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  1. A Personal Reflection on the History of Radiation Oncology at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Florence C.H.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: To provide a historical and personal narrative of the development of radiation oncology at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), from its founding more than 100 years ago to the present day. Methods and Materials: Historical sources include the Archives of MSKCC, publications by members of MSKCC, the author's personal records and recollections, and her communications with former colleagues, particularly Dr. Basil Hilaris, Dr. Zvi Fuks, and Dr. Beryl McCormick. Conclusions: The author, who spent 38 years at MSKCC, presents the challenges and triumphs of MSKCC's Radiation Oncology Department and details MSKCC's breakthroughs in radiation oncology. She also describes MSKCC's involvement in the founding of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology.

  2. Integrative cancer care in a US academic cancer centre: The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Experience.

    PubMed

    Deng, G

    2008-08-01

    Various surveys show that interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is high among cancer patients. Patients want to explore all options that may help their treatment. Many CAM modalities offer patients an active role in their self-care, and the resulting sense of empowerment is very appealing. On the other hand, many unscrupulous marketeers promote alternative cancer "cures," targeting cancer patients who are particularly vulnerable. Some alternative therapies can hurt patients by delaying effective treatment or by causing adverse effects or detrimental interactions with other medications. It is not in the best interest of cancer patients if they cannot get appropriate guidance on the use of CAM from the health care professionals who are part of their cancer care team. The Integrative Medicine Service at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York was established in 1999 to address patient interest in cam, to incorporate helpful complementary therapies into each patient's overall treatment management, to guide patients in avoiding harmful alternative therapies, and to develop prospective research to evaluate the efficacy of CAM modalities. PMID:18769574

  3. Partial Cystectomy after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Contemporary Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Ryan P.; Donahue, Timothy F.; Russo, Paul; Bochner, Bernard H.; Donat, Sherri M.; Dalbagni, Guido; Herr, Harry W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To report our contemporary experience with partial cystectomy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Patients and Methods. Retrospective review of patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and partial cystectomy for urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from 1995 to 2013. Log-rank test and Cox regression models were used to analyze variables possibly associated with recurrence-free, advanced recurrence-free (free from recurrence beyond salvage with intravesical therapy or radical cystectomy), and overall survival. Results. All 36 patients had a solitary tumor <5 cm in size. Twenty-one patients (58%) achieved cT0 following neoadjuvant chemotherapy with 7 (33%) having residual disease at PC. At last follow-up, 19 (53%) patients had recurrence, 15 (42%) had advanced recurrence, 10 (28%) died of disease, and 22 (61%) maintained an intact bladder. Median follow-up of those who were with no evidence of disease was 17 months. On univariable analysis, after neoadjuvant chemotherapy positive nodes on imaging and positive surgical margin at partial cystectomy were both associated with worse recurrence-free, advanced recurrence-free, and overall survival. Five-year recurrence-free, advanced recurrence-free, and overall survival were 28%, 51%, and 63%, respectively. Conclusion. Partial cystectomy following neoadjuvant chemotherapy provides acceptable oncologic outcomes in highly selected patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

  4. Precision medicine at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center: clinical next-generation sequencing enabling next-generation targeted therapy trials.

    PubMed

    Hyman, David M; Solit, David B; Arcila, Maria E; Cheng, Donavan T; Sabbatini, Paul; Baselga, Jose; Berger, Michael F; Ladanyi, Marc

    2015-12-01

    Implementing a center-wide precision medicine strategy at a major cancer center is a true multidisciplinary effort and requires comprehensive alignment of a broad screening strategy with a clinical research enterprise that can use these data to accelerate development of new treatments. Here, we describe the genomic screening approach at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, a hybridization capture-based next-generation sequencing clinical assay for solid tumor molecular oncology designated MSK-IMPACT, and how it enables and supports a large clinical trial portfolio enriched for multi-histology, biomarker-selected, 'basket' studies of targeted therapies. PMID:26320725

  5. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for the treatment of oropharyngeal carcinoma: The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience

    SciTech Connect

    Arruda, Fernando F. de; Puri, Dev R.; Zhung, Joanne; Narayana, Ashwatha; Wolden, Suzanne; Hunt, Margie; Stambuk, Hilda; Pfister, David; Kraus, Dennis; Shaha, Ashok; Shah, Jatin; Lee, Nancy Y. . E-mail: leen2@mskcc.org

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To review the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center's experience in using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and June 2004, 50 patients with histologically confirmed cancer of the oropharynx underwent IMRT at our institution. There were 40 men and 10 women with a median age of 56 years (range, 28-78 years). The disease was Stage I in 1 patient (2%), Stage II in 3 patients (6%), Stage III in 7 (14%), and Stage IV in 39 (78%). Forty-eight patients (96%) received definitive treatment, and 2 (4%) were treated in the postoperative adjuvant setting. Concurrent chemotherapy was used in 43 patients (86%). Patients were treated using three different IMRT approaches: 76% dose painting, 18% concomitant boost with IMRT in both am and pm deliveries, and 6% concomitant boost with IMRT only in pm delivery. Regardless of the approach, the average prescription dose to the gross tumor planning target volume was 70 Gy, while the average dose delivered to the subclinical volume was 59.4 Gy in the dose painting group and 54 Gy in the concomitant boost group. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding tubes (PEGs) were placed before the beginning of treatment in 84% of the patients. Acute and late toxicity were graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) radiation morbidity scoring criteria. Toxicity was also evaluated using subjective criteria such as the presence of esophageal stricture, and the need for PEG usage. The local progression-free, regional progression-free, and distant metastases-free rates, and overall survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Three patients had persistent locoregional disease after treatment. The 2-year estimates of local progression-free, regional progression-free, distant metastases-free, and overall survival were 98%, 88%, 84%, and 98%, respectively. The worst acute mucositis experienced was Grade 1

  6. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Oropharyngeal Cancer: An Update of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Setton, Jeremy; Caria, Nicola; Romanyshyn, Jonathan; Koutcher, Lawrence; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Rowan, Nicholas; Sherman, Eric J.; Fury, Matthew G.; Pfister, David G.; Wong, Richard J.; Shah, Jatin P.; Kraus, Dennis H.; Shi Weiji; Zhang Zhigang; Schupak, Karen D.; Gelblum, Daphna Y.; Rao, Shyam D.; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To update the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center's experience with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and April 2009, 442 patients with histologically confirmed OPC underwent IMRT at our center. There were 379 men and 63 women with a median age of 57 years (range, 27-91). The disease was Stage I in 2%, Stage II in 4%, Stage III in 21%, and Stage IV in 73% of patients. The primary tumor subsite was tonsil in 50%, base of tongue in 46%, pharyngeal wall in 3%, and soft palate in 2%. The median prescription dose to the planning target volume of the gross tumor was 70 Gy for definitive (n = 412) cases and 66 Gy for postoperative cases (n = 30). A total 404 patients (91%) received chemotherapy, including 389 (88%) who received concurrent chemotherapy, the majority of which was platinum-based. Results: Median follow-up among surviving patients was 36.8 months (range, 3-135). The 3-year cumulative incidence of local failure, regional failure, and distant metastasis was 5.4%, 5.6%, and 12.5%, respectively. The 3-year OS rate was 84.9%. The incidence of late dysphagia and late xerostomia {>=}Grade 2 was 11% and 29%, respectively. Conclusions: Our results confirm the feasibility of IMRT in achieving excellent locoregional control and low rates of xerostomia. According to our knowledge, this study is the largest report of patients treated with IMRT for OPC.

  7. Conservative mastectomies for breast cancer and risk-reducing surgery: the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center experience.

    PubMed

    Manning, Aidan T; Sacchini, Virgilio S

    2016-02-01

    Demand for conservative mastectomies continues to increase as more patients choose to undergo breast reconstruction, often with simultaneous contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM). In addition, the increasing use of risk-reducing surgery in high-risk groups has contributed to the increased use of these techniques. We have reviewed the indications and outcomes of a large group of patients undergoing nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) at this institution. In total, 728 nipple-sparing mastectomies (NSMs) were performed in 413 patients between 2000 and 2013, for treatment of breast cancer (n=269) or risk reduction (n=459). Of 728 NSMs performed, 177 (24.3%) were in patients known to have a BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutation, or a genetic variant of uncertain significance. There was an incidental finding of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or invasive carcinoma in 22 (4.8%) and 8 (1.7%) of 459 prophylactic NSMs, respectively. In addition, unexpected invasive carcinoma was found in 17 of 98 therapeutic NSMs (17.3%) performed for DCIS. At median follow-up of 49 months, there were no known cases of local recurrence and only one case of regional recurrence. Immediate breast reconstruction was performed in 409 patients, most of whom underwent tissue expander/implant based procedures (n=401). Although 273 breasts (37.5%) had some evidence of skin desquamation at follow-up, most resolved spontaneously with 47 breasts (6.5%) requiring debridement. Other complications included hematoma in seven breasts (1%) and wound infection in 31 breasts (4.3%). Expander/implant removal was required in 20 cases (2.8%). The nipple-areola complex (NAC) was subsequently excised in 10 of 728 breasts (1.4%) due to oncologic concerns following assessment of retroareolar tissue. NSM was successful in most patients with an acceptable complication rate and in few patients subsequently undergoing removal of the NAC. Patients requiring mastectomy for breast cancer or risk reduction may now benefit from

  8. Conservative mastectomies for breast cancer and risk-reducing surgery: the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center experience

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Aidan T.

    2016-01-01

    Demand for conservative mastectomies continues to increase as more patients choose to undergo breast reconstruction, often with simultaneous contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM). In addition, the increasing use of risk-reducing surgery in high-risk groups has contributed to the increased use of these techniques. We have reviewed the indications and outcomes of a large group of patients undergoing nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) at this institution. In total, 728 nipple-sparing mastectomies (NSMs) were performed in 413 patients between 2000 and 2013, for treatment of breast cancer (n=269) or risk reduction (n=459). Of 728 NSMs performed, 177 (24.3%) were in patients known to have a BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutation, or a genetic variant of uncertain significance. There was an incidental finding of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or invasive carcinoma in 22 (4.8%) and 8 (1.7%) of 459 prophylactic NSMs, respectively. In addition, unexpected invasive carcinoma was found in 17 of 98 therapeutic NSMs (17.3%) performed for DCIS. At median follow-up of 49 months, there were no known cases of local recurrence and only one case of regional recurrence. Immediate breast reconstruction was performed in 409 patients, most of whom underwent tissue expander/implant based procedures (n=401). Although 273 breasts (37.5%) had some evidence of skin desquamation at follow-up, most resolved spontaneously with 47 breasts (6.5%) requiring debridement. Other complications included hematoma in seven breasts (1%) and wound infection in 31 breasts (4.3%). Expander/implant removal was required in 20 cases (2.8%). The nipple-areola complex (NAC) was subsequently excised in 10 of 728 breasts (1.4%) due to oncologic concerns following assessment of retroareolar tissue. NSM was successful in most patients with an acceptable complication rate and in few patients subsequently undergoing removal of the NAC. Patients requiring mastectomy for breast cancer or risk reduction may now benefit from

  9. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for nasopharynx cancer: Update of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering experience

    SciTech Connect

    Wolden, Suzanne L. . E-mail: woldens@mskcc.org; Chen, William C.; Pfister, David G.; Kraus, Dennis H.; Berry, Sean L.; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We previously demonstrated that intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) significantly improves radiation dose distribution over three-dimensional planning for nasopharynx cancer and reported positive early clinical results. We now evaluate whether IMRT has resulted in improved outcomes for a larger cohort of patients with longer follow-up. Methods and Materials: Since 1998, all 74 patients with newly diagnosed, nonmetastatic nasopharynx cancer were treated with IMRT using accelerated fractionation to 70 Gy; 59 received a hyperfractionated concomitant boost, and more recently 15 received once-daily treatment with dose painting. With the exception of Stage I disease (n = 5) and patient preference (n = 1), 69 patients received concurrent and adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy similar to that in the Intergroup 0099 trial. Results: Patient characteristics: median age 45; 32% Asian; 72% male; 65% World Health Organization III; 6% Stage I, 16% Stage II, 30% Stage III, 47% Stage IV. Median follow-up is 35 months. The 3-year actuarial rate of local control is 91%, and regional control is 93%; freedom from distant metastases, progression-free survival, and overall survival at 3 years are 78%, 67%, and 83%, respectively. There was 100% local control for Stage T1/T2 disease, compared to 83% for T3/T4 disease (p = 0.01). Six patients failed at the primary site, with median time to local tumor progression 16 months; 5 were exclusively within the 70 Gy volume, and 1 was both within and outside the target volume. There is a trend for improved local control with IMRT when compared to local control of 79% for 35 patients treated before 1998 with three-dimensional planning and chemotherapy (p 0.11). Six months posttherapy, 21%, 13%, 15%, and 0% of patients with follow-up audiograms (n = 24 patients) had Grade 1, 2, 3, and 4 sensorineural hearing loss, respectively. For patients with >1 year follow-up (n = 59), rates of long-term xerostomia were as follows: 26% none

  10. Melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers in hairy cell leukaemia: a Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results population analysis and the 30-year experience at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

    PubMed

    Watts, Justin M; Kishtagari, Ashwin; Hsu, Meier; Lacouture, Mario E; Postow, Michael A; Park, Jae H; Stein, Eytan M; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Devlin, Sean M; Tallman, Martin S

    2015-10-01

    Few studies have examined melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) incidence rates after a diagnosis of hairy cell leukaemia (HCL). We assessed 267 HCL patients treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) and Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data for melanoma and NMSC incidence rates after HCL. Incidence data from MSKCC patients demonstrated a 10-year combined melanoma and NMSC skin cancer rate of 11·3%, melanoma 4·4% and NMSC 6·9%. Molecular analysis of skin cancers from MSKCC patients revealed activating RAS mutations in 3/9 patients, including one patient with melanoma. Of 4750 SEER patients with HCL, 55 (1·2%) had a subsequent diagnosis of melanoma. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) did not show that melanoma was more common in HCL patients versus the general population (SIR 1·3, 95% CI 0·78-2·03). Analysis of SEER HCL patients diagnosed before and after 1990 (approximately before and after purine analogue therapy was introduced) showed no evidence of an increased incidence after 1990. A better understanding of any potential association between HCL and skin cancer is highly relevant given ongoing trials using BRAF inhibitors, such as vemurafenib, for relapsed HCL, as RAS-mutant skin cancers could be paradoxically activated in these patients. PMID:26115047

  11. Role of External Beam Radiotherapy in Patients With Advanced or Recurrent Nonanaplastic Thyroid Cancer: Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Terezakis, Stephanie A. Lee, Kyungmouk S.; Ghossein, Ronald A.; Rivera, Michael; Tuttle, Robert M.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Wong, Richard J.; Patel, Snehal G.; Pfister, David G.; Shaha, Ashok R.; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) plays a controversial role in the management of nonanaplastic thyroid cancer. We reviewed our institution's outcomes in patients treated with EBRT for advanced or recurrent nonanaplastic thyroid cancer. Methods and Materials: Between April 1989 and April 2006, 76 patients with nonanaplastic thyroid cancer were treated with EBRT. The median follow-up for the surviving patients was 35.3 months (range, 4.2-178.4). The lesions were primarily advanced and included Stage T2 in 5 (7%), T3 in 5 (7%), and T4 in 64 (84%) patients. Stage N1 disease was present in 60 patients (79%). Distant metastases before EBRT were identified in 27 patients (36%). The median total EBRT dose delivered was 6,300 cGy. The histologic features examined included medullary in 12 patients (16%) and nonmedullary in 64 (84%). Of the 76 patients, 71 (93%) had undergone surgery before RT, and radioactive iodine treatment was used in 56 patients (74%). Results: The 2- and 4-year overall locoregional control rate for all histologic types was 86% and 72%, respectively, and the 2- and 4-year overall survival rate for all patients was 74% and 55%, respectively. No significant differences were found in locoregional control, overall survival, or distant metastases-free survival for patients with complete resection, microscopic residual disease, or gross residual disease. Grade 3 acute mucositis and dysphagia occurred in 14 (18%) and 24 (32%) patients, respectively. Late adverse toxicity was notable for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube use in 4 patients (5%). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that EBRT is effective for locoregional control of selected locally advanced or recurrent nonanaplastic thyroid malignancies, with acceptable acute toxicity.

  12. Intensity-modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) for Inoperable Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) Experience

    PubMed Central

    Sura, Sonal; Gupta, Vishal; Yorke, Ellen; Jackson, Andrew; Amols, Howard; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is an advanced treatment delivery technique that can improve the therapeutic dose ratio. Its use in the treatment of inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been well studied. This report reviews our experience with IMRT for patients with inoperable NSCLC. Methods and Materials We performed a retrospective review of fifty-five patients with stage I–IIIB inoperable NSCLC treated with IMRT at our institution between 2001–2005. The study endpoints were toxicity, local control, and overall survival. Results With a median follow-up of 26 months, the 2-year local control and overall survival rates for stage I/II patients were 50% and 55% respectively. For the stage III patients, 2-year local control and overall survival rates were 58% and 58% respectively with median survival time of 25 months. Six patients (11%) experienced grade 3 acute pulmonary toxicity. There were no acute treatment-related deaths. Two patients (4%) had grade 3 or worse late treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Conclusions IMRT treatment resulted in promising outcomes for inoperable NSCLC patients. PMID:18343515

  13. Use of positron emission tomography scan response to guide treatment change for locally advanced gastric cancer: the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center experience

    PubMed Central

    Won, Elizabeth; Shah, Manish A.; Schöder, Heiko; Strong, Vivian E.; Coit, Daniel G.; Brennan, Murray F.; Kelsen, David P.; Janjigian, Yelena Y.; Tang, Laura H.; Capanu, Marinela; Rizk, Nabil P.; Allen, Peter J.; Bains, Manjit S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early metabolic response on 18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) during neoadjuvant chemotherapy is PET non-responders have poor outcomes whether continuing chemotherapy or proceeding directly to surgery. Use of PET may identify early treatment failure, sparing patients from inactive therapy and allowing for crossover to alternative therapies. We examined the effectiveness of PET directed switching to salvage chemotherapy in the PET non-responders. Methods Patients with locally advanced resectable FDG-avid gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma received bevacizumab 15 mg/kg, epirubicin 50 mg/m2, cisplatin 60 mg/m2 day 1, and capecitabine 625 mg/m2 bid (ECX) every 21 days. PET scan was obtained at baseline and after cycle 1. PET responders, (i.e., ≥35% reduction in FDG uptake at the primary tumor) continued ECX + bev. Non-responders switched to docetaxel 30 mg/m2, irinotecan 50 mg/mg2 day 1 and 8 plus bevacizumab every 21 days for 2 cycles. Patients then underwent surgery. The primary objective was to improve the 2-year disease free survival (DFS) from 30% (historical control) to 53% in the non-responders. Results Twenty evaluable patients enrolled before the study closed for poor accrual. Eleven were PET responders and the 9 non-responders switched to the salvage regimen. With a median follow-up of 38.2 months, the 2-year DFS was 55% [95% confidence interval (CI), 30–85%] in responders compared with 56% in the non-responder group (95% CI, 20–80%, P=0.93). Conclusions The results suggest that changing chemotherapy regimens in PET non-responding patients may improve outcomes. Results from this pilot trial are hypothesis generating and suggest that PET directed neoadjuvant therapy merits evaluation in a larger trial. PMID:27563439

  14. The Creative Journey: A Model for Short-Term Group Art Therapy with Posttreatment Cancer Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luzzatto, Paola; Gabriel, Bonnie

    2000-01-01

    Cancer patients who have completed medical treatment are often left with unresolved psychological issues. Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York offers a group art therapy program for cancer patients to help them regain their self-confidence and readjust their self-identity. The response of 70 participants has been positive and has…

  15. Cancer center doubles net income after appeal overhaul.

    PubMed

    McKoane, E J

    1982-10-01

    Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center wanted a herd of higher quality donors. Following concentrated efforts with list segmentation, data processing, mailing packages with a human interest slant, and a change in renewal strategy, the center reached its goal. When it was over, the development department had turned a simple annual giving campaign into a refreshing multiple gift appeal. PMID:10262239

  16. The Management of Advanced Germ Cell Tumors in 2016: The Memorial Sloan Kettering Approach.

    PubMed

    Funt, Samuel A; Feldman, Darren R; Bosl, George J

    2016-07-01

    The high cure rate of patients with advanced germ cell tumors is the result of effective cisplatin-based chemotherapy; both previously untreated and relapsing patients can be cured. Risk stratification is particularly important in previously untreated patients. While retrospective salvage therapy analyses suggest that a number of clinical factors are associated with outcome, the appropriate selection of patients for, and the sequencing of, conventional- and high-dose regimens are subjects of debate because of the introduction of paclitaxel and different approaches to the administration of high-dose chemotherapy. This therapeutic landscape has been molded in part by our current understanding of treatment-associated toxicity. In this paper, we review the use of serum tumor markers in risk assignment and response evaluation; the treatment of previously untreated and relapsing patients; the role of surgical resection of residual disease, including retroperitoneal node dissection; and the importance of clinical trials for addressing unanswered questions and testing new therapies. Management controversies and possible future treatment enhancements that incorporate serum tumor marker decline and tumor genomics will also be discussed. PMID:27422113

  17. Associations of immunity-related single nucleotide polymorphisms with overall survival among prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Fayth L; Rao, Jian-Yu; Eckhert, Curtis; Chang, Shen-Chih; Pantuck, Allan; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The progression of prostate cancer is influenced by systemic inflammation, and may be attributed, in part, to genetic predisposition. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the immune response may help mediate prostate cancer progression. We analyzed data from a hospital-based case-control study of 164 prostate cancer patients and 157 healthy male controls from the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. We evaluated associations between six immunity-related polymorphisms (CRP rs1205 and rs1800947, FGFR2 rs1219648 and rs2981582, IFNGR1 rs11914, and IL10 rs1800871) and overall survival among prostate cancer patients, calculating adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards regression. FGFR2 rs1219648 (GG vs. AA) and rs2981582 (TT vs. CC) polymorphisms were associated with more favorable overall survival (HR: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.03-0.62 and HR: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.03-0.53, respectively) in patients with primary prostate cancer. These observations highlight the need to validate and identify these and other immunity-related polymorphisms in larger studies examining survival of prostate cancer patients. PMID:26379965

  18. Exploring cell apoptosis and senescence to understand and treat cancer: an interview with Scott Lowe

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Scott W. Lowe is currently principal investigator at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. After beginning his studies in chemical engineering, he decided to take another path and became fascinated by biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology, which ultimately led to an interest in human disease, particularly cancer. During his PhD at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Scott had the opportunity to benefit from the exceptional mentorship of Earl Ruley, David Housman and Tyler Jacks, and contributed to elucidating how the p53 (TP53) tumor suppressor gene limits oncogenic transformation and modulates the cytotoxic response to conventional chemotherapy. This important work earned him a fellowship from the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, which helped to launch his independent career. Scott is now a leading scientist in the cancer field and his work has helped to shed light on mechanisms of cell apoptosis and senescence to better understand and treat cancer. In this interview, he talks about this incredible scientific journey. PMID:26512122

  19. Exploring cell apoptosis and senescence to understand and treat cancer: an interview with Scott Lowe.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Scott; Cifra, Alessandra

    2015-11-01

    Scott W. Lowe is currently principal investigator at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. After beginning his studies in chemical engineering, he decided to take another path and became fascinated by biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology, which ultimately led to an interest in human disease, particularly cancer. During his PhD at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Scott had the opportunity to benefit from the exceptional mentorship of Earl Ruley, David Housman and Tyler Jacks, and contributed to elucidating how the p53 (TP53) tumor suppressor gene limits oncogenic transformation and modulates the cytotoxic response to conventional chemotherapy. This important work earned him a fellowship from the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, which helped to launch his independent career. Scott is now a leading scientist in the cancer field and his work has helped to shed light on mechanisms of cell apoptosis and senescence to better understand and treat cancer. In this interview, he talks about this incredible scientific journey. PMID:26512122

  20. Performance of a Nomogram Predicting Disease-Specific Survival After an R0 Resection for Gastric Cancer in Patients Receiving Postoperative Chemoradiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dikken, Johan L.; Coit, Daniel G.; Baser, Raymond E.; Gönen, Mithat; Goodman, Karyn A.; Brennan, Murray F.; Jansen, Edwin P.M.; Boot, Henk; Velde, Cornelis J.H. van de; Cats, Annemieke; Verheij, Marcel

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: The internationally validated Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) gastric carcinoma nomogram was based on patients who underwent curative (R0) gastrectomy, without any other therapy. The purpose of the current study was to assess the performance of this gastric cancer nomogram in patients who received chemoradiation therapy after an R0 resection for gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: In a combined dataset of 76 patients from the Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI), and 63 patients from MSKCC, who received postoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) after an R0 gastrectomy, the nomogram was validated by means of the concordance index (CI) and a calibration plot. Results: The concordance index for the nomogram was 0.64, which was lower than the CI of the nomogram for patients who received no adjuvant therapy (0.80). In the calibration plot, observed survival was approximately 20% higher than the nomogram-predicted survival for patients receiving postoperative CRT. Conclusions: The MSKCC gastric carcinoma nomogram significantly underpredicted survival for patients in the current study, suggesting an impact of postoperative CRT on survival in patients who underwent an R0 resection for gastric cancer, which has been demonstrated by randomized controlled trials. This analysis stresses the need for updating nomograms with the incorporation of multimodal strategies.

  1. Electronic patient self-assessment and management (SAM): a novel framework for cancer survivorship

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We propose a novel framework for management of cancer survivorship: electronic patient Self-Assessment and Management (SAM). SAM is a framework for transfer of information to and from patients in such a way as to increase both the patient's and the health care provider's understanding of the patient's progress, and to help ensure that patient care follows best practice. Methods Patients who participate in the SAM system are contacted by email at regular intervals and asked to complete validated questionnaires online. Patient responses on these questionnaires are then analyzed in order to provide patients with real-time, online information about their progress and to provide them with tailored and standardized medical advice. Patient-level data from the questionnaires are ported in real time to the patient's health care provider to be uploaded to clinic notes. An initial version of SAM has been developed at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) and the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) for aiding the clinical management of patients after surgery for prostate cancer. Results Pilot testing at MSKCC and UCSF suggests that implementation of SAM systems are feasible, with no major problems with compliance (> 70% response rate) or security. Conclusion SAM is a conceptually simple framework for passing information to and from patients in such a way as to increase both the patient's and the health care provider's understanding of the patient's progress, and to help ensure that patient care follows best practice. PMID:20565745

  2. Acute Skin Toxicity Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Who's at Risk?

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, Bradford S.; Laser, Benjamin; Kowalski, Alex V.; Fontenla, Sandra C.; Pena-Greenberg, Elizabeth; Yorke, Ellen D.; Lovelock, D. Michael; Hunt, Margie A.; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: We examined the rate of acute skin toxicity within a prospectively managed database of patients treated for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and investigated factors that might predict skin toxicity. Methods: From May 2006 through January 2008, 50 patients with Stage I NSCLC were treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center with 60 Gy in three fractions or 44-48 Gy in four fractions. Patients were treated with multiple coplanar beams (3-7, median 4) with a 6 MV linac using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and dynamic multileaf collimation. Toxicity grading was performed and based on the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects. Factors associated with Grade 2 or higher acute skin reactions were calculated by Fisher's exact test. Results: After a minimum 3 months of follow-up, 19 patients (38%) developed Grade 1, 4 patients (8%) Grade 2, 2 patients (4%) Grade 3, and 1 patient Grade 4 acute skin toxicity. Factors associated with Grade 2 or higher acute skin toxicity included using only 3 beams (p = 0.0007), distance from the tumor to the posterior chest wall skin of less than 5 cm (p = 0.006), and a maximum skin dose of 50% or higher of the prescribed dose (p = 0.02). Conclusions: SBRT can be associated with significant skin toxicity. One must consider the skin dose when evaluating the treatment plan and consider the bolus effect of immobilization devices.

  3. Prognostic relevance of sunitinib toxicities and comparison of continuous vs. intermittent sunitinib dosing schedule in metastatic renal cell cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Pilanci, Kezban N.; Avcı, Nilüfer; Yıldız, İbrahim; Alço, Gül; Demirhan, Özkan; Köksal, Ülkühan I.; Elbüken, Filiz; Tecimer, Coskun; Demir, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study Sunitinib-related side effects may develop as a result of the pharmacokinetic pathway affects the of the drug. Material and methods Data on mRCC patients were obtained from the hospital archives. Outcomes of patients were evaluated in terms of related prognostic factors, sunitinib adverse events during the treatment, and two different sunitinib dosing schedules. Results Seventy patients diagnosed with mRCC and treated with sunitinib were analyzed for prognostic factors and survival rates. During the mean follow-up of 33.5 months, 38 (54%) patients were alive and 32 (46%) patients died. The median time of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was 27 months (12–61) and 19 months (5–45), respectively. In univariate analysis, good prognostic risk group according to the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), hypothyroidism as sunitinib toxicity and patients on sunitinib treatment more than 1 year were favorable prognostic factors for OS. Leukopenia and fatigue as sunitinib toxicity were poor prognostic factors for OS. PFS and OS of the patients were not significantly different when we compared intermittent (4/2) vs. continuous treatment dosing schedules. Conclusions As a result of this trial, having hypothyroidism as an adverse effect of sunitinib was a favorable prognostic factor for OS and PFS in mRCC patients. It was also found that 4/2 and continuous dosing schedules of sunitinib did not give rise to different outcomes in mRCC patients. PMID:27358594

  4. Postoperative Nomogram for Predicting Cancer-Specific Mortality in Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Allen S.; Wang, Lu; Palmer, Frank L.; Yu, Changhong; Toset, Arnbjorn; Patel, Snehal; Kattan, Michael W.; Tuttle, R. Michael; Ganly, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a rare thyroid cancer accounting for 5 % of all thyroid malignancies. The purpose of our study was to design a predictive nomogram for cancer-specific mortality (CSM) utilizing clinical, pathological, and biochemical variables in patients with MTC. Methods MTC patients managed entirely at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1986 and 2010 were identified. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were recorded, and variables predictive of CSM were identified by univariable analyses. A multivariable competing risk model was then built to predict the 10-year cancer specific mortality of MTC. All predictors of interest were added in the starting full model before selection, including age, gender, pre- and postoperative serum calcitonin, pre- and postoperative CEA, RET mutation status, perivascular invasion, margin status, pathologic T status, pathologic N status, and M status. Stepdown method was used in model selection to choose predictive variables. Results Of 249 MTC patients, 22.5 % (56/249) died from MTC, whereas 6.4 % (16/249) died secondary to other causes. Mean follow-up period was 87 ± 67 months. The seven variables with the highest predictive accuracy for cancer specific mortality included age, gender, postoperative calcitonin, perivascular invasion, pathologic T status, pathologic N status, and M status. These variables were used to create the final nomogram. Discrimination from the final nomogram was measured at 0.77 with appropriate calibration. Conclusions We describe the first nomogram that estimates cause-specific mortality in individual patients with MTC. This predictive nomogram will facilitate patient counseling in terms of prognosis and subsequent clinical follow up. PMID:25366585

  5. A National Network to Advance the Field of Cancer and Female Sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, Shari B.; Abramsohn, Emily; Andersen, Barbara L.; Baron, Shirley R.; Carter, Jeanne; Dickler, Maura; Florendo, Judith; Freeman, Leslie; Githens, Katherine; Kushner, David; Makelarski, Jennifer A.; Yamada, Diane; Lindau, Stacy Tessler

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Understanding sexual health issues in cancer patients is integral to care for the continuously growing cancer survivor population. Aim To create a national network of active clinicians and researchers focusing on the prevention and treatment of sexual problems in woman and girls with cancer. Methods Interdisciplinary teams from the University of Chicago and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center jointly developed the mission for a national conference to convene clinicians and researchers in the field of cancer and female sexuality. The invitee list was developed by both institutions and further iterated through suggestions from invitees. The conference agenda focused on three high-priority topics under the guidance of a professional facilitator. Breakout groups were led by attendees recognized by collaborators as experts in those topics. Conference costs were shared by both institutions. Main Outcome Measure Development of Scientific Working Groups (SWGs) Results One hundred two clinicians and researchers were invited to attend the 1st National Conference on Cancer and Female Sexuality. Forty-three individuals from 20 different institutions across 14 states attended, including representation from eight NCI-funded cancer centers. Attendees included PhD researchers (n=19), physicians (n=16), and other health care professionals (n=8). Breakout groups included: 1) Defining Key Life Course Sexuality Issues; 2) Building a Registry; and 3) Implementing Sexual Health Assessment. Breakout group summaries incorporated group consensus on key points and priorities. These generated six SWGs with volunteer leaders to accelerate future research and discovery: 1) Technology-Based Interventions; 2) Basic Science; 3) Clinical Trials; 4) Registries; 5) Measurement; and 6) Secondary Data Analysis. Most attendees volunteered for at least one SWG (n=35), and many volunteered for two (n=21). Conclusion This 1st National Conference demonstrated high motivation and broad

  6. Final Report - DOE Center for Laser Imaging and Cancer Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Alfano, Robert R.; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2002-10-31

    This Final Report summarizes the significant progress made by the researchers, students and staff of the Center for Laser Imaging and Cancer Diagnostics (CLICD) from January 1998 through May 2002. During this period, the Center supported several projects. Most projects were proposed initially, some were added subsequently as their relevance and importance to the DOE mission became evident. DOE support has been leveraged to obtain continuing funding for some projects. Leveraged funds come from various sources, including NIH, Army, NSF and the Air Force. The goal of the Center was to develop laser-based instruments for use in the detection and diagnosis of major diseases, with an emphasis on detection and diagnosis of various cancers. Each of the supported projects is a collaborative effort between physicists and laser scientists and the City College of New York and noted physicians, surgeons, pathologists, and biologists located at medical centers in the Metropolitan area. The participating institutions were: City College of New York Institute for Ultrafast Lasers and Spectroscopy, Hackensack University Medical Center, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and New York Eye and Ear Institute. Each of the projects funded by the Center is grouped into one of four research categories: a) Disease Detection, b) Non-Disease Applications, c) New Diagnostic Tools, and, d) Education, Training, Outreach and Dissemination. The progress achieved by the multidisciplinary teams was reported in 51 publications and 32 presentations at major national conferences. Also, one U.S. patent was obtained and six U.S. patent applications have been filed for innovations resulting from the projects sponsored by the Center.

  7. Expression and Functional Role of Orphan Receptor GPR158 in Prostate Cancer Growth and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nitin; Itakura, Tatsuo; Jeong, Shinwu; Liao, Chun-Peng; Roy-Burman, Pradip; Zandi, Ebrahim; Groshen, Susan; Pinski, Jacek; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Gross, Mitchell E.; Fini, M. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second-leading cause of cancer-related mortality, after lung cancer, in men from developed countries. In its early stages, primary tumor growth is dependent on androgens, thus generally can be controlled by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Eventually however, the disease progresses to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), a lethal form in need of more effective treatments. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise a large clan of cell surface proteins that have been implicated as therapeutic targets in PCa growth and progression. The findings reported here provide intriguing evidence of a role for the newly characterized glutamate family member GPR158 in PCa growth and progression. We found that GPR158 promotes PCa cell proliferation independent of androgen receptor (AR) functionality and that this requires its localization in the nucleus of the cell. This suggests that GPR158 acts by mechanisms different from other GPCRs. GPR158 expression is stimulated by androgens and GPR158 stimulates AR expression, implying a potential to sensitize tumors to low androgen conditions during ADT via a positive feedback loop. Further, we found GPR158 expression correlates with a neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation phenotype and promotes anchorage-independent colony formation implying a role for GPR158 in therapeutic progression and tumor formation. GPR158 expression was increased at the invading front of prostate tumors that formed in the genetically defined conditional Pten knockout mouse model, and co-localized with elevated AR expression in the cell nucleus. Kaplan-Meier analysis on a dataset from the Memorial Sloan Kettering cancer genome portal showed that increased GPR158 expression in tumors is associated with lower disease-free survival. Our findings strongly suggest that pharmaceuticals targeting GPR158 activities could represent a novel and innovative approach to the prevention and management of CRPC. PMID:25693195

  8. Expression and functional role of orphan receptor GPR158 in prostate cancer growth and progression.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nitin; Itakura, Tatsuo; Jeong, Shinwu; Liao, Chun-Peng; Roy-Burman, Pradip; Zandi, Ebrahim; Groshen, Susan; Pinski, Jacek; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Gross, Mitchell E; Fini, M Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second-leading cause of cancer-related mortality, after lung cancer, in men from developed countries. In its early stages, primary tumor growth is dependent on androgens, thus generally can be controlled by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Eventually however, the disease progresses to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), a lethal form in need of more effective treatments. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise a large clan of cell surface proteins that have been implicated as therapeutic targets in PCa growth and progression. The findings reported here provide intriguing evidence of a role for the newly characterized glutamate family member GPR158 in PCa growth and progression. We found that GPR158 promotes PCa cell proliferation independent of androgen receptor (AR) functionality and that this requires its localization in the nucleus of the cell. This suggests that GPR158 acts by mechanisms different from other GPCRs. GPR158 expression is stimulated by androgens and GPR158 stimulates AR expression, implying a potential to sensitize tumors to low androgen conditions during ADT via a positive feedback loop. Further, we found GPR158 expression correlates with a neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation phenotype and promotes anchorage-independent colony formation implying a role for GPR158 in therapeutic progression and tumor formation. GPR158 expression was increased at the invading front of prostate tumors that formed in the genetically defined conditional Pten knockout mouse model, and co-localized with elevated AR expression in the cell nucleus. Kaplan-Meier analysis on a dataset from the Memorial Sloan Kettering cancer genome portal showed that increased GPR158 expression in tumors is associated with lower disease-free survival. Our findings strongly suggest that pharmaceuticals targeting GPR158 activities could represent a novel and innovative approach to the prevention and management of CRPC. PMID:25693195

  9. Everything I needed to know about medical management I learned in acting school.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Brian A

    2002-01-01

    Some people are doctors. Some people play them on TV. Brian Meltzer could probably do both. A physician executive at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Meltzer relies on skills he learned in acting school to help manage business decisions. In the first of several essays for The Physician Executive, Meltzer explains how acting can help you become a better leader. PMID:12219532

  10. Treatment of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer with modern radiotherapy techniques in the postoperative setting-the MSKCC experience

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, Bradford S.; Stegman, Lauren D.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Patel, Snehal G.; Shah, Jatin P.; Kraus, Dennis H.; Lee, Nancy Y. . E-mail: leen2@mskcc.org

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To perform a retrospective analysis of patients with paranasal sinus (PNS) cancer treated with postoperative radiotherapy (RT) at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: Between January 1987 and July 2005, 85 patients with PNS and nasal cavity cancer underwent postoperative RT. Most patients had squamous cell carcinoma (49%; n = 42), T4 tumors (52%; n = 36), and the maxillary sinus (53%; n = 45) as the primary disease site. The median radiation dose was 63 Gy. Of the 85 patients, 76 underwent CT simulation and 53 were treated with either three-dimensional conformal RT (27%; n = 23) or intensity-modulated RT (35%; n = 30). Acute and late toxicities were scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group radiation morbidity scoring criteria. Results: With a median follow-up for surviving patients of 60 months, the 5-year estimates of local progression-free, regional progression-free, distant metastasis-free, disease-free, and overall survival rates were 62%, 87%, 82%, 55%, and 67%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, squamous cell histology and cribriform plate involvement predicted for an increased likelihood of local recurrence, and squamous cell histologic features predicted for worse overall survival. None of the patients who underwent CT simulation and were treated with modern techniques developed a Grade 3-4 late complication of the eye. Conclusion: Complete surgical resection followed by adjuvant RT is an effective and safe approach in the treatment of PNS cancer. Emerging tools, such as three-dimensional conformal treatment and, in particular, intensity-modulated RT for PNS tumors, may minimize the occurrence of late complications associated with conventional RT techniques. Local recurrence remains a significant problem.

  11. Intraoperative Radiotherapy During Radical Prostatectomy for Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer: Technical and Dosimetric Aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Krengli, Marco; Terrone, Carlo; Ballare, Andrea; Loi, Gianfranco; Tarabuzzi, Roberto; Marchioro, Giansilvio; Beldi, Debora; Mones, Eleonora; Bolchini, Cesare R.T.; Volpe, Alessandro; Frea, Bruno

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To analyze the feasibility of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) in patients with high-risk prostate cancer and candidates for radical prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: A total of 38 patients with locally advanced prostate cancer were enrolled. No patients had evidence of lymph node or distant metastases, probability of organ-confined disease >25%, or risk of lymph node involvement >15% according to the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Nomogram. The IORT was delivered after exposure of the prostate by a dedicated linear accelerator with beveled collimators using electrons of 9 to 12 MeV to a total dose of 10-12 Gy. Rectal dose was measured in vivo by radiochromic films placed on a rectal probe. Administration of IORT was followed by completion of radical prostatectomy and regional lymph node dissection. All cases with extracapsular extension and/or positive margins were scheduled for postoperative radiotherapy. Patients with pT3 to pT4 disease or positive nodes received adjuvant hormonal therapy. Results: Mean dose detected by radiochromic films was 3.9 Gy (range, 0.4-8.9 Gy) to the anterior rectal wall. The IORT procedure lasted 31 min on average (range, 15-45 min). No major intra- or postoperative complications occurred. Minor complications were observed in 10/33 (30%) of cases. Of the 27/31 patients who completed the postoperative external beam radiotherapy, 3/27 experienced Grade 2 rectal toxicity and 1/27 experienced Grade 2 urinary toxicity. Conclusions: Use of IORT during radical prostatectomy is feasible and allows safe delivery of postoperative external beam radiotherapy to the tumor bed without relevant acute rectal toxicity.

  12. Outcomes of chemotherapies and HER2 directed therapies in advanced HER2-mutant lung cancers.

    PubMed

    Eng, Juliana; Hsu, Meier; Chaft, Jamie E; Kris, Mark G; Arcila, Maria E; Li, Bob T

    2016-09-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, ERBB2) mutations occur in 3% of lung adenocarcinomas. While case reports and series have shown activity of HER2 targeted agents in these patients, little is known about outcomes of chemotherapies. Patients with stage IV HER2-mutant lung cancers at Memorial Sloan Kettering were reviewed. Patient demographics, types of HER2 mutations, duration of systemic treatments and survival were analyzed. We identified 38 patients with HER2-mutant lung cancers: median age 62; majority were women (n=24), never smokers (n=22), and all had adenocarcinomas. A 12 base pair in-frame insertion YVMA in exon 20 (p.A775_G776insYVMA) was present in 24 (63%, 95% CI 46-78%) patients. In addition, there were four 9 base pair insertions, one 6 base pair insertion, and five 3 base pair insertions in exon 20, and four single bp substitutions (exon 20 L755F, V777L, D769H, exon 8 S310F). The median overall survival from date of diagnosis of stage IV disease was 2.3 years (95% CI 1.2-2.6). The median duration of chemotherapy was 4.3 months (68 treatments, range 0-21 months): 6.2 months for pemetrexed ±platinum/bevacizumab, 4 months for taxane ±platinum/bevacizumab, 2.6 months for gemcitabine, 3.5 months for vinorelbine. The median duration of HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors was 2.2 months (28 treatments, range 0.3-16.3 months). As we search for better targeted therapies for patients with HER2-mutant lung cancers, chemotherapy remains an important component of care. PMID:27565914

  13. Patterns of Utilization of Adjuvant Radiotherapy and Outcomes in Black Women After Breast Conservation at a Large Multidisciplinary Cancer Center;Black women; Breast cancer; Radiotherapy; RT; Breast conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards-Bennett, Sophia M.; Jacks, Lindsay M.; McCormick, Beryl; Zhang, Zhigang; Azu, Michelle; Ho, Alice; Powell, Simon; Brown, Carol

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Population-based studies have reported that as many of 35% of black women do not undergo radiotherapy (RT) after breast conservation surgery (BCS). The objective of the present study was to determine whether this trend persisted at a large multidisciplinary cancer center, and to identify the factors that predict for noncompliance with RT and determine the outcomes for this subset of patients. Methods and Materials: Between January 2002 and December 2007, 83 black women underwent BCS at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and were therefore eligible for the present study. Of the 83 women, 38 (46%) had Stage I, 38 (46%) Stage II, and 7 (8%) Stage III disease. Of the study cohort, 31 (37%) had triple hormone receptor-negative tumors. RT was recommended for 81 (98%) of the 83 patients (median dose, 60 Gy). Results: Of the 81 women, 12 (15%) did not receive the recommended adjuvant breast RT. Nonreceipt of chemotherapy (p = .003) and older age (p = .009) were associated with nonreceipt of RT. With a median follow-up of 70 months, the 3-year local control, locoregional control, recurrence-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival rate was 99% (actuarial 5-year rate, 97%), 96% (actuarial 5-year rate, 93%), 95% (actuarial 5-year rate, 92%), 92% (actuarial 5-year rate, 89%), and 95% (actuarial 5-year rate, 91%), respectively. Conclusion: We found a greater rate of utilization adjuvant breast RT (85%) among black women after BCS than has been reported in recent studies, indicating that excellent outcomes are attainable for black women after BCS when care is administered in a multidisciplinary cancer center.

  14. Geriatric Assessment as a Predictor of Delirium and Other Outcomes in Elderly Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Korc-Grodzicki, Beatriz; Sun, Sung W.; Zhou, Qin; Iasonos, Alexia; Lu, Bryan; Root, James C.; Downey, Robert J.; Tew, William P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to describe the implementation of preoperative geriatric assessment (GA) in patients undergoing major cancer surgery and to determine predictors of postoperative delirium. Summary Background Data Geriatric surgical patients have unique vulnerabilities and are at increased risk of developing postoperative delirium. Methods Geriatricians at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center risk-stratify surgical patients with solid tumors, aged ≥ 75 years using preoperative GA, which includes basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADLs, IADLs), cognition (Mini-Cog Test), history of falls, nutritional state, and comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity Index [CCI]). The Geriatrics Service evaluates patients for postoperative delirium using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM). A retrospective review was performed. The associations between GA and postoperative outcomes were evaluated. Univariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the predictive value of GA for postoperative delirium, and a multivariate model was built. Results In total, 416 patients who received preoperative evaluation by the Geriatrics Service between September 1, 2010, and December 31, 2011, were included. Delirium occurred in 19% of patients. Patients with delirium had longer length of hospital stay (P<0.001) and greater likelihood of discharge to a rehabilitation facility (P<0.001). CCI score, history of falls, dependent on IADL, and abnormal Mini-Cog Test results predicted postoperative delirium on univariate analysis. Developed using a stepwise selection method, a multivariate model to predict delirium is presented including CCI score (P=0.032), dependence IADLs (P=0.011) and falls history (P=0.056). Conclusions Preoperative GA is feasible and may achieve a better understanding of older patients’ perioperative risks, including delirium. PMID:24887981

  15. Duration of Second or Greater Complete Clinical Remission In Ovarian Cancer: Exploring Potential Endpoints for Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Michelle L; Gore, Martin E; Spriggs, David; Kaye, Stan; Iasonos, Alexia; Hensley, Martee; Aghajanian, Carol; Venkatraman, Ennapadam; Sabbatini, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To explore benchmarks for future consolidation strategies, we evaluated a strictly defined (normal CA-125 and normal CT) second-complete-remission (CR) ovarian cancer population for 1) the median progression-free survival (PFS), 2) the frequency with which second remission exceeds first, and 3) the proportion of patients in remission at given time points. Methods Retrospective sampling was carried out at Memorial Sloan-Kettering (10/1993–12/2000) and the Royal Marsden Hospital (1/1995–4/2003) for the following: histological confirmation and elevated CA-125 at diagnosis; primary surgery; first and second-line platinum-based chemotherapy with CR; and no maintenance therapy. Results In 35 patients: 1) the duration of first PFS was 17.8 months (95 % CI, 13.2-24.5 mos); and second PFS was 10.8 months (95% CI, 9.6-12.2 mos); 2) the number of patients with second response longer than first was 3/35 (9%); 3) the proportion of patients remaining in second complete remission is 100% (3 mos), 100% (6 mos), 83% (9 mos), 34% (12 mos), 23% (15 mos) and 8.6% (18 mos), respectively. Conclusion 1) The median PFS from second complete remission is short. 2) A second response is rarely longer than the first even in this second CR population. 3) The number of patients with a second response longer than the first, or the proportion of patients remaining in complete remission at given time points could be evaluated as an outcome measure in future studies. PMID:17614127

  16. Comparison of the Luminex xTAG RVP Fast Assay and the Idaho Technology FilmArray RP Assay for Detection of Respiratory Viruses in Pediatric Patients at a Cancer Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Mead, Peter; Stiles, Jeffrey; Brennan, Carrie; Li, Haijing; Shuptar, Susan; Stratton, Charles W.; Tang, Yi-Wei; Kamboj, Mini

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory viruses are increasingly recognized as serious causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The rapid and sensitive detection of respiratory viruses is essential for the early diagnosis and administration of appropriate antiviral therapy, as well as for the effective implementation of infection control measures. We compared the performance of two commercial assays, xTAG RVP Fast (Luminex Diagnostics, Toronto, Canada) and FilmArray RVP (FA RVP; Idaho Technology, Salt Lake City, UT), in pediatric patients at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. These assays detect the following viruses: respiratory syncytial virus; influenza A and B viruses; parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, 3, and 4; human metapneumovirus; adenovirus; enterovirus-rhinovirus; coronaviruses NL63, HKU1, 229E, and OC43; and bocavirus. We tested a total of 358 respiratory specimens from 173 pediatric patients previously tested by direct fluorescence assay (DFA) and viral culture. The overall detection rate (number of positive specimens/total specimens) for viruses tested by all methods was 24% for DFA/culture, 45% for xTAG RVP Fast, and 51% for FA RVP. The agreement between the two multiplex assays was 84.5%, and the difference in detection rate was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Overall, the FA RVP assay was more sensitive than the xTAG RVP Fast assay and had a turnaround time of approximately 1 h. The sensitivity, simplicity, and random-access platform make FA RVP an excellent choice for laboratory on-demand service with low to medium volume. PMID:22518855

  17. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome in Patients With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Samuel; Grommes, Christian; Reiner, Anne S.; Rosenblum, Marc K.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is characterized by neurologic symptoms with typical lesions on neuroimaging and may be associated with chemotherapy and immunosuppressive agents used in patients with cancer. We described the spectrum of PRES at a major cancer center. Methods. We reviewed charts of adults with PRES between 2005 and 2011 at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center for clinical information and outcome. Results. We identified 21 women (68%) and 10 men (median cohort age: 58 years). Solid tumors (n = 22, 71%) were more common than hematologic (n = 8) or primary brain malignancies (n = 1). Prior brain irradiation (16%) and central nervous system metastases (10%) were uncommon. There were 55% who received chemotherapy or targeted therapy within the month preceding PRES, including 6 patients who received bevacizumab; PRES followed allogeneic stem cell transplantation in 5 (16%). Presenting symptoms included confusion (71%), seizure (58%), and headache (48%). Maximum systolic and diastolic blood pressures were similar among patients grouped by cancer type, chemotherapy or bevacizumab use, and atypical imaging. Moreover, 37% of patients with both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) had normal CT concurrent with PRES on MRI, and 84% returned to neurologic baseline at a median of 7.5 days (range: 1–167 days) from onset. Successful anticonvulsant taper was achieved in 51%. Chemotherapy rechallenge was attempted in 41% without recurrent PRES. Autopsy revealed nonspecific changes isolated to radiographically affected areas in one of two patients. Conclusion. Recent chemotherapy, particularly bevacizumab, is common in cancer patients with PRES. Clinical and radiographic presentations may vary; MRI appears more sensitive than CT. Anticonvulsant taper and chemotherapy rechallenge is often possible. Implications for Practice: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is characterized by neurologic symptoms

  18. SU-E-J-115: Using Markov Chain Modeling to Elucidate Patterns in Breast Cancer Metastasis Over Time and Space

    SciTech Connect

    Comen, E; Mason, J; Kuhn, P; Nieva, J; Newton, P; Norton, L; Venkatappa, N; Jochelson, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Traditionally, breast cancer metastasis is described as a process wherein cancer cells spread from the breast to multiple organ systems via hematogenous and lymphatic routes. Mapping organ specific patterns of cancer spread over time is essential to understanding metastatic progression. In order to better predict sites of metastases, here we demonstrate modeling of the patterned migration of metastasis. Methods: We reviewed the clinical history of 453 breast cancer patients from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center who were non-metastatic at diagnosis but developed metastasis over time. We used the variables of organ site of metastases as well as time to create a Markov chain model of metastasis. We illustrate the probabilities of metastasis occurring at a given anatomic site together with the probability of spread to additional sites. Results: Based on the clinical histories of 453 breast cancer patients who developed metastasis, we have learned (i) how to create the Markov transition matrix governing the probabilities of cancer progression from site to site; (ii) how to create a systemic network diagram governing disease progression modeled as a random walk on a directed graph; (iii) how to classify metastatic sites as ‘sponges’ that tend to only receive cancer cells or ‘spreaders’ that receive and release them; (iv) how to model the time-scales of disease progression as a Weibull probability distribution function; (v) how to perform Monte Carlo simulations of disease progression; and (vi) how to interpret disease progression as an entropy-increasing stochastic process. Conclusion: Based on our modeling, metastatic spread may follow predictable pathways. Mapping metastasis not simply by organ site, but by function as either a ‘spreader’ or ‘sponge’ fundamentally reframes our understanding of metastatic processes. This model serves as a novel platform from which we may integrate the evolving genomic landscape that drives cancer

  19. TRASH TO TREASURE: CONVERTING COLD WAR LEGACY WASTE INTO WEAPONS AGAINST CANCER

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, R.G.; Lacy, N.H.; Butz, T.R.; Brandon, N.E.

