal perturbation represents the best approximation yet of the minimal seed (the smallest perturbation which is arbitrarily close to states capable of triggering a turbulent episode) for “real” (laboratory) pipe flows. Dependence of the optimal with respect to several parameters has been computed and establishes that the structure is robust.

  17. Fully localised nonlinear energy growth optimals in pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, Chris C. T.; Willis, Ashley P.; Kerswell, Rich R.

    2015-06-01

    A new, fully localised, energy growth optimal is found over large times and in long pipe domains at a given mass flow rate. This optimal emerges at a threshold disturbance energy below which a nonlinear version of the known (streamwise-independent) linear optimal [P. J. Schmid and D. S. Henningson, "Optimal energy density growth in Hagen-Poiseuille flow," J. Fluid Mech. 277, 192-225 (1994)] is selected and appears to remain the optimal up until the critical energy at which transition is triggered. The form of this optimal is similar to that found in short pipes [Pringle et al., "Minimal seeds for shear flow turbulence: Using nonlinear transient growth to touch the edge of chaos," J. Fluid Mech. 702, 415-443 (2012)], but now with full localisation in the streamwise direction. This fully localised optimal perturbation represents the best approximation yet of the minimal seed (the smallest perturbation which is arbitrarily close to states capable of triggering a turbulent episode) for "real" (laboratory) pipe flows. Dependence of the optimal with respect to several parameters has been computed and establishes that the structure is robust.

  18. Strain weakening and localisation: material properties or boundary effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Malte C.; Leever, Karen; Rosenau, Matthias; Oncken, Onno

    2015-04-01

    Strain weakening is commonly seen as one of the major causes of localisation of deformation into shear zones in brittle media. Several studies, both numerical and physical experiments, investigate its influence. Typically, these studies choose a certain model configuration and test various material properties and their influence on localisation in that particular configuration. This approach, however, does not take into account the fundamental importance of boundary conditions on the processes of localisation, weakening and overall shear zone evolution. To address this issue, we perform physical experiments in granular materials. We create shear fractures within a sample of granular material (sand) using different experimental apparatuses that apply different boundary conditions. Among them are standard machines such as a Ring-Shear Tester and the classical Riedel set up, as well as a newly designed set up. Boundary conditions can be varied from purely kinematic to more dynamically controlled and from laterally confined to unconfined. Nevertheless, the final result of deformation is an approximately straight strike-slip shear zone in all cases. We monitor boundary force (i. e. material strength) and, where experimentally accessible, strain, at high temporal resolution during deformation. With our different set ups we are able to produce very different patterns of deformation and weakening in the same material under the same constant rate of shearing and with the same final result. Observed patterns span from nearly instantaneous formation of one single through-going shear zone to slow, step-wise growth of a complex network of interacting cracks. Weakening in all cases matches well the structural evolution. Variations of weakening for a given material in different set ups are larger than for different materials in a given set up. Our results show that for a given material the style and rate of localisation can change drastically, depending on only slight changes of

  19. Organelle acidification is important for localisation of vacuolar proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Risa; Suzuki, Kuninori; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2013-12-01

    The acidic environments in the vacuole and other acidic organelles are important for many cellular processes in eukaryotic cells. In this study, we comprehensively investigated the roles of organelle acidification in vacuolar protein localisation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After repressing the acidification of acidic compartments by treatment with concanamycin A, a specific inhibitor of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase), we examined the localisation of GFP-fused proteins that were predicted to localise in the vacuolar lumen or on the vacuolar membrane. Of the 73 proteins examined, 19 changed their localisation to the cytoplasmic region. Localisation changes were evaluated quantitatively using the image processing programme CalMorph. The delocalised proteins included vacuolar hydrolases, V-ATPase subunits, transporters and enzymes for membrane biogenesis, as well as proteins required for protein transport. These results suggest that many alterations in the localisation of vacuolar proteins occur after loss of the acidification of acidic compartments. PMID:23708375

  20. Nerve growth factor levels and localisation in human asthmatic bronchi.

    PubMed

    Olgart Höglund, C; de Blay, F; Oster, J P; Duvernelle, C; Kassel, O; Pauli, G; Frossard, N

    2002-11-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) has recently been suggested to be an important mediator of inflammation. In support of this, serum levels of NGF have been shown to be enhanced in asthmatics. However, it has not yet been shown whether the levels of NGF are also altered locally in asthmatic airways, when compared with healthy subjects, and the localisation of potential sources of NGF in the human bronchus have not yet been described. The aim of the present study was to assess NGF levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from asthmatics and to compare them to those of control subjects. Furthermore, the authors wanted to localise potential sources of NGF in bronchial tissue, and to number NGF-immunopositive infiltrating cells in the bronchial submucosa. BALF and bronchial biopsies were obtained from seven control subjects and seven asthmatic patients by fibreoptic bronchoscopy. NGF protein levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in BALF. NGF localisation was examined by immunohistochemistry on bronchial biopsy sections. The asthmatics exhibited significantly enhanced NGF levels in BALF. Intense NGF-immunoreactivity was observed in bronchial epithelium, smooth muscle cells and infiltrating inflammatory cells in the submucosa, and to a lesser extent in the connective tissue. The asthmatics exhibited a higher number of NGF-immunoreactive infiltrating cells in the bronchial submucosa than control subjects. This study provides evidence that nerve growth factor is locally produced in the airways, and shows that this production is enhanced in asthmatics. These findings suggest that nerve growth factor is produced by both structural cells and infiltrating inflammatory cells in human bronchus in vivo, and the authors suggest that the increase in nerve growth factor protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid observed in asthmatic patients may originate both from structural cells, producing increased nerve growth factor levels in inflammatory conditons, and from

  1. Channelrhodopsin-2 Localised to the Axon Initial Segment

    PubMed Central

    Grubb, Matthew S.; Burrone, Juan

    2010-01-01

    The light-gated cation channel Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) is a powerful and versatile tool for controlling neuronal activity. Currently available versions of ChR2 either distribute uniformly throughout the plasma membrane or are localised specifically to somatodendritic or synaptic domains. Localising ChR2 instead to the axon initial segment (AIS) could prove an extremely useful addition to the optogenetic repertoire, targeting the channel directly to the site of action potential initiation, and limiting depolarisation and associated calcium entry elsewhere in the neuron. Here, we describe a ChR2 construct that we localised specifically to the AIS by adding the ankyrinG-binding loop of voltage-gated sodium channels (NavII-III) to its intracellular terminus. Expression of ChR2-YFP-NavII-III did not significantly affect the passive or active electrical properties of cultured rat hippocampal neurons. However, the tiny ChR2 currents and small membrane depolarisations resulting from AIS targeting meant that optogenetic control of action potential firing with ChR2-YFP-NavII-III was unsuccessful in baseline conditions. We did succeed in stimulating action potentials with light in some ChR2-YFP-NavII-III-expressing neurons, but only when blocking KCNQ voltage-gated potassium channels. We discuss possible alternative approaches to obtaining precise control of neuronal spiking with AIS-targeted optogenetic constructs and propose potential uses for our ChR2-YFP-NavII-III probe where subthreshold modulation of action potential initiation is desirable. PMID:21048938

  2. Aspergilloma in atypical localisation in severe asthma patient - case report.

    PubMed

    Zieliński, Michał; Mazur-Zielińska, Henryka; Ziora, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary aspergillosis is a condition caused by the fungi Aspergillus. The form of disease depends on the immunological condition of the host organism and other concomitant illnesses that influence the pulmonary tissue. Asthmatic patients, in particular with the severe form of disease, who require the use of systemic glucocorticoids, are predisposed to develop allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Development of aspergilloma in the lung is preceded by the formation of pathological cavity in the course of another illness. The study reports a case of a severe asthma patient who developed aspergilloma in atypical localisation, without the presence of predisposing anatomical changes and illnesses. PMID:26966025

  3. Localisation and interactions of the Vipp1 protein in cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Samantha J; Burroughs, Nigel J; Shevela, Dmitriy; Yu, Jianfeng; Rupprecht, Eva; Liu, Lu-Ning; Mastroianni, Giulia; Xue, Quan; Llorente-Garcia, Isabel; Leake, Mark C; Eichacker, Lutz A; Schneider, Dirk; Nixon, Peter J; Mullineaux, Conrad W

    2014-01-01

    The Vipp1 protein is essential in cyanobacteria and chloroplasts for the maintenance of photosynthetic function and thylakoid membrane architecture. To investigate its mode of action we generated strains of the cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 in which Vipp1 was tagged with green fluorescent protein at the C-terminus and expressed from the native chromosomal locus. There was little perturbation of function. Live-cell fluorescence imaging shows dramatic relocalisation of Vipp1 under high light. Under low light, Vipp1 is predominantly dispersed in the cytoplasm with occasional concentrations at the outer periphery of the thylakoid membranes. High light induces Vipp1 coalescence into localised puncta within minutes, with net relocation of Vipp1 to the vicinity of the cytoplasmic membrane and the thylakoid membranes. Pull-downs and mass spectrometry identify an extensive collection of proteins that are directly or indirectly associated with Vipp1 only after high-light exposure. These include not only photosynthetic and stress-related proteins but also RNA-processing, translation and protein assembly factors. This suggests that the Vipp1 puncta could be involved in protein assembly. One possibility is that Vipp1 is involved in the formation of stress-induced localised protein assembly centres, enabling enhanced protein synthesis and delivery to membranes under stress conditions. PMID:25308470

  4. Pattern Formation on Networks: from Localised Activity to Turing Patterns

    PubMed Central

    McCullen, Nick; Wagenknecht, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Networks of interactions between competing species are used to model many complex systems, such as in genetics, evolutionary biology or sociology and knowledge of the patterns of activity they can exhibit is important for understanding their behaviour. The emergence of patterns on complex networks with reaction-diffusion dynamics is studied here, where node dynamics interact via diffusion via the network edges. Through the application of a generalisation of dynamical systems analysis this work reveals a fundamental connection between small-scale modes of activity on networks and localised pattern formation seen throughout science, such as solitons, breathers and localised buckling. The connection between solutions with a single and small numbers of activated nodes and the fully developed system-scale patterns are investigated computationally using numerical continuation methods. These techniques are also used to help reveal a much larger portion of of the full number of solutions that exist in the system at different parameter values. The importance of network structure is also highlighted, with a key role being played by nodes with a certain so-called optimal degree, on which the interaction between the reaction kinetics and the network structure organise the behaviour of the system. PMID:27273339

  5. Localised pattern formation in a model for dryland vegetation.

    PubMed

    Dawes, J H P; Williams, J L M

    2016-07-01

    We analyse the model for vegetation growth in a semi-arid landscape proposed by von Hardenberg et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 87:198101, 2001), which consists of two parabolic partial differential equations that describe the evolution in space and time of the water content of the soil and the level of vegetation. This model is a generalisation of one proposed by Klausmeier but it contains additional terms that capture additional physical effects. By considering the limit in which the diffusion of water in the soil is much faster than the spread of vegetation, we reduce the system to an asymptotically simpler parabolic-elliptic system of equations that describes small amplitude instabilities of the uniform vegetated state. We carry out a thorough weakly nonlinear analysis to investigate bifurcations and pattern formation in the reduced model. We find that the pattern forming instabilities are subcritical except in a small region of parameter space. In the original model at large amplitude there are localised solutions, organised by homoclinic snaking curves. The resulting bifurcation structure is well known from other models for pattern forming systems. Taken together our results describe how the von Hardenberg model displays a sequence of (often hysteretic) transitions from a non-vegetated state, to localised patches of vegetation that exist with uniform low-level vegetation, to periodic patterns, to higher-level uniform vegetation as the precipitation parameter increases. PMID:26454759

  6. Pattern Formation on Networks: from Localised Activity to Turing Patterns.

    PubMed

    McCullen, Nick; Wagenknecht, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Networks of interactions between competing species are used to model many complex systems, such as in genetics, evolutionary biology or sociology and knowledge of the patterns of activity they can exhibit is important for understanding their behaviour. The emergence of patterns on complex networks with reaction-diffusion dynamics is studied here, where node dynamics interact via diffusion via the network edges. Through the application of a generalisation of dynamical systems analysis this work reveals a fundamental connection between small-scale modes of activity on networks and localised pattern formation seen throughout science, such as solitons, breathers and localised buckling. The connection between solutions with a single and small numbers of activated nodes and the fully developed system-scale patterns are investigated computationally using numerical continuation methods. These techniques are also used to help reveal a much larger portion of of the full number of solutions that exist in the system at different parameter values. The importance of network structure is also highlighted, with a key role being played by nodes with a certain so-called optimal degree, on which the interaction between the reaction kinetics and the network structure organise the behaviour of the system. PMID:27273339

  7. Pattern Formation on Networks: from Localised Activity to Turing Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCullen, Nick; Wagenknecht, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Networks of interactions between competing species are used to model many complex systems, such as in genetics, evolutionary biology or sociology and knowledge of the patterns of activity they can exhibit is important for understanding their behaviour. The emergence of patterns on complex networks with reaction-diffusion dynamics is studied here, where node dynamics interact via diffusion via the network edges. Through the application of a generalisation of dynamical systems analysis this work reveals a fundamental connection between small-scale modes of activity on networks and localised pattern formation seen throughout science, such as solitons, breathers and localised buckling. The connection between solutions with a single and small numbers of activated nodes and the fully developed system-scale patterns are investigated computationally using numerical continuation methods. These techniques are also used to help reveal a much larger portion of of the full number of solutions that exist in the system at different parameter values. The importance of network structure is also highlighted, with a key role being played by nodes with a certain so-called optimal degree, on which the interaction between the reaction kinetics and the network structure organise the behaviour of the system.

  8. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... body. Cancerous cells are also called malignant cells. Causes Cancer grows out of cells in the body. Normal ... of many cancers remains unknown. The most common cause of cancer-related death is lung cancer. In the U.S., ...

  9. Source localisation and dose verification for a novel brachytherapy unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, Marinos G.

    A recent development in the field of radiotherapy has been the introduction of the PRS Intrabeam system (Carl Zeiss Surgical GmbH, Oberkochen, Germany). This is essentially a portable, miniaturised, electron-driven photon generator that allows high intensity, soft-energy x-rays (50 kVp) to be delivered directly to the tumour site in a single fraction. The system has been used for the interstitial radiation treatment of both brain and breast tumours. At present, a standardised in-vivo dose verification technique is not available for the PRS treatments. The isotropical distribution of photons about the tip of the PRS probe inserted in the tissue can effectively be viewed as a point source of radiation buried in the body. This work has looked into ways of localising the PRS source utilising its own radiation field. Moreover, the response of monoenergetic sources, mimicking realistic brachytherapy sources, has also been investigated. The purpose of this project was to attempt to localise the source as well as derive important dosimetric information from the resulting image. A detection system comprised of a well-collimated Germanium detector (HPGe) has been devised in a rotate-translate Emission Computed Tomography (ECT) modality. The superior energy resolving ability of the detection system allowed for energy selective reconstruction to be carried out in the case of the monoenergetic source (241Am). Results showed that the monoenergetic source can be localised to within 1 mm and the continuous PRS x-ray source to within 3mm. For the PRS dose map derivation, Monte Carlo studies have been employed in order to extract information on the dosimetric aspect of the resulting image. The final goal of this work was therefore to formulate a direct mathematical relation (Transform Map) between the image created by the escaping photons and the dose map as predicted by the theoretical model. The formation therefore of the in-vivo PRS image could allow for a real-time monitoring

  10. The importance of strain localisation in shear zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bons, Paul D.; Finch, Melanie; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Griera, Albert; Llorens, Maria-Gema; Steinbach, Florian; Weikusat, Ilka

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of various types of shear bands (C, C', C'') in shear zones indicate that heterogeneity of strain is common in strongly deformed rocks. However, the importance of strain localisation is difficult to ascertain if suitable strain markers are lacking, which is usually the case. Numerical modelling with the finite-element method has so far not given much insight in the development of shear bands. We suggest that this is not only because the modelled strains are often not high enough, but also because this technique (that usually assumes isotropic material properties within elements) does not properly incorporate mineral deformation behaviour. We simulated high-strain, simple-shear deformation in single- and polyphase materials with a full-field theory (FFT) model coupled to the Elle modelling platform (www.elle.ws; Lebensohn 2001; Bons et al. 2008). The FFT-approach simulates visco-plastic deformation by dislocation glide, taking into account the different available slip systems and their critical resolved shear stresses in relations to the applied stresses. Griera et al. (2011; 2013) have shown that this approach is particularly well suited for strongly anisotropic minerals, such as mica and ice Ih (Llorens 2015). We modelled single- and polyphase composites of minerals with different anisotropies and strengths, roughly equivalent to minerals such as ice Ih, mica, quartz and feldspar. Single-phase polycrystalline aggregates show distinct heterogeneity of strain rate, especially in case of ice Ih, which is mechanically close to mica (see also Griera et al. 2015). Finite strain distributions are heterogeneous as well, but the patterns may differ from that of the strain rate distribution. Dynamic recrystallisation, however, usually masks any strain and strain rate localisation (Llorens 2015). In case of polyphase aggregates, equivalent to e.g. a granite, we observe extensive localisation in both syn- and antithetic shear bands. The antithetic shear bands

  11. A size-dependent constitutive modelling framework for localised failure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Giang D.; Nguyen, Chi T.; Nguyen, Vinh P.; Bui, Ha H.; Shen, Luming

    2016-08-01

    Localised deformation of materials usually takes place in thin bands during the nonlinear phase of the deformation process. The orientation and size of these localisation bands are important properties characterising the post-localisation behaviour of the materials, and hence should be taken into account in constitutive modelling. In this research, a new approach is proposed for the integration of both size and orientation of a localisation band in the constitutive description beyond the onset of localisation. Since a length scale related to the size of the localisation band appears in the model description, its post-localisation response then scales with both the band size and the size of the volume element containing it. Therefore, size effects are intrinsically included and post-localisation behaviour is correctly captured, which helps ensure convergence of numerical solutions upon discretisation refinement in numerical analysis of boundary value problems. The concept together with implementation features of the framework and its performances at constitutive level and in the analysis of boundary value problems are presented in this paper.

  12. A size-dependent constitutive modelling framework for localised failure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Giang D.; Nguyen, Chi T.; Nguyen, Vinh P.; Bui, Ha H.; Shen, Luming

    2016-04-01

    Localised deformation of materials usually takes place in thin bands during the nonlinear phase of the deformation process. The orientation and size of these localisation bands are important properties characterising the post-localisation behaviour of the materials, and hence should be taken into account in constitutive modelling. In this research, a new approach is proposed for the integration of both size and orientation of a localisation band in the constitutive description beyond the onset of localisation. Since a length scale related to the size of the localisation band appears in the model description, its post-localisation response then scales with both the band size and the size of the volume element containing it. Therefore, size effects are intrinsically included and post-localisation behaviour is correctly captured, which helps ensure convergence of numerical solutions upon discretisation refinement in numerical analysis of boundary value problems. The concept together with implementation features of the framework and its performances at constitutive level and in the analysis of boundary value problems are presented in this paper.

  13. Dark matter and localised fermions from spherical orbifolds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Deandrea, Aldo; Deutschmann, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    We study a class of six-dimensional models based on positive curvature surfaces (spherical 2-orbifolds) as extra-spaces. Using the Newman-Penrose formalism, we discuss the particle spectrum in this class of models. The fermion spectrum problem, which has been addressed with flux compactifications in the past, can be avoided using localised fermions. In this framework, we find that there are four types of geometry compatible with the existence of a stable dark matter candidate and we study the simplest case in detail. Using the complementarity between collider resonance searches and relic density constraints, we show that this class of models is under tension, unless the model lies in a funnel region characterised by a resonant Higgs s-channel in the dark matter annihilation.

  14. VOLUMETRIC LOCALISATION OF DENSE BREAST TISSUE USING BREAST TOMOSYNTHESIS DATA.

    PubMed

    Dustler, M; Petersson, H; Timberg, P

    2016-06-01

    This study attempted to use combined data from reconstructed digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) volumes and density estimation of projection images to localise dense tissue inside the breast, using the assumption that the breast can be treated as consisting of only two types of tissue: fibroglandular (dense) and adipose (fatty). To be able to verify results, software breast phantoms generated using fractal Perlin noise were employed. Projection images were created using the PENELOPE Monte Carlo package. Dense tissue volume was estimated from the central projection image. The density image was used to determine the number of dense voxels at each pixel location, which were then placed using the DBT image as a template. The method proved capable of accurately determining the composition of 75±5 % of voxels. PMID:26922782

  15. Divergent neuroendocrine responses to localised and systemic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lukewich, Mark K.; Rogers, Richard C.; Lomax, Alan E.

    2014-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is part of an integrative network that functions to restore homeostasis following injury and infection. The SNS can provide negative feedback control over inflammation through the secretion of catecholamines from postganglionic sympathetic neurons and adrenal chromaffin cells (ACCs). Central autonomic structures receive information regarding the inflammatory status of the body and reflexively modulate SNS activity. However, inflammation and infection can also directly regulate SNS function by peripheral actions on postganglionic cells. The present review discusses how inflammation activates autonomic reflex pathways and compares the effect of localised and systemic inflammation on ACCs and postganglionic sympathetic neurons. Systemic inflammation significantly enhanced catecholamine secretion through an increase in Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum. In contrast, acute and chronic GI inflammation reduced voltage-gated Ca2+ current. Thus it appears that the mechanisms underlying the effects of peripheral and systemic inflammation neuroendocrine function converge on the modulation of intracellular Ca2+ signaling. PMID:24486057

  16. Localised wedge shaped defects of the retinal nerve fibre layer in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Jonas, J B; Schiro, D

    1994-04-01

    Glaucoma can be associated with a diffuse or localised loss of the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL). This study evaluated the wedge shaped localised RNFL defects. Red free wide angle RNFL photographs of 421 patients with glaucoma and 193 normal subjects were examined. Localised RNFL defects were described for one eye of the normal group and for 20% of the patients with glaucoma. They were usually located in the inferior temporal and superior temporal fundus regions. Within the glaucoma group, localised RNFL defects occurred most often (p < 0.05) in normal pressure glaucoma, followed by primary open angle glaucoma, and finally secondary open angle glaucoma. They were positively associated with disc haemorrhages. The localised RNFL defects had a high specificity to indicate optic nerve damage. The nerve fibre layer defects occurring more likely in mild rather than advanced glaucoma, they were helpful in the diagnosis of early glaucoma. The association between localised RNFL defects and disc haemorrhages and the varying frequency of localised RNFL defects in different types of glaucoma may be important diagnostically and pathogenetically. PMID:8199115

  17. Radioguided localisation of impalpable breast lesions using 99m-Technetium macroaggregated albumin: Lessons learnt during introduction of a new technique to guide preoperative localisation

    SciTech Connect

    Landman, Joanne; Kulawansa, Sagarika; McCarthy, Michael; Troedson, Russell; Phillips, Michael; Tinning, Jill; Taylor, Donna

    2015-03-15

    Preoperative wire-guided localisation (WGL) of impalpable breast lesions is widely used but can be technically difficult. Risks include wire migration, inaccurate placement, and inadequate surgical margins. Research shows that radioguided occult lesion localisation (ROLL) is quicker, easier, and can improve surgical and cosmetic outcomes. An audited introduction of ROLL was conducted to validate the technique as a feasible alternative to WGL. Fifty patients with single impalpable lesions and biopsy proven malignancy or indeterminate histology underwent WGL followed by intralesional radiopharmaceutical injection of 99m-Technetium macroaggregated albumin. Postprocedural mammography was performed to demonstrate wire position, and scintigraphy to evaluate radiopharmaceutical migration. Lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative sentinel node biopsy were performed if indicated, followed by lesion localisation and excision using a gamma probe. Specimen imaging was performed, with immediate reexcision for visibly inadequate margins. Accurate localisation was achieved in 86% of patients with ROLL compared to 72% with WGL. All lesions were successfully removed, with clear margins in 71.8% of malignant lesions. Reexcision and intraoperative sentinel node localisation rates were equivalent to preaudit figures for WGL. ROLL was easy to perform and problems were infrequent. Inaccurate radiopharmaceutical placement necessitating WGL occurred in four patients. Minor radiopharmaceutical migration was common, but precluded using ROLL in only two cases. ROLL is effective, simple, inexpensive, and easily learnt; however, preoperative confirmation of correct radiopharmaceutical placement using mammography and the gamma probe is important to help ensure successful lesion removal. Insertion of a backup hookwire is recommended during the initial introduction of ROLL.

  18. Bionic Tactile Sensor for Near-Range Search, Localisation and Material Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürr, Volker; Krause, André F.; Neitzel, Matthias; Lange, Oliver; Reimann, Bert

    Insects use their antennae (feelers) as near range sensors for orientation, object localisation and communication. Here, we use the stick insect antenna as a paragon for an actively moved tactile sensor. Our bionic sensor uses vibration signals from contact events for obstacle localisation and classification of material properties. It is shown how distance is coded by salient peaks in the frequency spectrum, and how the damping time constants can be exploited to distinguish between eight objects made of a range of materials. Thus, we demonstrate application of bionic principles for non-visual, reliable, near-range object localisation and material classification that is suitable for autonomous exploratory robots.

