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1

A pooled analysis of thyroid cancer studies. V. Anthropometric factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the relation between anthropometric factors and thyroid cancer risk in a pooled analysis of individual data from 12 case–control studies conducted in the US, Japan, China and Europe.

Luigino Dal Maso; Carlo La Vecchia; Silvia Franceschi; Susan Preston-Martin; Elaine Ron; Fabio Levi; Wendy Mack; Steven D. Mark; Anne McTiernan; Laurence Kolonel; Kiyohiko Mabuchi; Fan Jin; Gun Wingren; Maria Rosaria Galanti; Arne Hallquist; Eystein Glattre; Eiliv Lund; Dimitrios Linos; Eva Negri

2000-01-01

2

DNA adducts and cancer risk in prospective studies: a pooled analysis and a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Bulky DNA adducts are biomarkers of exposure to aromatic compounds and of the ability of the individual to metabolically activate carcinogens and to repair DNA damage. Their ability to predict cancer onset is uncertain. We have performed a pooled analysis of three prospective studies on cancer risk in which bulky DNA adducts have been measured in blood samples collected from healthy subjects (N = 1947; average follow-up 51-137 months). In addition, we have performed a meta-analysis by identifying all articles on the same subject published up to the end of 2006, including case-control studies. In the pooled analysis, a weakly statistically significant increase in the risk of lung cancer was apparent (14% per unit standard deviation change in adduct levels, 95% confidence interval 1-28%; using the weighted mean difference method, 0.15 SD, units higher adducts in cases than in controls). The association was evident only in current smokers and was absent in former smokers. Also the meta-analysis, which included both lung and bladder cancers, showed a statistically significant association in current smokers, whereas the results in never smokers were equivocal; in former smokers, no association was detected. The results of our pooled and meta-analyses suggest that bulky DNA adducts are associated with lung cancer arising in current smokers after a follow-up of several years. PMID:18343884

Veglia, Fabrizio; Loft, Steffen; Matullo, Giuseppe; Peluso, Marco; Munnia, Armelle; Perera, Frederica; Phillips, David H; Tang, Deliang; Autrup, Herman; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne; Vineis, Paolo

2008-03-14

3

A Pooled Analysis of Bladder Cancer Case–Control Studies Evaluating Smoking in Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective A recent study suggested that risk of bladder cancer may be higher in women than in men who smoked comparable amounts of\\u000a cigarettes. We pooled primary data from 14 case–control studies of bladder cancer from Europe and North America and evaluated\\u000a differences in risk of smoking by gender.\\u000a \\u000a Methods The pooled analysis included 8316 cases (21% women) and 17,406

Diana Puente; Patricia Hartge; Eberhard Greiser; Kenneth P. Cantor; Will D. King; Carlos A. González; Sylvaine Cordier; Paolo Vineis; Elsebeth Lynge; Jenny Chang-Claude; Stefano Porru; Anastasia Tzonou; Karl-Heinz Jöckel; Consol Serra; Charles F. Lynch; Ulrich Ranft; Jürgen Wahrendorf; Debra Silverman; Francisco Fernandez; Paolo Boffetta; Manolis Kogevinas

2006-01-01

4

Previous Lung Diseases and Lung Cancer Risk: A Pooled Analysis From the International Lung Cancer Consortium  

PubMed Central

To clarify the role of previous lung diseases (chronic bronchitis, emphysema, pneumonia, and tuberculosis) in the development of lung cancer, the authors conducted a pooled analysis of studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Seventeen studies including 24,607 cases and 81,829 controls (noncases), mainly conducted in Europe and North America, were included (1984–2011). Using self-reported data on previous diagnoses of lung diseases, the authors derived study-specific effect estimates by means of logistic regression models or Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, sex, and cumulative tobacco smoking. Estimates were pooled using random-effects models. Analyses stratified by smoking status and histology were also conducted. A history of emphysema conferred a 2.44-fold increased risk of lung cancer (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.64, 3.62 (16 studies)). A history of chronic bronchitis conferred a relative risk of 1.47 (95% CI: 1.29, 1.68 (13 studies)). Tuberculosis (relative risk = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.87 (16 studies)) and pneumonia (relative risk = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.22, 2.01 (12 studies)) were also associated with lung cancer risk. Among never smokers, elevated risks were observed for emphysema, pneumonia, and tuberculosis. These results suggest that previous lung diseases influence lung cancer risk independently of tobacco use and that these diseases are important for assessing individual risk.

Brenner, Darren R.; Boffetta, Paolo; Duell, Eric J.; Bickeboller, Heike; Rosenberger, Albert; McCormack, Valerie; Muscat, Joshua E.; Yang, Ping; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Brueske-Hohlfeld, Irene; Schwartz, Ann G.; Cote, Michele L.; Tj?nneland, Anne; Friis, S?ren; Le Marchand, Loic; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Morgenstern, Hal; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Zaridze, David; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Bencko, Vladimir; Schejbalova, Miriam; Brennan, Paul; Mates, Ioan N.; Lazarus, Philip; Field, John K.; Raji, Olaide; McLaughlin, John R.; Liu, Geoffrey; Wiencke, John; Neri, Monica; Ugolini, Donatella; Andrew, Angeline S.; Lan, Qing; Hu, Wei; Orlow, Irene; Park, Bernard J.; Hung, Rayjean J.

2012-01-01

5

A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer ¶II. Menstrual and reproductive factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: It has been suggested that female hormones, and hence menstrual and reproductive factors, play a role in thyroid cancer etiology. Epidemiological data, however, are limited and inconsistent, partly because of the small number of cases included in each study. To clarify the etiology of thyroid cancer, we conducted a pooled analysis of original data from 14 case-control studies, 4

Eva Negri; Luigino Dal Maso; Elaine Ron; Carlo La Vecchia; Steven D. Mark; Susan Preston-Martin; Anne McTiernan; Laurence Kolonel; Yasuhiko Yoshimoto; Fan Jin; Gun Wingren; Maria Rosaria Galanti; Lennart Hardell; Eystein Glattre; Eiliv Lund; Fabio Levi; Dimitrios Linos; Claudia Braga; Silvia Franceschi

1999-01-01

6

Alcohol consumption and risk of lung cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although smoking is the primary cause of lung can- cer, much is unknown about lung cancer etiology, including risk determinants for nonsmokers and modifying factors for smokers. Objective: We hypothesized that alcohol consumption contributes to lung cancer risk. Design: We conducted a pooled analysis using standardized expo- sure and covariate data from 7 prospective studies with 399 767 participantsand3137lungcancercases.Study-specificrelativerisks

Jo L Freudenheim; John Ritz; Stephanie A Smith-Warner; Demetrius Albanes; Elisa V Bandera; Piet A van den Brandt; Graham Colditz; Diane Feskanich; R Alexandra Goldbohm; Lisa Harnack; Anthony B Miller; Eric Rimm; Thomas E Rohan; Thomas A Sellers; Jarmo Virtamo; Walter C Willett; David J Hunter

7

Alcohol intake and ovarian cancer risk: a pooled analysis of 10 cohort studies.  

PubMed

Alcohol has been hypothesized to promote ovarian carcinogenesis by its potential to increase circulating levels of estrogen and other hormones; through its oxidation byproduct, acetaldehyde, which may act as a cocarcinogen; and by depletion of folate and other nutrients. Case-control and cohort studies have reported conflicting results relating alcohol intake to ovarian cancer risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of the primary data from ten prospective cohort studies. The analysis included 529 638 women among whom 2001 incident epithelial ovarian cases were documented. After study-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by Cox proportional hazards models, and then were pooled using a random effects model; no associations were observed for intakes of total alcohol (pooled multivariate RR=1.12, 95% CI 0.86-1.44 comparing > or =30 to 0 g day(-1) of alcohol) or alcohol from wine, beer or spirits and ovarian cancer risk. The association with alcohol consumption was not modified by oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy, parity, menopausal status, folate intake, body mass index, or smoking. Associations for endometrioid, mucinous, and serous ovarian cancer were similar to the overall findings. This pooled analysis does not support an association between moderate alcohol intake and ovarian cancer risk. PMID:16495916

Genkinger, J M; Hunter, D J; Spiegelman, D; Anderson, K E; Buring, J E; Freudenheim, J L; Goldbohm, R A; Harnack, L; Hankinson, S E; Larsson, S C; Leitzmann, M; McCullough, M L; Marshall, J; Miller, A B; Rodriguez, C; Rohan, T E; Schatzkin, A; Schouten, L J; Wolk, A; Zhang, S M; Smith-Warner, S A

2006-03-13

8

Folate Intake and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: Pooled Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological studies evaluating the association between folate intake and risk of pancreatic cancer have produced inconsistent results. The statistical power to examine this association has been limited in previous studies partly because of small sample size and limited range of folate intake in some studies. Methods We analyzed primary data from 14 prospective cohort studies that included 319?716 men and 542?948 women to assess the association between folate intake and risk of pancreatic cancer. Folate intake was assessed through a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline in each study. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random effects model. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results During 7–20 years of follow-up across studies, 2195 pancreatic cancers were identified. No association was observed between folate intake and risk of pancreatic cancer in men and women (highest vs lowest quintile: dietary folate intake, pooled multivariable RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.90 to 1.25, Ptrend = .47; total folate intake [dietary folate and supplemental folic acid], pooled multivariable RR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.80 to 1.16, Ptrend = .90). No between-study heterogeneity was observed (for dietary folate, Pheterogeneity = .15; for total folate, Pheterogeneity = .22). Conclusion Folate intake was not associated with overall risk of pancreatic cancer in this large pooled analysis.

Bao, Ying; Michaud, Dominique S.; Spiegelman, Donna; Albanes, Demetrius; Anderson, Kristin E.; Bernstein, Leslie; van den Brandt, Piet A.; English, Dallas R.; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Giles, Graham G.; Giovannucci, Edward; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Hakansson, Niclas; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Kitahara, Cari M.; Marshall, James R.; Miller, Anthony B.; Robien, Kim; Rohan, Thomas E.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wolk, Alicja; Ziegler, Regina G.

2011-01-01

9

Meta- and pooled analysis of GSTT1 and lung cancer: a HuGE-GSEC review.  

PubMed

Lung cancer is the most common malignancy in the Western world, and the main risk factor is tobacco smoking. Polymorphisms in metabolic genes may modulate the risk associated with environmental factors. The glutathione S-transferase theta 1 gene (GSTT1) is a particularly attractive candidate for lung cancer susceptibility because of its involvement in the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in tobacco smoke and of other chemicals, pesticides, and industrial solvents. The frequency of the GSTT1 null genotype is lower among Caucasians (10-20%) than among Asians (50-60%). The authors present a meta- and a pooled analysis of case-control, genotype-based studies that examined the association between GSTT1 and lung cancer (34 studies, 7,629 cases and 10,087 controls for the meta-analysis; 34 studies, 7,044 cases and 10,000 controls for the pooled analysis). No association was observed between GSTT1 deletion and lung cancer for Caucasians (odds ratio (OR) = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87, 1.12); for Asians, a positive association was found (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.49). In the pooled analysis, the odds ratios were not significant for either Asians (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.83, 1.13) or Caucasians (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.21). No significant interaction was observed between GSTT1 and smoking on lung cancer, whereas GSTT1 appeared to modulate occupational-related lung cancer. PMID:17000715

Raimondi, S; Paracchini, V; Autrup, H; Barros-Dios, J M; Benhamou, S; Boffetta, P; Cote, M L; Dialyna, I A; Dolzan, V; Filiberti, R; Garte, S; Hirvonen, A; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, K; Imyanitov, E N; Kalina, I; Kang, D; Kiyohara, C; Kohno, T; Kremers, P; Lan, Q; London, S; Povey, A C; Rannug, A; Reszka, E; Risch, A; Romkes, M; Schneider, J; Seow, A; Shields, P G; Sobti, R C; Sørensen, M; Spinola, M; Spitz, M R; Strange, R C; Stücker, I; Sugimura, H; To-Figueras, J; Tokudome, S; Yang, P; Yuan, J-M; Warholm, M; Taioli, E

2006-09-25

10

ALCOHOL INTAKE AND PANCREATIC CANCER RISK: A POOLED ANALYSIS OF FOURTEEN COHORT STUDIES  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Few risk factors have been implicated in pancreatic cancer etiology. Alcohol has been theorized to promote carcinogenesis. However, epidemiologic studies have reported inconsistent results relating alcohol intake to pancreatic cancer risk. METHODS We conducted a pooled analysis of the primary data from 14 prospective cohort studies. The study sample consisted of 862,664 individuals among whom 2,187 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified. Study-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random effects model. RESULTS A slight positive association with pancreatic cancer risk was observed for alcohol intake (pooled multivariate RR =1.22, 95% CI 1.03–1.45 comparing ? 30 to 0 grams/day of alcohol; p-value, test for between-studies heterogeneity= 0.80). For this comparison, the positive association was only statistically significant among women although the difference in the results by gender was not statistically significant (p-value, test for interaction = 0.19). Slightly stronger results for alcohol intake were observed when we limited the analysis to cases with adenocarcinomas of the pancreas. No statistically significant associations were observed for alcohol from wine, beer, and spirits comparing intakes of ? 5 to 0 grams/day. A stronger positive association between alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer risk was observed among normal weight individuals compared to overweight and obese individuals (p-value, test for interaction = 0.01). DISCUSSION Our findings are consistent with a modest increase in risk of pancreatic cancer with consumption of 30 or more grams of alcohol per day.

Genkinger, Jeanine M.; Spiegelman, Donna; Anderson, Kristin E.; Bergkvist, Leif; Bernstein, Leslie; van den Brandt, Piet A.; English, Dallas R.; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Giles, Graham G.; Giovannucci, Edward; Hankinson, Susan E.; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; Leitzmann, Michael; Mannisto, Satu; Marshall, James R.; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Miller, Anthony B.; Reding, Douglas J.; Robien, Kim; Rohan, Thomas E.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Verhage, Bas AJ; Wolk, Alicja; Ziegler, Regina; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A.

2009-01-01

11

HPV type distribution in invasive cervical cancers in Italy: pooled analysis of three large studies  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence of HPV types in invasive cervical cancers in Italy from 1996 to 2008. Methods A pooled analysis of the three largest case series typed to date was performed. HPV typing was performed on paraffin-embedded slices. Molecular analyses were performed in four laboratories. Multivariate analyses were performed to test the associations between calendar time, age, and geographical area and the proportion of types 16/18. Results Out of 574 cancers, 24 (4.2%) were HPV negative. HPV 16 and 18 were responsible for 74.4% (378/508) and 80.3% (49/61) of the squamous cancers and adenocarcinomas, respectively. Other frequent types were 31 (9.5%), 45 (6.4%), and 58 (3.3%) for squamous cancers and 45 (13.3%), 31, 35, and 58 (5.0%) for adenocarcinomas. The proportion of HPV 16 and/or 18 decreased with age (p-value for trend <0.03), while it increased in cancers diagnosed in more recent years (p-value for trend?cancer will be greater for early onset cancers. In vaccinated women, screening could be started at an older age without reducing protection.