    2004-10-06

    As part of its commitment to clean up Cold War legacy sites, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated an exciting and unique project to dispose of its inventory of uranium-233 (233U) stored at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and extract isotopes that show great promise in the treatment of deadly cancers. In addition to increasing the supply of potentially useful medical isotopes, the project will rid DOE of a nuclear concern and cut surveillance and security costs. For more than 30 years, DOE's ORNL has stored over 1,200 containers of fissile 233U, originally produced for several defense-related projects, including a pilot study that looked at using 233U as a commercial reactor fuel. This uranium, designated as special nuclear material, requires expensive security, safety, and environmental controls. It has been stored at an ORNL facility, Building 3019A, that dates back to the Manhattan Project. Down-blending the material to a safer form, rather than continuing to store it, will eliminate a $15 million a year financial liability for the DOE and increase the supply of medical isotopes by 5,700 percent. During the down-blending process, thorium-229 (229Th) will be extracted. The thorium will then be used to extract actinium-225 (225Ac), which will ultimately supply its progeny, bismuth-213 (213Bi), for on-going cancer research. The research includes Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia at Sloan-Kettering Memorial Cancer Center in New York, as well as other serious cancers of the lungs, pancreas, and kidneys using a technique known as alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy. Alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy is based on the emission of alpha particles by radionuclides. 213Bi is attached to a monoclonal antibody that targets specific cells. The bismuth then delivers a high-powered but short-range radiation dose, effectively killing the cancerous cells but sparing the surrounding tissue. Production of the actinium and

  20. miR-195 Inhibits EMT by Targeting FGF2 in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Kai; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Xiaowen; Huang, Yeqing

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the leading causes of deaths in America. The major cause of mortality can be attributed to metastasis. Cancer metastasis involves sequential and interrelated events. miRNAs and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are implicated in this process. miR-195 is downregulated in many human cancers. However, the roles of miR-195 in PCa metastasis and EMT remain unclear. In this study, data from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) prostate cancer database were re-analysed to detect miR-195 expression and its roles in PCa. miR-195 was then overexpressed in castration-resistant PCa cell lines, DU-145 and PC-3. The role of miR-195 in migration and invasion in vitro was also investigated, and common markers in EMT were evaluated through Western blot analysis. A luciferase reporter assay was conducted to confirm the target gene of miR-195; were validated in PCa cells. In MSKCC data re-analyses, miR-195 was poorly expressed in metastatic PCa; miR-195 could be used to diagnose metastatic PCa by measuring the corresponding expression. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) was 0.705 (P = 0.017). Low miR-195 expression was characterised with a shorter relapse-free survival (RFS) time. miR-195 overexpression suppressed cell migration, invasion and EMT. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) was confirmed as a direct target of miR-195. FGF2 knockdown also suppressed migration, invasion and EMT; by contrast, increased FGF2 partially reversed the suppressive effect of miR-195. And data from ONCOMINE prostate cancer database showed that PCa patients with high FGF2 expression showed shorter RFS time (P = 0.046). Overall, this study demonstrated that miR-195 suppressed PCa cell metastasis by downregulating FGF2. miR-195 restoration may be considered as a new therapeutic method to treat metastatic PCa. PMID:26650737

  1. Genomic and transcriptomic hallmarks of poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahimpasic, Tihana; Boucai, Laura; Shah, Ronak H.; Dogan, Snjezana; Ricarte-Filho, Julio C.; Krishnamoorthy, Gnana P.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Berger, Michael F.; Sander, Chris; Taylor, Barry S.; Ghossein, Ronald; Ganly, Ian; Fagin, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Foundation; the Society of Memorial Sloan Kettering; the Byrne fund; and Cycle for Survival. PMID:26878173

  2. Association of statin use with a pathologic complete response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Matthew S.; Minsky, Bruce D. . E-mail: minskyb@mskcc.org; Saltz, Leonard B.; Riedel, Elyn; Chessin, David B.; Guillem, Jose G.

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: To assess whether 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, or statins, might enhance the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemoradiation in rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 1996 and 2001, 358 patients with clinically resectable, nonmetastatic rectal cancer underwent surgery at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center after neoadjuvant chemoradiation for either locally advanced tumors or low-lying tumors that would require abdominoperineal resection. We excluded 9 patients for radiation therapy dose <45 Gy or if statin use was unknown, leaving 349 evaluable patients. Median radiation therapy dose was 50.4 Gy (range, 45-55.8 Gy), and 308 patients (88%) received 5-flurouracil-based chemotherapy. Medication use, comorbid illnesses, clinical stage as assessed by digital rectal examination and ultrasound, and type of chemotherapy were analyzed for associations with pathologic complete response (pCR), defined as no microscopic evidence of tumor. Fisher's exact test was used for categoric variables, Mantel-Haenszel test for ordered categoric variables, and logistic regression for multivariate analysis. Results: Thirty-three patients (9%) used a statin, with no differences in clinical stage according to digital rectal examination or ultrasound compared with the other 324 patients. At the time of surgery, 23 nonstatin patients (7%) were found to have metastatic disease, compared with 0% for statin patients. The unadjusted pCR rates with and without statin use were 30% and 17%, respectively (p = 0.10). Variables significant univariately at the p = 0.15 level were entered into a multivariate model, as were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which were strongly associated with statin use. The odds ratio for statin use on pCR was 4.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.7-12.1; p = 0.003) after adjusting for NSAID use, clinical stage, and type of chemotherapy. Conclusion: In multivariate analysis, statin use is associated with an improved p

  3. The breast cancer prevention diet by Dr. Bob Arnot: unscientific and deceptive--a disservice to American women.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J; Sharma, S; Lukachko, A; Ross, G

    1999-01-01

    The following report is a critical review of the recently published book by NBC's chief medical correspondent, Dr. Bob Arnot, entitled, The Breast Cancer Prevention Diet: The Powerful Foods, Supplements, and Drugs That Can Save Your Life. The review represents the official opinion of the American Council on Science and Health (ACSH), a nonprofit public health education and advocacy group supported by a board of over 250 scientific and policy advisors. The scientists at the ACSH express their profound concern about the misleading, unscientific, and speculative advice that Dr. Arnot offers to women who wish to reduce their risk of breast cancer, i.e., to all women. The ACSH believes, first, that in the absence of sound, peer-reviewed evidence supporting such advice, there is harm in recommending lifestyle modifications for the purpose of preventing breast cancer. The ACSH also believes that a physician (and particularly one in a position of public trust, such as a professional media health expert) should refrain from selling advice based on the twin philosophies that "you can't afford to wait" for the evidence, and that "you can only improve your health" with this diet. Indeed, unproven interventions such as those put forth in this book can have negative effects on both physical and psychological health. The ACSH contacted many of the scientists quoted or cited in Dr. Arnot's book. Some expressed concerns regarding the book's message or the misrepresentation of their work or both. Those physicians affiliated with the Memorial-Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) in New York, while expressing their concerns about the claims made in the book, informed the ACSH that they had been "advised" not to comment on The Breast Cancer Prevention Diet. The MSKCC public relations office acknowledged that the center had serious concerns about the Arnot book and that these concerns had been conveyed to the publisher, Little, Brown and Co., and to Dr. Arnot. The MSKCC representative

  4. TU-F-12A-01: Quantitative Non-Linear Compartment Modeling of 89Zr- and 124I- Labeled J591 Monoclonal Antibody Kinetics Using Serial Non-Invasive Positron Emission Tomography Imaging in a Pre-Clinical Human Prostate Cancer Mouse Model

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, EK; Cheal, SM; Chalasani, S; Fareedy, SB; Punzalan, B; Humm, JL; Osborne, JR; Larson, SM; Zanzonico, PB; Otto, B; Bander, NH

    2014-06-15

    -drug conjugates. Further exploration using the model will examine binding and radioisotope residence as antibody dose is increased to antigen saturation. The Center for Targeted Radioimmunotherapy and Theranostics, Ludwig Center for Cancer Immunotherapy, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSK), NIH (R25-CA096945). Technical services provided by the MSK Small-Animal Imaging Core Facility were supported by the NIH (R24-CA83084, P30-CA08748, and P50-CA92629; Zanzonico). NCI, Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparity (R21 CA153177-03; Osborne)

  5. Using Generalized Equivalent Uniform Dose Atlases to Combine and Analyze Prospective Dosimetric and Radiation Pneumonitis Data From 2 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Dose Escalation Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Fan; Yorke, Ellen D.; Belderbos, Jose S.A.; Borst, Gerben R.; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.; Lebesque, Joos V.; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the use of generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) atlas for data pooling in radiation pneumonitis (RP) modeling, to determine the dependence of RP on gEUD, to study the consistency between data sets, and to verify the increased statistical power of the combination. Methods and Materials: Patients enrolled in prospective phase I/II dose escalation studies of radiation therapy of non-small cell lung cancer at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) (78 pts) and the Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI) (86 pts) were included; 10 (13%) and 14 (17%) experienced RP requiring steroids (RPS) within 6 months after treatment. gEUD was calculated from dose-volume histograms. Atlases for each data set were created using 1-Gy steps from exact gEUDs and RPS data. The Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model was fit to the atlas and exact gEUD data. Heterogeneity and inconsistency statistics for the fitted parameters were computed. gEUD maps of the probability of RPS rate {>=}20% were plotted. Results: The 2 data sets were homogeneous and consistent. The best fit values of the volume effect parameter a were small, with upper 95% confidence limit around 1.0 in the joint data. The likelihood profiles around the best fit a values were flat in all cases, making determination of the best fit a weak. All confidence intervals (CIs) were narrower in the joint than in the individual data sets. The minimum P value for correlations of gEUD with RPS in the joint data was .002, compared with P=.01 and .05 for MSKCC and NKI data sets, respectively. gEUD maps showed that at small a, RPS risk increases with gEUD. Conclusions: The atlas can be used to combine gEUD and RPS information from different institutions and model gEUD dependence of RPS. RPS has a large volume effect with the mean dose model barely included in the 95% CI. Data pooling increased statistical power.

  6. Serum Biomarkers Associated with Clinical Outcomes Fail to Predict Brain Metastases in Patients with Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bob T.; Lou, Emil; Hsu, Meier; Yu, Helena A.; Naidoo, Jarushka; Zauderer, Marjorie G.; Sima, Camelia; Johnson, Melissa L.; Daras, Mariza; DeAngelis, Lisa M.; Fleisher, Martin; Kris, Mark G.; Azzoli, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung cancers account for the majority of brain metastases which pose major therapeutic challenges. Biomarkers prognosticating for the development of brain metastases in patients with non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) may improve personalized care. Six serum proteomic biomarkers were previously investigated at Memorial Sloan Kettering but their associations with brain metastases were unknown. Methods Serum NSE, CYFRA 21–1, ProGRP, SCC-Ag, TIMP1, and HE4 by ELISA-based proteomic assays were prospectively collected from consecutive patients with stage IV NSCLC. Pre-treatment serum biomarker levels as well as age, histology, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status were evaluated for association with the baseline presence of brain metastases using logistic regression and multivariable analysis. For patients without brain metastases at baseline, the cumulative incidence of subsequent brain metastases were compared according to baseline biomarkers and clinical factors using Gray’s test. Results A total of 118 patients were enrolled, 31 (26%; 95% CI 0.19–0.35) had brain metastases at baseline and a further 26 (22%; 95% CI 0.15–0.30) developed brain metastases subsequently. Pre-treatment serum biomarker levels were available in 104 patients. There was no significant association between the six serum biomarkers and the baseline presence or subsequent development of brain metastases. Age younger than 65 years was the only clinical factor significantly associated with brain metastasis at baseline (OR 3.00; 95% CI 1.22–7.34, P = 0.02) by multivariable analysis. A trend toward increased cumulative incidence of subsequent brain metastases was observed in patients with EGFR mutation (p = 0.2), but this was not statistically significant possibly due to small sample size. Conclusions Serum NSE, CYFRA 21–1, Pro-GRP, SCC-Ag, TIMP1, and HE4 are not significantly associated with brain metastases. Our methods taking into account follow-up time

  7. New models and online calculator for predicting non-sentinel lymph node status in sentinel lymph node positive breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Kohrt, Holbrook E; Olshen, Richard A; Bermas, Honnie R; Goodson, William H; Wood, Douglas J; Henry, Solomon; Rouse, Robert V; Bailey, Lisa; Philben, Vicki J; Dirbas, Frederick M; Dunn, Jocelyn J; Johnson, Denise L; Wapnir, Irene L; Carlson, Robert W; Stockdale, Frank E; Hansen, Nora M; Jeffrey, Stefanie S

    2008-01-01

    Background Current practice is to perform a completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for breast cancer patients with tumor-involved sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), although fewer than half will have non-sentinel node (NSLN) metastasis. Our goal was to develop new models to quantify the risk of NSLN metastasis in SLN-positive patients and to compare predictive capabilities to another widely used model. Methods We constructed three models to predict NSLN status: recursive partitioning with receiver operating characteristic curves (RP-ROC), boosted Classification and Regression Trees (CART), and multivariate logistic regression (MLR) informed by CART. Data were compiled from a multicenter Northern California and Oregon database of 784 patients who prospectively underwent SLN biopsy and completion ALND. We compared the predictive abilities of our best model and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Breast Cancer Nomogram (Nomogram) in our dataset and an independent dataset from Northwestern University. Results 285 patients had positive SLNs, of which 213 had known angiolymphatic invasion status and 171 had complete pathologic data including hormone receptor status. 264 (93%) patients had limited SLN disease (micrometastasis, 70%, or isolated tumor cells, 23%). 101 (35%) of all SLN-positive patients had tumor-involved NSLNs. Three variables (tumor size, angiolymphatic invasion, and SLN metastasis size) predicted risk in all our models. RP-ROC and boosted CART stratified patients into four risk levels. MLR informed by CART was most accurate. Using two composite predictors calculated from three variables, MLR informed by CART was more accurate than the Nomogram computed using eight predictors. In our dataset, area under ROC curve (AUC) was 0.83/0.85 for MLR (n = 213/n = 171) and 0.77 for Nomogram (n = 171). When applied to an independent dataset (n = 77), AUC was 0.74 for our model and 0.62 for Nomogram. The composite predictors in our model were the product of angiolymphatic

  8. Prognostic value of blood mRNA expression signatures in castration-resistant prostate cancer: a prospective, two-stage study

    PubMed Central

    Olmos, David; Brewer, Daniel; Clark, Jeremy; Danila, Daniel C; Parker, Chris; Attard, Gerhardt; Fleisher, Martin; Reid, Alison H M; Castro, Elena; Sandhu, Shahneen K; Barwell, Lorraine; Oommen, Nikhil Babu; Carreira, Suzanne; Drake, Charles G; Jones, Robert; Cooper, Colin S; Scher, Howard I; de Bono, Johann S

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Biomarkers are urgently needed to dissect the heterogeneity of prostate cancer between patients to improve treatment and accelerate drug development. We analysed blood mRNA expression arrays to identify patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with poorer outcome. Methods Whole blood was collected into PAXgene tubes from patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and patients with prostate cancer selected for active surveillance. In stage I (derivation set), patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer were used as cases and patients under active surveillance were used as controls. These patients were recruited from The Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (Sutton, UK) and The Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre (Glasgow, UK). In stage II (validation-set), patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer recruited from the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (New York, USA) were assessed. Whole-blood RNA was hybridised to Affymetrix U133plus2 microarrays. Expression profiles were analysed with Bayesian latent process decomposition (LPD) to identify RNA expression profiles associated with castration-resistant prostate cancer subgroups; these profiles were then confirmed by quantative reverse transcriptase (qRT) PCR studies and correlated with overall survival in both the test-set and validation-set. Findings LPD analyses of the mRNA expression data divided the evaluable patients in stage I (n=94) into four groups. All patients in LPD1 (14 of 14) and most in LPD2 (17 of 18) had castration-resistant prostate cancer. Patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and those under active surveillance comprised LPD3 (15 of 31 castration-resistant prostate cancer) and LDP4 (12 of 21 castration-resistant prostate cancer). Patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer in the LPD1 subgroup had features associated with worse prognosis and poorer overall survival than patients with castration

  9. Consequences of electroplated targets on radiopharmaceutical preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, R. D.; Tirelli, S.; Sheh, Y.; Knott, A.; Gelbard, A. S.; Larson, S. M.; Dahl, J. R.

    1991-05-01

    The staff of the cyclotron facility at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center is involved in a comprehensive radionuclide preparation program which culminates with the formulation of numerous requested short-lived, positron-emitting radiopharmaceutical agents for clinical investigation. Both the produced radionuclide as well as the final radiolabeled compound are subjected to stringent quality control standards including assays for radiochemical and chemical purity. The subtle chemical consequences resulting from the irradiation of a nickel-plated target for 13N production serve to emphasize some of these potential technical difficulties.

  10. Design of multifunctional magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/mitoxantrone-loaded liposomes for both magnetic resonance imaging and targeted cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    He, Yingna; Zhang, Linhua; Zhu, Dunwan; Song, Cunxian

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-targeting multifunctional liposomes simultaneously loaded with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs) as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent and anticancer drug, mitoxantrone (Mit), were developed for targeted cancer therapy and ultrasensitive MRI. The gonadorelin-functionalized MION/Mit-loaded liposome (Mit-GML) showed significantly increased uptake in luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor overexpressing MCF-7 (Michigan Cancer Foundation-7) breast cancer cells over a gonadorelin-free MION/Mit-loaded liposome (Mit-ML) control, as well as in an LHRH receptor low-expressing Sloan-Kettering HER2 3+ Ovarian Cancer (SK-OV-3) cell control, thereby leading to high cytotoxicity against the MCF-7 human breast tumor cell line. The Mit-GML formulation was more effective and less toxic than equimolar doses of free Mit or Mit-ML in the treatment of LHRH receptors overexpressing MCF-7 breast cancer xenografts in mice. Furthermore, the Mit-GML demonstrated much higher T2 enhancement than did Mit-ML controls in vivo. Collectively, the study indicates that the integrated diagnostic and therapeutic design of Mit-GML nanomedicine potentially allows for the image-guided, target-specific treatment of cancer. PMID:25187709

  11. Options for Breast Reconstruction after Mastectomy for Carcinoma of the Breast: An Observational Experience at MSKCC, New York under UICC Fellowship.

    PubMed

    Das, Prafulla Kumar; Cordeiro, Peter G

    2015-12-01

    The first Author went to visit The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), New York, USA on UICC ICRETT Fellowship to observe as many clinical situations of options of breast reconstruction after mastectomy for carcinoma breast during a period of 1 month in June 2014. The second Author was the Supervisor for such clinical observation at the Plastic and Reconstructive Service, Department of Surgery at MSKCC. The main objective of this project was to gain a deeper understanding of the various options for reconstruction and specific operative skills and techniques needed for reconstruction after surgical resections for breast carcinoma. The gained experience would benefit our Regional Cancer Center's physicians, patients, and families. All patients treated by the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) who underwent surgical resection and reconstruction of their breast mounds were observed during the period between June 1, 2014 and June 30, 2014. It was observed that a vast majority of patients who underwent a mastectomy at MSKCC were offered primary breast reconstruction. They underwent thorough counseling and teaching about the various options, and feasibility with regard to their specific case. Patients eventually made the final choice on type of reconstruction, type of implant, and type of nipple/areola reconstruction. A majority of patients underwent implant reconstruction at MSKCC. This was partly related to the high rate of bilateral mastectomies (close to 50 %) as well as a significant rate of post mastectomy radiation (15 to 20 %). PMID:27065656

  12. Neoadjuvant and adjuvant epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) therapy for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Haoran; Zhong, Wenzhao; Yang, Xuening

    2015-01-01

    The Lung Adjuvant Cisplatin Evaluation (LACE) meta-analysis and the meta-analysis of individual participant data reported by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) Meta-analysis Collaborative Group in neo-adjuvant setting validated respectively that adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy would significantly improve overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival for resectable NSCLC. However, chemotherapy has reached a therapeutic plateau. It has been confirmed that epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) targeting therapy provides a dramatic response to patients with advanced EGFR-mutation positive NSCLC. Researchers have paid more attention to exploring applications of TKIs to early resectable NSCLCs. Several studies on adjuvant TKI treatment concluded its safety and feasibility. But there existed certain limitations of these studies as inference factors to interpret data accurately: the BR19 study recruited patients among which almost 52% had stage IB and only 15 (3.0%, 15/503) had been confirmed with EGFR-mutant type; retrospective studies performed at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) selected EGFR mutant-type NSCLC patients but couldn’t avoid inherent defects inside retrospective researches; the RADIANT study revised endpoints from targeting at EGFR immunohistochemistry (IHC)+ and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)+ mutation to only EGFR IHC+ mutation, leading to selective bias; despite that the SELECT study validated efficacy of adjuvant TKI and second round of TKI after resistance occurred, a single-arm clinical trial is not that persuasive in the absence of comparison with chemotherapy. Taking all these limitations into account, CTONG1104 in China and IMPACT in Japan have been conducted and recruiting patients to offer higher level of evidences to explore efficacy of preoperative TKI therapy for early resectable EGFR mutation positive NSCLC patients (confirmed by pathological results of tumor tissue or

  13. Factors predictive of survival in ampullary carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Howe, J R; Klimstra, D S; Moccia, R D; Conlon, K C; Brennan, M F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the recent Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience with adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater and to identify clinicopathologic factors that have an impact on patient survival. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The prognosis for patients with tumors of the ampulla of Vater is improved relative to other periampullary neoplasms. Identification of independent prognostic factors in ampullary tumors has been limited by small numbers of tumors and a lack of pathologic review. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively for patients presenting with periampullary carcinomas to the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between October 15, 1983 and June 30, 1995. The correlation between clinicopathologic variables and survival of ampullary carcinoma was tested by the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazards regression. Survival of patients with periampullary adenocarcinomas was compared by the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: In 123 patients presenting with ampullary carcinoma, 101 tumors (82.1%) were resected. Factors significantly correlated with improved survival were resection (p < 0.01), and in resected tumors, negative nodes (p = 0.04) and margins (p = 0.02) independently predicted for improved survival. In periampullary tumors, the highest rates of resection and overall survival (median, 43.6 months) were found in ampullary carcinomas. CONCLUSIONS: Factors predictive of improved survival in ampullary carcinoma include resection, negative margins, and negative nodes. Improved overall survival in ampullary relative to periampullary adenocarcinoma is due in part to a significantly higher rate of resection. Images Figure 1. PMID:9671071

  14. A Prospective Study of Autobiographical Memory and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Maria; Henry, Jane L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between autobiographical memory and the onset and maintenance of distressing memories following cancer. In Study 1, participants recently diagnosed with head, neck, or lung cancer were assessed for acute stress disorder (ASD). Participants with ASD reported fewer specific memories than did…

  15. Ski regulates Hippo and TAZ signaling to suppress breast cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Rashidian, Juliet; Le Scolan, Erwan; Ji, Xiaodan; Zhu, Qingwei; Mulvihill, Melinda M.; Nomura, Daniel; Luo, Kunxin

    2015-01-01

    Ski, the transforming protein of the avian Sloan-Kettering retrovirus, inhibits transforming growth factor–β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling and displays both pro-oncogenic and anti-oncogenic activities in human cancer. Inhibition of TGF-β signaling is likely responsible for the pro-oncogenic activity of Ski. We investigated the mechanism(s) underlying the tumor suppressor activity of Ski and found that Ski suppressed the activity of the Hippo signaling effectors TAZ and YAP to inhibit breast cancer progression. TAZ and YAP are transcriptional coactivators that can contribute to cancer by promoting proliferation, tumorigenesis, and cancer stem cell expansion. Hippo signaling activates the the Lats family of kinases, which phosphorylate TAZ and YAP, resulting in cytoplasmic retention and degradation and inhibition of their transcriptional activity. We showed that Ski interacted with multiple components of the Hippo pathway to facilitate activation of Lats2, resulting in increased phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of TAZ. Ski also promoted the degradation of a constitutively active TAZ mutant that is not phosphorylated by Lats, suggesting the existence of a Lats2-independent degradation pathway. Finally, we showed that Ski repressed the transcriptional activity of TAZ by binding to the TAZ partner TEAD and recruiting the transcriptional co-repressor NCoR1 to the TEAD-TAZ complex. Ski effectively reversed transformation and epithelial-to-mesenchyme transition in cultured breast cancer cells and metastasis in TAZ-expressing xenografted tumors. Thus, Ski inhibited the function of TAZ through multiple mechanisms in human cancer cells. PMID:25670202

  16. Regional brain activation during verbal declarative memory in metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kesler, Shelli R.; Bennett, F. Chris; Mahaffey, Misty L.; Spiegel, David

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the neurofunctional basis of verbal memory dysfunction in women with metastatic breast cancer. This objective was based on previous research suggesting memory and other cognitive deficits in this population. We attempted to determine if verbal memory impairments were related to the most commonly studied disease parameters including adjuvant chemotherapy and chronic stress-related disruption of limbic system structures. Experimental Design We utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test our hypothesis that women with breast cancer would demonstrate significantly lower brain activation during a verbal declarative memory tasks compared to age and education-matched healthy female controls. We also assessed several stress-related variables including diurnal cortisol levels to test our hypothesis that women with breast cancer would demonstrate higher stress and this would contribute to brain activation deficits during memory tasks. Results Women with breast cancer had significantly lower prefrontal cortex activation during the memory encoding condition compared to controls. However, the breast cancer group demonstrated significantly greater activation than controls during the recall condition in multiple, diffuse brain regions. There were no significant differences between the groups in stress-related variables. Women who were treated with CMF chemotherapy demonstrated lower prefrontal cortex activation during memory encoding. Conclusions These results suggest that women with metastatic breast cancer may be at risk for verbal memory impairments as a result of altered functional brain activation profiles. These findings may be associated with chemotherapy type and/or other aspects of the breast cancer disease process. PMID:19843664

  17. Integrative Cancer Care in a US Academic Cancer Centre: The Memorial Sloan–Kettering Experience

    PubMed Central

    Deng, G.

    2008-01-01

    Various surveys show that interest in complementary and alternative medicine (cam) is high among cancer patients. Patients want to explore all options that may help their treatment. Many cam modalities offer patients an active role in their self-care, and the resulting sense of empowerment is very appealing. On the other hand, many unscrupulous marketeers promote alternative cancer “cures,” targeting cancer patients who are particularly vulnerable. Some alternative therapies can hurt patients by delaying effective treatment or by causing adverse effects or detrimental interactions with other medications. It is not in the best interest of cancer patients if they cannot get appropriate guidance on the use of cam from the health care professionals who are part of their cancer care team. The Integrative Medicine Service at Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center in New York was established in 1999 to address patient interest in cam, to incorporate helpful complementary therapies into each patient’s overall treatment management, to guide patients in avoiding harmful alternative therapies, and to develop prospective research to evaluate the efficacy of cam modalities. PMID:18769574

  18. 125I implantation for carcinoma of prostate. Further follow-up of first 100 cases

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, H.B.; Batata, M.; Hilaris, B.; Whitmore, W.F. Jr.

    1982-12-01

    Analysis of the first 100 patients at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center with Stage B or C prostatic cancer treated by pelvic lymph node dissection and Iodine-125 implantation and endocrine therapy when specifically indicated revealed five-year survival rates of 87 and 77 per cent, respectively. Tumor stage, tumor grade, and lymph node metastasis each correlated with survival, but the latter was the most significant factor. Although routine follow-up biopsies were not performed, local tumor control as judged by serial digital rectal examination defined a prognostically favored group of patients. In the absence of controls, however, whether the latter response indicates a salutary effect of the treatment which produces an improved survival or merely identifies a group of patients who were predetermined to have a more favorable survival is undetermined.

  19. Psychosocial mediators of a nurse intervention to increase skin self-examination in patients at high risk for melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hay, Jennifer L; Oliveria, Susan A; Dusza, Stephen W; Phelan, Deborah L; Ostroff, Jamie S; Halpern, Allan C

    2006-06-01

    This prospective study examines psychosocial mediators of an efficacious skin self-examination (SSE) intervention that includes provision of a whole-body digital photography book depicting the entire skin surface. Individuals (n = 100) with established risk factors for melanoma were recruited from the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Pigmented Lesion Clinic during their initial dermatologist visit and were randomized to receive a photobook immediately (n = 49) or 4 months after intervention delivery (n = 51). Potential mediators included self-efficacy and response efficacy drawn from Social Cognitive Theory, melanoma worry, and SSE anxiety drawn from Self-Regulation Theory, and skin cancer knowledge, and skin awareness. Only self-efficacy was a significant mediator, accounting for 8% of the total effect of photobook enhancement on SSE adherence at 4 months. PMID:16775183

  20. Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  1. Sepsis caused by Flavimonas oryzihabitans.

    PubMed

    Lucas, K G; Kiehn, T E; Sobeck, K A; Armstrong, D; Brown, A E

    1994-07-01

    Previous reports of F. oryzihabitans sepsis involving central venous access devices reveal a relatively high rate of complications, including device removal, despite a course of broad-spectrum anti-microbials with compatible in vitro susceptibility results. In the present report of 22 cases of F. oryzihabitans sepsis treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center from February 1986 through September 1993, the majority of CVAD-related infections with F. oryzihabitans were successfully treated with a 14-day course of antimicrobials with antipseudomonal activity, and removal of the device was usually not required. Factors that may complicate successful treatment of CVAD-related sepsis caused by F. oryzihabitans include polymicrobial infections and premature discontinuation of antibiotic therapy. PMID:8041243

  2. Electroplated targets for production of unique PET radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, V.; Sheh, Y.; Finn, R.; Francesconi, L.; Cai, S.; Schlyer, D.; Wieland, B.

    1995-12-01

    The past decade has witnessed the applications of positron emission tomography (PET) evolving from a purely research endeavor to a procedure which has specific clinical applications in the areas of cardiology, neurology and oncology. The growth of PET has been facilitated by developments in both medical instrumentation and radiopharmaceutical chemistry efforts. Included in this latter effort has been the low energy accelerator production and processing of unique PET radionuclides appropriate for the radiolabeling of biomolecules, i.e. monoclonal antibodies and peptides. The development and application of electroplated targets of antimony and copper for the production of iodine-124 and gallium-66 respectively, utilizing the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) cyclotron are examples of target design and development applicable to many medical accelerators.

  3. Electroplating targets for production of unique PET radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Bui, V.; Sheh, Y.; Finn, R.

    1994-12-31

    The past decade has witnessed the applications of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) evolving from a purely research endeavour to a procedure which has specific clinical applications in the areas of cardiology, neurology and oncology. The growth of PET has been facilitated by developments in medical instrumentation and radiopharmaceutical chemistry efforts. Included in this latter effort has been the low energy accelerator production and processing of unique PET radionuclides appropriate for the radiolabeling of biomolecules i.e. monoclonal antibodies and pepetides. The development and application of electroplated targets of antimony and copper for the production of iodine-124 and gallium-66 respectively, utilizing the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center cyclotron are examples of target design and development applicable to many medical accelerators.

  4. Improved Yields of Iodine-124 from the Enriched Tellurium-124 Dioxide/Aluminum Oxide Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, R. D.; Qiao, J.; Nacca, A.; Sheh, Y.; Lom, C.; Balatoni, J.; Cai, S.; Bornmann, W.; Pentlow, K.

    2003-08-01

    The escalating clinical application of Positron Emission Tomography results from the novel radiotracers which are available to monitor specific biochemical or physiologic processes. Future developments of the technique will require an increasing availability of additional unique radioligands and radionuclides. Iodine-124, a radionuclide whose potential for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications is widely recognized, has been prepared at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center on a weekly basis for several years (1). With its characteristic 4.18 day half life and complex decay scheme (2) which includes positron emission (22.0 ± 0.5%) and electron capture (78 ± 0.5%), this radionuclide has been shown to be appropriate for radiotracers describing slow physiologic processes with the clearance of non-specific radioactivity. The refinements and modifications being engineered into the cyclotron target system to increase the absolute yield of recoverable radioactivity from each irradiation and its chemical processing of the reusable solid target matrix are described..

  5. Surgical and prosthetic reconsiderations in patients with maxillectomy.

    PubMed

    Lethaus, B; Lie, N; de Beer, F; Kessler, P; de Baat, C; Verdonck, H W

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish and evaluate new possibilities for rehabilitation of patients with obturator prosthesis who had undergone partial or total maxillectomy because of tumour ablation surgery. Eleven patients with maxillary defects were reconstructed with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing designed prosthesis. Missing retention was gained by inserting implants in the remaining bone, so that an expansion of the surgical defect to gain further retention could be avoided. All patients were treated successfully according to the previously described treatment plan. The Obturator Functioning Scale (OFS) of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Centre was applied to evaluate the functional quality of the obturator prosthesis and patient's satisfaction. It showed good results in all fields of functional outcome and social acceptance. PMID:20002530

  6. Automated eligibility screening and monitoring for genotype-driven precision oncology trials.

    PubMed

    Eubank, Michael H; Hyman, David M; Kanakamedala, Amritha D; Gardos, Stuart M; Wills, Jonathan M; Stetson, Peter D

    2016-07-01

    The Information Systems Department at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center developed the DARWIN Cohort Management System (DCMS). The DCMS identifies and tracks cohorts of patients based on genotypic and clinical data. It assists researchers and treating physicians in enrolling patients to genotype-matched IRB-approved clinical trials. The DCMS sends automated, actionable, and secure email notifications to users with information about eligible or enrolled patients before their upcoming appointments. The system also captures investigators input via annotations on patient eligibility and preferences on future status updates. As of August 2015, the DCMS is tracking 159,893 patients on both clinical operations and research cohorts. 134 research cohorts have been established and track 64,473 patients. 51,192 of these have had one or more genomic tests including MSK-IMPACT, comprising the pool eligible for genotype-matched studies. This paper describes the design and evolution of this Informatics solution. PMID:27016727

  7. Children's Memories for Painful Cancer Treatment Procedures: Implications for Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Edith; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.; Craske, Michelle G.; Katz, Ernest R.

    2000-01-01

    Examined memory of 3- to 18-year-olds with leukemia regarding lumbar punctures (LP). Found that children displayed considerable accuracy for event details, with accuracy increasing with age. Use of Versed (anxiolytic medication described as a "memory blocker") was not related to recall. Higher distress predicted greater exaggerations in later…

  8. Recall in Older Cancer Patients: Measuring Memory for Medical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Jesse; van Weert, Julia; van der Meulen, Nienke; van Dulmen, Sandra; Heeren, Thea; Bensing, Jozien

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Remembering medical treatment information may be particularly taxing for older cancer patients, but to our knowledge this ability has never been assessed in this specific age group only. Our purpose in this study was to investigate older cancer patients' recall of information after patient education preceding chemotherapy. Design and…

  9. Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  10. The Distribution of Human Stem Cell–like Memory T Cell in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hai; Gu, Yong; Sheng, Si Yuan; Lu, Chuan Gang; Zou, Jian Yong

    2016-01-01

    Human stem cell–like memory T (Tscm) cells are long-lived, self-renewing memory lymphocytes that can differentiate into effector cells and mediate strong antitumour response in murine model. The distribution and function of Tscm cells in human lung cancer remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the properties of human Tscm cells in the blood and lymph node of non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. There were more CD4+ Tscm cells in blood from NSCLC patients than from healthy donors, fewer CD4+ and CD8+ TSCM cells in blood than in lymph node from NSCLC patients. To further analyze their properties, we stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from NSCLC patients by mitogens to examine cytokine production. Our data suggest that both CD4 and CD8 Tscm cells in blood produced interferon-γ significantly increased in NSCLC patients compare with healthy subjects. In addition, fewer Tscm cells produced interferon-γ in lymph node than in blood from NSCLC patients. Our results strongly suggest that the distribution and function of CD4 Tscm cells in NSCLC patients is upregulated. Understanding of the properties of stem-like memory T cells will supply a good rationale for designing the new adoptive immunotherapy in cancer. PMID:27244531

  11. The Distribution of Human Stem Cell-like Memory T Cell in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hai; Gu, Yong; Sheng, Si Yuan; Lu, Chuan Gang; Zou, Jian Yong; Wu, Chang You

    2016-01-01

    Human stem cell-like memory T (Tscm) cells are long-lived, self-renewing memory lymphocytes that can differentiate into effector cells and mediate strong antitumour response in murine model. The distribution and function of Tscm cells in human lung cancer remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the properties of human Tscm cells in the blood and lymph node of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. There were more CD4 Tscm cells in blood from NSCLC patients than from healthy donors, fewer CD4 and CD8 TSCM cells in blood than in lymph node from NSCLC patients. To further analyze their properties, we stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from NSCLC patients by mitogens to examine cytokine production. Our data suggest that both CD4 and CD8 Tscm cells in blood produced interferon-γ significantly increased in NSCLC patients compare with healthy subjects. In addition, fewer Tscm cells produced interferon-γ in lymph node than in blood from NSCLC patients. Our results strongly suggest that the distribution and function of CD4 Tscm cells in NSCLC patients is upregulated. Understanding of the properties of stem-like memory T cells will supply a good rationale for designing the new adoptive immunotherapy in cancer. PMID:27244531

  12. Heteroclitic XBP1 peptides evoke tumor-specific memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes against breast cancer, colon cancer, and pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jooeun; Samur, Mehmet; Munshi, Aditya; Hideshima, Teru; Keskin, Derin; Kimmelman, Alec; Lee, Ann-Hwee; Dranoff, Glen; Anderson, Kenneth C; Munshi, Nikhil C

    2015-01-01

    XBP1 is a critical transcriptional activator of the unfolded protein response (UPR), which increases tumor cell survival under prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and hypoxic conditions.This study was designed to evaluate the immunogenicity of heteroclitic XBP1 unspliced (US)184–192 (YISPWILAV) and heteroclictic XBP1 spliced (SP)367–375 (YLFPQLISV) HLA-A2 peptides, and to characterize the specific activities of XBP1 peptides-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (XBP1-CTL) against breast cancer, colon cancer, and pancreatic cancer cells.The XBP1-CTL had upregulated expression of critical T cell markers and displayed HLA-A2-restricted and antigen-specific activities against breast cancer, colon cancer and pancreatic cancer cells. XBP1-CTL were enriched withCD45RO+ memory CTL, which showed high expression of critical T cell markers (CD28, ICOS, CD69, CD40L), cell proliferation and antitumor activities as compared to CD45RO− non-memory CTL. The effector memory (EM: CD45RO+CCR7−) subset had the highest level of cell proliferation while the central memory (CM: CD45RO+CCR7+) subset demonstrated enhanced functional activities (CD107a degranulation, IFNγ/IL-2 production) upon recognition of the respective tumor cells. Furthermore, both the EM and CM XBP1-CTL subsets expressed high levels of Th1 transcription regulators Tbet and Eomes. The highest frequencies of IFNγ or granzyme B producing cells were detected within CM XBP1-CTL subset that were either Tbet+ or Eomes+ in responding to the tumor cells.These results demonstrate the immunotherapeutic potential of a cocktail of immunogenic HLA-A2 specific heteroclitic XBP1 US184–192 and heteroclictic XBP1 SP367–375 peptides to induce CD3+CD8+ CTL enriched for CM and EM cells with specific antitumor activities against a variety of solid tumors. PMID:25941601

  13. Integrative oncology: the last ten years--a personal retrospectve.

    PubMed

    Boyd, D Barry

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been dramatic changes in all areas of integrative patient care. None has been more dramatic than those in the field of cancer care, which has gone from alternative and complementary treatments delivered outside the conventional setting to the integration of many of these approaches into the care of the cancer patient. In many cases, these changes have been driven by patient demand and supported by private funding and out-of-pocket payments by patients themselves. Virtually all major medical centers have departments devoted to integrative patient care--whether true stand-alone centers or departments with a research interest in this area. This is particularly true of the major cancer centers, many of which-including Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York; M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Tex; Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md; Duke University, Durham, NC; and the Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Mass--have developed integrative cancer programs. In addition, programs such as the Cancer Treatment Centers of America have inpatient and outpatient programs with teams of practitioners, including medical oncologists, surgeons, and radiation therapists, as well as credentialed naturopathic doctors, nutritionists, mind-body specialists and other integrative practitioners. Despite the increased interest in developing integrative approaches to cancer, many medical oncologists remain skeptical about the value of these modalities. PMID:17283742

  14. A Novel Prostate Cancer Classification Technique Using Intermediate Memory Tabu Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Muhammad Atif; Bouridane, Ahmed; Kurugollu, Fatih; Amira, Abbes

    2005-12-01

    The introduction of multispectral imaging in pathology problems such as the identification of prostatic cancer is recent. Unlike conventional RGB color space, it allows the acquisition of a large number of spectral bands within the visible spectrum. This results in a feature vector of size greater than 100. For such a high dimensionality, pattern recognition techniques suffer from the well-known curse of dimensionality problem. The two well-known techniques to solve this problem are feature extraction and feature selection. In this paper, a novel feature selection technique using tabu search with an intermediate-term memory is proposed. The cost of a feature subset is measured by leave-one-out correct-classification rate of a nearest-neighbor (1-NN) classifier. The experiments have been carried out on the prostate cancer textured multispectral images and the results have been compared with a reported classical feature extraction technique. The results have indicated a significant boost in the performance both in terms of minimizing features and maximizing classification accuracy.

  15. The Public Health Impact of Herbs and Nutritional Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Cassileth, Barrie R.; Heitzer, Marjet; Wesa, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Dietary supplement use has increased exponentially in recent years despite the lack of regulatory oversight and in the face of growing safety concerns. This paper provides an overview of the public health implications and safety concerns associated with dietary supplement use, especially by cancer patients. Botanical research is actively pursued at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) Integrative Medicine department. Work of the MSKCC Center for the Study of Botanical Immunomodulators is described, and guidelines for cancer patients’ use of dietary supplements outlined. Herbs and other botanicals are complex, physiologically active agents, but little is known about most of the popular, widely available dietary supplements. Herb-drug interactions, a major concern, are exacerbated in the cancer setting. Biologically active agents may interfere with chemotherapy and other prescription medications. They may exert anti-coagulant activity at rather inconvenient times such as during surgery, and create other serious problems. Research on the bioavailability, effective dosage, safety and benefits of these complex agents is sorely needed. Oncology professionals and other healthcare providers should educate themselves and their patients about these issues. Probably the largest, continuously-updated free information resource is MSKCC’s AboutHerbs website (www.mskcc.org/AboutHerbs). PMID:19890479

  16. Treating metastatic melanoma in 2014: what just happened and what is next?

    PubMed

    Chapman, Paul B

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the expectation related to treating patients with metastatic melanoma has changed. Three years ago, a diagnosis of metastatic melanoma was bleak; only a small number of patients would benefit from standard treatment and the reason for treatment benefit was often unknown, leaving physicians with limited options to help their patients. Today, just 3 years later, there are proven therapies that allow physicians to expect to shrink tumors and extend the lives of their patients after diagnosis. In this article, Paul B. Chapman, MD, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, summarizes the recent advances in the field of metastatic melanoma and looks ahead to topics such as focusing on specificity, shutting down the ERK pathway, intermittent dosing, discovering driver mutations, individualizing checkpoint inhibition, and identifying rejection antigens to identify what should occur next in order to continue to improve outcomes for a larger population of patients with metastatic melanoma. Dr. Chapman's paper reminds us of the exciting progress that has been made while focusing on the work that is left in the field. Dr. Chapman is a physician-scientist who specializes in diagnosing and treating melanoma that has metastasized to other parts of the body. Dr. Chapman led a clinical trial that paved the way, in part, to the approval of vemurafenib-a drug that targets a BRAF mutation that is present in approximately 50% of patients with metastatic melanoma. Dr. Chapman is one of five Memorial Sloan Kettering scientists to be appointed to a melanoma "Dream Team" that focuses on identifying potential therapies for metastatic melanoma patients who do not have the mutated form of the BRAF gene. Dr. Chapman is also a professor of medicine at the Weill Cornell Medical College and is the chair of the Melanoma Research Alliance Medical Advisory Board. In addition to the above, Dr. Chapman is a sought-after mentor for medical oncology fellows and has a current research

  17. A Pilot Study of Website Information Regarding Aromatase Inhibitors: Dietary Supplement Interactions

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Cara L.; Hsieh, Angela A.; Sweet, Erin S.; Tippens, Kimberly M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Patients who have hormone receptor–positive breast cancer and who are taking aromatase inhibitors (AIs) should understand the benefits and risks of concomitant dietary supplement (DS) use. The International Society for Integrative Oncology (SIO) encourages patients to discuss DS use with their health care practitioners. The objective was to conduct a pilot study rating Internet websites from the perspective of health care practitioners for information about AI–DS interactions. Design Five (5) Internet websites suggested by SIO were evaluated using the DISCERN instrument rating tool. The available AI–DS information on these websites was rated by 4 evaluators: 2 naturopathic doctors, 1 oncology pharmacy resident, and a pharmacy student. Results The overall rankings ranged from 1.6 to 3.9, with considerable variability in the type of information available from the websites. The interevaluator rankings of the websites ranged from 0.44 to 0.89. The evaluators consistently found the most reliable, unbiased, and comprehensive information on AI–DS interactions at the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center websites. However, more than one database was needed for provision of optimal patient information on AI–DS interactions. Conclusions In order to effectively advise patients regarding AI–DS interactions, more than one website should be evaluated to assess the potential efficacy and safety of DS in women whose breast cancer is being treated with an AI. PMID:22087614

  18. Reduced hippocampal volume and verbal memory performance associated with interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in chemotherapy-treated breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Kesler, Shelli; Janelsins, Michelle; Koovakkattu, Della; Palesh, Oxana; Mustian, Karen; Morrow, Gary; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.

    2013-01-01

    Many survivors of breast cancer show significant cognitive impairments, including memory deficits. Inflammation induced by chemotherapy may contribute to hippocampal changes that underlie these deficits. In this cross-sectional study, we measured bilateral hippocampal volumes from high-resolution magnetic resonance images in 42 chemotherapy-treated breast cancer survivors and 35 healthy female controls. Patients with breast cancer were, on average, 4.8 ± 3.4 years off-therapy. In a subset of these participants (20 breast cancer, 23 controls), we quantified serum cytokine levels. Left hippocampal volumes and memory performance were significantly reduced and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) concentrations were significantly elevated in the breast cancer group compared to controls. In the breast cancer group, lower left hippocampal volume was associated with higher levels of TNFα and lower levels of IL-6 with a significant interaction between these two cytokines suggesting a potential modulatory effect of IL-6 on TNFα. Verbal memory performance was associated with cytokine levels and left hippocampal volume in both groups. These findings provide evidence of altered hippocampal volume and verbal memory difficulties following breast cancer chemotherapy that may be mediated by TNFα and IL-6. PMID:22698992

  19. An Associative Memory Model for Integration of Fragmented Research Data and Identification of Treatment Correlations in Breast Cancer Care

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Ashis Gopal; Khan, Mridul; Higgins, John; Giani, Annarita; Das, Amar K.

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in advancing scientific discoveries using data-driven clinical research is the fragmentation of relevant data among multiple information systems. This fragmentation requires significant data-engineering work before correlations can be found among data attributes in multiple systems. In this paper, we focus on integrating information on breast cancer care, and present a novel computational approach to identify correlations between administered drugs captured in an electronic medical records and biological factors obtained from a tumor registry through rapid data aggregation and analysis. We use an associative memory (AM) model to encode all existing associations among the data attributes from both systems in a high-dimensional vector space. The AM model stores highly associated data items in neighboring memory locations to enable efficient querying operations. The results of applying AM to a set of integrated data on tumor markers and drug administrations discovered anomalies between clinical recommendations and derived associations. PMID:26958161

  20. Prospective memory impairment in chemotherapy-exposed early breast cancer survivors: Preliminary evidence from a clinical test.