  19. Optic disc changes following trabeculectomy: longitudinal and localisation of change

    PubMed Central

    Kotecha, A.; Siriwardena, D.; Fitzke, F.; Hitchings, R.; Khaw, P.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To determine whether there were any changes in the optic disc at 2 years after trabeculectomy. To determine the factors that most influenced change and whether change was localised to any region of the optic disc.
METHODS—95 patients undergoing routine trabeculectomy as part of the ongoing Moorfields/MRC 5-fluorouracil trial were recruited into the study. Eyes were imaged preoperatively (4 (SD 3) weeks) with the Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT, Heidelberg Engineering), and at 3 months (SD 2 weeks), 1 year (SD 1 month), and 2 years (SD 1 month) after surgery. Parameters investigated for change were rim area, rim volume, and maximum cup depth. The predefined segment analysis available on the HRT analysis software was used to determine segmental change.
RESULTS—The images of 70 patients were analysed. Intraocular pressure reduced from 22.25 (SD 3.76) mm Hg, at the time of preoperative imaging to 15.27 (SD 4.96) mm Hg at 3 months, 14.38 (SD 3.89) mm Hg at 1 year, and 13.80 (SD 3.54) mm Hg at 2 years after trabeculectomy. An increase in rim area and rim volume was present at all time points after surgery, but was only found to be statistically significant at 2 years after surgery. Maximum depth of cup reduced by month 3 and month 12, but showed a slight increase at 2 years after surgery, although this was still lower than the preoperative measure. Segmental analysis found a significant change in rim volume in the nasal, inferonasal, superonasal, and superotemporal regions at 2 years after surgery. No significant regional localisation for change was found at any other time point or in any other parameter investigated.
CONCLUSIONS—Reversal of disc cupping is present at 2 years after trabeculectomy. The factor most influencing change is reduction of intraocular pressure. Segmental analysis showed that change in rim volume was greatest in the nasal, inferonasal, superonasal and superotemporal regions at 2 years.

 PMID:11466255

  20. Comprehensive profiling and localisation of the matrix metalloproteinases in urothelial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wallard, M J; Pennington, C J; Veerakumarasivam, A; Burtt, G; Mills, I G; Warren, A; Leung, H Y; Murphy, G; Edwards, D R; Neal, D E; Kelly, J D

    2006-01-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are endopeptidases which break down the extracellular matrix and regulate cytokine and growth factor activity. Several MMPs have been implicated in the promotion of invasion and metastasis in a broad range of tumours including urothelial carcinoma. In this study, RNA from 132 normal bladder and urothelial carcinoma specimens was profiled for each of the 24 human MMPs, the four endogenous tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) and several key growth factors and their receptors using quantitative real time RT–PCR. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) of RNA from 22 tumour and 11 normal frozen sections was performed allowing accurate RNA extraction from either stromal or epithelial compartments. This study confirms the over expression in bladder tumour tissue of well-documented MMPs and highlights a range of MMPs which have not previously been implicated in the development of urothelial cancer. In summary, MMP-2, MT1-MMP and the previously unreported MMP-28 were very highly expressed in tumour samples while MMPs 1, 7, 9, 11, 15, 19 and 23 were highly expressed. There was a significant positive correlation between transcript expression and tumour grade for MMPs 1, 2, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 28 (P<0.001). At the same confidence interval, TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 also correlated with increasing tumour grade. LCM revealed that most highly expressed MMPs are located primarily within the stromal compartment except MMP-13 which localised to the epithelial compartment. This work forms the basis for further functional studies, which will help to confirm the MMPs as potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets in early bladder cancer. PMID:16465195

  1. Antenna array geometry optimization for a passive coherent localisation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knott, Peter; Kuschel, Heiner; O'Hagan, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Passive Coherent Localisation (PCL), also known as Passive Radar, making use of RF sources of opportunity such as Radio or TV Broadcasting Stations, Cellular Phone Network Base Stations, etc. is an advancing technology for covert operation because no active radar transmitter is required. It is also an attractive addition to existing active radar stations because it has the potential to discover low-flying and low-observable targets. The CORA (Covert Radar) experimental passive radar system currently developed at Fraunhofer-FHR features a multi-channel digital radar receiver and a circular antenna array with separate elements for the VHF- and the UHF-range and is used to exploit alternatively Digital Audio (DAB) or Video Broadcasting (DVB-T) signals. For an extension of the system, a wideband antenna array is being designed for which a new discone antenna element has been developed covering the full DVB-T frequency range. The present paper describes the outline of the system and the numerical modelling and optimisation methods applied to solve the complex task of antenna array design: Electromagnetic full wave analysis is required for the parametric design of the antenna elements while combinatorial optimization methods are applied to find the best array positions and excitation coefficients for a regular omni-directional antenna performance. The different steps are combined in an iterative loop until the optimum array layout is found. Simulation and experimental results for the current system will be shown.

  2. Embedded discontinuous Galerkin transport schemes with localised limiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotter, C. J.; Kuzmin, D.

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by finite element spaces used for representation of temperature in the compatible finite element approach for numerical weather prediction, we introduce locally bounded transport schemes for (partially-)continuous finite element spaces. The underlying high-order transport scheme is constructed by injecting the partially-continuous field into an embedding discontinuous finite element space, applying a stable upwind discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme, and projecting back into the partially-continuous space; we call this an embedded DG transport scheme. We prove that this scheme is stable in L2 provided that the underlying upwind DG scheme is. We then provide a framework for applying limiters for embedded DG transport schemes. Standard DG limiters are applied during the underlying DG scheme. We introduce a new localised form of element-based flux-correction which we apply to limiting the projection back into the partially-continuous space, so that the whole transport scheme is bounded. We provide details in the specific case of tensor-product finite element spaces on wedge elements that are discontinuous P1/Q1 in the horizontal and continuous P2 in the vertical. The framework is illustrated with numerical tests.

  3. Localised excitation of a single photon source by a nanowaveguide.

    PubMed

    Geng, Wei; Manceau, Mathieu; Rahbany, Nancy; Sallet, Vincent; De Vittorio, Massimo; Carbone, Luigi; Glorieux, Quentin; Bramati, Alberto; Couteau, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, integrated photonics is a key technology in quantum information processing (QIP) but achieving all-optical buses for quantum networks with efficient integration of single photon emitters remains a challenge. Photonic crystals and cavities are good candidates but do not tackle how to effectively address a nanoscale emitter. Using a nanowire nanowaveguide, we realise an hybrid nanodevice which locally excites a single photon source (SPS). The nanowire acts as a passive or active sub-wavelength waveguide to excite the quantum emitter. Our results show that localised excitation of a SPS is possible and is compared with free-space excitation. Our proof of principle experiment presents an absolute addressing efficiency ηa ~ 10(-4) only ~50% lower than the one using free-space optics. This important step demonstrates that sufficient guided light in a nanowaveguide made of a semiconductor nanowire is achievable to excite a single photon source. We accomplish a hybrid system offering great potentials for electrically driven SPSs and efficient single photon collection and detection, opening the way for optimum absorption/emission of nanoscale emitters. We also discuss how to improve the addressing efficiency of a dipolar nanoscale emitter with our system. PMID:26822999

  4. Localised excitation of a single photon source by a nanowaveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Wei; Manceau, Mathieu; Rahbany, Nancy; Sallet, Vincent; de Vittorio, Massimo; Carbone, Luigi; Glorieux, Quentin; Bramati, Alberto; Couteau, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, integrated photonics is a key technology in quantum information processing (QIP) but achieving all-optical buses for quantum networks with efficient integration of single photon emitters remains a challenge. Photonic crystals and cavities are good candidates but do not tackle how to effectively address a nanoscale emitter. Using a nanowire nanowaveguide, we realise an hybrid nanodevice which locally excites a single photon source (SPS). The nanowire acts as a passive or active sub-wavelength waveguide to excite the quantum emitter. Our results show that localised excitation of a SPS is possible and is compared with free-space excitation. Our proof of principle experiment presents an absolute addressing efficiency ηa ~ 10-4 only ~50% lower than the one using free-space optics. This important step demonstrates that sufficient guided light in a nanowaveguide made of a semiconductor nanowire is achievable to excite a single photon source. We accomplish a hybrid system offering great potentials for electrically driven SPSs and efficient single photon collection and detection, opening the way for optimum absorption/emission of nanoscale emitters. We also discuss how to improve the addressing efficiency of a dipolar nanoscale emitter with our system.

  5. Unusual localisation of pressure ulcer--the vulva.

    PubMed

    Rakic, Vesna S; Colic, Miodrag M; Lazovic, Goran D

    2011-06-01

    Only a few papers have been published about unusual localisations of pressure ulcer. To date, no papers were published presenting pressure ulcer on external genitals in women. The paper presents the mechanism of origin of vulval pressure ulcer, surgical treatment (excision of lesion tissue of the pressure ulcer) and reconstruction of the vulva. The patient, aged 50, has been paraplegic for 20 years. During the last 3 years she has had a wound which was spreading in the region of the vulva. The pressure ulcer was surgically removed, external female genitals were reconstructed using advancement skin flap and the function and natural appearance of organs were re-established. The presence of all three aetiological factors for the formation of pressure ulcer - presence of prolonged pressure, swelling and infection - were proven in the described patient. For this reason, we are able to claim that this was in fact a pressure ulcer of the vulva. Reconstruction was simple without any complications and donor-site morbidity. PMID:21561536

  6. Localised excitation of a single photon source by a nanowaveguide

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Wei; Manceau, Mathieu; Rahbany, Nancy; Sallet, Vincent; De Vittorio, Massimo; Carbone, Luigi; Glorieux, Quentin; Bramati, Alberto; Couteau, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, integrated photonics is a key technology in quantum information processing (QIP) but achieving all-optical buses for quantum networks with efficient integration of single photon emitters remains a challenge. Photonic crystals and cavities are good candidates but do not tackle how to effectively address a nanoscale emitter. Using a nanowire nanowaveguide, we realise an hybrid nanodevice which locally excites a single photon source (SPS). The nanowire acts as a passive or active sub-wavelength waveguide to excite the quantum emitter. Our results show that localised excitation of a SPS is possible and is compared with free-space excitation. Our proof of principle experiment presents an absolute addressing efficiency ηa ~ 10−4 only ~50% lower than the one using free-space optics. This important step demonstrates that sufficient guided light in a nanowaveguide made of a semiconductor nanowire is achievable to excite a single photon source. We accomplish a hybrid system offering great potentials for electrically driven SPSs and efficient single photon collection and detection, opening the way for optimum absorption/emission of nanoscale emitters. We also discuss how to improve the addressing efficiency of a dipolar nanoscale emitter with our system. PMID:26822999

  7. Preferred water flow and localised recharge in a variable regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Colin D.

    1987-10-01

    The mechanisms of water flow and recharge to groundwater were investigated in a deep clayey regolith in southwest Western Australia. A 700 m 2 area was intensively studied for a period of two years. Vertical distributions of natural chloride in thirteen profiles up to 31 m deep were used to estimate the distribution of vertical soil-water flux density in the 16 m unsaturated zone and rates of recharge to groundwater. Groundwater dynamics were monitored using ten single and four multilevel piezometers. The regolith showed marked heterogeneity over horizontal and vertical distances of only a few metres. This resulted in complex patterns of water and solute movement through the profiles. Over most of the experimental area, vertical water flux density below 5 m in the unsaturated zone was from 2.2 to 7.2 mm yr -1. However, within a relatively small portion of the site, vertical soil-water flux density was 50-100 mm yr -1 throughout the unsaturated zone. This flux more closely matched the apparent rate of recharge to groundwater. The area of preferred flow is apparently due to a discontinuity within the regolith. A groundwater mound was seen to develop below the localised recharge area within 12-14 h of intense rainstorms, and then dissipated over a period of 2-4 days.

  8. Localised mitogenic activity in horses following infection with Streptococcus equi.

    PubMed

    McLean, R; Rash, N L; Robinson, C; Waller, A S; Paillot, R

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi) is the causative agent of strangles, a highly contagious upper respiratory disease of equids. Streptococcus equi produces superantigens (sAgs), which are thought to contribute to strangles pathogenicity through non-specific T-cell activation and pro-inflammatory response. Streptococcus equi infection induces abscesses in the lymph nodes of the head and neck. In some individuals, some abscess material remains into the guttural pouch and inspissates over time to form chondroids which can harbour live S. equi. The aim of this study was to determine the sites of sAg production during infection and therefore improve our understanding of their role. Abscess material, chondroids and serum collected from Equidae with signs of strangles were tested in mitogenic assays. Mitogenic sAg activity was only detected in abscess material and chondroids. Our data support the localised in vivo activity of sAg during both acute and carrier phases of S. equi infection. PMID:25841794

  9. Le kyste hydatique du cordon spermatique: une localisation exceptionnelle

    PubMed Central

    Hamdane, Mohamed Moncef; Bougrine, Fethi; Msakni, Issam; Dhaoui-Ghozzi, Amen; Bouziani, Ammar

    2011-01-01

    L’ hydatidose est une anthropo-zoonose due au développement chez l'homme de la forme larvaire du taenia Echinococcus granulosis. La plupart des kystes hydatiques se localisent dans le foie et les poumons. Le kyste hydatique du cordon spermatique est extrêmement rare avec seulement 4 cas rapportés dans la littérature. Les auteurs rapportent dans cet article un nouveau cas d'hydatidose du cordon spermatique. Il s'agissait d'un homme de 40 ans qui consultait pour des douleurs scrotales évoluant depuis huit mois. L'examen clinique a mis en évidence une tuméfaction mobile, inguino-scrotale, droite. L’échographie testiculaire a objectivé une hernie inguinale droite associée à deux kystes épididymaires bilatéraux. Le patient a été opéré pour cure de son hernie avec découverte en per-opératoire d'un kyste du cordon spermatique qui a été réséqué. L'examen anatomopathologique a conclu à une hydatidose du cordon spermatique. PMID:22384304

  10. Tumour Suppressor Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) localisation is regulated by both Kinesin-1 and Kinesin-2

    PubMed Central

    Ruane, Peter T.; Gumy, Laura F.; Bola, Becky; Anderson, Beverley; Wozniak, Marcin J.; Hoogenraad, Casper C.; Allan, Victoria J.

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules and their associated proteins (MAPs) underpin the polarity of specialised cells. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is one such MAP with a multifunctional agenda that requires precise intracellular localisations. Although APC has been found to associate with kinesin-2 subfamily members, the exact mechanism for the peripheral localization of APC remains unclear. Here we show that the heavy chain of kinesin-1 directly interacts with the APC C-terminus, contributing to the peripheral localisation of APC in fibroblasts. In rat hippocampal neurons the kinesin-1 binding domain of APC is required for its axon tip enrichment. Moreover, we demonstrate that APC requires interactions with both kinesin-2 and kinesin-1 for this localisation. Underlining the importance of the kinesin-1 association, neurons expressing APC lacking kinesin-1-binding domain have shorter axons. The identification of this novel kinesin-1-APC interaction highlights the complexity and significance of APC localisation in neurons. PMID:27272132

  11. Tumour Suppressor Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) localisation is regulated by both Kinesin-1 and Kinesin-2.

    PubMed

    Ruane, Peter T; Gumy, Laura F; Bola, Becky; Anderson, Beverley; Wozniak, Marcin J; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Allan, Victoria J

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules and their associated proteins (MAPs) underpin the polarity of specialised cells. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is one such MAP with a multifunctional agenda that requires precise intracellular localisations. Although APC has been found to associate with kinesin-2 subfamily members, the exact mechanism for the peripheral localization of APC remains unclear. Here we show that the heavy chain of kinesin-1 directly interacts with the APC C-terminus, contributing to the peripheral localisation of APC in fibroblasts. In rat hippocampal neurons the kinesin-1 binding domain of APC is required for its axon tip enrichment. Moreover, we demonstrate that APC requires interactions with both kinesin-2 and kinesin-1 for this localisation. Underlining the importance of the kinesin-1 association, neurons expressing APC lacking kinesin-1-binding domain have shorter axons. The identification of this novel kinesin-1-APC interaction highlights the complexity and significance of APC localisation in neurons. PMID:27272132

  12. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... your life Being exposed to chemicals that can cause cancer Being at risk for skin cancer Depending on ... than nonsmokers. Other forms of tobacco can also cause cancer, such as cigars, chewing tobacco and snuff. If ...

  13. Strain localisation in mechanically layered rocks beneath detachment zones: insights from numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pourhiet, L.; Huet, B.; Labrousse, L.; Yao, K.; Agard, P.; Jolivet, L.

    2013-04-01

    We have designed a series of fully dynamic numerical simulations aimed at assessing how the orientation of mechanical layering in rocks controls the orientation of shear bands and the depth of penetration of strain in the footwall of detachment zones. Two parametric studies are presented. In the first one, the influence of stratification orientation on the occurrence and mode of strain localisation is tested by varying initial dip of inherited layering in the footwall with regard to the orientation of simple shear applied at the rigid boundary simulating a rigid hanging wall, all scaling and rheological parameter kept constant. It appears that when Mohr-Coulomb plasticity is being used, shear bands are found to localise only when the layering is being stretched. This corresponds to early deformational stages for inital layering dipping in the same direction as the shear is applied, and to later stages for intial layering dipping towards the opposite direction of shear. In all the cases, localisation of the strain after only γ=1 requires plastic yielding to be activated in the strong layer. The second parametric study shows that results are length-scale independent and that orientation of shear bands is not sensitive to the viscosity contrast or the strain rate. However, decreasing or increasing strain rate is shown to reduce the capacity of the shear zone to localise strain. In the later case, the strain pattern resembles a mylonitic band but the rheology is shown to be effectively linear. Based on the results, a conceptual model for strain localisation under detachment faults is presented. In the early stages, strain localisation occurs at slow rates by viscous shear instabilities but as the layered media is exhumed, the temperature drops and the strong layers start yielding plastically, forming shear bands and localising strain at the top of the shear zone. Once strain localisation has occured, the deformation in the shear band becomes extremely penetrative but

  14. In planta localisation patterns of MADS domain proteins during floral development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Urbanus, Susan L; de Folter, Stefan; Shchennikova, Anna V; Kaufmann, Kerstin; Immink, Richard GH; Angenent, Gerco C

    2009-01-01

    Background MADS domain transcription factors play important roles in various developmental processes in flowering plants. Members of this family play a prominent role in the transition to flowering and the specification of floral organ identity. Several studies reported mRNA expression patterns of the genes encoding these MADS domain proteins, however, these studies do not provide the necessary information on the temporal and spatial localisation of the proteins. We have made GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN (GFP) translational fusions with the four MADS domain proteins SEPALLATA3, AGAMOUS, FRUITFULL and APETALA1 from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and analysed the protein localisation patterns in living plant tissues by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Results We unravelled the protein localisation patterns of the four MADS domain proteins at a cellular and subcellular level in inflorescence and floral meristems, during development of the early flower bud stages, and during further differentiation of the floral organs. The protein localisation patterns revealed a few deviations from known mRNA expression patterns, suggesting a non-cell autonomous action of these factors or alternative control mechanisms. In addition, we observed a change in the subcellular localisation of SEPALLATA3 from a predominantly nuclear localisation to a more cytoplasmic localisation, occurring specifically during petal and stamen development. Furthermore, we show that the down-regulation of the homeodomain transcription factor WUSCHEL in ovular tissues is preceded by the occurrence of both AGAMOUS and SEPALLATA3 proteins, supporting the hypothesis that both proteins together suppress WUSCHEL expression in the ovule. Conclusion This approach provides a highly detailed in situ map of MADS domain protein presence during early and later stages of floral development. The subcellular localisation of the transcription factors in the cytoplasm, as observed at certain stages during

  15. Effect of season on peripheral resistance to localised cold stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, M.; Harimura, Y.; Tochihara, Y.; Yamazaki, S.; Ohnaka, T.; Matsui, J.; Yoshida, K.

    1984-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect that seasonal changes have on the effect of localised cold stress on peripheral temperatures using the foot immersion method with a cold water bath. The subjects were six males and four females. The data were obtained in April, July, October and January. Skin temperature of the right index finger, the forehead, the arm, the cheek, the second toe and the instep were measured before, during and after the immersion of the feet in water at 15°C for 10 mins, as well as oxygen consumption before immersion of the feet. The average finger temperature was highest during foot immersion in the summer, next highest in the winter, then spring, and the lowest during foot immersion in the autumn. The finger temperatures during the pre-immersion period in the autumn tended to be lower than in other seasons. The finger temperatures during the pre-immersion period affected the temperature change of the finger during the immersion period. The rate of increase of the toe temperature and the foot temperature during post-immersion in the summer and the spring were greater than those in the autumn and winter. Oxygen consumption during the pre-immersion period in the autumn was significantly lower than in the other seasons (p<0.001 or 0.010). Cooling the feet caused no significant changes in the temperatures the cheek, forehead or forearm. The cheek temperature in the summer and autumn was cooler than corresponding temperatures taken in the winter and spring.

  16. Plato: A localised orbital based density functional theory code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenny, S. D.; Horsfield, A. P.

    2009-12-01

    The Plato package allows both orthogonal and non-orthogonal tight-binding as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations to be performed within a single framework. The package also provides extensive tools for analysing the results of simulations as well as a number of tools for creating input files. The code is based upon the ideas first discussed in Sankey and Niklewski (1989) [1] with extensions to allow high-quality DFT calculations to be performed. DFT calculations can utilise either the local density approximation or the generalised gradient approximation. Basis sets from minimal basis through to ones containing multiple radial functions per angular momenta and polarisation functions can be used. Illustrations of how the package has been employed are given along with instructions for its utilisation. Program summaryProgram title: Plato Catalogue identifier: AEFC_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFC_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 219 974 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 821 493 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C/MPI and PERL Computer: Apple Macintosh, PC, Unix machines Operating system: Unix, Linux and Mac OS X Has the code been vectorised or parallelised?: Yes, up to 256 processors tested RAM: Up to 2 Gbytes per processor Classification: 7.3 External routines: LAPACK, BLAS and optionally ScaLAPACK, BLACS, PBLAS, FFTW Nature of problem: Density functional theory study of electronic structure and total energies of molecules, crystals and surfaces. Solution method: Localised orbital based density functional theory. Restrictions: Tight-binding and density functional theory only, no exact exchange. Unusual features: Both atom centred and uniform meshes available

  17. Subcellular localisations of the CPTI collection of YFP-tagged proteins in Drosophila embryos

    PubMed Central

    Lye, Claire M.; Naylor, Huw W.; Sanson, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    A key challenge in the post-genomic area is to identify the function of the genes discovered, with many still uncharacterised in all metazoans. A first step is transcription pattern characterisation, for which we now have near whole-genome coverage in Drosophila. However, we have much more limited information about the expression and subcellular localisation of the corresponding proteins. The Cambridge Protein Trap Consortium generated, via piggyBac transposition, over 600 novel YFP-trap proteins tagging just under 400 Drosophila loci. Here, we characterise the subcellular localisations and expression patterns of these insertions, called the CPTI lines, in Drosophila embryos. We have systematically analysed subcellular localisations at cellularisation (stage 5) and recorded expression patterns at stage 5, at mid-embryogenesis (stage 11) and at late embryogenesis (stages 15-17). At stage 5, 31% of the nuclear lines (41) and 26% of the cytoplasmic lines (67) show discrete localisations that provide clues on the function of the protein and markers for organelles or regions, including nucleoli, the nuclear envelope, nuclear speckles, centrosomes, mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, lysosomes and peroxisomes. We characterised the membranous/cortical lines (102) throughout stage 5 to 10 during epithelial morphogenesis, documenting their apico-basal position and identifying those secreted in the extracellular space. We identified the tricellular vertices as a specialized membrane domain marked by the integral membrane protein Sidekick. Finally, we categorised the localisation of the membranous/cortical proteins during cytokinesis. PMID:25294944

  18. Subcellular localisations of the CPTI collection of YFP-tagged proteins in Drosophila embryos.

    PubMed

    Lye, Claire M; Naylor, Huw W; Sanson, Bénédicte

    2014-10-01

    A key challenge in the post-genomic area is to identify the function of the genes discovered, with many still uncharacterised in all metazoans. A first step is transcription pattern characterisation, for which we now have near whole-genome coverage in Drosophila. However, we have much more limited information about the expression and subcellular localisation of the corresponding proteins. The Cambridge Protein Trap Consortium generated, via piggyBac transposition, over 600 novel YFP-trap proteins tagging just under 400 Drosophila loci. Here, we characterise the subcellular localisations and expression patterns of these insertions, called the CPTI lines, in Drosophila embryos. We have systematically analysed subcellular localisations at cellularisation (stage 5) and recorded expression patterns at stage 5, at mid-embryogenesis (stage 11) and at late embryogenesis (stages 15-17). At stage 5, 31% of the nuclear lines (41) and 26% of the cytoplasmic lines (67) show discrete localisations that provide clues on the function of the protein and markers for organelles or regions, including nucleoli, the nuclear envelope, nuclear speckles, centrosomes, mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, lysosomes and peroxisomes. We characterised the membranous/cortical lines (102) throughout stage 5 to 10 during epithelial morphogenesis, documenting their apico-basal position and identifying those secreted in the extracellular space. We identified the tricellular vertices as a specialized membrane domain marked by the integral membrane protein Sidekick. Finally, we categorised the localisation of the membranous/cortical proteins during cytokinesis. PMID:25294944

  19. Canonical Decomposition of Ictal Scalp EEG and Accurate Source Localisation: Principles and Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    De Vos, Maarten; De Lathauwer, Lieven; Vanrumste, Bart; Van Huffel, Sabine; Van Paesschen, W.

