Science.gov

Sample records for cancer pooled analysis

  1. HPV-associated lung cancers: an international pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ragin, Camille; Obikoya-Malomo, Monisola

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the etiologic risk factor for cervical cancer. Some studies have suggested an association with a subset of lung tumors, but the etiologic link has not been firmly established. We performed an international pooled analysis of cross-sectional studies (27 datasets, n = 3249 patients) to evaluate HPV DNA prevalence in lung cancer and to investigate viral presence according to clinical and demographic characteristics. HPV16/18 were the most commonly detected, but with substantial variation in viral prevalence between geographic regions. The highest prevalence of HPV16/18 was observed in South and Central America, followed by Asia, North America and Europe (adjusted prevalence rates = 22, 5, 4 and 3%, respectively). Higher HPV16 prevalence was noted in each geographic region compared with HPV18, except in North America. HPV16/18-positive lung cancer was less likely observed among White race (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.12–0.90), whereas no associations were observed with gender, smoking history, age, histology or stage. Comparisons between tumor and normal lung tissue show that HPV was more likely to be present in lung cancer rather than normal lung tissues (OR = 3.86, 95% CI = 2.87–5.19). Among a subset of patients with HPV16-positive tumors, integration was primarily among female patients (93%, 13/14), while the physical status in male cases (N = 14) was inconsistent. Our findings confirm that HPV DNA is present in a small fraction of lung tumors, with large geographic variations. Further comprehensive analysis is needed to assess whether this association reflects a causal relationship. PMID:24523449

  2. A pooled analysis of alcohol intake and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Duan, Hong; Yang, Helen; Lin, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Object: In order to provide an updated quantification of the association between alcohol intake and colorectal cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of published observational studies. Method: Two cohort and 22 case-control studies presenting results for at least three categories of alcohol intake were identified from a PubMed search of articles published before July 2014. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers. Random effects meta-analyses, subgroup analyses, and meta regression were performed for modeling the dose-response relation. Result: The pooled relative risk (RR) for any alcohol intake compared with non/occasional drinking was 1.13 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.17]. The RRs were 1.07 (95% CI, 1.02-1.13), 1.23 (95% CI, 1.15-1.32) and 1.37 (95% CI, 1.26-1.49) for light (?12.5 g/day), moderate (12.6 to 49.9 g/day) and heavy drinking (?50 g/day), respectively. The risks were consistent in the subgroup analyses of sex and tumor site. Conclusion: This meta-analysis provides strong evidence for an association between alcohol intake and colorectal cancer risk. PMID:26221225

  3. Cannabis smoking and lung cancer risk: Pooled analysis in the International Lung Cancer Consortium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li Rita; Morgenstern, Hal; Greenland, Sander; Chang, Shen-Chih; Lazarus, Philip; Teare, M Dawn; Woll, Penella J; Orlow, Irene; Cox, Brian; Brhane, Yonathan; Liu, Geoffrey; Hung, Rayjean J

    2015-02-15

    To investigate the association between cannabis smoking and lung cancer risk, data on 2,159 lung cancer cases and 2,985 controls were pooled from 6 case-control studies in the US, Canada, UK, and New Zealand within the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Study-specific associations between cannabis smoking and lung cancer were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for sociodemographic factors, tobacco smoking status and pack-years; odds-ratio estimates were pooled using random effects models. Subgroup analyses were done for sex, histology and tobacco smoking status. The shapes of dose-response associations were examined using restricted cubic spline regression. The overall pooled OR for habitual versus nonhabitual or never users was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.66-1.38). Compared to nonhabitual or never users, the summary OR was 0.88 (95%CI: 0.63-1.24) for individuals who smoked 1 or more joint-equivalents of cannabis per day and 0.94 (95%CI: 0.67-1.32) for those consumed at least 10 joint-years. For adenocarcinoma cases the ORs were 1.73 (95%CI: 0.75-4.00) and 1.74 (95%CI: 0.85-3.55), respectively. However, no association was found for the squamous cell carcinoma based on small numbers. Weak associations between cannabis smoking and lung cancer were observed in never tobacco smokers. Spline modeling indicated a weak positive monotonic association between cumulative cannabis use and lung cancer, but precision was low at high exposure levels. Results from our pooled analyses provide little evidence for an increased risk of lung cancer among habitual or long-term cannabis smokers, although the possibility of potential adverse effect for heavy consumption cannot be excluded. PMID:24947688

  4. Dairy products and pancreatic cancer risk: a pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Genkinger, J M; Wang, M; Li, R; Albanes, D; Anderson, K E; Bernstein, L; van den Brandt, P A; English, D R; Freudenheim, J L; Fuchs, C S; Gapstur, S M; Giles, G G; Goldbohm, R A; Håkansson, N; Horn-Ross, P L; Koushik, A; Marshall, J R; McCullough, M L; Miller, A B; Robien, K; Rohan, T E; Schairer, C; Silverman, D T; Stolzenberg-Solomon, R Z; Virtamo, J; Willett, W C; Wolk, A; Ziegler, R G; Smith-Warner, S A

    2014-06-01

    Pancreatic cancer has few early symptoms, is usually diagnosed at late stages, and has a high case-fatality rate. Identifying modifiable risk factors is crucial to reducing pancreatic cancer morbidity and mortality. Prior studies have suggested that specific foods and nutrients, such as dairy products and constituents, may play a role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. In this pooled analysis of the primary data from 14 prospective cohort studies, 2212 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified during follow-up among 862 680 individuals. Adjusting for smoking habits, personal history of diabetes, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and energy intake, multivariable study-specific hazard ratios (MVHR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random effects model. There was no association between total milk intake and pancreatic cancer risk (MVHR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.82-1.18 comparing ?500 with 1-69.9 g/day). Similarly, intakes of low-fat milk, whole milk, cheese, cottage cheese, yogurt, and ice-cream were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. No statistically significant association was observed between dietary (MVHR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.77-1.19) and total calcium (MVHR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.71-1.12) intake and pancreatic cancer risk overall when comparing intakes ?1300 with <500 mg/day. In addition, null associations were observed for dietary and total vitamin D intake and pancreatic cancer risk. Findings were consistent within sex, smoking status, and BMI strata or when the case definition was limited to pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Overall, these findings do not support the hypothesis that consumption of dairy foods, calcium, or vitamin D during adulthood is associated with pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:24631943

  5. Lung cancer risk among bricklayers in a pooled analysis of case–control studies

    PubMed Central

    Consonni, Dario; Matteis, Sara De; Pesatori, Angela C; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Olsson, Ann C; Kromhout, Hans; Peters, Susan; Vermeulen, Roel CH; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas; Kendzia, Benjamin; Behrens, Thomas; Stücker, Isabelle; Guida, Florence; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Brüske, Irene; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil E; Gustavsson, Per; Plato, Nils; Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Simonato, Lorenzo; Forastiere, Francesco; Siemiatycki, Jack; Parent, Marie-Élise; Tardón, Adonina; Boffetta, Paolo; Zaridze, David; Chen, Ying; Field, John K; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Pearce, Neil; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Lissowska, Jolanta; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Rudnai, Peter; Fabiánová, Eleonóra; Stanescu Dumitru, Rodica; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B(as); Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Bricklayers may be exposed to several lung carcinogens, including crystalline silica and asbestos. Previous studies that analyzed lung cancer risk among these workers had several study design limitations. We examined lung cancer risk among bricklayers within SYNERGY, a large international pooled analysis of case–control studies on lung cancer and the joint effects of occupational carcinogens. For men ever employed as bricklayers we estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for study center, age, lifetime smoking history and employment in occupations with exposures to known or suspected lung carcinogens. Among 15,608 cases and 18,531 controls, there were 695 cases and 469 controls who had ever worked as bricklayers (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.28–1.68). In studies using population controls the OR was 1.55 (95% CI: 1.32–1.81, 540/349 cases/controls), while it was 1.24 (95% CI: 0.93–1.64, 155/120 cases/controls) in hospital-based studies. There was a clear positive trend with length of employment (p < 0.001). The relative risk was higher for squamous (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.42–1.98, 309 cases) and small cell carcinomas (OR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.44–2.20, 140 cases), than for adenocarcinoma (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.95–1.43, 150 cases) (p-homogeneity: 0.0007). ORs were still elevated after additional adjustment for education and in analyses using blue collar workers as referents. This study provided robust evidence of increased lung cancer risk in bricklayers. Although non-causal explanations cannot be completely ruled out, the association is plausible in view of the potential for exposure to several carcinogens, notably crystalline silica and to a lesser extent asbestos. What's new? In their work, bricklayers can be exposed to various airborne carcinogens, including crystalline silica and asbestos. Previous studies of cancer risk have not accounted for full employment history or smoking status, and failed to establish a firm relationship between bricklaying and lung cancer. In this study, the authors used data from the largest collection of case-control studies on lung cancer with complete occupational and smoking history existing today, the SYNERGY project. They found clear evidence that lung cancer risk increases in proportion to the length of time spent working as a bricklayer, paving the way for better protection and compensation for those in this occupation. PMID:24861979

  6. Lung cancer risk among bricklayers in a pooled analysis of case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Consonni, Dario; De Matteis, Sara; Pesatori, Angela C; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Olsson, Ann C; Kromhout, Hans; Peters, Susan; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas; Kendzia, Benjamin; Behrens, Thomas; Stücker, Isabelle; Guida, Florence; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Brüske, Irene; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil E; Gustavsson, Per; Plato, Nils; Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Simonato, Lorenzo; Forastiere, Francesco; Siemiatycki, Jack; Parent, Marie-Élise; Tardón, Adonina; Boffetta, Paolo; Zaridze, David; Chen, Ying; Field, John K; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Pearce, Neil; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Lissowska, Jolanta; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Rudnai, Peter; Fabiánová, Eleonóra; Stanescu Dumitru, Rodica; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt

    2015-01-15

    Bricklayers may be exposed to several lung carcinogens, including crystalline silica and asbestos. Previous studies that analyzed lung cancer risk among these workers had several study design limitations. We examined lung cancer risk among bricklayers within SYNERGY, a large international pooled analysis of case-control studies on lung cancer and the joint effects of occupational carcinogens. For men ever employed as bricklayers we estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for study center, age, lifetime smoking history and employment in occupations with exposures to known or suspected lung carcinogens. Among 15,608 cases and 18,531 controls, there were 695 cases and 469 controls who had ever worked as bricklayers (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.28-1.68). In studies using population controls the OR was 1.55 (95% CI: 1.32-1.81, 540/349 cases/controls), while it was 1.24 (95% CI: 0.93-1.64, 155/120 cases/controls) in hospital-based studies. There was a clear positive trend with length of employment (p < 0.001). The relative risk was higher for squamous (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.42-1.98, 309 cases) and small cell carcinomas (OR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.44-2.20, 140 cases), than for adenocarcinoma (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.95-1.43, 150 cases) (p-homogeneity: 0.0007). ORs were still elevated after additional adjustment for education and in analyses using blue collar workers as referents. This study provided robust evidence of increased lung cancer risk in bricklayers. Although non-causal explanations cannot be completely ruled out, the association is plausible in view of the potential for exposure to several carcinogens, notably crystalline silica and to a lesser extent asbestos. PMID:24861979

  7. Tubal ligation and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes: a pooled analysis of case-control studies

    PubMed Central

    Sieh, Weiva; Salvador, Shannon; McGuire, Valerie; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Terry, Kathryn L; Rossing, Mary Anne; Risch, Harvey; Wu, Anna H; Webb, Penelope M; Moysich, Kirsten; Doherty, Jennifer A; Felberg, Anna; Miller, Dianne; Jordan, Susan J; Goodman, Marc T; Lurie, Galina; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Jensen, Allan; Høgdall, Estrid; Bandera, Elisa V; Olson, Sara H; King, Melony G; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Marees, Tamara; Massuger, Leon F; van Altena, Anne M; Ness, Roberta B; Cramer, Daniel W; Pike, Malcolm C; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Berchuck, Andrew; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Whittemore, Alice S

    2013-01-01

    Background Tubal ligation is a protective factor for ovarian cancer, but it is unknown whether this protection extends to all invasive histological subtypes or borderline tumors. We undertook an international collaborative study to examine the association between tubal ligation and ovarian cancer subtypes. Methods We pooled primary data from 13 population-based case-control studies, including 10 157 patients with ovarian cancer (7942 invasive; 2215 borderline) and 13 904 control women. Invasive cases were analysed by histological type, grade and stage, and borderline cases were analysed by histological type. Pooled odds ratios were estimated using conditional logistic regression to match on site, race/ethnicity and age categories, and to adjust for age, oral contraceptive use duration and number of full-term births. Results Tubal ligation was associated with significantly reduced risks of invasive serous (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.74-0.89; P < 0.001), endometrioid (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.40-0.59; P < 0.001), clear cell (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.40-0.67; P < 0.001) and mucinous (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.52-0.89; P = 0.005) cancers. The magnitude of risk reduction was significantly greater for invasive endometrioid (P < 0.0001) and clear cell (P = 0.0018) than for serous cancer. No significant associations were found with borderline serous or mucinous tumours. Conclusions We found that the protective effects of tubal ligation on ovarian cancer risk were subtype-specific. These findings provide insights into distinct aetiologies of ovarian cancer subtypes and mechanisms underlying the protective effects of tubal ligation. PMID:23569193

  8. Telomere length in white blood cell DNA and lung cancer: a pooled analysis of three prospective cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Seow, Wei Jie; Cawthon, Richard M.; Purdue, Mark P.; Hu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Huang, Wen-Yi; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Ji, Bu-Tian; Virtamo, Jarmo; Hosgood, H. Dean; Bassig, Bryan A.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Cai, Qiuyin; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Min, Shen; Chow, Wong-Ho; Berndt, Sonja I.; Kim, Christopher; Lim, Unhee; Albanes, Demetrius; Caporaso, Neil E.; Chanock, Stephen; Zheng, Wei; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between telomere length and lung cancer in a pooled analysis from three prospective cohort studies: the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, conducted among men and women in the United States, and previously published data from the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) trial conducted among male smokers in Finland, and the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS), which is comprised primarily of never-smokers. The pooled population included 847 cases and 847 controls matched by study, age, and sex. Leukocyte telomere length was measured by a monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR assay. We used conditional logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between telomere length and lung cancer risk, adjusted for age and pack-years of smoking. Longer telomere length was associated with increased lung cancer risk in the pooled analysis (OR(95% CI) by quartile: 1.00; 1.24(0.90–1.71); 1.27(0.91–1.78); and 1.86(1.33–2.62); P-trend=0.000022). Findings were consistent across the three cohorts and strongest for subjects with very long telomere length, i.e., lung cancer risks for telomere length (OR(95% CI)) in the upper half of the fourth quartile were 2.41(1.28–4.52), 2.16(1.11–4.23) and 3.02(1.39–6.58) for the PLCO trial, the ATBC trial, and the SWHS, respectively. In addition, the association persisted among cases diagnosed more than six years after blood collection and was particularly evident for female adenocarcinoma cases. Telomere length in white blood cell DNA may be a biomarker of future increased risk of lung cancer in diverse populations. PMID:24853549

  9. Red meat intake, NAT2, and risk of colorectal cancer: A pooled analysis of 11 studies

    PubMed Central

    Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N.; Du, Mengmeng; Berndt, Sonja I.; Brenner, Hermann; Caan, Bette J.; Casey, Graham; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Duggan, David; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gallinger, Steven; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Hayes, Richard B.; Hoffmeister, Michael; Hopper, John L.; Hou, Lifang; Hsu, Li; Jenkins, Mark A.; Kraft, Peter; Ma, Jing; Nan, Hongmei; Newcomb, Polly A.; Ogino, Shuji; Potter, John D.; Seminara, Daniela; Slattery, Martha L.; Thornquist, Mark; White, Emily; Wu, Kana; Peters, Ulrike; Chan, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Red meat intake has been associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), potentially mediated through heterocyclic amines. The metabolic efficiency of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) required for the metabolic activation of such amines is influenced by genetic variation. The interaction between red meat intake, NAT2 genotype, and CRC has been inconsistently reported. Methods We used pooled individual-level data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Red meat intake was collected by each study. We inferred NAT2 phenotype based on polymorphism at rs1495741, highly predictive of enzyme activity. Interaction was assessed using multiplicative interaction terms in multivariate-adjusted models. Results From 11 studies, 8,290 CRC cases and 9,115 controls were included. The highest quartile of red meat intake was associated with increased risk of CRC compared to the lowest quartile (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.29 – 1.55). However, a significant association was observed only for studies with retrospective diet data, not for studies with diet prospectively assessed before cancer diagnosis. Combining all studies, high red meat intake was similarly associated with CRC in those with a rapid/intermediate NAT2 genotype (OR 1.38, 95%CI 1.20 – 1.59) as with a slow genotype (OR 1.43, 95%CI 1.28 – 1.61) (p- interaction=0.9). Conclusion We found that high red meat intake was associated with increased risk of CRC only from retrospective case-control studies and not modified by NAT2 enzyme activity. Impact Our results suggest no interaction between NAT2 genotype and red-meat intake in mediating risk of CRC. PMID:25342387

  10. Risk of lung cancer and consumption of vegetables and fruit in Japanese: A pooled analysis of cohort studies in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Wakai, Kenji; Sugawara, Yumi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Shimazu, Taichi; Matsuo, Keitaro; Nagata, Chisato; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Keitaro; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Sasazuki, Shizuka

    2015-01-01

    International reviews have concluded that consumption of fruit and vegetables might decrease the risk of lung cancer. However, the relevant epidemiological evidence still remains insufficient in Japan. Therefore, we performed a pooled analysis of data from four population-based cohort studies in Japan with >200 000 participants and >1700 lung cancer cases. We computed study-specific hazard ratios by quintiles of vegetable and fruit consumption as assessed by food frequency questionnaires. Summary hazard ratios were estimated by pooling the study-specific hazard ratios with a fixed-effect model. In men, we found inverse associations between fruit consumption and the age-adjusted and area-adjusted risk of mortality or incidence of lung cancer. However, the associations were largely attenuated after adjustment for smoking and energy intake. The significant decrease in risk among men remained only for a moderate level of fruit consumption; the lowest summary hazard ratios were found in the third quintile of intake (mortality: 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.60–0.84; incidence: 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.70–0.98). This decrease in risk was mainly detected in ever smokers. Conversely, vegetable intake was positively correlated with the risk of incidence of lung cancer after adjustment for smoking and energy intake in men (trend P, 0.024); the summary hazard ratio for the highest quintile was 1.26 (95% confidence interval 1.05–1.50). However, a similar association was not detected for mortality from lung cancer. In conclusion, a moderate level of fruit consumption is associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer in men among the Japanese population. PMID:26033436

  11. Human Papillomavirus 16 E6 Antibodies in Individuals Without Diagnosed Cancer: A Pooled Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lang Kuhs, Krystle A.; Anantharaman, Devasena; Waterboer, Tim; Johansson, Mattias; Brennan, Paul; Michel, Angelika; Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Martina; Purdue, Mark P.; Holcátová, Ivana; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Lagiou, Pagona; Polesel, Jerry; Simonato, Lorenzo; Merletti, Franco; Healy, Claire M.; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Conway, David I.; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Thomson, Peter; Castellsagué, Xavier; Znaor, Ariana; Black, Amanda; Huang, Wen-Yi; Krogh, Vittorio; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B(as).; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ekström, Johanna; Riboli, Elio; Tjønneland, Anne; Sánchez, María-José; Travis, Ruth C.; Hildesheim, Allan; Pawlita, Michael; Kreimer, Aimée R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The increasing incidence of oropharyngeal cancer in many developed countries has been attributed to human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) infections. Recently, HPV16 E6 serology has been identified as a promising early marker for oropharyngeal cancer. Therefore, characterization of HPV16 E6 seropositivity among individuals without cancer is warranted. Methods 4,666 controls were pooled from several studies of cancer and HPV seropositivity, all tested within the same laboratory. HPV16 E6 seropositive controls were classified as having i) moderate (mean fluorescent intensity [MFI]?484 & <1000) or ii) high seroreactivity (MFI?1000). Associations of moderate and high HPV16 E6 seroreactivity with i) demographic risk factors; and seropositivity for ii) other HPV16 proteins (E1, E2, E4, E7 and L1) and iii) E6 proteins from non-HPV16 types (HPV6, 11, 18, 31, 33, 45 and 52) were evaluated. Results Thirty-two (0.7%) HPV16 E6 seropositive controls were identified; 17 (0.4%) with moderate and 15 (0.3%) with high seroreactivity. High HPV16 E6 seroreactivity was associated with former smoking (odds ratio [OR] 5.5 [95% confidence interval [CI]:1.2-51.8]), and seropositivity against HPV16 L1 (OR 4.8, 95%CI:1.3-15.4); E2 (OR 7.7, 95%CI:1.4-29.1); multiple HPV16 proteins (OR 25.3, 95%CI:2.6-119.6 for 3 HPV16 proteins beside E6) and HPV33 E6 (OR 17.7, 95%CI:1.9-81.8). No associations were observed with moderate HPV16 E6 seroreactivity. Conclusions High HPV16 E6 seroreactivity is rare among individuals without diagnosed cancer and was not explained by demographic factors. Impact Some HPV16 E6 seropositive individuals without diagnosed HPV-driven cancer, especially those with seropositivity against other HPV16 proteins, may harbor a biologically relevant HPV16 infection. PMID:25623733

  12. Pooled Bayesian meta-analysis of two Polish studies on radiation-induced cancers.

    PubMed

    Fornalski, Krzysztof W

    2015-11-01

    The robust Bayesian regression method was applied to perform meta-analysis of two independent studies on influence of low ionising radiation doses on the occurrence of fatal cancers. The re-analysed data come from occupational exposure analysis of nuclear workers in ?wierk (Poland) and from ecological study of cancer risk from natural background radiation in Poland. Such two different types of data were analysed, and three popular models were tested: constant, linear and quadratic dose-response dependencies. The Bayesian model selection algorithm was used for all models. The Bayesian statistics clearly indicates that the popular linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption is not valid for presented cancer risks in the range of low doses of ionising radiation. The subject of LNT hypothesis use in radiation risk prediction and assessment is also discussed. PMID:25956788

  13. Thyroid cancer after exposure to external radiation: A pooled analysis of seven studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ron, E.; Lubin, J.H.; Pottern, L.M.; Tucker, M.A.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Shore, R.E.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Modan, B.; Schneider, A.B.

    1995-03-01

    The thyroid gland of children is especially vulnerable to the carcinogenic action of ionizing radiation. To provide insights into various modifying influences on risk, seven major studies with organ doses to individual subjects were evaluated. Five cohort studies (atomic bomb survivors, children treated for tinea capitis, two studies of children irradiated for enlarged tonsils, and infants irradiated for an enlarged thymus gland) and two case-control studies (patients with cervical cancer and childhood cancer) were studied. The combined studies include almost 120,000 people (approximately 58,000 exposed to a wide range of doses and 61,000 nonexposed subjects), nearly 700 thyroid cancers and 3,000,000 person years of follow-up. For persons exposed to radiation before age 15 years, linearity best described the dose response, even down to 0.10 Gy. At the highest doses (>10 Gy), associated with cancer therapy, there appeared to be a decrease or leveling of risk. For childhood exposures, the pooled excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy) was 7.7 (95% CI = 2.1, 28.7) and the excess absolute risk per 10{sup 4} PY Gy (EAR/10{sup 4} PY Gy) was 4.4 (95% CI = 1.9, 10.1). The attributable risk percent (AR%) at 1 Gy was 88%. However, these summary estimates were affected strongly by age at exposure even within this limited age range. The ERR was greater (P = 0.07) for females than males, but the findings from the individual studies were not consistent. The EAR was higher among women, reflecting their higher rate of naturally occurring thyroid cancer. The distribution of ERR over time followed neither a simple multiplicative nor an additive pattern in relation to background occurrence. Only two cases were seen within 5 years of exposure. The ERR began to decline about 30 years after exposure but was still elevated at 40 years. Risk also decreased significantly with increasing age at exposure, with little risk apparent after age 20 years. 56 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Associations of Breast Cancer Risk Factors With Tumor Subtypes: A Pooled Analysis From the Breast Cancer Association Consortium Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chang-Claude, Jenny; Goode, Ellen L.; Couch, Fergus J.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Milne, Roger L.; Gaudet, Mia; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Cox, Angela; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Rebecca; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Blows, Fiona; Driver, Kristy; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Heinz, Judith; Sinn, Peter; Vrieling, Alina; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Heikkilä, Päivi; Blomqvist, Carl; Lissowska, Jolanta; Peplonska, Beata; Chanock, Stephen; Figueroa, Jonine; Brinton, Louise; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Liu, Jianjun; Van ‘t Veer, Laura J.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Knight, Julia A.; Mulligan, Anna Marie; O’Malley, Frances P.; Weerasooriya, Nayana; John, Esther M.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Hartmann, Arndt; Weihbrecht, Sebastian B.; Wachter, David L.; Jud, Sebastian M.; Loehberg, Christian R.; Baglietto, Laura; English, Dallas R.; Giles, Graham G.; McLean, Catriona A.; Severi, Gianluca; Lambrechts, Diether; Vandorpe, Thijs; Weltens, Caroline; Paridaens, Robert; Smeets, Ann; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E.; Cafourek, Victoria; Fredericksen, Zachary; Kosel, Matthew; Vachon, Celine; Cramp, Helen E.; Connley, Daniel; Cross, Simon S.; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Dörk, Thilo; Bremer, Michael; Meyer, Andreas; Karstens, Johann H.; Ay, Aysun; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Hillemanns, Peter; Arias Pérez, Jose Ignacio; Rodríguez, Primitiva Menéndez; Zamora, Pilar; Benítez, Javier; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Hamann, Ute; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas; Justenhoven, Christina; Brauch, Hiltrud; Eccles, Diana M.; Tapper, William J.; Gerty, Sue M.; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian P.; Jones, Angela; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; McInerney, Niall; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Chen, Shou-Tung; Hsu, Giu-Cheng; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubi?ski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Górski, Bohdan; Gronwald, Jacek; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Jager, Agnes; Kriege, Mieke; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M. A.; Collée, Margriet; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Mononen, Kari; Grip, Mervi; Hirvikoski, Pasi; Winqvist, Robert; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kauppinen, Jaana; Kataja, Vesa; Auvinen, Päivi; Soini, Ylermi; Sironen, Reijo; Bojesen, Stig E.; Dynnes Ørsted, David; Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Holland, Helene; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Radice, Paolo; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hunter, David J.; Tamimi, Rulla; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Odefrey, Fabrice; Gaborieau, Valerie; Devilee, Peter; Huijts, P.E.A.; Tollenaar, RAEM.; Seynaeve, C.; Dite, Gillian S.; Apicella, Carmel; Hopper, John L.; Hammet, Fleur; Tsimiklis, Helen; Smith, Letitia D.; Southey, Melissa C.; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Easton, Douglas; Pharoah, Paul; Sherman, Mark E.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that breast cancer risk factors are associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression status of the tumors. Methods We pooled tumor marker and epidemiological risk factor data from 35?568 invasive breast cancer case patients from 34 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Logistic regression models were used in case–case analyses to estimate associations between epidemiological risk factors and tumor subtypes, and case–control analyses to estimate associations between epidemiological risk factors and the risk of developing specific tumor subtypes in 12 population-based studies. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results In case–case analyses, of the epidemiological risk factors examined, early age at menarche (?12 years) was less frequent in case patients with PR? than PR+ tumors (P = .001). Nulliparity (P = 3 × 10?6) and increasing age at first birth (P = 2 × 10?9) were less frequent in ER? than in ER+ tumors. Obesity (body mass index [BMI] ? 30 kg/m2) in younger women (?50 years) was more frequent in ER?/PR? than in ER+/PR+ tumors (P = 1 × 10?7), whereas obesity in older women (>50 years) was less frequent in PR? than in PR+ tumors (P = 6 × 10?4). The triple-negative (ER?/PR?/HER2?) or core basal phenotype (CBP; triple-negative and cytokeratins [CK]5/6+ and/or epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR]+) accounted for much of the heterogeneity in parity-related variables and BMI in younger women. Case–control analyses showed that nulliparity, increasing age at first birth, and obesity in younger women showed the expected associations with the risk of ER+ or PR+ tumors but not triple-negative (nulliparity vs parity, odds ratio [OR] = 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75 to 1.19, P = .61; 5-year increase in age at first full-term birth, OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.86 to 1.05, P = .34; obesity in younger women, OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 0.95 to 1.94, P = .09) or CBP tumors. Conclusions This study shows that reproductive factors and BMI are most clearly associated with hormone receptor–positive tumors and suggest that triple-negative or CBP tumors may have distinct etiology. PMID:21191117

  15. Primary tumour standardised uptake value is prognostic in nonsmall cell lung cancer: a multivariate pooled analysis of individual data.

    PubMed

    Paesmans, Marianne; Garcia, Camilo; Wong, Ching-Yee Oliver; Patz, Edward F; Komaki, Ritsuko; Eschmann, Susanne; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Vansteenkiste, Johan; Meert, Anne-Pascale; de Jong, Wouter K; Altorki, Nasser Khaled; Higashi, Kotaro; Van Baardwijk, Angela; Borst, Gerben R; Ameye, Lieveke; Lafitte, Jean-Jacques; Berghmans, Thierry; Flamen, Patrick; Rami-Porta, Ramon; Sculier, Jean-Paul

    2015-12-01

    (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (PET) complements conventional imaging for diagnosing and staging lung cancer. Two literature-based meta-analyses suggest that maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) on PET has univariate prognostic value in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We analysed individual data pooled from 12 studies to assess the independent prognostic value of binary SUVmax for overall survival.After searching the published literature and identifying unpublished data, study coordinators were contacted and requested to provide data on individual patients. Cox regression models stratified for study were used.Data were collected for 1526 patients (median age 64?years, 60% male, 34% squamous cell carcinoma, 47% adenocarcinoma, 58% stage I-II). The combined univariate hazard ratio for SUVmax was 1.43 (95% CI 1.22-1.66) and nearly identical if the SUV threshold was calculated stratifying for histology. Multivariate analysis of patients with stage I-III disease identified age, stage, tumour size and receipt of surgery as independent prognostic factors; adding SUV (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.27-1.96) improved the model significantly. The only detected interaction was between SUV and stage IV disease.SUV seems to have independent prognostic value in stage I-III NSCLC, for squamous cell carcinoma and for adenocarcinoma. PMID:26405289

  16. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use and Breast Cancer Prognosis: A Pooled Analysis of Four Population-Based Studies of Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Ian S.; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Issell, Brian F.; Gotay, Carolyn C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is common among breast cancer survivors, but little is known about its impact on survival. Methods We pooled data from four studies conducted in Hawaii in 1994–2003 and linked to the Hawaii Tumor Registry to obtain long-term follow-up information. The effect of CAM use on the risk of breast cancer-specific death was evaluated using Cox regression. Results The analysis included 1443 women with a median follow-up of 11.8 years who had a primary diagnosis of in situ and invasive breast cancer. The majority were Japanese American (36.4%), followed by white (26.9%), Native Hawaiian (15.9%), other (10.6%), and Filipino (10.3%). CAM use was highest in Native Hawaiians (60.7%) and lowest in Japanese American (47.8%) women. Overall, any use of CAM was not associated with the risk of breast cancer-specific death (hazard ratio [HR] 1.47, confidence interval [CI] 0.91-2.36) or all-cause death (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.63-1.06). However, energy medicine was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer-specific death (HR 3.19, 95% CI 1.06-8.52). When evaluating CAM use within ethnic subgroups, Filipino women who used CAM were at increased risk of breast cancer death (HR 6.84, 95% CI 1.23-38.19). Conclusions Our findings suggest that, overall, CAM is not associated with breast cancer-specific death but that the effects of specific CAM modalities and possible differences by ethnicity should be considered in future studies. PMID:23075455

  17. Active Smoking and Breast Cancer Incidence: Pooled Analysis of Cohort Data - Mia Gaudet, Ph.D.

    Cancer.gov

    October 30, 2014 10:00 AM - 11:00 AM Shady Grove Room 2E 908 + Add to Outlook Calendar NOTE NEW TIME:  10:00 to 11:00 AM Speaker: Mia Gaudet, Ph.D.Director, Genetic EpidemiologyAmerican Cancer Society, Inc. Host: Shelia Hoar Zahm, Sc.D., Scientific

  18. Multi-institutional Pooled Analysis on Adjuvant Chemoradiation in Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Morganti, Alessio G.; Falconi, Massimo; Stiphout, Ruud G.P.M. van; Mattiucci, Gian-Carlo; Alfieri, Sergio; Calvo, Felipe A.; Dubois, Jean-Bernard; Fastner, Gerd; Herman, Joseph M.; Maidment, Bert W.; Miller, Robert C.; Regine, William F.; Reni, Michele; Sharma, Navesh K.; Ippolito, Edy; and others

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the impact of chemoradiation therapy (CRT) on overall survival (OS) after resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Methods and Materials: A multicenter retrospective review of 955 consecutive patients who underwent complete resection with macroscopically negative margins (R0-1) for invasive carcinoma (T1-4; N0-1; M0) of the pancreas was performed. Exclusion criteria included metastatic or unresectable disease at surgery, macroscopic residual disease (R2), treatment with intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT), and a histological diagnosis of no ductal carcinoma, or postoperative death (within 60 days of surgery). In all, 623 patients received postoperative radiation therapy (RT), 575 patients received concurrent chemotherapy (CT), and 462 patients received adjuvant CT. Results: Median follow-up was 21.0 months. Median OS after adjuvant CRT was 39.9 versus 24.8 months after no adjuvant CRT (P<.001) and 27.8 months after CT alone (P<.001). Five-year OS was 41.2% versus 24.8% with and without postoperative CRT, respectively. The positive impact of CRT was confirmed by multivariate analysis (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.72; confidence interval [CI], 0.60-0.87; P=.001). Adverse prognostic factors identified by multivariate analysis included the following: R1 resection (HR = 1.17; CI = 1.07-1.28; P<.001), higher pT stage (HR = 1.23; CI = 1.11-1.37; P<.001), positive lymph nodes (HR = 1.27; CI = 1.15-1.41; P<.001), and tumor diameter >20 mm (HR = 1.14; CI = 1.05-1.23; P=.002). Multivariate analysis also showed a better prognosis in patients treated in centers with >10 pancreatic resections per year (HR = 0.87; CI = 0.78-0.97; P=.014) Conclusion: This study represents the largest comparative study on adjuvant therapy in patients after resection of carcinoma of the pancreas. Overall survival was better in patients who received adjuvant CRT.

  19. Alcohol intake and pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis from the pancreatic cancer cohort consortium (PanScan).

    PubMed

    Michaud, Dominique S; Vrieling, Alina; Jiao, Li; Mendelsohn, Julie B; Steplowski, Emily; Lynch, Shannon M; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Arslan, Alan A; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H; Fuchs, Charles S; Gross, Myron; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Jacobs, Eric J; Lacroix, Andrea; Petersen, Gloria; Zheng, Wei; Allen, Naomi; Ammundadottir, Laufey; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boffetta, Paolo; Buring, Julie E; Canzian, Federico; Chanock, Stephen J; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Clipp, Sandra; Freiberg, Matthew S; Michael Gaziano, J; Giovannucci, Edward L; Hankinson, Susan; Hartge, Patricia; Hoover, Robert N; Allan Hubbell, F; Hunter, David J; Hutchinson, Amy; Jacobs, Kevin; Kooperberg, Charles; Kraft, Peter; Manjer, Jonas; Navarro, Carmen; Peeters, Petra H M; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Stevens, Victoria; Thomas, Gilles; Tjønneland, Anne; Tobias, Geoffrey S; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wallace, Robert; Wolpin, Brian M; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z

    2010-08-01

    The literature has consistently reported no association between low to moderate alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer; however, a few studies have shown that high levels of intake may increase risk. Most single studies have limited power to detect associations even in the highest alcohol intake categories or to examine associations by alcohol type. We analyzed these associations using 1,530 pancreatic cancer cases and 1,530 controls from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan) nested case-control study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. We observed no significant overall association between total alcohol (ethanol) intake and pancreatic cancer risk (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 0.86-2.23, for 60 or more g/day vs. >0 to <5 g/day). A statistically significant increase in risk was observed among men consuming 45 or more grams of alcohol from liquor per day (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.02-4.87, compared to 0 g/day of alcohol from liquor, P-trend = 0.12), but not among women (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.63-2.87, for 30 or more g/day of alcohol from liquor, compared to none). No associations were noted for wine or beer intake. Overall, no significant increase in risk was observed, but a small effect among heavy drinkers cannot be ruled out. PMID:20373013

  20. Type of Alcoholic Beverage and Risk of Head and Neck Cancer—A Pooled Analysis Within the INHANCE Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Hashibe, Mia; Berthiller, Julien; La Vecchia, Carlo; Maso, Luigino Dal; Herrero, Rolando; Franceschi, Silvia; Castellsague, Xavier; Wei, Qingyi; Sturgis, Erich M.; Morgenstern, Hal; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Levi, Fabio; Talamini, Renato; Smith, Elaine; Muscat, Joshua; Lazarus, Philip; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Chen, Chu; Neto, Jose Eluf; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Zaridze, David; Koifman, Sergio; Curado, Maria Paula; Benhamou, Simone; Matos, Elena; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Olshan, Andrew F.; Lence, Juan; Menezes, Ana; Daudt, Alexander W.; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Pilarska, Agnieszka; Fabianova, Eleonora; Rudnai, Peter; Winn, Debbie; Ferro, Gilles; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Hayes, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    The authors pooled data from 15 case-control studies of head and neck cancer (9,107 cases, 14,219 controls) to investigate the independent associations with consumption of beer, wine, and liquor. In particular, they calculated associations with different measures of beverage consumption separately for subjects who drank beer only (858 cases, 986 controls), for liquor-only drinkers (499 cases, 527 controls), and for wine-only drinkers (1,021 cases, 2,460 controls), with alcohol never drinkers (1,124 cases, 3,487 controls) used as a common reference group. The authors observed similar associations with ethanol-standardized consumption frequency for beer-only drinkers (odds ratios (ORs)?=?1.6, 1.9, 2.2, and 5.4 for ?5, 6–15, 16–30, and >30 drinks per week, respectively; Ptrend cancer for beer and liquor are comparable. The authors observed weaker associations with moderate wine consumption, although they cannot rule out confounding from diet and other lifestyle factors as an explanation for this finding. Given the presence of heterogeneity in study-specific results, their findings should be interpreted with caution. PMID:19064644

  1. Natural vitamin C intake and the risk of head and neck cancer: A pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium.

    PubMed

    Edefonti, Valeria; Hashibe, Mia; Parpinel, Maria; Turati, Federica; Serraino, Diego; Matsuo, Keitaro; Olshan, Andrew F; Zevallos, Jose P; Winn, Deborah M; Moysich, Kirsten; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Morgenstern, Hal; Levi, Fabio; Kelsey, Karl; McClean, Michael; Bosetti, Cristina; Galeone, Carlotta; Schantz, Stimson; Yu, Guo-Pei; Boffetta, Paolo; Amy Lee, Yuan-Chin; Chuang, Shu-Chun; La Vecchia, Carlo; Decarli, Adriano

    2015-07-15

    Evidence of associations between single nutrients and head and neck cancer (HNC) is still more limited and less consistent than that for fruit and vegetables. However, clarification of the protective mechanisms of fruit and vegetables is important to our understanding of HNC etiology. We investigated the association between vitamin C intake from natural sources and cancer of the oral cavity/pharynx and larynx using individual-level pooled data from ten case-control studies (5,959 cases and 12,248 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. After harmonization of study-specific exposure information via the residual method, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional multiple logistic regression models on quintile categories of 'non-alcohol energy-adjusted' vitamin C intake. In the presence of heterogeneity of the estimated ORs among studies, we derived those estimates from generalized linear mixed models. Higher intakes of vitamin C were inversely related to oral and pharyngeal (OR?=?0.54, 95% CI: 0.45-0.65, for the fifth quintile category versus the first one, p for trend<0.001) and laryngeal cancers (OR?=?0.52, 95% CI: 0.40-0.68, p for trend?=?0.006), although in the presence of heterogeneity among studies for both sites. Inverse associations were consistently observed for the anatomical subsites of oral and pharyngeal cancer, and across strata of age, sex, education, body mass index, tobacco, and alcohol, for both cancer sites. The inverse association of vitamin C intake from foods with HNC may reflect a protective effect on these cancers; however, we cannot rule out other explanations. PMID:25627906

  2. Family history of cancer and risk of pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan).

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Eric J; Chanock, Stephen J; Fuchs, Charles S; Lacroix, Andrea; McWilliams, Robert R; Steplowski, Emily; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Arslan, Alan A; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Gross, Myron; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Petersen, Gloria; Zheng, Wei; Agalliu, Ilir; Allen, Naomi E; Amundadottir, Laufey; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Buring, Julie E; Canzian, Federico; Clipp, Sandra; Dorronsoro, Miren; Gaziano, J Michael; Giovannucci, Edward L; Hankinson, Susan E; Hartge, Patricia; Hoover, Robert N; Hunter, David J; Jacobs, Kevin B; Jenab, Mazda; Kraft, Peter; Kooperberg, Charles; Lynch, Shannon M; Sund, Malin; Mendelsohn, Julie B; Mouw, Tracy; Newton, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Peeters, Petra H M; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Thomas, Gilles; Tobias, Geoffrey S; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Wolpin, Brian M; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne

    2010-09-01

    A family history of pancreatic cancer has consistently been associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer. However, uncertainty remains about the strength of this association. Results from previous studies suggest a family history of select cancers (i.e., ovarian, breast and colorectal) could also be associated, although not as strongly, with increased risk of pancreatic cancer. We examined the association between a family history of 5 types of cancer (pancreas, prostate, ovarian, breast and colorectal) and risk of pancreatic cancer using data from a collaborative nested case-control study conducted by the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium. Cases and controls were from cohort studies from the United States, Europe and China, and a case-control study from the Mayo Clinic. Analyses of family history of pancreatic cancer included 1,183 cases and 1,205 controls. A family history of pancreatic cancer in a parent, sibling or child was associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer [multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) = 1.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.19-2.61]. A family history of prostate cancer was also associated with increased risk (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.12-1.89). There were no statistically significant associations with a family history of ovarian cancer (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.52-1.31), breast cancer (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.97-1.51) or colorectal cancer (OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.93-1.47). Our results confirm a moderate sized association between a family history of pancreatic cancer and risk of pancreatic cancer and also provide evidence for an association with a family history of prostate cancer worth further study. PMID:20049842

  3. Efficacy of nonestrogenic hot flash therapies among women stratified by breast cancer history and tamoxifen use: a pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bardia, Aditya; Novotny, Paul; Sloan, Jeff; Barton, Deb; Loprinzi, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Objective Various nonestrogenic therapies have been found to be effective in mitigating hot flashes, but it has been unclear whether the efficacy varies by whether women have had breast cancer and/or were taking tamoxifen. Methods This study used data from Mayo Clinic/North Central Cancer Treatment Group clinical trials that evaluated the efficacy of any nonestrogenic agent for hot flashes and had information on breast cancer history or tamoxifen use. Statistically significant changes from the fourth treatment week versus the baseline week, using individual patient data, were assessed using Student’s t test. Results A total of 1,396 women from 20 hot flash studies were eligible for analysis. Overall, women without breast cancer had a similar percentage of baseline hot flash score at week 4, as did those with breast cancer (53% vs 50%, P = 0.92). Women who were not taking tamoxifen had a significantly lower percentage of hot flash score at week 4 as compared with those who used tamoxifen (54% vs 61%, P = 0.01). However, this was due to a higher reduction in hot flash scores in the placebo arms among women not receiving tamoxifen; the percentage reduction in hot flash scores at week 4 from baseline in the active therapy arms of the randomized placebo-controlled trials (ie, excluding placebo arms) was similar among the tamoxifen users and nonusers (difference in mean percentage reduction, 5.7; 95% CI, ?1.76 to 13.16). Conclusions Some nonestrogenic therapies seem to be useful for reducing hot flashes, irrespective of the etiology of hot flashes. PMID:19188850

  4. Stage-specific analysis of plasma protein profiles in ovarian cancer: Difference in-gel electrophoresis analysis of pooled clinical samples

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Mark J.; Shield-Artin, Kristy L.; Oliva, Karen; Ayhan, Mustafa; Reisman, Simone; Rice, Gregory E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecological cancer. Non-specific symptoms early in disease and the lack of specific biomarkers hinder early diagnosis. Multi-marker blood screening tests have shown promise for improving identification of early stage disease; however, available tests lack sensitivity, and specificity. Materials and Methods: In this study, pooled deeply-depleted plasma from women with Stage 1, 2 or 3 ovarian cancer and healthy controls were used to compare the 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) protein profiles and identify potential novel markers of ovarian cancer progression. Results/Discussion: Stage-specific variation in biomarker expression was observed. For example, apolipoprotein A1 expression is relatively low in control and Stage 1, but shows a substantial increase in Stage 2 and 3, thus, potential of utility for disease confirmation rather than early detection. A better marker for early stage disease was tropomyosin 4 (TPM4). The expression of TPM4 increased by 2-fold in Stage 2 before returning to “normal” levels in Stage 3 disease. Multiple isoforms were also identified for some proteins and in some cases, displayed stage-specific expression. An interesting example was fibrinogen alpha, for which 8 isoforms were identified. Four displayed a moderate increase at Stage 1 and a substantial increase for Stages 2 and 3 while the other 4 showed only moderate increases. Conclusion: Herein is provided an improved summary of blood protein profiles for women with ovarian cancer stratified by stage. PMID:23858298

  5. Comparison of anthropometric measures as predictors of cancer incidence: A pooled collaborative analysis of 11 Australian cohorts.

    PubMed

    Harding, Jessica L; Shaw, Jonathan E; Anstey, Kaarin J; Adams, Robert; Balkau, Beverley; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Briffa, Tom; Davis, Timothy M E; Davis, Wendy A; Dobson, Annette; Flicker, Leon; Giles, Graham; Grant, Janet; Huxley, Rachel; Knuiman, Matthew; Luszcz, Mary; MacInnis, Robert J; Mitchell, Paul; Pasco, Julie A; Reid, Christopher; Simmons, David; Simons, Leon; Tonkin, Andrew; Woodward, Mark; Peeters, Anna; Magliano, Dianna J

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. However, it is not known if general adiposity, as measured by body mass index (BMI) or central adiposity [e.g., waist circumference (WC)] have stronger associations with cancer, or which anthropometric measure best predicts cancer risk. We included 79,458 men and women from the Australian and New Zealand Diabetes and Cancer Collaboration with complete data on anthropometry [BMI, WC, Hip Circumference (HC), WHR, waist to height ratio (WtHR), A Body Shape Index (ABSI)], linked to the Australian Cancer Database. Cox proportional hazards models assessed the association between each anthropometric marker, per standard deviation and the risk of overall, colorectal, post-menopausal (PM) breast, prostate and obesity-related cancers. We assessed the discriminative ability of models using Harrell's c-statistic. All anthropometric markers were associated with overall, colorectal and obesity-related cancers. BMI, WC and HC were associated with PM breast cancer and no significant associations were seen for prostate cancer. Strongest associations were observed for WC across all outcomes, excluding PM breast cancer for which HC was strongest. WC had greater discrimination compared to BMI for overall and colorectal cancer in men and women with c-statistics ranging from 0.70 to 0.71. We show all anthropometric measures are associated with the overall, colorectal, PM breast and obesity-related cancer in men and women, but not prostate cancer. WC discriminated marginally better than BMI. However, all anthropometric measures were similarly moderately predictive of cancer risk. We do not recommend one anthropometric marker over another for assessing an individuals' risk of cancer. PMID:25810218

  6. Angiogenesis inhibitors rechallenge in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lingdi; Li, Wei; Zhang, Huiying; Hou, Nan; Guo, Lanwei; Gao, Quanli

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Data on the role of angiogenesis inhibitors (AIs) rechallenge in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who previously received bevacizumab remain limited. We aim to investigate the efficacy of AIs in the treatment of advanced NSCLC in this setting. Methods Studies from PubMed, Web of Science, and abstracts presented at American Society of Clinical Oncology meeting up to December 1, 2014 were searched to identify relevant studies. Eligible studies included prospective randomized controlled trials evaluating AIs in advanced NSCLC, with survival data on patients who previously received bevacizumab. The end points were overall survival and progression-free survival. Statistical analyses were conducted by using either random effects or fixed effect models according to the heterogeneity of included studies. Results A total of 452 patients with advanced NSCLC who previously received bevacizumab were identified for analysis. The meta-analysis results demonstrated that AI rechallenge significantly improved progression-free survival (hazard ratio: 0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0.58–0.89, P=0.002) when compared to non-AI containing regimens. Additionally, a nonsignificant improvement in overall survival was also observed in advanced NSCLC in this setting (hazard ratio: 0.82, 95% confidence interval: 0.65–1.03, P=0.087). Similar results were also observed in subgroup analysis according to treatment regimens. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that NSCLC patients who relapsed after a first-line bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy obtain improved clinical benefits from AI rechallenge. Prospective clinical trials investigating the role of AI rechallenge in this setting are recommended. PMID:26491352

  7. Analysis of deoxyribonucleotide pools in human cancer cell lines using a liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry technique

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Tan, Shenglan; Paintsil, Elijah; Dutschman, Ginger E.; Gullen, Elizabeth A.; Chu, Edward; Cheng, Yung-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Endogenous ribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotides play a critical role in cell function, and determination of their levels is of fundamental importance in understanding key cellular processes involved in energy metabolism and molecular and biochemical signaling pathways. In this study, we determined the respective ribonucleotide and deoxyribonucleotide pool sizes in different human cell lines using a simple sample preparation method and LC/MS/MS. This assay was used to determine alterations in deoxyribonucleotide pools in human pancreatic PANC-1 cells in response to hypoxia and to treatment with either hydroxyurea or aphidicolin. The levels of all deoxyribonucleotide metabolites decreased with hypoxia treatment, except for dUMP, which increased by two-fold. This LC/MS/MS assay is simple, fast, and sensitive, and it represents a significant advance over previously published methodologies. PMID:21620803

  8. Adjuvant chemotherapy in rectal cancer: defining subgroups who may benefit after neoadjuvant chemoradiation and resection: a pooled analysis of 3,313 patients.

    PubMed

    Maas, Monique; Nelemans, Patty J; Valentini, Vincenzo; Crane, Christopher H; Capirci, Carlo; Rödel, Claus; Nash, Garrett M; Kuo, Li-Jen; Glynne-Jones, Rob; García-Aguilar, Julio; Suárez, Javier; Calvo, Felipe A; Pucciarelli, Salvatore; Biondo, Sebastiano; Theodoropoulos, George; Lambregts, Doenja M J; Beets-Tan, Regina G H; Beets, Geerard L

    2015-07-01

    Recent literature suggests that the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy (aCT) for rectal cancer patients might depend on the response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT). Aim was to evaluate whether the effect of aCT in rectal cancer is modified by response to CRT and to identify which patients benefit from aCT after CRT, by means of a pooled analysis of individual patient data from 13 datasets. Patients were categorized into three groups: pCR (ypT0N0), ypT1-2 tumour and ypT3-4 tumour. Hazard ratios (HR) for the effect of aCT were derived from multivariable Cox regression analyses. Primary outcome measure was recurrence-free survival (RFS). One thousand seven hundred and twenty three (1723) (52%) of 3,313 included patients received aCT. Eight hundred and ninety eight (898) patients had a pCR, 966 had a ypT1-2 tumour and 1,302 had a ypT3-4 tumour. For 122 patients response, category was missing and 25 patients had ypT0N+. Median follow-up for all patients was 51 (0-219) months. HR for RFS with 95% CI for patients treated with aCT were 1.25(0.68-2.29), 0.58(0.37-0.89) and 0.83(0.66-1.10) for patients with pCR, ypT1-2 and ypT3-4 tumours, respectively. The effect of aCT in rectal cancer patients treated with CRT differs between subgroups. Patients with a pCR after CRT may not benefit from aCT, whereas patients with residual tumour had superior outcomes when aCT was administered. The test for interaction did not reach statistical significance, but the results support further investigation of a more individualized approach to administer aCT after CRT and surgery based on pathologic staging. PMID:25418551

  9. Preoperative Radiotherapy of Advanced Rectal Cancer With Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin With or Without Cetuximab: A Pooled Analysis of Three Prospective Phase I-II Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Christian; Arnold, Dirk; Dellas, Kathrin; Liersch, Torsten; Hipp, Matthias; Fietkau, Rainer; Sauer, Rolf; Hinke, Axel; Roedel, Claus

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: A pooled analysis of three prospective trials of preoperative radiochemotherapy (RCT) for rectal cancer by using oxaliplatin and capecitabine with or without cetuximab was performed to evaluate the impact of additional cetuximab on pathologic complete response (pCR) rates and tumor regression (TRG) grades. Methods and Materials: Of 202 patients, 172 patients met the inclusion criteria (primary tumor stage II/III, M0). All patients received concurrent RCT, and 46 patients received additional cetuximab therapy. A correlation of pretreatment clinicopathologic factors and cetuximab treatment with early pCR rates (TRG > 50%) was performed with univariate and multivariate analyses. Toxicity data were recorded for all patients. Results: Of 172 patients, 24 (14%) patients achieved a pCR, and 84 of 172 (71%) patients showed a TRG of >50% in the surgical specimen assessment after preoperative treatment. Age, gender, and T/N stages, as well as localization of the tumor, were not associated with pCR or good TRG. The pCR rate was 16% after preoperative RCT alone and 9% with concurrent cetuximab therapy (p = 0.32). A significantly reduced TRG of >50% was found after RCT with cetuximab compared to RCT alone (p = 0.0035). This was validated by a multivariate analysis with all available clinical factors (p = 0.0037). Acute toxicity and surgical complications were not increased with additional cetuximab. Conclusions: Triple therapy with RCT and cetuximab seems to be feasible, with no unexpected toxicity. Early response assessment (TRG), however, suggests subadditive interaction. A longer follow-up (and finally randomized trials) is needed to draw any firm conclusions with respect to local and distant failure rates.

  10. Estimating and explaining the effect of education and income on head and neck cancer risk: INHANCE consortium pooled analysis of 31 case-control studies from 27 countries

    PubMed Central

    Conway, David I.; Brenner, Darren R.; McMahon, Alex D.; Macpherson, Lorna M.D.; Agudo, Antonio; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Bosetti, Cristina; Brenner, Hermann; Castellsague, Xavier; Chen, Chu; Curado, Maria Paula; Curioni, Otávio A.; Maso, Luigino Dal; Daudt, Alexander W.; de Gois Filho, José F.; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Edefonti, Valeria; Fabianova, Eleonora; Fernandez, Leticia; Franceschi, Silvia; Gillison, Maura; Hayes, Richard B.; Healy, Claire M.; Herrero, Rolando; Holcatova, Ivana; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel; Kelsey, Karl; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Koifman, Sergio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lagiou, Pagona; Lazarus, Philip; Levi, Fabio; Lissowska, Jolanta; Luce, Daniele; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Mates, Dana; Matos, Elena; McClean, Michael; Menezes, Ana M; Menvielle, Gwenn; Merletti, Franco; Morgenstern, Hal; Moysich, Kirsten; Müller, Heiko; Muscat, Joshua; Olshan, Andrew F.; Purdue, Mark P.; Ramroth, Heribert; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Rudnai, Peter; Schantz, Stimson; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Shangina, Oxana; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Elaine; Stucker, Isabelle; Sturgis, Erich M.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Talamini, Renato; Thomson, Peter; Vaughan, Thomas L.; Wei, Qingyi; Winn, Deborah M.; Wunsch-Filho, Victor; Yu, Guo-Pei; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zheng, Tongzhang; Znaor, Ariana; Boffetta, Paolo; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Ghodrat, Marianoosh; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hashibe, Mia; Brennan, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status has been reported to be associated with head and neck cancer risk. However, previous studies have been too small to examine the associations by cancer subsite, age, sex, global region and calendar time and to explain the association in terms of behavioral risk factors. Individual participant data of 23,964 cases with head and neck cancer and 31,954 controls from 31 studies in 27 countries pooled with random effects models. Overall, low education was associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 2.02 – 3.09). Overall one-third of the increased risk was not explained by differences in the distribution of cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors; and it remained elevated among never users of tobacco and nondrinkers (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.13 – 2.31). More of the estimated education effect was not explained by cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors: in women than in men, in older than younger groups, in the oropharynx than in other sites, in South/Central America than in Europe/North America and was strongest in countries with greater income inequality. Similar findings were observed for the estimated effect of low versus high household income. The lowest levels of income and educational attainment were associated with more than 2-fold increased risk of head and neck cancer, which is not entirely explained by differences in the distributions of behavioral risk factors for these cancers and which varies across cancer sites, sexes, countries and country income inequality levels. PMID:24996155

  11. Effect of extramucin pools in gastric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Lee, Si-Hak; Choi, Cheol-Woong; Kim, Su-Jin; Choi, Chang-In; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Jeon, Tae-Yong; Kim, Dong-Heon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Mucinous gastric adenocarcinoma (MGC) is defined by the World Health Organization as a gastric adenocarcinoma with >50% extracellular mucin pools within the tumors. In this study, we attempted to analyze the clinicopathologic features of patients pathologically diagnosed as gastric cancer with lower than 50% tumor volume of extracellular mucin pool adenocarcinoma (LEMPC). We compared MGC versus nonmucinous gastric adenocarcinoma (NMGC). We were used in abbreviations LEMPC for NMGC including extracellular mucin pool. Methods Files of 995 patients with gastric cancer NMGC (n = 935), MGC (n = 20), LEMPC (n = 40) who underwent curative resection at Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital from December 2008 to December 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. All pathologic reports after curative resection and evaluated clinicopathologic features were reviewed to identify the effect of extracellular mucin pools in gastric cancer. Results Compared with the NMGC patients, the clinicopathological features of MGC patients were as follows: more frequent open surgery, larger tumor size, more advanced T stage and N stage, more positive lymph node metastasis, and perineural invasion. LEMPC patients showed similar features compared with NMGC patients. MGC and LEMPC patients showed similar clinicopathological features, except T stage and lymph node metastasis. Conclusion LEMPC can be thought of as a previous step of MGC. It is reasonable to consider LEMPC patients in the diagnostic criteria of MGC, and to adequately treat. PMID:26576405

  12. Facilities Services Motor Pool Business Analysis Montana State University

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    .................................................................................................................................... 8 Motor Pool vs. Personal Vehicle Use for Business Travel Facilities Services Motor Pool Business Analysis Montana State University August, 2012, MSU College of Business in 1999. The following worked on the 2012 business analysis: Chris Catlett

  13. Decline in Tested and Self-Reported Cognitive Functioning After Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation for Lung Cancer: Pooled Secondary Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Randomized Trials 0212 and 0214

    SciTech Connect

    Gondi, Vinai; University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin ; Paulus, Rebecca; Bruner, Deborah W.; Meyers, Christina A.; Gore, Elizabeth M.; Wolfson, Aaron; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Sun, Alexander Y.; Choy, Hak; Movsas, Benjamin

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To assess the impact of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on self-reported cognitive functioning (SRCF), a functional scale on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30). Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 0214 randomized patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer to PCI or observation; RTOG 0212 randomized patients with limited-disease small cell lung cancer to high- or standard-dose PCI. In both trials, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT)-Recall and -Delayed Recall and SRCF were assessed at baseline (after locoregional therapy but before PCI or observation) and at 6 and 12 months. Patients developing brain relapse before follow-up evaluation were excluded. Decline was defined using the reliable change index method and correlated with receipt of PCI versus observation using logistic regression modeling. Fisher's exact test correlated decline in SRCF with HVLT decline. Results: Of the eligible patients pooled from RTOG 0212 and RTOG 0214, 410 (93%) receiving PCI and 173 (96%) undergoing observation completed baseline HVLT or EORTC QLQ-C30 testing and were included in this analysis. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was associated with a higher risk of decline in SRCF at 6 months (odds ratio 3.60, 95% confidence interval 2.34-6.37, P<.0001) and 12 months (odds ratio 3.44, 95% confidence interval 1.84-6.44, P<.0001). Decline on HVLT-Recall at 6 and 12 months was also associated with PCI (P=.002 and P=.002, respectively) but was not closely correlated with decline in SRCF at the same time points (P=.05 and P=.86, respectively). Conclusions: In lung cancer patients who do not develop brain relapse, PCI is associated with decline in HVLT-tested and self-reported cognitive functioning. Decline in HVLT and decline in SRCF are not closely correlated, suggesting that they may represent distinct elements of the cognitive spectrum.

  14. Analysis of Bitcoin Pooled Mining Reward Systems

    E-print Network

    Rosenfeld, Meni

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe the various scoring systems used to calculate rewards of participants in Bitcoin pooled mining, explain the problems each were designed to solve and analyze their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  15. Obesity and survival in operable breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant anthracyclines and taxanes according to pathological subtypes: a pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is an unfavorable prognostic factor in breast cancer (BC) patients regardless of menopausal status and treatment received. However, the association between obesity and survival outcome by pathological subtype requires further clarification. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis including 5,683 operable BC patients enrolled in four randomized clinical trials (GEICAM/9906, GEICAM/9805, GEICAM/2003–02, and BCIRG 001) evaluating anthracyclines and taxanes as adjuvant treatments. Our primary aim was to assess the prognostic effect of body mass index (BMI) on disease recurrence, breast cancer mortality (BCM), and overall mortality (OM). A secondary aim was to detect differences of such prognostic effects by subtype. Results Multivariate survival analyses adjusting for age, tumor size, nodal status, menopausal status, surgery type, histological grade, hormone receptor status, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, chemotherapy regimen, and under-treatment showed that obese patients (BMI 30.0 to 34.9) had similar prognoses to that of patients with a BMI?

  16. A computational analysis of energy pooling in organic molecular assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaCount, Michael D.

    Many-body Green's function and time dependent perturbation theory were used to develop a computational tool for estimating the rate of energy pooling in organic molecular assemblies. The methodology was applied to a previously synthesized system composed of oligothiophene donors with a hexabenzocoronene acceptor to quantify its viability for energy pooling. It was determined that this system is not a good candidate for energy pooling, and the analysis pinpointed exactly why this is so. The methodology was then applied as a design tool to identify properties of assemblies that would be needed in order to maximize the rate of energy pooling in comparison with competing processes.

  17. Swimming Pools, Hot Rods, and Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyde, Dale D.

    1988-01-01

    Describes some reactions for the identification and application of cyanuric acid. Suggests students may find this applied chemistry interesting because of the use of cyanuric acid in swimming pools and diesel engines. Lists three tests for cyanate ion and two tests for cyanuric acid. (MVL)

  18. Genetic variation in the immunosuppression pathway genes and breast cancer susceptibility: a pooled analysis of 42,510 cases and 40,577 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jieping; Rudolph, Anja; Moysich, Kirsten B; Behrens, Sabine; Goode, Ellen L; Bolla, Manjeet K; Dennis, Joe; Dunning, Alison M; Easton, Douglas F; Wang, Qin; Benitez, Javier; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Fasching, Peter A; Haeberle, Lothar; Peto, Julian; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marmé, Frederik; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Bojesen, Stig E; Flyger, Henrik; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G; González-Neira, Anna; Menéndez, Primitiva; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Neuhausen, Susan L; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Nevanlinna, Heli; Fagerholm, Rainer; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Mannermaa, Arto; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Van Dijck, Laurien; Smeets, Ann; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Eilber, Ursula; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Couch, Fergus J; Hallberg, Emily; Giles, Graham G; Milne, Roger L; Haiman, Christopher A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Winqvist, Robert; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L; Glendon, Gord; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Czene, Kamila; Brand, Judith S; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Hall, Per; Li, Jingmei; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Pharoah, Paul D P; Shah, Mitul; Kabisch, Maria; Torres, Diana; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Ambrosone, Christine B; Swerdlow, Anthony; Jones, Michael; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppression plays a pivotal role in assisting tumors to evade immune destruction and promoting tumor development. We hypothesized that genetic variation in the immunosuppression pathway genes may be implicated in breast cancer tumorigenesis. We included 42,510 female breast cancer cases and 40,577 controls of European ancestry from 37 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (2015) with available genotype data for 3595 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 133 candidate genes. Associations between genotyped SNPs and overall breast cancer risk, and secondarily according to estrogen receptor (ER) status, were assessed using multiple logistic regression models. Gene-level associations were assessed based on principal component analysis. Gene expression analyses were conducted using RNA sequencing level 3 data from The Cancer Genome Atlas for 989 breast tumor samples and 113 matched normal tissue samples. SNP rs1905339 (A>G) in the STAT3 region was associated with an increased breast cancer risk (per allele odds ratio 1.05, 95 % confidence interval 1.03-1.08; p value = 1.4 × 10(-6)). The association did not differ significantly by ER status. On the gene level, in addition to TGFBR2 and CCND1, IL5 and GM-CSF showed the strongest associations with overall breast cancer risk (p value = 1.0 × 10(-3) and 7.0 × 10(-3), respectively). Furthermore, STAT3 and IL5 but not GM-CSF were differentially expressed between breast tumor tissue and normal tissue (p value = 2.5 × 10(-3), 4.5 × 10(-4) and 0.63, respectively). Our data provide evidence that the immunosuppression pathway genes STAT3, IL5, and GM-CSF may be novel susceptibility loci for breast cancer in women of European ancestry. PMID:26621531

  19. Analysis of metabolic pools in broilers chicks.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Maria Márcia Pereira; Denadai, Juliana Célia; Sartori, José Roberto; Campos, Daniel; Macari, Marcos; Pezzato, Antônio Celso; Ducatti, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    This paper shows the possibility of obtaining new parameters for the mathematical modelling of data on stable isotopes in biological systems and its application in obtaining data on metabolic pools of blood plasma, blood serum, liver and muscle of broilers. This theory states that the modelling of turnover used for studies of isotopic incorporation when the metabolism has a single metabolic pool is feasible by the technique of setting an exponential. However, when the metabolism has more than one metabolic pool, it is necessary to apply the linearization technique, linear regression adjustment and evaluation of the assumptions of regression to obtain the kinetic parameters such as half-life (T1/2) and isotope exchange rate (k). The application of this technique on carbon-13 data from 100 one-day-old chicks, with the change of diet composed of grains of the photosynthetic cycle of plants from C4 to C3, in broilers has enabled the discovery that the liver, blood plasma and blood serum have a single metabolic pool; however, the pectoral muscle has two metabolic pools. For the liver, blood plasma and blood serum, the half-life values were found by the exponential fit being T1/2?=?1.4 days with the rate of exchange of k?=?0.502, T1/2?=?2.4 days with k?=?0.293 and T1/2?=?2.0 days with k?=?0.348, respectively. For the pectoral muscle, after linearization, the half-life values were found for T1/2(1)?=?1.7 and T1/2(2)?=?3 days, with exchange rates of k1?=?0.405 and k2?=?0.235, representing approximately 66 and 34?%, respectively. PMID:26382186

  20. Bitcoin Mining Pools: A Cooperative Game Theoretic Analysis

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Daniel

    Bitcoin Mining Pools: A Cooperative Game Theoretic Analysis Yoad Lewenberg1 yoadlew University of Jerusalem, Israel 2 Microsoft Research, Cambridge, United Kingdom ABSTRACT Bitcoin miners to approve new transactions and, in return, to collect rewards in bitcoins. This reward allocation

  1. KRAS Mutation Status and Clinical Outcome of Preoperative Chemoradiation With Cetuximab in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of 2 Phase II Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sun Young; Shim, Eun Kyung; Yeo, Hyun Yang; Baek, Ji Yeon; Hong, Yong Sang; Kim, Dae Yong; Division of Translational and Clinical Research I, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang ; Kim, Tae Won; Kim, Jee Hyun; Im, Seock-Ah; Jung, Kyung Hae; Chang, Hee Jin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Cetuximab-containing chemotherapy is known to be effective for KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer; however, it is not clear whether cetuximab-based preoperative chemoradiation confers an additional benefit compared with chemoradiation without cetuximab in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: We analyzed EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutation status with direct sequencing and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression status with immunohistochemistry in tumor samples of 82 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were enrolled in the IRIX trial (preoperative chemoradiation with irinotecan and capecitabine; n=44) or the ERBIRIX trial (preoperative chemoradiation with irinotecan and capecitabine plus cetuximab; n=38). Both trials were similarly designed except for the administration of cetuximab; radiation therapy was administered at a dose of 50.4 Gy/28 fractions and irinotecan and capecitabine were given at doses of 40 mg/m{sup 2} weekly and 1650 mg/m{sup 2}/day, respectively, for 5 days per week. In the ERBIRIX trial, cetuximab was additionally given with a loading dose of 400 mg/m{sup 2} on 1 week before radiation, and 250 mg/m{sup 2} weekly thereafter. Results: Baseline characteristics before chemoradiation were similar between the 2 trial cohorts. A KRAS mutation in codon 12, 13, and 61 was noted in 15 (34%) patients in the IRIX cohort and 5 (13%) in the ERBIRIX cohort (P=.028). Among 62 KRAS wild-type cancer patients, major pathologic response rate, disease-free survival and pathologic stage did not differ significantly between the 2 cohorts. No mutations were detected in BRAF exon 11 and 15, PIK3CA exon 9 and 20, or EGFR exon 18-24 in any of the 82 patients, and PTEN and EGFR expression were not predictive of clinical outcome. Conclusions: In patients with KRAS wild-type locally advanced rectal cancer, the addition of cetuximab to the chemoradiation with irinotecan plus capecitabine regimen was not associated with improved clinical outcome compared with chemoradiation without cetuximab.

  2. Swimming pool immersion accidents: an analysis from the Brisbane drowning study.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J H; Nixon, J

    1977-03-26

    An analysis of a consecutive series of 66 swimming pool immersion accidents is presented; 74% of these occurred in in-ground swimming pools. The estimated accident rate per pool is five times greater for in-ground pools compared with above-ground pools, where pools are inadequately fenced. Backyard swimming pools account for 74% of pool acidents. Motel and caravan park pools account for 9% of childhood immersion accidents, but the survival rate (17%) is very low. Fifty per cent of pool accidents occur in the family's own backyard pool, and 13.6% in a neighbour's pool; in the latter the survival rate is still low at only 33%. In only one of the 66 cases was there an adequate safety fence; in 76% of cases there was no fence or barrier whatsoever. Tables of swimming pool accidents by age, season, site and outcome are presented. PMID:865357

  3. NSAID Use and Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: The Liver Cancer Pooling Project.

    PubMed

    Petrick, Jessica L; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Chan, Andrew T; Alavanja, Michael C; Beane-Freeman, Laura E; Buring, Julie E; Chen, Jie; Chong, Dawn Q; Freedman, Neal D; Fuchs, Charles S; Gaziano, John Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Graubard, Barry I; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Hou, Lifang; Jacobs, Eric J; King, Lindsay Y; Koshiol, Jill; Lee, I-Min; Linet, Martha S; Palmer, Julie R; Purdue, Mark P; Rosenberg, Lynn; Schairer, Catherine; Sesso, Howard D; Sigurdson, Alice J; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Campbell, Peter T; McGlynn, Katherine A

    2015-12-01

    Chronic inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), the two most common types of liver cancer. A number of prior experimental studies have suggested that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin and ibuprofen, may potentially protect against liver cancer. However, no observational study has examined the association between aspirin duration and dose or other over-the-counter non-aspirin NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen, and liver cancer incidence. Furthermore, the association between NSAID use and risk of ICC is unclear. As part of the Liver Cancer Pooling Project, we harmonized data on 1,084,133 individuals (HCC = 679, ICC = 225) from 10 U.S.-based prospective cohort studies. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Current aspirin use, versus nonuse, was inversely associated with HCC (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.57-0.81), which persisted when restricted to individuals not using non-aspirin NSAIDs and in a 5- and 10-year lag analysis. The association between aspirin use and HCC risk was stronger for users who reported daily use, longer duration use, and lower dosage. Ibuprofen use was not associated with HCC risk. Aspirin use was associated with a reduced ICC risk in men (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42-0.98) but not women (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 0.89-2.01; Pinteraction = 0.01). The observed inverse association between aspirin use and liver cancer in our study, together with previous data, suggests the merit of future intervention studies of aspirin and other agents that affect chronic inflammatory pathways for HCC and possibly ICC. Cancer Prev Res; 8(12); 1156-62. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26391917

  4. Systematic Analysis of Protein Pools, Isoforms and Modifications Affecting Turnover and Subcellular Localisation.

    E-print Network

    Lamond, Angus I.