    PubMed

    Bedard, Marc; Verma, Shailendra; Collins, Barbara; Song, Xinni; Paquet, Lise

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study (Paquet et al., 2013 ) to evaluate the cognitive operations involved in prospective memory (PM) deficits exhibited by chemotherapy-exposed breast cancer (BC) survivors. PM was assessed with the memory for intentions screening test administered to 80 patients and 80 healthy controls. Patients performed worse than controls on the PM tasks and had more "omission" errors (indices of the prospective component of the tasks) than the controls. No group differences emerged on a recognition test. Although further studies will be needed to disentangle the multiple cognitive operations involved in PM, these findings are consistent with the notion that self-initiated retrieval processes rather than encoding are implicated in PM impairment among BC survivors. PMID:27123566

  1. Control of norovirus outbreak on a pediatric oncology unit

    PubMed Central

    Sheahan, Anna; Copeland, Gretchen; Richardson, Lauren; McKay, Shelley; Chou, Alexander; Babady, N. Esther; Tang, Yi-Wei; Boulad, Farid; Eagan, Janet; Sepkowitz, Kent; Kamboj, Mini

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing treatment for cancer with chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell recipients are at risk for severe morbidity caused by norovirus (NV). Methods We describe a NV outbreak on the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center's pediatric oncology unit. Stool testing for diagnosis of NV was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Twelve NV cases occurred; 7 were hospital acquired. Twenty-five health care workers reported NV compatible illness. Patient-to-patient transmission occurred once. The practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were supplemented with electronic surveillance, surrogate screening for NV, and heightened cleaning. Two additional cases occurred after implementation of interventions. Long-term shedding was detected in 2 patients. Conclusion We describe interventions for controlling NV on a pediatric oncology unit. High-risk chronic shedders pose ongoing transmission risks. PCR is a valuable diagnostic tool but may be overly sensitive. Surrogate markers to assess NV burden in stool and studies on NV screening are needed to develop guidelines for high-risk chronic shedders. PMID:26164767

  2. The NOMS Framework: Approach to the Treatment of Spinal Metastatic Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Laufer, Ilya; Rubin, David G.; Lis, Eric; Cox, Brett W.; Stubblefield, Michael D.; Yamada, Yoshiya

    2013-01-01

    Background. Spinal metastases frequently arise in patients with cancer. Modern oncology provides numerous treatment options that include effective systemic, radiation, and surgical options. We delineate and provide the evidence for the neurologic, oncologic, mechanical, and systemic (NOMS) decision framework, which is used at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center to determine the optimal therapy for patients with spine metastases. Methods. We provide a literature review of the integral publications that serve as the basis for the NOMS framework and report the results of systematic implementation of the NOMS-guided treatment. Results. The NOMS decision framework consists of the neurologic, oncologic, mechanical, and systemic considerations and incorporates the use of conventional external beam radiation, spinal stereotactic radiosurgery, and minimally invasive and open surgical interventions. Review of radiation oncology and surgical literature that examine the outcomes of treatment of spinal metastatic tumors provides support for the NOMS decision framework. Application of the NOMS paradigm integrates multimodality therapy to optimize local tumor control, pain relief, and restoration or preservation of neurologic function and minimizes morbidity in this often systemically ill patient population. Conclusion. NOMS paradigm provides a decision framework that incorporates sentinel decision points in the treatment of spinal metastases. Consideration of the tumor sensitivity to radiation in conjunction with the extent of epidural extension allows determination of the optimal radiation treatment and the need for surgical decompression. Mechanical stability of the spine and the systemic disease considerations further help determine the need and the feasibility of surgical intervention. PMID:23709750

  3. Late effects in patients with Fanconi anemia following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from alternative donors.

    PubMed

    Anur, P; Friedman, D N; Sklar, C; Oeffinger, K; Castiel, M; Kearney, J; Singh, B; Prockop, S E; Kernan, N A; Scaradavou, A; Kobos, R; Curran, K; Ruggiero, J; Zakak, N; O'Reilly, R J; Boulad, F

    2016-07-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative for hematological manifestations of Fanconi anemia (FA). We performed a retrospective analysis of 22 patients with FA and aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myelogenous leukemia who underwent a HSCT at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and survived at least 1 year post HSCT. Patients underwent either a TBI- (N=18) or busulfan- (N=4) based cytoreduction followed by T-cell-depleted transplants from alternative donors. Twenty patients were alive at time of the study with a 5- and 10-year overall survival of 100 and 84% and no evidence of chronic GvHD. Among the 18 patients receiving a TBI-based regimen, 11 (61%) had persistent hemochromatosis, 4 (22%) developed hypothyroidism, 7 (39%) had insulin resistance and 5 (27%) developed hypertriglyceridemia after transplant. Eleven of 16 evaluable patients (68%), receiving TBI, developed gonadal dysfunction. Two patients who received a TBI-based regimen died of squamous cell carcinoma. One patient developed hemochromatosis, hypothyroidism and gonadal dysfunction after busulfan-based cytoreduction. TBI appears to be a risk factor for malignant and endocrine late effects in the FA host. Multidisciplinary follow-up of patients with FA (including cancer screening) is essential for early detection and management of late complications, and improving long-term outcomes. PMID:26999465

  4. Carcinoma of the cervical esophagus: changing therapeutic trends

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, C.F.; Spiro, R.H.

    1984-10-01

    Carcinoma of the cervical esophagus is a lethal tumor because of its advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. The records of 71 patients with this disease treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center from 1965 through 1980 have been reviewed herein. Epidermoid carcinoma was the prevailing histologic finding, and extramural penetration was present in 77 percent of the evaluable patients. Tracheal invasion and vocal cord paralysis were noted in 35 and 24 percent of the patients, respectively and were predictive of significantly decreased survival. Primary radiotherapy in doses greater than 5,000 rads produced short lived responses in 13 of 21 patients (62 percent). Surgery was performed in 45 patients (63 percent), including 35 esophagectomies for cure and palliative procedures in the 10 other patients. There were five operative deaths (11 percent), but only two followed esophageal resection (5.6 percent). Locoregional treatment failure, present in 46 of 52 evaluable patients (88 percent) at last follow-up, continues to be a major problem. Overall, the 5 year survival rate was 9.6 percent. The longest survival and best palliation was achieved with aggressive resection and immediate reconstruction using the transposed stomach (gastric pullup).

  5. Prognostic Factors and Survival in Pediatric and Adolescent Liposarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Stanelle, Eric J.; Christison-Lagay, Emily R.; Sidebotham, Emma L.; Singer, Samuel; Antonescu, Cristina R.; Meyers, Paul A.; La Quaglia, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Liposarcoma is extremely rare in the pediatric population. To identify prognostic factors and determine treatment outcomes, we reviewed our institutional experience with pediatric liposarcoma. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed all pediatric patients (age <22 years) with confirmed liposarcoma treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Histologic subtype, tumor location, margin status, recurrence, and adjuvant therapy were analyzed and correlated with overall survival. Results. Thirty-four patients (56% male) with a median age of 18.1 years were identified. Twenty-two (65%) had peripheral tumors and 12 (35%) had centrally located tumors. Histologically, 29 (85%) tumors were low grade, and 5 (15%) were high grade pleomorphic. Eleven (32%) had recurrent disease, 9 patients with central tumors and 2 patients with peripheral lesions. Eight deaths occurred, all in patients with central disease. Five-year overall survival was 78%, with a median follow-up time of 5.4 years (range, 0.3–30.3 years). Tumor grade (P = .003), histologic subtype (P = .01), and primary location (P < .001) all correlated with survival, as did stage (P < .001) and margin status (P = .001). Conclusions. Central location of the primary tumor, high tumor grade, and positive surgical margins are strongly correlated with poor survival in pediatric patients with liposarcoma. PMID:22991488

  6. Overall Survival and Response to Systemic Therapy in Metastatic Extrauterine Leiomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Shoushtari, A N; Landa, J; Kuk, D; Sanchez, A; Lala, B; Schmidt, N; Okoli, C; Chi, P; Dickson, M A; Gounder, M M; Keohan, M L; Crago, A M; Tap, W D; D'Angelo, S P

    2016-01-01

    Background. Leiomyosarcomas (LMS) represent a heterogeneous subset of soft tissue sarcomas. Factors influencing prognosis for patients with metastatic extrauterine LMS (euLMS) are not well described. Limited data are available regarding responses to systemic therapy. Methods. We collected clinical and pathologic information for all patients with metastatic euLMS seen at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center between 1989 and 2012. Objective responses to first-line therapy were analyzed for a subset of patients with available baseline and on-treatment imaging using RECIST 1.1. Results. 215 patients with metastatic euLMS had a median overall survival (OS) of 2.6 years from the time of metastasis. Older age, male sex, and ≥3 initial sites of metastasis were associated with worse OS on multivariate analysis. Objective response rate (ORR) in N = 113 was 19% overall and 25%, 26%, and 25% for gemcitabine, gemcitabine plus docetaxel, and anthracycline-alkylator combinations. Patients whose tumors objectively responded to first-line therapy had a lower risk of death versus those who did not (Hazard Ratio 0.46; 95% CI: 0.26-0.79, p = 0.005). Conclusions. Anthracycline- and gemcitabine-based regimens have similar activity in this cohort of euLMS. Prognostic factors for OS include older age, male sex, and ≥3 initial sites. PMID:27313489

  7. Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma Survival Improved With Treatment on Multimodality Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Naamit Kurshan; Wexler, Leonard H.; Singer, Samuel; Alektiar, Kaled M.; Keohan, Mary Louise; Shi, Weiji; Zhang, Zhigang; Wolden, Suzanne

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a pediatric sarcoma rarely occurring in adults. For unknown reasons, adults with RMS have worse outcomes than do children. Methods and Materials: We analyzed data from all patients who presented to Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1990 and 2011 with RMS diagnosed at age 16 or older. One hundred forty-eight patients met the study criteria. Ten were excluded for lack of adequate data. Results: The median age was 28 years. The histologic diagnoses were as follows: embryonal 54%, alveolar 33%, pleomorphic 12%, and not otherwise specified 2%. The tumor site was unfavorable in 67% of patients. Thirty-three patients (24%) were at low risk, 61 (44%) at intermediate risk, and 44 (32%) at high risk. Forty-six percent were treated on or according to a prospective RMS protocol. The 5-year rate of overall survival (OS) was 45% for patients with nonmetastatic disease. The failure rates at 5 years for patients with nonmetastatic disease were 34% for local failure and 42% for distant failure. Among patients with nonmetastatic disease (n=94), significant factors associated with OS were histologic diagnosis, site, risk group, age, and protocol treatment. On multivariate analysis, risk group and protocol treatment were significant after adjustment for age. The 5-year OS was 54% for protocol patients versus 36% for nonprotocol patients. Conclusions: Survival in adult patients with nonmetastatic disease was significantly improved for those treated on RMS protocols, most of which are now open to adults.

  8. Use of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors after failure of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma undergoing hemodialysis: A single-center experience with four cases.

    PubMed

    Omae, Kenji; Kondo, Tsunenori; Takagi, Toshio; Iizuka, Junpei; Kobayashi, Hirohito; Hashimoto, Yasunobu; Tanabe, Kazunari

    2016-07-01

    We retrospectively identified patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis treated with the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors as a second- and/or third-line targeted therapy after treatment failure with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Patient medical records were reviewed to evaluate the response to therapies and treatment-related toxicities. Four patients were identified. All patients had undergone nephrectomy, and one had received immunotherapy before targeted therapy. Two patients had clear cell histology, and the other two had papillary histology. All patients were classified into the intermediate risk group according to the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center risk model. All patients were treated with everolimus as a second- or third-line therapy, and two patients were treated with temsirolimus as a second- or third-line therapy after treatment failure with sorafenib or sunitinib. The median duration of everolimus therapy was 6.7 months, whereas that of temsirolimus was 9.5 months. All patients had stable disease as the best response during each period of therapy. There were no severe adverse events. The use of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors in patients who previously failed to respond to tyrosine kinase inhibitors appears to be feasible in patients with end-stage renal disease requiring hemodialysis. PMID:26833674

  9. Approaches to Manufacturing Alpha Emitters For Radioimmunotherapeutic Drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord King, A.; Givens, Kenneth R.; Miller, William H.; Glascock, Mike; Rangaraj, Dharanipathy; Bond, Andrew; Horwitz, E. Philip; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2003-08-26

    Several alpha emitting isotopes have been proposed for radioimmunotherapy. To produce these nuclides reliably and in quantities needed, unique manufacturing approaches will be required. This paper describes the approaches that are being developed for the manufacture of 225Actinium (225 Ac) that decays to 213Bismuth (213 Bi) and the commercial manufacturing approaches. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) currently supplies the actinium used for research and medical use. Today the ORNL 233U stockpiles only provide sufficient material for research quantities of 213 Bi. At the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), in Karlsruhe, researchers have also developed a method of irradiating radium-226 with protons in a cyclotron to produce actinium- 225 through the reaction 226Ra (p, 2n) 225Ac. Researchers from the Missouri University (MU), the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR), MedActinium, Inc. and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are working on a collaborative effort to benchmark and optimize the production of 213Bi via neutron bombardment of 226Ra. MedActinium, Inc., in collaboration with commercial and institutional investigators at PG Research Foundation (PGRF) and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), is developing commercial approaches to manufacturing these unique radioimmunotherapeutic drugs.

  10. Primary Ewing Family of Tumors of the Jaw has a better Prognosis compared to Tumors of Extragnathic sites

    PubMed Central

    Owosho, Adepitan A.; Ko, Eugene; Rosenberg, Haley I.; Yom, SaeHee K.; Antonescu, Cristina R.; Huryn, Joseph M.; Estilo, Cherry L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Primary Ewing sarcoma of the jaw is rare. The aim of this study was to describe new cases of primary Ewing sarcoma of the jaw and investigate reported prognostic factors of Ewing sarcoma in this series and treatment outcome. Materials and Methods Six patients with primary Ewing sarcoma of the jaw were treated at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) from 1992 through 2013. Clinical data, pathology reports, treatment prescribed, treatment regimens, outcome, and follow-up information were reviewed. Results Five of 6 patients were female and 5 cases were in the mandible. No patient presented with metastatic disease at diagnosis. All cases were positive for CD99, and 3 patients with genetic confirmation were positive for EWS-FLI1 fusion or EWSR1 gene rearrangement. All patients received induction multiagent chemotherapy and surgical resection and 2 patients received adjuvant radiotherapy. Total (grade IV) or nearly total (grade III) tumor necrosis in 3 of 5 patients (60%) assessed for histologic response to chemotherapy indicated intense sensitivity. All patients were alive and free of disease, with no history of local recurrence, at a median follow-up period of 6.5 years. Conclusion Patients with primary Ewing sarcoma of the jaw have a good prognosis and metastasis is an uncommon occurrence at initial presentation. PMID:26679553

  11. Optimal needle arrangement for intraoperative planning in permanent I-125 prostate implants.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S A; Fung, A Y C; Zaider, M

    2002-08-21

    One limitation of intraoperative planning of permanent prostate implants is that needles must already be in the gland before planning images are acquired. Improperly placed needles often restrict the capability of generating optimal seed placement. We developed guiding principles for the proper layout of needles within the treatment volume. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center planning system employs a genetic algorithm to find the optimal seed implantation pattern consistent with pre-assigned constraints (needle geometry, uniformity, conformity and the avoidance of high doses to urethra and rectum). Ultrasound volumes for twelve patients with 1-125 implants were used to generate six plans per patient (total 72 plans) with different needle arrangements. The plans were evaluated in terms of V100 (percentage prostate volume receiving at least the prescription dose), U135 (percentage urethra volume receiving at least 135% of prescription dose), and CI (conformity index, the ratio of treatment volume to prescription dose volume.) The method termed POSTCTR, in which needles were placed on the periphery of the largest ultrasound slice and posterior central needles were placed as needed, consistently gave superior results for all prostate sizes. Another arrangement, labelled POSTLAT, where the needles were placed peripherally with additional needles in the posterior lateral lobes, also gave satisfactory results. We advocate two needle arrangements, POSTCTR and POSTLAT, with the former giving better results. PMID:12222865

  12. NOTE: Optimal needle arrangement for intraoperative planning in permanent I-125 prostate implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, S. A.; Fung, A. Y. C.; Zaider, M.

    2002-08-01

    One limitation of intraoperative planning of permanent prostate implants is that needles must already be in the gland before planning images are acquired. Improperly placed needles often restrict the capability of generating optimal seed placement. We developed guiding principles for the proper layout of needles within the treatment volume. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center planning system employs a genetic algorithm to find the optimal seed implantation pattern consistent with pre-assigned constraints (needle geometry, uniformity, conformity and the avoidance of high doses to urethra and rectum). Ultrasound volumes for twelve patients with I-125 implants were used to generate six plans per patient (total 72 plans) with different needle arrangements. The plans were evaluated in terms of V100 (percentage prostate volume receiving at least the prescription dose), U135 (percentage urethra volume receiving at least 135% of prescription dose), and CI (conformity index, the ratio of treatment volume to prescription dose volume.) The method termed POSTCTR, in which needles were placed on the periphery of the largest ultrasound slice and posterior central needles were placed as needed, consistently gave superior results for all prostate sizes. Another arrangement, labelled POSTLAT, where the needles were placed peripherally with additional needles in the posterior lateral lobes, also gave satisfactory results. We advocate two needle arrangements, POSTCTR and POSTLAT, with the former giving better results.

  13. Patterns of failure in patients with medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Jereb, B.; Reid, A.; Ahuja, R.K.

    1982-12-15

    Fifty-two patients with medulloblastoma were seen at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) between 1959 and 1979. All patients had their primary surgery at other institutions; 27 were referred postoperatively for the initial course of radiation therapy; 24 were referred for treatment of recurrence and 1 patient for adjuvant chemotherapy only. The patients were classified as: (1) Group I: small, localized tumor which was completely excised, (2) Group II: large, localized, incompletely excised tumor, (3) Group II: tumor spread within the central nervous system, (4) Group IV: hematogenous metastases at initial presentation. Of the 27 patients who received initial radiation treatments at MSKCC, six were of the Groups III and IV and all of these have died. Of the remaining 21 patients with localized disease ten are alive and disease-free with follow-up from 20 to 81 months. The extent of disease at the initial treatment was the most important prognostic factor. There were no survivors in the Groups III and IV. The most common site of recurrence was the posterior fossa, 21 of 40 patients, six patients had recurrence at the cribriform plate and the adjoining medial frontal lobes, and five had their first recurrence outside the CNS. None of the patients who received less than 3400 rad to the craniospinal axis or less than 5000 rad to the posterior fossa is alive. The duration of treatment seems to be of less importance for the outcome than the total dose of radiation delivered. (JMT)

  14. Overall Survival and Response to Systemic Therapy in Metastatic Extrauterine Leiomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Shoushtari, A. N.; Landa, J.; Kuk, D.; Sanchez, A.; Lala, B.; Schmidt, N.; Okoli, C.; Chi, P.; Dickson, M. A.; Gounder, M. M.; Keohan, M. L.; Crago, A. M.; Tap, W. D.; D'Angelo, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Leiomyosarcomas (LMS) represent a heterogeneous subset of soft tissue sarcomas. Factors influencing prognosis for patients with metastatic extrauterine LMS (euLMS) are not well described. Limited data are available regarding responses to systemic therapy. Methods. We collected clinical and pathologic information for all patients with metastatic euLMS seen at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center between 1989 and 2012. Objective responses to first-line therapy were analyzed for a subset of patients with available baseline and on-treatment imaging using RECIST 1.1. Results. 215 patients with metastatic euLMS had a median overall survival (OS) of 2.6 years from the time of metastasis. Older age, male sex, and ≥3 initial sites of metastasis were associated with worse OS on multivariate analysis. Objective response rate (ORR) in N = 113 was 19% overall and 25%, 26%, and 25% for gemcitabine, gemcitabine plus docetaxel, and anthracycline-alkylator combinations. Patients whose tumors objectively responded to first-line therapy had a lower risk of death versus those who did not (Hazard Ratio 0.46; 95% CI: 0.26–0.79, p = 0.005). Conclusions. Anthracycline- and gemcitabine-based regimens have similar activity in this cohort of euLMS. Prognostic factors for OS include older age, male sex, and ≥3 initial sites. PMID:27313489

  15. Telangiectatic osteogenic sarcoma: a clinicopathologic study of 124 patients.

    PubMed

    Huvos, A G; Rosen, G; Bretsky, S S; Butler, A

    1982-04-15

    One hundred-twenty-four patients with this rare and special variant of osteogenic sarcoma were treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center from 1921 through 1979, representing 11% of all of osteogenic sarcomas. The lesions were predominantly lytic, destructive tumors with only minimal sclerosis on roentgenograms and soft as well as cystic on gross examination. Histologically, aneurysmally dilated spaces lined or traversed by sarcoma cells producing osteoid were noted. The differential diagnosis both radiographically and histologically included several benign lesions like aneurysmal bone cyst and giant cell tumor, among many others. It was found that telangiectatic osteogenic sarcoma is relatively frequent in the femoral diaphysis and in the distal end of the femur. Twenty-nine percent of the patients present with pathologic fracture, or this develops later. Age and sex distribution, or clinical signs or symptoms were those of ordinary osteogenic sarcomas. No differences in survival rates were found in lesions that were purely lytic or those with minimal sclerosis. Similarly, no differences in survival were noted when comparing patients with telangiectatic or ordinary osteogenic sarcoma. As a matter of fact, definite increase in survival was found in patients treated since 1975 with preoperative multidrug chemotherapy employing high-dose methotrexate. Adriamycin, and the combination of bleomycin, cyclophosphamide, and dactinomycin. PMID:6950802

  16. Dose-Response Model for Chest Wall Tolerance of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Kimsey, Frank; McKay, Jesse; Gefter, Jeffrey; Milano, Michael T; Moiseenko, Vitali; Grimm, Jimm; Berg, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    Many recent studies have described rib fractures and chest wall pain following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Although these toxicities generally are not life-threatening, the chest wall and ribs are considered dose-limiting tissues because of the potential effect on patients׳ quality of life. Few studies have reported dose-response models that can provide quantitative estimates of risk as a function of dose and volume. Notably, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (Mutter et al(8)) analyzed grade 2 or higher chest wall toxicity in a cohort of 126 patients treated with linear accelerator-based SBRT; the authors provided detailed dose-volume histogram (DVH) data to allow for pooled analyses. We pooled these 126 patients with an additional 44 patients treated with CyberKnife at the Erlanger Medical Center to create an updated dose-response model for chest wall tolerance. In the aggregate analysis, the 10% risk level for grade 2 or higher complications for D70cc was 16.2Gy in 4 fractions, and the 50% risk level was D70cc = 65.1Gy in 4 fractions. For D2cc, the 10% and 50% risk levels in 4 fractions were 43.0Gy and 87.9Gy, respectively. These dose-tolerance limits may help quantify chest wall toxicity risks. Further research continues to determine more accurate estimates of grade 3 risk levels. PMID:27000509

  17. The utility of body FDG PET in staging primary central nervous system lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Mohile, Nimish A.; DeAngelis, Lisa M.; Abrey, Lauren E.

    2008-01-01

    18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET has become an important tool in the management of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), but its role in the evaluation of primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) has not been established. We investigated the ability of body FDG PET to detect systemic disease in the staging and restaging of PCNSL. The records of 166 PCNSL patients seen at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center were examined. Forty-nine patients who underwent body FDG PET for staging of PCNSL were identified. Clinical data were reviewed to determine FDG PET results and their influence on therapy. Body FDG PET disclosed a systemic site of malignancy in 15% of patients. NHL was found in 11% of all patients, 7% of patients at diagnosis, and 27% of patients at CNS relapse. Four percent had a second systemic neoplasm. Workup with conventional staging did not reveal systemic disease, and in 8% of patients, body FDG PET was the only abnormal diagnostic exam suggestive of lymphoma. FDG PET findings altered patient treatment and resulted in additional chemotherapy, surgery, or radiotherapy. Our findings suggest that FDG PET may be more sensitive than conventional body staging and may disclose higher rates of concomitant systemic disease at PCNSL diagnosis. Body FDG PET may be an important noninvasive adjunct to conventional PCNSL staging, and its utility should be evaluated prospectively. PMID:18287338

  18. Meeting report: fourth international congress of the Society for Melanoma Research.

    PubMed

    Fisher, David E; Medrano, Estela E; McMahon, Martin; Soengas, Marisol S; Schuchter, Lynn; Wolchok, Jedd D; Merlino, Glenn

    2008-02-01

    The 4th international melanoma congress of the Society for Melanoma Research (SMR), organized by Marianne Berwick (University of New Mexico), Paul Chapman (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center), Rene Gonzalez (University of Colorado) and Ze'ev Ronai (Burnham Institute), was held at the Marriott Hotel in downtown New York on November 2007. The congress was attended by a record high number of attendees (over 500 delegates) who joined to discuss recent advances in melanoma biology and therapy. About 40% of the participants arrived from 39 countries, a testament to the high impact of this annual gathering on the international melanoma community. Over 120 of the participants were students or postdoctoral fellows, representing a most impressive fraction of young scientists engaged in melanoma research. The meeting consisted of more than 50 plenary and minisymposia presentations, stimulating the exchange of unpublished data and novel ideas, and helping to forge new collaborations that are anticipated to facilitate significant advances in basic, translational and clinical melanoma research. Another major focus of this meeting was over 160 posters, which were heavily attended and provided an effective forum for extensive informal discussions. This report will highlight the major scientific themes and advances of this most successful meeting, and provide a useful perspective on the current state of melanoma research, as well as where the field should be heading. PMID:18353140

  19. Effect of Perioperative β-Blockers on Pulmonary Complications among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Undergoing Lung Resection Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, A.; Stover, D. E.; Hemdan, A.; Belinskaya, I.; Steingart, R. M.; Taur, Y.; Feinstein, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if COPD patients undergoing lung resection with perioperative β-blocker use are more likely to suffer postoperative COPD exacerbations than those that did not receive perioperative β-blockers. Methods. A historical cohort study of COPD patients, undergoing lung resection surgery at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 2002 and 2006. Primary outcomes were the rate of postoperative COPD exacerbations, defined as any initiation or increase of glucocorticoids for documented bronchospasm. Results. 520 patients with COPD were identified who underwent lung resection. Of these, 205 (39%) received perioperative β-blockers and 315 (61%) did not. COPD was mild among 361 patients (69% of all patients), moderate in 117 patients (23%), and severe in 42 patients (8%). COPD exacerbations occurred among 11 (5.4%) patients who received perioperative β-blockers and among 20 (6.3%) patients who did not. Secondary outcomes, which included respiratory failure, 30-day mortality, and the presence or absence of any cardiovascular complication, ICU transfer, cardiovascular complication, or readmission within 30 days, did not differ in prevalence between the two groups. Conclusions. This study implies that perioperative β-blockers use among COPD patients undergoing lung resection surgery does not impact the rate of exacerbations. PMID:26421192

  20. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in children: review of 16 cases

    SciTech Connect

    Jereb, B.; Huvos, A.G.; Steinherz, P.; Unal, A.

    1980-04-01

    Of fifty two children with nasopharyngeal tumors who were registered and treated a Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), from 1961 through 1977, 16 had carcinoma. The results of retrospective analysis of these patients are presented here. There were 7 girls and 9 boys between 12 and 16 years of age. One patient had a Stage I tumor; one had a Stage II tumor and 14 had Stage IV tumors. The histology was poorly differentiated epidermoid carcinoma in all patients. All patients had radiotherapy to the primary site. Six patients received chemotherapy for distant metastases, and 2 had adjuvant chemotherapy. Of the 13 patients who were treated initially with radiation alone, 2 were alive and free of disease at 12 and 14 years respectively. Of the 3 patients who had chemotherapy at initial treatment, one was alive and free of disease 18 months from diagnosis and one patient died of treatment without tumor. Bone was the common site of distant metastases. While radiation therapy alone appears to be adequate treatment for early tumors, adjuvant chemotherapy should be tried to improve results in advanced tumors.

  1. Separate primary carcinomas of the esophagus and head and neck region in the same patient.

    PubMed

    Cahan, W G; Castro, E B; Rosen, P P; Strong, E W

    1976-01-01

    From 1949 to 1972 at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 60 patients with primary cancers of both the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx (OPL) and esophagus were studied. In 15, the cancers occurred synchronously, and in 68% they occurred within 2 years of each other, the longest interval being 27 years. The tongue and extrinsic larynx were the most common sites of origin together with the middle third of the esophagus. During the same period, over 7000 patients with OPL and over 1000 patients with esophageal cancers were seen at this institution. The majority of patients had a history of excessive smoking and alcohol intake. Four out of nine who had previous radiation therapy for their OPL cancer developed esophageal cancer within the therapeutic field (three after 16, 25, and 27 years). Thirty percent (18/60) had three primary cancers; one had four, of which two were in the head and neck region. Two patients survived more than 5 years; both also had a third primary cancer of the lung. There are broader implications in this study: multiple primary cancers in general, and this group in particular, give us especially valuable clues as to the oncogenic influence of environmental factors as well as cellular, organ, and also systemic susceptibility. With one cancer, one can anticipate formation in other related organs. This provides an opportunity for early diagnosis, more effective management, and improved survival. The cause and effect relationship of tobacco and alcohol must be emphasized at every opportunity and most particularly to those who have developed one cancer in the oropharyngeal-laryngeal region. PMID:1247970

  2. Neuregulin 1-HER axis as a key mediator of hyperglycemic memory effects in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiyoung; Sarode, Venetia R; Euhus, David; Kittler, Ralf; Scherer, Philipp E

    2012-12-18

    Poor outcomes in diabetic patients are observed across a range of human tumors, suggesting that cancer cells develop unique characteristics under diabetic conditions. Cancer cells exposed to hyperglycemic insults acquire permanent aggressive traits of tumor growth, even after a return to euglycemic conditions. Comparative genome-wide mapping of hyperglycemia-specific open chromatin regions and concomitant mRNA expression profiling revealed that the neuregulin-1 gene, encoding an established endogenous ligand for the HER3 receptor, is activated through a putative distal enhancer. Our findings highlight the targeted inhibition of NRG1-HER3 pathways as a potential target for the treatment breast cancer patients with associated diabetes. PMID:23213231

  3. Neuregulin 1-HER axis as a key mediator of hyperglycemic memory effects in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jiyoung; Sarode, Venetia R.; Euhus, David; Kittler, Ralf; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2012-01-01

    Poor outcomes in diabetic patients are observed across a range of human tumors, suggesting that cancer cells develop unique characteristics under diabetic conditions. Cancer cells exposed to hyperglycemic insults acquire permanent aggressive traits of tumor growth, even after a return to euglycemic conditions. Comparative genome-wide mapping of hyperglycemia-specific open chromatin regions and concomitant mRNA expression profiling revealed that the neuregulin-1 gene, encoding an established endogenous ligand for the HER3 receptor, is activated through a putative distal enhancer. Our findings highlight the targeted inhibition of NRG1-HER3 pathways as a potential target for the treatment breast cancer patients with associated diabetes. PMID:23213231

  4. Ovarian cancer: contribution of radiation therapy to patient management: Erskine Memorial Lecture, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, R.S.

    1984-10-01

    Ovarian cancer may be treated with radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, or a combination. To evaluate the contribution of radiation therapy to patient management the cure rate must be estimated; data are presented suggesting that the 5-year survival rate provides a reasonable estimate of the cure rate. A study of patients treated since 1971 showed that stage and postoperative residuum could be used to divide patients into two subgroups, a poor prognosis group and a good prognosis group; a multifactorial grouping of patients in the good prognosis group who were treated postoperatively with radiation therapy only was further able to divide patients into low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk groups. Studies of radiation therapy for different subgroups are discussed; abdominopelvic irradiation has been shown to improve survival for approximately one-third of patients with cancer of the ovary.

  5. Delineation of antigen-specific and antigen-nonspecific CD8+ memory T-cell responses after cytokine-based cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Tietze, Julia K.; Wilkins, Danice E. C.; Sckisel, Gail D.; Bouchlaka, Myriam N.; Alderson, Kory L.; Weiss, Jonathan M.; Ames, Erik; Bruhn, Kevin W.; Craft, Noah; Wiltrout, Robert H.; Longo, Dan L.; Lanier, Lewis L.; Blazar, Bruce R.; Redelman, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Memory T cells exhibit tremendous antigen specificity within the immune system and accumulate with age. Our studies reveal an antigen-independent expansion of memory, but not naive, CD8+ T cells after several immunotherapeutic regimens for cancer resulting in a distinctive phenotype. Signaling through T-cell receptors (TCRs) or CD3 in both mouse and human memory CD8+ T cells markedly up-regulated programmed death-1 (PD-1) and CD25 (IL-2 receptor α chain), and led to antigen-specific tumor cell killing. In contrast, exposure to cytokine alone in vitro or with immunotherapy in vivo did not up-regulate these markers but resulted in expanded memory CD8+ T cells expressing NKG2D, granzyme B, and possessing broadly lytic capabilities. Blockade of NKG2D in mice also resulted in significantly diminished antitumor effects after immunotherapy. Treatment of TCR-transgenic mice bearing nonantigen expressing tumors with immunotherapy still resulted in significant antitumor effects. Human melanoma tissue biopsies obtained from patients after topically applied immunodulatory treatment resulted in increased numbers of these CD8+ CD25− cells within the tumor site. These findings demonstrate that memory CD8+ T cells can express differential phenotypes indicative of adaptive or innate effectors based on the nature of the stimuli in a process conserved across species. PMID:22251483

  6. The Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled: William Bradley Coley, third Surgeon-in-Chief 1925-1933.

    PubMed

    Levine, David B

    2008-02-01

    In January 1925, the Board of Managers of the New York Society for the Relief of the Ruptured and Crippled appointed William Bradley Coley, M.D., age 63, Surgeon-in-Chief of the Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled (R & C) to succeed Virgil P. Gibney who submitted his resignation the month before. It would be the first time a general surgeon held that position at the oldest orthopedic hospital in the nation, now known as Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS). Coley had been on staff for 36 years and was world famous for introducing use of toxins to treat malignant tumors, particularly sarcomas. A graduate of Yale College and Harvard Medical College, Coley interned at New York Hospital and was appointed, soon after, to the staff of the New York Cancer Hospital (now Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center) located at that time at 106th Street on the West Side of New York. With his mentor Dr. William Bull, Coley perfected the surgical treatment of hernias at R & C. He was instrumental in raising funds for his alma maters, Yale, Harvard and Memorial Hospital. His crusade in immunology as a method of treatment for malignant tumors later fell out of acceptance in the medical establishment. After his death in 1936, an attempt to revive interest in use of immunotherapy for inoperable malignancies was carried out by his daughter, Helen Coley Nauts, who pursued this objective until her death at age 93 in 2000. Coley's health deteriorated in his later years, and in 1933, he resigned as chief of Bone Tumors at Memorial Hospital and Surgeon-in-Chief at R & C, being succeeded at Ruptured and Crippled as Surgeon-in-Chief by Dr. Eugene H. Pool. William Bradley Coley died of intestinal infarction in 1936 and was buried in Sharon, Connecticut. PMID:18751855

  7. The Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled: William Bradley Coley, Third Surgeon-in-Chief 1925–1933

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    In January 1925, the Board of Managers of the New York Society for the Relief of the Ruptured and Crippled appointed William Bradley Coley, M.D., age 63, Surgeon-in-Chief of the Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled (R & C) to succeed Virgil P. Gibney who submitted his resignation the month before. It would be the first time a general surgeon held that position at the oldest orthopedic hospital in the nation, now known as Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS). Coley had been on staff for 36 years and was world famous for introducing use of toxins to treat malignant tumors, particularly sarcomas. A graduate of Yale College and Harvard Medical College, Coley interned at New York Hospital and was appointed, soon after, to the staff of the New York Cancer Hospital (now Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center) located at that time at 106th Street on the West Side of New York. With his mentor Dr. William Bull, Coley perfected the surgical treatment of hernias at R & C. He was instrumental in raising funds for his alma maters, Yale, Harvard and Memorial Hospital. His crusade in immunology as a method of treatment for malignant tumors later fell out of acceptance in the medical establishment. After his death in 1936, an attempt to revive interest in use of immunotherapy for inoperable malignancies was carried out by his daughter, Helen Coley Nauts, who pursued this objective until her death at age 93 in 2000. Coley’s health deteriorated in his later years, and in 1933, he resigned as chief of Bone Tumors at Memorial Hospital and Surgeon-in-Chief at R & C, being succeeded at Ruptured and Crippled as Surgeon-in-Chief by Dr. Eugene H. Pool. William Bradley Coley died of intestinal infarction in 1936 and was buried in Sharon, Connecticut. PMID:18751855

  8. [Determination of airborne and surface contamination with cyclophosphamide at the Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Gorná, Lucie; Odráska, Pavel; Dolezalová, Lenka; Piler, Pavel; Oravec, Michal; Bláha, Ludek

    2011-02-01

    Manipulation with cytotoxic drugs (CDs) during the preparation and administration of chemotherapy to cancer patients can potentially lead to contamination of working areas and consequently to occupational exposure of hospital staff. This study aimed to assess the potential of inhalation and dermal contact with CDs. For this purpose, distribution of the marker drug (cyclophosphamide, CP) in the working environment of the Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute (Czech Republic) was studied. The study determined airborne and surface contamination of the hospital pharmacy and the outpatient clinic. Determination of airborne contamination was based on active stationary sampling of air using a PTFE filter, an impinger filled with distilled water and two solid sorbent tubes (Anasorb 708 and Strata-X) as sampling devices. Surface contamination was determined by the wipe sampling method. The airborne contamination was rare and the concentrations were many times lower than the maximal value calculated from the vapour pressure (0.36 mg/m3 at 20 degrees C). Detectable airborne CP was found in Strata-X samples collected at the outpatient clinic (n = 5, all samples positive at concentrations from 0.3 to 4.3 ng/m3). Surface contamination was determined at 75% of wipe samples (n = 65) with a median concentration of 750 ng/m2. In conclusion, inhalation of CDs seems to be of low importance at our hospital, which is up to the standard specified by current legislation (drug preparation performed in a clean room equipped with negative pressure isolators). The main proportion of contamination was present on the surfaces at all workplaces studied. Consequently, attention should be given to the elimination of the sources of surface contamination and to the prevention of dermal contact with contaminated material. PMID:21650015

  9. Treatment, Outcomes, and Clinical Trial Participation in Elderly Patients With Metastatic Pancreas Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Daneng; Capanu, Marinela; Yu, Kenneth H.; Lowery, Maeve A.; Kelsen, David P.; O’Reilly, Eileen M.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the treatment patterns and outcomes of elderly patients with metastatic pancreas cancer remain limited. Therefore, an analysis of systemic therapy use, clinical trial participation, and outcomes in elderly patients with metastatic pancreas cancer was performed at our institution. Elderly patients who received systemic therapy had a longer survival compared with those who did not. However, therapeutic clinical trial participation was low and should be encouraged Background Pancreas adenocarcinoma has a median age at diagnosis of 71 years. Limited studies have focused on the treatment of elderly patients with pancreas cancer. Patients and Methods An analysis of systemic therapy use, clinical trial participation, and overall outcomes of 237 patients with metastatic pancreas adenocarcinoma ≥ 75 years of age evaluated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 2005 and 2013 was undertaken. Results Median overall survival was 7 months for the entire study population. A total of 197 (83%) patients received systemic therapy, which was significantly associated with longer overall survival (P < .01). No significant difference was detected in survival between age groups 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and ≥ 85 years of age among those who received systemic therapy (P = .49). Seventy-seven (32%) patients participated in a clinical trial of whom 13 (5%) patients were enrolled in a therapeutic trial, including no patients aged ≥ 85 years. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that presence of liver metastases (P < .001), performance status (P < .001), and number of systemic agents (P < .001) were significantly associated with survival. Conclusion Receipt of systemic therapy was associated with longer survival in elderly patients ≥ 75 years of age with metastatic pancreas adenocarcinoma. Therapeutic clinical trial participation among these patients was low and future development of prognostic models for appropriate patient selection is warranted. PMID:26072442

  10. Gemcitabine-Related Pneumonitis in Pancreas Adenocarcinoma—An Infrequent Event: Elucidation of Risk Factors and Management Implications

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Ibrahim Halil; Geyer, Alexander I.; Kelly, Daniel W.; O’Reilly, Eileen Mary

    2016-01-01

    A total of 2440 pancreatic cancer patients who received gemcitabine treatment were screened for gemcitabine-related pneumonitis (GRP). The observed rate of GRP was 1.1%. History of smoking, alcohol use, and history of underlying lung disease were identified as possible risk factors of GRP. Early pulmonary consult and cessation of gemcitabine is recommended once clinical suspicion arises. Background Gemcitabine-related pneumonitis (GRP) has been reported relatively frequently for pancreas cancer in the literature; however, underlying risk factors and optimal management remain to be defined. We studied a cohort of patients with GRP and investigated potential predisposing factors in pancreatic cancer patients. Patients and Methods A total 2440 patients at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center were identified between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2012, and were screened for grade 2 or higher GRP in an institutional tumor registry and using an ICD billing code database. Demographic and clinical information was extracted by electronic chart review. Results A total of 28 patients (1.1%) with GRP were identified. Incidence of grade 2, 3, and 4 reactions were 7 (25%), 18 (64%), and 3 (11%), respectively. No GRP-related mortality was observed. Twenty-one patients (75%) reported a history of cigarette smoking. Seventeen patients (61%) were alcohol users. Six patients (21%) were either regular or heavy drinkers. Most patients (93%) had either locally advanced or metastatic disease. Three patients (11%) underwent a diagnostic bronchoscopy, and in 1 patient a diagnosis of organizing pneumonia was established. Morbidity was significant; 3 patients (11%) required treatment in the intensive care unit. All hospitalized patients received steroid treatment. Conclusion GRP is relatively uncommon but incurs significant morbidity. Potential risk factors include advanced-stage disease, along with smoking and alcohol consumption and possibly underlying lung disease. We recommend a

  11. Distant Metastases in Patients with Carcinoma of the Major Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Safina; Bryant, Robert; Palmer, Frank L.; DiLorenzo, Monica; Shah, Jatin P.; Patel, Snehal G.; Ganly, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to show the incidence of distant metastases (DM) in salivary gland cancer as well as the types of histology most commonly associated with it and to identify factors predictive of DM. Methods The study identified 301 patients who underwent surgery for cancer of the major salivary glands at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer center between 1985 and 2009. Clinical, tumor, and treatment characteristics were recorded. Tumors were categorized as low-, intermediate-, and high-risk pathology based on histologic subtype and grade. Factors predictive of distant recurrence-free probability (DRFP) were determined by uni- and multivariable analyses. Results The primary tumor was parotid in 266 patients (88 %), and 96 tumors (32 %) were clinical T3/T4. For 57 patients (18.9 %), DM developed with a 5-year DRFP of 72.7 %. The most common site of metastasis was the lung (50 %). The clinical predictors were male gender, cT4 stage, cN+ stage, and clinical overall stage. The multivariable analysis of clinical variables showed male gender (p = 0.018), cT4 stage (p < 0.001), and cN+ stage (p = 0.004) to be significant. The pathologic predictors were high-risk and high-grade pathology, vascular invasion, perineural invasion, positive margins, pT4 stage, pN+ stage, and overall stage. The multivariable analysis of pathologic variables showed high-grade pathology (p < 0.001), perineural invasion (p = 0.005), and pN+ stage (p = 0.002) to be significant. Conclusions Distant metastases developed in approximately 20 % of the patients with salivary gland cancer. The most common site of metastases was the lung. The significant predictors of DM were cT4, cN+, male gender, high-grade pathology, perineural invasion, and positive nodal disease. PMID:25743328

  12. Guidelines for locoregional therapy in primary breast cancer in developing countries: The results of an expert panel at the 8th Annual Women's Cancer Initiative – Tata Memorial Hospital (WCI-TMH) Conference

    PubMed Central

    Munshi, Anusheel; Gupta, Sudeep; Anderson, Benjamin; Yarnold, John; Parmar, Vani; Jalali, Rakesh; Sharma, Suresh Chander; Desai, Sangeeta; Thakur, Meenakshi; Baijal, Gunjan; Sarin, Rajiv; Mittra, Indraneel; Ghosh, Jaya; Badwe, Rajendra

    2012-01-01

    Background: Limited guidelines exist for breast cancer management in developing countries. In this context, the Women's Cancer Initiative - Tata Memorial Hospital (WCI-TMH) organised its 8th Annual Conference to update guidelines in breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Appropriately formulated guideline questions on each topic and subtopic in the surgical, radiation and systemic management of primary breast cancer were developed by the scientific committee and shared with the guest faculty of the Conference. Majority of the questions had multiple choice answers. The opinion of the audience, comprising academic and community oncologists, was electronically cumulated, followed by focussed presentations by eminent national and international experts on each topic. The guidelines were finally developed through an expert panel that voted on each guideline question after all talks had been delivered and audience opinion elicited. Separate panels were constituted for locoregional and systemic therapy in primary breast cancer. Results: Based on the voting results of the expert panel, guidelines for locoregional therapy of breast cancer have been formulated. Voting patterns for each question are reported. Conclusions: The updated guidelines on locoregional management of primary breast cancer in the context of developing countries are presented in this article. These recommendations have been designed to allow centers in the developing world to improve the quality of care for breast cancer patients. PMID:22988354

  13. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-08-15

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  14. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-05-16

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  15. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Leukemia Liver cancer Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ovarian cancer Pancreatic cancer Testicular cancer Thyroid cancer Uterine cancer ... have any symptoms. In certain cancers, such as pancreatic cancer, symptoms often do not start until the disease ...

  16. Cancer ‘survivor-care’: II. Disruption of prefrontal brain activation top-down control of working memory capacity as possible mechanism for chemo-fog/brain (chemotherapy-associated cognitive impairment)

    PubMed Central

    Raffa, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY What is known and Objective Cancer chemotherapy-associated cognitive impairments (termed ‘chemo-fog’ or ‘chemo-brain’), particularly in memory, have been self-reported or identified in cancer survivors previously treated with chemotherapy. While a variety of deficits have been detected, a consistent theme is a detriment in visuospatial working memory. The parietal cortex, a major site of storage of such memory, is implicated in chemotherapy-induced damage. However, if the findings of two recent publications are combined, the (pre)frontal cortex might be an equally viable target. Two recent studies, one postulating a mechanism for ‘top-down control’ of working memory capacity and another visualizing chemotherapy-induced alterations in brain activation during working memory processing, are reviewed and integrated. Comment A computational model and the proposal that the prefrontal cortex plays a role in working memory via top-down control of parietal working memory capacity is consistent with a recent demonstration of decreased frontal hyperactivation following chemotherapy. What is new and Conclusion Chemotherapy-associated impairment of visuospatial working memory might include the (pre)frontal cortex In addition to the parietal cortex. This provides new opportunity for basic science and clinical investigation. PMID:23656522

  17. Simultaneous Bilateral Ophthalmic Artery Chemosurgery for Bilateral Retinoblastoma (Tandem Therapy)

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, David H.; Marr, Brian P.; Francis, Jasmine H.; Dunkel, Ira J.; Fabius, Armida W. M.; Brodie, Scott E.; Mondesire-Crump, Ijah; Gobin, Y. Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Objective Report on the 7-year experience with bilateral ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC-Tandem therapy) for bilateral retinoblastoma. Design Retrospective, single institution study. Subjects 120 eyes of 60 children with bilateral retinoblastoma treated since March 2008. Methods Retrospective review of all children treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering with bilateral ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (Melphalan, Carboplatin, Topotecan, Methotrexate) delivered in the same initial session to both naïve and previously treated eyes. Main Outcome Measures Ocular survival, metastatic disease, patient survival from metastases, second cancers, systemic adverse effects, need for transfusion of blood products, electroretinogram before and after treatment. Results 116 eyes were salvaged (4 eyes were enucleated: 3 because of progressive disease, 1 family choice). Kaplan Meier ocular survival was 99.2% at one year, 96.9% at 2 and 3 years and 94.9% for years 4 through 7. There were no cases of metastatic disease or metastatic deaths with a mean follow-up of 3.01 years. Two children developed second cancers (both pineoblastoma) and one of them died. Transfusion of blood products was required in 3 cases (4 transfusions), 1.9%. Two children developed fever/neutropenia requiring hospitalization (0.95%). ERGs were improved in 21.6% and unchanged after treatment in 52.5% of cases (increase or decrease of less than 25μV). Conclusions Bilateral ophthalmic artery chemosurgery is a safe and effective technique for managing bilateral retinoblastoma-even when eyes are advanced bilaterally, and if both eyes have progressed after systemic chemotherapy. Ocular survival was excellent (94.9% at 8 years), there were no cases of of metastatic disease and no deaths from metastatic disease, but children remain at risk for second cancers. In 21.6% of cases ERG function improved. Despite using chemotherapy in both eyes in the same session, systemic toxicity was low. PMID:27258771

  18. Genetic variations in angiogenesis pathway genes associated with clinical outcome in localized gastric adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lurje, G.; Husain, H.; Power, D. G.; Yang, D.; Groshen, S.; Pohl, A.; Zhang, W.; Ning, Y.; Manegold, P. C.; El-Khoueiry, A.; Iqbal, S.; Tang, L. H.; Shah, M. A.; Lenz, H.-J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Angiogenesis has been attributed to be a well-recognized aspect of human cancer biology. As such, proteinase-activated receptor (PAR)-1, endostatin (ES) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) mediate the regulation of early-onset angiogenesis and in turn impact the process of tumor-growth and disease progression. Patients and methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues were obtained from 137 patients with localized gastric cancer at University of Southern California and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center medical facilities. DNA was extracted and genotyping was carried out using PCR–restriction fragment length polymorphism-based protocols. Results: In false discovery rate-adjusted univariate analysis, PAR-1 −506 ins/del (P < 0.001), ES +4349 G>A (P = 0.004), and IL-8 −251 T>A (P < 0.0001) were associated with time to tumor recurrence (TTR). Further, PAR-1 −506 ins/del and IL-8 −251 were associated with overall survival (OS). After adjusting for covariates, IL-8 remained significantly associated with TTR (adjusted P = 0.003) and OS (adjusted P = 0.049), whereas ES was significantly associated with TTR (adjusted P = 0.026). Conclusions: Polymorphisms in PAR-1, ES, and IL-8 may serve as independent molecular prognostic markers in patients with localized gastric adenocarcinoma. The assessment of the patients’ individual risk on the basis of interindividual genotypes may therefore help to identify patient subgroups at high risk for poor clinical outcome. PMID:19622587

  19. SITC 26th annual meeting – summary

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The 26th annual meeting of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer took place in Bethesda on November 4 to 6, 2011 and was organized by Charles G. Drake (Johns Hopkins University) Dolores J. Schendel (Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen – German Research Center for Environmental Health Institute of Molecular Immunology), Jeffrey Schlom (National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health), and Jedd D. Wolchok (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center). It was an event marked by a number of extraordinary circumstances: it attracted a record attendance of 805 participants from 24 different countries. The gathering came in the wake of great as well as very sad news for the tumor immunology community. Good news included the approval of anti-CTLA-4 as a therapy for metastatic melanoma in April and the announcement in early October of the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine awarded to pioneering studies in the field of immunology. Indeed, one part of the prize went to Dr. Bruce Beutler, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, USA and Dr. Jules Hoffman, Institute for Molecular Cell Biology, Strasbourg, France, for their discoveries in innate immunity and the other part to Dr. Ralph Steinman, The Rockfeller University, New York, for his discovery of dendritic cells. Sad news was the losses of two giants in the field. Jürg Tschopp of the University of Lausanne in March and Ralph Steinman, who passed away just three days before his Nobel Prize announcement. The loss of these two charismatic scientific leaders was particularly sad for the Annual Meeting as both J. Tschopp and R. Steinman were confirmed speakers at this meeting: the former to deliver the keynote lecture and the latter as recipient of the Richard V. Smalley prize. PMID:22620286

  20. Hepatic Parenchymal Preservation Surgery: Decreasing Morbidity and Mortality Rates in 4,152 Resections for Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Kingham, T Peter; Correa-Gallego, Camilo; D'Angelica, Michael I; Gönen, Mithat; DeMatteo, Ronald P; Fong, Yuman; Allen, Peter J; Blumgart, Leslie H; Jarnagin, William R

    2015-01-01

    Background Liver resection is used to treat primary and secondary malignancies. Historically, these procedures were associated with significant complications, which may affect cancer-specific outcome. This study analyzes the changes in morbidity and mortality after hepatic resection over time. Study Design Records of all patients undergoing liver resection for a malignant diagnosis from 1993 to 2012 at Memorial Sloan Kettering were analyzed. Patients were divided into early (1993-1999), middle (2000-2006), and recent (2007-2012) eras. Major hepatectomy was defined as resection of 3 or more segments. Univariate and multivariate analyses were made with t-tests or Mann-Whitney tests. Results 3,875 patients underwent 4,152 resections for malignancy. The most common diagnosis was metastatic colorectal cancer (n=2,476, 64% of patients). Over the study period, 90-day mortality rate decreased from 5% to 1.6% (p<0.001). Perioperative morbidity decreased from 53% to 20% (p<0.001). The percentage of major hepatectomies decreased from 66% to 36% (p<0.001). The rate of perioperative transfusion decreased from 51% to 21% (p<0.001). The spectrum of perioperative morbidity changed markedly over time, with abdominal infections (43% of complications) overtaking cardiopulmonary complications (22% of complications). Peak postoperative bilirubin (OR 1.1, p<0.001), blood loss (OR 1.5, p=0.001), major hepatectomy (OR 1.3, p=0.031), and concurrent partial colectomy (OR 2.4, p<0.001) were independent predictors of perioperative morbidity. The mortality associated with trisectionectomy (6%) and right hepatectomy (3%) remained unchanged over time. Conclusions Morbidity and mortality rates after partial hepatectomy for cancer have decreased substantially as the major hepatectomy rate dropped. Encouraging parenchymal preservation and preventing abdominal infections are vital for continued improvement of liver resection outcomes. PMID:25667141

  1. Could Talk Therapy Ease Chemo-Related Memory Issues?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Health, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Cancer Chemotherapy Cancer--Living with Cancer Memory Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Cancer ...