    2007-01-01

    Long-term electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings are important in the presurgical evaluation of refractory partial epilepsy for the delineation of the ictal onset zones. In this paper, we introduce a new concept for an automatic, fast, and objective localisation of the ictal onset zone in ictal EEG recordings. Canonical decomposition of ictal EEG decomposes the EEG in atoms. One or more atoms are related to the seizure activity. A single dipole was then fitted to model the potential distribution of each epileptic atom. In this study, we performed a simulation study in order to estimate the dipole localisation error. Ictal dipole localisation was very accurate, even at low signal-to-noise ratios, was not affected by seizure activity frequency or frequency changes, and was minimally affected by the waveform and depth of the ictal onset zone location. Ictal dipole localisation error using 21 electrodes was around 10.0 mm and improved more than tenfold in the range of 0.5–1.0 mm using 148 channels. In conclusion, our simulation study of canonical decomposition of ictal scalp EEG allowed a robust and accurate localisation of the ictal onset zone. PMID:18301715

  20. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  1. In vitro performance of an injectable hydrogel/microsphere based immunocyte delivery system for localised anti-tumour activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunming; Adrianus, Gerard N; Sheng, Nan; Toh, Shikai; Gong, Yihong; Wang, Dong-An

    2009-12-01

    The current practice of cell immunotherapy against cancer has encountered a substantial challenge, that is, targeted delivery of therapeutic cells to tumour sites is not favourably managed. In this study, we aimed to provide an engineering solution to govern the cell targeting and actions, for which a biomaterial model is developed to mediate the conveyance and accommodation of activated immunocytes with anti-cancer potentials. We fabricated a dual-layered hydrogel/microsphere (GS) composite, which preserves all advantageous features of hydrogel such as injectability and favourable permeability, to achieve genuine localisation and physical immobilisation of the executing immunocytes-macrophages. According to our presented in vitro investigations, the GS immunoconstruct exhibited effective elimination of carcinoma cells as well as high safety free of gene alteration or cell leakage. Notably, unwanted long-term proliferation of the delivered cells was restrained by physical encapsulation in the bio-inert 3D hydrogel frameworks. By these efforts, we have provided an immunocyte delivery platform with which cell-based immunotherapy can be initiated at a desired location and implemented in a controlled manner. PMID:19783044

  2. A genome-wide resource for the analysis of protein localisation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sarov, Mihail; Barz, Christiane; Jambor, Helena; Hein, Marco Y; Schmied, Christopher; Suchold, Dana; Stender, Bettina; Janosch, Stephan; K J, Vinay Vikas; Krishnan, R T; Krishnamoorthy, Aishwarya; Ferreira, Irene R S; Ejsmont, Radoslaw K; Finkl, Katja; Hasse, Susanne; Kämpfer, Philipp; Plewka, Nicole; Vinis, Elisabeth; Schloissnig, Siegfried; Knust, Elisabeth; Hartenstein, Volker; Mann, Matthias; Ramaswami, Mani; VijayRaghavan, K; Tomancak, Pavel; Schnorrer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila genome contains >13000 protein-coding genes, the majority of which remain poorly investigated. Important reasons include the lack of antibodies or reporter constructs to visualise these proteins. Here, we present a genome-wide fosmid library of 10000 GFP-tagged clones, comprising tagged genes and most of their regulatory information. For 880 tagged proteins, we created transgenic lines, and for a total of 207 lines, we assessed protein expression and localisation in ovaries, embryos, pupae or adults by stainings and live imaging approaches. Importantly, we visualised many proteins at endogenous expression levels and found a large fraction of them localising to subcellular compartments. By applying genetic complementation tests, we estimate that about two-thirds of the tagged proteins are functional. Moreover, these tagged proteins enable interaction proteomics from developing pupae and adult flies. Taken together, this resource will boost systematic analysis of protein expression and localisation in various cellular and developmental contexts. PMID:26896675

  3. Sensor fusion for the localisation of birds in flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millikin, Rhonda Lorraine

    Tracking and identification of birds in flight remains a goal of aviation safety worldwide and conservation in North America. Marine surveillance radar, tracking radar and more recently weather radar have been used to monitor mass movements of birds. The emphasis has been on prediction of migration fronts where thousands of birds follow weather patterns across a large geographic area. Microphones have been stationed over wide areas to receive calls of these birds and help catalogue the diversity of species comprising these migrations. A most critical feature of landbird migration is where the birds land to rest and feed. These habitats are not known and therefore cannot effectively be protected. For effective management of landbird migrants (nocturnal migrant birds), short-range flight behaviour (100--300 m above ground) is the critical air space to monitor. To ensure conservation efforts are focused on endangered species and species truly at risk, species of individual birds must be identified. Short-range monitoring of individual birds is also important for aviation safety. Up to 75% of bird-aircraft collisions occur within 500 ft (153 m) above the runway. Identification of each bird will help predict its flight path, a critical factor in the prevention of a collision. This thesis focuses on short-range identification of individual birds to localise birds in flight. This goal is achieved through fusing data from two sensor systems, radar and acoustic. This fusion provides more accurate tracking of birds in the lower airspace and allows for the identification of species of interest. In the fall of 1999, an experiment was conducted at Prince Edward Point, a southern projection of land on the north shore of Lake Ontario, to prove that the fusion of radar and acoustic sensors enhances the detection, location and tracking of nocturnal migrant birds. As these birds migrate at night, they are difficult to track visually. However, they are detectable with X

  4. Divergent RNA Localisation Patterns of Maternal Genes Regulating Embryonic Patterning in the Butterfly Pararge aegeria

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Jean-Michel; Gibbs, Melanie; Breuker, Casper J.

    2015-01-01

    The maternal effect genes responsible for patterning the embryo along the antero-posterior (AP) axis are broadly conserved in insects. The precise function of these maternal effect genes is the result of the localisation of their mRNA in the oocyte. The main developmental mechanisms involved have been elucidated in Drosophila melanogaster, but recent studies have shown that other insect orders often diverge in RNA localisation patterns. A recent study has shown that in the butterfly Pararge aegeria the distinction between blastodermal embryonic (i.e. germ band) and extra-embryonic tissue (i.e. serosa) is already specified in the oocyte during oogenesis in the ovariole, long before blastoderm cellularisation. To examine the extent by which a female butterfly specifies and patterns the AP axis within the region fated to be the germ band, and whether she specifies a germ plasm, we performed in situ hybridisation experiments on oocytes in P. aegeria ovarioles and on early embryos. RNA localisation of the following key maternal effect genes were investigated: caudal (cad), orthodenticle (otd), hunchback (hb) and four nanos (nos) paralogs, as well as TDRD7 a gene containing a key functional domain (OST-HTH/LOTUS) shared with oskar. TDRD7 was mainly confined to the follicle cells, whilst hb was exclusively zygotically transcribed. RNA of some of the nos paralogs, otd and cad revealed complex localisation patterns within the cortical region prefiguring the germ band (i.e. germ cortex). Rather interestingly, otd was localised within and outside the anterior of the germ cortex. Transcripts of nos-O formed a distinct granular ring in the middle of the germ cortex possibly prefiguring the region where germline stem cells form. These butterfly RNA localisation patterns are highly divergent with respect to other insects, highlighting the diverse ways in which different insect orders maternally regulate early embryogenesis of their offspring. PMID:26633019

  5. A rare case of juvenile localised scleroderma with intra-oral and dental involvement

    PubMed Central

    WANG, PENG; GUO, WEI; LIU, SHUTAI

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile localised scleroderma is a rare childhood disorder of the immune system and connective tissue with unknown etiology. There are different types of localised scleroderma, including linear scleroderma (where the lesion appears as a line or streak) and plaque or circumscribed morphea (where the lesion appears as a roundish lesion). The present report describes the case of a 10-year-old girl, who presented with a history of linear scleroderma with nose, oral and dental involvement, and outlines the diagnosis of the case based on the clinical presentation, pathology, X-ray and cone beam computed tomography images. The treatment strategy that was selected for the patient is additionally discussed. PMID:26668618

  6. Localised sarcoptic mange in dogs: a retrospective study of 10 cases.

    PubMed

    Pin, D; Bensignor, E; Carlotti, D-N; Cadiergues, M C

    2006-10-01

    The authors report 10 cases of localised sarcoptic mange in dogs. In each case, lesions were localised to one precise area of the skin. Pruritus was present in nine cases and absent in one. Affected areas were the feet (one case), the face and/or the pinnae (six cases), the abdominal skin (one case), the flank (one case) and the lumbar area (one case). The types of lesions were erythema, papules, lichenification, scales, crusts and alopecia. Parasites were found in all cases except one, in which anti-immunoglobulin G Sarcoptes serology was positive. The acaricidal treatments given were lindane, ivermectin or selamectin and were all successful. PMID:17004955

  7. Ionisation effect on the electron localisation in the subcycle waveform shaping scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhuo; Feng, Zhengpeng; Long, Hua

    2015-03-01

    We have theoretically studied the ionisation effect on the asymmetric dissociation of H+2 exposed to the synthesised multicycle infrared pulses of different wavelengths by solving the time-dependent Schr?dinger equation without using the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. It has been demonstrated that the ionisation does slightly influence the electron localisation for the relatively low pulse intensity (less than 1014 W/cm2). However, our further results show that the ionisation effect becomes much more significant when increasing the pulse intensity, leading to a distinctly different mechanism responsible for the enhancement of the electron localisation.

  8. [Cancer].

    PubMed

    de la Peña-López, Roberto; Remolina-Bonilla, Yuly Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases which represents a significant public health problem in Mexico and worldwide. In Mexico neoplasms are the second leading cause of death. An increased morbidity and mortality are expected in the next decades. Several preventable risk factors for cancer development have been identified, the most relevant including tobacco use, which accounts for 30% of the cancer cases; and obesity, associated to another 30%. These factors, in turn, are related to sedentarism, alcohol abuse and imbalanced diets. Some agents are well knokn to cause cancer such as ionizing radiation, viruses such as the papilloma virus (HPV) and hepatitis virus (B and C), and more recently environmental pollution exposure and red meat consumption have been pointed out as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC). The scientific evidence currently available is insufficient to consider milk either as a risk factor or protective factor against different types of cancer. PMID:27603890

  9. Pinch and swell structures: evidence for strain localisation by brittle-viscous behaviour in the middle crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, R. L.; Piazolo, S.; Daczko, N. R.

    2015-09-01

    The flow properties of middle crustal rocks are commonly represented by viscous flow. Examples of pinch and swell structures found in a high strain zone at St. Anne Point (Fiordland, New Zealand) and Wongwibinda (N.S.W., Australia) suggest pinch and swell structures may be initiated by brittle failure of the more competent layer in conjunction with subsequent material softening. On this basis we develop a numerical model where Mohr-Coulomb constitutive strain localising behaviour is utilised to initiate pinch and swell structure development. Results show that pinch and swell structures develop in a competent layer in both Newtonian and non-Newtonian flow, provided the competent layer has sufficient viscosity contrast and can localise strain to form shear bands. The flow regime and strain localising characteristics of the surrounding country rock appear not to impact pinch and swell structure formation. The degree of material softening after the initial strain localising behaviour is shown to impact pinch and swell characteristics, while extensive material softening causes the formation of thick necks between swells by limiting the focused localisation of strain into shear bands. To aid analysis of the structures and help derive the flow properties of rocks in the field, we define three stages of pinch and swell development and offer suggestions for measurements to be made in the field. Our study suggests that Mohr-Coulomb strain localising behaviour combined with viscous flow is a viable alternative representation of the heterogeneous rheological behaviour of rocks seen in the middle crust. This type of mid-crustal rheological behaviour can have significant influence on the localisation of strain at all scales. For example, inclusion of Mohr-Coulomb strain localising behaviour with viscous flow in just some mid-crustal layers within a crustal-scale model can result in significant strain localisation, extending from the upper crust into the middle crust. This

  10. The distribution of porphyrins with different tumour localising ability among human plasma proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Kongshaug, M.; Moan, J.; Brown, S. B.

    1989-01-01

    The distribution among the main fractions of human plasma lipoproteins of a number of porphyrins with different tumour localising ability has been determined by means of ultracentrifugation. A main trend is that the fraction of the dyes that are bound to low density lipoprotein (LDL) increases, and the fraction bound to HSA decreases with decreasing polarity of the dyes. An asymmetric charge distribution, such as in TPPS2a, favours LDL-binding more than expected on the basis of lipophilicity. No correlation between the known tumour localising ability of the drugs tested in the present work and their relative affinity for LDL was found. One of the best tumour localisers reported in the literature, TPPS4, hardly binds to LDL, while Hp and Pp, which are commonly considered inefficient tumour localisers, do have a significant affinity for LDL. On the other hand, the LDL binding capacity for a drug is suggested to be a good index for cellular uptake. Such an index does not necessarily imply that the actual uptake occurs by the LDL pathway. PMID:2930683

  11. Localisation rare de la tuberculose: la ténosynovite des doigts

    PubMed Central

    Ben Abdelghani, Kaouther; Maatallah, Kaouther; Ajili, Faida; Souabni, Leila; Laatar, Ahmed; Zakraoui, Leith

    2014-01-01

    La ténosynovite tuberculeuse est une localisation rare de la tuberculose. Le diagnostic en est souvent tardif en raison de manifestations cliniques souvent pauvres et chroniques. Nous rapportons une observation de ténosynovite tuberculeuse du 2ème rayon de la main droite d’évolution favorable sous traitement antituberculeux. PMID:25317223

  12. Globalisation and Localisation in Music Education in Hong Kong and Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyse and discuss the influences of globalisation and localisation on music education in Hong Kong and Taiwan. It argues that the reform of music education concerns changes to the contents of the curriculum that envisage the cultural and political developments that arise from processes of globalisation and…

  13. Semi-Classical Localisation Properties of Quantum Oscillators on a Noncommutative Configuration Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benatti, Fabio; Gouba, Laure

    2015-11-01

    When dealing with the classical limit of two quantum mechanical oscillators on a noncommutative configuration space, the limits corresponding to the removal of configuration-space noncommutativity and position-momentum noncommutativity do not commute. We address this behaviour from the point of view of the phase-space localisation properties of the Wigner functions of coherent states under the two limits.

  14. Localisation of Sensor Nodes with Hybrid Measurements in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad W; Salman, Naveed; Kemp, Andrew H; Mihaylova, Lyudmila

    2016-01-01

    Localisation in wireless networks faces challenges such as high levels of signal attenuation and unknown path-loss exponents, especially in urban environments. In response to these challenges, this paper proposes solutions to localisation problems in noisy environments. A new observation model for localisation of static nodes is developed based on hybrid measurements, namely angle of arrival and received signal strength data. An approach for localisation of sensor nodes is proposed as a weighted linear least squares algorithm. The unknown path-loss exponent associated with the received signal strength is estimated jointly with the coordinates of the sensor nodes via the generalised pattern search method. The algorithm's performance validation is conducted both theoretically and by simulation. A theoretical mean square error expression is derived, followed by the derivation of the linear Cramer-Rao bound which serves as a benchmark for the proposed location estimators. Accurate results are demonstrated with 25%-30% improvement in estimation accuracy with a weighted linear least squares algorithm as compared to linear least squares solution. PMID:27455268

  15. Immuno-localisation of anti-thyroid antibodies in adult human cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Kogie; Botha, Julia; Raidoo, Deshandra Munsamy; Naidoo, Strinivasen

    2011-03-15

    Expression of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) has been demonstrated in adipocytes, lymphocytes, bone, kidney, heart, intestine and rat brain. Immuno-reactive TSH-R has been localised in rat brain and human embryonic cerebral cortex but not in adult human brain. We designed a pilot study to determine whether anti-thyroid auto-antibodies immuno-localise in normal adult human cerebral cortex. Forensic samples from the frontal, motor, sensory, occipital, cingulate and parieto-occipito-temporal association cortices were obtained from five individuals who had died of trauma. Although there were no head injuries, the prior psychiatric history of patients was unknown. The tissues were probed with commercial antibodies against both human TSH-R and human thyroglobulin (TG). Anti-TSH-R IgG immuno-localised to cell bodies and axons of large neurones in all 6 regions of all 5 brains. The intensity and percentage of neurones labelled were similar in all tissue sections. TSH-R immuno-label was also observed in vascular endothelial cells in the cingulate gyrus. Although also found in all 5 brains and all six cortical regions, TG localised exclusively in vascular smooth muscle cells and not on neurones. Although limited by the small sample size and number of brain areas examined, this is the first study describing the presence of antigenic targets for anti-TSH-R IgG on human cortical neurons, and anti-TG IgG in cerebral vasculature. PMID:21196016

  16. Kebab: Kinetochore and EB1 Associated Basic Protein That Dynamically Changes Its Localisation during Drosophila Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Meireles, Ana M.; Dzhindzhev, Nikola S.; Ohkura, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Microtubule plus ends are dynamic ends that interact with other cellular structures. Microtubule plus end tracking proteins are considered to play important roles in the regulation of microtubule plus ends. Recent studies revealed that EB1 is the central regulator for microtubule plus end tracking proteins by recruiting them to microtubule plus ends through direct interaction. Here we report the identification of a novel Drosophila protein, which we call Kebab (kinetochore and EB1 associated basic protein), through in vitro expression screening for EB1-interacting proteins. Kebab fused to GFP shows a novel pattern of dynamic localisation in mitosis. It localises to kinetochores weakly in metaphase and accumulates progressively during anaphase. In telophase, it associates with microtubules in central-spindle and centrosomal regions. The localisation to kinetochores depends on microtubules. The protein has a domain most similar to the atypical CH domain of Ndc80, and a coiled-coil domain. The interaction with EB1 is mediated by two SxIP motifs but is not required for the localisation. Depletion of Kebab in cultured cells by RNA interference did not show obvious defects in mitotic progression or microtubule organisation. Generation of mutants lacking the kebab gene indicated that Kebab is dispensable for viability and fertility. PMID:21912673

  17. Acute haemorrhagic leucoencephalitis localised to the brainstem and cerebellum: a report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, Jean; Helle, Todd L

    1982-01-01

    Two cases of acute haemorrhagic leucoencephalitis localised to the brainstem and cerebellum are reported. One followed the insertion of a ventriculoatrial shunt and the other an upper respiratory tract infection. The rare previously reported cases of this condition involving mainly the posterior fossa structures are reviewed. Images PMID:7069428

  18. Localisation of Sensor Nodes with Hybrid Measurements in Wireless Sensor Networks †

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad W.; Salman, Naveed; Kemp, Andrew H.; Mihaylova, Lyudmila

    2016-01-01

    Localisation in wireless networks faces challenges such as high levels of signal attenuation and unknown path-loss exponents, especially in urban environments. In response to these challenges, this paper proposes solutions to localisation problems in noisy environments. A new observation model for localisation of static nodes is developed based on hybrid measurements, namely angle of arrival and received signal strength data. An approach for localisation of sensor nodes is proposed as a weighted linear least squares algorithm. The unknown path-loss exponent associated with the received signal strength is estimated jointly with the coordinates of the sensor nodes via the generalised pattern search method. The algorithm’s performance validation is conducted both theoretically and by simulation. A theoretical mean square error expression is derived, followed by the derivation of the linear Cramer-Rao bound which serves as a benchmark for the proposed location estimators. Accurate results are demonstrated with 25%–30% improvement in estimation accuracy with a weighted linear least squares algorithm as compared to linear least squares solution. PMID:27455268

  19. Non-Gaussian probabilistic MEG source localisation based on kernel density estimation☆

    PubMed Central

    Mohseni, Hamid R.; Kringelbach, Morten L.; Woolrich, Mark W.; Baker, Adam; Aziz, Tipu Z.; Probert-Smith, Penny

    2014-01-01

    There is strong evidence to suggest that data recorded from magnetoencephalography (MEG) follows a non-Gaussian distribution. However, existing standard methods for source localisation model the data using only second order statistics, and therefore use the inherent assumption of a Gaussian distribution. In this paper, we present a new general method for non-Gaussian source estimation of stationary signals for localising brain activity from MEG data. By providing a Bayesian formulation for MEG source localisation, we show that the source probability density function (pdf), which is not necessarily Gaussian, can be estimated using multivariate kernel density estimators. In the case of Gaussian data, the solution of the method is equivalent to that of widely used linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) beamformer. The method is also extended to handle data with highly correlated sources using the marginal distribution of the estimated joint distribution, which, in the case of Gaussian measurements, corresponds to the null-beamformer. The proposed non-Gaussian source localisation approach is shown to give better spatial estimates than the LCMV beamformer, both in simulations incorporating non-Gaussian signals, and in real MEG measurements of auditory and visual evoked responses, where the highly correlated sources are known to be difficult to estimate. PMID:24055702

  20. Pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Audrey; Herman, Joseph; Schulick, Rich; Hruban, Ralph H; Goggins, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer, and advances in patients’ management have also taken place. Evidence is beginning to show that screening first-degree relatives of individuals with several family members affected by pancreatic cancer can identify non-invasive precursors of this malignant disease. The incidence of and number of deaths caused by pancreatic tumours have been gradually rising, even as incidence and mortality of other common cancers have been declining. Despite developments in detection and management of pancreatic cancer, only about 4% of patients will live 5 years after diagnosis. Survival is better for those with malignant disease localised to the pancreas, because surgical resection at present offers the only chance of cure. Unfortunately, 80–85% of patients present with advanced unresectable disease. Furthermore, pancreatic cancer responds poorly to most chemotherapeutic agents. Hence, we need to understand the biological mechanisms that contribute to development and progression of pancreatic tumours. In this Seminar we will discuss the most common and deadly form of pancreatic cancer, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. PMID:21620466

  1. Subcellular localisation of BAG-1 and its regulation of vitamin D receptor-mediated transactivation and involucrin expression in oral keratinocytes: Implications for oral carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, San San; Crabb, Simon J.; Janghra, Nari; Carlberg, Carsten; Williams, Ann C.; Cutress, Ramsey I.; Packham, Graham; Hague, Angela

    2007-09-10

    In oral cancers, cytoplasmic BAG-1 overexpression is a marker of poor prognosis. BAG-1 regulates cellular growth, differentiation and survival through interactions with diverse proteins, including the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a key regulator of keratinocyte growth and differentiation. BAG-1 is expressed ubiquitously in human cells as three major isoforms of 50 kDa (BAG-1L), 46 kDa (BAG-1M) and 36 kDa (BAG-1S) from a single mRNA. In oral keratinocytes BAG-1L, but not BAG-1M and BAG-1S, enhanced VDR transactivation in response to 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3.} BAG-1L was nucleoplasmic and nucleolar, whereas BAG-1S and BAG-1M were cytoplasmic and nucleoplasmic in localisation. Having identified the nucleolar localisation sequence in BAG-1L, we showed that mutation of this sequence did not prevent BAG-1L from potentiating VDR activity. BAG-1L also potentiated transactivation of known vitamin-D-responsive gene promoters, osteocalcin and 24-hydroxylase, and enhanced VDR-dependent transcription and protein expression of the keratinocyte differentiation marker, involucrin. These results demonstrate endogenous gene regulation by BAG-1L by potentiating nuclear hormone receptor function and suggest a role for BAG-1L in 24-hydroxylase regulation of vitamin D metabolism and the cellular response of oral keratinocytes to 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}. By contrast to the cytoplasmic BAG-1 isoforms, BAG-1L may act to suppress tumorigenesis.

  2. The nature of carrier localisation in polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, P.; Schulz, S.; Oliver, R. A.; Kappers, M. J.; Humphreys, C. J.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we compare and contrast the experimental data and the theoretical predictions of the low temperature optical properties of polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum well structures. In both types of structure, the optical properties at low temperatures are governed by the effects of carrier localisation. In polar structures, the effect of the in-built electric field leads to electrons being mainly localised at well width fluctuations, whereas holes are localised at regions within the quantum wells, where the random In distribution leads to local minima in potential energy. This leads to a system of independently localised electrons and holes. In nonpolar quantum wells, the nature of the hole localisation is essentially the same as the polar case but the electrons are now coulombically bound to the holes forming localised excitons. These localisation mechanisms are compatible with the large photoluminescence linewidths of the polar and nonpolar quantum wells as well as the different time scales and form of the radiative recombination decay curves.

  3. Prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Attard, Gerhardt; Parker, Chris; Eeles, Ros A; Schröder, Fritz; Tomlins, Scott A; Tannock, Ian; Drake, Charles G; de Bono, Johann S

    2016-01-01

    Much progress has been made in research for prostate cancer in the past decade. There is now greater understanding for the genetic basis of familial prostate cancer with identification of rare but high-risk mutations (eg, BRCA2, HOXB13) and low-risk but common alleles (77 identified so far by genome-wide association studies) that could lead to targeted screening of patients at risk. This is especially important because screening for prostate cancer based on prostate-specific antigen remains controversial due to the high rate of overdiagnosis and unnecessary prostate biopsies, despite evidence that it reduces mortality. Classification of prostate cancer into distinct molecular subtypes, including mutually exclusive ETS-gene-fusion-positive and SPINK1-overexpressing, CHD1-loss cancers, could allow stratification of patients for different management strategies. Presently, men with localised disease can have very different prognoses and treatment options, ranging from observation alone through to radical surgery, with few good-quality randomised trials to inform on the best approach for an individual patient. The survival of patients with metastatic prostate cancer progressing on androgen-deprivation therapy (castration-resistant prostate cancer) has improved substantially. In addition to docetaxel, which has been used for more than a decade, in the past 4 years five new drugs have shown efficacy with improvements in overall survival leading to licensing for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Because of this rapid change in the therapeutic landscape, no robust data exist to inform on the selection of patients for a specific treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer or the best sequence of administration. Moreover, the high cost of the newer drugs limits their widespread use in several countries. Data from continuing clinical and translational research are urgently needed to improve, and, crucially, to personalise management. PMID

  4. Microstructural changes, steady-state deformation and strain localisation during large strain deformation of rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhoorn, A.