2012-01-01

12

Sinonasal cancer and occupational exposures: a pooled analysis of 12 case–control studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In order to examine the associations between sinonasal cancer and occupational exposures other than wood dust and leather dust, the data from 12 case–control studies conducted in seven countries were pooled and reanalyzed. Methods: The pooled data set included 195 adenocarcinoma cases (169 men and 26 women), 432 squamous cell carcinomas (330 men and 102 women), and 3136 controls

Danièle Luce; Annette Leclerc; Denis Bégin; Paul A. Demers; Michel Gérin; Ewa Orlowski; Manolis Kogevinas; Stefano Belli; Isabelle Bugel; Ulrich Bolm-Audorff; Louise A. Brinton; Pietro Comba; Lennart Hardell; Richard B. Hayes; Corrado Magnani; Enzo Merler; Susan Preston-Martin; Thomas L. Vaughan; Wei Zheng; Paolo Boffetta

2002-01-01

13

A Pooled Analysis of Thyroid Cancer Incidence Following Radiotherapy for Childhood Cancer  

PubMed Central

Childhood cancer five-year survival now exceeds 70–80%. Childhood exposure to radiation is a known thyroid carcinogen; however, data are limited for the evaluation of radiation dose-response at high doses, modifiers of the dose-response relationship and joint effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. To address these issues, we pooled two cohort and two nested case-control studies of childhood cancer survivors including 16,757 patients, with 187 developing primary thyroid cancer. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for thyroid cancer by treatment with alkylating agents, anthracyclines or bleomycin were 3.25 (0.9–14.9), 4.5 (1.4–17.8) and 3.2 (0.8–10.4), respectively, in patients without radiotherapy, and declined with greater radiation dose (RR trends, P = 0.02, 0.12 and 0.01, respectively). Radiation dose-related RRs increased approximately linearly for <10 Gy, leveled off at 10–15-fold for 10–30 Gy and then declined, but remained elevated for doses >50 Gy. The fitted RR at 10 Gy was 13.7 (95% CI: 8.0–24.0). Dose-related excess RRs increased with decreasing age at exposure (P < 0.01), but did not vary with attained age or time-since-exposure, remaining elevated 25+ years after exposure. Gender and number of treatments did not modify radiation effects. Thyroid cancer risks remained elevated many decades following radiotherapy, highlighting the need for continued follow up of childhood cancer survivors.

Veiga, Lene H. S.; Lubin, Jay H.; Anderson, Harald; de Vathaire, Florent; Tucker, Margaret; Bhatti, Parveen; Schneider, Arthur; Johansson, Robert; Inskip, Peter; Kleinerman, Ruth; Shore, Roy; Pottern, Linda; Holmberg, Erik; Hawkins, Michael M.; Adams, M. Jacob; Sadetzki, Siegal; Lundell, Marie; Sakata, Ritsu; Damber, Lena; Neta, Gila; Ron, Elaine

2012-01-01

14

Efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in metastatic colorectal cancer: pooled analysis from seven randomized controlled trials.  

PubMed

This analysis pooled individual patient data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to more thoroughly examine clinical outcomes when adding bevacizumab to chemotherapy for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Patients and Methods. Patient data were pooled from the first-line AVF2107, NO16966, ARTIST, AVF0780, AVF2192, and AGITG MAX RCTs and the second-line E3200 RCT. All analyses were based on the intent-to-treat population. To assess differences in time-to-event variables by treatment (chemotherapy with or without placebo vs. chemotherapy plus bevacizumab), stratified random-effects (overall) and fixed-effects (subgroup comparisons) models were used to estimate pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results. The analysis population comprised 3,763 patients (1,773 chemotherapy with or without placebo; 1,990 chemotherapy plus bevacizumab). The addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy was associated with statistically significant increases in overall survival (OS; HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.71-0.90) and progression-free survival (PFS; HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.46-0.71). The effects on OS and PFS across subgroups defined by chemotherapy backbone (oxaliplatin-based, irinotecan-based), extent of disease (liver metastases only, extensive disease), age (<65, ?65 years), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (0, ?1), and KRAS status (wild-type, mutant) were consistent with the overall analysis. Incidence rates of grade ?3 hypertension, proteinuria, bleeding, wound-healing complications, gastrointestinal perforations, and thromboembolic events were increased with bevacizumab treatment. Conclusion. The use of bevacizumab with chemotherapy resulted in statistically significant increases in OS and PFS for patients with mCRC. The PFS benefit extended across the clinically relevant subgroups examined. The observed safety profile of bevacizumab was consistent with that reported in individual trials. PMID:23881988

Hurwitz, Herbert I; Tebbutt, Niall C; Kabbinavar, Fairooz; Giantonio, Bruce J; Guan, Zhong-Zhen; Mitchell, Lada; Waterkamp, Daniel; Tabernero, Josep

2013-07-23

15

A Pooled Analysis of 12 Cohort Studies of Dietary Fat, Cholesterol and Egg Intake and Ovarian Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fat and cholesterol are theorized to promote ovarian carcinogenesis by increasing circulating estrogen levels. Although case–control\\u000a studies have reported positive associations between total and saturated fat intake and ovarian cancer risk, two cohort studies\\u000a have observed null associations. Dietary cholesterol and eggs have been positively associated with ovarian cancer risk. A\\u000a pooled analysis was conducted on 12 cohort studies. Among

Jeanine M. Genkinger; David J. Hunter; Donna Spiegelman; Kristin E. Anderson; W. Lawrence Beeson; Julie E. Buring; Graham A. Colditz; Gary E. Fraser; Jo L. Freudenheim; R. Alexandra Goldbohm; Susan E. Hankinson; Karen L. Koenig; Susanna C. Larsson; Michael Leitzmann; Marjorie L. McCullough; Anthony B. Miller; Carmen Rodriguez; Thomas E. Rohan; Julie A. Ross; Arthur Schatzkin; Leo J. Schouten; Ellen Smit; Walter C. Willett; Alicja Wolk; Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte; Shumin M. Zhang; Stephanie A. Smith-Warner

2006-01-01

16

Alcohol drinking and primary liver cancer: a pooled analysis of four Japanese cohort studies.  

PubMed

Because studies of the association between alcohol intake and the risk of primary liver cancer use varying cut-off points to classify alcohol intake, it is difficult to precisely quantify this association by meta-analysis of published data. Furthermore, there are limited data for women in prospective studies of the dose-specific relation of alcohol intake and the risk of primary liver cancer. We analyzed original data from 4 population-based prospective cohort studies encompassing 174,719 participants (89,863 men and 84,856 women). After adjustment for a common set of variables, we used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of primary liver cancer incidence according to alcohol intake. We conducted a meta-analysis of the HRs derived from each study. During 1,964,136 person-years of follow-up, 804 primary liver cancer cases (605 men and 199 women) were identified. In male drinkers, the multivariate-adjusted HRs (95% CI) for alcohol intakes of 0.1-22.9, 23.0-45.9, 46.0-68.9, 69.0-91.9 and ?92.0 g/day, as compared to occasional drinkers, were 0.88 (0.57-1.36), 1.06 (0.70-1.62), 1.07 (0.69-1.66), 1.76 (1.08-2.87) and 1.66 (0.98-2.82), respectively (p for trend = 0.015). In women, we observed a significantly increased risk among those who drank ?23.0 g/day, as compared to occasional drinkers (HR: 3.60; 95% CI: 1.22-10.66). This pooled analysis of data from large prospective studies in Japan indicates that avoidance of (1) heavy alcohol drinking (?69.0 g alcohol/day) in men and (2) moderate drinking (?23.0 g alcohol/day) in women may reduce the risk of primary liver cancer. PMID:21702041

Shimazu, Taichi; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Wakai, Kenji; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Tsuji, Ichiro; Sugawara, Yumi; Matsuo, Keitaro; Nagata, Chisato; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Keitaro; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

2011-08-12

17

Intake of fruits and vegetables and risk of pancreatic cancer in a pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies.  

PubMed

Fruit and vegetable intake may protect against pancreatic cancer, since fruits and vegetables are rich in potentially cancer-preventive nutrients. Most case-control studies have found inverse associations between fruit and vegetable intake and pancreatic cancer risk, although bias due to reporting error cannot be ruled out. In most prospective studies, inverse associations have been weaker and imprecise because of small numbers of cases. The authors examined fruit and vegetable intake in relation to pancreatic cancer risk in a pooled analysis of 14 prospective studies from North America, Europe, and Australia (study periods between 1980 and 2005). Relative risks and 2-sided 95% confidence intervals were estimated separately for the 14 studies using the Cox proportional hazards model and were then pooled using a random-effects model. Of 862,584 men and women followed for 7-20 years, 2,212 developed pancreatic cancer. The pooled multivariate relative risks of pancreatic cancer per 100-g/day increase in intake were 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99, 1.03) for total fruits and vegetables, 1.01 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.03) for total fruits, and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.06) for total vegetables. Associations were similar for men and women separately and across studies. These results suggest that fruit and vegetable intake during adulthood is not associated with a reduced pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:22875754

Koushik, Anita; Spiegelman, Donna; Albanes, Demetrius; Anderson, Kristin E; Bernstein, Leslie; van den Brandt, Piet A; Bergkvist, Leif; English, Dallas R; Freudenheim, Jo L; Fuchs, Charles S; Genkinger, Jeanine M; Giles, Graham G; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Männistö, Satu; McCullough, Marjorie L; Millen, Amy E; Miller, Anthony B; Robien, Kim; Rohan, Thomas E; Schatzkin, Arthur; Shikany, James M; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Willett, Walter C; Wolk, Alicja; Ziegler, Regina G; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A

2012-08-08

18

Hormone use and risk for lung cancer: a pooled analysis from the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO).  

PubMed

Background:The association between oral contraceptive (OC) use, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and lung cancer risk in women is still debated.Methods:We performed a pooled analysis of six case-control studies (1961 cases and 2609 controls) contributing to the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Potential associations were investigated with multivariable unconditional logistic regression and meta-analytic models. Multinomial logistic regressions were performed to investigate lung cancer risk across histologic types.Results:A reduced lung cancer risk was found for OC (odds ratio (OR)=0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68-0.97) and HRT ever users (OR=0.77; 95% CI: 0.66-0.90). Both oestrogen only and oestrogen+progestin HRT were associated with decreased risk (OR=0.76; 95% CI: 0.61-0.94, and OR=0.66; 95% CI: 0.49-0.88, respectively). No dose-response relationship was observed with years of OC/HRT use. The greatest risk reduction was seen for squamous cell carcinoma (OR=0.53; 95% CI: 0.37-0.76) in OC users and in both adenocarcinoma (OR=0.79; 95% CI: 0.66-0.95) and small cell carcinoma (OR=0.37; 95% CI: 0.19-0.71) in HRT users. No interaction with smoking status or BMI was observed.Conclusion:Our findings suggest that exogenous hormones can play a protective role in lung cancer aetiology. However, given inconsistencies with epidemiological evidence from cohort studies, further and larger investigations are needed for a more comprehensive view of lung cancer development in women. PMID:24002594

Pesatori, A C; Carugno, M; Consonni, D; Hung, R J; Papadoupolos, A; Landi, M T; Brenner, H; Müller, H; Harris, C C; Duell, E J; Andrew, A S; McLaughlin, J R; Schwartz, A G; Wenzlaff, A S; Stucker, I

2013-09-03

19

Alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis in the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4)  

PubMed Central

Background: Heavy alcohol drinking has been related to pancreatic cancer, but the issue is still unsolved. Methods: To evaluate the role of alcohol consumption in relation to pancreatic cancer, we conducted a pooled analysis of 10 case–control studies (5585 cases and 11 827 controls) participating in the International Pancreatic Cancer Case–Control Consortium. We computed pooled odds ratios (ORs) by estimating study-specific ORs adjusted for selected covariates and pooling them using random effects models. Results: Compared with abstainers and occasional drinkers (<1 drink per day), we observed no association for light-to-moderate alcohol consumption (?4 drinks per day) and pancreatic cancer risk; however, associations were above unity for higher consumption levels (OR = 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.2–2.2 for subjects drinking ?9 drinks per day). Results did not change substantially when we evaluated associations by tobacco smoking status, or when we excluded participants who reported a history of pancreatitis, or participants whose data were based upon proxy responses. Further, no notable differences in pooled risk estimates emerged across strata of sex, age, race, study type, and study area. Conclusion: This collaborative-pooled analysis provides additional evidence for a positive association between heavy alcohol consumption and the risk of pancreatic cancer.

Lucenteforte, E.; La Vecchia, C.; Silverman, D.; Petersen, G. M.; Bracci, P. M.; Ji, B. T.; Bosetti, C.; Li, D.; Gallinger, S.; Miller, A. B.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Talamini, R.; Polesel, J.; Ghadirian, P.; Baghurst, P. A.; Zatonski, W.; Fontham, E.; Bamlet, W. R.; Holly, E. A.; Gao, Y. T.; Negri, E.; Hassan, M.; Cotterchio, M.; Su, J.; Maisonneuve, P.; Boffetta, P.; Duell, E. J.

2012-01-01

20

Meta- and Pooled Analysis of GSTP1 Polymorphism and Lung Cancer: A HuGE-GSEC Review  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide. Polymorphisms in genes associated with carcinogen metabolism may modulate risk of disease. Glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP1) detoxifies polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and is the most highly expressed glutathione S-transferase in lung tissue. A polymorphism in the GSTP1 gene, an A-to-G transition in exon 5 (Ile105Val, 313A ? 313G), results in lower activity among individuals who carry the valine allele. The authors present a meta- and a pooled analysis of case-control studies that examined the association between this polymorphism in GSTP1 and lung cancer risk (27 studies, 8,322 cases and 8,844 controls and 15 studies, 4,282 cases and 5,032 controls, respectively). Overall, the meta-analysis found no significant association between lung cancer risk and the GSTP1 exon 5 polymorphism. In the pooled analysis, there was an overall association (odds ratio?=?1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.21) between lung cancer and carriage of the GSTP1 Val/Val or Ile/Val genotype compared with those carrying the Ile/Ile genotype. Increased risk varied by histologic type in Asians. There appears to be evidence for interaction between amount of smoking, the GSTP1 exon 5 polymorphism, and risk of lung cancer in whites.

Chen, Wei; Smith, Daryn W.; Benhamou, Simone; Bouchardy, Christine; Butkiewicz, Dorota; Fong, Kwun M.; Gene, Manuel; Hirvonen, Ari; Kiyohara, Chikako; Larsen, Jill E.; Lin, Pinpin; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Povey, Andrew C.; Reszka, Edyta; Risch, Angela; Schneider, Joachim; Schwartz, Ann G.; Sorensen, Mette; To-Figueras, Jordi; Tokudome, Shinkan; Pu, Yuepu; Yang, Ping; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Wikman, Harriet; Taioli, Emanuela

2009-01-01

21

Cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and thyroid cancer risk: a pooled analysis of five prospective studies in the United States  

PubMed Central

Objective We examined the associations between cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and thyroid cancer risk in a pooled analysis of five prospective studies. Methods Data from five prospective U.S. studies were standardized and then combined into one aggregate dataset (384,433 men and 361,664 women). Pooled hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for thyroid cancer were estimated from mutually-adjusted models of cigarette smoking and alcohol intake, which were additionally adjusted for age, sex, education, race, marital status, body mass index, and cohort. Results Over follow-up, 1,003 incident thyroid cancer cases (335 men and 668 women) were identified. Compared to never smokers, current smoking was associated with reduced risk of thyroid cancer (HR=0.68, 95% CI:0.55-0.85); this association was slightly stronger among non-drinkers (HR=0.46, 95% CI:0.29-0.74). No reduction in risk was observed for former, compared to never, smokers. Greater smoking intensity, duration, and pack-years were associated with further reductions in risk among former and current smokers. Alcohol intake was also inversely associated with thyroid cancer risk (?7 drinks/week versus 0, HR=0.72, 95% CI:0.58-0.90, P-trend=0.002). Inverse associations with smoking and alcohol were more pronounced for papillary versus follicular tumors. Conclusion The results of this pooled analysis suggest that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption are associated with reduced risks of papillary thyroid cancer and, possibly, follicular thyroid cancer.