  2. Chemical & RNAi screening at MSKCC: a collaborative platform to discover & repurpose drugs to fight disease

    PubMed Central

    Bhinder, Bhavneet; Antczak, Christophe; Shum, David; Radu, Constantin; Mahida, Jeni P.; Liu-Sullivan, Nancy; Ibáñez, Glorymar; Raja, Balajee Somalinga; Calder, Paul A.; Djaballah, Hakim

    2014-01-01

    Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) has implemented the creation of a full service state-of-the-art High-throughput Screening Core Facility (HTSCF) equipped with modern robotics and custom-built screening data management resources to rapidly store and query chemical and RNAi screening data outputs. The mission of the facility is to provide oncology clinicians and researchers alike with access to cost-effective HTS solutions for both chemical and RNAi screening, with an ultimate goal of novel target identification and drug discovery. HTSCF was established in 2003 to support the institution’s commitment to growth in molecular pharmacology and in the realm of therapeutic agents to fight chronic diseases such as cancer. This endeavor required broad range of expertise in technology development to establish robust and innovative assays, large collections of diverse chemical and RNAi duplexes to probe specific cellular events, sophisticated compound and data handling capabilities, and a profound knowledge in assay development, hit validation, and characterization. Our goal has been to strive for constant innovation, and we strongly believe in shifting the paradigm from traditional drug discovery towards translational research now, making allowance for unmet clinical needs in patients. Our efforts towards repurposing FDA-approved drugs fructified when digoxin, identified through primary HTS, was administered in the clinic for treatment of stage Vb retinoblastoma. In summary, the overall aim of our facility is to identify novel chemical probes, to study cellular processes relevant to investigator’s research interest in chemical biology and functional genomics, and to be instrumental in accelerating the process of drug discovery in academia. PMID:24661215

  3. Next-Generation Sequencing of Pulmonary Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Reveals Small Cell Carcinoma–like and Non–Small Cell Carcinoma–like Subsets

    PubMed Central

    Rekhtman, Natasha; Pietanza, Maria C.; Hellmann, Matthew D.; Naidoo, Jarushka; Arora, Arshi; Won, Helen; Halpenny, Darragh F.; Wang, Hangjun; Tian, Shaozhou K.; Litvak, Anya M.; Paik, Paul K.; Drilon, Alexander E.; Socci, Nicholas; Poirier, John T.; Shen, Ronglai; Berger, Michael F.; Moreira, Andre L.; Travis, William D.; Rudin, Charles M.; Ladanyi, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a highly aggressive neoplasm, whose biologic relationship to small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) versus non-SCLC (NSCLC) remains unclear, contributing to uncertainty regarding optimal clinical management. To clarify these relationships, we analyzed genomic alterations in LCNEC compared with other major lung carcinoma types. Experimental Design LCNEC (n = 45) tumor/normal pairs underwent targeted next-generation sequencing of 241 cancer genes by Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets (MSK-IMPACT) platform and comprehensive histologic, immunohistochemical, and clinical analysis. Genomic data were compared with MSK-IMPACT analysis of other lung carcinoma histologies (n = 242). Results Commonly altered genes in LCNEC included TP53 (78%), RB1 (38%), STK11 (33%), KEAP1 (31%), and KRAS (22%). Genomic profiles segregated LCNEC into 2 major and 1 minor subsets: SCLC-like (n = 18), characterized by TP53+RB1 co-mutation/loss and other SCLC-type alterations, including MYCL amplification; NSCLC-like (n = 25), characterized by the lack of coaltered TP53+RB1 and nearly universal occurrence of NSCLC-type mutations (STK11, KRAS, and KEAP1); and carcinoid-like (n = 2), characterized by MEN1 mutations and low mutation burden. SCLC-like and NSCLC-like subsets revealed several clinicopathologic differences, including higher proliferative activity in SCLC-like tumors (P < 0.0001) and exclusive adenocarcinoma-type differentiation marker expression in NSCLC-like tumors (P = 0.005). While exhibiting predominant similarity with lung adenocarcinoma, NSCLC-like LCNEC harbored several distinctive genomic alterations, including more frequent mutations in NOTCH family genes (28%), implicated as key regulators of neuroendocrine differentiation. Conclusions LCNEC is a biologically heterogeneous group of tumors, comprising distinct subsets with genomic signatures of SCLC, NSCLC (predominantly

  4. Development of a Risk Stratification System to Guide Treatment for Female Germ Cell Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Meisel, Jane L.; Woo, Kaitlin M.; Sudarsan, Nora; Eng, Jana; Patil, Sujata; Jacobsen, Erin P.; Murali, Rajmohan; Gardner, Ginger J.; Bosl, George J.; Aghajanian, Carol; Feldman, Darren R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Due to their rarity, little is known about prognostic factors in female germ cell tumors (GCTs) or outcomes following systemic therapy. Management is largely based on studies of male GCT and epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods Chart review was performed for all females with GCT seen at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) from 1990 to 2012. Patients receiving chemotherapy were stratified using a modification of the male IGCCCG risk system, and the classifier was correlated with outcome. Results Of 93 patients, 92 (99%) underwent primary surgery and 85 (92%) received chemotherapy. Modified IGCCCG classification was significantly associated with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), both when applied preoperatively and pre-chemotherapy (p<0.001 for all four analyses). Progression after initial chemotherapy (n=29) was detected by imaging in 14 (48%) patients, by serum tumor markers in 6 (21%) patients, and by multiple methods in the rest. Seven (29%) of 24 patients treated with salvage chemotherapy achieved long-term PFS, including 4/6 who received high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) as initial salvage versus 3/16 treated with other initial salvage regimens. The estimated 3-year OS rate was 84% (95% CI, 76-92%), with a trend favoring dysgerminoma over non-dysgerminoma histologies (p=0.12). Conclusions Modified IGCCCG classification was prognostic for female GCT patients in this cohort and identified a poor-risk group who may benefit from more intensive first-line chemotherapy. Both imaging and tumor marker evaluation were important in identifying relapses after first-line chemotherapy. The majority of long-term remissions with salvage therapy were achieved with initial salvage HDCT. PMID:26115974

  5. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A primary thyroid adenocarcinoma harboring ETV6-NTRK3 fusion.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Snjezana; Wang, Lu; Ptashkin, Ryan N; Dawson, Robert R; Shah, Jatin P; Sherman, Eric J; Michael Tuttle, R; Fagin, James A; Klimstra, David S; Katabi, Nora; Ghossein, Ronald A

    2016-09-01

    ETV6-NTRK3 fusion was identified in several cancers including the recently described mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary glands and a minority of papillary thyroid carcinomas. We describe three cases of primary MASC of the thyroid gland and provide a detailed clinical and pathological characterization of the tumor morphology, immunoprofile, and genetic background. Immunohistochemistry for PAX8, TTF-1, thyroglobulin, mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, and p63 was used to define the tumor immunophenotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for ETV6 rearrangement was performed in three, and the next-generation sequencing assay MSK-IMPACT™ (Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets) was performed in two cases. Primary MASC of the thyroid occurred in two women and one man, age 47-72 years. All patients presented with high T stage, infiltrative, locally aggressive tumors with extrathyroidal extension. Two cases were associated with well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma. Histologically, they appeared as low-grade tumors, resembling MASC of the salivary glands and labeled positive for mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, p63, weakly positive for PAX8, and negative for TTF-1 and thyroglobulin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed ETV6 rearrangement in all cases. In two tested cases MSK-IMPACT™ confirmed the presence of ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. Two patients had at least two local recurrences, one was alive with disease, and one was alive and free of disease after 14 and 17 years, respectively. The third patient was alive and free of disease after 2 years. MASC of the thyroid is histologically, immunophenotypically, and genetically similar to its salivary gland counterpart. Thyroid MASC can be associated with a well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma component, supporting follicular cell origin. Clinically, these carcinomas may show frequent recurrences but are associated with long

  6. New roles & responsibilities of hospital biomedical engineering.

    PubMed

    Frisch, P H; Stone, B; Booth, P; Lui, W

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the changing healthcare environment has required hospitals and specifically Biomedical Engineering to critically evaluate, optimize and adapt their operations. The focus is now on new technologies, changes to the environment of care, support requirements and financial constraints. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), an NIH-designated comprehensive cancer center, has been transitioning to an increasing outpatient care environment. This transition is driving an increase in-patient acuity coupled with the need for added urgency of support and response time. New technologies, regulatory requirements and financial constraints have impacted operating budgets and in some cases, resulted in a reduction in staffing. Specific initiatives, such as the Joint Commission's National Patient Safety Goals, requirements for an electronic medical record, meaningful use and ICD10 have caused institutions to reevaluate their operations and processes including requiring Biomedical Engineering to manage new technologies, integrations and changes in the electromagnetic environment, while optimizing operational workflow and resource utilization. This paper addresses the new and expanding responsibilities and approach of Biomedical Engineering organizations, specifically at MSKCC. It is suggested that our experience may be a template for other organizations facing similar problems. Increasing support is necessary for Medical Software - Medical Device Data Systems in the evolving wireless environment, including RTLS and RFID. It will be necessary to evaluate the potential impact on the growing electromagnetic environment, on connectivity resulting in the need for dynamic and interactive testing and the growing demand to establish new and needed operational synergies with Information Technology operations and other operational groups within the institution, such as nursing, facilities management, central supply, and the user departments. PMID:25570742

  7. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A primary thyroid adenocarcinoma harboring ETV6–NTRK3 fusion

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Snjezana; Wang, Lu; Ptashkin, Ryan N; Dawson, Robert R; Shah, Jatin P; Sherman, Eric J; Tuttle, R Michael; Fagin, James A; Klimstra, David S; Katabi, Nora; Ghossein, Ronald A

    2016-01-01

    ETV6–NTRK3 fusion was identified in several cancers including the recently described mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary glands and a minority of papillary thyroid carcinomas. We describe three cases of primary MASC of the thyroid gland and provide a detailed clinical and pathological characterization of the tumor morphology, immunoprofile, and genetic background. Immunohistochemistry for PAX8, TTF-1, thyroglobulin, mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, and p63 was used to define the tumor immunophenotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for ETV6 rearrangement was performed in three, and the next-generation sequencing assay MSK-IMPACT™ (Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets) was performed in two cases. Primary MASC of the thyroid occurred in two women and one man, age 47–72 years. All patients presented with high T stage, infiltrative, locally aggressive tumors with extrathyroidal extension. Two cases were associated with well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma. Histologically, they appeared as low-grade tumors, resembling MASC of the salivary glands and labeled positive for mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, p63, weakly positive for PAX8, and negative for TTF-1 and thyroglobulin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed ETV6 rearrangement in all cases. In two tested cases MSK-IMPACT™ confirmed the presence of ETV6–NTRK3 gene fusion. Two patients had at least two local recurrences, one was alive with disease, and one was alive and free of disease after 14 and 17 years, respectively. The third patient was alive and free of disease after 2 years. MASC of the thyroid is histologically, immunophenotypically, and genetically similar to its salivary gland counterpart. Thyroid MASC can be associated with a well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma component, supporting follicular cell origin. Clinically, these carcinomas may show frequent recurrences but are associated

  8. ORNL production of the experimental alpha emitters bismuth-213 and actinium-225 for medical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, O.F.; Krichinsky, A.M.; Yong, L.K.

    1998-09-01

    Due to their short range in tissue (50 to 80 {micro}m), alpha emitters are of considerable interest for certain radioimmunotherapy applications. These applications require the destruction of single cells or small clusters of cells. The radioisotope {sup 213}Bi, which is milked from {sup 225}Ac, is an alpha emitter that is currently being used in phase-1 human leukemia trials at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. The most readily achievable route for producing {sup 225}Ac generators involves separating ingrown {sup 229}Th daughters from the {sup 233}U parent. Thorium-229 is then used as a parent generator for {sup 225}Ac. Thorium-229 is easier to handle than {sup 233}U, which is fissile and typically contains trace concentrations of {sup 232}U. Uranium-232 has a radioactive daughter, {sup 208}Tl, which emits a high-energy (2.6-MeV) photon when it decays. An alternative method for producing {sup 229}Th is through neutron irradiation of {sup 227}Ra. However, this method is less desirable due to the production of very high levels of {sup 228}Th. Thorium-229 accumulates in stored {sup 233}U oxides by natural decay. The current ORNL process for extracting {sup 229}Th from stored {sup 233}U oxides includes dissolution, strong-acid anion exchange, and calcination of the uranium. This ORNL process has provided high-purity {sup 225}Ac generators to medical researchers. Bismuth-213 has been extracted and used in initial human trials and already has demonstrated a potency and specificity for attacking cancerous cells.

  9. CD20+ T cells have a predominantly Tc1 effector memory phenotype and are expanded in the ascites of patients with ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    de Bruyn, Marco; Wiersma, Valerie R; Wouters, Maartje C A; Samplonius, Douwe F; Klip, Harry G; Helfrich, Wijnand; Nijman, Hans W; Eggleton, Paul; Bremer, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a small subset of T cells that expresses the B cell marker CD20 has been identified in healthy volunteers and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. The origin of these CD20-positive T cells as well as their relevance in human disease remains unclear. Here, we identified that after functional B cell/T cell interaction CD20 molecules are transferred to the cell surface of T cells by trogocytosis together with the established trogocytosis marker HLA-DR. Further, the presence of CD20 on isolated CD20+ T cells remained stable for up to 48h of ex vivo culture. These CD20+ T cells almost exclusively produced IFNγ (∼70% vs. ∼20% in the CD20− T cell population) and were predominantly (CD8+) effector memory T cells (∼60–70%). This IFNγ producing and effector memory phenotype was also determined for CD20+ T cells as detected in the peripheral blood and ascitic fluids of ovarian cancer (OC) patients. In the latter, the percentage of CD20+ T cells was further strongly increased (from ∼6% in peripheral blood to 23% in ascitic fluid). Taken together, the data presented here indicate that CD20 is transferred to T cells upon intimate T cell/B cell interaction. Further, CD20+ T cells are of memory and IFNγ producing phenotype and are present in increased amounts in ascitic fluid of OC patients. PMID:26137418

  10. Moderate Physical Activity Mediates the Association between White Matter Lesion Volume and Memory Recall in Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Gillian E.; Wetter, Nathan C.; Banducci, Sarah E.; Mackenzie, Michael J.; Zuniga, Krystle E.; Awick, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Sarah A.; Sutton, Brad P.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2016-01-01

    Increased survival rates among breast cancer patients have drawn significant attention to consequences of both the presence of cancer, and the subsequent treatment-related impact on the brain. The incidence of breast cancer and the effects of treatment often result in alterations in the microstructure of white matter and impaired cognitive functioning. However, physical activity is proving to be a successful modifiable lifestyle factor in many studies that could prove beneficial to breast cancer survivors. This study investigates the link between white matter lesion volume, moderate physical activity, and cognition in breast cancer survivors following treatment compared to non-cancer age-matched controls. Results revealed that brain structure significantly predicted cognitive function via mediation of physical activity in breast cancer survivors. Overall, the study provided preliminary evidence suggesting moderate physical activity may help reduce the treatment related risks associated with breast cancer, including changes to WM integrity and cognitive impairment. PMID:26915025

  11. Memory Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... different parts. Some of them are important for memory. The hippocampus (say: hih-puh-KAM-pus) is one of the more important parts of the brain that processes memories. Old information and new information, or memories, are ...

  12. Long-term survival correlates with immunological responses in renal cell carcinoma patients treated with mRNA-based immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Rittig, Susanne M.; Haentschel, Maik; Weimer, Katrin J.; Heine, Annkristin; Müller, Martin R.; Brugger, Wolfram; Horger, Marius S.; Maksimovic, Olga; Stenzl, Arnulf; Hoerr, Ingmar; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Holderried, Tobias A.; Kanz, Lothar; Pascolo, Steve; Brossart, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is an immunogenic tumor for which immunotherapeutic approaches could be associated with clinically relevant responses. It was recently shown, that induction of T-cell responses against multiple tumor-associated antigen (TAA) epitopes results in prolonged overall survival in RCC patients. In 2003–2005, we performed a phase I/II trial testing an mRNA-based vaccine formulation consisting of a mixture of in vitro transcribed RNA coding for six different TAAs (MUC1, CEA, Her2/neu, telomerase, survivin, MAGE-A1) in 30 metastatic RCC (mRCC) patients. In the first 14 patients, vaccinations were applied i.d. on days 0, 14, 28, and 42. In the consecutive 16 patients, an intensified protocol consisting of i.d. injections (daily on days 0–3, 7–10, 28, and 42) was used. After the respective induction periods, patients in both cohorts were vaccinated monthly until tumor progression. At survival update performed in July 2015, one of the 30 patients was still alive. One patient was lost to follow-up. Median survival of 24.5 mo (all patients) and 89 mo (favorable risk patients) exceeded predicted survival according to Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) risk score. Impressively, long-term survivors displayed immunological responses to the applied antigens while vice versa no patient without detectable immune response had survived more than 33 mo. The current survival update shows a clear correlation between survival and immunological responses to TAAs encoded by the naked mRNA vaccine. This is one of the first vaccination studies and the only RNA trial that reports on safety and efficacy after a follow-up of more than 10 y.

  13. Long-term survival correlates with immunological responses in renal cell carcinoma patients treated with mRNA-based immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rittig, Susanne M; Haentschel, Maik; Weimer, Katrin J; Heine, Annkristin; Müller, Martin R; Brugger, Wolfram; Horger, Marius S; Maksimovic, Olga; Stenzl, Arnulf; Hoerr, Ingmar; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Holderried, Tobias A; Kanz, Lothar; Pascolo, Steve; Brossart, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is an immunogenic tumor for which immunotherapeutic approaches could be associated with clinically relevant responses. It was recently shown, that induction of T-cell responses against multiple tumor-associated antigen (TAA) epitopes results in prolonged overall survival in RCC patients. In 2003-2005, we performed a phase I/II trial testing an mRNA-based vaccine formulation consisting of a mixture of in vitro transcribed RNA coding for six different TAAs (MUC1, CEA, Her2/neu, telomerase, survivin, MAGE-A1) in 30 metastatic RCC (mRCC) patients. In the first 14 patients, vaccinations were applied i.d. on days 0, 14, 28, and 42. In the consecutive 16 patients, an intensified protocol consisting of i.d. injections (daily on days 0-3, 7-10, 28, and 42) was used. After the respective induction periods, patients in both cohorts were vaccinated monthly until tumor progression. At survival update performed in July 2015, one of the 30 patients was still alive. One patient was lost to follow-up. Median survival of 24.5 mo (all patients) and 89 mo (favorable risk patients) exceeded predicted survival according to Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) risk score. Impressively, long-term survivors displayed immunological responses to the applied antigens while vice versa no patient without detectable immune response had survived more than 33 mo. The current survival update shows a clear correlation between survival and immunological responses to TAAs encoded by the naked mRNA vaccine. This is one of the first vaccination studies and the only RNA trial that reports on safety and efficacy after a follow-up of more than 10 y. PMID:27467913

  14. Outcomes and Prognostic Variables in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: A Recent Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Daniel R. Hoppe, Bradford S.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Zhung, Joanne E.; Patel, Snehal G.; Kraus, Dennis H.; Shah, Jatin P.; Ghossein, Ronald A.; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: To analyze the recent experience of patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma treated with radiation therapy at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: From 1990 to 2004, a total of 59 patients with a diagnosis of primary adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck received radiation therapy at our institution. The subsite distribution was oral cavity, 28% (n = 17); paranasal sinuses, 22% (n = 13); parotid, 14% (n = 8); submandibular, 14% (n = 8); oropharynx, 10% (n = 6); sublingual, 3% (n = 2); nasopharynx, 3% (n = 2); and other, 5% (n = 3). T Stage distribution was T1, 34% (n = 20); T2, 19% (n = 11); T3, 14% (n = 8); and T4, 34% (n = 20). Twenty-nine percent of patients (n = 17) were treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy; 25% (n =15), with three-dimensional conformal therapy, and the remainder, with conventional techniques. Ninety percent (n = 53) of patients received treatment including the base of skull. Results: Median follow-up for surviving patients was 5.9 years. Five-year and 10-year rates of local control and distant metastases-free survival were 91%/81% and 81%/49%, respectively. Five-year and 10-year rates of disease-free and overall survival were 76%/40% and 87%/65%, respectively. On univariate analysis, stage T4 (p = 0.004) and gross/clinical nerve involvement (p = 0.002) were associated with decreased progression free survival, whereas stage T4 and lymph node involvement were associated with decreased overall survival (p = 0.046 and p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions: Radiation therapy in combination with surgery produces excellent rates of local control, although distant metastases account for a high proportion of failures. Routine treatment to the base of skull reduces the significance of histologic perineural invasion, but major nerve involvement remains an adverse prognostic factor.

  15. Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Survival Outcomes of Patients With Fibrolamellar Carcinoma: Data From the Fibrolamellar Carcinoma Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Celina S.; Kelley, R. Katie; Choti, Michael A.; Cosgrove, David P.; Chou, Joanne F.; Klimstra, David; Torbenson, Michael S.; Ferrell, Linda; Pawlik, Timothy M.; Fong, Yuman; O'Reilly, Eileen M.; Ma, Jennifer; McGuire, Joseph; Vallarapu, Gandhi P.; Griffin, Ann; Stipa, Francesco; Capanu, Marinela; DeMatteo, Ronald P.; Venook, Alan P.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Fibrolamellar carcinoma is a rare and poorly understood malignancy that affects the young in the absence of underlying liver disease. Despite reported small review series, the literature lacks large retrospective studies that may help in understanding this disease. METHODS: Medical record review was undertaken for all patients histopathologically diagnosed with fibrolamellar carcinoma, seen at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, the University of California San Francisco, and Johns Hopkins Hospital from 1986 to 2011. Demographic, clinical, pathologic, and treatment data were recorded. Overall survival was estimated by using Kaplan-Meier methods. The impact of different clinicopathologic variables on survival was assessed with Cox regression models. RESULTS: Ninety-five patients were identified. Median age was 22 years, 86% were Caucasian, and 50% presented with stage IV disease. There were more females than males (58% vs. 42%). Seventy-seven percent of the patients underwent surgical resection and/or liver transplantation; of these 31.5% received perioperative therapy. Patients with unresectable disease, including 8 patients treated in clinical trials, were treated with chemotherapy, occasionally given with interferon or biologic agents. Ten patients received sorafenib, and 7 received best supportive care. Median survival was 6.7 years. Factors significantly associated with poor survival were female sex, advanced stage, lymph node metastases, macrovascular invasion, and unresectable disease. CONCLUSIONS: The clinicopathologic characteristics and survival outcomes from this dataset are consistent with those reported in the literature. Surgical resection and disease extent were confirmed as important predictors of survival. The possibility of a negative association between female sex and prognosis could represent a clue as to future therapeutic strategies. PMID:23505572

  16. Whole Neuraxis Irradiation to Address Central Nervous System Relapse in High-Risk Neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Croog, Victoria J.; Kramer, Kim; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Kushner, Brian H.; Modak, Shakeel; Souweidane, Mark M.; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2010-11-01

    Background: As systemic control of high-risk neuroblastoma (NB) has improved, relapse in the central nervous system (CNS) is an increasingly recognized entity that carries a grim prognosis. This study describes the use of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) for CNS relapse and compares outcomes to patients who received focal radiotherapy (RT). Methods: A retrospective query identified 29 children with NB treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center since 1987 who received RT for CNS relapse. At CNS relapse, 16 patients received CSI (median dose, 2160cGy), and 13 received focal RT. Of those who underwent CSI, 14 (88%) received intra-Ommaya (IO) radioimmunotherapy (RIT); one patient in the non-CSI cohort received IO-RIT. Results: Patient characteristics were similar between the groups. Time to CNS relapse was 20 and 17 months for the CSI and non-CSI cohorts, respectively. At a median follow-up of 28 months, 12 patients (75%) in the CSI group are alive without CNS disease, including two patients with isolated skeletal relapse. Another patient is alive without disease after a brain relapse was retreated with RT. Three patients died-one with no NB at autopsy, one of CNS disease, and one of systemic disease. The two patients who died of NB did not receive IO-RIT. All 13 patients in the non-CSI cohort died at a median of 8.8 months. Conclusions: Low-dose CSI together with IO-RIT provides durable CNS remissions and improved survival compared with focal RT and conventional therapies. Further evaluation of long-term NB survivors after CSI is warranted to determine the treatment consequences for this cohort.

  17. Development of a Metabolomic Radiation Signature in Urine from Patients Undergoing Total Body Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Laiakis, Evagelia C.; Mak, Tytus D.; Anizan, Sebastien; Amundson, Sally A.; Barker, Christopher A.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Brenner, David J.; Fornace, Albert J.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the threat of radiological terrorism and other radiological incidents has led to the need for development of fast, accurate and noninvasive methods for detection of radiation exposure. The purpose of this study was to extend radiation metabolomic biomarker discovery to humans, as previous studies have focused on mice. Urine was collected from patients undergoing total body irradiation at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at 4–6 h postirradiation (a single dose of 1.25 Gy) and 24 h (three fractions of 1.25 Gy each). Global metabolomic profiling was obtained through analysis with ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). Prior to further analyses, each sample was normalized to its respective creatinine level. Statistical analysis was conducted by the nonparametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the Fisher’s exact test and markers were validated against pure standards. Seven markers showed distinct differences between pre- and post-exposure samples. Of those, trimethyl-l-lysine and the carnitine conjugates acetylcarnitine, decanoylcarnitine and octanoylcarnitine play an important role in the transportation of fatty acids across mitochondria for subsequent fatty acid β-oxidation. The remaining metabolites, hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid are the final products of the purine catabolism pathway, and high levels of excretion have been associated with increased oxidative stress and radiation induced DNA damage. Further analysis revealed sex differences in the patterns of excretion of the markers, demonstrating that generation of a sex-specific metabolomic signature will be informative and can provide a quick and reliable assessment of individuals in a radiological scenario. This is the first radiation metabolomics study in human urine laying the foundation for the use of metabolomics in biodosimetry and providing confidence in biomarker

  18. Macrocytosis during sunitinib treatment predicts progression-free survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kucharz, Jakub; Giza, Agnieszka; Dumnicka, Paulina; Kuzniewski, Marek; Kusnierz-Cabala, Beata; Bryniarski, Pawel; Herman, Roma; Zygulska, Aneta Lidia; Krzemieniecki, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    Sunitinib, a multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is a first-line treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in patients in 'low' and 'intermediate' Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Heng risk groups. Disruptions of hematopoiesis, such as anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia, are typically observed during sunitinib treatment. When it comes to RBC parameters, an increase in mean cell volume (MCV) tends to occur, meeting the criteria for macrocytosis in some patients (MCV > 100 fL). We examined changes in RBC parameters of 27 mRCC patients treated with sunitinib (initial dose of 50 mg/day, 6-week treatment: 4 weeks on, 2 weeks off) and correlated them with progression-free survival time (PFS). Patients who had macrocytosis after 3 treatment cycles had significantly longer PFS than those whose MCV stayed less than 100 fL (not reached vs. 11.2 months, p < 0.001). We also found a correlation between MCV values after the first and third treatment cycles and the risk of progression: HR of 0.9 (0.81-0.99) and 0.76 (0.65-0.90) per 1 fL increase in MCV, respectively. The mechanism of MCV elevation during sunitinib treatment has not yet been fully explained. One of the probable causes is sunitinib's inhibitory influence on c-Kit kinase, as is the case with imatinib. For mRCC patients, this phenomenon could help predict PFS, but since our sample was small, further studies are essential. PMID:27573381

  19. Predicting Outcome in Patients with Rhabdomyosarcoma: Role of [{sup 18}F]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Dana L.; Wexler, Leonard H.; Fox, Josef J.; Dharmarajan, Kavita V.; Schoder, Heiko; Price, Alison N.; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) response of the primary tumor after induction chemotherapy predicts outcomes in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Methods and Materials: After excluding those with initial tumor resection, 107 patients who underwent FDG-PET after induction chemotherapy at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from 2002 to 2013 were reviewed. Local control (LC), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were calculated according to FDG-PET response and maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) at baseline (PET1/SUV1), after induction chemotherapy (PET2/SUV2), and after local therapy (PET3/SUV3). Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to determine the optimal cutoff for dichotomization of SUV1 and SUV2 values. Results: The SUV1 (<9.5 vs ≥9.5) was predictive of PFS (P=.02) and OS (P=.02), but not LC. After 12 weeks (median) of induction chemotherapy, 45 patients had negative PET2 scans and 62 had positive scans: 3-year PFS was 72% versus 44%, respectively (P=.01). The SUV2 (<1.5 vs ≥1.5) was similarly predictive of PFS (P=.005) and was associated with LC (P=.02) and OS (P=.03). A positive PET3 scan was predictive of worse PFS (P=.0009), LC (P=.05), and OS (P=.03). Conclusions: [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography is an early indicator of outcomes in patients with RMS. Future prospective trials may incorporate FDG-PET response data for risk-adapted therapy and early assessment of new treatment regimens.

  20. Survival Outcomes and Tumor IMP3 Expression in Patients with Sarcomatoid Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tantravahi, Srinivas K.; Albertson, Daniel; Agarwal, Archana M.; Poole, Austin; Patel, Shiven B.; Hawatmeh, Jamil S.; Straubhar, Alli M.; Liu, Ting; Stenehjem, David D.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid histology (SmRCC) is associated with poor survival. No data is available from randomized trials on the efficacy of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors in SmRCC. We identified SmRCC patients from a single institutional database. To identify predictive and prognostic biomarkers, immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis was performed on the tumor samples for downstream targets of VEGF and mTOR pathways. Survival outcomes were stratified by IHC analysis, extent of sarcomatoid component, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), and Heng risk criteria. Twenty-seven patients with SmRCC were included. First line therapy included targeted therapy (n = 19), immunotherapy (n = 4), cytotoxic chemotherapy (n = 1), and no treatment (n = 3). Median OS was 8.2 months (95% CI 3.8–14.2 months). Median survival in months, based on MSKCC and Heng risk groups, was favorable 89.3 versus 84.5, intermediate 9.5 versus 12.7, and poor 3.9 versus 5.1. None of the IHC markers predicted outcomes of treatment with VEGF or mTOR inhibitors. Only tumor IMP3 expression was associated with inferior OS, although not statistically significant (IMP3 negative 14.2 versus IMP3 positive 4.9 months; HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.16–1.21; P = 0.12). The study was limited by small sample size. PMID:25688268

  1. GLI2 expression levels in radical nephrectomy specimens as a predictor of disease progression in patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma following treatment with sunitinib

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Junya; Miyake, Hideaki; Fujisawa, Masato

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the Hedgehog signaling pathway in the progression of metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (m-ccRCC) as well as the molecular targets of sunitinib, an inhibitor of multiple tyrosine kinases. A total of 39 patients subjected to radical nephrectomy who were diagnosed with m-ccRCC and were subsequently treated with sunitinib were enrolled in the present study. The expression levels of the Hedgehog signaling proteins (GLI1, GLI2, cyclin D1, cyclin E and transforming growth factor-β) and major molecular targets of sunitinib [vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1 and −2, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α and -β] in primary RCC specimens were assessed by immunohistochemical staining. The expression levels of GLI2, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and pre-treatment C-reactive protein as well as the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center risk were identified as significant predictors of progression-free survival (PFS). Of these, only GLI2 expression was independently correlated to PFS according to multivariate analysis. Furthermore, treatment with sunitinib resulted in a marked inhibition of GLI2 expression in the parental human RCC ACHN cell line, but not in ACHN cells with acquired resistance to sunitinib. These findings suggested that GLI2 may be involved in the acquisition of resistance to sunitinib in RCC; thus, it may be useful to consider the expression levels of GLI2 in addition to conventional prognostic parameters when selecting m-ccRCC patients likely to benefit from treatment with sunitinib. PMID:27602218

  2. Genomic Landscape of poorly Differentiated and Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Ghossein, Ronald

    2016-09-01

    Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) are aggressive thyroid tumors associated with a high mortality rate of 38-57 % and almost 100 % respectively. Several recent studies utilizing next generation sequencing techniques have shed lights on the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors, providing evidence to support a stepwise tumoral progression from well-differentiated to poorly differentiated, and finally to anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. While BRAF (V600E) and RAS mutations remain the main drivers in aggressive thyroid carcinoma, PDTC and ATC gains additional mutations, e.g., TERT promoter mutation, TP53 mutation, as well as frequent alterations in PIK3CA-PTEN-AKT-mTOR pathway, SWI-SNF complex, histomethyltransferases, and mismatch repair genes. RAS-mutated PDTCs are commonly associated with a histologic phenotype defined by Turin proposal, high frequency of distant metastasis, high thyroid differentiation score, and a RAS-like gene expression profile, whereas BRAF-mutated PDTCs are usually defined solely by the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) criteria with a propensity for nodal metastasis and are less differentiated with a BRAF-like expression signature. Such demarcation is largely lost in ATC which is characterized by genomic complexity, heavy mutation burden, and profound undifferentiation. Additionally, several molecular events, e.g., EIF1AX mutation, mutation burden, and chromosome 1q gain in PDTCs, as well as EIF1AX mutation, chromosome 13q loss, and 20q gains in ATCs, may serve as adverse prognostic markers predicting poor clinical outcome. PMID:27372303

  3. Central nervous system involvement in T-cell lymphoma: A single center experience.

    PubMed

    Gurion, Ronit; Mehta, Neha; Migliacci, Jocelyn C; Zelenetz, Andrew; Moskowitz, Alison; Lunning, Matthew; Moskowitz, Craig; Hamlin, Paul; Horwitz, Steven

    2016-05-01

    Background We characterized the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) involvement, risk factors and outcome in a large single institution dataset of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). Methods Retrospective review of the PTCL database at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. We identified 231 patients with any subtype of PTCL between 1994-2011 with a minimum six months of follow-up or an event defined as relapse or death. Results Histologies included peripheral T-cell lymphoma-not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) (31.6%), angioimmunoblastic (16.9%), anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), ALK- (12.1%), ALCL, ALK + (6.1%), extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (7.4%), adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) (7.4%), and transformed mycosis fungoides (8.7%). Seventeen patients had CNS disease (7%). Fifteen had CNS involvement with PTCL and two had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and glioblastoma. Median time to CNS involvement was 3.44 months (0.16-103.1). CNS prophylaxis was given to 24 patients (primarily intrathecal methotrexate). Rates of CNS involvement were not different in patients who received prophylaxis. Univariate analysis identified stage III-IV, bone marrow involvement, >1 extranodal site and ATLL as risk factors for CNS disease. On multivariate analysis, >1 extranodal site and international prognostic index (IPI) ≥ 3 were predictive for CNS involvement. The median survival of patients with CNS involvement was 2.63 months (0.10-75). Conclusions Despite high relapse rates, PTCL, except ATLL, carries a low risk of CNS involvement. Prognosis with CNS involvement is poor and risk factors include: >1 extra nodal site and IPI ≥3. PMID:27046135

  4. Psychosocial and Sexual Well-Being Following Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy and Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Cindy H; Scott, Amie M; Price, Alison N; Miller, Helen Catherine; Klassen, Anne F; Jhanwar, Sabrina M; Mehrara, Babak J; Disa, Joseph J; McCarthy, Colleen; Matros, Evan; Cordeiro, Peter G; Sacchini, Virgilio; Pusic, Andrea L

    2016-01-01

    Nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) is considered an oncologically safe option for select patients. As many patients are candidates for nipple-sparing or skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM), reliable patient-reported outcome data are crucial for decision-making. The objective of this study was to determine whether patient satisfaction and/or health-related quality of life (HRQOL) were improved by preservation of the nipple with NSM compared to SSM and nipple reconstruction. Subjects were identified from a prospectively maintained database of patients who completed the BREAST-Q following mastectomy and breast reconstruction between March and October 2011 at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Fifty-two patients underwent NSM followed by immediate expander-implant reconstruction. A comparison group consisted of 202 patients who underwent SSM followed by immediate expander-implant reconstruction and later nipple reconstruction. HRQOL and satisfaction domains as measured by BREAST-Q scores were compared in multivariate linear regression analyzes that controlled for potential confounding factors. NSM patients reported significantly higher scores in the psychosocial (p = 0.01) and sexual well-being (p = 0.02) domains compared to SSM patients. There was no significant difference in the BREAST-Q physical well-being, satisfaction with breast, or satisfaction with outcome domains between the NSM and SSM groups. NSM is associated with higher psychosocial and sexual well-being compared to SSM and nipple reconstruction. Preoperative discussion of such HRQOL outcomes with patients may facilitate informed decision-making and realistic postoperative expectations. PMID:26782950

  5. Predicting Length of Stay after Robotic Partial Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Bazzi, Wassim M.; Sjoberg, Daniel D.; Grasso, Angelica A.C.; Bernstein, Melanie; Parra, Raul; Coleman, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To investigate factors predictive of length of stay (LOS) after robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) in an effort to identify patients suitable for RPN with overnight stay at outpatient surgical facilities. Materials and Methods Retrospective chart review of patients who underwent RPN at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from January 2007 to July 2012 was conducted. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the main predictors of LOS. The discrimination of the multivariate model was measured using the area under the curve (AUC); 10-fold cross-validation was performed to correct for over-fit. Results One hundred and eighty-six patients were included in the analysis; 84 (45%) had LOS of ≤ 1 day (median LOS, 2 day; interquartile range, 1–2). On univariate analysis, preoperative variables associated with LOS >1 included larger tumors (P < 0.0001), lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.003), older age (P = 0.006), female gender (P = 0.035), and higher comorbidity score (P = 0.015); operative variables associated with LOS > 1 day included greater estimated blood loss (P < 0.0001) and longer operative (P < 0.0001) and ischemia (P < 0.0001) times. The AUC of the preoperative model was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.52–0.69) after 10-fold cross-validation. Conclusions LOS after RPN is influenced by age, gender, medical co-morbidities, and tumor size. However, when analyzed retrospectively, these factors had limited ability to predict LOS after RPN with sufficient accuracy to develop a prediction tool. PMID:26156732

  6. [Memory systems and memory disorders].

    PubMed

    Van der Linden, Martial; Juillerat, Anne-Claude

    2003-02-15

    Recent cognitive models suggest that memory has a complex structure, composed of several independent systems (working memory, and four long-term memory systems: episodic memory, semantic memory, perceptual representation system, and procedural memory). Furthermore, neuropsychological studies show that a brain lesion can selectively impair some systems or some particular process in a system, while others are spared. In this theoretical context, the objective of assessment is to detect the impaired memory systems and processes as well as those, which remain intact. To do this, the clinician has to use various-tests specifically designed to assess the integrity of each memory system and process. PMID:12708274

  7. Memory Palaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a lesson called Memory Palaces. A memory palace is a memory tool used to remember information, usually as visual images, in a sequence that is logical to the person remembering it. In his book, "In the Palaces of Memory", George Johnson calls them "...structure(s) for arranging knowledge. Lots of connections to language arts,…

  8. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... body. Cancerous cells are also called malignant cells. Causes Cancer grows out of cells in the body. Normal ... of many cancers remains unknown. The most common cause of cancer-related death is lung cancer. In the U.S., ...

  9. Clinical-scale selection and viral transduction of human naïve and central memory CD8+ T cells for adoptive cell therapy of cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Casati, Anna; Varghaei-Nahvi, Azam; Feldman, Steven Alexander; Assenmacher, Mario; Rosenberg, Steven Aaron; Dudley, Mark Edward; Scheffold, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    The adoptive transfer of lymphocytes genetically engineered to express tumor-specific antigen receptors is a potent strategy to treat cancer patients. T lymphocyte subsets, such as naïve or central memory T cells, selected in vitro prior to genetic engineering have been extensively investigated in preclinical mouse models, where they demonstrated improved therapeutic efficacy. However, so far, this is challenging to realize in the clinical setting, since good manufacturing practices (GMP) procedures for complex cell sorting and genetic manipulation are limited. To be able to directly compare the immunological attributes and therapeutic efficacy of naïve (T(N)) and central memory (T(CM)) CD8(+) T cells, we investigated clinical-scale procedures for their parallel selection and in vitro manipulation. We also evaluated currently available GMP-grade reagents for stimulation of T cell subsets, including a new type of anti-CD3/anti-CD28 nanomatrix. An optimized protocol was established for the isolation of both CD8(+) T(N) cells (CD4(-)CD62L(+)CD45RA(+)) and CD8(+) T(CM) (CD4(-)CD62L(+)CD45RA(-)) from a single patient. The highly enriched T cell subsets can be efficiently transduced and expanded to large cell numbers, sufficient for clinical applications and equivalent to or better than current cell and gene therapy approaches with unselected lymphocyte populations. The GMP protocols for selection of T(N) and T(CM) we reported here will be the basis for clinical trials analyzing safety, in vivo persistence and clinical efficacy in cancer patients and will help to generate a more reliable and efficacious cellular product. PMID:23903715

  10. Memory systems.

    PubMed

    Wolk, David A; Budson, Andrew E

    2010-08-01

    Converging evidence from patient and neuroimaging studies suggests that memory is a collection of abilities that use different neuroanatomic systems. Neurologic injury may impair one or more of these memory systems. Episodic memory allows us to mentally travel back in time and relive an episode of our life. Episodic memory depends on the hippocampus, other medial temporal lobe structures, the limbic system, and the frontal lobes, as well as several other brain regions. Semantic memory provides our general knowledge about the world and is unconnected to any specific episode of our life. Although semantic memory likely involves much of the neocortex, the inferolateral temporal lobes (particularly the left) are most important. Procedural memory enables us to learn cognitive and behavioral skills and algorithms that operate at an automatic, unconscious level. Damage to the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and supplementary motor area often impair procedural memory. PMID:22810510

  11. Cognitive memory.

    PubMed

    Widrow, Bernard; Aragon, Juan Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Regarding the workings of the human mind, memory and pattern recognition seem to be intertwined. You generally do not have one without the other. Taking inspiration from life experience, a new form of computer memory has been devised. Certain conjectures about human memory are keys to the central idea. The design of a practical and useful "cognitive" memory system is contemplated, a memory system that may also serve as a model for many aspects of human memory. The new memory does not function like a computer memory where specific data is stored in specific numbered registers and retrieval is done by reading the contents of the specified memory register, or done by matching key words as with a document search. Incoming sensory data would be stored at the next available empty memory location, and indeed could be stored redundantly at several empty locations. The stored sensory data would neither have key words nor would it be located in known or specified memory locations. Sensory inputs concerning a single object or subject are stored together as patterns in a single "file folder" or "memory folder". When the contents of the folder are retrieved, sights, sounds, tactile feel, smell, etc., are obtained all at the same time. Retrieval would be initiated by a query or a prompt signal from a current set of sensory inputs or patterns. A search through the memory would be made to locate stored data that correlates with or relates to the prompt input. The search would be done by a retrieval system whose first stage makes use of autoassociative artificial neural networks and whose second stage relies on exhaustive search. Applications of cognitive memory systems have been made to visual aircraft identification, aircraft navigation, and human facial recognition. Concerning human memory, reasons are given why it is unlikely that long-term memory is stored in the synapses of the brain's neural networks. Reasons are given suggesting that long-term memory is stored in DNA or RNA

  12. Gregorius Agricola memorial lecture: Lung cancer-A work-related disease for 500 years, as predicted by Agricola.

    PubMed

    Langård, Sverre

    2015-01-01

    In the early 16th century Gregorius Agricola reported on Bergsucht (miner's consumption) in mine workers in the Erzgebirge. About 350 years later, Härting and Hesse reported on large numbers of lung cancers among the mine-workers in the same mine district, thus confirming that Bergsucht primarily was lung cancer, but could also have been pnumoconiosis or tuberculosis or a combination of both. Mining for bismuth continued another 75 years--through World War II. Bismuth mining was replaced by large scale uranium mining from the late 1940 through 1989, employing some 400-450,000 workers, resulting in the major local epidemic of work-related cancer larger than anywhere in the world, so far amounting to ± 14-15,000 cases. Had the mine developers listened to the warnings by Agricola and Härting and Hesse, the epidemic could have been prevented. PMID:25022333

  13. Memory protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  14. Quantum memory Quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

    2012-06-01

    Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The

  15. Declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Wim J; Blokland, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Declarative Memory consists of memory for events (episodic memory) and facts (semantic memory). Methods to test declarative memory are key in investigating effects of potential cognition-enhancing substances--medicinal drugs or nutrients. A number of cognitive performance tests assessing declarative episodic memory tapping verbal learning, logical memory, pattern recognition memory, and paired associates learning are described. These tests have been used as outcome variables in 34 studies in humans that have been described in the literature in the past 10 years. Also, the use of episodic tests in animal research is discussed also in relation to the drug effects in these tasks. The results show that nutritional supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids has been investigated most abundantly and, in a number of cases, but not all, show indications of positive effects on declarative memory, more so in elderly than in young subjects. Studies investigating effects of registered anti-Alzheimer drugs, cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment, show positive and negative effects on declarative memory. Studies mainly carried out in healthy volunteers investigating the effects of acute dopamine stimulation indicate enhanced memory consolidation as manifested specifically by better delayed recall, especially at time points long after learning and more so when drug is administered after learning and if word lists are longer. The animal studies reveal a different picture with respect to the effects of different drugs on memory performance. This suggests that at least for episodic memory tasks, the translational value is rather poor. For the human studies, detailed parameters of the compositions of word lists for declarative memory tests are discussed and it is concluded that tailored adaptations of tests to fit the hypothesis under study, rather than "off-the-shelf" use of existing tests, are recommended. PMID:25977084

  16. Could Talk Therapy Ease Chemo-Related Memory Issues?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158606.html Could Talk Therapy Ease Chemo-Related Memory Issues? Researchers suggest their approach could improve survivors' ... developed a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program called Memory and Attention Adaptation Training to help cancer survivors ...

  17. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... your life Being exposed to chemicals that can cause cancer Being at risk for skin cancer Depending on ... than nonsmokers. Other forms of tobacco can also cause cancer, such as cigars, chewing tobacco and snuff. If ...

  18. Virtual memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Virtual memory was conceived as a way to automate overlaying of program segments. Modern computers have very large main memories, but need automatic solutions to the relocation and protection problems. Virtual memory serves this need as well and is thus useful in computers of all sizes. The history of the idea is traced, showing how it has become a widespread, little noticed feature of computers today.

  19. Ferroelectric memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorotilov, K. A.; Sigov, A. S.

    2012-05-01

    The current status of developments in the field of ferroelectric memory devices has been considered. The rapidly growing market of non-volatile memory devices has been analyzed, and the current state of the art and prospects for the scaling of parameters of non-volatile memory devices of different types have been considered. The basic constructive and technological solutions in the field of the design of ferroelectric memory devices, as well as the "roadmaps" of the development of this technology, have been discussed.

  20. Childhood Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Kathy Everts

    1989-01-01

    Provides numerous ideas for helping students write about special memories in the following categories: growing up--future dreams; authors and illustrators; family history; special places; and special memories. Describes how to write a "bio poem," and includes a bibliography of children's books that enhance and enrich student learning and writing.…

  1. Memory Magic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Thomas G.; Nowak, Norman

    This paper outlines several "tricks" that aid students in improving their memories. The distinctions between operational and figural thought processes are noted. Operational memory is described as something that allows adults to make generalizations about numbers and the rules by which they may be combined, thus leading to easier memorization.…

  2. Collaging Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallach, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

  3. Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

  4. [(Neurological CPC-59). A 65-year-old man with a history of gastric cancer who presented progressive loss of vision, memory loss and consciousness disturbance].