    1 Systematic Analysis of Protein Pools, Isoforms and Modifications Affecting Turnover contributed equally Running title: Protein pools, isoforms, localisation and turnover analysis Keywords: HeLa, Mass Spectrometry, SILAC, Proteomics, Protein Turnover, Protein Localisation, Isoforms, Phosphorylation

  5. New England salt marsh pools: A quantitative analysis of geomorphic and geographic features

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamowicz, S.C.; Roman, C.T.

    2005-01-01

    New England salt marsh pools provide important wildlife habitat and are the object of on-going salt marsh restoration projects; however, they have not been quantified in terms of their basic geomorphic and geographic traits. An examination of 32 ditched and unditched salt marshes from the Connecticut shore of Long Island Sound to southern Maine, USA, revealed that pools from ditched and unditched marshes had similar average sizes of about 200 m2, averaged 29 cm in depth, and were located about 11 m from the nearest tidal flow. Unditched marshes had 3 times the density (13 pools/ha), 2.5 times the pool coverage (83 m pool/km transect), and 4 times the total pool surface area per hectare (913 m2 pool/ha salt marsh) of ditched sites. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that an increasing density of ditches (m ditch/ha salt marsh) was negatively correlated with pool density and total pool surface area per hectare. Creek density was positively correlated with these variables. Thus, it was not the mere presence of drainage channels that were associated with low numbers of pools, but their type (ditch versus creek) and abundance. Tidal range was not correlated with pool density or total pool surface area, while marsh latitude had only a weak relationship to total pool surface area per hectare. Pools should be incorporated into salt marsh restoration planning, and the parameters quantified here may be used as initial design targets.

  6. Pooled genomic indexing (PGI): analysis and design of experiments

    E-print Network

    Csürös, Miklós

    of clones onto known se- quences. PGI is carried out by pooling arrayed clones, and generating shotgun case clones are placed on an array and are pooled by rows and columns. If a shotgun sequence from a row, they are both assigned to the clone at the intersection of the two pools. Accordingly, the clone is mapped onto

  7. The Cancer Genome Atlas ovarian cancer analysis

    Cancer.gov

    An analysis of genomic changes in ovarian cancer has provided the most comprehensive and integrated view of cancer genes for any cancer type to date. Ovarian serous adenocarcinoma tumors from 500 patients were examined by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Re

  8. Melanocortin-1 receptor, skin cancer and phenotypic characteristics (M-SKIP) project: study design and methods for pooling results of genetic epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background For complex diseases like cancer, pooled-analysis of individual data represents a powerful tool to investigate the joint contribution of genetic, phenotypic and environmental factors to the development of a disease. Pooled-analysis of epidemiological studies has many advantages over meta-analysis, and preliminary results may be obtained faster and with lower costs than with prospective consortia. Design and methods Based on our experience with the study design of the Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene, SKin cancer and Phenotypic characteristics (M-SKIP) project, we describe the most important steps in planning and conducting a pooled-analysis of genetic epidemiological studies. We then present the statistical analysis plan that we are going to apply, giving particular attention to methods of analysis recently proposed to account for between-study heterogeneity and to explore the joint contribution of genetic, phenotypic and environmental factors in the development of a disease. Within the M-SKIP project, data on 10,959 skin cancer cases and 14,785 controls from 31 international investigators were checked for quality and recoded for standardization. We first proposed to fit the aggregated data with random-effects logistic regression models. However, for the M-SKIP project, a two-stage analysis will be preferred to overcome the problem regarding the availability of different study covariates. The joint contribution of MC1R variants and phenotypic characteristics to skin cancer development will be studied via logic regression modeling. Discussion Methodological guidelines to correctly design and conduct pooled-analyses are needed to facilitate application of such methods, thus providing a better summary of the actual findings on specific fields. PMID:22862891

  9. Post-diagnosis Cruciferous Vegetable Consumption and Breast Cancer Outcomes: a Report from the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project

    PubMed Central

    Nechuta, Sarah; Caan, Bette J.; Chen, Wendy Y.; Kwan, Marilyn L.; Lu, Wei; Cai, Hui; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Zheng, Wei; Pierce, John P.; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2013-01-01

    Cruciferous vegetables are a major source of glucosinolate-derived bioactive compounds such as isothiocyanates, which have been shown in animal and in vitro studies to inhibit cancer growth and progression. Few studies have investigated cruciferous vegetable intake after diagnosis and breast cancer outcomes. Using data from the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project, which includes prospective data from US and Chinese breast cancer survivors, we evaluated the association of cruciferous vegetables with breast cancer outcomes. Analyses included 11,390 women diagnosed with stage I–III invasive breast cancer (1990–2006) from four cohorts. Cruciferous vegetable intake (g/day) was assessed using food frequency questionnaires (mean of 22 months post-diagnosis). Study heterogeneity was evaluated by the Q statistic; hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using delayed-entry Cox regression models stratified by study. After a median follow-up of 9.0 years, 1,725 deaths and 1,421 recurrences were documented. In pooled analyses using study-specific quartiles, cruciferous vegetable intake was not associated with breast cancer outcomes, adjusting for known clinical prognostic factors and selected lifestyle factors. HRs (95%CIs) by increasing quartiles (reference=lowest quartile) were 1.08 (0.93–1.25), 1.01 (0.87–1.18), and 1.10 (0.95–1.28) for recurrence (Ptrend=0.34) and 1.01 (0.88–1.15), 0.97 (0.84–1.11), and 0.99 (0.86–1.13) for total mortality (Ptrend=0.84). No associations were observed for subgroups defined by ER status, stage, or tamoxifen therapy. Cruciferous vegetable intake at approximately two years after diagnosis was not associated with recurrence or mortality. Our results do not support an association between post-diagnosis cruciferous vegetable intake and breast cancer outcomes. PMID:23765086

  10. Postdiagnosis cruciferous vegetable consumption and breast cancer outcomes: a report from the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project.

    PubMed

    Nechuta, Sarah; Caan, Bette J; Chen, Wendy Y; Kwan, Marilyn L; Lu, Wei; Cai, Hui; Poole, Elizabeth M; Flatt, Shirley W; Zheng, Wei; Pierce, John P; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2013-08-01

    Cruciferous vegetables are a major source of glucosinolate-derived bioactive compounds such as isothiocyanates, which have been shown in animal and in vitro studies to inhibit cancer growth and progression. Few studies have investigated cruciferous vegetable intake after diagnosis and breast cancer outcomes. Using data from the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project, which includes prospective data from U.S. and Chinese breast cancer survivors, we evaluated the association of cruciferous vegetables with breast cancer outcomes. Analyses included 11,390 women diagnosed with stage I-III invasive breast cancer (1990-2006) from four cohorts. Cruciferous vegetable intake (g/day) was assessed using food frequency questionnaires (mean of 22 months postdiagnosis). Study heterogeneity was evaluated by the Q statistic; hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using delayed-entry Cox regression models stratified by study. After a median follow-up of 9.0 years, 1,725 deaths and 1,421 recurrences were documented. In pooled analyses using study-specific quartiles, cruciferous vegetable intake was not associated with breast cancer outcomes, adjusting for known clinical prognostic factors and selected lifestyle factors. HRs (95% CIs) by increasing quartiles (reference = lowest quartile) were 1.08 (0.93-1.25), 1.01 (0.87-1.18), and 1.10 (0.95-1.28) for recurrence (P(trend) = 0.34) and 1.01 (0.88-1.15), 0.97 (0.84-1.11), and 0.99 (0.86-1.13) for total mortality (P(trend) = 0.84). No associations were observed for subgroups defined by estrogen receptor status, stage, or tamoxifen therapy. Cruciferous vegetable intake at approximately two years after diagnosis was not associated with recurrence or mortality. Our results do not support an association between postdiagnosis cruciferous vegetable intake and breast cancer outcomes. PMID:23765086

  11. [Pooled Analysis of RET/PTC Gene Rearrangement Rate in Sporadic and Radiogenic Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Ushenkova, L N; Koterov, A N; Biryukov, A P

    2015-01-01

    The database of publications on molecular epidemiology of RET/PTC rearrangements in sporadic and radiogenic thyroid papillary carcinoma has been formed (197 sources at the end of 2014; coverage of 100%). Based on this database a pooled analysis of data on the rates of RET/PTC1, RET/PTC3 and RET/PTC in total was conducted. Statistical approach involves a simple pooling, as well as calculations on the models of random and fixed effects. Since almost all the strata were characterized by heterogeneity, simple pooling and random effect models were adequate. Calculations using both models led to almost identical results. For rates of RET/PTC1, RET/PTC3 and RET/PTC in total with respect to formed carcinoma striations the following values (pooling, in %) were obtained: sporadic, total--13.2; 8.9; 21.2; sporadic, adults--13.3; 9.9; 21.1; sporadic, children--22.4; 17.5; 44.5; radiogenic, total--20.9; 20.3; 40.4; radiotherapy (exposure in childhood)--31.1; 11.8; 42.5; children affected after the Chernobyl accident--19.9; 23.6; 46.1; radiological incidents (exposure in adulthood)--19.9; 7.7; 18.4. Statistically proven is the reliability of differences of carcinoma indicators for children compared with adults (both sporadic and radiogenic tumors) and for radiogenic cancer compared with sporadic. The greatest increase in rate after irradiation was found for RET/PTC1, previously characterized in vitro as one of radiogenic types of RET/PTC. PMID:26601537

  12. Admixture Aberration Analysis: Application to Mapping in Admixed Population Using Pooled DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercovici, Sivan; Geiger, Dan

    Admixture mapping is a gene mapping approach used for the identification of genomic regions harboring disease susceptibility genes in the case of recently admixed populations such as African Americans. We present a novel method for admixture mapping, called admixture aberration analysis (AAA), that uses a DNA pool of affected admixed individuals. We demonstrate through simulations that AAA is a powerful and economical mapping method under a range of scenarios, capturing complex human diseases such as hypertension and end stage kidney disease. The method has a low false-positive rate and is robust to deviation from model assumptions. Finally, we apply AAA on 600 prostate cancer-affected African Americans, replicating a known risk locus. Simulation results indicate that the method can yield over 96% reduction in genotyping. Our method is implemented as a Java program called AAAmap and is freely available.

  13. Time--domain analysis in gated cardiac blood pool studies.

    PubMed

    Freeman, M L; Barnes, W E; Gose, E E; Klein, G C; Kaplan, E

    1982-01-01

    A technique is presented for producing functional images derived from equilibrium gated blood pool studies as a means of diagnosing cardiac disease. These functional images are based on characteristics associated with the time variation of the count rate (the time domain) at each point of the image matrix rather than on the Fourier transform of the time-activity curve (the frequency domain) which has gained recent attention. As examples of this method, we present images which display the statistical variance of the time-activity curve at each pixel, corrected for the expected contribution due to random statistical fluctuation, and images which display the time at which each pixel reaches its minimum count value. Variance and time-to-minimum images are comparable to Fourier amplitude and phase images, respectively, and have been found to be useful in facilitating the diagnosis of wall motion abnormalities. A major advantage of time-domain analysis is the wide variety of features of potential clinical significance which may be investigated. PMID:6282770

  14. Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Benzene Exposure Among Petroleum Workers: An International Pooled Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Benzene at high concentrations is known to cause acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but its relationship with other lymphohematopoietic (LH) cancers remains uncertain, particularly at low concentrations. In this pooled analysis, we examined the risk of five LH cancers relative to lower levels of benzene exposure in petroleum workers. Methods We updated three nested case–control studies from Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom with new incident LH cancers among petroleum distribution workers through December 31, 2006, and pooled 370 potential case subjects and 1587 matched LH cancer-free control subjects. Quantitative benzene exposure in parts per million (ppm) was blindly reconstructed using historical monitoring data, and exposure certainty was scored as high, medium, or low. Two hematopathologists assigned diagnoses and scored the certainty of diagnosis as high, medium, or low. Dose–response relationships were examined for five LH cancers, including the three most common leukemia cell-types (AML, chronic myeloid leukemia [CML], and chronic lymphoid leukemia [CLL]) and two myeloid tumors (myelodysplastic syndrome [MDS] and myeloproliferative disease [MPD]). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression, controlling for age, sex, and time period. Results Cumulative benzene exposure showed a monotonic dose–response relationship with MDS (highest vs lowest tertile, >2.93 vs ?0.348 ppm-years, OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.31 to 14.3). For peak benezene exposures (>3 ppm), the risk of MDS was increased in high and medium certainty diagnoses (peak exposure vs no peak exposure, OR = 6.32, 95% CI = 1.32 to 30.2) and in workers having the highest exposure certainty (peak exposure vs no peak exposure, OR = 5.74, 95% CI = 1.05 to 31.2). There was little evidence of dose–response relationships for AML, CLL, CML, or MPD. Conclusions Relatively low-level exposure to benzene experienced by petroleum distribution workers was associated with an increased risk of MDS, but not AML, suggesting that MDS may be the more relevant health risk for lower exposures. PMID:23111193

  15. Ovarian cancer: genomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, W.; Dizon, D.; Vathipadiekal, V.; Birrer, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Despite improvements in the management of ovarian cancer patients over the last 30 years, there has been only a minimal improvement in overall survival. While targeted therapeutic approaches for the treatment of cancer have evolved, major challenges in ovarian cancer research persist, including the identification of predictive biomarkers with clinical relevance, so that empirical drug selection can be avoided. In this article, we review published genomic analysis studies including data generated in our laboratory and how they have been incorporated into modern clinical trials in a rational and effective way. Methods Multiple published genomic analysis studies were collected for review and discussion with emphasis on their potential clinical applicability. Results Genomic analysis has been shown to be a powerful tool to identify dysregulated genes, aberrantly activated pathways and to uncover uniqueness of subclasses of ovarian tumors. The application of this technology has provided a solid molecular basis for different clinical behaviors associated with tumor histology and grade. Genomic signatures have been obtained to predict clinical end points for patients with cancer, including response rates, progression-free survival, and overall survival. In addition, genomic analysis has provided opportunities to identify biomarkers, which either result in a modification of existing clinical management or to stratification of patients to novel therapeutic approaches designed as clinical trials. Conclusions Genomic analyses have accelerated the identification of relevant biomarkers and extended our understanding of the molecular biology of ovarian cancer. This in turn, will hopefully lead to a paradigm shift from empirical, uniform treatment to a more rational, personalized treatment of ovarian cancers. However, validation of potential biomarkers on both the statistical and biological levels is needed to confirm they are of clinical relevance, in order to increase the likelihood that the desired outcome can be predicted and achieved. PMID:24265410

  16. Microbiological Analysis in Three Diverse Natural Geothermal Bathing Pools in Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Thorolfsdottir, Berglind Osk Th.; Marteinsson, Viggo Thor

    2013-01-01

    Natural thermal bathing pools contain geothermal water that is very popular to bathe in but the water is not sterilized, irradiated or treated in any way. Increasing tourism in Iceland will lead to increasing numbers of bath guests, which can in turn affect the microbial flora in the pools and therefore user safety. Today, there is no legislation that applies to natural geothermal pools in Iceland, as the water is not used for consumption and the pools are not defined as public swimming pools. In this study, we conducted a microbiological analysis on three popular but different natural pools in Iceland, located at Lýsuhóll, Hveravellir and Landmannalaugar. Total bacterial counts were performed by flow cytometry, and with plate count at 22 °C, 37 °C and 50 °C. The presence of viable coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and pseudomonads were investigated by growth experiments on selective media. All samples were screened for noroviruses by real time PCR. The results indicate higher fecal contamination in the geothermal pools where the geothermal water flow was low and bathing guest count was high during the day. The number of cultivated Pseudomonas spp. was high (13,000–40,000 cfu/100 mL) in the natural pools, and several strains were isolated and classified as opportunistic pathogens. Norovirus was not detected in the three pools. DNA was extracted from one-liter samples in each pool and analyzed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbial diversity analysis revealed different microbial communities between the pools and they were primarily composed of alpha-, beta- and gammaproteobacteria. PMID:23493033

  17. Echinacoside induces apoptotic cancer cell death by inhibiting the nucleotide pool sanitizing enzyme MTH1

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Liwei; Wang, Hongge; Niu, Jiajing; Zou, Mingwei; Wu, Nuoting; Yu, Debin; Wang, Ye; Zou, Zhihua

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of the nucleotide pool sanitizing enzyme MTH1 causes extensive oxidative DNA damages and apoptosis in cancer cells and hence may be used as an anticancer strategy. As natural products have been a rich source of medicinal chemicals, in the present study, we used the MTH1-catalyzed enzymatic reaction as a high-throughput in vitro screening assay to search for natural compounds capable of inhibiting MTH1. Echinacoside, a compound derived from the medicinal plants Cistanche and Echinacea, effectively inhibited the catalytic activity of MTH1 in an in vitro assay. Treatment of various human cancer cell lines with Echinacoside resulted in a significant increase in the cellular level of oxidized guanine (8-oxoguanine), while cellular reactive oxygen species level remained unchanged, indicating that Echinacoside also inhibited the activity of cellular MTH1. Consequently, Echinacoside treatment induced an immediate and dramatic increase in DNA damage markers and upregulation of the G1/S-CDK inhibitor p21, which were followed by marked apoptotic cell death and cell cycle arrest in cancer but not in noncancer cells. Taken together, these studies identified a natural compound as an MTH1 inhibitor and suggest that natural products can be an important source of anticancer agents. PMID:26677335

  18. Pooled genomic indexing (PGI): mathematical analysis and experiment design

    E-print Network

    Csürös, Miklós

    clones, generating shotgun sequence reads from pools and by comparing the reads against a reference Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics Baylor College of Medicine 3 Bioinformatics Research Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine

  19. Monte Carlo Test Assembly for Item Pool Analysis and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belov, Dmitry I.; Armstrong, Ronald D.

    2005-01-01

    A new test assembly algorithm based on a Monte Carlo random search is presented in this article. A major advantage of the Monte Carlo test assembly over other approaches (integer programming or enumerative heuristics) is that it performs a uniform sampling from the item pool, which provides every feasible item combination (test) with an equal…

  20. Pooled genomic indexing (PGI): mathematical analysis and experiment design

    E-print Network

    Csürös, Miklós

    Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics Baylor College of Medicine 3 Bioinformatics Research Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine for physical mapping of clones onto known macromolecular sequences. PGI is carried out by pooling arrayed

  1. EQUILIBRIUM-ANALYSIS OF PROJECT CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON THE GLOBAL SOIL ORGANIC MATTER POOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased rates of soil organic matter decomposition may represent a significant positive feedback to global warming. s a step towards assessing the potential magnitude of this response, an equilibrium analysis was performed in which representative carbon pools were associated wi...

  2. Self-expandable metal stents for malignant gastric outlet obstruction: A pooled analysis of prospective literature

    PubMed Central

    van Halsema, Emo E; Rauws, Erik AJ; Fockens, Paul; van Hooft, Jeanin E

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To provide an overview of the clinical outcomes of self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) placement for malignant gastric outlet obstruction (MGOO). METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed of the literature published between January 2009 and March 2015. Only prospective studies that reported on the clinical success of stent placement for MGOO were included. The primary endpoint was clinical success, defined according to the definition used in the original article. Data were pooled and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Subgroup analyses were performed for partially covered SEMSs (PCSEMSs) and uncovered SEMSs (UCSEMSs) using Fisher’s exact test. RESULTS: A total of 19 studies, including 1281 patients, were included in the final analysis. Gastric (42%) and pancreatic (37%) cancer were the main causes of MGOO. UCSEMSs were used in 76% of patients and PCSEMSs in 24%. The overall pooled technical success rate was 97.3% and the clinical success rate was 85.7%. Stent dysfunction occurred in 19.6% of patients, mainly caused by re-obstruction (12.6%) and stent migration (4.3%), and was comparable between PCSEMSs and UCSEMSs (21.2% vs 19.1%, respectively, P = 0.412). Re-obstruction was more common with UCSEMSs (14.9% vs 5.1%, P < 0.001) and stent migration was more frequent after PCSEMS placement (10.9% vs 2.2%, P < 0.001). The overall perforation rate was 1.2%. Bleeding was reported in 4.1% of patients, including major bleeding in 0.8%. The median stent patency ranged from 68 to 307 d in five studies. The median overall survival ranged from 49 to 183 d in 13 studies. CONCLUSION: The clinical outcomes in this large population showed that enteral stent placement was feasible, effective and safe. Therefore, stent placement is a valid treatment option for the palliation of MGOO. PMID:26604654

  3. Mirabegron for the treatment of overactive bladder: a prespecified pooled efficacy analysis and pooled safety analysis of three randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III studies

    PubMed Central

    Nitti, V W; Khullar, V; Kerrebroeck, P; Herschorn, S; Cambronero, J; Angulo, J C; Blauwet, M B; Dorrepaal, C; Siddiqui, E; Martin, N E

    2013-01-01

    Introduction To examine pooled efficacy data from three, large phase III studies comparing mirabegron (50 and 100 mg) with placebo, and pooled safety data including additional mirabegron 25 mg and tolterodine extended release (ER) 4 mg results. Methods This prespecified pooled analysis of three randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week studies, evaluated efficacy and safety of once-daily mirabegron 25 mg (safety analysis), 50 or 100 mg (efficacy and safety analyses) and tolterodine ER 4 mg (safety analysis) for the treatment of symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB). Co-primary efficacy measures were change from baseline to Final Visit in the mean number of incontinence episodes/24 h and mean number of micturitions/24 h. Key secondary efficacy end-points included mean number of urgency episodes/24 h and mean volume voided/micturitions, while other end-points included patient-reported outcomes according to the Treatment Satisfaction-Visual Analogue Scale (TS-VAS) and responder analyses [dry rate (posttreatment), ? 50% reduction in incontinence episodes/24 h, ? 8 micturitions/24 h (post hoc analysis)]. The safety analysis included adverse event (AE) reporting, laboratory assessments, ECG, postvoid residual volume and vital signs (blood pressure, pulse rate). Results Mirabegron (50 and 100 mg once daily) demonstrated statistically significant improvements compared with placebo for the co-primary end-points, key secondary efficacy variables, TS-VAS and responder analyses (all comparisons p < 0.05). Mirabegron is well tolerated and demonstrates a good safety profile. The most common AEs (? 3%) included hypertension, nasopharyngitis and urinary tract infection (UTI); the incidence of hypertensive events and UTIs decreased with increasing dose. For mirabegron, the incidence of the bothersome antimuscarinic AE, dry mouth, was at placebo level and of a lesser magnitude than tolterodine. Conclusion The efficacy and safety of mirabegron are demonstrated in this large pooled clinical trial dataset in patients with OAB. PMID:23692526

  4. 76 FR 72923 - Pool Corporation; Analysis To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ...competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment...days. The following Analysis to Aid Public Comment...inventories, formulas, patterns, devices, manufacturing...ftc/privacy.htm. Analysis of Agreement Containing...The Agreement is for settlement purposes only and...

  5. RELAP5 Analysis of the Hybrid Loop-Pool Design for Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hongbin Zhang; Haihua Zhao; Cliff Davis

    2008-06-01

    An innovative hybrid loop-pool design for sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR-Hybrid) has been recently proposed. This design takes advantage of the inherent safety of a pool design and the compactness of a loop design to improve economics and safety of SFRs. In the hybrid loop-pool design, primary loops are formed by connecting the reactor outlet plenum (hot pool), intermediate heat exchangers (IHX), primary pumps and the reactor inlet plenum with pipes. The primary loops are immersed in the cold pool (buffer pool). Passive safety systems -- modular Pool Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (PRACS) – are added to transfer decay heat from the primary system to the buffer pool during loss of forced circulation (LOFC) transients. The primary systems and the buffer pool are thermally coupled by the PRACS, which is composed of PRACS heat exchangers (PHX), fluidic diodes and connecting pipes. Fluidic diodes are simple, passive devices that provide large flow resistance in one direction and small flow resistance in reverse direction. Direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS) heat exchangers (DHX) are immersed in the cold pool to transfer decay heat to the environment by natural circulation. To prove the design concepts, especially how the passive safety systems behave during transients such as LOFC with scram, a RELAP5-3D model for the hybrid loop-pool design was developed. The simulations were done for both steady-state and transient conditions. This paper presents the details of RELAP5-3D analysis as well as the calculated thermal response during LOFC with scram. The 250 MW thermal power conventional pool type design of GNEP’s Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) developed by Argonne National Laboratory was used as the reference reactor core and primary loop design. The reactor inlet temperature is 355 °C and the outlet temperature is 510 °C. The core design is the same as that for ABTR. The steady state buffer pool temperature is the same as the reactor inlet temperature. The peak cladding, hot pool, cold pool and reactor inlet temperatures were calculated during LOFC. The results indicate that there are two phases during LOFC transient – the initial thermal equilibration phase and the long term decay heat removal phase. The initial thermal equilibration phase occurs over a few hundred seconds, as the system adjusts from forced circulation to natural circulation flow. Subsequently, during long-term heat removal phase all temperatures evolve very slowly due to the large thermal inertia of the primary and buffer pool systems. The results clearly show that passive safety PRACS can effectively transfer decay heat from the primary system to the buffer pool by natural circulation. The DRACS system in turn can effectively transfer the decay heat to the environment.

  6. Multimarker analysis and imputation of multiple platform pooling-based genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Homer, Nils; Tembe, Waibhav D; Szelinger, Szabolcs; Redman, Margot; Stephan, Dietrich A; Pearson, John V; Nelson, Stanley F; Craig, David

    2008-09-01

    For many genome-wide association (GWA) studies individually genotyping one million or more SNPs provides a marginal increase in coverage at a substantial cost. Much of the information gained is redundant due to the correlation structure inherent in the human genome. Pooling-based GWA studies could benefit significantly by utilizing this redundancy to reduce noise, improve the accuracy of the observations and increase genomic coverage. We introduce a measure of correlation between individual genotyping and pooling, under the same framework that r(2) provides a measure of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between pairs of SNPs. We then report a new non-haplotype multimarker multi-loci method that leverages the correlation structure between SNPs in the human genome to increase the efficacy of pooling-based GWA studies. We first give a theoretical framework and derivation of our multimarker method. Next, we evaluate simulations using this multimarker approach in comparison to single marker analysis. Finally, we experimentally evaluate our method using different pools of HapMap individuals on the Illumina 450S Duo, Illumina 550K and Affymetrix 5.0 platforms for a combined total of 1 333 631 SNPs. Our results show that use of multimarker analysis reduces noise specific to pooling-based studies, allows for efficient integration of multiple microarray platforms and provides more accurate measures of significance than single marker analysis. Additionally, this approach can be extended to allow for imputing the association significance for SNPs not directly observed using neighboring SNPs in LD. This multimarker method can now be used to cost-effectively complete pooling-based GWA studies with multiple platforms across over one million SNPs and to impute neighboring SNPs weighted for the loss of information due to pooling. PMID:18617537

  7. 76 FR 72923 - Pool Corporation; Analysis To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Corporation; Analysis To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Proposed consent... prohibiting unfair or deceptive acts or practices or unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis to... (30) days. The following Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes the terms of the consent...

  8. Imported malaria in pregnant women: a retrospective pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Käser, Annina K.; Arguin, Paul M.; Chiodini, Peter L.; Smith, Valerie; Delmont, Jean; Jiménez, Beatriz C.; Färnert, Anna; Kimura, Mikio; Ramharter, Michael; Grobusch, Martin P.; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Data on imported malaria in pregnant women are scarce. Method A retrospective, descriptive study of pooled data on imported malaria in pregnancy was done, using data from 1977 to 2014 from 8 different collaborators in Europe, the United States and Japan. Most cases were from the period 1991–2014. National malaria reference centresas well as specialists on this topic were asked to search their archives for cases of imported malaria in pregnancy. A total of 632 cases were collated, providing information on Plasmodium species, region of acquisition, nationality, country of residence, reason for travel, age, gestational age, prophylactic measures and treatment used, as well as on complications and outcomes in mother and child. Results Datasets from some sources were incomplete. The predominant Plasmodium species was P. falciparum in 72% of cases. Among the 543 cases where information on the use of chemoprophylaxis was known, 471 (74.5%) did not use chemoprophylaxis or used incorrect or incomplete chemoprophylaxis. The main reason for travelling was “visiting friends and relatives” VFR (48.6%) and overall, most cases of malaria were imported from West Africa (85.9%). Severe anaemia was the most frequent complication in the mother. Data on offspring outcome was limited, but spontaneous abortion was a frequently reported foetal outcome (n = 14). A total of 50 different variants of malaria treatment regimens were reported. Conclusion Imported cases of malaria in pregnancy are mainly P. falciparum acquired in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria prevention and treatment in pregnant travellers is a challenge for travel medicine due to few data on medication safety and maternal and foetal outcomes. International, collaborative efforts are needed to capture standardized data on imported malaria cases in pregnant women. PMID:26227740

  9. Vitamin D Pooling Project

    Cancer.gov

    The Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers brought together investigators from 10 cohorts to conduct a large prospective epidemiologic study of the association between vitamin D status and seven rarer cancers.

  10. Evaluation of High Ipsilateral Subventricular Zone Radiation Therapy Dose in Glioblastoma: A Pooled Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Percy; UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California ; Eppinga, Wietse; Lagerwaard, Frank; Cloughesy, Timothy; UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California ; Slotman, Benjamin; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L.; UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California ; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Kupelian, Patrick; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Demarco, John; Selch, Michael T.; Steinberg, Michael; UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California ; Kang, Jung Julie

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) may play a role in the recurrence of glioblastoma. They are believed to originate from neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ). Because of their radioresistance, we hypothesized that high doses of radiation (>59.4 Gy) to the SVZ are necessary to control CSCs and improve progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS) in glioblastoma. Methods and Materials: 173 patients with glioblastoma pooled from 2 academic centers were treated with resection followed by chemoradiation therapy. The SVZ was segmented on computed tomography to calculate radiation doses delivered to the presumptive CSC niches. The relationships between high SVZ doses and PFS and OS were examined using Cox proportional hazards models. Five covariates were included to estimate their impact on PFS or OS: ipsilateral and contralateral SVZ doses, clinical target volume dose, age, and extent of resection. Results: Median PFS and OS were 10.4 and 19.6 months for the cohort. The mean ipsilateral SVZ, contralateral SVZ, and clinical target volume doses were 49.2, 35.2, and 60.1 Gy, respectively. Twenty-one patients who received high ipsilateral SVZ dose (>59.4 Gy) had significantly longer median PFS (12.6 vs 9.9 months, P=.042) and longer OS (25.8 vs 19.2 months, P=.173). On multivariate analysis, high radiation therapy doses to ipsilateral SVZ remained a statistically significant independent predictor of improved PFS but not of OS. The extent of surgery affected both PFS and OS on multivariate analysis. Conclusion: High radiation therapy doses to ipsilateral CSC niches are associated with improved PFS in glioblastoma.

  11. CXCR4 over-expression and survival in cancer: A system review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiaxin; Weng, Hao; Zhao, Bin

    2015-01-01

    C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is frequently over-expressed in various types of cancer; many agents against CXCR4 are in clinical development currently despite variable data for the prognostic impact of CXCR4 expression. Here eighty-five studies with a total of 11,032 subjects were included to explore the association between CXCR4 and progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS) in subjects with cancer. Pooled analysis shows that CXCR4 over-expression is significantly associated with poorer PFS (HR 2.04; 95% CI, 1.72-2.42) and OS (HR=1.94; 95% CI, 1.71-2.20) irrespective of cancer types. Subgroup analysis indicates significant association between CXCR4 and shorter PFS in hematological malignancy, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, esophageal cancer, renal cancer, gynecologic cancer, pancreatic cancer and liver cancer; the prognostic effects remained consistent across age, risk of bias, levels of adjustment, median follow-up period, geographical area, detection methods, publication year and size of studies. CXCR4 over-expression predicts unfavorable OS in hematological malignancy, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, esophageal cancer, head and neck cancer, renal cancer, lung cancer, gynecologic cancer, liver cancer, prostate cancer and gallbladder cancer; these effects were independence of age, levels of adjustment, publication year, detection methods and follow-up period. In conclusion, CXCR4 over-expression is associated with poor prognosis in cancer. PMID:25669980

  12. Clone-array pooled shotgun mapping and sequencing: design and analysis of experiments

    E-print Network

    Csürös, Miklós

    CAPS-MAP 1 Clone-array pooled shotgun mapping and sequencing: design and analysis of experiments, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. 3 Bioinformatics Research Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, and Program in Structural

  13. ?-Blockers Reduce Breast Cancer Recurrence and Breast Cancer Death: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Childers, W Kurtis; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Cheriyath, Pramil

    2015-12-01

    The normal physiologic stress mechanism, mediated by the sympathetic nervous system, causes a release of the neurotransmitters epinephrine and norepinephrine. Preclinical data have demonstrated an effect on tumor progression and metastasis via the sympathetic nervous system mediated primarily through the ?-adrenergic receptor (?-AR) pathway. In vitro data have shown an increase in tumor growth, migration, tumor angiogenesis, and metastatic spread in breast cancer through activation of the ?-AR. Retrospective cohort studies on the clinical outcomes of ?-blockers in breast cancer outcomes showed no clear consensus. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of ?-blockers on breast cancer outcomes. A systematic review was performed using the Cochrane library and PubMed. Publications between the dates of January 2010 and December 2013 were identified. Available hazard ratios (HRs) were extracted for breast cancer recurrence, breast cancer death, and all-cause mortality and pooled using a random effects meta-analysis. A total of 7 studies contained results for at least 1 of the outcomes of breast cancer recurrence, breast cancer death, or all-cause mortality in breast cancer patients receiving ?-blockers. In the 5 studies that contained results for breast cancer recurrence, there was no statistically significant risk reduction (HR, 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39-1.13). Breast cancer death results were contained in 4 studies, which also suggested a significant reduction in risk (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.32-0.80). Among the 4 studies that reported all-cause mortality, there was no significant effect of ?-blockers on risk (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.75-1.37). Results of this systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that the use of ?-blockers significantly reduced risk of breast cancer death among women with breast cancer. PMID:26516037

  14. Safety and tolerability of dienogest in endometriosis: pooled analysis from the European clinical study program

    PubMed Central

    Strowitzki, Thomas; Faustmann, Thomas; Gerlinger, Christoph; Schumacher, Ulrike; Ahlers, Christiane; Seitz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background In four randomized, controlled, European trials, dienogest 2 mg once daily demonstrated significant efficacy for lesion reduction and reduction in pain intensity in endometriosis. We describe a pooled analysis of the safety and tolerability data from these trials to confirm and further characterize the safety profile of dienogest in the treatment of endometriosis. Methods All 332 women treated with dienogest 2 mg who participated in the four clinical trials were included in the pooled analyses for safety assessments, including adverse events, laboratory tests, vital signs, body weight, and bleeding patterns. Safety variables were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results Pooled analyses of this large patient population confirmed that dienogest 2 mg is well tolerated, with a favorable safety profile extending over a period up to 65 weeks in women with endometriosis. The most common adverse drug reactions were headache, breast discomfort, depressed mood, and acne, each occurring in <10% of women. All these adverse events were generally of mild-to-moderate intensity and associated with low discontinuation rates. The bleeding pattern associated with dienogest 2 mg was well tolerated, and only two women (0.6%) reported bleeding events as the primary reason for premature discontinuation. Laboratory and vital sign assessments indicated no safety concerns for dienogest. Estradiol levels were maintained within the low-physiological range, in support of previous evidence indicating that dienogest 2 mg demonstrates therapeutic efficacy without inducing estradiol deficiency. Conclusion In this pooled analysis of 332 women with endometriosis, dienogest was well tolerated with a favorable safety profile extending over a period of up to 65 weeks. There is a paucity of randomized trial evidence to support the use of many treatments in endometriosis. These pooled analyses from four clinical trials of dienogest 2 mg represent a contribution to evidence-based medicine in endometriosis, providing outcomes of potential relevance to daily practice. PMID:25926759

  15. Genetic linkage analysis using pooled DNA and infrared detection of tailed STRP primer patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oetting, William S.; Wildenberg, Scott C.; King, Richard A.

    1996-04-01

    The mapping of a disease locus to a specific chromosomal region is an important step in the eventual isolation and analysis of a disease causing gene. Conventional mapping methods analyze large multiplex families and/or smaller nuclear families to find linkage between the disease and a chromosome marker that maps to a known chromosomal region. This analysis is time consuming and tedious, typically requiring the determination of 30,000 genotypes or more. For appropriate populations, we have instead utilized pooled DNA samples for gene mapping which greatly reduces the amount of time necessary for an initial chromosomal screen. This technique assumes a common founder for the disease locus of interest and searches for a region of a chromosome shared between affected individuals. Our analysis involves the PCR amplification of short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRP) to detect these shared regions. In order to reduce the cost of genotyping, we have designed unlabeled tailed PCR primers which, when combined with a labeled universal primer, provides for an alternative to synthesizing custom labeled primers. The STRP pattern is visualized with an infrared fluorescence based automated DNA sequencer and the patterns quantitated by densitometric analysis of the allele pattern. Differences in the distribution of alleles between pools of affected and unaffected individuals, including a reduction in the number of alleles in the affected pool, indicate the sharing of a region of a chromosome. We have found this method effective for markers 10 - 15 cM away from the disease locus for a recessive genetic disease.

  16. A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis of CPR-Associated Cardiovascular and Thoracic Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Andrew C.; Rosati, Shannon F.; Suffredini, Anthony F.; Schrump, David S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The incidence of thoracic injuries resulting from cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is not well characterized. We describe a case in which a CPR-associated atrial rupture was identified with ultrasound and successfully managed in the intensive care unit with a bedside thoracotomy and atrial repair. We then describe a systematic review with pooled data analysis of CPR-associated cardiovascular, pulmonary, pleural, and thoracic wall injuries. DATA SOURCES PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched to identify relevant published studies. Unpublished studies were identified by searching the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials, and Google. STUDY SELECTION Inclusion criteria for the pooled analysis were any clinical or autopsy study in which a) patients underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation, b) chest compressions were administered either manually or with the assistance of active compression-decompression devices, and c) autopsy or dedicated imaging assessments were conducted to identify complications. Exclusion criteria for the pooled analysis were pre-clinical studies, case reports and abstracts. DATA EXTRACTION Nine-hundred twenty-eight potentially relevant references were identified. Twenty-seven references met inclusion criteria. DATA SYNTHESIS A systematic review of the literature is provided with pooled data analysis. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of reported CPR-associated cardiovascular and thoracic wall injuries varies widely. CPR with active compression-decompression devices has a higher reported incidence of cardiopulmonary injuries. Bedside ultrasound may be a useful adjunct to assess and risk-stratify patients to identify serious or life-threatening CPR-associated injuries. PMID:24525116

  17. Cardiothoracic ratio for prediction of left ventricular dilation: a systematic review and pooled analysis.

    PubMed

    Loomba, Rohit S; Shah, Parinda H; Nijhawan, Karan; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Arora, Rohit

    2015-03-01

    Increased cardiothoracic ratio noted on chest radiographs often prompts concern and further evaluation with additional imaging. This study pools available data assessing the utility of cardiothoracic ratio in predicting left ventricular dilation. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify studies comparing cardiothoracic ratio by chest x-ray to left ventricular dilation by echocardiography. Electronic databases were used to identify studies which were then assessed for quality and bias, with those with adequate quality and minimal bias ultimately being included in the pooled analysis. The pooled data were used to determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of cardiomegaly in predicting left ventricular dilation. A total of six studies consisting of 466 patients were included in this analysis. Cardiothoracic ratio had 83.3% sensitivity, 45.4% specificity, 43.5% positive predictive value and 82.7% negative predictive value. When a secondary analysis was conducted with a pediatric study excluded, a total of five studies consisting of 371 patients were included. Cardiothoracic ratio had 86.2% sensitivity, 25.2% specificity, 42.5% positive predictive value and 74.0% negative predictive value. Cardiothoracic ratio as determined by chest radiograph is sensitive but not specific for identifying left ventricular dilation. Cardiothoracic ratio also has a strong negative predictive value for identifying left ventricular dilation. PMID:25760876

  18. One-Dimensional Analysis of Thermal Stratification in AHTR and SFR Coolant Pools

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Per F. Peterson

    2007-10-01

    Thermal stratification phenomena are very common in pool type reactor systems, such as the liquid-salt cooled Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) and liquid-metal cooled fast reactor systems such as the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). It is important to accurately predict the temperature and density distributions both for design optimation and accident analysis. Current major reactor system analysis codes such as RELAP5 (for LWR’s, and recently extended to analyze high temperature reactors), TRAC (for LWR’s), and SASSYS (for liquid metal fast reactors) only provide lumped-volume based models which can only give very approximate results and can only handle simple cases with one mixing source. While 2-D or 3-D CFD methods can be used to analyze simple configurations, these methods require very fine grid resolution to resolve thin substructures such as jets and wall boundaries, yet such fine grid resolution is difficult or impossible to provide for studying the reactor response to transients due to computational expense. Therefore, new methods are needed to support design optimization and safety analysis of Generation IV pool type reactor systems. Previous scaling has shown that stratified mixing processes in large stably stratified enclosures can be described using one-dimensional differential equations, with the vertical transport by free and wall jets modeled using standard integral techniques. This allows very large reductions in computational effort compared to three-dimensional numerical modeling of turbulent mixing in large enclosures. The BMIX++ (Berkeley mechanistic MIXing code in C++) code was originally developed at UC Berkeley to implement such ideas. This code solves mixing and heat transfer problems in stably stratified enclosures. The code uses a Lagrangian approach to solve 1-D transient governing equations for the ambient fluid and uses analytical or 1-D integral models to compute substructures. By including liquid salt properties, BMIX++ code is extended to analyze liquid salt pool systems in the current AHTR design, to provide an example of its application. Similar analysis is possible for liquid-metal cooled reactors. The current AHTR baseline design uses a large buffer salt tank to provide more thermal inertial and safety margin. Reactor vessel, intermediate heat exchangers, pool reactor auxiliary cooling system heat exchangers (PHX), and direct reactor auxiliary cooling system heat exchangers (DHX) are all immerged in the buffer salt pool. These structures provide major driving sources for vertical mixing and thermal stratification. Predication of the temperature distribution within the buffer salt tank directly affects the major safety systems design, such as the PHX and DHX, safety analysis results, and structure thermal stresses analysis. The BMIX++ code is used to predict mixing and thermal stratification in this pool system. This example shows the potential of 1-D analysis methods and BMIX++ to be included in system analysis codes for pool type of Gen-IV reactor systems.

  19. Testing Homeopathy in Mouse Emotional Response Models: Pooled Data Analysis of Two Series of Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bellavite, Paolo; Conforti, Anita; Marzotto, Marta; Magnani, Paolo; Cristofoletti, Mirko; Olioso, Debora; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Two previous investigations were performed to assess the activity of Gelsemium sempervirens (Gelsemium s.) in mice, using emotional response models. These two series are pooled and analysed here. Gelsemium s. in various homeopathic centesimal dilutions/dynamizations (4C, 5C, 7C, 9C, and 30C), a placebo (solvent vehicle), and the reference drugs diazepam (1?mg/kg body weight) or buspirone (5?mg/kg body weight) were delivered intraperitoneally to groups of albino CD1 mice, and their effects on animal behaviour were assessed by the light-dark (LD) choice test and the open-field (OF) exploration test. Up to 14 separate replications were carried out in fully blind and randomised conditions. Pooled analysis demonstrated highly significant effects of Gelsemium s. 5C, 7C, and 30C on the OF parameter “time spent in central area” and of Gelsemium s. 5C, 9C, and 30C on the LD parameters “time spent in lit area” and “number of light-dark transitions,” without any sedative action or adverse effects on locomotion. This pooled data analysis confirms and reinforces the evidence that Gelsemium s. regulates emotional responses and behaviour of laboratory mice in a nonlinear fashion with dilution/dynamization. PMID:22548123

  20. 3-Bromopyruvate induces rapid human prostate cancer cell death by affecting cell energy metabolism, GSH pool and the glyoxalase system.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Daniela; Vacca, Rosa A; de Bari, Lidia

    2015-12-01

    3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is an anti-tumour drug effective on hepatocellular carcinoma and other tumour cell types, which affects both glycolytic and mitochondrial targets, depleting cellular ATP pool. Here we tested 3-BP on human prostate cancer cells showing, differently from other tumour types, efficient ATP production and functional mitochondrial metabolism. We found that 3-BP rapidly induced cultured androgen-insensitive (PC-3) and androgen-responsive (LNCaP) prostate cancer cell death at low concentrations (IC50 values of 50 and 70 ?M, respectively) with a multimodal mechanism of action. In particular, 3-BP-treated PC-3 cells showed a selective, strong reduction of glyceraldeide 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, due to the direct interaction of the drug with the enzyme. Moreover, 3-BP strongly impaired both glutamate/malate- and succinate-dependent mitochondrial respiration, membrane potential generation and ATP synthesis, concomitant with the inhibition of respiratory chain complex I, II and ATP synthase activities. The drastic reduction of cellular ATP levels and depletion of GSH pool, associated with significant increase in cell oxidative stress, were found after 3-BP treatment of PC-3 cells. Interestingly, the activity of both glyoxalase I and II, devoted to the elimination of the cytotoxic methylglyoxal, was strongly inhibited by 3-BP. Both N-acetylcysteine and aminoguanidine, GSH precursor and methylglyoxal scavenger, respectively, prevented 3-BP-induced PC-3 cell death, showing that impaired cell antioxidant and detoxifying capacities are crucial events leading to cell death. The provided information on the multi-target cytotoxic action of 3-BP, finally leading to PC-3 cell necrosis, might be useful for future development of 3-BP as a therapeutic option for prostate cancer treatment. PMID:26530987

  1. Sample distillation/graphitization system for carbon pool analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohlman, J. W.; Knies, D. L.; Grabowski, K. S.; DeTurck, T. M.; Treacy, D. J.; Coffin, R. B.

    2000-10-01

    A facility at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Washington, DC, has been developed to extract, trap, cryogenically distill and graphitize carbon from a suite of organic and inorganic carbon pools for analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The system was developed to investigate carbon pools associated with the formation and stability of methane hydrates. However, since the carbon compounds found in hydrate fields are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, this apparatus is applicable to a number of oceanographic and environmental sample types. Targeted pools are dissolved methane, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), solid organic matrices (e.g., seston, tissue and sediments), biomarkers and short chained (C 1-C 5) hydrocarbons from methane hydrates. In most instances, the extraction, distillation and graphitization events are continuous within the system, thus, minimizing the possibility of fractionation or contamination during sample processing. A variety of methods are employed to extract carbon compounds and convert them to CO 2 for graphitization. Dissolved methane and DIC from the same sample are sparged and cryogenically separated before the methane is oxidized in a high temperature oxygen stream. DOC is oxidized to CO 2 by 1200 W ultraviolet photo-oxidation lamp, and solids oxidized in sealed, evacuated tubes. Hydrocarbons liberated from the disassociation of gas hydrates are cryogenically separated with a cryogenic temperature control unit, and biomarkers separated and concentrated by preparative capillary gas chromatography (PCGC). With this system, up to 20 samples, standards or blanks can be processed per day.

  2. A pooling-LiNGAM algorithm for effective connectivity analysis of fMRI data.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lele; Fan, Tingting; Wu, Xia; Chen, KeWei; Guo, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jiacai; Yao, Li

    2014-01-01

    The Independent Component Analysis (ICA)-linear non-Gaussian acyclic model (LiNGAM), an algorithm that can be used to estimate the causal relationship among non-Gaussian distributed data, has the potential value to detect the effective connectivity of human brain areas. Under the assumptions that (a): the data generating process is linear, (b) there are no unobserved confounders, and (c) data have non-Gaussian distributions, LiNGAM can be used to discover the complete causal structure of data. Previous studies reveal that the algorithm could perform well when the data points being analyzed is relatively long. However, there are too few data points in most neuroimaging recordings, especially functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), to allow the algorithm to converge. Smith's study speculates a method by pooling data points across subjects may be useful to address this issue (Smith et al., 2011). Thus, this study focus on validating Smith's proposal of pooling data points across subjects for the use of LiNGAM, and this method is named as pooling-LiNGAM (pLiNGAM). Using both simulated and real fMRI data, our current study demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of the pLiNGAM on the effective connectivity estimation. PMID:25339895

  3. Tea consumption and prostate cancer: an updated meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Tea is supposed to have chemopreventive effect against various cancers. However, the protective role of tea in prostate cancer is still controversial. The aim of this study is to elucidate the association between tea consumption and prostate cancer risk by meta-analysis. Methods A total of 21 published articles were retrieved via both computerized searches and review of references. Estimates of OR/RR for highest versus non/lowest tea consumption levels were pooled on the basis of random effect model or fixed effect model as appropriate. Stratified analyses on tea type, population and study design were also conducted. Results No statistical significance was detected between tea consumption and prostate cancer risk in meta-analysis of all included studies (odds ratio (OR)?=?0.86, 95% CI (0.69-1.04)). Furthermore, stratified analyses on population (Asian, OR?=?0.81, 95% CI (0.55-1.08); non-Asian, OR?=?0.89, 95% CI (0.72-1.07)) and tea type (green tea, OR?=?0.79, 95% CI (0.43-1.14); black tea, OR?=?0.88, 95% CI (0.73-1.02)) also yielded non-significant association. Only the case–control study subgroup demonstrated a borderline protective effect for tea consumption against prostate cancer (OR?=?0.77, 95% CI (0.55-0.98)). Conclusion Our analyses did not support the conclusion that tea consumption could reduce prostate cancer risk. Further epidemiology studies are needed. PMID:24528523

  4. A Pooled Analysis of Body Mass Index and Mortality among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Sarah S.; Park, Yikyung; Signorello, Lisa B.; Patel, Alpa V.; Boggs, Deborah A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kitahara, Cari M.; Knutsen, Synnove F.; Gillanders, Elizabeth; Monroe, Kristine R.; de Gonzalez, Amy Berrington; Bethea, Traci N.; Black, Amanda; Fraser, Gary; Gapstur, Susan; Hartge, Patricia; Matthews, Charles E.; Park, Song-Yi; Purdue, Mark P.; Singh, Pramil; Harvey, Chinonye; Blot, William J.; Palmer, Julie R.

    2014-01-01

    Pooled analyses among whites and East Asians have demonstrated positive associations between all-cause mortality and body mass index (BMI), but studies of African Americans have yielded less consistent results. We examined the association between BMI and all-cause mortality in a sample of African Americans pooled from seven prospective cohort studies: NIH-AARP, 1995–2009; Adventist Health Study 2, 2002–2008; Black Women's Health Study, 1995–2009; Cancer Prevention Study II, 1982–2008; Multiethnic Cohort Study, 1993–2007; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Screening Trial, 1993–2009; Southern Community Cohort Study, 2002–2009. 239,526 African Americans (including 100,175 never smokers without baseline heart disease, stroke, or cancer), age 30–104 (mean 52) and 71% female, were followed up to 26.5 years (mean 11.7). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for mortality were derived from multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Among healthy, never smokers (11,386 deaths), HRs (CI) for BMI 25–27.4, 27.5–29.9, 30–34.9, 35–39.9, 40–49.9, and 50–60 kg/m2 were 1.02 (0.92–1.12), 1.06 (0.95–1.18), 1.32 (1.18–1.47), 1.54 (1.29–1.83), 1.93 (1.46–2.56), and 1.93 (0.80–4.69), respectively among men and 1.06 (0.99–1.15), 1.15 (1.06–1.25), 1.24 (1.15–1.34), 1.58 (1.43–1.74), 1.80 (1.60–2.02), and 2.31 (1.74–3.07) respectively among women (reference category 22.5–24.9). HRs were highest among those with the highest educational attainment, longest follow-up, and for cardiovascular disease mortality. Obesity was associated with a higher risk of mortality in African Americans, similar to that observed in pooled analyses of whites and East Asians. This study provides compelling evidence to support public health efforts to prevent excess weight gain and obesity in African Americans. PMID:25401742

  5. Age-specific risk factor profiles of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus: A pooled analysis from the international BEACON consortium.

    PubMed

    Drahos, Jennifer; Xiao, Qian; Risch, Harvey A; Freedman, Neal D; Abnet, Christian C; Anderson, Lesley A; Bernstein, Leslie; Brown, Linda; Chow, Wong-Ho; Gammon, Marilie D; Kamangar, Farin; Liao, Linda M; Murray, Liam J; Ward, Mary H; Ye, Weimin; Wu, Anna H; Vaughan, Thomas L; Whiteman, David C; Cook, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal (EA) and esophagogastric junction (EGJA) adenocarcinoma have been steadily increasing in frequency in younger people; however, the etiology of these cancers is poorly understood. We therefore investigated associations of body mass index (BMI), cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, gastroesophageal reflux and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in relation to age-specific risks of EA and EGJA. We pooled individual participant data from eight population-based, case-control studies within the international Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON). The analysis included 1,363 EA patients, 1,472 EGJA patients and 5,728 control participants. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for age-specific (<50, 50-59, 60-69, ?70 years) cancer outcomes, as well as interactions by age. BMI, smoking status and pack-years, recurrent gastroesophageal reflux and frequency of gastroesophageal reflux were positively associated with EA and EGJA in each age group. Early-onset EA (<50 years) had stronger associations with recurrent gastroesophageal reflux (OR?=?8.06, 95% CI: 4.52, 14.37; peffect modification ?=?0.01) and BMI (ORBMI???30 vs . <25 ?=?4.19, 95% CI: 2.23, 7.87; peffect modification ?=?0.04), relative to older age groups. In contrast, inverse associations of NSAID use were strongest in the oldest age group (?70 years), although this apparent difference was not statistically significant. Age-specific associations with EGJA showed similar, but slightly weaker patterns and no statistically significant differences by age were observed. Our study provides evidence that associations between obesity and gastroesophageal reflux are stronger among earlier onset EA cancers. PMID:26175109

  6. Swimming Pools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Housing and Local Government, London (England).

    Technical and engineering data are set forth on the design and construction of swimming pools. Consideration is given to site selection, pool construction, the comparative merits of combining open air and enclosed pools, and alternative uses of the pool. Guidelines are presented regarding--(1) pool size and use, (2) locker and changing rooms, (3)…

  7. Bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells: a pooled analysis of 3600 subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ricceri, Fulvio; Godschalk, Roger; Peluso, Marco; Phillips, David H.; Agudo, Antonio; Georgiadis, Panos; Loft, Steffen; Tjonneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Palli, Domenico; Perera, Frederica; Vermeulen, Roel; Taioli, Emanuela; Sram, Radim J.; Munnia, Armelle; Rosa, Fabio; Allione, Alessandra; Matullo, Giuseppe; Vineis, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Background Bulky DNA adducts are markers of exposure to genotoxic aromatic compounds, which reflect an individual’s ability to metabolically activate carcinogens and to repair DNA damage. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) represent a major class of carcinogens that are capable of forming such adducts. Factors that have been reported to be related to DNA adduct levels include smoking, diet, body mass index (BMI), genetic polymorphisms, the season of collection of biologic material, and air pollutants. Methods We pooled eleven studies (3,600 subjects) in which bulky DNA adducts were measured in human white blood cells with similar 32P-postlabelling techniques and for which a similar set of variables was available, including individual data on age, gender, ethnicity, batch, smoking habits, BMI, season of blood collection and a limited set of gene variants. Results Lowest DNA adduct levels were observed in the spring (median 0.50 adducts per 108 nucleotides), followed by summer (0.64), autumn (0.70) and winter (0.85) (p=0.006). The same pattern emerged in multivariate analysis, but only among never smokers (p=0.02). Adduct levels were significantly lower (p=0.001) in Northern Europe (the Netherlands, Denmark) (mean 0.60, median 0.40) than in Southern Europe (Italy, Spain, France, Greece) (mean 0.79, median 0.60). Conclusions In this large pooled analysis, we have found only weak associations between bulky DNA adducts and exposure variables. Seasonality (with higher adducts levels in winter) and air pollution may partly explain some of the inter-area differences (North vs South Europe), but most inter-area and inter-individual variation in adduct levels still remain unexplained. Impact Our study describes the largest pooled analysis of bulky DNA adducts so far, showing that inter-individual variation is still largely unexplained, though seasonality appears to play a role. PMID:20921335

  8. Pirfenidone for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: analysis of pooled data from three multinational phase 3 trials

    PubMed Central

    Albera, Carlo; Bradford, Williamson Z.; Costabel, Ulrich; du Bois, Roland M.; Fagan, Elizabeth A.; Fishman, Robert S.; Glaspole, Ian; Glassberg, Marilyn K.; Lancaster, Lisa; Lederer, David J.; Leff, Jonathan A.; Nathan, Steven D.; Pereira, Carlos A.; Swigris, Jeffrey J.; Valeyre, Dominique; King, Talmadge E.

    2016-01-01

    Pirfenidone is an antifibrotic agent that has been evaluated in three multinational phase 3 trials in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We analysed pooled data from the multinational trials to obtain the most precise estimates of the magnitude of treatment effect on measures of disease progression. All patients randomised to pirfenidone 2403?mg·day?1 or placebo in the CAPACITY or ASCEND studies were included in the analysis. Pooled analyses of outcomes at 1?year were based on the pre-specified end-points and analytic methods described in the ASCEND study protocol. A total of 1247 patients were included in the analysis. At 1?year, pirfenidone reduced the proportion of patients with a ?10% decline in per cent predicted forced vital capacity or death by 43.8% (95% CI 29.3–55.4%) and increased the proportion of patients with no decline by 59.3% (95% CI 29.0–96.8%). A treatment benefit was also observed for progression-free survival, 6-min walk distance and dyspnoea. Gastrointestinal and skin-related adverse events were more common in the pirfenidone group, but rarely led to discontinuation. Analysis of data from three phase 3 trials demonstrated that treatment with pirfenidone for 1?year resulted in clinically meaningful reductions in disease progression in patients with IPF. PMID:26647432

  9. Pirfenidone for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: analysis of pooled data from three multinational phase 3 trials.

    PubMed

    Noble, Paul W; Albera, Carlo; Bradford, Williamson Z; Costabel, Ulrich; du Bois, Roland M; Fagan, Elizabeth A; Fishman, Robert S; Glaspole, Ian; Glassberg, Marilyn K; Lancaster, Lisa; Lederer, David J; Leff, Jonathan A; Nathan, Steven D; Pereira, Carlos A; Swigris, Jeffrey J; Valeyre, Dominique; King, Talmadge E

    2016-01-01

    Pirfenidone is an antifibrotic agent that has been evaluated in three multinational phase 3 trials in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We analysed pooled data from the multinational trials to obtain the most precise estimates of the magnitude of treatment effect on measures of disease progression.All patients randomised to pirfenidone 2403?mg·day(-1) or placebo in the CAPACITY or ASCEND studies were included in the analysis. Pooled analyses of outcomes at 1?year were based on the pre-specified end-points and analytic methods described in the ASCEND study protocol.A total of 1247 patients were included in the analysis. At 1?year, pirfenidone reduced the proportion of patients with a ?10% decline in per cent predicted forced vital capacity or death by 43.8% (95% CI 29.3-55.4%) and increased the proportion of patients with no decline by 59.3% (95% CI 29.0-96.8%). A treatment benefit was also observed for progression-free survival, 6-min walk distance and dyspnoea. Gastrointestinal and skin-related adverse events were more common in the pirfenidone group, but rarely led to discontinuation.Analysis of data from three phase 3 trials demonstrated that treatment with pirfenidone for 1?year resulted in clinically meaningful reductions in disease progression in patients with IPF. PMID:26647432

  10. Common germline polymorphisms associated with breast cancer specific survival

    E-print Network

    Pirie, A.; Guo, Q.; Kraft, P.; Canisius, S.; Eccles, D. M.; Rahman, N.; Nevanlinna, H.; Chen, C.; Khan, S.; Tyrer, J.; Bolla, M. K.; Wang, Q.; Dennis, J.; Michailidou, K.; Lush, M.; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, M.; Czene, K.; Darabi, H.; Eriksson, M.; Lambrechts, D.; Weltens, C.; Leunen, K.; van Ongeval, C.; Nordestgaard, B. G.; Nielsen, S. F.; Flyger, H.; Rudolph, A.; Seibold, P.; Flesch-Janysm, D.; Blomqvist, C.; Aittomaki, K.; Fagerholm, R.; Muranen, T. A.; Olsen, J. E.; Hallberg, E.; Vachon, C.; Knight, J. A.; Glendon, G.; Mulligan, A. M.; Broeks, A.; Cornelissen, S.; Haiman, C. A.; Henderson, B. E.; Schumacher, F.; Le Marchand, L.; Hopper, J. L.; Tsimiklis, H.; Apicella, C.; Southey, M. C.; Cross, S. S.; Reed. M. W.; Giles, G. G.; Milne, R. L.; McLean, C.; Winqvist, R.; Pylkas, K.; Jukkola-Vuorinen, A.; Grip, M.; Hooning, M. J.; Hollestelle, A.; Martens, J. W.; van den Ouweland, A. M.; Marme, F.; Schneeweiss, A.; Yang, R.; Burwinkel, B.; Figueroa, J.; Chanock, S. J.; Lissowska, J.; Sawyer, E. J.; Tomlinson, I.; Kerin, M. J.; Miller, N.; Brenner, H.; Butterbach, K.; Holleczek, B.; Kataja, V.; Kosma, V. M.; Hartikainen, J. M.; Li, J.; Brand, J. S.; Humphreys, K.; Devilee, P.; Tollenaar, R. A.; Seynaeve, C.; Radice, P.; Peterlongo, P.; Manoukian, S.; Ficarazzi, F.; Beckmann, M. W.; Hein, A.; Ekici, A. B.; Balleine, R.; Phillips, K. A.; Benitez, J.; Zamora, M. P.; Perez, J. I.; Menendez, P.; Jakubowska, A.; Lubinski, J.; Gronwald, J.; Durda, K.; Hamann, U.; Kabisch, M.; Ulmer, H. U.; Rudiger, T.; Margolin, S.; Kristensen, V.; Nord, S.; Evans, D. G.; Abraham, J.; Earl, H.; Poole, C. J.; Hiller, L.; Dunn, J. A.; Bowden, S.; Yang, R.; Campa, D.; Diver, W. R.; Gapstur, S. M.; Gaudet, M. M.; Hankinson, S.; Hoover, R. N.; Husing, A.; Kaaks, R.; Machiela, M. J.; Willett, W.; Barrdahl, M.; Canzian, F.; Chin, S. F.; Caldas, C.; Hunter, D. J.; Lindstrom, S.; Garcia-Closas, M.; Couch, F. J.; Chenevix-Trench, G.; Mannermaa, A.; Andrulis, I. L.; Hall, P.; Chang-Claude, J.; Easton, Douglas F.; Bojesen, S. E.; Cox, A.; Fasching, P. A.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Schmidt, M. K.

    2015-04-22

    of previously reported SNPs with breast cancer specific survival using data from a pooled analysis of eight breast cancer survival genome-wide association studies (GWAS) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Methods A literature review was conducted...

  11. Polymorphisms in the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 gene and cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Weifeng; Wang, Yafeng; Chen, Yuanmei; Gu, Haiyong; Chen, Shuchen; Kang, Mingqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The correlation between intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) common polymorphisms (rs5498 A>G and rs3093030 C>T) and cancer susceptibility has been explored in various ethnic groups and different cancer types; however, these investigations have yielded contradictory results. To address the relationship more precisely, we performed this meta-analysis. Design and methods: EmBase, PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were searched by two authors independently for eligible publications before April 8, 2015. Random-effects or fixed-effects model was harnessed to calculate the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) when appropriate. Results: The result suggested that the ICAM-1 rs5498 A>G polymorphism is not associated with cancer susceptibility in overall cancer. In a stratified analysis by ethnicity, a significant increased cancer risk was identified among Asians, but the inverse association was found among Caucasians. In a stratified analysis by cancer type, ICAM-1 rs5498 A>G polymorphism was associated with a significantly increased risk of oral cancer, but with protection from colorectal cancer and melanoma. ICAM-1 rs3093030 C>T polymorphism is not correlated with cancer susceptibility. Conclusions: In summary, this meta-analysis highlights that the ICAM-1 rs5498 A>G polymorphism probably contributes to decreased susceptibility to cancer, especially in Caucasians, in melanoma and colorectal cancer subgroup, but it may be a risk factor for oral cancer and Asians. PMID:26550112

  12. Annual Energy Consumption Analysis and Energy Optimization of a Solar-Assisted Heating Swimming Pool 

    E-print Network

    Zuo, Z.; Hu, W.; Meng, O.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the energy efficiency calculations and optimization for an indoor solar-assisted heating swimming pool in GuangZhou. The heating energy requirements for maintaining the pool constant temperature were investigated, which...

  13. [Evaluation of zygomycosis cases by pooled analysis method reported from Turkey].

    PubMed

    Zeka, Arzu Nazl?; Ta?bakan, Meltem; Pullukçu, Hüsnü; Sipahi, O?uz Re?at; Yamazhan, Tansu; Arda, Bilgin

    2013-10-01

    Zygomycosis is a rapidly-progressive invasive fungal disease with high mortality rates. Mucor, Rhizopus, Rhizomucor and Absidia species classified in Mucorales order, are the main causative agents of zygomycosis. Uncontrolled diabetes, hematologic malignancies, long term corticosteroid use and immunosuppressive therapies are the main predisposing factors for mucormycosis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the mucormycosis cases from Turkey published in national and international databases in the last 17 years by means of age, gender, co-morbidities, signs and symptoms, diagnostic methods, therapeutic modalities, and mortality rate by pooling analysis. In our study, two national (http://uvt.ulakbim.gov.tr, http://www.turkmedline.net) and two international (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, http://apps.webofknowledge.com) databases were used. A total of 64 manuscript (34 from national and 30 from international databases) published between 1995 and 2012, which were eligible for the study criteria and accessible as full text were included in the study. A total of 151 mucormycosis patients (71 female, 80 male; mean age: 45.4 ± 21.4 years) from these studies, with definitive diagnosis of invasive fungal infections according to the criteria of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) have been evaluated. Of 151 patients 91 (60%) were diagnosed as rhinocerebral, 42 (%27.8) were sinoorbital, 7 (4.6%) were pulmonary, 6 (3.9%) were disseminated, 3 (1.9%) were skin, and 2 (1.3%) were gastrointestinal mycormycosis. The most common symptoms and signs were; swelling of eye and face (n= 95, 63%), fever (n= 72, 48%), nasal obstruction (n= 60, 40%), headache (n= 58, 38%) and opthtalmoplegia (n= 48, 32%). The most common co-morbidity was diabetes (49%) followed by hematological malignancies (39.7%). Mycological cultures were performed for 82 patients, and fungal growth were detected in the clinical specimens of 51 cases. The distribution of strains isolated in culture were as follows: Mucor spp. (n= 19, 37.2%), Rhizopus spp. (n= 13, 25.5%), Zygomycetes (n= 9, 17.6%), Rhizopus oryzae (n= 4, 7.8%), Rhizopus spp. + yeast (n= 3, 5.9%), Rhizomucor spp. (n= 2, 3.9%) and Rhizosporium spp. (n= 1, 1.9%). In 133 patients, histopathological investigation and in 126 patients radiological examinations were performed for diagnosis. Both surgical debridement and antifungal therapy were employed in 115 patients. Four patients had received only surgical debridement and 30 only antifungal therapies. Classical amphotericin B (AMP-B) therapy for 77 cases, liposomal AMP-B for 60 cases, liposomal AMP-B + posaconazole for six cases and lipid complex AMP-B for two cases have been started as antifungal therapies. Total mortality rate was detected as 54.3% (82/151). In conclusion, despite new diagnostic tools and therapeutic agents, mortality rates in mucormycosis are still very high. For the management, mucormycosis should be considered early in risky patients, and surgical debridement together with effective antifungal therapy should be applied as soon as possible. PMID:24237440

  14. Patterns of ventricular emptying by Fourier analysis of gated blood-pool studies

    SciTech Connect

    Links, J.M.; Douglass, K.H.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1980-10-01

    Temporal Fourier analysis was applied to the processing of ECG-gated cardiac blood-pool studies on a pixel-by-pixel basis, to yield information about the pattern of ventricular emptying in normal hearts and in others with conduction abnormalities. The transform data at the fundamental frequency (the heart rate) were used to construct two types of display: (a) a distribution histogram of the pixel phase values, and (b) a cinematic display of the wave of emptying as it spread over the cardiac chambers. Preliminary results indicate that temporal Fourier analysis permits visualization of the pattern of ventricular emptying, which may prove useful in the study of motion abnormalities and asynergies, including those resulting from myocardial hypertrophy or conduction abnormalities, and as an aid in the optimum placement of pacemakers.

  15. PWR core and spent fuel pool analysis using scale and nestle

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J. E.; Maldonado, G. I.; St Clair, R.; Orr, D.

    2012-07-01

    The SCALE nuclear analysis code system [SCALE, 2011], developed and maintained at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is widely recognized as high quality software for analyzing nuclear systems. The SCALE code system is composed of several validated computer codes and methods with standard control sequences, such as the TRITON/NEWT lattice physics sequence, which supplies dependable and accurate analyses for industry, regulators, and academia. Although TRITON generates energy-collapsed and space-homogenized few group cross sections, SCALE does not include a full-core nodal neutron diffusion simulation module within. However, in the past few years, the open-source NESTLE core simulator [NESTLE, 2003], originally developed at North Carolina State Univ. (NCSU), has been updated and upgraded via collaboration between ORNL and the Univ. of Tennessee (UT), so it now has a growingly seamless coupling to the TRITON/NEWT lattice physics [Galloway, 2010]. This study presents the methodology used to couple lattice physics data between TRITON and NESTLE in order to perform a three-dimensional full-core analysis employing a 'real-life' Duke Energy PWR as the test bed. The focus for this step was to compare the key parameters of core reactivity and radial power distribution versus plant data. Following the core analysis, following a three cycle burn, a spent fuel pool analysis was done using information generated from NESTLE for the discharged bundles and was compared to Duke Energy spent fuel pool models. The KENO control module from SCALE was employed for this latter stage of the project. (authors)

  16. Association between the FTOrs8050136 polymorphism and cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Huang, Xiaoyi; Yang, Mingyuan; Li, Ming; Zheng, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    A meta-analysis on cancer risk relevant to FTOrs8050136 polymorphism. To investigate the comprehensive effect of FTOrs8050136 polymorphism on cancer risk based on a pooled result. Carcinogenesis is closely related to obesity. Both obesity and cancer share common pathogenic factors such as hereditary susceptibility and environmental predisposition. Recently, several studies had reported that the FTOrs8050136 polymorphism, a genetic variation highly associated with obesity, can be a potential cancer risk factor, while these results were inconsistent. With the help of PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure considerable research was done for potential studies without language restriction. Pooled odds ratio combined with 95 % confidence interval was employed to evaluate the potential correlations, and subgroup analyses were performed based on the cancer types and ethnic populations. There were eight articles comprising 21,810 cases and 85,070 controls met the eligibility criteria. Overall, there was no significant association between the FTOrs8050136 polymorphism and cancer risk (P = 0.163). Subgroup analysis illustrated that no association existed between the FTOrs8050136 polymorphism and cancer risk in Caucasians (P = 0.809), Asians (P = 0.412) and the mixed population (P = 0.093). With regard to cancer types, the result suggested that the FTOrs8050136 polymorphism had no connection with pancreatic cancer (P = 0.089), endometrial cancer (P = 0.353), prostate cancer (P = 0.578), colorectal cancer (P = 0.054) and melanoma (P = 0.357), while the inverse result was obtained in the subgroup of papillary thyroid cancer (P = 0.010). The FTOrs8050136 polymorphism may be not associated with carcinogenesis apart from papillary thyroid cancer, and further studies are needed to investigate the potential correlation. PMID:26427991

  17. Equilibrium analysis of carbon pools and fluxes of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

    1993-01-01

    Forests are an important component of the biosphere and sequestration of carbon in boreal forests may represent one of the few realistic alternatives to ameliorate changes in atmospheric chemistry. The former Soviet Union has the greatest expanse of boreal forests in the world; however, the role of these forests in the terrestrial carbon cycle is not fully understood because the carbon budget of the Soviet forest sector has not been established. In recognition of the need to determine the role of these forests in the global carbon cycle, the carbon budget of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union was assessed based on an equilibrium analysis of carbon cycle pools and fluxes. Net primary productivity was used to identify the rate of carbon turnover in the forest biomes.