Kitahara, Cari M.; Linet, Martha S.; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Check, David P.; Church, Timothy R.; Park, Yikyung; Purdue, Mark P.; Schairer, Catherine; de Gonzalez, Amy Berrington

2012-01-01

22

Birth order and Risk of Childhood Cancer: A Pooled Analysis from Five U.S. States  

PubMed Central

The causes of childhood cancers are largely unknown. Birth order has been used as a proxy for prenatal and postnatal exposures, such as frequency of infections and in utero hormone exposures. We investigated the association between birth order and childhood cancers in a pooled case-control dataset. The subjects were drawn from population-based registries of cancers and births in California, Minnesota, New York, Texas, and Washington. We included 17,672 cases less than 15 years of age who were diagnosed from1980-2004 and 57,966 randomly selected controls born 1970-2004, excluding children with Down syndrome. We calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using logistic regression, adjusted for sex, birth year, maternal race, maternal age, multiple birth, gestational age, and birth weight. Overall, we found an inverse relationship between childhood cancer risk and birth order. For children in the fourth or higher birth order category compared to first-born children, the adjusted OR was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.93) for all cancers combined. When we examined risks by cancer type, a decreasing risk with increasing birth order was seen in the central nervous system (CNS) tumors, neuroblastoma, bilateral retinoblastoma, Wilms tumor, and rhabdomyosarcoma. We observed increased risks with increasing birth order for acute myeloid leukemia but a slight decrease in risk for acute lymphoid leukemia. These risk estimates were based on a very large sample size which allowed us to examine rare cancer types with greater statistical power than in most previous studies, however the biologic mechanisms remain to be elucidated.

Von Behren, Julie; Spector, Logan G.; Mueller, Beth A.; Carozza, Susan E.; Chow, Eric J.; Fox, Erin E.; Horel, Scott; Johnson, Kimberly J.; McLaughlin, Colleen; Puumala, Susan E.; Ross, Julie A.; Reynolds, Peggy

2010-01-01

23

Cigarette smoking and the risk of gastric cancer: a pooled analysis of two prospective studies in Japan.  

PubMed

To examine the association between cigarette smoking and the risk of gastric cancer, we conducted a pooled analysis of 2 population-based prospective cohort studies in rural northern Japan. Cohort 1 included 9,980 men (>or=40 years old) and Cohort 2 included 19,412 men (40-64 years old). The subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire on cigarette smoking and other health habits. We identified 228 cases of gastric cancer among Cohort 1 subjects (9 years of follow-up with 74,073 person-years) and 223 among Cohort 2 subjects (7 years of follow-up with 141,675 person-years). From each cohort, we computed the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of gastric cancer associated with smoking using a Cox regression analysis and pooled these estimates to obtain summary measures. The pooled multivariate RRs (95% CIs) for current smokers and past smokers compared to subjects who had never smoked were 1.84 (1.39-2.43) and 1.77 (1.29-2.43), respectively. The higher number of cigarettes smoked per day among current smokers was associated with a linear increase in risk (trend p < 0.05). The significant increase in risk for past smokers remained for up to 14 years after cessation. An increased risk was noted for cancer of the antrum but not for cardia or body lesions. The risk was increased for both differentiated and nondifferentiated histologic subtypes. Our findings support the hypothesis that cigarette smoking is a risk factor for gastric cancer. PMID:15386347

Koizumi, Yayoi; Tsubono, Yoshitaka; Nakaya, Naoki; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Shibuya, Daisuke; Matsuoka, Hiroo; Tsuji, Ichiro

2004-12-20

24

The association between polymorphisms in the leptin receptor gene and risk of breast cancer: a systematic review and pooled analysis.  

PubMed

Many epidemiological studies have found that leptin correlates to body fat extent and breast cancer. Leptin exerts its physiological action through the leptin receptor (LEPR). However, published data on the association between LEPR alleles and breast cancer occurrence have led to in contradictory results. A total of 10 studies were identified to the meta-analysis, including 4,644 cases and 5,485 controls for LEPR rs1137101 polymorphism, 5 studies with 2,759 cases and 4,464 controls for rs1137100 polymorphism, and 2 studies for rs8051542, rs8051542, and rs8051542 polymorphisms. The pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for breast cancer risk associated with LEPR genotypes were estimated. Elevated breast cancer risk was associated with LEPR rs1137101 polymorphism when all studies were pooled in the meta-analysis (allele contrast model: OR = 0.71, 95 % CI = 0.551-0.997). In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, significantly increased risks were also found among Asians for allele contrast model (OR 0.414, 95 % CI 0.312-0.550) and dominant model (OR 0.537, 95 % CI 0.370-0.781); for Africans, significantly increased risks were also found for allele contrast model (OR 0.716, 95 % CI 0.595-0.861), homozygote codominant (OR 0.537, 95 % CI 0.370-0.781) and dominant model (OR 1.595, 95 % CI 1.207-2.108). And significantly elevated breast cancer risk was associated with LEPR rs1137100 polymorphism for allele contrast (OR = 0.666, 95 % CI = 0.603-0.720) and homozygote codominant models (OR = 0.344, 95 % CI = 0.282-0.421). For LEPR rs8179183, rs4655537, and rs3762274 polymorphisms, no significant associations were detected in all comparison models. This pooled analysis suggested that rs1137101 and rs1137100 polymorphisms were significantly correlated with breast cancer risk and the A allele of LEPR rs1137101 variant and the G allele of LEPR rs1137100 variant were low-penetrant risk factors for developing breast cancer. Further, no significant associations existed between LEPR rs8179183, rs4655537, and rs3762274 polymorphisms and risk of breast cancer. PMID:22983835

Wang, Li-qiang; Shen, Wei; Xu, Lan; Chen, Min-Bin; Gong, Ting; Lu, Pei-Hua; Tao, Guo-Qing

2012-09-15

25

Lung cancer risk among hairdressers: a pooled analysis of case-control studies conducted between 1985 and 2010.  

PubMed

Increased lung cancer risks among hairdressers were observed in large registry-based cohort studies from Scandinavia, but these studies could not adjust for smoking. Our objective was to evaluate the lung cancer risk among hairdressers while adjusting for smoking and other confounders in a pooled database of 16 case-control studies conducted in Europe, Canada, China, and New Zealand between 1985 and 2010 (the Pooled Analysis of Case-Control Studies on the Joint Effects of Occupational Carcinogens in the Development of Lung Cancer). Lifetime occupational and smoking information was collected through interviews with 19,369 cases of lung cancer and 23,674 matched population or hospital controls. Overall, 170 cases and 167 controls had ever worked as hairdresser or barber. The odds ratios for lung cancer in women were 1.65 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 2.35) without adjustment for smoking and 1.12 (95% CI: 0.75, 1.68) with adjustment for smoking; however, women employed before 1954 also experienced an increased lung cancer risk after adjustment for smoking (odds ratio = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.09, 6.47). The odds ratios in male hairdressers/barbers were generally not elevated, except for an increased odds ratio for adenocarcinoma in long-term barbers (odds ratio = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.02, 4.77). Our results suggest that the increased lung cancer risks among hairdressers are due to their smoking behavior; single elevated risk estimates should be interpreted with caution and need replication in other studies. PMID:24068200

Olsson, Ann C; Xu, Yiwen; Schüz, Joachim; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Peters, Susan; Stücker, Isabelle; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Consonni, Dario; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun; Siemiatycki, Jack; Richardson, Lesley; Mirabelli, Dario; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Simonato, Lorenzo; Gustavsson, Per; Plato, Nils; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Tardón, Adonina; Zaridze, David; Marcus, Michael W; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Pearce, Neil; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Boffetta, Paolo; Fortes, Cristina; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Kendzia, Benjamin; Behrens, Thomas; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas; Straif, Kurt

2013-09-25

26

Pooled Analysis of Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase Pathway Variants and Risk of Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway regulates various cellular processes, including cellular proliferation and intracellular trafficking and may impact prostate carcinogenesis. Thus, we explored the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PI3K genes and prostate cancer. Pooled data from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium were examined for associations between 89 SNPs in PI3K genes (PIK3C2B, PIK3AP1, PIK3C2A, PIK3CD, and PIK3R3) and prostate cancer risk in 8,309 cases and 9,286 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression. SNP rs7556371 in PIK3C2B was significantly associated with prostate cancer risk (ORper allele=1.08 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.14), p-trend = 0.0017) after adjustment for multiple testing (Padj=0.024). Simultaneous adjustment of rs7556371 for nearby SNPs strengthened the association (ORper allele=1.21 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.34); p-trend =0.0003). The adjusted association was stronger for men who were diagnosed before 65 years (ORper allele= 1.47 (95% CI: 1.20, 1.79), p-trend = 0.0001) or had a family history (ORper allele= 1.57 (95% CI: 1.11, 2.23), p-trend = 0.0114), and was strongest in those with both characteristics (ORper allele= 2.31 (95% CI: 1.07, 5.07), p-interaction = 0.005). Increased risks were observed among men in the top tertile of circulating insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels (ORper allele= 1.46 (95% CI: 1.04, 2.06), p-trend=0.075). No differences were observed with disease aggressiveness (?8/stage T3/T4/fatal). In conclusion, we observed a significant association between PIK3C2B and prostate cancer risk, especially for familial, early onset disease, which may be attributable to IGF-dependent PI3K signaling.

Koutros, Stella; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Hayes, Richard B.; Ma, Jing; Huang, Wen-Yi; Albanes, Demetrius; Canzian, Federico; Chanock, Stephen J.; Crawford, E. David; Diver, W. Ryan; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Giovanucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hunter, David J.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kraft, Peter; Le Marchand, Loic; Riboli, Elio; Siddiq, Afshan; Stampfer, Mier J.; Stram, Daniel O.; Thomas, Gilles; Travis, Ruth C.; Thun, Michael J.; Yeager, Meredith; Berndt, Sonja I.

2010-01-01

27

Thyroid cancer after exposure to external radiation: A pooled analysis of seven studies  

SciTech Connect

The thyroid gland of children is especially vulnerable to the carcinogenic action of ionizing radiation. To provide insights into various modifying influences on risk, seven major studies with organ doses to individual subjects were evaluated. Five cohort studies (atomic bomb survivors, children treated for tinea capitis, two studies of children irradiated for enlarged tonsils, and infants irradiated for an enlarged thymus gland) and two case-control studies (patients with cervical cancer and childhood cancer) were studied. The combined studies include almost 120,000 people (approximately 58,000 exposed to a wide range of doses and 61,000 nonexposed subjects), nearly 700 thyroid cancers and 3,000,000 person years of follow-up. For persons exposed to radiation before age 15 years, linearity best described the dose response, even down to 0.10 Gy. At the highest doses (>10 Gy), associated with cancer therapy, there appeared to be a decrease or leveling of risk. For childhood exposures, the pooled excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy) was 7.7 (95% CI = 2.1, 28.7) and the excess absolute risk per 10{sup 4} PY Gy (EAR/10{sup 4} PY Gy) was 4.4 (95% CI = 1.9, 10.1). The attributable risk percent (AR%) at 1 Gy was 88%. However, these summary estimates were affected strongly by age at exposure even within this limited age range. The ERR was greater (P = 0.07) for females than males, but the findings from the individual studies were not consistent. The EAR was higher among women, reflecting their higher rate of naturally occurring thyroid cancer. The distribution of ERR over time followed neither a simple multiplicative nor an additive pattern in relation to background occurrence. Only two cases were seen within 5 years of exposure. The ERR began to decline about 30 years after exposure but was still elevated at 40 years. Risk also decreased significantly with increasing age at exposure, with little risk apparent after age 20 years. 56 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

Ron, E.; Lubin, J.H.; Pottern, L.M.; Tucker, M.A.; Boice, J.D. Jr. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Shore, R.E. [New York University Medical Center, NY (United States); Mabuchi, Kiyohiko [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Modan, B. [Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (Israel); Schneider, A.B. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

1995-03-01

28

Estrogen Receptor Beta rs1271572 Polymorphism and Invasive Ovarian Carcinoma Risk: Pooled Analysis within the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium  

PubMed Central

The association of ovarian carcinoma risk with the polymorphism rs1271572 in the estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) gene was examined in 4946 women with primary invasive ovarian carcinoma and 6582 controls in a pooled analysis of ten case-control studies within the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). All participants were non-Hispanic white women. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for site and age. Women with the TT genotype were at increased risk of ovarian carcinoma compared to carriers of the G allele (OR?=?1.10; 95%; CI: 1.01–1.21; p?=?0.04); the OR was 1.09 (CI: 0.99–1.20; p?=?0.07) after excluding data from the center (Hawaii) that nominated this SNP for OCAC genotyping A stronger association of rs1271572 TT versus GT/GG with risk was observed among women aged ?50 years versus older women (OR?=?1.35; CI: 1.12–1.62; p?=?0.002; p for interaction?=?0.02) that remained statistically significant after excluding Hawaii data (OR?=?1.34; CI: 1.11–1.61; p?=?0.009). No heterogeneity of the association was observed by study, menopausal status, gravidity, parity, use of contraceptive or menopausal hormones, tumor histological type, or stage at diagnosis. This pooled analysis suggests that rs1271572 might influence the risk of ovarian cancer, in particular among younger women.

Lurie, Galina; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Matsuno, Rayna K.; Carney, Michael E.; Palmieri, Rachel T.; Wu, Anna H.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Pearce, Celeste L.; Menon, Usha; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Gayther, Simon A.; Ramus, Susan J.; Whittemore, Alice S.; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Song, Honglin; Gronwald, Jacek; Jakubowska, Anna; Cybulski, Cezary; Lubinski, Jan; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Berchuck, Andrew; Kruger Kjaer, Susanne; H?gdall, Estrid; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Hein, Alexander; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Webb, Penelope M.; Beesley, Jonathan; Goodman, Marc T.

2011-01-01

29

The association between two polymorphisms in the TS gene and risk of cancer: a systematic review and pooled analysis.  

PubMed

Thymidylate synthase (TS) is an important enzyme involved in folate metabolism and catalyzes methylation of deoxyuridine monophosphate to deoxythymidine monophosphate, which is essential for DNA replication. Thymidylate synthase enhancer region (TSER) and TS1494del6, two functionally important and ethnically diverse polymorphisms mapping to its gene region, are the most extensively studied. Considering the potential influence of altering TS activity, it is plausible that TS polymorphisms might play a role in the development of cancer. Although the effects of TS polymorphisms on susceptibility to human cancer have been investigated in many studies, the results remain conflicting rather than conclusive. To resolve these conflicts, we performed a quantitative synthesis of the evidence on the association between these two polymorphisms and cancer risk, including 63 studies (19,707 cases and 27,398 controls) for TSER polymorphism and 39 studies (13,489 cases and 16,297 controls) for TS1494del6 polymorphism. Our meta-analysis suggested that these two polymorphisms are not associated with cancer risk when all studies were pooled together. In the stratified analyses, we found that individuals with 2R/2R genotype had a significantly higher cancer risks among Asians (2R/2R vs. 3R/3R: odds ratio [OR] = 1.24, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.05-1.45; recessive model: OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.05-1.44). Further analyses revealed that 2R/2R genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of gastroesophageal cancer among Asians, whereas it might provide protecting effects against colorectal cancer risk in a dominant genetic model for Caucasians. Additionally, TS1494del6 polymorphism may contribute to genetic susceptibility of breast cancer among Asians. PMID:22307944

Zhou, Jue-Yu; Shi, Rong; Yu, Hai-Lang; Zeng, Ye; Zheng, Wen-Ling; Ma, Wen-Li

2012-03-15

30

Allergies and risk of pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis from the pancreatic cancer case-control consortium.  