    PubMed

    Nohara, C; Matsumine, H; Suzuki, K; Saito, A; Ohtaka, M; Mori, H; Suda, K; Kondo, T; Hayakawa, M; Kanai, J; Mizuno, Y

    1997-11-01

    We report a 65-year-old man with progressive loss of vision and consciousness disturbance. The patient was well until his age of 63 when he was found to have a gastric cancer. He was treated by the tumor resection and chemotherapy; he was apparently well, but hepatic metastases were found in the next year (1996). In June, 1996, he noted an onset of blurred vision more on the left. He was admitted to the ophthalmology service of our hospital on July 14, 1996. His vision was 0.8 on the right and 0.15 on the left. He was treated with oral prednisolone with slight improvement. He was also found to have IgM kappa-type monoclonal gammopathy; Bence-Jones protein was positive and a bone marrow aspiration revealed that approximately 10% of bone marrow cells were atypical plasma cells. His vision had progressively got worse and he became blind by the end of October 1996. A chest X-ray and cranial CT scan revealed multiple abnormal nodular densities. In the middle of November 1996, he became confused, disoriented and agitated. His mental symptoms had progressively became worse, and a neurologic consultation was asked on December 10, 1996. Neurologic examination revealed that he was somnolent with decreased attention to his surroundings. He showed marked disorientation and memory loss. Higher cerebral functions appeared intact. He was able to recognize only light and dark. Pupils were moderately dilated with very sluggish light reflex remained. Vertical gaze was moderately restricted and horizontal nystagmus was noted upon left and right lateral gaze. The remaining of the neurologic examination were unremarkable. General physical examination revealed hepatosplenomegaly; the liver was palpable by 3 cm below the right costal margin. Laboratory examination revealed anemia (Hb10.1 g/dl) and thrombocytopenia (43,000/microliter). A cranial CT scan and MRI revealed a mass lesion in involving the chiasmatic and bilateral hypothalamic areas. The tumor showed intense homogeneous

  5. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  6. Memory loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually include asking questions of family members and friends. For this reason, they should come to the appointment. Medical history questions may include: Type of memory loss, such as short-term or long-term ...

  7. Protocol for a cluster randomised trial of a communication skills intervention for physicians to facilitate survivorship transition in patients with lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Patricia A; Banerjee, Smita C; Matasar, Matthew J; Bylund, Carma L; Franco, Kara; Li, Yuelin; Levin, Tomer T; Jacobsen, Paul B; Astrow, Alan B; Leventhal, Howard; Horwitz, Steven; Kissane, David W

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Survivors of cancer often describe a sense of abandonment post-treatment, with heightened worry, uncertainty, fear of recurrence and limited understanding of what lies ahead. This study examines the efficacy of a communication skills training (CST) intervention to help physicians address survivorship issues and introduce a new consultation focused on the use of a survivorship care plan for patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Methods and analysis Specifically, this randomised, 4-site trial will test the efficacy of a survivorship planning consultation (physicians receive CST and apply these skills in a new survivorship-focused office visit using a survivorship plan) with patients who have achieved complete remission after completion of first-line therapy versus a control arm in which physicians are trained to subsequently provide a time-controlled, manualised wellness rehabilitation consultation focused only on discussion of healthy nutrition and exercise as rehabilitation postchemotherapy. The primary outcome for physicians will be uptake and usage of communication skills and maintenance of these skills over time. The primary outcome for patients is changes in knowledge about lymphoma and adherence to physicians’ recommendations (eg, pneumococcus and influenza vaccinations); secondary outcomes will include perceptions of the doctor–patient relationship, decreased levels of cancer worry and depression, quality of life changes, satisfaction with care and usage of healthcare. This study will also examine the moderators and mediators of change within our theoretical model derived from Leventhal's Common-Sense Model of health beliefs. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the Institutional Review Boards at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Centers and all other participating sites. This work is funded by the National Cancer Institute (R01 CA 151899 awarded to DWK and SH as coprincipal investigators). The

  8. Reduced order constrained optimization (ROCO): Clinical application to lung IMRT

    PubMed Central

    Stabenau, Hans; Rivera, Linda; Yorke, Ellen; Yang, Jie; Lu, Renzhi; Radke, Richard J.; Jackson, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The authors use reduced-order constrained optimization (ROCO) to create clinically acceptable IMRT plans quickly and automatically for advanced lung cancer patients. Their new ROCO implementation works with the treatment planning system and full dose calculation used at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC). The authors have implemented mean dose hard constraints, along with the point-dose and dose-volume constraints that the authors used for our previous work on the prostate.Methods: ROCO consists of three major steps. First, the space of treatment plans is sampled by solving a series of optimization problems using penalty-based quadratic objective functions. Next, an efficient basis for this space is found via principal component analysis (PCA); this reduces the dimensionality of the problem. Finally, a constrained optimization problem is solved over this basis to find a clinically acceptable IMRT plan. Dimensionality reduction makes constrained optimization computationally efficient.Results: The authors apply ROCO to 12 stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases, generating IMRT plans that meet all clinical constraints and are clinically acceptable, and demonstrate that they are competitive with the clinical treatment plans. The authors also test how many samples and PCA modes are necessary to achieve an adequate lung plan, demonstrate the importance of long-range dose calculation for ROCO, and evaluate the performance of nonspecific normal tissue (“rind”) constraints in ROCO treatment planning for the lung. Finally, authors show that ROCO can save time for planners, and they estimate that in the clinic, planning using their approach would save a median of 105 min for the patients in the study.Conclusions: New challenges arise when applying ROCO to the lung site, which include the lack of a class solution, a larger treatment site, an increased number of parameters and beamlets, a variable number of beams and beam arrangement, and

  9. Memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Squire, Larry R; Genzel, Lisa; Wixted, John T; Morris, Richard G

    2015-08-01

    Conscious memory for a new experience is initially dependent on information stored in both the hippocampus and neocortex. Systems consolidation is the process by which the hippocampus guides the reorganization of the information stored in the neocortex such that it eventually becomes independent of the hippocampus. Early evidence for systems consolidation was provided by studies of retrograde amnesia, which found that damage to the hippocampus-impaired memories formed in the recent past, but typically spared memories formed in the more remote past. Systems consolidation has been found to occur for both episodic and semantic memories and for both spatial and nonspatial memories, although empirical inconsistencies and theoretical disagreements remain about these issues. Recent work has begun to characterize the neural mechanisms that underlie the dialogue between the hippocampus and neocortex (e.g., "neural replay," which occurs during sharp wave ripple activity). New work has also identified variables, such as the amount of preexisting knowledge, that affect the rate of consolidation. The increasing use of molecular genetic tools (e.g., optogenetics) can be expected to further improve understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying consolidation. PMID:26238360

  10. Fear Memory.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Ivan; Furini, Cristiane R G; Myskiw, Jociane C

    2016-04-01

    Fear memory is the best-studied form of memory. It was thoroughly investigated in the past 60 years mostly using two classical conditioning procedures (contextual fear conditioning and fear conditioning to a tone) and one instrumental procedure (one-trial inhibitory avoidance). Fear memory is formed in the hippocampus (contextual conditioning and inhibitory avoidance), in the basolateral amygdala (inhibitory avoidance), and in the lateral amygdala (conditioning to a tone). The circuitry involves, in addition, the pre- and infralimbic ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the central amygdala subnuclei, and the dentate gyrus. Fear learning models, notably inhibitory avoidance, have also been very useful for the analysis of the biochemical mechanisms of memory consolidation as a whole. These studies have capitalized on in vitro observations on long-term potentiation and other kinds of plasticity. The effect of a very large number of drugs on fear learning has been intensively studied, often as a prelude to the investigation of effects on anxiety. The extinction of fear learning involves to an extent a reversal of the flow of information in the mentioned structures and is used in the therapy of posttraumatic stress disorder and fear memories in general. PMID:26983799

  11. [Cancer].

    PubMed

    de la Peña-López, Roberto; Remolina-Bonilla, Yuly Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases which represents a significant public health problem in Mexico and worldwide. In Mexico neoplasms are the second leading cause of death. An increased morbidity and mortality are expected in the next decades. Several preventable risk factors for cancer development have been identified, the most relevant including tobacco use, which accounts for 30% of the cancer cases; and obesity, associated to another 30%. These factors, in turn, are related to sedentarism, alcohol abuse and imbalanced diets. Some agents are well knokn to cause cancer such as ionizing radiation, viruses such as the papilloma virus (HPV) and hepatitis virus (B and C), and more recently environmental pollution exposure and red meat consumption have been pointed out as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC). The scientific evidence currently available is insufficient to consider milk either as a risk factor or protective factor against different types of cancer. PMID:27603890

  12. Memory clinics

    PubMed Central

    Jolley, D; Benbow, S M; Grizzell, M

    2006-01-01

    Memory clinics were first described in the 1980s. They have become accepted worldwide as useful vehicles for improving practice in the identification, investigation, and treatment of memory disorders, including dementia. They are provided in various settings, the setting determining clientele and practice. All aim to facilitate referral from GPs, other specialists, or by self referral, in the early stages of impairment, and to avoid the stigma associated with psychiatric services. They bring together professionals with a range of skills for the benefit of patients, carers, and colleagues, and contribute to health promotion, health education, audit, and research, as well as service to patients. PMID:16517802

  13. Memory dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Amici, Serena

    2012-01-01

    Memory is the cognitive ability that allows to acquire, store and recall information; its dysfunction is called amnesia and can be a presentation of unilateral ischemic stroke in the territory of the posterior cerebral and anterior choroidal artery as well as subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22377863

  14. Retracing Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, David L.

    2005-01-01

    There are plenty of paths to poetry but few are as accessible as retracing ones own memories. When students are asked to write about something they remember, they are given them the gift of choosing from events that are important enough to recall. They remember because what happened was funny or scary or embarrassing or heartbreaking or silly.…

  15. Memory Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassebaum, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In four decades of teaching college English, the author has watched many good teaching jobs morph into second-class ones. Worse, she has seen the memory and then the expectation of teaching jobs with decent status, security, and salary depart along with principles and collegiality. To help reverse this downward spiral, she contends that what is…

  16. Fueling Memories

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Jonathan D.; Pollizzi, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark of the adaptive immune response is rapid and robust activation upon rechallenge. In the current issue of Immunity van der Windt et al. (2012) provide an important link between mitochondrial respiratory capacity and the development of CD8+ T cell memory. PMID:22284413

  17. Gynecologic cancer: Diagnosis and treatment strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, F.N.; Freedman, R.S.; Gershenson, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 36 chapters divided into seven sections. The section headings are: Heath Memorial Award Lecture; Ovarian Cancer; Cervical and Vulvar Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Trophoblastic Disease; Diagnostic Procedures; and New Treatment Modalities.

  18. International Working Group on MDS cytogenetics: October 2007 meeting report.

    PubMed

    Slovak, Marilyn L; Dewald, Gordon W

    2008-09-01

    The inaugural meeting of the International Working Group on MDS cytogenetics convened 22-23 October 2007 in Chicago, IL. Under the sponsorship of the Myelodysplastic Syndromes Foundation, the group was organized to address the substantial need for worldwide standardized cytogenetic testing for MDS in clinical practice and research. Eighteen cytogeneticists from 10 countries attended the first working group meeting. Representatives from France and Austria were unable to attend the Chicago meeting. Marilyn L. Slovak, PhD (City of Hope, USA) served as Working Group Chair and Gordon Dewald, PhD (Mayo Clinic, USA), served as Working Group Advisor and Co-Chair. Other members in attendance included: Mette Andersen, Rigshospitalet, Denmark; Lynda Campbell, St. Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, Australia; Athena Cherry, Stanford University, USA; Kathy Chun, North York General Hospital, Canada; Mike Griffiths, West Midlands Regional Genetics Lab, UK; Detlef Haase, Georg-August-Universität, Germany; Claudia Haferlach, MLL Münchner Leukämielabor GmbH, Germany; Anne Hagemeijer, University of Leuven, Belgium; Barbara Hildebrandt, Institut für Humangenetik & Anthropologie Dupsilonsseldorf, Germany; Douglas Horsman, BC Cancer Agency, Canada; M. Anwar Iqbal, University of Rochester, USA; Suresh Jhanwar, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, USA; Bertil Johansson, University Hospital, Sweden; Michelle LeBeau, University of Chicago, USA; Kazuma Ohyashiki, Tokyo Medical University, Japan; Francesc Solé, Hospital del Mar, Spain. The focus of the working group was to establish the natural history and clinical significance of cytogenetic anomalies associated with the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and to incorporate cytogenetic testing into the development of new treatments to cure MDS. Three specific goals were discussed in an effort to rapidly improve the care of patients with MDS. The first goal was how to educate physicians on the appropriate use of cost effective cytogenetic

  19. Impact of Micropapillary Histologic Subtype in Selecting Limited Resection vs Lobectomy for Lung Adenocarcinoma of 2cm or Smaller

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We sought to analyze the prognostic significance of the new International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), American Thoracic Society (ATS), and European Respiratory Society (ERS) lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) classification for patients undergoing resection for small (≤2cm) lung ADC and to investigate whether histologic subtyping can predict recurrence after limited resection (LR) vs lobectomy (LO). Methods Comprehensive histologic subtyping was performed according to the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification on all consecutive patients who underwent LR or LO for small lung ADC between 1995 and 2009 at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Clinical characteristics and pathologic data were retrospectively evaluated for 734 consecutive patients (LR: 258; LO: 476). Cumulative incidence of recurrence (CIR) was calculated using competing risks analysis and compared across groups using Grey’s test. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Application of IASLC/ATS/ERS lung ADC histologic subtyping to predict recurrence demonstrates that, in the LR group but not in the LO group, micropapillary (MIP) component of 5% or greater was associated with an increased risk of recurrence, compared with MIP component of less than 5% (LR: 5-year CIR = 34.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 23.5% to 49.7% vs 5-year CIR = 12.4%, 95% CI = 6.9% to 22.1%, P < .001; LO: 5-year CIR = 19.1%, 95% CI = 12.0% to 30.5% vs 15-year CIR = 12.9%, 95% CI = 7.6% to 21.9%, P = .13). In the LR group, among patients with tumors with an MIP component of 5% or greater, most recurrences (63.4%) were locoregional; MIP component of 5% or greater was statistically significantly associated with increased risk of local recurrence when the surgical margin was less than 1cm (5-year CIR = 32.0%, 95% CI = 18.6% to 46.0% for MIP ≥ 5% vs 5-year CIR = 7.6%, 95% CI = 2.3% to 15.6% for MIP < 5%; P = .007) but not when surgical margin was 1cm or greater (5-year CIR = 13.0%, 95% CI = 4.1% to 22

  20. Multi‐institutional validation of a novel textural analysis tool for preoperative stratification of suspected thyroid tumors on diffusion‐weighted MRI

    PubMed Central

    Nagala, Sidhartha; McLean, Mary A.; Lu, Yonggang; Scoffings, Daniel; Apte, Aditya; Gonen, Mithat; Stambuk, Hilda E.; Shaha, Ashok R.; Tuttle, R. Michael; Deasy, Joseph O.; Priest, Andrew N.; Jani, Piyush; Shukla‐Dave, Amita; Griffiths, John

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Ultrasound‐guided fine needle aspirate cytology fails to diagnose many malignant thyroid nodules; consequently, patients may undergo diagnostic lobectomy. This study assessed whether textural analysis (TA) could noninvasively stratify thyroid nodules accurately using diffusion‐weighted MRI (DW‐MRI). Methods This multi‐institutional study examined 3T DW‐MRI images obtained with spin echo echo planar imaging sequences. The training data set included 26 patients from Cambridge, United Kingdom, and the test data set included 18 thyroid cancer patients from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (New York, New York, USA). Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were compared over regions of interest (ROIs) defined on thyroid nodules. TA, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and feature reduction were performed using the 21 MaZda‐generated texture parameters that best distinguished benign and malignant ROIs. Results Training data set mean ADC values were significantly different for benign and malignant nodules (P = 0.02) with a sensitivity and specificity of 70% and 63%, respectively, and a receiver operator characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) of 0.73. The LDA model of the top 21 textural features correctly classified 89/94 DW‐MRI ROIs with 92% sensitivity, 96% specificity, and an AUC of 0.97. This algorithm correctly classified 16/18 (89%) patients in the independently obtained test set of thyroid DW‐MRI scans. Conclusion TA classifies thyroid nodules with high sensitivity and specificity on multi‐institutional DW‐MRI data sets. This method requires further validation in a larger prospective study. Magn Reson Med, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium

  1. Cancer: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... improve significantly with treatment. Changes in Thinking or Memory Some people who are treated for cancer experience “ ... helpful in cancer pain. These include: acupuncture biofeedback hypnosis heat or cold applications massage imagery meditation relaxation ...

  2. Modification of Antigen Impacts on Memory Quality after Adenovirus Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Colston, Julia M; Bolinger, Beatrice; Cottingham, Matthew G; Gilbert, Sarah; Klenerman, Paul

    2016-04-15

    The establishment of robust T cell memory is critical for the development of novel vaccines for infections and cancers. Classical memory generated by CD8(+)T cells is characterized by contracted populations homing to lymphoid organs. T cell memory inflation, as seen for example after CMV infection, is the maintenance of expanded, functional, tissue-associated effector memory cell pools. Such memory pools may also be induced after adenovirus vaccination, and we recently defined common transcriptional and phenotypic features of these populations in mice and humans. However, the rules that govern which epitopes drive memory inflation compared with classical memory are not fully defined, and thus it is not currently possible to direct this process. We used our adenoviral model of memory inflation to first investigate the role of the promoter and then the role of the epitope context in determining memory formation. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that conventional memory could be converted to inflationary memory by simple presentation of the Ag in the form of minigene vectors. When epitopes from LacZ and murine CMV that normally induce classical memory responses were presented as minigenes, they induced clear memory inflation. These data demonstrate that, regardless of the transgene promoter, the polypeptide context of a CD8(+)T cell epitope may determine whether classical or inflating memory responses are induced. The ability to direct this process by the use of minigenes is relevant to the design of vaccines and understanding of immune responses to pathogens. PMID:26944930

  3. From Memories to Diaries: A Portrait of Hope Captured from the Lens of a Nurse Educator as a Breast Cancer Patient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; dela Rosa, Praxedes SM; Catambay, Dexter Jayrald S.; Centeno, Angelica M.; Cheng, Lorenze Anthony A.; Castro, Jonathan Agustin R.

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women worldwide. While it is true that hope influences how these victims view and live their lives, little is known as to how hope is lived and experienced by a breast cancer patient whose professional background and practice is nursing. This narrative-interpretive study purports to create a…

  4. Mechanisms of Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, Larry R.

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on the brain processes and brain systems involved in learning and memory from a neuropsychological perspective of analysis. Reports findings related to the locus of memory storage, types of memory and knowledge, and memory consolidation. Models of animal memory are also examined. An extensive reference list is included. (ML)

  5. Systemic Treatments for Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: 10-Year Experience of Immunotherapy and Targeted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Han; Park, Weon Seo; Kim, Sun Ho; Joung, Jae Young; Seo, Ho Kyung; Lee, Kang Hyun; Chung, Jinsoo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare the outcomes of first-line systemic targeted therapy (TT) and immunotherapy (IT) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Materials and Methods This study was a retrospective review of the data of 262 patients treated with systemic IT or TT with tyrosine kinase inhibitors between 2003 and 2013. The objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were assessed using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor ver. 1.0 criteria and the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test. Results During the median 4.3-month treatment and the 24-month follow-up period, the ORR/PFS/OS of the overall first-line and second-line therapy were 41.9%/8.1 months/16.8 months and 27.5%/6.5 months/15.3 months, respectively. The first-line TT/IT/sequential IT had a PFS of 9.3/6.4/5.7 months and an OS of 15.8/16.5/40.6 months (all p < 0.05). The second-line of TT/IT had a PFS of 7.1/2.1 months (both p < 0.05) and an OS of 16.6/8.6 months (p=0.636), respectively. Pazopanib provided the best median PFS of 11.0 months (p < 0.001) and a quadruple IT regimen had a superior PFS (p=0.522). For OS, sequential treatment with IT and TT was superior compared to treatment with either IT or TT alone (40.6/16.5/15.8 months, p=0.014). The prognosis according to the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center model showed that favorable/intermediate/poor risk groups had a PFS of 8.5/10.4/2.3 months, and an OS of 43.1/20.4/5.6 months, respectively. The prognosis calculated using the Heng model showed that the favorable/intermediate/poor risk groups had a PFS of 9.2/3.9/2.7 months, and an OS of 32.4/16.5/6.1months, respectively (all p < 0.001). Conclusion In patients with mRCC, TT provided a better PFS and OS compared with IT. PMID:26875203

  6. The core competencies of James Marion Sims, MD.

    PubMed

    Straughn, J Michael; Gandy, Roy E; Rodning, Charles B

    2012-07-01

    The concept of core competencies in graduate medical education was introduced by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education of the American Medical Association to semiquantitatively assess the professional performance of students, residents, practitioners, and faculty. Many aspects of the career of J. Marion Sims, MD, are exemplary of those core competencies: MEDICAL KNOWLEDGE: Author of the first American textbook related to gynecology. MEDICAL CARE: Innovator of the Sims' Vaginal Speculum, Sims' Position, Sims' Test, and vesico-/rectovaginal fistulorrhaphy; advocated abdominal exploration for penetrating wounds; performed the first cholecystostomy. PROFESSIONALISM: Served as President of the New York Academy of Medicine, the American Medical Association, and the American Gynecologic Society. INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS/COMMUNICATION: Cared for the indigent, hearthless, indentured, disenfranchised; served as consulting surgeon to the Empress Eugénie (France), the Duchess of Hamilton (Scotland), the Empress of Austria, and other royalty of the aristocratic Houses of Europe; accorded the National Order of the Legion of Honor. PRACTICE-BASED LEARNING: Introduction of silver wire sutures; adoption of the principles of asepsis/antisepsis; adoption of the principles of general anesthesia. SYSTEMS-BASED PRACTICE: Established the Woman's Hospital, New York City, New York, the predecessor of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Center for the Treatment of Cancer and Allied Diseases; organized the Anglo-American Ambulance Corps under the patronage of Napoleon III. What led him to a life of clinical and humanitarian service? First, he was determined to succeed. His formal medical/surgical education was perhaps the best available to North Americans during that era. Second, he was courageous in experimentation and innovation, applying new developments in operative technique, asepsis/antisepsis, and general anesthesia. Third, his curiosity was not burdened by rigid

  7. Patterns of Failure for Rhabdomyosarcoma of the Perineal and Perianal Region

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Dana L.; Wexler, Leonard H.; LaQuaglia, Michael P.; Meyers, Paul A.; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To analyze prognostic factors and patterns of failure for rhabdomyosarcoma of the perineal and perianal region (PRMS), with an emphasis on radiation therapy for locoregional control. Methods and Materials: Detailed records of all 14 patients treated for PRMS at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1998 and 2012 were reviewed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess the event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS), and a competing-risks analysis was used to assess the cumulative incidence of local, regional, and distant failures. Results: Median age was 15.8 years (range, 1.1-31.9 years). High-risk features were identified: 9 of 14 patients (64%) had group 3 disease and 3 of 14 (21%) had group 4; 11 of 14 tumors (78%) were alveolar; 12 of 14 tumors (86%) were ≥5 cm; and 9 of 14 patients (64%) had involved lymph nodes (N1). Of those aged ≥10 years at diagnosis, 9 of 10 (90%) had alveolar histology, all had tumors ≥5 cm, and 8 of 10 (80%) presented with N1 disease. The rates of local, regional, and distant failure at 5 years were 17%, 31%, and 52%, respectively. Although 3 of the 4 patients with regional failure received nodal irradiation, only one of the nodal failures occurred in the radiation therapy field. The 5-year EFS was 33%, and OS was 39%. Age ≥10 years was associated with poor outcomes: EFS was 13% in patients aged ≥10 years, compared with 75% in those aged <10 years (P=.04); the OS was 13% in patients aged ≥10 years, compared with 100% in those aged <10 years (P=.04). Conclusions: Patients with PRMS, especially those aged ≥10 years, present with poor prognostic features and continue to have poor outcomes. Given the high incidence of regional node recurrence, we recommend prophylactic ilioinguinal lymph node irradiation for all patients aged ≥10 years. For children aged <10 years, nodal evaluation is essential to determine the role for lymph node irradiation.

  8. Memory effects in turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, J. O.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental investigations of the wake flow of a hemisphere and cylinder show that such memory effects can be substantial and have a significant influence on momentum transport. Memory effects are described in terms of suitable memory functions.

  9. A Beginner's Guide to Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    1981-01-01

    This article is designed to equip the reader with the information needed to deal with questions of computer memory. Discussed are core memory; semiconductor memory; size of memory; expanding memory; charge-coupled device memories; magnetic bubble memory; and read-only and read-mostly memories. (KC)

  10. Memory Retrieval and Interference: Working Memory Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Copeland, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Working memory capacity has been suggested as a factor that is involved in long-term memory retrieval, particularly when that retrieval involves a need to overcome some sort of interference (Bunting, Conway, & Heitz, 2004; Cantor & Engle, 1993). Previous work has suggested that working memory is related to the acquisition of information during…

  11. Optical memory

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2013-07-02

    Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

  12. Order-memory and association-memory.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Two highly studied memory functions are memory for associations (items presented in pairs, such as SALT-PEPPER) and memory for order (a list of items whose order matters, such as a telephone number). Order- and association-memory are at the root of many forms of behaviour, from wayfinding, to language, to remembering people's names. Most researchers have investigated memory for order separately from memory for associations. Exceptions to this, associative-chaining models build an ordered list from associations between pairs of items, quite literally understanding association- and order-memory together. Alternatively, positional-coding models have been used to explain order-memory as a completely distinct function from association-memory. Both classes of model have found empirical support and both have faced serious challenges. I argue that models that combine both associative chaining and positional coding are needed. One such hybrid model, which relies on brain-activity rhythms, is promising, but remains to be tested rigourously. I consider two relatively understudied memory behaviours that demand a combination of order- and association-information: memory for the order of items within associations (is it William James or James William?) and judgments of relative order (who left the party earlier, Hermann or William?). Findings from these underexplored procedures are already difficult to reconcile with existing association-memory and order-memory models. Further work with such intermediate experimental paradigms has the potential to provide powerful findings to constrain and guide models into the future, with the aim of explaining a large range of memory functions, encompassing both association- and order-memory. PMID:25894964

  13. Memory loss.

    PubMed

    Flicker, Leon A; Ford, Andrew H; Beer, Christopher D; Almeida, Osvaldo P

    2012-02-01

    Most older people with memory loss do not have dementia. Those with mild cognitive impairment are at increased risk of progressing to dementia, but no tests have been shown to enhance the accuracy of assessing this risk. Although no intervention has been convincingly shown to prevent dementia, data from cohort studies and randomised controlled trials are compelling in indicating that physical activity and treatment of hypertension decrease the risk of dementia. There is no evidence that pharmaceutical treatment will benefit people with mild cognitive impairment. In people with Alzheimer's disease, treatment with a cholinesterase inhibitor or memantine (an N-methyl- D-aspartate receptor antagonist) may provide symptomatic relief and enhance quality of life, but does not appear to alter progression of the illness. Non-pharmacological strategies are recommended as first-line treatments for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, which are common in Alzheimer's disease. Atypical antipsychotics have modest benefit in reducing agitation and psychotic symptoms but increase the risk of cardiovascular events. The role of antidepressants in managing depressive symptoms in patients with mild cognitive impairment is uncertain and may increase the risk of delirium and falls. PMID:22304604

  14. Memory Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Under contract to NASA during preparations for the space station, Memry Technologies Inc. investigated shape memory effect (SME). SME is a characteristic of certain metal alloys that can change shape in response to temperature variations. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Memry used its NASA-acquired expertise to produce a line of home and industrial safety products, and refined the technology in the mid-1990s. Among the new products they developed are three MemrySafe units which prevent scalding from faucets. Each system contains a small valve that reacts to temperature, not pressure. When the water reaches dangerous temperatures, the unit reduces the flow to a trickle; when the scalding temperature subsides, the unit restores normal flow. Other products are the FIRECHEK 2 and 4, heat-activated shutoff valves for industrial process lines, which sense excessive heat and cut off pneumatic pressure. The newest of these products is Memry's Demand Management Water Heater which shifts the electricity requirement from peak to off-peak demands, conserving energy and money.

  15. Why Breast Cancer Survivors Should Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159781.html Why Breast Cancer Survivors Should Exercise Moderate physical activity can ease ... Excessive stress can lead to memory problems among breast cancer survivors, but exercise can help, according to new ...

  16. Memory beyond expression.

    PubMed

    Delorenzi, A; Maza, F J; Suárez, L D; Barreiro, K; Molina, V A; Stehberg, J

    2014-01-01

    The idea that memories are not invariable after the consolidation process has led to new perspectives about several mnemonic processes. In this framework, we review our studies on the modulation of memory expression during reconsolidation. We propose that during both memory consolidation and reconsolidation, neuromodulators can determine the probability of the memory trace to guide behavior, i.e. they can either increase or decrease its behavioral expressibility without affecting the potential of persistent memories to be activated and become labile. Our hypothesis is based on the findings that positive modulation of memory expression during reconsolidation occurs even if memories are behaviorally unexpressed. This review discusses the original approach taken in the studies of the crab Neohelice (Chasmagnathus) granulata, which was then successfully applied to test the hypothesis in rodent fear memory. Data presented offers a new way of thinking about both weak trainings and experimental amnesia: memory retrieval can be dissociated from memory expression. Furthermore, the strategy presented here allowed us to show in human declarative memory that the periods in which long-term memory can be activated and become labile during reconsolidation exceeds the periods in which that memory is expressed, providing direct evidence that conscious access to memory is not needed for reconsolidation. Specific controls based on the constraints of reminders to trigger reconsolidation allow us to distinguish between obliterated and unexpressed but activated long-term memories after amnesic treatments, weak trainings and forgetting. In the hypothesis discussed, memory expressibility--the outcome of experience-dependent changes in the potential to behave--is considered as a flexible and modulable attribute of long-term memories. Expression seems to be just one of the possible fates of re-activated memories. PMID:25102126

  17. Detailed sensory memory, sloppy working memory.

    PubMed

    Sligte, Ilja G; Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F

    2010-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) enables us to actively maintain information in mind for a brief period of time after stimulus disappearance. According to recent studies, VSTM consists of three stages - iconic memory, fragile VSTM, and visual working memory - with increasingly stricter capacity limits and progressively longer lifetimes. Still, the resolution (or amount of visual detail) of each VSTM stage has remained unexplored and we test this in the present study. We presented people with a change detection task that measures the capacity of all three forms of VSTM, and we added an identification display after each change trial that required people to identify the "pre-change" object. Accurate change detection plus pre-change identification requires subjects to have a high-resolution representation of the "pre-change" object, whereas change detection or identification only can be based on the hunch that something has changed, without exactly knowing what was presented before. We observed that people maintained 6.1 objects in iconic memory, 4.6 objects in fragile VSTM, and 2.1 objects in visual working memory. Moreover, when people detected the change, they could also identify the pre-change object on 88% of the iconic memory trials, on 71% of the fragile VSTM trials and merely on 53% of the visual working memory trials. This suggests that people maintain many high-resolution representations in iconic memory and fragile VSTM, but only one high-resolution object representation in visual working memory. PMID:21897823

  18. Siblings of Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogan, Janis L.

    This paper reports on a long term follow up study of siblings of childhood cancer survivors. Seventy siblings of childhood cancer survivors in 37 families were interviewed using a semi-structured format which included both forced choice and open ended questions. The children discussed their memories of the sibling's cancer diagnosis and treatment…

  19. Computer memory access technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zottarelli, L. J.

    1967-01-01

    Computer memory access commutator and steering gate configuration produces bipolar current pulses while still employing only the diodes and magnetic cores of the classic commutator, thereby appreciably reducing the complexity of the memory assembly.

  20. Understanding Memory Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... memory problems—causes and treatments Help for serious memory problems What you need to know Where can I get more information? Words to know ... of Health U.S. Department of Health & Human Services USA.gov

  1. Emotional Memory Persists Longer than Event Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Soshi, Takahiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between amygdala-driven and hippocampus-driven activities is expected to explain why emotion enhances episodic memory recognition. However, overwhelming behavioral evidence regarding the emotion-induced enhancement of immediate and delayed episodic memory recognition has not been obtained in humans. We found that the recognition…

  2. Make-believe memories.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2003-11-01

    Research on memory distortion has shown that postevent suggestion can contaminate what a person remembers. Moreover, suggestion can lead to false memories being injected outright into the minds of people. These findings have implications for police investigation, clinical practice, and other settings in which memory reports are solicited. PMID:14609374

  3. Make-Believe Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    2003-01-01

    Research on memory distortion has shown that postevent suggestion can contaminate what a person remembers. Moreover, suggestion can lead to false memories being injected outright into the minds of people. These findings have implications for police investigation, clinical practice, and other settings in which memory reports are solicited.

  4. Attending to auditory memory.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Jacqueline F; Moscovitch, Morris; Alain, Claude

    2016-06-01

    Attention to memory describes the process of attending to memory traces when the object is no longer present. It has been studied primarily for representations of visual stimuli with only few studies examining attention to sound object representations in short-term memory. Here, we review the interplay of attention and auditory memory with an emphasis on 1) attending to auditory memory in the absence of related external stimuli (i.e., reflective attention) and 2) effects of existing memory on guiding attention. Attention to auditory memory is discussed in the context of change deafness, and we argue that failures to detect changes in our auditory environments are most likely the result of a faulty comparison system of incoming and stored information. Also, objects are the primary building blocks of auditory attention, but attention can also be directed to individual features (e.g., pitch). We review short-term and long-term memory guided modulation of attention based on characteristic features, location, and/or semantic properties of auditory objects, and propose that auditory attention to memory pathways emerge after sensory memory. A neural model for auditory attention to memory is developed, which comprises two separate pathways in the parietal cortex, one involved in attention to higher-order features and the other involved in attention to sensory information. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26638836

  5. Music, memory and emotion.

    PubMed

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. PMID:18710596

  6. Generation and Context Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Lozito, Jeffrey P.; Rosner, Zachary A.

    2006-01-01

    Generation enhances memory for occurrence but may not enhance other aspects of memory. The present study further delineates the negative generation effect in context memory reported in N. W. Mulligan (2004). First, the negative generation effect occurred for perceptual attributes of the target item (its color and font) but not for extratarget…

  7. Memory and the Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Martin A.

    2005-01-01

    The Self-Memory System (SMS) is a conceptual framework that emphasizes the interconnectedness of self and memory. Within this framework memory is viewed as the data base of the self. The self is conceived as a complex set of active goals and associated self-images, collectively referred to as the "working self." The relationship between the…

  8. The Bush Memorial Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamline University Bulletin, 1971

    1971-01-01

    The Bush Memorial Library was formally dedicated on October 9, 1971. As part of Hamline University in St. Paul, Minnesota, the Bush Memorial Library has a reading room, audio booths, and audio-visual classroom as well as an audio control room. The Bush Memorial Library is a member of the Cooperating Libraries in Consortium which is a cooperative…

  9. Associative Memory Acceptors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, Roger

    The properties of an associative memory are examined in this paper from the viewpoint of automata theory. A device called an associative memory acceptor is studied under real-time operation. The family "L" of languages accepted by real-time associative memory acceptors is shown to properly contain the family of languages accepted by one-tape,…

  10. Cancer Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  11. Memory: sins and virtues

    PubMed Central

    Schacter, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Memory plays an important role in everyday life but does not provide an exact and unchanging record of experience: research has documented that memory is a constructive process that is subject to a variety of errors and distortions. Yet these memory “sins” also reflect the operation of adaptive aspects of memory. Memory can thus be characterized as an adaptive constructive process, which plays a functional role in cognition but produces distortions, errors, or illusions as a consequence of doing so. PMID:23909686

  12. A multiplexed quantum memory.

    PubMed

    Lan, S-Y; Radnaev, A G; Collins, O A; Matsukevich, D N; Kennedy, T A; Kuzmich, A

    2009-08-01

    A quantum repeater is a system for long-distance quantum communication that employs quantum memory elements to mitigate optical fiber transmission losses. The multiplexed quantum memory (O. A. Collins, S. D. Jenkins, A. Kuzmich, and T. A. B. Kennedy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 060502 (2007)) has been shown theoretically to reduce quantum memory time requirements. We present an initial implementation of a multiplexed quantum memory element in a cold rubidium gas. We show that it is possible to create atomic excitations in arbitrary memory element pairs and demonstrate the violation of Bell's inequality for light fields generated during the write and read processes. PMID:19654771

  13. Immunological memory is associative

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S.; Perelson, A.S.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

  14. Memory access in shared virtual memory

    SciTech Connect

    Berrendorf, R. )

    1992-01-01

    Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

  15. Memory access in shared virtual memory

    SciTech Connect

    Berrendorf, R.

    1992-09-01

    Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

  16. Stochastic memory: Memory enhancement due to noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotland, Alexander; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    There are certain classes of resistors, capacitors, and inductors that, when subject to a periodic input of appropriate frequency, develop hysteresis loops in their characteristic response. Here we show that the hysteresis of such memory elements can also be induced by white noise of appropriate intensity even at very low frequencies of the external driving field. We illustrate this phenomenon using a physical model of memory resistor realized by TiO2 thin films sandwiched between metallic electrodes and discuss under which conditions this effect can be observed experimentally. We also discuss its implications on existing memory systems described in the literature and the role of colored noise.

  17. Memory bistable mechanisms of organic memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ching-Ting; Yu, Li-Zhen; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the memory bistable mechanisms of organic memory devices, the structure of [top Au anode/9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (ADN) active layer/bottom Au cathode] was deposited using a thermal deposition system. The Au atoms migrated into the ADN active layer was observed from the secondary ion mass spectrometry. The density of 9.6×1016 cm-3 and energy level of 0.553 eV of the induced trapping centers caused by the migrated Au atoms in the ADN active layer were calculated. The induced trapping centers did not influence the carrier injection barrier height between Au and ADN active layer. Therefore, the memory bistable behaviors of the organic memory devices were attributed to the induced trapping centers. The energy diagram was established to verify the mechanisms.

  18. Overdistribution in source memory.

    PubMed

    Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F; Holliday, R E; Nakamura, K

    2012-03-01

    Semantic false memories are confounded with a second type of error, overdistribution, in which items are attributed to contradictory episodic states. Overdistribution errors have proved to be more common than false memories when the 2 are disentangled. We investigated whether overdistribution is prevalent in another classic false memory paradigm: source monitoring. It is. Conventional false memory responses (source misattributions) were predominantly overdistribution errors, but unlike semantic false memory, overdistribution also accounted for more than half of true memory responses (correct source attributions). Experimental control of overdistribution was achieved via a series of manipulations that affected either recollection of contextual details or item memory (concreteness, frequency, list order, number of presentation contexts, and individual differences in verbatim memory). A theoretical model was used to analyze the data (conjoint process dissociation) that predicts that (a) overdistribution is directly proportional to item memory but inversely proportional to recollection and (b) item memory is not a necessary precondition for recollection of contextual details. The results were consistent with both predictions. PMID:21942494

  19. Autosuggestibility in memory development.

    PubMed

    Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F

    1995-02-01

    Autosuggestibility is a potentially common source of false memories in children. We studied a form of autosuggestibility in which children's answers to memory tests were shifted in the direction of their illogical solutions to reasoning problems. In Experiments 1 and 2, illogic-consistent shifts were identified in children's memories of the numerical inputs on class-inclusion problems. The magnitudes of the shifts declined with age, and they appeared to be due to the intrusion of inappropriate gist on memory probes rather than retroactive interference from illogical reasoning. A model of how gist intrusion causes autosuggestibility was investigated in Experiments 3-5. The model assumes that children retrieve and process inappropriate gist when memory tests supply cues that are inadequate to permit access to verbatim memories. PMID:7895469

  20. Optical mass memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    Optical and magnetic variants in the design of trillion-bit read/write memories are compared and tabulated. Components and materials suitable for a random access read/write nonmoving memory system are examined, with preference given to holography and photoplastic materials. Advantages and deficiencies of photoplastics are reviewed. Holographic page composer design, essential features of an optical memory with no moving parts, fiche-oriented random access memory design, and materials suitable for an efficient photoplastic fiche are considered. The optical variants offer advantages in lower volume and weight at data transfer rates near 1 Mbit/sec, but power drain is of the same order as for the magnetic variants (tape memory, disk memory). The mechanical properties of photoplastic film materials still leave much to be desired.

  1. Does fascia hold memories?

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Paolo

    2014-04-01

    The idea that tissues may possess some sort of memory is a controversial topic in manual medicine, calling for research and clinical exploration. Many bodyworkers, at some point in their practice, have experienced phenomena that may be interpreted as representing a release of memory traces when working on dysfunctional tissues. This feeling may have been accompanied by some type of sensory experience, for the therapist and/or the patient. In some cases, early traumatic experiences may be recalled. When this happens, the potency of the memory may be erased or eased, along with restoration of tissue function. Hence the questions: can memories be held in the fascia? And: are these memories accessible during manual fascial work? Modern research has proposed a variety of different interpretations as to how memory might be stored in soft tissues, possibly involving other forms of information storage not exclusively processed neurologically (Box 1). PMID:24725795

  2. Emotional Memory in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Herbener, Ellen S.

    2008-01-01

    Emotional memories play an important role in our day-to-day experience, informing many of our minute-to-minute decisions (eg, where to go for dinner, what are the likely consequences of not attending a meeting), as well as our long-term goal setting. Individuals with schizophrenia appear to be impaired in memory for emotional experiences, particularly over longer delay periods, which may contribute to deficits in goal-related behavior and symptoms of amotivation and anhedonia. This article reviews factors that are known to influence emotional memory in healthy subjects, applies these factors to results from emotional memory studies with individuals with schizophrenia, and then uses extant neurobiological models of emotional memory formation to develop hypotheses about biological processes that might particularly contribute to emotional memory impairment in schizophrenia. PMID:18632728

  3. Shape memory polymers

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2015-06-09

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  4. A generalized memory test algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milner, E. J.

    1982-01-01

    A general algorithm for testing digital computer memory is presented. The test checks that (1) every bit can be cleared and set in each memory work, and (2) bits are not erroneously cleared and/or set elsewhere in memory at the same time. The algorithm can be applied to any size memory block and any size memory word. It is concise and efficient, requiring the very few cycles through memory. For example, a test of 16-bit-word-size memory requries only 384 cycles through memory. Approximately 15 seconds were required to test a 32K block of such memory, using a microcomputer having a cycle time of 133 nanoseconds.

  5. Magnetic bubble domain memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ypma, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Some attractive features of Bubble Domain Memory and its relation to existing technologies are discussed. Two promising applications are block access mass memory and tape recorder replacement. The required chip capabilities for these uses are listed, and the specifications for a block access mass memory designed to fit between core and HPT disk are presented. A feasibility model for a tape recorder replacement is introduced.

  6. Myrmics Memory Allocator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-09-23

    MMA is a stand-alone memory management system for MPI clusters. It implements a shared Partitioned Global Address Space, where multiple MPI processes request objects from the allocator and the latter provides them with system-wide unique memory addresses for each object. It provides applications with an intuitive way of managing the memory system in a unified way, thus enabling easier writing of irregular application code.

  7. Sparse distributed memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanerva, Pentti

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models of the human brain and proposed neural-network computers are developed analytically. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical foundations, background material from computer science, the theory of idealized neurons, neurons as address decoders, and the search of memory for the best match. Consideration is given to sparse memory, distributed storage, the storage and retrieval of sequences, the construction of distributed memory, and the organization of an autonomous learning system.

  8. Sparse distributed memory

    SciTech Connect

    Kanerva, P.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models of the human brain and proposed neural-network computers are developed analytically. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical foundations, background material from computer science, the theory of idealized neurons, neurons as address decoders, and the search of memory for the best match. Consideration is given to sparse memory, distributed storage, the storage and retrieval of sequences, the construction of distributed memory, and the organization of an autonomous learning system. 63 refs.

  9. Memory Golf Clubs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Memory Corporation's investigation of shape memory effect, stemming from Marshall Space Flight Center contracts to study materials for the space station, has aided in the development of Zeemet, a proprietary, high-damping shape memory alloy for the golf industry. The Nicklaus Golf Company has created a new line of golf clubs using Zeemet inserts. Its superelastic and high damping attributes translate into more spin on the ball, greater control, and a solid feel.

  10. Building synthetic memory

    PubMed Central

    Inniss, Mara C.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Cellular memory – conversion of a transient signal into a sustained response – is a common feature of biological systems. Synthetic biologists aim to understand and reengineer such systems in a reliable and predictable manner. Synthetic memory circuits have been designed and built in vitro and in vivo based on diverse mechanisms such as oligonucleotide hybridization, recombination, transcription, phosphorylation, and RNA editing. Thus far, building these circuits has helped us explore the basic principles required for stable memory and ask novel biological questions. Here we discuss strategies for building synthetic memory circuits, their use as research tools, and future applications of these devices in medicine and industry. PMID:24028965

  11. Hypnosis, memory and amnesia.

    PubMed

    Kihlstrom, J F

    1997-11-29

    Hypnotized subjects respond to suggestions from the hypnotist for imaginative experiences involving alterations in perception and memory. Individual differences in hypnotizability are only weakly related to other forms of suggestibility. Neuropsychological speculations about hypnosis focus on the right hemisphere and/or the frontal lobes. Posthypnotic amnesia refers to subjects' difficulty in remembering, after hypnosis, the events and experiences that transpired while they were hypnotized. Posthypnotic amnesia is not an instance of state-dependent memory, but it does seem to involve a disruption of retrieval processes similar to the functional amnesias observed in clinical dissociative disorders. Implicit memory, however, is largely spared, and may underlie subjects' ability to recognize events that they cannot recall. Hypnotic hypermnesia refers to improved memory for past events. However, such improvements are illusory: hypermnesia suggestions increase false recollection, as well as subjects' confidence in both true and false memories. Hypnotic age regression can be subjectively compelling, but does not involve the ablation of adult memory, or the reinstatement of childlike modes of mental functioning, or the revivification of memory. The clinical and forensic use of hypermnesia and age regression to enhance memory in patients, victims and witnesses (e.g. recovered memory therapy for child sexual abuse) should be discouraged. PMID:9415925

  12. The future of memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinella, M.

    In the not too distant future, the traditional memory and storage hierarchy of may be replaced by a single Storage Class Memory (SCM) device integrated on or near the logic processor. Traditional magnetic hard drives, NAND flash, DRAM, and higher level caches (L2 and up) will be replaced with a single high performance memory device. The Storage Class Memory paradigm will require high speed (< 100 ns read/write), excellent endurance (> 1012), nonvolatility (retention > 10 years), and low switching energies (< 10 pJ per switch). The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) has recently evaluated several potential candidates SCM technologies, including Resistive (or Redox) RAM, Spin Torque Transfer RAM (STT-MRAM), and phase change memory (PCM). All of these devices show potential well beyond that of current flash technologies and research efforts are underway to improve the endurance, write speeds, and scalabilities to be on-par with DRAM. This progress has interesting implications for space electronics: each of these emerging device technologies show excellent resistance to the types of radiation typically found in space applications. Commercially developed, high density storage class memory-based systems may include a memory that is physically radiation hard, and suitable for space applications without major shielding efforts. This paper reviews the Storage Class Memory concept, emerging memory devices, and possible applicability to radiation hardened electronics for space.

  13. Building synthetic memory.

    PubMed

    Inniss, Mara C; Silver, Pamela A

    2013-09-01

    Cellular memory - conversion of a transient signal into a sustained response - is a common feature of biological systems. Synthetic biologists aim to understand and re-engineer such systems in a reliable and predictable manner. Synthetic memory circuits have been designed and built in vitro and in vivo based on diverse mechanisms, such as oligonucleotide hybridization, recombination, transcription, phosphorylation, and RNA editing. Thus far, building these circuits has helped us explore the basic principles required for stable memory and ask novel biological questions. Here we discuss strategies for building synthetic memory circuits, their use as research tools, and future applications of these devices in medicine and industry. PMID:24028965

  14. Hypnosis, memory and amnesia.

    PubMed Central

    Kihlstrom, J F

    1997-01-01

    Hypnotized subjects respond to suggestions from the hypnotist for imaginative experiences involving alterations in perception and memory. Individual differences in hypnotizability are only weakly related to other forms of suggestibility. Neuropsychological speculations about hypnosis focus on the right hemisphere and/or the frontal lobes. Posthypnotic amnesia refers to subjects' difficulty in remembering, after hypnosis, the events and experiences that transpired while they were hypnotized. Posthypnotic amnesia is not an instance of state-dependent memory, but it does seem to involve a disruption of retrieval processes similar to the functional amnesias observed in clinical dissociative disorders. Implicit memory, however, is largely spared, and may underlie subjects' ability to recognize events that they cannot recall. Hypnotic hypermnesia refers to improved memory for past events. However, such improvements are illusory: hypermnesia suggestions increase false recollection, as well as subjects' confidence in both true and false memories. Hypnotic age regression can be subjectively compelling, but does not involve the ablation of adult memory, or the reinstatement of childlike modes of mental functioning, or the revivification of memory. The clinical and forensic use of hypermnesia and age regression to enhance memory in patients, victims and witnesses (e.g. recovered memory therapy for child sexual abuse) should be discouraged. PMID:9415925

  15. Sparse distributed memory overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raugh, Mike

    1990-01-01

    The Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM) project is investigating the theory and applications of massively parallel computing architecture, called sparse distributed memory, that will support the storage and retrieval of sensory and motor patterns characteristic of autonomous systems. The immediate objectives of the project are centered in studies of the memory itself and in the use of the memory to solve problems in speech, vision, and robotics. Investigation of methods for encoding sensory data is an important part of the research. Examples of NASA missions that may benefit from this work are Space Station, planetary rovers, and solar exploration. Sparse distributed memory offers promising technology for systems that must learn through experience and be capable of adapting to new circumstances, and for operating any large complex system requiring automatic monitoring and control. Sparse distributed memory is a massively parallel architecture motivated by efforts to understand how the human brain works. Sparse distributed memory is an associative memory, able to retrieve information from cues that only partially match patterns stored in the memory. It is able to store long temporal sequences derived from the behavior of a complex system, such as progressive records of the system's sensory data and correlated records of the system's motor controls.

  16. Vaginal cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal cancer; Cancer - vagina; Tumor - vaginal ... Most vaginal cancers occur when another cancer, such as cervical or endometrial cancer , spreads. This is called secondary vaginal cancer. Cancer ...

  17. Second Annual David Derse Memorial Lecture and Award | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Anne Arthur, Guest Writer The Second Annual David Derse Memorial Lecture and Award presentation was held on November 12, 2013, at the NCI at Frederick Conference Center to honor David Derse’s outstanding research accomplishments and to stimulate the exchange of innovative ideas that Derse was well known for promoting throughout his scientific career. The Annual David Derse Memorial Lecture and Award is sponsored by the HIV Drug Resistance Program, with support from Hye Kyung Chung-Derse, Ph.D., the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and colleagues and friends of Derse who contributed to the memorial fund in his honor.

  18. The Biology of Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arehart-Treichel, Joan

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the conflicting evidence and points of view presented by scientists involved in research on the nature of memory. The research of one group supports a chemical basis for memory, while the other group presents evidence supporting an electro-physiological basis. (JR)

  19. Memory technology survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The current status of semiconductor, magnetic, and optical memory technologies is described. Projections based on these research activities planned for the shot term are presented. Conceptual designs of specific memory buffer pplications employing bipola, CMOS, GaAs, and Magnetic Bubble devices are discussed.