  18. Nanomechanical analysis of cells from cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Sarah E.; Jin, Yu-Sheng; Rao, Jianyu; Gimzewski, James K.

    2007-12-01

    Change in cell stiffness is a new characteristic of cancer cells that affects the way they spread. Despite several studies on architectural changes in cultured cell lines, no ex vivo mechanical analyses of cancer cells obtained from patients have been reported. Using atomic force microscopy, we report the stiffness of live metastatic cancer cells taken from the body (pleural) fluids of patients with suspected lung, breast and pancreas cancer. Within the same sample, we find that the cell stiffness of metastatic cancer cells is more than 70% softer, with a standard deviation over five times narrower, than the benign cells that line the body cavity. Different cancer types were found to display a common stiffness. Our work shows that mechanical analysis can distinguish cancerous cells from normal ones even when they show similar shapes. These results show that nanomechanical analysis correlates well with immunohistochemical testing currently used for detecting cancer.

  19. Clinicopathological and prognostic role of SIRT1 in breast cancer patients: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yu-Wen; Li, Yu-Cong; Wan, Guo-Xing; Du, Xiao-Ming; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog-1 (SIRT1) plays an important role in the progression and development of cancer, including breast cancer. However, the association between SIRT1 expression and clinicopathological parameters and prognosis in breast cancer remains inconclusive. To accurately evaluate the significance of SIRT1 expression in breast cancer, a meta-analysis based on published studies was performed. Methods: The PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Science, Science Direct, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were screened to retrieve relevant literature. The reported odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% corresponding confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled to estimate the strength of specific associations. Results: Six studies involving 604 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled analyses showed a significant correlation between SIRT1 expression and poor disease-free survival (DFS) (HR = 3.07, 95% CI: 1.92-4.91, Z = 4.69, P < 0.001) and overall survival (OS) (HR = 3.94, 95% CI: 2.19-7.10, Z = 4.57, P < 0.001). SIRT1 expression also significantly correlated with high TNM stage (pooled OR = 2.92, 95% CI: 1.84-4.63) and lymph node metastasis (pooled OR = 3.22, 95% CI: 0.98-10.57). Conclusions: Our meta-analysis shows that SIRT1 expression correlates with unfavorable clinical outcomes. We suggest that SIRT1 expression may have potential value in the pathological diagnosis and clinical treatment of patients with breast cancer. More studies are warranted to investigate the effect of SIRT1 on the survival of breast cancer patients. PMID:25785036

  20. Prognostic significance of lymphovascular invasion in bladder cancer after surgical resection: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuan-Feng; Zhou, Hui; Yu, Gan; Wang, Ji; Li, Heng; Xia, Ding; Xiao, Hai-Bing; Liu, Ji-Hong; Ye, Zhang-Qun; Xu, Hua; Zhuang, Qian-Yuan

    2015-10-01

    Bladder cancer remains a commonly diagnosed malignancy worldwide, bringing huge economic burden and high morbidity for patients. Assessment of prognostic significance of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is a critical issue in the surgical management of bladder cancer after transurethral resection or radical cystectomy. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library was performed up to Oct 10, 2014 to identify eligible studies. Outcomes of interest were collected from studies comparing overall survival (OS), cancer specific survival (CSS) and recurrence free survival (RFS) in patients with the LVI. Results of studies were pooled, and combined hazard ratios (HRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for survival were used as the effect size estimation. Funnel plots were done to show the publication bias, while the forest plots and subgroup analyses were used to limit the heterogeneity. A total of 20 studies (10 663 patients) met the eligibility criteria and were included for this meta-analysis. Our pooled results showed that there were significant differences in OS (pooled HR, 1.71; 95%CI, 1.52-1.92; P<0.00001), CSS (pooled HR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.80-2.81; P<0.00001) and RFS (pooled HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.57-2.32; P<0.00001) between the patients with LVI and the patients without LVI. There were significant heterogeneities observed in the studies concerning the relationship between LVI and CSS, RFS. There was no clear evidence of publication bias. When tumor stage was beyond T3, LVI lost its predictive value for CSS and RFS. For the patients who had negative lymph nodes, LVI was still an adverse predictor. Our pooled results demonstrate that LVI indicates poor prognosis of patients with bladder cancer after surgical procedures, and it can be of particular importance in clinical practice. However, these results need to be further confirmed by more adequately designed prospective studies. PMID:26489616

  1. Colon cancer-associated mutator DNA polymerase ? variant causes expansion of dNTP pools increasing its own infidelity

    PubMed Central

    Mertz, Tony M.; Sharma, Sushma; Chabes, Andrei; Shcherbakova, Polina V.

    2015-01-01

    Defects in DNA polymerases ? (Pol?) and ? (Pol?) cause hereditary colorectal cancer and have been implicated in the etiology of some sporadic colorectal and endometrial tumors. We previously reported that the yeast pol3-R696W allele mimicking a human cancer-associated variant, POLD1-R689W, causes a catastrophic increase in spontaneous mutagenesis. Here, we describe the mechanism of this extraordinary mutator effect. We found that the mutation rate increased synergistically when the R696W mutation was combined with defects in Pol? proofreading or mismatch repair, indicating that pathways correcting DNA replication errors are not compromised in pol3-R696W mutants. DNA synthesis by purified Pol?-R696W was error-prone, but not to the extent that could account for the unprecedented mutator phenotype of pol3-R696W strains. In a search for cellular factors that augment the mutagenic potential of Pol?-R696W, we discovered that pol3-R696W causes S-phase checkpoint-dependent elevation of dNTP pools. Abrogating this elevation by strategic mutations in dNTP metabolism genes eliminated the mutator effect of pol3-R696W, whereas restoration of high intracellular dNTP levels restored the mutator phenotype. Further, the use of dNTP concentrations present in pol3-R696W cells for in vitro DNA synthesis greatly decreased the fidelity of Pol?-R696W and produced a mutation spectrum strikingly similar to the spectrum observed in vivo. The results support a model in which (i) faulty synthesis by Pol?-R696W leads to a checkpoint-dependent increase in dNTP levels and (ii) this increase mediates the hypermutator effect of Pol?-R696W by facilitating the extension of mismatched primer termini it creates and by promoting further errors that continue to fuel the mutagenic pathway. PMID:25827231

  2. Genome-wide association study of subtype-specific epithelial ovarian cancer risk alleles using pooled DNA.

    PubMed

    Earp, Madalene A; Kelemen, Linda E; Magliocco, Anthony M; Swenerton, Kenneth D; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Lu, Yi; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Fasching, Peter A; Lambrechts, Diether; Despierre, Evelyn; Vergote, Ignace; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Doherty, Jennifer A; Rossing, Mary Anne; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Friel, Grace; Moysich, Kirsten B; Odunsi, Kunle; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Lurie, Galina; Goodman, Marc T; Carney, Michael E; Thompson, Pamela J; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Dürst, Matthias; Hillemanns, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bogdanova, Natalia; Leminen, Arto; Nevanlinna, Heli; Pelttari, Liisa M; Butzow, Ralf; Bunker, Clareann H; Modugno, Francesmary; Edwards, Robert P; Ness, Roberta B; du Bois, Andreas; Heitz, Florian; Schwaab, Ira; Harter, Philipp; Karlan, Beth Y; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; Jensen, Allan; Kjær, Susanne K; Høgdall, Claus K; Høgdall, Estrid; Lundvall, Lene; Sellers, Thomas A; Fridley, Brooke L; Goode, Ellen L; Cunningham, Julie M; Vierkant, Robert A; Giles, Graham G; Baglietto, Laura; Severi, Gianluca; Southey, Melissa C; Liang, Dong; Wu, Xifeng; Lu, Karen; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Levine, Douglas A; Bisogna, Maria; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Iversen, Edwin S; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Berchuck, Andrew; Cramer, Daniel W; Terry, Kathryn L; Poole, Elizabeth M; Tworoger, Shelley S; Bandera, Elisa V; Chandran, Urmila; Orlow, Irene; Olson, Sara H; Wik, Elisabeth; Salvesen, Helga B; Bjorge, Line; Halle, Mari K; van Altena, Anne M; Aben, Katja K H; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Massuger, Leon F A G; Pejovic, Tanja; Bean, Yukie T; Cybulski, Cezary; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Brinton, Louise A; Lissowska, Jolanta; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Dicks, Ed; Dennis, Joe; Easton, Douglas F; Song, Honglin; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Pharoah, Paul D P; Eccles, Diana; Campbell, Ian G; Whittemore, Alice S; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Rothstein, Joseph H; Flanagan, James M; Paul, James; Brown, Robert; Phelan, Catherine M; Risch, Harvey A; McLaughlin, John R; Narod, Steven A; Ziogas, Argyrios; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Gayther, Simon A; Ramus, Susan J; Wu, Anna H; Pearce, Celeste L; Pike, Malcolm C; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Szafron, Lukasz M; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Cook, Linda S; Le, Nhu D; Brooks-Wilson, Angela

    2014-05-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a heterogeneous cancer with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Variants influencing the risk of developing the less-common EOC subtypes have not been fully investigated. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of EOC according to subtype by pooling genomic DNA from 545 cases and 398 controls of European descent, and testing for allelic associations. We evaluated for replication 188 variants from the GWAS [56 variants for mucinous, 55 for endometrioid and clear cell, 53 for low-malignant potential (LMP) serous, and 24 for invasive serous EOC], selected using pre-defined criteria. Genotypes from 13,188 cases and 23,164 controls of European descent were used to perform unconditional logistic regression under the log-additive genetic model; odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals are reported. Nine variants tagging six loci were associated with subtype-specific EOC risk at P < 0.05, and had an OR that agreed in direction of effect with the GWAS results. Several of these variants are in or near genes with a biological rationale for conferring EOC risk, including ZFP36L1 and RAD51B for mucinous EOC (rs17106154, OR = 1.17, P = 0.029, n = 1,483 cases), GRB10 for endometrioid and clear cell EOC (rs2190503, P = 0.014, n = 2,903 cases), and C22orf26/BPIL2 for LMP serous EOC (rs9609538, OR = 0.86, P = 0.0043, n = 892 cases). In analyses that included the 75 GWAS samples, the association between rs9609538 (OR = 0.84, P = 0.0007) and LMP serous EOC risk remained statistically significant at P < 0.0012 adjusted for multiple testing. Replication in additional samples will be important to verify these results for the less-common EOC subtypes. PMID:24190013

  3. Genome-wide Association Study of Subtype-Specific Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk Alleles Using Pooled DNA

    PubMed Central

    Earp, Madalene A.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Swenerton, Kenneth D.; Chenevix–Trench, Georgia; Lu, Yi; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Fasching, Peter A.; Lambrechts, Diether; Despierre, Evelyn; Vergote, Ignace; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Rossing, Mary Anne; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Friel, Grace; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Odunsi, Kunle; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Lurie, Galina; Goodman, Marc T.; Carney, Michael E.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Dürst, Matthias; Hillemanns, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bogdanova, Natalia; Leminen, Arto; Nevanlinna, Heli; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Butzow, Ralf; Bunker, Clareann H.; Modugno, Francesmary; Edwards, Robert P.; Ness, Roberta B.; du Bois, Andreas; Heitz, Florian; Schwaab, Ira; Harter, Philipp; Karlan, Beth Y.; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; Jensen, Allan; Kjær, Susanne K.; Høgdall, Claus K.; Høgdall, Estrid; Lundvall, Lene; Sellers, Thomas A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Goode, Ellen L.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; Severi, Gianluca; Southey, Melissa C.; Liang, Dong; Wu, Xifeng; Lu, Karen; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Levine, Douglas A.; Bisogna, Maria; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Iversen, Edwin S.; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Berchuck, Andrew; Cramer, Daniel W.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Chandran, Urmila; Orlow, Irene; Olson, Sara H.; Wik, Elisabeth; Salvesen, Helga B.; Bjorge, Line; Halle, Mari K.; van Altena, Anne M.; Aben, Katja K.H.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Pejovic, Tanja; Bean, Yukie T.; Cybulski, Cezary; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Brinton, Louise A.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Garcia–Closas, Montserrat; Dicks, Ed; Dennis, Joe; Easton, Douglas F.; Song, Honglin; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Eccles, Diana; Campbell, Ian G.; Whittemore, Alice S.; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Flanagan, James M.; Paul, James; Brown, Robert; Phelan, Catherine M.; Risch, Harvey A.; McLaughlin, John R.; Narod, Steven A.; Ziogas, Argyrios; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Gayther, Simon A.; Ramus, Susan J.; Wu, Anna H.; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Szafron, Lukasz M; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Cook, Linda S.; Le, Nhu D.; Brooks–Wilson, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a heterogeneous cancer with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Variants influencing the risk of developing the less-common EOC subtypes have not been fully investigated. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of EOC according to subtype by pooling genomic DNA from 545 cases and 398 controls of European descent, and testing for allelic associations. We evaluated for replication 188 variants from the GWAS (56 variants for mucinous, 55 for endometrioid and clear cell, 53 for low malignant potential (LMP) serous, and 24 for invasive serous EOC), selected using pre-defined criteria. Genotypes from 13,188 cases and 23,164 controls of European descent were used to perform unconditional logistic regression under the log-additive genetic model; odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals are reported. Nine variants tagging 6 loci were associated with subtype-specific EOC risk at P<0.05, and had an OR that agreed in direction of effect with the GWAS results. Several of these variants are in or near genes with a biological rationale for conferring EOC risk, including ZFP36L1 and RAD51B for mucinous EOC (rs17106154, OR=1.17, P=0.029, n=1,483 cases), GRB10 for endometrioid and clear cell EOC (rs2190503, P=0.014, n=2,903 cases), and C22orf26/BPIL2 for LMP serous EOC (rs9609538, OR=0.86, P=0.0043, n=892 cases). In analyses that included the 75 GWAS samples, the association between rs9609538 (OR=0.84, P=0.0007) and LMP serous EOC risk remained statistically significant at P<0.0012 adjusted for multiple testing. Replication in additional samples will be important to verify these results for the less-common EOC subtypes. PMID:24190013

  4. Clinical characteristics of incidental or unsuspected gallbladder cancers diagnosed during or after cholecystectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kui Sun; Choi, Sae Byeol; Park, Pyoungjae; Kim, Wan Bae; Choi, Sang Yong

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To perform a systematic review of incidental or unsuspected gallbladder (GB) cancer diagnosed during or after cholecystectomy. METHODS: Data in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were reviewed and 26 publications were included in the meta-analysis. The inclusion criterion for incidental GB cancer was GB cancer diagnosed during or after cholecystectomy that was not suspected at a preoperative stage. Pooled proportions of the incidence, distribution of T stage, and revisional surgery of incidental GB cancer were analyzed. RESULTS: The final pooled population comprised 2145 patients with incidental GB cancers. Incidental GB cancers were found in 0.7% of cholecystectomies performed for benign gallbladder diseases on preoperative diagnosis (95%CI: 0.004-0.012). Nearly 50% of the incidental GB cancers were stage T2 with a pooled proportion of 47.0% (95%CI: 0.421-0.519). T1 and T3 GB cancers were found at a similar frequency, with pooled proportions of 23.0% (95%CI: 0.178-0.291) and 25.1% (95%CI: 0.195-0.317), respectively. The pooled proportion that completed revisional surgery for curative intent was 40.9% (95%CI: 0.329-0.494). The proportion of patients with unresectable disease upon revisional surgery was 23.0% (95%CI: 0.177-0.294). CONCLUSION: A large proportion of incidental GB cancers were T2 and T3 lesions. Revisional surgery for radical cholecystectomy is warranted in T2 and more advanced cancers. PMID:25632207

  5. Prognostic value of Muc5AC in gastric cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chuan-Tao; He, Ke-Cheng; Pan, Fei; Li, Yuan; Wu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the correlation between decreased Muc5AC expression and patients’ survival and clinicopathological characteristics by conducting a meta-analysis. METHODS: Literature searches were performed in PubMed and EMBASE, and 11 studies met our criteria. Summary hazard ratios or odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the effect. For the pooled analysis of the correlation between decreased Muc5AC expression and clinicopathological characteristics (tumour invasion depth, lymph node metastasis, tumour-node-metastasis stage, tumour size, venous invasion and lymphatic invasion), ORs and their variance were combined to estimate the effect. RESULTS: Eleven retrospective cohort studies comprising 2135 patients were included to assess the association between Muc5AC expression and overall survival and/or clinicopathological characteristics. Decreased Muc5AC expression was significantly correlated with poor overall survival of gastric cancer patients (pooled HR = 1.35, 95%CI: 1.08-1.7). Moreover, decreased Muc5AC expression was also significantly associated with tumour invasion depth (pooled OR = 2.12, 95%CI: 1.56-2.87) and lymph node metastasis (pooled OR = 1.56, 95%CI: 1.00-2.44) in gastric cancer. CONCLUSION: Decreased Muc5AC expression might be a poor prognostic predictor for gastric cancer. PMID:26420972

  6. Predictors of Local Recurrence Following Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: A Pooled Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Chirag; Wilkinson, John Ben; Lyden, Maureen; Beitsch, Peter; Vicini, Frank A.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To analyze a pooled set of nearly 2,000 patients treated on the American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBS) Mammosite Registry Trial and at William Beaumont Hospital (WBH) to identify factors associated with local recurrence following accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: A total of 1,961 women underwent partial breast irradiation between April 1993 and November 2010 as part of the ASBS Registry Trial or at WBH. Rates of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), regional recurrence (RR), distant metastases (DM), disease-free survival (DFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed for each group and for the pooled cohort. Clinical, pathologic, and treatment-related variables were analyzed including age, tumor stage/size, estrogen receptor status, surgical margins, and lymph node status to determine their association with IBTR. Results: The two groups weres similar, but WBH patients were more frequently node positive, had positive margins, and were less likely to be within the American Society for Radiation Oncology-unsuitable group. At 5 years, the rates of IBTR, RR, DM, DFS, CSS, and OS for the pooled group of patients were 2.9%, 0.5%, 2.4%, 89.1%, 98.5%, and 91.8%, respectively. The 5-year rate of true recurrence/marginal miss was 0.8%. Univariate analysis of IBTR found that negative estrogen receptor status (odds ratio [OR], 2.83, 95% confidence interval 1.55-5.13, p = 0.0007) was the only factor significantly associated with IBTR, while a trend was seen for age less than 50 (OR 1.80, 95% confidence interval 0.90-3.58, p = 0.10). Conclusions: Excellent 5-year outcomes were seen following APBI in over 1,900 patients. Estrogen receptor negativity was the only factor associated with IBTR, while a trend for age less than 50 was noted. Significant differences in factors associated with IBTR were noted between cohorts, suggesting that factors driving IBTR may be predicated based on the risk stratification of the patients being treated.

  7. Clinical outcome and prognostic factors in renal medullary carcinoma: A pooled analysis from 18 years of medical literature

    PubMed Central

    Iacovelli, Roberto; Modica, Daniela; Palazzo, Antonella; Trenta, Patrizia; Piesco, Gabriele; Cortesi, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We describe clinical features and prognostic factors of renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) by performing a pooled analysis of all reported cases since 1995. Methods: A systematic search was performed to identify all articles describing patients with medullary renal cancer until February 2013. Survivals were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method with 95% confidence intervals and compared across the groups using the log-rank test. The following factors were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model: association of extension of disease at diagnosis, response to therapy, and surgical treatment of primary tumour with overall. Results: A total 47 articles were selected; these described 165 patients with RMC plus 1 from our centre. The median age was 21 years and 98% of cases had the sickle cell trait. The mean size of the primary tumours was 6.0 cm, with an involvement of loco-regional lymph nodes in 71% of cases. The overall survival at diagnosis was 4.0 months in metastatic patients and 17.0 months in non-metastatic patients. Patients who received platinum-paclitaxel-gemcitabine had longer control of the disease when compared to topoisomerase inhibitors or targeted therapies. The multivariate analysis confirmed that the advanced stage at diagnosis increased the risk of death of about threefold. Conclusion: RMC is a tumour with poorer prognosis; based on these results, platinum-based chemotherapy is the preferred systemic treatment. Even if radical nephrectomy as an up-front strategy did not report a survival benefit, it may be considered to palliate local symptoms and to perform a correct diagnosis. PMID:26085875

  8. External beam radiotherapy for palliation of painful bone metastases: pooled data bioeffect dose response analysis of dose fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naveen, T.; Supe, Sanjay S.; Ganesh, K. M.; Samuel, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Bone metastases develop in up to 70% of newly diagnosed cancer patients and result in immobility, anxiety, and depression, severely diminishing the patients quality of life. Radiotherapy is a frequently used modality for bone metastasis and has been shown to be effective in reducing metastatic bone pain and in some instances, causing tumor shrinkage or growth inhibition. There is controversy surrounding the optimal fractionation schedule and total dose of external beam radiotherapy, despite many randomized trials and overviews addressing the issue. This study was undertaken to apply BED to clinical fractionation data of radiotherapeutic management of bone metastases in order to arrive at optimum BED values for acceptable level of response rate. A computerised literature search was conducted to identify all prospective clinical studies that addressed the issue of fractionation for the treatment of bone metastasis. The results of these studies were pooled together to form the database for the analysis. A total of 4111 number of patients received radiation dose ranging from 4 to 40.5 Gy in 1 to 15 fractions with dose per fraction ranging from 2 to 10 Gy. Single fraction treatments were delivered in 2013 patients and the dose varied from 4 to 10 Gy. Multifraction treatments were delivered in 2098 patients and the dose varied from 15 to 40.5 Gy. The biological effective dose (BED) was evaluated for each fractionation schedule using the linear quadratic model and an ?/? value of 10 Gy. Response rate increased significantly beyond a BED value of 14.4 Gy (p < 0.01). Based on our analysis and indications from the literature about higher retreatment and fracture rate of single fraction treatments, minimum BED value of 14.4 Gy is recommended.

  9. MicroRNA-18a as a promising biomarker for cancer detection: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shan; Tan, Shi-Sheng; Li, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cancer discovered at an early stage have relatively high survival rates. Increasing researches have shown the potential of detecting dysregulated microRNA-18a (miR-18a) to diagnose cancer. However, non-uniform results in previous studies were found. Thus, this meta-analysis was conducted to further explore the clinical applicability of miR-18a as an ideal biomarker for cancer detection. Suitable articles were obtained from online databases like PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, CBM and Wanfang. The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) tool was used to evaluate the quality of our meta-analysis. The pooled diagnostic parameters like specificity, sensitivity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), positive and negative likelihood ratios (PLR and NLR) and area under the summary receiver operator characteristic curve (SROC) were pooled to assess the entire test accuracy. Overall, 10 studies from 9 articles, including 979 patients with cancer and 713 healthy controls were involved in our meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.70-0.84) and the corresponding specificity was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.73-0.89). The merged PLR was 4.3 (95% CI: 2.8-6.8), NLR was 0.27 (95% CI: 0.20-0.37), and DOR was 16 (95% CI: 8-31). The pooled AUC was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.83-0.89). Our meta-analysis suggested that miR-18a might open up a new field for novel clinical cancer screening with the merits of high accuracy, non-invasiveness, convenience and cheap cost. However, more reliable studies in larger cohort should be conducted before it is used. PMID:26550138

  10. Endothelin-A receptor antagonists in prostate cancer treatment-a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Longwei; Liang, Yuting; Li, Na; Hu, Xiaoxia; Luo, Dongwei; Gu, Junxia; Lu, Yaojuan; Zheng, Qiping

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death in men due to inefficiency of androgen deprivation therapy or androgen blockade. Endothelins (ETs) and the two endothelin receptor family members A and B (ETA and ETB) are known to play important roles in the progression of many malignancies, including prostate cancer. However, phase III clinical studies did not reach a unanimous conclusion regarding ETA receptor antagonists in prostate cancer treatment. Here, we provide a meta-analysis of clinical studies using ETA receptor antagonists to treat prostate cancer, especially the hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). Data were extracted from nine studies that used Zibotentan or Atrasentan, two selective ETA receptor antagonists, to treat prostate cancer and meet the selection criteria. The results indicated that the overall survival (OS) and the progression-free survival (PFS) of patients treated with Zibotentan did not show significant difference with the patients treated with placebo (pooled hazard ratio (HR) for OS, 0.86, 95% CI 0.70-1.06; pooled HR for PFS, 0.98, 95% CI 0.91-1.06). No statistically significant difference was detected either as to the OS and PFS of patients between the Atrasentan treated group and the group treated with placebo (pooled HR for OS, 0.99, 95% CI 0.90-1.08; pooled HR for PFS, 0.94, 95% CI 0.86-1.02). Notably, the level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and the incidence of bone pain were significantly lower in the Atrasentan treated patients compared to the controls (pooled HR for time of PSA progression, 0.87, 95% CI 0.78-0.97; and pooled relative risk (RR) for bone pain, 0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.97). In addition, increasing of PSA and bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) were significantly delayed with Atrasentan treatment (P<0.05). Together, these data suggest that Atrasentan has an effect on cancer-related bone pain and skeletal-events in patients with prostate cancer. PMID:26064237

  11. Community analysis of plant biomass-degrading microorganisms from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D; Podar, Mircea; Mosher, Jennifer J; Palumbo, Anthony V; Phelps, Tommy J; Keller, Martin; Elkins, James G

    2015-02-01

    The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels can potentially be improved by employing robust microorganisms and enzymes that efficiently deconstruct plant polysaccharides at elevated temperatures. Many of the geothermal features of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are surrounded by vegetation providing a source of allochthonic material to support heterotrophic microbial communities adapted to utilize plant biomass as a primary carbon and energy source. In this study, a well-known hot spring environment, Obsidian Pool (OBP), was examined for potential biomass-active microorganisms using cultivation-independent and enrichment techniques. Analysis of 33,684 archaeal and 43,784 bacterial quality-filtered 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences revealed that archaeal diversity in the main pool was higher than bacterial; however, in the vegetated area, overall bacterial diversity was significantly higher. Of notable interest was a flooded depression adjacent to OBP supporting a stand of Juncus tweedyi, a heat-tolerant rush commonly found growing near geothermal features in YNP. The microbial community from heated sediments surrounding the plants was enriched in members of the Firmicutes including potentially (hemi)cellulolytic bacteria from the genera Clostridium, Anaerobacter, Caloramator, Caldicellulosiruptor, and Thermoanaerobacter. Enrichment cultures containing model and real biomass substrates were established at a wide range of temperatures (55-85 °C). Microbial activity was observed up to 80 °C on all substrates including Avicel, xylan, switchgrass, and Populus sp. Independent of substrate, Caloramator was enriched at lower (<65 °C) temperatures while highly active cellulolytic bacteria Caldicellulosiruptor were dominant at high (>65 °C) temperatures. PMID:25319238

  12. Analysis and improvement of data-set level file distribution in Disk Pool Manager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadellin Skipsey, Samuel; Purdie, Stuart; Britton, David; Mitchell, Mark; Bhimji, Wahid; Smith, David

    2014-06-01

    Of the three most widely used implementations of the WLCG Storage Element specification, Disk Pool Manager[1, 2] (DPM) has the simplest implementation of file placement balancing (StoRM doesn't attempt this, leaving it up to the underlying filesystem, which can be very sophisticated in itself). DPM uses a round-robin algorithm (with optional filesystem weighting), for placing files across filesystems and servers. This does a reasonable job of evenly distributing files across the storage array provided to it. However, it does not offer any guarantees of the evenness of distribution of that subset of files associated with a given "dataset" (which often maps onto a "directory" in the DPM namespace (DPNS)). It is useful to consider a concept of "balance", where an optimally balanced set of files indicates that the files are distributed evenly across all of the pool nodes. The best case performance of the round robin algorithm is to maintain balance, it has no mechanism to improve balance. In the past year or more, larger DPM sites have noticed load spikes on individual disk servers, and suspected that these were exacerbated by excesses of files from popular datasets on those servers. We present here a software tool which analyses file distribution for all datasets in a DPM SE, providing a measure of the poorness of file location in this context. Further, the tool provides a list of file movement actions which will improve dataset-level file distribution, and can action those file movements itself. We present results of such an analysis on the UKI-SCOTGRID-GLASGOW Production DPM.

  13. Tiotropium HandiHaler® and Respimat® in COPD: a pooled safety analysis

    PubMed Central

    Halpin, David MG; Dahl, Ronald; Hallmann, Christoph; Mueller, Achim; Tashkin, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Tiotropium is prescribed for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and delivered via HandiHaler® (18 ?g once daily) or Respimat® Soft Mist™ inhaler (5 ?g once daily). The recent TIOtropium Safety and Performance In Respimat® (TIOSPIR™) study demonstrated that both exhibit similar safety profiles. This analysis provides an updated comprehensive safety evaluation of tiotropium® using data from placebo-controlled HandiHaler® and Respimat® trials. Methods Pooled analysis of adverse event (AE) data from tiotropium HandiHaler® 18 ?g and Respimat® 5 ?g randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, clinical trials in patients with COPD (treatment duration ?4 weeks). Incidence rates, rate ratios (RRs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined for HandiHaler® and Respimat® trials, both together and separately. Results In the 28 HandiHaler® and 7 Respimat® trials included in this analysis, 11,626 patients were treated with placebo and 12,929 with tiotropium, totaling 14,909 (12,469 with HandiHaler®; 2,440 with Respimat®) patient-years of tiotropium exposure. Mean age was 65 years, and mean prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was 1.16 L (41% predicted). The risk (RR [95% CI]) of AEs (0.90 [0.87, 0.93]) and of serious AEs (SAEs) (0.94 [0.89, 0.99]) was significantly lower in the tiotropium than in the placebo group (HandiHaler® and Respimat® pooled results), and there was a numerically lower risk of fatal AEs (FAEs) (0.90 [0.79, 1.01]). The risk of cardiac AEs (0.93 [0.85, 1.02]) was numerically lower in the tiotropium group. Incidences of typical anticholinergic AEs, but not SAEs, were higher with tiotropium. Analyzed separately by inhaler, the risks of AE and SAE in the tiotropium groups remained lower than in placebo and similarly for FAEs. Conclusion This analysis indicates that tiotropium is associated with lower rates of AEs, SAEs, and similar rates of FAEs than placebo when delivered via HandiHaler® or Respimat® (overall and separately) in patients with COPD. PMID:25709423

  14. BNCT for locally recurrent head and neck cancer: preliminary clinical experience from a phase I/II trial at Tsing Hua Open-Pool Reactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, L W; Wang, S J; Chu, P Y; Ho, C Y; Jiang, S H; Liu, Y W H; Liu, Y H; Liu, H M; Peir, J J; Chou, F I; Yen, S H; Lee, Y L; Chang, C W; Liu, C S; Chen, Y W; Ono, K

    2011-12-01

    To introduce our preliminary experience of treating locally and regionally recurrent Head and Neck cancer patients at Tsing Hua Open-Pool Reactor in Taiwan, four patients (M/F=3/1, median age 68 Y/O) were enrolled. BNCT with BPA (400 mg/kg) injected in 2 phases and prescription dose of 12-35 Gy (Eq.)/fraction for 2 fractions at 30 day interval can be given with sustained blood boron concentration and tolerable early toxicities for recurrent H & N cancer. PMID:21478023

  15. RAPID ANALYSIS OF CYNANURIC ACID IN SWIMMING POOL WATERS BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY USING POROUS GRAPHITIC CARBON COLUMN

    EPA Science Inventory

    An innovative approach is presented for reducing analysis times of cyanuric acid in swimming pool waters by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC method exploits the unique selectivity of porous graphitic carbon (PGC) to fully resolve cyanuric acid from other p...

  16. RAPID ANALYSIS OF CYANURIC ACID IN SWIMMING POOL WATERS BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY USING POROUS GRAPHITIC CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    An innovative approach is presented for reducing analysis times of cynuric acid in swimming pool waters by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC method exploits the unique selectivity of porous graphitic carbon (PGC) to fully resolve within 10 minutes cyanuric ...

  17. COX-2-765G>C Polymorphism Increases the Risk of Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-wei; Hua, Rui-xi; Guo, Wei-jian

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation has been regarded as an important mechanism in carcinogenesis. Inflammation-associated genetic variants have been highly associated with cancer risk. Polymorphisms in the gene cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a pro-inflammation factor, have been suggested to alter the risk of multiple tumors, but the findings of various studies are not consistent. Methods A literature search through February 2013 was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, and CNKI databases. We used odds ratios (ORs) with confidence intervals (CIs) of 95% to assess the strength of the association between the COX-2-765G>C polymorphism and cancer risk in a random-effect model. We also assessed heterogeneity and publication bias. Results In total, 65 articles with 29,487 cancer cases and 39,212 non-cancer controls were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled OR (95% CIs) in the co-dominant model (GC vs. GG) was 1.11 (1.02–1.22), and in the dominant model ((CC+GC) vs. GG), the pooled OR was 1.12 (1.02–1.23). In the subgroup analysis, stratified by cancer type and race, significant associations were found between the-765 C allele and higher risk for gastric cancer, leukemia, pancreatic cancer, and cancer in the Asian population. Conclusion In summary, the COX-2-765 C allele was related to increased cancer susceptibility, especially gastric cancer and cancer in the Asian population. PMID:24023834

  18. Monitoring of high-power fiber laser welding based on principal component analysis of a molten pool configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiangdong, Gao; Qian, Wen

    2013-12-01

    There exists plenty of welding quality information on a molten pool during high-power fiber laser welding. An approach for monitoring the high-power fiber laser welding status based on the principal component analysis (PCA) of a molten pool configuration is investigated. An infrared-sensitive high-speed camera was used to capture the molten pool images during laser butt-joint welding of Type 304 austenitic stainless steel plates with a high-power (10 kW) continuous wave fiber laser. In order to study the relationship between the molten pool configuration and the welding status, a new method based on PCA is proposed to analyze the welding stability by comparing the situation when the laser beam spot moves along, and when it deviates from the weld seam. Image processing techniques were applied to process the molten pool images and extract five characteristic parameters. Moreover, the PCA method was used to extract a composite indicator which is the linear combination of the five original characteristics to analyze the different status during welding. Experimental results showed that the extracted composite indicator had a close relationship with the actual welding results and it could be used to evaluate the status of the high-power fiber laser welding, providing a theoretical basis for the monitoring of laser welding quality.

  19. GSTM1 polymorphism contribute to colorectal cancer in Asian populations: a prospective meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Xu, Wen; Liu, Fang; Huang, Silin; He, Meirong

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are enzymes which expressed in many tissues and play important roles in neutralization of toxic compounds, and protecting hosts against cancer. Among several GSTs, Glutathione S-transferases mu (GSTM) has been drawn attention upon the association with the genetic risk for many types of cancers. But whether the GSTM1 polymorphisms confer the susceptibility to colorectal cancer in Asians has not been well established. We searched the PubMed database with GSTM1, polymorphism and colorectal cancer, attempting to identify the eligible studies. In total, 33 case-control studies in Asian populations with 8502 colorectal cancer patients and 13699 controls were included in the current meta-analysis. The association between the polymorphism and susceptibility to colorectal cancer was evaluated by the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The pooled meta-analysis suggested that GSTM1 null variant was correlated to the colorectal cancer risk in Asians. There was a marginal heterogeneity among these eligible studies. Nevertheless, cumulative meta-analysis observed a trend of an obvious association between the GSTM1 null genotype and colorectal cancer risk in Asians. In summary, the meta-analysis suggested that GSTM1 null polymorphism confer the susceptibility to colorectal cancer in Asians, especially in Chinese populations. PMID:26219826

  20. GSTM1 polymorphism contribute to colorectal cancer in Asian populations: a prospective meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Xu, Wen; Liu, Fang; Huang, Silin; He, Meirong

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are enzymes which expressed in many tissues and play important roles in neutralization of toxic compounds, and protecting hosts against cancer. Among several GSTs, Glutathione S-transferases mu (GSTM) has been drawn attention upon the association with the genetic risk for many types of cancers. But whether the GSTM1 polymorphisms confer the susceptibility to colorectal cancer in Asians has not been well established. We searched the PubMed database with GSTM1, polymorphism and colorectal cancer, attempting to identify the eligible studies. In total, 33 case-control studies in Asian populations with 8502 colorectal cancer patients and 13699 controls were included in the current meta-analysis. The association between the polymorphism and susceptibility to colorectal cancer was evaluated by the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The pooled meta-analysis suggested that GSTM1 null variant was correlated to the colorectal cancer risk in Asians. There was a marginal heterogeneity among these eligible studies. Nevertheless, cumulative meta-analysis observed a trend of an obvious association between the GSTM1 null genotype and colorectal cancer risk in Asians. In summary, the meta-analysis suggested that GSTM1 null polymorphism confer the susceptibility to colorectal cancer in Asians, especially in Chinese populations. PMID:26219826

  1. Cruciferous vegetables intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Q. J.; Yang, Y.; Vogtmann, E.; Wang, J.; Han, L. H.; Li, H. L.; Xiang, Y. B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent associations between cruciferous vegetable (CV) intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. To our knowledge, a comprehensive and quantitative assessment of the association between CV intake and CRC has not been reported. Methods Relevant articles were identified by searching MEDLINE. We pooled the relative risks (RR) from individual studies using a random-effect model and carried out heterogeneity and publication bias analyses. Results Twenty-four case–control and 11 prospective studies were included in our analysis. When all studies were pooled, we yielded a significantly inverse association between CV (RR: 0.82; 95% confidence interval 0.75–0.90) intake and CRC risk. Specific analysis for cabbage and broccoli yielded similar result. When separately analyzed, case–control studies of CV intake yield similar results, and the results from the prospective studies showed borderline statistical significance. Moreover, significant inverse associations were also observed in colon cancer and its distal subsite both among prospective and case–control studies. Conclusions Findings from this meta-analysis provide evidence that high intake of CV was inversely associated with the risk of CRC and colon cancer in humans. Further analysis on other specific CV, food preparation methods, stratified results by anatomic cancer site, and subsite of colon cancer should be extended in future study. PMID:23211939

  2. Analysis of Bubble Flow in the Deep-Penetration Molten Pool of Vacuum Electron Beam Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yi; Wan, Rui; Zhu, Yang; Xie, Xiaojian

    2015-03-01

    Based on the vacuum electron beam welding with deep-penetration process, the convection phenomenon of the bubble flow in partially penetrated and fully penetrated molten pool of AZ91D magnesium alloy was simulated under the unsteady-state conditions. At the same time, the distributions of the cavity-type defects in deep-penetration weld were studied. The results showed that the cavity-type defects are more prone to distribute at the bottom of the weld and accumulate along the axis of the weld for the partially penetrated weld seam; there is a high incidence of cavity-type defects in the middle of the weld for the fully penetrated weld seam. As a smooth escape channel for the gas phase is formed in the fully penetrated molten pool, the possibility of gas escaping is much higher than that in the partially penetrated molten pool. A high liquid convection velocity is more conducive to the escape of the gas in molten pool. The liquid convection velocity in the fully penetrated molten pool is higher than that in the partially penetrated molten pool. So, the final gas fraction in the fully penetrated molten pool is low. Therefore, the appearance of cavity-type defects in the fully penetrated weld seam is less than that in the partially penetrated weld seam.

  3. Biogenic and non-biogenic Si pools in terrestrial ecosystems: results from a novel analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barao, Lucia; Vandevenne, Floor; Clymans, Wim; Meire, Patrick; Frings, Patrick; Conley, Daniel; Struyf, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Silicon (Si) is a chemical element frequently associated with highly abundant silicate minerals in the Earth crust. Over millions of years, the interaction of such minerals with the atmosphere and hydrosphere produces a myriad of processed compounds, and the mineral weathering consumes CO2 during the process. The weathering of minerals also triggers the export of dissolved Si (DSi) to coastal waters and the ocean. Here, DSi is deposited in diatom frustules, in an amorphous biogenic form (BSi). Diatoms account for 50% of the primary production and are crucial for the export of carbon into the deep sea. In recent years, it was acknowledged that terrestrial systems filter the Si transition from the terrestrial mineral to the marine and coastal biological pool, by the incorporation of DSi into plants. In this process, DSi is taken up by roots together with other nutrients and precipitates in plant cells in amorphous structures named phytoliths. After dead, plant tissues become mixed in the top soil, where BSi is available for dissolution and will control the DSi availability in short time scales. Additionally, Si originated from soil forming processes can also significantly interfere with the global cycle. The Si cycle in terrestrial ecosystems is a key factor to coastal ecology, plant ecology, biogeochemistry and agro-sciences, but the high variability of different biogenic and non-biogenic Si pools remains as an obstacle to obtain accurate measurements. The traditional methods, developed to isolate diatoms in ocean sediments, only account for simple mineral corrections. In this dissertation we have adapted a novel continuous analysis method (during alkaline extraction) that uses Si-Al ratios and reactivity to differ biogenic from non-biogenic fractions. The method was originally used in marine sediments, but we have developed it to be applicable in a wide range of terrestrial, aquatic and coastal ecosystems. We first focused on soils under strong human impact in temperate (European) zones, since cultivation influences the Si cycle with multiple consequences for the environment. Results showed that the intensity of the human pressure in the agricultural systems defines the level of BSi depletion, but parent material and weathering degree can also provide the soil with other reactive non BSi fractions. Secondly we analysed the influence of non-BSi pools of volcanic origin in soils and sediments subjected to volcanic activity. Results showed that a separation method is fundamental in these systems with volcanic shards and strongly weathered products, both of which are also significantly prone to dissolution in the common alkaline sequential extractions. We conclude that the application of a method that discriminates between Si fractions is mandatory to correctly understand the Si dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems. Although time-consuming and subjected to some limitations, the continuous analysis can be used for this purpose. Future challenges remain however for identifying fractions that cannot be differentiated on either reactivity or Si-Al ratio and for correlating the reactivity of fractions extracted in alkaline environments with the availability in situ.

  4. The Cancer Genome Atlas Pan-Cancer analysis project.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, John N; Collisson, Eric A; Mills, Gordon B; Shaw, Kenna R Mills; Ozenberger, Brad A; Ellrott, Kyle; Shmulevich, Ilya; Sander, Chris; Stuart, Joshua M

    2013-10-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network has profiled and analyzed large numbers of human tumors to discover molecular aberrations at the DNA, RNA, protein and epigenetic levels. The resulting rich data provide a major opportunity to develop an integrated picture of commonalities, differences and emergent themes across tumor lineages. The Pan-Cancer initiative compares the first 12 tumor types profiled by TCGA. Analysis of the molecular aberrations and their functional roles across tumor types will teach us how to extend therapies effective in one cancer type to others with a similar genomic profile. PMID:24071849

  5. Is personality associated with cancer incidence and mortality? An individual-participant meta-analysis of 2156 incident cancer cases among 42?843 men and women

    PubMed Central

    Jokela, M; Batty, G D; Hintsa, T; Elovainio, M; Hakulinen, C; Kivimäki, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: The putative role of personality in cancer risk has been controversial, and the evidence remains inconclusive. Methods: We pooled data from six prospective cohort studies (British Household Panel Survey; Health and Retirement Study; Household, Income, and Labour Dynamics in Australia; Midlife in the United Survey; Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Graduate; and Sibling samples) for an individual-participant meta-analysis to examine whether personality traits of the Five Factor Model (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience) were associated with the incidence of cancer and cancer mortality in 42?843 cancer-free men and women at baseline (mean age 52.2 years, 55.6% women). Results: During an average follow-up of 5.4 years, there were 2156 incident cancer cases. In random-effects meta-analysis adjusted for age, sex, and race/ethnicity, none of the personality traits were associated with the incidence of all cancers or any of the six site-specific cancers included in the analysis (lung, colon, breast, prostate, skin, and leukaemia/lymphoma). In the three cohorts with cause-specific mortality data (421 cancer deaths among 21?835 participants), none of the personality traits were associated with cancer mortality. Conclusions: These data suggest that personality is not associated with increased risk of incident cancer or cancer-related mortality. PMID:24504367

  6. Toward a Comprehensive Genomic Analysis of Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) convened a "Toward a Comprehensive Genomic Analysis of Cancer" workshop in Washington, D.C. This workshop brought together physicians, basic scientists and other members of the U.S. and international cancer communities to assist in outlining the most effective strategies for the development of a successful project. Information about this workshop is reported in the Executive Summary.

  7. Highly-multiplexed barcode sequencing: an efficient method for parallel analysis of pooled samples

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew M.; Heisler, Lawrence E.; St.Onge, Robert P.; Farias-Hesson, Eveline; Wallace, Iain M.; Bodeau, John; Harris, Adam N.; Perry, Kathleen M.; Giaever, Guri; Pourmand, Nader; Nislow, Corey

    2010-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing has proven an extremely effective technology for molecular counting applications where the number of sequence reads provides a digital readout for RNA-seq, ChIP-seq, Tn-seq and other applications. The extremely large number of sequence reads that can be obtained per run permits the analysis of increasingly complex samples. For lower complexity samples, however, a point of diminishing returns is reached when the number of counts per sequence results in oversampling with no increase in data quality. A solution to making next-generation sequencing as efficient and affordable as possible involves assaying multiple samples in a single run. Here, we report the successful 96-plexing of complex pools of DNA barcoded yeast mutants and show that such ‘Bar-seq’ assessment of these samples is comparable with data provided by barcode microarrays, the current benchmark for this application. The cost reduction and increased throughput permitted by highly multiplexed sequencing will greatly expand the scope of chemogenomics assays and, equally importantly, the approach is suitable for other sequence counting applications that could benefit from massive parallelization. PMID:20460461

  8. Association between Breastfeeding and Endometrial Cancer Risk: Evidence from a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lianlian; Li, Jingxi; Shi, Zhan

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of the association between breastfeeding and risk of endometrial cancer is still conflicting. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between breastfeeding and endometrial cancer risk. Pertinent studies were identified by a search of PubMed and Web of Knowledge through April 2015. A random effect model was used to combine the data for analysis. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias were conducted. Dose-response relationships were assessed by restricted cubic spline and variance-weighted least squares regression analysis. Fourteen articles involving 5158 endometrial cancer cases and 706,946 participants were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled results suggested that breastfeeding significantly reduced the risk of endometrial cancer (summary relative risk (RR): 0.77, 95% CI: 0.62–0.96, I2: 63.0%), especially in North America (summary RR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.79–0.95). A linear dose-response relationship was found, with the risk of endometrial cancer decreased by 2% for every one-month increase in the duration of breastfeeding (summary RR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97–0.99). Our analysis suggested that breastfeeding, particularly a longer duration of breastfeeding, was inversely associated with the risk of endometrial cancer, especially in North America, but not in Europe and Asia, probably due to the small number of cases included. Due to this limitation, further studies originating in other countries are required to assess the association between breastfeeding and endometrial cancer risk. PMID:26184301

  9. Association between tea and coffee consumption and risk of laryngeal cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Zhiguo; Wang, Zhaoyan; Jin, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Epidemiological studies evaluating the association of tea and coffee consumption and the risk of laryngeal cancer have produced inconsistent results. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between tea and coffee consumption and laryngeal cancer risk. Methods: Pertinent studies were identified by a search in PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Wan Fang Med Online. The random effect model was used based on heterogeneity test. Publication bias was estimated using Egger’s regression asymmetry test. As a result, 11 articles were included in this meta-analysis. Results: For tea consumption and laryngeal cancer, data from 8 studies including 2167 laryngeal cancer cases were used, and the pooled results suggested that highest tea consumption versus lowest level wasn’t associated with the risk of laryngeal cancer [summary RR = 0.909, 95% CI = 0.674-1.227]. Eight studies comprising 2596 laryngeal cancer cases for coffee consumption and laryngeal cancer risk were included, and no association was found (summary RR = 1.218, 95% CI = 0.915-1.622). Conclusions: Finding from this meta-analysis suggested that tea and coffee consumption weren’t associated with the risk of laryngeal cancer. Since the potential biases and confounders could not be ruled out completely in this meta-analysis, further studies are warranted to confirm this result. PMID:25664021

  10. Thermal analysis of five outdoor swimming pools heated by unglazed solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Molineaux, B.; Lachal, B.; Guisan, O. )

    1994-07-01

    We have analysed measurement from five outdoor swimming pools located in Switzerland and heated by unglazed solar collectors. The main contributions to the daily energy balance of the swimming pools are evaluated. They include the active and passive solar gains, as well as the heat losses related to radiation, evaporation, convection, and water renewal (in order of importance). Coherent results are obtained using multilinear regressions in order to determine the best fitting values of the empirical parameters involved in the thermal equations.

  11. Pool Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Caribbean Clear, Inc. used NASA's silver ion technology as a basis for its automatic pool purifier. System offers alternative approach to conventional purification chemicals. Caribbean Clear's principal markets are swimming pool owners who want to eliminate chlorine and bromine. Purifiers in Caribbean Clear System are same silver ions used in Apollo System to kill bacteria, plus copper ions to kill algae. They produce spa or pool water that exceeds EPA Standards for drinking water.

  12. Incidence of Cancer in ANCA-Associated Vasculitis: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Weifeng; Ning, Yong; Xu, Xiu; Li, Menglan; Guo, Shuiming; Han, Min; Zeng, Rui; Ge, Shuwang; Xu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper is to examine cancer incidence in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AASV) derived from population-based cohort studies by means of meta-analysis. Methods Relevant electronic databases were searched for studies characterizing the associated risk of overall malignancy in patients with AASV. Standardized incidence rates (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the strength of association. We tested for publication bias and heterogeneity and stratified for site-specific cancers. Results Six studies (n = 2,578) were eventually identified, of which six provided the SIR for overall malignancy, five reported the SIR for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), four for leukemia, five for bladder cancer, three for lymphoma, three for liver cancer, four for lung cancer, three for kidney cancer, four for prostate cancer, four for colon cancer and four for breast cancer. Overall, the pooled SIR of cancer in AASV patients was 1.74 (95%CI = 1.37–2.21), with moderate heterogeneity among these studies (I2 = 65.8%, P = 0.012). In sub-analyses for site-specific cancers, NMSC, leukemia and bladder cancer were more frequently observed in patients with AASV with SIR of 5.18 (95%CI = 3.47–7.73), 4.89 (95%CI = 2.93–8.16) and 3.84 (95%CI = 2.72–5.42) respectively. There was no significant increase in the risk of kidney cancer (SIR = 2.12, 95%CI = 0.66–6.85), prostate cancer (SIR = 1.45, 95%CI = 0.87–2.42), colon cancer (SIR = 1.26, 95%CI = 0.70–2.27), and breast cancer (SIR = 0.95, 95%CI = 0.50–1.79). Among these site-specific cancers, only NMSC showed moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 55.8%, P = 0.06). No publication bias was found by using the Begg’s test and Egger's test. Conclusions This meta-analysis shows that AASV patients treatment with cyclophosphamide (CYC) are at increased risk of late-occurring malignancies, particularly of the NMSC, leukemia and bladder cancer. However, there is no significant association between AASV and kidney cancer, prostate cancer, colon cancer and breast cancer. These findings emphasize monitoring and preventative management in AASV patients after cessation of CYC therapy is momentous. PMID:25973882

  13. New genetic risk variants identified in multiethnic analysis of prostate cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have newly identified 23 common genetic variants—one-letter changes in DNA known as single-nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs—that are associated with risk of prostate cancer. These results come from an analysis of more than 10 million SNPs in data pooled from studies that included over 43,000 men with prostate cancer and nearly 44,000 men without the disease. Study participants were from Australia, Ghana, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States and were of diverse ancestry.

  14. Milk, yogurt, and lactose intake and ovarian cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Tang, Wenru; Sang, Lei; Dai, Xiaoli; Wei, Danping; Luo, Ying; Zhang, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    Inconclusive information for the role of dairy food intake in relation to ovarian cancer risk may associate with adverse effects of lactose, which has been hypothesized to increase gonadotropin levels in animal models and ecological studies. Up to now, several studies have indicated the association between dairy food intake and risk of ovarian cancer, but no identified founding was reported. We performed this meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimation of the association between dairy food intake and ovarian cancer risk. Using the data from 19 available publications, we examined dairy food including low-fat/skim milk, whole milk, yogurt and lactose in relation to risk of ovarian cancer by meta-analysis. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the association. We observed a slightly increased risk of ovarian cancer with high intake of whole milk, but has no statistical significance (OR = 1.228, 95% CI = 1.031-1.464, P = 0.022). The results of other milk models did not provide evidence of positive association with ovarian cancer risk. This meta-analysis suggests that low-fat/skim milk, whole milk, yogurt and lactose intake has no associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer. Further studies with larger participants worldwide are needed to validate the association between dairy food intake and ovarian cancer. PMID:25298278

  15. Fuel Burnup and Fuel Pool Shielding Analysis for Bushehr Nuclear Reactor VVER-1000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadad, Kamal; Ayobian, Navid

    Bushehr Nuclear power plant (BNPP) is currently under construction. The VVER-1000 reactor will be loaded with 126 tons of about 4% enriched fuel having 3-years life cycle. The spent fuel (SF) will be transferred into the spent fuel pool (SPF), where it stays for 8 years before being transferred to Russia. The SPF plays a crucial role during 8 years when the SP resides in there. This paper investigates the shielding of this structure as it is designed to shield the SF radiation. In this study, the SF isotope inventory, for different cycles and with different burnups, was calculated using WIMS/4D transport code. Using MCNP4C nuclear code, the intensity of ? rays was obtained in different layers of SFP shields. These layers include the water above fuel assemblies (FA) in pool, concrete wall of the pool and water laid above transferring fuels. Results show that ? rays leakage from the shield in the mentioned layers are in agreement with the plant's PSAR data. Finally we analyzed an accident were the water height above the FA in the pool drops to 47 cm. In this case it was observed that exposure dose above pool, 10 and 30 days from the accident, are still high and in the levels of 1000 and 758 R/hr.

  16. Well-characterized open pool experiment data and analysis for model validation and development.

    SciTech Connect

    Sundberg, David W.; Brown, Alexander L.; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2006-12-01

    Four Well-Characterized Open Pool fires were conducted by Fire Science and Technology Department. The focus of the Well-Characterized Open Pool fire series was to provide environmental information for open pool fires on a physics first principal basis. The experiments measured the burning rate of liquid fuel in an open pool and the resultant heat flux to a weapon-sized object and the surrounding environment with well-characterized boundary and initial conditions. Results presented in this report include a general description of test observation (pre- and post-test), wind measurements, fire plume topology, average fuel recession and heat release rates, and incident heat flux to the pool and to the calorimeters. As expected, results of the experiments show a strong correlation between wind conditions, fuel vaporization (mass loss) rate, and incident heat flux to the fuel and ground surface and calorimeters. Numerical fire simulations using both temporally- and spatially-dependant wind boundary conditions were performed using the Vulcan fire code. Comparisons of data to simulation predictions showed similar trends; however, simulation-predicted incident heat fluxes were lower than measured.

  17. ATM rs189037 (G > A) polymorphism and risk of lung cancer and head and neck cancer: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, Aditi; Nath, Sayantan; Das, Sambuddha; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar; Choudhury, Yashmin

    2015-12-01

    A number of different epidemiological studies have measured the association between the risk of different cancers and polymorphism at promoter region of 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. However the results were contentious rather than conclusive. The current study was aimed at evaluating the association between the SNP (rs189037 G>A) and the risk of head and neck cancer and lung cancer by conducting a meta-analysis. A total of 9 case-control studies were considered for this quantitative analysis. Stats Direct Statistical software (version 2.7.2) was used to evaluate the crude odds ratio (OR) with their 95% confidence interval (CI). The dominant model (GG vs. GA + AA) showed no heterogeneity and the fixed effects pooled OR was found to be significant (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.05-1.25) at p = 0.003. The pooled OR for fixed effects of heterozygote and homozygote mutant allele (GA vs. AA) model was significant (OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.04-1.30, p = 0.006) and no heterogeneity was observed for this model. The current meta-analysis manifested that ATM rs189037 G>A genetic polymorphism may contribute increased risk of head and neck and lung cancer. Moreover, the AA mutant allele was found to be related significantly with the prognosis of lung cancer and head and neck cancer. PMID:26504743

  18. ATM rs189037 (G > A) polymorphism and risk of lung cancer and head and neck cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bhowmik, Aditi; Nath, Sayantan; Das, Sambuddha; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar; Choudhury, Yashmin

    2015-01-01

    A number of different epidemiological studies have measured the association between the risk of different cancers and polymorphism at promoter region of 5? untranslated region (5?-UTR) of the Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. However the results were contentious rather than conclusive. The current study was aimed at evaluating the association between the SNP (rs189037 G>A) and the risk of head and neck cancer and lung cancer by conducting a meta-analysis. A total of 9 case–control studies were considered for this quantitative analysis. Stats Direct Statistical software (version 2.7.2) was used to evaluate the crude odds ratio (OR) with their 95% confidence interval (CI). The dominant model (GG vs. GA + AA) showed no heterogeneity and the fixed effects pooled OR was found to be significant (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.05–1.25) at p = 0.003. The pooled OR for fixed effects of heterozygote and homozygote mutant allele (GA vs. AA) model was significant (OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.04–1.30, p = 0.006) and no heterogeneity was observed for this model. The current meta-analysis manifested that ATM rs189037 G>A genetic polymorphism may contribute increased risk of head and neck and lung cancer. Moreover, the AA mutant allele was found to be related significantly with the prognosis of lung cancer and head and neck cancer. PMID:26504743

  19. Friends and Symptom Dimensions in Patients with Psychosis: A Pooled Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Giacco, Domenico; McCabe, Rose; Kallert, Thomas; Hansson, Lars; Fiorillo, Andrea; Priebe, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Background Having friends is associated with more favourable clinical outcomes and a higher quality of life in mental disorders. Patients with schizophrenia have fewer friends than other mentally ill patients. No large scale studies have evaluated so far what symptom dimensions of schizophrenia are associated with the lack of friendships. Methods Data from four multi-centre studies on outpatients with schizophrenia and related disorders (ICD F20-29) were included in a pooled analysis (N?=?1396). We established whether patients had close friends and contact with friends by using the equivalent items on friendships of the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life or of the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile. Symptoms were measured by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale or by the identical items included in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Results Seven hundred and sixty-nine patients (55.1%) had seen a friend in the previous week and 917 (65.7%) had someone they regarded as a close friend. Low levels of negative symptoms and hostility were significantly associated with having a close friend and contact with a friend. Overall, almost twice as many patients with absent or mild negative symptoms had met a friend in the last week, compared with those with moderate negative symptoms. Conclusions Higher levels of negative symptoms and hostility are specifically associated with the lack of friendships in patients with psychotic disorders. These findings suggest the importance of developing effective treatments for negative symptoms and hostility in order to improve the probability of patients with schizophrenia to have friends. PMID:23185552

  20. Prolactin receptor attenuation induces zinc pool redistribution through ZnT2 and decreases invasion in MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bostanci, Zeynep; Alam, Samina; Soybel, David I.; Kelleher, Shannon L.

    2014-02-15

    Prolactin receptor (PRL-R) activation regulates cell differentiation, proliferation, cell survival and motility of breast cells. Prolactin (PRL) and PRL-R over-expression are strongly implicated in breast cancer, particularly contributing to tumor growth and invasion in the more aggressive estrogen-receptor negative (ER?) disease. PRL-R antagonists have been suggested as potential therapeutic agents; however, mechanisms through which PRL-R antagonists exert their actions are not well-understood. Zinc (Zn) is a regulatory factor for over 10% of the proteome, regulating critical cell processes such as proliferation, cell signaling, transcription, apoptosis and autophagy. PRL-R signaling regulates Zn metabolism in breast cells. Herein we determined effects of PRL-R attenuation on cellular Zn metabolism and cell function in a model of ER-, PRL-R over-expressing breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-453). PRL-R attenuation post-transcriptionally increased ZnT2 abundance and redistributed intracellular Zn pools into lysosomes and mitochondria. ZnT2-mediated lysosomal Zn sequestration was associated with reduced matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) activity and decreased invasion. ZnT2-mediated Zn accumulation in mitochondria was associated with increased mitochondrial oxidation. Our results suggest that PRL-R antagonism in PRL-R over-expressing breast cancer cells may reduce invasion through the redistribution of intracellular Zn pools critical for cellular function. - Highlights: • PRL-R attenuation increased ZnT2 expression. • PRL-R attenuation increased lysosomal and mitochondrial Zn accumulation. • PRL-R attenuation decreased MMP-2 and invasion. • PRL-R antagonists may modulate lysosomal and mitochondrial Zn pools.

  1. Development of a Self-Report Physical Function Instrument for Disability Assessment: Item Pool Construction and Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, Christine M.; Jette, Alan M.; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Brandt, Diane E; Chan, Leighton; Meterko, Mark; Haley, Stephen M.; Rasch, Elizabeth K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To build a comprehensive item pool representing work-relevant physical functioning and to test the factor structure of the item pool. These developmental steps represent initial outcomes of a broader project to develop instruments for the assessment of function within the context of Social Security Administration (SSA) disability programs. Design Comprehensive literature review; gap analysis; item generation with expert panel input; stakeholder interviews; cognitive interviews; cross-sectional survey administration; and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to assess item pool structure. Setting In-person and semi-structured interviews; internet and telephone surveys. Participants A sample of 1,017 SSA claimants, and a normative sample of 999 adults from the US general population. Interventions Not Applicable. Main Outcome Measure Model fit statistics Results The final item pool consisted of 139 items. Within the claimant sample 58.7% were white; 31.8% were black; 46.6% were female; and the mean age was 49.7 years. Initial factor analyses revealed a 4-factor solution which included more items and allowed separate characterization of: 1) Changing and Maintaining Body Position, 2) Whole Body Mobility, 3) Upper Body Function and 4) Upper Extremity Fine Motor. The final 4-factor model included 91 items. Confirmatory factor analyses for the 4-factor models for the claimant and the normative samples demonstrated very good fit. Fit statistics for claimant and normative samples respectively were: Comparative Fit Index = 0.93 and 0.98; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.92 and 0.98; Root Mean Square Error Approximation = 0.05 and 0.04. Conclusions The factor structure of the Physical Function item pool closely resembled the hypothesized content model. The four scales relevant to work activities offer promise for providing reliable information about claimant physical functioning relevant to work disability. PMID:23542402

  2. Consequence analysis of aqueous ammonia spills using an improved liquid pool evaporation model 

    E-print Network

    Raghunathan, Vijay

    2005-02-17

    -Hg) T = Temperature of the liquid (deg K) The major limitations of this model are that it does not take into account the effect of evaporative cooling, radiation and further assumes pool temperature is the same as air temperature. 3.3.3 Shell Model (Fleischer... chemical spill. The work has been divided into two parts. In the first step a generic, dynamic source term model was developed that can handle multicomponent non-ideal mixtures. The applicability of this improved pool model for aqueous ammonia spills...

  3. Cruciferous vegetable consumption and gastric cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi-Jun; Yang, Yang; Wang, Jing; Han, Li-Hua; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2013-08-01

    The relationship between consumption of cruciferous vegetables (CV) and risk of gastric cancer has been investigated by many studies, but remains controversial. We carried out a meta-analysis to summarize available evidence from epidemiological studies on this point. Relevant published reports of CV intake and gastric cancer were identified using MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, and Web of Science databases through to the end of September 2012. We pooled the relative risk from individual studies using a fixed- or random-effects model and carried out heterogeneity and publication bias analyses. Sixteen case-control and six prospective studies were included in our analysis. When all studies were pooled, we yielded a significantly inverse association between CV (relative risk = 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.88) intake and gastric cancer risk, with little heterogeneity (Q = 27.27, P = 0.292, I(2) = 12.0%). Specific analysis for cabbage intake yielded similar result. When separately analyzed, case-control studies of CV intake yielded significant results and the results of prospective studies showed borderline statistical significance. Moreover, significant results were consistent for high-quality studies, for North American, European, and Asian studies, for studies on males, and for studies on non-cardia gastric cancer. Findings from this meta-analysis provide evidence that high intake of CV was inversely associated with the risk of gastric cancer and non-cardia gastric cancer in humans. Further studies on other specific CV, food preparation methods, and stratified results by anatomic cancer site and histological type should be extended in the future. PMID:23679348

  4. Aspirin for the primary prevention of skin cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, YUN; CHENG, YANG; LUO, RONG-CHENG; LI, AI-MIN

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. There are three major skin cancer types: basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. General risk factors for skin cancer include fair skin, a history of tanning and sunburn, family history of skin cancer, exposure to ultraviolet rays and a large number of moles. The incidence of skin cancer has increased in the USA in recent years. Aspirin intake is associated with chemoprotection against the development of a number of types of cancer. However, whether aspirin intake can reduce the risk of development of skin cancer is unclear. The present meta-analysis of available human studies is aimed at evaluating the association between aspirin exposure and the risk of skin cancer. All available human observational studies on aspirin intake for the primary prevention of skin cancer were identified by searching MEDLINE (Pubmed), BIOSIS, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and China National Knowledge Infrastructure prior to March 2013. The heterogeneity and publication bias of all studies were evaluated using Cochran’s Q and I2 statistics, followed by a random-effect model where applicable. The pooled data were analyzed by odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of eight case-control and five prospective cohort studies from 11 publications were selected for this analysis. There was no evidence of publication bias in these studies. Statistical analyses of the pooled data demonstrated that that a daily dose of 50–400 mg aspirin was significantly associated with a reduced risk of skin cancers (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.90–0.99; P=0.02). Stratification analysis indicated that the continual intake of low dose aspirin (?150 mg) reduced the risk of developing skin cancer (OR, 0.95; CI, 0.90–0.99; P=0.15) and that aspirin intake was significantly associated with a reduced risk of non-melanoma skin cancers (OR, 0.97; CI, 0.95–0.99; P=0.22). Overall, these findings indicated that aspirin intake was associated with a reduced risk of developing skin cancer. However, more well-designed randomized controlled trials to measure the effects of aspirin intake are required to confirm this. PMID:25663859

  5. Underscreened Women Remain Overrepresented in the Pool of Cervical Cancer Cases in Spain: A Need to Rethink the Screening Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Raquel; Alejo, María; Combalia, Neus; Tarroch, Xavier; Autonell, Josefina; Codina, Laia; Culubret, Montserrat; Bosch, Francesc Xavier; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Audit of women with invasive cervical cancer (CC) is critical for quality control within screening activities. We analysed the screening history in the 10 years preceding the study entry in women with and without CC during 2000–2011. Methods. 323 women with CC from six pathology departments in Catalonia (Spain) and 23,782 women with negative cytology were compared. Age, previous history of cytologies, and histological type and FIGO stage were collected from the pathology registries. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI95%). Results. History of cytology was registered in 26.2% of CC cases and in 78% of the control women (P < 0.0001) and its frequency decreased with increasing age. Compared to women with squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma cases were significantly more likely to have a cytology within the 3-year interval preceding cancer diagnosis (OR = 2.6 CI 95%: 1.2–5.6) and to have normal cytology results in previous screenings (OR = 2.4 CI 95%: 1.2–4.5). FIGO II–IV cases were more common among older women (older than 60 years). Conclusions. Absence of prior screening history was extremely common among CC cases compared to controls. Organized actions to reduce underscreened women and use of highly sensitive HPV-based tests could be important to reduce CC burden. PMID:26180804

  6. Uptitrating amlodipine significantly reduces blood pressure in diabetic patients with hypertension: a retrospective, pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jeffers, Barrett W; Bhambri, Rahul; Robbins, Jeffery

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic patients with hypertension are approximately twice as likely to develop cardiovascular disease as non-diabetic patients with hypertension. Given that hypertension affects ?60% of patients with diabetes, effective blood pressure (BP) management is important in this high-risk population. This post-hoc analysis pooled data from six clinical studies to quantify additional BP efficacy achieved when titrating hypertensive diabetic patients from amlodipine 5 mg to 10 mg. Approximately half of the diabetic patients were male (44/98; 44.9%) with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 60.6 (9.6) years and a baseline mean (standard error [SE]) systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) of 150.8 (1.30)/87.5 (0.94) mmHg while on amlodipine 5 mg (159.1 [1.40]/92.6 [0.94] mmHg prior to treatment). In comparison, 350/610 (57.4%) non-diabetic patients were male with a mean (SD) age of 58.7 (11.1) years and baseline mean (SE) SBP/DBP of 150.3 (0.62)/90.9 (0.41) mmHg while on amlodipine 5 mg (160.0 [0.67]/96.2 [0.45] mmHg prior to treatment). Increasing amlodipine from 5 mg to 10 mg lowered sitting SBP by ?12.5 mmHg (95% confidence interval (CI): ?15.5, ?9.5; P<0.0001) and DBP by ?6.0 mmHg (?7.4, ?4.6; P<0.0001) in diabetic patients; and SBP by ?12.4 mmHg (?13.5, ?11.3; P<0.0001) and DBP by ?7.3 mmHg (?8.0, ?6.7; P<0.0001) in non-diabetic patients. In total, 12.0% (95% CI: 6.4, 20.0) of diabetic patients achieved their BP goal versus 46.4% (42.4, 50.4) of non-diabetic patients after titration to amlodipine 10 mg. Overall, 22.0% of diabetic patients experienced 31 adverse events (AEs) and 28.9% of non-diabetic patients experienced 282 AEs. Serious AEs were reported by one (1.0%) diabetic and five (0.8%) non-diabetic patients. In this analysis, increasing amlodipine from 5 mg to 10 mg produced a clinically significant reduction in the BP of diabetic hypertensive patients, similar to non-diabetic patients, highlighting the importance of optimizing amlodipine titration in this high-risk population. PMID:25484592

  7. Potential Role of MicroRNA-210 as Biomarker in Human Cancers Detection: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jiongjiong; Xie, Feng; Geng, Li; Shen, Weifeng; Sui, Chengjun; Yang, Jiamei

    2015-01-01

    We conducted this meta-analysis aimed to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of miR-210 in human cancers. A total of 673 cancer patients and 606 cancer-free individuals from 13 studies were contained in this meta-analysis. The overall diagnostic results in our study showed that the pooled sensitivity was 0.70, specificity was 0.76, and the AUC was 0.80. In addition, the PLR and NLR were 2.9 and 0.39, with DOR of 8. After the outliner exclusion detected by sensitivity analysis, these parameters had minimal change, which confirmed the stability of our work. The results in our studies showed that the miR-210 assay yielded relatively moderate accuracy in cancer patients and cancer-free individual differentiation. More basic researches are needed to highlight its role as supplement in clinical treatment. PMID:26446394

  8. A pooled analysis to define vitamin D dose requirements for fracture prevention in seniors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meta-analyses reached conflicting results regarding vitamin D and fracture reduction. We pooled individual participant-level data from 11 double-blind RCTs of oral vitamin D supplementation (daily, weekly, 4-monthly) with or without calcium compared with placebo or calcium in seniors age 65 and olde...

  9. Sparse principal component analysis in cancer research

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ying-Lin; Huang, Po-Yu; Chen, Dung-Tsa

    2015-01-01

    A critical challenging component in analyzing high-dimensional data in cancer research is how to reduce the dimension of data and how to extract relevant features. Sparse principal component analysis (PCA) is a powerful statistical tool that could help reduce data dimension and select important variables simultaneously. In this paper, we review several approaches for sparse PCA, including variance maximization (VM), reconstruction error minimization (REM), singular value decomposition (SVD), and probabilistic modeling (PM) approaches. A simulation study is conducted to compare PCA and the sparse PCAs. An example using a published gene signature in a lung cancer dataset is used to illustrate the potential application of sparse PCAs in cancer research.

  10. A keyhole volumetric model for weld pool analysis in Nd:YAG pulsed laser welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Jao-Hwa; Hung, Tsung-Pin; Chen, Chih-Kuan

    2012-07-01

    This study presents a new model for analyzing the temperature distribution and weld pool shape in Nd:YAG pulsed laser welding. In the proposed approach, a surface flux heat transfer model is applied in the low laser energy intensity region of the weld, while a keyhole heat transfer model based on a volumetric heat source is applied in the high laser energy intensity region of the weld. The correlation between the intensity of the laser input energy and the geometric parameters of the volumetric heat source is derived experimentally. A series of MARC finite element simulations based on the proposed single pulse model are performed to investigate the shape and size of the weld pool given different laser energy intensities. A good agreement is observed between the simulation results and the experimental results obtained under equivalent single pulse welding conditions. Thus, the basic validity of the proposed model is confirmed.