PubMed

In order to quantify the risk of pancreatic cancer associated with history of any allergy and specific allergies, to investigate differences in the association with risk according to age, gender, smoking status, or body mass index, and to study the influence of age at onset, we pooled data from 10 case-control studies. In total, there were 3,567 cases and 9,145 controls. Study-specific odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, smoking status, and body mass index. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed by using the Cochran Q statistic. Study-specific odds ratios were pooled by using a random-effects model. The odds ratio for any allergy was 0.79 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62, 1.00) with heterogeneity among studies (P < 0.001). Heterogeneity was attributable to one study; with that study excluded, the pooled odds ratio was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.84) (Pheterogeneity = 0.23). Hay fever (odds ratio = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.96) and allergy to animals (odds ratio = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.94) were related to lower risk, while there was no statistically significant association with other allergies or asthma. There were no major differences among subgroups defined by age, gender, smoking status, or body mass index. Older age at onset of allergies was slightly more protective than earlier age. PMID:23820785

Olson, Sara H; Hsu, Meier; Satagopan, Jaya M; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Silverman, Debra T; Lucenteforte, Ersilia; Anderson, Kristin E; Borgida, Ayelet; Bracci, Paige M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Cotterchio, Michelle; Dai, Qi; Duell, Eric J; Fontham, Elizabeth H; Gallinger, Steven; Holly, Elizabeth A; Ji, Bu-Tian; Kurtz, Robert C; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lowenfels, Albert B; Luckett, Brian; Ludwig, Emmy; Petersen, Gloria M; Polesel, Jerry; Seminara, Daniela; Strayer, Lori; Talamini, Renato

2013-07-02

31

COFFEE AND TEA INTAKE AND RISK OF HEAD AND NECK CANCER: POOLED ANALYSIS IN THE INTERNATIONAL HEAD AND NECK CANCER EPIDEMIOLOGY CONSORTIUM  

PubMed Central

Background Only a few studies have explored the relation between coffee and tea intake and head and neck (HN) cancers, with inconsistent results. Methods We pooled individual-level data from nine case-control studies of HN cancers, including 5139 cases and 9028 controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusting for potential confounders. Results Caffeinated coffee intake was inversely related with the risk of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx (OP): the ORs were 0.96 (95% CI 0.94–0.98) for an increment of one cup per day and 0.61 (95% CI 0.47–0.80) in drinkers of >4 cups per day vs. non-drinkers. This latter estimate was consistent for different anatomical sites (ORs were 0.46, 95%CI 0.30–0.71 for oral cavity, 0.58, 95% CI 0.41–0.82 for oropharyngeal/hypopharyngeal and 0.61, 95% CI 0.37–1.01 for OP not otherwise specified), and across strata of selected covariates. No association of caffeinated coffee drinking was found with laryngeal cancer (OR=0.96, 95% CI 0.64–1.45 in drinkers of >4 cups per day vs. non-drinkers). Data on decaffeinated coffee were too sparse for detailed analysis, but indicated no increased risk. Tea intake was not associated with HN cancer risk (OR=0.99, 95% CI 0.89–1.11 for drinkers vs. non-drinkers). Conclusions This pooled-analysis of case-control studies support the hypothesis of an inverse association between caffeinated coffee drinking and OP cancer risk. Impact Given widespread use of coffee and the relatively high incidence and low survival of HN cancers, the observed inverse association may have appreciable public health relevance.

Galeone, Carlotta; Tavani, Alessandra; Pelucchi, Claudio; Turati, Federica; Winn, Deborah M.; Levi, Fabio; Yu, Guo-Pei; Morgenstern, Hal; Kelsey, Karl; Maso, Luigino Dal; Purdue, Mark P.; McClean, Michael; Talamini, Renato; Hayes, Richard B.; Franceschi, Silvia; Schantz, Stimson; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Ferro, Gilles; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Boffetta, Paolo; La Vecchia, Carlo; Hashibe, Mia

2011-01-01

32

Proposing the lymphatic target volume for elective radiation therapy for pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis of clinical evidence  

PubMed Central

Background Radiation therapy is an important cancer treatment modality in both adjuvant and definitive setting, however, the use of radiation therapy for elective treatment of regional lymph nodes is controversial for pancreatic cancer. No consensus on proper selection and delineation of subclinical lymph nodal areas in adjuvant or definitive radiation therapy has been suggested either conclusively or proposed for further investigation. This analysis aims to study the pattern of lymph node metastasis through a pooled analysis of published results after radical tumor and lymph nodal resection with histological study in pancreatic cancer. Methods Literature search using electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CANCERLIT from January 1970 to June 2009 was performed, supplemented by review of references. Eighteen original researches and a total of 5954 pancreatic cancer patients underwent radical surgical resection were included in this analysis. The probability of metastasis in regional lymph nodal stations (using Japan Pancreas Society [JPS] Classification) was calculated and analyzed based on the location and other characteristics of the primary disease. Results Commonly involved nodal regions in patients with pancreatic head tumor include lymph nodes around the common hepatic artery (Group 8, 9.79%), posterior pancreaticoduodenal lymph nodes (Group 13, 32.31%), lymph nodes around the superior mesenteric artery (Group 14, 15.85%), paraaortic lymph nodes (Group 16, 10.92%), and anterior pancreaticoduodenal lymph nodes (Group 17, 19.78%); The probability of metastasis in other lymph nodal regions were <9%. Commonly involved nodal regions in patients with pancreatic body/tail tumor include lymph nodes around the common hepatic artery (Group 8, 15.07%), lymph nodes around the celiac trunk (Group 9, 9.59%), lymph nodes along the splenic artery (Group 11, 35.62%), lymph nodes around the superior mesenteric artery (Group 14, 9.59%), paraaortic lymph nodes (Group 16, 16.44%), and inferior body lymph nodes (Group 18, 24.66%). The probability of metastasis in other lymph nodal regions were <9%. Conclusions Pancreatic cancer has a high propensity of regional lymphatic metastases; however, clear patterns including the site and probability of metastasis can be identified and used as a guide of treatment in patients with resectable pancreatic cancer. Further clinical investigation is needed to study the efficacy of elective treatment to CTV defined based on these patterns using high-dose conformal or intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

2010-01-01

33

Associations of Breast Cancer Risk Factors With Tumor Subtypes: A Pooled Analysis From the Breast Cancer Association Consortium Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have suggested that breast cancer risk factors are associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression status of the tumors. Methods We pooled tumor marker and epidemiological risk factor data from 35?568 invasive breast cancer case patients from 34 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Logistic regression models were used in case–case analyses to estimate associations between epidemiological risk factors and tumor subtypes, and case–control analyses to estimate associations between epidemiological risk factors and the risk of developing specific tumor subtypes in 12 population-based studies. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results In case–case analyses, of the epidemiological risk factors examined, early age at menarche (?12 years) was less frequent in case patients with PR? than PR+ tumors (P = .001). Nulliparity (P = 3 × 10?6) and increasing age at first birth (P = 2 × 10?9) were less frequent in ER? than in ER+ tumors. Obesity (body mass index [BMI] ? 30 kg/m2) in younger women (?50 years) was more frequent in ER?/PR? than in ER+/PR+ tumors (P = 1 × 10?7), whereas obesity in older women (>50 years) was less frequent in PR? than in PR+ tumors (P = 6 × 10?4). The triple-negative (ER?/PR?/HER2?) or core basal phenotype (CBP; triple-negative and cytokeratins [CK]5/6+ and/or epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR]+) accounted for much of the heterogeneity in parity-related variables and BMI in younger women. Case–control analyses showed that nulliparity, increasing age at first birth, and obesity in younger women showed the expected associations with the risk of ER+ or PR+ tumors but not triple-negative (nulliparity vs parity, odds ratio [OR] = 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75 to 1.19, P = .61; 5-year increase in age at first full-term birth, OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.86 to 1.05, P = .34; obesity in younger women, OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 0.95 to 1.94, P = .09) or CBP tumors. Conclusions This study shows that reproductive factors and BMI are most clearly associated with hormone receptor–positive tumors and suggest that triple-negative or CBP tumors may have distinct etiology.

Chang-Claude, Jenny; Goode, Ellen L.; Couch, Fergus J.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Milne, Roger L.; Gaudet, Mia; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Cox, Angela; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Rebecca; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Blows, Fiona; Driver, Kristy; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Heinz, Judith; Sinn, Peter; Vrieling, Alina; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Heikkila, Paivi; Blomqvist, Carl; Lissowska, Jolanta; Peplonska, Beata; Chanock, Stephen; Figueroa, Jonine; Brinton, Louise; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Liu, Jianjun; Van 't Veer, Laura J.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Knight, Julia A.; Mulligan, Anna Marie; O'Malley, Frances P.; Weerasooriya, Nayana; John, Esther M.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Hartmann, Arndt; Weihbrecht, Sebastian B.; Wachter, David L.; Jud, Sebastian M.; Loehberg, Christian R.; Baglietto, Laura; English, Dallas R.; Giles, Graham G.; McLean, Catriona A.; Severi, Gianluca; Lambrechts, Diether; Vandorpe, Thijs; Weltens, Caroline; Paridaens, Robert; Smeets, Ann; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E.; Cafourek, Victoria; Fredericksen, Zachary; Kosel, Matthew; Vachon, Celine; Cramp, Helen E.; Connley, Daniel; Cross, Simon S.; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Dork, Thilo; Bremer, Michael; Meyer, Andreas; Karstens, Johann H.; Ay, Aysun; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Hillemanns, Peter; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Rodriguez, Primitiva Menendez; Zamora, Pilar; Benitez, Javier; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Hamann, Ute; Pesch, Beate; Bruning, Thomas; Justenhoven, Christina; Brauch, Hiltrud; Eccles, Diana M.; Tapper, William J.; Gerty, Sue M.; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian P.; Jones, Angela; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; McInerney, Niall; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Chen, Shou-Tung; Hsu, Giu-Cheng; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Gorski, Bohdan; Gronwald, Jacek; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Jager, Agnes; Kriege, Mieke; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M. A.; Collee, Margriet; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Pylkas, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Mononen, Kari; Grip, Mervi; Hirvikoski, Pasi; Winqvist, Robert; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kauppinen, Jaana; Kataja, Vesa; Auvinen, Paivi; Soini, Ylermi; Sironen, Reijo; Bojesen, Stig E.; Dynnes ?rsted, David; Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, B?rge G.; Holland, Helene; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Radice, Paolo; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hunter, David J.; Tamimi, Rulla; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Odefrey, Fabrice; Gaborieau, Valerie; Devilee, Peter; Huijts, P.E.A.; Tollenaar, RAEM.; Seynaeve, C.; Dite, Gillian S.; Apicella, Carmel; Hopper, John L.; Hammet, Fleur; Tsimiklis, Helen; Smith, Letitia D.; Southey, Melissa C.; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Easton, Douglas; Pharoah, Paul; Sherman, Mark E.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

2011-01-01

34

Meat and dairy food consumption and breast cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background More than 20 studies have investigated the relation between meat and dairy food consumption and breast cancer risk with conflicting results. Our objective was to evaluate the risk of breast cancer associated with meat and dairy food consump- tion and to assess whether non-dietary risk factors modify the relation. Methods We combined the primary data from eight prospective cohort

Stacey A Missmer; Stephanie A Smith-Warner; Donna Spiegelman; Shiaw-Shyuan Yaun; P. A. van den Brandt

2002-01-01

35

Increased risk of lung cancer in individuals with a family history of the disease: A pooled analysis from the International Lung Cancer Consortium  

PubMed Central

Background and Methods Familial aggregation of lung cancer exists after accounting for cigarette smoking. However, the extent to which family history affects risk by smoking status, histology, relative type and ethnicity is not well described. This pooled analysis included 24 case-control studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Each study collected age of onset/interview, gender, race/ethnicity, cigarette smoking, histology and first-degree family history of lung cancer. Data from 24,380 lung cancer cases and 23,305 healthy controls were analyzed. Unconditional logistic regression models and generalized estimating equations were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results Individuals with a first-degree relative with lung cancer had a 1.51-fold increase in risk of lung cancer, after adjustment for smoking and other potential confounders(95% CI: 1.39, 1.63). The association was strongest for those with a family history in a sibling, after adjustment (OR=1.82, 95% CI: 1.62, 2.05). No modifying effect by histologic type was found. Never smokers showed a lower association with positive familial history of lung cancer (OR=1.25, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.52), slightly stronger for those with an affected sibling (OR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.93), after adjustment. Conclusions The increased risk among never smokers and similar magnitudes of the effect of family history on lung cancer risk across histological types suggests familial aggregation of lung cancer is independent of those associated with cigarette smoking. While the role of genetic variation in the etiology of lung cancer remains to be fully characterized, family history assessment is immediately available and those with a positive history represent a higher risk group.

Cote, Michele L.; Liu, Mei; Bonassi, Stefano; Neri, Monica; Schwartz, Ann G.; Christiani, David C.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Muscat, Joshua E.; Rennert, Gad; Aben, Katja K.; Andrew, Angeline S.; Bencko, Vladimir; Bickeboller, Heike; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Brenner, Hermann; Duell, Eric J.; Fabianova, Eleonora; Field, John K.; Foretova, Lenka; Friis, S?ren; Harris, Curtis C.; Holcatova, Ivana; Hong, Yun-Chul; Isla, Dolores; Janout, Vladimir; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Kiyohara, Chikako; Lan, Qing; Lazarus, Philip; Lissowska, Jolanta; Marchand, Loic Le; Mates, Dana; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mayordomo, Jose I.; McLaughlin, John R.; Morgenstern, Hal; Mueller, Heiko; Orlow, Irene; Park, Bernard J.; Pinchev, Mila; Raji, Olaide Y.; Rennert, Hedy S.; Rudnai, Peter; Seow, Adeline; Stucker, Isabelle; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Teare, M. Dawn; Tj?nnelan, Anne; Ugolini, Donatella; van der Heijden, Henricus F.M.; Wichmann, Erich; Wiencke, John K.; Woll, Penella J.; Yang, Ping; Zaridze, David; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Etzel, Carol J.; Hung, Rayjean J.

2012-01-01

36

Risk factors for medullary thyroid carcinoma: a pooled analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate risk factors for medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Methods: We conducted a pooled analysis of 14 case–control studies from Europe, North America, and Asia, including 67 medullary cancers (43 women and 24 men) diagnosed in ten studies. Of the original 4776, we selected five controls per case matched on study, gender, and age. The pooled odds ratios (OR)

Eva Negri; Elaine Ron; Silvia Franceschi; Carlo La Vecchia; Susan Preston-Martin; Laurence Kolonel; Ruth A. Kleinerman; Kiyohiko Mabuchi; Fan Jin; Gun Wingren; Arne Hallquist; Fabio Levi; Athena Linos; Joseph F. Fraumeni

2002-01-01

37

Familial Aggregation of Glioma: A Pooled Analysis  

PubMed Central

In genome-wide association studies, inherited risk of glioma has been demonstrated for rare familial syndromes and with common variants from 3–5 chromosomal regions. To assess the degree of familial aggregation of glioma, the authors performed a pooled analysis of data from 2 large glioma case-control studies in the United States (MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (1994–2006) and University of California, San Francisco (1991–2004)) and from the Swedish Cancer Registry (1958–2006) to measure excess cases of cancer among first-degree relatives of glioma probands. This analysis included 20,377 probands with glioma and 52,714 first-degree relatives. No overall increase was found in the expected number of cancers among family members; however, there were 77% more gliomas than expected. There were also significantly more sarcoma and melanoma cases than expected, which is supported by evidence in the literature, whereas there were significantly fewer-than-expected cases of leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and bladder, lung, pancreatic, prostate, and uterine cancers. This large pooled analysis provided sufficient numbers of related family members to examine the genetic mechanisms involved in the aggregation of glioma with other cancers in these families. However, misclassification due to unvalidated cancers among family members could account for the differences seen by study site.

Scheurer, Michael E.; Etzel, Carol J.; Liu, Mei; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Wiklund, Fredrik; Tavelin, Bjorn; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Melin, Beatrice S.; Bondy, Melissa L.

2010-01-01

38

Pooled Bayesian analysis of twenty-eight studies on radon induced lung cancers.  