  20. How Misinformation Alters Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Daniel B.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    1998-01-01

    Notes that a multitude of studies have demonstrated that misleading postevent information affects people's memories. Contents that the fuzzy-trace theory is a positive step toward understanding the malleability of memory. Discusses fuzzy-trace theory in terms of three primary areas of study: altered response format, maximized misinformation…

  1. Predicting Reasoning from Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heit, Evan; Hayes, Brett K.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to assess the relations between reasoning and memory, in 8 experiments, the authors examined how well responses on an inductive reasoning task are predicted from responses on a recognition memory task for the same picture stimuli. Across several experimental manipulations, such as varying study time, presentation frequency, and the…

  2. An Exceptional Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Ian M. L.

    1977-01-01

    An account is given of the exceptional memory of the late Professor A. C. Aitken who was also a distinguished mathematician and mental calculator. Compared with Shereshevskii, another man with exceptional memory, he shows the scholar's reliance on conceptual mapping rather than the mnemonist's reliance on perceptual chaining. (Editor)

  3. A Space for Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article I examine the possibilities of reparation in an era of privatisation and de-industrialisation. I examine the effect of a recent project Sunshine Memory Space, a space, designed to evoke memories of a de-industrialised urban Melbourne suburb Sunshine. This project offered the opportunity for the effects of industrial change to be…

  4. Working Memory and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Eun Sook; Reid, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Working memory capacity has been shown to be an important factor in controlling understanding in the sciences. Attitudes related to studies in the sciences are also known to be important in relation to success in learning. It might be argued that if working memory capacity is a rate controlling feature of learning and success in understanding…

  5. Memory Metals (Marchon Eyewear)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Another commercial application of memory metal technology is found in a "smart" eyeglass frame that remembers its shape and its wearer's fit. A patented "memory encoding process" makes this possible. Heat is not required to return the glasses to shape. A large commercial market is anticipated.

  6. Human Learning and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

  7. Human Memory: The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

  8. Memory and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marcia K.

    2006-01-01

    Although it may be disconcerting to contemplate, true and false memories arise in the same way. Memories are attributions that we make about our mental experiences based on their subjective qualities, our prior knowledge and beliefs, our motives and goals, and the social context. This article describes an approach to studying the nature of these…

  9. Measuring Transient Memory Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanner, Eric; Shiner, Sandra

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments are reported in which subjects performed simple mental arithmetic problems which were presented visually in a sequential fashion. At some point in the presentation of each problem, the sequential display was interrupted and a memory task introduced. The purpose was to validate a measure of transient memory load. (Author/RM)

  10. Experimental Optoelectronic Associative Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1992-01-01

    Optoelectronic associative memory responds to input image by displaying one of M remembered images. Which image to display determined by optoelectronic analog computation of resemblance between input image and each remembered image. Does not rely on precomputation and storage of outer-product synapse matrix. Size of memory needed to store and process images reduced.

  11. Major memory for microblogs.

    PubMed

    Mickes, Laura; Darby, Ryan S; Hwe, Vivian; Bajic, Daniel; Warker, Jill A; Harris, Christine R; Christenfeld, Nicholas J S

    2013-05-01

    Online social networking is vastly popular and permits its members to post their thoughts as microblogs, an opportunity that people exploit, on Facebook alone, over 30 million times an hour. Such trivial ephemera, one might think, should vanish quickly from memory; conversely, they may comprise the sort of information that our memories are tuned to recognize, if that which we readily generate, we also readily store. In the first two experiments, participants' memory for Facebook posts was found to be strikingly stronger than their memory for human faces or sentences from books-a magnitude comparable to the difference in memory strength between amnesics and healthy controls. The second experiment suggested that this difference is not due to Facebook posts spontaneously generating social elaboration, because memory for posts is enhanced as much by adding social elaboration as is memory for book sentences. Our final experiment, using headlines, sentences, and reader comments from articles, suggested that the remarkable memory for microblogs is also not due to their completeness or simply their topic, but may be a more general phenomenon of their being the largely spontaneous and natural emanations of the human mind. PMID:23315488

  12. Eavesdropping without quantum memory

    SciTech Connect

    Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.

    2006-04-15

    In quantum cryptography the optimal eavesdropping strategy requires that the eavesdropper uses ancillas and quantum memories in order to optimize her information. What happens if the eavesdropper has no quantum memory? It is shown that in this case the eavesdropper obtains a better information/disturbance trade-off by adopting the simple intercept/resend strategy.

  13. Memory Efficient Ranking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffat, Alistair; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes an approximate document ranking process that uses a compact array of in-memory, low-precision approximations for document length. Combined with another rule for reducing the memory required by partial similarity accumulators, the approximation heuristic allows the ranking of large document collections using less than one byte of memory…

  14. Memories of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidwell, Amy M.; Walls, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore college students' autobiographical memories of physical education (PE). Questionnaires were distributed to students enrolled in undergraduate Introduction to PE and Introduction to Communications courses. The 261 participants wrote about memories of PE. These students recalled events from Grades…

  15. Regret as Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Ian M.; Feeney, Aidan

    2008-01-01

    We apply an autobiographical memory framework to the study of regret. Focusing on the distinction between regrets for specific and general events we argue that the temporal profile of regret, usually explained in terms of the action-inaction distinction, is predicted by models of autobiographical memory. In two studies involving participants in…

  16. Memory systems interaction in the pigeon: working and reference memory.

    PubMed

    Roberts, William A; Strang, Caroline; Macpherson, Krista

    2015-04-01

    Pigeons' performance on a working memory task, symbolic delayed matching-to-sample, was used to examine the interaction between working memory and reference memory. Reference memory was established by training pigeons to discriminate between the comparison cues used in delayed matching as S+ and S- stimuli. Delayed matching retention tests then measured accuracy when working and reference memory were congruent and incongruent. In 4 experiments, it was shown that the interaction between working and reference memory is reciprocal: Strengthening either type of memory leads to a decrease in the influence of the other type of memory. A process dissociation procedure analysis of the data from Experiment 4 showed independence of working and reference memory, and a model of working memory and reference memory interaction was shown to predict the findings reported in the 4 experiments. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25734757

  17. Is random access memory random?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Most software is contructed on the assumption that the programs and data are stored in random access memory (RAM). Physical limitations on the relative speeds of processor and memory elements lead to a variety of memory organizations that match processor addressing rate with memory service rate. These include interleaved and cached memory. A very high fraction of a processor's address requests can be satified from the cache without reference to the main memory. The cache requests information from main memory in blocks that can be transferred at the full memory speed. Programmers who organize algorithms for locality can realize the highest performance from these computers.

  18. Animal models of source memory.

    PubMed

    Crystal, Jonathon D

    2016-01-01

    Source memory is the aspect of episodic memory that encodes the origin (i.e., source) of information acquired in the past. Episodic memory (i.e., our memories for unique personal past events) typically involves source memory because those memories focus on the origin of previous events. Source memory is at work when, for example, someone tells a favorite joke to a person while avoiding retelling the joke to the friend who originally shared the joke. Importantly, source memory permits differentiation of one episodic memory from another because source memory includes features that were present when the different memories were formed. This article reviews recent efforts to develop an animal model of source memory using rats. Experiments are reviewed which suggest that source memory is dissociated from other forms of memory. The review highlights strengths and weaknesses of a number of animal models of episodic memory. Animal models of source memory may be used to probe the biological bases of memory. Moreover, these models can be combined with genetic models of Alzheimer's disease to evaluate pharmacotherapies that ultimately have the potential to improve memory. PMID:26609644

  19. Neuromodulation for restoring memory.

    PubMed

    Bick, Sarah K B; Eskandar, Emad N

    2016-05-01

    Disorders of learning and memory have a large social and economic impact in today's society. Unfortunately, existing medical treatments have shown limited clinical efficacy or potential for modification of the disease course. Deep brain stimulation is a successful treatment for movement disorders and has shown promise in a variety of other diseases including psychiatric disorders. The authors review the potential of neuromodulation for the treatment of disorders of learning and memory. They briefly discuss learning circuitry and its involvement in Alzheimer disease and traumatic brain injury. They then review the literature supporting various targets for neuromodulation to improve memory in animals and humans. Multiple targets including entorhinal cortex, fornix, nucleus basalis of Meynert, basal ganglia, and pedunculopontine nucleus have shown a promising potential for improving dysfunctional memory by mechanisms such as altering firing patterns in neuronal networks underlying memory and increasing synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Significant work remains to be done to translate these findings into durable clinical therapies. PMID:27132526

  20. Computer memory management system

    DOEpatents

    Kirk, III, Whitson John

    2002-01-01

    A computer memory management system utilizing a memory structure system of "intelligent" pointers in which information related to the use status of the memory structure is designed into the pointer. Through this pointer system, The present invention provides essentially automatic memory management (often referred to as garbage collection) by allowing relationships between objects to have definite memory management behavior by use of coding protocol which describes when relationships should be maintained and when the relationships should be broken. In one aspect, the present invention system allows automatic breaking of strong links to facilitate object garbage collection, coupled with relationship adjectives which define deletion of associated objects. In another aspect, The present invention includes simple-to-use infinite undo/redo functionality in that it has the capability, through a simple function call, to undo all of the changes made to a data model since the previous `valid state` was noted.

  1. Making Memories Matter

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Paul E.; Korol, Donna L.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews some of the neuroendocrine bases by which emotional events regulate brain mechanisms of learning and memory. In laboratory rodents, there is extensive evidence that epinephrine influences memory processing through an inverted-U relationship, at which moderate levels enhance and high levels impair memory. These effects are, in large part, mediated by increases in blood glucose levels subsequent to epinephrine release, which then provide support for the brain processes engaged by learning and memory. These brain processes include augmentation of neurotransmitter release and of energy metabolism, the latter apparently including a key role for astrocytic glycogen. In addition to up- and down-regulation of learning and memory in general, physiological concomitants of emotion and arousal can also switch the neural system that controls learning at a particular time, at once improving some attributes of learning and impairing others in a manner that results in a change in the strategy used to solve a problem. PMID:23264764

  2. Cosmological memory effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolish, Alexander; Wald, Robert M.

    2016-08-01

    The "memory effect" is the permanent change in the relative separation of test particles resulting from the passage of gravitational radiation. We investigate the memory effect for a general, spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology by considering the radiation associated with emission events involving particle-like sources. We find that if the resulting perturbation is decomposed into scalar, vector, and tensor parts, only the tensor part contributes to memory. Furthermore, the tensor contribution to memory depends only on the cosmological scale factor at the source and observation events, not on the detailed expansion history of the universe. In particular, for sources at the same luminosity distance, the memory effect in a spatially flat FLRW spacetime is enhanced over the Minkowski case by a factor of (1 +z ).

  3. Dr. Worta McCaskill-Stevens Named Recipient of AACR Minorities in Cancer Research Award | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Worta McCaskill-Stevens, MD, MS, Chief of the Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group, NCI Division of Cancer Prevention, was named the recipient of the 2016 American Association for Cancer Research Jane Cooke Wright Memorial Lectureship. |

  4. Aging Memories: Differential Decay of Episodic Memory Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talamini, Lucia M.; Gorree, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Some memories about events can persist for decades, even a lifetime. However, recent memories incorporate rich sensory information, including knowledge on the spatial and temporal ordering of event features, while old memories typically lack this "filmic" quality. We suggest that this apparent change in the nature of memories may reflect a…

  5. The Unobtrusive Memory Allocator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-03-31

    This library implements a memory allocator/manager which ask its host program or library for memory refions to manage rather than requesting them from the operating system. This allocator supports multiple distinct heaps within a single executable, each of which may grow either upward or downward in memory. The GNU mmalloc library has been modified in such a way that its allocation algorithms have been preserved, but the manner in which it obtains regions to managemore » has been changed to request memory from the host program or library. Additional modifications allow the allocator to manage each heap as either upward or downward-growing. By allowing the hosting program or library to determine what memory is managed, this package allows a greater degree of control than other memory allocation/management libraries. Additional distinguishing features include the ability to manage multiple distinct heaps with in a single executable, each of which may grow either upward or downward in memory. The most common use of this library is in conjunction with the Berkeley Unified Parallel C (UPC) Runtime Library. This package is a modified version of the LGPL-licensed "mmalloc" allocator from release 5.2 of the "gdb" debugger's source code.« less

  6. Plated wire memory subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K. H.

    1974-01-01

    The design, construction, and test history of a 4096 word by 18 bit random access NDRO Plated Wire Memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft input/output and central processing unit is reported. A technical and functional description is given along with diagrams illustrating layout and systems operation. Test data is shown on the procedures and results of system level and memory stack testing, and hybrid circuit screening. A comparison of the most significant physical and performance characteristics of the memory unit versus the specified requirements is also included.

  7. The Composition of Episodic Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Benton J.; And Others

    This study examined the interrelationships among a number of episodic memory tasks and among various attributes of memory. A sample of 200 college students was tested for ten sessions; 28 different measures of episodic memory were obtained. In addition, five measures of semantic memory were available. Results indicated that episodic and semantic…

  8. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  9. TOPICAL REVIEW Nanoscale memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Andy; Deen, Jamal; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Meyyappan, M.

    2010-10-01

    This article reviews the current status and future prospects for the use of nanomaterials and devices in memory technology. First, the status and continuing scaling trends of the flash memory are discussed. Then, a detailed discussion on technologies trying to replace flash in the near-term is provided. This includes phase change random access memory, Fe random access memory and magnetic random access memory. The long-term nanotechnology prospects for memory devices include carbon-nanotube-based memory, molecular electronics and memristors based on resistive materials such as TiO2.

  10. Prospective memory: A comparative perspective

    PubMed Central

    Crystal, Jonathon D.; Wilson, A. George

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory consists of forming a representation of a future action, temporarily storing that representation in memory, and retrieving it at a future time point. Here we review the recent development of animal models of prospective memory. We review experiments using rats that focus on the development of time-based and event-based prospective memory. Next, we review a number of prospective-memory approaches that have been used with a variety of non-human primates. Finally, we review selected approaches from the human literature on prospective memory to identify targets for development of animal models of prospective memory. PMID:25101562

  11. Working Memory and Neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    YuLeung To, Eric; Abbott, Kathy; Foster, Dale S; Helmer, D'Arcy

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in working memory are typically associated with impairments in other cognitive faculties such as attentional processes and short-term memory. This paper briefly introduces neurofeedback as a treatment modality in general, and, more specifically, we review several of the current modalities successfully used in neurofeedback (NF) for the treatment of working memory deficits. Two case studies are presented to illustrate how neurofeedback is applied in treatment. The development of Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) and its application in neurofeedback now makes it possible to specifically target deep cortical/subcortical brain structures. Developments in neuroscience concerning neural networks, combined with highly specific yet practical NF technologies, makes neurofeedback of particular interest to neuropsychological practice, including the emergence of specific methodologies for treating very difficult working memory (WM) problems. PMID:27191218

  12. Memory on time

    PubMed Central

    Eichenbaum, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Considerable recent work has shown that the hippocampus is critical for remembering the order of events in distinct experiences, a defining feature of episodic memory. Correspondingly, hippocampal neuronal activity can ‘replay’ sequential events in memories and hippocampal neuronal ensembles represent a gradually changing temporal context signal. Most strikingly, single hippocampal neurons – called time cells – encode moments in temporally structured experiences much as the well-known place cells encode locations in spatially structured experiences. These observations bridge largely disconnected literatures on the role of the hippocampus in episodic memory and spatial mapping, and suggest that the fundamental function of the hippocampus is to establish spatio-temporal frameworks for organizing memories. PMID:23318095

  13. Medications for Memory Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... memory loss, confusion, and problems with thinking and reasoning) of Alzheimer's disease. As Alzheimer’s progresses, brain cells ... the latest Alzheimer's medications available today, and the clinical trials that may bring us closer to new ...

  14. Planfulness and Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogoff, Barbara; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A study of recorded and analyzed inspection times in a picture recognition memory task involving three different delays between inspection and test. Subjects were 108 4-, 6-, and 8-year-old children. (Author/SDH)

  15. Making a Memory Book

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Narrator: Another project you and your loved one can do together is make a memory book. Hattie Grossman is 93 years ... grandchildren. This afternoon they're working on a project with University of Pittsburgh researcher, Michelle Bourgeois. Bourgeois: ...

  16. Memory Circuit Fault Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, Douglas J.; McClure, Tucker

    2013-01-01

    Spacecraft are known to experience significant memory part-related failures and problems, both pre- and postlaunch. These memory parts include both static and dynamic memories (SRAM and DRAM). These failures manifest themselves in a variety of ways, such as pattern-sensitive failures, timingsensitive failures, etc. Because of the mission critical nature memory devices play in spacecraft architecture and operation, understanding their failure modes is vital to successful mission operation. To support this need, a generic simulation tool that can model different data patterns in conjunction with variable write and read conditions was developed. This tool is a mathematical and graphical way to embed pattern, electrical, and physical information to perform what-if analysis as part of a root cause failure analysis effort.

  17. Coping with Memory Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... either using computerized axial tomography (CAT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – can help to identify strokes and tumors, which can sometimes cause memory loss. “The goal is to rule out factors ...

  18. Computational principles of memory.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Rishidev; Fiete, Ila

    2016-03-01

    The ability to store and later use information is essential for a variety of adaptive behaviors, including integration, learning, generalization, prediction and inference. In this Review, we survey theoretical principles that can allow the brain to construct persistent states for memory. We identify requirements that a memory system must satisfy and analyze existing models and hypothesized biological substrates in light of these requirements. We also highlight open questions, theoretical puzzles and problems shared with computer science and information theory. PMID:26906506

  19. Plated wire memory subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, L.; Tweed, H.

    1972-01-01

    The work performed entailed the design, development, construction and testing of a 4000 word by 18 bit random access, NDRO plated wire memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft imput/output unit and central processing unit. The primary design parameters, in order of importance, were high reliability, low power, volume and weight. A single memory unit, referred to as a qualification model, was delivered.

  20. Immune memory in invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Milutinović, Barbara; Kurtz, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    Evidence for innate immune memory (or 'priming') in invertebrates has been accumulating over the last years. We here provide an in-depth review of the current state of evidence for immune memory in invertebrates, and in particular take a phylogenetic viewpoint. Invertebrates are a very heterogeneous group of animals and accordingly, evidence for the phenomenon of immune memory as well as the hypothesized molecular underpinnings differ largely for the diverse invertebrate taxa. The majority of research currently focuses on Arthropods, while evidence from many other groups of invertebrates is fragmentary or even lacking. We here concentrate on immune memory that is induced by pathogenic challenges, but also extent our view to a non-pathogenic context, i.e. allograft rejection, which can also show forms of memory and can inform us about general principles of specific self-nonself recognition. We discuss definitions of immune memory and a number of relevant aspects such as the type of antigens used, the route of exposure, and the kinetics of reactions following priming. PMID:27402055

  1. Memory T Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qianqian; Lakkis, Fadi G.

    2015-01-01

    Immunological memory is a key feature of adaptive immunity. It provides the organism with long-lived and robust protection against infection. In organ transplantation, memory T cells pose a significant threat by causing allograft rejection that is generally resistant to immunosuppressive therapy. Therefore, a more thorough understanding of memory T cell biology is needed to improve the survival of transplanted organs without compromising the host’s ability to fight infections. This review will focus on the mechanisms by which memory T cells migrate to the site where their target antigen is present, with particular emphasis on their migration to transplanted organs. First, we will define the known subsets of memory T cells (central, effector, and tissue resident) and their circulation patterns. Second, we will review the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which memory T cells migrate to inflamed and non-inflamed tissues and highlight the emerging paradigm of antigen-driven, trans-endothelial migration. Third, we will discuss the relevance of this knowledge to organ transplantation and the prevention or treatment of allograft rejection. PMID:26483794

  2. [Antidepressive agents and memory].

    PubMed

    Danion, J M

    1993-07-01

    It is important that antidepressants, now increasingly used in ambulatory treatment of many patients, should not be detrimental to cognition and memory. It is difficult to assess these effects. One must make a distinction between the direct effects of antidepressants on cognition, related to their intrinsic properties, and indirect effects secondary to mood improvement. The tests used in studies essentially focus on psychomotricity and do not accurately evaluate the effects on cognition itself. Indeed, there are different kinds of memory which would require specific investigations. It has nevertheless been demonstrated that acute administration of sedative antidepressants with a marked anticholinergic component are detrimental to the memory processes. However, following prolonged administration, tolerance may develop within 1 to 3 weeks. Some antidepressants, however, especially serotonergics, do not cause any disturbances of memory. In depressed subjects, it seems that, overall, long-term antidepressant treatment improves cognitive functions. This effect is due to the combination of drug tolerance and of the indirect effects secondary to mood improvement. Elderly subjects appear to be more sensitive to the detrimental effects on memory and they develop drug tolerance more slowly. Lastly, two studies have reported that serotonin re-uptake inhibitors might have beneficial effects on memory disorders secondary to acute or chronic alcohol abuse. PMID:8281908

  3. Music evokes vivid autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Belfi, Amy M; Karlan, Brett; Tranel, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Music is strongly intertwined with memories-for example, hearing a song from the past can transport you back in time, triggering the sights, sounds, and feelings of a specific event. This association between music and vivid autobiographical memory is intuitively apparent, but the idea that music is intimately tied with memories, seemingly more so than other potent memory cues (e.g., familiar faces), has not been empirically tested. Here, we compared memories evoked by music to those evoked by famous faces, predicting that music-evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) would be more vivid. Participants listened to 30 songs, viewed 30 faces, and reported on memories that were evoked. Memories were transcribed and coded for vividness as in Levine, B., Svoboda, E., Hay, J. F., Winocur, G., & Moscovitch, M. [2002. Aging and autobiographical memory: Dissociating episodic from semantic retrieval. Psychology and Aging, 17, 677-689]. In support of our hypothesis, MEAMs were more vivid than autobiographical memories evoked by faces. MEAMs contained a greater proportion of internal details and a greater number of perceptual details, while face-evoked memories contained a greater number of external details. Additionally, we identified sex differences in memory vividness: for both stimulus categories, women retrieved more vivid memories than men. The results show that music not only effectively evokes autobiographical memories, but that these memories are more vivid than those evoked by famous faces. PMID:26259098

  4. Primer: making sense of T-cell memory.

    PubMed

    Beverley, Peter C L

    2008-01-01

    Protective memory is a key property of the immune system. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns of invading organisms deliver signals to pattern-recognition receptors that activate the innate immune system. Ligation of the T-cell receptor by peptides bound to MHC antigens and presented by dendritic cells, together with signals produced by the activated innate immune system, initiate T-cell responses. The nature of the T-cell response, consisting of phases of clonal expansion and contraction, and differentiation to effector and memory cells, however, is determined both by the properties of the antigen and the co-stimuli produced by the innate immune system. Short-lived effector and longer-lived memory T cells are generated during primary responses; after the death of most of the effectors, memory cells remain. Memory cells are heterogeneous in phenotype and function; subsets include the relatively quiescent central and more activated effector memory cells, as well as cells able to promote inflammation, help antibody production or regulate other immune responses. Understanding the properties of memory cells will help in the rational design of vaccines for 'difficult' organisms or cancer, as well as immunotherapies for autoimmune diseases. PMID:18172448

  5. False memories for aggressive acts.

    PubMed

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed. PMID:23639921

  6. Embodied memory: unconscious smiling modulates emotional evaluation of episodic memories

    PubMed Central

    Arminjon, Mathieu; Preissmann, Delphine; Chmetz, Florian; Duraku, Andrea; Ansermet, François; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    Since Damasio introduced the somatic markers hypothesis in Damasio (1994), it has spread through the psychological community, where it is now commonly acknowledged that somatic states are a factor in producing the qualitative dimension of our experiences. Present actions are emotionally guided by those somatic states that were previously activated in similar experiences. In this model, somatic markers serve as a kind of embodied memory. Here, we test whether the manipulation of somatic markers can modulate the emotional evaluation of negative memories. Because facial feedback has been shown to be a powerful means of modifying emotional judgements, we used it to manipulate somatic markers. Participants first read a sad story in order to induce a negative emotional memory and then were asked to rate their emotions and memory about the text. Twenty-four hours later, the same participants were asked to assume a predetermined facial feedback (smiling) while reactivating their memory of the sad story. The participants were once again asked to fill in emotional and memory questionnaires about the text. Our results showed that participants who had smiled during memory reactivation later rated the text less negatively than control participants. However, the contraction of the zygomaticus muscles during memory reactivation did not have any impact on episodic memory scores. This suggests that manipulating somatic states modified emotional memory without affecting episodic memory. Thus, modulating memories through bodily states might pave the way to studying memory as an embodied function and help shape new kinds of psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:26074833

  7. Vertical bloch line memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Wu, Jiin-chuan (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A new read gate design for the vertical Bloch line (VBL) memory is disclosed which offers larger operating margin than the existing read gate designs. In the existing read gate designs, a current is applied to all the stripes. The stripes that contain a VBL pair are chopped, while the stripes that do not contain a VBL pair are not chopped. The information is then detected by inspecting the presence or absence of the bubble. The margin of the chopping current amplitude is very small, and sometimes non-existent. A new method of reading Vertical Bloch Line memory is also disclosed. Instead of using the wall chirality to separate the two binary states, the spatial deflection of the stripe head is used. Also disclosed herein is a compact memory which uses vertical Bloch line (VBL) memory technology for providing data storage. A three-dimensional arrangement in the form of stacks of VBL memory layers is used to achieve high volumetric storage density. High data transfer rate is achieved by operating all the layers in parallel. Using Hall effect sensing, and optical sensing via the Faraday effect to access the data from within the three-dimensional packages, an even higher data transfer rate can be achieved due to parallel operation within each layer.

  8. Nanoporous silicon oxide memory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gunuk; Yang, Yang; Lee, Jae-Hwang; Abramova, Vera; Fei, Huilong; Ruan, Gedeng; Thomas, Edwin L; Tour, James M

    2014-08-13

    Oxide-based two-terminal resistive random access memory (RRAM) is considered one of the most promising candidates for next-generation nonvolatile memory. We introduce here a new RRAM memory structure employing a nanoporous (NP) silicon oxide (SiOx) material which enables unipolar switching through its internal vertical nanogap. Through the control of the stochastic filament formation at low voltage, the NP SiOx memory exhibited an extremely low electroforming voltage (∼ 1.6 V) and outstanding performance metrics. These include multibit storage ability (up to 9-bits), a high ON-OFF ratio (up to 10(7) A), a long high-temperature lifetime (≥ 10(4) s at 100 °C), excellent cycling endurance (≥ 10(5)), sub-50 ns switching speeds, and low power consumption (∼ 6 × 10(-5) W/bit). Also provided is the room temperature processability for versatile fabrication without any compliance current being needed during electroforming or switching operations. Taken together, these metrics in NP SiOx RRAM provide a route toward easily accessed nonvolatile memory applications. PMID:24992278

  9. Memory function and supportive technology

    PubMed Central

    Charness, Neil; Best, Ryan; Souders, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    Episodic and working memory processes show pronounced age-related decline, with other memory processes such as semantic, procedural, and metamemory less affected. Older adults tend to complain the most about prospective and retrospective memory failures. We introduce a framework for deciding how to mitigate memory decline using augmentation and substitution and discuss techniques that change the user, through mnemonics training, and change the tool or environment, by providing environmental support. We provide examples of low-tech and high-tech memory supports and discuss constraints on the utility of high-tech systems including effectiveness of devices, attitudes toward memory aids, and reliability of systems. PMID:24379752

  10. MEMORIAL WALK WITH MEMORIALS, TOWARD ENTRANCE GATE. VIEW TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MEMORIAL WALK WITH MEMORIALS, TOWARD ENTRANCE GATE. VIEW TO WEST. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  11. Aging accelerates memory extinction and impairs memory restoration in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nannan; Guo, Aike; Li, Yan

    2015-05-15

    Age-related memory impairment (AMI) is a phenomenon observed from invertebrates to human. Memory extinction is proposed to be an active inhibitory modification of memory, however, whether extinction is affected in aging animals remains to be elucidated. Employing a modified paradigm for studying memory extinction in fruit flies, we found that only the stable, but not the labile memory component was suppressed by extinction, thus effectively resulting in higher memory loss in aging flies. Strikingly, young flies were able to fully restore the stable memory component 3 h post extinction, while aging flies failed to do so. In conclusion, our findings reveal that both accelerated extinction and impaired restoration contribute to memory impairment in aging animals. PMID:25842205

  12. Schizotypy and false memory.

    PubMed

    Dagnall, Neil; Parker, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm the present study examined the relationship between schizotypy and recognition memory. Participants scoring in the upper and lower quartile ranges for schizotypy (Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire brief version; SPQ-B) and on each of the SPQ-B subscales (cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal and disorganized) were compared on true and false memory performance. Participants scoring in the lower quartile range on the cognitive-perceptual subscale recognised a higher proportion of both true and false memories than those scoring in the higher quartile range. Participants scoring in the upper quartile on the interpersonal factor recognised fewer true items than those in the lower quartile range. No differences were found for overall schizotypy or on the disorganized subscale. PMID:18817907

  13. Emotion and autobiographical memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-03-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain.

  14. Flexible memory networks.

    PubMed

    Curto, Carina; Degeratu, Anda; Itskov, Vladimir

    2012-03-01

    Networks of neurons in some brain areas are flexible enough to encode new memories quickly. Using a standard firing rate model of recurrent networks, we develop a theory of flexible memory networks. Our main results characterize networks having the maximal number of flexible memory patterns, given a constraint graph on the network's connectivity matrix. Modulo a mild topological condition, we find a close connection between maximally flexible networks and rank 1 matrices. The topological condition is H (1)(X;ℤ)=0, where X is the clique complex associated to the network's constraint graph; this condition is generically satisfied for large random networks that are not overly sparse. In order to prove our main results, we develop some matrix-theoretic tools and present them in a self-contained section independent of the neuroscience context. PMID:21826564

  15. Emotion and Autobiographical Memory

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain. PMID:20374933

  16. Negative Affect Impairs Associative Memory but Not Item Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisby, James A.; Burgess, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The formation of associations between items and their context has been proposed to rely on mechanisms distinct from those supporting memory for a single item. Although emotional experiences can profoundly affect memory, our understanding of how it interacts with different aspects of memory remains unclear. We performed three experiments to examine…

  17. Occupational Memory Practice and Memory Beliefs with Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huet, Nathalie; Marquie, Jean-Claude; Bacon, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study examined effects of intensive memory use during one's profession on metamemory beliefs. Fifty-one actors and 60 controls aged from 20 to 73 years were compared with the Metamemory Inventory in Adulthood. Both intensive job-related memory practice and younger age were associated with stronger memory self-efficacy beliefs. Irrespective of…

  18. How misinformation alters memories.

    PubMed

    Wright, D B; Loftus, E F

    1998-11-01

    Over the past quarter of a century, hundreds of studies have demonstrated that misleading postevent information affects people's memories. Researchers have used several methods to try to understand this phenomenon and have also put forward different theories to account for the effect. Brainerd and Reyna's (1998, this issue) conjoint misinformation method and their fuzzy-trace theory are welcomed additions on both these fronts. We describe how their contribution fits with the other methods and theories which have been used to understand how misleading postevent information affects people's memory. PMID:9843620

  19. Making sense of memory.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Daniel M

    2005-09-01

    The current work explores how people make recognition and belief judgments in the presence of obvious repetition primes. In two experiments, subjects received a 200-ms prime ("cheetah"), either before or after reading a trivia question ("What is the fastest animal?") but always before being presented with the target answer ("cheetah"). Results showed that repetition priming decreased "old" claims (Recognition--Experiment 1), while it increased truth claims (Belief--Experiment 2). Furthermore, repetition prime placement affected recognition but not belief. Combined, these results suggest that dissociations in memory performance are a natural outcome of task and processing demands and reflect the dynamic, flexible nature of memory. PMID:16248499

  20. Shape memory polymer foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santo, Loredana

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in shape memory polymer (SMP) foam research are reviewed. The SMPs belong to a new class of smart polymers which can have interesting applications in microelectromechanical systems, actuators and biomedical devices. They can respond to specific external stimulus changing their configuration and then remember the original shape. In the form of foams, the shape memory behaviour can be enhanced because they generally have higher compressibility. Considering also the low weight, and recovery force, the SMP foams are expected to have great potential applications primarily in aerospace. This review highlights the recent progress in characterization, evaluation, and proposed applications of SMP foams mainly for aerospace applications.

  1. Psychobiology of Active and Inactive Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Donald J.

    1979-01-01

    Argues that the distinction between short-term memory and long-term memory is no longer adequate for either human or animal memory data. Recommends additional research on the physiological brain processes underlying memory interference and retrieval. (MP)

  2. Memory and Forgetfulness: NIH Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Memory & Forgetfulness NIH Research Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... agency for research on Alzheimer's disease and related memory research. An analysis funded by the NIA finds ...

  3. Memory for syntax despite amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Victor S.; Bock, Kathryn; Wilson, Michael P.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2009-01-01

    Syntactic persistence is a tendency for speakers to reproduce sentence structures independently of accompanying meanings, words, or sounds. The memory mechanisms behind syntactic persistence are not fully understood. Though some properties of syntactic persistence suggest a role for procedural memory, current evidence suggests that procedural memory (unlike declarative memory) does not maintain the abstract, relational features that are inherent to syntactic structures. To evaluate the contribution of procedural memory to syntactic persistence, patients with anterograde amnesia and matched control speakers (a) reproduced prime sentences with different syntactic structures; (b) reproduced 0, 1, 6, or 10 neutral sentences; (c) described pictures that elicited the primed structures spontaneously; and (d) made recognition judgments for the prime sentences. Amnesic and control speakers showed significant and equivalent syntactic persistence, despite the amnesic speakers’ profoundly impaired recognition memory for primes. Syntax is thus maintained by procedural memory mechanisms, revealing that procedural memory is capable of supporting abstract, relational knowledge. PMID:18947361

  4. Alcohol and Memory: Retrieval Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Isabel M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The influence of alcohol intoxication on the retrieval of information from memory was investigated in nonalcoholic subjects Intoxicated subjects recalled fewer categories and words within categories. The retrieval stage of memory did not appear to be affected by alcohol. (SW)

  5. Quasi-Ideal Memory System.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junwei; Shen, Yi

    2015-07-01

    The definition for ideal memory system is so strict that some physical elements cannot exist in the real world. In this paper, an ideal memory system can be extended to generate 15 different kinds of quasi-ideal memory systems, which are included in memory systems as its special cases and are different from ideal memory system. For a system to be a quasi-ideal memory system, it should show three unique fingerprints: 1) the pinched hysteretic loop of a quasi-ideal memory system must be odd symmetrical in the plane; 2) the pinched hysteretic loop of a quasi-ideal memory system must be "self-crossing"; and 3) the slope of tangent line for the pinched hysteresis loop must be strictly monotone in a given period. PMID:25204007

  6. Shape memory polymer medical device

    DOEpatents

    Maitland, Duncan; Benett, William J.; Bearinger, Jane P.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Small, IV, Ward; Schumann, Daniel L.; Jensen, Wayne A.; Ortega, Jason M.; Marion, III, John E.; Loge, Jeffrey M.

    2010-06-29

    A system for removing matter from a conduit. The system includes the steps of passing a transport vehicle and a shape memory polymer material through the conduit, transmitting energy to the shape memory polymer material for moving the shape memory polymer material from a first shape to a second and different shape, and withdrawing the transport vehicle and the shape memory polymer material through the conduit carrying the matter.

  7. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Cancer - Overview Request Permissions Print to PDF Eye Cancer - Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us Eye Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Eye Cancer Overview Statistics ...

  8. Cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org Cancer Care -- www.cancercare.org National Cancer Institute -- www.cancer.gov

  9. Black phosphorus nonvolatile transistor memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dain; Choi, Yongsuk; Hwang, Euyheon; Kang, Moon Sung; Lee, Seungwoo; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2016-04-28

    We demonstrated nanofloating gate transistor memory devices (NFGTMs) using mechanically-exfoliated few-layered black phosphorus (BP) channels and gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) charge trapping layers. The resulting BP-NFGTMs exhibited excellent memory performances, including the five-level data storage, large memory window (58.2 V), stable retention (10(4) s), and cyclic endurance (1000 cycles). PMID:27074903

  10. Play Memories and Place Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective study examined play memories from childhood to adulthood of 478 university students between ages 20 and 62 as exhibited in drawings of play memories and questionnaire responses. The study focused on the role of the physical environment and place identity in play memories and individual identity development. Findings showed that…

  11. Dream recall and visual memory.

    PubMed

    Schredl, M; Frauscher, S; Shendi, A

    1995-08-01

    The present study estimated correlations for 50 subjects among frequency of dream recall, length of dream report, and visual memory. Whereas the results confirmed the previously found relationship between frequency of dream recall and visual memory, influence of visual memory on length of dream report was not found. PMID:8532466

  12. Motor Action and Emotional Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Dijkstra, Katinka

    2010-01-01

    Can simple motor actions affect how efficiently people retrieve emotional memories, and influence what they choose to remember? In Experiment 1, participants were prompted to retell autobiographical memories with either positive or negative valence, while moving marbles either upward or downward. They retrieved memories faster when the direction…

  13. Memory Processes in Media Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellermann, Kathy

    1985-01-01

    Explores the role of memory in mediating mass communication effects. Examines (1) the nature of memory, (2) issues in retention and recall of media messages, (3) methods of promoting retention and recall of media messages, and (4) implications of memory processes for mass media effects. (PD)

  14. [Neural basis of procedural memory].

    PubMed

    Mochizuki-Kawai, Hiroko

    2008-07-01

    Procedural memory is acquired by trial and error. Our daily life is supported by a number of procedural memories such as those for riding bicycle, typing, reading words, etc. Procedural memory is divided into 3 types; motor, perceptual, and cognitive. Here, the author reviews the cognitive and neural basis of procedural memory according to these 3 types. It is reported that the basal ganglia or cerebellum dysfunction causes deficits in procedural memory. Compared with age-matched healthy participants, patients with Parkinson disease (PD), Huntington disease (HD) or spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) show deterioration in improvements in motor-type procedural memory tasks. Previous neuroimaging studies have reported that motor-type procedural memory may be supported by multiple brain regions, including the frontal and parietal regions as well as the basal ganglia (cerebellum); this was found with a serial reaction time task (SRT task). Although 2 other types of procedural memory are also maintained by multiple brain regions, the related cerebral areas depend on the type of memory. For example, it was suggested that acquisition of the perceptual type of procedural memory (e.g., ability to read mirror images of words) might be maintained by the bilateral fusiform region, while the acquisition of cognitive procedural memory might be supported by the frontal, parietal, or cerebellar regions as well as the basal ganglia. In the future, we need to cleary understand the neural "network" related to the procedural memory. PMID:18646622

  15. Stroke and Episodic Memory Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Chun; Alexander, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Memory impairments are common after stroke, and the anatomical basis for impairments may be quite variable. To determine the range of stroke-related memory impairment, we identified all case reports and group studies through the Medline database and the Science Citation Index. There is no hypothesis about memory that is unique to stroke, but there…

  16. Storing Memories of Recent Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... that come with normal aging and dementia. The hippocampus plays a critical role in memory. Much prior memory research has focused on semantic ... to a small number of neurons in the hippocampus; these neurons then fire when the memory is recalled. But how the brain forms episodic ...

  17. Memory Storage and Neural Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkon, Daniel L.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates memory storage and molecular nature of associative-memory formation by analyzing Pavlovian conditioning in marine snails and rabbits. Presented is the design of a computer-based memory system (neural networks) using the rules acquired in the investigation. Reports that the artificial network recognized patterns well. (YP)

  18. Improving Memory in the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Linda M.; Pratt, Mary Alice

    This paper reports the results of an evaluation of a didactic-experiential program designed to improve memory functioning in healthy older adults with memory complaints, and to allay their concerns (in this case, largely unfounded) about the decline of their memory. The 7-week workshop met weekly for 2 hours, each session consisting of a lecture…

  19. First Words and First Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Catriona M.; Conway, Martin A.

    2010-01-01

    In two experiments autobiographical memories from childhood were recalled to cue words naming common objects, locations, activities and emotions. Participants recalled their earliest specific memory associated with each word and dated their age at the time of the remembered event. A striking and specific finding emerged: age of earliest memory was…

  20. Origins of Adolescents' Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Elaine; Jack, Fiona; White, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents (N = 46; M = 12.46 years) who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of autobiographical memory development narrated their early childhood memories, interpreted life events, and completed a family history questionnaire and language assessment. Three distinct components of adolescent memory emerged: (1) age of earliest…

  1. A Nimble Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Apoorva; Badre, David

    2016-08-01

    In this issue of Neuron, Sprague et al. (2016) report fMRI evidence that a degraded working memory representation can be restored by a later cue. The findings raise new questions about the neural mechanisms that underlie such dynamic representational shifts. PMID:27497219

  2. The Grammar of Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    This essay focuses on two sites of memory in my professional life. One is from my very early years of teaching, the second from about 10 years later. Each is centred on a moment of controversy in English curriculum in New South Wales, Australia, and each is to do with the teaching of writing and the supposed neglect of language study, including…

  3. High density associative memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moopenn, Alexander W. (Inventor); Thakoor, Anilkumar P. (Inventor); Daud, Taher (Inventor); Lambe, John J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A multi-layered, thin-film, digital memory having associative recall. There is a first memory matrix and a second memory matrix. Each memory matrix comprises, a first layer comprising a plurality of electrically separated row conductors; a second layer comprising a plurality of electrically separated column conductors intersecting but electrically separated from the row conductors; and, a plurality of resistance elements electrically connected between the row condutors and the column conductors at respective intersections of the row conductors and the column conductors, each resistance element comprising, in series, a first resistor of sufficiently high ohmage to conduct a sensible element current therethrough with virtually no heat-generating power consumption when a low voltage as employed in thin-film applications is applied thereacross and a second resistor of sufficiently high ohmage to conduct no sensible current therethrough when a low voltage as employed in thin-film applications is applied thereacross, the second resistor having the quality of breaking down to create a short therethrough upon the application of a breakdown level voltage across the first and second resistors.

  4. Quantum Memory in Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellars, Matthew

    2008-05-01

    Quantum memories are likely to be critical components in any future long range quantum communication network. A method is described for storing light that operates by controlling the local group velocity of light in a crystal, using an applied electric field gradient to Stark shift an optical transition. Unlike other proposals for quantum memories no optical control pulses are required greatly simplifying the operation of the memory and improving its signal to noise. It is shown that the technique has the potential to operate with near 100% efficiency with little excess noise, making it suitable as a quantum memory. Preliminary experimental results will be presented demonstrating efficiencies up to 45%. These experiments utilized the ^3H4<->^1D2 optical transition (605.7 nm) in a 4 mm long crystal of Pr^3+:Y2SiO5 cooled to liquid helium temperatures. The experiments are well described by Maxwell-Bloch simulations and such simulations suggest efficiencies much closer to unity should be possible with only modest improvements to the experiment. This work was carried out in collaboration with G. Hetet, J. J. Longdell, A. L. Alexander, P. K. Lam and M. P. Hedges.

  5. Memory Loss and Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Underlying the generally oblivious attitude of teachers and learners towards the past is insufficient respect for the role of memory in giving meaning to experience and access to knowledge. We shape our identity by making sense of our past and its relationship to present and future selves, a process that should be intensively cultivated when we…

  6. Memorials: Art for Remembering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Art to Zoo: Teaching With the Power of Objects, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Throughout history, in all parts of the world, people have struggled with the problem of loss. Moving words have been written and beautiful objects created to preserve the memory of people and their achievements. This theme issue explores the different ways that people have been praised and remembered in works of art. An introduction suggests a…

  7. Memory for Serial Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Murdock, Bennet B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    An extension to Murdock's Theory of Distributed Associative Memory, based on associative chaining between items, is presented. The extended theory is applied to several serial order phenomena, including serial list learning, delayed recall effects, partial report effects, and buildup and release from proactive interference. (TJH)

  8. Judgments of Associative Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maki, William S.

    2007-01-01

    Judgments of associative memory (JAM) were indexed by ratings given to pairs of cue and response words. The normed probabilities, p(response|cue), were obtained from free association norms. The ratings were linearly related to the probabilities. The JAM functions were characterized by high intercepts (approximately 50 on a 100 point scale) and…

  9. Dreams Memories & Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Photography students spend a considerable amount of time working on technical issues in shooting, composing, editing, and processing prints. Another aspect of their learning should include the conception and communication of their ideas. A student's memories and dreams can serve as motivation to create images in visual art. Some artists claim that…

  10. Advanced image memory architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vercillo, Richard; McNeill, Kevin M.

    1994-05-01

    A workstation for radiographic images, known as the Arizona Viewing Console (AVC), was developed at the University of Arizona Health Sciences Center in the Department of Radiology. This workstation has been in use as a research tool to aid us in investigating how a radiologist interacts with a workstation, to determine which image processing features are required to aid the radiologist, to develop user interfaces and to support psychophysical and clinical studies. Results from these studies have show a need to increase the current image memory's available storage in order to accommodate high resolution images. The current triple-ported image memory can be allocated to store any number of images up to a combined total of 4 million pixels. Over the past couple of years, higher resolution images have become easier to generate with the advent of laser digitizers and computed radiology systems. As part of our research, a larger 32 million pixel image memory for AVC has been designed to replace the existing image memory.

  11. Memory and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vain” to remember the first letters of the colors of the rainbow in order of their wave lengths: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet.) Don’t buy into ageist stereotypes about memory decline. Studies have shown that having positive beliefs ...

  12. Antenatal memories and psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Neighbour, Roger

    1981-01-01

    A case is described of suicidal impulses apparently stemming from the patient's experience before and during his birth. By using a technique of `rebirthing', antenatal memories were relived and their traumatic effects resolved. Theoretical and practical accounts of rebirthing are given, and its significance for general practitioners is discussed. PMID:7338871

  13. Comment on "Childhood Memories."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Critiques an article that focuses on how the analysis of memory offers a window into the cultural, social, linguistic, and ideological dimensions of people as a step toward the development of voice. Suggests the importance of dedicating teaching and research not merely to the development of students' empowerment, but also to connecting these…

  14. When Autobiographical Memory Begins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Courage, Mary L.; Edison, Shannon C.

    2003-01-01

    The authors review competing theories concerning the emergence and early development of autobiographical memory. It is argued that the differences between these accounts, although important, may be more apparent than real. The crux of these disagreements lies not in "what" processes are important, but rather, the role these different processes…

  15. Working Memory and Reactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goo, Jaemyung

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and think-alouds, focusing on the issue of reactivity. Two WM span tasks (listening span and operation span) were administered to 42 English-speaking learners of Spanish. Learner performance on reading comprehension and written production was measured under two…

  16. Memory blindness: Altered memory reports lead to distortion in eyewitness memory.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Kevin J; Greenspan, Rachel L; Bogart, Daniel F; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2016-07-01

    Choice blindness refers to the finding that people can often be misled about their own self-reported choices. However, little research has investigated the more long-term effects of choice blindness. We examined whether people would detect alterations to their own memory reports, and whether such alterations could influence participants' memories. Participants viewed slideshows depicting crimes, and then either reported their memories for episodic details of the event (Exp. 1) or identified a suspect from a lineup (Exp. 2). Then we exposed participants to manipulated versions of their memory reports, and later tested their memories a second time. The results indicated that the majority of participants failed to detect the misinformation, and that exposing witnesses to misleading versions of their own memory reports caused their memories to change to be consistent with those reports. These experiments have implications for eyewitness memory. PMID:26884087

  17. The role of stress during memory reactivation on intrusive memories.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Jessica; Garber, Benjamin; Bryant, Richard A

    2015-09-01

    Intrusive memories are unwanted recollections that maintain distress in psychological disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that memories that are reactivated through retrieval become temporarily vulnerable to environmental or pharmacological manipulation, including changes in levels of circulating stress hormones. This study investigated the influence of stress during memory reactivation of an emotionally arousing trauma film on subsequent intrusive memories. Three groups of participants (N=63) viewed a trauma film depicting a serious car accident at baseline. Two days later (Time 2), one group received a reactivation induction following a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT; Stress/Reactivation condition), whilst the second group reactivated the memory after a control procedure (Reactivation condition). A third group underwent the SECPT but was not asked to reactivate memory of the trauma film (Stress condition). Two days later (Time 3), all participants received a surprise cued memory recall test and intrusions questionnaire which they completed online. Results showed that those in the Stress/Reactivation group had higher intrusions scores than the other two groups, suggesting that acute stress promotes intrusive memories only when the memory trace is reactivated shortly afterwards. Increased cortisol predicted enhanced intrusive experiences in the Stress/Reactivation condition but not in the other conditions. This pattern of results suggests that acute stress during the reactivation of emotional material impacts on involuntary emotional memories. These findings suggest a possible explanation for the mechanism underlying the maintenance of intrusive memories in clinical disorders. PMID:25911248

  18. Working memory capacity and controlled serial memory search.

    PubMed

    Mızrak, Eda; Öztekin, Ilke

    2016-08-01

    The speed-accuracy trade-off (SAT) procedure was used to investigate the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and the dynamics of temporal order memory retrieval. High- and low-span participants (HSs, LSs) studied sequentially presented five-item lists, followed by two probes from the study list. Participants indicated the more recent probe. Overall, accuracy was higher for HSs compared to LSs. Crucially, in contrast to previous investigations that observed no impact of WMC on speed of access to item information in memory (e.g., Öztekin & McElree, 2010), recovery of temporal order memory was slower for LSs. While accessing an item's representation in memory can be direct, recovery of relational information such as temporal order information requires a more controlled serial memory search. Collectively, these data indicate that WMC effects are particularly prominent during high demands of cognitive control, such as serial search operations necessary to access temporal order information from memory. PMID:27135712

  19. A century-old leadership style revitalizes the heroic hospital.

    PubMed

    Kania, A J

    1993-01-01

    "Those who fail history are destined to repeat it." Emmett C. Murphy, Ph.D., an international business consultant found that the key to individual and organizational leadership is a heroic commitment to service and the reengineering of the work that it requires. Murphy, whose clients include IBM, General Motors, Johns Hopkins, Centers for Disease Control, Johnson & Johnson, and Memorial Sloan Kettering; was a consultant with Booz-Allen Hamilton and served on the faculties of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the State University of New York before founding E. C. Murphy, Ltd. His firm focuses on the application of quality improvement and work reengineering strategies for creating a patient-focused "heroic" organization. Recently, Dr. Murphy and Michael Snell co-authored an intriguing management book based on the fundamental business strategies historically found in an unlikely western figure. The The Genius of Sitting Bull (Prentice Hall, 1993), Murphy and Snell examine the leadership styles of the Sioux chief and General Custer at the peaks of their careers and used 13 heroic strategies common to Sitting Bull's management style as a metaphor for for successful leadership on the great plains of American health care and business life. PMID:10123388

  20. About Sleep's Role in Memory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of “sleep and memory” research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems. PMID:23589831

  1. Recoverable distributed shared virtual memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Kun-Lung; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1990-01-01

    The problem of rollback recovery in distributed shared virtual environments, in which the shared memory is implemented in software in a loosely coupled distributed multicomputer system, is examined. A user-transparent checkpointing recovery scheme and a new twin-page disk storage management technique are presented for implementing recoverable distributed shared virtual memory. The checkpointing scheme can be integrated with the memory coherence protocol for managing the shared virtual memory. The twin-page disk design allows checkpointing to proceed in an incremental fashion without an explicit undo at the time of recovery. The recoverable distributed shared virtual memory allows the system to restart computation from a checkpoint without a global restart.