  11. Measurement and analysis of evaporation from an inactive outdoor swimming pool

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.C.; Loef, G. ); Jones, R. )

    1994-07-01

    Evaporation rates and total energy loads from an unoccupied, heated, outdoor pool in Fort Collins, Colorado were investigated. Pool and air temperatures, humidity, thermal radiation, wind speed, and water loss due to evaporation were measured over 21 test periods ranging from 1.1 to 16.2 hours during August and September, 1992. Data were analyzed and compared to commonly used evaporation rate equations, most notably that used in the ASHRAE Applications Handbook. Measured evaporation was 72% of the ASHRAE calculated value with near-zero wind velocity, and 82% of the ASHRAE value at 2.2 m/s wind velocity. A modified version of the ASHRAE equation was developed. Two overnight tests showed energy loss of 56% by evaporation, 26% by radiation, and 18% by convection. A correlation between radiation loss and temperatures was also found for the range of test conditions.

  12. Association between Dairy Intake and Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shu-bo; Yu, Jian-chun; Kang, Wei-ming; Ma, Zhi-qiang; Ye, Xin; Cao, Zhan-jiang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Observational studies have given inconsistent findings on the relationship between intake of dairy products and gastric cancer. We therefore conducted a systematic review with a meta-analysis of observational studies to summarize available evidence on this point. Methods We searched the electronic literature databases of PubMed (Medline), EMBASE and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database up until August 30, 2013. All studies were limited to the English language. Random-effects models were used to pool study results between dairy products consumption and the risk of gastric cancer. We also performed subgroup, publication bias and sensitivity analysis. Results Eight prospective studies and 18 case-control studies were included in our analysis, with a total number of 7272 gastric cancer cases and 223,355 controls. Pooled relative risks of all studies showed no significant association between dairy intake and gastric cancer (odds ratio [OR]: 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96–1.25). When study design was separately analyzed, population-based case-control studies showed a positive association between dairy intake and gastric cancer risk (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.07–1.74), whereas no associations were shown by hospital-based case-control studies (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.72–1.02) or cohort studies (OR?=?1.01, 95% CI?=?0.91–1.13). Conclusions The meta-analysis shows that no clear association apparently exists between consumption of dairy products and gastric cancer risk. Further well-designed cohort and intervention studies should be conducted to verify this lack of association. PMID:25006674

  13. Thermal analysis of five unglazed solar collector systems for the heating of outdoor swimming pools

    SciTech Connect

    Molineaux, B.; Lachal, B.; Guisan, O. )

    1994-07-01

    The performance and behavior of five unglazed solar collector installations, devoted to the heating of five outdoor swimming pools located in Switzerland, is studied on the basis of experimental data collected in 1988. Due to the low temperatures involved, hourly efficiencies often exceed 80%. The mean daily collector efficiency is of the order of 60% in optimal conditions and is in good agreement with the G3 simulation program.

  14. Fission matrix-based Monte Carlo criticality analysis of fuel storage pools

    SciTech Connect

    Farlotti, M.; Larsen, E. W.

    2013-07-01

    Standard Monte Carlo transport procedures experience difficulties in solving criticality problems in fuel storage pools. Because of the strong neutron absorption between fuel assemblies, source convergence can be very slow, leading to incorrect estimates of the eigenvalue and the eigenfunction. This study examines an alternative fission matrix-based Monte Carlo transport method that takes advantage of the geometry of a storage pool to overcome this difficulty. The method uses Monte Carlo transport to build (essentially) a fission matrix, which is then used to calculate the criticality and the critical flux. This method was tested using a test code on a simple problem containing 8 assemblies in a square pool. The standard Monte Carlo method gave the expected eigenfunction in 5 cases out of 10, while the fission matrix method gave the expected eigenfunction in all 10 cases. In addition, the fission matrix method provides an estimate of the error in the eigenvalue and the eigenfunction, and it allows the user to control this error by running an adequate number of cycles. Because of these advantages, the fission matrix method yields a higher confidence in the results than standard Monte Carlo. We also discuss potential improvements of the method, including the potential for variance reduction techniques. (authors)

  15. Worldwide Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus and Relative Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Xie, Shuanghua; Feng, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yuheng; Zheng, Tongzhang; Dai, Min; Ke Zhou, Cindy; Hu, Zhibin; Li, Ni; Hang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing number of studies conducted recently to evaluate the association between HPV infections and the risk of prostate cancer, the results remain inconclusive. Furthermore, the prevalence and distribution of overall and individual HPV types worldwide in prostate cancer has not been reported until now. Therefore, we estimated the prevalence of HPV in prostate cancer by pooling data of 46 studies with 4919 prostate cancer cases, taking into account the heterogeneity of major related parameters, including study region, specimen type, HPV DNA source, detection method, publication calendar period and Gleason score. Moreover, we tested the association of HPV infections with prostate cancer risks by a meta-analysis of 26 tissue-based case-control studies. We found that the prevalence of HPV infection was 18.93% (95% CI?=?17.84–20.05%) in prostate cancer cases, and most of which were high-risk HPV types (17.73%, 95% CI?=?16.52–18.99%). The prevalence varied by region, PCR primers used, publication calendar period and Gleason score. Our study also showed a significantly increased risk of prostate cancer with the positivity of overall HPV detected in prostate tissues (OR?=?1.79, 95% CI?=?1.29–2.49) and revealed the geographic variation of association strength (P?cancer. PMID:26441160

  16. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) protein expression and laryngeal cancer prognosis: a meta analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rong-Rong; Li, Ming-Dong; Li, Te; Tan, Yun; Zhang, Min; Chen, Ji-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and its clinical significance in laryngeal cancer. Methods: A comprehensive search for the related literature published in China and other countries was conducted in a variety of databases, including MEDLINE, Embase, China Academic Journals Full-text Database, Wanfang Data and VIP Database. A total of seven case-control studies were included in the final systematic assessment. A meta-analysis software program was used to statistically analyze the raw data from each study for the calculation of the pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Results: The meta-analysis indicated that, compared with normal laryngeal tissue, the MMP2 protein was highly expressed in the laryngeal cancer tissue [OR=21.67; 95% CI: 11.61-40.43; P<0.001]. Compared with highly differentiated laryngeal cancer, the MMP2 protein expression level was higher in the moderately and poorly differentiated laryngeal cancers [OR=0.25; 95% CI: 0.13-0.46; P<0.001]. Compared with laryngeal cancers without lymph node metastasis, the laryngeal cancers with lymph node metastasis exhibited a greatly elevated MMP2 protein expression [OR=0.25; 95% CI: 0.14-0.46; P<0.001]. Conclusion: High protein expression levels of MMP2 may play an important role in the tumorigenesis, progression and prognosis of laryngeal cancer. PMID:25932160

  17. p53 codon 72 polymorphism and breast cancer risk: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    HOU, JING; JIANG, YUAN; TANG, WENRU; JIA, SHUTING

    2013-01-01

    p53 is a tumor suppressor gene and plays important roles in the etiology of breast cancer. Studies have produced conflicting results concerning the role of p53 codon 72 polymorphism (G>C) on the risk of breast cancer; therefore, a meta-analysis was performed to estimate the association between the p53 codon 72 polymorphism and breast cancer. Screening of the PubMed database was conducted to identify relevant studies. Studies containing available genotype frequencies of the p53 codon 72 polymorphism were selected and a pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the association. Sixty-one published studies, including 28,539 breast cancer patients and 32,788 controls were identified. The results suggest that variant genotypes are not associated with breast cancer risk (Pro/Pro + Arg/Pro vs. Arg/Arg: OR=1.016, 95% CI=0.931–1.11, P=0.722). The symmetric funnel plot, Egger’s test (P=0.506) and Begg’s test (P=0.921) were all suggestive of the lack of publication bias. This meta-analysis suggests that the p53 codon 72 Pro/Pro + Arg/Pro genotypes are not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. To validate the association between the p53 codon 72 polymorphism and breast cancer, further studies with larger numbers of participants worldwide are required. PMID:23737888

  18. AACR 2015: Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes

    Cancer.gov

    The Pan-Cancer analysis of Whole Genomes (PCAWG) project of the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) is co-ordinating analysis of more than 2,000 whole cancer genomes. Each genome is characterized through a suite of centralized algorithms, including alignment to the reference genome, standardized quality assessment and calling of all classes of somatic mutation.

  19. Association of Vitamin E Intake with Reduced Risk of Kidney Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chongxing; Huang, Ying; Yi, Shanhong; Fang, Zhenqiang; Li, Longkun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Several observational studies suggested that vitamin E intake is related to the risk of kidney cancer; however, the results of published studies are inconsistent. MATERIAL AND METHODS A meta-analysis was performed to assess the relationship between vitamin E intake and the risk of kidney cancer by searching PubMed and Medline through August 2015. We computed pooled relative risks (RR) and 95%CI of kidney cancer for the highest versus lowest level of vitamin E intake. RESULTS A total of 13 observational studies (7 case-control and 6 cohort) were included. The pooled RR (95%CI) of kidney cancer for the highest vs. the lowest level of vitamin E intake was 0.81 (0.69-0.94). In subgroup-analysis, this study found an inverse relationship between vitamin E intake and kidney cancer risk, which was not significantly modified by study design, study population, or sex distribution except in the cohort studies. CONCLUSIONS Results of the present study suggest an inverse relationship between vitamin E intake and kidney cancer risk. However, additional well designed cohort studies and randomized controlled trials that focus on the relationship between vitamin E intake and kidney cancer risk are needed. PMID:26547129

  20. Association of Vitamin E Intake with Reduced Risk of Kidney Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chongxing; Huang, Ying; Yi, Shanhong; Fang, Zhenqiang; Li, Longkun

    2015-01-01

    Background Several observational studies suggested that vitamin E intake is related to the risk of kidney cancer; however, the results of published studies are inconsistent. Material/Methods A meta-analysis was performed to assess the relationship between vitamin E intake and the risk of kidney cancer by searching PubMed and Medline through August 2015. We computed pooled relative risks (RR) and 95%CI of kidney cancer for the highest versus lowest level of vitamin E intake. Results A total of 13 observational studies (7 case-control and 6 cohort) were included. The pooled RR (95%CI) of kidney cancer for the highest vs. the lowest level of vitamin E intake was 0.81 (0.69–0.94). In subgroup-analysis, this study found an inverse relationship between vitamin E intake and kidney cancer risk, which was not significantly modified by study design, study population, or sex distribution except in the cohort studies. Conclusions Results of the present study suggest an inverse relationship between vitamin E intake and kidney cancer risk. However, additional well designed cohort studies and randomized controlled trials that focus on the relationship between vitamin E intake and kidney cancer risk are needed. PMID:26547129

  1. Serum Lipids and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Epidemiologic studies exploring causal associations between serum lipids and breast cancer risk have reported contradictory results. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to evaluate these associations. Methods Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE through April 2015. We included prospective cohort studies that reported relative risk (RR) estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations of specific lipid components (i.e., total cholesterol [TC], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], and triglycerides [TG]) with breast cancer risk. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model was used to calculate pooled RRs. Results Fifteen prospective cohort studies involving 1,189,635 participants and 23,369 breast cancer cases were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RRs of breast cancer for the highest versus lowest categories were 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86–1.07) for TC, 0.92 (95% CI: 0.73–1.16) for HDL-C, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.77–1.06) for LDL-C, and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.86–1.00) for TG. Notably, for HDL-C, a significant reduction of breast cancer risk was observed among postmenopausal women (RR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.64–0.93) but not among premenopausal women. Similar trends of the associations were observed in the dose-response analysis. Conclusions Our findings suggest that serum levels of TG but not TC and LDL-C may be inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Serum HDL-C may also protect against breast carcinogenesis among postmenopausal women. PMID:26554382

  2. Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of MUC4 expression in cancers: evidence from meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xing; Wang, Xin; Lu, Shi-Ming; Chen, Chen; Wang, Jie; Zheng, Yan-Yan; Ren, Bin-Hui; Xu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Mucin4 (MUC4) is a secreted glycoprotein. Numerous studies had indicated that MUC4 was an attractive prognostic tumor biomarker. However, the results of different studies have been inconsistent. So we conducted this meta-analysis to explore the association between MUC4 expression and cancer prognosis. A systematically comprehensive search was performed through PubMed, EMBASE and CNKI (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure). Prognostic value of MUC4 expression in malignancy patients was evaluated by pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Meanwhile, pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI was appropriate for the association between MUC4 expression and clinicopathological parameters. Eighteen studies including 1,933 patients were enrolled in this meta-analysis. Significant association was found between elevated MUC4 expression and poorer overall survival (OS) with pooled hazard ratio (HR) of 1.87 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.58-2.23, P<0.001]. Significant associations were also detected in biliary tract carcinoma (HR: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.69-3.42, P<0.001), pancreatic cancer (HR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.42-2.86, P<0.001) and colorectal cancer (HR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.17-2.54, P=0.006). Moreover, combined odds ratio (OR) of MUC4 indicated that MUC4 overexpression was associated with tumor stage, tumor invasion and lymph node metastasis. Our results demonstrated that MUC4 may be exploited as a novel prognostic biomarker for cancer patients. PMID:26379819

  3. Exhaled breath analysis for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sutedja, Tom G.; Zimmerman, Paul V.

    2013-01-01

    Early diagnosis of lung cancer results in improved survival compared to diagnosis with more advanced disease. Early disease is not reliably indicated by symptoms. Because investigations such as bronchoscopy and needle biopsy have associated risks and substantial costs, they are not suitable for population screening. Hence new easily applicable tests, which can be used to screen individuals at risk, are required. Biomarker testing in exhaled breath samples is a simple, relatively inexpensive, non-invasive approach. Exhaled breath contains volatile and non-volatile organic compounds produced as end-products of metabolic processes and the composition of such compounds varies between healthy subjects and subjects with lung cancer. Many studies have analysed the patterns of these compounds in exhaled breath. In addition studies have also reported that the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) can reveal gene mutations or DNA abnormalities in patients with lung cancer. This review has summarised the scientific evidence demonstrating that lung cancer has distinct chemical profiles in exhaled breath and characteristic genetic changes in EBC. It is not yet possible to accurately identify individuals with lung cancer in at risk populations by any of these techniques. However, analysis of both volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath and of EBC have great potential to become clinically useful diagnostic and screening tools for early stage lung cancer detection. PMID:24163746

  4. Content analysis of cancer blog posts*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sujin

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The efficacy of user-defined subject tagging and software-generated subject tagging for describing and organizing cancer blog contents was explored. Methods: The Technorati search engine was used to search the blogosphere for cancer blog postings generated during a two-month period. Postings were mined for relevant subject concepts, and blogger-defined tags and Text Analysis Portal for Research (TAPoR) software–defined tags were generated for each message. Descriptive data were collected, and the blogger-defined tags were compared with software-generated tags. Three standard vocabularies (Opinion Templates, Basic Resource, and Medical Subject Headings [MeSH] Resource) were used to assign subject terms to the blogs, with results compared for efficacy in information retrieval. Results: Descriptive data showed that most of the studied cancer blogs (80%) contained fewer than 500 words each. The numbers of blogger-defined tags per posting (M?=?4.49 per posting) were significantly smaller than the TAPoR keywords (M?=?23.55 per posting). Both blogger-defined subject tags and software-generated subject tags were often overly broad or overly narrow in focus, producing less than effective search results for those seeking to extract information from cancer blogs. Conclusions: Additional exploration into methods for systematically organizing cancer blog postings is necessary if blogs are to become stable and efficacious information resources for cancer patients, friends, families, or providers. PMID:19851489

  5. Mediation by Peer Violence Victimization of Sexual Orientation Disparities in Cancer-Related Tobacco, Alcohol, and Sexual Risk Behaviors: Pooled Youth Risk Behavior Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Everett, Bethany G.; Russell, Stephen T.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Birkett, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the role of adolescent peer violence victimization (PVV) in sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors. Methods. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex sexual attraction, partners, or identity as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We had 4 indicators of tobacco and alcohol use and 4 of sexual risk and 2 PVV factors: victimization at school and carrying weapons. We stratified associations by gender and race/ethnicity. Results. PVV was related to disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of substance use and sexual risk, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.03, 1.6) to 11.3 (95% CI?=?6.2, 20.8), and to being a sexual minority, with ORs of 1.4 (95% CI?=?1.1, 1.9) to 5.6 (95% CI?=?3.5, 8.9). PVV mediated sexual orientation disparities in substance use and sexual risk behaviors. Findings were pronounced for adolescent girls and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Conclusions. Interventions are needed to reduce PVV in schools as a way to reduce sexual orientation disparities in cancer risk across the life span. PMID:24825215

  6. Thermal analysis of cancerous breast model

    PubMed Central

    Chanmugam, Arjun; Hatwar, Rajeev; Herman, Cila

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common and dangerous cancers. Subsurface breast cancer lesions generate more heat and have increased blood supply when compared to healthy tissue, and this temperature rise is mirrored in the skin surface temperature. The rise in temperature on the skin surface, caused by the cancerous lesion, can be measured noninvasively using infrared thermography, which can be used as a diagnostic tool to detect the presence of a lesion. However, its diagnostic ability is limited when image interpretation relies on qualitative principles. In this study, we present a quantitative thermal analysis of breast cancer using a 3D computational model of the breast. The COMSOL FEM software was used to carry out the analysis. The effect of various parameters (tumor size, location, metabolic heat generation and blood perfusion rate) on the surface temperature distribution (which can be measured with infrared thermography) has been analyzed. Key defining features of the surface temperature profile have been identified, which can be used to estimate the size and location of the tumor based on (measured) surface temperature data. In addition, we employed a dynamic cooling process, to analyze surface temperature distributions during cooling and thermal recovery as a function of time. In this study, the effect of the cooling temperature on the enhancement of the temperature differences between normal tissue and cancerous lesions is evaluated. This study demonstrates that a quantification of temperature distributions by computational modeling, combined with thermographic imaging and dynamic cooling can be an important tool in the early detection of breast cancer. PMID:25328914

  7. Risks on N-acetyltransferase 2 and bladder cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zongheng; Zhang, Jinshan; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Xianjue; Li, Youkong; Xu, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Background It is known that bladder cancer disease is closely related to aromatic amine compounds, which could cause cancer by regulating of N-acetylation and N-acetyltransferase 1 and 2 (NAT1 and NAT2). The NAT2 slowed acetylation and would increase the risk of bladder cancer, with tobacco smoke being regarded as a risk factor for this increased risk. However, the relationship between NAT2 slow acetylation and bladder cancer is still debatable at present. This study aims to explore preliminarily correlation of NAT2 slow acetylation and the risk of bladder cancer. Methods The articles were searched from PubMed, Cochran, McGrane English databases, CBM, CNKI, and other databases. The extraction of bladder cancer patients and a control group related with the NAT2 gene were detected by the state, and the referenced articles and publications were also used for data retrieval. Using a random effects model, the model assumes that the studies included in the analysis cases belong to the overall population in the study of random sampling, and considering the variables within and between studies. Data were analyzed using STATA Version 6.0 software, using the META module. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the literature study, 20 independent studies are included in this meta-analysis. Results The results showed that the individual differences of bladder cancer susceptibility might be part of the metabolism of carcinogens. Slow acetylation status of bladder cancer associated with the pooled odds ratio was 1.31 (95% confidence interval: 1.11–1.55). Conclusion The status of NAT2 slow N-acetylation is associated with bladder cancer risks, and may increase the risk of bladder cancer. PMID:26715854

  8. Pooling and Analysis of Published in Vitro Data: A Proof of Concept Study for the Grouping of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Simkó, Myrtill; Tischler, Sonja; Mattsson, Mats-Olof

    2015-01-01

    The study aim was to test the applicability of pooling of nanomaterials-induced in vitro data for identifying the toxic capacity of specific (SiO2, TiO2, ZnO, CuO, CeO2 and carbon nanotubes, [CNT]) nanoparticles (NP) and to test the usefulness for grouping purposes. Publication selection was based on specific criteria regarding experimental conditions. Two relevant biological endpoints were selected; generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and viability above 90%. The correlations of the ROS ratios with the NP parameters’ size, concentration, and exposure time were analysed. The obtained data sets were then analysed with multiple regression analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey post-hoc test. The results show that this method is applicable for the selected metal oxide NP, but might need reconsideration and a larger data set for CNT. Several statistically significant correlations and results were obtained, thus validating the method. Furthermore, the relevance of the combination of ROS release with a cell viability test was shown. The data also show that it is advisable to compare ROS production of professional phagocytic with non-phagocytic cells. In conclusion, this is the first systematic analysis showing that pooling of available data into groups is a useful method for evaluation of data regarding NP induced toxicity in vitro. PMID:26540047

  9. Pooling and Analysis of Published in Vitro Data: A Proof of Concept Study for the Grouping of Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Simkó, Myrtill; Tischler, Sonja; Mattsson, Mats-Olof

    2015-01-01

    The study aim was to test the applicability of pooling of nanomaterials-induced in vitro data for identifying the toxic capacity of specific (SiO?, TiO?, ZnO, CuO, CeO? and carbon nanotubes, [CNT]) nanoparticles (NP) and to test the usefulness for grouping purposes. Publication selection was based on specific criteria regarding experimental conditions. Two relevant biological endpoints were selected; generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and viability above 90%. The correlations of the ROS ratios with the NP parameters' size, concentration, and exposure time were analysed. The obtained data sets were then analysed with multiple regression analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey post-hoc test. The results show that this method is applicable for the selected metal oxide NP, but might need reconsideration and a larger data set for CNT. Several statistically significant correlations and results were obtained, thus validating the method. Furthermore, the relevance of the combination of ROS release with a cell viability test was shown. The data also show that it is advisable to compare ROS production of professional phagocytic with non-phagocytic cells. In conclusion, this is the first systematic analysis showing that pooling of available data into groups is a useful method for evaluation of data regarding NP induced toxicity in vitro. PMID:26540047

  10. Cave Pool

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A pool in the Caverns of Sonora. This cave, like many others, was formed by water combining with carbon dioxide to create a weak carbonic acid. This acid then dissolved the limestone to carve out chambers. The dissolved calcium from the limestone then combined with the carbon dioxide to create calci...

  11. CHEK2 mutation and risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Dai, Bo; Ye, Dingwei

    2015-01-01

    Background: CHEK2 encodes for a G2 checkpoint kinase which plays a critical role in DNA repair. Its mutation confers an increased risk of breast cancer. It has also been suggested to increase risks of prostate cancer, but its involvement with this type of cancer has not been confirmed. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the association between CHEK2 1100delC, IVS2+1G>A, I157T mutation and risk of Prostate Cancer. A comprehensive, computerized literature search of PubMed until December 27, 2014 was carried out. Eligible studies were included according to specific inclusion criteria. Pooled hazard ratio was estimated using the fixed effects model or random effects model according to heterogeneity between studies. Results: Eight eligible studies were included in the analysis, all were retrospective studies. The overall meta-analysis demonstrated that the CHEK2 1100delC mutation (OR 3.29; 95% confidence interval: 1.85-5.85; P = 0.00) and I157T missense mutation (OR 1.80; 95% confidence interval: 1.51-2.14; P = 0.00) was associated with higher risk of Prostate Cancer, and CHEK2 1100delC mutation is irrelevant to familial aggregation phenomenon of prostate cancer (OR 1.59; 95% confidence interval: 0.79-3.20; P = 0.20). The IVS2+1G>A mutation is also irrelevant to Prostate Cancer (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 0.93-2.71, P = 0.09). None of the single studies materially altered the original results and no evidence of publication bias was found. Conclusion: CHEK2 1100delC mutation and I157T missense mutation in males indicates higher risk of Prostate Cancer, but there’s no evidence to prove the CHEK2 1100delC mutation was associated with Familial prostate cancer. PMID:26629066

  12. Meta-Analysis of Prognostic and Clinical Significance of CD44v6 in Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bangli; Luo, Wei; Hu, Rui-Ting; Zhou, You; Qin, Shan-Yu; Jiang, Hai-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Abstract CD44v6 is a cell adhesion molecule that plays an important role in the development and progression of esophageal cancer. However, the prognostic value and clinical significance of CD44v6 in esophageal cancer remains controversial. In the present study, we aimed to clarify these relationships through a meta-analysis. We performed a comprehensive search of studies from PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid library database, Google scholar, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases that were published before June 2015. The odds ratio (OR) and pooled hazard ratio (HR) with the 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate the effects. Twenty-one studies including 1504 patients with esophageal cancer were selected to assess the prognostic value and clinical significance of CD44v6 in these patients. The results showed that the expression of CD44v6 was higher in esophageal cancer tissue than in normal colorectal tissue (OR?=?9.19, 95% CI?=?6.30–13.42). Moreover, expression of CD44v6 was higher in patients with lymphoid nodal metastasis, compared to those without (OR?=?6.91, 95% CI?=?4.81–9.93). The pooled results showed that CD44v6 was associated with survival in patients with esophageal cancer (HR?=?2.47, 95% CI?=?1.56–3.92). No significant difference in CD44v6 expression was found in patients with different histological types and tumor stages (both P?>?0.05). Moreover, no publication bias was found among the studies (all P?>?0.05). This meta-analysis demonstrates that CD44v6 is associated with the metastasis of esophageal cancer and a poor prognosis, but is not associated with the histological types and tumor stages. PMID:26252284

  13. Functional genomics platform for pooled screening and generation of mammalian genetic interaction maps | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Systematic genetic interaction maps in microorganisms are powerful tools for identifying functional relationships between genes and for defining the function of uncharacterized genes. We have recently implemented this strategy in mammalian cells as a two-stage approach. First, genes of interest are robustly identified in a pooled genome-wide screen using complex shRNA libraries. Second, phenotypes for all pairwise combinations of 'hit' genes are measured in a double-shRNA screen and used to construct a genetic interaction map.

  14. BAC-Pool Sequencing and Analysis of Large Segments of A12 and D12 Homoeologous Chromosomes in Upland Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Buyyarapu, Ramesh; Kantety, Ramesh V.; Yu, John Z.; Xu, Zhanyou; Kohel, Russell J.; Percy, Richard G.; Macmil, Simone; Wiley, Graham B.; Roe, Bruce A.; Sharma, Govind C.

    2013-01-01

    Although new and emerging next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have reduced sequencing costs significantly, much work remains to implement them for de novo sequencing of complex and highly repetitive genomes such as the tetraploid genome of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Herein we report the results from implementing a novel, hybrid Sanger/454-based BAC-pool sequencing strategy using minimum tiling path (MTP) BACs from Ctg-3301 and Ctg-465, two large genomic segments in A12 and D12 homoeologous chromosomes (Ctg). To enable generation of longer contig sequences in assembly, we implemented a hybrid assembly method to process ~35x data from 454 technology and 2.8-3x data from Sanger method. Hybrid assemblies offered higher sequence coverage and better sequence assemblies. Homology studies revealed the presence of retrotransposon regions like Copia and Gypsy elements in these contigs and also helped in identifying new genomic SSRs. Unigenes were anchored to the sequences in Ctg-3301 and Ctg-465 to support the physical map. Gene density, gene structure and protein sequence information derived from protein prediction programs were used to obtain the functional annotation of these genes. Comparative analysis of both contigs with Arabidopsis genome exhibited synteny and microcollinearity with a conserved gene order in both genomes. This study provides insight about use of MTP-based BAC-pool sequencing approach for sequencing complex polyploid genomes with limited constraints in generating better sequence assemblies to build reference scaffold sequences. Combining the utilities of MTP-based BAC-pool sequencing with current longer and short read NGS technologies in multiplexed format would provide a new direction to cost-effectively and precisely sequence complex plant genomes. PMID:24116150

  15. Microarray analysis in gastric cancer: A review

    PubMed Central

    D’Angelo, Giovanna; Di Rienzo, Teresa; Ojetti, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common tumors worldwide. Although several treatment options have been developed, the mortality rate is increasing. Lymph node involvement is considered the most reliable prognostic indicator in gastric cancer. Early diagnosis improves the survival rate of patients and increases the likelihood of successful treatment. The most reliable diagnostic method is endoscopic examination, however, it is expensive and not feasible in poorer countries. Therefore, many innovative techniques have been studied to develop a new non-invasive screening test and to identify specific serum biomarkers. DNA microarray analysis is one of the new technologies able to measure the expression levels of a large number of genes simultaneously. It is possible to define the gene expression profile of the tumor and to correlate it with the prognosis and metastasis formation. Several studies in the literature have been published on the role of microarray analysis in gastric cancer and the mechanisms of proliferation and metastasis formation. The aim of this review is to analyze the importance of microarray analysis and its clinical applications to better define the genetic characteristics of gastric cancer and its possible implications in a more decisive treatment. PMID:25232233

  16. The Prognostic Value of Global DNA Hypomethylation in Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fangfang; Li, Wenxue; He, Zhini; Chen, Wen; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Background Aberrant methylation of the global genome has been investigated as a prognostic indicator in various cancers, but the results are controversial and ambiguous. Methods and Findings This meta-analysis presents pooled estimates of the evidence to elucidate this issue. We searched the electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane library (up to August 2013) to identify all of the relevant studies. The association between the level of surrogates' indexes of genome-wide hypomethylation (LINE-1, Alu and Sat–?) and the overall survival (OS) of cancer patients was examined. In addition, the pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with their 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were calculated to estimate the influences through fixed-effects and random-effects model. Finally, twenty studies with total population of 5447 met the inclusion criteria. The results indicate that the summary HRs for the studies employing LINE-1, Alu, and Sat-? repetitive elements also show that the global DNA hypomethylation have significant desirable effects on the tumour prognostic value. The pooled HRs (and CIs) of LINE-1, Alu and Sat-? were 1.83 (1.38–2.44), 2.00 (1.16–3.45), and 2.92 (1.04–8.25), with a heterogeneity measure index of I2 (and p-value) shows of 66.6% (p?=?0.001), 57.1% (p?=?0.053) and 68.2% (p?=?0.076) respectively. The meta-regression and subgroup analysis indicated that the percentage of hypomethylated sample of cancer patients is one source of heterogeneity. Conclusion Our meta-analysis findings support the hypothesis that the global DNA hypomethylation is associated with a detrimental prognosis in tumour patients. PMID:25184628

  17. Plasma effect on weld pool surface reconstruction by shape-from-polarization analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Coniglio, N.; Mathieu, A.

    2014-03-31

    The polarimetric state of the thermal radiations emitted by the weld metal contains geometric information about the emitting surface. Even though the analysed thermal radiation has a wavelength corresponding to a blind spectral window of the arc plasma, the physical presence of the arc plasma itself interferes with the rays radiated by the weld pool surface before attaining the polarimeter, thus modifying the geometric information transported by the ray. In the present work, the effect of the arc plasma-surrounding zone on the polarimetric state and propagation direction of the radiated ray is analyzed. The interaction with the arc plasma zone induces a drop in ray intensity and a refraction of ray optical path.

  18. Analysis of gravity anomaly over coral-reef oil field: Wilfred Pool, Sullivan County, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Dana, S.W.

    1980-03-01

    To compare the measured and theoretical gravity anomaly of a typical coral-reef oil field, data were collected from the wilfred Pool, Sullivan County, Indiana. Densities of available core samples from the field were determined and the anomaly was calculated, taking into account the lateral and vertical variation of density and the geologic structure known from core studies and drilling-log records of lithologic types penetrated by the wells. Comparison of the theoretical and actual anomalies indicated a rough correspondence except for several sharp negative anomalies on the flanks of the measured gravity anomaly. Further studies indicated that the negative anomalies are possibly due to fluvial erosion that produced, on the surface of the youngest Pennsylvanian sediments, channels which were later filled with glacial till of lower density than the sediments. 13 figures.

  19. High Throughput Analysis of Breast Cancer Specimens on the Grid

    E-print Network

    High Throughput Analysis of Breast Cancer Specimens on the Grid Lin Yang1,2 , Wenjin Chen2 , Peter Breast cancer is a malignant neoplasm that can affect both women and men. It is the leading cancer/Alaska Native women [1,2]. The incidence of breast cancer among women has increased gradually from one in 20

  20. Greater weight loss among men participating in a commercial weight loss program: a pooled analysis of 2 randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Barraj, Leila M; Murphy, Mary M; Heshka, Stanley; Katz, David L

    2014-02-01

    Being overweight and obese are significant health concerns for men and women, yet despite comparable needs for effective weight loss and maintenance strategies, little is known about the success of commercial weight loss programs in men. This study tests the hypothesis that men participating in a commercial weight loss program (Weight Watchers) had significantly greater weight loss than men receiving limited support from health professionals for weight loss (controls). A pooled analysis of weight loss and related physiologic parameter data from 2 randomized clinical trials was conducted. After 12 months, analysis of covariance tests showed that men in the commercial program group (n = 85) lost significantly more weight (P < .01) than men in the control group (n = 84); similar significant differences were observed for body mass index and waist circumference. These results suggest that participation in a commercial weight loss program may be a more effective means to lose weight and maintain weight loss. PMID:24461320

  1. Depression and anxiety in ovarian cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence rates

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Sam; Prescott, Philip; Mason, Jessica; McLeod, Natalie; Lewith, George

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review the literature pertaining to the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with ovarian cancer as a function of treatment stage. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Participants 3623 patients with ovarian cancer from primary research investigations. Primary outcome measure The prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with ovarian cancer as a function of treatment stage. Results We identified 24 full journal articles that met the inclusion criteria for entry into the meta-analysis resulting in a pooled sample size of 3623 patients. The meta-analysis of prevalence rates identified pretreatment, on-treatment and post-treatment depression prevalences of 25.34% (CI 22.79% to 28.07%), 22.99% (CI 19.85% to 26.46%) and 12.71% (CI 10.14% to 15.79%), respectively. Pretreatment, on-treatment and post-treatment anxiety prevalences were 19.12% (CI 17.11% to 21.30%), 26.23% (CI 22.30% to 30.56%) and 27.09% (CI 23.10% to 31.49%). Conclusions Our findings suggest that the prevalence of depression and anxiety in women with ovarian cancer, across the treatment spectrum, is significantly greater than in the healthy female population. With the growing emphasis on improving the management of survivorship and quality of life, we conclude that further research is warranted to ensure psychological distress in ovarian cancer is not underdiagnosed and undertreated. PMID:26621509

  2. 356 THE NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Feb. 8, 1996 COHORT STUDIES OF FAT INTAKE AND THE RISK OF BREAST CANCER --

    E-print Network

    Davidian, Marie

    OF BREAST CANCER -- A POOLED ANALYSIS DAVID J. HUNTER, M.B., B.S., DONNA SPIEGELMAN, SC.D., HANS-OLOV ADAMI support an association between dietary fat intake and the incidence of breast cancer. Most cohort studies in the lowest quintile, the multivariate pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.05 (95 percent confidence

  3. The Association between Telomere Length and Cancer Prognosis: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lu; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Chao; Hou, Shuxun

    2015-01-01

    Background Telomeres are essential for chromosomal integrity and stability. Shortened telomere length (TL) has been associated with risk of cancers and aging-related diseases. Several studies have explored associations between TL and cancer prognosis, but the results are conflicting. Methods Prospective studies on the relationship between TL and cancer survival were identified by a search of PubMed up to May 25, 2015. There were no restrictions on the cancer type or DNA source. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analysis approaches were conducted to determine pooled relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Results Thirty-three articles containing forty-five independent studies were ultimately involved in our meta-analysis, of which twenty-seven were about overall cancer survival and eighteen were about cancer progression. Short TL was associated with increased cancer mortality risk (RR = 1.30, 95%CI: 1.06–1.59) and poor cancer progression (RR = 1.44, 95%CI: 1.10–1.88), both with high levels of heterogeneity (I2 = 83.5%, P = 0.012for overall survival and I2 = 75.4%, P = 0.008 for progression). TL was an independent predictor of overall cancer survival and progression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Besides, short telomeres were also associated with increased colorectal cancer mortality and decreased overall survival of esophageal cancer, but not in other cancers. Cancer progression was associated with TL in Asian and America populations and short TL predicted poor cancer survival in older populations. Compared with tumor tissue cells, TL in blood lymphocyte cells was better for prediction. In addition, the associations remained significant when restricted to studies with adjustments for age, with larger sample sizes, measuring TL using southern blotting or estimating risk effects by hazard ratios. Conclusion Short TL demonstrated a significant association with poor cancer survival, suggesting the potential prognostic significance of TL. Additional large well-designed studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:26177192

  4. Analysis of an open-air swimming pool solar heating system by using an experimentally validated TRNSYS model

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, Elisa; Martinez, Pedro J.

    2010-01-15

    In the case of private outdoor swimming pools, seldom larger than 100 m{sup 2}, conventional auxiliary heating systems are being installed less and less. Solar heating is an option to extend the swimming season. The temperature evolution of an open-air swimming pool highly depends on the wind speed directly on the water surface, which at the same time is influenced by the surroundings of the pool. In this paper, the TRNSYS model of a private open-air pool with a 50-m{sup 2} surface was validated by registering the water temperature evolution and the meteorological data at the pool site. Evaporation is the main component of energy loss in swimming pools. Six different sets of constants found in literature were considered to evaluate the evaporative heat transfer coefficient with the purpose of finding the most suitable one for the TRNSYS pool model. In order to do that, the evolution of the pool water temperature predicted by the TRNSYS pool model was compared with the experimentally registered one. The simulation with TRNSYS of the total system, including the swimming pool and the absorber circuit integrated into the existing filter circuit, provided information regarding the increase of the pool temperature for different collector areas during the swimming season. This knowledge, together with the economic costs, support the decision about the absorber field size. (author)

  5. Statin use and breast cancer survival and risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi-Jun; Tu, Chao; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Zhu, Jingjing; Qian, Ke-Qing; Li, Wen-Jing; Wu, Lang

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine the associations between statin use and breast cancer survival and risk by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science up to August 2015 for identifying relevant prospective or case-control studies, or randomized clinical trials. Five prospective studies involving 60,911 patients reported the association between statin use and breast cancer mortality. Eleven prospective studies, 12 case-control studies and 9 randomized clinical trials involving 83,919 patients reported the association between statin use and breast cancer risk. After pooling estimates from all available studies, there was a significantly negative association between pre-diagnosis statin use and breast cancer mortality (for overall survival (OS): hazard ratio (HR) = 0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54-0.84; for disease specific survival (DSS): HR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.53-0.99). There was also a significant inverse association between post-diagnosis statin use and breast cancer DSS (HR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.43-0.98), although the association with breast cancer OS did not reach statistical significance (HR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.48-1.07). Additionally, there was a non-linear relationship for the duration of post-diagnosis statin use with breast cancer specific mortality. On the other hand, with regards to the relationship between statin use and breast cancer risk, no significant association was detected. Our analyses suggest that although statin use may not influence breast cancer risk, the use of statin may be associated with decrease mortality of breast cancer patients. Further large-scale studies are warranted to validate our findings. PMID:26472026

  6. Aspirin Use and Lung Cancer Risk: A Possible Relationship? Evidence from an Updated Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lei; Yu, Jing; Wu, Yan; Geng, Jiang; Yao, Xu-dong

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Growing evidence has emerged and controversial results reported on possible relationship between aspirin use and lung cancer risk. We, therefore, conducted this updated and comprehensive meta-analysis to evaluate this issue, with focus on dose-risk and duration-risk relationships. Methods We searched electronic databases including PUBMED, EMBASE and Cochrane library to identify eligible studies. Relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were used for cohort studies, while odds ratio (OR) were employed for case-control studies. The random effects and fixed effects models were used for analyses. Results 18 studies were identified including 19835 lung cancer cases, which were eligible for inclusion in the present meta-analysis. Pooled data from case-control studies showed a significant inverse association between regular aspirin use and lung cancer risk. But for cohort studies, insignificant association was detected with little evidence of heterogeneity (RR: 1.05, 95%CI: 0.95 – 1.16; I2: 10.3%, p value: 0.351). In case-control studies, standard aspirin use (>325mg) was related to lower lung cancer incidence, compared with low-dose aspirin use (75–100mg). A similar trend was observed in cohort studies. Besides, when analysis was restricted to long time regular aspirin use (>5 years), insignificant results were reported in both cohort and case-control studies. Finally, regular aspirin use might result in higher reduction of non-small cell lung cancer incidence among men. Conclusions Our findings do not support the protective effect of regular aspirin use on lung cancer risk. Long time aspirin use, sex, dose and type of lung cancer might alter the effect of aspirin use on lung cancer risk. More well-designed studies are needed to further clarify these associations. PMID:25849465

  7. RDA Analysis of Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Michael Wigler, of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, has been examining genetic changes in breast tumor tissue from patients on Long Island using a technique called representational difference analysis (RDA). In this pilot study, he demonstrated that the technique permits cloning of DNA probes that mark the presence of genetic lesions in tumors.

  8. Diagnostic value of SHOX2 DNA methylation in lung cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qing-Tao; Guo, Tao; Wang, Hui-En; Zhang, Xiao-Peng; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Zhi-Kang; Yuan, Zheng; Duan, Guo-Chen

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic value of SHOX2 DNA methylation in patients with lung cancer remains controversial. Thus, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess diagnostic accuracy of SHOX2 DNA methylation in the lymph node, bronchial aspirates, pleural effusion, plasma, and tumor tissue for lung cancer. We conducted a comprehensive literature search in PubMed, Ovid, the Cochrane library, and Web of Science databases in May 2015. The diagnostic sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve were pooled using STATA 12.0 software. A total of 2,296 subjects included 1,129 lung cancer patients in eight studies were recruited in this meta-analysis. The summary estimates for SHOX2 DNA methylation in the diagnosis of lung cancer in these studies were pooled SEN =0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.46–0.87), SPE =0.96 (95% CI: 0.91–0.99), PLR 20.01 (95% CI: 6.96–57.52), NLR 0.31 (95% CI: 0.15–0.64), and DOR 65.11 (95% CI: 13.10–323.61), and the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.94–0.97). SHOX2 DNA methylation has greater diagnostic value in detecting lung cancer. In addition, considering the potential publication bias and high heterogeneity, further research studies with more well-designed and large sample sizes are needed in the future. PMID:26640383

  9. Association between Metformin Therapy and Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ting; Yang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Metformin may be associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the effect of metformin intake on breast cancer risk and mortality. Methods We performed a PubMed and EMbase search for all available studies that described the risk of breast cancer and all-cause mortality in relation to the use of metformin among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pooled relative risks (RRs) were determined using a random effects model to assess the strength of association between metformin and the risk of breast cancer. Results Fifteen articles from PubMed satisfied the inclusion criteria, including a total of 838,333 participants. Compared with the control group, metformin use was not related to a reduced incidence of breast cancer (RR, 0.964; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.761-1.221; p=0.761). However, metformin therapy was associated with decreased all-cause mortality (RR, 0.652; 95% CI, 0.488-0.873; p=0.004). No obvious publication bias was detected (incidence: pBegg=0.755, pEgger=0.008; mortality: pBegg=0.072, pEgger=0.185). Conclusion The present study suggested that metformin therapy may decrease the all-cause mortality of patients affected by breast cancer. However, this finding should be considered carefully and confirmed with further studies. PMID:26472977

  10. Metabolic Syndrome Is Associated with Increased Breast Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Ruchi; Kelley, George A.; Hartley, Tara A.; Rockett, Ian R. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Although individual metabolic risk factors are reported to be associated with breast cancer risk, controversy surrounds risk of breast cancer from metabolic syndrome (MS). We report the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between MS and breast cancer risk in all adult females. Methods. Studies were retrieved by searching four electronic reference databases [PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Web of Science, and ProQuest through June 30, 2012] and cross-referencing retrieved articles. Eligible for inclusion were longitudinal studies reporting associations between MS and breast cancer risk among females aged 18 years and older. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each study and pooled using random-effects models. Publication bias was assessed quantitatively (Trim and Fill) and qualitatively (funnel plots). Heterogeneity was examined using Q and I2 statistics. Results. Representing nine independent cohorts and 97,277 adult females, eight studies met the inclusion criteria. A modest, positive association was observed between MS and breast cancer risk (RR: 1.47, 95% CI, 1.15–1.87; z = 3.13; p = 0.002; Q = 26.28, p = 0.001; I2 = 69.55%). No publication bias was observed. Conclusions. MS is associated with increased breast cancer risk in adult women. PMID:25653879

  11. Computational Analysis of Energy Pooling to Harvest Low-Energy Solar Energy in Organic Photovoltaic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacount, Michael; Shaheen, Sean; Rumbles, Garry; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Hu, Nan; Ostrowski, Dave; Lusk, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Current photovoltaic energy conversions do not typically utilize low energy sunlight absorption, leaving large sections of the solar spectrum untapped. It is possible, though, to absorb such radiation, generating low-energy excitons, and then pool them to create higher energy excitons, which can result in an increase in efficiency. Calculation of the rates at which such upconversion processes occur requires an accounting of all possible molecular quantum electrodynamics (QED) pathways. There are two paths associated with the upconversion. The cooperative mechanism involves a three-body interaction in which low energy excitons are transferred sequentially onto an acceptor molecule. The accretive pathway, requires that an exciton transfer its energy to a second exciton that subsequently transfers its energy to the acceptor molecule. We have computationally modeled both types of molecular QED obtaining rates using a combination of DFT and many-body Green function theory. The simulation platform is exercised by considering upconversion events associated with material composed of a high energy absorbing core of hexabenzocoronene (HBC) and low energy absorbing arms of oligothiophene. In addition, we make estimates for all competing processes in order to judge the relative efficiencies of these two processes.

  12. A Meta Analysis of Pancreatic Microarray Datasets Yields New Targets as Cancer Genes and Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Goonesekere, Nalin C. W.; Wang, Xiaosheng; Ludwig, Lindsey; Guda, Chittibabu

    2014-01-01

    The lack of specific symptoms at early tumor stages, together with a high biological aggressiveness of the tumor contribute to the high mortality rate for pancreatic cancer (PC), which has a five year survival rate of less than 5%. Improved screening for earlier diagnosis, through the detection of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers provides the best hope of increasing the rate of curatively resectable carcinomas. Though many serum markers have been reported to be elevated in patients with PC, so far, most of these markers have not been implemented into clinical routine due to low sensitivity or specificity. In this study, we have identified genes that are significantly upregulated in PC, through a meta-analysis of large number of microarray datasets. We demonstrate that the biological functions ascribed to these genes are clearly associated with PC and metastasis, and that that these genes exhibit a strong link to pathways involved with inflammation and the immune response. This investigation has yielded new targets for cancer genes, and potential biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. The candidate list of cancer genes includes protein kinase genes, new members of gene families currently associated with PC, as well as genes not previously linked to PC. In this study, we are also able to move towards developing a signature for hypomethylated genes, which could be useful for early detection of PC. We also show that the significantly upregulated 800+ genes in our analysis can serve as an enriched pool for tissue and serum protein biomarkers in pancreatic cancer. PMID:24740004

  13. A factor analysis of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms using data pooled from two venlafaxine extended-release clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Dan J; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Baldwin, David S; Szumski, Annette; Pedersen, Ronald; Davidson, Jonathan R T

    2013-01-01

    Background Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) (DSM-IV) three-factor posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria was conducted to determine fit for this patient population. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of alternate symptom structures was planned to identify symptoms that cluster in this population. The response of symptom factors to treatment with venlafaxine extended release (ER) was explored. Methods Baseline 17-item Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS-SX17) data were pooled from patients enrolled in two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials. The CFA was conducted using maximum likelihood and weighted, least-squares factor extraction methods. The EFA was performed using a polychoric correlation covariance matrix and Pearson correlation matrix. Results Data from a pooled population of 685 patients (venlafaxine ER: n = 339; placebo: n = 346) were analyzed. CFA rejected the DSM-IV three-factor structure. The EFA identified a different three-factor structure as the best fit: factor 1 included reexperiencing symptoms, factor 2 included symptoms of altered mood and cognition, whereas factor 3 comprised avoidance and arousal symptoms. All DSM-IV symptom factors and all factors in the identified three-factor model responded positively to venlafaxine ER treatment. Conclusions Data are consistent with literature failing to confirm the three-factor structure of DSM-IV PTSD, and they support the DSM-5 inclusion of a symptom cluster addressing altered mood and cognition in PTSD. The efficacy of venlafaxine ER in reducing a range of symptom clusters in PTSD is consistent with its multiple mechanisms of action. PMID:24363976

  14. A new method for Fourier analysis in ECG-gated cardiac blood pool emission computed tomography (ECT)

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, T.; Maeda, H.; Takeda, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Yamaguchi, N.; Konishi, T.; Ichikawa, T.

    1984-01-01

    An integrated technique for Fourier analysis in multigated blood pool ECT study has been developed. Following the administration of 15-20 mCi of Tc-99m RBC, ECG-gated cardiac blood pool data were acquired using an ECT system with dual opposed gamma cameras. Fundamental studies for data acquisition showed that acquisition time of 10 sec. for each projection, 14 divisions of one cardiac cycle and angular interval of 6/sup 0/ (60 projections over 360/sup 0/) were reasonable for clinical purpose. Total acquisition time was about 5 minutes under these conditions. Data were processed as follows: 1) Transaxial (TA) tomographic images in every phase of cardiac cycle were reconstructed by convolution algorithm; 2) TA images were rotated to construct sagittal (SAG) and short axial (S-A) oblique-angle tomography which are respectively parallel and perpendicular to the long axis of either of the ventricles; 3) Images covering the portion other than the purposed ventricle were eliminated from the series of SAG images in every phase of the cycle; 4) Images in the same phase were summed to construct a series of SAG and S-A planar images; and 5) Fourier analysis was made to construct phase and amplitude images. The advantages of this method are that the phase and amplitude images from arbitrary directions can be obtained, that the region of interest can be selected on a three dimensional basis, eliminating the overlapping activity of the other ventricle or neighbouring tissues, that the diseased areas can be easily and accurately localized even in small inferior wall myocardial infarction and that patient study can be finished within 5 minutes.

  15. Harmine hydrochloride inhibits Akt phosphorylation and depletes the pool of cancer stem-like cells of glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huailei; Han, Dayong; Liu, Yaohua; Hou, Xu; Wu, Jianing; Li, Huadong; Yang, Jie; Shen, Chen; Yang, Guang; Fu, Changyu; Li, Xianfeng; Che, Hui; Ai, Jing; Zhao, Shiguang

    2013-03-01

    Harmine hydrochloride (Har-hc), a derivative from Harmine which is a natural extractive from plants, has been considered for treatment of kinds of cancers and cerebral diseases. In this study, we found that Har-hc clearly decreased cell viability, induced apoptosis and inhibited Akt phosphorylation in glioblastoma cell lines. Moreover, Har-hc had the ability to inhibit self-renewal and promote differentiation of glioblastoma stem like cells (GSLCs) accompanied by inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. Especially, we demonstrated that Har-hc inhibited neurosphere formation of human primary GSLCs. In vivo test also confirmed Har-hc decreased the tumorigenicity of GSLCs. Thus we conclude that Har-hc has potent anti-cancer effects in glioblastoma cells, which is at least partially via inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. Administration of Har-hc may act as a new approach to glioblastoma treatment. PMID:23392846

  16. Meta-analysis in cancer epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Morris, R D

    1994-11-01

    Meta-analysis has seen increasing use as a tool in epidemiology over the past five years. Although this method is relatively well accepted for use in clinical trials, its use has proved somewhat more controversial in epidemiology. If meta-analysis is viewed as an evolutionary improvement over the review article, it may become more widely acceptable. Meta-analysis should incorporate the concern for study quality and differences in study design seen in classic review articles with the concern for rigor, objectivity, and quantitative precision characteristic of meta-analysis. Available tools for consideration of differences among studies are described with several examples from the literature. The extent to which various methods are used in published meta-analyses is described. Methods for assessing publication bias, and tools for combining dose-response data, are discussed also. Evaluation of risk factors and protective factors for cancer must be based on the weight of the evidence. Tools such as meta-analysis are essential if we are to interpret the vast number of completed studies in cancer epidemiology. PMID:7851334

  17. Analysis and Optimal Design for Association Studies Using Next-Generation Sequencing With Case-Control Pools

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wei E.; Thomas, Duncan C.; Conti, David V.

    2014-01-01

    With its potential to discover a much greater amount of genetic variation, next-generation sequencing is fast becoming an emergent tool for genetic association studies. However, the cost of sequencing all individuals in a large-scale population study is still high in comparison to most alternative genotyping options. While the ability to identify individual-level data is lost (without bar-coding), sequencing pooled samples can substantially lower costs without compromising the power to detect significant associations.We propose a hierarchical Bayesian model that estimates the association of each variant using pools of cases and controls, accounting for the variation in read depth across pools and sequencing error. To investigate the performance of our method across a range of number of pools, number of individuals within each pool, and average coverage, we undertook extensive simulations varying effect sizes, minor allele frequencies, and sequencing error rates. In general, the number of pools and pool size have dramatic effects on power while the total depth of coverage per pool has only a moderate impact. This information can guide the selection of a study design that maximizes power subject to cost, sample size, or other laboratory constraints. We provide an R package (hiPOD: hierarchical Pooled Optimal Design) to find the optimal design, allowing the user to specify a cost function, cost, and sample size limitations, and distributions of effect size, minor allele frequency, and sequencing error rate. PMID:22972696

  18. Optical spectra analysis for breast cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkov, S. A.; Kochemasov, G. G.; Lyubynskaya, T. E.; Maslov, N. V.; Nuzhny, A. S.; da Silva, L. B.; Rubenchik, A.

    2011-11-01

    Minimally invasive probe and optical biopsy system based on optical spectra recording and analysis seem to be a promising tool for early diagnostics of breast cancer. Light scattering and absorption spectra are generated continuously as far as the needle-like probe with one emitting and several collecting optical fibers penetrates through the tissues toward to the suspicious area. That allows analyzing not only the state of local site, but also the structure of tissues along the needle trace. The suggested method has the advantages of automated on-line diagnosing and minimal tissue destruction and in parallel with the conventional diagnostic procedures provides the ground for decision-making. 165 medical trials were completed in Nizhny Novgorod Regional Oncology Centre, Russia. Independent diagnoses were the results of fine biopsy and histology. Application of wavelet expansion and clasterization techniques for spectra analysis revealed several main spectral types for malignant and benign tumors. Automatic classification algorithm demonstrated specificity ˜90% and sensitivity ˜91%. Large amount of information, fuzziness in criteria and data noisiness make neural networks to be an attractive analytic tool. The model based on three-layer perceptron was tested over the sample of 29 `cancer' and 29 `non-cancer' cases and demonstrated total separation.

  19. Coffee Consumption and Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Large Updated Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Feiyue; Wang, Dan; Huang, Zhifang; Guo, Yajun

    2014-01-01

    The potential role of coffee consumption in the development of various types of cancer has been extensively investigated in epidemiologic studies. How coffee consumption may modulate risk of gastric cancer, however, remains a subject open for investigation. To better quantify this relation, we quantitatively summarized evidence from prospective studies. Eligible studies were identified on PubMed databases. The summary risk estimates were obtained using the random-effects model. Subgroup, sensitivity and dose-response analyses were conducted. The present meta-analysis included 12 prospective cohort studies. A pooled analysis of these studies suggested that coffee consumption (highest vs. lowest consumption) was not associated with risk of gastric cancer (RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.93–1.36). In the subgroup analysis, significant increased risk was detected in the U.S. studies (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.06–1.74) and in the studies with <10 years of follow-up (RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.00–1.54), and the greatest increase in risk was observed in those studies without adjustment for smoking (RR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.13–1.93). There was some evidence of publication bias (P for Egger’s test = 0.03). Cumulative evidence from prospective studies suggests that coffee consumption is not associated with risk of gastric cancer. The observed positive results may be confounded by smoking and need further investigation. PMID:25237829

  20. APC methylation predicts biochemical recurrence of patients with prostate cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Fan, Caibin; Yu, Jiang; Wang, Xizhi

    2015-01-01

    The promoter region of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) has been found to be frequently methylated in prostate cancer. However, the prognostic role of APC methylation in prostate cancer was still debated. We performed a meta-analysis by searching PubMed and EMBASE databases. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Seven studies (1227 patients) were included in this study. After calculation, the overall HR was 1.74 (95% CI: 1.31-2.31), implicating that APC methylation has an unfavorable impact on biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer. A subgroup analysis was performed with detection method, combined HR was 1.53 (95% CI: 1.19-1.96) for Methylation-Specific PCR (MSP), and 2.08 (95% CI: 1.18-3.64) for quantitative Methylation-Specific PCR (qMSP). Another subgroup analysis was conducted according to regions of the patients, combined HR was 2.02 (95% CI: 1.18-3.49) for North America, and 1.64 (95% CI: 1.14-2.36) for European. In conclusion, APC methylation is associated with biochemical recurrence of patients with prostate cancer. PMID:26629051

  1. Development and optimization of SPECT gated blood pool cluster analysis for the prediction of CRT outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Lalonde, Michel Wassenaar, Richard; Wells, R. Glenn; Birnie, David; Ruddy, Terrence D.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Phase analysis of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radionuclide angiography (RNA) has been investigated for its potential to predict the outcome of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). However, phase analysis may be limited in its potential at predicting CRT outcome as valuable information may be lost by assuming that time-activity curves (TAC) follow a simple sinusoidal shape. A new method, cluster analysis, is proposed which directly evaluates the TACs and may lead to a better understanding of dyssynchrony patterns and CRT outcome. Cluster analysis algorithms were developed and optimized to maximize their ability to predict CRT response. Methods: About 49 patients (N = 27 ischemic etiology) received a SPECT RNA scan as well as positron emission tomography (PET) perfusion and viability scans prior to undergoing CRT. A semiautomated algorithm sampled the left ventricle wall to produce 568 TACs from SPECT RNA data. The TACs were then subjected to two different cluster analysis techniques, K-means, and normal average, where several input metrics were also varied to determine the optimal settings for the prediction of CRT outcome. Each TAC was assigned to a cluster group based on the comparison criteria and global and segmental cluster size and scores were used as measures of dyssynchrony and used to predict response to CRT. A repeated random twofold cross-validation technique was used to train and validate the cluster algorithm. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to calculate the area under the curve (AUC) and compare results to those obtained for SPECT RNA phase analysis and PET scar size analysis methods. Results: Using the normal average cluster analysis approach, the septal wall produced statistically significant results for predicting CRT results in the ischemic population (ROC AUC = 0.73;p < 0.05 vs. equal chance ROC AUC = 0.50) with an optimal operating point of 71% sensitivity and 60% specificity. Cluster analysis results were similar to SPECT RNA phase analysis (ROC AUC = 0.78, p = 0.73 vs cluster AUC; sensitivity/specificity = 59%/89%) and PET scar size analysis (ROC AUC = 0.73, p = 1.0 vs cluster AUC; sensitivity/specificity = 76%/67%). Conclusions: A SPECT RNA cluster analysis algorithm was developed for the prediction of CRT outcome. Cluster analysis results produced results equivalent to those obtained from Fourier and scar analysis.

  2. Alert but less alarmed: a pooled analysis of terrorism threat perception in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous Australian research has highlighted disparities in community perceptions of the threat posed by terrorism. A study with a large sample size is needed to examine reported concerns and anticipated responses of community sub-groups and to determine their consistency with existing Australian and international findings. Methods Representative samples of New South Wales (NSW) adults completed terrorism perception questions as part of computer assisted telephone interviews (CATI) in 2007 (N = 2081) and 2010 (N = 2038). Responses were weighted against the NSW population. Data sets from the two surveys were pooled and multivariate multilevel analyses conducted to identify health and socio-demographic factors associated with higher perceived risk of terrorism and evacuation response intentions, and to examine changes over time. Results In comparison with 2007, Australians in 2010 were significantly more likely to believe that a terrorist attack would occur in Australia (Adjusted Odd Ratios (AOR) = 1.24, 95%CI:1.06-1.45) but felt less concerned that they would be directly affected by such an incident (AOR = 0.65, 95%CI:0.55-0.75). Higher perceived risk of terrorism and related changes in living were associated with middle age, female gender, lower education and higher reported psychological distress. Australians of migrant background reported significantly lower likelihood of terrorism (AOR = 0.52, 95%CI:0.39-0.70) but significantly higher concern that they would be personally affected by such an incident (AOR = 1.57, 95%CI:1.21-2.04) and having made changes in the way they live due to this threat (AOR = 2.47, 95%CI:1.88-3.25). Willingness to evacuate homes and public places in response to potential incidents increased significantly between 2007 and 2010 (AOR = 1.53, 95%CI:1.33-1.76). Conclusion While an increased proportion of Australians believe that the national threat of terrorism remains high, concern about being personally affected has moderated and may reflect habituation to this threat. Key sub-groups remain disproportionately concerned, notably those with lower education and migrant groups. The dissonance observed in findings relating to Australians of migrant background appears to reflect wider socio-cultural concerns associated with this issue. Disparities in community concerns regarding terrorism-related threat require active policy consideration and specific initiatives to reduce the vulnerabilities of known risk groups, particularly in the aftermath of future incidents. PMID:21992446

  3. Baseline Participant Characteristics and Risk for Dropout from 10 Obesity Randomized Controlled Trials: A Pooled Analysis of Individual Level Data

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Kathryn Ann; Affuso, Olivia; Desmond, Renee; Allison, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Understanding participant demographic characteristics that inform the optimal design of obesity randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been examined in few studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of individual participant characteristics and dropout rates (DORs) in obesity RCTs by pooling data from several publicly available datasets for analyses. We comprehensively characterize DORs and patterns in obesity RCTs at the individual study level, and describe how such rates and patterns vary as a function of individual level characteristics. Methods: We obtained and analyzed nine publicly available, obesity RCT datasets that examined weight loss or weight gain prevention as a primary or secondary endpoint. Four risk factors for dropout were examined by Cox proportional hazards including sex, age, baseline BMI, and race/ethnicity. The individual study data were pooled in the final analyses with a random effect for study, and HR and 95% CIs were computed. Results: Results of the multivariate analysis indicated that the risk of dropout was significantly higher for females compared to males (HR?=?1.24, 95% CI?=?1.05, 1.46). Hispanics and Non-Hispanic blacks had a significantly higher dropout rate compared to non-Hispanic whites (HR?=?1.62, 95% CI?=?1.37, 1.91; HR?=?1.22, 95% CI?=?1.11, 1.35, respectively). There was a significantly increased risk of dropout associated with advancing age (HR?=?1.02, 95% CI?=?1.01, 1.02) and increasing BMI (HR?=?1.03, 95% CI?=?1.03, 1.04). Conclusion/Significance: As more studies may focus on special populations, researchers designing obesity RCTs may wish to oversample in certain demographic groups if attempting to match comparison groups based on generalized estimates of expected DORs, or otherwise adjust a priori power estimates. Understanding true reasons for dropout may require additional methods of data gathering not generally employed in obesity RCTs, e.g., time on treatment. PMID:25599077

  4. CYP2E1 Rsa ?/Pst ? polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis involving 10,947 subjects

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ze-Tian; Wu, Xin-Hu; Li, Bing; Shen, Jun-shu; Wang, Zhen; Li, Jing; Zhu, Xi-Xu

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have examined the association between the CYP2E1 Rsa ?/Pst ? (rs3813867) polymorphism gene polymorphisms and lung cancer risk in various populations, but their results have been inconsistent. The PubMed and CNKI database was searched for case–control studies published up to October 2013. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. In this meta-analysis, we assessed 23 published studies involving comprising 4727 lung cancer cases and 6220 controls of the association between CYP2E1 Rsa ?/Pst ? polymorphism and lung cancer risk. For the homozygote c2/c2 and c2 allele carriers (c1/c2 + c2/c2), the pooled ORs for all studies were 0.73(95% CI = 0.62–0.84; P = 0.005 for heterogeneity) and 0.84 (95% CI = 0.77–0.92; P = 0.001 for heterogeneity) when compared with the homozygous wild-type genotype (c1/c1). In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, the same significantly risks were found among Asians and mixed population for both the c2 allele carriers and homozygote c2/c2. However, no significant associations were found in Caucasian population all genetic models. This updated meta-analysis suggests that CYP2E1 Rsa ?/Pst ? c2 allele is a decreased risk factor for the developing lung cancer among Asians and mixed population. PMID:25945422

  5. Stakeholder Analysis and Social-Biophysical Interdependencies for Common Pool Resource Management: La Brava Wetland (Argentina) as a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanelli, Asunción; Massone, Héctor E.; Escalante, Alicia H.

    2011-09-01

    This article gives an account of the implementation of a stakeholder analysis framework at La Brava Wetland Basin, Argentina, in a common-pool resource (CPR) management context. Firstly, the context in which the stakeholder framework was implemented is described. Secondly, a four-step methodology is applied: (1) stakeholder identification, (2) stakeholder differentiation-categorization, (3) investigation of stakeholders' relationships, and (4) analysis of social-biophysical interdependencies. This methodology classifies stakeholders according to their level of influence on the system and their potential in the conservation of natural resources. The main influential stakeholders are La Brava Village residents and tourism-related entrepreneurs who are empowered to make the more important decisions within the planning process of the ecosystem. While these key players are seen as facilitators of change, there are other groups (residents of the inner basin and fishermen) which are seen mainly as key blockers. The applied methodology for the Stakeholder Analysis and the evaluation of social-biophysical interdependencies carried out in this article can be seen as an encouraging example for other experts in natural sciences to learn and use these methods developed in social sciences. Major difficulties and some recommendations of applying this method in the practice by non-experts are discussed.

  6. Stakeholder analysis and social-biophysical interdependencies for common pool resource management: La Brava Wetland (Argentina) as a case study.

    PubMed

    Romanelli, Asunción; Massone, Héctor E; Escalante, Alicia H

    2011-09-01

    This article gives an account of the implementation of a stakeholder analysis framework at La Brava Wetland Basin, Argentina, in a common-pool resource (CPR) management context. Firstly, the context in which the stakeholder framework was implemented is described. Secondly, a four-step methodology is applied: (1) stakeholder identification, (2) stakeholder differentiation-categorization, (3) investigation of stakeholders' relationships, and (4) analysis of social-biophysical interdependencies. This methodology classifies stakeholders according to their level of influence on the system and their potential in the conservation of natural resources. The main influential stakeholders are La Brava Village residents and tourism-related entrepreneurs who are empowered to make the more important decisions within the planning process of the ecosystem. While these key players are seen as facilitators of change, there are other groups (residents of the inner basin and fishermen) which are seen mainly as key blockers. The applied methodology for the Stakeholder Analysis and the evaluation of social-biophysical interdependencies carried out in this article can be seen as an encouraging example for other experts in natural sciences to learn and use these methods developed in social sciences. Major difficulties and some recommendations of applying this method in the practice by non-experts are discussed. PMID:21667179

  7. Enhancing cancer clonality analysis with integrative genomics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction It is understood that cancer is a clonal disease initiated by a single cell, and that metastasis, which is the spread of cancer from the primary site, is also initiated by a single cell. The seemingly natural capability of cancer to adapt dynamically in a Darwinian manner is a primary reason for therapeutic failures. Survival advantages may be induced by cancer therapies and also occur as a result of inherent cell and microenvironmental factors. The selected "more fit" clones outmatch their competition and then become dominant in the tumor via propagation of progeny. This clonal expansion leads to relapse, therapeutic resistance and eventually death. The goal of this study is to develop and demonstrate a more detailed clonality approach by utilizing integrative genomics. Methods Patient tumor samples were profiled by Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) and RNA-seq on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 and methylation profiling was performed on the Illumina Infinium 450K array. STAR and the Haplotype Caller were used for RNA-seq processing. Custom approaches were used for the integration of the multi-omic datasets. Results Reported are major enhancements to CloneViz, which now provides capabilities enabling a formal tumor multi-dimensional clonality analysis by integrating: i) DNA mutations, ii) RNA expressed mutations, and iii) DNA methylation data. RNA and DNA methylation integration were not previously possible, by CloneViz (previous version) or any other clonality method to date. This new approach, named iCloneViz (integrated CloneViz) employs visualization and quantitative methods, revealing an integrative genomic mutational dissection and traceability (DNA, RNA, epigenetics) thru the different layers of molecular structures. Conclusion The iCloneViz approach can be used for analysis of clonal evolution and mutational dynamics of multi-omic data sets. Revealing tumor clonal complexity in an integrative and quantitative manner facilitates improved mutational characterization, understanding, and therapeutic assignments. PMID:26424171

  8. Prognostic Value of Ezrin in Various Cancers: A Systematic Review and Updated Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianwei; Wei, Kuanhai; Yu, Hailang; Jin, Dan; Wang, Gang; Yu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    More and more studies have investigated the effects of Ezrin expression level on the prognostic role in various tumors. However, the results remain controversial rather than conclusive. Here, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the correlation of Ezrin expression with the prognosis in various tumors. the pooled hazard ratios (HR) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%?CI) were calculated to evaluate the degree of the association. The overall results of fifty-five studies with 6675 patients showed that elevated Ezrin expression was associated with a worse prognosis in patients with cancers, with the pooled HRs of 1.86 (95%?CI: 1.51-2.31, P?analysis suggests that Ezrin may be a potential prognostic marker in cancer patients. High Ezrin is associated with a poor prognosis in a variety of solid tumors. PMID:26632332

  9. Prognostic Value of Ezrin in Various Cancers: A Systematic Review and Updated Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianwei; Wei, Kuanhai; Yu, Hailang; Jin, Dan; Wang, Gang; Yu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    More and more studies have investigated the effects of Ezrin expression level on the prognostic role in various tumors. However, the results remain controversial rather than conclusive. Here, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the correlation of Ezrin expression with the prognosis in various tumors. the pooled hazard ratios (HR) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%?CI) were calculated to evaluate the degree of the association. The overall results of fifty-five studies with 6675 patients showed that elevated Ezrin expression was associated with a worse prognosis in patients with cancers, with the pooled HRs of 1.86 (95%?CI: 1.51–2.31, P?analysis suggests that Ezrin may be a potential prognostic marker in cancer patients. High Ezrin is associated with a poor prognosis in a variety of solid tumors. PMID:26632332

  10. E3-ligase Skp2 predicts poor prognosis and maintains cancer stem cell pool in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Huang, Ying; Guan, Zhong; Zhang, Jia-Liang; Su, Hong-Kai; Zhang, Wei; Yue, Cai-Feng; Yan, Min; Guan, Su; Liu, Quentin Qiang

    2014-07-30

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the severe head and neck carcinomas, which is rare in west countries but has high incidence in Southern Asia especially South China. Although NPC is relatively sensitive to radiotherapy, the prognosis of patients is poor due to the advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in tumorigenesis and develop early diagnostic techniques. S-phase kinase associated protein 2 (Skp2) is overexpressed in several human cancers and associates with poor prognosis. However, its function in NPC has not been fully addressed. In this study we found Skp2 was highly expressed in NPC specimen and correlated with poor prognosis. We generated Skp2 knockdown cells to further delineate its role in NPC development. Knockdown of Skp2 partially reduced cell proliferation, promoted cellular senescence, and decreased the population of stem cell like aldehyde dehydrogenase1 positive cells as well as their self-renewal ability. Our study not only interprets the predictive role of Skp2 in the poor prognosis of NPC patients, but also reveals that Skp2 regulates the NPC cancer stem cell maintenance, which shed lights on the target therapy and early diagnosis of NPC in clinical application. PMID:25015320

  11. Meta-Analysis of the Prognostic Value of Smad4 Immunohistochemistry in Various Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zebo; Qiu, Tianzhu; Wang, Jian; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Tongshan; Liu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates that Smad4 (DPC4) plays a fundamental role in the development and prognosis of several types of cancer. The objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate whether the loss of Smad4 staining could serve as a prognostic marker. Methods A comprehensive meta-analysis was conducted using major useful databases to determine the relationship between the immunohistochemical detection of Smad4 and the survival of patients with various cancers. We used hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (CIs) as the effect estimation to evaluate the association of Smad4 with overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) or recurrence-free survival (RFS). The relationship between the clinical characteristics of patients and Smad4 was also evaluated using the odds ratio (OR). Results A total of 7570 patients from 26 studies were included in the analysis. The pooled results showed that loss of Smad4 staining was a negative predictor of OS with an HR of 1.97 (95% CI: 1.55–2.51; Pheterogeneity<0.001) and CSS/RFS (HR?=?1.81; 95% CI: 1.30–2.54; Pheterogeneity<0.001). In addition, loss of Smad4 staining was more likely to be found in older (OR?=?1.69, 95% CI: 1.09–2.61; Pheterogeneity?=?0.648) colorectal cancer patients with a late tumor stage (OR?=?2.31, 95% CI: 1.71–3.10; Pheterogeneity?=?0.218) and in gastric cancer patients with lymph node metastasis (OR?=?2.11, 95% CI: 1.03–4.34; Pheterogeneity?=?0.038). Conclusion Based on these results, our meta-analysis provided evidence that loss of Smad4 staining could act as an unfavorable biomarker in the prognosis of various cancers and should be used as a powerful tool in future clinical trials. PMID:25333693

  12. Living near nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaeyoung; Bang, Yejin; Lee, Won Jin

    2016-02-01

    There has been public concern regarding the safety of residing near nuclear power plants, and the extent of risk for thyroid cancer among adults living near nuclear power plants has not been fully explored. In the present study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies was conducted to investigate the association between living near nuclear power plants and the risk of thyroid cancer. A comprehensive literature search was performed on studies published up to March 2015 on the association between nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk. The summary standardized incidence ratio (SIR), standardized mortality ratio (SMR), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effect model of meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses were performed by study quality. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis, covering 36 nuclear power stations in 10 countries. Overall, summary estimates showed no significant increased thyroid cancer incidence or mortality among residents living near nuclear power plants (summary SIR=0.98; 95% CI 0.87-1.11, summary SMR=0.80; 95% CI 0.62-1.04). The pooled estimates did not reveal different patterns of risk by gender, exposure definition, or reference population. However, sensitivity analysis by exposure definition showed that living less than 20km from nuclear power plants was associated with a significant increase in the risk of thyroid cancer in well-designed studies (summary OR=1.75; 95% CI 1.17-2.64). Our study does not support an association between living near nuclear power plants and risk of thyroid cancer but does support a need for well-designed future studies. PMID:26638017

  13. A Linear Dose-Response Relationship between Fasting Plasma Glucose and Colorectal Cancer Risk: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jianguo; Xiong, Lijuan; Li, Jiaoyuan; Cao, Heng; Jiang, Wen; Liu, Bo; Chen, Xueqin; Liu, Cheng; Liu, Ke; Wang, Guobin; Cai, Kailin

    2015-01-01

    For many years, the question of whether hyperglycaemia, a manifestation of prediabetes, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, is a risk factor for colorectal cancer has been intensely studied. In fact, even after the conclusion of several prospective studies, the topic is still controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the dose-response relationship between blood glucose concentration and the incidence of colorectal cancer. A linear (P?=?0.303 for non-linearity) dose-response relationship was observed between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and colorectal cancer risk without significant heterogeneity. The relative risk (RR) for colorectal cancer per 20?mg/dL increase in FPG was 1.015 (95% CI: 1.012–1.019, P?=?0.000). In subgroup analyses, the pooled RRs for colon cancer (CC) and rectal cancer (RC) studies were 1.035 (95% CI 1.008–1.062, P?=?0.011) and 1.031 (95% CI: 0.189–5.628, P?=?0.972), respectively; in the analysis comparing men and women, the pooled RRs were 1.016 (95% CI: 1.012–1.020, P?=?0.000) and 1.011 (95% CI: 0.995–1.027, P?=?0.164), respectively. Sensitivity analyses using two methods showed similar results. In conclusion, there is a significant linear dose-response relationship between FPG and the incidence risk of colorectal cancer. For people with diabetes or prediabetes, controlling blood glucose might be useful to prevent colorectal cancer. PMID:26620869

  14. A Linear Dose-Response Relationship between Fasting Plasma Glucose and Colorectal Cancer Risk: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jianguo; Xiong, Lijuan; Li, Jiaoyuan; Cao, Heng; Jiang, Wen; Liu, Bo; Chen, Xueqin; Liu, Cheng; Liu, Ke; Wang, Guobin; Cai, Kailin

    2015-01-01

    For many years, the question of whether hyperglycaemia, a manifestation of prediabetes, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, is a risk factor for colorectal cancer has been intensely studied. In fact, even after the conclusion of several prospective studies, the topic is still controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the dose-response relationship between blood glucose concentration and the incidence of colorectal cancer. A linear (P?=?0.303 for non-linearity) dose-response relationship was observed between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and colorectal cancer risk without significant heterogeneity. The relative risk (RR) for colorectal cancer per 20?mg/dL increase in FPG was 1.015 (95% CI: 1.012-1.019, P?=?0.000). In subgroup analyses, the pooled RRs for colon cancer (CC) and rectal cancer (RC) studies were 1.035 (95% CI 1.008-1.062, P?=?0.011) and 1.031 (95% CI: 0.189-5.628, P?=?0.972), respectively; in the analysis comparing men and women, the pooled RRs were 1.016 (95% CI: 1.012-1.020, P?=?0.000) and 1.011 (95% CI: 0.995-1.027, P?=?0.164), respectively. Sensitivity analyses using two methods showed similar results. In conclusion, there is a significant linear dose-response relationship between FPG and the incidence risk of colorectal cancer. For people with diabetes or prediabetes, controlling blood glucose might be useful to prevent colorectal cancer. PMID:26620869

  15. Flux Imbalance Analysis and the Sensitivity of Cellular Growth to Changes in Metabolite Pools

    E-print Network

    Mehta, Pankaj

    intracellular metabolites in the cell. Citation: Reznik E, Mehta P, Segre` D (2013) Flux Imbalance Analysis Reznik1¤ , Pankaj Mehta2,3 , Daniel Segre`1,3,4 * 1 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston

  16. Occupational exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and respiratory and urinary tract cancers: an updated systematic review and a meta-analysis to 2014.