PubMed

The influence of ionizing radiation of (222)Rn and its progeny on lung cancer risks that were published in 28 papers was re-analyzed using seven alternative dose-response models. The risks of incidence and mortality were studied in two ranges of low annual radiation dose: 0-70 mSv per year (391 Bq m(-3)) and 0-150 mSv per year (838 Bq m(-3)). Assumption-free Bayesian statistical methods were used. The analytical results demonstrate that the published incidence and mortality data do not show that radiation dose is associated with increased risk in this range of doses. This conclusion is based on the observation that the model assuming no dependence of the lung cancer induction on the radiation doses is at least ?90 times more likely to be true than the other models tested, including the linear no-threshold (LNT) model. PMID:21799343

Fornalski, Krzysztof Wojciech; Dobrzy?ski, Ludwik

2011-09-01

39

Pooled Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies on Height, Weight, and Breast Cancer Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

had an RR of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.85). In postmenopausal women, the RRs did not increase further when BMI exceeded 28 kg\\/m 2 ; the RR for these women was 1.26 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.46). The authors found little evidence for interaction with other breast cancer risk factors. Their data indicate that height is an independent risk factor for

Piet A. van den Brandt; Donna Spiegelman; Shiaw-Shyuan Yaun; Hans-Olov Adami; Lawrence Beeson; Aaron R. Folsom; Gary Fraser; R. Alexandra Goldbohm; Saxon Graham; James R. Marshall; Anthony B. Miller; Tom Rohan; Stephanie A. Smith-Warner; Frank E. Speizer; Walter C. Willett

40

Meat, poultry and fish and risk of colorectal cancer: pooled analysis of data from the UK dietary cohort consortium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Some but not all epidemiological studies have reported that high intakes of red and processed meat are associated with an\\u000a increased risk of colorectal cancer. In the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium, we examined associations of meat, poultry and fish\\u000a intakes with colorectal cancer risk using standardised individual dietary data pooled from seven UK prospective studies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Four- to seven-day food diaries

Elizabeth A. Spencer; Timothy J. Key; Paul N. Appleby; Christina C. Dahm; Ruth H. Keogh; Ian S. Fentiman; Tasnime Akbaraly; Eric J. Brunner; Victoria Burley; Janet E. Cade; Darren C. Greenwood; Alison M. Stephen; Gita Mishra; Diana Kuh; Robert Luben; Angela A. Mulligan; Kay-Tee Khaw; Sheila A. Rodwell

2010-01-01

41

Sexual behaviours and the risk of head and neck cancers: a pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual contact may be the means by which head and neck cancer patients are exposed to human papillomavirus (HPV). Methods We undertook a pooled analysis of four population-based and four hospital-based case–control studies from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium, with participants from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, India, Italy, Spain, Poland, Puerto Rico, Russia and the USA. The study included 5642 head and neck cancer cases and 6069 controls. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) of associations between cancer and specific sexual behaviours, including practice of oral sex, number of lifetime sexual partners and oral sex partners, age at sexual debut, a history of same-sex contact and a history of oral–anal contact. Findings were stratified by sex and disease subsite. Results Cancer of the oropharynx was associated with having a history of six or more lifetime sexual partners [OR = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01, 1.54] and four or more lifetime oral sex partners (OR = 2.25, 95% CI 1.42, 3.58). Cancer of the tonsil was associated with four or more lifetime oral sex partners (OR = 3.36, 95 % CI 1.32, 8.53), and, among men, with ever having oral sex (OR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.09, 2.33) and with an earlier age at sexual debut (OR = 2.36, 95% CI 1.37, 5.05). Cancer of the base of the tongue was associated with ever having oral sex among women (OR = 4.32, 95% CI 1.06, 17.6), having two sexual partners in comparison with only one (OR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.19, 3.46) and, among men, with a history of same-sex sexual contact (OR = 8.89, 95% CI 2.14, 36.8). Conclusions Sexual behaviours are associated with cancer risk at the head and neck cancer subsites that have previously been associated with HPV infection.

Heck, Julia E; Berthiller, Julien; Vaccarella, Salvatore; Winn, Deborah M; Smith, Elaine M; Shan'gina, Oxana; Schwartz, Stephen M; Purdue, Mark P; Pilarska, Agnieszka; Eluf-Neto, Jose; Menezes, Ana; McClean, Michael D; Matos, Elena; Koifman, Sergio; Kelsey, Karl T; Herrero, Rolando; Hayes, Richard B; Franceschi, Silvia; Wunsch-Filho, Victor; Fernandez, Leticia; Daudt, Alexander W; Curado, Maria Paula; Chen, Chu; Castellsague, Xavier; Ferro, Gilles; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Hashibe, Mia

2010-01-01

42

Coffee and Tea Intake and Risk of Head and Neck Cancer: Pooled Analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Only a few studies have explored the relation between coffee and tea intake and head and neck cancers, with inconsistent results. Methods: We pooled individual-level data from nine case-control studies of head and neck cancers, includ- ing 5,139 cases and 9,028 controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confi- dence intervals (95% CI), adjusting

Carlotta Galeone; Alessandra Tavani; Claudio Pelucchi; Federica Turati; Deborah M. Winn; Fabio Levi; Guo-Pei Yu; Hal Morgenstern; Karl Kelsey; Luigino Dal Maso; Mark P. Purdue; Michael McClean; Renato Talamini; Richard B. Hayes; Silvia Franceschi; Stimson Schantz; Zuo-Feng Zhang; Gilles Ferro; Shu-Chun Chuang; Paolo Boffetta; Carlo La Vecchia; Mia Hashibe

2010-01-01

43

Vitamin or mineral supplement intake and the risk of head and neck cancer: pooled analysis in the INHANCE consortium  

PubMed Central

To investigate the potential role of vitamin or mineral supplementation on the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC), we analyzed individual-level pooled data from 12 case-control studies (7,002 HNC cases and 8,383 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium. There were a total of 2,028 oral cavity cancer, 2,465 pharyngeal cancer, and 874 unspecified oral/pharynx cancer, 1,329 laryngeal cancer and 306 overlapping HNC cases. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for self reported ever use of any vitamins, multivitamins, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and calcium, beta-carotene, iron, selenium, and zinc supplements were assessed. We further examined frequency, duration and cumulative exposure of each vitamin or mineral when possible and stratified by smoking and drinking status. All ORs were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, study center, education level, and pack-years of smoking, frequency of alcohol drinking and fruit/vegetable intake. A decreased risk of HNC was observed with ever use of vitamin C (OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.59-0.96) and with ever use of calcium supplement (OR=0.64, 95% CI=0.42-0.97). The inverse association with HNC risk was also observed for 10 or more years of vitamin C use (OR=0.72, 95% CI=0.54-0.97) and more than 365 tablets of cumulative calcium intake (OR=0.36, 95% CI=0.16-0.83), but linear trends were not observed for the frequency or duration of any supplement intake. We did not observe any strong associations between vitamin or mineral supplement intake and the risk of head and neck cancer.

Li, Qian; Chuang, Shu-chun; Neto, Jose Eluf; Menezes, Ana; Matos, Elena; Koifman, Sergio; Wunsch-Filho, Victor; Fernandez, Leticia; Daudt, Alexander W.; Curado, Maria Paula; Winn, Deborah M.; Franceschi, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Castellsague, Xavier; Morgenstern, Hal; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Lazarus, Philip; Muscat, Joshua; McClean, Michael; Kelsey, Karl T.; Hayes, Richard B.; Purdue, Mark P.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Chen, Chu; Benhamou, Simone; Olshan, Andrew F.; Yu, Guopei; Schantz, Stimson; Ferro, Gilles; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Hashibe, Mia

2012-01-01

44

Vitamin or mineral supplement intake and the risk of head and neck cancer: pooled analysis in the INHANCE consortium.  

PubMed

To investigate the potential role of vitamin or mineral supplementation on the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC), we analyzed individual-level pooled data from 12 case-control studies (7,002 HNC cases and 8,383 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium. There were a total of 2,028 oral cavity cancer, 2,465 pharyngeal cancer, 874 unspecified oral/pharynx cancer, 1,329 laryngeal cancer and 306 overlapping HNC cases. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for self reported ever use of any vitamins, multivitamins, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and calcium, beta-carotene, iron, selenium and zinc supplements were assessed. We further examined frequency, duration and cumulative exposure of each vitamin or mineral when possible and stratified by smoking and drinking status. All ORs were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, study center, education level, pack-years of smoking, frequency of alcohol drinking and fruit/vegetable intake. A decreased risk of HNC was observed with ever use of vitamin C (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.59-0.96) and with ever use of calcium supplement (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.42-0.97). The inverse association with HNC risk was also observed for 10 or more years of vitamin C use (OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.54-0.97) and more than 365 tablets of cumulative calcium intake (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.16-0.83), but linear trends were not observed for the frequency or duration of any supplement intake. We did not observe any strong associations between vitamin or mineral supplement intake and the risk of HNC. PMID:22173631

Li, Qian; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Eluf-Neto, Jose; Menezes, Ana; Matos, Elena; Koifman, Sergio; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Fernandez, Leticia; Daudt, Alexander W; Curado, Maria Paula; Winn, Deborah M; Franceschi, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Castellsague, Xavier; Morgenstern, Hal; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Lazarus, Philip; Muscat, Joshua; McClean, Michael; Kelsey, Karl T; Hayes, Richard B; Purdue, Mark P; Schwartz, Stephen M; Chen, Chu; Benhamou, Simone; Olshan, Andrew F; Yu, Guopei; Schantz, Stimson; Ferro, Gilles; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Hashibe, Mia

2012-01-27

45

Seismic Analysis of Large Pools.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Large pools for storing spent, nuclear fuel elements are being proposed to augment present storage capacity. To preserve the ability to isolate portions of these pools, a modularization requirement appears desirable. The purpose of this project was to inv...

R. G. Dong F. J. Tokarz

1976-01-01

46

COFFEE, TEA AND SUGAR-SWEETENED CARBONATED SOFT DRINK INTAKE AND PANCREATIC CANCER RISK: A POOLED ANALYSIS OF 14 COHORT STUDIES  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Coffee has been hypothesized to have pro- and anti-carcinogenic properties, while tea may contain anti-carcinogenic compounds. Studies assessing coffee intake and pancreatic cancer risk have yielded mixed results, while findings for tea intake have mostly been null. Sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink (abbreviated as SSB) intake has been associated with higher circulating levels of insulin, which may promote carcinogenesis. Few prospective studies have examined SSB intake and pancreatic cancer risk; results have been heterogeneous. METHODS In this pooled analysis from 14 prospective cohort studies, 2,185 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified among 853,894 individuals during follow-up. Multivariate (MV) study-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random effects model. RESULTS No statistically significant associations were observed between pancreatic cancer risk and intake of coffee (MVRR=1.10, 95% CI=0.81-1.48 comparing ?900 to <0g/day; 237g?8oz), tea (MVRR=0.96, 95% CI=0.78-1.16 comparing ?400 to 0g/day; 237g?8oz) or SSB (MVRR=1.19, 95% CI=0.98-1.46 comparing ?250 to 0g/day; 355g?12oz) (p-value, test for between-studies heterogeneity >0.05). These associations were consistent across levels of sex, smoking status and body mass index. When modeled as a continuous variable, a positive association was evident for SSB (MVRR=1.06, 95% CI=1.02-1.12). CONCLUSION AND IMPACT Overall, no associations were observed for intakes of coffee or tea during adulthood and pancreatic cancer risk. Although we were only able to examine modest intake of SSB, there was a suggestive, modest positive association for risk of pancreatic cancer for intakes of SSB.

Genkinger, Jeanine M.; Li, Ruifeng; Spiegelman, Donna; Anderson, Kristin E.; Albanes, Demetrius; Bergkvist, Leif; Bernstein, Leslie; Black, Amanda; van den Brandt, Piet A.; English, Dallas R.; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Giles, Graham G.; Giovannucci, Edward; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Koushik, Anita; Mannisto, Satu; Marshall, James R.; Miller, Anthony B.; Patel, Alpa V.; Robien, Kim; z, Thomas E.; Schairer, Catherine; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Wolk, Alicja; Ziegler, Regina G.; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A.

2011-01-01

47

Alcohol, tobacco, diet and the risk of oral cancer: a pooled analysis of three case-control studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This combined analysis of data from three large case—control studies of oral cancer confirms the important effect of tobacco in the aetiology of the disease. The studies have been conducted in the United States, Italy and China and results for risks associated with tobacco smoking were generally consistent across centres, while those for alcohol were not; increased risks amongst alcohol

G. J. Macfarlane; T. Zheng; J. R. Marshall; P. Boffetta; S. Niu; J. Brasure; F. Merletti; P. Boyle

1995-01-01

48

Pooled analysis of cancer mortality cases among the employees in five units of the Department of Atomic Energy in India.  

PubMed

Available data on cancer mortality in the combined employee populations of five units of the Department of Atomic Energy, namely those in Mumbai, Tarapur, Kalpakkam, Hyderabad and Alwaye, with study periods ranging between 13 and 21 years, have been analysed. Data are available only on those still serving, i.e., subjects in the age group 20-59 yrs., and not on the retired employees and this is the major constraint in the study. A total of 81 cancer deaths have been recorded in the combined database of 316,619 Person-Years of which 28 (34.6% of the total) deaths belonged to the monitored Radiation Worker category having a database of 112,363 PY (35.5% of the total). Background age-specific cancer death rates of the urban Indian population have been constructed by averaging the only available age-specific cancer mortality data published by the Bombay Cancer Registry for Mumbai, Nagpur and Pune cities. Using this as a tentative "national urban baseline", the estimated Standardised Mortality Ratio for combined DAE employees works out to be 111 with 95% CI:80-138. The SMR for the Radiation Workers alone is 108 (95% CI:72-156) as compared to the SMR of 113 (95% CI:84-149) for the Non-Radiation Workers. The relative risk of radiation workers as opposed to non radiation workers is 0.96 (95% CI:0.64-1.39); analysis on individual types of cancer also leads to similar results. It is seen clearly that the radiation workers are not at any extra risk of cancer as compared to non-radiation workers. Nor does a comparison with the restricted national base-line data available for cities like Mumbai, Pune and Nagpur indicate any statistically significant risk of cancer in DAE populations. PMID:9491670

Nambi, K S; Mayya, Y S

1997-09-01

49

Cigarette smoking and lung cancer - relative risk estimates for the major histological types from a pooled analysis of case-control studies  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is mainly caused by smoking, but the quantitative relations between smoking and histologic subtypes of lung cancer remain inconclusive. Using one of the largest lung cancer datasets ever assembled, we explored the impact of smoking on risks of the major cell types of lung cancer. This pooled analysis included 13,169 cases and 16,010 controls from Europe and Canada. Studies with population controls comprised 66.5% of the subjects. Adenocarcinoma (AdCa) was the most prevalent subtype in never smokers and in women. Squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) predominated in male smokers. Age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated with logistic regression. ORs were elevated for all metrics of exposure to cigarette smoke and were higher for SqCC and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) than for AdCa. Current male smokers with an average daily dose of >30 cigarettes had ORs of 103.5 (95% CI 74.8-143.2) for SqCC, 111.3 (95% CI 69.8-177.5) for SCLC, and 21.9 (95% CI 16.6-29.0) for AdCa. In women, the corresponding ORs were 62.7 (95% CI 31.5-124.6), 108.6 (95% CI 50.7-232.8), and 16.8 (95% CI 9.2-30.6), respectively. Whereas ORs started to decline soon after quitting, they did not fully return to the baseline risk of never smokers even 35 years after cessation. The major result that smoking exerted a steeper risk gradient on SqCC and SCLC than on AdCa is in line with previous population data and biological understanding of lung cancer development.

Pesch, Beate; Kendzia, Benjamin; Gustavsson, Per; Jockel, Karl-Heinz; Johnen, Georg; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Olsson, Ann; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Gross, Isabelle Mercedes; Bruske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Simonato, Lorenzo; Fortes, Cristina; Siemiatycki, Jack; Parent, Marie-Elise; Consonni, Dario; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Zaridze, David; Cassidy, Adrian; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Rudnai, Peter; Lissowska, Jolanta; Stucker, Isabelle; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Rudin, Charles M.; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Straif, Kurt; Bruning, Thomas

2011-01-01

50

Analysis of deoxyribonucleotide pools in human cancer cell lines using a liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endogenous ribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotides play a critical role in cell function, and determination of their levels is of fundamental importance in understanding key cellular processes involved in energy metabolism and molecular and biochemical signaling pathways. In this study, we determined the respective ribonucleotide and deoxyribonucleotide pool sizes in different human cell lines using a simple sample preparation method and LC\\/MS\\/MS.