  2. An upconverted photonic nonvolatile memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ye; Han, Su-Ting; Chen, Xian; Wang, Feng; Tang, Yong-Bing; Roy, V. A. L.

    2014-08-01

    Conventional flash memory devices are voltage driven and found to be unsafe for confidential data storage. To ensure the security of the stored data, there is a strong demand for developing novel nonvolatile memory technology for data encryption. Here we show a photonic flash memory device, based on upconversion nanocrystals, which is light driven with a particular narrow width of wavelength in addition to voltage bias. With the help of near-infrared light, we successfully manipulate the multilevel data storage of the flash memory device. These upconverted photonic flash memory devices exhibit high ON/OFF ratio, long retention time and excellent rewritable characteristics.

  3. Individual differences in working memory.

    PubMed

    Jarrold, C; Towse, J N

    2006-04-28

    Working memory can be defined as the ability to hold in mind information in the face of potentially interfering distraction in order to guide behavior. The experimental manipulation of working memory tasks has shed considerable light on the probable structure of the human working memory system, and, to a lesser extent, the specific processes captured by working memory paradigms. However, individual differences research has also had a crucial role to play in the development of theories of working memory. In particular, correlational approaches have been particularly informative in three areas of working memory research, each of which is reviewed here. These are, first, the importance of working memory measures as correlates of high-level cognitive skills such as reading, mathematics, reasoning, and fluid intelligence; second, the extent to which human working memory relies on domain-general or domain-specific component subsystems, and third, the precise reasons why working memory measures do relate to other important indices of human cognitive functioning. The findings from each of these areas suggest that working memory depends on a combination of domain-specific representational systems and domain-general processing and control systems, and that working memory measures capture individuals' ability to combine maintenance and processing demands in a manner that limits information loss from forgetting or distraction. PMID:16325344

  4. Atomic memory access hardware implementations

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Jung Ho; Erez, Mattan; Dally, William J

    2015-02-17

    Atomic memory access requests are handled using a variety of systems and methods. According to one example method, a data-processing circuit having an address-request generator that issues requests to a common memory implements a method of processing the requests using a memory-access intervention circuit coupled between the generator and the common memory. The method identifies a current atomic-memory access request from a plurality of memory access requests. A data set is stored that corresponds to the current atomic-memory access request in a data storage circuit within the intervention circuit. It is determined whether the current atomic-memory access request corresponds to at least one previously-stored atomic-memory access request. In response to determining correspondence, the current request is implemented by retrieving data from the common memory. The data is modified in response to the current request and at least one other access request in the memory-access intervention circuit.

  5. Constructive memory: past and future

    PubMed Central

    Schacter, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Human memory is not a literal reproduction of the past, but instead relies on constructive processes that are sometimes prone to error and distortion. Understanding of constructive memory has accelerated during recent years as a result of research that has linked together its cognitive and neural bases. This article focuses on three aspects of constructive memory that have been the target of recent research: (i) the idea that certain kinds of memory distortions reflect the operation of adaptive cognitive processes that contribute to the efficient functioning of memory; (ii) the role of a constructive memory system in imagining or simulating possible future events; and (iii) differences between true and false memories that have been revealed by functional neuroimaging techniques. The article delineates the theoretical implications of relevant research, and also considers some clinical and applied implications. PMID:22577300

  6. Cognitive neuroscience of human memory.

    PubMed

    Gabrieli, J D

    1998-01-01

    Current knowledge is summarized about long-term memory systems of the human brain, with memory systems defined as specific neural networks that support specific mnemonic processes. The summary integrates convergent evidence from neuropsychological studies of patients with brain lesions and from functional neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Evidence is reviewed about the specific roles of hippocampal and parahippocampal regions, the amygdala, the basal ganglia, and various neocortical areas in declarative memory. Evidence is also reviewed about which brain regions mediate specific kinds of procedural memory, including sensorimotor, perceptual, and cognitive skill learning; perceptual and conceptual repetition priming; and several forms of conditioning. Findings are discussed in terms of the functional neural architecture of normal memory, age-related changes in memory performance, and neurological conditions that affect memory such as amnesia. Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. PMID:9496622

  7. Memory T Cells in Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Su, Charles A.; Fairchild, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Following infections and environmental exposures, memory T cells are generated that provide long-term protective immunity. Compared to their naïve T cell counterparts, memory T cells possess unique characteristics that endow them with the ability to quickly and robustly respond to foreign antigens. While such memory T cells are beneficial in protecting their hosts from recurrent infection, memory cells reactive to donor antigens pose a major barrier to successful transplantation and tolerance induction. Significant progress has been made over the past several decades contributing to our understanding of memory T cell generation, their distinct biology, and their detrimental impact in clinical and animal models of transplantation. This review focuses on the unique features which make memory T cells relevant to the transplant community and discusses potential therapies targeting memory T cells which may ameliorate allograft rejection. PMID:25435071

  8. Vector computer memory bank contention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.

    1987-01-01

    A number of vector supercomputers feature very large memories. Unfortunately the large capacity memory chips that are used in these computers are much slower than the fast central processing unit (CPU) circuitry. As a result, memory bank reservation times (in CPU ticks) are much longer than on previous generations of computers. A consequence of these long reservation times is that memory bank contention is sharply increased, resulting in significantly lowered performance rates. The phenomenon of memory bank contention in vector computers is analyzed using both a Markov chain model and a Monte Carlo simulation program. The results of this analysis indicate that future generations of supercomputers must either employ much faster memory chips or else feature very large numbers of independent memory banks.

  9. Vector computer memory bank contention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    A number of vector supercomputers feature very large memories. Unfortunately the large capacity memory chips that are used in these computers are much slower than the fast central processing unit (CPU) circuitry. As a result, memory bank reservation times (in CPU ticks) are much longer than on previous generations of computers. A consequence of these long reservation times is that memory bank contention is sharply increased, resulting in significantly lowered performance rates. The phenomenon of memory bank contention in vector computers is analyzed using both a Markov chain model and a Monte Carlo simulation program. The results of this analysis indicate that future generations of supercomputers must either employ much faster memory chips or else feature very large numbers of independent memory banks.

  10. Memory expression is independent of memory labilization/reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Karina A; Suárez, Luis D; Lynch, Victoria M; Molina, Víctor A; Delorenzi, Alejandro

    2013-11-01

    There is growing evidence that certain reactivation conditions restrict the onset of both the destabilization phase and the restabilization process or reconsolidation. However, it is not yet clear how changes in memory expression during the retrieval experience can influence the emergence of the labilization/reconsolidation process. To address this issue, we used the context-signal memory model of Chasmagnathus. In this paradigm a short reminder that does not include reinforcement allows us to evaluate memory labilization and reconsolidation, whereas a short but reinforced reminder restricts the onset of such a process. The current study investigated the effects of the glutamate antagonists, APV (0.6 or 1.5 μg/g) and CNQX (1 μg/g), prior to the reminder session on both behavioral expression and the reconsolidation process. Under conditions where the reminder does not initiate the labilization/reconsolidation process, APV prevented memory expression without affecting long-term memory retention. In contrast, APV induced amnesic effects in the long-term when administered before a reminder session that triggers reconsolidation. Under the present parametric conditions, the administration of CNQX prior to the reminder that allows memory to enter reconsolidation impairs this process without disrupting memory expression. Overall, the present findings suggest that memory reactivation--but not memory expression--is necessary for labilization and reconsolidation. Retrieval and memory expression therefore appear not to be interchangeable concepts. PMID:24149057

  11. Method and apparatus for faulty memory utilization

    DOEpatents

    Cher, Chen-Yong; Andrade Costa, Carlos H.; Park, Yoonho; Rosenburg, Bryan S.; Ryu, Kyung D.

    2016-04-19

    A method for faulty memory utilization in a memory system includes: obtaining information regarding memory health status of at least one memory page in the memory system; determining an error tolerance of the memory page when the information regarding memory health status indicates that a failure is predicted to occur in an area of the memory system affecting the memory page; initiating a migration of data stored in the memory page when it is determined that the data stored in the memory page is non-error-tolerant; notifying at least one application regarding a predicted operating system failure and/or a predicted application failure when it is determined that data stored in the memory page is non-error-tolerant and cannot be migrated; and notifying at least one application regarding the memory failure predicted to occur when it is determined that data stored in the memory page is error-tolerant.

  12. Developmental dissociation between the maturation of procedural memory and declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Finn, Amy S; Kalra, Priya B; Goetz, Calvin; Leonard, Julia A; Sheridan, Margaret A; Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-02-01

    Declarative memory and procedural memory are known to be two fundamentally different kinds of memory that are dissociable in their psychological characteristics and measurement (explicit vs. implicit) and in the neural systems that subserve each kind of memory. Declarative memory abilities are known to improve from childhood through young adulthood, but the developmental maturation of procedural memory is largely unknown. We compared 10-year-old children and young adults on measures of declarative memory and working memory capacity and on four measures of procedural memory that have been strongly dissociated from declarative memory (mirror tracing, rotary pursuit, probabilistic classification, and artificial grammar). Children had lesser declarative memory ability and lesser working memory capacity than adults, but children exhibited learning equivalent to adults on all four measures of procedural memory. Therefore, declarative memory and procedural memory are developmentally dissociable, with procedural memory being adult-like by age 10years and declarative memory continuing to mature into young adulthood. PMID:26560675

  13. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  14. Optoelectronic associative memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An associative optical memory including an input spatial light modulator (SLM) in the form of an edge enhanced liquid crystal light valve (LCLV) and a pair of memory SLM's in the form of liquid crystal televisions (LCTV's) forms a matrix array of an input image which is cross correlated with a matrix array of stored images. The correlation product is detected and nonlinearly amplified to illuminate a replica of the stored image array to select the stored image correlating with the input image. The LCLV is edge enhanced by reducing the bias frequency and voltage and rotating its orientation. The edge enhancement and nonlinearity of the photodetection improves the orthogonality of the stored image. The illumination of the replicate stored image provides a clean stored image, uncontaminated by the image comparison process.

  15. Learning, Memory, and Synesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Witthoft, Nathan; Winawer, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    People with color-grapheme synesthesia experience color when viewing written letters or numerals, usually with a particular color evoked by each grapheme. Here we report on 11 color-grapheme synesthetes with startlingly similar color-grapheme pairings traceable to childhood toys containing colored letters. These data are the first and only to show learned synesthesia of this kind in a group larger than a single case. While some researchers have focused on genetic and perceptual aspects of synesthesia, these results indicate that a complete explanation of synesthesia must also incorporate a central role for learning and memory. We argue that these two positions can be reconciled by thinking of synesthesia as the automatic retrieval of highly specific mnemonic associations, where perceptual contents are brought to mind, akin to mental imagery or the perceptual reinstatement effects found in the memory literature. PMID:23307940

  16. Reversible Shape Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jing; Li, Qiaoxi; Turner, Sara; Brosnan, Sarah; Tippets, Cary; Carrillo, Jan-Michael; Nykypnachuk, Dmytro; Gang, Oleg; Dobrynin, Andrey; Lopez, Rene; Ashby, Valerie; Sheiko, Sergei

    2014-03-01

    Reversible shape memory has been achieved on various shapes, e.g. hairpin, origami, coil, robotic gripper and flow rate control device, allowing for multiple switching between encoded shapes without applying any external force. Also, the reversible photonic structure molded in dielectric elastomers has been designed. Maximum reversibility can be achieved by tuning the crosslinking density and the degree of crystallinity of semi-crystalline elastomers. Different crystallization protocols including isothermal and cooling crystallization have been applied to develop a universal picture integrating different shape memory (SM) behaviors: conventional one-way SM, two-way reversible SM, and one-way reversible SM. Acknowledge financial support from the NSF DMR-1122483, DMR- 1004576, and DMR-1206957.

  17. The Memory Jog Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimakis, Nikolaos; Soldatos, John; Polymenakos, Lazaros; Sturm, Janienke; Neumann, Joachim; Casas, Josep R.

    The CHIL Memory Jog service focuses on facilitating the collaboration of participants in meetings, lectures, presentations, and other human interactive events, occurring in indoor CHIL spaces. It exploits the whole set of the perceptual components that have been developed by the CHIL Consortium partners (e.g., person tracking, face identification, audio source localization, etc) along with a wide range of actuating devices such as projectors, displays, targeted audio devices, speakers, etc. The underlying set of perceptual components provides a constant flow of elementary contextual information, such as “person at location x0,y0”, “speech at location x0,y0”, information that alone is not of significant use. However, the CHIL Memory Jog service is accompanied by powerful situation identification techniques that fuse all the incoming information and creates complex states that drive the actuating logic.

  18. Misaligned feeding impairs memories

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Dawn H; Jami, Shekib A; Flores, Richard E; Truong, Danny; Ghiani, Cristina A; O’Dell, Thomas J; Colwell, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Robust sleep/wake rhythms are important for health and cognitive function. Unfortunately, many people are living in an environment where their circadian system is challenged by inappropriate meal- or work-times. Here we scheduled food access to the sleep time and examined the impact on learning and memory in mice. Under these conditions, we demonstrate that the molecular clock in the master pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is unaltered while the molecular clock in the hippocampus is synchronized by the timing of food availability. This chronic circadian misalignment causes reduced hippocampal long term potentiation and total CREB expression. Importantly this mis-timed feeding resulted in dramatic deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Our findings suggest that the timing of meals have far-reaching effects on hippocampal physiology and learned behaviour. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09460.001 PMID:26652002

  19. TED KYCIA MEMORIAL SYMPOSIUM.

    SciTech Connect

    LITTENBERG, L.; RUBINSTEIN, R.; SAMIOS, N.; LI, K.; GIACOMELLI, G.; MOCKETT, P.; CARROLL, A.; JOHNSON, R.; BRYMAN, D.; TIPPENS, B.

    2000-05-19

    On the afternoon of May 19 2000, a Memorial Seminar was held in the BNL physics Large Seminar Room to honor the memory of Ted Kyeia, a prominent particle physicist who had been a member of the BNL staff for 40 years. Although it was understandably a somewhat sad occasion because Ted was no longer with us, nevertheless there was much for his colleagues and friends to celebrate in recalling the outstanding contributions that he had made in those four decades. The Seminar speakers were all people who had worked with Ted during that period; each discussed one aspect of his career, but also included anecdotes and personal reminiscences. This booklet contains the Seminar program, listing the speakers, and also copies of transparencies of the talks (and one paper which was a later expansion of a talk); sadly, not all of the personal remarks appeared on the transparencies.

  20. Basic memory module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tietze, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    Construction and electrical characterization of the 4096 x 2-bit Basic Memory Module (BMM) are reported for the Space Ultrareliable Modular Computer (SUMC) program. The module uses four 2K x 1-bit N-channel FET, random access memory chips, called array chips, and two sense amplifier chips, mounted and interconnected on a ceramic substrate. Four 5% tolerance power supplies are required. At the Module, the address, chip select, and array select lines require a 0-8.5 V MOS signal level. The data output, read-strobe, and write-enable lines operate at TTl levels. Although the module is organized as 4096 x 2 bits, it can be used in a 8196 x 1-bit application with appropriate external connections. A 4096 x 1-bit organization can be obtained by depopulating chips.

  1. Sparse distributed memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1989-01-01

    Sparse distributed memory was proposed be Pentti Kanerva as a realizable architecture that could store large patterns and retrieve them based on partial matches with patterns representing current sensory inputs. This memory exhibits behaviors, both in theory and in experiment, that resemble those previously unapproached by machines - e.g., rapid recognition of faces or odors, discovery of new connections between seemingly unrelated ideas, continuation of a sequence of events when given a cue from the middle, knowing that one doesn't know, or getting stuck with an answer on the tip of one's tongue. These behaviors are now within reach of machines that can be incorporated into the computing systems of robots capable of seeing, talking, and manipulating. Kanerva's theory is a break with the Western rationalistic tradition, allowing a new interpretation of learning and cognition that respects biology and the mysteries of individual human beings.

  2. Rethinking Ovarian Cancer: Recommendations for Improving Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Sebastian; Coward, Jermaine I.; Bast Jr., Robert C.; Berchuck, Andy; Berek, Jonathan S.; Brenton, James D.; Coukos, George; Crum, Christopher C.; Drapkin, Ronny; Etemadmoghadam, Dariush; Friedlander, Michael; Gabra, Hani; Kaye, Stan B.; Lord, Chris J.; Lengyel, Ernst; Levine, Douglas A.; McNeish, Iain A.; Menon, Usha; Mills, Gordon B.; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Oza, Amit M.; Sood, Anil K.; Stronach, Euan A.; Walczak, Henning; Bowtell, David D.; Balkwill, Frances R.

    2012-01-01

    There have been major advances in our understanding of the cellular and molecular biology of the human malignancies collectively referred to as ovarian cancer. At a recent Helene Harris Memorial Trust meeting, an international group of researchers considered actions that should be taken to improve the outcome for women with ovarian cancer. Nine major recommendations are outlined in this Perspective. PMID:21941283

  3. Epigenetic memory in plants

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Mayumi; Paszkowski, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in patterns of gene expression that occur without alterations in DNA sequence. The epigenetic mechanisms involve covalent modifications of DNA and histones, which affect transcriptional activity of chromatin. Since chromatin states can be propagated through mitotic and meiotic divisions, epigenetic mechanisms are thought to provide heritable ‘cellular memory’. Here, we review selected examples of epigenetic memory in plants and briefly discuss underlying mechanisms. PMID:25104823

  4. Memory metal actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, C. F. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A mechanical actuator can be constructed by employing a plurality of memory metal actuator elements in parallel to control the amount of actuating force. In order to facilitate direct control by digital control signals provided by a computer or the like, the actuating elements may vary in stiffness according to a binary relationship. The cooling or reset time of the actuator elements can be reduced by employing Peltier junction cooling assemblies in the actuator.

  5. Shape memory alloy actuator

    DOEpatents

    Varma, Venugopal K.

    2001-01-01

    An actuator for cycling between first and second positions includes a first shaped memory alloy (SMA) leg, a second SMA leg. At least one heating/cooling device is thermally connected to at least one of the legs, each heating/cooling device capable of simultaneously heating one leg while cooling the other leg. The heating/cooling devices can include thermoelectric and/or thermoionic elements.

  6. Fuzzy associative memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosko, Bart

    1991-01-01

    Mappings between fuzzy cubes are discussed. This level of abstraction provides a surprising and fruitful alternative to the propositional and predicate-calculas reasoning techniques used in expert systems. It allows one to reason with sets instead of propositions. Discussed here are fuzzy and neural function estimators, neural vs. fuzzy representation of structured knowledge, fuzzy vector-matrix multiplication, and fuzzy associative memory (FAM) system architecture.

  7. Short-term memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toulouse, G.

    This is a rather bold attempt to bridge the gap between neuron structure and psychological data. We try to answer the question: Is there a relation between the neuronal connectivity in the human cortex (around 5,000) and the short-term memory capacity (7±2)? Our starting point is the Hopfield model (Hopfield 1982), presented in this volume by D.J. Amit.

  8. Sudoku associative memory.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiann-Ming; Hsu, Pei-Hsun; Liou, Cheng-Yuan

    2014-09-01

    This work presents bipolar neural systems for check-rule embedded pattern restoration, fault-tolerant information encoding and Sudoku memory construction and association. The primitive bipolar neural unit is generalized to have internal fields and activations, which are respectively characterized by exponential growth and logistic differential dynamics, in response to inhibitory and excitatory stimuli. Coupling extended bipolar units induces multi-state artificial Potts neurons which are interconnected with inhibitory synapses for Latin square encoding, K-alphabet Latin square encoding and Sudoku encoding. The proposed neural dynamics can generally restore Sudoku patterns from partial sparse clues. Neural relaxation is based on mean field annealing that well guarantees reliable convergence to ground states. Sudoku associative memory combines inhibitory interconnections of Sudoku encoding with Hebb's excitatory synapses of encoding conjunctive relations among active units over memorized patterns. Sudoku associative memory is empirically shown reliable and effective for restoring memorized patterns subject to typical sparse clues, fewer partial clues, dense clues and perturbed or damaged clues. On the basis, compound Sudoku patterns are further extended to emulate complex topological information encoding. PMID:24981308

  9. Ferroelectric random access memories.

    PubMed

    Ishiwara, Hiroshi

    2012-10-01

    Ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) is a nonvolatile memory, in which data are stored using hysteretic P-E (polarization vs. electric field) characteristics in a ferroelectric film. In this review, history and characteristics of FeRAMs are first introduced. It is described that there are two types of FeRAMs, capacitor-type and FET-type, and that only the capacitor-type FeRAM is now commercially available. In chapter 2, properties of ferroelectric films are discussed from a viewpoint of FeRAM application, in which particular attention is paid to those of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3, SrBi2Ta2O9, and BiFeO3. Then, cell structures and operation principle of the capacitor-type FeRAMs are discussed in chapter 3. It is described that the stacked technology of ferroelectric capacitors and development of new materials with large remanent polarization are important for fabricating high-density memories. Finally, in chapter 4, the optimized gate structure in ferroelectric-gate field-effect transistors is discussed and experimental results showing excellent data retention characteristics are presented. PMID:23421123

  10. When learning met memory.

    PubMed

    Macleod, Colin M

    2010-12-01

    The first sentence of the introduction to Hebb's (1949) classic monograph, The organization of behavior, is "It might be argued that the task of the psychologist, the task of understanding behaviour and reducing the vagaries of human thought to a mechanical process of cause and effect, is a more difficult one than that of any other scientist" (p. xi). Nowhere is this more true than in the realm of human learning and memory, given our truly remarkable ability to acquire and retain prodigious amounts of information. This article is divided into two parts. The first part sketches my lifelong fascination with learning that led me to study first memory, then attention, and then their interplay, with examples of a few interesting findings along that path. The second part details recent work in my laboratory exploring a simple yet quite powerful encoding technique: Saying things aloud improves memory for them. This benefit, which we call the production effect, likely occurs by enhancing the distinctiveness of the things said aloud, and may constitute a beneficial study method. Understanding how we learn and remember is ultimately a crucial step in understanding ourselves. PMID:21186907

  11. Dielectric elastomer memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Benjamin M.; McKay, Thomas G.; Xie, Sheng Q.; Calius, Emilio P.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2011-04-01

    Life shows us that the distribution of intelligence throughout flexible muscular networks is a highly successful solution to a wide range of challenges, for example: human hearts, octopi, or even starfish. Recreating this success in engineered systems requires soft actuator technologies with embedded sensing and intelligence. Dielectric Elastomer Actuator(s) (DEA) are promising due to their large stresses and strains, as well as quiet flexible multimodal operation. Recently dielectric elastomer devices were presented with built in sensor, driver, and logic capability enabled by a new concept called the Dielectric Elastomer Switch(es) (DES). DES use electrode piezoresistivity to control the charge on DEA and enable the distribution of intelligence throughout a DEA device. In this paper we advance the capabilities of DES further to form volatile memory elements. A set reset flip-flop with inverted reset line was developed based on DES and DEA. With a 3200V supply the flip-flop behaved appropriately and demonstrated the creation of dielectric elastomer memory capable of changing state in response to 1 second long set and reset pulses. This memory opens up applications such as oscillator, de-bounce, timing, and sequential logic circuits; all of which could be distributed throughout biomimetic actuator arrays. Future work will include miniaturisation to improve response speed, implementation into more complex circuits, and investigation of longer lasting and more sensitive switching materials.

  12. Sleep, Memory & Brain Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Brendon O.; Buzsáki, György

    2015-01-01

    Sleep occupies roughly one-third of our lives, yet the scientific community is still not entirely clear on its purpose or function. Existing data point most strongly to its role in memory and homeostasis: that sleep helps maintain basic brain functioning via a homeostatic mechanism that loosens connections between overworked synapses, and that sleep helps consolidate and re-form important memories. In this review, we will summarize these theories, but also focus on substantial new information regarding the relation of electrical brain rhythms to sleep. In particular, while REM sleep may contribute to the homeostatic weakening of overactive synapses, a prominent and transient oscillatory rhythm called “sharp-wave ripple” seems to allow for consolidation of behaviorally relevant memories across many structures of the brain. We propose that a theory of sleep involving the division of labor between two states of sleep–REM and non-REM, the latter of which has an abundance of ripple electrical activity–might allow for a fusion of the two main sleep theories. This theory then postulates that sleep performs a combination of consolidation and homeostasis that promotes optimal knowledge retention as well as optimal waking brain function. PMID:26097242

  13. Solvent-driven temperature memory and multiple shape memory effects.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Rui; Guo, Jingkai; Safranski, David L; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-05-28

    Thermally-activated temperature memory and multiple shape memory effects have been observed in amorphous polymers with a broad glass transition. In this work, we demonstrate that the same shape recovery behaviors can also be achieved through solvent absorption. We investigate the recovery behaviors of programmed Nafion membranes in various solvents and compare the solvent-driven and temperature-driven shape recovery response. The results show that the programming temperature and solvent type have a corresponding strong influence on the shape recovery behavior. Specifically, lower programming temperatures induce faster initial recovery rates and larger recovery, which is known as the temperature memory effect. The temperature memory effect can be used to achieve multi-staged and multiple shape recovery of specimens programmed at different temperatures. Different solvents can also induce different shape recovery, analogous to the temperature memory effect, and can also provide a mechanism for multi-staged and multiple shape memory recovery. PMID:25890998

  14. Predicting confidence in flashbulb memories.

    PubMed

    Day, Martin V; Ross, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Years after a shocking news event many people confidently report details of their flashbulb memories (e.g., what they were doing). People's confidence is a defining feature of their flashbulb memories, but it is not well understood. We tested a model that predicted confidence in flashbulb memories. In particular we examined whether people's social bond with the target of a news event predicts confidence. At a first session shortly after the death of Michael Jackson participants reported their sense of attachment to Michael Jackson, as well as their flashbulb memories and emotional and other reactions to Jackson's death. At a second session approximately 18 months later they reported their flashbulb memories and confidence in those memories. Results supported our proposed model. A stronger sense of attachment to Jackson was related to reports of more initial surprise, emotion, and rehearsal during the first session. Participants' bond with Michael Jackson predicted their confidence but not the consistency of their flashbulb memories 18 months later. We also examined whether participants' initial forecasts regarding the persistence of their flashbulb memories predicted the durability of their memories. Participants' initial forecasts were more strongly related to participants' subsequent confidence than to the actual consistency of their memories. PMID:23496003

  15. Pharmacological disruption of maladaptive memory.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jane R; Torregrossa, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    Many psychiatric disorders are characterized by intrusive, distracting, and disturbing memories that either perpetuate the illness or hinder successful treatment. For example, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves such strong reemergence of memories associated with a traumatic event that the individual feels like the event is happening again. Furthermore, drug addiction is characterized by compulsive use and repeated relapse that is often driven by internal memories of drug use and/or by exposure to external stimuli that were associated with drug use. Therefore, identifying pharmacological methods to weaken the strength of maladaptive memories is a major goal of research efforts aimed at finding new treatments for these disorders. The primary mechanism by which memories could be pharmacologically disrupted or altered is through manipulation of memory reconsolidation. Reconsolidation occurs when an established memory is remembered or reactivated, reentering a labile state before again being consolidated into long-term memory storage. Memories are subject to disruption during this labile state. In this chapter we will discuss the preclinical and clinical studies identifying potential pharmacological methods for disrupting the integrity of maladaptive memory to treat mental illness. PMID:25977090

  16. Sleep Loss Produces False Memories

    PubMed Central

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., “night”, “dark”, “coal”,…), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: “black”). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss. PMID:18946511

  17. The evolution of episodic memory

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Timothy A.; Fortin, Norbert J.

    2013-01-01

    One prominent view holds that episodic memory emerged recently in humans and lacks a “(neo)Darwinian evolution” [Tulving E (2002) Annu Rev Psychol 53:1–25]. Here, we review evidence supporting the alternative perspective that episodic memory has a long evolutionary history. We show that fundamental features of episodic memory capacity are present in mammals and birds and that the major brain regions responsible for episodic memory in humans have anatomical and functional homologs in other species. We propose that episodic memory capacity depends on a fundamental neural circuit that is similar across mammalian and avian species, suggesting that protoepisodic memory systems exist across amniotes and, possibly, all vertebrates. The implication is that episodic memory in diverse species may primarily be due to a shared underlying neural ancestry, rather than the result of evolutionary convergence. We also discuss potential advantages that episodic memory may offer, as well as species-specific divergences that have developed on top of the fundamental episodic memory architecture. We conclude by identifying possible time points for the emergence of episodic memory in evolution, to help guide further research in this area. PMID:23754432

  18. Unifying Memory and Database Transactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Ricardo J.; Lourenço, João M.

    Software Transactional Memory is a concurrency control technique gaining increasing popularity, as it provides high-level concurrency control constructs and eases the development of highly multi-threaded applications. But this easiness comes at the expense of restricting the operations that can be executed within a memory transaction, and operations such as terminal and file I/O are either not allowed or incur in serious performance penalties. Database I/O is another example of operations that usually are not allowed within a memory transaction. This paper proposes to combine memory and database transactions in a single unified model, benefiting from the ACID properties of the database transactions and from the speed of main memory data processing. The new unified model covers, without differentiating, both memory and database operations. Thus, the users are allowed to freely intertwine memory and database accesses within the same transaction, knowing that the memory and database contents will always remain consistent and that the transaction will atomically abort or commit the operations in both memory and database. This approach allows to increase the granularity of the in-memory atomic actions and hence, simplifies the reasoning about them.

  19. Cancer Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ...

  20. Colon cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  1. Cancer Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  2. Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ...

  3. Cancer Staging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ...

  4. Metastatic Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  5. Second Annual David Derse Memorial Lecture and Award | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Anne Arthur, Guest Writer The Second Annual David Derse Memorial Lecture and Award presentation was held on November 12, 2013, at the NCI at Frederick Conference Center to honor David Derse’s outstanding research accomplishments and to stimulate the exchange of innovative ideas that Derse was well known for promoting throughout his scientific career. The Annual David Derse Memorial Lecture and Award is sponsored by the HIV Drug Resistance Program, with support from Hye Kyung Chung-Derse, Ph.D., the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and colleagues and friends of Derse who contributed to the memorial fund in his honor.

  6. Shape memory polyurethane nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Feina

    Shape memory polymers are smart materials which can remember their original shapes. However, the low recovery stress and low mechanical strength limit the commercial applications of shape memory polymers. In this study, nanoclays were introduced to shape memory polyurethanes (SMPU) to augment these properties by enhance the network of SMPU. Several factors which influence the shape recovery stress were evaluated, including the nature of polymer chain by using different monomers, type of clay particles, extent of filler dispersion, clay content and deformation conditions. It was found that only reactive clay particles were well dispersed into polyurethane matrix by the tethering between --CH2CH 2OH functional groups in clay surfactants and polyurethane chains. Two different shape memory polyurethanes (Systems I & II) prepared by bulk polymerization were compared. The shape memory effect of System I was triggered by melting of the soft segment crystals, while that of System II was by glass transition of the soft segments. It was seen that the reactive clay particles dispersed well in both polyurethane matrices and augmented the recovery stress, e.g., 20% increase with 1 wt % nanoclay in System I and 40% increase with 5 wt % nanoclay in System II were observed. In System I, clay particles interfered with soft segment crystallization, and promoted phase mixing between the hard and soft segments, thus affecting the fixity and recovery ratio. Nevertheless, the soft segment crystallinity was still enough and in some cases increased due to stretching to exhibit excellent shape fixity and shape recovery ratio. The higher loading of clay particles accelerated the stress relaxation, resulting in reduction of recovery stress. In System II, no significant effect of clay particles in phase separation was observed, so there was no influence of clay on shape fixity and recovery ratio. The recovery stress increased with reactive nanoclay content. It was also found that the recovery

  7. Investigating Memory Development in Children and Infantile Amnesia in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemi Tari, Somayeh

    2008-01-01

    Although many researchers have worked on memory development, still little is known about what develops in memory development. When one reviews the literature about memory, she encounters many types of memories such as short term vs. long term memory, working memory, explicit vs. implicit memory, trans-saccadic memory, autobiographical memory,…

  8. Memory lane and morality: how childhood memories promote prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Gino, Francesca; Desai, Sreedhari D

    2012-04-01

    Although research has established that autobiographical memory affects one's self-concept, little is known about how it affects moral behavior. We focus on a specific type of autobiographical memory: childhood memories. Drawing on research on memory and moral psychology, we propose that childhood memories elicit moral purity, which we define as a psychological state of feeling morally clean and innocent. In turn, heightened moral purity leads to greater prosocial behavior. In Experiment 1, participants instructed to recall childhood memories were more likely to help the experimenter with a supplementary task than were participants in a control condition, and this effect was mediated by moral purity. In Experiment 2, the same manipulation increased the amount of money participants donated to a good cause, and both implicit and explicit measures of moral purity mediated the effect. Experiment 3 provides further support for the process linking childhood memories and prosocial behavior through moderation. In Experiment 4, we found that childhood memories led to punishment of others' ethically questionable actions. Finally, in Experiment 5, both positively valenced and negatively valenced childhood memories increased helping compared to a control condition. PMID:22181000

  9. Towards Terabit Memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Memories have been the major yardstick for the continuing validity of Moore's law. In single-transistor-per-Bit dynamic random-access memories (DRAM), the number of bits per chip pretty much gives us the number of transistors. For decades, DRAM's have offered the largest storage capacity per chip. However, DRAM does not scale any longer, both in density and voltage, severely limiting its power efficiency to 10 fJ/b. A differential DRAM would gain four-times in density and eight-times in energy. Static CMOS RAM (SRAM) with its six transistors/cell is gaining in reputation because it scales well in cell size and operating voltage so that its fundamental advantage of speed, non-destructive read-out and low-power standby could lead to just 2.5 electrons/bit in standby and to a dynamic power efficiency of 2aJ/b. With a projected 2020 density of 16 Gb/cm², the SRAM would be as dense as normal DRAM and vastly better in power efficiency, which would mean a major change in the architecture and market scenario for DRAM versus SRAM. Non-volatile Flash memory have seen two quantum jumps in density well beyond the roadmap: Multi-Bit storage per transistor and high-density TSV (through-silicon via) technology. The number of electrons required per Bit on the storage gate has been reduced since their first realization in 1996 by more than an order of magnitude to 400 electrons/Bit in 2010 for a complexity of 32Gbit per chip at the 32 nm node. Chip stacking of eight chips with TSV has produced a 32GByte solid-state drive (SSD). A stack of 32 chips with 2 b/cell at the 16 nm node will reach a density of 2.5 Terabit/cm². Non-volatile memory with a density of 10 × 10 nm²/Bit is the target for widespread development. Phase-change memory (PCM) and resistive memory (RRAM) lead in cell density, and they will reach 20 Gb/cm² in 2D and higher with 3D chip stacking. This is still almost an order-of-magnitude less than Flash. However, their read-out speed is ~10-times faster, with as yet

  10. The roots of modern oncology: from discovery of new antitumor anthracyclines to their clinical use.

    PubMed

    Cassinelli, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    In May 1960, the Farmitalia CEO Dr. Bertini and the director of the Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori of Milan Prof. Bucalossi (talent scout and city's Mayor) signed a research agreement for the discovery and development up to clinical trials of new natural antitumor agents. This agreement can be considered as a pioneering and fruitful example of a translational discovery program with relevant transatlantic connections. Owing to an eclectic Streptomyces, found near Castel del Monte (Apulia), and to the skilled and motivated participants of both institutions, a new natural antitumor drug, daunomycin, was ready for clinical trials within 3 years. Patent interference by the Farmitalia French partner was overcome by the good quality of the Italian drug and by the cooperation between Prof. Di Marco, director of the Istituto Ricerche Farmitalia Research Laboratories for Microbiology and Chemotherapy, and Prof. Karnofsky, head of the Sloan-Kettering Cancer Institute of New York, leading to the first transatlantic clinical trials. The search for daunomycin's sister anthracyclines led to the discovery and development of adriamycin, one of the best drugs born in Milan. This was the second act prologue of the history of Italian antitumor discovery and clinical oncology, which started in July 1969 when Prof. Di Marco sent Prof. Bonadonna the first vials of adriamycin (doxorubicin) to be tested in clinical trials. This article reviews the Milan scene in the 1960s, a city admired and noted for the outstanding scientific achievements of its private and public institutions in drugs and industrial product discovery. PMID:27103205

  11. Vulva cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer - perineum; Cancer - vulvar; Genital warts - vulvar cancer; HPV - vulvar cancer ... is rare. Risk factors include: Human papilloma virus (HPV, or genital warts ) infection in women under age ...

  12. Functional neuroimaging of autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Cabeza, Roberto; St Jacques, Peggy

    2007-05-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies of autobiographical memory have grown dramatically in recent years. These studies are important because they can investigate the neural correlates of processes that are difficult to study using laboratory stimuli, including: (i) complex constructive processes, (ii) recollective qualities of emotion and vividness, and (iii) remote memory retrieval. Constructing autobiographical memories involves search, monitoring and self-referential processes that are associated with activity in separable prefrontal regions. The contributions of emotion and vividness have been linked to the amygdala and visual cortex respectively. Finally, there is evidence that recent and remote autobiographical memories might activate the hippocampus equally, which has implications for memory-consolidation theories. The rapid development of innovative methods for eliciting personal memories in the scanner provides the opportunity to delve into the functional neuroanatomy of our personal past. PMID:17382578

  13. Black phosphorus nonvolatile transistor memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dain; Choi, Yongsuk; Hwang, Euyheon; Kang, Moon Sung; Lee, Seungwoo; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrated nanofloating gate transistor memory devices (NFGTMs) using mechanically-exfoliated few-layered black phosphorus (BP) channels and gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) charge trapping layers. The resulting BP-NFGTMs exhibited excellent memory performances, including the five-level data storage, large memory window (58.2 V), stable retention (104 s), and cyclic endurance (1000 cycles).We demonstrated nanofloating gate transistor memory devices (NFGTMs) using mechanically-exfoliated few-layered black phosphorus (BP) channels and gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) charge trapping layers. The resulting BP-NFGTMs exhibited excellent memory performances, including the five-level data storage, large memory window (58.2 V), stable retention (104 s), and cyclic endurance (1000 cycles). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02078j

  14. Roadside memorials in northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Erik

    In Thailand spirit houses are often established at places of fatal accidents, but these are generally anonymous. Personalized roadside memorials for accident victims are rare. This article analyses three roadside memorials, located on main roads in northeastern Thailand, in a comparative framework. Like in the contemporary West, such memorials commemorate a suddenly and violently killed person, but manifest a dynamics very different from that of Western roadside memorials: rather than private and temporary, these are permanent shrines, in which the spirit of the deceased is worshipped and supplicated by members of the public. The spirits and their shrines tend to become incorporated into the popular Thai magico-religious complex. While the literature offers a binary distinction between formal public monuments and informal, private and temporary (roadside) memorials, it is suggested that the informal, but public and permanent memorial shrines in Thailand exemplify a third type of edifices to commemorate the deceased in road accidents. PMID:23785985

  15. Memory Dynamics in Attractor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guoqi; Ramanathan, Kiruthika; Ning, Ning; Shi, Luping; Wen, Changyun

    2015-01-01

    As can be represented by neurons and their synaptic connections, attractor networks are widely believed to underlie biological memory systems and have been used extensively in recent years to model the storage and retrieval process of memory. In this paper, we propose a new energy function, which is nonnegative and attains zero values only at the desired memory patterns. An attractor network is designed based on the proposed energy function. It is shown that the desired memory patterns are stored as the stable equilibrium points of the attractor network. To retrieve a memory pattern, an initial stimulus input is presented to the network, and its states converge to one of stable equilibrium points. Consequently, the existence of the spurious points, that is, local maxima, saddle points, or other local minima which are undesired memory patterns, can be avoided. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:25960737

  16. Memory dynamics in attractor networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoqi; Ramanathan, Kiruthika; Ning, Ning; Shi, Luping; Wen, Changyun

    2015-01-01

    As can be represented by neurons and their synaptic connections, attractor networks are widely believed to underlie biological memory systems and have been used extensively in recent years to model the storage and retrieval process of memory. In this paper, we propose a new energy function, which is nonnegative and attains zero values only at the desired memory patterns. An attractor network is designed based on the proposed energy function. It is shown that the desired memory patterns are stored as the stable equilibrium points of the attractor network. To retrieve a memory pattern, an initial stimulus input is presented to the network, and its states converge to one of stable equilibrium points. Consequently, the existence of the spurious points, that is, local maxima, saddle points, or other local minima which are undesired memory patterns, can be avoided. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:25960737

  17. Memory distortion: an adaptive perspective

    PubMed Central

    Schacter, Daniel L.; Guerin, Scott A.; St. Jacques, Peggy L.

    2011-01-01

    Memory is prone to distortions that can have serious consequences in everyday life. Here we integrate emerging evidence that several types of memory distortions – imagination inflation, gist-based and associative memory errors, and post-event misinformation – reflect adaptive cognitive processes that contribute to the efficient functioning of memory, but produce distortions as a consequence of doing so. We consider recent cognitive and neuroimaging studies that link these distortions with adaptive processes, including simulation of future events, semantic and contextual encoding, creativity, and memory updating. We also discuss new evidence concerning factors that can influence the occurrence of memory distortions, such as sleep and retrieval conditions, as well as conceptual issues related to the development of an adaptive perspective. PMID:21908231

  18. Computational Cognitive Neuroscience of Early Memory Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munakata, Yuko

    2004-01-01

    Numerous brain areas work in concert to subserve memory, with distinct memory functions relying differentially on distinct brain areas. For example, semantic memory relies heavily on posterior cortical regions, episodic memory on hippocampal regions, and working memory on prefrontal cortical regions. This article reviews relevant findings from…

  19. The Source for Learning & Memory Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Regina G.

    This book is a comprehensive guide to learning and memory strategies for all students and especially those with learning problems. Chapter 1, on memory and the brain, explains brain cells, the cortex, function of the cerebral lobes, and other brain structures. Chapter 2 examines the memory process and discusses sensory memory, short-term memory,…

  20. The Role of Vocational Rehabilitation in the 1980's: Serving Those with Invisible Handicaps Such as Cancer, Cardiac Illness, Epilepsy. A Report of the Mary E. Switzer Memorial Seminar (3rd, Denver, Colorado, June 5-7, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Leonard G., Ed.

    This publication includes six action papers presented at the Denver, Colorado, seminar on June 5-7, 1978. Three disability categories highlighted in the seminar are the topics of the papers: cancer, cardiac illness, and epilepsy. There are two papers devoted to each category of disability, one focusing on action for eliminating barriers to…

  1. Dreaming and Offline Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Wamsley, Erin J.

    2015-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that dreaming is influenced by the consolidation of memory during sleep. Following encoding, recently formed memory traces are gradually stabilized and reorganized into a more permanent form of long-term storage. Sleep provides an optimal neurophysiological state to facilitate this process, allowing memory networks to be repeatedly reactivated in the absence of new sensory input. The process of memory reactivation and consolidation in the sleeping brain appears to influence conscious experience during sleep, contributing to dream content recalled on awakening. This article outlines several lines of evidence in support of this hypothesis, and responds to some common objections. PMID:24477388

  2. Memory mechanisms supporting syntactic comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to characterize the memory system that supports sentence comprehension have historically drawn extensively on short-term memory as a source of mechanisms that might apply to sentences. The focus of these efforts has changed significantly in the past decade. As a result of changes in models of short-term working memory (ST-WM) and developments in models of sentence comprehension, the effort to relate entire components of an ST-WM system, such as those in the model developed by Baddeley (Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4: 829–839, 2003) to sentence comprehension has largely been replaced by an effort to relate more specific mechanisms found in modern models of ST-WM to memory processes that support one aspect of sentence comprehension—the assignment of syntactic structure (parsing) and its use in determining sentence meaning (interpretation) during sentence comprehension. In this article, we present the historical background to recent studies of the memory mechanisms that support parsing and interpretation and review recent research into this relation. We argue that the results of this research do not converge on a set of mechanisms derived from ST-WM that apply to parsing and interpretation. We argue that the memory mechanisms supporting parsing and interpretation have features that characterize another memory system that has been postulated to account for skilled performance—long-term working memory. We propose a model of the relation of different aspects of parsing and interpretation to ST-WM and long-term working memory. PMID:23319178

  3. Synaptic Tagging During Memory Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Rogerson, Thomas; Cai, Denise; Frank, Adam; Sano, Yoshitake; Shobe, Justin; Aranda, Manuel L.; Silva, Alcino J.

    2014-01-01

    There is now compelling evidence that the allocation of memory to specific neurons (neuronal allocation) and synapses (synaptic allocation) in a neurocircuit is not random and that instead specific mechanisms, such as increases in neuronal excitability and synaptic tagging and capture, determine the exact sites where memories are stored. We propose an integrated view of these processes, such that neuronal allocation, synaptic tagging and capture, spine clustering and metaplasticity reflect related aspects of memory allocation mechanisms. Importantly, the properties of these mechanisms suggest a set of rules that profoundly affect how memories are stored and recalled. PMID:24496410

  4. Adaptive bidirectional associative memories.

    PubMed

    Kosko, B

    1987-12-01

    Bidirectionality, forward and backward information flow, is introduced in neural networks to produce two-way associative search for stored stimulus-response associations (A(i),B(i)). Two fields of neurons, F(A) and F(B), are connected by an n x p synaptic marix M. Passing information through M gives one direction, passing information through its transpose M(T) gives the other. Every matrix is bidirectionally stable for bivalent and for continuous neurons. Paired data (A(i),B(i)) are encoded in M by summing bipolar correlation matrices. The bidirectional associative memory (BAM) behaves as a two-layer hierarchy of symmetrically connected neurons. When the neurons in F(A) and F(B) are activated, the network quickly evolves to a stable state of twopattern reverberation, or pseudoadaptive resonance, for every connection topology M. The stable reverberation corresponds to a system energy local minimum. An adaptive BAM allows M to rapidly learn associations without supervision. Stable short-term memory reverberations across F(A) and F(B) gradually seep pattern information into the long-term memory connections M, allowing input associations (A(i),B(i)) to dig their own energy wells in the network state space. The BAM correlation encoding scheme is extended to a general Hebbian learning law. Then every BAM adaptively resonates in the sense that all nodes and edges quickly equilibrate in a system energy local minimum. A sampling adaptive BAM results when many more training samples are presented than there are neurons in F(B) and F(B), but presented for brief pulses of learning, not allowing learning to fully or nearly converge. Learning tends to improve with sample size. Sampling adaptive BAMs can learn some simple continuous mappings and can rapidly abstract bivalent associations from several noisy gray-scale samples. PMID:20523473

  5. Tenuigenin ameliorates learning and memory impairments induced by ovariectomy.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhao-Lin; Wang, Chun-Yang; Gu, Xing-Yang; Wang, Na-Jie; Wang, Jin-Jing; Liu, Wen-Xiao; Xiao, Peng; Li, Chu-Hua

    2013-06-13

    Estrogen deficiency is associated with cognitive impairment. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has proven to be effective in preventing and reversing the memory and learning deficiencies. However, conventional estrogenic treatment could increase the risks of breast cancer and venous thromboembolism. Tenuigenin (TEN) is putatively believed as the active component extracted from a Chinese herb Polygala tenuifolia root. Although TEN has been shown to enhance learning and memory in healthy mice, it remains unknown whether or not TEN could ameliorate learning and memory impairments. In the present study, mice were divided into four groups: sham-operated (sham), ovariectomized (OVX), OVX+estradiol benzoate (EB) and OVX+TEN groups. Step-through passive avoidance and Y-maze tests were used to assess learning and memory abilities, and the number of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) positive neurons and the synaptic measurement of hippocampal CA1 area were examined. The results showed that TEN was given orally to OVX mice, leading to the improvement of learning and memory in step-through passive avoidance and Y-maze tests. TEN could reduce the loss of NOS positive neurons and prevent the synaptic morphological changes induced by ovariectomy. Our results suggest that TEN may exert a potential therapeutic value for menopause cognitive dysfunction. PMID:23688946

  6. Vertical bloch line memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, R.; Wu, J.; Stadler, H.

    1990-01-01

    Vertical Bloch Line (VBL) memory is a recently conceived, integrated, solid-state, block-access, VLSI memory which offers the potential of 1Gbit/sq cm real storage density, gigabit per second data rates, and sub-millisecond average access times simultaneously at relatively low mass, volume, and power values when compared to alternative technologies. VBL's are micromagnetic structures within magnetic domain walls which can be manipulated using magnetic fields from integrated conductors. The presence or absence of VBL pairs are used to store binary information. At present, efforts are being directed at developing a single-chip memory using 25Mbit/sq cm technology in magnetic garnet material which integrates, at a single operating point, the writing, storage, reading, and amplification functions needed in a memory. This paper describes the current design architecture, functional elements, and supercomputer simulation results which are used to assist the design process. The current design architecture uses three metal layers, two ion implantation steps for modulating the thickness of the magnetic layer, one ion implantation step for assisting propagation in the major line track, one NiFe soft magnetic layer, one CoPt hard magnetic layer, and one reflective Cr layer for facilitating magneto-optic observation of magnetic structure. Data are stored in a series of elongated magnetic domains, called stripes, which serve as storage sites for arrays of VBL pairs. The ends of these stripes are placed near conductors which serve as VBL read/write gates. A major line track is present to provide a source and propagation path for magnetic bubbles. Writing and reading, respectively, are achieved by converting magnetic bubbles to VBL's and vice versa. The output function is effected by stretching a magnetic bubble and detecting it magnetoresistively. Experimental results from the past design cycle created four design goals for the current design cycle. First, the bias field ranges

  7. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  8. Porous Shape Memory Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Hearon, Keith; Singhal, Pooja; Horn, John; Small, Ward; Olsovsky, Cory; Maitland, Kristen C.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2013-01-01

    Porous shape memory polymers (SMPs) include foams, scaffolds, meshes, and other polymeric substrates that possess porous three-dimensional macrostructures. Porous SMPs exhibit active structural and volumetric transformations and have driven investigations in fields ranging from biomedical engineering to aerospace engineering to the clothing industry. The present review article examines recent developments in porous SMPs, with focus given to structural and chemical classification, methods of characterization, and applications. We conclude that the current body of literature presents porous SMPs as highly interesting smart materials with potential for industrial use. PMID:23646038

  9. Nonvolatile Analog Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A nonvolatile analog memory uses pairs of ferroelectric field effect transistors (FFETs). Each pair is defined by a first FFET and a second FFET. When an analog value is to be stored in one of the pairs, the first FFET has a saturation voltage applied thereto, and the second FFET has a storage voltage applied thereto that is indicative of the analog value. The saturation and storage voltages decay over time in accordance with a known decay function that is used to recover the original analog value when the pair of FFETs is read.

  10. Nanoparticle shuttle memory

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alex Karlwalter

    2012-03-06

    A device for storing data using nanoparticle shuttle memory having a nanotube. The nanotube has a first end and a second end. A first electrode is electrically connected to the first end of the nanotube. A second electrode is electrically connected to the second end of the nanotube. The nanotube has an enclosed nanoparticle shuttle. A switched voltage source is electrically connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby a voltage may be controllably applied across the nanotube. A resistance meter is also connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby the electrical resistance across the nanotube can be determined.