    2012-04-01

    Ductile deformation in the Earth's crust and mantle is often concentrated in narrow shear zones. These shear zones play a fundamental role in the deformation dynamics of the earth's lithosphere during mountain building, subduction and continental break-up. Shear zones exhibit large amounts of strain with an increase in strain from the edge to the center of the shear zone. Those large strains are often accompanied with large changes in microstructure due to processes such as dynamic recrystallization, grain size refinement, development of strong foliations, development of crystallographic preferred orientations, weakening of the rock as well as progressive localisation of the deformation into more and more concentrated zones. The interplay between all those different processes produce the various microstructures that are often studied in natural shear zones to assess the deformation conditions and history of plate tectonic processes. Experimental deformation studies under controlled conditions are used to produce relationships between the different processes active in shear zones (rheology, microstructural changes, and CPO development) in order to make those quantitative inferences on natural shear zones, Here I will present the outcomes from large strain torsion experiments at elevated temperatures and pressures on monophase calcitic rocks showing that very large strains are needed before true steady-state conditions in rocks are attained. Continuous changes in crystallographic preferred orientations and continuous dynamic recrystallization by grain boundary migration and subgrain rotation recrystallization occur up to the largest shear strains achieved in the study (shear strain of 50). Dynamic recrystallization from an undeformed coarse-grained calcite rock types towards a fine-grained ultramylonite is accompanied by a modest (~20%) weakening of the rock. However, this modest weakening never caused strain localisation in the samples. In contrast to the

  5. Photoletter to the editor: Dermatitis herpetiformis co-localised with vitiligo in a patient with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome.

    PubMed

    Macbeth, Abby E; Lee, Kevin Y C; Levell, Nick J; Igali, Laszlo; Millington, George W M

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of dermatitis herpetiformis co-localised with segmental vitiligo in a 37-year-old woman with a background history of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2. We propose genetic mosaicism as a possible mechanism. There has only been one previous case report in which dermatitis hepetiformis co-localised in close proximity but not exclusively within vilitigo in a patient with autoimmune thyroiditis. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of dermatitis herpetiformis co-localised exclusively to segmental vitiligo in the presence of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome. PMID:24133566

  6. Radio-guided occult lesion localisation using iodine 125 Seeds “ROLLIS” to guide surgical removal of an impalpable posterior chest wall melanoma metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Dissanayake, Shashini; Dissanayake, Deepthi; Taylor, Donna B

    2015-09-15

    Cancer screening and surveillance programmes and the use of sophisticated imaging tools such as positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) have increased the detection of impalpable lesions requiring imaging guidance for excision. A new technique involves intra-lesional insertion of a low-activity iodine-125 ({sup 125}I) seed and detection of the radioactive signal in theatre using a hand-held gamma probe to guide surgery. Whilst several studies describe using this method to guide the removal of impalpable breast lesions, only a handful of publications report its use to guide excision of lesions outside the breast. We describe a case in which radio-guided occult lesion localisation using an iodine 125 seed was used to guide excision of an impalpable posterior chest wall metastasis detected on PET-CT.

  7. Modelling impacts and recovery in benthic communities exposed to localised high CO2.

    PubMed

    Lessin, Gennadi; Artioli, Yuri; Queirós, Ana M; Widdicombe, Stephen; Blackford, Jerry C

    2016-08-15

    Regulations pertaining to carbon dioxide capture with offshore storage (CCS) require an understanding of the potential localised environmental impacts and demonstrably suitable monitoring practices. This study uses a marine ecosystem model to examine a comprehensive range of hypothetical CO2 leakage scenarios, quantifying both impact and recovery time within the benthic system. Whilst significant mortalities and long recovery times were projected for the larger and longer term scenarios, shorter-term or low level exposures lead to reduced projected impacts. This suggests that efficient monitoring and leak mitigation strategies, coupled with appropriate selection of storage sites can effectively limit concerns regarding localised environmental impacts from CCS. The feedbacks and interactions between physiological and ecological responses simulated reveal that benthic responses to CO2 leakage could be complex. This type of modelling investigation can aid the understanding of impact potential, the role of benthic community recovery and inform the design of baseline and monitoring surveys. PMID:27289279

  8. Towards quantification of the interplay between strain weakening and strain localisation in granular material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Malte C.; Rosenau, Matthias; Leever, Karen; Oncken, Onno

    2014-05-01

    Strain weakening is the major agent of localisation of deformation into shear zones and faults at various scales in brittle media. Physical analogue models using granular material are especially apt to investigate both phenomena, because they are able to reproduce them without the need of any assumptions concerning the physics behind. Several attempts have been made to quantify either strain weakening (e. g. Lohrmann et al., 2003, using Ring-Shear tests) or strain localisation (e. g. Schrank et al., 2008, using a variation of the classical Riedel-experiment). While Ring-Shear tests yield excellent data on strain weakening through measuring shear stress during localisation, they do not allow monitoring the process of strain localisation in-situ because of experimental inaccessibility of the small scale kinematics. In Riedel-type strike-slip experiments, on the other hand, no direct measurements of shear stresses have been available so far. Furthermore, they contain a strong boundary condition in form of a pre-defined linear discontinuity at the base. This forces the formation of Riedel-Shears, i. e. a complex fault system, that makes it difficult to define strain localisation on single faults. We developed a new experimental set-up, in which the formation of a strike-slip shear zone in granular material is induced using an ndenter with stress and strain monitored at high accuracy and resolution. In a first set of experiments we used a horizontal sand layer indented by a vertical wall. The sand layer is laterally unconfined and rests on low-viscosity silicone oil in order to minimize basal shear strength. Compared to the Riedel experiments, this avoids the boundary condition of a pre-existing basal discontinuity allowing one single, hrough-going shear crack to form and propagate. The indenter moves at a constant rate and is equipped with a force sensor that measures the applied push, which integrates over shear stresses along the fault and the base of the sand pack

  9. Four-terminal resistances in mesoscopic networks of metallic wires: Weak localisation and correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Texier, Christophe; Montambaux, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    We consider the electronic transport in multi-terminal mesoscopic networks of weakly disordered metallic wires. After a brief description of the classical transport, we analyse the weak localisation (WL) correction to the four-terminal resistances, which involves an integration of the Cooperon over the wires with proper weights. We provide an interpretation of these weights in terms of classical transport properties. We illustrate the formalism on examples and show that weak localisation to four-terminal conductances may become large in some situations. In a second part, we study the correlations of four-terminal resistances and show that integration of Diffuson and Cooperon inside the network involves the same weights as the WL. The formulae are applied to multiconnected wire geometries.

  10. Photon counting imaging and centroiding with an electron-bombarded CCD using single molecule localisation software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirvonen, Liisa M.; Barber, Matthew J.; Suhling, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    Photon event centroiding in photon counting imaging and single-molecule localisation in super-resolution fluorescence microscopy share many traits. Although photon event centroiding has traditionally been performed with simple single-iteration algorithms, we recently reported that iterative fitting algorithms originally developed for single-molecule localisation fluorescence microscopy work very well when applied to centroiding photon events imaged with an MCP-intensified CMOS camera. Here, we have applied these algorithms for centroiding of photon events from an electron-bombarded CCD (EBCCD). We find that centroiding algorithms based on iterative fitting of the photon events yield excellent results and allow fitting of overlapping photon events, a feature not reported before and an important aspect to facilitate an increased count rate and shorter acquisition times.

  11. Photon counting imaging and centroiding with an electron-bombarded CCD using single molecule localisation software

    PubMed Central

    Hirvonen, Liisa M.; Barber, Matthew J.; Suhling, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Photon event centroiding in photon counting imaging and single-molecule localisation in super-resolution fluorescence microscopy share many traits. Although photon event centroiding has traditionally been performed with simple single-iteration algorithms, we recently reported that iterative fitting algorithms originally developed for single-molecule localisation fluorescence microscopy work very well when applied to centroiding photon events imaged with an MCP-intensified CMOS camera. Here, we have applied these algorithms for centroiding of photon events from an electron-bombarded CCD (EBCCD). We find that centroiding algorithms based on iterative fitting of the photon events yield excellent results and allow fitting of overlapping photon events, a feature not reported before and an important aspect to facilitate an increased count rate and shorter acquisition times. PMID:27274604

  12. Clutter elimination for deep clinical optoacoustic imaging using localised vibration tagging (LOVIT)☆

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Michael; Bamber, Jeffrey C.; Frenz, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates a novel method which allows clutter elimination in deep optoacoustic imaging. Clutter significantly limits imaging depth in clinical optoacoustic imaging, when irradiation optics and ultrasound detector are integrated in a handheld probe for flexible imaging of the human body. Strong optoacoustic transients generated at the irradiation site obscure weak signals from deep inside the tissue, either directly by propagating towards the probe, or via acoustic scattering. In this study we demonstrate that signals of interest can be distinguished from clutter by tagging them at the place of origin with localised tissue vibration induced by the acoustic radiation force in a focused ultrasonic beam. We show phantom results where this technique allowed almost full clutter elimination and thus strongly improved contrast for deep imaging. Localised vibration tagging by means of acoustic radiation force is especially promising for integration into ultrasound systems that already have implemented radiation force elastography. PMID:25302147

  13. Une localisation exceptionnelle de la tuberculose vertébrale Mal de Pott sous-occipital

    PubMed Central

    Yahyaoui, Sana; Majdoub, Senda; Zaghouani, Houneida; Fradj, Hosni Ben; Bakir, Dejla; Bouajina, Elyes; Kraiem, Chakib

    2013-01-01

    Le mal de Pott est la forme la plus commune de la tuberculose osseuse touchant essentiellement le rachis dorso-lombaire. La localisation sous-occipitale reste exceptionnelle. Le diagnostic de cette entité est le plus souvent tardif ce qui expose à des complications graves. Les radiographies standard ne sont parlantes qu’à un stade tardif de la maladie, d'où l'intérêt de l'imagerie moderne notamment la tomodensitométrie (TDM) et l'imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM) qui permettent un diagnostic précoce. Nous rapportons un nouveau cas de tuberculose sous-occipitale. Le diagnostic était posé sur l'imagerie en coupe et confirmé histologiquement à la biopsie transorale. Sont rappelés les aspects en imagerie de cette localisation particulière du mal de Pott. PMID:23819005

  14. Clutter elimination for deep clinical optoacoustic imaging using localised vibration tagging (LOVIT).

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Michael; Bamber, Jeffrey C; Frenz, Martin

    2013-05-01

    This paper investigates a novel method which allows clutter elimination in deep optoacoustic imaging. Clutter significantly limits imaging depth in clinical optoacoustic imaging, when irradiation optics and ultrasound detector are integrated in a handheld probe for flexible imaging of the human body. Strong optoacoustic transients generated at the irradiation site obscure weak signals from deep inside the tissue, either directly by propagating towards the probe, or via acoustic scattering. In this study we demonstrate that signals of interest can be distinguished from clutter by tagging them at the place of origin with localised tissue vibration induced by the acoustic radiation force in a focused ultrasonic beam. We show phantom results where this technique allowed almost full clutter elimination and thus strongly improved contrast for deep imaging. Localised vibration tagging by means of acoustic radiation force is especially promising for integration into ultrasound systems that already have implemented radiation force elastography. PMID:25302147

  15. Reprint of: Four-terminal resistances in mesoscopic networks of metallic wires: Weak localisation and correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Texier, Christophe; Montambaux, Gilles

    2016-08-01

    We consider the electronic transport in multi-terminal mesoscopic networks of weakly disordered metallic wires. After a brief description of the classical transport, we analyse the weak localisation (WL) correction to the four-terminal resistances, which involves an integration of the Cooperon over the wires with proper weights. We provide an interpretation of these weights in terms of classical transport properties. We illustrate the formalism on examples and show that weak localisation to four-terminal conductances may become large in some situations. In a second part, we study the correlations of four-terminal resistances and show that integration of Diffuson and Cooperon inside the network involves the same weights as the WL. The formulae are applied to multiconnected wire geometries.

  16. Nickel, Zn and Cd localisation in seeds of metal hyperaccumulators using μ-PIXE spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachenko, Anthony G.; Bhatia, Naveen P.; Siegele, Rainer; Walsh, Kerry B.; Singh, Balwant

    2009-06-01

    Metal hyperaccumulators are a rare group of plant species that accumulate exceptionally high concentrations of metals in above ground tissues without showing symptoms of phytotoxicity. Quantitative localisation of the accumulated metals in seed tissues is of considerable interest to help understand the eco-physiology of these unique plant species. We investigated the spatial localisation of metals within seeds of Ni hyperaccumulating Hybanthus floribundus subsp. adpressus, H. floribundus subsp. floribundus and Pimelea leptospermoides and dual-metal (Cd and Zn) hyperaccumulating Thlaspi caerulescens using quantitative micro-proton induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) spectroscopy. Intact seeds were hand-sectioned, sandwiched between Formvar films and irradiated using the 3 MeV high energy heavy ion microprobe at ANSTO. Elemental maps of whole H. floribundus subsp. adpressus seeds showed an average Ni concentration of 5.1 × 10 3 mg kg -1 dry weight (DW) with highest Ni concentration in cotyledonary tissues (7.6 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW), followed by the embryonic axis (4.4 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW). Nickel concentration in whole H. floribundus subsp. floribundus seeds was 3.5 × 10 2 mg kg -1 DW without a clear pattern of Ni localisation. The average Ni concentration in whole P. leptospermoides seeds was 2.6 × 10 2 mg kg -1 DW, and Ni was preferentially localised in the embryonic axis (4.3 × 10 2 mg kg -1 DW). In T. caerulescens, Cd concentrations were similar in cotyledon (4.5 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW) and embryonic axis (3.3 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW) tissues, whereas Zn was highest in cotyledonary tissues (1.5 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW). In all species, the presence of the accumulated metal within the cotyledonary and embryonic axis tissues indicates that the accumulated metal was able to move apoplastically within the seed.

  17. Localisation of factor XIII in human tissues using an immunoperoxidase technique.

    PubMed Central

    Fear, J D; Jackson, P; Gray, C; Miloszewski, K J; Losowsky, M S

    1984-01-01

    An immunoperoxidase technique has been used to localise clotting factor XIII subunits A and S in human tissues. The presence of factor XIII in placenta and megakaryocytes was confirmed. Factor XIII was also found in fibroblasts, a hitherto unreported finding. Factor XIII subunits were not detected in hepatocytes, although factor XIII was found in fibroblasts in portal tracts. These findings suggest that factor XIII is not synthesised in the liver as previously thought. Images PMID:6373832

  18. Localisation of the SMC loading complex Nipbl/Mau2 during mammalian meiotic prophase I.

    PubMed

    Visnes, T; Giordano, F; Kuznetsova, A; Suja, J A; Lander, A D; Calof, A L; Ström, L

    2014-06-01

    Evidence from lower eukaryotes suggests that the chromosomal associations of all the structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) complexes, cohesin, condensin and Smc5/6, are influenced by the Nipbl/Mau2 heterodimer. Whether this function is conserved in mammals is currently not known. During mammalian meiosis, very different localisation patterns have been reported for the SMC complexes, and the localisation of Nipbl/Mau2 has just recently started to be investigated. Here, we show that Nipbl/Mau2 binds on chromosomal axes from zygotene to mid-pachytene in germ cells of both sexes. In spermatocytes, Nipbl/Mau2 then relocalises to chromocenters, whereas in oocytes it remains bound to chromosomal axes throughout prophase to dictyate arrest. The localisation pattern of Nipbl/Mau2, together with those seen for cohesin, condensin and Smc5/6 subunits, is consistent with a role as a loading factor for cohesin and condensin I, but not for Smc5/6. We also demonstrate that Nipbl/Mau2 localises next to Rad51 and γH2AX foci. NIPBL gene deficiencies are associated with the Cornelia de Lange syndrome in humans, and we find that haploinsufficiency of the orthologous mouse gene results in an altered distribution of double-strand breaks marked by γH2AX during prophase I. However, this is insufficient to result in major meiotic malfunctions, and the chromosomal associations of the synaptonemal complex proteins and the three SMC complexes appear cytologically indistinguishable in wild-type and Nipbl (+/-) spermatocytes. PMID:24287868

  19. Disseminated malignant phaeochromocytoma: localisation with iodine-131-labelled meta-iodobenzylguanidine.

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, H; Wyeth, P; Allen, A P; Thurtle, O A; Hames, T K; Cawley, M I; Ackery, D

    1982-01-01

    Meta-iodobenzylguanidine, a guanethidine analogue, is a newly synthesised substance capable of imaging the adrenal medulla. In a woman in whom phaeochromocytoma has been diagnosed iodine-131-labelled metaiodobenzylguanidine was given intravenously; gamma-camera images showed bilateral adrenal tumours and uptake corresponding to bone and liver metastases. 131I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine is effective in localising phaeochromocytomas, and the technique is safe, specific, and non-invasive. Images p1154-a PMID:6812783

  20. Localised hyperthermia in rodent models using an MRI-compatible high-intensity focused ultrasound system

    PubMed Central

    Bing, Chenchen; Nofiele, Joris; Staruch, Robert; Ladouceur-Wodzak, Michelle; Chatzinoff, Yonatan; Ranjan, Ashish; Chopra, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Localised hyperthermia in rodent studies is challenging due to the small target size. This study describes the development and characterisation of an MRI-compatible high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) system to perform localised mild hyperthermia treatments in rodent models. Material and methods The hyperthermia platform consisted of an MRI-compatible small animal HIFU system, focused transducers with sector-vortex lenses, a custom-made receive coil, and means to maintain systemic temperatures of rodents. The system was integrated into a 3T MR imager. Control software was developed to acquire images, process temperature maps, and adjust output power using a proportional-integral-derivative feedback control algorithm. Hyperthermia exposures were performed in tissue-mimicking phantoms and in a rodent model (n = 9). During heating, an ROI was assigned in the heated region for temperature control and the target temperature was 42 °C; 30 min mild hyperthermia treatment followed by a 10-min cooling procedure was performed on each animal. Results 3D-printed sector-vortex lenses were successful at creating annular focal regions which enables customisation of the heating volume. Localised mild hyperthermia performed in rats produced a mean ROI temperature of 42.1 ± 0.3 °C. The T10 and T90 percentiles were 43.2 ± 0.4 °C and 41.0 ± 0.3 °C, respectively. For a 30-min treatment, the mean time duration between 41–45 °C was 31.1 min within the ROI. Conclusions The MRI-compatible HIFU system was successfully adapted to perform localised mild hyperthermia treatment in rodent models. A target temperature of 42 °C was well-maintained in a rat thigh model for 30 min. PMID:26540488

  1. Genetic optimisation of a plane array geometry for beamforming. Application to source localisation in a high speed train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Courtois, Florent; Thomas, Jean-Hugh; Poisson, Franck; Pascal, Jean-Claude

    2016-06-01

    Thanks to its easy implementation and robust performance, beamforming is applied for source localisation in several fields. Its effectiveness depends greatly on the array sensor configuration. This paper introduces a criterion to improve the array beampattern and increase the accuracy of sound source localisation. The beamwidth and the maximum sidelobe level are used to quantify the spatial variation of the beampattern through a new criterion. This criterion is shown to be useful, especially for the localisation of moving sources. A genetic algorithm is proposed for the optimisation of microphone placement. Statistical analysis of the optimised arrays provides original results on the algorithm performance and on the optimal microphone placement. An optimised array is tested to localise the sound sources of a high speed train. The results show an accurate separation.

  2. Counterintuitive electron localisation from density-functional theory with polarisable solvent models

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Stephen G.; Johnson, Erin R.

    2015-11-14

    Exploration of the solvated electron phenomena using density-functional theory (DFT) generally results in prediction of a localised electron within an induced solvent cavity. However, it is well known that DFT favours highly delocalised charges, rendering the localisation of a solvated electron unexpected. We explore the origins of this counterintuitive behaviour using a model Kevan-structure system. When a polarisable-continuum solvent model is included, it forces electron localisation by introducing a strong energetic bias that favours integer charges. This results in the formation of a large energetic barrier for charge-hopping and can cause the self-consistent field to become trapped in local minima thus converging to stable solutions that are higher in energy than the ground electronic state. Finally, since the bias towards integer charges is caused by the polarisable continuum, these findings will also apply to other classical polarisation corrections, as in combined quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. The implications for systems beyond the solvated electron, including cationic DNA bases, are discussed.

  3. Localisation of luminal epithelium edge in digital histopathology images of IHC stained slides of endometrial biopsies.

    PubMed

    Li, Guannan; Sanchez, Victor; Patel, Gnyaneshwari; Quenby, Siobhan; Rajpoot, Nasir

    2015-06-01

    Diagnosis of recurrent miscarriage due to abnormally high number of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells has recently been made possible by a protocol devised by Quenby et al. Hum Reprod 2009;24(1):45-54. The diagnosis involves detection and counting of stromal and uNK cell nuclei in endometrial biopsy slides immunohistochemically stained with haematoxylin for staining cell nuclei and CD56 as a marker for the uNK cells. However, manual diagnosis is a laborious process, fraught with subjective errors. In this paper, we present a novel method for detection of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells in the human female uterus lining and localisation of the luminal epithelium edge in endometrial biopsies. Specifically, we employ a local phase symmetry based method to detect stromal cell nuclei and propose an adaptive background removal method that significantly eases the segmentation of uNK cell nuclei regions. We also propose a novel method using alpha shapes for the identification of epithelial cell nuclei and B-Spline curve fitting on identified cell nuclei to localise the luminal epithelium edge. The objective of edge localisation is to avoid cell nuclei near the luminal epithelium edge being counted in the diagnosis process due to their non-relevance to the calculation of stromal to uNK cell ratio that determines the diagnosis of recurrent miscarriages in the end. The resulting algorithm offers a promising potential for computer-assisted diagnosis of recurrent miscarriage due to its high accuracy. PMID:25529641

  4. TOR complex 2 localises to the cytokinetic actomyosin ring and controls the fidelity of cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Karen; Kirkham, Sara; Halova, Lenka; Atkin, Jane; Franz-Wachtel, Mirita; Cobley, David; Krug, Karsten; Maček, Boris; Petersen, Janni

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The timing of cell division is controlled by the coupled regulation of growth and division. The target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling network synchronises these processes with the environmental setting. Here, we describe a novel interaction of the fission yeast TOR complex 2 (TORC2) with the cytokinetic actomyosin ring (CAR), and a novel role for TORC2 in regulating the timing and fidelity of cytokinesis. Disruption of TORC2 or its localisation results in defects in CAR morphology and constriction. We provide evidence that the myosin II protein Myp2 and the myosin V protein Myo51 play roles in recruiting TORC2 to the CAR. We show that Myp2 and TORC2 are co-dependent upon each other for their normal localisation to the cytokinetic machinery. We go on to show that TORC2-dependent phosphorylation of actin-capping protein 1 (Acp1, a known regulator of cytokinesis) controls CAR stability, modulates Acp1–Acp2 (the equivalent of the mammalian CAPZA–CAPZB) heterodimer formation and is essential for survival upon stress. Thus, TORC2 localisation to the CAR, and TORC2-dependent Acp1 phosphorylation contributes to timely control and the fidelity of cytokinesis and cell division. PMID:27206859

  5. On The Role of MHD Waves in Heating Localised Magnetic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdélyi, R.; Nelson, C. J.

    2016-04-01

    Satellite and ground-based observations from e.g. SOHO, TRACE, STEREO, Hinode, SDO and IRIS to DST/ROSA, IBIS, CoMP, STT/CRISP have provided a wealth of evidence of waves and oscillations present in a wide range of spatial scales of the magnetised solar atmosphere. Our understanding about localised solar structures has been considerably changed in light of these high spatial and time resolution observations. However, MHD waves not only enable us to perform sub-resolution magneto-seismology of magnetic waveguides but are also potential candidates to carry and damp the necessary non-thermal energy in these localised waveguides. First, we will briefly outline the basic recent developments in MHD wave theory focussing on linear waves. Next, we discuss the role of the most frequently studied wave classes, including the Alfven, and magneto-acoustic kink and sausage waves. The current theoretical (and often difficult) interpretations of the detected solar atmospheric wave and oscillatory phenomena within the framework of MHD will be shown. Last, the latest reported observational findings of potential MHD wave flux, in terms of localised plasma heating, in the solar atmosphere is discussed, bringing us closer to solve the coronal heating problem.