Wei Zhang; Shenglan Tan; Elijah Paintsil; Ginger E. Dutschman; Elizabeth A. Gullen; Edward Chu; Yung-Chi Cheng

2011-01-01

51

Cigarette, cigar, and pipe smoking and the risk of head and neck cancers: pooled analysis in the international head and neck cancer epidemiology consortium.  

PubMed

Cigar and pipe smoking are considered risk factors for head and neck cancers, but the magnitude of effect estimates for these products has been imprecisely estimated. By using pooled data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium (comprising 13,935 cases and 18,691 controls in 19 studies from 1981 to 2007), we applied hierarchical logistic regression to more precisely estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for cigarette, cigar, and pipe smoking separately, compared with reference groups of those who had never smoked each single product. Odds ratios for cigar and pipe smoking were stratified by ever cigarette smoking. We also considered effect estimates of smoking a single product exclusively versus never having smoked any product (reference group). Among never cigarette smokers, the odds ratio for ever cigar smoking was 2.54 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.93, 3.34), and the odds ratio for ever pipe smoking was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.55, 2.81). These odds ratios increased with increasing frequency and duration of smoking (Ptrend ? 0.0001). Odds ratios for cigar and pipe smoking were not elevated among ever cigarette smokers. Head and neck cancer risk was elevated for those who reported exclusive cigar smoking (odds ratio = 3.49, 95% CI: 2.58, 4.73) or exclusive pipe smoking (odds ratio = 3.71, 95% CI: 2.59, 5.33). These results suggest that cigar and pipe smoking are independently associated with increased risk of head and neck cancers. PMID:23817919

Wyss, Annah; Hashibe, Mia; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Yu, Guo-Pei; Winn, Deborah M; Wei, Qingyi; Talamini, Renato; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Sturgis, Erich M; Smith, Elaine; Shangina, Oxana; Schwartz, Stephen M; Schantz, Stimson; Rudnai, Peter; Purdue, Mark P; Eluf-Neto, Jose; Muscat, Joshua; Morgenstern, Hal; Michaluart, Pedro; Menezes, Ana; Matos, Elena; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Lissowska, Jolanta; Levi, Fabio; Lazarus, Philip; La Vecchia, Carlo; Koifman, Sergio; Herrero, Rolando; Hayes, Richard B; Franceschi, Silvia; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Fernandez, Leticia; Fabianova, Eleonora; Daudt, Alexander W; Dal Maso, Luigino; Curado, Maria Paula; Chen, Chu; Castellsague, Xavier; de Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino; Cadoni, Gabriella; Boccia, Stefania; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Olshan, Andrew F

2013-06-30

52

Recreational physical activity and risk of head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis within the international head and neck cancer epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence suggests that physical activity could prevent cancer, but scanty data is available on head and neck cancer (HNC). The aim of our study is to clarify the effect of recreational physical activity (rPA) on HNC. We analyzed data from four case-control studies, including 2,289 HNC cases and 5,580 controls. rPA was classified as: none/low (reference group), moderate and high. We calculated summary Odds Ratios (ORs) by pooling study-specific ORs. Overall, moderate rPA was associated with 22% lower risk of HNC compared to those with none or very low rPA levels [OR = 0.78, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 0.66, 0.91]. Moderate rPA is associated with reduced risk of oral (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.97) and pharyngeal cancer (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.53, 0.85), as well as high rPA levels (OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.88 for oral cavity, OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.38, 0.89 for pharynx). High rPA levels, however, is associated with higher risk of laryngeal cancer (OR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.88). Stratified analyses showed that such inverse association between moderate rPA and HNC was more evident among males (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.62, 0.90), subjects ?45 years (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.93), and ever smokers and ever drinkers (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.88). High rPA significantly reduces HNC risk among subject ?45 years (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.91). Promoting rPA might be inversely associated with HNC. PMID:21842237

Nicolotti, Nicola; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Cadoni, Gabriella; Arzani, Dario; Petrelli, Livia; Bosetti, Cristina; Brenner, Hermann; Hosono, Satoyo; La Vecchia, Carlo; Talamini, Renato; Matsuo, Keitaro; Müller, Heiko; Muscat, Joshua; Paludetti, Gaetano; Ricciardi, Gualtiero; Boffetta, Paolo; Hashibe, Mia; Boccia, Stefania

2011-08-13

53

Proposing the lymphatic target volume for elective radiation therapy for pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis of clinical evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Radiation therapy is an important cancer treatment modality in both adjuvant and definitive setting, however, the use of radiation therapy for elective treatment of regional lymph nodes is controversial for pancreatic cancer. No consensus on proper selection and delineation of subclinical lymph nodal areas in adjuvant or definitive radiation therapy has been suggested either conclusively or proposed for further

Wenjie Sun; Cheng N Leong; Zhen Zhang; Jiade J Lu

2010-01-01

54

A pooled analysis of case–control studies of thyroid cancer. VII. Cruciferous and other vegetables (International)  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between cruciferous and other vegetables and thyroid cancer risk we systematically reanalyzed the original data from 11 case–control studies conducted in the US, Asia, and Europe.

Cristina Bosetti; Eva Negri; Laurence Kolonel; Elaine Ron; Silvia Franceschi; Susan Preston-Martin; Anne McTiernan; Luigino Dal Maso; Steven D. Mark; Kiyoiko Mabuchi; Charles Land; Fan Jin; Gun Wingren; Maria Rosaria Galanti; Arne Hallquist; Eystein Glattre; Eiliv Lund; Fabio Levi; Dimitrios Linos; Carlo La Vecchia

2002-01-01

55

Meta and Pooled Analysis of GSTP1 Polymorphism and Lung Cancer: A HuGE GSEC Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide. Polymorphisms in genes associated with carcinogen metabolism may modulate risk of disease. Glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP1) detoxifies polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and is the most highly expressed glutathione S-transferase in lung tissue. A polymorphism in the GSTP1 gene, an A-to-G transition in exon 5 (Ile105Val, 313A \\/ 313G), results

Michele L. Cote; Wei Chen; Daryn W. Smith; Simone Benhamou; Christine Bouchardy; Dorota Butkiewicz; Kwun M. Fong; Manuel Gene ´; Ari Hirvonen; Chikako Kiyohara; Jill E. Larsen; Pinpin Lin; Ole Raaschou-Nielsen; Andrew C. Povey; Edyta Reszka; Angela Risch; Joachim Schneider; Ann G. Schwartz; Mette Sorensen; Jordi To-Figueras; Shinkan Tokudome; Yuepu Pu; Ping Yang; Angela S. Wenzlaff; Harriet Wikman; Emanuela Taioli

2009-01-01

56

Intrathecal administration of trastuzumab for the treatment of meningeal carcinomatosis in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer: a systematic review and pooled analysis.  

PubMed

Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (MC) represents an uncommon, but devasting manifestation of metastatic breast cancer. This is the first systematic review/pooled analysis to synthesize all available data evaluating the efficacy and safety of intrathecal (IT) administration of trastuzumab for the treatment of MC in HER2-positive breast cancer patients. This study was performed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. A total of 13 articles (17 patients) were eligible. The mean age of patients at IT trastuzumab administration was 48.2 years (SD 8.4, range 38-66). The mean total dose was 399.8 mg (SD 325.4, range 35-1,110 mg). IT trastuzumab alone or as part of combination therapies seemed to be safe; no serious adverse events were reported in 88.2 % of cases. In 68.8 % of cases, a significant clinical improvement was observed, while stabilization or progression of the disease was noticed in 31.2 % of cases. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) response was noted in 66.7 % of cases. The median overall survival was 13.5 months, whereas the median central nervous system progression-free survival (CNS-PFS) was 7.5 months. In 23.5 % of cases, IT trastuzumab was administered beyond CNS progression with a response noticed in 75 % of cases and a CNS-PFS of 9.4 months. The cumulative dose of IT trastuzumab given was 1,040 mg (SD 697.9, median 1,215, range 55-1,675). The protective effect of prior radio- or neurosurgery upon CNS-PFS was sizeable but did not reach formal statistical significance (HR 0.28, 95 % CI 0.06-1.37). Clinical improvement (HR 0.14, 95 % CI 0.02-0.91) and CSF response (HR 0.09, 95 % CI 0.01-0.89) were associated with longer CNS-PFS. IT trastuzumab administration seems to represent a safe and in some cases effective option for the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer patients with leptomeningeal involvement. However, clinical trials are urgently needed to establish the definite role of IT trastuzumab in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients with MC. PMID:23588955

Zagouri, Flora; Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Bartsch, Rupert; Berghoff, Anna S; Chrysikos, Dimosthenis; de Azambuja, Evandro; Dimopoulos, Meletios-Athanassios; Preusser, Matthias

2013-04-16

57

Preoperative Radiotherapy of Advanced Rectal Cancer With Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin With or Without Cetuximab: A Pooled Analysis of Three Prospective Phase I-II Trials  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A pooled analysis of three prospective trials of preoperative radiochemotherapy (RCT) for rectal cancer by using oxaliplatin and capecitabine with or without cetuximab was performed to evaluate the impact of additional cetuximab on pathologic complete response (pCR) rates and tumor regression (TRG) grades. Methods and Materials: Of 202 patients, 172 patients met the inclusion criteria (primary tumor stage II/III, M0). All patients received concurrent RCT, and 46 patients received additional cetuximab therapy. A correlation of pretreatment clinicopathologic factors and cetuximab treatment with early pCR rates (TRG > 50%) was performed with univariate and multivariate analyses. Toxicity data were recorded for all patients. Results: Of 172 patients, 24 (14%) patients achieved a pCR, and 84 of 172 (71%) patients showed a TRG of >50% in the surgical specimen assessment after preoperative treatment. Age, gender, and T/N stages, as well as localization of the tumor, were not associated with pCR or good TRG. The pCR rate was 16% after preoperative RCT alone and 9% with concurrent cetuximab therapy (p = 0.32). A significantly reduced TRG of >50% was found after RCT with cetuximab compared to RCT alone (p = 0.0035). This was validated by a multivariate analysis with all available clinical factors (p = 0.0037). Acute toxicity and surgical complications were not increased with additional cetuximab. Conclusions: Triple therapy with RCT and cetuximab seems to be feasible, with no unexpected toxicity. Early response assessment (TRG), however, suggests subadditive interaction. A longer follow-up (and finally randomized trials) is needed to draw any firm conclusions with respect to local and distant failure rates.

Weiss, Christian, E-mail: christian.weiss@kgu.d [Departments of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Arnold, Dirk [Departments of Haematology and Oncology, Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (Germany); Dellas, Kathrin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (Germany); Liersch, Torsten [Departments of General and Visceral Surgery, Georg-August University, Goettingen (Germany); Hipp, Matthias [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Fietkau, Rainer; Sauer, Rolf [Department of Radiation Oncology, Friedrich-Alexander University, Erlangen (Germany); Hinke, Axel [WiSP, Research Institute Pharma GmbH, Langenfeld (Germany); Roedel, Claus [Departments of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2010-10-01

58

Ixabepilone plus capecitabine in metastatic breast cancer patients with reduced performance status previously treated with anthracyclines and taxanes: a pooled analysis by performance status of efficacy and safety data from 2 phase III studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) previously treated with anthracyclines and taxanes often have decreased performance\\u000a status secondary to extensive tumor involvement. Here, we report the pooled analysis of efficacy and safety data from two\\u000a similarly designed phase III studies to provide a more precise estimate of benefit of ixabepilone plus capecitabine in MBC\\u000a patients with Karnofsky’s performance status (KPS)

Henri Roche ´; Pierfranco Conte; Edith A. Perez; Joseph A. Sparano; Binghe Xu; Jacek Jassem; Ronald Peck; Thomas Kelleher; Gabriel N. Hortobagyi

2011-01-01

59

Performance analysis of swimming pool solar heating in Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of a performance analysis of swimming pool solar heating is an estimate of the pool's bulk temperature. The pool temperature can be estimated by calculating an energy balance for a typical day for each month of the year. This may be done by equating the heat gains to the heat losses from the pool surface at the equilibrium

Talwar

1978-01-01

60

The After Breast Cancer Pooling Project: rationale, methodology, and breast cancer survivor characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The After Breast Cancer Pooling Project was established to examine the role of physical activity, adiposity, dietary factors,\\u000a supplement use, and quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer prognosis. This paper presents pooled and harmonized data on post-diagnosis\\u000a lifestyle factors, clinical prognostic factors, and breast cancer outcomes from four prospective cohorts of breast cancer\\u000a survivors (three US-based and one from

Sarah J. Nechuta; Bette J. Caan; Wendy Y. Chen; Shirley W. Flatt; Wei Lu; Ruth E. Patterson; Elizabeth M. Poole; Marilyn L. Kwan; Zhi Chen; Erin Weltzien; John P. Pierce; Xiao Ou Shu

2011-01-01

61

Recreational physical activity and risk of head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis within the international head and neck cancer epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing evidence suggests that physical activity could prevent cancer, but scanty data is available on head and neck cancer\\u000a (HNC). The aim of our study is to clarify the effect of recreational physical activity (rPA) on HNC. We analyzed data from\\u000a four case–control studies, including 2,289 HNC cases and 5,580 controls. rPA was classified as: none\\/low (reference group),\\u000a moderate and

Nicola Nicolotti; Shu-Chun Chuang; Gabriella Cadoni; Dario Arzani; Livia Petrelli; Cristina Bosetti; Hermann Brenner; Satoyo Hosono; Carlo La Vecchia; Keitaro Matsuo; Heiko Müller; Joshua Muscat; Gaetano Paludetti; Gualtiero Ricciardi; Paolo Boffetta; Mia Hashibe; Stefania Boccia

62

Genital powder use and risk of ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of 8,525 cases and 9,859 controls.  