    PubMed

    Rota, Matteo; Bosetti, Cristina; Boccia, Stefania; Boffetta, Paolo; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been associated with an excess risk of respiratory tract and bladder cancers in several industries, but the issue requires further quantification. We updated a previous systematic review by reviewing in details cohort studies on workers employed in selected industries with potential PAH exposure published between 2006 and 2014, and we summarized through a meta-analytic approach the main results of all available cohort studies published between 1958 and 2014 investigating cancers of the respiratory and urinary tracts. Thirteen papers on cohort studies investigating cancer risk in workers exposed to PAHs were retrieved through the literature search. These included workers from aluminum production industries (seven studies), iron and steel foundries (two studies), asphalt workers (two studies), and carbon black production (two studies). In the meta-analysis, an excess risk of respiratory tract cancers (mainly lung cancer) was found in iron and steel foundries [pooled relative risk (RR) 1.31, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.59 from 14 studies], while a weak excess risk (pooled RR 1.08, 95 % CI 0.95-1.23 from 11 studies) emerged for aluminum production. A borderline increase risk was also observed for cancer of the bladder in the aluminum production (pooled RR 1.28, 95 % CI 0.98-1.68 from 10 studies) and in iron and steel foundries (pooled RR 1.38, 95 % CI 1.00-1.91 from 9 studies). This updated review and meta-analysis confirm the increased risk from respiratory tract and bladder cancers in selected PAH-related occupations. It cannot be ruled out whether such excesses are due, at least in part, to possible bias or residual confounding. PMID:24935254

  17. The Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Chinese Population With Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, CaiXiao; Li, ZhanZhan; Chen, Peng; Chen, LiZhang

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis is fatal in the immunocompromised individuals such as cancer patients with chemotherapy. Clinical toxoplasmosis in cancer patients is a great public health concern in China. We performed this meta-analysis to assess the seroprevalence and odds ratios (ORs) of Toxoplasma gondii in Chinese population with cancer compared with those without.A methodical literature search was conducted with the help of the PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Embase, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wanfang, and Chongqing VIP database. Case-control studies published from their inception until April 2015, reporting the seroprevalence of T. gondii in Chinese population with cancer, were covered as well. The nonweighted prevalence, pooled random-effects estimates of ORs, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were all calculated.Nineteen studies including 4493 cases and 6797 controls were incorporated in the meta-analysis. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii was higher in population with cancer compared with those without ((20.59% vs 6.31%, P?cancer patients is further subgrouped according to publication year, sample size, and diagnostic methods. The pooled OR estimates were 4.80 (95% CI 2.57-8.99) from 1991 to 1999, 4.96 (95% CI 3.03-8.12) during 2000 to 2005, and 2.94 (95% CI 2.46-3.50) during 2006 to 2015. The pooled OR estimates were 6.16 (95% CI 3.87-9.78) when the sample size was below 400, 5.37 (95% CI 3.84-7.53) when the sample size was between 400 and 500, and 2.58 (95% CI 2.17-3.07) when the sample size was above 500. The pooled OR estimates were 5.50 (95% CI 3.98-7.62) by using indirect hemagglutination assay method, and 3.15 (95% CI 2.67-3.72) by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method.The meta-analysis study found Chinese population with cancer had higher seroprevalence rates of T. gondii compared with those without. PMID:26683951

  18. Towards Personalized Prostate Cancer Therapy Using Delta-Reachability Analysis

    E-print Network

    Clarke, Edmund M.

    Towards Personalized Prostate Cancer Therapy Using Delta-Reachability Analysis Bing Liu School therapy for prostate cancer depends on the characteristics of individual patients. In this paper, we tool for prostate cancer therapy. Categories and Subject Descriptors D.2.4 [Software Engineering

  19. BIOSIGNAL 2002 Textural Analysis Of Prostate Cancer In Transrectal

    E-print Network

    Juan, Alfons

    BIOSIGNAL 2002 Textural Analysis Of Prostate Cancer In Transrectal Ultrasound Images. Juan C. Perez of prostate cancer is presented. Several feature extraction methods are tested in a typical Statistical malignant tissue in the images. 1 Introduction Prostate cancer is one of the main causes of death from

  20. Special Issue: Human Genetics Single-Cell Analysis in Cancer

    E-print Network

    Yuan, Guo-Cheng "GC"

    of origin and a differentiation hierarchy from cancer stem cells [2]. It is increasingly clear cell types, such as cancer stem cells, and to investigate the dynamic processes of cell fateSpecial Issue: Human Genetics Review Single-Cell Analysis in Cancer Genomics Assieh Saadatpour,1

  1. Cancer Nursing Education: Literature Review and Documentary Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langton, Helen; Blunden, Gillian; Hek, Gill

    The knowledge and skills needed by cancer nurses and the content and strategies of England's existing cancer nursing education programs were examined. The study included a comprehensive literature review and an analysis of course documents from selected English National Board-approved post-qualifying cancer nursing and palliative care courses…

  2. An analysis and hypothesis generation platform for heterogeneous cancer

    E-print Network

    Reed, Chris

    An analysis and hypothesis generation platform for heterogeneous cancer databases. Philip Roy QUINLAN a,1, Alastair THOMPSON a and Chris REED b a Dundee Cancer Centre, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee b School of Computing, University of Dundee, Dundee Abstract. The field of cancer research

  3. Metformin therapy and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gang-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Luo, Zhen-Gang; Yan, Jia-Jun; Pan, Shou-Hua; Ying, Xiang-Rong; Pan, Jian-Gang; Zhang, Guan-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Several observational studies have shown that metformin therapy may modify the risk of prostate cancer. We carried out a meta-analysis of relevant studies evaluating the effect of metformin therapy on prostate cancer risk. Methods: We searched pubmed database (January 1966-February 2014) for case-control and cohort studies that assessed metformin therapy and prostate cancer risk. Two authors independently assessed eligibility and extracted data. Summary RRs was calculated using fixed-effects model or random-effects model. Heterogeneity among studies was examined using Q and I2 statistics. Results: We included six cohort studies and four case-control studies in the present meta-analysis, comprising 863,769 participants and 39,073 prostate cancer cases. The pooled RR of prostate cancer in relation to metformin therapy was 0.92 (95% CI: 0.84-1.02, P = 0.112). When we stratified the various studies by study type, we found that metformin therapy was associated with a significant reduced risk of prostate cancer among cohort studies (RR = 0.92, 95% CI [0.87, 0.96], P<0.001); however, no significant association was detected among case-control studies (RR = 0.95, 95% CI [0.78, 1.16], P = 0.632). There was also no indication of publication bias as suggested by Begg’s test (P = 0.421) and Egger’s test (P = 0.627). Conclusion: Our findings indicate that metformin therapy is not significantly associated with lower prostate cancer risk. PMID:26550231

  4. Internet cancer support groups: a feminist analysis.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Lin, Li-Chen; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2005-01-01

    Internet Cancer Support Groups (ICSGs) are an emerging form of support group on Internet specifically for cancer patients. Previous studies have indicated the effectiveness of ICSGs as a research setting or a data-collection method. Yet recent studies have also indicated that ICSGs tend to serve highly educated, high-income White males who tend to be at an early stage of cancer. In this article, a total of 317 general ICSGs and 229 ethnic-specific ICSGs searched through Google.com, Yahoo.com, Msn.com, AOL.com, and ACOR.org are analyzed from a feminist perspective. The written records of group discussions and written memos by the research staff members were also analyzed using content analysis. The idea categories that emerged about these groups include (a) authenticity issues; (b) ethnicity and gender issues; (c) intersubjectivity issues; and (d) potential ethical issues. The findings suggest that (a) researchers adopt multiple recruitment strategies through various Internet sites and/or real settings; (b) researchers raise their own awareness of the potential influences of the health-related resources provided by ICSGs and regularly update their knowledge related to the federal and state standards and/or policies related to ICSGs; and (c) researchers consider adopting a quota-sampling method. PMID:15681976

  5. Association between the STK15 polymorphisms and risk of cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jun; He, Xiao-Feng; Wei, Wu; Liu, Zhi-Zhong; Xie, Jian-Jun; Wang, Wei; Du, Ya-Ping; Chen, Yu; Si, Hui-Qiang

    2015-02-01

    The previous published data on the association between STK15 F31I and V57I polymorphisms and cancer risk remained controversial. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between cancer susceptibility and STK15 F31I (42,315 cases and 50,542 controls from 62 studies) and V57I polymorphisms (12,891 cases and 17,391 controls from 18 studies) in different inheritance models. Overall, significant association was observed between F31I and cancer risk when all the eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis (recessive model: OR = 1.14, 95 % CI = 1.06-1.24; AA vs. TT: OR = 1.12, 95 % CI = 1.02-1.24; A vs. T: OR = 1.05, 95 % CI = 1.01-1.09). In the further stratified and sensitivity analyses, for STK15 F31I, significantly increased breast cancer (recessive model: OR = 1.16, 95 % CI = 1.02-1.33; AA vs. TT: OR = 1.16, 95 % CI = 1.01-1.33) and ovarian cancer (dominant model: OR = 1.20, 95 % CI = 1.07-1.34; TA vs. TT: OR = 1.19, 95 % CI = 1.06-1.34; A vs. T: OR = 1.15, 95 % CI = 1.05-1.26) risk was found among Caucasians, and significantly decreased lung cancer risk was found among Caucasians (recessive model: OR = 0.65, 95 % CI = 0.49-0.87; AA vs. TT: OR = 0.65, 95 % CI = 0.49-0.88). For V57I polymorphism, significant decreased breast cancer risk was found among Caucasians (recessive model: OR = 0.76, 95 % CI = 0.61-0.95; AA vs. GG: OR = 0.75, 95 % CI = 0.60-0.94; A vs. G: OR = 0.92, 95 % CI = 0.86-0.98). In summary, this meta-analysis suggests that STK15 F31I polymorphism is associated with increased breast cancer and ovarian cancer risk among Caucasians, F31I polymorphism is associated with decreased lung cancer risk among Caucasians, and V57I polymorphism is associated with decreased breast cancer risk among Caucasians. PMID:25154511

  6. Oral rivaroxaban versus standard therapy for the treatment of symptomatic venous thromboembolism: a pooled analysis of the EINSTEIN-DVT and PE randomized studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Standard treatment for venous thromboembolism (VTE) consists of a heparin combined with vitamin K antagonists. Direct oral anticoagulants have been investigated for acute and extended treatment of symptomatic VTE; their use could avoid parenteral treatment and/or laboratory monitoring of anticoagulant effects. Methods A prespecified pooled analysis of the EINSTEIN-DVT and EINSTEIN-PE studies compared the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban (15 mg twice-daily for 21 days, followed by 20 mg once-daily) with standard-therapy (enoxaparin 1.0 mg/kg twice-daily and warfarin or acenocoumarol). Patients were treated for 3, 6, or 12 months and followed for suspected recurrent VTE and bleeding. The prespecified noninferiority margin was 1.75. Results A total of 8282 patients were enrolled; 4151 received rivaroxaban and 4131 received standard-therapy. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 86 (2.1%) rivaroxaban-treated patients compared with 95 (2.3%) standard-therapy-treated patients (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66–1.19; pnoninferiority?cancer patients, patients presenting with large clots, and those with a history of recurrent VTE, the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban were similar compared with standard-therapy. Conclusion The single-drug approach with rivaroxaban resulted in similar efficacy to standard-therapy and was associated with a significantly lower rate of major bleeding. Efficacy and safety results were consistent among key patient subgroups. Trial registration EINSTEIN-PE: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00439777; EINSTEIN-DVT: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00440193. PMID:24053656

  7. Analysis of HLA-DP association with beryllium disease susceptibility in pooled exposed populations

    SciTech Connect

    Cesare Saltini, Massimo Amicosante

    2009-12-19

    Berylliosis or Chronic Beryllium Disease is a chronic granulomatous disorder primarily involving the lung associated with the exposition to low doses of Beryllium (Be) in the workplace. Berylliosis risk has been associated with the presence of a glutamate at position 69 of the HLA-DP beta chain (HLA-DPbetaGlu69) that is expressed in about 97% of disease cases and in 27% of the unaffected Be-exposed controls (p<0.0001) (Richeldi et al. Science 1993; 262: 242-244.12). Since this first observation of an immunogenetic association between berylliosis and HLA-DPbetaGlu69 a number of studies have confirmed the role of this marker as the primary gene of susceptibility of berylliosis (Richeldi et al Am J Ind Med. 1997; 32:337-40; Wang et al J. Immunol. 1999; 163: 1647-53; Saltini et al Eur Respir J. 2001 18:677-84; Rossman et al Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 165:788-94). Moreover, a structure/function interaction between HLA-DP molecules carrying Glu69 and beryllium in driving and developing the immune response against beryllium itself has been observed as: (1) Be-specific T-cells clones obtained from berylliosis patients recognize beryllium as antigen only when presented in the context of the HLA-DP{beta}Glu69 molecules but not in the context of HLA-DP allelic variants carrying Lys69 (Lombardi G et al. J Immunol 2001; 166: 3549-3555), and (2) beryllium presents an affinity for the HLA-DP2, carrying the berylliosis marker of susceptibility HLA-DPGlu69, from 40 to 100 times higher that the HLA-DP molecule carrying Lys69 (Amicosante M. et al Hum. Immunol. 2001; 62: 686-93). However, although the immunogenetic studies performed have been addressed a number of different questions about the genetic association between berylliosis and/or beryllium sensitization, exposure levels to beryllium and HLA markers, a number of questions are still open in the field mainly due to the limitation imposed by the low number of subjects carrying berylliosis or beryllium sensitization enrolled in each immunogenetic study. In this context, the populations of the study already performed in this field by the University of Modena and Rome (by Prof. C. Saltini) and the University of Pennsylvania (by Prof. M. Rossman) have been evaluated by using similar HLA molecular typing methodologies and that both populations have now been followed up for a period of 4 to 7 years. The general objective of this study has to generate a larger data base comprising the two population with which analyze gene disease association with greater statistical power and ascertain the effect of lesser common gener variants which may be missed when analyzing associations on small populations. In particular addressing the role suggested in previous study such as: (1) the role of HLA-DP rare alleles and polymorphisms, and (2) the role of the HLA markers in disease progression from sensitization. The two populations from the already published studies (Saltini et al Eur Respir J. 2001 18:677-84; Rossman et al Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 165:788-94) present similar aspects about: ethnicity, type and length of exposure to Be dust, a broadly similar association between beryllium related abnormalities and HLA. The two population have been pooled and evaluated using common criteria of diagnosis (Sensitized subject: at least 2 positive BeLPT tests each with 2 positive wells; CBD-affected subject: identification of well formed non-caseating granulomas on biopsy), follow up and HLA typing technique (complete HLA-DRB, DQB, DPB high resolution typing using amplification with sequence specific primers or sequence based typing). The two populations included 137 subjects with Beryllium hypersensitized (BH) and 155 Be-exposed controls. Inclusion criteria were met by one hundred and six subjects with Be-hypersensitivity of whom 55 were affected by CBD (age 52 {+-} 11 years; 50 caucasians, 2 African-Americans 2 Hispanics and 1 Asian; 46 males and 9 females; mean duration of Be-exposure 15 {+-} 9 years) and 51 showed Be-sensitization without lung granulomas detected by trans-bronchial biopsy (ag

  8. Wood dust exposure and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hancock, David G; Langley, Mary E; Chia, Kwan Leung; Woodman, Richard J; Shanahan, E Michael

    2015-12-01

    Occupational lung cancers represent a major health burden due to their increasing prevalence and poor long-term outcomes. While wood dust is a confirmed human carcinogen, its association with lung cancer remains unclear due to inconsistent findings in the literature. We aimed to clarify this association using meta-analysis. We performed a search of 10 databases to identify studies published until June 2014. We assessed the lung cancer risk associated with wood dust exposure as the primary outcome and with wood dust-related occupations as a secondary outcome. Random-effects models were used to pool summary risk estimates. 85 publications were included in the meta-analysis. A significantly increased risk for developing lung cancer was observed among studies that directly assessed wood dust exposure (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.39, n=33) and that assessed wood dust-related occupations (RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.23, n=59). In contrast, a reduced risk for lung cancer was observed among wood dust (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.99, n=5) and occupation (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.98, n=1) studies originating in Nordic countries, where softwood dust is the primary exposure. These results were independent of the presence of adjustment for smoking and exposure classification methods. Only minor differences in risk between the histological subtypes were identified. This meta-analysis provides strong evidence for an association between wood dust and lung cancer, which is critically influenced by the geographic region of the study. The reasons for this region-specific effect estimates remain to be clarified, but may suggest a differential effect for hardwood and softwood dusts. PMID:26403531

  9. Analysis of esophageal cancer time trends in China, 1989- 2008.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; He, Yu-Tong; Zheng, Rong-Shou; Zhang, Si-Wei; Chen, Wan-Qing

    2012-01-01

    National cancer incidence data were utilized to analyze trends in esophageal cancer incidence in China in order to provide basic information for making cancer control strategy. We retrieved and re-sorted valid esophageal cancer incidence data from National Central Cancer Registry Database over 20 years period from 1989 to 2008. Crude incidence and age-standardized incidence rates were calculated for analysis, with annual percent change estimated by Joinpoint software for long term trend analysis. The crude incidence rate of esophageal cancer was found to have remained relatively stable in both urban and rural areas over the 20 year period. Age standardized incidence rate (ASR) in cancer registration areas decreased from 39.5/100,000 in 1989 to 23.0/100,000 in 2008 in all areas (AAPC=-3.3%, 95% CI:-2.8~-3.7). The trend was no change in urban areas and 2.1% average annual decrease observed in rural aras. Before the year of 2000, esophageal cancer incidence rates significant decreased with 2.8% annually and then the rates kept stable. Over 20 years from 1989 to 2008, esophageal cancer age standardized incidence rate in cancer registration areas decreased with time. However, esophageal cancer is still a big issue and efforts for control should be continuously enhanced. Cancer registration is playing an important role in cancer control with the number of registries increasing and data quality improving in China. PMID:23167389

  10. Analysis of a Pool of Small Plasmids from Soil Heterotrophic Cultivable Bacterial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Papaleo, Maria Cristiana; Fondi, Marco; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Bevivino, Annamaria; Dalmastri, Claudia; Fani, Renato

    2015-01-01

    In this work the analysis of the plasmid presence on soil aerobic cultivable heterotrophic bacterial communities was carried out checking a panel of 1,200 isolates, in order to establish the frequency of plasmid presence as well as the degree of plasmid flow between strains affiliated to the same or different taxon. Bacterial communities were isolated from two different sites of a 13-year experimental field with a clay-silt texture. Plasmid molecules were detected at low frequency (27 isolates, 2%) with a size ranging between 2 Kb and 40 Kb. The RAPD analysis performed on the plasmid-harboring isolates and the phylogenetic analysis of the whole community using the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed the existence of transfer of the same plasmids between strains belonging to the same species and, in some cases, to different species of the same genus. As it might be expected, even though the viable cells title did not differ significantly between the two samplings, the overall data disclosed an uneven distribution of both species and plasmid-harboring strains. PMID:26464609

  11. Hormonal Replacement Therapy and the Risk of Lung Cancer in Women: An Adaptive Meta-analysis of Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jong-Myon; Kim, Eun Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Approximately 10% to 15% of lung cancer cases occur in never-smokers. Hormonal factors have been suggested to lead to an elevated risk of lung cancer in women. This systematic review (SR) aimed to investigate the association between hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) and the risk of lung cancer in women using cohort studies. Methods: We first obtained previous SR articles on this topic. Based on these studies we made a list of refereed, cited, and related articles using the PubMed and Scopus databases. All cohort studies that evaluated the relative risk of HRT exposure on lung cancer occurrence in women were selected. Estimate of summary effect size (sES) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results: A total of 14 cohort studies were finally selected. A random effect model was applied due to heterogeneity (I-squared, 64.3%). The sES of the 14 articles evaluating the impact of HRT exposure on lung cancer occurrence in women indicated no statistically significant increase in lung cancer risk (sES, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.09). Conclusions: These results showed that HRT history had no effect on the risk of lung cancer in women, even though the sES of case-control studies described in previous SR articles indicated that HRT had a protective effect against lung cancer. It is necessary to conduct a pooled analysis of cohort studies. PMID:26639742

  12. Tea consumption and the risk of five major cancers: a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We conducted a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies to summarize evidence of the association between tea consumption and the risk of breast, colorectal, liver, prostate, and stomach cancer. Methods We searched PubMed and two other databases. Prospective studies that reported risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cancer risk for ?3 categories of tea consumption were included. We estimated an overall RR with 95% CI for an increase of three cups/day of tea consumption, and, usingrestricted cubic splines, we examined a nonlinear association between tea consumption and cancer risk. Results Forty-one prospective studies, with a total of 3,027,702 participants and 49,103 cancer cases, were included. From the pooled overall RRs, no inverse association between tea consumption and risk of five major cancers was observed. However, subgroup analysis showed that increase in consumption of three cups of black tea per day was a significant risk factor for breast cancer (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.05-1.32). Conclusion Ourresults did not show a protective role of tea in five major cancers. Additional large prospective cohort studies are needed to make a convincing case for associations. PMID:24636229

  13. RAD51 135G>C substitution increases breast cancer risk in an ethnic-specific manner: a meta-analysis on 21236 cases and 19407 controls

    PubMed Central

    Sekhar, Deepa; Pooja, Singh; Kumar, Sandeep; Rajender, Singh

    2015-01-01

    RAD51 is a homolog of bacterial RecA protein, which plays an important role in preserving stability of the genome. RAD51 interacts with BRCA1 and BRCA2 for homologous recombination repair. A functional polymorphism (135G?>?C) in the RAD51 gene has been a subject of great interest, which is evidenced by at least 28 case-control studies and eight meta-analyses undertaken on this polymorphism till now. We undertook a meta-analysis on RAD51 135G?>?C data for 21236 cases and 19407 controls pooled from 28 studies on breast cancer in women. Pooled data analysis suggested a significant association of the substitution with breast cancer in the recessive model (GG?+?GC versus CC) and in the co-dominant models comparing GG versus CC and GC versus CC. Analysis of the results suggested that ‘CC’ genotype is a significant breast cancer risk factor in comparison to ‘GG’ and ‘GC’ genotypes. We also undertook pooled analyses on different ethnic groups and found that ‘CC’ was a strong risk factor in Caucasians, but not in East-Asians and populations of mixed ethnicity. In conclusion, the RAD51 135G?>?C substitution in the homozygous form (CC) increases the risk of breast cancer in an ethnic-specific manner. PMID:26108708

  14. Evidence of association of APOE with age-related macular degeneration - a pooled analysis of 15 studies

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Gareth J.; Patterson, Chris C.; Chakravarthy, Usha; Dasari, Shilpa; Klaver, Caroline C.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Ho, Lintje; de Jong, Paulus T.V.M.; Fletcher, Astrid E.; Young, Ian S.; Seland, Johan H.; Rahu, Mati; Soubrane, Gisele; Tomazzoli, Laura; Topouzis, Fotis; Vioque, Jesus; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Sofat, Reecha; Dean, Michael; Sawitzke, Julie; Seddon, Johanna M.; Peter, Inga; Webster, Andrew R.; Moore, Anthony T.; Yates, John R.W.; Cipriani, Valentina; Fritsche, Lars G.; Weber, Bernhard H.F.; Keilhauer, Claudia N.; Lotery, Andrew J.; Ennis, Sarah; Klein, Michael L.; Francis, Peter J.; Stambolian, Dwight; Orlin, Anton; Gorin, Michael B.; Weeks, Daniel E.; Kuo, Chia-Ling; Swaroop, Anand; Othman, Mohammad; Kanda, Atsuhiro; Chen, Wei; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Wright, Alan F.; Hayward, Caroline; Baird, Paul N.; Guymer, Robyn H.; Attia, John; Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Silvestri, Giuliana

    2011-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of incurable visual impairment in high-income countries. Previous studies report inconsistent associations between AMD and apolipoprotein E (APOE), a lipid transport protein involved in low-density cholesterol modulation. Potential interaction between APOE and sex, and smoking status, has been reported. We present a pooled analysis (n=21,160) demonstrating associations between late AMD and APO?4 (OR=0.72 per haplotype; CI: 0.65–0.74; P=4.41×10?11) and APO?2 (OR=1.83 for homozygote carriers; CI: 1.04–3.23; P=0.04), following adjustment for age-group and sex within each study and smoking status. No evidence of interaction between APOE and sex or smoking was found. Ever smokers had significant increased risk relative to never smokers for both neovascular (OR=1.54; CI: 1.38–1.72; P=2.8×10?15) and atrophic (OR=1.38; CI: 1.18–1.61; P=3.37×10?5) AMD but not early AMD (OR=0.94; CI: 0.86–1.03; P=0.16), implicating smoking as a major contributing factor to disease progression from early signs to the visually disabling late forms. Extended haplotype analysis incorporating rs405509 did not identify additional risks beyond?2 and ?4 haplotypes. Our expanded analysis substantially improves our understanding of the association between the APOE locus and AMD. It further provides evidence supporting the role of cholesterol modulation, and low-density cholesterol specifically, in AMD disease etiology. PMID:21882290

  15. CRCDA—Comprehensive resources for cancer NGS data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thangam, Manonanthini; Gopal, Ramesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) innovations put a compelling landmark in life science and changed the direction of research in clinical oncology with its productivity to diagnose and treat cancer. The aim of our portal comprehensive resources for cancer NGS data analysis (CRCDA) is to provide a collection of different NGS tools and pipelines under diverse classes with cancer pathways and databases and furthermore, literature information from PubMed. The literature data was constrained to 18 most common cancer types such as breast cancer, colon cancer and other cancers that exhibit in worldwide population. NGS-cancer tools for the convenience have been categorized into cancer genomics, cancer transcriptomics, cancer epigenomics, quality control and visualization. Pipelines for variant detection, quality control and data analysis were listed to provide out-of-the box solution for NGS data analysis, which may help researchers to overcome challenges in selecting and configuring individual tools for analysing exome, whole genome and transcriptome data. An extensive search page was developed that can be queried by using (i) type of data [literature, gene data and sequence read archive (SRA) data] and (ii) type of cancer (selected based on global incidence and accessibility of data). For each category of analysis, variety of tools are available and the biggest challenge is in searching and using the right tool for the right application. The objective of the work is collecting tools in each category available at various places and arranging the tools and other data in a simple and user-friendly manner for biologists and oncologists to find information easier. To the best of our knowledge, we have collected and presented a comprehensive package of most of the resources available in cancer for NGS data analysis. Given these factors, we believe that this website will be an useful resource to the NGS research community working on cancer. Database URL: http://bioinfo.au-kbc.org.in/ngs/ngshome.html. PMID:26450948

  16. CRCDA--Comprehensive resources for cancer NGS data analysis.

    PubMed

    Thangam, Manonanthini; Gopal, Ramesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) innovations put a compelling landmark in life science and changed the direction of research in clinical oncology with its productivity to diagnose and treat cancer. The aim of our portal comprehensive resources for cancer NGS data analysis (CRCDA) is to provide a collection of different NGS tools and pipelines under diverse classes with cancer pathways and databases and furthermore, literature information from PubMed. The literature data was constrained to 18 most common cancer types such as breast cancer, colon cancer and other cancers that exhibit in worldwide population. NGS-cancer tools for the convenience have been categorized into cancer genomics, cancer transcriptomics, cancer epigenomics, quality control and visualization. Pipelines for variant detection, quality control and data analysis were listed to provide out-of-the box solution for NGS data analysis, which may help researchers to overcome challenges in selecting and configuring individual tools for analysing exome, whole genome and transcriptome data. An extensive search page was developed that can be queried by using (i) type of data [literature, gene data and sequence read archive (SRA) data] and (ii) type of cancer (selected based on global incidence and accessibility of data). For each category of analysis, variety of tools are available and the biggest challenge is in searching and using the right tool for the right application. The objective of the work is collecting tools in each category available at various places and arranging the tools and other data in a simple and user-friendly manner for biologists and oncologists to find information easier. To the best of our knowledge, we have collected and presented a comprehensive package of most of the resources available in cancer for NGS data analysis. Given these factors, we believe that this website will be an useful resource to the NGS research community working on cancer. Database URL: http://bioinfo.au-kbc.org.in/ngs/ngshome.html. PMID:26450948

  17. Ma-Pi 2 macrobiotic diet and type 2 diabetes mellitus: pooled analysis of short-term intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Porrata-Maury, C; Hernández-Triana, M; Ruiz-Álvarez, V; Díaz-Sánchez, M E; Fallucca, F; Bin, W; Baba-Abubakari, B; Pianesi, M

    2014-03-01

    The macrobiotic, Ma-Pi 2 diet (12% protein, 18% fat and 70% carbohydrate), has shown benefit in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This pooled analysis aims to confirm results from four, 21-day intervention studies with the Ma-Pi 2 diet, carried out in Cuba, China, Ghana and Italy. Baseline and end of study biochemical, body composition and blood pressure data, were compared using multivariate statistical methods and assessment of the Cohen effect size (d). Results showed that all measured indicators demonstrated significant changes (p??0.05). Similarly, glycemia and glycemic profiles in all four studies were independent of the sample size (p?=?0.237). The Ma-Pi diet 2 significantly reduced glycemia, serum lipids, uremia and cardiovascular risk in adults with T2DM. These results suggest that the Ma-Pi 2 diet could be a valid alternative treatment for patients with T2DM and point to the need for further clinical studies. Mechanisms related to its benefits as a functional diet are discussed. PMID:24532293

  18. Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Infant Growth: A Pooled Analysis of Seven European Birth Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Iszatt, Nina; Stigum, Hein; Verner, Marc-André; White, Richard A.; Govarts, Eva; Murinova, Lubica Palkovicova; Schoeters, Greet; Trnovec, Tomas; Legler, Juliette; Pelé, Fabienne; Botton, Jérémie; Chevrier, Cécile; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Ranft, Ulrich; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Kasper-Sonnenberg, Monika; Klümper, Claudia; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Polder, Anuschka

    2015-01-01

    Background Infant exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may contribute to obesity. However, many studies so far have been small, focused on transplacental exposure, used an inappropriate measure to assess postnatal exposure through breastfeeding if any, or did not discern between prenatal and postnatal effects. Objectives We investigated prenatal and postnatal exposure to POPs and infant growth (a predictor of obesity). Methods We pooled data from seven European birth cohorts with biomarker concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (PCB-153) (n = 2,487), and p,p´-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE) (n = 1,864), estimating prenatal and postnatal POPs exposure using a validated pharmacokinetic model. Growth was change in weight-for-age z-score between birth and 24 months. Per compound, multilevel models were fitted with either POPs total exposure from conception to 24 months or prenatal or postnatal exposure. Results We found a significant increase in growth associated with p,p´-DDE, seemingly due to prenatal exposure (per interquartile increase in exposure, adjusted ? = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.22). Due to heterogeneity across cohorts, this estimate cannot be considered precise, but does indicate that an association with infant growth is present on average. In contrast, a significant decrease in growth was associated with postnatal PCB-153 exposure (? = –0.10; 95% CI: –0.19, –0.01). Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date of POPs exposure and infant growth, and it contains state-of-the-art exposure modeling. Prenatal p,p´-DDE was associated with increased infant growth, and postnatal PCB-153 with decreased growth at European exposure levels. Citation Iszatt N, Stigum H, Verner MA, White RA, Govarts E, Palkovicova Murinova L, Schoeters G, Trnovec T, Legler J, Pelé F, Botton J, Chevrier C, Wittsiepe J, Ranft U, Vandentorren S, Kasper-Sonnenberg M, Klümper C, Weisglas-Kuperus N, Polder A, Eggesbø M, OBELIX. 2015. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and infant growth: a pooled analysis of seven European birth cohorts. Environ Health Perspect 123:730–736;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1308005 PMID:25742056

  19. Posttreatment human papillomavirus testing for residual or recurrent high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective We conducted a pooled analysis of published studies to compare the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and cytology in detecting residual or recurrent diseases after treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or 3 (CIN 2/3). Methods Source articles presenting data on posttreatment HPV testing were identified from the National Library of Medicine (PubMed) database. We included 5,319 cases from 33 articles published between 1996 and 2013. Results The pooled sensitivity of high-risk HPV testing (0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 0.94) for detecting posttreatment CIN 2 or worse (CIN 2+) was much higher than that of cytology (0.76; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.80). Co-testing of HPV testing and cytology maximized the sensitivity (0.93; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.96), while HPV genotyping (detection of the same genotype between pre- and posttreatments) did not improve the sensitivity (0.89; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.94) compared with high-risk HPV testing alone. The specificity of high-risk HPV testing (0.83; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.84) was similar to that of cytology (0.85; 95% CI, 0.84 to 0.87) and HPV genotyping (0.83; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.85), while co-testing had reduced specificity (0.76; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.78). For women with positive surgical margins, high-risk HPV testing provided remarkable risk discrimination between test-positives and test-negatives (absolute risk of residual CIN 2+ 74.4% [95% CI, 64.0 to 82.6] vs. 0.8% [95% CI, 0.15 to 4.6]; p<0.001). Conclusion Our findings recommend the addition of high-risk HPV testing, either alone or in conjunction with cytology, to posttreatment surveillance strategies. HPV testing can identify populations at greatest risk of posttreatment CIN 2+ lesions, especially among women with positive section margins. PMID:26463429

  20. An integrated analysis of cancer genes in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Chai, Li; Li, Jia; Lv, Zhongwei

    2016-02-01

    Cancer driver genes are commonly mutationally disrupted in cancer, which confers a growth advantage to tumor cells. Recent studies preferentially search for recurrently mutated driver genes across multiple tumor samples, leading to the neglect of low-frequency mutated cancer genes. The present study was conducted to identify cancer?driving genes in thyroid cancer with two distinct tools, OncodriveFM and Dendrix, which aim to detect neglected driver genes with low mutation frequency. A total of 23,620 somatic mutations generated by whole?exome sequencing of 446 tumor/normal pairs of thyroid cancer were obtained from TCGA. Variant classification was conducted with Ensembl Variant Effect Predictor (VEP). OncodriveFM and Dendrix were applied to detect driver genes and pathways with statistical evidence. In addition, we analyzed DNA?methylation status, copy number variation, expression levels and fusion genes among these driver candidates. In total, non?synonymous mutations accounted for over 55% (13,091/23,620) of the total variants; 53 and 3 driver genes were determined by OncodriveFM and Dendrix, respectively, including 6 recurrently mutated driver genes, such as BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, EIF1AX, KRAS and 47 new genes. A total of 75 pathways with high function impact bias were identified by OncodriveFM. Two genes, FHOD3 and SRP72, were hypomethylated, overexpressed and involved in major deletions in thyroid cancer. Moreover, we identified 91 pairs of fusion genes, 89 of which were new fusion pairs in thyroid cancer. In conclusion, we successfully identified a list of new cancer genes, pathways and fusion genes, providing better insight into the tumorigenesis of thyroid cancer. PMID:26718127

  1. Circulating adiponectin and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Macis, Debora; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, Aliana; Gandini, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background: We conducted a meta-analysis in order to investigate whether circulating adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing hormone produced by adipocytes, is associated with breast cancer risk. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane Library. The summary relative risk (SRR) was calculated by pooling the different study-specific estimates using the random effect models. Meta-regression, subgroup and sensitivity analyses were carried out to investigate between-study heterogeneity and to test publication bias. Results: Data from 15 observational studies, published between 2003 and April 2013 for a total of 4249 breast cancer cases, were analysed. The SRR for the ‘highest’ vs ‘lowest’ adiponectin levels indicated a 34% reduction in breast cancer risk [95% confidence interval (CI): 13%–50%]. Between-study heterogeneity was not substantial (I2?=?53%). Ten studies were included in the dose-response analysis: the SRR for an increase of 3?µg/ml of adiponectin corresponded to a 5% risk reduction (95% CI: 1%–9%). The comparison between ‘highest’ and ‘lowest’ levels of adiponectin showed an inverse association in postmenopausal women (SRR?=?0.80; 95% CI: 0.63–1.01) and an indication of an inverse relationship in premenopausal women (SRR?=?0.72, 95% CI: 0.30–1.72). No evidence of publication bias was found. Conclusions: Low circulating adiponectin levels are associated with an increased breast cancer risk. However, properly designed studies are needed to confirm the role of adiponectin as breast cancer biomarker, and clinical trials should be performed to identify those interventions that may be effective in modulating adiponectin levels and reducing breast cancer risk. PMID:24737805

  2. Trend Analysis of Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Panama, Using Joinpoint Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Politis, Michael; Higuera, Gladys; Chang, Lissette Raquel; Gomez, Beatriz; Bares, Juan; Motta, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and its incidence is expected to increase in the future. In Panama, cancer is also one of the leading causes of death. In 1964, a nationwide cancer registry was started and it was restructured and improved in 2012. The aim of this study is to utilize Joinpoint regression analysis to study the trends of the incidence and mortality of cancer in Panama in the last decade. Cancer mortality was estimated from the Panamanian National Institute of Census and Statistics Registry for the period 2001 to 2011. Cancer incidence was estimated from the Panamanian National Cancer Registry for the period 2000 to 2009. The Joinpoint Regression Analysis program, version 4.0.4, was used to calculate trends by age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for selected cancers. Overall, the trend of age-adjusted cancer mortality in Panama has declined over the last 10 years (?1.12% per year). The cancers for which there was a significant increase in the trend of mortality were female breast cancer and ovarian cancer; while the highest increases in incidence were shown for breast cancer, liver cancer, and prostate cancer. Significant decrease in the trend of mortality was evidenced for the following: prostate cancer, lung and bronchus cancer, and cervical cancer; with respect to incidence, only oral and pharynx cancer in both sexes had a significant decrease. Some cancers showed no significant trends in incidence or mortality. This study reveals contrasting trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Panama in the last decade. Although Panama is considered an upper middle income nation, this study demonstrates that some cancer mortality trends, like the ones seen in cervical and lung cancer, behave similarly to the ones seen in high income countries. In contrast, other types, like breast cancer, follow a pattern seen in countries undergoing a transition to a developed economy with its associated lifestyle, nutrition, and body weight changes. PMID:26091467

  3. Diagnostic value of fine needle aspiration BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis in papillary thyroid cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fnais, Naif; Soobiah, Charlene; Al-Qahtani, Khalid; Hamid, Jemila S; Perrier, Laure; Straus, Sharon E; Tricco, Andrea C

    2015-10-01

    Fine needle aspiration (FNA) with cytologic analysis is an initial step in diagnosing thyroid nodules that are suspicious for cancer. We systematically reviewed the test accuracy of B-type Raf kinase (BRAF(V600E)) gene mutation analysis plus conventional FNA in the diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer. We identified studies reporting BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis after FNA for evaluation of thyroid nodules through searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, scanning reference lists of relevant studies, and contacting experts. Two independent reviewers screened literature results, abstracted data, and appraised study quality. When appropriate, bivariate and univariate random-effects meta-analyses of sensitivity and specificity were considered for all outcomes. Forty-seven studies met our inclusion criteria after screening 1560 citations and 169 full-text articles. The included studies enrolled approximately 16170 patients with 9924 FNA samples evaluated for BRAF(V600E) mutation. Univariate pooled sensitivity was 69% (95% confidence interval, 61%-76%) for papillary thyroid cancer. For thyroid nodules that were diagnosed cytologically as suspicious for papillary thyroid cancer, univariate pooled sensitivity using FNA and BRAF(V600E) results was 52% (95% confidence interval, 39%-64%). Despite its high specificity, our meta-analysis shows that BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis has a low sensitivity in diagnosing papillary thyroid cancer in thyroid nodules. The feasibility of this test as a single molecular tool is not well established, which indicates the need for well-designed prospective clinical studies. PMID:26232865

  4. Differential network analysis in human cancer research.

    PubMed

    Gill, Ryan; Datta, Somnath; Datta, Susmita

    2014-01-01

    A complex disease like cancer is hardly caused by one gene or one protein singly. It is usually caused by the perturbation of the network formed by several genes or proteins. In the last decade several research teams have attempted to construct interaction maps of genes and proteins either experimentally or reverse engineer interaction maps using computational techniques. These networks were usually created under a certain condition such as an environmental condition, a particular disease, or a specific tissue type. Lately, however, there has been greater emphasis on finding the differential structure of the existing network topology under a novel condition or disease status to elucidate the perturbation in a biological system. In this review/tutorial article we briefly mention some of the research done in this area; we mainly illustrate the computational/statistical methods developed by our team in recent years for differential network analysis using publicly available gene expression data collected from a well known cancer study. This data includes a group of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and a group with acute myeloid leukemia. In particular, we describe the statistical tests to detect the change in the network topology based on connectivity scores which measure the association or interaction between pairs of genes. The tests under various scores are applied to this data set to perform a differential network analysis on gene expression for human leukemia. We believe that, in the future, differential network analysis will be a standard way to view the changes in gene expression and protein expression data globally and these types of tests could be useful in analyzing the complex differential signatures. PMID:23530503

  5. Weight change during long-term treatment with lurasidone: pooled analysis of studies in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yongcai; Pikalov, Andrei; Cucchiaro, Josephine; Loebel, Antony

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the effect of 12 months of treatment with lurasidone on weight in patients with schizophrenia. Post-hoc, observed-case analysis included pooled data from six studies on 40–160?mg/day lurasidone; two studies included active comparators (2–6?mg/day risperidone or 200–800?mg/day quetiapine XR). Overall, 593 patients completed 12 months of treatment (N=471 lurasidone, N=89 risperidone, N=33 quetiapine XR). The mean baseline weight was 72.8, 80.8, and 72.4?kg in the lurasidone, risperidone, and quetiapine XR groups, respectively. The mean weight change at month 12 was ?0.4?kg with lurasidone, +2.6?kg with risperidone, and +1.2?kg with quetiapine XR. Weight gain of at least 7% from study baseline was observed in 16.0, 25.8, and 15.2% of patients, and weight loss of at least 7% was seen in 18.5, 6.7, and 9.1% of patients treated with lurasidone, risperidone, and quetiapine XR, respectively. A shift from normal/underweight baseline BMI status to overweight/obese at month 12 occurred in 10.2, 27.6, and 15.0% of patients in the lurasidone, risperidone, and quetiapine XR groups, respectively. Conversely, 14.3, 1.7, and 7.7% of patients, respectively, shifted from overweight/obese to normal/underweight. In summary, a low potential for clinically significant weight gain was observed in patients with schizophrenia treated continuously with lurasidone for 12 months. PMID:26196189

  6. Primary Hepatic Small Cell Carcinoma: Two Case Reports, Molecular Characterization and Pooled Analysis of Known Clinical Data.

    PubMed

    Shastri, Aditi; Msaouel, Pavlos; Montagna, Cristina; White, Sherry; Delio, Maria; Patel, Kunjan; Alexis, Karenza; Strakhan, Marianna; Elrafei, Tarek N; Reed, Louis Juden

    2016-01-01

    Primary hepatic small cell carcinoma (HSCC) is a rare malignancy that has previously been described in only few case reports. The clinicopathological course, natural history, molecular markers and ideal treatment strategy for this tumor have not been fully elucidated. Herein, we report on two cases of spontaneously arising, metastatic primary HSCC that were treated at our Institution. Both patients succumbed to their disease within two months of initial presentation. Both cases underwent postmortem examination and no evidence of a pulmonary or other non-hepatic small cell primary was found. Unlike pulmonary small cell tumors, these two hepatic primaries showed only locoregional spread and very few distant metastases. Formalin-fixed samples were obtained at autopsy and sequenced using single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays and whole-genome sequencing. Four mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene known to be associated with response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) were detected in one of the two HSCC samples. A systematic review and pooled analysis of all previously reported cases of primary HSCCs was conducted. The median overall survival was estimated at 4 months. Surgical resection was significantly associated with longer overall survival (hazard ratio =0.13, 95% confidence interval=0.03-0.69). Although several case reports of primary HSCC have been reported prior to this publication, to our knowledge this is the first time that molecular and systematic analysis has been conducted in order to more fully characterize this rare disease. Our results indicate that surgical resection, when feasible, may be a valid option in primary HSCC, and that some tumors may respond to TKIs against EGFR. PMID:26722053

  7. Second generation logarithmic estimates of single-pool variable volume Kt/V: an analysis of error.

    PubMed

    Daugirdas, J T

    1993-11-01

    The original formula proposed to estimate variable-volume single-pool (VVSP) Kt/V was Kt/V = -In(R - 0.008 * t - f * UF/W), where in the Kt/V range of 0.7 to 1.3, f = 1.0 (* denotes multiplication). This formula tends to overestimate Kt/V as the Kt/V increases above 1.3. Because higher Kt/V values are now commonly delivered, the validity of both the urea generation term (0.008 * f) and correction for UF/W were explored by solving VVSP equations for simulated hemodialysis situations, with Kt/V ranging from 0.6 to 2.6. The analysis led to the development of a second-generation formula, namely: Kt/V = -In(R - 0.008 * t) + (4-3.5 * R) * UF/W. The first and second generation formulas were then used to estimate the modeled VVSP Kt/V in 500 modeling sessions in which the Kt/V ranged widely from 0.7 to 2.1. An analysis of error showed that this second-generation formula eliminated the overestimation of Kt/V in the high ranges found with the first-generation formula. Also, total error (absolute value percent error + 2 SD) was reduced with the second-generation formula. These results led to the proposal of a new formula that can be used for a very wide range of delivered Kt/V. PMID:8305648

  8. Prognostic Role of NLR in Urinary Cancers: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Wen-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, many studies explored the role of inflammation parameters such as neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in the prognosis of urinary cancers, but the results were not consistent. Methods We carried out a meta-analysis of published studies to assess the prognostic value of NLR in patients with urinary cancers. Hazard ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the association of NLR and OS and RFS/CSS. Results The pooled results showed that high NLR was a poor predictor for OS with HR of 1.81 (95%CI: 1.48–2.21; Pheterogeneity?=?0.005) and RFS/CSS (HR?=?2.07, 95% CI: 1.65–2.6; Pheterogeneity?=?0.849). Subgroup analyses revealed that high NLR yielded a worse OS in RCC (HR?=?1.9, 95%CI: 1.47–2.45; Pheterogeneity?=?0.003) and a poor RFS/CSS in RCC (HR?=?1.83, 95%CI: 1.35–2.48; Pheterogeneity?=?0.709), bladder cancer (HR?=?2.2, 95%CI: 1.27–3.8; Pheterogeneity?=?0.447) and urothelial carcinoma (HR?=?2.58, 95%CI: 1.66–4.01; Pheterogeneity?=?0.784). Conclusion Our results showed that NLR could act as a significant biomarker in the prognosis of urinary cancers. PMID:24642859

  9. Tai chi chuan exercise for patients with breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuanqing; Yang, Kehu; Shi, Xiue; Liang, Haiqian; Zhang, Fengwa; Lv, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) is a form of aerobic exercise that may be an effective therapy for improving psychosomatic capacity among breast cancer survivors. This meta-analysis analyzed the available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of TCC in relieving treatment-related side effects and quality of life in women with breast cancer. Methods. RCTs were searched in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library through April 2014. Data were analyzed on pathology (pain, interleukin-6, and insulin-like growth factor 1), physical capacity (handgrip, limb physical fitness, and BMI), and well-being (physical, social, emotional, and general quality of life). Results. Nine RCTs, including a total of 322 breast cancer patients, were examined. Compared with control therapies, the pooled results suggested that TCC showed significant effects in improving handgrip dynamometer strength, limb elbow flexion (elbow extension, abduction, and horizontal adduction). No significant differences were observed in pain, interleukin-6, insulin-like growth factor, BMI, physical well-being, social or emotional well-being, or general health-related quality of life. Conclusion. The short-term effects of TCC may have potential benefits in upper limb functional mobility in patients with breast cancer. Additional randomized controlled trials with longer follow-up are needed to provide more reliable evidence. PMID:25793000

  10. Tai Chi Chuan Exercise for Patients with Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yuanqing; Yang, Kehu; Shi, Xiue; Liang, Haiqian; Zhang, Fengwa; Lv, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) is a form of aerobic exercise that may be an effective therapy for improving psychosomatic capacity among breast cancer survivors. This meta-analysis analyzed the available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of TCC in relieving treatment-related side effects and quality of life in women with breast cancer. Methods. RCTs were searched in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library through April 2014. Data were analyzed on pathology (pain, interleukin-6, and insulin-like growth factor 1), physical capacity (handgrip, limb physical fitness, and BMI), and well-being (physical, social, emotional, and general quality of life). Results. Nine RCTs, including a total of 322 breast cancer patients, were examined. Compared with control therapies, the pooled results suggested that TCC showed significant effects in improving handgrip dynamometer strength, limb elbow flexion (elbow extension, abduction, and horizontal adduction). No significant differences were observed in pain, interleukin-6, insulin-like growth factor, BMI, physical well-being, social or emotional well-being, or general health-related quality of life. Conclusion. The short-term effects of TCC may have potential benefits in upper limb functional mobility in patients with breast cancer. Additional randomized controlled trials with longer follow-up are needed to provide more reliable evidence. PMID:25793000

  11. The Cancer Genome Atlas Pan-Cancer analysis project

    E-print Network

    Lander, Eric S.

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network has profiled and analyzed large numbers of human tumors to discover molecular aberrations at the DNA, RNA, protein and epigenetic levels. The resulting rich data provide a ...

  12. Traffic-related air pollution and lung cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gongbo; Wan, Xia; Yang, Gonghuan; Zou, Xiaonong

    2015-01-01

    Background We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between traffic-related air pollution and lung cancer in order to provide evidence for control of traffic-related air pollution. Methods Several databases were searched for relevant studies up to December 2013. The quality of articles obtained was evaluated by the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklist. Statistical analysis, including pooling effective sizes and confidential intervals, was performed. Results A total of 1106 records were obtained through the database and 36 studies were included in our analysis. Among the studies included, 14 evaluated the association between ambient exposure to traffic-related air pollution and lung cancer and 22 studies involved occupational exposure to air pollution among professional drivers. Twenty-two studies were marked A level regarding quality, 13 were B level, and one was C level. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide (meta-odds ratio [OR]: 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.99–1.13), nitrogen oxide (meta-OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01–1.07), sulfur dioxide (meta-OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.02–1.05), and fine particulate matter (meta-OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.00–1.22) were positively associated with a risk of lung cancer. Occupational exposure to air pollution among professional drivers significantly increased the incidence (meta-OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.19–1.36) and mortality of lung cancer (meta-OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04–1.26). Conclusion Exposure to traffic-related air pollution significantly increased the risk of lung cancer. PMID:26273377

  13. Prognostic value of stromal decorin expression in patients with breast cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuang-Jiang; Chen, Da-Li; Zhang, Wen-Biao; Shen, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Numbers of studies have investigated the biological functions of decorin (DCN) in oncogenesis, tumor progression, angiogenesis and metastasis. Although many of them aim to highlight the prognostic value of stromal DCN expression in breast cancer, some controversial results still exist and a consensus has not been reached until now. Therefore, our meta-analysis aims to determine the prognostic significance of stromal DCN expression in breast cancer patients. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, the Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were searched for full-text literatures met out inclusion criteria. We applied the hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) as the appropriate summarized statistics. Q-test and I2 statistic were employed to estimate the level of heterogeneity across the included studies. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to further identify the possible origins of heterogeneity. The publication bias was detected by Begg’s test and Egger’s test. Results There were three English literatures (involving 6 studies) included into our meta-analysis. On the one hand, both the summarized outcomes based on univariate analysis (HR: 0.513; 95% CI: 0.406-0.648; P<0.001) and multivariate analysis (HR: 0.544; 95% CI: 0.388-0.763; P<0.001) indicated that stromal DCN expression could promise the high cancer-specific survival (CSS) of breast cancer patients. On the other hand, both the summarized outcomes based on univariate analysis (HR: 0.504; 95% CI: 0.389-0.651; P<0.001) and multivariate analysis (HR: 0.568; 95% CI: 0.400-0.806; P=0.002) also indicated that stromal DCN expression was positively associated with high disease-free survival (DFS) of breast cancer patients. No significant heterogeneity or publication bias was observed within this meta-analysis. Conclusions The present evidences indicate that high stromal DCN expression can significantly predict the good prognosis in patients with breast cancer. The discoveries from our meta-analysis have better be confirmed in the updated review pooling more relevant investigations in the future. PMID:26716032

  14. Association between coffee consumption and the risk of oral cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Xi; Cui, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Quantification of the association between the coffee consumption and risk of oral cancer is still conflicting. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the evidence from epidemiological studies of coffee consumption with the risk of oral cancer. Methods: Pertinent studies were identified by a search of PubMed and Web of Knowledge to March 2015. The random effect model was used. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias were conducted. Results: Data from 12 studies including 4,037 oral cancer cases and 1,872,231 participants were used in this meta-analysis. Pooled results suggested that highest coffee consumption amount versus lowest amount was significantly associated with the risk of oral cancer [summary relative risk (RR) = 0.694, 95% CI = 0.543-0.886, I2 = 65.0%]. The association was also significant in Europe [summary RR = 0.571, 95% CI = 0.378-0.863], but not in America. No publication bias was found. Conclusions: Our analysis suggested that the higher coffee consumption might reduce the risk of oral cancer, especially in Europe. PMID:26380002

  15. Prognostic Value and Clinicopathology Significance of MicroRNA-200c Expression in Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Zhu, Weikang; Li, Yan; Yu, Yongchun

    2015-01-01

    MiR-200c has been shown to be related to cancer formation and progression. However, the prognostic and clinicopathologic significance of miR-200c expression in cancer remain inconclusive. We carried out this systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the prognostic value of miR-200c expression in cancer. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) of miR-200c for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were calculated to measure the effective value of miR-200c expression on prognosis. The association between miR-200c expression and clinical significance was measured by odds ratios (ORs). Twenty-three studies were included in our meta-analysis. We found that miR-200c was not significantly correlated with OS (HR = 1.41, 95%Cl: 0.95-2.10; P = 0.09) and PFS (HR = 1.12, 95%Cl: 0.68-1.84; P = 0.67) in cancer. In our subgroup analysis, higher expression of miR-200c was significantly associated with poor OS in blood (HR = 2.10, 95%CI: 1.52-2.90, P<0.00001). Moreover, in clinicopathology analysis, miR-200c expression in blood was significantly associated with TNM stage, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis. MiR-200c may have the potential to become a new blood biomarker to monitor cancer prognosis and progression. PMID:26035744

  16. Bisphosphonates and evidence for association with esophageal and gastric cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Ellen; Schofield, Peter T; Molokhia, Mariam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Concerns have been raised about a possible link between bisphosphonate use, and in particular alendronate, and upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancer. A number of epidemiological studies have been published with conflicting results. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies, to determine the risk of esophageal and gastric cancer in users of bisphosphonates compared with non-users. Design We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for studies investigating bisphosphonates and esophageal or gastric cancer. We calculated pooled ORs and 95% CIs for the risk of esophageal or gastric cancer in bisphosphonate users compared with non-users. We performed a sensitivity analysis of alendronate as this was the most common single drug studied and is also the most widely used in clinical practice. Results 11 studies (from 10 papers) examining bisphosphonate exposure and UGI cancer (gastric and esophageal), met our inclusion criteria. All studies were retrospective, 6/11 (55%) case–control and 5/11(45%) cohort, and carried out using data from 5 longitudinal clinical databases. Combining 5 studies (1 from each database), we found no increased risk, OR 1.11 (95% CI 0.97 to 1.27) of esophageal cancer in bisphosphonate users compared with non-users and no increased risk of gastric cancer in bisphosphonate users, OR 0.96 (95% CI 0.82 to 1.12). Conclusion This is the fourth and most detailed meta-analysis on this topic. We have not identified any compelling evidence for a significantly raised risk of esophageal cancer or gastric cancer in male and female patients prescribed bisphosphonates. PMID:26644118

  17. Age at menarche and endometrial cancer risk: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ting-Ting; Wang, Yong-Lai; Ma, Xiao-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Evidence between age at menarche and endometrial cancer risk have been controversial. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies to analyze the aforementioned association. Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE databases until the end of June 2015. A random-effects model was used to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between menarcheal age and endometrial cancer risk. Our meta-analysis included eight prospective studies involving 4553 subjects with endometrial cancer. The summarized RRs of endometrial cancer for menarcheal age were 0.68 (95%CI?=?0.58–0.81, I2?=?41.9%, P?=?0.099, n?=?8) when comparing women with oldest category of menarcheal age with women with youngest category of menarcheal age. Notably, there was an 4% reduction in risk for per 2 years delay in menarcheal age (summarized RR?=?0.96; 95%CI?=?0.94–0.98, I2?=?45.7%, P?=?0.101, n?=?6). Additionally, significant inverse associations were consistent within all stratified analyses. There was no evidence of publication bias or significant heterogeneity between subgroups detected by meta-regression analyses. Our findings support the hypothesis that late menarcheal age is inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk. Further larger prospective or pooled studies are warranted to fully adjust for potential confounders and distinguish whether the associations differ by histological subtypes of endometrial cancer. PMID:26360785

  18. Efficacy and Safety of Moxifloxacin in Hospitalized Patients with Secondary Peritonitis: Pooled Analysis of Four Randomized Phase III Trials

    PubMed Central

    Tellado, Jose M.; Weiss, Günter; Alder, Jeffrey; Kruesmann, Frank; Arvis, Pierre; Hussain, Tajamul; Solomkin, Joseph S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Secondary peritonitis is an advanced form of complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAI) requiring hospitalization, surgical source control, and empiric antibiotic therapy against causative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Methods: This pooled analysis of four prospective, active-controlled randomized clinical trials compared the efficacy and safety of moxifloxacin with that of comparator antibiotics in patients with confirmed secondary peritonitis. The primary efficacy endpoint was clinical success rate at test-of-cure (TOC) between day 10 and 45 post-therapy in the per-protocol (PP) population. Safety and clinical efficacy were assessed also in the intent-to-treat population (ITT). Bacteriological success was assessed at TOC in the microbiologically-valid population as a secondary efficacy endpoint. Results: Overall clinical success rates at TOC were 85.3% (431 of 505 patients) in the moxifloxacin and 88.4% (459 of 519 patients) in the comparator treatment groups (PP population, point estimate for the difference in success rates: ?3.0%; 95% CI ?7.06%, 1.05%), respectively. Similar clinical success rates between moxifloxacin and comparators were observed by anatomical site of infection, and ranged from 80.6% to 100% for moxifloxacin and from 71.4% to 96.6% for comparators, respectively. Bacteriologic success rates were similar with moxifloxacin (82.4%) and comparators (86.8%), respectively. The proportion of patients experiencing any treatment-emergent adverse events was slightly higher with moxifloxacin (67.3%) versus comparators (59.8%). Rates of drug-related adverse events (20.9% versus 20.0%) and deaths (4.3% versus 3.4%) were similar in moxifloxacin and comparator groups; none of the deaths were drug-related. Conclusions: The data suggests that once-daily IV (or IV/PO) moxifloxacin has a comparable efficacy and safety profile to antibiotic regimens approved previously in the subgroup of patients with secondary peritonitis of mild-to-moderate severity. PMID:24833256

  19. Serum dickkopf-1 as a biomarker in screening gastrointestinal cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Bin; Zhong, Liansheng; He, Qun; Wang, Shaocheng; Pan, Zhongcheng; Wang, Tianjiao; Zhao, Yujie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite advances in the early diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, these cancers are often being detected rather late in their course. Emerging published data on the accuracy of dickkopf-1 (DKK1) for diagnosing GI cancers are inconsistent. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the diagnostic value of DKK1 in the diagnosis of GI cancers. Methods A systematic literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and WANFANG databases was conducted to identify the related studies published before May 1, 2015, which investigated the diagnostic value of serum DKK1 for GI cancers. The methodological quality of each study was assessed according to the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 checklist. The diagnostic performance was pooled and analyzed using a bivariate model. Publication bias was evaluated with the Deeks’ funnel test. Results A total of 15 studies with 5,076 participants were finally identified for the meta-analysis. The pooled results of sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio for DKK1 test were 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.70–0.74), 0.90 (95% CI: 0.89–0.91), 7.72 (95% CI: 4.90–12.14), 0.29 (95% CI: 0.22–0.39), and 28.95 (95% CI: 16.25–51.65) for diagnosis of GI cancers, respectively. The area under the summary receiver–operating characteristic curve was 0.8901. The SEN of DKK1 in diagnosis of gastric cancer and pancreatic cancer may be higher than hepatocellular carcinoma, and the SPE in pancreatic cancer subgroup was lower than hepatocellular carcinoma and gastric cancer subgroups. Conclusion The currently available evidence suggests that serum DKK1 is a potential biomarker with high SEN and SPE for screening GI cancers. To better elucidate the usefulness of serum DKK1, further studies are needed. PMID:26543380

  20. Pooling techniques for bioassay screening

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L.C.; Baum, J.W.; Kaplan, E; Moorthy, A.R.

    1996-03-01

    Pooling techniques commonly are used to increase the throughput of samples used for screening purposes. While the advantages of such techniques are increased analytical efficiency and cost savings, the sensitivity of measurements decreases because it is inversely proportional to the number of samples in the pools. Consequently, uncertainties in estimates of dose and risk which are based on the results of pooled samples increase as the number of samples in the pools increases in all applications. However, sensitivities may not be seriously degraded, for example, in urinalysis, if the samples in the pools are of known time duration, or if the fraction of some attribute of the grab urine samples to that in a 24-hour composite is known (e.g., mass, specific gravity, creatinine, or volume, per 24-h interval). This paper presents square and cube pooling schemes that greatly increase throughput and can considerably reduce analytical costs (on a sample basis). The benefit-cost ratios for 5{times}5 square and 5{times}5{times}5 cube pooling schemes are 2.5 and 8.3, respectively. Three-dimensional and higher arrayed pooling schemes would result in even greater economies; however, significant improvements in analytical sensitivity are required to achieve these advantages. These are various other considerations for designing a pooling scheme, where the number of dimensions and of samples in the optimum array are influenced by: (1) the minimal detectable amount (MDA) of the analytical processes, (2) the screening dose-rate requirements, (3) the maximum masses or volumes of the composite samples that can be analyzed, (4) the information already available from results of composite analysis, and (5) the ability of an analytical system to guard against both false negative and false positive results. Many of these are beyond the scope of this paper but are being evaluated.

  1. Systematic pan-cancer analysis of tumor purity

    PubMed Central

    Aran, Dvir; Sirota, Marina; Butte, Atul J.

    2015-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is the non-cancerous cells present in and around a tumor, including mainly immune cells, but also fibroblasts and cells that comprise supporting blood vessels. These non-cancerous components of the tumor may play an important role in cancer biology. They also have a strong influence on the genomic analysis of tumor samples, and may alter the biological interpretation of results. We present a systematic analysis using different measurement modalities of tumor purity in more than 10,000 samples across 21 cancer types from the Cancer Genome Atlas. Patients are stratified according to clinical features in an attempt to detect clinical differences driven by purity levels. We demonstrate the confounding effect of tumor purity on correlating and clustering tumors with transcriptomics data. Finally, using a differential expression method that accounts for tumor purity, we find an immunotherapy gene signature in several cancer types that is not detected by traditional differential expression analyses. PMID:26634437

  2. Systematic pan-cancer analysis of tumour purity.

    PubMed

    Aran, Dvir; Sirota, Marina; Butte, Atul J

    2015-01-01

    The tumour microenvironment is the non-cancerous cells present in and around a tumour, including mainly immune cells, but also fibroblasts and cells that comprise supporting blood vessels. These non-cancerous components of the tumour may play an important role in cancer biology. They also have a strong influence on the genomic analysis of tumour samples, and may alter the biological interpretation of results. Here we present a systematic analysis using different measurement modalities of tumour purity in >10,000 samples across 21 cancer types from the Cancer Genome Atlas. Patients are stratified according to clinical features in an attempt to detect clinical differences driven by purity levels. We demonstrate the confounding effect of tumour purity on correlating and clustering tumours with transcriptomics data. Finally, using a differential expression method that accounts for tumour purity, we find an immunotherapy gene signature in several cancer types that is not detected by traditional differential expression analyses. PMID:26634437

  3. Association between the -607 C > A polymorphism in interleukin-18 gene promoter with gastrointestinal cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yao, J; Li, Z H; Li, Y X; Zhang, R; Zhang, D G; Xu, Z L; Wang, L S; Wang, J Y

    2015-01-01

    The interleukin-18 (IL-18) gene -607 C/A polymorphism has been reported to be associated with gastrointestinal cancer, but there are conflicting results from previous studies on said topic. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis is to derive a more precise estimation of the association between the -607 C/A polymorphism in the IL-18 gene and gastrointestinal cancer risk. Literature searches of PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases were carried out in 2015. Five studies were assessed with a total of 1618 cases and 1155 healthy controls. When results from all eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis, we found significant association between the IL-18 gene -607 C/A polymorphism and gastrointestinal cancer risk (CC vs AA: OR = 0.93, 95%CI = 0.72- 1.20; CC vs CA: OR = 0.76, 95%CI = 0.62-0.92; dominant model: OR = 1.25, 95%CI = 1.03-1.50; recessive model: OR = 1.09, 95%CI = 0.87-1.37). In the subgroup analysis, significant associations between the -607 C/A polymorphism and gastrointestinal cancer risk were found in esophageal cancer. However, this polymorphism did not appear to have any influence on gastric cancer and colorectal cancer susceptibility. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that the -607 C/A polymorphism in the IL-18 gene may be associated with susceptibility to esophageal cancer. Further studies with large sample sizes are needed to confirm these conclusions. PMID:26681034

  4. Meta-analysis of oncological outcome after abdominoperineal resection or low anterior resection for lower rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Tong; Li, De-Gang; Li, Lei; Kong, Fan-Biao; Pang, Li-Ming; Mai, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In lower rectal cancer, postoperative outcome is still subject of controversy between the advocates of abdominoperineal resection (APR) and low anterior resection (LAR). Reports suggest that low anterior resection may be oncologically superior to abdominoperineal excision, although no good evidence exists to support this. Publications were identified which assessed the differences comparing 5-year survival, local recurrence, circumferential resection margin rate, complications and so on. A meta-analysis was performed to clarify the safety and feasibility of the two procedures with several types of outcome measures. A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria, and comprised 6,850 cases. Analysis of these data showed that LAR group was highly correlated with 5-year survival (pooled OR = 1.73, 95%CI: 1.30-2.29, P = 0.0002 random-effect). And local recurrence rate of APR group was significantly higher than that in LAR group (pooled OR = 0.63, 95%CI: 0.53-0.75, P < 0.00001 fixed-effect). Also, the circumferential resection margin (CRM) were high involved in APR group than in LAR group. (5 trials reported the data, pooled OR = 0.43, 95%CI: 0.36-0.52, P < 0.00001 fixed-effect). Besides, the incidents of overall complications of APR group was higher compared with LAR group (pooled OR = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.29-0.92, P = 0.03 random-effect). Patients treated by APR have a higher rate of CRM involvement, a higher local recurrence, and poorer prognosis than LAR. And there is evidence that in selected low rectal cancer patients, LAR can be used safely with a better oncological outcome than APR. due to the inherent limitations of the present study, for example, the trails available for this systematic review are limited and the finite retrospective data, future prospective randomized controlled trials will be useful to fully investigate these outcome measures and to confirm this conclusion. PMID:25430561

  5. Identification of microRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers in screening of head and neck cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M; Zhao, L J; Liang, W Q; Mao, Z P

    2015-01-01

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) is one of the most prevalent cancers; it is often diagnosed at its advanced stage and has a low 5-year survival rate. Evidence suggests that noninvasive biomarker microRNAs (miRNAs) are valuable for early diagnosis of HNC. This meta-analysis assessed the diagnostic value of miRNAs in HNC detection. A systematic literature search for relevant studies up to August 4, 2014 was conducted in databases and other sources. Statistical analysis was conducted using STATA 12.0. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, and other parameters, together with a summary receiver operating characteristic curve were used to assess the overall performance of miRNA assays. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression were used to analyze heterogeneity, and a Deeks' funnel plot asymmetry test assessed publication bias. Twenty-four articles with 1856 HNC patients and 1375 controls were included. The pooled results were as follows: sensitivity, 0.80 (95%CI = 0.77-0.83); specificity, 0.80 (95%CI = 0.76-0.85); positive likelihood ratio, 4.1 (95%CI = 3.2-5.2); negative likelihood ratio, 0.25 (95%CI = 0.21-0.30); diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), 16 (95%CI = 11-24); and area under curve (AUC), 0.87 (95%CI = 0.84-0.89). We conducted subgroup analyses based on ethnicity, cancer type, miRNA profiling, and specimen types, and found that miRNA assays yielded the highest accuracy in esophageal cancer. Notably, the DOR was 99 and the AUC was 0.96 for the multiple miRNA test, indicating strong discrimination of cancer patients from healthy people. The meta-analysis indicates that noninvasive miRNAs are a promising diagnostic tool with moderate accuracy for HNC diagnosis. PMID:26681002

  6. Who Benefits From Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Gastric Cancer? A Meta-Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ohri, Nitin; Garg, Madhur K.; Aparo, Santiago; Kaubisch, Andreas; Tome, Wolfgang; Kennedy, Timothy J.; Kalnicki, Shalom; Guha, Chandan

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Large randomized trials have demonstrated significant survival benefits with the use of adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation therapy for gastric cancer. The importance of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) remains unclear. We performed an up-to-date meta-analysis of randomized trials testing the use of RT for resectable gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized trials testing adjuvant (including neoadjuvant) RT for resectable gastric cancer. Hazard ratios describing the impact of adjuvant RT on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were extracted directly from the original studies or calculated from survival curves. Pooled estimates were obtained using the inverse variance method. Subgroup analyses were performed to determine whether the efficacy of RT varies with chemotherapy use, RT timing, geographic region, type of nodal dissection performed, or lymph node status. Results: Thirteen studies met all inclusion criteria and were used for this analysis. Adjuvant RT was associated with a significant improvement in both OS (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.70-0.86, P<.001) and DFS (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.63-0.80, P<.001). In the 5 studies that tested adjuvant chemoradiation therapy against adjuvant chemotherapy, similar effects were seen for OS (HR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.67-1.03, P=.087) and DFS (HR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.91-0.65, P=.002). Available data did not reveal any subgroup of patients that does not benefit from adjuvant RT. Conclusion: In randomized trials for resectable gastric cancer, adjuvant RT provides an approximately 20% improvement in both DFS and OS. Available data do not reveal a subgroup of patients that does not benefit from adjuvant RT. Further study is required to optimize the implementation of adjuvant RT for gastric cancer with regard to patient selection and integration with systemic therapy.