  11. Memory for Sentences: Implications for Human Associative Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foss, Donald J.; Harwood, David A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper evaluates associative theories of sentence memory, based on the model of J.R. Anderson and G.H. Bower. A model of Human Associative Memory (HAM) is generalized and defined, and alternative models incorporating configural information are presented. (CK)

  12. On the Susceptibility of Adaptive Memory to False Memory Illusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Derbish, Mary H.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown that survival-related processing of word lists enhances retention for that material. However, the claim that survival-related memories are more accurate has only been examined when true recall and recognition of neutral material has been measured. In the current experiments, we examined the adaptive memory superiority…

  13. Nanographene charge trapping memory with a large memory window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Jianling; Yang, Rong; Zhao, Jing; He, Congli; Wang, Guole; Shi, Dongxia; Zhang, Guangyu

    2015-11-01

    Nanographene is a promising alternative to metal nanoparticles or semiconductor nanocrystals for charge trapping memory. In general, a high density of nanographene is required in order to achieve high charge trapping capacity. Here, we demonstrate a strategy of fabrication for a high density of nanographene for charge trapping memory with a large memory window. The fabrication includes two steps: (1) direct growth of continuous nanographene film; and (2) isolation of the as-grown film into high-density nanographene by plasma etching. Compared with directly grown isolated nanographene islands, abundant defects and edges are formed in nanographene under argon or oxygen plasma etching, i.e. more isolated nanographene islands are obtained, which provides more charge trapping sites. As-fabricated nanographene charge trapping memory shows outstanding memory properties with a memory window as wide as ∼9 V at a relative low sweep voltage of ±8 V, program/erase speed of ∼1 ms and robust endurance of >1000 cycles. The high-density nanographene charge trapping memory provides an outstanding alternative for downscaling technology beyond the current flash memory.

  14. Nanographene charge trapping memory with a large memory window.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jianling; Yang, Rong; Zhao, Jing; He, Congli; Wang, Guole; Shi, Dongxia; Zhang, Guangyu

    2015-11-13

    Nanographene is a promising alternative to metal nanoparticles or semiconductor nanocrystals for charge trapping memory. In general, a high density of nanographene is required in order to achieve high charge trapping capacity. Here, we demonstrate a strategy of fabrication for a high density of nanographene for charge trapping memory with a large memory window. The fabrication includes two steps: (1) direct growth of continuous nanographene film; and (2) isolation of the as-grown film into high-density nanographene by plasma etching. Compared with directly grown isolated nanographene islands, abundant defects and edges are formed in nanographene under argon or oxygen plasma etching, i.e. more isolated nanographene islands are obtained, which provides more charge trapping sites. As-fabricated nanographene charge trapping memory shows outstanding memory properties with a memory window as wide as ∼9 V at a relative low sweep voltage of ±8 V, program/erase speed of ∼1 ms and robust endurance of >1000 cycles. The high-density nanographene charge trapping memory provides an outstanding alternative for downscaling technology beyond the current flash memory. PMID:26489448

  15. Remaking Memories: Reconsolidation Updates Positively Motivated Spatial Memory in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Bethany; Bukoski, Elizabeth; Nadel, Lynn; Fellous, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    There is strong evidence that reactivation of a memory returns it to a labile state, initiating a restabilization process termed reconsolidation, which allows for updating of the memory. In this study we investigated reactivation-dependent updating using a new positively motivated spatial task in rodents that was designed specifically to model a…

  16. On the susceptibility of adaptive memory to false memory illusions.

    PubMed

    Howe, Mark L; Derbish, Mary H

    2010-05-01

    Previous research has shown that survival-related processing of word lists enhances retention for that material. However, the claim that survival-related memories are more accurate has only been examined when true recall and recognition of neutral material has been measured. In the current experiments, we examined the adaptive memory superiority effect for different types of processing and material, measuring accuracy more directly by comparing true and false recollection rates. Survival-related information and processing was examined using word lists containing backward associates of neutral, negative, and survival-related critical lures and type of processing (pleasantness, moving, survival) was varied using an incidental memory paradigm. Across four experiments, results showed that survival-related words were more susceptible than negative and neutral words to the false memory illusion and that processing information in terms of its relevance to survival independently increased this susceptibility to the false memory illusion. Overall, although survival-related processing and survival-related information resulted in poorer, not more accurate, memory, such inaccuracies may have adaptive significance. These findings are discussed in the context of false memory research and recent theories concerning the importance of survival processing and the nature of adaptive memory. PMID:20096406

  17. Reward disrupts reactivated human skill memory.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Eran; Laor-Maayany, Rony; Censor, Nitzan

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence across species and memory domains shows that when an existing memory is reactivated, it becomes susceptible to modifications. However, the potential role of reward signals in these mechanisms underlying human memory dynamics is unknown. Leaning on a wealth of findings on the role of reward in reinforcing memory, we tested the impact of reinforcing a skill memory trace with monetary reward following memory reactivation, on strengthening of the memory trace. Reinforcing reactivated memories did not strengthen the memory, but rather led to disruption of the memory trace, breaking down the link between memory reactivation and subsequent memory strength. Statistical modeling further revealed a strong mediating role for memory reactivation in linking between memory encoding and subsequent memory strength only when the memory was replayed without reinforcement. We suggest that, rather than reinforcing the existing memory trace, reward creates a competing memory trace, impairing expression of the original reward-free memory. This mechanism sheds light on the processes underlying skill acquisition, having wide translational implications. PMID:27306380

  18. Reward disrupts reactivated human skill memory

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Eran; Laor-Maayany, Rony; Censor, Nitzan

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence across species and memory domains shows that when an existing memory is reactivated, it becomes susceptible to modifications. However, the potential role of reward signals in these mechanisms underlying human memory dynamics is unknown. Leaning on a wealth of findings on the role of reward in reinforcing memory, we tested the impact of reinforcing a skill memory trace with monetary reward following memory reactivation, on strengthening of the memory trace. Reinforcing reactivated memories did not strengthen the memory, but rather led to disruption of the memory trace, breaking down the link between memory reactivation and subsequent memory strength. Statistical modeling further revealed a strong mediating role for memory reactivation in linking between memory encoding and subsequent memory strength only when the memory was replayed without reinforcement. We suggest that, rather than reinforcing the existing memory trace, reward creates a competing memory trace, impairing expression of the original reward-free memory. This mechanism sheds light on the processes underlying skill acquisition, having wide translational implications. PMID:27306380

  19. Cancer Statistics: Endometrial Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 60,050 % of All New Cancer Cases 3.6% Estimated Deaths in 2016 10,470 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 635,437 women living with endometrial cancer in ...

  20. Memory in autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Jill; Mayes, Andrew; Bigham, Sally

    2012-05-01

    Behavioral evidence concerning memory in forms of high-functioning autism (HFA) and in moderately low-functioning autism (M-LFA) is reviewed and compared. Findings on M-LFA are sparse. However, it is provisionally concluded that memory profiles in HFA and M-LFA (relative to ability-matched controls) are similar but that declarative memory impairments are more extensive in M-LFA than in HFA. Specifically, both groups have diminished memory for emotion- or person-related stimuli. Regarding memory for nonsocial stimuli, both groups probably have mental-age-appropriate nondeclarative memory, and within declarative memory, both groups have mental-age-appropriate immediate free recall of within-span or supraspan lists of unrelated items, as well as cued recall and paired associate learning. By contrast, recognition is largely unimpaired in HFA but moderately impaired in M-LFA, and free recall of meaningful or structured stimuli is moderately impaired in HFA but more severely impaired in M-LFA. Theoretical explanations of data on declarative memory in HFA identify problems in the integrative processing, or the consolidation and storage, of complex stimuli or a specific problem of recollection. Proposed neural substrates include the following: disconnectivity of primary sensory and association areas; dysfunctions of medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, or posterior parietal lobe; or combinations of these associated with neural disconnectivity. Hypothetically, perirhinal dysfunction might explain the more extensive declarative memory impairments in M-LFA. Foreseeable consequences of uneven memory abilities in HFA and M-LFA are outlined, including possible effects on language and learning in M-LFA. Finally, priorities for future research are identified, highlighting the urgent need for research on memory in lower functioning individuals. PMID:22409507

  1. Recoverable distributed shared virtual memory - Memory coherence and storage structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Kun-Lung; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of implementing rollback recovery in multicomputer distributed shared virtual memory environments, in which the shared memory is implemented in software and exists only virtually. A user-transparent checkpointing recovery scheme and new twin-page disk storage management are presented to implement a recoverable distributed shared virtual memory. The checkpointing scheme is integrated with the shared virtual memory management. The twin-page disk approach allows incremental checkpointing without an explicit undo at the time of recovery. A single consistent checkpoint state is maintained on stable disk storage. The recoverable distributed shared virtual memory allows the system to restart computation from a previous checkpoint due to a processor failure without a global restart.

  2. Animal cognition: bumble bees suffer 'false memories'.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Judith

    2015-03-16

    The existence of 'false memories', where individuals remember events that they have never actually experienced, is well established in humans. Now a new study reports that insects similarly form illusory memories through merging of memory traces. PMID:25784044

  3. Working and strategic memory deficits in schizophrenia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, M.; Gabrieli, J. D.; Stebbins, G. T.; Sullivan, E. V.

    1998-01-01

    Working memory and its contribution to performance on strategic memory tests in schizophrenia were studied. Patients (n = 18) and control participants (n = 15), all men, received tests of immediate memory (forward digit span), working memory (listening, computation, and backward digit span), and long-term strategic (free recall, temporal order, and self-ordered pointing) and nonstrategic (recognition) memory. Schizophrenia patients performed worse on all tests. Education, verbal intelligence, and immediate memory capacity did not account for deficits in working memory in schizophrenia patients. Reduced working memory capacity accounted for group differences in strategic memory but not in recognition memory. Working memory impairment may be central to the profile of impaired cognitive performance in schizophrenia and is consistent with hypothesized frontal lobe dysfunction associated with this disease. Additional medial-temporal dysfunction may account for the recognition memory deficit.

  4. Learning and memory: do bees dream?

    PubMed

    Melnattur, Krishna; Dissel, Stephane; Shaw, Paul J

    2015-11-01

    In mammals, evidence for memory reactivation during sleep highlighted the important role that sleep plays in memory consolidation. A new study reports that memory reactivation is evolutionarily conserved and can also be found in the honeybee. PMID:26528745

  5. Magnonic Holographic Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khitun, Alexander; Kozhevnikov, Alexander; Gertz, Frederick; Filimonov, Yuri

    2015-03-01

    Collective oscillation of spins in magnetic lattice known as spin waves (magnons) possess relatively long coherence length at room temperature, which makes it possible to build sub-micrometer scale holographic devices similar to the devices developed in optics. In this work, we present a prototype 2-bit magnonic holographic memory. The memory consists of the double-cross waveguide structure made of Y3Fe2(FeO4)3 with magnets placed on the top of waveguide junctions. Information is encoded in the orientation of the magnets, while the read-out is accomplished by the spin waves generated by the micro-antennas placed on the edges of the waveguides. The interference pattern produced by multiple spin waves makes it possible to build a unique holographic image of the magnetic structure and recognize the state of the each magnet. The development of magnonic holographic devices opens a new horizon for building scalable holographic devices compatible with conventional electronic devices. This work was supported in part by the FAME Center, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA and by the National Science Foundation under the NEB2020 Grant ECCS-1124714.

  6. Sequential memory: Binding dynamics.

    PubMed

    Afraimovich, Valentin; Gong, Xue; Rabinovich, Mikhail

    2015-10-01

    Temporal order memories are critical for everyday animal and human functioning. Experiments and our own experience show that the binding or association of various features of an event together and the maintaining of multimodality events in sequential order are the key components of any sequential memories-episodic, semantic, working, etc. We study a robustness of binding sequential dynamics based on our previously introduced model in the form of generalized Lotka-Volterra equations. In the phase space of the model, there exists a multi-dimensional binding heteroclinic network consisting of saddle equilibrium points and heteroclinic trajectories joining them. We prove here the robustness of the binding sequential dynamics, i.e., the feasibility phenomenon for coupled heteroclinic networks: for each collection of successive heteroclinic trajectories inside the unified networks, there is an open set of initial points such that the trajectory going through each of them follows the prescribed collection staying in a small neighborhood of it. We show also that the symbolic complexity function of the system restricted to this neighborhood is a polynomial of degree L - 1, where L is the number of modalities. PMID:26520084

  7. Actin Automata with Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Sanz, Ramón; Adamatzky, Andy

    Actin is a globular protein which forms long polar filaments in eukaryotic. The actin filaments play the roles of cytoskeleton, motility units, information processing and learning. We model actin filament as a double chain of finite state machines, nodes, which take states “0” and “1”. The states are abstractions of absence and presence of a subthreshold charge on actin units corresponding to the nodes. All nodes update their state in parallel to discrete time. A node updates its current state depending on states of two closest neighbors in the node chain and two closest neighbors in the complementary chain. Previous models of actin automata consider momentary state transitions of nodes. We enrich the actin automata model by assuming that states of nodes depend not only on the current states of neighboring node but also on their past states. Thus, we assess the effect of memory of past states on the dynamics of acting automata. We demonstrate in computational experiments that memory slows down propagation of perturbations, decrease entropy of space-time patterns generated, transforms traveling localizations to stationary oscillators, and stationary oscillations to still patterns.

  8. Infants Hierarchically Organize Memory Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Rebecca D.; Feigenson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Throughout development, working memory is subject to capacity limits that severely constrain short-term storage. However, adults can massively expand the total amount of remembered information by grouping items into "chunks". Although infants also have been shown to chunk objects in memory, little is known regarding the limits of this…

  9. Self-Checking Memory Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sievers, M. W.; Rennels, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    Memory-interface integrated circuit not only detects errors in data from other circuits but also detects errors within itself. Memory-interface chip encodes 16-bit words with Hamming code for single-error correction or double-error detection. Chip used in fault-tolerant computers under development by NASA.

  10. Memory in Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Jill; Mayes, Andrew; Bigham, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral evidence concerning memory in forms of high-functioning autism (HFA) and in moderately low-functioning autism (M-LFA) is reviewed and compared. Findings on M-LFA are sparse. However, it is provisionally concluded that memory profiles in HFA and M-LFA (relative to ability-matched controls) are similar but that declarative memory…

  11. Gender, Power, and Autobiographical Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakash-Eisikovits, Ora; Brody, Leslie R.; Sotoo, Naomi; Gonzalez, Karla

    This study explores the influence of gender and power on autobiographical memory following a brief social interaction. The hypothesis stated that gender and social role (that of leaders versus helpers) would interact in predicting the affective tone and themes (agency and communion) of an autobiographical memory for previous leadership…

  12. Memory dysfunction in mild aphasics.

    PubMed

    Rönnberg, J; Larsson, C; Fogelsjöö, A; Nilsson, L G; Lindberg, M; Angquist, K A

    1996-03-01

    The effect of mild aphasia (n = 9), as a result of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), was evaluated against one matched (sex, age, and education) control group suffering from SAH of unknown origin without aphasia, and against one matched healthy control group. According to aphasia testing (Reinvang & Engvik, 1980), criteria for a classical diagnosis were not met. Therefore, the patients were characterized as mild aphasics: They generally displayed intact audo-verbal comprehension and repetition abilities, and they demonstrated a fluent, spontaneous speech. However, they showed phonemic and semantic paraphasias, with self-corrections; a few patients displayed alexia and agraphia. Memory performance of these three groups was evaluated by a neuropsychological test battery, designed to tap various components of verbal memory function. From the results it was concluded that: (a) Short-term memory is impaired, as regards the phonological loop and the central executive in working memory, whereas maintenance rehearsal is unaffected, given that the demands on phonological coding is minimized, (b) long-term memory is also generally impaired, whereas long-term learning and forgetting by means of subject-performed tasks proceeds within a normal range. Impairments were hypothesized to reflect less efficient central executive functions of working memory, involving generation of less appropriate semantic codes and phonological representations, (c) mildly aphasic patients are not subjectively aware of their own memory deficits, and (d) aphasia classification by means of standard procedures do not sufficiently characterize the nature of a mildy aphasic patient's memory problems. PMID:8900819

  13. Shape memory alloy thaw sensors

    DOEpatents

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Martinez, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A sensor permanently indicates that it has been exposed to temperatures exceeding a critical temperature for a predetermined time period. An element of the sensor made from shape memory alloy changes shape when exposed, even temporarily, to temperatures above the Austenitic temperature of the shape memory alloy. The shape change of the SMA element causes the sensor to change between two readily distinguishable states.

  14. Garnet Random-Access Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1995-01-01

    Random-access memory (RAM) devices of proposed type exploit magneto-optical properties of magnetic garnets exhibiting perpendicular anisotropy. Magnetic writing and optical readout used. Provides nonvolatile storage and resists damage by ionizing radiation. Because of basic architecture and pinout requirements, most likely useful as small-capacity memory devices.

  15. Circadian Rhythms in Human Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folkard, Simon; Monk, Timothy H.

    1980-01-01

    Two experiments are described that examined the influence of time-of-day of presentation on immediate and delayed retention and its potential effects on retrieval from long-term memory. Time of presentation was found to influence both immediate and delayed (28 day) retention, but not retrieval from long-term memory. (Author/SJL)

  16. A Synthetic Multicellular Memory Device.

    PubMed

    Urrios, Arturo; Macia, Javier; Manzoni, Romilde; Conde, Núria; Bonforti, Adriano; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc; Solé, Ricard

    2016-08-19

    Changing environments pose a challenge to living organisms. Cells need to gather and process incoming information, adapting to changes in predictable ways. This requires in particular the presence of memory, which allows different internal states to be stored. Biological memory can be stored by switches that retain information on past and present events. Synthetic biologists have implemented a number of memory devices for biological applications, mostly in single cells. It has been shown that the use of multicellular consortia provides interesting advantages to implement biological circuits. Here we show how to build a synthetic biological memory switch using an eukaryotic consortium. We engineered yeast cells that can communicate and retain memory of changes in the extracellular environment. These cells were able to produce and secrete a pheromone and sense a different pheromone following NOT logic. When the two strains were cocultured, they behaved as a double-negative-feedback motif with memory. In addition, we showed that memory can be effectively changed by the use of external inputs. Further optimization of these modules and addition of other cells could lead to new multicellular circuits that exhibit memory over a broad range of biological inputs. PMID:27439436

  17. Adaptive Memory: Thinking about Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Raoul; Röer, Jan P.; Buchner, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Rating the relevance of words for the imagined situation of being stranded in the grasslands without survival material leads to exceptionally good memory for these words. This survival processing effect has received much attention because it promises to elucidate the evolutionary foundations of memory. However, the proximate mechanisms of the…

  18. Infant Memory for Musical Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Loman, Michelle M.; Robertson, Rachel R. W.

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments examined memory of 7-month-olds after 2-week retention interval for passages of two Mozart movements heard daily for 2 weeks. Results suggested that the infants retained familiarized music in long-term memory and that their listening preferences were affected by the extent to which familiar passages were removed from the musical…

  19. Characterization of Spatial Memory Reconsolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jaeger, Xavier; Courtey, Julie; Brus, Maïna; Artinian, Julien; Villain, Hélène; Bacquié, Elodie; Roullet, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Reconsolidation is necessary for the restabilization of reactivated memory traces. However, experimental parameters have been suggested as boundary conditions for this process. Here we investigated the role of a spatial memory trace's age, strength, and update on the reconsolidation process in mice. We first found that protein synthesis is…

  20. Optimal Foraging in Semantic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Thomas T.; Jones, Michael N.; Todd, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Do humans search in memory using dynamic local-to-global search strategies similar to those that animals use to forage between patches in space? If so, do their dynamic memory search policies correspond to optimal foraging strategies seen for spatial foraging? Results from a number of fields suggest these possibilities, including the shared…

  1. Demystifying the Beginnings of Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Courage, Mary L.

    2004-01-01

    A longstanding issue in psychology has been, When does human memory begin? More particularly, when do we begin to remember personal experiences in a way that makes them accessible to recollection later in life? Current popular and scientific thinking would have us believe that memories are possible not only at the time of our birth, but also in…

  2. Making Connections with Memory Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whatley, April

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the use of children's literature within the social studies classroom on the topic of memory boxes. Includes discussions of four books: (1) "The Littlest Angel" (Charles Tazewell); (2) "The Hundred Penny Box" (Sharon Bell Mathis); (3) "Wilfrid Gordon McDonald Partridge" (Mem Fox); and (4) "The Memory Box" (Mary Bahr). (CMK)

  3. Turning Memory Development inside out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    These papers provide a useful progress report on how the mature and successful field of memory development is transcending traditional boundaries of populations, content, context, and design. Examining children's memory for distant as well as recent occurrences, for social interactions as well as individual experiences, for meaningful as well as…

  4. Modeling the Cray memory scheduler

    SciTech Connect

    Wickham, K.L.; Litteer, G.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report documents the results of a project to evaluate low cost modeling and simulation tools when applied to modeling the Cray memory scheduler. The specific tool used is described and the basics of the memory scheduler are covered. Results of simulations using the model are discussed and a favorable recommendation is made to make more use of this inexpensive technology.

  5. Learning and Memory in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitt, Lewis P.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses important recent strides in the documentation and understanding of the infant's learning and memory capacity. Focuses on the psychobiology of learning, hedonic mediation of approach-avoidance and learned behavior, infant memory, and critical conditions of infancy and behavioral misadventures. (RJC)

  6. Plated wire random access memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouldin, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to construct 4096-work by 18-bit random access, NDRO-plated wire memory units. The memory units were subjected to comprehensive functional and environmental tests at the end-item level to verify comformance with the specified requirements. A technical description of the unit is given, along with acceptance test data sheets.

  7. Professional Memory and English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarpey, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article concerns the way that research into Professional Memory (PM) in English teaching might re-connect the school subject with constituencies--the individuals, communities and social values--it once served. By PM I mean the collective memories of a generation of English teachers which, when brought into conjunction with existing histories,…

  8. Using Photographs from American Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Laurel R., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This publication contains teaching ideas generated by classroom teachers. For grades K-4, elementary teacher Doris Waud and media specialist Gail Petri developed "Celebrate America with Symbols from American Memory," in which students explore the American memory and symbols. For grades 5-8, media specialist Mary Alice Anderson developed "Using…

  9. Information Processing in Memory Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, William A.

    The intensity of information processing engendered in different phases of standard memory tasks was examined in six experiments. Processing intensity was conceptualized as system capacity consumed, and was measured via a divided-attention procedure in which subjects performed a memory task and a simple reaction-time (RT) task concurrently. The…

  10. Output Interference in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criss, Amy H.; Malmberg, Kenneth J.; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Dennis and Humphreys (2001) proposed that interference in recognition memory arises solely from the prior contexts of the test word: Interference does not arise from memory traces of other words (from events prior to the study list or on the study list, and regardless of similarity to the test item). We evaluate this model using output…

  11. Stroke and episodic memory disorders.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chun; Alexander, Michael P

    2009-12-01

    Memory impairments are common after stroke, and the anatomical basis for impairments may be quite variable. To determine the range of stroke-related memory impairment, we identified all case reports and group studies through the Medline database and the Science Citation Index. There is no hypothesis about memory that is unique to stroke, but there are several important facets of memory impairment after stroke: (1) Every node of the limbic system implicated in memory may be damaged by stroke but very rarely in isolation and the combination of amnesia with the associated deficits often illuminates additional aspects of memory functions. (2) Stroke produces amnesia by damage to critical convergence white matter connections of the limbic system, and stroke is the only etiology of amnesia that can delineate the entire pathway of memory and critical convergence points. (3) Stroke also impairs memory, without causing classical amnesia, by damaging brain regions responsible for cognitive processes, some modality specific and some more generally strategic, that are essential for normal learning and recall. PMID:19666037

  12. Memory Strategies in Writing Melodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louhivuori, Jukka

    1999-01-01

    Examines knowledge about the structure of memory in order to understand the process of writing melodies. Focuses on a study of 25 students who were asked to write two melodies using a computer. Presents the results and offers an example of the function of memory in writing melodies. (CMK)

  13. Time, Language, and Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Christopher D. B.

    2008-01-01

    Life themes, general events, and event-specific episodes, together with autobiographical knowledge, form autobiographical memory. Each of these memory structures is described, and research that has investigated the storage and retrieval of temporal information for life events, such as place in time, duration, and order, is examined. The general…

  14. Poor Memory: A Case Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Malcolm L.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a case study of a person who had a cardiac arrest with some right-sided brain damage. Describes the effects of poor memory on cognition, personality, and interpersonal relationships based on personal observations during memory impairment. Highlights the course of rehabilitation over a two-year period. (PAS)

  15. A Memorial: Gilman Veith

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our colleague and good friend Gilman Veith died August 18th after a long battle with pancreatic cancer. Over his more than 40 year career Gil provided outstanding vision and inspirational leadership at both national and international levels. His efforts have been truly transform...

  16. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... Oral cancer most commonly involves the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the: Cheek lining Floor ...

  17. Ovarian cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - ovaries ... Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cancer among women. It causes more deaths than any other type of female reproductive organ cancer. The cause of ovarian cancer is unknown. Risk ...

  18. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of the mouth and pharynx (the back of the throat). Oral cancer accounts for roughly two percent of all cancers ...

  19. Working Memory: A Selective Review.

    PubMed

    Kent, Phillip L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a selective overview of the evolution of the concept and assessment of working memory, and how its assessment has been confused with the assessment of some components of attention. A literature search using PsychNet Gold was conducted using the terms working memory. In addition, the writer reviewed recommendations from a sampling of recent neuropsychology texts in regard to the assessment of attention and working memory, as well as the two most recent editions of the Wechsler Memory Scale. It is argued that many clinicians have an incomplete understanding of the relationship between attention and working memory, and often conflate the two in assessment and treatment. Suggestions were made for assessing these abilities. PMID:27191213

  20. Ferroelectric memory based on nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingqiang; Liu, Yueli; Chen, Wen; Li, Jinchai; Liao, Lei

    2012-06-01

    In the past decades, ferroelectric materials have attracted wide attention due to their applications in nonvolatile memory devices (NVMDs) rendered by the electrically switchable spontaneous polarizations. Furthermore, the combination of ferroelectric and nanomaterials opens a new route to fabricating a nanoscale memory device with ultrahigh memory integration, which greatly eases the ever increasing scaling and economic challenges encountered in the traditional semiconductor industry. In this review, we summarize the recent development of the nonvolatile ferroelectric field effect transistor (FeFET) memory devices based on nanostructures. The operating principles of FeFET are introduced first, followed by the discussion of the real FeFET memory nanodevices based on oxide nanowires, nanoparticles, semiconductor nanotetrapods, carbon nanotubes, and graphene. Finally, we present the opportunities and challenges in nanomemory devices and our views on the future prospects of NVMDs.

  1. Memory disorders and vocal performance.

    PubMed

    Dalla Bella, Simone; Tremblay-Champoux, Alexandra; Berkowska, Magdalena; Peretz, Isabelle

    2012-04-01

    The ability to carry a tune, natural for the majority, is underpinned by a complex functional system (i.e., the vocal sensorimotor loop, VSL). The VSL involves various components, including perceptual mechanisms, auditory-motor mapping, motor control, and memory. The malfunction of one of these components can bring about poor-pitch singing. So far, disturbed perception and deficient sensorimotor mapping have been treated as important causes of poor singing. Yet, memory has been paid relatively little attention. Here, we review results obtained from both occasional singers and individuals suffering from congenital amusia, who were asked to produce from memory or imitate a well-known melody under conditions with different memory loads. The findings point to memory as a relevant source of impairment in poor-pitch singing and to imitation as a useful aid for poor singers. PMID:22524377

  2. Ferroelectric memory based on nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In the past decades, ferroelectric materials have attracted wide attention due to their applications in nonvolatile memory devices (NVMDs) rendered by the electrically switchable spontaneous polarizations. Furthermore, the combination of ferroelectric and nanomaterials opens a new route to fabricating a nanoscale memory device with ultrahigh memory integration, which greatly eases the ever increasing scaling and economic challenges encountered in the traditional semiconductor industry. In this review, we summarize the recent development of the nonvolatile ferroelectric field effect transistor (FeFET) memory devices based on nanostructures. The operating principles of FeFET are introduced first, followed by the discussion of the real FeFET memory nanodevices based on oxide nanowires, nanoparticles, semiconductor nanotetrapods, carbon nanotubes, and graphene. Finally, we present the opportunities and challenges in nanomemory devices and our views on the future prospects of NVMDs. PMID:22655750

  3. Long-term cognitive function change among breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ying; Luo, Jianfeng; Bao, Pingping; Cai, Hui; Hong, Zhen; Ding, Ding; Jackson, James C.; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline is a common health problem among breast cancer patients and understanding trajectories of cognitive change following among breast cancer survivors is an important public health goal. We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the cognitive function changes from 18 month to 3 years after breast cancer diagnosis among participants of the Shanghai Breast cancer survivor study, a population-based cohort study of breast cancer survivors. In our study, we completed cognitive function evaluation for 1,300 breast cancer survivors at the 18th month’s survey and 1,059 at 36th month’s survey, respectively, using a battery of cognitive function measurements. We found the scores in attention and executive function, immediate memory and delayed memory significantly improved from 18 to 36 months after breast cancer diagnosis. The improvements appeared in breast cancer survivors receiving treatments (i.e., surgery, radiotherapy, tamoxifen, or chemotherapy combined with or without tamoxifen), but not in those who received neither chemotherapy nor tamoxifen treatment. The results indicate that cognitive functions, particularly immediate verbal episodic memory, and delayed memory significantly improved among breast cancer survivors from 18 to 36 months after cancer diagnosis. In general, comorbidity was inversely associated with the improvements. PMID:25005574

  4. Mass cytometry analysis shows that a novel memory phenotype B cell is expanded in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Hansmann, Leo; Blum, Lisa; Ju, Chia-Hsin; Liedtke, Michaela; Robinson, William H.; Davis, Mark M.

    2015-01-01

    It would be very beneficial if the status of cancers could be determined from a blood specimen. However, peripheral blood leukocytes are very heterogeneous between individuals and thus high resolution technologies are likely required. We used cytometry by time-of-flight (CyTOF) and next generation sequencing to ask whether a plasma cell cancer (multiple myeloma) and related pre-cancerous states had any consistent effect on the peripheral blood mononuclear cell phenotypes of patients. Analysis of peripheral blood samples from 13 cancer patients, 9 pre-cancer patients, and 9 healthy individuals revealed significant differences in the frequencies of the T, B, and natural killer cell compartments. Most strikingly, we identified a novel B-cell population that normally accounts for 4.0±0.7% (mean±SD) of total B cells and is up to 13-fold expanded in multiple myeloma patients with active disease. This population expressed markers previously associated with both memory (CD27+) and naïve (CD24loCD38+) phenotypes. Single-cell immunoglobulin gene sequencing showed polyclonality, indicating that these cells are not precursors to the myeloma, and somatic mutations, a characteristic of memory cells. SYK, ERK, and p38 phosphorylation responses, and the fact that most of these cells expressed isotypes other than IgM or IgD, confirmed the memory character of this population, defining it as a novel type of memory B cells. PMID:25711758

  5. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  6. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth ...

  7. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... of colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  8. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  9. Remembering, imagining, false memories & personal meanings.

    PubMed

    Conway, Martin A; Loveday, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    The Self-Memory System encompasses the working self, autobiographical memory and episodic memory. Specific autobiographical memories are patterns of activation over knowledge structures in autobiographical and episodic memory brought about by the activating effect of cues. The working self can elaborate cues based on the knowledge they initially activate and so control the construction of memories of the past and the future. It is proposed that such construction takes place in the remembering-imagining system - a window of highly accessible recent memories and simulations of near future events. How this malfunctions in various disorders is considered as are the implication of what we term the modern view of human memory for notions of memory accuracy. We show how all memories are to some degree false and that the main role of memories lies in generating personal meanings. PMID:25592676

  10. Evolution of working memory.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, Peter

    2013-06-18

    Working memory (WM) is fundamental to many aspects of human life, including learning, speech and text comprehension, prospection and future planning, and explicit "system 2" forms of reasoning, as well as overlapping heavily with fluid general intelligence. WM has been intensively studied for many decades, and there is a growing consensus about its nature, its components, and its signature limits. Remarkably, given its central importance in human life, there has been very little comparative investigation of WM abilities across species. Consequently, much remains unknown about the evolution of this important human capacity. Some questions can be tentatively answered from the existing comparative literature. Even studies that were not intended to do so can nonetheless shed light on the WM capacities of nonhuman animals. However, many questions remain. PMID:23754428

  11. Reversible shape memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheiko, Sergei; Zhou, Jing; White, Sarah; Ashby, Valerie

    2012-02-01

    An ``Achilles' heel'' of shape memory materials is that shape transformations triggered by an external stimulus are usually irreversible. Here we present a new concept of reversible transitions between two well-defined shapes by controlling hierarchic crystallization of a dual-network elastomer. The reversibility was demonstrated for different types of shape transformations including rod bending, winding of a helical coil, and widening an aperture. The distinct feature of the reversible shape alterations is that both counter-shapes are infinitely stable at a temperature of exploitation. Shape reversibility is highly desirable property in many practical applications such as non-surgical removal of a previously inserted catheter and handfree wrapping up of an earlier unraveled solar sail on a space shuttle.

  12. Shape memory heat engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salzbrenner, R.

    1984-06-01

    The mechanical shape memory effect associated with a thermoelastic martensitic transformation can be used to convert heat directly into mechanical work. Laboratory simulation of two types of heat engine cycles (Stirling and Ericsson) has been performed to measure the amount of work available/cycle in a Ni-45 at. pct Ti alloy. Tensile deformations at ambient temperature induced martensite, while a subsequent increase in temperature caused a reversion to the parent phase during which a load was carried through the strain recovery (i.e., work was accomplished). The amount of heat necessary to carry the engines through a cycle was estimated from calorimeter measurements and the work performed/cycle. The measured efficiency of the system tested reached a maximum of 1.4 percent, which was well below the theoretical (Carnot) maximum efficiency of 35.6 percent.

  13. ELECTROSTATIC MEMORY SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Chu, J.C.

    1958-09-23

    An improved electrostatic memory system is de scribed fer a digital computer wherein a plarality of storage tubes are adapted to operate in either of two possible modes. According to the present irvention, duplicate storage tubes are provided fur each denominational order of the several binary digits. A single discriminator system is provided between corresponding duplicate tubes to determine the character of the infurmation stored in each. If either tube produces the selected type signal, corresponding to binazy "1" in the preferred embodiment, a "1" is regenerated in both tubes. In one mode of operation each bit of information is stored in two corresponding tubes, while in the other mode of operation each bit is stored in only one tube in the conventional manner.

  14. Evolution of working memory

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is fundamental to many aspects of human life, including learning, speech and text comprehension, prospection and future planning, and explicit “system 2” forms of reasoning, as well as overlapping heavily with fluid general intelligence. WM has been intensively studied for many decades, and there is a growing consensus about its nature, its components, and its signature limits. Remarkably, given its central importance in human life, there has been very little comparative investigation of WM abilities across species. Consequently, much remains unknown about the evolution of this important human capacity. Some questions can be tentatively answered from the existing comparative literature. Even studies that were not intended to do so can nonetheless shed light on the WM capacities of nonhuman animals. However, many questions remain. PMID:23754428

  15. Familiarity in Source Memory

    PubMed Central

    Mollison, Matthew V.; Curran, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Familiarity and recollection are thought to be separate processes underlying recognition memory. Event-related potentials (ERPs) dissociate these processes, with an early (approximately 300–500 ms) frontal effect relating to familiarity (the FN400) and a later (500–800 ms) parietal old/new effect relating to recollection. It has been debated whether source information for a studied item (i.e., contextual associations from when the item was previously encountered) is only accessible through recollection, or whether familiarity can contribute to successful source recognition. It has been shown that familiarity can assist in perceptual source monitoring when the source attribute is an intrinsic property of the item (e.g., an object’s surface color), but few studies have examined its contribution to recognizing extrinsic source associations. Extrinsic source associations were examined in three experiments involving memory judgments for pictures of common objects. In Experiment 1, source information was spatial and results suggested that familiarity contributed to accurate source recognition: the FN400 ERP component showed a source accuracy effect, and source accuracy was above chance for items judged to only feel familiar. Source information in Experiment 2 was an extrinsic color association; source accuracy was at chance for familiar items and the FN400 did not differ between correct and incorrect source judgments. Experiment 3 replicated the results using a within-subjects manipulation of spatial vs. color source. Overall, the results suggest that familiarity’s contribution to extrinsic source monitoring depends on the type of source information being remembered. PMID:22789677

  16. Optical Bidirectional Associative Memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosko, Bart; Guest, Clark

    1987-06-01

    Four optical implementations of bidirectional associative memories (BAMs) are presented. BAMs are heteroassociative content addressable memories (CAMs). A BAM stores the m binary associations (A1, B1), ..., (Am, Bm) , where A is a point in the Boolean n-cube and B is a point in the Boolean p-cube. A is a neural network of n bivalent or continuous neurons ai; B is a network of p bivalent or continuous neurons bi. The fixed synaptic connections between the A and B networks are represented by some n-by-p real matrix M. Bidirectionality, forward and backward information flow, in neural nets produces two-way associative search for the nearest stored pair (Ai, Bi) to an input key. Every matrix is a bidirectionally stable hetero-associative CAM for boh bivalent and continuous networks. This generalizes the well-known unidirectional stability for autoassociative networks with square symmetric M. When the BAM neurons are activated, the network quickly evolves to a stable state of two-pattern reverberation, or pseudo-adaptive resonance. The stable reverberation corresponds to a system energy local minimum. Heteroassociative pairs (Ai, Bi) are encoded in a BAM M by summing bipolar correlation matrices, M = X1T Y1 + ... + XmT Ym , where Xi (Yi) is the bipolar version of Ai (Bi), with -1s replacing Os. the BAM storage capacity for reliable recall is roughly m < min(n, p)--pattern number is bounded by pattern dimensionality. BAM optical implementations are divided into two approaches: matrix vector multipliers and holographic correlators. The four optical BAMs described respectively emphasize a spatial light modulator, laser diodes and high-speed detectors, a reflection hologram, and a transmission hologram.

  17. Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shilei; Zhang, Jingyan; Baker, Alexander; Wang, Shouguo; Yu, Guanghua; Hesjedal, Thorsten

    2015-03-01

    Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the individual data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme which envisages a classical abacus with the beads operated by electron spins. It is inspired by the idea of second quantization, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered `quantized' Hall voltage, representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This concept of `second quantization of memory' realizes the 3D memory architecture with superior reading and operation efficiency, thus is a promising approach for future nonvolatile magnetic random access memory.

  18. Hierarchical organization of cognitive memory.

    PubMed Central

    Mishkin, M; Suzuki, W A; Gadian, D G; Vargha-Khadem, F

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of the organization of memory processes within the medial temporal lobe. Evidence obtained in patients with late-onset amnesia resulting from medial temporal pathology has given rise to two opposing interpretations of the effects of such damage on long-term cognitive memory. One view is that cognitive memory, including memory for both facts and events, is served in a unitary manner by the hippocampus and its surrounding cortices; the other is that the basic function affected in amnesia is event memory, the memory for factual material often showing substantial preservation. Recent findings in patients with amnesia resulting from relatively selective hippocampal damage sustained early in life suggest a possible reconciliation of the two views. The new findings suggest that the hippocampus may be especially important for event as opposed to fact memory, with the surrounding cortical areas contributing to both. Evidence from neuroanatomical and neurobehavioural studies in monkeys is presented in support of this proposal. PMID:9368934

  19. Spatial memory in foraging games.

    PubMed

    Kerster, Bryan E; Rhodes, Theo; Kello, Christopher T

    2016-03-01

    Foraging and foraging-like processes are found in spatial navigation, memory, visual search, and many other search functions in human cognition and behavior. Foraging is commonly theorized using either random or correlated movements based on Lévy walks, or a series of decisions to remain or leave proximal areas known as "patches". Neither class of model makes use of spatial memory, but search performance may be enhanced when information about searched and unsearched locations is encoded. A video game was developed to test the role of human spatial memory in a canonical foraging task. Analyses of search trajectories from over 2000 human players yielded evidence that foraging movements were inherently clustered, and that clustering was facilitated by spatial memory cues and influenced by memory for spatial locations of targets found. A simple foraging model is presented in which spatial memory is used to integrate aspects of Lévy-based and patch-based foraging theories to perform a kind of area-restricted search, and thereby enhance performance as search unfolds. Using only two free parameters, the model accounts for a variety of findings that individually support competing theories, but together they argue for the integration of spatial memory into theories of foraging. PMID:26752603

  20. Surface shape memory in polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mather, Patrick

    2012-02-01

    Many crosslinked polymers exhibit a shape memory effect wherein a permanent shape can be prescribed during crosslinking and arbitrary temporary shapes may be set through network chain immobilization. Researchers have extensively investigated such shape memory polymers in bulk form (bars, films, foams), revealing a multitude of approaches. Applications abound for such materials and a significant fraction of the studies in this area concern application-specific characterization. Recently, we have turned our attention to surface shape memory in polymers as a means to miniaturization of the effect, largely motivated to study the interaction of biological cells with shape memory polymers. In this presentation, attention will be given to several approaches we have taken to prepare and study surface shape memory phenomenon. First, a reversible embossing study involving a glassy, crosslinked shape memory material will be presented. Here, the permanent shape was flat while the temporary state consisted of embossed parallel groves. Further the fixing mechanism was vitrification, with Tg adjusted to accommodate experiments with cells. We observed that the orientation and spreading of adherent cells could be triggered to change by the topographical switch from grooved to flat. Second, a functionally graded shape memory polymer will be presented, the grading being a variation in glass transition temperature in one direction along the length of films. Characterization of the shape fixing and recovery of such films utilized an indentation technique that, along with polarizing microscopy, allowed visualization of stress distribution in proximity to the indentations. Finally, very recent research concerning shape memory induced wrinkle formation on polymer surfaces will be presented. A transformation from smooth to wrinkled surfaces at physiological temperatures has been observed to have a dramatic effect on the behavior of adherent cells. A look to the future in research and

  1. Memorial to Professor Antonio Barone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafuri, Francesco; Pepe, Giampiero; Vaglio, Ruggero

    2014-04-01

    Antonio Barone prematurely passed away on 4 December 2011 at the age of 72, after a one-year battle with cancer. He left behind his wife Sveva and his two sons, Alberto and Livio. Antonio was Professor Emeritus at the University of Napoli Federico II, where he had been teaching for about 40 years. The initial research activity of Antonio was in the field of nuclear physics. In this context, almost 45 years ago, the Ge 'Lithium drift' semiconductor detectors represented a novelty, due to the high energy resolution enabled by those devices. Superconductors stimulated new approaches to radiation detection and this motivated Antonio's interest towards superconductivity. Following the birth of the Laboratorio di Cibernetica of the CNR in 1967 he was given the opportunity to work on a joint USA-Italy project (University of Wisconsin, Madison and CNR Naples) in the field of superconductivity on the peculiar subject of the superconductive 'Neuristors'. His research activity on Josephson junctions opened up a wide variety of very stimulating subjects in which he was deeply involved, ranging from the soliton propagation in 'long' Josephson structures to fluctuations phenomena, from light-sensitive junctions and proximity effect to the development of innovative superconducting devices. The strong interaction of Antonio with the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics of the Academy of Sciences in Moscow, characterizes a long period of his research activity with a precious merging of theoretical and experimental aspects. This body of work converged into the famous monograph on the 'Physics and Applications of the Josephson Effect', written in collaboration with Gianfranco Paternò in 1982. This rapidly became the reference text for the Josephson effect, as documented by thousands of citations and the fact that it was translated into Russian, Japanese and Chinese. In 1983 Antonio was awarded the highest academic title of 'Doctor of the Physical-Mathematical Sciences' by the

  2. Memory reloaded: memory load effects in the attentional blink.

    PubMed

    Visser, Troy A W

    2010-06-01

    When two targets are presented in rapid succession, identification of the first is nearly perfect, while identification of the second is impaired when it follows the first by less than about 700 ms. According to bottleneck models, this attentional blink (AB) occurs because the second target is unable to gain access to capacity-limited working memory processes already occupied by the first target. Evidence for this hypothesis, however, has been mixed, with recent reports suggesting that increasing working memory load does not affect the AB. The present paper explores possible reasons for failures to find a link between memory load and the AB and shows that a reliable effect of load can be obtained when the item directly after T1 (Target 1) is omitted. This finding provides initial evidence that working memory load can influence the AB and additional evidence for a link between T1 processing time and the AB predicted by bottleneck models. PMID:19787551

  3. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  4. [Memory: clinico-pathologic data].

    PubMed

    Duyckaerts, C; Suarez, S; Hauw, J J

    1998-01-01

    Synaptic modifications are probably the basis of the memory processes that take place in the central nervous system. They have been studied in Aplysia or in hippocampal slices. How these minute alterations of the synaptic strength are integrated in larger neural systems is still poorly understood. In man, hippocampal lesions, when bilateral, cause a deficit in anterograde episodic memory. The loss of previously acquired memories (retrograde amnesia) is limited. Procedural memory is spared. Young patients with hippocampal lesions remain able to learn how to read or to write (abilities that belong to semantic memories). Recordings obtained with intracerebral electrodes have shown that some neurons of the hippocampus act as "place cells". They fire when the animal is in a specific place of the experimental maze, an observation that suggests that the hippocampus acts as a map that may also be viewed as a context indicator (a "cognitive map"). Computer models have been devised to test the hypothesis that the hippocampus recorded the map of the activated synapses at a particular moment in time. This pattern of activity could secondarily be transferred to the isocortex during a process known as consolidation. The frontal lobe plays a role in attention, which greatly influences the memory process. It also plays a role in the various strategies that are used to recall a memory and in the analysis of the quality of the recall (metamemory). An asymmetry has been shown by the PET-scan: the left frontal lobe is activated during acquisition, and the right one during recall. The ability to integrate one's own memories in one's own history and consciousness (self-awareness or "autonoesis") also depends on the activity of the prefrontal region. The loss of acquired memories (retrograde amnesia) is most often observed in cases of large lesions of the anterior part of the temporal lobe. Partial amnesias are difficult to separate from possibly localized deficits of a cognitive

  5. Vertical-Bloch-Line Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.; Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.

    1993-01-01

    Vertical-Bloch-line memory is developmental very-large-scale integrated-circuit block-access magnetic memory. Stores data in form of localized pairs of twists (VBL pairs) in magnetic field at edge of ferromagnetic domain in each stripe. Presence or absence of VBL pair at bit position denotes one or zero, respectively. Offers advantages of resistance to ionizing radiation, potential areal storage density approximately less than 1 Gb/cm squared, data rates approximately less than 1 Gb/s, and average access times of order of milliseconds. Furthermore, mass, volume, and demand for power less than other magnetic and electronic memories.

  6. Shared versus distributed memory multiprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Harry F.

    1991-01-01

    The question of whether multiprocessors should have shared or distributed memory has attracted a great deal of attention. Some researchers argue strongly for building distributed memory machines, while others argue just as strongly for programming shared memory multiprocessors. A great deal of research is underway on both types of parallel systems. Special emphasis is placed on systems with a very large number of processors for computation intensive tasks and considers research and implementation trends. It appears that the two types of systems will likely converge to a common form for large scale multiprocessors.

  7. Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Thyroid Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Thyroid Cancer Overview Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Symptoms ...

  8. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Overview Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Screening Symptoms ...

  9. Anal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Anal Cancer Anal Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Anal Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Anal Cancer Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention Screening ...

  10. Cancer Statistics: Pancreas Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Series Pancreatic Cancer - Did you know that an estimated 46,000 Americans were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 53,070 % of All ...

  11. Sharpen Kids' Memory to Raise Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Judy

    2005-01-01

    By understanding the different types of memory, the neurophysiology of brain chemical and anatomical changes associated with memory, and the ways to enhance the memory process, teachers can utilize proven technique--and develop their own--to guide students over that bleak terrain of memorization. From simplest recall of awareness, memory skills…

  12. Memory for Traumatic Experiences in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordon, Ingrid M.; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen; Sayfan, Liat; Melinder, Annika; Goodman, Gail S.

    2004-01-01

    Traumatic experiences in early childhood raise important questions about memory development in general and about the durability and accessibility of memories for traumatic events in particular. We discuss memory for early childhood traumatic events, from a developmental perspective, focusing on those factors that may equally influence memories for…

  13. Schematic Knowledge and Memory in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarnio, David A.

    1990-01-01

    Describes research on memory in preschool children. Each child was studied for scene and list memory. Domain-specific and general knowledge were not found to be strongly related to memory performance. Object typicality did not have a strong effect on memory, but size did. (GH)

  14. Explaining the Development of False Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Holliday, Robyn; Marche, Tammy

    2002-01-01

    Reviews explanatory dimensions of children's false memory relevant to forensic practice: measurement, development, social factors, individual differences, varieties of memories and memory judgments, and varieties of procedures inducing false memories. Asserts that recent studies fail to use techniques that separate acquiescence from memory…

  15. A Temporal Ratio Model of Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gordon D. A.; Neath, Ian; Chater, Nick

    2007-01-01

    A model of memory retrieval is described. The model embodies four main claims: (a) temporal memory--traces of items are represented in memory partly in terms of their temporal distance from the present; (b) scale-similarity--similar mechanisms govern retrieval from memory over many different timescales; (c) local distinctiveness--performance on a…

  16. Can Interactive Working Memory Training Improve Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Working memory is linked to learning outcomes and there is emerging evidence that training working memory can yield gains in working memory and fluid intelligence. Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether interactive working memory training would transfer to acquired cognitive skills, such as vocabulary and…

  17. Psychotherapy and Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, D. Stephen

    This conference address examines the question of whether "memory work"--using therapeutic techniques to help clients recover suspected hidden memories of childhood sexual abuse--has led some clients to develop illusory memories or false beliefs. Prospective research on memory for childhood trauma indicates that the gist of traumatic childhood…

  18. Semantic and Visual Memory After Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donat, Dennis C.

    1986-01-01

    Compared the relative performance of 40 patients with a history of alcohol abuse on tasks of short-term semantic and visual memory. Performance on the visual memory tasks was impaired significantly relative to the semantic memory task in a within-subjects analysis of variance. Semantic memory was unimpaired. (Author/ABB)

  19. Memory Reactivation and Consolidation during Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paller, Ken A.; Voss, Joel L.

    2004-01-01

    Do our memories remain static during sleep, or do they change? We argue here that memory change is not only a natural result of sleep cognition, but further, that such change constitutes a fundamental characteristic of declarative memories. In general, declarative memories change due to retrieval events at various times after initial learning and…

  20. Sleep Enhances Explicit Recollection in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drosopoulos, Spyridon; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Recognition memory is considered to be supported by two different memory processes, i.e., the explicit recollection of information about a previous event and an implicit process of recognition based on a contextual sense of familiarity. Both types of memory supposedly rely on distinct memory systems. Sleep is known to enhance the consolidation of…