PubMed

Genital powder use has been associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in some, but not all, epidemiologic investigations, possibly reflecting the carcinogenic effects of talc particles found in most of these products. Whether risk increases with number of genital powder applications and for all histologic types of ovarian cancer also remains uncertain. Therefore, we estimated the association between self-reported genital powder use and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in eight population-based case-control studies. Individual data from each study were collected and harmonized. Lifetime number of genital powder applications was estimated from duration and frequency of use. Pooled ORs were calculated using conditional logistic regression matched on study and age and adjusted for potential confounders. Subtype-specific risks were estimated according to tumor behavior and histology. 8,525 cases and 9,859 controls were included in the analyses. Genital powder use was associated with a modest increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer [OR, 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-1.33] relative to women who never used powder. Risk was elevated for invasive serous (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.09-1.32), endometrioid (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.04-1.43), and clear cell (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.52) tumors, and for borderline serous tumors (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.24-1.72). Among genital powder users, we observed no significant trend (P = 0.17) in risk with increasing number of lifetime applications (assessed in quartiles). We noted no increase in risk among women who only reported nongenital powder use. In summary, genital powder use is a modifiable exposure associated with small-to-moderate increases in risk of most histologic subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:23761272

Terry, Kathryn L; Karageorgi, Stalo; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Merritt, Melissa A; Lurie, Galina; Thompson, Pamela J; Carney, Michael E; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Akushevich, Lucy; Lo-Ciganic, Wei-Hsuan; Cushing-Haugen, Kara; Sieh, Weiva; Moysich, Kirsten; Doherty, Jennifer A; Nagle, Christina M; Berchuck, Andrew; Pearce, Celeste L; Pike, Malcolm; Ness, Roberta B; Webb, Penelope M; Rossing, Mary Anne; Schildkraut, Joellen; Risch, Harvey; Goodman, Marc T

2013-06-12

63

Endometrial cancer survival after breast cancer in relation to tamoxifen treatment: Pooled results from three countries  

PubMed Central

Introduction Tamoxifen is an effective treatment for breast cancer but an undesirable side-effect is an increased risk of endometrial cancer, particularly rare tumor types associated with poor prognosis. We investigated whether tamoxifen therapy increases mortality among breast cancer patients subsequently diagnosed with endometrial cancer. Methods We pooled case-patient data from the three largest case-control studies of tamoxifen in relation to endometrial cancer after breast cancer (1,875 patients: Netherlands, 765; United Kingdom, 786; United States, 324) and collected follow-up information on vital status. Breast cancers were diagnosed in 1972 to 2005 with endometrial cancers diagnosed in 1978 to 2006. We used Cox proportional hazards survival analysis to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results A total of 1,104 deaths occurred during, on average, 5.8 years following endometrial cancer (32% attributed to breast cancer, 25% to endometrial cancer). Mortality from endometrial cancer increased significantly with unfavorable non-endometrioid morphologies (P < 0.0001), International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics staging system for gynecological malignancy (FIGO) stage (P < 0.0001) and age (P < 0.0001). No overall association was observed between tamoxifen treatment and endometrial cancer mortality (HR = 1.17 (95% CI: (0.89 to 1.55)). Tamoxifen use for at least five years was associated with increased endometrial cancer mortality (HR = 1.59 (1.13 to 2.25)). This association appeared to be due primarily to the excess of unfavorable histologies and advanced stage in women using tamoxifen for five or more years since the association with mortality was no longer significant after adjustment for morphological type and FIGO stage (HR = 1.37 (0.97 to 1.93)). Those patients with endometrioid tumors, who stopped tamoxifen use at least five years before their endometrial cancer diagnosis, had a greater mortality risk from endometrial cancer than endometrioid patients with no tamoxifen exposure (HR = 2.11 (1.13 to 3.94)). The explanation for this latter observation is not apparent. Conclusions Patients with endometrial cancer after breast cancer who received tamoxifen treatment for five years for breast cancer have greater endometrial cancer mortality risk than those who did not receive tamoxifen. This can be attributed to non-endometrioid histological subtypes with poorer prognosis among long term tamoxifen users.

2012-01-01

64

Are Sitting Occupations Associated with Increased All-Cause, Cancer, and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Risk? A Pooled Analysis of Seven British Population Cohorts  

PubMed Central

Background There is mounting evidence for associations between sedentary behaviours and adverse health outcomes, although the data on occupational sitting and mortality risk remain equivocal. The aim of this study was to determine the association between occupational sitting and cardiovascular, cancer and all-cause mortality in a pooled sample of seven British general population cohorts. Methods The sample comprised 5380 women and 5788 men in employment who were drawn from five Health Survey for England and two Scottish Health Survey cohorts. Participants were classified as reporting standing, walking or sitting in their work time and followed up over 12.9 years for mortality. Data were modelled using Cox proportional hazard regression adjusted for age, waist circumference, self-reported general health, frequency of alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, non-occupational physical activity, prevalent cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline, psychological health, social class, and education. Results In total there were 754 all-cause deaths. In women, a standing/walking occupation was associated with lower risk of all-cause (fully adjusted hazard ratio [HR]?=?0.68, 95% CI 0.52–0.89) and cancer (HR?=?0.60, 95% CI 0.43–0.85) mortality, compared to sitting occupations. There were no associations in men. In analyses with combined occupational type and leisure-time physical activity, the risk of all-cause mortality was lowest in participants with non-sitting occupations and high leisure-time activity. Conclusions Sitting occupations are linked to increased risk for all-cause and cancer mortality in women only, but no such associations exist for cardiovascular mortality in men or women.

Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Chau, Josephine Y.; Pedisic, Zeljko; Bauman, Adrian; Macniven, Rona; Coombs, Ngaire; Hamer, Mark

2013-01-01

65

Recent alcohol consumption and risk of incident ovarian carcinoma: a pooled analysis of 5,342 cases and 10,358 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium  

PubMed Central

Background Studies evaluating the association between alcohol intake and ovarian carcinoma (OC) are inconsistent. Because OC and ovarian borderline tumor histologic types differ genetically, molecularly and clinically, large numbers are needed to estimate risk associations. Methods We pooled data from 12 case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium comprising 5,342 OC cases, 1,455 borderline tumors and 10,358 controls with quantitative information on recent alcohol intake to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) according to frequencies of average daily intakes of beer, wine, liquor and total alcohol. Results Total alcohol intake was not associated with all OC: consumption of >3 drinks per day compared to none, OR=0.92, 95% CI=0.76-1.10, P trend=0.27. Among beverage types, a statistically non-significant decreased risk was observed among women who consumed >8?oz/d of wine compared to none (OR=0.83, 95% CI=0.68-1.01, P trend=0.08). This association was more apparent among women with clear cell OC (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.22-0.83; P trend=0.02), although based on only 10 cases and not statistically different from the other histologic types (P value for statistical heterogeneity between histologic types = 0.09). Statistical heterogeneity of the alcohol- and wine-OC associations was seen among three European studies, but not among eight North American studies. No statistically significant associations were observed in separate analyses evaluating risk with borderline tumors of serous or mucinous histology. Smoking status did not significantly modify any of the associations. Conclusions We found no evidence that recent moderate alcohol drinking is associated with increased risk for overall OC, or that variation in risk is associated strongly with specific histologic types. Understanding modifiable causes of these elusive and deadly cancers remains a priority for the research community.

2013-01-01

66

Swimming Pools, Hot Rods, and Qualitative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes some reactions for the identification and application of cyanuric acid. Suggests students may find this applied chemistry interesting because of the use of cyanuric acid in swimming pools and diesel engines. Lists three tests for cyanate ion and two tests for cyanuric acid. (MVL)|

Clyde, Dale D.

1988-01-01

67

Information pooling and collusion: an empirical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper adapts and empirically implements the squared sales test developed by Jin [Inf. Econom. Policy 8 (1996) 75] to determine if the information pooling arrangement mandated by The Livestock Mandatory Reporting Act of 1999 in the US is collusive. Using cattle slaughter data from the five regions (Texas–Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado, and Iowa–Minnesota) used by the US Department of

Azzeddine M. Azzam; Santiago Salvador

2004-01-01

68

UPDG: Utilities package for data analysis of Pooled DNA GWAS  

PubMed Central

Background Despite being a well-established strategy for cost reduction in disease gene mapping, pooled DNA association study is much less popular than the individual DNA approach. This situation is especially true for pooled DNA genomewide association study (GWAS), for which very few computer resources have been developed for its data analysis. This motivates the development of UPDG (Utilities package for data analysis of Pooled DNA GWAS). Results UPDG represents a generalized framework for data analysis of pooled DNA GWAS with the integration of Unix/Linux shell operations, Perl programs and R scripts. With the input of raw intensity data from GWAS, UPDG performs the following tasks in a stepwise manner: raw data manipulation, correction for allelic preferential amplification, normalization, nested analysis of variance for genetic association testing, and summarization of analysis results. Detailed instructions, procedures and commands are provided in the comprehensive user manual describing the whole process from preliminary preparation of software installation to final outcome acquisition. An example dataset (input files and sample output files) is also included in the package so that users can easily familiarize themselves with the data file formats, working procedures and expected output. Therefore, UPDG is especially useful for users with some computer knowledge, but without a sophisticated programming background. Conclusions UPDG provides a free, simple and platform-independent one-stop service to scientists working on pooled DNA GWAS data analysis, but with less advanced programming knowledge. It is our vision and mission to reduce the hindrance for performing data analysis of pooled DNA GWAS through our contribution of UPDG. More importantly, we hope to promote the popularity of pooled DNA GWAS, which is a very useful research strategy.

2012-01-01

69

A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer¶ III. Oral contraceptives, menopausal replacement therapy and other female hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The relations between oral contraceptives (OC), hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for menopause, and other female hormone use and thyroid cancer risk was analyzed using the original data from 13 studies from North America, Asia and Europe.

Carlo La Vecchia; Elaine Ron; Silvia Franceschi; Luigino Dal Maso; Steven D. Mark; Liliane Chatenoud; Claudia Braga; Susan Preston-Martin; Anne McTiernan; Laurence Kolonel; Kiyohiko Mabuchi; Fan Jin; Gun Wingren; Maria Rosaria Galanti; Arne Hallquist; Eiliv Lund; Fabio Levi; Dimitrios Linos; Eva Negri

1999-01-01

70

Pooled versus Individual Genotyping in a Breast Cancer Genome-wide Association Study  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY We examine the measurement properties of pooled DNA odds ratio estimates for 7357 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in a genome-wide association study of postmenopausal breast cancer. This study involved DNA pools formed from 125 cases or 125 matched controls. Individual genotyping for these SNPs subsequently came available for a substantial majority of women included in seven pool pairs, providing the opportunity for a comparison of pooled DNA and individual odds ratio estimates and their variances. We find that the ‘per minor allele’ odds ratio estimates from the pooled DNA comparisons agree fairly well with those from individual genotyping. Furthermore, the log-odds ratio variance estimates support a pooled DNA measurement model that we previously described, though with somewhat greater extra-binomial variation than was hypothesized in project design. Implications for the role of pooled DNA comparisons in the future genetic epidemiology research agenda are discussed.

Huang, Ying; Hinds, David A.; Qi, Lihong; Prentice, Ross L.

2011-01-01

71

Swimming pool immersion accidents: an analysis from the Brisbane Drowning Study  

PubMed Central

An analysis of a consecutive series of 66 swimming pool immersion accidents is presented; 74% of these occurred in in-ground swimming pools. The estimated accident rate per pool is fives times greater for in-ground pools compared with above-ground pools, where pools are inadequately fenced. Backyard swimming pools account for 74% of pool accidents. Motel and caravan park pools account for 9% of childhood immersion accidents, but the survival rate (17%) is very low. Fifty per cent of pool accidents occur in the family's own backyard pool, and 13.6% in a neighbour's pool; in the latter the survival rate is still low at only 33%. In only one of the 66 cases was there an adequate safety fence; in 76% of cases there was no fence or barrier whatsoever. Tables of swimming pool accidents by age, season, site, and outcome are presented.

Pearn, John H; Nixon, James

1997-01-01

72

Pharmacokinetics of fentanyl buccal tablet: a pooled analysis and review.  

PubMed

Fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) is indicated for the treatment of breakthrough pain in patients who are already receiving and are tolerant to opioid therapy for underlying, persistent cancer pain. FBT is designed to enhance the rate and efficiency of absorption of fentanyl through the buccal mucosa. FBT was shown to be dose proportional from 100 to 1,300 ?g. This analysis provides an overview of the pharmacokinetic profile of FBT based on pooled data from nine pharmacokinetic studies. In all, 365 healthy non-opioid-tolerant adults receiving naltrexone were included in the analysis. Single-dose (100 to 1,300 ?g) pharmacokinetic parameters were dose normalized to 100 ?g. Pharmacokinetic measures included maximum observed plasma drug concentration (C(max)), plasma drug concentration versus time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(0-?)), time to reach C(max) (T(max)), apparent plasma terminal elimination rate constant, and elimination half-life. After FBT administration, fentanyl was rapidly absorbed, with T(max) ranging from 20 minutes to 4 hours postdose. Mean AUC(0-?) was 1.49 ng•hour/mL, and mean C(max) was 0.237 ng/mL. However, plasma fentanyl concentration reached 80% of C(max) within 25 minutes and was maintained through 2 hours after administration. Based on the individual studies, bioequivalence was shown for sublingual and buccal tablet placement, and no significant effect of dwell time (duration of FBT presence in the oral cavity) was observed. The pharmacokinetic profile of FBT was characterized by rapid absorption, which is consistent with the rapid-onset efficacy profile of FBT observed in clinical studies. PMID:21831253

Darwish, Mona; Xie, Fang

2011-08-10

73

Sense and sensitivity in pooled analysis of political data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, pooled time-series cross-section data analysis has been advocated as a method for overcoming the ‘small N, many variables’ problem in comparative political economy in order to derive valid inferences from statistical comparisons of nation states. Moreover, the approach seemed promising in handling both comparisons among different countries and developments over time. However, due to the complex structure

Bernhard Kittel

1999-01-01

74

Sense and sensitivity in pooled analysis of political data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, pooled time-series cross-section data analysis has been advocated as a method for overcoming the small N, many variables problem in comparative political economy in order to derive valid inferences from statistical comparisons of nation states. Moreover, the approach seemed promising in handling both comparisons among different countries and developments over time. However, due to the complex structure

BERNHARD KITTEL

1999-01-01

75

76 FR 72923 - Pool Corporation; Analysis To Aid Public Comment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...products used to operate or repair swimming pools: Pentair Water Pool & Spa; Zodiac Pool Systems, Inc.; and Hayward Pool...consumer harm resulting from the alleged conduct of Respondent is a mystery. The complaint contains no factual allegations of any...

2011-11-28

76

Pooling fMRI Data: Meta-Analysis, Mega-Analysis and Multi-Center Studies  

PubMed Central

The quantitative analysis of pooled data from related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments has the potential to significantly accelerate progress in brain mapping. Such data-pooling can be achieved through meta-analysis (the pooled analysis of published results), mega-analysis (the pooled analysis of raw data) or multi-site studies, which can be seen as designed mega-analyses. Current limitations in function-location brain mapping and how data-pooling can be used to remediate them are reviewed, with particular attention to power aggregation and mitigation of false positive results. Some recently developed analysis tools for meta- and mega-analysis are also presented, and recommendations for the conduct of valid fMRI data pooling are formulated.

Costafreda, Sergi G.

2009-01-01

77

Likelihood-based methods for regression analysis with binary exposure status assessed by pooling  

PubMed Central

The need for resource-intensive laboratory assays to assess exposures in many epidemiologic studies provides ample motivation to consider study designs that incorporate pooled samples. In this paper, we consider the case in which specimens are combined for the purpose of determining the presence or absence of a pool-wise exposure, in lieu of assessing the actual binary exposure status for each member of the pool. We presume a primary logistic regression model for an observed binary outcome, together with a secondary regression model for exposure. We facilitate maximum likelihood analysis by complete enumeration of the possible implications of a positive pool, and we discuss the applicability of this approach under both cross-sectional and case-control sampling. We also provide a maximum likelihood approach for longitudinal or repeated measures studies where the binary outcome and exposure are assessed on multiple occasions and within-subject pooling is conducted for exposure assessment. Simulation studies illustrate the performance of the proposed approaches along with their computational feasibility using widely available software. We apply the methods to investigate gene–disease association in a population-based case-control study of colorectal cancer.

Lyles, Robert H.; Tang, Li; Lin, Ji; Zhang, Zhiwei; Mukherjee, Bhramar

2012-01-01

78

Likelihood-based methods for regression analysis with binary exposure status assessed by pooling.  