  6. Quantitative Evaluation of Stereo Visual Odometry for Autonomous Vessel Localisation in Inland Waterway Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kriechbaumer, Thomas; Blackburn, Kim; Breckon, Toby P.; Hamilton, Oliver; Rivas Casado, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Autonomous survey vessels can increase the efficiency and availability of wide-area river environment surveying as a tool for environment protection and conservation. A key challenge is the accurate localisation of the vessel, where bank-side vegetation or urban settlement preclude the conventional use of line-of-sight global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). In this paper, we evaluate unaided visual odometry, via an on-board stereo camera rig attached to the survey vessel, as a novel, low-cost localisation strategy. Feature-based and appearance-based visual odometry algorithms are implemented on a six degrees of freedom platform operating under guided motion, but stochastic variation in yaw, pitch and roll. Evaluation is based on a 663 m-long trajectory (>15,000 image frames) and statistical error analysis against ground truth position from a target tracking tachymeter integrating electronic distance and angular measurements. The position error of the feature-based technique (mean of ±0.067 m) is three times smaller than that of the appearance-based algorithm. From multi-variable statistical regression, we are able to attribute this error to the depth of tracked features from the camera in the scene and variations in platform yaw. Our findings inform effective strategies to enhance stereo visual localisation for the specific application of river monitoring. PMID:26694411

  7. A genome-wide resource for the analysis of protein localisation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Sarov, Mihail; Barz, Christiane; Jambor, Helena; Hein, Marco Y; Schmied, Christopher; Suchold, Dana; Stender, Bettina; Janosch, Stephan; KJ, Vinay Vikas; Krishnan, RT; Krishnamoorthy, Aishwarya; Ferreira, Irene RS; Ejsmont, Radoslaw K; Finkl, Katja; Hasse, Susanne; Kämpfer, Philipp; Plewka, Nicole; Vinis, Elisabeth; Schloissnig, Siegfried; Knust, Elisabeth; Hartenstein, Volker; Mann, Matthias; Ramaswami, Mani; VijayRaghavan, K; Tomancak, Pavel; Schnorrer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila genome contains >13000 protein-coding genes, the majority of which remain poorly investigated. Important reasons include the lack of antibodies or reporter constructs to visualise these proteins. Here, we present a genome-wide fosmid library of 10000 GFP-tagged clones, comprising tagged genes and most of their regulatory information. For 880 tagged proteins, we created transgenic lines, and for a total of 207 lines, we assessed protein expression and localisation in ovaries, embryos, pupae or adults by stainings and live imaging approaches. Importantly, we visualised many proteins at endogenous expression levels and found a large fraction of them localising to subcellular compartments. By applying genetic complementation tests, we estimate that about two-thirds of the tagged proteins are functional. Moreover, these tagged proteins enable interaction proteomics from developing pupae and adult flies. Taken together, this resource will boost systematic analysis of protein expression and localisation in various cellular and developmental contexts. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12068.001 PMID:26896675

  8. Weakly nonlinear analysis and localised structures in nonlinear cavities with metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slimani, N.; Makhoute, A.; Tlidi, M.

    2016-04-01

    We consider an optical ring cavity filled with a metamaterial and with a Kerr medium. The cavity is driven by a coherent radiation beam. The modelling of this device leads to the well known Lugiato-Lefever equation with high order diffraction term. We assume that both left-handed and right-handed materials possess a Kerr focusing type of nonlinearity. We show that close to the zero-diffraction regime, high-order diffraction effect allows us to stabilise dark localised structures in this device. These structures consist of dips or holes in the transverse profile of the intracavity field and do not exist without high-order diffraction effects. We show that high order diffraction effects alter in depth the space-time dynamics of this device. A weakly nonlinear analysis in the vicinity of the first threshold associated with the Turing instability is performed. This analysis allows us to determine the parameter regime where the transition from super- to sub-critical bifurcation occurs. When the modulational instability appears subcritically, we show that bright localised structures of light may be generated in two-dimensional setting. Close to the second threshold associated with the Turing instability, dark localised structures are generated.

  9. Illumination-invariant image matching for autonomous UAV localisation based on optical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xue; Liu, Jianguo; Yan, Hongshi; Morgan, Gareth L. K.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) localisation algorithm for its autonomous navigation based on matching between on-board UAV image sequences to a pre-installed reference satellite image. As the UAV images and the reference image are not necessarily taken under the same illumination condition, illumination-invariant image matching is essential. Based on the investigation of illumination-invariant property of Phase Correlation (PC) via mathematical derivation and experiments, we propose a PC based fast and robust illumination-invariant localisation algorithm for UAV navigation. The algorithm accurately determines the current UAV position as well as the next UAV position even the illumination condition of UAV on-board images is different from the reference satellite image. A Dirac delta function based registration quality assessment together with a risk alarming criterion is introduced to enable the UAV to perform self-correction in case the UAV deviates from the planned route. UAV navigation experiments using simulated terrain shading images and remote sensing images have demonstrated a robust high performance of the proposed PC based localisation algorithm under very different illumination conditions resulted from solar motion. The superiority of the algorithm, in comparison with two other widely used image matching algorithms, MI (Mutual Information) and NCC (Normalised Correlation Coefficient), is significant for its high matching accuracy and fast processing speed.

  10. An Autonomous Wearable System for Predicting and Detecting Localised Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mulla, Mohamed R.; Sepulveda, Francisco; Colley, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is an established area of research and various types of muscle fatigue have been clinically investigated in order to fully understand the condition. This paper demonstrates a non-invasive technique used to automate the fatigue detection and prediction process. The system utilises the clinical aspects such as kinematics and surface electromyography (sEMG) of an athlete during isometric contractions. Various signal analysis methods are used illustrating their applicability in real-time settings. This demonstrated system can be used in sports scenarios to promote muscle growth/performance or prevent injury. To date, research on localised muscle fatigue focuses on the clinical side and lacks the implementation for detecting/predicting localised muscle fatigue using an autonomous system. Results show that automating the process of localised muscle fatigue detection/prediction is promising. The autonomous fatigue system was tested on five individuals showing 90.37% accuracy on average of correct classification and an error of 4.35% in predicting the time to when fatigue will onset. PMID:22319367

  11. Quantitative Evaluation of Stereo Visual Odometry for Autonomous Vessel Localisation in Inland Waterway Sensing Applications.

    PubMed

    Kriechbaumer, Thomas; Blackburn, Kim; Breckon, Toby P; Hamilton, Oliver; Casado, Monica Rivas

    2015-01-01

    Autonomous survey vessels can increase the efficiency and availability of wide-area river environment surveying as a tool for environment protection and conservation. A key challenge is the accurate localisation of the vessel, where bank-side vegetation or urban settlement preclude the conventional use of line-of-sight global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). In this paper, we evaluate unaided visual odometry, via an on-board stereo camera rig attached to the survey vessel, as a novel, low-cost localisation strategy. Feature-based and appearance-based visual odometry algorithms are implemented on a six degrees of freedom platform operating under guided motion, but stochastic variation in yaw, pitch and roll. Evaluation is based on a 663 m-long trajectory (>15,000 image frames) and statistical error analysis against ground truth position from a target tracking tachymeter integrating electronic distance and angular measurements. The position error of the feature-based technique (mean of ±0.067 m) is three times smaller than that of the appearance-based algorithm. From multi-variable statistical regression, we are able to attribute this error to the depth of tracked features from the camera in the scene and variations in platform yaw. Our findings inform effective strategies to enhance stereo visual localisation for the specific application of river monitoring. PMID:26694411

  12. Localisation of Neuregulin 1-{beta}3 to different sub-nuclear structures alters gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ming; Trim, Carol M.; Gullick, William J.

    2011-02-15

    Neuregulins are growth factors that signal via the ErbB3 and ErbB4 receptors. Here we show using immunohistochemistry that they are often expressed in the nucleus of a range of tumour types including soft tissue and breast. The Neuregulin 1 type I-{beta}3 (NRG1-{beta}3) isoform localises to two sub-nuclear compartments in animal cells, nucleoli and spliceosomes. We used NRG1-{beta}3 tagged with photoactivatable GFP and demonstrated that this re-localised from nucleoli to spliceosomes over 90 min. Tyrosine kinase activity was not required for retaining the NRG1-{beta}3 within the nucleus. Mutation of the lysines 14 and 16 or 15 and 16 together prevented nucleolar uptake while four positively charged residues were identified which were required for spliceosome uptake. Molecular modelling suggests that three of these may form a binding site. We showed using a kinome array that NRG1-{beta}3 and a mutant exclusively localising to spliceosomes increased phosphorylation and/or expression of the HER4 and HER2 receptors. Using a transcriptomic analysis the same two constructs induced expression of several messenger RNAs and we confirmed the increased expression at the protein level of the most highly induced, Heat Shock Protein 70B'. These results suggest that Neuregulin activates receptor signalling in spliceosomes leading to altered gene expression.

  13. Automaticity and localisation of concurrents predicts colour area activity in grapheme-colour synaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Gould van Praag, Cassandra D; Garfinkel, Sarah; Ward, Jamie; Bor, Daniel; Seth, Anil K

    2016-07-29

    In grapheme-colour synaesthesia (GCS), the presentation of letters or numbers induces an additional 'concurrent' experience of colour. Early functional MRI (fMRI) investigations of GCS reported activation in colour-selective area V4 during the concurrent experience. However, others have failed to replicate this key finding. We reasoned that individual differences in synaesthetic phenomenology might explain this inconsistency in the literature. To test this hypothesis, we examined fMRI BOLD responses in a group of grapheme-colour synaesthetes (n=20) and matched controls (n=20) while characterising the individual phenomenology of the synaesthetes along dimensions of 'automaticity' and 'localisation'. We used an independent functional localiser to identify colour-selective areas in both groups. Activations in these areas were then assessed during achromatic synaesthesia-inducing, and non-inducing conditions; we also explored whole brain activations, where we sought to replicate the existing literature regarding synaesthesia effects. Controls showed no significant activations in the contrast of inducing > non-inducing synaesthetic stimuli, in colour-selective ROIs or at the whole brain level. In the synaesthete group, we correlated activation within colour-selective ROIs with individual differences in phenomenology using the Coloured Letters and Numbers (CLaN) questionnaire which measures, amongst other attributes, the subjective automaticity/attention in synaesthetic concurrents, and their spatial localisation. Supporting our hypothesis, we found significant correlations between individual measures of synaesthetic phenomenology and BOLD responses in colour-selective areas, when contrasting inducing against non-inducing stimuli. Specifically, left-hemisphere colour area responses were stronger for synaesthetes scoring high on phenomenological localisation and automaticity/attention, while right-hemisphere colour area responses showed a relationship with localisation

  14. Adénocarcinome pulmonaire primitif: expérience d'un centre hospitalier tunisien

    PubMed Central

    Joobeur, Samah; Mribah, Hadhami; Saad, Ahmed Ben; Mhamed, Saoussen Cheikh; Mahou, Houda; Rouatbi, Naceur; El Kamel, Ali

    2015-01-01

    La fréquence de l'adénocarcinome pulmonaire primitif est en nette augmentation au dépend des autres types histologiques de cancer bronchique primitif. En effet, il représente environ 40% des cas des carcinomes bronchiques non à petites cellules (CNPC). Il se distingue par certaines particularités. Décrire les aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques, thérapeutiques et évolutifs de l'adénocarcinome pulmonaire primitif. Etude rétrospective incluant 322 patients porteurs d'adénocarcinome pulmonaire primitif, hospitalisés au service de pneumologie du centre hospitalo-universitaire de Monastir (Tunisie) entre janvier 1990 et septembre 2013. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 59,4 ans. 25,8% sont âgés de moins de 50 ans. Une prédominance masculine (86,3%) a été notée. 81,7% des patients étaient tabagiques. La symptomatologie respiratoire était dominée par la douleur thoracique (57,1%) et la toux (46%). Au moment du diagnostic, 73,3% des patients étaient au stade métastatique. Les localisations secondaires les plus fréquentes étaient le poumon controlatéral (25,5%), la plèvre (21,1%) et l'os (19,25%). La prise en charge thérapeutique s'est basée essentiellement sur la chimiothérapie (48,5% des cas). Seulement 10,3% des patients ont bénéficié d'un traitement chirurgical. La médiane de survie de nos patients était de 6 mois avec une survie à 1 an, 3 ans et 5 ans respectivement de 25,9%, 3,2% et 2%. L'adénocarcinome bronchique primitif est un sous type histologique particulier parmi les cancers broncho-pulmonaires primitifs. Son incidence est en augmentation depuis une vingtaine d'année. Malgré les progrès thérapeutiques, il reste de mauvais pronostic. PMID:26448811

  15. Chromosome-specific physical localisation of expressed sequence tag loci in Corchorus olitorius L.

    PubMed

    Joshi, A; Das, S K; Samanta, P; Paria, P; Sen, S K; Basu, A

    2014-11-01

    Jute (Corchorus spp.), as a natural fibre-producing species, ranks next only to cotton. Inadequate understanding of its genetic architecture is a major lacuna for genetic improvement of this crop in terms of yield and quality. Establishment of a physical map provides a genomic tool that helps in positional cloning of valuable genes. In this report, an attempt was initiated to study association and localisation of single copy expressed sequence tag (EST) loci in the genome of Corchorus olitorius. The chromosome-specific association of EST was determined based on the appearance of an extra signal for a single copy cDNA probe in mitotic interphase nuclei of specific trisomic(s) for fluorescence in situ hybridisation, and validated using a cDNA fragment of the 26S rRNA gene (600 bp) as molecular probe. The probe exhibited three signals in meiotic interphase nuclei of trisomic 5, instead of two as observed in diploids and other trisomics, indicating its association with chromosome 5. Subsequent hybridisation of the same probe on the pachytene chromosomes of diploids confirmed that 26S rRNA occupies the terminal end of the short arm of chromosome 5 in C. olitorius. Subsequently, chromosome-specific association of 63 single copy EST and their physical localisation were determined on chromosomes 2, 4, 5 and 7. The study describes chromosome-specific physical localisation of genes in jute. The approach used here could be a step towards construction of genome-wide physical maps for any recalcitrant plant species like jute. PMID:24628982

  16. Localised slip controlled by dehydration embrittlement of partly serpentinised dunites, Leka Ophiolite Complex, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, Kristina G.; Austrheim, Håkon; Cordonnier, Benoit; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2016-04-01

    Dehydration of serpentinised ultramafic rocks can increase the pore fluid pressure and induce brittle failure; however the extents of strain localisation and unstable frictional sliding are still under debate. Microstructural and mineralogical evidence from dunites of the Leka Ophiolite Complex in the Central Norwegian Caledonides demonstrates that prograde metamorphism of serpentinite veins led to local fluid production and to the growth of large-grained olivine rich in magnetite inclusions. The epitaxial growth of comparatively Fe-poor prograde olivine on Fe-richer relics of primary olivine caused a high variability in Fe-content, even within single crystals. On a larger scale, the average Fe-content of olivine rises towards the vein edges, which reflects a decrease in the degree of initial serpentinisation towards the host rock. The former distribution of serpentine strongly influenced the mechanical response of the rock to the fluid production during deserpentinisation: The faulting caused by the associated dehydration embrittlement occurred along highly localized slip planes in the centres of the meta-serpentinite veins. Around these slip planes, the prograde olivine experienced significant grain size reduction, but very limited shear strain. The strain concentration on narrow faults, also documented by a sharp offset of chromite layers, and the brittle deformation of the surrounding olivine suggest unstable frictional sliding rather than slower creep. This natural example of deserpentinisation-induced embrittlement illustrates that structural heterogeneities in the form of serpentinite veins have first-order controls on strain localisation and frictional sliding. While strain may be distributed during dehydration of a homogeneous serpentinite, as has been observed in recent experimental studies, it may become strongly localised in a heterogeneous rock volume where fluid pressure is locally increased along pre-existing veins. As most of the oceanic lithosphere

  17. Tumour localisation kinetics of photofrin and three synthetic porphyrinoids in an amelanotic melanoma of the hamster.

    PubMed Central

    Leunig, M.; Richert, C.; Gamarra, F.; Lumper, W.; Vogel, E.; Jocham, D.; Goetz, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    In this study the localisation of porphyrinoid photosensitizers in tumours was investigated. To determine if tumour selectivity results from a preferential uptake or prolonged retention of photosensitizers, intravital fluorescence microscopy and chemical extraction were used. Amelanotic melanoma (A-Mel-3) were implanted in a skin fold chamber in Syrian Golden hamsters. Distribution of the porphyrin mixture Photofrin and three porphycenes, pure porphyrinoid model compounds, was studied quantitatively by intravital fluorescence microscopy. Extraction of tissue and blood samples was performed to verify and supplement intravital microscopic results. Photofrin accumulated in melanomas reaching a maximum tumour:skin tissue ratio of 1.7:1. Localisation of the different porphycenes was found to be highly tumour selective (3.2:1), anti-tumour selective (0.2:1), and non-selective (1:1) with increasing polarity of the porphycenes. The two non-tumour selective porphycenes had distinctly accelerated serum and tissue kinetics; serum halflife times being as short as 1 min. The specific localisation of the slowly distributed, tumour selective photosensitizers, occurred exclusively during the distribution from serum and uptake into tissues. For the most selective porphycene, the tumour selection process had a halflife of 260 +/- 150 min and led to a strongly fluorescent tumour edge edema. Accumulation of porphyrines by the amelanotic melanoma (A-Mel-3) can be attributed to an enhanced uptake rate for lipophilic molecules in this subcutaneously growing neoplasm. The slow distribution of the two tumour specific photosensitizers and the strong fluorescence of these hydrophobic molecules in the tumour compartment with a high water content indicate a carrier role of serum proteins in the selection process. Enhanced permeability of the tumour vasculature to macromolecules appears to be the most probable reason for the tumour selectivity of these two sensitisers. Images Figure 6 PMID

  18. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Couples Localised Calcium Influx to Activation of Akt in Central Nerve Terminals.

    PubMed

    Nicholson-Fish, Jessica C; Cousin, Michael A; Smillie, Karen J

    2016-03-01

    The efficient retrieval of synaptic vesicle membrane and cargo in central nerve terminals is dependent on the efficient recruitment of a series of endocytosis modes by different patterns of neuronal activity. During intense neuronal activity the dominant endocytosis mode is activity-dependent endocytosis (ADBE). Triggering of ADBE is linked to calcineurin-mediated dynamin I dephosphorylation since the same stimulation intensities trigger both. Dynamin I dephosphorylation is maximised by a simultaneous inhibition of its kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) by the protein kinase Akt, however it is unknown how increased neuronal activity is transduced into Akt activation. To address this question we determined how the activity-dependent increases in intracellular free calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) control activation of Akt. This was achieved using either trains of high frequency action potentials to evoke localised [Ca(2+)]i increases at active zones, or a calcium ionophore to raise [Ca(2+)]i uniformly across the nerve terminal. Through the use of either non-specific calcium channel antagonists or intracellular calcium chelators we found that Akt phosphorylation (and subsequent GSK3 phosphorylation) was dependent on localised [Ca(2+)]i increases at the active zone. In an attempt to determine mechanism, we antagonised either phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or calmodulin. Activity-dependent phosphorylation of both Akt and GSK3 was arrested on inhibition of PI3K, but not calmodulin. Thus localised calcium influx in central nerve terminals activates PI3K via an unknown calcium sensor to trigger the activity-dependent phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3. PMID:26198194

  19. Advanced situation awareness with localised environmental community observatories in the Future Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabeur, Z. A.; Denis, H.; Nativi, S.

    2012-04-01

    The phenomenal advances in information and communication technologies over the last decade have led to offering unprecedented connectivity with real potentials for "Smart living" between large segments of human populations around the world. In particular, Voluntary Groups(VGs) and individuals with interest in monitoring the state of their local environment can be connected through the internet and collaboratively generate important localised environmental observations. These could be considered as the Community Observatories(CO) of the Future Internet(FI). However, a set of FI enablers are needed to be deployed for these communities to become effective COs in the Future Internet. For example, these communities will require access to services for the intelligent processing of heterogeneous data and capture of advancend situation awarness about the environment. This important enablement will really unlock the communities true potential for participating in localised monitoring of the environment in addition to their contribution in the creation of business entreprise. Among the eight Usage Areas(UA) projects of the FP7 FI-PPP programme, the ENVIROFI Integrated Project focuses on the specifications of the Future Internet enablers of the Environment UA. The specifications are developed under multiple environmental domains in context of users needs for the development of mash-up applications in the Future Internet. It will enable users access to real-time, on-demand fused information with advanced situation awareness about the environment at localised scales. The mash-up applications shall get access to rich spatio-temporal information from structured fusion services which aggregate COs information with existing environmental monitoring stations data, established by research organisations and private entreprise. These applications are being developed in ENVIROFI for the atmospheric, marine and biodiversity domains, together with a potential to be extended to other

  20. Contrasting impacts of localised versus catastrophic oil spills in coastal wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.A.; Codi, S.

    1996-12-31

    A localised oil spill was observed on the wetland marshes bordering a tidal creek near Cairns, Queensland in January 1994. Pollution and conservation issues are of paramount public concern in this region which boarders World Heritage Areas of coral reefs and coastal habitats. Local residents observed oil being dumped from a truck which was contracted to of oil the surface of the roads in the contiguous sugar cane farm for dust control. During this incident several truckloads of mixed waste oil were dumped onto a short section of road and into the wetlands. The oil contaminated a band of marsh 15-30 m wide along approximately 200 m of road. Impacted marsh included Melaleuca forest on the high side of the road and intertidal mangroves on the seaward side. The Queensland Department of Environment (QDE) initiated an impact assessment and directed the trucking company to clean up impacted areas. The extent of damage to wetlands from oil spills is related to the amount and type of oil spilled and the sensitivity of the habitats oiled. QDE asked the Australian Institute of Marine Sciences to assist with their study on the fate of the oil in this localised spill. The initial levels of petroleum hydrocarbons in surface sediments reached 17% of the dry weight in heavily impacted areas. Thus levels were similar to those reached after the catastrophic oil spill in Panama. Clean up efforts and natural dissipation processes reduced sediment hydrocarbon loads to nonacutely toxic levels in only 1.5 years in the intertidal mangroves. High levels remain in the Melaleuca sediments. We used internal molecular markers to detail hydrocarbon dissipation vs degradation. This study provides a contrast between impacts of localised versus catastrophic oil spills in deep mud coastal habitats.

  1. Strain localisation and thermal evolution of a thick ultramylonitic shear zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, Melanie; Hasalova, Pavlina; Weinberg, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    Ultramylonites are the ultimate product of mylonitisation in ductile shear zones where strain causes almost complete recrystallisation of the rock. They are the weakest rock in a shear zone and accommodate high amounts of strain, usually in a relatively narrow band. However, ultramylonitic shear zones hundreds of metres thick are occasionally reported in the literature, indicating inefficient localisation processes. This work describes the >3.5 km thick El Pichao shear zone of the Sierra de Quilmes, a metamorphic complex of the 470 Ma Famatinian orogeny in the Sierras Pampeanas of Argentina. The core to the El Pichao shear zone is a one kilometre thick band of continuous ultramylonite. Although rare, other shear zones of comparable thickness are reported in the literature and are often related to major orogenic fronts. The width of shear zones is determined by plate velocity and rock strength, with greater widths at high velocities and low rock strength. Shear zones widen when the degree of strain localisation decreases. This can be caused by hardening of the shear zone, weakening of the host rock, or an increase in temperature which decreases the yield stress of the rock. There are several mechanisms that can lead to each outcome but these are difficult to determine in studies of shear zones. El Pichao shear zone overprints granulite facies migmatites in the hanging wall, granites in the ultramylonitic shear zone core, and amphibolite facies Grt-schists in the footwall. Field relationships and mineralogy suggest that the migmatitic hanging wall was at higher temperatures during shearing than the ultramylonitic granitic core. Theoretically this makes the migmatites easier to deform than the granite. Additionally, the migmatite is very heterogenous with a mica-rich mesosome and syn-kinematic Qtz-Kfs rich leucosomes making it the ideal site for strain localisation and partitioning between strong and weak phases. Despite this, ultramylonite is localised to the

  2. Long Range Navigation for Mars Rovers Using Sensor-Based Path Planning and Visual Localisation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laubach, Sharon L.; Olson, Clark F.; Burdick, Joel W.; Hayati, Samad

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder mission illustrated the benefits of including a mobile robotic explorer on a planetary mission. However, for future Mars rover missions, significantly increased autonomy in navigation is required in order to meet demanding mission criteria. To address these requirements, we have developed new path planning and localisation capabilities that allow a rover to navigate robustly to a distant landmark. These algorithms have been implemented on the JPL Rocky 7 prototype microrover and have been tested extensively in the JPL MarsYard, as well as in natural terrain.

  3. Fibre Tip Sensors for Localised Temperature Sensing Based on Rare Earth-Doped Glass Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Schartner, Erik P.; Monro, Tanya M.