  7. Prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Bin; Liu, Yao; Jiang, Shu-juan; Liu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The prognostic value of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in cancer remains controversial. We did a meta-analysis to assess the prognostic effect of FoxP3+ Treg across different types of cancer and to investigate factors associated with variations in this effect. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Scopus were searched to identify eligible studies. In total, we analyzed 76 articles encompassing 17 types of cancer, and including 15,512 cancer cases. The overall pooled analysis including all types of cancer suggested FoxP3+Tregs had a significant negative effect on overall survival (OS) (OR 1.46, P?cancers, et al; whereas, FoxP3+ Tregs were associated with improved survival in colorectal, head and neck, and oesophageal cancers. The stratified analysis suggested the molecular subtype and tumor stage significantly influenced the prognostic value of FoxP3+ Tregs in certain types of cancer. In conclusion, our meta-analysis suggests that the prognostic role of FoxP3+ Tregs was highly influenced by tumor site, and was also correlated with the molecular subtype and tumor stage. PMID:26462617

  8. Relationship between apurinic endonuclease 1 Asp148Glu polymorphism and gastrointestinal cancer risk: An updated meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhi-Jun; Shao, Yong-Ping; Kang, Hua-Feng; Tang, Wei; Xu, Dan; Zhao, Yang; Liu, Di; Wang, Meng; Yang, Peng-Tao; Wang, Xi-Jing

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the relationship between apurinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) Asp148Glu polymorphism and the susceptibility to gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. METHODS: We searched PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases updated on July 15, 2014 for relevant studies. Only case-control studies comparing APE1 Asp148Glu polymorphism and GI cancer risk were included. We excluded studies reporting only standardized incidence ratios without control groups and those without detailed genotyping data. Meta-analysis was performed on 17 studies involving 4856 cancer patients and 6136 cancer-free controls. Review Manager version 5.1 was used to perform the meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated under the allele contrast, homozygous, heterozygous, dominant and recessive genetic models. We also conducted subgroup analyses stratified by ethnicity and cancer type. Publication bias was evaluated using Begg’s test. RESULTS: The meta-analysis showed a significant association between APE1 Asp148Glu polymorphism and GI cancer risk in three genetic models in the overall population (G vs T: OR = 1.18; 95%CI: 1.05-1.32; TG vs TT: OR = 1.28; 95%CI: 1.08-1.52; TG + GG vs TT: OR = 1.32; 95%CI: 1.10-1.57). Stratified analysis by ethnicity revealed a statistically increased GI cancer risk in Asians (G vs T: OR = 1.27; 95%CI: 1.07-1.51; GG vs TT: OR = 1.58; 95%CI: 1.05-2.38; TG vs TT: OR = 1.30; 95%CI, 1.01- 1.67; and TG + GG vs TT: OR = 1.38; 95%CI: 1.07-1.78), but not in Caucasians. Further subgroup analysis by cancer type indicated that APE1 Asp148Glu polymorphism may contribute to gastric cancer risk. However, Asp148Glu has no significant association with colorectal or esophageal cancer risk in any genetic model. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggests that the APE1 Asp148Glu polymorphism G allele is associated with an increased GI cancer risk, especially in gastric cancer. PMID:25945024

  9. Screening for cervical cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The systematic review on which this paper is based provided evidence for the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care to update their guideline regarding screening for cervical cancer. In this article we highlight three questions covered in the full review that pertain to the effectiveness of screening for reducing cervical cancer mortality and incidence as well as optimal timing and frequency of screening. Methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Central from 1995 to 2012 for relevant randomized controlled trials and observational studies with comparison groups. Eligible studies included women aged 15 to 70 years who were screened using conventional cytology, liquid-based cytology or human papillomavirus DNA tests. Relevance screening, data extraction, risk of bias analyses and quality assessments were performed in duplicate. We conducted a meta-analysis using a random-effects model on the one body of evidence that could be pooled. Results From the 15,145 screened citations, 27 papers (24 studies) were included; five older studies located in a United States Preventive Services Task Force review were also included. A randomized controlled trial in India showed even a single lifetime screening test significantly decreased the risk of mortality from and incidence of advanced cervical cancer compared to no screening (mortality: risk ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.47, 0.90; incidence: relative risk 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.42, 0.75). Cytology screening was shown to be beneficial in a cohort study that found testing significantly reduced the risk of being diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer compared to no screening (risk ratio 0.38; 95% confidence interval 0.23, 0.63). Pooled evidence from a dozen case–control studies also indicated a significant protective effect of cytology screening (odds ratio 0.35; 95% confidence interval 0.30, 0.41). This review found no conclusive evidence for establishing optimal ages to start and stop cervical screening, or to determine how often to screen; however the available data suggests substantial protective effects for screening women 30 years and older and for intervals of up to five years. Conclusions The available evidence supports the conclusion that cervical screening does offer protective benefits and is associated with a reduction in the incidence of invasive cervical cancer and cervical cancer mortality. PMID:23706117

  10. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Cancer Locus of Control Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Jessica W.; Donatelle, Rebecca J.; Acock, Alan C.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a confirmatory factor analysis of the Cancer Locus of Control scale (M. Watson and others, 1990), administered to 543 women with a history of breast cancer. Results support a three-factor model of the scale and support use of the scale to assess control dimensions. (SLD)

  11. Effectiveness of Mindfulness-based Therapy for Reducing Anxiety and Depression in Patients With Cancer: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei-Fen; Wen, Yong-Shan; Liu, Wei-Yan; Peng, Li-Fen; Wu, Xiao-Dan; Liu, Qian-Wen

    2015-11-01

    Anxiety and depression are common among patients with cancer, and are often treated with psychological interventions including mindfulness-based therapy.The aim of the study was to perform a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for improving anxiety and depression in patients with cancer.Medline, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were searched. The randomized controlled trials designed for patients diagnosed with cancer were included. Mindfulness-based interventions were provided.The outcomes assessed were the changes in anxiety and depression scores from before to after the intervention. The treatment response was determined by calculating the standardized mean difference (SMD) for individual studies and for pooled study results. Subgroup analyses by cancer type, type of therapy, and length of follow-up were performed.Seven studies, involving 469 participants who received mindfulness-based interventions and 419 participants in a control group, were included in the meta-analysis. Mindfulness-based stress reduction and art therapy were the most common interventions (5/7 studies). All studies reported anxiety and depression scores. The pooled SMD of the change in anxiety significantly favored mindfulness-based therapy over control treatment (-0.75, 95% confidence interval -1.28, -0.22, P?=?0.005). Likewise, the pooled SMD of the change in depression also significantly favored mindfulness-based therapy over control (-0.90, 95% confidence interval -1.53, -0.26, P?=?0.006). During the length of follow-ups less than 12 weeks, mindfulness-based therapy significantly improved anxiety for follow-up ?12 weeks after the start of therapy, but not >12 weeks after the start of therapy.There was a lack of consistency between the studies in the type of mindfulness-based/control intervention implemented. Patients had different forms of cancer. Subgroup analyses included a relatively small number of studies and did not account for factors such as the severity of anxiety and/or depression, the time since diagnosis, and cancer stage.Mindfulness-based interventions effectively relieved anxiety and depression among patients with cancer. However, additional research is still warranted to determine how long the beneficial effects of mindfulness-based therapy persist. PMID:26559246

  12. Recent cancer survival in Germany: an analysis of common and less common cancers.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Lina; Castro, Felipe A; Gondos, Adam; Krilaviciute, Agne; Barnes, Benjamin; Eberle, Andrea; Emrich, Katharina; Hentschel, Stefan; Holleczek, Bernd; Katalinic, Alexander; Brenner, Hermann

    2015-06-01

    The monitoring of cancer survival by population-based cancer registries is a prerequisite to evaluate the current quality of cancer care. Our study provides 1-, 5- and 10-year relative survival as well as 5-year relative survival conditional on 1-year survival estimates and recent survival trends for Germany using data from 11 population-based cancer registries, covering around one-third of the German population. Period analysis was used to estimate relative survival for 24 common and 11 less common cancer sites for the period 2007-2010. The German and the United States survival estimates were compared using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results 13 database. Trends in cancer survival in Germany between 2002-2004 and 2008-2010 were described. Five-year relative survival increased in Germany from 2002-2004 to 2008-2010 for most cancer sites. Among the 24 most common cancers, largest improvements were seen for multiple myeloma (8.0% units), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (6.2% units), prostate cancer (5.2% units) and colorectal cancer (4.6% units). In 2007-2010, the survival disadvantage in Germany compared to the United States was largest for cancers of the mouth/pharynx (-11.0% units), thyroid (-6.8% units) and prostate (-7.5% units). Although survival estimates were much lower for elderly patients in both countries, differences in age patterns were observed for some cancer sites. The reported improvements in cancer survival might reflect advances in the quality of cancer care on the population level as well as increased use of screening in Germany. The survival differences across countries and the survival disadvantage in the elderly require further investigation. PMID:25380088

  13. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the M5-50: An Implementation of the International Personality Item Pool Item Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Socha, Alan; Cooper, Christopher A.; McCord, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Goldberg's International Personality Item Pool (IPIP; Goldberg, 1999) provides researchers with public-domain, free-access personality measurement scales that are proxies of well-established published scales. One of the more commonly used IPIP sets employs 50 items to measure the 5 broad domains of the 5-factor model, with 10 items per factor. The…

  14. Dietary Nitrates, Nitrites, and Nitrosamines Intake and the Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Peng; Wu, Lei; Guan, Wenxian

    2015-01-01

    The potential associations between dietary consumption of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines and gastric cancer risk have been investigated by several studies, but yielded inconclusive results. We conducted a meta-analysis to provide a quantitative assessment of their relationships. Relevant articles were identified by a systematic literature searching of PubMed and Embase databases prior to August 2015. Random-effects models were employed to pool the relative risks. A total of 22 articles consisting of 49 studies-19 studies for nitrates, 19 studies for nitrites, and 11 studies for N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)-were included. The summary relative risk of stomach cancer for the highest categories, compared with the lowest, was 0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.69-0.93) for dietary nitrates intake, 1.31 (95% CI, 1.13-1.52) for nitrites, and 1.34 (95% CI, 1.02-1.76) for NDMA (p for heterogeneity was 0.015, 0.013 and <0.001, respectively). The study type was found as the main source of heterogeneity for nitrates and nitrites. The heterogeneity for NDMA could not be eliminated completely through stratified analysis. Although significant associations were all observed in case-control studies, the cohort studies still showed a slight trend. The dose-response analysis indicated similar results as well. High nitrates intake was associated with a weak but statistically significant reduced risk of gastric cancer. Whereas increased consumption of nitrites and NDMA seemed to be risk factors for cancer. Due to the lack of uniformity for exposure assessment across studies, further prospective researches are warranted to verify these findings. PMID:26633477

  15. Dietary Nitrates, Nitrites, and Nitrosamines Intake and the Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Peng; Wu, Lei; Guan, Wenxian

    2015-01-01

    The potential associations between dietary consumption of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines and gastric cancer risk have been investigated by several studies, but yielded inconclusive results. We conducted a meta-analysis to provide a quantitative assessment of their relationships. Relevant articles were identified by a systematic literature searching of PubMed and Embase databases prior to August 2015. Random-effects models were employed to pool the relative risks. A total of 22 articles consisting of 49 studies—19 studies for nitrates, 19 studies for nitrites, and 11 studies for N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)—were included. The summary relative risk of stomach cancer for the highest categories, compared with the lowest, was 0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.69–0.93) for dietary nitrates intake, 1.31 (95% CI, 1.13–1.52) for nitrites, and 1.34 (95% CI, 1.02–1.76) for NDMA (p for heterogeneity was 0.015, 0.013 and <0.001, respectively). The study type was found as the main source of heterogeneity for nitrates and nitrites. The heterogeneity for NDMA could not be eliminated completely through stratified analysis. Although significant associations were all observed in case-control studies, the cohort studies still showed a slight trend. The dose-response analysis indicated similar results as well. High nitrates intake was associated with a weak but statistically significant reduced risk of gastric cancer. Whereas increased consumption of nitrites and NDMA seemed to be risk factors for cancer. Due to the lack of uniformity for exposure assessment across studies, further prospective researches are warranted to verify these findings. PMID:26633477

  16. Evaluation of the p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism and its association with cancer risk: a HuGE review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Haroon; Khalil, Aftab; Rashid, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Codon 72 is a hotspot of polymorphisms in the TP53 gene, which encodes a hub protein in the protein-protein interaction network of p53. It is thus a central player in the apoptotic pathway, preventing cancer. A large number of articles have been published exploring its association with an increased susceptibility to most common cancers. However, these studies have produced inconclusive results, which may be due to their small sample sizes or study designs. To comprehensively evaluate the potential correlation between the TP53 Pro72Arg polymorphism and cancer risk and to better characterize the Pro72Arg polymorphism, we performed a systematic HuGE review and meta-analysis of candidate studies through online resources, according to the proposal of MOOSE and the PRISMA statement. The identified articles were carefully examined according to the inclusion criteria. Pooled odds ratios were calculated on the basis of different genetic models, while heterogeneity was assessed through a chi-based Q-test and I2. After applying the inclusion filters, we obtained a pool of 54 eligible studies, representing 18 718 cases and 21 261 controls. Overall, non-significant cancer risk was observed in all the genetic models but their observed heterogeneity was extremely significant. In subgroup analysis, an increased susceptibility was observed in the case of colorectal cancer, while in cancers of the female reproductive system, significantly increased risk was detected in all the genetic models except the dominant model. In another subgroup analysis, significantly increased cancer risk was observed among Asians in homozygous and recessive models, while in Americans increased cancer risk was observed only in dominant and recessive models. No association was observed in the rest of the populations. In conclusion, pooled subgroup analysis on the basis of ethnicity proved that the TP53 Arg72Pro polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of cancer in Asians and Americans only and is not associated in other populations. It can therefore be concluded that this meta-analysis of available data suggests partial confirmation of the association between the TP53 Arg72Pro polymorphism and cancer risk susceptibility. PMID:25882871

  17. The clinicopathological significance of CDH1 in gastric cancer: a meta-analysis and systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Wei; Zhu, Jinfeng; Shan, Li; Han, Zhigang; Aerxiding, Patiguli; Quhai, Amina; Zeng, Fanye; Wang, Ziwei; Li, Huiwu

    2015-01-01

    Background CDH1 is a protein encoded by the CDH1 gene in humans. Loss of CDH1 function contributes to cancer progression by increasing proliferation, invasion, and/or metastasis. However, the association and clinicopathological significance between CDH1 hypermethylation and gastric cancer (GC) remains unclear. In this study, we systematically reviewed the studies of CDH1 hypermethylation and GC, and evaluated the association between CDH1 hypermethylation and GC using meta-analysis methods. Methods A comprehensive search of the PubMed and Embase databases was performed for publications up to July 2014. Methodological quality of the studies was also evaluated. The data were extracted and assessed by two reviewers independently. Analyses of pooled data were performed. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated and summarized. Results A final analysis of 1,079 GC patients from 14 eligible studies was performed. CDH1 hypermethylation level in the cancer group was significantly higher compared to the normal gastric mucosa (OR =8.55, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.39–33.51, Z=5.47, P<0.00001). CDH1 hypermethylation was not significantly higher in GC than in adjacent gastric mucosa (OR =3.68, 95% CI: 0.96–14.18, Z=1.90, P=0.06). However, CDH1 hypermethylation was higher in adjacent gastric mucosa compared to that in normal gastric mucosa (OR =2.55, 95% CI: 1.22–5.32, Z=2.49, P<0.01). In addition, CDH1 hypermethylation was correlated with Helicobacter pylori (HP) status in GC. The pooled OR from six studies including 280 HP-positive GCs and 193 HP-negative GCs is 1.72 (95% CI: 1.13–2.61, Z=2.55, P=0.01). Conclusion The results of this meta-analysis reveal that CDH1 hypermethylation levels in cancer and adjacent gastric mucosa are significantly higher compared to normal gastric mucosa. Thus, CDH1 hypermethylation is significantly correlated with GC risk. CDH1 hypermethylation is correlated with HP status, indicating that it plays a more important role in the pathogenesis of HP-positive GC and might be an interesting potential drug target for GC patients. PMID:25926721

  18. Interleukin-10 promoter polymorphism and susceptibility to lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Xiong; Lan, Tian; Faxiang, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a multifunctional cytokine with both immunosuppressive and anti-angiogenic properties and it plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cancer. A number of studies have examined the association between its promoter -1082/-819/-592 polymorphism and risk of lung cancer. However, the results are inconsistent and inconclusive. The aim of this study was to explore whether the IL-10 gene polymorphism contribute to the susceptibility of lung cancer. Method: We searched in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library as well as Chinese databases including China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wan Fang database for all the relevant studies up to May 15, 2015. The data were extracted by two independent authors. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) under co-dominant model, dominant model and recessive model were estimated. Results: A total of 8 studies involving 2033 cases and 3100 controls were included in the meta-analysis. The results revealed that the IL-10 -592C/A polymorphism was related to lung cancer susceptibility under all models (C allele vs. A allele: OR=1.195, 95% CI=1.075-1.329; CC vs. AA: OR=1.651, 95%=1.290-2.113; CA vs. AA: OR=1.229, 95%=1.029-1.468; CA+AA vs. CC: OR=0.832, 95%=0.704-0.984; CC+CA vs. AA: OR=1.301, 95%=1.100-1.538) and IL-10 -819C/T polymorphism was associated with lung cancer susceptibility under three models (C allele vs. T allele: OR=1.441, 95% CI=1.228-1.691; CC vs. TT: OR=2.444, 95%=1.732-3.449; CC+CT vs. TT: OR=1.496, 95%=1.172-1.908). For IL-10 -1082G/A, there was no significant association between its polymorphism and lung cancer risk. Conclusions: This meta-analysis demonstrated that two polymorphisms (-592C/A and -819C/T) in the promoter region of IL-10 gene were significantly associated with the risk of lung cancer in general population, while -1082G/A polymorphism did not affect susceptibility to lung cancer.

  19. GWAS meta-analysis and replication identifies three new susceptibility loci for ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Ramus, Susan J.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Goode, Ellen L.; Lawrenson, Kate; Price, Melissa; Fridley, Brooke L.; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Shen, Howard; Weber, Rachel; Karevan, Rod; Larson, Melissa C.; Song, Honglin; Tessier, Daniel C.; Bacot, François; Vincent, Daniel; Cunningham, Julie M.; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Aben, Katja K.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Armasu, Sebastian M.; Baglietto, Laura; Bandera, Elisa V.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Birrer, Michael J.; Bloom, Greg; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brenton, James D.; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Brown, Robert; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian; Carney, Michael E; Carvalho, Renato S.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chen, Y. Anne; Chen, Zhihua; Chow, Wong-Ho; Cicek, Mine S.; Coetzee, Gerhard; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Despierre, Evelyn; Doherty, Jennifer A; Dörk, Thilo; du Bois, Andreas; Dürst, Matthias; Eccles, Diana; Edwards, Robert; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Fenstermacher, David; Flanagan, James; Gao, Yu-Tang; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham; Gjyshi, Anxhela; Gore, Martin; Gronwald, Jacek; Guo, Qi; Halle, Mari K; Harter, Philipp; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hillemanns, Peter; Hoatlin, Maureen; Høgdall, Estrid; Høgdall, Claus K.; Hosono, Satoyo; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Kalli, Kimberly R.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Konecny, Gottfried E.; Krakstad, Camilla; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Nathan; Lee, Janet; Leminen, Arto; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lubi?ski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Lurie, Galina; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Nakanishi, Toru; Narod, Steven A.; Ness, Roberta B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nickels, Stefan; Noushmehr, Houtan; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara; Orlow, Irene; Paul, James; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M; Permuth-Wey, Jenny; Pike, Malcolm C; Poole, Elizabeth M; Qu, Xiaotao; Risch, Harvey A.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schwaab, Ira; Severi, Gianluca; Shen, Hui; Shridhar, Vijayalakshmi; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Sieh, Weiva; Southey, Melissa C.; Spellman, Paul; Tajima, Kazuo; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J; Timorek, Agnieszka; Tworoger, Shelley S.; van Altena, Anne M.; Berg, David Van Den; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wik, Elisabeth; Winterhoff, Boris; Woo, Yin Ling; Wu, Anna H; Yang, Hannah P.; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Zulkifli, Famida; Goodman, Marc T.; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F; Pearce, Celeste L; Berchuck, Andrew; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Iversen, Edwin; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Gayther, Simon A.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Sellers, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified four susceptibility loci for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with another two loci being close to genome-wide significance. We pooled data from a GWAS conducted in North America with another GWAS from the United Kingdom. We selected the top 24,551 SNPs for inclusion on the iCOGS custom genotyping array. Follow-up genotyping was carried out in 18,174 cases and 26,134 controls from 43 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We validated the two loci at 3q25 and 17q21 previously near genome-wide significance and identified three novel loci associated with risk; two loci associated with all EOC subtypes, at 8q21 (rs11782652, P=5.5×10-9) and 10p12 (rs1243180; P=1.8×10-8), and another locus specific to the serous subtype at 17q12 (rs757210; P=8.1×10-10). An integrated molecular analysis of genes and regulatory regions at these loci provided evidence for functional mechanisms underlying susceptibility that implicates CHMP4C in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. PMID:23535730

  20. The therapy of amblyopia: an analysis of the results of amblyopia therapy utilizing the pooled data of published studies.

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, J T; Schiffman, J; Feuer, W; Corona, A

    1998-01-01

    CONTEXT: Although the treatment of amblyopia with occlusion has changed little over the past 3 centuries, there is little agreement about which regimes are most effective and for what reasons. OBJECTIVE: To determine the outcome of occlusion therapy in patients with anisometropic, strabismic, and strabismic-anisometropic amblyopia employing the raw data from 961 patients reported in 23 studies published between 1965 and 1994. DESIGN: Analysis of the published literature on amblyopia therapy results during the above interval, utilizing primary data obtained from the authors of these articles or tables published in the articles detailing individual patient outcomes. PARTICIPANTS: 961 amblyopic patients, participants in 23 studies, undergoing patching therapy for amblyopia from 1965 to 1994 with anisometropia, strabismus, or anisometropia-strabismus. MAIN OUTCOMES: In the pooled data set, success of occlusion therapy was defined as visual acuity of 20/40 at the end of treatment. RESULTS: Success by the 20/40 criteria was achieved in 512 of 689 (74.3%) patients. By category, 312 of 402 (77.6%) were successful in strabismic amblyopia, 44 of 75 (58.7%) in strabismic-anisometropic amblyopia, and 72 of 108 (66.7%) in anisometropic amblyopia. Success was not related to the duration of occlusion therapy, type of occlusion used, accompanying refractive error, patient's sex, or eye. Univariate analyses showed that success was related to the age at which therapy was initiated; the type of amblyopia; the depth of visual loss before treatment for the anisometropic patients and the strabismic patients, but not for the anisometropic-strabismic patients; and the difference in spherical equivalents between eyes, for the anisometropic patients. Logistic/linear regression revealed that 3 were independent predictors of a successful outcome of amblyopia therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Factors that appear most closely related to a successful outcome are age, type of amblyopia, and depth of visual loss before treatment. These may be related to factors, as yet undetermined in the pathogenesis of amblyopia. With present emphasis on the value of screening and prevention and the development of new screening tools, such a look at the results of amblyopia therapy in a large population seems indicated. Images FIGURE 4 PMID:10360300

  1. The Effect of Dosing Regimens on the Antimalarial Efficacy of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine: A Pooled Analysis of Individual Patient Data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) is increasingly recommended for antimalarial treatment in many endemic countries; however, concerns have been raised over its potential under dosing in young children. We investigated the influence of different dosing schedules on DP's clinical efficacy. Methods and Findings A systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify all studies published between 1960 and February 2013, in which patients were enrolled and treated with DP. Principal investigators were approached and invited to share individual patient data with the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN). Data were pooled using a standardised methodology. Univariable and multivariable risk factors for parasite recrudescence were identified using a Cox's regression model with shared frailty across the study sites. Twenty-four published and two unpublished studies (n?=?7,072 patients) were included in the analysis. After correcting for reinfection by parasite genotyping, Kaplan–Meier survival estimates were 97.7% (95% CI 97.3%–98.1%) at day 42 and 97.2% (95% CI 96.7%–97.7%) at day 63. Overall 28.6% (979/3,429) of children aged 1 to 5 years received a total dose of piperaquine below 48 mg/kg (the lower limit recommended by WHO); this risk was 2.3–2.9-fold greater compared to that in the other age groups and was associated with reduced efficacy at day 63 (94.4% [95% CI 92.6%–96.2%], p<0.001). After adjusting for confounding factors, the mg/kg dose of piperaquine was found to be a significant predictor for recrudescence, the risk increasing by 13% (95% CI 5.0%–21%) for every 5 mg/kg decrease in dose; p?=?0.002. In a multivariable model increasing the target minimum total dose of piperaquine in children aged 1 to 5 years old from 48 mg/kg to 59 mg/kg would halve the risk of treatment failure and cure at least 95% of patients; such an increment was not associated with gastrointestinal toxicity in the ten studies in which this could be assessed. Conclusions DP demonstrates excellent efficacy in a wide range of transmission settings; however, treatment failure is associated with a lower dose of piperaquine, particularly in young children, suggesting potential for further dose optimisation. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24311989

  2. Integrated quantitative fractal polarimetric analysis of monolayer lung cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Suman; Zhang, Lin; Quang, Tri; Farrahi, Tannaz; Narayan, Chaya; Deshpande, Aditi; Na, Ying; Blinzler, Adam; Ma, Junyu; Liu, Bo; Giakos, George C.

    2014-05-01

    Digital diagnostic pathology has become one of the most valuable and convenient advancements in technology over the past years. It allows us to acquire, store and analyze pathological information from the images of histological and immunohistochemical glass slides which are scanned to create digital slides. In this study, efficient fractal, wavelet-based polarimetric techniques for histological analysis of monolayer lung cancer cells will be introduced and different monolayer cancer lines will be studied. The outcome of this study indicates that application of fractal, wavelet polarimetric principles towards the analysis of squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cancer cell lines may be proved extremely useful in discriminating among healthy and lung cancer cells as well as differentiating among different lung cancer cells.

  3. Effect of Diabetes Mellitus on Survival in Patients with Pancreatic Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yixiang; Tao, Min; Jia, Xiaoyan; Xu, Hong; Chen, Kai; Tang, Hongwei; Li, Donghui

    2015-01-01

    Concurrent diabetes has been linked with an increased risk of death in many cancers, but findings in pancreatic cancer have been inconsistent. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of diabetes on survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. Of 4, 463 original articles, 41 were included in the review; 29 studies with 33 risk estimates were included in the meta-analysis. In the overall comparison of patients with pancreatic cancer and diabetes with their nondiabetic counterparts, the former had significantly higher all-cause mortality (pooled HR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.04-1.22). Subgroup analyses showed that diabetes was associated with poor survival in patients with resectable disease (HR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.15-1.63) but not in those with unresectable disease (HR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.89-1.29). The HR (95% CI) was 1.52 (1.20-1.93) for patients with new-onset diabetes (?2 years of diabetes duration) and 1.22 (0.83-1.80) for those with longstanding diabetes (>2 years). Diabetes was associated with higher mortality overall in patients with pancreatic cancer. The effect of diabetes on overall survival was associated with the stages of tumor and the duration of diabetes. PMID:26598798

  4. Association between Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of 39 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Song, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Background The associations between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk were comprehensively investigated to clarify issues that remain controversial. Methodology/Principal Findings An electronic search was conducted of several databases, including PubMed, the Cochrane library, Web of Science, EMBASE, CBM and CNKI, for papers that describe the association between Fok1, poly-A repeat, Bsm1, Taq1 or Apa1 polymorphisms of the VDR gene and breast cancer risk. Summary odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated based on a fixed-effect model (FEM) or random-effect model (REM), depending on the absence or presence of significant heterogeneity. A total of 39 studies met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of high-quality studies showed that the Fok1 polymorphism of the VDR gene was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (ff vs. Ff+FF, OR: 1.09, 95%CI: 1.02 to 1.16, p?=?0.007). No significant associations were observed between the other polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. No positive results were detected by pooling the results of all relevant studies. Conclusion A meta-analysis of high-quality studies demonstrated that the Fok1 polymorphism of the VDR gene was closely associated with breast cancer risk. PMID:24769568

  5. Effect of Diabetes Mellitus on Survival in Patients with Pancreatic Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yixiang; Tao, Min; Jia, Xiaoyan; Xu, Hong; Chen, Kai; Tang, Hongwei; Li, Donghui

    2015-01-01

    Concurrent diabetes has been linked with an increased risk of death in many cancers, but findings in pancreatic cancer have been inconsistent. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of diabetes on survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. Of 4, 463 original articles, 41 were included in the review; 29 studies with 33 risk estimates were included in the meta-analysis. In the overall comparison of patients with pancreatic cancer and diabetes with their nondiabetic counterparts, the former had significantly higher all-cause mortality (pooled HR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.04–1.22). Subgroup analyses showed that diabetes was associated with poor survival in patients with resectable disease (HR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.15–1.63) but not in those with unresectable disease (HR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.89–1.29). The HR (95% CI) was 1.52 (1.20–1.93) for patients with new-onset diabetes (?2 years of diabetes duration) and 1.22 (0.83–1.80) for those with longstanding diabetes (>2 years). Diabetes was associated with higher mortality overall in patients with pancreatic cancer. The effect of diabetes on overall survival was associated with the stages of tumor and the duration of diabetes. PMID:26598798

  6. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of PIN1 Promoter Region and Cancer Risk: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jing-Jing; Wei, Dong; Li, Dong; Fu, Zeng-Qiang; Tan, Yong; Xu, Tao; Zhou, Jing-Jun; Zhang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Background Peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (PIN1) is involved in the process of tumorigenesis. The two single nucleotide polymorphisms (?677T>C, ?842G>C) in the PIN1 promoter region have been suspected of being associated with cancer risk for years, but the conclusion is still inconclusive. Methods Eligible case-control studies were retrieved by searching databases and references of related reviews and studies. Genotype distribution data, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence (CIs) intervals were extracted to calculate pooled ORs. Results A total of 4619 cancer cases and 4661 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, the PIN1 ?667T>C polymorphism was not associated with cancer risk, while the ?842C allele was significantly associated with reduced cancer risk (CC+GC vs. GG, OR?=?0.725, 95% CI: 0.607–0.865; Pheterogeneity?=?0.012 and GC vs. GG: OR?=?0.721, 95% CI: 0.591–0.880; Pheterogeneity?=?0.003). Results from genotype distribution data were in agreement with those calculated with adjusted ORs and 95% CIs. No publication bias was detected. Conclusions Results of this meta-analysis suggest that the PIN1 ?842G>C polymorphism is associated with decreased cancer risk, but that the ?667T>C polymorphism is not. PMID:23976970

  7. Prognostic significance of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in pancreatic cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian-Jun; Hu, Zhi-Gao; Shi, Wu-Xiang; Deng, Te; He, Song-Qing; Yuan, Sheng-Guang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To conduct a meta-analysis evaluating the association between the peripheral blood neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the outcome of patients with pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Studies evaluating the relationship between the peripheral blood NLR and outcome of patients with pancreatic cancer published up to May 2014 were searched using electronic databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Ovid. A meta-analysis was performed to pool the hazard ratios (HRs) or odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using either a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model to quantitatively assess the prognostic value of NLR and its association with clinicopathological parameters. RESULTS: Eleven studies containing a total of 1804 patients were eligible according to our selection criteria, and combined hazard ratios indicated that high NLR was a poor prognostic marker for pancreatic cancer patients because it had an unfavorable impact on the overall survival (OS) (HR = 2.61, 95%CI: 1.68-4.06, P = 0.000) and cancer specific survival (HR = 1.66, 95%CI: 1.08-2.57, P = 0.021). Subgroup analysis revealed that high NLR was associated with poor OS in patients with mixed treatment (HR = 4.36, 95%CI: 2.50-7.61, P = 0.000), chemotherapy (HR = 2.08, 95%CI: 1.49-2.9, P = 0.000), or surgical resection (HR = 1.2, 95%CI: 1.00-1.44, P = 0.048). Additionally, high NLR was significantly correlated with tumor metastasis (OR = 1.69, 95%CI: 1.10-2.59, P = 0.016), poor tumor differentiation (OR = 2.75, 95%CI: 1.19-6.36, P = 0.016), poor performance status (OR = 2.56, 95%CI: 1.63-4.03, P = 0.000), high cancer antigen 199 (OR = 2.62, 95%CI: 1.49-4.60, P = 0.000), high C-reactive protein (OR = 4.32, 95%CI: 2.71-6.87, P = 0.000), and low albumin (OR = 3.56, 95%CI: 1.37-9.27, P = 0.009). CONCLUSION: High peripheral blood NLR suggested a poor prognosis for patients with pancreatic cancer, and it could be a novel marker of survival evaluation and could help clinicians develop therapeutic strategies for pancreatic cancer patients. PMID:25759553

  8. Pooling data from fatality analysis reporting system (FARS) and generalized estimates system (GES) to explore the continuum of injury severity spectrum.

    PubMed

    Yasmin, Shamsunnahar; Eluru, Naveen; Pinjari, Abdul R

    2015-11-01

    Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and Generalized Estimates System (GES) data are most commonly used datasets to examine motor vehicle occupant injury severity in the United States (US). The FARS dataset focuses exclusively on fatal crashes, but provides detailed information on the continuum of fatality (a spectrum ranging from a death occurring within thirty days of the crash up to instantaneous death). While such data is beneficial for understanding fatal crashes, it inherently excludes crashes without fatalities. Hence, the exogenous factors identified as critical in contributing (or reducing) to fatality in the FARS data might possibly offer different effects on non-fatal crash severity levels when a truly random sample of crashes is considered. The GES data fills this gap by compiling data on a sample of roadway crashes involving all possible severity consequences providing a more representative sample of traffic crashes in the US. FARS data provides a continuous timeline of the fatal occurrences from the time to crash - as opposed to considering all fatalities to be the same. This allows an analysis of the survival time of victims before their death. The GES, on the other hand, does not offer such detailed information except identifying who died in the crash. The challenge in obtaining representative estimates for the crash population is the lack of readily available "appropriate" data that contains information available in both GES and FARS datasets. One way to address this issue is to replace the fatal crashes in the GES data with fatal crashes from FARS data thus augmenting the GES data sample with a very refined categorization of fatal crashes. The sample thus formed, if statistically valid, will provide us with a reasonable representation of the crash population. This paper focuses on developing a framework for pooling of data from FARS and GES data. The validation of the pooled sample against the original GES sample (unpooled sample) is carried out through two methods: (1) univariate sample comparison and (2) econometric model parameter estimate comparison. The validation exercise indicates that parameter estimates obtained using the pooled data model closely resemble the parameter estimates obtained using the unpooled data. After we confirm that the differences in model estimates obtained using the pooled and unpooled data are within an acceptable margin, we also simultaneously examine the whole spectrum of injury severity on an eleven point ordinal severity scale - no injury, minor injury, severe injury, incapacitating injury, and 7 refined categories of fatalities ranging from fatality after 30 days to instant death - using a nationally representative pooled dataset. The model estimates are augmented by conducting elasticity analysis to illustrate the applicability of the proposed framework. PMID:26342892

  9. Meta-analysis of robotic and laparoscopic surgery for treatment of rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shuang; Jiang, Hong-Gang; Chen, Zhi-Heng; Zhou, Shu-Yang; Liu, Xiao-Sun; Yu, Ji-Ren

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To conduct a meta-analysis to determine the relative merits of robotic surgery (RS) and laparoscopic surgery (LS) for rectal cancer. METHODS: A literature search was performed to identify comparative studies reporting perioperative outcomes for RS and LS for rectal cancer. Pooled odds ratios and weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using either the fixed effects model or random effects model. RESULTS: Eight studies matched the selection criteria and reported on 661 subjects, of whom 268 underwent RS and 393 underwent LS for rectal cancer. Compared the perioperative outcomes of RS with LS, reports of RS indicated favorable outcomes considering conversion (WMD: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.11-0.58; P = 0.001). Meanwhile, operative time (WMD: 27.92, 95% CI: -13.43 to 69.27; P = 0.19); blood loss (WMD: -32.35, 95% CI: -86.19 to 21.50; P = 0.24); days to passing flatus (WMD: -0.18, 95% CI: -0.96 to 0.60; P = 0.65); length of stay (WMD: -0.04; 95% CI: -2.28 to 2.20; P = 0.97); complications (WMD: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.71-1.55; P = 0.82) and pathological details, including lymph nodes harvested (WMD: 0.41, 95% CI: -0.67 to 1.50; P = 0.46), distal resection margin (WMD: -0.35, 95% CI: -1.27 to 0.58; P = 0.46), and positive circumferential resection margin (WMD: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.12-2.39; P = 0.42) were similar between RS and LS. CONCLUSION: RS for rectal cancer is superior to LS in terms of conversion. RS may be an alternative treatment for rectal cancer. Further studies are required. PMID:22215947

  10. Health insurance in South Africa: an empirical analysis of trends in risk-pooling and efficiency following deregulation.

    PubMed

    Söderlund, N; Hansl, B

    2000-12-01

    This paper reports an empirical investigation into the pattern of private health insurance coverage in South Africa before and after deregulation of the health insurance industry. More specifically, we sought to measure trends in risk-pooling over the period 1985-95, and to assess the impact of risk pooling on the costs of health insurance cover over this period. South African mutual health insurers (Medical Schemes) have existed for over 100 years, and have been regulated under a specific Act since 1967. Up until 1989, health insurers were required by law to community rate their premiums, and were not allowed to exclude high-risk enrolees from cover. In 1989 these regulations were removed, effectively allowing health insurers to risk-rate the cover which they provided, and exclude 'medically uninsurables'. Data were obtained from the office of the health insurance regulator (the Registrar of Medical Schemes) for the period 1985-95, and consisted of the statutory returns from all registered medical schemes for each year during the study period. Multiple regression methods were used to assess the determinants of changes in the risk pools of insurers, and their costs. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal models were estimated. Unadjusted data suggest changes in risk-pooling since the deregulation period after 1985. Health insurers with open enrolment had worse than average risk profiles in the 1980s, but this reversed by the early 1990s, leaving them with significantly better risk profiles by 1995. Worsening risk profiles were associated with decreasing fund size, higher loss-ratios and past premium increases. Most models showed that risk rating of premiums was consistently associated with higher premiums, after adjustment for risk, quality, scale and other environmental differences between insurers. Likely explanations include the additional costs required for marketing and underwriting risk-rated policies, insufficient incentives to use cost-control techniques, and higher levels of moral hazard associated with diminished risk-pooling. Current re-regulation of risk-pooling within medical schemes may thus improve both equity and efficiency of private health care cover. PMID:11124240

  11. Mammographic Density Phenotypes and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Graff, Rebecca E.; Ursin, Giske; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; McCormack, Valerie; Baglietto, Laura; Vachon, Celine; Bakker, Marije F.; Giles, Graham G.; Chia, Kee Seng; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Louise; Hall, Per; Hartman, Mikael; Warren, Ruth M. L.; Hislop, Greg; Chiarelli, Anna M.; Hopper, John L.; Krishnan, Kavitha; Li, Jingmei; Li, Qing; Pagano, Ian; Rosner, Bernard A.; Wong, Chia Siong; Scott, Christopher; Stone, Jennifer; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Boyd, Norman F.; van Gils, Carla H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fibroglandular breast tissue appears dense on mammogram, whereas fat appears nondense. It is unclear whether absolute or percentage dense area more strongly predicts breast cancer risk and whether absolute nondense area is independently associated with risk. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis of 13 case–control studies providing results from logistic regressions for associations between one standard deviation (SD) increments in mammographic density phenotypes and breast cancer risk. We used random-effects models to calculate pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All tests were two-sided with P less than .05 considered to be statistically significant. Results Among premenopausal women (n = 1776 case patients; n = 2834 control subjects), summary odds ratios were 1.37 (95% CI = 1.29 to 1.47) for absolute dense area, 0.78 (95% CI = 0.71 to 0.86) for absolute nondense area, and 1.52 (95% CI = 1.39 to 1.66) for percentage dense area when pooling estimates adjusted for age, body mass index, and parity. Corresponding odds ratios among postmenopausal women (n = 6643 case patients; n = 11187 control subjects) were 1.38 (95% CI = 1.31 to 1.44), 0.79 (95% CI = 0.73 to 0.85), and 1.53 (95% CI = 1.44 to 1.64). After additional adjustment for absolute dense area, associations between absolute nondense area and breast cancer became attenuated or null in several studies and summary odds ratios became 0.82 (95% CI = 0.71 to 0.94; P heterogeneity = .02) for premenopausal and 0.85 (95% CI = 0.75 to 0.96; P heterogeneity < .01) for postmenopausal women. Conclusions The results suggest that percentage dense area is a stronger breast cancer risk factor than absolute dense area. Absolute nondense area was inversely associated with breast cancer risk, but it is unclear whether the association is independent of absolute dense area. PMID:24816206

  12. Swimming pool granuloma

    MedlinePLUS

    A swimming pool granuloma is a long-term (chronic) skin infection. It is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium marinum . ... A swimming pool granuloma occurs when water containing Mycobacterium marinum bacteria enters a break in the skin. Signs of ...

  13. Association between PLCE1 rs2274223 A > G polymorphism and cancer risk: proof from a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Wenji; Zhu, Meiling; Wang, Yiwei; He, Jing; Zheng, Leizhen

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) plays an important role in cell growth, differentiation and oncogenesis. An increasing number of individual studies have investigated the association between PLCE1 rs2274223 polymorphism and cancer risk, but the conclusions are inconclusive. To obtain a comprehensive conclusion, we performed a meta-analysis of 22 studies with 13188 cases and 14666 controls. The pooled results indicated that PLCE1 rs2274223 A > G polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of overall cancer (G vs. A: OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.06–1.25; GG vs. AA: OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.10–1.55; GA vs. AA: OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.08–1.30; GG/GA vs. AA: OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.08–1.32; GG vs. GA/AA: OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.04–1.42). The stratification analysis showed the polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) other than gastric cancer (GC), especially among the subgroups of Asian, high quality score, sample size > 1000 and the studies consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). This meta-analysis demonstrated that PLCE1 rs2274223 A > G polymorphism may be associated with increased susceptibility to cancer, especially for ESCC. However, due to the substantial heterogeneities across the studies, the conclusion might be not conclusive that need more studies to confirm. PMID:25614244

  14. Diagnostic value of S100P for pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haolin; Zhang, Qi; Huang, Chenfei; Shen, Yi; Chen, Xundi; Shi, Xin; Tang, Wenhao

    2014-10-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a fatal disease with a high mortality and poor prognosis. PC is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in America, and 80 % of PCs are diagnosed at an unresectable stage. Effective early detection assays are crucial since a successful operation at early stage is the best strategy for this disease. S100 calcium-binding protein P (S100P) has been reported as a predictive diagnostic index for PC and involves in the development of PC. However, the diagnostic accuracy of S100P in detecting PC has never been systematically assessed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of S100P for PC. All relevant original articles about S100P in the diagnosis of PC published up to December 2013 were retrieved. The methodological quality of each study was assessed by QUADAS. The overall diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), with 95 % confidence interval (CI), and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were pooled to evaluate the diagnostic value of S100P for PC using the Meta-DiSc1.4 statistical software. Eight studies met our criteria in the present meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and DOR calculated by the bivariate random effects model were 0.87 (95 % CI 0.83-0.90), 0.88 (95 % CI 0.82-0.93), and 38.32 (95 % CI 11.22-130.87), respectively. The summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve was located near the desirable left corner and the AUC was 0.9272. The current evidence suggests that S100P plays an important role in the diagnosis of PC with a high sensitivity and specificity. S100P may be regarded as a promising diagnostic marker to PC screening. PMID:25123266

  15. Microfluidics and cancer analysis: cell separation, cell/tissue culture, cell mechanics, and integrated analysis systems.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Dimitri

    2016-01-21

    Among the growing number of tools available for cancer studies, microfluidic systems have emerged as a promising analytical tool to elucidate cancer cell and tumor function. Microfluidic methods to culture cells have created approaches to provide a range of environments from single-cell analysis to complex three-dimensional devices. In this review we discuss recent advances in tumor cell culture, cancer cell analysis, and advanced studies enabled by microfluidic systems. PMID:26579548

  16. Long-term evaluation of combined prolonged-release oxycodone and naloxone in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic pain: pooled analysis of extension phases of two Phase III trials

    PubMed Central

    Blagden, M; Hafer, J; Duerr, H; Hopp, M; Bosse, B

    2014-01-01

    Background While opioids provide effective analgesia, opioid-induced constipation (OIC) can severely impact quality of life and treatment compliance. This pooled analysis evaluated the maintenance of efficacy and safety during long-term treatment with combined oxycodone/naloxone prolonged-release tablets (OXN PR) in adults with moderate-to-severe chronic pain. Methods Patients (N = 474) received open-label OXN PR during 52-week extension phases of two studies, having completed 12-week, double-blind, randomized treatment with oxycodone prolonged-release tablets (Oxy PR) or OXN PR. Analgesia and bowel function were assessed at each study visit using ‘Average pain over last 24 h scale and Bowel Function Index (BFI), respectively. Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication was assessed at study end only. Key Results Improvement in bowel function was particularly marked in patients who switched from Oxy PR in the double-blind phase to OXN PR during the extension phase, resulting in a clinically meaningful reduction (?12 points) in BFI score: at the start of the extension phases, mean (SD) BFI score was 44.3 (28.13), and was 29.8 (26.36) for patients who had received OXN PR in the double-blind phase. One week later, BFI scores were similar for the two groups (26.5 [24.40] and 27.5 [25.60], respectively), as was observed throughout the following months. Fewer than 10% of patients received laxatives regularly. Mean 24-h pain scores were low and stable throughout the extension phases. No unexpected adverse events were observed. Conclusions & Inferences Pooled data demonstrate OXN PR is an effective long-term therapy for patients with chronic non-cancer pain, and can address symptoms of OIC. No new safety issues were observed which were attributable to the long-term administration of OXN PR. PMID:25346155

  17. Pregnancy outcomes in female childhood and adolescent cancer survivors: a linked cancer-birth registry analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Beth A.; Chow, Eric J.; Kamineni, Aruna; Daling, Janet R.; Fraser, Alison; Wiggins, Charles L.; Mineau, Geraldine P.; Hamre, Merlin R.; Severson, Richard K.; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare birth outcomes among childhood and adolescent female cancer survivors who subsequently bear children, relative to those of women without cancer history. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: 4 U.S. regions. Participants: Cancer registries identified girls <20 years, diagnosed with cancer 1973-2000. Linked birth records identified first live births after diagnosis (n=1898). Comparison subjects were selected from birth records (n=14278). Cervical/genital tract cancer cases were analyzed separately. Main Exposure: Cancer diagnosis <20 years. Outcome Measures: Infant low birth weight, preterm delivery, sex ratio, malformations, mortality, delivery method; maternal diabetes, anemia, preeclampsia. Results: Childhood cancer survivors' infants were more likely to be preterm (relative risk [RR] 1.54, 95% CI 1.30-1.83) and weigh <2500 g (RR 1.31, 95% CI 1.10-1.57). For cervical/genital cancer patients' offspring, estimates were 1.33 (95% CI 1.13, 1.56), and 1.29 (95% CI 1.10-1.53), respectively. There were no increased risks of malformations, infant death, or altered sex ratio, suggesting no increased germ cell mutagenicity. In exploratory analysis, bone cancer survivors had an increased risk of diabetes (RR 4.92, 95% CI 1.60-15.13), and anemia was more common among brain tumor survivors (RR 3.05, 95% CI 1.16-7.98) and childhood cancer survivors with initial treatment of chemotherapy only (RR 2.45, 95% CI 1.16-5.17). Conclusions: Infants of female childhood and adolescent cancer patients were not at increased risk of malformations or death. Increased occurrence of preterm delivery and low birth weight suggest close monitoring is warranted. Increased diabetes and anemia among sub-groups have not been reported, suggesting areas for study. PMID:19805705

  18. The contribution of lead-contaminated house dust and residential soil to children's blood lead levels. A pooled analysis of 12 epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Lanphear, B P; Matte, T D; Rogers, J; Clickner, R P; Dietz, B; Bornschein, R L; Succop, P; Mahaffey, K R; Dixon, S; Galke, W; Rabinowitz, M; Farfel, M; Rohde, C; Schwartz, J; Ashley, P; Jacobs, D E

    1998-10-01

    In 1992, the U.S. Congress passed the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act, which requires the promulgation of health-based dust lead and soil lead standards for residential dwellings to prevent undue lead exposure in children. Unfortunately, the levels of lead in house dust and soil that are associated with elevated blood lead levels among U.S. children remain poorly defined. This pooled analysis was done to estimate the contributions of lead-contaminated house dust and soil to children's blood lead levels. The results of this pooled analysis, the most comprehensive existing epidemiologic analysis of childhood lead exposure, confirm that lead-contaminated house dust is the major source of lead exposure for children. These analyses further demonstrate that a strong relationship between interior dust lead loading and children's blood lead levels persists at dust lead levels considerably below the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's current postabatement standards and the Environmental Protection Agency's guidance levels. Finally, these analyses demonstrate that a child's age, race, mouthing behaviors, and study-site specific factors influence the predicted blood lead level at a given level of exposure. These data can be used to estimate the potential health impact of alternative health-based lead standards for residential sources of lead exposure. PMID:9756680

  19. Cancer Prognosis Through Gene Expression Analysis Steven Buechler, Applied and Computational Mathematics and Statistics,

    E-print Network

    Buechler, Steven

    Cancer Prognosis Through Gene Expression Analysis Steven Buechler, Applied the breast cancer patients who can avoid chemotherapy without increasing the risk of recurrence. Background. Following the initial surgery, many breast cancer patients

  20. 13 CFR 120.611 - Pools backing Pool Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pools backing Pool Certificates. 120.611 Section 120.611 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Secondary Market Certificates § 120.611 Pools backing Pool Certificates. (a) Pool characteristics. As set forth in the Program Guide, each Pool...

  1. Two-pool model analysis of data in hemodialysis by means of programmable pocket calculator TI 59.

    PubMed

    Guthke, R; Günther, K; Stein, G; Knorre, W A

    1985-01-01

    Four parameters of a two-pool model are evaluated by an iterative method using the explicit solutions of the linear differential equations. For this it was presumed that the residual renal clearance is sufficiently small. Five data pairs of measured plasma concentrations ci for the time points ti (i = 0 to 4), as well as the dialyzer and residual renal clearances (KD and KR), must be given and put in the calculator. A sample run is shown for urea kinetics. The parameter estimation takes about 10 min. The program is suitable to assist in the individualization of dialysis therapy. PMID:3839735

  2. Analysis Methods Supplement for: Classification and Diagnostic Prediction of Cancers

    E-print Network

    Ringnér, Markus

    Analysis Methods Supplement for: Classification and Diagnostic Prediction of Cancers using Gene the image analysis failed. In Fig. 1 the number of genes each sample removes is shown. We used the natural using PCA on relatively few samples is that components might be singled out due to strong noise

  3. Sentinel lymph node in oesophageal cancer—a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraja, Vinayak; Cox, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) have been used to predict regional lymph node metastasis in patients with melanoma and breast cancer. However, the validity of the SLN hypothesis is still controversial for oesophageal cancer. We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of radio-guided SLN mapping for oesophageal cancer. Methods A systematic search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Current Contents Connect, Cochrane library, Google scholar, Science Direct, and Web of Science. Original data was abstracted from each study and used to calculate a pooled event rates and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Results The search identified 23 relevant articles. The overall detection rate was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.894-0.950), sensitivity 0.87 (95% CI: 0.811-0.908), negative predictive value 0.77 (95% CI: 0.568-0.890) and the accuracy was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.817-0.921). In the adenocarcinoma cohort, detection rate was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.923-0.992), sensitivity 0.84 (95% CI: 0.743-0.911) and the accuracy was 0.87(95% CI: 0.796-0.913). In the squamous cell carcinoma group, detection rate was 0.89 (95% CI: 00.792-0.943), sensitivity 0.91 (95% CI: 0.754-0.972) and the accuracy was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.732-0.914). Conclusions It is possible to identify and obtain a SLN before neoadjuvant therapy in oesophageal cancer. However, further work is needed to optimize radiocolloid type, refine the technique and develop a quick and accurate way to determine SLN status intraoperatively. This technique has to be further evaluated before it can be applied widely. PMID:24772341

  4. HUMAN VIRAL ONCOGENESIS: A CANCER HALLMARKS ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Mesri, Enrique A.; Feitelson, Mark; Munger, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Approximately twelve percent of all human cancers are caused by oncoviruses. Human viral oncogenesis is complex and only a small percentage of the infected individuals develop cancer and often many years to decades after initial infection. This reflects the multistep nature of viral oncogenesis, host genetic variability and the fact that viruses contribute to only a portion of the oncogenic events. In this review, the Hallmarks of Cancer framework of Hanahan & Weinberg (2000 and 2011) is used to dissect the viral, host and environmental co-factors that contribute to the biology of multistep oncogenesis mediated by established human oncoviruses. The viruses discussed include Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), high-risk Human Papillomaviruses (HPV16/18), Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV, HCV respectively), Human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1) and Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV). PMID:24629334

  5. Analysis of 3,000 Cancer Exomes to Identify Novel Cancer Drivers and Therapeutic Opportunities - Nickolay Khazanov, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2012

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Analysis of 3,000 Cancer Exomes - Nickolay Khazanov Analysis of 3,000 Cancer Exomes to Identify Novel Cancer Drivers and Therapeutic Opportunities - Nickolay Khazanov, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2012 You

  6. Gene network-based cancer prognosis analysis with sparse boosting

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shuangge; Huang, Yuan; Huang, Jian; Fang, Kuangnan

    2013-01-01

    Summary High-throughput gene profiling studies have been extensively conducted, searching for markers associated with cancer development and progression. In this study, we analyse cancer prognosis studies with right censored survival responses. With gene expression data, we adopt the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to describe the interplay among genes. In network analysis, nodes represent genes. There are subsets of nodes, called modules, which are tightly connected to each other. Genes within the same modules tend to have co-regulated biological functions. For cancer prognosis data with gene expression measurements, our goal is to identify cancer markers, while properly accounting for the network module structure. A two-step sparse boosting approach, called Network Sparse Boosting (NSBoost), is proposed for marker selection. In the first step, for each module separately, we use a sparse boosting approach for within-module marker selection and construct module-level ‘super markers ’. In the second step, we use the super markers to represent the effects of all genes within the same modules and conduct module-level selection using a sparse boosting approach. Simulation study shows that NSBoost can more accurately identify cancer-associated genes and modules than alternatives. In the analysis of breast cancer and lymphoma prognosis studies, NSBoost identifies genes with important biological implications. It outperforms alternatives including the boosting and penalization approaches by identifying a smaller number of genes/modules and/or having better prediction performance. PMID:22950901

  7. Multiplex sequencing of pooled mitochondrial genomes—a crucial step toward biodiversity analysis using mito-metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Min; Tan, Meihua; Meng, Guanliang; Yang, Shenzhou; Su, Xu; Liu, Shanlin; Song, Wenhui; Li, Yiyuan; Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Aibing; Zhou, Xin

    2014-01-01

    The advent in high-throughput-sequencing (HTS) technologies has revolutionized conventional biodiversity research by enabling parallel capture of DNA sequences possessing species-level diagnosis. However, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based implementation is biased by the efficiency of primer binding across lineages of organisms. A PCR-free HTS approach will alleviate this artefact and significantly improve upon the multi-locus method utilizing full mitogenomes. Here we developed a novel multiplex sequencing and assembly pipeline allowing for simultaneous acquisition of full mitogenomes from pooled animals without DNA enrichment or amplification. By concatenating assemblies from three de novo assemblers, we obtained high-quality mitogenomes for all 49 pooled taxa, with 36 species >15 kb and the remaining >10 kb, including 20 complete mitogenomes and nearly all protein coding genes (99.6%). The assembly quality was carefully validated with Sanger sequences, reference genomes and conservativeness of protein coding genes across taxa. The new method was effective even for closely related taxa, e.g. three Drosophila spp., demonstrating its broad utility for biodiversity research and mito-phylogenomics. Finally, the in silico simulation showed that by recruiting multiple mito-loci, taxon detection was improved at a fixed sequencing depth. Combined, these results demonstrate the plausibility of a multi-locus mito-metagenomics approach as the next phase of the current single-locus metabarcoding method. PMID:25294837

  8. Diagnostic performance of magnifying narrow-band imaging for early gastric cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ying-Ying; Lian, Qing-Wu; Lin, Zheng-Hua; Zhong, Jing; Xue, Meng; Wang, Liang-Jing

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the performance of magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging (ME-NBI) in the diagnosis of early gastric cancer (EGC). METHODS: Systematic literature searches were conducted until February 2014 in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Ovid, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases by two independent reviewers. Meta-analysis was performed to calculate the pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio and to construct a summary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Subgroup analyses were performed based on the morphology type of lesions, diagnostic standard, the size of lesions, type of assessment, country and sample size to explore possible sources of heterogeneity. A Deeks’ asymmetry test was used to evaluate the publication bias. RESULTS: Fourteen studies enrolling 2171 patients were included. The pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio for ME-NBI diagnosis of EGC were 0.86 (95%CI: 0.83-0.89), 0.96 (95%CI: 0.95-0.97) and 102.75 (95%CI: 48.14-219.32), respectively, with the area under ROC curve being 0.9623. Among the 14 studies, six also evaluated the diagnostic value of conventional white-light imaging, with a sensitivity of 0.57 (95%CI: 0.50-0.64) and a specificity of 0.79 (95%CI: 0.76-0.81). When using “VS” (vessel plus surface) ME-NBI diagnostic systems in gastric lesions of depressed macroscopic type, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.64 (95%CI: 0.52-0.75) and 0.96 (95%CI: 0.95-0.98). For the lesions with a diameter less than 10 mm, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.74 (95%CI: 0.65-0.82) and 0.98 (95%CI: 0.97-0.98). CONCLUSION: ME-NBI is a promising endoscopic tool in the diagnosis of early gastric cancer and might be helpful in further target biopsy. PMID:26167089

  9. “Diabetes and colorectal cancer prognosis: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Katherine T; Bellows, Charles F; Hoffman, Aaron E; Kelly, Tanika N; Gagliardi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased incidence of colorectal cancer, but the impact of diabetes on colorectal cancer prognosis is not clear. Objective We conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to examine the association between pre-existing diabetes and colorectal cancer all-cause mortality, cancer-specific mortality and recurrence. Data Sources Medline and Embase were searched through August 22, 2012. Study Selection We included studies reporting all-cause mortality, cancer-specific mortality, disease-free survival, or recurrence in colorectal cancer patients according to diabetic status. Intervention Meta-analyses performed using random effects models. Main Outcome Measures All-cause mortality, cancer-specific mortality, diseases free survival. Results Twenty-six articles met our inclusion criteria. Colorectal cancer patients with diabetes had a 17% increased risk of all-cause mortality (RR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.09-1.25) and a 12% increased risk of cancer-specific mortality (RR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.01-1.24) compared to those without diabetes. Those with diabetes also had poorer disease-free survival (RR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.08-2.18) compared to their non-diabetic counterparts. In subgroup analyses, diabetes was associated with all-cause mortality in both rectal (RR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.07-1.29) and colon cancer patients (RR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.07-1.29). Sensitivity analyses including only patients with non-metastatic disease identified stronger associations between diabetes and both all-cause (RR = 1.32; 95% CI: 1.21-1.44) and cancer-specific (RR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.06-1.52) mortality. Limitations Some studies had short follow-up or did not report mean or median follow-up. The included studies were heterogeneous in study population, diabetes diagnostic criteria and outcome ascertainment. Conclusion Colorectal cancer patients with diabetes are at greater risk for all-cause and cancer-specific mortality and have worse disease-free survival compared to those without diabetes. Studies are warranted to determine if proper treatment could attenuate the excess mortality among diabetic colorectal cancer patients. PMID:24105007

  10. MUC1 Predicts Colorectal Cancer Metastasis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Case Controlled Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Minxun; Liu, Yang; Zheng, Tianying; Feng, Shijian; Hao, Meiqin; Shi, Huashan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the predicting value of MUC1 expression in lymph node and distant metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods Pubmed/ MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched to identify eligible studies that evaluated the correlation between MUC1 and CRC. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the impact of MUC1 expression on CRC metastasis. Results A total of 18 studies (n = 3271) met inclusion criteria and the mean Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) score was 6.3 with a range from 4 to 8. The pooled OR in the meta-analysis of 15 studies indicated that positive MUC1 expression correlated with more CRC node metastasis (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.63–3.29). The data synthesis of 6 studies suggested that MUC1 expression predicted more possibility of CRC distant metastasis (OR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.23–4.00). In addition, the combined OR of 7 studies showed that MUC1 expression indicated higher Duke’s stage (OR = 3.02, 95% CI = 2.11–4.33). No publication bias was found in the mate-analysis by Begg’s test or Egger’s test with the exception of the meta-analysis of MUC1 with CRC node metastasis (Begg’s test p = 0.729, Egger’s test p = 0.000). Conclusions Despite of some modest bias, the pooled evidence suggested that MUC1 expression was significantly correlated with CRC metastasis. PMID:26367866

  11. Meta-Analysis of the Aldehyde Dehydrogenases-2 (ALDH2) Glu487Lys Polymorphism and Colorectal Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hua; Liu, Kui-Jie; Lei, Zhen-Dong; Lei, San-Lin; Tian, Yong-Quan

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have explored the association of the aldehyde dehydrogenases-2 (ALDH2) Glu487Lys polymorphism and risk of colorectal cancer; however, the results are inconsistent. We performed this meta-analysis to clarify this issue using all the available evidence. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching PubMed. Eleven case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis, representing 2909 cases and 4903 controls. The pooled results based on all included studies showed a decreased colorectal cancer risk in the analysis of the GA genotype vs. the GG genotype (OR?=?0.81, 95%CI?=?0.68–0.98, p?=?0.03) and in the dominant genetic model analysis (OR?=?0.81, 95%CI?=?0.67–0.98, p?=?0.03). However, there was no statistical difference in the AA vs. GG analysis (OR?=?0.74, 95%CI?=?0.52–1.06,p?=?0.11) and the recessive genetic model analysis (OR?=?0.86, 95%CI?=?0.69–1.07, p?=?0.17). Cumulative meta-analysis based on publication time confirmed these findings. Patients with colorectal cancer had a higher frequency of the GG genotype (OR?=?1.10, 95% CI?=?1.02–1.20, p?=?0.02) and a lower frequency of the GA genotype (OR?=?0.89, 95%CI?=?0.81–0.98, p?=?0.02) comparing with control population. Our results suggested that the ALDH2 Glu487Lys polymorphism may be associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer. PMID:24558407

  12. Designing and Evaluating Health Systems Level Hypertension Control Interventions for African-Americans: Lessons from a Pooled Analysis of Three Cluster Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Pavlik, Valory N.; Chan, Wenyaw; Hyman, David J.; Feldman, Penny; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Schwartz, Joseph E.; McDonald, Margaret; Einhorn, Paula; Tobin, Jonathan N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives African-Americans (AAs) have a high prevalence of hypertension and their blood pressure (BP) control on treatment still lags behind other groups. In 2004, NHLBI funded five projects that aimed to evaluate clinically feasible interventions to effect changes in medical care delivery leading to an increased proportion of AA patients with controlled BP. Three of the groups performed a pooled analysis of trial results to determine: 1) the magnitude of the combined intervention effect; and 2) how the pooled results could inform the methodology for future health-system level BP interventions. Methods Using a cluster randomized design, the trials enrolled AAs with uncontrolled hypertension to test interventions targeting a combination of patient and clinician behaviors. The 12-month Systolic BP (SBP) and Diastolic BP (DBP) effects of intervention or control cluster assignment were assessed using mixed effects longitudinal regression modeling. Results 2,015 patients representing 352 clusters participated across the three trials. Pooled BP slopes followed a quadratic pattern, with an initial decline, followed by a rise toward baseline, and did not differ significantly between intervention and control clusters: SBP linear coefficient = ?2.60±0.21 mmHg per month, p<0.001; quadratic coefficient = 0.167± 0.02 mmHg/month, p<0.001; group by time interaction group by time group x linear time coefficient=0.145 ± 0.293, p=0.622; group x quadratic time coefficient= ?0.017 ± 0.026, p=0.525). Results were similar for DBP. The individual sites did not have significant intervention effects when analyzed separately. Conclusion Investigators planning behavioral trials to improve BP control in health systems serving AAs should plan for small effect sizes and employ a “run-in” period in which BP can be expected to improve in both experimental and control clusters. PMID:25808682

  13. A GEOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF PROSTATE CANCER MORTALITY IN THE UNITED STATES, 197089

    E-print Network

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    A GEOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF PROSTATE CANCER MORTALITY IN THE UNITED STATES, 1970­89 Ahmedin JEMAL 1 of cancer mortality in the United States revealed that prostate cancer mortality rates were elevated among-Liss, Inc. Key words: prostate cancer; cluster analysis; geographic; demogra- phy; epidemiology Prostate

  14. Diagnosis of Lung Cancer by Fractal Analysis of Damaged DNA

    PubMed Central

    Namazi, Hamidreza; Kiminezhadmalaie, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Cancer starts when cells in a part of the body start to grow out of control. In fact cells become cancer cells because of DNA damage. A DNA walk of a genome represents how the frequency of each nucleotide of a pairing nucleotide couple changes locally. In this research in order to study the cancer genes, DNA walk plots of genomes of patients with lung cancer were generated using a program written in MATLAB language. The data so obtained was checked for fractal property by computing the fractal dimension using a program written in MATLAB. Also, the correlation of damaged DNA was studied using the Hurst exponent measure. We have found that the damaged DNA sequences are exhibiting higher degree of fractality and less correlation compared with normal DNA sequences. So we confirmed this method can be used for early detection of lung cancer. The method introduced in this research not only is useful for diagnosis of lung cancer but also can be applied for detection and growth analysis of different types of cancers. PMID:26539245

  15. Microfluidic Devices for Cancer Screening by N-Glycan Analysis | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Project Summary A microfluidic-based screening method will be developed to differentiate different disease states of cancer. The screening method is based on high-resolution microchip electrophoresis coupled with laser-induced fluorescence detection. N-Glycan profiles are generated for all samples and compared by statistical analysis. The method relies on the analysis of the entire N-glycan profile, not a single biomarker, to provide sufficient differentiation among control individuals, patients suffering from various stages of cancer, and patients with pre-malignant diseases.