    2014-01-01

    We report the development of a point temperature sensor, based on monitoring upconversion emission from erbium:ytterbium-doped tellurite coatings on the tips of optical fibres. The dip coating technique allows multiple sensors to be fabricated simultaneously, while confining the temperature-sensitive region to a localised region on the end-face of the fibre. The strong response of the rare earth ions to changing temperature allows a resolution of 0.1–0.3 °C to be recorded over the biologically relevant range of temperatures from 23–39 °C. PMID:25407907

  4. The relationship between localised SAR in the arm and wrist current.

    PubMed

    Dimbylow, P J

    2001-01-01

    Calculations are presented of the specific energy absorption rate, SAR, in the lower arm of the NRPB anatomically realistic voxel model. NORMAN, for induced currents from 100 kHz to 80 MHz. The wrist region has a narrow cross section and contains little high conductivity muscle, comprising mainly low conductivity bone, tendon and fat. Consequently there is a channelling of the current through the high conductivity muscle, which produces high, localised values of the SAR. Values averaged over 10 g and 100 g of tissue are calculated as a function of the current flowing through the wrist. PMID:11572647

  5. Co-localisation studies of Arabidopsis SR splicing factors reveal different types of speckles in plant cell nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Lorkovic, Zdravko J.; Barta, Andrea

    2008-10-15

    SR proteins are multidomain splicing factors which are important for spliceosome assembly and for regulation of alternative splicing. In mammalian nuclei these proteins localise to speckles from where they are recruited to transcription sites. By using fluorescent protein fusion technology and different experimental approaches it has been shown that Arabidopsis SR proteins, in addition to diffuse nucleoplasmic staining, localise into an irregular nucleoplasmic network resembling speckles in mammalian cells. As Arabidopsis SR proteins fall into seven conserved sub-families we investigated co-localisation of members of the different sub-families in transiently transformed tobacco protoplast. Here we demonstrate the new finding that members of different SR protein sub-families localise into distinct populations of nuclear speckles with no, partial or complete co-localisation. This is particularly interesting as we also show that these proteins do interact in a yeast two-hybrid assay as well as in pull-down and in co-immunopreciptiation assays. Our data raise the interesting possibility that SR proteins are partitioned into distinct populations of nuclear speckles to allow a more specific recruitment to the transcription/pre-mRNA processing sites of particular genes depending on cell type and developmental stage.

  6. Detection and cellular localisation of the synthetic soluble macromolecular drug carrier pHPMA.

    PubMed

    Kissel, Maria; Peschke, Peter; Subr, Vladimir; Ulbrich, Karel; Strunz, Anke M; Kühnlein, Rainer; Debus, Jürgen; Friedrich, Eckhard

    2002-08-01

    Synthetic macromolecules such as copolymers of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (pHPMA) are potential carriers for the delivery of drugs owing to their ability to passively accumulate in solid tumours [enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect]. To gain further knowledge about the biodistribution and the cellular localisation, poly(HPMA) was prepared for labelling by introducing biotin molecules. Biotinylated pHPMA (5 mol%) was intravenously injected into tumour-bearing rats and the accumulation of biotin-pHPMA was visualised using a streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase technique at day 7 post injection. In spite of the high solubility of pHPMA copolymers and the lack of attachment to cell structures, the biotinylated polymer could be easily detected in tissues fixed in 10% paraformaldehyde-phosphate buffer at 4 degrees C for 48 h. While biotin-pHPMA could be detected intracytoplasmically in liver and spleen, a predominantly interstitial localisation was observed within the anaplastic prostate carcinoma (Dunning R3327-AT1). How biotin as a label influences the biodistribution of poly(HPMA) was assessed by scintigraphy, autoradiography and histology comparing homopolymer poly(HPMA) with biotin-pHPMA. The organ distribution patterns of the two polymers correlated well, except with respect to kidney. It is assumed that the accumulation of biotin-pHPMA in the distal tubuli is due to a biotin transporter in the brush border membrane. The technique presented is useful for a more comprehensive understanding of the biodistribution of soluble macromolecules. PMID:12173020

  7. Aseptic necrosis at multiple localisations in a lupus patient with lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bazso, A; Bazso, T; Szodoray, P; Poor, G; Kiss, E

    2014-04-01

    Avascular or aseptic necrosis is a well-defined entity leading to the degradation of cellular elements of the bone. The pathogenesis of osteonecrosis (ON) is still unknown. There are two main types of ON: traumatic or non-traumatic. Several clinical entities could associate with ON, systemic diseases, environmental factors, pregnancy, systemic autoimmune or rheumatic diseases, thrombophilia, corticosteroid therapy, cytotoxic dugs, infections, metabolic and hematologic diseases, etc. Corticosteroids (CS) are still the most frequently used therapeutic options in the early phase and during flares of these diseases. Inflammatory cytokines and antibodies have been described to participate in the pathogenesis of ON. The infiltrative disorders of the bone marrow could also contribute to the development of ON. Hereby, we describe a female patient with NHL followed by SLE in whom ON has developed at least in two localisations. Lupus flare, long-term CS therapy, lymphoma relapse or the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies were excluded. Although the bi-localised ON could be contributed to immunologic factors or trauma, the exact aetiology in this case could not be elucidated. PMID:24297095

  8. Rare events statistics of random walks on networks: localisation and other dynamical phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bacco, Caterina; Guggiola, Alberto; Kühn, Reimer; Paga, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    Rare event statistics for random walks on complex networks are investigated using the large deviation formalism. Within this formalism, rare events are realised as typical events in a suitably deformed path-ensemble, and their statistics can be studied in terms of spectral properties of a deformed Markov transition matrix. We observe two different types of phase transition in such systems: (i) rare events which are singled out for sufficiently large values of the deformation parameter may correspond to localised modes of the deformed transition matrix; (ii) ‘mode-switching transitions’ may occur as the deformation parameter is varied. Details depend on the nature of the observable for which the rare event statistics is studied, as well as on the underlying graph ensemble. In the present paper we report results on rare events statistics for path averages of random walks in Erdős–Rényi and scale free networks. Large deviation rate functions and localisation properties are studied numerically. For observables of the type considered here, we also derive an analytical approximation for the Legendre transform of the large deviation rate function, which is valid in the large connectivity limit. It is found to agree well with simulations.

  9. Axial super-localisation using rotating point spread functions shaped by polarisation-dependent phase modulation.

    PubMed

    Roider, Clemens; Jesacher, Alexander; Bernet, Stefan; Ritsch-Marte, Monika

    2014-02-24

    We present an approach for point spread function (PSF) engineering that allows one to shape the optical wavefront independently in both polarisation directions, with two adjacent phase masks displayed on a single liquid-crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM). The set-up employs a polarising beam splitter and a geometric image rotator to rectify and process both polarisation directions detected by the camera. We shape a single-lobe ("corkscrew") PSF that rotates upon defocus for each polarisation channel and combine the two polarisation channels with a relative 180° phase-shift on the computer, merging them into a single PSF that exhibits two lobes whose orientation contains information about the axial position. A major advantage lies in the possibility to measure and eliminate the aberrations in the two polarisation channels independently. We demonstrate axial super-localisation of isotropically emitting fluorescent nanoparticles. Our implementation of the single-lobe PSFs follows the method proposed by Prasad [Opt. Lett.38, 585 (2013)], and thus is to the best of our knowledge the first experimental realisation of this suggestion. For comparison we also study an approach with a rotating double-helix PSFs (in only one polarisation channel) and ascertain the trade-off between localisation precision and axial working range. PMID:24663724

  10. Hetergeneous tumour response to photodynamic therapy assessed by in vivo localised 31P NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Ceckler, T. L.; Gibson, S. L.; Kennedy, S. D.; Hill, R.; Bryant, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is efficacious in the treatment of small malignant lesions when all cells in the tumour receive sufficient drug, oxygen and light to induce a photodynamic effect capable of complete cytotoxicity. In large tumours, only partial effectiveness is observed presumably because of insufficient light penetration into the tissue. The heterogeneity of the metabolic response in mammary tumours following PDT has been followed in vivo using localised phosphorus NMR spectroscopy. Alterations in nucleoside triphosphates (NTP), inorganic phosphate (Pi) and pH within localised regions of the tumour were monitored over 24-48 h following PDT irradiation of the tumour. Reduction of NTP and increases in Pi were observed at 4-6 h after PDT irradiation in all regions of treated tumours. The uppermost regions of the tumours (those nearest the skin surface and exposed to the greatest light fluence) displayed the greatest and most prolonged reduction of NTP and concomitant increase in Pi resulting in necrosis. The metabolite concentrations in tumour regions located towards the base of the tumour returned a near pre-treatment levels by 24-48 h after irradiation. The ability to follow heterogeneous metabolic responses in situ provides one means to assess the degree of metabolic inhibition which subsequently leads to tumour necrosis. Images Figure 4 PMID:1829953

  11. A Review of Non-Invasive Techniques to Detect and Predict Localised Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mulla, Mohamed R.; Sepulveda, Francisco; Colley, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is an established area of research and various types of muscle fatigue have been investigated in order to fully understand the condition. This paper gives an overview of the various non-invasive techniques available for use in automated fatigue detection, such as mechanomyography, electromyography, near-infrared spectroscopy and ultrasound for both isometric and non-isometric contractions. Various signal analysis methods are compared by illustrating their applicability in real-time settings. This paper will be of interest to researchers who wish to select the most appropriate methodology for research on muscle fatigue detection or prediction, or for the development of devices that can be used in, e.g., sports scenarios to improve performance or prevent injury. To date, research on localised muscle fatigue focuses mainly on the clinical side. There is very little research carried out on the implementation of detecting/predicting fatigue using an autonomous system, although recent research on automating the process of localised muscle fatigue detection/prediction shows promising results. PMID:22163810

  12. New sites of localisation of Pasteurella multocida B:2 in buffalo surviving experimental haemorrhagic septicaemia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute septicaemic disease of buffalo and cattle caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2 and E:2. Field outbreaks of HS are known to result in localisation of bacteria in the tonsils of surviving buffalo, confirming that animals can become carriers and the role of respiratory tract in the transmission of the disease. This report describes additional sites of localisation of P. multocida B:2 in surviving buffalo following experimental induction of HS. Results Following P. multocida B:2 infection, all calves in group 1 and one calf in group 2 that was allowed to commingle with infected calves from group 1 were euthanised within 48 h. Pasteurella multocida B:2 was detected from the nasal and rectal swab samples on days 5 and 6 from the remaining calves in group 2. The first injection of dexamethasone into the carrier animals resulted in reemergence in samples from the nose, rectum and vagina. However, subsequent dexamethasone injections failed to re-activate P. multocida B:2. When surviving carrier calves in group 2 were euthanised at the end of the experiment, P. multocida B:2 was detected in the lungs and various organs of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. Conclusions Commingling naive buffalo calves with calves acutely infected with P. multocida B:2 resulted in carriers among surviving buffalo. Pasteurella was found in various organs of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, suggesting their role in the pathogenesis of HS. PMID:24721163

  13. Percutaneous Trucut lung biopsy in the diagnosis of localised pulmonary lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, B D; Thorpe, R S; Kitchener, P G; McCann, B G; Pilling, J R

    1984-01-01

    In a prospective evaluation of percutaneous Trucut needle biopsy for localised intrathoracic lesions in 89 patients histological specimens were obtained in 81. Malignancy was diagnosed in 66 cases. Subsequently definitive histological reports were available in 18 of these patients with complete concordance of malignant cell type. Sixteen patients had non-malignant histological appearances, which were later confirmed objectively in six. In three patients there was no follow up information, but in the remainder the clinical course was entirely consistent with the histological appearances of the biopsy specimens. Adequate specimens were obtained from only two of the five lesions less than 2 cm in diameter. Lesions deeper than 8 cm from the site of biopsy were associated with significantly more haemorrhagic complications than more superficial lesions. Comparison with other series indicates that Trucut needle biopsy which produces histological specimens has greater diagnostic accuracy than cytological techniques for both malignant and non-malignant localised lesions. It is concluded that this technique has a definite place in the investigation of this common problem in carefully selected patients provided that strict attention is paid to the details of the technique. PMID:6463928

  14. Histochemical Localisation of Carbonic Anhydrase in the Inner Ear of developing Cichlid Fish, Oreochromis mossambicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beier, M.; Hilbig, R.; Anken, R.

    Inner ear otolith growth in terms of mineralisation mainly depends on the enzyme carbonic anhydrase CA CA is located in specialised mitochondria-rich macular cells ionocytes which are involved in the endolymphatic ion exchange and the enzyme is responsible for the provision of the pH-value necessary for otolithic calcium carbonate deposition In the present study for the first time the localisation of histochemically demonstrated CA was analysed during the early larval development of a teleost the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus CA-reactivity was observed already in stage 7 animals onset of otocyst development staging follows Anken et al Zool Anz 231 1-10 1993 Neuroblasts from which sensory and supporting cells as well as ionocytes are derived proved to be CA positive Already at stage 12 hatch CA-positive regions could be attributed to ionocyte containg regions both in the so-called meshwork and patches area of the macula i e clearly before ionocytes can be identified on ultrastructural level or by employing immunocytochemistry In contrast to the circumstances observed in mammalian species sensory hair cells stained negative for CA in the cichlid With the onset of stage 16 finray primordia in dorsal fin yolk-sac being increasingly absorbed CA-reactivity was observed in the vestibular nerve This indicates the onset of myelinisation and thus commencement of operation The localisation of CA in the inner ear of fish especially the differences in comparison to mammals is discussed on the basis of its role in otolith

  15. Sensorimotor representation and knowledge-based reasoning for spatial exploration and localisation.

    PubMed

    Zetzsche, C; Wolter, J; Schill, K

    2008-12-01

    We investigate a hybrid system for autonomous exploration and navigation, and implement it in a virtual mobile agent, which operates in virtual spatial environments. The system is based on several distinguishing properties. The representation is not map-like, but based on sensorimotor features, i.e. on combinations of sensory features and motor actions. The system has a hybrid architecture, which integrates a bottom-up processing of sensorimotor features with a top-down, knowledge-based reasoning strategy. This strategy selects the optimal motor action in each step according to the principle of maximum information gain. Two sensorimotor levels with different behavioural granularity are implemented, a macro-level, which controls the movements of the agent in space, and a micro-level, which controls its eye movements. At each level, the same type of hybrid architecture and the same principle of information gain are used for sensorimotor control. The localisation performance of the system is tested with large sets of virtual rooms containing different mixtures of unique and non-unique objects. The results demonstrate that the system efficiently performs those exploratory motor actions that yield a maximum amount of information about the current environment. Localisation is typically achieved within a few steps. Furthermore, the computational complexity of the underlying computations is limited, and the system is robust with respect to minor variations in the spatial environments. PMID:18461375

  16. Correlative and integrated light and electron microscopy of in-resin GFP fluorescence, used to localise diacylglycerol in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Peddie, Christopher J; Blight, Ken; Wilson, Emma; Melia, Charlotte; Marrison, Jo; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Domart, Marie-Charlotte; O'Toole, Peter; Larijani, Banafshe; Collinson, Lucy M

    2014-08-01

    Fluorescence microscopy of GFP-tagged proteins is a fundamental tool in cell biology, but without seeing the structure of the surrounding cellular space, functional information can be lost. Here we present a protocol that preserves GFP and mCherry fluorescence in mammalian cells embedded in resin with electron contrast to reveal cellular ultrastructure. Ultrathin in-resin fluorescence (IRF) sections were imaged simultaneously for fluorescence and electron signals in an integrated light and scanning electron microscope. We show, for the first time, that GFP is stable and active in resin sections in vacuo. We applied our protocol to study the subcellular localisation of diacylglycerol (DAG), a modulator of membrane morphology and membrane dynamics in nuclear envelope assembly. We show that DAG is localised to the nuclear envelope, nucleoplasmic reticulum and curved tips of the Golgi apparatus. With these developments, we demonstrate that integrated imaging is maturing into a powerful tool for accurate molecular localisation to structure. PMID:24637200

  17. Correlative and integrated light and electron microscopy of in-resin GFP fluorescence, used to localise diacylglycerol in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Peddie, Christopher J.; Blight, Ken; Wilson, Emma; Melia, Charlotte; Marrison, Jo; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Domart, Marie-Charlotte; O׳Toole, Peter; Larijani, Banafshe; Collinson, Lucy M.

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy of GFP-tagged proteins is a fundamental tool in cell biology, but without seeing the structure of the surrounding cellular space, functional information can be lost. Here we present a protocol that preserves GFP and mCherry fluorescence in mammalian cells embedded in resin with electron contrast to reveal cellular ultrastructure. Ultrathin in-resin fluorescence (IRF) sections were imaged simultaneously for fluorescence and electron signals in an integrated light and scanning electron microscope. We show, for the first time, that GFP is stable and active in resin sections in vacuo. We applied our protocol to study the subcellular localisation of diacylglycerol (DAG), a modulator of membrane morphology and membrane dynamics in nuclear envelope assembly. We show that DAG is localised to the nuclear envelope, nucleoplasmic reticulum and curved tips of the Golgi apparatus. With these developments, we demonstrate that integrated imaging is maturing into a powerful tool for accurate molecular localisation to structure. PMID:24637200

  18. Using Local Second Gradient Model and Shear Strain Localisation to Model the Excavation Damaged Zone in Unsaturated Claystone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardoen, Benoît; Levasseur, Séverine; Collin, Frédéric

    2015-03-01

    The drilling of galleries induces damage propagation in the surrounding medium and creates, around them, the excavation damaged zone (EDZ). The prediction of the extension and fracture structure of this zone remains a major issue, especially in the context of underground nuclear waste storage. Experimental studies on geomaterials indicate that localised deformation in shear band mode usually appears prior to fractures. Thus, the excavation damaged zone can be modelled by considering the development of shear strain localisation bands. In the classical finite element framework, strain localisation suffers a mesh-dependency problem. Therefore, an enhanced model with a regularisation method is required to correctly model the strain localisation behaviour. Among the existing methods, we choose the coupled local second gradient model. We extend it to unsaturated conditions and we include the solid grain compressibility. Furthermore, air ventilation inside underground galleries engenders a rock-atmosphere interaction that could influence the damaged zone. This interaction has to be investigated in order to predict the damaged zone behaviour. Finally, a hydro-mechanical modelling of a gallery excavation in claystone is presented and leads to a fairly good representation of the EDZ. The main objectives of this study are to model the fractures by considering shear strain localisation bands, and to investigate if an isotropic model accurately reproduces the in situ measurements. The numerical results provide information about the damaged zone extension, structure and behaviour that are in very good agreement with in situ measurements and observations. For instance, the strain localisation bands that develop in chevron pattern during the excavation and rock desaturation, due to air ventilation, are observed close to the gallery.

  19. Improving the performance of monocular visual simultaneous localisation and mapping through the use of a gimballed camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Playle, Nicholas

    In this thesis modern vision based localisation methods are discussed and contrasted with existing satellite based approaches. Shortcomings are noted and potential solutions are highlighted. A novel method of using a gimballed camera to perform visual Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM) is proposed, along with a control algorithm to point the camera toward feature dense regions. This method is then modularly coupled with existing visual SLAM techniques allowing seamless integration across different platforms. Ground tests are performed to verify operation of the gimbal controller and rotation inverser. Results from experimental flight tests are incorporated as a final means of obtaining information to verify gimbal operation.

  20. Regional localisation of 19 brain expressed sequence tags to human chromosome 11 using PCR amplification of somatic cell hybrid DNAs.

    PubMed

    Slorach, E M; Polymeropoulos, M H; Evans, K L; Seawright, A; Fletcher, J M; Porteous, D J; Brookes, A J

    1995-01-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) provide an efficient route to the identification of genes involved in normal development and in disease. PCR amplification of somatic cell hybrid DNAs was used to localise 22 brain-derived ESTs to subregions of human chromosome 11. Problems encountered with the standardised PCR conditions were overcome by optimising the annealing temperatures and the use of "touchdown" PCR. Amplification of the correct target sequence allowed the mapping of 19 ESTs, 8 to the short arm and 11 to the long arm of chromosome 11. No definitive localisation could be determined for the three remaining ESTs. PMID:7736794

  1. Progress in neutron capture therapy for cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, B.J.; Harrington, B.V.; Moore, D.E.

    1992-09-01

    Prognosis for some cancers is good, but for others, few patients will survive 12 months. This latter group of cancers is characterised by a proclivity to disseminate malignant cells in the host organ. In some cases systemic metastases occur, but in other cases, failure to achieve local control results in death. First among these cancers are the high grade brain tumours, astrocytoma 3,4 and glioblastoma multiforme. Local control of these tumors should lead to cure. Other cancers melanoma metastatic to the brain, for which a useful palliative therapy is not yet available, and pancreatic cancer for which localised control at an early stage could bring about improved prognosis. Patients with these cancers have little grounds for hope. Our primary objective is to reverse this situation with Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT). The purpose of this fourth symposium is to hasten the day whereby patients with these cancers can reasonably hope for substantial remissions.

  2. Progress in neutron capture therapy for cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, B.J.; Harrington, B.V. ); Moore, D.E. )

    1992-01-01

    Prognosis for some cancers is good, but for others, few patients will survive 12 months. This latter group of cancers is characterised by a proclivity to disseminate malignant cells in the host organ. In some cases systemic metastases occur, but in other cases, failure to achieve local control results in death. First among these cancers are the high grade brain tumours, astrocytoma 3,4 and glioblastoma multiforme. Local control of these tumors should lead to cure. Other cancers melanoma metastatic to the brain, for which a useful palliative therapy is not yet available, and pancreatic cancer for which localised control at an early stage could bring about improved prognosis. Patients with these cancers have little grounds for hope. Our primary objective is to reverse this situation with Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT). The purpose of this fourth symposium is to hasten the day whereby patients with these cancers can reasonably hope for substantial remissions.

  3. Cancer Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  4. CARTOGAM - a portable gamma camera for remote localisation of radioactive sources in nuclear facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, O.; Izac, C.; Jean, F.; Lainé, F.; Lévêque, C.; Nguyen, A.

    2001-03-01

    We have developed a compact gamma-imaging system, CARTOGAM, for remote localisation of radioactive sources in nuclear facilities. This system is under industrial development and commercialisation by the firm EURISYS Mesures. The most specific characteristics of CARTOGAM lie in its size (8 cm in diameter) and mass (15 kg for the detection head, including the shield), which make it portable by a person. As an example, CARTOGAM detects a 660 keV source producing a 0.4 μGy/h dose rate at the camera location in 10 min. The angular resolution at that energy ranges from 1° to 3°, depending on the field of view (30° or 50°) and scintillator thickness (2 or 4 mm). We present here a review of the specifications of the camera and show a few images illustrating its performance.

  5. Globalisation, localisation and implications of a transforming nursing workforce in New Zealand: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Callister, Paul; Badkar, Juthika; Didham, Robert

    2011-09-01

    Severe staff and skill shortages within the health systems of developed countries have contributed to increased migration by health professionals. New Zealand stands out among countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development in terms of the high level of movements in and out of the country of skilled professionals, including nurses. In New Zealand, much attention has been given to increasing the number of Māori and Pacific nurses as one mechanism for improving Māori and Pacific health. Against a backdrop of the changing characteristics of the New Zealand nursing workforce, this study demonstrates that the globalisation of the nursing workforce is increasing at a faster rate than its localisation (as measured by the growth of the Māori and New Zealand-born Pacific workforces in New Zealand). This challenges the implementation of culturally appropriate nursing programmes based on the matching of nurse and client ethnicities. PMID:21790871

  6. Distinguishing cause from correlation in tokamak experiments to trigger edge-localised plasma instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, Anthony J.

    2014-11-15

    The generic question is considered: How can we determine the probability of an otherwise quasi-random event, having been triggered by an external influence? A specific problem is the quantification of the success of techniques to trigger, and hence control, edge-localised plasma instabilities (ELMs) in magnetically confined fusion (MCF) experiments. The development of such techniques is essential to ensure tolerable heat loads on components in large MCF fusion devices, and is necessary for their development into economically successful power plants. Bayesian probability theory is used to rigorously formulate the problem and to provide a formal solution. Accurate but pragmatic methods are developed to estimate triggering probabilities, and are illustrated with experimental data. These allow results from experiments to be quantitatively assessed, and rigorously quantified conclusions to be formed. Example applications include assessing whether triggering of ELMs is a statistical or deterministic process, and the establishment of thresholds to ensure that ELMs are reliably triggered.

  7. Localisation of an Unknown Number of Land Mines Using a Network of Vapour Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Chhadé, Hiba Haj; Abdallah, Fahed; Mougharbel, Imad; Gning, Amadou; Julier, Simon; Mihaylova, Lyudmila

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of localising an unknown number of land mines using concentration information provided by a wireless sensor network. A number of vapour sensors/detectors, deployed in the region of interest, are able to detect the concentration of the explosive vapours, emanating from buried land mines. The collected data is communicated to a fusion centre. Using a model for the transport of the explosive chemicals in the air, we determine the unknown number of sources using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA)-based technique. We also formulate the inverse problem of determining the positions and emission rates of the land mines using concentration measurements provided by the wireless sensor network. We present a solution for this problem based on a probabilistic Bayesian technique using a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling scheme, and we compare it to the least squares optimisation approach. Experiments conducted on simulated data show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:25384008

  8. Strain localisation and thermal evolution of a thick ultramylonitic shear zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, M.; Hasalova, P.; Weinberg, R. F.

    2013-12-01

    Ultramylonites are the ultimate result of mylonitisation in a ductile shear zone. They accommodate high amounts of strain because they are the weakest rock in the shear zone and usually form thin bands within rocks of lower strain (mylonites and protomylonites). Thick ultramylonites are rare; where they are reported in the literature they are up to a few hundred metres thick and indicate inefficient localisation processes. This work describes an ultramylonitic shear zone within the Sierras Pampeanas of Argentina: the El Pichao shear zone. The shear zone is part of the 470 Ma Sierra de Quilmes, a metamorphic complex of the Famatinian orogeny. The El Pichao shear zone is >3.5-km thick and contains a 1-km core of continuous ultramylonite. Globally, shear zones of similar width are rare and where reported are related to major orogenic fronts. Shear zone width is determined by plate velocity and rock strength, such that greater widths occur at high velocities and lower rock strengths. Shear zones widen when the degree of strain localisation decreases which can be caused by weakening of the host rock, hardening of the shear zone, or a decrease in the yield stress of the rock due to an increase in temperature. Different mechanisms lead to each of these processes and their determination is difficult in studies of shear zones. El Pichao shear zone overprints amphibolite faces Grt-schists in the footwall, granites in the ultramylonitic shear zone core, and migmatites in the hanging wall. Syn-kinematic anatexis in the migmatitic hanging wall indicates that the migmatites should have been weaker during shearing than the crystallised granite which formed the protolith to the ultramylonitic core. Additionally, the migmatites are very heterogenous with mica-rich melanosomes and syn-kinematic Qtz-Fsp leucosomes, making them the ideal site for strain localisation and strain partitioning between weaker and stronger phases. However, strain localised to the granite of the

  9. Localisation of CD10 to biliary canaliculi by immunoelectron microscopical examination.

    PubMed Central

    Loke, S L; Leung, C Y; Chiu, K Y; Yau, W L; Cheung, K N; Ma, L

    1990-01-01

    Common acute lymphoblastic leukaemia antigen (CALLA) was first characterised in lymphoid leukaemic cells. The antigen is present in different stages of lymphoid cell differentiation as well as in subsets of myeloid cells, and further studies have also shown its presence in non-lymphoid tissues. The recent cloning and sequencing of the gene permitted deduction of its amino acid sequence which is identical with the human membrane-associated enzyme, neutral endopeptidase. Strong immunostaining for CALLA was detected in the human liver with a canalicular pattern. Immunoelectron microscopy also confirmed that the antigen was localised only in the area of the bile canaliculi. Although the function of neutral endopeptidase in the canaliculi is unknown, this antigen may prove useful in the study of biliary function and diseases. Images PMID:2144860

  10. Characterisation of a novel proteolytic enzyme localised to goblet cells in rat and man.

    PubMed Central

    Nexø, E; Poulsen, S S; Hansen, S N; Kirkegaard, P; Olsen, P S

    1984-01-01

    A proteolytic enzyme, ingobsin , purified from rat duodenal extracts is shown to be localised to intestinal goblet cells of both man and rat. Enzyme positive cells decrease in number from duodenum to colon. The enzyme is a 33 000 Mr protein with an isoelectric point of 5.1. The pH optimum for enzymatic activity is 7.4-8.0. Based on substrate specificity for arg-x, lys-x and to a lesser degree tyr-x, on the effect of diisopropylphosphorofluoride , Trasylol and phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride and on proteolytic activity towards intact proteins, ingobsin is classified as a serine proteinase with endoproteolytic activity. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 PMID:6735249

  11. Imaging cellular structures in super-resolution with SIM, STED and Localisation Microscopy: A practical comparison

    PubMed Central

    Wegel, Eva; Göhler, Antonia; Lagerholm, B. Christoffer; Wainman, Alan; Uphoff, Stephan; Kaufmann, Rainer; Dobbie, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    Many biological questions require fluorescence microscopy with a resolution beyond the diffraction limit of light. Super-resolution methods such as Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM), STimulated Emission Depletion (STED) microscopy and Single Molecule Localisation Microscopy (SMLM) enable an increase in image resolution beyond the classical diffraction-limit. Here, we compare the individual strengths and weaknesses of each technique by imaging a variety of different subcellular structures in fixed cells. We chose examples ranging from well separated vesicles to densely packed three dimensional filaments. We used quantitative and correlative analyses to assess the performance of SIM, STED and SMLM with the aim of establishing a rough guideline regarding the suitability for typical applications and to highlight pitfalls associated with the different techniques. PMID:27264341

  12. Separation and Localisation of P300 Sources and Their Subcomponents Using Constrained Blind Source Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyrou, Loukianos; Jing, Min; Sanei, Saeid; Sumich, Alex

    2006-12-01

    Separation and localisation of P300 sources and their constituent subcomponents for both visual and audio stimulations is investigated in this paper. An effective constrained blind source separation (CBSS) algorithm is developed for this purpose. The algorithm is an extension of the Infomax BSS system for which a measure of distance between a carefully measured P300 and the estimated sources is used as a constraint. During separation, the proposed CBSS method attempts to extract the corresponding P300 signals. The locations of the corresponding sources are then estimated with some indeterminancy in the results. It can be seen that the locations of the sources change for a schizophrenic patient. The experimental results verify the statistical significance of the method and its potential application in the diagnosis and monitoring of schizophrenia.

  13. Localisation of the monocyte-binding region on human immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Woof, J M; Partridge, L J; Jefferis, R; Burton, D R

    1986-03-01

    Earlier studies, which provided indirect evidence for the involvement of the C gamma 2 domain of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) in human immunoglobulin G (IgG) in human monocyte binding, have been extended to further localise the site of interaction on human IgG. A number of IgGs from several different species and fragments of human IgGs were assayed for ability to inhibit the interaction of radio-labelled human IgG and the human monocyte. By comparison of the amino-acid sequences of those IgGs found to exhibit relatively tight, intermediate or weak binding to human monocyte Fc receptors we are able to postulate a possible monocyte-binding site on human IgG. In addition, the results have implications for the applicability of monoclonal antibodies and antisera when used in the presence of human monocytes and possibly macrophages. PMID:3487030

  14. Localised strain sensing of dielectric elastomers in a stretchable soft-touch musical keyboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Daniel; Tairych, Andreas; Anderson, Iain A.

    2015-04-01

    We present a new sensing method that can measure the strain at different locations in a dielectric elastomer. The method uses multiple sensing frequencies to target different regions of the same dielectric elastomer to simultaneously detect position and pressure using only a single pair of connections. The dielectric elastomer is modelled as an RC transmission line and its internal voltage and current distribution used to determine localised capacitance changes resulting from contact and pressure. This sensing method greatly simplifies high degree of freedom systems and does not require any modifications to the dielectric elastomer or sensing hardware. It is demonstrated on a multi-touch musical keyboard made from a single low cost carbon-based dielectric elastomer with 4 distinct musical tones mapped along a length of 0.1m. Loudness was controlled by the amount of pressure applied to each of these 4 positions.

  15. La synovite villonodulaire de la cheville, une localisation rare: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Benabbouha, Abdellatif; Basinga, Jonathan; Anteri, Ismail; Jaafar, Abdelouab

    2016-01-01

    La synovite villonodulaire (SVN) est une prolifération pseudotumorale bénigne rare de la synoviale articulaire, d’étiologie inconnue. Elle peut aussi se développer au sein des bourses séreuses, des gaines tendineuses. Généralement, elle atteint les grosses articulations notamment le genou et la hanche. La localisation de la cheville est rare, avec seulement quelques cas publiés dans la littérature. Nous rapportons un cas de patiente de 52 ans présentant une SVN de la cheville droite. Elle a bénéficié d'une synovectomie subtotale. A deux ans de recul, il n'y avait pas de récidive clinique. PMID:27231502

  16. Sneeze related area in the medulla: localisation of the human sneezing centre?

    PubMed Central

    Seijo‐Martínez, M; Varela‐Freijanes, A; Grandes, J; Vázquez, F

    2006-01-01

    Sneezing is a rarely explored symptom in neurological practice. In the cat, a sneeze evoking centre is located in the medulla. The existence of a sneezing centre has not been confirmed in humans. A case with abnormal sneezing secondary to a strategic infarct in the right latero‐medullary region is presented. A 66 year old man suddenly presented paroxysmal sneezing followed by ataxia, right sided motor and sensory symptoms, and hoarseness. The application of stimuli to the right nasal fossa did not evoke sneezing nor the wish to sneeze. The same stimuli to the contralateral nasal fossa evoked normal sneezing. The preservation of the superficial sensitivity of the nasal fossa indicates that the lesion was localised in the hypothetical human sneezing centre, very close to the spinal trigeminal tract and nucleus. This centre appears to be bilateral and functionally independent on both sides. PMID:16354739

  17. Progressive strain localisation along the India/Eurasia oblique collision in Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangin, C.; Chamot-Rooke, N.

    2003-04-01

    Since the Eocene, India is brushing the western margin of Indochina (Eurasia), inducing during most of the Cenozoic a 100km wide shear zone marked in central Myanmar by a series of pull-part basins deposited on a stretched metamorphic continental crust. This transtensive dextral motion was followed by dominant dextral transpression active between 10 and 8 Ma. The Central Myanmar basins are inverted along SW and NE verging thrusts, and both western and eastern margins (Arakan Yoma and Shan scarp) indicate dextral wrenching and uplift. Oceanic spreading in the Andaman Basin is post-Pliocene, indicating a major shift from distributed intra-continental extension to localised spreading ridge segments accretion. At present-time, India-Eurasia oblique motion is accommodated partly along the dextral Sagaing fault and partly along the Indo-Burma ranges. The tectonic framework thus seems to have evolved through time from distributed to localised deformation, involving today a small number of active faults. Dextral shearing has preferentially developed on both sides of the stretched Central Myanmar basins. We describe first the ductile and brittle fabrics that can be observed in the exhumed metamorphic rocks exposed along the Shan scarp and in the Mogok metamorphic belt (MMB). The MMB is characterised by a dominant NNW-SSE trending extension marked by ductile stretching structures and associated N070 brittle normal faults linked to the opening of the Central Basins in the Myanmar Lowlands. Later, from Late Miocene to present, inversion of these basins occurred, and these ductile and brittle fabrics were dissected by strike-slip transpressive right-lateral faults that form the Shan Scarp Fault Zone (SSFZ) associated with the active strike-slip Sagaing Fault. The Late Miocene transition between a dominant transtensive to a rather transpressive stress regime is apparently coeval with incipient intraplate deformation in the Indian Ocean. Both events could be the response to a

  18. Evaluation of cytotoxicity profile and intracellular localisation of doxorubicin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Souto, Gabriele Dadalt; Farhane, Zeineb; Casey, Alan; Efeoglu, Esen; McIntyre, Jennifer; Byrne, Hugh James

    2016-08-01

    In the emerging field of nanomedicine, targeted delivery of nanoparticle encapsulated active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) is seen as a potential significant development, promising improved pharmacokinetics and reduced side effects. In this context, understanding the cellular uptake of the nanoparticles and subsequent subcellular distribution of the API is of critical importance. Doxorubicin (DOX) was encapsulated within chitosan nanoparticles to investigate its intracellular delivery in A549 cells in vitro. Unloaded (CS-TPP) and doxorubicin-loaded (DOX-CS-TPP) chitosan nanoparticles were characterised for size (473 ± 41 nm), polydispersity index (0.3 ± 0.2), zeta potential (34 ± 4 mV), drug content (76 ± 7 μM) and encapsulation efficiency (95 ± 1 %). The cytotoxic response to DOX-CS-TPP was substantially stronger than to CS-TPP, although weaker than that of the equivalent free DOX. Fluorescence microscopy showed a dissimilar pattern of distribution of DOX within the cell, being predominantly localised in the nucleus for free form and in cytoplasm for DOX-CS-TPP. Confocal microscopy demonstrated endosomal localisation of DOX-CS-TPP. Numerical simulations, based on a rate equation model to describe the uptake and distribution of the free DOX, nanoparticles and DOX-loaded nanoparticles within the cells and the subsequent dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic responses, were used to further elucidate the API distribution processes. The study demonstrates that encapsulation of the API in nanoparticles results in a delayed release of the drug to the cell, resulting in a delayed cellular response. This work further demonstrates the potential of mathematical modelling in combination with intracellular imaging techniques to visualise and further understand the intracellular mechanisms of action of external agents, both APIs and nanoparticles in cells. PMID:27225177

  19. Localisation of laminin within Plasmodium berghei oocysts and the midgut epithelial cells of Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Nacer, Adéla; Walker, Karen; Hurd, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    Background Oocysts of the malaria parasite form and develop in close proximity to the mosquito midgut basal lamina and it has been proposed that components of this structure play a crucial role in the development and maturation of oocysts that produce infective sporozoites. It is further suggested that oocysts incorporate basal lamina proteins into their capsule and that this provides them with a means to evade recognition by the mosquito's immune system. The site of production of basal lamina proteins in insects is controversial and it is still unclear whether haemocytes or midgut epithelial cells are the main source of components of the mosquito midgut basal lamina. Of the multiple molecules that compose the basal lamina, laminin is known to interact with a number of Plasmodium proteins. In this study, the localisation of mosquito laminin within the capsule and cytoplasm of Plasmodium berghei oocysts and in the midgut epithelial cells of Anopheles stephensi was investigated. Results An ultrastructural examination of midgut sections from infected and uninfected An. stephensi was performed. Post-embedded immunogold labelling demonstrated the presence of laminin within the mosquito basal lamina. Laminin was also detected on the outer surface of the oocyst capsule, incorporated within the capsule and associated with sporozoites forming within the oocysts. Laminin was also found within cells of the midgut epithelium, providing support for the hypothesis that these cells contribute towards the formation of the midgut basal lamina. Conclusion We suggest that ookinetes may become coated in laminin as they pass through the midgut epithelium. Thereafter, laminin secreted by midgut epithelial cells and/or haemocytes, binds to the outer surface of the oocyst capsule and that some passes through and is incorporated into the developing oocysts. The localisation of laminin on sporozoites was unexpected and the importance of this observation is less clear. PMID:18808667

  20. Expression, localisation and phylogeny of a novel family of plant-specific membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Kasaras, A; Kunze, R

    2010-09-01

    In a screen for senescence-associated genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, a novel, highly up-regulated membrane protein was identified. It is a member of an uncharacterised, strictly plant-specific gene family and was named AtDMP1 (Arabidopsis thaliana DUF679 domain membrane protein 1). The AtDMP proteins are predicted to have four transmembrane spans, with cytosolic amino- and carboxy-termini. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetic distribution of DMP proteins, their tissue-specific expression and subcellular localisation in A. thaliana. The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Physcomitrella patens genomes in dicots contain only a single DMP gene copy, whereas there are five to 13 DMP genes and 11-16 in monocots, many of which supposedly result from recent gene duplications. The ubiquitous occurrence of DMP proteins in green plants and their absence from other kingdoms suggest a role in plant-specific processes. In A. thaliana, expression of nine out of ten DMP genes was detected. The expression patterns were found to be markedly tissue- and development-specific; thus, functional redundancy of most proteins is unlikely. The occurrence of several AtDMPs in tissues undergoing senescence (AtDMP1, -3, -4), dehiscence (AtDMP7) or abscission (AtDMP2, -4, -7) suggests involvement of DMPs in different types of programmed cell death. AtDMP-eGFP fusion proteins were found to localise either to the endoplasmic reticulum, the tonoplast or, under certain conditions, to both membrane systems. Further investigations are in progress to elucidate functions of the AtDMP proteins. PMID:20712629

  1. Expression and localisation of BDNF, NT4 and TrkB in proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Ghazi-Nouri, Seyed M S; Ellis, James S; Moss, Stephen; Limb, G Astrid; Charteris, David G

    2008-05-01

    Exogenous brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is known to rescue ganglion cell death after optic nerve injury. Its mechanism of action is believed to be indirect via glial cells in the retina. In this study we investigated the changes in expression and localisation of BDNF, neurotrophin-4 (NT4) and their common receptor (TrkB) in retinectomy sections of patients with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Nine full-thickness retinectomy specimens obtained at retinal reattachment surgery for PVR were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde immediately after excision and compared to similarly processed normal donor retinas (4 eyes). Agarose-embedded sections (100 microm thick) were double labelled for immunohistochemistry by confocal microscopy, with antibodies against BDNF, NT4, TrkB, rod opsin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), cellular retinaldehyde binding protein (CRALBP) and Brn3. This study demonstrates expression of NT4 by ganglion cells and shows expression of BDNF and NT4 in the outer photoreceptor segments is downregulated during PVR, whilst NT4 is markedly upregulated throughout the retina during this condition. The findings here suggest that NT4 may play a neural protective role during the development of PVR. It also shows that upregulation of NT4 in PVR is localised to Müller glial cells, indicating either over-expression of this factor by Müller cells or that Müller cells internalise NT4 for trafficking across the retina. TrkB expression was not observed in PVR retina. The observations that Müller glia demonstrate upregulation of NT4 suggests that retinal injury may lead to activation of this neurotrophin by Müller cells as part of their neuroprotective functions. PMID:18405896

  2. Histochemical localisation of carbonic anhydrase in the inner ear of developing cichlid fish, Oreochromis mossambicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beier, M.; Hilbig, R.; Anken, R.

    2008-12-01

    Inner ear otolith growth in terms of mineralisation mainly depends on the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CAH). CAH is located in specialised, mitochondria-rich macular cells (ionocytes), which are involved in the endolymphatic ion exchange, and the enzyme is responsible for the provision of the pH-value necessary for otolithic calcium carbonate deposition. In the present study, for the first time the localisation of histochemically demonstrated CAH was analysed during the early larval development of a teleost, the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. CAH-reactivity was observed already in stage 7 animals (onset of otocyst development; staging follows Anken et al. [Anken, R., Kappel, T., Slenzka, K., Rahmann, H. The early morphogenetic development of the cichlid fish, Oreochromis mossambicus (Perciformes, Teleostei). Zool. Anz. 231, 1-10, 1993]). Neuroblasts (from which sensory and supporting cells are derived) proved to be CAH-positive. Already at stage 12 (hatch), CAH-positive regions could be attributed to ionocyte containing regions both in the so-called meshwork and patches area of the macula (i.e., clearly before ionocytes can be identified on ultrastructural level or by employing immunocytochemistry). In contrast to the circumstances observed in mammalian species, sensory hair cells stained negative for CAH in the cichlid. With the onset of stage 16 (finray primordia in dorsal fin, yolk-sac being increasingly absorbed), CAH-reactivity was observed in the vestibular nerve. This indicates the onset of myelinisation and thus commencement of operation. The localisation of CAH in the inner ear of fish (especially the differences in comparison to mammals) is discussed on the basis of its role in otolith calcification. Since the vestibular system is a detector of acceleration and thus gravity, also aspects regarding effects of altered gravity on CAH and hence on the mineralisation of otoliths in an adaptive process are addressed.

  3. Controlling factors in localised corrosion morphologies observed for magnesium immersed in chloride containing electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Williams, Geraint; Birbilis, Nick; McMurray, H Neil

    2015-01-01

    The early stages of localised corrosion affecting magnesium (Mg) surfaces when immersed in aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions involves the propagation of dark regions, within which both anodic metal dissolution and cathodic hydrogen evolution occur. For nominally "pure" Mg, these dark areas can either take the form of discs which expand radially with time, or filiform-like tracks which lengthen with time. For Mg surfaces which display disc-form corrosion features in concentrated NaCl electrolyte, a transition to filiform corrosion (FFC) is observed as the concentration is decreased, indicating ohmic constraints on radial propagation. A similar effect is observed when Mg specimens of different iron impurity are immersed in a fixed, high concentration NaCl solution, where disc-form corrosion is observed on samples having ≥280 ppm Fe, but FFC predominates at ≤80 ppm Fe. An in situ scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) is used to determine current density distributions within the propagating corrosion features. Cathodic current density values of between -100 and -150 A m(-2) measured in central areas of disc-like features are sufficient to sustain the radial growth of a local anode at the perimeter of the discs. However, for high purity Mg specimens (≤80 ppm Fe), cathodic current densities of -10 A m(-2) or less are measured over FFC affected regions, indicating that linear propagation arises when there is insufficient cathodic current produced on the corroded surface to sustain radial growth. The results are consistent with surface control of localised corrosion propagation in concentrated electrolyte, but ohmic control in dilute, lower conductivity NaCl solution. PMID:25910069

  4. Group localisation and unsupervised detection and classification of basic crowd behaviour events for surveillance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roubtsova, Nadejda S.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2013-02-01

    Technology for monitoring crowd behaviour is in demand for surveillance and security applications. The trend in research is to tackle detection of complex crowd behaviour events (panic, ght, evacuation etc.) directly using machine learning techniques. In this paper, we present a contrary, bottom-up approach seeking basic group information: (1) instantaneous location and (2) the merge, split and lateral slide-by events - the three basic motion patterns comprising any crowd behaviour. The focus on such generic group information makes our algorithm suitable as a building block in a variety of surveillance systems, possibly integrated with static content analysis solutions. Our feature extraction framework has optical ow in its core. The framework is universal being motion-based, rather than object-detection-based and generates a large variety of motion-blob- characterising features useful for an array of classi cation problems. Motion-based characterisation is performed on a group as an atomic whole and not by means of superposition of individual human motions. Within that feature space, our classi cation system makes decisions based on heuristic rules and thresholds, without machine learning. Our system performs well on group localisation, consistently generating contours around both moving and halted groups. The visual output of our periodical group localisation is equivalent to tracking and the group contour accuracy ranges from adequate to exceptionally good. The system successfully detects and classi es within our merge/split/slide-by event space in surveillance-type video sequences, di ering in resolution, scale, quality and motion content. Quantitatively, its performance is characterised by a good recall: 83% on detection and 71% on combined detection and classi cation.

  5. The interaction of an asymmetrical localised synthetic jet on a side-supported sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Findanis, N.; Ahmed, N. A.

    2008-10-01

    A localised synthetic jet offers promise of an optimum and cost-effective practical method of delaying separation and promoting reattachment in fluids with solid body interactions. The asymmetric flow that may result from its use may also be beneficial in improving the aerodynamic performance of a lifting body. There are insufficient studies of synthetic jets, particularly on three-dimensional bluff bodies that are more representative of complex flows in real situations. A comprehensive study on an 80 mm diameter sphere designed with localised synthetic jet orifices was, therefore, conducted in an 18 in×18 in open circuit closed test-section wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 5×104. The coefficient of pressure distribution was measured by continuously varying the location of the synthetic jet and compared with the no synthetic jet condition. The three-dimensional effects on the flow over the sphere body are particularly made apparent through the growth and the effects of the boundary layer and the deviation from potential flow. Overall, the synthetic jet had the effect of delaying the separation point and extending it further downstream on the sphere surface concomitantly producing a significant reduction in drag, providing solid support to the viability of strategically located synthetic jet when higher lift or lower drag is desired. A surprising discovery was the ability of the synthetic jet to improve the flow at the junction of the sting support and sphere. This has promising implications in devising methods to reduce interference drag that are common in many practical applications such as near junctions between wing and the fuselage.

  6. Membrane glucocorticoid receptors are localised in the extracellular matrix and signal through the MAPK pathway in mammalian skeletal muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    Boncompagni, Simona; Arthurton, Lewis; Akujuru, Eugene; Pearson, Timothy; Steverding, Dietmar; Protasi, Feliciano; Mutungi, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have previously proposed the existence of glucocorticoid receptors on the plasma membrane of many cell types, including skeletal muscle fibres. However, their exact localisation and the cellular signalling pathway(s) they utilise to communicate with the rest of the cell are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the localisation and the mechanism(s) underlying the non-genomic physiological functions of these receptors in mouse skeletal muscle cells. The results show that the receptors were localised in the cytoplasm in myoblasts, in the nucleus in myotubes, in the extracellular matrix, in satellite cells and in the proximity of mitochondria in adult muscle fibres. Also, they bound laminin in a glucocorticoid-dependent manner. Treating small skeletal muscle fibre bundles with the synthetic glucocorticoid beclomethasone dipropionate increased the phosphorylation (= activation) of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. This occurred within 5 min and depended on the fibre type and the duration of the treatment. It was also abolished by the glucocorticoid receptor inhibitor, mifepristone, and a monoclonal antibody against the receptor. From these results we conclude that the non-genomic/non-canonical physiological functions of glucocorticoids, in adult skeletal muscle fibres, are mediated by a glucocorticoid receptor localised in the extracellular matrix, in satellite cells and close to mitochondria, and involve activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. PMID:25846902

  7. Domains involved in calcineurin phosphatase inhibition and nuclear localisation in the African swine fever virus A238L protein

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, Charles C.; Chapman, Dave A.G.; Silk, Rhiannon; Liverani, Elisabetta; Dixon, Linda K.

    2008-05-10

    The African swine fever virus A238L protein inhibits calcineurin phosphatase activity and activation of NF-{kappa}B and p300 co-activator. An 82 amino acid domain containing residues 157 to 238 at the C-terminus of A238L was expressed in E. coli and purified. This purified A238L fragment acted as a potent inhibitor of calcineurin phosphatase in vitro with an IC{sub 50} of approximately 70 nM. Two putative nuclear localisation signals were identified between residues 80 to 86 (NLS-1) and between residues 203 to 207 overlapping with the N-terminus of the calcineurin docking motif (NLS-2). Mutation of these motifs independently did not reduce nuclear localisation compared to the wild type A238L protein, whereas mutation of both motifs significantly reduced nuclear localisation of A238L. Mutation of the calcineurin docking motif resulted in a dramatic increase in the nuclear localisation of A238L provided an intact NLS was present. We propose that binding of calcineurin to A238L masks NLS-2 contributing to the cytoplasmic retention of A238L.