  16. FDG-PET and other imaging modalities for the evaluation of breast cancer recurrence and metastases: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, LingLing; Han, Yuan; Sun, XiaoGuang; Liu, JianJun

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Breast carcinoma is the most common cancer in female patients with a propensity for recurrence and metastases. The accuracy of ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), scintimammography (SMM) and positron emission tomography (PET) in diagnosing the recurrent and/or breast cancer has never been systematically assessed, and present systematic review was aimed at this issue. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for articles dealt with detection of recurrent and/or metastatic breast cancer by US, CT, MRI, SMM or PET whether interpreted with or without the use of CT. Histopathologic analysis and/or close clinical and imaging follow-up for at least 6 months were used as golden reference. We extracted data to calculate sensitivity, specificity, summary receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve and to test for heterogeneity. Result In 42 included studies, US and MRI had highest pooled specificity (0.962 and 0.929, respectively); MRI and PET had highest pooled sensitivity (0.9500 and 0.9530, respectively). The AUC of US, CT, MRI, SMM and PET was 0.9251, 0.8596, 0.9718, 0.9386 and 0.9604, respectively. Results of pairwise comparison between each modality demonstrated that AUC of MRI and PET was higher than that of US or CT, p < 0.05. No statistical significance was found between MRI and PET. There was heterogeneity among studies and evidence of publication bias. Conclusion In conclusion, MRI seemed to be a more useful supplement to current surveillance techniques to assess patients with suspected recurrent and/or metastatic breast cancer. If MRI shows an indeterminate or benign lesion or MRI was not applicable, FDG-PET could be performed in addition. PMID:20091186

  17. Suicide Attempt Characteristics Among Veterans and Active-Duty Service Members Receiving Mental Health Services: A Pooled Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Villatte, Jennifer L.; O’Connor, Stephen S.; Leitner, Rebecca; Kerbrat, Amanda H.; Johnson, Lora L.; Gutierrez, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Past suicidal behaviors are among the strongest and most consistent predictors of eventual suicide and may be particularly salient in military suicide. The current study compared characteristics of suicide attempts in veterans (N = 746) and active-duty service members (N = 1,013) receiving treatment for acute suicide risk. Baseline data from six randomized controlled trials were pooled and analyzed using robust regression. Service members had greater odds of having attempted suicide relative to veterans, though there were no differences in number of attempts made. Service members also had higher rates of premilitary suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Veterans disproportionately attempted suicide by means of overdose. In veterans, combat deployment was associated with lower odds of lifetime suicide attempt, while history of NSSI was associated with greater attempt odds. Neither was significantly associated with lifetime suicide attempt in service members. Implications for suicide assessment and treatment are discussed. PMID:26740909

  18. A Pooled Analysis of Infections, Malignancy, and Mortality in Infliximab- and Immunomodulator-Treated Adult Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenstein, Gary R; Rutgeerts, Paul; Sandborn, William J; Sands, Bruce E; Diamond, Robert H; Blank, Marion; Montello, Jennifer; Tang, Linda; Cornillie, Freddy; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to analyze the safety of long-term infliximab treatment, with/without concomitant immunomodulators, across Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) clinical trials. METHODS: To maximize sample size, we pooled primary safety data across 10 CD or UC trials, including five randomized, controlled trials contributing data from patients who received intravenous infliximab 5 or 10?mg/kg (n=1,713; ±azathioprine) or placebo (n=406; ±azathioprine). Pooled incidences and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined for mortality, infection, and malignancy. Standardized incidence ratios and 95% CIs were also determined for malignancies using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. RESULTS: We observed no increase in infections, serious infections, or malignancy with infliximab vs. placebo in these patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In patients with UC, but not CD, immunomodulator treatment (vs. treatment without immunomodulator) yielded a higher incidence (95% CI) of infections (120.07 (110.66, 130.08)/100 patient-years (pt-yrs) vs. 92.47 (84.54, 100.94)/100 pt-yrs). Among placebo-treated patients with CD, but not UC, those with immunomodulator use demonstrated a higher incidence (95% CI) of malignancy vs. no immunomodulator treatment (1.84 (0.22, 6.66)/100 pt-yrs vs. 0.00 (0.00, 0.00)/100 pt-yrs). Mortality and infection-related mortality appeared unaffected by infliximab or immunomodulator treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Infliximab treatment of IBD did not appear to affect incidences of infection, mortality, or malignancy. Relative to patients with no immunomodulator use, immunomodulator-treated UC patients demonstrated a higher incidence of infection and immunomodulator-plus-placebo-treated CD patients demonstrated a higher incidence of malignancy. PMID:22613901

  19. Association of tumor necrosis factor-? 308G/A polymorphism with urogenital cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cai, J; Yang, M Y; Hou, N; Li, X

    2015-01-01

    We integrated all the eligible studies and investigated whether the TNF-? 308G/A polymorphism correlates with urogenital cancer risk. Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) is a risk factor for some urogenital cancers; however, in prostate and bladder cancers the results are controversial. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and the Wanfang Database were searched for all case-control studies on the relationship between the TNF-? 308G/A polymorphism and susceptibility to urogenital cancer between January 1994 and January 2015. The pooled odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was calculated to assess the associations. A total of 504 articles were found, 39 of which involved 11,613 cases and 12,542 controls that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Overall, the TNF-? 308G/A polymorphism was significantly associated with the risk of urogenital cancer. In the subgroup analysis for different cancer types, significant associations were found in cervical cancer and urothelial carcinoma, while our meta-analysis indicated that there were no significant associations between the TNF-? 308G/A polymorphism and prostate, bladder, or renal cancers. When stratified by ethnicity, significant associations were observed in Caucasian populations, whereas no significant associations were found in African-Americans, Asians, or mixed populations. Furthermore, carriers of the -308A allele among the hospital-based case-control group were at a high risk of urogenital cancer. Our meta-analysis showed that the TNF-? 308G/A polymorphism was significantly associated with urogenital cancer risk, particularly in the Caucasian and hospital-based populations. PMID:26662402

  20. Relationship between high-mobility group box 1 overexpression in ovarian cancer tissue and serum: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haipeng; Li, Zengjun; Sun, Yanlai; Xu, Zhongfa; Han, Jianjun; Song, Bao; Song, Wentao; Qin, Chen; Yin, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To implement a meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) overexpression in the tissue and serum of ovarian cancer patients, and to evaluate its prognostic significance. Methods Searches were made of China National Knowledge Infrastructure, EMBASE, WanFang, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Web of Science databases up to August 2015, with no language or style restrictions. Reference lists of related studies were also carefully reviewed to identify additional articles. Results The literature search identified a total of 12 relevant studies on HMGB1 expression for inclusion in the meta-analysis: seven in ovarian tumor tissue, four in ovarian tumor patient serum, and one in both tissue and serum. HMGB1 protein levels in ovarian cancer tissues were notably higher than those in normal ovarian tissues with no evidence of heterogeneity between studies (RD=0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57–0.70, Z=18.70, P<0.00001, I2=15%), and also higher than those in benign tumor tissues with no evidence of heterogeneity between studies (RD=0.52, 95% CI: 0.43–0.61, Z=11.14, P<0.00001, I2=0). Serum HMGB1 levels were similarly significantly higher in ovarian cancer patients than those with benign tumors or normal ovaries. Pooled mean differences of HMGB1 in ovarian cancer patients compared with patients with benign tumors or normal ovaries were 99.32 with 95% CI: 67.82–130.81, Z=6.18, P<0.00001, and 95.34 with 95% CI: 62.11–128.57, Z=5.62, P<0.0001. The pooled relative risk of ovarian cancer with high vs low HMGB1 expression levels was 1.40 with 95% CI: 1.09–1.79, Z=2.66, P=0.008, heterogeneity I2=50%. Conclusion This meta-analysis suggested that HMGB1 levels in both tissue and serum of ovarian cancer patients were significantly higher than those of benign tumor and normal ovarian samples. High serum or tissue HMGB1 expression may therefore be an effective molecular marker for ovarian benign or malignant tumor diagnosis and patient prognosis. PMID:26664135

  1. Prognostic Role of Serum Antibody Immunity to p53 Oncogenic Protein in Ovarian Cancer: A Systematic Review and a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Garziera, Marica; Montico, Marcella; Bidoli, Ettore; Scalone, Simona; Sorio, Roberto; Giorda, Giorgio; Lucia, Emilio; Toffoli, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Objective Serum p53 autoantibodies (p53-AAbs) are the product of an endogenous immune response against p53 overexpression driven by the ovarian tumour. The p53-AAbs are detectable only in a subset of patients. To date, the evidence of an association between the presence of p53-AAbs and ovarian cancer outcomes has been poorly investigated. Methods A systematic literature search was performed to identify eligible studies investigating the association of serum p53-AAbs and overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS). Associations between presence of serum p53-AAbs and baseline tumour characteristics were also evaluated. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed to estimate the prognostic impact of serum p53-AAbs. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed. Results A total of 583 patients (7 studies) for OS and 356 patients (4 studies) for DFS were included in the meta-analysis. Presence of p53-AAbs was not associated to OS (pooled uni- multivariate HR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.55–2.16), and a large heterogeneity was found. When only multivariate HRs were pooled together (4 studies), presence of p53-AAbs was significantly associated to a better OS (pooled HR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.40–0.81), and no significant heterogeneity was observed. A reduced DFS was associated to p53-AAbs (pooled uni- multivariate HR = 1.37; 95% CI: 0.83–2.25), though not significantly and with a moderate heterogeneity. Conclusions The prognostic significance of serum p53-AAbs in ovarian cancer was diverging according to uni or multivariate models used. Since the results of this work were based on only few investigations, large prospective studies are needed to better define the role of antibody immunity against p53. PMID:26451959

  2. Promoter Methylation of the Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta2 (RAR?2) Is Associated with Increased Risk of Breast Cancer: A PRISMA Compliant Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xian-Feng; Wei, Xue-Mei; Yu, Guo-Zheng; Zeng, Xian-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Background Epigenetic studies demonstrate that an association may exist between methylation of the retinoic acid receptor beta2 (RAR?2) gene promoter and breast cancer onset risk, tumor stage, and histological grade, however the results of these studies are not consistent. Hence, we performed this meta-analysis to ascertain a more comprehensive and accurate association. Materials and Methods Relevant studies were retrieved from the PubMed, Embase and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases up to February 28, 2015. After two independent reviewers screened the studies and extracted the necessary data, meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.2 software. Results Nineteen eligible articles, including 20 studies, were included in our analysis. Compared to non-cancerous controls, the frequency of RAR?2 methylation was 7.27 times higher in patients with breast cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 7.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.01–17.52). Compared to late-stage RAR?2 methylated patients, the pooled OR of early-stage ones was 0.81 (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.55–1.17). The OR of low-grade RAR?2 methylated patients was 0.96 (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.74–1.25) compared to high-grade RAR?2 methylated patients. Conclusion RAR?2 methylation is significantly increased in breast cancer samples when compared to non-cancerous controls. RAR?2 could serve as a potential epigenetic marker for breast cancer detection and management. PMID:26451736

  3. Pooled analysis of clinical trial data evaluating the safety and effectiveness of diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% for the treatment of acute ankle sprain

    PubMed Central

    Lionberger, David R; Joussellin, Eric; Yanchick, Jillmarie; Magelli, Merrell; Lanzarotti, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    This pooled analysis assessed the efficacy and safety of the diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP) for the treatment of acute mild-to-moderate ankle sprain. Data from 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies enrolling 274 male and female patients aged 18 to 65 years with acute ankle sprain were pooled and evaluated. The primary end point was pain reduction on movement assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS). Safety and tolerability were also assessed. Beginning approximately 3 hours after initial treatment, DETP-treated patients experienced statistically significant and sustained lower mean VAS scores in pain intensity on movement (mean ± SD, 54.1 ± 20.0 mm versus 60.3 ± 16.8 mm) compared with placebo-treated patients, representing a 20% versus 13% reduction in VA S pain scores from baseline (P = 0.012). This statistically significant difference in mean VAS score was maintained through day 7 (9.4 ± 14.4 mm versus 18.4 ± 18.2 mm, P < 0.0001). The DETP and placebo patches were well tolerated. These results further confirm the efficacy and safety of DETP for the treatment of acute pain from ankle sprains. PMID:24198574

  4. What’s in the Pool? A Comprehensive Identification of Disinfection By-Products and Assessment of Mutagenicity of Chlorinated and Brominated Swimming Pool Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Swimming pool disinfectants and disinfection by-products (DBPs) have been linked to human health effects, including asthma and bladder cancer, but no studies have provided a comprehensive identification of DBPs in pool water and related those DBPs to the mutagenicity of pool wate...

  5. A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship Between RAR? Gene Promoter Methylation and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuebing; Zhu, Siwei; Zhang, Weisan; Gu, Jundong

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypermethylation of CpG islands in tumor suppressor gene plays an important role in carcinogenesis. Many studies have demonstrated that hypermethylation in promoter region of RAR? gene could be found with high prevalence in tumor tissue and autologous controls such as corresponding non-tumor lung tissue, sputum and plasma of the NSCLC patients. But with the small number subjects included in the individual studie, the statistical power is limited. Accordingly, we performed this meta-analysis to further asses the relationship of methylation prevalence between the cancer tissue and atuologous controls (corresponding non-tumor lung tissue, sputum and plasma). Methods The published articles about RAR? gene promoter hypermethyltion were identified using a systematic search strategy in PubMed, EMBASE and CNKI databases. The pooled odds ratio (OR) of RAR? promoter methylation in lung cancer tissue versus autologous controls were calculated. Results Finally, eleven articles, including 1347 tumor tissue samples and 1137 autologous controls were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio of RAR? promoter methylation in cancer tissue was 3.60 (95%CI: 2.46–5.27) compared to autologous controls with random-effect model. Strong and significant correlation between tumor tissue and autologous controls of RAR? gene promoter hypermethylation prevalence across studies (Correlation coefficient 0.53) was found. Conclusion RAR? promoter methylation may play an important role in carcinogenesis of the NSCLC. With significant methylation prevalence correlation between tumor tissue and autologous of this gene, methylation detection may be a potential method for searching biomarker for NSCLC. PMID:24796328

  6. Multi-Cancer Mutual Exclusivity Analysis of Genomic Alterations - Giovanni Ciriello, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2011

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Multi-Cancer Mutual Exclusivity Analysis of Genomic Alterations - Giovanni Ciriello Multi-Cancer Mutual Exclusivity Analysis of Genomic Alterations - Giovanni Ciriello, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2011 You

  7. Virus Analysis in Head and Neck and Bladder Cancers - Michael Parfenov, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2012

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Virus Analysis in Head and Neck and Bladder Cancers - Michael Parfenov Virus Analysis in Head and Neck and Bladder Cancers - Michael Parfenov, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2012 You will need Adobe Flash

  8. Pan-Cancer Analysis of APOBEC Mutagenesis - Dmitry A. Gordenin, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2014

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Pan-Cancer Analysis of APOBEC Mutagenesis - Dmitry A. Gordenin Pan-Cancer Analysis of APOBEC Mutagenesis - Dmitry A. Gordenin, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2014 You will need Adobe Flash Player 8 or later

  9. C-myc amplification in breast cancer: a meta-analysis of its occurrence and prognostic relevance

    PubMed Central

    Deming, S L; Nass, S J; Dickson, R B; Trock, B J

    2000-01-01

    Data from basic research suggests that amplification of the proto-oncogene c-myc is important in breast cancer pathogenesis, but its frequency of amplification and prognostic relevance in human studies have been inconsistent. In an effort to clarify the clinical significance of c-myc amplification in breast cancer, we conducted a comprehensive literature search and a meta-analysis in which 29 studies were evaluated. The weighted average frequency of c-myc amplification in breast tumours was 15.7% (95% CI = 12.5–18.8%), although estimates in individual studies exhibited significant heterogeneity, Ppooled estimates RR = 2.05 (95% CI = 1.51–2.78) and RR = 1.74 (95% CI = 1.27–2.39), respectively. This effect did not appear to be merely a surrogate for other prognostic factors. These results suggest that c-myc amplification is relatively common in breast cancer and may provide independent prognostic information. More rigorous studies with consistent methodology are required to validate this association, and to investigate its potential as a molecular predictor of specific therapy response. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11104567

  10. Cardioprotective role of zofenopril in patients with acute myocardial infarction: a pooled individual data analysis of four randomised, double-blind, controlled, prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Claudio; Omboni, Stefano; Reggiardo, Giorgio; Bacchelli, Stefano; Degli Esposti, Daniela; Ambrosioni, Ettore

    2015-01-01

    Background Early administration of zofenopril following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) proved to be prognostically beneficial in the four individual randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, prospective SMILE (Survival of Myocardial Infarction Long-term Evaluation) studies. In the present analysis, we evaluated the cumulative efficacy of zofenopril by pooling individual data from the four SMILE studies. Methods 3630 patients with AMI were enrolled and treated for 6–48?weeks with zofenopril 30–60?mg/day (n=1808), placebo (n=951), lisinopril 5–10?mg/day (n=520) or ramipril 10?mg/day (n=351). The primary study end point of this pooled analysis was set to 1?year combined occurrence of death or hospitalisation for cardiovascular (CV) causes. Results Occurrence of major CV outcomes was significantly reduced with zofenopril versus placebo (?40%; HR=0.60, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.74; p=0.0001) and versus the other ACE inhibitors (?23%; HR=0.77, 0.63 to 0.95; p=0.015). The risk reduction observed under treatment with the other ACE inhibitors was nearly statistically significant (?22%; HR=0.78, 0.60 to 1.02; p=0.072). The benefit of zofenopril versus placebo was already evident after the first 6?weeks of treatment (?28%; HR=0.72, 0.54 to 0.97; p=0.029), while this was not the case for the other ACE inhibitors (?19%; HR=0.81, 0.57 to 1.17; p=0.262). In this early phase of treatment, zofenopril showed a non-significant trend towards a larger reduction in CV events versus the other ACE inhibitors (?11%; HR=0.89, 0.69 to 1.15; p=0.372). Conclusions The pooled data analysis from the SMILE Programme confirms the favourable effects of zofenopril treatment in patients with post-AMI and its long-term benefit in terms of prevention of CV morbidity and mortality. PMID:26380097

  11. Multimodal therapy in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor: individual pooled data analysis and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schrey, D; Carceller Lechón, F; Malietzis, G; Moreno, L; Dufour, C; Chi, S; Lafay-Cousin, L; von Hoff, K; Athanasiou, T; Marshall, L V; Zacharoulis, S

    2016-01-01

    Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumour (ATRT) is a malignant tumour of the central nervous system with a dismal prognosis. There is no consensus on optimal treatment and different multimodal strategies are currently being used in an attempt to improve outcomes. To evaluate the impact of high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem-cell rescue (HD48 SCR), radiotherapy (RT) at first line, intrathecal chemotherapy (IT) and extent of surgical resection upon recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). An online database search identified prospective and retrospective studies focused on the treatment of children and adolescents with newly diagnosed ATRT. Clinical, therapeutic and outcome data were extracted and an individual pooled data analysis was conducted. Out of 389 publications, 12 manuscripts were included in our review. Data from 332 patients were analysed. Median age at diagnosis was 37 months (range 1-231). HD-SCR, RT and IT had been administered to 28.6 % (58/203), 49.6 % (118/238) and 21 % (65/310) of the patients, respectively. Gross total resection (GTR) had been achieved in 46.5 % (152/327) of the cases. In the multivariate analysis, hazard ratios (95 % Confidence Interval) for HD-SCR were: RFS-HR = 0.570 (0.357-0.910) p = 0.019, and OS-HR = 0.388 (0.214-0.704) p = 0.002; and for RT: RFS-HR = 0.551 (0.351-0.866) p = 0.01, and OS-HR = 0.393 (0.216-0.712) p = 0.002. IT and GTR were not significantly associated with improved RFS or OS in the multivariate analysis. In our pooled data review, HD-SCR and RT at first line were associated with improved outcomes in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed ATRT. PMID:26608522

  12. Analysis of centrosomes in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Duensing, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Centrosomes are small cytoplasmic organelles that function as major microtubule-organizing centres during interphase and mitosis. In cancer cells, centrosomes are frequently abnormal in number, size, and structure. Numerous studies have reported centrosome aberrations in human tumors where they frequently increase with malignant progression and advanced disease stage. However, there are a number of caveats when analyzing centrosomes in human tissue. Besides the actual immunodetection and quantification of centrosomes, which can be difficult and cumbersome, centrosome aberrations require a careful evaluation in the cellular context in which they occur. This chapter highlights the importance of careful interpretation of centrosome aberrations in human tumors. PMID:26175433

  13. Processed and Unprocessed Red Meat and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: Analysis by Tumor Location and Modification by Time

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuehong; Pan, An; Wang, Molin; Fuchs, Charles S.; Le, Ngoan; Chan, Andrew T.; Willett, Walter C.; Ogino, Shuji; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Wu, Kana

    2015-01-01

    Although the association between red meat consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC) is well established, the association across subsites of the colon and rectum remains uncertain, as does time of consumption in relation to cancer development. As these relationships are key for understanding the pathogenesis of CRC, they were examined in two large cohorts with repeated dietary measures over time, the Nurses’ Health Study (n = 87,108 women, 1980–2010) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n = 47,389 men, 1986–2010). Cox proportional hazards regression models generated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), which were pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. In combined cohorts, there were 2,731 CRC cases (1,151 proximal colon, 816 distal colon, and 589 rectum). In pooled analyses, processed red meat was positively associated with CRC risk (per 1 serving/day increase: HR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01–1.32; P for trend 0.03) and particularly with distal colon cancer (per 1 serving/day increase; HR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.09–1.69; P for trend 0.006). Recent consumption of processed meat (within the past 4 years) was not associated with distal cancer. Unprocessed red meat was inversely associated with risk of distal colon cancer and a weak non-significant positive association between unprocessed red meat and proximal cancer was observed (per 1 serving/day increase: distal HR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.68–0.82; P for trend <0.001; proximal HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 0.92–1.40; P for trend 0.22). Thus, in these two large cohorts of US health professionals, processed meat intake was positively associated with risk of CRC, particularly distal cancer, with little evidence that higher intake of unprocessed red meat substantially increased risk of CRC. Future studies, particularly those with sufficient sample size to assess associations by subsites across the colon are needed to confirm these findings and elucidate potentially distinct mechanisms underlying the relationship between processed meat and subtypes of unprocessed red meat with CRC. PMID:26305323

  14. Nanowire Analysis of Cancer-Testis Antigens as Biomarkers of Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Sayuri; Shiraishi, Takumi; Miles, Nancy; Trock, Bruce J.; Kulkarni, Prakash; Getzenberg, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To demonstrate the ability of the nCounter Analysis System, a nanowire technology, to sensitively and accurately detect cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) in men with prostate cancer and correlate them with disease parameters. The clinical implementation of novel biomarkers is necessary to provide for individual disease treatment planning for men with prostate cancer. The CTAs, as cancer-associated biomarkers that may correlate with aggressive disease, have the potential to play an important role. METHODS Formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded samples were used from men undergoing radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. The expression of CTAs along with control genes was measured from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded prostate cancer tissues using real-time polymerase chain reaction and the nCounter assay. RESULTS Using a nanowire-based assay, ribonucleic acid (RNA) expression levels of the CTAs CSAG2 and NOL4 were found to be significantly higher in men with Gleason score (GS) 8-10 disease than those with GS ?4+3 disease. On the contrary, the RNA expression level of PAGE4 was lower in men with GS 8-10 disease than those with GS ?6 group. This study demonstrates that CTAs can be detected with a nanostring assay that is translatable and that a set of CTAs correlates with the clinical characteristics of the disease. CONCLUSION CTAs represent unique, cancer-associated biomarkers with potential utility in the clinic. The nCounter nanowire technology provides an opportunity to evaluate this panel of CTAs associated with aggressive prostate cancer in a multi-institutional fashion. PMID:25733303

  15. Transcriptional master regulator analysis in breast cancer genetic networks.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Hugo; García-Herrera, Rodrigo; Espinal-Enríquez, Jesús; Hernández-Lemus, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    Gene regulatory networks account for the delicate mechanisms that control gene expression. Under certain circumstances, gene regulatory programs may give rise to amplification cascades. Such transcriptional cascades are events in which activation of key-responsive transcription factors called master regulators trigger a series of gene expression events. The action of transcriptional master regulators is then important for the establishment of certain programs like cell development and differentiation. However, such cascades have also been related with the onset and maintenance of cancer phenotypes. Here we present a systematic implementation of a series of algorithms aimed at the inference of a gene regulatory network and analysis of transcriptional master regulators in the context of primary breast cancer cells. Such studies were performed in a highly curated database of 880 microarray gene expression experiments on biopsy-captured tissue corresponding to primary breast cancer and healthy controls. Biological function and biochemical pathway enrichment analyses were also performed to study the role that the processes controlled - at the transcriptional level - by such master regulators may have in relation to primary breast cancer. We found that transcription factors such as AGTR2, ZNF132, TFDP3 and others are master regulators in this gene regulatory network. Sets of genes controlled by these regulators are involved in processes that are well-known hallmarks of cancer. This kind of analyses may help to understand the most upstream events in the development of phenotypes, in particular, those regarding cancer biology. PMID:26362298

  16. Clinicopathological significance and potential drug targeting of CDH1 in lung cancer: a meta-analysis and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qiaowen; Guo, Qisen; Chen, Liangan; Liu, Shuwei

    2015-01-01

    Background CDH1 is a protein encoded by the CDH1 gene in humans. Mutations in this gene are linked with several types of cancer. Loss of CDH1 function contributes to the progression of cancer by increasing proliferation, invasion, and/or metastasis. However, the association between and clinicopathological significance of CDH1 promoter methylation and lung cancer remains unclear. In this study, we systematically reviewed the studies of CDH1 promoter methylation and lung cancer, and evaluated the association between CDH1 promoter methylation and lung cancer using meta-analysis methods. Methods A comprehensive search of the PubMed and Embase databases was performed up to July 2014. The methodological quality of the studies was also evaluated. The data were extracted and assessed by two reviewers independently. Analyses of pooled data were performed. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated and summarized. Results Finally, an analysis of 866 patients with non-small cell lung cancer from 13 eligible studies was performed. The CDH1 methylation level in the cancer group was significantly higher than in the controls (OR 3.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.87–5.27, P<0.00001). However, there were no correlations between CDH1 promoter methylation and clinicopathological characteristics (sex status, OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.41–1.50, P=0.46; smoking history, OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.53–1.79, P=0.93; pathological type, OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.59–1.60, P=0.91; clinical staging, OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.81–2.68, P=0.2; lymph node metastasis, OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.13–3.63, P=0.65; or differentiation degree, OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.34–3.02, P=0.99). Conclusion The results of this meta-analysis suggest that CDH1 methylation is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. CDH1 hypermethylation, which induces inactivation of the CDH1 gene, plays an important role in carcinogenesis and may serve as a potential drug target in lung cancer. However, CDH1 methylation does not correlate with other factors, such as smoking history, clinical stage, pathological type, sex status, lymph node metastasis, or degree of differentiation. PMID:25931811

  17. Fanfares & Fireworks Pool Party

    E-print Network

    Sin, Peter

    Highlights Fanfares & Fireworks Pool Party Notes from the Office Class Photo TheELIWeekly Fireworks & Pool Party This is a very exciting week! We have two activities for you to participate in. As always, feel free to bring your family and conversation partners. Fanfares & Fireworks On Tuesday, we

  18. Fanfares & Fireworks Pool Party

    E-print Network

    Sin, Peter

    Highlights Fanfares & Fireworks Pool Party Ramadan Reminder ELI Places of Origin Notes from the Office Birthdays TheELIWeekly Fireworks & Pool Party This is a very exciting week! We have two. Fanfares & Fireworks On Wednesday, we will be going to Fanfares and Fireworks. Come listen

  19. Fanfares & Fireworks Pool Party

    E-print Network

    Sin, Peter

    Highlights Fanfares & Fireworks Pool Party ELI Places of Origin Notes from the Office Manners & Culture Grammar TheELIWeekly Fireworks & Pool Party This is a very exciting week! We have two activities & Fireworks Come celebrate the United States' Independence Day with music and fireworks. We will walk

  20. Computer-based interaction analysis of the cancer consultation.

    PubMed Central

    Butow, P. N.; Dunn, S. M.; Tattersall, M. H.; Jones, Q. J.

    1995-01-01

    There are few data available on which to base recommendations for effective communication in the cancer consultation. This paper describes a computerised interaction analysis system designed specifically for the cancer consultation and its application in a study investigating the relationship between doctor-patient behaviour and patient outcomes. One hundred and forty-two cancer patients attending their first consultation with a cancer specialist were audio taped and a copy of the tape was retained for interaction analysis. Before the consultation patient anxiety and information and involvement preferences were measured. Outcomes included recall of information, patient satisfaction with the consultation and psychological adjustment to cancer. Doctor behaviour was shown to vary significantly according to the age, sex, involvement preferences and in/out-patient status of the patient. The ratio of doctor to patient talk was related to satisfaction with communication, while patients whose questions were answered showed better psychological adjustment at follow-up. The results suggest that patient-centred consultations lead to improved satisfaction and psychological adjustment. These data provide precise information about consultation behaviour which can be used in the documentation of current practice and the evaluation of new interventions to improve communication. PMID:7734311

  1. Genomic analysis and selected molecular pathways in rare cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Stephen V.; Lenkiewicz, Elizabeth; Evers, Lisa; Holley, Tara; Kiefer, Jeffrey; Ruiz, Christian; Glatz, Katharina; Bubendorf, Lukas; Demeure, Michael J.; Eng, Cathy; Ramanathan, Ramesh K.; Von Hoff, Daniel D.; Barrett, Michael T.

    2012-12-01

    It is widely accepted that many cancers arise as a result of an acquired genomic instability and the subsequent evolution of tumor cells with variable patterns of selected and background aberrations. The presence and behaviors of distinct neoplastic cell populations within a patient's tumor may underlie multiple clinical phenotypes in cancers. A goal of many current cancer genome studies is the identification of recurring selected driver events that can be advanced for the development of personalized therapies. Unfortunately, in the majority of rare tumors, this type of analysis can be particularly challenging. Large series of specimens for analysis are simply not available, allowing recurring patterns to remain hidden. In this paper, we highlight the use of DNA content-based flow sorting to identify and isolate DNA-diploid and DNA-aneuploid populations from tumor biopsies as a strategy to comprehensively study the genomic composition and behaviors of individual cancers in a series of rare solid tumors: intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, anal carcinoma, adrenal leiomyosarcoma, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. We propose that the identification of highly selected genomic events in distinct tumor populations within each tumor can identify candidate driver events that can facilitate the development of novel, personalized treatment strategies for patients with cancer.

  2. Membrane proteomic analysis of pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive human tumors due to its high potential of local invasion and metastasis. The aim of this study was to characterize the membrane proteomes of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells of primary and metastatic origins, and to identify potential target proteins related to metastasis of pancreatic cancer. Methods Membrane/membrane-associated proteins were isolated from AsPC-1 and BxPC-3 cells and identified with a proteomic approach based on SDS-PAGE, in-gel tryptic digestion and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). X! Tandem was used for database searching against the SwissProt human protein database. Results We identified 221 & 208 proteins from AsPC-1 and BxPC-3 cells, respectively, most of which are membrane or membrane-associated proteins. A hundred and nine proteins were found in both cell lines while the others were present in either AsPC-1 or BxPC-3 cells. Differentially expressed proteins between two cell lines include modulators of cell adhesion, cell motility or tumor invasion as well as metabolic enzymes involved in glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, or nucleotide/lipid metabolism. Conclusion Membrane proteomes of AsPC-1 (metastatic) and BxPC-3 (primary) cells are remarkably different. The differentially expressed membrane proteins may serve as potential targets for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. PMID:20831833

  3. Analysis of adult neurogenesis: evidence for a prominent "non-neurogenic" DCX-protein pool in rodent brain.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Thomas; Jagasia, Ravi; Herrmann, Annika; Matile, Hugues; Borroni, Edilio; Francis, Fiona; Kuhn, Hans Georg; Czech, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Here, we have developed a highly sensitive immunoassay for Dcx to characterize expression in brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of rodents. We demonstrate that Dcx is widely expressed during development in various brain regions and as well can be detected in cerebrospinal fluid of rats (up to 30 days postnatal). While Dcx protein level decline in adulthood and were detectable in neurogenic regions of the adult rodent brain, similar levels were also detectable in brain regions expected to bear no neurogenesis including the cerebral cortex and CA1/CA3 enriched hippocampus. We monitored DCX protein levels after paradigms to increase or severely decrease adult hippocampal neurogenesis, namely physical activity and cranial radiation, respectively. In both paradigms, Dcx protein- and mRNA-levels clearly reflected changes in neurogenesis in the hippocampus. However, basal Dcx-levels are unaffected in non-neurogenic regions (e.g. CA1/CA3 enriched hippocampus, cortex). These data suggest that there is a substantial "non-neurogenic" pool of Dcx- protein, whose regulation can be uncoupled from adult neurogenesis suggesting caution for the interpretation of such studies. PMID:23690918

  4. Early Postoperative Complications following Gracilis Free Muscle Transfer for Facial Reanimation: A Systematic Review and Pooled Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ryan M; Gosain, Arun K; Zenn, Michael R; Marcus, Jeffrey R

    2015-10-01

    Background?Multiple studies have detailed promising smile restoration following gracilis free muscle transfer for facial reanimation but information detailing the potential complications is lacking. The aim of this study is to systematically review the literature to evaluate the reported complication rate associated with this procedure. We also aim to determine the most common occurring complications. Methods?The PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were queried with multiple search strategies for published articles between January 1950 and February 2013 that detailed gracilis free muscle transfer for facial reanimation. Title, abstract, and full text review was performed. Complications were defined as any reported, identifiable adverse outcome that required an alteration in treatment for correction. Results?The literature search yielded 62 studies of gracilis free muscle transfer for facial reanimation. Overall, 36 articles (58%) reported whether or not a complication had occurred. The overall complication rate based on pooled proportions was 9.6% and the most commonly occurring complications were postoperative hematoma (3.6%) and infection (3.5%). Conclusions?Our data suggests that complications after gracilis free muscle transfer for facial reanimation may be underreported and this complex procedure may in fact be associated with significant adverse outcomes as high as 9.6%. PMID:26220430

  5. Analysis of Adult Neurogenesis: Evidence for a Prominent “Non-Neurogenic” DCX-Protein Pool in Rodent Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, Thomas; Jagasia, Ravi; Herrmann, Annika; Matile, Hugues; Borroni, Edilio; Francis, Fiona; Kuhn, Hans Georg; Czech, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Here, we have developed a highly sensitive immunoassay for Dcx to characterize expression in brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of rodents. We demonstrate that Dcx is widely expressed during development in various brain regions and as well can be detected in cerebrospinal fluid of rats (up to 30 days postnatal). While Dcx protein level decline in adulthood and were detectable in neurogenic regions of the adult rodent brain, similar levels were also detectable in brain regions expected to bear no neurogenesis including the cerebral cortex and CA1/CA3 enriched hippocampus. We monitored DCX protein levels after paradigms to increase or severely decrease adult hippocampal neurogenesis, namely physical activity and cranial radiation, respectively. In both paradigms, Dcx protein- and mRNA-levels clearly reflected changes in neurogenesis in the hippocampus. However, basal Dcx-levels are unaffected in non-neurogenic regions (e.g. CA1/CA3 enriched hippocampus, cortex). These data suggest that there is a substantial “non-neurogenic” pool of Dcx- protein, whose regulation can be uncoupled from adult neurogenesis suggesting caution for the interpretation of such studies. PMID:23690918

  6. Evaluation of Current Consensus Statement Recommendations for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: A Pooled Analysis of William Beaumont Hospital and American Society of Breast Surgeon MammoSite Registry Trial Data

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, J. Ben; Beitsch, Peter D.; Shah, Chirag; Arthur, Doug; Haffty, Bruce G.; Wazer, David E.; Shaitelman, Simona F.; Lyden, Maureen; Chen, Peter Y.; Vicini, Frank A.

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Consensus Statement (CS) recommendations for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) are associated with significantly different outcomes in a pooled analysis from William Beaumont Hospital (WBH) and the American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBrS) MammoSite® Registry Trial. Methods and Materials: APBI was used to treat 2127 cases of early-stage breast cancer (WBH, n=678; ASBrS, n=1449). Three forms of APBI were used at WBH (interstitial, n=221; balloon-based, n=255; or 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, n=206), whereas all Registry Trial patients received balloon-based brachytherapy. Patients were divided according to the ASTRO CS into suitable (n=661, 36.5%), cautionary (n=850, 46.9%), and unsuitable (n=302, 16.7%) categories. Tumor characteristics and clinical outcomes were analyzed according to CS group. Results: The median age was 65 years (range, 32-94 years), and the median tumor size was 10.0 mm (range, 0-45 mm). The median follow-up time was 60.6 months. The WBH cohort had more node-positive disease (6.9% vs 2.6%, P<.01) and cautionary patients (49.5% vs 41.8%, P=.06). The 5-year actuarial ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), regional nodal failure (RNF), and distant metastasis (DM) for the whole cohort were 2.8%, 0.6%, 1.6%. The rate of IBTR was not statistically higher between suitable (2.5%), cautionary (3.3%), or unsuitable (4.6%) patients (P=.20). The nonsignificant increase in IBTR for the cautionary and unsuitable categories was due to increased elsewhere failures and new primaries (P=.04), not tumor bed recurrence (P=.93). Conclusions: Excellent outcomes after breast-conserving surgery and APBI were seen in our pooled analysis. The current ASTRO CS guidelines did not adequately differentiate patients at an increased risk of IBTR or tumor bed failure in this large patient cohort.

  7. Edinburgh Research Explorer Coexpression analysis of large cancer datasets provides insight

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Andrew

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Coexpression analysis of large cancer datasets provides insight, Theocharidis, T, Goodlad, J, Gregory, CD & Freeman, TC 2013, 'Coexpression analysis of large cancer datasets date: 04. Jul. 2015 #12;RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Coexpression analysis of large cancer datasets

  8. Self-Advocacy and Cancer: A Concept Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hagan, Teresa L.; Donovan, Heidi S.

    2013-01-01

    Aim This paper is a report of an analysis of the concept of self-advocacy among individuals with cancer to clarify its meaning, to differentiate this meaning with related concepts and to unify understanding of the concept in cancer research and practice. Background Cancer survivors are increasingly required to assume an active role in their healthcare. A thorough analysis of how survivors advocate for themselves is a crucial aspect in supporting survivors’ ability to engage and manage their care throughout all stages of cancer survivorship. Design Walker and Avant’s eight-step process of conducting a concept analysis was used. Data Sources PubMed, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases were searched for articles, reviews, editorials and gray literature directly addressing self-advocacy. Review Methods A broad inquiry into the literature from 1960 – 2012 that produces a definition of self-advocacy. Model and contrary cases of self-advocacy demonstrate the concept’s application and intricacies. Results Antecedents to self-advocacy include particular personal characteristics, learned skills and attainable support. The essential element of self-advocacy and what differentiates it from related concepts, is the internalization of these antecedent resources into self-advocacy thoughts and actions while incorporating personal values and priorities in a way that upholds the survivors’ goals and beliefs. A full realization of self-advocacy facilitates a cancer survivor attaining a strong self-concept, sense of control and adaptation to a life with cancer. Conclusions Self-advocacy is a process of internalizing skills and resources to act in a way that supports survivors’ needs and goals. PMID:23347224

  9. A combined analysis of North American case-control studies of residential radon and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Krewski, Daniel; Lubin, Jay H; Zielinski, Jan M; Alavanja, Michael; Catalan, Vanessa S; Field, R William; Klotz, Judith B; Létourneau, Ernest G; Lynch, Charles F; Lyon, Joseph L; Sandler, Dale P; Schoenberg, Janet B; Steck, Daniel J; Stolwijk, Jan A; Weinberg, Clarice; Wilcox, Homer B

    2006-04-01

    Cohort studies have consistently shown underground miners exposed to high levels of radon to be at excess risk of lung cancer, and extrapolations based on those results indicate that residential radon may be responsible for nearly 10-15% of all lung cancer deaths per year in the United States. However, case-control studies of residential radon and lung cancer have provided ambiguous evidence of radon lung cancer risks. Regardless, alpha-particle emissions from the short-lived radioactive radon decay products can damage cellular DNA. The possibility that a demonstrated lung carcinogen may be present in large numbers of homes raises a serious public health concern. Thus, a systematic analysis of pooled data from all North American residential radon studies was undertaken to provide a more direct characterization of the public health risk posed by prolonged radon exposure. To evaluate the risk associated with prolonged residential radon exposure, a combined analysis of the primary data from seven large scale case-control studies of residential radon and lung cancer risk was conducted. The combined data set included a total of 4081 cases and 5281 controls, representing the largest aggregation of data on residential radon and lung cancer conducted to date. Residential radon concentrations were determined primarily by a-track detectors placed in the living areas of homes of the study subjects in order to obtain an integrated 1-yr average radon concentration in indoor air. Conditional likelihood regression was used to estimate the excess risk of lung cancer due to residential radon exposure, with adjustment for attained age, sex, study, smoking factors, residential mobility, and completeness of radon measurements. Although the main analyses were based on the combined data set as a whole, we also considered subsets of the data considered to have more accurate radon dosimetry. This included a subset of the data involving 3662 cases and 4966 controls with a-track radon measurements within the exposure time window (ETW) 5-30 yr prior to the index date considered previously by Krewski et al. (2005). Additional restrictions focused on subjects for which a greater proportion of the ETW was covered by measured rather than imputed radon concentrations, and on subjects who occupied at most two residences. The estimated odds ratio (OR) of lung cancer generally increased with radon concentration. The OR trend was consistent with linearity (p = .10), and the excess OR (EOR) was 0.10 per Bq/m3 with 95% confidence limits (-0.01, 0.26). For the subset of the data considered previously by Krewski et al. (2005), the EOR was 0.11 (0.00, 0.28). Further limiting subjects based on our criteria (residential stability and completeness of radon monitoring) expected to improve radon dosimetry led to increased estimates of the EOR. For example, for subjects who had resided in only one or two houses in the 5-30 ETW and who had a-track radon measurements for at least 20 yr of this 25-yr period, the EOR was 0.18 (0.02, 0.43) per 100 Bq/m3. Both estimates are compatible with the EOR of 0.12 (0.02, 0.25) per 100 Bq/m3 predicted by downward extrapolation of the miner data. Collectively, these results provide direct evidence of an association between residential radon and lung cancer risk, a finding predicted by extrapolation of results from occupational studies of radon-exposed underground miners. PMID:16608828

  10. Swimming pool. View of aisle between swimming pool and seating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Swimming pool. View of aisle between swimming pool and seating area. Non-original spa pool is partially visible on right. - Jewish Community Center of San Francisco, 3200 California Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. Pooled analysis of adjunct extended-release quetiapine fumarate in patients with major depressive disorder according to ongoing SSRI or SNRI treatment.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Michael; Demyttenaere, Koen; El-Khalili, Nizar; Thase, Michael E; Papakostas, George I; Szamosi, Johan; Earley, Willie R; Eriksson, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This pooled analysis evaluated the efficacy of extended-release quetiapine fumarate (quetiapine XR) adjunct to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Pooled data were analyzed from two 6-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of adjunct quetiapine XR (150 and 300 mg/day) in patients with MDD and inadequate response to initial antidepressant monotherapy. This post-hoc analysis included evaluation of change from randomization at week 6 in Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total scores (primary endpoint), and week 6 MADRS response and remission rates for quetiapine XR as an adjunct to ongoing SSRI or SNRI. In total, 189, 178, and 202 patients received quetiapine XR 150 mg/day+SSRI, 300 mg/day+SSRI, and placebo+SSRI, respectively, whereas 82, 90, and 76 patients, respectively, received quetiapine XR 150 mg/day+SNRI, 300 mg/day+SNRI, and placebo+SNRI. At week 6, quetiapine XR 150 mg/day+SSRI and 300 mg/day+SSRI reduced the MADRS total score from randomization versus placebo+SSRI [least squares mean (LSM) change, -14.70 (P<0.05) -14.72 (P<0.05) vs. -12.59, respectively]. Quetiapine XR 150 mg/day+SNRI (LSM change, -14.68, P<0.01) and 300 mg/day+SNRI (LSM change, -14.99, P<0.01) also reduced the MADRS total score from randomization at week 6 versus placebo+SNRI (-10.77). In conclusion, in patients with MDD and inadequate response to ongoing antidepressant, adjunct quetiapine XR (150 and 300 mg/day) was effective in both SSRI and SNRI subgroups. PMID:24108148

  12. The superiority of indium ratio over blood pool subtraction in analysis of indium-111 platelet deposition on thoraco-abdominal prosthetic grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Ripley, S.; Wakefield, T.; Spaulding, S.; Petry, N.

    1985-05-01

    In this investigation platelet deposition in polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE) thoracoabdominal grafts (TAC's) was evaluated using two different semi-quantitative techniques. Ten PTFE TAG's 6 mm in diameter and 30 cm in length were inserted into 10 mongrel dogs. One, 4 and 6 weeks after graft implantation the animals were injected with autologous In-111 platelets labelled by a modified Thakur technique. Platelet imaging in grafts was performed 48 hrs after injection. Blood pool was determined by Tc99m labelled RBC's (in vivo/in vitro technique). Semi-quantitative analysis was performed by subdividing the imaged graft into three major regions and selecting a reference region from either the native aorta or common iliac artery. Excess platelet deposition was determined by two methods: 1) the ratio of In-111 counts in the graft ROI''s to the reference region and 2) the percent In-111 excess using the Tc99m blood pool subtraction technique (TBPST). Animals were sacrificed 7 weeks after implantation and radioactivity in the excised grafts was determined using a well counter. A positive correlation was found to exist between the In-111 ratio percent analysis (IRPA) and the direct gamma counting (DCC) for all three segments of the prosthetic graft. Correlation coefficients for the thorax, midsegment and abdominal segments were 0.80, 0.73 and 0.48 respectivly. There was no correlation between TBPST and DGC. Using the IRPA technique the thrombogenicity of TAG's can be routinely assessed and is clinically applicable for patient use. TBPST should probably be limited to the extremities to avoid error due to free Tc99m counts from kidneys and ureters.

  13. [An epidemiological analysis on the geographic factors of esophageal cancer].

    PubMed

    Song, J

    1992-12-01

    The author collects the data of esophageal cancer mortality (1971-1973) of 78 counties in Hubei Province and the data of topography, climate, soil, rock formation and geochemical elements, including 40 suspected factors. The method of linear correlation and multiple stepwise regression are used for the comprehensive analysis of relation between the geographical factors and esophageal cancer. The result is that four factors metamorphic rock, zinc, copper, chromium are suspected factors. It suggests that the four factors will need future study. PMID:1303310

  14. Mutational analysis of breast cancer: Guiding personalized treatments

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The application of high throughput techniques to profile DNA, RNA and protein in breast cancer samples from hundreds of patients has profoundly increased our knowledge of the disease. However there remain many knowledge gaps that will require a long process of extended clinical correlation studies, deeper integrated ‘omic analysis and functional annotation to address. This article reviews conclusions from recent breast cancer ‘omics profiling’ papers and considers pathways forward for extracting medically valuable information from large dimension data sets [1–6]. PMID:24074785

  15. Pickled vegetables and the risk of oesophageal cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Islami, F; Ren, J-S; Taylor, P R; Kamangar, F

    2009-01-01

    Background: Ecological and experimental studies have suggested a relationship between Asian pickled vegetable consumption and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but the results of epidemiological studies investigating the association have been inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies of this association to evaluate the existing evidence. Methods: We searched the PubMed, ISI-Web of Science, J-EAST, IndMed, Vip Chinese Periodical, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases for all studies published in English or Chinese languages. Pooled results for all studies combined and for several study subgroups were computed. Results: A total of 34 studies were included in this analysis. The overall random effects odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for pickled vegetable consumption was 2.08 (1.66–2.60), but the results were heterogeneous across studies. After excluding the three most influential studies, the respective numbers were 2.32 (1.92–2.81). Similar to the overall association, the majority of subgroup analyses showed a statistically significant association between consuming pickled vegetables and OSCC risk. There were only three prospective studies. Conclusion: Our results suggest a potential two-fold increased risk of oesophageal cancer associated with the intake of pickled vegetables. However, because the majority of data was from retrospective studies and there was a high heterogeneity in the results, further well-designed prospective studies are warranted. PMID:19862003

  16. Risk for lung cancer in workers exposed to benzidine and/or beta-naphthylamine: a protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Risk for lung cancer in workers exposed to benzidine (BZ) and/or beta-naphthylamine (BNA), which are well-known bladder carcinogens, has been examined in many epidemiological studies, but individual epidemiological studies generally lack the power to examine the association between BZ/BNA exposure and lung cancer. We conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the risk for lung cancer among workers exposed to BZ/BNA occupationally. Methods/design Studies will be identified by a MEDLINE, EMBASE, CDSR, and CINAHL search and by the reference lists of articles/relevant reviews. Eligible studies will be cohort and case-control studies that report occupational BZ/BNA exposure and the outcome of interest (lung cancer death/incidence). The method of meta-analysis will be used to combine standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and/or standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) from retrospective and prospective cohort studies and odds ratios (ORs) from case-control studies. Two reviewers will independently screen articles, extract data, and assess scientific quality using standardized forms and published quality assessment tools tailored for each study design. Overall pooled risk estimates and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) will be obtained using random effects model. This systematic review and meta-analysis will be conducted following the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines, and results will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Discussion This review will identify and synthesize studies of the association between occupational BZ/BNA exposure and lung cancer. The findings will help to identify whether BZ/BNA could cause lung cancer and might indicate whether workers with exposure to BZ/BNA have a need for preventive measures against non-urological cancer besides bladder cancer. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014010250 PMID:25281283

  17. Job Strain as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes: A Pooled Analysis of 124,808 Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Fransson, Eleonor I.; Heikkilä, Katriina; Ahola, Kirsi; Alfredsson, Lars; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Dragano, Nico; Goldberg, Marcel; Hamer, Mark; Jokela, Markus; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Koskinen, Aki; Kouvonen, Anne; Leineweber, Constanze; Madsen, Ida E.H.; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Marmot, Michael G.; Nielsen, Martin L.; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H.; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Siegrist, Johannes; Steptoe, Andrew; Suominen, Sakari; Theorell, Töres; Väänänen, Ari; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Westerholm, Peter J.M.; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Batty, G. David; Brunner, Eric J.; Ferrie, Jane E.; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The status of psychosocial stress at work as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes is unclear because existing evidence is based on small studies and is subject to confounding by lifestyle factors, such as obesity and physical inactivity. This collaborative study examined whether stress at work, defined as “job strain,” is associated with incident type 2 diabetes independent of lifestyle factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We extracted individual-level data for 124,808 diabetes-free adults from 13 European cohort studies participating in the IPD-Work Consortium. We measured job strain with baseline questionnaires. Incident type 2 diabetes at follow-up was ascertained using national health registers, clinical screening, and self-reports. We analyzed data for each study using Cox regression and pooled the study-specific estimates in fixed-effect meta-analyses. RESULTS There were 3,703 cases of incident diabetes during a mean follow-up of 10.3 years. After adjustment for age, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES), the hazard ratio (HR) for job strain compared with no job strain was 1.15 (95% CI 1.06–1.25) with no difference between men and women (1.19 [1.06–1.34] and 1.13 [1.00–1.28], respectively). In stratified analyses, job strain was associated with an increased risk of diabetes among those with healthy and unhealthy lifestyle habits. In a multivariable model adjusted for age, sex, SES, and lifestyle habits, the HR was 1.11 (1.00–1.23). CONCLUSIONS Findings from a large pan-European dataset suggest that job strain is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in men and women independent of lifestyle factors. PMID:25061139

  18. Association between CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 Polymorphisms and Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi-Zhong; Xie, Jian-Jun; Wang, Wei; Du, Ya-Ping; Chen, Yu; Si, Hui-Qiang; Liu, Qing; Wu, Li-Xia; Wei, Wu

    2014-01-01

    Background The previous published data on the association between CYP1A2*F (rs762551), CYP1B1 Leu432Val (rs1056836), Asn453Ser (rs180040), and Arg48Gly (rs10012) polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk remained controversial. Methodology/Principal Findings The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of CYP1A2*F, CYP1B1 Leu432Val, Asn453Ser, and Arg48Gly genotypes in colorectal cancer susceptibility. We performed a meta-analysis on all the eligible studies that provided 5,817 cases and 6,544 controls for CYP1A2*F (from 13 studies), 9219 cases and 10406 controls for CYP1B1 Leu432Val (from 12 studies), 6840 cases and 7761 controls for CYP1B1 Asn453Ser (from 8 studies), and 4302 cases and 4791 controls for CYP1B1Arg48Gly (from 6 studies). Overall, no significant association was found between CYP1A2*F, CYP1B1 Leu432Val, Asn453Ser, and Arg48Gly and colorectal cancer risk when all the eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis. And in the subgroup by ethnicity and source of controls, no evidence of significant association was observed in any subgroup analysis. Conclusions/Significance In summary, this meta-analysis indicates that CYP1A2*F, CYP1B1 Leu432Val, Asn453Ser, and Arg48Gly polymorphisms do not support an association with colorectal cancer, and further studies are needed to investigate the association. In addition, our work also points out the importance of new studies for CYP1A2*F polymorphism in Asians, because high heterogeneity was found (dominant model: I2?=?81.3%; heterozygote model: I2?=?79.0). PMID:25115775

  19. Burden of Total and Cause-Specific Mortality Related to Tobacco Smoking among Adults Aged ?45 Years in Asia: A Pooled Analysis of 21 Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei; McLerran, Dale F.; Rolland, Betsy A.; Fu, Zhenming; Boffetta, Paolo; He, Jiang; Gupta, Prakash Chandra; Ramadas, Kunnambath; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Irie, Fujiko; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Gao, Yu-Tang; Koh, Woon-Puay; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ozasa, Kotaro; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Ichiro; Tanaka, Hideo; Chen, Chien-Jen; Yuan, Jian-Min; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Yoo, Keun-Young; Ahsan, Habibul; Pan, Wen-Harn; Qiao, You-Lin; Gu, Dongfeng; Pednekar, Mangesh Suryakant; Sauvaget, Catherine; Sawada, Norie; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Yang, Gong; Wang, Renwei; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Ohishi, Waka; Kakizaki, Masako; Watanabe, Takashi; Oze, Isao; You, San-Lin; Sugawara, Yumi; Butler, Lesley M.; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Park, Sue K.; Parvez, Faruque; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Fan, Jin-Hu; Shen, Chen-Yang; Chen, Yu; Grant, Eric J.; Lee, Jung Eun; Sinha, Rashmi; Matsuo, Keitaro; Thornquist, Mark; Inoue, Manami; Feng, Ziding; Kang, Daehee; Potter, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for many diseases. We sought to quantify the burden of tobacco-smoking-related deaths in Asia, in parts of which men's smoking prevalence is among the world's highest. Methods and Findings We performed pooled analyses of data from 1,049,929 participants in 21 cohorts in Asia to quantify the risks of total and cause-specific mortality associated with tobacco smoking using adjusted hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. We then estimated smoking-related deaths among adults aged ?45 y in 2004 in Bangladesh, India, mainland China, Japan, Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan—accounting for ?71% of Asia's total population. An approximately 1.44-fold (95% CI?=?1.37–1.51) and 1.48-fold (1.38–1.58) elevated risk of death from any cause was found in male and female ever-smokers, respectively. In 2004, active tobacco smoking accounted for approximately 15.8% (95% CI?=?14.3%–17.2%) and 3.3% (2.6%–4.0%) of deaths, respectively, in men and women aged ?45 y in the seven countries/regions combined, with a total number of estimated deaths of ?1,575,500 (95% CI?=?1,398,000–1,744,700). Among men, approximately 11.4%, 30.5%, and 19.8% of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and respiratory diseases, respectively, were attributable to tobacco smoking. Corresponding proportions for East Asian women were 3.7%, 4.6%, and 1.7%, respectively. The strongest association with tobacco smoking was found for lung cancer: a 3- to 4-fold elevated risk, accounting for 60.5% and 16.7% of lung cancer deaths, respectively, in Asian men and East Asian women aged ?45 y. Conclusions Tobacco smoking is associated with a substantially elevated risk of mortality, accounting for approximately 2 million deaths in adults aged ?45 y throughout Asia in 2004. It is likely that smoking-related deaths in Asia will continue to rise over the next few decades if no effective smoking control programs are implemented. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24756146

  20. The Impact of Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 on Prognosis and Clinicopathology of Breast Cancer Patients: A Systematic Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiping; Wang, Xiaochen; Chen, Guodi; Dong, Caixia; Zhang, Depu

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) plays a crucial role in the progression of breast cancer (BC). The prognostic role of MMP-2 expression in BC patients has been widely reported, but the results were inconsistent. Thus, a meta-analysis was conducted to gain a better insight into the impact of MMP-2 expression on survival and clinicopathological features of BC patients. Methods Identical search strategies were used to search relevant literatures in electronic databases update to August 1, 2014. Individual hazard ratios (HRs) and odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted and pooled to evaluate the strength of the association between positive MMP-2 expression and survival results and clinicopathological features of BC patients. Begg’s tests, Egger’s tests and funnel plots were used to evaluate publication bias. Heterogeneity and sensitivity analysis were also assessed. All the work was completed using STATA. Results Pooled HRs and 95% CIs suggested that MMP-2 expression had an unfavorable impact on both OS (HR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.29–1.82) and DFS/RFS/DDFS (HR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.07–1.86) in BC patients. Furthermore, MMP-2 expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (positive vs negative: OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.17–3.12). Conclusion In conclusion, positive MMP-2 expression might be a significant predictive factor for poor prognosis in patients with BC. PMID:25816052

  1. In Vivo Risk Analysis of Pancreatic Cancer Through Optical Characterization of Duodenal Mucosa

    E-print Network

    Hartline, Jason D.

    In Vivo Risk Analysis of Pancreatic Cancer Through Optical Characterization of Duodenal Mucosa,§ and Vadim Backman, PhD* Objectives: To reduce pancreatic cancer mortality, a paradigm shift in cancer) spectroscopy to predict the presence of pancreatic cancer by interrogating the duodenal mucosa. A previous ex

  2. A historical discourse analysis of the cancerous and non-cancerous body in secondary biology textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Neil Thomas

    This dissertation applies the archeological concepts developed by Michel Foucault to a study of thirteen biology textbooks (1993-2004) in order to develop an understanding of 'purchased truths' concerning cancer. This study focuses on the construction of the health/illness dialogue concerning cancer within the textbooks and not the meaning that the individual makes from reading the text; as such this study concerns itself with social truths rather than the search for an individual awareness of names, dates, or places. This study investigates the practices that allow the creation of dialogues that are inserted into a biology textbook and looks at how discursive formations create the 'truth regime' from which the biology textbook is said to speak. Using the Foucaultian themes of 'event', 'emergence', 'enunciation', and 'exteriority' a new reading of topics concerning cancer emerge from biology textbooks. Cancer is a disease that will impact the lives of countless individuals but coverage devoted to the pathology of cancer in secondary biology textbooks is very limited and no study textbook devoted a whole chapter to the discussion of cancer. There is an identified reduction in the number of pages and depth of coverage devoted to cancer in the newer biology texts compared to the older texts. Humans are pictured more than plants or animals in presentations concerning cancer with emphasis being placed on the digitalization of human cells via the scanning electron microscope. When the whole body is presented it is seldom located within the technology of disease diagnosis and treatment but rather is posed for specific social control. Just as each digitized picture of the cancerous cell in the texts is used to create a story so too are the pictures of the whole body in action. Possible story lines offered by the publishing houses concerning the reaction of the body to cancer are shown to intermingle with risk factor analysis to project a sense of Foucaultian 'governmentality' based on assumed control and self regulation by the informed reader. In conclusion a procedure is suggested to further analyze additional textbooks concerning biological/educational issues that have been recast as social problems.

  3. Benefit, risk, and optimization by ROC analysis in cancer radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.R.

    1985-08-01

    The objective of definitive cancer radiation therapy is cure or control. The attainment of that objective is not without risk of treatment-induced radiation injury. The optimum treatment is, therefore, that level of radiotherapeutic effect with the maximum probability of benefit and the minimum associated probability of injury. An objective of radiotherapy research is the formulation of a model of optimization that is independent of a consensus of what constitutes optimization. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is such a model, for it can relate probabilities of benefit and injury yielding a graphical determination of the optimum level of radiotherapeutic effect. ROC analysis is explained, an example taken from the contemporary radiotherapy literature is presented, and clinical research requirements for a general application of ROC analysis to the optimization of definitive cancer radiotherapy are developed.

  4. Functional and genetic analysis of the colon cancer network

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease that has proven to be difficult to understand on the single-gene level. For this reason a functional elucidation needs to take interactions among genes on a systems-level into account. In this study, we infer a colon cancer network from a large-scale gene expression data set by using the method BC3Net. We provide a structural and a functional analysis of this network and also connect its molecular interaction structure with the chromosomal locations of the genes enabling the definition of cis- and trans-interactions. Furthermore, we investigate the interaction of genes that can be found in close neighborhoods on the chromosomes to gain insight into regulatory mechanisms. To our knowledge this is the first study analyzing the genome-scale colon cancer network. PMID:25079297

  5. Quantitative DNA Methylation Analysis of Candidate Genes in Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Erin M.; Riggs, Bridget M.; Delmas, Amber L.; Koch, Abby; Hakam, Ardeshir; Brown, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2). A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site) per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC) of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97–1.00, p-value = 0.003). Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated. PMID:25826459

  6. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of candidate genes in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Erin M; Riggs, Bridget M; Delmas, Amber L; Koch, Abby; Hakam, Ardeshir; Brown, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2). A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site) per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC) of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00, p-value = 0.003). Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated. PMID:25826459

  7. Additive Synergism between Asbestos and Smoking in Lung Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ngamwong, Yuwadee; Tangamornsuksan, Wimonchat; Lohitnavy, Ornrat; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Scholfield, C. Norman; Reisfeld, Brad; Lohitnavy, Manupat

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and asbestos exposure are important risks for lung cancer. Several epidemiological studies have linked asbestos exposure and smoking to lung cancer. To reconcile and unify these results, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide a quantitative estimate of the increased risk of lung cancer associated with asbestos exposure and cigarette smoking and to classify their interaction. Five electronic databases were searched from inception to May, 2015 for observational studies on lung cancer. All case-control (N = 10) and cohort (N = 7) studies were included in the analysis. We calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs), relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects model for the association of asbestos exposure and smoking with lung cancer. Lung cancer patients who were not exposed to asbestos and non-smoking (A-S-) were compared with; (i) asbestos-exposed and non-smoking (A+S-), (ii) non-exposure to asbestos and smoking (A-S+), and (iii) asbestos-exposed and smoking (A+S+). Our meta-analysis showed a significant difference in risk of developing lung cancer among asbestos exposed and/or smoking workers compared to controls (A-S-), odds ratios for the disease (95% CI) were (i) 1.70 (A+S-, 1.31–2.21), (ii) 5.65; (A-S+, 3.38–9.42), (iii) 8.70 (A+S+, 5.8–13.10). The additive interaction index of synergy was 1.44 (95% CI = 1.26–1.77) and the multiplicative index = 0.91 (95% CI = 0.63–1.30). Corresponding values for cohort studies were 1.11 (95% CI = 1.00–1.28) and 0.51 (95% CI = 0.31–0.85). Our results point to an additive synergism for lung cancer with co-exposure of asbestos and cigarette smoking. Assessments of industrial health risks should take smoking and other airborne health risks when setting occupational asbestos exposure limits. PMID:26274395

  8. Genomic expression profiling and bioinformatics analysis of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    HAN, DONG-YAN; FU, DA; XI, HAO; LI, QIAN-YU; FENG, LI-JIN; ZHANG, WEI; JI, GUO; XIAO, JIA-CHENG; WEI, QING

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a polygenic disease and the fourth leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide; however, the tumorigenesis of pancreatic cancer remains poorly understood. Research at a molecular level, which includes the exploration of biomarkers for early diagnosis and specific targets for therapy, may effectively aid in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer in its early stages and in the development of targeted molecular-biological approaches for treatment, thus improving prognosis. By conducting expression profiling in para-carcinoma, carcinoma and relapse of human pancreatic tissues, 319 genes or transcripts with differential expression levels >3-fold between these tissue types were identified. Further analysis with Gene Ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes demonstrated that the translation, nucleus assembly processes and molecular functions associated with vitamin B6 and pyridoxal phosphate binding in pancreatic carcinoma were abnormal. Pancreatic cancer was additionally identified to be closely associated with certain autoimmune diseases, including type I diabetes mellitus and systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:26062681

  9. Depression and cancer mortality: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pinquart, M.; Duberstein, P. R.

    2010-01-01

    Background The goal of the present study was to analyze associations between depression and mortality of cancer patients and to test whether these associations would vary by study characteristics. Method Meta-analysis was used for integrating the results of 105 samples derived from 76 prospective studies. Results Depression diagnosis and higher levels of depressive symptoms predicted elevated mortality. This was true in studies that assessed depression before cancer diagnosis as well as in studies that assessed depression following cancer diagnosis. Associations between depression and mortality persisted after controlling for confounding medical variables. The depression–mortality association was weaker in studies that had longer intervals between assessments of depression and mortality, in younger samples and in studies that used the Beck Depression Inventory as compared with other depression scales. Conclusions Screening for depression should be routinely conducted in the cancer treatment setting. Referrals to mental health specialists should be considered. Research is needed on whether the treatment of depression could, beyond enhancing quality of life, extend survival of depressed cancer patients. PMID:20085667

  10. Genomic expression profiling and bioinformatics analysis of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Han, Dong-Yan; Fu, Da; Xi, Hao; Li, Qian-Yu; Feng, Li-Jin; Zhang, Wei; Ji, Guo; Xiao, Jia-Cheng; Wei, Qing

    2015-09-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a polygenic disease and the fourth leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide; however, the tumorigenesis of pancreatic cancer remains poorly understood. Research at a molecular level, which includes the exploration of biomarkers for early diagnosis and specific targets for therapy, may effectively aid in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer in its early stages and in the development of targeted molecular?biological approaches for treatment, thus improving prognosis. By conducting expression profiling in para?carcinoma, carcinoma and relapse of human pancreatic tissues, 319 genes or transcripts with differential expression levels >3?fold between these tissue types were identified. Further analysis with Gene Ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes demonstrated that the translation, nucleus assembly processes and molecular functions associated with vitamin B6 and pyridoxal phosphate binding in pancreatic carcinoma were abnormal. Pancreatic cancer was additionally identified to be closely associated with certain autoimmune diseases, including type I diabetes mellitus and systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:26062681

  11. Lack of an association between XRCC2 R188H polymorphisms and breast cancer: an update meta-analysis involving 35,422 subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Bin; Lv, Zhi-Dong; Chen, Li; Shen, Ruo-Wu; Jin, Li-Ying; Yang, Zhao-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Several studies have investigated the associations between XRCC2 R188H polymorphism and the susceptibility to breast cancer, but the results have been inconclusive. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed. Methods: PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) searches were carried out for relevant studies published before March 2015. Meta-analysis was performed with the Stata, version 11.0. Results: A total of 17 case-control studies, including 17,986 cases and 17,436 controls, were selected. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association in the homozygous model, dominant model, and recessive model. When all the studies were pooled into the meta-analysis, there was no evidence showing a significant association between XRCC2 R188H polymorphism and breast cancer risk (for homozygous model, OR=0.84, 95% CI=0.62-1.14; for dominant model: OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.53-1.09; and for recessive model: OR=1.04, 95% CI=0.98-1.10). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, no significant association was found between the polymorphism and breast cancer risk. Conclusions: In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicates that the XRCC2 R188H polymorphism is not a risk factor for developing of breast cancer.

  12. Clinical value of lncRNA MALAT1 as a prognostic marker in human cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiaoling; Xu, Guoxiong

    2015-01-01

    Background Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is found to be overexpressed and associated with clinicopathological features in patients with cancer. Objectives To evaluate the clinical value of MALAT1 as a prognostic marker in human cancers by a comprehensive meta-analysis of published studies. Data sources The data on the prognostic impact of MALAT1 in cancer were collected from 11 September 2003 to 10 July 2015. Setting and participants Fourteen eligible studies with a total of 1373 patients conducted in 3 countries (9 in China, 3 in Japan and 2 in Germany) were matched to our inclusion criteria. Outcome measures Pooled HRs with 95% CIs were calculated to estimate the strength of the link between MALAT1 and clinical prognoses. The combined HRs heterogeneity was tested using a ?2-based Cochran Q test and Higgins I2 statistic. Publication bias was evaluated using a funnel plot with Egger's bias indicator test. Results A significant association between MALAT1 overexpression and poor overall survival (OS) (HR=1.95; 95% CI 1.57 to 2.41) was observed. Residence region (Germany and China), cancer type (respiratory, digestive or other system disease), sample size and paper quality did not alter the predictive value of MALAT1 on OS in investigated cancers. MALAT1 expression was an independent prognostic marker for OS in patients with cancer using univariate and multivariate analyses. Subgroup analysis showed that the elevated MALAT1 appeared to be a powerful prognostic marker for patients with respiratory, digestive and other system cancers. A similar effect was also seen in different regions. Furthermore, the overexpression of MALAT1 was associated with disease-free, recurrence-free and progression-free survivals. Conclusions MALAT1 may potentially be used as a new prognostic marker to predict poorer survival of patients with cancer. More clinical studies on the different types of human cancer not yet investigated need to be conducted. PMID:26423854

  13. Efficacy of extended release quetiapine fumarate monotherapy in patients with major depressive disorder: a pooled analysis of two 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies.

    PubMed

    Weisler, Richard H; Montgomery, Stuart A; Earley, Willie R; Szamosi, Johan; Lazarus, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Prospectively planned pooled analysis evaluating the efficacy of quetiapine extended release (XR) monotherapy in major depressive disorder (MDD). Data were pooled from two 6-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of quetiapine XR in outpatients with MDD. The primary endpoint was Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score change from randomization at week 6. Other evaluations were MADRS response/remission, Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, and subgroup analyses. A total of 968 patients were randomized to quetiapine XR, 150 mg/day (n=315), 300 mg/day (n=323), or placebo (n=330). The mean MADRS total score reductions from randomization were significant at week 6 with quetiapine XR, 150 mg/day (-14.7; P<0.001) and 300 mg/day (-14.7; P<0.001) versus placebo (-11.1), with significant reductions versus placebo from week 1 onward. Response rates (week 6): 52.7% (P<0.001) quetiapine XR 150 mg/day and 49.5% (P<0.001) quetiapine XR 300 mg/day versus placebo (33.0%). MADRS remission (score?8; week 6): 23.5% (P=0.208) quetiapine XR 150 mg/day and 28.8% (P<0.01) quetiapine XR 300 mg/day versus placebo (19.4%). Quetiapine XR (both doses) significantly improved eight of 10 MADRS items versus placebo at week 6. The therapeutic effect of quetiapine XR was neither limited to nor driven by factors such as sex, age, or severity of depression. In patients with MDD, quetiapine XR (150 and 300 mg/day) monotherapy reduced depressive symptoms, with significant improvements compared with placebo from week 1 onward. PMID:22027845

  14. Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis of Ovarian and Breast Cancer Tumor Peptidomes

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhe; Wu, Chaochao; Xie, Fang; Slysz, Gordon W.; Tolic, Nikola; Monroe, Matthew E.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Payne, Samuel H.; Fujimoto, Grant M.; Moore, Ronald J.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Levine, Douglas; Townsend, Reid; Davies, Sherri; Li, Shunqiang; Ellis, Matthew; Boja, Emily; Rivers, Robert; Rodriguez, Henry; Rodland, Karin D.; Liu, Tao; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-01-02

    Aberrant degradation of proteins is associated with many pathological states, including cancers. Mass spectrometric analysis of tumor peptidomes, the intracellular and intercellular products of protein degradation, has the potential to provide biological insights on proteolytic processing in cancer. However, attempts to use the information on these smaller protein degradation products from tumors for biomarker discovery and cancer biology studies have been fairly limited to date, largely due to the lack of effective approaches for robust peptidomics identification and quantification, and the prevalence of confounding factors and biases associated with sample handling and processing. Herein, we have developed an effective and robust analytical platform for comprehensive analyses of tissue peptidomes, which is suitable for high throughput quantitative studies. The reproducibility and coverage of the platform, as well as the suitability of clinical ovarian tumor and patient-derived breast tumor xenograft samples with post-excision delay of up to 60 min before freezing for peptidomics analysis, have been demonstrated. Moreover, our data also show that the peptidomics profiles can effectively separate breast cancer subtypes, reflecting tumor-associated protease activities. Peptidomics complements results obtainable from conventional bottom-up proteomics, and provides insights not readily obtainable from such approaches.

  15. Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis of Ovarian and Breast Cancer Tumor Peptidomes

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhe; Wu, Chaochao; Xie, Fang; Slysz, Gordon W.; Tolic, Nikola; Monroe, Matthew E.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Payne, Samuel H.; Fujimoto, Grant M.; Moore, Ronald J.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Levine, Douglas; Townsend, Reid; Davies, Sherri; Li, Shunqiang; Ellis, Matthew; Boja, Emily; Rodriguez, Henry; Rodland, Karin D.; Liu, Tao; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant degradation of proteins is associated with many pathological states, including cancers. Mass spectrometric analysis of tumor peptidomes, the intracellular and intercellular products of protein degradation, has the potential to provide biological insights on proteolytic processing in cancer. However, attempts to use the information on these smaller protein degradation products from tumors for biomarker discovery and cancer biology studies have been fairly limited to date, largely due to the lack of effective approaches for robust peptidomics identification and quantification, and the prevalence of confounding factors and biases associated with sample handling and processing. Herein, we have developed an effective and robust analytical platform for comprehensive analyses of tissue peptidomes, and which is suitable for high throughput quantitative studies. The reproducibility and coverage of the platform, as well as the suitability of clinical ovarian tumor and patient-derived breast tumor xenograft samples with post-excision delay of up to 60 min before freezing for peptidomics analysis, have been demonstrated. Moreover, our data also show that the peptidomics profiles can effectively separate breast cancer subtypes, reflecting tumor-associated protease activities. Peptidomics complements results obtainable from conventional bottom-up proteomics, and provides insights not readily obtainable from such approaches.