  8. Assessment of localisation to auditory stimulation in post-comatose states: use the patient’s own name

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background At present, there is no consensus on how to clinically assess localisation to sound in patients recovering from coma. We here studied auditory localisation using the patient’s own name as compared to a meaningless sound (i.e., ringing bell). Methods Eighty-six post-comatose patients diagnosed with a vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome or a minimally conscious state were prospectively included. Localisation of auditory stimulation (i.e., head or eyes orientation toward the sound) was assessed using the patient’s own name as compared to a ringing bell. Statistical analyses used binomial testing with bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Results 37 (43%) out of the 86 studied patients showed localisation to auditory stimulation. More patients (n=34, 40%) oriented the head or eyes to their own name as compared to sound (n=20, 23%; p<0.001). Conclusions When assessing auditory function in disorders of consciousness, using the patient’s own name is here shown to be more suitable to elicit a response as compared to neutral sound. PMID:23506054

  9. Challenges to Globalisation, Localisation and Sinophilia in Music Education: A Comparative Study of Hong Kong, Shanghai and Taipei

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Wai-Chung; Law, Wing-Wah

    2006-01-01

    In the past, the music curricula of Hong Kong (HK), Mainland China and Taiwan have focused on Western music, but with the advent of music technology and the new tripartite paradigm of globalisation, localisation and Sinophilia this has begun to change. Hong Kong, Shanghai and Taipei share a common historical culture and their populations are…

  10. Systemic differences in serum metabolome: a cross sectional comparison of women with localised and widespread pain and controls

    PubMed Central

    Hadrévi, J.; Björklund, M.; Kosek, E.; Hällgren, S.; Antti, H.; Fahlström, M.; Hellström, F.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain exists either as localised to a single region or as widespread to multiple sites in several quadrants of the body. Prospective studies indicate that widespread pain could act as a far end of a continuum of musculoskeletal pain that started with chronic localised pain. The mechanism by which the transition from localised pain to widespread occurs is not clear, although many studies suggest it to be an altered metabolism. In this study, systemic metabolic differences between women with chronic localised neck-shoulder pain (NP), women with chronic widespread pain (CWP) and women who were healthy (CON) were assessed. Blood samples were analysed taking a metabolomics approach using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). The metabolomics analysis showed a clear systematic difference in the metabolic profiles between the subjects with NP and the CON but only a weak systematic difference between the subjects with CWP and the CON. This most likely reflects a difference in the portion of the metabolome influenced by the two pain conditions. In the NP group, the overall metabolic profile suggests that processes related to energy utilisation and lipid metabolism could be central aspects of mechanisms maintaining disorder. PMID:26522699

  11. Effet de l'interaction coulombienne sur la localisation d'Anderson dans le gaz bidimensionnel d'électrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, G.

    2010-09-01

    Nous étudions l’effet des interactions coulombiennes sur la localisation d’Anderson dans le gaz bidimensionnel d’électrons désordonné. L’objectif est de statuer sur la question de l’existence de métaux à deux dimensions. En l’absence d’interaction, la théorie d’échelle de la localisation prédit qu’un désordre infinitésimal suffit à localiser la fonction d’onde électronique et donc à rendre le système isolant à température nulle (Abrahams et al., 1979). Dans certaines limites extrêmes, les interactions peuvent être prises en compte et l’on aboutit également à un état isolant. Cependant, aucune théorie analytique ne permet de traiter le régime quantique non-perturbatif où désordre et interaction sont intermédiaires. Expérimentalement, il est possible de l’explorer dans des échantillons de haute mobilité et basse densité. Depuis 1994, des comportements métalliques inexpliqués y ont été observés (Kravchenko et al., 1994). Nous avons mis au point une méthode numérique permettant d’étudier le problème couplé de la localisation d’Anderson en présence d’interaction. Cette méthode mêle Monte Carlo quantique à température nulle et théorie d’échelle pour la conductance de Thouless. Nous trouvons que la théorie d’échelle de la localisation est préservée en présence d’interaction et donc que le gaz bidimensionnel, même corrélé, est isolant à température nulle. Nos résultats montrent de plus que les interactions délocalisent le gaz bidimensionnel et que cet effet de délocalisation est accru en présence de dégénérescence de vallées. Ils nous permettent de proposer un mécanisme simple rendant compte des principales caractéristiques des comportements métalliques observés expérimentalement.

  12. Cancer of the prostate.

    PubMed Central

    Dearnaley, D. P.

    1994-01-01

    Prostate cancer presents a growing health problem in Western societies as longevity increases. It is characteristically a disease of elderly men associated with the development of osteoblastic bone metastases and initial hormone responsiveness to androgen deprivation. Previously regarded as a Cinderella of cancers, there is currently more controversy concerning the detection and management of both localised and metastatic disease than for any other common malignancy. A balance needs to be drawn between the potential gains of more aggressive management and the disadvantages in terms of increased treatment side effects and cost, taking into account both the natural course of the disease and the life expectancy of patients. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 PMID:8142838

  13. Localised plasmacytomas in Taiwan: comparison between extramedullary plasmacytoma and solitary plasmacytoma of bone.

    PubMed Central

    Shih, L. Y.; Dunn, P.; Leung, W. M.; Chen, W. J.; Wang, P. N.

    1995-01-01

    The clinical features and response to therapy of 32 Chinese patients with localised plasmacytoma are presented, and a comparison between extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) and solitary plasmacytoma of bone (SPB) is made. Twenty-two patients had SPB and ten had EMP, accounting for 9% of all of our plasma cell neoplasms. Both groups had a male predominance with a median age of 54 years for SPB and 63 years for EMP. The common sites of SPB included vertebral bodies (15) and the skull (4). Most EMPs occurred in the oronasopharynx (6) and paranasal sinuses (2). An M-protein was detected in eight patients with SPB and in six with EMP. Seventeen patients with SPB and seven with EMP received radiation therapy, and all achieved initial local control. The pattern of failure in 22 patients with SPB manifested as local recurrence in two, multiple bone metastases without bone marrow plasmacytosis in two, multiple EMP progression in two, and development of multiple myeloma (MM) in one. There were two local recurrences, one further solitary bone involvement and one MM conversion in the EMP group. Local recurrence or dissemination was associated with the appearance of M-protein or an increase in the M-protein level in both groups. There was no significant difference in M-protein status or incidence and patterns of failure between the two groups. Patients with EMP had a more favourable overall survival than those with SPB (P = 0.03). The 5 year disease-free survival rate was 79% for EMP and 58% for SPB (P = 0.53). Patients aged less than 60 years had a better overall survival in the SPB group, but location of tumour, presence of M-protein, radiation dose and chemotherapy did not influence prognosis in either group. Our results indicate that adequate local therapy can result in long-term survival with a low frequency of MM progression for patients with localised plasmacytomas, and both EMP and SPB appear to be similar in terms of frequency and patterns of failure. PMID:7819027

  14. Vaginal cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal cancer; Cancer - vagina; Tumor - vaginal ... Most vaginal cancers occur when another cancer, such as cervical or endometrial cancer , spreads. This is called secondary vaginal cancer. Cancer ...

  15. Smoking and the risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Rohrmann, S; Linseisen, J; Allen, N; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Johnsen, N F; Tjønneland, A; Overvad, K; Kaaks, R; Teucher, B; Boeing, H; Pischon, T; Lagiou, P; Trichopoulou, A; Trichopoulos, D; Palli, D; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, R; Ricceri, F; Argüelles Suárez, M V; Agudo, A; Sánchez, M-J; Chirlaque, M-D; Barricarte, A; Larrañaga, N; Boshuizen, H; van Kranen, H J; Stattin, P; Johansson, M; Bjartell, A; Ulmert, D; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N J; Ferrari, Pietro; Romieux, I; Gunter, M J R; Riboli, Elio; Key, T J

    2013-01-01

    Background: Smoking is not associated with prostate cancer incidence in most studies, but associations between smoking and fatal prostate cancer have been reported. Methods: During 1992 and 2000, lifestyle information was assessed via questionnaires and personal interview in a cohort of 145 112 European men. Until 2009, 4623 incident cases of prostate cancer were identified, including 1517 cases of low-grade, 396 cases of high grade, 1516 cases of localised, 808 cases of advanced disease, and 432 fatal cases. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to examine the association of smoking status, smoking intensity, and smoking duration with the risk of incident and fatal prostate cancer. Results: Compared with never smokers, current smokers had a reduced risk of prostate cancer (RR=0.90, 95% CI: 0.83–0.97), which was statistically significant for localised and low-grade disease, but not for advanced or high-grade disease. In contrast, heavy smokers (25+ cigarettes per day) and men who had smoked for a long time (40+ years) had a higher risk of prostate cancer death (RR=1.81, 95% CI: 1.11–2.93; RR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.01–1.87, respectively). Conclusion: The observation of an increased prostate cancer mortality among heavy smokers confirms the results of previous prospective studies. PMID:23169298

  16. Localisation and quantification of elements within seeds of Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox by micro-PIXE.

    PubMed

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Pongrac, Paula; Kump, Peter; Necemer, Marijan; Simcic, Jure; Pelicon, Primoz; Budnar, Milos; Povh, Bogdan; Regvar, Marjana

    2007-05-01

    Cd, Zn and Pb accumulation, spatial distribution within seeds and germinating seedlings, and seeds fitness of metal hyperaccumulating Thlaspi praecox were investigated in order to gain more knowledge on plant reproductive success at metal polluted sites. The seeds contained up to 1351 microg g-1 (dry weight) of Cd, 121 microg g-1 of Zn and 17 microg g-1 of Pb. Seed fitness was negatively influenced by seed Cd hyperaccumulation. Nevertheless, the viability of seeds was decreased by maximally 20%, indicating very efficient tolerance of the plant embryos to Cd. Localisation by micro-PIXE revealed preferential storage of most elements in the embryonic axis. Cd and Zn were preferentially localised in the epidermis of cotyledons. The restriction of seed Pb and Zn uptake and hyperaccumulation of Cd, accompanied by partitioning of Cd in the epidermal tissues of cotyledons, may enable the survival of T. praecox embryos and seedlings in Cd polluted environments. PMID:17070633

  17. Controlled merging and annihilation of localised dissipative structures in an AC-driven damped nonlinear Schrödinger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jae K.; Erkintalo, Miro; Luo, Kathy; Oppo, Gian-Luca; Coen, Stéphane; Murdoch, Stuart G.

    2016-03-01

    We report studies of controlled interactions of localised dissipative structures in a system described by the AC-driven damped nonlinear Schrödinger equation (equivalent to the Lugiato-Lefever model). Extensive numerical simulations reveal a variety of interaction scenarios that are governed by the properties of the system driver, notably its gradients. In our experiments, performed with a nonlinear optical fibre (Kerr) resonator, the phase profile of the driver is used to induce interactions of the dissipative structures on demand. We observe both merging and annihilation of localised structures, i.e. interactions governed by the dissipative, out-of-equilibrium nature of the system. These interactions fundamentally differ from those typically found for conventional conservative solitons.

  18. Prediction and comparison of downlink electric-field and uplink localised SAR values for realistic indoor wireless planning.

    PubMed

    Plets, David; Joseph, Wout; Aerts, Sam; Vanhecke, Kris; Vermeeren, Günter; Martens, Luc

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, for the first time a heuristic network calculator for both whole-body exposure due to indoor base station antennas or access points (downlink exposure) and localised exposure due to the mobile device (uplink exposure) in indoor wireless networks is presented. As an application, three phone call scenarios are investigated (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) macrocell, UMTS femtocell and WiFi voice-over-IP) and compared with respect to the electric-field strength and localised specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution. Prediction models are created and successfully validated with an accuracy of 3 dB. The benefits of the UMTS power control mechanisms are demonstrated. However, dependent on the macrocell connection quality and on the user's average phone call connection time, also the macrocell solution might be preferential from an exposure point of view for the considered scenario. PMID:24553049

  19. Damage localisation in plate like-structures using the two-dimensional polynomial annihilation edge detection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surace, C.; Saxena, R.; Gherlone, M.; Darwich, H.

    2014-10-01

    The topic of non-destructively detecting localised damage in plates is addressed in this article. Since the presence of a crack or a delamination causes a discontinuity in the mode shape first derivatives, a numerical method for detecting discontinuities in smooth piecewise functions and their derivatives, based on a polynomial-annihilation technique is presented. The method, already proposed for beam-type structures, has been extended to enable the detection and localisation of damage in plate-like structures for which only post-damage mode shapes are available. Applying finite element analysis, the mode shapes of an isotropic plate with a saw-cut and a multi-layered composite plate with a delamination have been calculated and the performance of the approach evaluated for increasing amounts of noise. Encouraging results indicate that further development of the technique for non-destructive testing of plate-like structures would be highly worthwhile.

  20. Homogeneous self-aligned liquid crystals on wrinkled-wall poly(dimethylsiloxane) via localised ion-beam irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hae-Chang; Park, Hong-Gyu; Lee, Ju Hwan; Jung, Yoon Ho; Jang, Sang Bok; Seo, Dae-Shik

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate self-aligned liquid crystals (LCs) using a wrinkled-wall polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wrinkle structure, which is a key factor to obtain a stable homogeneous alignment state with positive LCs. We constructed the wrinkled walls via localised surface exposure to IB radiation, which passed through a long length localised pattern mask. The creation of the wrinkled wall helped to align the LC molecules homogeneously because the wrinkled wall acted as a guide for the arrangement of positive LC molecules. In addition, we confirmed the stability of the alignment state as the width of the wrinkled wall was changed. Although this wrinkled-wall method is a non-contact method, LC alignment is achieved via an anisotropic topographical guide, which provides the LC molecules with stable homogeneous alignment. PMID:25728372

  1. A variant of the Kochen-Specker theorem localising value indefiniteness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Alastair A.; Calude, Cristian S.; Svozil, Karl

    2015-10-01

    The Kochen-Specker theorem proves the inability to assign, simultaneously, noncontextual definite values to all (of a finite set of) quantum mechanical observables in a consistent manner. If one assumes that any definite values behave noncontextually, one can nonetheless only conclude that some observables (in this set) are value indefinite. In this paper, we prove a variant of the Kochen-Specker theorem showing that, under the same assumption of noncontextuality, if a single one-dimensional projection observable is assigned the definite value 1, then no one-dimensional projection observable that is incompatible (i.e., non-commuting) with this one can be assigned consistently a definite value. Unlike standard proofs of the Kochen-Specker theorem, in order to localise and show the extent of value indefiniteness, this result requires a constructive method of reduction between Kochen-Specker sets. If a system is prepared in a pure state |ψ>, then it is reasonable to assume that any value assignment (i.e., hidden variable model) for this system assigns the value 1 to the observable projecting onto the one-dimensional linear subspace spanned by |ψ>, and the value 0 to those projecting onto linear subspaces orthogonal to it. Our result can be interpreted, under this assumption, as showing that the outcome of a measurement of any other incompatible one-dimensional projection observable cannot be determined in advance, thus formalising a notion of quantum randomness.

  2. Improved localisation for 2-hydroxyglutarate detection at 3T using long-TE semi-LASER

    PubMed Central

    Berrington, Adam; Voets, Natalie L.; Plaha, Puneet; Larkin, Sarah J.; Mccullagh, James; Stacey, Richard; Yildirim, Muhammed; Schofield, Christopher J.; Jezzard, Peter; Cadoux-Hudson, Tom; Ansorge, Olaf; Emir, Uzay E.

    2016-01-01

    2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) has emerged as a biomarker of tumour cell IDH mutations that may enable the differential diagnosis of glioma patients. At 3 Tesla, detection of 2-HG with magnetic resonance spectroscopy is challenging because of metabolite signal overlap and a spectral pattern modulated by slice selection and chemical shift displacement. Using density matrix simulations and phantom experiments, an optimised semi-LASER scheme (TE = 110 ms) improves localisation of the 2-HG spin system considerably compared to an existing PRESS sequence. This results in a visible 2-HG peak in the in vivo spectra at 1.9 ppm in the majority of IDH mutated tumours. Detected concentrations of 2-HG were similar using both sequences, although the use of semi-LASER generated narrower confidence intervals. Signal overlap with glutamate and glutamine, as measured by pairwise fitting correlation was reduced. Lactate was readily detectable across glioma patients using the method presented here (mean CLRB: (10±2)%). Together with more robust 2-HG detection, long TE semi-LASER offers the potential to investigate tumour metabolism and stratify patients in vivo at 3T. PMID:27547821

  3. Identification and cellular localisation of voltage-operated calcium channels in immature rat testis.

    PubMed

    Fragale, A; Aguanno, S; Kemp, M; Reeves, M; Price, K; Beattie, R; Craig, P; Volsen, S; Sher, E; D'Agostino, A

    2000-04-25

    Sertoli cells regulate the spermatogenic process mainly through the secretion of a complex fluid into the lumen of the seminiferous tubules behind the blood-testis barrier, containing many of the essential proteins necessary for maintenance and maturation of male germ cells. Thus, the study of Sertoli cell secretory processes is strictly correlated with the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of spermatogenesis. In this work the authors have explored the voltage-sensitive calcium channel variety in the immature rat testis, their localisation and distribution within the seminiferous epithelium and peritubular and interstitial tissues as well as the possible role in the control of Sertoli cell secretion. The results reported in this paper, obtained by in situ hybridisation, immunohistology of rat testicular sections and Western blot analysis of Sertoli cell plasma membranes, show that mammalian Sertoli cells express mRNA encoding for several voltage-operated calcium channel subunits and express such proteins on their surface. Experiments performed on Sertoli cell monolayers cultured in the presence of specific toxins indicate that both N and P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels are involved in the regulation of protein secretion. PMID:10854695

  4. Structural damage localisation for a frame structure from changes in curvature of approximate entropy feature vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Y. H.; Ou, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    At present, accurate vibration-based damage localisation cannot be achieved very well in mechanical and civil engineering fields due to high noise in the measurements and low accuracy in finite element (FE) model of the measured structures. To address these issues, a method for damage detection is proposed in this work, i.e. the mean curvature difference method of approximate entropy (ApEn) feature vectors, based on the ApEn theory and curvature method. Simulation results of both single and multiple damage cases under pulse excitation indicate that the proposed method can be utilised to determine whether the damage is present in the structure or not and to locate the damage accurately, and the method exhibits strong anti-noise ability: it is feasible for damage with 5% stiffness reduction even if the noise level is up to 25%. Moreover, the proposed method does not require a structural FE model. Experimental results of a six-storey shear frame model also validated the proposed method. All of these lay a good foundation for its application in shear frame structures.

  5. Location service for wireless network using improved RSS-based cellular localisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayaz, Sara; Sarrafian, Sara

    2014-06-01

    Value-added services, especially in mobile environments, have recently become the key component of making more profit and attracting more subscribers. One of the most commonly used such service is location-based advertiser services. The main issue which should be considered in providing such services is determining the position of the mobile terminals precisely. In this paper, one pattern recognition localisation method based on the signal strength appropriated for implementing a location-based service is presented. The main aim is to introduce some practical solutions to decrease error and computational load and also eliminate the necessity of updating the database. Practical results illustrate high accuracy of this technique and its suitability to apply in such services. The mean error declines to 9.7 m and mean error corresponding to CDF = 67% and CDF = 95% are less than 11 m and 23 m, respectively. We also present a location-based advertising service, in which the customer's interests and local time are considered, in order to enhance the efficiency and individualism of this service.

  6. Controlling for localised spatio-temporal autocorrelation in long-term air pollution and health studies

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Estimating the long-term health impact of air pollution using an ecological spatio-temporal study design is a challenging task, due to the presence of residual spatio-temporal autocorrelation in the health counts after adjusting for the covariate effects. This autocorrelation is commonly modelled by a set of random effects represented by a Gaussian Markov random field (GMRF) prior distribution, as part of a hierarchical Bayesian model. However, GMRF models typically assume the random effects are globally smooth in space and time, and thus are likely to be collinear to any spatially and temporally smooth covariates such as air pollution. Such collinearity leads to poor estimation performance of the estimated fixed effects, and motivated by this epidemiological problem, this paper proposes new GMRF methodology to allow for localised spatio-temporal smoothing. This means random effects that are either geographically or temporally adjacent are allowed to be autocorrelated or conditionally independent, which allows more flexible autocorrelation structures to be represented. This increased flexibility results in improved fixed effects estimation compared with global smoothing models, which is evidenced by our simulation study. The methodology is then applied to the motivating study investigating the long-term effects of air pollution on respiratory ill health in Greater Glasgow, Scotland between 2007 and 2011. PMID:24648100

  7. Babesia bovis: biosynthesis and localisation of 12D3 antigen in bovine erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Harper, G S; Hibbs, A R; East, I J; Waltisbuhl, D J; Jorgensen, W K; Riddles, P W

    1996-11-01

    The 12D3 antigen of Babesia bovis was found to be synthesised rapidly in cultured parasites, and localised to both the apical complex of the merozoite and the cytoplasm of the parasitised erythrocyte. Amino-terminal sequencing suggested that the nascent protein had been processed and differences between the predicted and measured molecular weights suggested post-translational modification. The major proportion of 12D3 appeared in the soluble compartment of the parasitised erythrocytes with a molecular weight consistent with no further processing. A significant proportion of the protein required extraction by sodium carbonate, suggesting association with membranous components. The timing of release of soluble 12D3 was coincident with haemoglobin release and this probably reflects a non-specific lysis of the erythrocyte. Synthesis of recombinant BV12D3 was achieved in baculovirus-infected SF9 insect epithelial cells. The product was of the same molecular weight as the native 12D3 and polyclonal antibodies raised against the recombinant protein reacted with both the recombinant and native forms of the antigen. PMID:9024870

  8. Resonant-like behaviour during edge-localised mode cycles in the Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, A. J.; Morris, J.; Todd, T. N.; Coad, P.; Brezinsek, S.; Likonen, J.; Rubel, M.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2015-08-15

    A unique sequence of 120 almost identical plasmas in the Joint European Torus (JET) recently provided two orders of magnitude more statistically equivalent data than ever previously available. The purpose was to study movement of eroded plasma-facing material from JET's new Beryllium wall, but it has allowed the statistical detection of otherwise unobservable phenomenon. This includes a sequence of resonant-like waiting times between edge-localised plasma instabilities (ELMs), instabilities that must be mitigated or avoided in large magnetically confined plasmas such as those planned for ITER. Here, we investigate the cause of this phenomenon, using the unprecedented quantity of data to produce a detailed picture of the plasma's behaviour. After combining the data, oscillations are clearly observable in the plasma's vertical position, in edge losses of ions, and in Beryllium II (527 nm) light emissions. The oscillations are unexpected, are not obvious in data from a single pulse alone, and are all clearly correlated with each other. They are likely to be caused by a small vertical oscillation that the plasma control system is not reacting to prevent, but a more complex explanation is possible. The clearly observable but unexpected link between small changes in the plasma's position and changes to edge-plasma transport and stability suggest that these characteristics cannot always be studied in isolation. It also suggests new opportunities for ELM mitigation and control that may exist.

  9. In vitro localisation of intracranial haematoma using electrical impedance tomography semi-array.

    PubMed

    Ayati, S Bentolhoda; Bouazza-Marouf, Kaddour; Kerr, David

    2015-01-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography is a non-invasive and portable method that has good potential as an alternative to the conventional modalities for early detection of intracranial haematomas in high risk patients. Early diagnosis can reduce treatment delays and most significantly can impact patient outcomes. Two eight-electrode layouts, a standard ring full array (FA) and a semi-array (SA), were investigated for their ability to detect, localise and quantify simulated intracranial haematomas in vitro on ovine models for the purpose of early diagnosis. SA layout speeds up electrode application and avoids the need to move and lift the patient's head. Haematomas were simulated using gel samples with the same conductivity as blood. Both layouts, FA and SA, could detect the presence of haematomas at any location within the skull. The mean of the relative radial position error with respect to the brain radius was 7% for FA and 6% for SA, for haematomas close to the electrodes, and 11% for SA for haematomas far from the electrodes at the back of the head. Size estimation was not as good; the worst size estimation error for FA being around 30% while the best for SA was 50% for simulated haematomas close to the electrodes. PMID:25455163

  10. Activation of multiple chemotherapeutic prodrugs by the natural enzymolome of tumour-localised probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lehouritis, Panos; Stanton, Michael; McCarthy, Florence O; Jeavons, Matthieu; Tangney, Mark

    2016-01-28

    Some chemotherapeutic drugs (prodrugs) require activation by an enzyme for efficacy. We and others have demonstrated the ability of probiotic bacteria to grow specifically within solid tumours following systemic administration, and we hypothesised that the natural enzymatic activity of these tumour-localised bacteria may be suitable for activation of certain such chemotherapeutic drugs. Several wild-type probiotic bacteria; Escherichia coli Nissle, Bifidobacterium breve, Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus species, were screened against a panel of popular prodrugs. All strains were capable of activating at least one prodrug. E. coli Nissle 1917 was selected for further studies because of its ability to activate numerous prodrugs and its resistance to prodrug toxicity. HPLC data confirmed biochemical transformation of prodrugs to their toxic counterparts. Further analysis demonstrated that different enzymes can complement prodrug activation, while simultaneous activation of multiple prodrugs (CB1954, 5-FC, AQ4N and Fludarabine phosphate) by E. coli was confirmed, resulting in significant efficacy improvement. Experiments in mice harbouring murine tumours validated in vitro findings, with significant reduction in tumour growth and increase in survival of mice treated with probiotic bacteria and a combination of prodrugs. These findings demonstrate the ability of probiotic bacteria, without the requirement for genetic modification, to enable high-level activation of multiple prodrugs specifically at the site of action. PMID:26655063