  16. A novel analysis strategy for integrating methylation and expression data reveals core pathways for thyroid cancer aetiology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Recently, a wide range of diseases have been associated with changes in DNA methylation levels, which play a vital role in gene expression regulation. With ongoing developments in technology, attempts to understand disease mechanism have benefited greatly from epigenetics and transcriptomics studies. In this work, we have used expression and methylation data of thyroid carcinoma as a case study and explored how to optimally incorporate expression and methylation information into the disease study when both data are available. Moreover, we have also investigated whether there are important post-translational modifiers which could drive critical insights on thyroid cancer genetics. Results In this study, we have conducted a threshold analysis for varying methylation levels to identify whether setting a methylation level threshold increases the performance of functional enrichment. Moreover, in order to decide on best-performing analysis strategy, we have performed data integration analysis including comparison of 10 different analysis strategies. As a result, combining methylation with expression and using genes with more than 15% methylation change led to optimal detection rate of thyroid-cancer associated pathways in top 20 functional enrichment results. Furthermore, pooling the data from different experiments increased analysis confidence by improving the data range. Consequently, we have identified 207 transcription factors and 245 post-translational modifiers with more than 15% methylation change which may be important in understanding underlying mechanisms of thyroid cancer. Conclusion While only expression or only methylation information would not reveal both primary and secondary mechanisms involved in disease state, combining expression and methylation led to a better detection of thyroid cancer-related genes and pathways that are found in the recent literature. Moreover, focusing on genes that have certain level of methylation change improved the functional enrichment results, revealing the core pathways involved in disease development such as; endocytosis, apoptosis, glutamatergic synapse, MAPK, ErbB, TGF-beta and Toll-like receptor pathways. Overall, in addition to novel analysis framework, our study reveals important thyroid-cancer related mechanisms, secondary molecular alterations and contributes to better knowledge of thyroid cancer aetiology. PMID:26678064

  17. Polymorphisms in three obesity-related genes (LEP, LEPR, and PON1) and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chibo; Liu, Liu

    2011-12-01

    Common genetic variations in the leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR), and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genes have been considered to be implicated in the development of breast cancer. However, the results were inconsistent. In this study, a meta-analysis was performed to assess the associations of five polymorphisms, including LEP G2548A, LEPR Q223R, LEPR Lys109Arg, PON1 L55M, and PON1 Q192R polymorphisms, with breast cancer risk. Published literature from PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Embase databases, CNKI, and Wanfang Data were retrieved. All studies evaluating the association between LEP G2548A, LEPR Q223R, LEPR Lys109Arg, PON1 L55M, or PON1 Q192R polymorphism and breast cancer risk were included. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using fixed- or random-effects model. Three studies (2,003 cases and 1,967 controls) for LEP G2548A polymorphism, nine studies (4,627 cases and 5,476 controls) for LEPR Q223R polymorphism, five studies (2,759 cases and 2,573 controls) for LEPR Lys109Arg polymorphism, four studies (1,517 cases and 1,379 controls) for PON1 L55M polymorphism, and five studies (1,575 cases and 2,283 controls) for PON1 Q192R polymorphism were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, the results showed null significant association between LEP G2548A, LEPR Q223R, LEPR Lys109Arg, or PON1 Q192R polymorphism and breast cancer risk; however, PON1 L55M was significantly associated with breast cancer risk overall (MM vs. LL: OR?=?2.16; 95% CI, 1.76-2.66). For LEPR Q223R polymorphism, further subgroup analysis suggested that the association was only statistically significant in East Asians (OR?=?0.50; 95% CI, 0.36-0.70) but not in Caucasians (OR?=?1.06; 95% CI, 0.77-1.45) or Africans (OR?=?1.30; 95% CI, 0.83-2.03). The present meta-analysis suggested that LEPR Q223R polymorphism might be implicated in the development of breast cancer in East Asians; PON1 L55M might increase breast cancer risk. However, given the limited sample size, the findings warrant further investigation. PMID:21887553

  18. Weld pool phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.; Zacharia, T.; DebRoy, T.

    1994-09-01

    During welding, the composition, structure and properties of the welded structure are affected by the interaction of the heat source with the metal. The interaction affects the fluid flow, heat transfer and mass transfer in the weld pool, and the solidification behavior of the weld metal. In recent years, there has been a growing recognition of the importance of the weld pool transport processes and the solid state transformation reactions in determining the composition, structure and properties of the welded structure. The relation between the weld pool transport processes and the composition and structure is reviewed. Recent applications of various solidification theories to welding are examined to understand the special problems of weld metal solidification. The discussion is focussed on the important problems and issues related to weld pool transport phenomena and solidification. Resolution of these problems would be an important step towards a science based control of composition, structure and properties of the weld metal.

  19. Pools for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Three institutions in Ohio now stress hydrotherapy and water recreation as important parts of individual educational programs for the handicapped. Specially designed and adapted pools provide freedom of movement and ego building as well as physical education and recreation. (Author)

  20. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... acids in them, or breathes in their fumes. Chlorine, a chemical in swimming pool cleaners, is more ... Bromine Calcium chloride Calcium hypochlorite Chelated copper ... bisulfate, phosphoric acid, sodium thiosulfate, cyanuric acid)

  1. Swimming Pool Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the pool cover. Be aware that floating solar covers are not safety covers. Door alarms Doors ... Share Donate Contact Us About Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use Editorial Policy This site complies with ...

  2. An Empirical Test of Crisis, Social Selection, and Role Explanations of the Relationship between Marital Disruption and Psychological Distress: A Pooled Time-Series Analysis of Four-Wave Panel Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David R.; Wu, Jian

    2002-01-01

    Reviews three theoretical explanations (social role theory, crisis theory, social selection theory) for the reasons for psychological distress of divorced individuals. Evaluates the efficacy of these theories in a pooled analysis of married persons followed over 12 years. Results provide evidence that higher stress levels of the divorced primarily…

  3. Effects of diabetes definition on global surveillance of diabetes prevalence and diagnosis: a pooled analysis of 96 population-based studies with 331?288 participants

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Diabetes has been defined on the basis of different biomarkers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA1c. We assessed the effect of different diagnostic definitions on both the population prevalence of diabetes and the classification of previously undiagnosed individuals as having diabetes versus not having diabetes in a pooled analysis of data from population-based health examination surveys in different regions. Methods We used data from 96 population-based health examination surveys that had measured at least two of the biomarkers used for defining diabetes. Diabetes was defined using HbA1c (HbA1c ?6·5% or history of diabetes diagnosis or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs) compared with either FPG only or FPG-or-2hOGTT definitions (FPG ?7·0 mmol/L or 2hOGTT ?11·1 mmol/L or history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated diabetes prevalence, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights. We compared the prevalences of diabetes using different definitions graphically and by regression analyses. We calculated sensitivity and specificity of diabetes diagnosis based on HbA1c compared with diagnosis based on glucose among previously undiagnosed individuals (ie, excluding those with history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated sensitivity and specificity in each survey, and then pooled results using a random-effects model. We assessed the sources of heterogeneity of sensitivity by meta-regressions for study characteristics selected a priori. Findings Population prevalence of diabetes based on FPG-or-2hOGTT was correlated with prevalence based on FPG alone (r=0·98), but was higher by 2–6 percentage points at different prevalence levels. Prevalence based on HbA1c was lower than prevalence based on FPG in 42·8% of age–sex–survey groups and higher in another 41·6%; in the other 15·6%, the two definitions provided similar prevalence estimates. The variation across studies in the relation between glucose-based and HbA1c-based prevalences was partly related to participants' age, followed by natural logarithm of per person gross domestic product, the year of survey, mean BMI, and whether the survey population was national, subnational, or from specific communities. Diabetes defined as HbA1c 6·5% or more had a pooled sensitivity of 52·8% (95% CI 51·3–54·3%) and a pooled specificity of 99·74% (99·71–99·78%) compared with FPG 7·0 mmol/L or more for diagnosing previously undiagnosed participants; sensitivity compared with diabetes defined based on FPG-or-2hOGTT was 30·5% (28·7–32·3%). None of the preselected study-level characteristics explained the heterogeneity in the sensitivity of HbA1c versus FPG. Interpretation Different biomarkers and definitions for diabetes can provide different estimates of population prevalence of diabetes, and differentially identify people without previous diagnosis as having diabetes. Using an HbA1c-based definition alone in health surveys will not identify a substantial proportion of previously undiagnosed people who would be considered as having diabetes using a glucose-based test. Funding Wellcome Trust, US National Institutes of Health. PMID:26109024

  4. Pool size measurements facilitate the determination of fluxes at branching points in non-stationary metabolic flux analysis: the case of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Heise, Robert; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Stitt, Mark; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Pool size measurements are important for the estimation of absolute intracellular fluxes in particular scenarios based on data from heavy carbon isotope experiments. Recently, steady-state fluxes estimates were obtained for central carbon metabolism in an intact illuminated rosette of Arabidopsis thaliana grown photoautotrophically (Szecowka et al., 2013; Heise et al., 2014). Fluxes were estimated therein by integrating mass-spectrometric data of the dynamics of the unlabeled metabolic fraction, data on metabolic pool sizes, partitioning of metabolic pools between cellular compartments and estimates of photosynthetically inactive pools, with a simplified model of plant central carbon metabolism. However, the fluxes were determined by treating the pool sizes as fixed parameters. Here we investigated whether and, if so, to what extent the treatment of pool sizes as parameters to be optimized in three scenarios may affect the flux estimates. The results are discussed in terms of benchmark values for canonical pathways and reactions, including starch and sucrose synthesis as well as the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation and oxygenation reactions. In addition, we discuss pathways emerging from a divergent branch point for which pool sizes are required for flux estimation, irrespective of the computational approach used for the simulation of the observable labeling pattern. Therefore, our findings indicate the necessity for development of techniques for accurate pool size measurements to improve the quality of flux estimates from non-stationary flux estimates in intact plant cells in the absence of alternative flux measurements. PMID:26082786

  5. Frequently cited sources in cancer news coverage: a content analysis examining the relationship between cancer news content and source citation.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, Cortney M; Jensen, Jakob D; Stryker, Jo Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The media are a frequent and sometimes sole source of cancer information for many people. News coverage of cancer can be influential to cancer-related practices such as prevention or detection behaviors, and sources cited by journalists may be influential in shaping this coverage. A content analysis (n = 3,656 stories) revealed that the most frequently cited sources in cancer news articles-research institutions and medical journals-receive disproportionately more attention compared to the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the American Cancer Society (ACS), and pharmaceutical companies. Research institutions were cited twice as frequently as medical journals, and more than three times as frequently as pharmaceutical companies. Most clinical trial stories were optimistic or neutral in tone, and tone was significantly related to citations of pharmaceutical companies and medical journals. Implications for effects of cancer coverage on behaviors, and the influence of sources such as research institutions and pharmaceutical companies, are discussed. PMID:19784789

  6. Vitamin D with Calcium Reduces Mortality: Patient Level Pooled Analysis of 70,528 Patients from Eight Major Vitamin D Trials

    PubMed Central

    Avenell, Alison; Masud, Tahir; Anderson, Frazer; Meyer, Haakon E.; Sanders, Kerrie M.; Salovaara, Kari; Cooper, Cyrus; Smith, Helen E.; Jacobs, Elizabeth T.; Torgerson, David; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Brixen, Kim; Mosekilde, Leif; Robbins, John A.; Francis, Roger M.; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Vitamin D may affect multiple health outcomes. If so, an effect on mortality is to be expected. Using pooled data from randomized controlled trials, we performed individual patient data (IPD) and trial level meta-analyses to assess mortality among participants randomized to either vitamin D alone or vitamin D with calcium. Subjects and Methods: Through a systematic literature search, we identified 24 randomized controlled trials reporting data on mortality in which vitamin D was given either alone or with calcium. From a total of 13 trials with more than 1000 participants each, eight trials were included in our IPD analysis. Using a stratified Cox regression model, we calculated risk of death during 3 yr of treatment in an intention-to-treat analysis. Also, we performed a trial level meta-analysis including data from all studies. Results: The IPD analysis yielded data on 70,528 randomized participants (86.8% females) with a median age of 70 (interquartile range, 62–77) yr. Vitamin D with or without calcium reduced mortality by 7% [hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.88–0.99]. However, vitamin D alone did not affect mortality, but risk of death was reduced if vitamin D was given with calcium (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84–0.98). The number needed to treat with vitamin D plus calcium for 3 yr to prevent one death was 151. Trial level meta-analysis (24 trials with 88,097 participants) showed similar results, i.e. mortality was reduced with vitamin D plus calcium (odds ratio, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.88–0.99), but not with vitamin D alone (odds ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.91–1.06). Conclusion: Vitamin D with calcium reduces mortality in the elderly, whereas available data do not support an effect of vitamin D alone. PMID:22605432

  7. Attitudinal barriers to participation in oncology clinical trials: factor analysis | accrualnet.cancer.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Manne S,Kashy D,Albrecht T,Wong Y-N,Lederman Flamm A,Benson, III AB,Miller SM,Fleisher L,Buzaglo J,Roach N,Katz M,Ross E,Collins M,Poole D,Raivitch S,Miller DM,Kinzy TG,Liu T,Meropol NJ. European J of Cancer Care. 2014 Jan 28.

  8. Genome sequencing and phenotypic analysis of single cells in cancer

    E-print Network

    Adalsteinsson, Viktor Arnarson

    2015-01-01

    Relatively little is known about metastatic cancer. The vast majority of cancer genome profiling (~99%) is done on primary tumors; yet, metastatic cancer is attributed to >90% of cancer-related deaths. The underlying ...

  9. Learning Dysregulated Pathways in Cancers from Differential Variability Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Afsari, Bahman; Geman, Donald; Fertig, Elana J

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of gene sets can implicate activity in signaling pathways that is responsible for cancer initiation and progression, but is not discernible from the analysis of individual genes. Multiple methods and software packages have been developed to infer pathway activity from expression measurements for set of genes targeted by that pathway. Broadly, three major methodologies have been proposed: over-representation, enrichment, and differential variability. Both over-representation and enrichment analyses are effective techniques to infer differentially regulated pathways from gene sets with relatively consistent differentially expressed (DE) genes. Specifically, these algorithms aggregate statistics from each gene in the pathway. However, they overlook multivariate patterns related to gene interactions and variations in expression. Therefore, the analysis of differential variability of multigene expression patterns can be essential to pathway inference in cancers. The corresponding methodologies and software packages for such multivariate variability analysis of pathways are reviewed here. We also introduce a new, computationally efficient algorithm, expression variation analysis (EVA), which has been implemented along with a previously proposed algorithm, Differential Rank Conservation (DIRAC), in an open source R package, gene set regulation (GSReg). EVA inferred similar pathways as DIRAC at reduced computational costs. Moreover, EVA also inferred different dysregulated pathways than those identified by enrichment analysis. PMID:25392694

  10. Association of Dietary Vitamin A and ?-Carotene Intake with the Risk of Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of 19 Publications.

    PubMed

    Yu, Na; Su, Xinming; Wang, Zanfeng; Dai, Bing; Kang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Whether dietary ?-carotene and vitamin A intake protect against lung cancer risk is not clear. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to investigate the association between them. The related articles were searched using the databases PubMed and the Web of Knowledge up to May 2015. We used the random-effect model to estimate the relative risk (RR) and their 95% CI. Small-study effect was assessed using Egger's test. In total, 19 studies comprising 10,261 lung cancer cases met the inclusion criteria. The pooled RR and their 95% CI was 0.855 (0.739-0.989) for higher category of dietary vitamin A intake and lung cancer risk, especially among Asian populations and in the cohort studies. Evidence from 18 studies suggested that higher category of dietary ?-carotene intake could reduce lung cancer risk (0.768 (0.675-0.874)).The associations were also significant in American and Asian populations. In conclusions, higher category of dietary ?-carotene and vitamin A intakes could reduce the risk of lung cancer. However, the dose-response analysis was not performed due to the limited data in each individual study. Due to this limitation, further studies with detailed dose, cases and person-years for ?-carotene and vitamin A of each category are wanted to assess this dose-response association. PMID:26569298

  11. Association of Dietary Vitamin A and ?-Carotene Intake with the Risk of Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of 19 Publications

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Na; Su, Xinming; Wang, Zanfeng; Dai, Bing; Kang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Whether dietary ?-carotene and vitamin A intake protect against lung cancer risk is not clear. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to investigate the association between them. The related articles were searched using the databases PubMed and the Web of Knowledge up to May 2015. We used the random-effect model to estimate the relative risk (RR) and their 95% CI. Small-study effect was assessed using Egger’s test. In total, 19 studies comprising 10,261 lung cancer cases met the inclusion criteria. The pooled RR and their 95% CI was 0.855 (0.739–0.989) for higher category of dietary vitamin A intake and lung cancer risk, especially among Asian populations and in the cohort studies. Evidence from 18 studies suggested that higher category of dietary ?-carotene intake could reduce lung cancer risk (0.768 (0.675–0.874)).The associations were also significant in American and Asian populations. In conclusions, higher category of dietary ?-carotene and vitamin A intakes could reduce the risk of lung cancer. However, the dose-response analysis was not performed due to the limited data in each individual study. Due to this limitation, further studies with detailed dose, cases and person-years for ?-carotene and vitamin A of each category are wanted to assess this dose-response association. PMID:26569298

  12. Soy Intake Is Associated With Lower Endometrial Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Chen, Jin-Liang; Liu, Qin; Zhang, Yong; Zeng, Huan; Zhao, Yong

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies reporting the effect of soy intake on endometrial cancer risk conveyed conflicting results. We systematically reviewed the literature to investigate whether there was an inverse relation between dietary soy intake and endometrial cancer risk.PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and 4 main Chinese literature databases were searched from their inception to August 25, 2015 for both case-control studies and cohort studies that assessed the effect of soy intake on endometrial cancer risk. Study-specific most-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) or relative risks (RRs) were combined by using fixed-effects or random-effects model to calculate pooled risk estimates (REs).A total of 10 epidemiologic studies were included in this meta-analysis, including 8 case-control studies and 2 prospective cohort studies. Dietary soy intake was inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk with an overall RE of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.91). In subgroup analyses, a statistically significant protective effect of soy intake was found for unfermented soy food (RE: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.67, 0.97), postmenopausal women (RE: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.95), and Asian (RE: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.95) and non-Asian population (RE: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.71, 0.96).Current evidence indicates that soy food intake is associated with lower endometrial cancer risk. Further larger cohort studies are warranted to fully clarify such an association. PMID:26683956

  13. One-Carbon Metabolic Factors and Risk of Renal Cell Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Bijing; Li, Yafei; Zhang, Zhimin; Chen, Chuan; Chen, Yuanyuan; Ding, Chenchen; Lei, Lin; Li, Jian; Jiang, Mei; Wang, Dong; Wang, Ge

    2015-01-01

    Background Nutrients related to one-carbon metabolism were previously shown to be significantly associated with the risk of cancer. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate potential relationships between one-carbon metabolic factors and renal cell cancer (RCC) risk. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched through March 2015 for observational studies of quantitative RCC risk estimates in relation to one-carbon metabolic factors. The relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) measured the relationship between one-carbon metabolic factors and RCC risk using a random-effects model. Results Of the 463 citations and abstracts identified by database search, seven cohorts from five observational studies reported data on 133,995 individuals, and included 2,441 RCC cases. Comparing the highest with the lowest category, the pooled RRs of RCC were 0.72 (95%CI: 0.52–1.00; P = 0.048) for vitamin B12. In addition, an increase in folic acid supplementation of 100 ?g/day was associated with a 3% lower risk of RCC (RR, 0.97; 95%CI: 0.93–1.00; P = 0.048). Similarly, an increase of 5 nmol/L of vitamin B2 was associated with a reduced risk of RCC 0.94 (95%CI: 0.89–1.00; P = 0.045). Sensitivity analyses suggested that a higher serum vitamin B6 might contribute to a reduced risk of RCC (RR, 0.83; 95%CI: 0.77–0.89; P < 0.001). Conclusions Higher levels of serum vitamin B2, B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation lowered the risk of RCC among the study participants. PMID:26513161

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in gallbladder cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Annunziata, Salvatore; Pizzuto, Daniele Antonio; Caldarella, Carmelo; Galiandro, Federica; Sadeghi, Ramin; Treglia, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To meta-analyze published data about the diagnostic accuracy of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the evaluation of primary tumor in patients with gallbladder cancer (GBCa). METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of studies published through 30th June 2014 regarding the role of 18F-FDG PET and PET/CT in the evaluation of primary gallbladder cancer (GBCa) was performed. All retrieved studies were reviewed. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of 18F-FDG PET or PET/CT in the evaluation of primary GBCa were calculated. The area under the summary receiving operator characteristics curve (AUC) was calculated to measure the accuracy of these methods. Sub-analyses considering the device used (PET vs PET/CT) were carried out. RESULTS: Twenty-one studies comprising 495 patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET or PET/CT for suspicious GBCa were selected for the systematic review. The meta-analysis of 13 selected studies provided the following results: sensitivity 87% (95%CI: 82%-92%), specificity 78% (95%CI: 68%-86%). The AUC was 0.88. Improvement of sensitivity and specificity was observed when PET/CT was used. CONCLUSION: 18F-FDG-PET and PET/CT demonstrated to be useful diagnostic imaging methods in the assessment of primary tumor in GBCa patients, nevertheless possible sources of false-negative and false-positive results should be kept in mind. PET/CT seems to have a better diagnostic accuracy than PET alone in this setting. PMID:26523112

  15. Integrated Proteomic and Genomic Analysis of Gastric Cancer Patient Tissues.

    PubMed

    Yan, Julia Fangfei; Kim, Hoguen; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Lee, Hyoung-Joo; Sethi, Manveen K; Lee, Ling Y; Beavis, Ronald C; Im, Hogune; Snyder, Michael P; Hofree, Matan; Ideker, Trey; Wu, Shiaw-Lin; Paik, Young-Ki; Fanayan, Susan; Hancock, William S

    2015-12-01

    V-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homologue 2, known as ERBB2, is an important oncogene in the development of certain cancers. It can form a heterodimer with other epidermal growth factor receptor family members and activate kinase-mediated downstream signaling pathways. ERBB2 gene is located on chromosome 17 and is amplified in a subset of cancers, such as breast, gastric, and colon cancer. Of particular interest to the Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP) initiative is the amplification mechanism that typically results in overexpression of a set of genes adjacent to ERBB2, which provides evidence of a linkage between gene location and expression. In this report we studied patient samples from ERBB2-positive together with adjacent control nontumor tissues. In addition, non-ERBB2-expressing patient samples were selected as comparison to study the effect of expression of this oncogene. We detected 196 proteins in ERBB2-positive patient tumor samples that had minimal overlap (29 proteins) with the non-ERBB2 tumor samples. Interaction and pathway analysis identified extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) cascade and actin polymerization and actinmyosin assembly contraction as pathways of importance in ERBB2+ and ERBB2- gastric cancer samples, respectively. The raw data files are deposited at ProteomeXchange (identifier: PXD002674) as well as GPMDB. PMID:26435392

  16. The Energy Landscape Analysis of Cancer Mutations in Protein Kinases

    E-print Network

    Dixit, Anshuman; Verkhivker, Gennady M.

    2011-10-06

    stream_size 85787 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Dixit2011b.pdf.txt stream_source_info Dixit2011b.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 The Energy Landscape Analysis of Cancer... (Figure 1B). We focused then on the local frustration analysis performed for a subset of protein kinase genes (ABL, EGFR, BTK, KIT, BRAF, MET, and RET) that account for the vast majority of highly oncogenic mutations in the catalytic domain (Table S2...

  17. Vernal Pool Lessons and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Nancy; Colburn, Betsy

    This curriculum guide accompanies Certified: A Citizen's Step-by-Step Guide to Protecting Vernal Pools which is designed to train volunteers in the process of identifying vernal pool habitat so that as many of these pools as possible can be certified by the Massachusetts Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program. Vernal pools are a kind of…

  18. Tidal Pool on Folly Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A tidal pool on Folly Island. Tidal pools are small pools of water that are left when the tide recedes. Because these pools have water more or less permanently, distinct ecosystems can develop separate from the surrounding beach. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is a...

  19. Molten Pool Coolability: COMECO Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Konovalikhin, M.J.; Karbojian, A.; Sehgal, B.R.

    2002-07-01

    A series of experiments, named COMECO (Corium Melt Coolability) were conducted at RIT (Royal Institute of Technology) in which molten core pools were quenched by establishing a water layer onto the top of the molten pool and by injection of water from the bottom delivered through a downcomer from the water overlayer. For this experimental program the following approach was adopted. We reasoned that since water addition from the bottom has been shown to be a more efficient mode of cooling in the DECOBI (Paladino, 1999) and in the COMET (Alsmeyer, 1998) experiments for melt coolability, water should be channeled to the bottom of the debris bed, with a downcomer,, to accelerate the coolability process. The primary objective was to obtain data, which will provide a phenomenological basis for assessing the improvement in the coolability of a core melt pool by provision of down-comers as well as steam generation rate from the interactions between core debris and water. This paper summarizes the experimental results along with related analysis. (authors)

  20. A pooled analysis of overall survival in COMFORT-I and COMFORT-II, 2 randomized phase III trials of ruxolitinib for the treatment of myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques; Gotlib, Jason; Cervantes, Francisco; Mesa, Ruben A; Sarlis, Nicholas J; Peng, Wei; Sandor, Victor; Gopalakrishna, Prashanth; Hmissi, Abdel; Stalbovskaya, Viktoriya; Gupta, Vikas; Harrison, Claire; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2015-09-01

    Ruxolitinib, a potent Janus kinase 1/2 inhibitor, resulted in rapid and durable improvements in splenomegaly and disease-related symptoms in the 2 phase III COMFORT studies. In addition, ruxolitinib was associated with prolonged survival compared with placebo (COMFORT-I) and best available therapy (COMFORT-II). We present a pooled analysis of overall survival in the COMFORT studies using an intent-to-treat analysis and an analysis correcting for crossover in the control arms. Overall, 301 patients received ruxolitinib (COMFORT-I, n=155; COMFORT-II, n=146) and 227 patients received placebo (n=154) or best available therapy (n=73). After a median three years of follow up, intent-to-treat analysis showed that patients who received ruxolitinib had prolonged survival compared with patients who received placebo or best available therapy [hazard ratio=0.65; 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 0.46-0.90; P=0.01]; the crossover-corrected hazard ratio was 0.29 (95%CI: 0.13-0.63). Both patients with intermediate-2- or high-risk disease showed prolonged survival, and patients with high-risk disease in the ruxolitinib group had survival similar to that of patients with intermediate-2-risk disease in the control group. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall survival at week 144 was 78% in the ruxolitinib arm, 61% in the intent-to-treat control arm, and 31% in the crossover-adjusted control arm. While larger spleen size at baseline was prognostic for shortened survival, reductions in spleen size with ruxolitinib treatment correlated with longer survival. These findings are consistent with previous reports and support that ruxolitinib offers a survival benefit for patients with myelofibrosis compared with conventional therapies. (clinicaltrials.gov identifiers: COMFORT-I, NCT00952289; COMFORT-II, NCT00934544). PMID:26069290

  1. Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... most common cause of cancer-related death is lung cancer. In the U.S., skin cancer is the most ... the three most common cancers are: Prostate cancer Lung cancer Colorectal cancer In U.S. women, other than skin ...

  2. Genotoxic Effects in Swimmers Exposed to Disinfection By-products in Indoor Swimming Pool

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water has been associated with cancer risk, and a recent study found an increased bladder cancer risk among subjects attending swimming pools. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether swimming in pools is associated with ...

  3. Comparative proteomics analysis of gastric cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Morisaki, Tamami; Yashiro, Masakazu; Kakehashi, Anna; Inagaki, Azusa; Kinoshita, Haruhito; Fukuoka, Tatsunari; Kasashima, Hiroaki; Masuda, Go; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Kubo, Naoshi; Muguruma, Kazuya; Ohira, Masaichi; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for cancer progression, metastasis, and recurrence. To date, the specific markers of CSCs remain undiscovered. The aim of this study was to identify novel biomarkers of gastric CSCs for clinical diagnosis using proteomics technology. CSC-like SP cells, OCUM-12/SP cells, OCUM-2MD3/SP cells, and their parent OCUM-12 cells and OCUM-2MD3 cells were used in this study. Protein lysates from each cell line were analyzed using QSTAR Elite Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry, coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation technology. Candidate proteins detected by proteomics technology were validated by immunohistochemical analysis of 300 gastric cancers. Based on the results of LC-MS/MS, eight proteins, including RBBP6, GLG1, VPS13A, DCTPP1, HSPA9, HSPA4, ALDOA, and KRT18, were up-regulated in both OCUM-12/SP cells and OCUM-2MD3/SP cells when compared to their corresponding parent cells. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the expression level of RBBP6, HSPA4, DCTPP1, HSPA9, VPS13A, ALDOA, GLG1, and CK18 was high in OCUM-12/SP and OCUM-2MD3/SP, in compared with the control of parent OCUM-12 and OCUM-2MD3. These proteins were significantly associated with advanced invasion depth, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, or advanced clinical stage. RBBP6, DCTPP1, HSPA4, and ALDOA expression in particular were significantly associated with a poor prognosis in the 300 gastric cancer patients. RBBP6 was determined to be an independent prognostic factor. The motility-stimulating ability of OCUM-12/SP cells and OCUM-2MD3/SP cells was inhibited by RBBP6 siRNA. These findings might suggest that the eight proteins, RBBP6, GLG1, VPS13A, DCTPP1, HSPA9, HSPA4, ALDOA, and KRT18, utilizing comparative proteomics analysis, were perceived to be potential CSC markers of gastric cancer. Of the eight candidate proteins, RBBP6 was suggested to be a promising prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target for gastric cancer. PMID:25379943

  4. Comparative Proteomics Analysis of Gastric Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Morisaki, Tamami; Yashiro, Masakazu; Kakehashi, Anna; Inagaki, Azusa; Kinoshita, Haruhito; Fukuoka, Tatsunari; Kasashima, Hiroaki; Masuda, Go; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Kubo, Naoshi; Muguruma, Kazuya; Ohira, Masaichi; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for cancer progression, metastasis, and recurrence. To date, the specific markers of CSCs remain undiscovered. The aim of this study was to identify novel biomarkers of gastric CSCs for clinical diagnosis using proteomics technology. CSC-like SP cells, OCUM-12/SP cells, OCUM-2MD3/SP cells, and their parent OCUM-12 cells and OCUM-2MD3 cells were used in this study. Protein lysates from each cell line were analyzed using QSTAR Elite Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry, coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation technology. Candidate proteins detected by proteomics technology were validated by immunohistochemical analysis of 300 gastric cancers. Based on the results of LC-MS/MS, eight proteins, including RBBP6, GLG1, VPS13A, DCTPP1, HSPA9, HSPA4, ALDOA, and KRT18, were up-regulated in both OCUM-12/SP cells and OCUM-2MD3/SP cells when compared to their corresponding parent cells. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the expression level of RBBP6, HSPA4, DCTPP1, HSPA9, VPS13A, ALDOA, GLG1, and CK18 was high in OCUM-12/SP and OCUM-2MD3/SP, in compared with the control of parent OCUM-12 and OCUM-2MD3. These proteins were significantly associated with advanced invasion depth, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, or advanced clinical stage. RBBP6, DCTPP1, HSPA4, and ALDOA expression in particular were significantly associated with a poor prognosis in the 300 gastric cancer patients. RBBP6 was determined to be an independent prognostic factor. The motility-stimulating ability of OCUM-12/SP cells and OCUM-2MD3/SP cells was inhibited by RBBP6 siRNA. These findings might suggest that the eight proteins, RBBP6, GLG1, VPS13A, DCTPP1, HSPA9, HSPA4, ALDOA, and KRT18, utilizing comparative proteomics analysis, were perceived to be potential CSC markers of gastric cancer. Of the eight candidate proteins, RBBP6 was suggested to be a promising prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target for gastric cancer. PMID:25379943

  5. Tea consumption and mortality of all cancers, CVD and all causes: a meta-analysis of eighteen prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jun; Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Fang, Ling; Jin, Yongxin; Cai, Wenwen; Li, Duo

    2015-09-14

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated inconsistent associations between tea consumption and mortality of all cancers, CVD and all causes. To obtain quantitative overall estimates, we conducted a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. A literature search in PubMed and Embase up to April 2015 was conducted for all relevant papers published. Random-effects models were used to calculate pooled relative risks (RR) with 95 % CI. In eighteen prospective studies, there were 12 221, 11 306 and 55 528 deaths from all cancers, CVD and all causes, respectively. For all cancer mortality, the summary RR for the highest v. lowest category of green tea and black tea consumption were 1·06 (95 % CI 0·98, 1·15) and 0·79 (95 % CI 0·65, 0·97), respectively. For CVD mortality, the summary RR for the highest v. lowest category of green tea and black tea consumption were 0·67 (95 % CI 0·46, 0·96) and 0·88 (95 % CI 0·77, 1·01), respectively. For all-cause mortality, the summary RR for the highest v. lowest category of green tea and black tea consumption were 0·80 (95 % CI 0·68, 0·93) and 0·90 (95 % CI 0·83, 0·98), respectively. The dose-response analysis indicated that one cup per d increment of green tea consumption was associated with 5 % lower risk of CVD mortality and with 4 % lower risk of all-cause mortality. Green tea consumption was significantly inversely associated with CVD and all-cause mortality, whereas black tea consumption was significantly inversely associated with all cancer and all-cause mortality. PMID:26202661

  6. A meta-analysis comparing hyperfractionated vs. conventional fractionated radiotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weisan; Liu, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for most lung cancer and carries a 5-year survival rate of 15%. The squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma are the most common types of NSCLC. The data on long term use of hyperfractionated radiotherapy (HRT) in NSCLC treatment is lacking. We performed a meta-analysis, based on published randomized trials to compare HRT [continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (CHART)/continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy weekend less (CHARTWEL)] vs. conventional fractionated (CF) radiotherapy in the treatment of NSCLC. Methods A systematic search through the bibliographic databases, PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library was performed till December 2013. Results Of 63 studies identified, 3 studies were analyzed. All were randomized studies and included 1,005 patients in total. The pooled results of the studies showed that HRT did not improve overall survival (OS) of patients suffering from NSCLC compared to CF after 2 years (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.98-1.71; P=0.16) and 3 years (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34-0.87; P=0.22) which was statistically significant. HRT was no better than CF in controlling tumour (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.03-1.91). No significant difference in metastasis free survival (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.83-1.39) and late dysphagia (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 0.75-2.92) were observed between the two groups. Conclusions The results of the present meta-analysis showed that HRT was not significantly better to conventional radiotherapy in NSCLC treatment. PMID:25922728

  7. Effect of Coffee Consumption on the Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haibin; Hua, Ying; Zheng, Xiangyun; Shen, Zhaojun; Luo, Hui; Tao, Xuejiao; Wang, Zhiyi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Results from observational epidemiologic studies on the relationship between coffee consumption and gastric cancer are inconsistent and inconclusive. To assess the association between coffee consumption and the risk of gastric cancer, we summarized evidence from prospective cohort studies. Methods Relevant studies were retrieved through computer searches (PubMed, EmBase and the Cochrane Library) and a review of references up to December 2014. The quality of the included studies was evaluated by Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale. We used a meta-analytic approach to estimate overall hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for regular coffee drinkers versus individuals who seldom drank coffee. Sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis were performed to assess the reliability of our results. A dose–response analysis was performed to assess the risk of gastric cancer based on the level of coffee consumption. Results Nine prospective cohort studies involving 1,250,825 participants and 3027 gastric cancer cases were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled HR of gastric cancer for the study-specific regularly versus seldom coffee drinking categories was 1.05 (95% CI, 0.88 to 1.25) with significant heterogeneity across studies (I2 = 74.0%, P = 0.000). After the sensitivity analysis, three studies were deleted; however the association remained insignificant (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.08). Subgroup analysis by anatomic location showed a risk for coffee consumption associated with cardia cancer (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.45; heterogeneity, I2 = 36.4, P = 0.207). In the dose–response analysis, there was no significant association between coffee intake (in cups) and the risk of gastric cancer (P for linearity trend and non-linearity > 0.05). Conclusion Our meta-analysis demonstrated that coffee consumption was not associated with overall gastric cancer risk; however, coffee consumption may be a risk factor for gastric cardia cancer. PMID:26023935

  8. Breastfeeding and the incidence of endometrial cancer: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Baojian; Liu, Xiaoqin; Li, Fang; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2015-11-10

    Several epidemiological studies have investigated the association between breastfeeding and endometrial cancer (EC). However, the results of the studies are controversial. Thus, we conduct this meta-analysis to explore the association between breastfeeding and EC and to evaluate the possible does-response relationship between duration of breastfeeding and EC. PubMed, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, China biology medical literature database, Wan fang databases and Database of Chinese Scientific and Technical Periodicals were searched for eligible observational studies up to 11 July 2015. Random effects model was used to calculate the pooled relative risks (RRs) and restricted cubic spline model was adopted for the does-response analysis.Fifteen articles with 623570 participants were identified. The RRs of these studies suggested that breastfeeding was associated with the reduced risk of EC (high versus low/no: RR = 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.58-0.95). In subgroup analyses, a significant association of breastfeeding with EC risk was found in Asia (RR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.37-0.87), and an inverse association of breastfeeding with EC risk was found in cohort studies (RR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.41-0.94). The results were also significant after adjusted for hormone use (RR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.41-0.97) and body mass index (RR=0.65, 95% CI 0.44-0.96). A linear relationship was found of breastfeeding with EC (p for nonlinearity = 0.93), and it indicated that EC risk decreased by 1.2% for one month increment of breastfeeding. This meta-analysis indicates that long term breastfeeding might be associated with decreased risk of EC. PMID:26384296

  9. Generating a focused view of disease ontology cancer terms for pan-cancer data integration and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tsung-Jung; Schriml, Lynn M.; Chen, Qing-Rong; Colbert, Maureen; Crichton, Daniel J.; Finney, Richard; Hu, Ying; Kibbe, Warren A.; Kincaid, Heather; Meerzaman, Daoud; Mitraka, Elvira; Pan, Yang; Smith, Krista M.; Srivastava, Sudhir; Ward, Sari; Yan, Cheng; Mazumder, Raja

    2015-01-01

    Bio-ontologies provide terminologies for the scientific community to describe biomedical entities in a standardized manner. There are multiple initiatives that are developing biomedical terminologies for the purpose of providing better annotation, data integration and mining capabilities. Terminology resources devised for multiple purposes inherently diverge in content and structure. A major issue of biomedical data integration is the development of overlapping terms, ambiguous classifications and inconsistencies represented across databases and publications. The disease ontology (DO) was developed over the past decade to address data integration, standardization and annotation issues for human disease data. We have established a DO cancer project to be a focused view of cancer terms within the DO. The DO cancer project mapped 386 cancer terms from the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC), The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), International Cancer Genome Consortium, Therapeutically Applicable Research to Generate Effective Treatments, Integrative Oncogenomics and the Early Detection Research Network into a cohesive set of 187 DO terms represented by 63 top-level DO cancer terms. For example, the COSMIC term ‘kidney, NS, carcinoma, clear_cell_renal_cell_carcinoma’ and TCGA term ‘Kidney renal clear cell carcinoma’ were both grouped to the term ‘Disease Ontology Identification (DOID):4467 / renal clear cell carcinoma’ which was mapped to the TopNodes_DOcancerslim term ‘DOID:263 / kidney cancer’. Mapping of diverse cancer terms to DO and the use of top level terms (DO slims) will enable pan-cancer analysis across datasets generated from any of the cancer term sources where pan-cancer means including or relating to all or multiple types of cancer. The terms can be browsed from the DO web site (http://www.disease-ontology.org) and downloaded from the DO’s Apache Subversion or GitHub repositories. Database URL: http://www.disease-ontology.org PMID:25841438

  10. Generating a focused view of disease ontology cancer terms for pan-cancer data integration and analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tsung-Jung; Schriml, Lynn M; Chen, Qing-Rong; Colbert, Maureen; Crichton, Daniel J; Finney, Richard; Hu, Ying; Kibbe, Warren A; Kincaid, Heather; Meerzaman, Daoud; Mitraka, Elvira; Pan, Yang; Smith, Krista M; Srivastava, Sudhir; Ward, Sari; Yan, Cheng; Mazumder, Raja

    2015-01-01

    Bio-ontologies provide terminologies for the scientific community to describe biomedical entities in a standardized manner. There are multiple initiatives that are developing biomedical terminologies for the purpose of providing better annotation, data integration and mining capabilities. Terminology resources devised for multiple purposes inherently diverge in content and structure. A major issue of biomedical data integration is the development of overlapping terms, ambiguous classifications and inconsistencies represented across databases and publications. The disease ontology (DO) was developed over the past decade to address data integration, standardization and annotation issues for human disease data. We have established a DO cancer project to be a focused view of cancer terms within the DO. The DO cancer project mapped 386 cancer terms from the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC), The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), International Cancer Genome Consortium, Therapeutically Applicable Research to Generate Effective Treatments, Integrative Oncogenomics and the Early Detection Research Network into a cohesive set of 187 DO terms represented by 63 top-level DO cancer terms. For example, the COSMIC term 'kidney, NS, carcinoma, clear_cell_renal_cell_carcinoma' and TCGA term 'Kidney renal clear cell carcinoma' were both grouped to the term 'Disease Ontology Identification (DOID):4467 / renal clear cell carcinoma' which was mapped to the TopNodes_DOcancerslim term 'DOID:263 / kidney cancer'. Mapping of diverse cancer terms to DO and the use of top level terms (DO slims) will enable pan-cancer analysis across datasets generated from any of the cancer term sources where pan-cancer means including or relating to all or multiple types of cancer. The terms can be browsed from the DO web site (http://www.disease-ontology.org) and downloaded from the DO's Apache Subversion or GitHub repositories. Database URL: http://www.disease-ontology.org PMID:25841438

  11. Milk Consumption and Mortality from All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Susanna C.; Crippa, Alessio; Orsini, Nicola; Wolk, Alicja; Michaëlsson, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Results from epidemiological studies of milk consumption and mortality are inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies assessing the association of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. PubMed was searched until August 2015. A two-stage, random-effects, dose-response meta-analysis was used to combine study-specific results. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed with the I2 statistic. During follow-up periods ranging from 4.1 to 25 years, 70,743 deaths occurred among 367,505 participants. The range of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption and the shape of the associations between milk consumption and mortality differed considerably between studies. There was substantial heterogeneity among studies of non-fermented milk consumption in relation to mortality from all causes (12 studies; I2 = 94%), cardiovascular disease (five studies; I2 = 93%), and cancer (four studies; I2 = 75%) as well as among studies of fermented milk consumption and all-cause mortality (seven studies; I2 = 88%). Thus, estimating pooled hazard ratios was not appropriate. Heterogeneity among studies was observed in most subgroups defined by sex, country, and study quality. In conclusion, we observed no consistent association between milk consumption and all-cause or cause-specific mortality. PMID:26378576

  12. TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and susceptibility to cervical cancer in the Chinese population: an update meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Wang, Xin; Chen, Hong; Shang, Li-Xin; Wu, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although many epidemiologic studies investigated the TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and its association with cervical cancer (CC), definite conclusions cannot be drawn. Aim of the study: To evaluate the association between TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and risk of cervical cancer in the Chinese population. Methods: A computerized literature search was carried out in PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Wanfang Database to collect relevant articles. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to calculate the strength of association. Results: A total of 16 studies including 1684 CC cases and 1178 controls were involved in this meta-analysis. Overall, significant increased association was found between the Pro/Pro carriers and CC risk when all studies in Chinese population pooled into the meta-analysis (heterozygous model: OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.01-1.46). In subgroup analyses stratified by ethnicity and source of controls, the same results were observed in Han and in hospital-based studies. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the TP53 codon 72 polymorphism may be potential biomarkers for CC risk in the Chinese population, especially for Han Chinese, and studies with wider spectrum of population are required for definite conclusions. PMID:26309559

  13. Associations between the Genetic Polymorphisms of Osteopontin Promoter and Susceptibility to Cancer in Chinese Population: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jixiang; Wang, Jun; Li, Kui; Dong, Weiguo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Several studies have been conducted to examine the associations between osteopontin (OPN) promoter gene SPP1 polymorphisms with human cancers in Chinese population, but the results remain inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis is to clarify the associations between SPP1 polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility. Methods All eligible case-control studies published up to March 2015 were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library without language restrictions. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated using fixed- or random-effect model. Results A total of 11 case-control studies were included; of those, there were eleven studies (3130 cases and 3828 controls) for -443T>C polymorphism, ten studies (3019 cases and 3615 controls) for -156G>GG polymorphism, eight studies (2258 cases and 2846 controls) for -66T>G polymorphism. Overall, no evidence indicated that the -443 T>C polymorphism was associated with cancer risk (OR = 0.93, 95%CI 0.62–1.38 for dominant model, OR = 1.06, 95%CI 0.73–1.55 for recessive model, OR = 0.88, 95%CI 0.62–1.26 for CT vs TT model, OR = 1.03, 95%CI 0.61–1.73 for CC vs TT model). While, a significantly increase risk was found for -156 G>GG polymorphism (OR = 1.22, 95%CI 1.10–1.35 for dominant model, OR = 1.25, 95%CI 1.10–1.41 for recessive model, OR = 1.18, 95%CI 1.06–1.32 for GGG vs GG model, OR = 1.35, 95%CI 1.09–1.68 for GGGG vs GG model). For -66T>G polymorphism, we found a decrease risk of cancer (OR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.71–0.98 for dominant model), but this result changed (OR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.77–1.12 for dominant model) when we excluded a study. Conclusion This meta-analysis suggests that in Chinese population the -156G>GG polymorphism of SPP1 might be a risk factor for human cancers, while -443T>C mutation is not associated with cancer risk. For -66T>G polymorphism, it may be a protective factor for human cancers. PMID:26267616

  14. Analysis of a Partial Male-Sterile Mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana Isolated from a Low-Energy Argon Ion Beam Mutagenized Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Min; Bian, Po; Wu, Yuejin; Yu, Zengliang

    2008-04-01

    A screen for Arabidopsis fertility mutants, mutagenized by low-energy argon ion beam, yielded two partial male-sterile mutants tc243-1 and tc243-2 which have similar phenotypes. tc243-2 was investigated in detail. The segregation ratio of the mutant phenotypes in the M2 pools suggested that mutation behaved as single Mendelian recessive mutations. tc243 showed a series of mutant phenotypes, among which partial male-sterile was its striking mutant characteristic. Phenotype analysis indicates that there are four factors leading to male sterility. a. Floral organs normally develop inside the closed bud, but the anther filaments do not elongate sufficiently to position the locules above the stigma at anthesis. b. The anther locules do not dehisce at the time of flower opening (although limited dehiscence occurs later). c. Pollens of mutant plants develop into several types of pollens at the trinucleated stage, as determined by staining with DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole), which shows a variable size, shape and number of nucleus. d. The viability of pollens is lower than that of the wild type on the germination test in vivo and vitro.

  15. Variations in Apolipoprotein E Frequency With Age in a Pooled Analysis of a Large Group of Older People

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Gareth J.; Silvestri, Giuliana; Chakravarthy, Usha; Dasari, Shilpa; Fritsche, Lars G.; Weber, Bernhard H.; Keilhauer, Claudia N.; Klein, Michael L.; Francis, Peter J.; Klaver, Caroline C.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; De Jong, Paulus T. D. V.; Dean, Michael; Sawitzke, Julie; Baird, Paul N.; Guymer, Robyn H.; Stambolian, Dwight; Orlin, Anton; Seddon, Johanna M.; Peter, Inga; Wright, Alan F.; Hayward, Caroline; Lotery, Andrew J.; Ennis, Sarah; Gorin, Michael B.; Weeks, Daniel E.; Kuo, Chia-Ling; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Sofat, Reecha; Cipriani, Valentina; Swaroop, Anand; Othman, Mohammad; Kanda, Atsuhiro; Chen, Wei; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Yates, John R.; Webster, Andrew R.; Moore, Anthony T.; Seland, Johan H.; Rahu, Mati; Soubrane, Gisele; Tomazzoli, Laura; Topouzis, Fotis; Vioque, Jesus; Young, Ian S.; Fletcher, Astrid E.; Patterson, Chris C.

    2011-01-01

    Variation in the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) has been reported to be associated with longevity in humans. The authors assessed the allelic distribution of APOE isoforms ?2, ?3, and ?4 among 10,623 participants from 15 case-control and cohort studies of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in populations of European ancestry (study dates ranged from 1990 to 2009). The authors included only the 10,623 control subjects from these studies who were classified as having no evidence of AMD, since variation within the APOE gene has previously been associated with AMD. In an analysis stratified by study center, gender, and smoking status, there was a decreasing frequency of the APOE ?4 isoform with increasing age (?2 for trend = 14.9 (1 df); P = 0.0001), with a concomitant increase in the ?3 isoform (?2 for trend = 11.3 (1 df); P = 0.001). The association with age was strongest in ?4 homozygotes; the frequency of ?4 homozygosity decreased from 2.7% for participants aged 60 years or less to 0.8% for those over age 85 years, while the proportion of participants with the ?3/?4 genotype decreased from 26.8% to 17.5% across the same age range. Gender had no significant effect on the isoform frequencies. This study provides strong support for an association of the APOE gene with human longevity. PMID:21498624

  16. Hepatotoxicity associated with agomelatine and other antidepressants: Disproportionality analysis using pooled pharmacovigilance data from the Uppsala Monitoring Centre.

    PubMed

    Gahr, Maximilian; Zeiss, René; Lang, Dirk; Connemann, Bernhard J; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    Since its marketing approval, the attention to the hepatic side-effect profile of the antidepressant agomelatine (AGM) has gradually increased. Several cases of severe hepatotoxic adverse drug reactions (ADR) have been reported and the European Medicines Agency has released a safety warning regarding AGM-associated hepatotoxicity. However, there are insufficient data for an adequate safety assessment of AGM-related hepatotoxicity. Therefore, we performed a quantitative signal detection analysis using pharmacovigilance data from the Uppsala Monitoring Centre from the WHO that records ADR data from worldwide sources; we calculated reporting odds ratios (ROR) as measures for disproportionality within a case/non-case approach for AGM and several other antidepressants. AGM was statistically associated with an increased risk of hepatotoxicity (ROR 6.4 [95%CI 5.7-7.2]) as well as both positive controls: amineptine (ROR 38.4 [95%CI 33.8-43.6]) and nefazodone (ROR 3.2 [95%CI 3.0-3.5]). Following amineptine, AGM was associated with the second highest ROR, followed by tianeptine (ROR 4.4 [95%CI 3.6-5.3]), mianserin (ROR 3.6 [95%CI 3.3-3.9]), and nefazodone. These results support the hypothesis that AGM is associated with relevant hepatotoxicity. However, the used data and applied method do not allow a quantitative evaluation of hepatotoxicity or assessment of substance-specific differences regarding the extent of hepatotoxicity. PMID:25650773

  17. Development of an UPLC mass spectrometry method for measurement of myofibrillar protein synthesis: application to analysis of murine muscles during cancer cachexia

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Maria; Sato, Shuichi; Enos, Reilly T.; Baynes, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Cachexia, characterized by skeletal muscle mass loss, is a major contributory factor to patient morbidity and mortality during cancer. However, there are no reports on the rate of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) in skeletal muscles that vary in primary metabolic phenotype during cachexia, in large part because of the small-size muscles and regional differences in larger muscles in the mouse. Here, we describe a sensitive method for measurement of MPS and its application to analysis of MPS in specific muscles of mice with (ApcMin/+) and without (C57BL/6) cancer cachexia. Mice were injected with a loading dose of deuterated phenylalanine (D5F), and myofibrillar proteins were extracted from skeletal muscles at 30 min. The relative concentrations of D5F and naturally occurring phenylalanine (F) in the myofibrillar proteins and the amino acid pool were quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatograph (UPLC) mass spectrometry (MS). The rate of MPS was determined from D5F-to-F ratio in the protein fraction compared with the amino acid pool. The rate of MPS, measured in 2–5 mg of muscle protein, was reduced by up to 65% with cachexia in the soleus, plantaris, diaphragm, and oxidative and glycolytic regions of the gastrocnemius. The rate of MPS was significantly higher in the oxidative vs. glycolytic gastrocnemius muscle. A sufficiently sensitive UPLC MS method requiring a very small amount of muscle has been developed to measure the rate of MPS in various mouse muscles. This method should be useful for studies in other animal models for quantifying effects of cancer and anti-cancer therapies on protein synthesis in cachexia, and particularly for analysis of sequential muscle biopsies in a wide range of animal and human studies. PMID:23329823

  18. ?148 C/T polymorphism of Axin2 contributes to a decreased risk of cancer: evidence from a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, AnYuan; Pan, Xue; Shi, MinHua; Xu, HuaJun

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported an association between ?148 C/T polymorphism of Axis inhibition protein 2 (Axin2) and cancer risk; however, the results are inconsistent. In this study, a meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between ?148 C/T polymorphism of Axin2 and susceptibility to cancer. Published case–control and cohort-based studies from PubMed, Embase, Wanfang, and CNKI were retrieved, and data were manually extracted. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the included studies were pooled. Begg’s and Egger’s tests were used to evaluate publication bias. Cumulative and recursive cumulative meta-analyses (CMA) were performed as evidence accumulated to investigate the trends and stability of the effect size. Nine articles with 1,664 cases and 1,796 controls were included. The pooled effect size showed an association between ?148 C/T polymorphism and the risk of cancer (dominant model, OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63–0.83; allele model, OR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.73–0.90). CMA showed an association trend, and the recursive CMA indicated that more evidence is needed to make conclusions about significance. In a subgroup analysis, a significant association between ?148 C/T polymorphism and low cancer susceptibility was detected for lung cancer (dominant model, 0.69, 95% CI: 0.56–0.85; recessive model, OR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.56–0.99; allele model, 0.76, 95% CI: 0.66–0.86). The ?148 C/T polymorphism was also associated with low cancer susceptibility among Asians (dominant model, OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.57–0.81; recessive model, OR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.56–0.99; allele model, OR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.66–0.86). The Axin2 ?148 C/T polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with a decreased risk of cancer, particularly lung cancer, in Asians and population-based controls. Thus, Axin2 should be considered as a potential therapeutic target for preventing tumor growth. PMID:26251618

  19. Competing risks analysis in mortality estimation for breast cancer patients from independent risk groups

    E-print Network

    Competing risks analysis in mortality estimation for breast cancer patients from independent risk This study quantifies breast cancer mortality in the presence of competing risks for complex patients. Breast. Mortality estimation for breast cancer pa- tients has been a significant research question. Accurate estima

  20. Analysis of Proteomic Pattern Data for Cancer Kees Jong, Elena Marchiori, and Aad van der Vaart

    E-print Network

    Marchiori, Elena

    and prostate cancer samples. In par- ticular, a linear and a quadratic support vector machine (SVM) are ap the two classes of healthy and cancer state samples. Secondly we report the error rate of support vectorAnalysis of Proteomic Pattern Data for Cancer Detection Kees Jong, Elena Marchiori, and Aad van der

  1. Bounding analysis applied to lung cancer risk Minh Ha-Duong Elizabeth Casman M. Granger Morgan

    E-print Network

    Bounding analysis applied to lung cancer risk Minh Ha-Duong Elizabeth Casman M. Granger Morgan we bound the fraction of lung cancer occurrences not at- tributed to specific well-studied causes data and expert judgment are used to attribute portions of the observed lung cancer incidence to known

  2. Mobile phone and cordless phone use and the risk for glioma - Analysis of pooled case-control studies in Sweden, 1997-2003 and 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael

    2015-03-01

    We made a pooled analysis of two case-control studies on malignant brain tumours with patients diagnosed during 1997-2003 and 2007-2009. They were aged 20-80 years and 18-75 years, respectively, at the time of diagnosis. Only cases with histopathological verification of the tumour were included. Population-based controls, matched on age and gender, were used. Exposures were assessed by questionnaire. The whole reference group was used in the unconditional regression analysis adjusted for gender, age, year of diagnosis, and socio-economic index. In total, 1498 (89%) cases and 3530 (87%) controls participated. Mobile phone use increased the risk of glioma, OR=1.3, 95% CI=1.1-1.6 overall, increasing to OR=3.0, 95% CI=1.7-5.2 in the >25 year latency group. Use of cordless phones increased the risk to OR=1.4, 95% CI=1.1-1.7, with highest risk in the >15-20 years latency group yielding OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.1-2.5. The OR increased statistically significant both per 100h of cumulative use, and per year of latency for mobile and cordless phone use. Highest ORs overall were found for ipsilateral mobile or cordless phone use, OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.4-2.2 and OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.3-2.1, respectively. The highest risk was found for glioma in the temporal lobe. First use of mobile or cordless phone before the age of 20 gave higher OR for glioma than in later age groups. PMID:25466607

  3. Pooled analysis of case-control studies on malignant brain tumours and the use of mobile and cordless phones including living and deceased subjects.

    PubMed

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Hansson Mild, Kjell

    2011-05-01

    We studied the association between use of mobile and cordless phones and malignant brain tumours. Pooled analysis was performed of two case-control studies on patients with malignant brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-2003 and matched controls alive at the time of study inclusion and one case-control study on deceased patients and controls diagnosed during the same time period. Cases and controls or relatives to deceased subjects were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Replies were obtained for 1,251 (85%) cases and 2,438 (84%) controls. The risk increased with latency period and cumulative use in hours for both mobile and cordless phones. Highest risk was found for the most common type of glioma, astrocytoma, yielding in the >10 year latency group for mobile phone use odds ratio (OR) = 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.9-3.7 and cordless phone use OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.9. In a separate analysis, these phone types were independent risk factors for glioma. The risk for astrocytoma was highest in the group with first use of a wireless phone before the age of 20; mobile phone use OR = 4.9, 95% CI = 2.2-11, cordless phone use OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.7-8.7. In conclusion, an increased risk was found for glioma and use of mobile or cordless phone. The risk increased with latency time and cumulative use in hours and was highest in subjects with first use before the age of 20. PMID:21331446

  4. Roflumilast and dyspnea in patients with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a pooled analysis of four clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Rennard, Stephen I; Sun, Shawn X; Tourkodimitris, Stavros; Rowe, Paul; Goehring, Udo M; Bredenbröker, Dirk; Calverley, Peter M A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Breathlessness is a predominant symptom of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), making it a valuable outcome in addition to lung function to assess treatment benefit. The phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor roflumilast has been shown to provide small but significant improvements in dyspnea, as measured by the transition dyspnea index (TDI), in two 1-year studies in patients with severe to very severe COPD. Patients and methods To provide a more comprehensive assessment of the impact of roflumilast on dyspnea, post hoc analyses of four 1-year roflumilast studies (M2-111, M2-112, M2-124, and M2-125) in patients with moderate to very severe COPD were conducted. Results In this pooled analysis (N=5,595), roflumilast significantly improved TDI focal scores versus placebo at week 52 (treatment difference, 0.327; P<0.0001). Roflumilast was associated with significantly greater TDI responders and significantly fewer TDI deteriorators (?1-unit increase or decrease from baseline, respectively) versus placebo at week 52 (P<0.01, both); these significant differences were apparent by week 8 and maintained until study end (P<0.05, all). At study end, the postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second improvement in TDI responders was significantly greater with roflumilast versus placebo (P<0.05). Similar to the overall population, improvements in TDI focal scores at week 52 were small but consistently significant over placebo in patients with chronic bronchitis, regardless of exacerbation history, concomitant treatment with short-acting muscarinic antagonists or long-acting ?2-agonists, or pretreatment with inhaled corticosteroids. Conclusion This analysis shows that patients treated with roflumilast to reduce exacerbation risk may also experience small but significant improvements in dyspnea, with accompanying improvements in lung function. PMID:25018629

  5. Nanoscale/Molecular analysis of Fecal Colonocytes for Colorectal Cancer Screening | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  6. Validation and Advanced Development of Glycan Node Analysis in Lung Cancer Research | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  7. Serotype-Specific Changes in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease after Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Introduction: A Pooled Analysis of Multiple Surveillance Sites

    PubMed Central

    Feikin, Daniel R.; Kagucia, Eunice W.; Loo, Jennifer D.; Link-Gelles, Ruth; Puhan, Milo A.; Cherian, Thomas; Levine, Orin S.; Whitney, Cynthia G.; O’Brien, Katherine L.; Moore, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Vaccine-serotype (VT) invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) rates declined substantially following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into national immunization programs. Increases in non-vaccine-serotype (NVT) IPD rates occurred in some sites, presumably representing serotype replacement. We used a standardized approach to describe serotype-specific IPD changes among multiple sites after PCV7 introduction. Methods and Findings Of 32 IPD surveillance datasets received, we identified 21 eligible databases with rate data ?2 years before and ?1 year after PCV7 introduction. Expected annual rates of IPD absent PCV7 introduction were estimated by extrapolation using either Poisson regression modeling of pre-PCV7 rates or averaging pre-PCV7 rates. To estimate whether changes in rates had occurred following PCV7 introduction, we calculated site specific rate ratios by dividing observed by expected IPD rates for each post-PCV7 year. We calculated summary rate ratios (RRs) using random effects meta-analysis. For children <5 years old, overall IPD decreased by year 1 post-PCV7 (RR 0·55, 95% CI 0·46–0·65) and remained relatively stable through year 7 (RR 0·49, 95% CI 0·35–0·68). Point estimates for VT IPD decreased annually through year 7 (RR 0·03, 95% CI 0·01–0·10), while NVT IPD increased (year 7 RR 2·81, 95% CI 2·12–3·71). Among adults, decreases in overall IPD also occurred but were smaller and more variable by site than among children. At year 7 after introduction, significant reductions were observed (18–49 year-olds [RR 0·52, 95% CI 0·29–0·91], 50–64 year-olds [RR 0·84, 95% CI 0·77–0·93], and ?65 year-olds [RR 0·74, 95% CI 0·58–0·95]). Conclusions Consistent and significant decreases in both overall and VT IPD in children occurred quickly and were sustained for 7 years after PCV7 introduction, supporting use of PCVs. Increases in NVT IPD occurred in most sites, with variable magnitude. These findings may not represent the experience in low-income countries or the effects after introduction of higher valency PCVs. High-quality, population-based surveillance of serotype-specific IPD rates is needed to monitor vaccine impact as more countries, including low-income countries, introduce PCVs and as higher valency PCVs are used. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24086113

  8. Getting Pool Light Right.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Scot

    1998-01-01

    Examines the use of lighting, both artificial and natural, that can enhance the aesthetic quality and functionality of areas with indoor swimming pools. Discusses glare and shadow-reduction measures that aid competitive events, including lighting above and below water levels, and highlights lighting issues during televised events. Descriptions of…

  9. Cable Pool - Cherryfield

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The USGS monitors the Narraguagus River at Cherryfield, Maine at a location called Cable Pool. This spot was once renowned for Atlantic salmon, where anglers would line the banks, waiting their turn to cast a line into the water. In fact, posts along the river bank to hold the waiting anglers rods e...

  10. Comparative analysis of image guidance in two institutions for prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowski, Tomasz; Yartsev, Slav; Rodrigues, George; Bajon, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Aim/Background The analysis of systematic and random errors obtained from the pooled data on inter-fraction prostate motion during radiation therapy in two institutions. Materials and methods Data of 6085 observations for 216 prostate cancer patients treated on tomotherapy units in two institutions of position correction shifts obtained by co-registration of planning and daily CT studies were investigated. Three independent variables: patient position (supine or prone), target (prostate or prostate bed), and imaging mode (normal or coarse) were analyzed. Systematic and random errors were evaluated and used to calculate the margins for different options of referencing based on the position corrections observed with one, three, or five imaging sessions. Results Statistical analysis showed that only the difference between normal and coarse modes of imaging was significant, which allowed to merge the supine and prone position sub-groups as well as the prostate and prostate bed patients. In the normal and coarse imaging groups, the margins calculated using systematic and random errors in the medio-lateral and cranio-caudal directions (5.5 mm and 4.5 mm, respectively) were similar, but significantly different (5.3 mm for the normal mode and 7.1 mm for the coarse mode) in the anterio-posterior direction. The reference scheme based on the first three fractions (R3) was found to be the optimal one. Conclusions The R3 reference scheme effectively reduced systematic and random errors. Larger margins in the anterio-posterior direction should be used during prostate treatment on the tomotherapy unit, as coarse imaging mode is chosen in order to reduce imaging time and dose. PMID:24936341

  11. Functional Analysis of Cyclooxygenase-2 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  12. Feature statistic analysis of ultrasound images of liver cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shuqin; Ding, Mingyue; Zhang, Songgeng

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, a specific feature analysis of liver ultrasound images including normal liver, liver cancer especially hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other hepatopathy is discussed. According to the classification of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), primary carcinoma is divided into four types. 15 features from single gray-level statistic, gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), and gray-level run-length matrix (GLRLM) are extracted. Experiments for the discrimination of each type of HCC, normal liver, fatty liver, angioma and hepatic abscess have been conducted. Corresponding features to potentially discriminate them are found.

  13. Multifractal analysis of dynamic infrared imaging of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimova, E.; Audit, B.; Roux, S. G.; Khalil, A.; Argoul, F.; Naimark, O.; Arneodo, A.

    2013-12-01

    The wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) method was used in a multifractal analysis of skin breast temperature time-series recorded using dynamic infrared (IR) thermography. Multifractal scaling was found for healthy breasts as the signature of a continuous change in the shape of the probability density function (pdf) of temperature fluctuations across time scales from \\sim0.3 to 3 s. In contrast, temperature time-series from breasts with malignant tumors showed homogeneous monofractal temperature fluctuations statistics. These results highlight dynamic IR imaging as a very valuable non-invasive technique for preliminary screening in asymptomatic women to identify those with risk of breast cancer.

  14. The Prognostic Value of Forkhead Box P3 Expression in Operable Breast Cancer: A Large-Scale Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yang; Min, Da Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that the forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) protein has a prognostic role in breast cancer. However, these results are controversial. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to clarify the prognostic role of FOXP3 expression in operable breast cancer cases. Methods Eligible studies describing the use of FOXP3 as a prognostic factor for operable breast cancer cases were identified. Clinicopathological features, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) data were collected from these studies and were analyzed using Stata software. Results A total of 16 articles containing data from 13,217 breast cancer patients met the inclusion criteria established for this study. The subsequent meta-analysis that was performed showed that high levels of FOXP3 are not significantly associated with DFS and OS with significant heterogeneity. An additional subgroup analysis demonstrated that intratumoral FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) were positively correlated with adverse clinicopathological parameters, yet they did not show an association with DFS or OS. For tumor cells, the pooled results revealed that FOXP3 is significantly associated with DFS (HR: 2.55, 95% CI: 1.23–5.30) but is not associated with clinicopathological parameters or OS. We also observed a significant correlation between FOXP3 expression and survival in the estrogen receptor-positive (ER)+ subgroup (HR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.36–2.47 for DFS, HR: 1.87, 95% CI 1.28–2.73 for OS), in the Asian region (HR: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.56–2.50 for DFS, HR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.12–3.35 for OS) and using the median as the FOXP3-positive cut-off value (HR: 1.94, 95% CI: 1.57–2.39 for DFS, HR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.36–3.11 for OS). Conclusion This meta-analysis indicates that a prognostic role for FOXP3 expression in operable breast cancer cases depends on the FOXP3-positive region, ER status, geographic region and the FOXP3-positive cut-off value. PMID:26305693

  15. Association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and gastric cancer susceptibility: A meta-analysis of 5,757 cases and 8,501 controls

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, LONG; LU, NING; ZHANG, BAI-HONG; WENG, LI; LU, JUN

    2015-01-01

    Current data regarding the association between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and the risk of developing gastric cancer are insufficient to draw definite conclusions. Therefore, the present meta-analysis was conducted to achieve a more precise estimation of the association. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Wanfang database searches resulted in the identification of 28 eligible studies describing 5,757 cases and 8,501 controls. The strength of the association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and gastric cancer risk were evaluated using crude odds ratios (ORs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The pooled ORs were determined using homozygous (TT vs. CC), heterozygous (CT vs. CC), dominant (TT+CT vs. CC) and recessive (TT vs. CC+CT) models. When all studies were pooled into the meta-analysis, significant associations were identified between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and the risk of gastric cancer (homozygous model: OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.20–1.62; heterozygous model: OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.05–1.32; dominant model: OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.10–1.38; recessive model: OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.12–1.42). Stratification of the data by ethnicity identified a statistically significantly elevated risk of gastric cancer in Asian MTHFR C677T polymorphism populations (homozygous model: OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.43–1.90; heterozygous model: OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.16–1.45; dominant model: OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.25–1.54; recessive model: OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.25–1.51), but not in Caucasian populations (homozygous model: OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.89–1.48; heterozygous model: OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.84–1.25; dominant model: OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.86–1.28; recessive model: OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.91–1.31). Following adjustment for heterogeneity, the current meta-analysis demonstrated that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism was not associated with the risk of gastric cancer in Caucasian individuals. Furthermore, no evidence of publication bias was observed. Thus, the current meta-analysis indicates that the MTHFR C677T allele may be a low-penetrant risk factor for the development of gastric cancer in Asian populations.

  16. Prognostic significance of EZH2 expression in patients with digestive cancers: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Feng; Zong, Guangquan; Liu, Renmin; Zhang, Yufei; Luan, Yang; Xu, Lin; Xuan, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Background: Enhancer of zeste 2 (EZH2), a key component of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), was of great importance in human cancer pathogenesis. Various studies examined the relationship between EZH2 overexpression with the clinical outcome in patients with digestive cancers, but yielded inconsistent results. Methods: Electronic databases updated to January 2015 were searched to find relevant studies. A meta-analysis was conducted with eligible studies which quantitatively evaluated the relationship between EZH2 overexpression and survival of patients with digestive cancers. Survival data were aggregated and quantitatively analyzed. Results: We performed a meta-analysis of 10 studies (n = 1,461 patients) that evaluated the correlation between EZH2 overexpression and survival in patients with digestive cancers. Combined hazard ratios suggested that EZH2 overexpression was associated with poor prognosis of overall survival (HR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.27-1.81) in patients with esophageal cancer. In the stratified analysis, no significantly risks were found among gastric cancer (HR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.16-1.15) and colorectal cancer (HR = 0.91, 0.63-1.19), indicating EZH2 was not an indicator of poor prognosis in gastric cancer or colorectal cancer. Conclusions: EZH2 overexpression indicates a poor prognosis for patients with esophageal cancer, but not among gastric cancer or colorectal cancer.

  17. Prognostic and Safety Roles in Laparoscopic Versus Abdominal Radical Hysterectomy in Cervical Cancer: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Tiefeng; Feng, Yanling; Huang, Qidan; Wan, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Studies comparing the prognostic results between laparoscopic radical hysterectomy (LRH) and abdominal radical hysterectomy (ARH) in cervical cancer reported contradictory results. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic and safety roles of LRH by pooling studies in a meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: Original articles were searched in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. The survival results (5-year disease-free survival [DFS], 5-year overall survival [OS], and recurrence rate [RR]), safety parameters (intra-, peri-, and postoperative complication rates and postoperative bowel or bladder recovery days), efficiency parameters (pelvic/para-aortic lymph nodes removed), and other parameters (operative time, estimated blood loss, and hospital of stay) between the two approaches were reviewed. Results: For the 2922 cases identified, DFS, OS, and RR did not differ in balanced prognostic factors, including lymph node metastasis, Stage IIB or above, non–squamous cancer histology, grade G3, lymphovascular space invasion, tumor size ?4?cm, and positive parametrial and vaginal margin rates. Meanwhile, LRH was associated with higher complication rates and a shorter time to the recovery of bowel or bladder function than for ARH. The number of removed pelvic or para-aortic lymph nodes did not significantly differ. Other parameters showed LRH was associated with a longer operative time, less blood loss, and a shorter length of hospital stay. The survival and prognostic results did not differ in balanced prognostic factors. Conclusions: LRH is safe and has lower operative complication rates than ARH. PMID:26584414

  18. Biomarker Identification and Pathway Analysis by Serum Metabolomics of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yingrong; Ma, Zhihong; Min, Lishan; Li, Hongwei; Wang, Bin; Zhong, Jing; Dai, Licheng

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer death, for which no validated tumor biomarker is sufficiently accurate to be useful for diagnosis. Additionally, the metabolic alterations associated with the disease are unclear. In this study, we investigated the construction, interaction, and pathways of potential lung cancer biomarkers using metabolomics pathway analysis based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database and the Human Metabolome Database to identify the top altered pathways for analysis and visualization. We constructed a diagnostic model using potential serum biomarkers from patients with lung cancer. We assessed their specificity and sensitivity according to the area under the curve of the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves, which could be used to distinguish patients with lung cancer from normal subjects. The pathway analysis indicated that sphingolipid metabolism was the top altered pathway in lung cancer. ROC curve analysis indicated that glycerophospho-N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (GpAEA) and sphingosine were potential sensitive and specific biomarkers for lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Compared with the traditional lung cancer diagnostic biomarkers carcinoembryonic antigen and cytokeratin 19 fragment,