PubMed

The need for resource-intensive laboratory assays to assess exposures in many epidemiologic studies provides ample motivation to consider study designs that incorporate pooled samples. In this paper, we consider the case in which specimens are combined for the purpose of determining the presence or absence of a pool-wise exposure, in lieu of assessing the actual binary exposure status for each member of the pool. We presume a primary logistic regression model for an observed binary outcome, together with a secondary regression model for exposure. We facilitate maximum likelihood analysis by complete enumeration of the possible implications of a positive pool, and we discuss the applicability of this approach under both cross-sectional and case-control sampling. We also provide a maximum likelihood approach for longitudinal or repeated measures studies where the binary outcome and exposure are assessed on multiple occasions and within-subject pooling is conducted for exposure assessment. Simulation studies illustrate the performance of the proposed approaches along with their computational feasibility using widely available software. We apply the methods to investigate gene-disease association in a population-based case-control study of colorectal cancer. PMID:22415630

Lyles, Robert H; Tang, Li; Lin, Ji; Zhang, Zhiwei; Mukherjee, Bhramar

2012-03-13

79

Petri Net analysis of the MASCOT Pool IDA Communication Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is concerned with modelling and analysis of the MASCOT Pool IDA com- munication mechanisms. Both the Four-slot fully asynchronous mechanism and the Two-slot conditionally asynchronous mechanism are investigated. The mechanism properties are defined first, to provide the basis for Petri nets modelling. Place\\/Transition n ets and Coloured Petri nets are used to produce the models. The Design\\/CPN software

Mustafa A. Jiffry

80

A pooled analysis of magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have suggested an association between exposure to 50–60 Hz magnetic fields (EMF) and childhood leukaemia. We conducted a pooled analysis based on individual records from nine studies, including the most recent ones. Studies with 24\\/48-hour magnetic field measurements or calculated magnetic fields were included. We specified which data analyses we planned to do and how to do them

A Ahlbom; N Day; M Feychting; E Roman; J Skinner; J Dockerty; M Linet; M McBride; J Michaelis; J H Olsen; T Tynes; P K Verkasalo

2000-01-01

81

Family History, Genetic Testing, and Clinical Risk Prediction: Pooled Analysis of CHEK2*1100delC in 1,828 Bilateral Breast Cancers and 7,030 Controls  

PubMed Central

If breast cancers arise independently in each breast the odds ratio (OR) for bilateral breast cancer for carriers of CHEK2*1100delC should be ~5.5, the square of the reported OR for a first primary (OR, 2.34). In the subset of bilateral cases with one or more affected relatives, the predicted carrier OR should be ~9. We have tested these predictions in a pooled set of 1,828 cases with 2 primaries and 7,030 controls from 8 studies. The second primary OR for CHEK2*1100delC carriers was 6.43 (95% confidence interval, 4.33-9.56; P < 0.0001), significantly greater than the published estimate for a first primary (P < 0.001) but consistent with its square. The predicted increase in carrier OR with increasing numbers of affected relatives was seen using bilateral cases from the UK (Ptrend = 0.0003) and Finland (Ptrend = 0.37), although not using those from the Netherlands and Russia (P = 0.001 for heterogeneity between countries). Based on a standard genetic model, we predict lifetime risks for CHEK2*1100delC carrier and noncarrier daughters of bilateral breast cancer cases of 37% and 18%, respectively. Our results imply that clinical management of the daughter of a woman with bilateral breast cancer should depend on her CHEK2*1100delC carrier status. This and other moderate penetrance breast cancer susceptibility alleles, together with family history data, will thus identify increasing numbers of women at potentially very high risk. Before such predictions are accepted by clinical geneticists, however, further population-based evidence is needed on the effect of CHEK2*1100delC and other moderate penetrance alleles in women with a family history of breast cancer.

Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Kilpivaara, Outi; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Nevanlinna, Heli; Wasielewski, Marijke; Meijers-Heijerboer, Hanne; Broeks, Annegien; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Van't Veer, Laura J.; Bremer, Michael; Dork, Thilo; Chekmariova, Elena V.; Sokolenko, Anna P.; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Hamann, Ute; Rashid, Muhammad U.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Justenhoven, Christina; Ashworth, Alan; Peto, Julian

2009-01-01

82

A Pooled Exploratory Analysis of the Effect of Tumor Size and KRAS Mutations on Survival Benefit from Adjuvant Platinum-Based Chemotherapy in Node Negative Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Staging of node negative (N0) non-small cell lung cancer is modified in the 7th edition TNM classification. Here, we pool data from JBR.10 and CALGB-9633 to explore the prognostic and predictive effects of the new T-size descriptors and KRAS mutation status. Methods Node negative patients were reclassified as T2a (>3-?5cm), T2b (>5-?7cm), T3 (>7cm) or T?3 cm (?3cm but other T2 characteristics). Results Of 538 eligible patients, 288 (53.5%) were T2a, 111 (21%) T2b, 62 (11.5%) T3, while 77 (14%) T?3cm were excluded to avoid confounding. KRAS mutations were detected in 104/390 (27%) patients. T-size was prognostic for disease-free survival (DFS; p=0.03), but borderline for overall survival (OS; p=0.10), on multivariable analysis. Significant interaction between the prognostic value of KRAS and tumor size was observed for OS (p=0.01), but not DFS (p=0.10). There was a non-significant trend (p=0.24) for increased chemotherapy effect on OS with advancing T-size (HR T2a 0.90, [0.63-1.30]; T2b 0.69, [0.38-1.24]; and T3 0.57, [0.28-1.17]). The HR for chemotherapy effect on OS in T2a patients with KRAS wild-type tumors was 0.81 (p=0.36), while a trend for detrimental effect was observed in those with mutant tumors (HR 2.11; p=0.09; interaction p=0.05). Similar trends were observed in T2b-T3 patients with wild-type (HR 0.86; p=0.62), and KRAS mutant tumors (HR 1.16; p=0.74; interaction p=0.58). Conclusion Chemotherapy effect appears to increase with tumor size. However, this small study could not identify subgroups of patients who did or did not derive significant benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy based on T-size or KRAS status.

Cuffe, Sinead; Bourredjem, Abderrahmane; Graziano, Stephen; Pignon, Jean-Pierre; Domerg, Caroline; Ezzalfani, Monia; Seymour, Lesley; Strevel, Elizabeth; Burkes, Ronald; Capelletti, Marzia; Janne, Pasi A.; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Shepherd, Frances A.

2012-01-01

83

Elucidation and Structural Analysis of Conserved Pools for Genome-Scale Metabolic Reconstructions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we introduce metabolite concentration coupling analysis (MCCA) to study conservation relationships for metabolite concentrations in genome-scale metabolic networks. The analysis allows the global identification of subsets of metabolites whose concentrations are always coupled within common conserved pools. Also, the minimal conserved pool identification (MCPI) procedure is developed for elucidating conserved pools for targeted metabolites without computing the

Evgeni V. Nikolaev; Anthony P. Burgard; Costas D. Maranas

2005-01-01

84

Caregiver factors and pool fencing: an exploratory analysis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between caregiver characteristics and the adequacy of domestic swimming pool fencing. SETTING: A typical metropolitan area of a large Australian capital city, Brisbane. METHODS: From a reanalysis of the dataset of the 1989 Brisbane Home Safety Survey of 1050 householders, associations between 10 caregiver factors, pool ownership, and quality of pool fencing, were analysed. Household characteristics relating to toddlers (children < or = 4 years), and socioeconomic measures were also included in the analyses. Pool fencing quality was measured on an ordinal scale derived from Australian Standards Association guidelines, confirmed through home visits by trained inspectors. RESULTS: Caregiver factors did not distinguish households with a swimming pool from those without, nor were they associated with adequacy of pool fencing among pool owners. Pool owners, with or without children, were less likely to perceive having a childproof fence as being important. Strongest correlates of adequacy of pool fencing were socioeconomic indicators of surrounding districts. CONCLUSIONS: These results do not support the arguments of opponents of compulsory pool fencing that caregiver factors are adequate to prevent toddler drownings and obviate the need for a pool fence. Pool owners do not appear to perceive their pool as a hazard for young children, and complacency about the adequacy of pool fencing needs to be replaced by increased caregiver health beliefs, skills, and perceptions. Images

Fisher, K. J.; Balanda, K. P.

1997-01-01

85

MMAPPR: Mutation Mapping Analysis Pipeline for Pooled RNA-seq  

PubMed Central

Forward genetic screens in model organisms are vital for identifying novel genes essential for developmental or disease processes. One drawback of these screens is the labor-intensive and sometimes inconclusive process of mapping the causative mutation. To leverage high-throughput techniques to improve this mapping process, we have developed a Mutation Mapping Analysis Pipeline for Pooled RNA-seq (MMAPPR) that works without parental strain information or requiring a preexisting SNP map of the organism, and adapts to differential recombination frequencies across the genome. MMAPPR accommodates the considerable amount of noise in RNA-seq data sets, calculates allelic frequency by Euclidean distance followed by Loess regression analysis, identifies the region where the mutation lies, and generates a list of putative coding region mutations in the linked genomic segment. MMAPPR can exploit RNA-seq data sets from isolated tissues or whole organisms that are used for gene expression and transcriptome analysis in novel mutants. We tested MMAPPR on two known mutant lines in zebrafish, nkx2.5 and tbx1, and used it to map two novel ENU-induced cardiovascular mutants, with mutations found in the ctr9 and cds2 genes. MMAPPR can be directly applied to other model organisms, such as Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans, that are amenable to both forward genetic screens and pooled RNA-seq experiments. Thus, MMAPPR is a rapid, cost-efficient, and highly automated pipeline, available to perform mutant mapping in any organism with a well-assembled genome.

Hill, Jonathon T.; Demarest, Bradley L.; Bisgrove, Brent W.; Gorsi, Bushra; Su, Yi-Chu; Yost, H. Joseph

2013-01-01

86

MMAPPR: mutation mapping analysis pipeline for pooled RNA-seq.  

PubMed

Forward genetic screens in model organisms are vital for identifying novel genes essential for developmental or disease processes. One drawback of these screens is the labor-intensive and sometimes inconclusive process of mapping the causative mutation. To leverage high-throughput techniques to improve this mapping process, we have developed a Mutation Mapping Analysis Pipeline for Pooled RNA-seq (MMAPPR) that works without parental strain information or requiring a preexisting SNP map of the organism, and adapts to differential recombination frequencies across the genome. MMAPPR accommodates the considerable amount of noise in RNA-seq data sets, calculates allelic frequency by Euclidean distance followed by Loess regression analysis, identifies the region where the mutation lies, and generates a list of putative coding region mutations in the linked genomic segment. MMAPPR can exploit RNA-seq data sets from isolated tissues or whole organisms that are used for gene expression and transcriptome analysis in novel mutants. We tested MMAPPR on two known mutant lines in zebrafish, nkx2.5 and tbx1, and used it to map two novel ENU-induced cardiovascular mutants, with mutations found in the ctr9 and cds2 genes. MMAPPR can be directly applied to other model organisms, such as Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans, that are amenable to both forward genetic screens and pooled RNA-seq experiments. Thus, MMAPPR is a rapid, cost-efficient, and highly automated pipeline, available to perform mutant mapping in any organism with a well-assembled genome. PMID:23299975

Hill, Jonathon T; Demarest, Bradley L; Bisgrove, Brent W; Gorsi, Bushra; Su, Yi-Chu; Yost, H Joseph

2013-01-08

87

Do socioeconomic inequalities in mortality vary between different Spanish cities? a pooled cross-sectional analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship between deprivation and mortality in urban settings is well established. This relationship has been found for several causes of death in Spanish cities in independent analyses (the MEDEA project). However, no joint analysis which pools the strength of this relationship across several cities has ever been undertaken. Such an analysis would determine, if appropriate, a joint relationship by linking the associations found. Methods A pooled cross-sectional analysis of the data from the MEDEA project has been carried out for each of the causes of death studied. Specifically, a meta-analysis has been carried out to pool the relative risks in eleven Spanish cities. Different deprivation-mortality relationships across the cities are considered in the analysis (fixed and random effects models). The size of the cities is also considered as a possible factor explaining differences between cities. Results Twenty studies have been carried out for different combinations of sex and causes of death. For nine of them (men: prostate cancer, diabetes, mental illnesses, Alzheimer’s disease, cerebrovascular disease; women: diabetes, mental illnesses, respiratory diseases, cirrhosis) no differences were found between cities in the effect of deprivation on mortality; in four cases (men: respiratory diseases, all causes of mortality; women: breast cancer, Alzheimer’s disease) differences not associated with the size of the city have been determined; in two cases (men: cirrhosis; women: lung cancer) differences strictly linked to the size of the city have been determined, and in five cases (men: lung cancer, ischaemic heart disease; women: ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, all causes of mortality) both kinds of differences have been found. Except for lung cancer in women, every significant relationship between deprivation and mortality goes in the same direction: deprivation increases mortality. Variability in the relative risks across cities was found for general mortality for both sexes. Conclusions This study provides a general overview of the relationship between deprivation and mortality for a sample of large Spanish cities combined. This joint study allows the exploration of and, if appropriate, the quantification of the variability in that relationship for the set of cities considered.

2013-01-01

88

Overview of the Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers  

PubMed Central

The Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers (VDPP) brought together 10 cohorts to conduct a prospective study of the association between vitamin D status, measured as serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), and the development of 7 rarer cancer sites: endometrial, esophageal, gastric, kidney, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, ovarian, and pancreatic cancers. The cohorts come from 3 continents, with participants from a wide range of latitude who are racially diverse. Across each cancer site, there was no evidence of a protective association between higher concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (>75 nmol/L) and cancer outcome. An increased risk at very high levels (?100 nmol/L) was noted for pancreatic cancer, confirming previous reports. The articles included in this issue detail the overall design and governance of the project, correlates of vitamin D status, and results from the cancer site-specific investigations. The Vitamin D Pooling Project realizes a major goal of consortium efforts, namely, to rigorously test hypotheses for rarer cancer outcomes that may not be adequately addressed in any one prospective cohort study. The results of this study have application for the planning and conduct of intervention trials, especially in determining potential risks.

Helzlsouer, Kathy J.

2010-01-01

89

Pooled analyses of 13 prospective cohort studies on folate intake and colon cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective Studies of folate intake and colorectal cancer risk have been inconsistent. We examined the relation with colon cancer risk in a series of 13 prospective studies. Methods Study- and sex-specific relative risks (RRs) were estimated from the primary data using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random-effects model. Results Among 725,134 participants, 5,720 incident colon cancers were diagnosed during follow-up. The pooled multivariate RRs (95% confidence interval [CI]) comparing the highest vs. lowest quintile of intake were 0.92 (95% CI 0.84–1.00, p-value, test for between-studies heterogeneity = 0.85) for dietary folate and 0.85 (95% CI 0.77–0.95, p-value, test for between-studies heterogeneity = 0.42) for total folate. Results for total folate intake were similar in analyses using absolute intake cutpoints (pooled multivariate RR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.78–0.98, comparing ?560 mcg/days vs. <240 mcg/days, p-value, test for trend = 0.009). When analyzed as a continuous variable, a 2% risk reduction (95% CI 0–3%) was estimated for every 100 ?g/day increase in total folate intake. Conclusion These data support the hypothesis that higher folate intake is modestly associated with reduced risk of colon cancer.

Kim, Dong-Hyun; Spiegelman, Donna; Yaun, Shiaw-Shyuan; Colditz, Graham A.; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Giovannucci, Edward; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Graham, Saxon; Harnack, Lisa; Jacobs, Eric J.; Leitzmann, Michael; Mannisto, Satu; Miller, Anthony B.; Potter, John D.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Speizer, Frank E.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Terry, Paul; Toniolo, Paolo; Weijenberg, Matty P.; Willett, Walter C.; Wolk, Alicja; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Hunter, David J.

2011-01-01

90

Genome-wide Association Study for Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility using Pooled DNA  

PubMed Central

Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified four low-penetrance ovarian cancer susceptibility loci. We hypothesized that further moderate or low penetrance variants exist among the subset of SNPs not well tagged by the genotyping arrays used in the previous studies which would account for some of the remaining risk. We therefore conducted a time- and cost-effective stage 1 GWAS on 342 invasive serous cases and 643 controls genotyped on pooled DNA using the high density Illumina 1M-Duo array. We followed up 20 of the most significantly associated SNPs, which are not well tagged by the lower density arrays used by the published GWAS, and genotyping them on individual DNA. Most of the top 20 SNPs were clearly validated by individually genotyping the samples used in the pools. However, none of the 20 SNPs replicated when tested for association in a much larger stage 2 set of 4,651 cases and 6,966 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Given that most of the top 20 SNPs from pooling were validated in the same samples by individual genotyping, the lack of replication is likely to be due to the relatively small sample size in our stage 1 GWAS rather than due to problems with the pooling approach. We conclude that there are unlikely to be any moderate or large effects on ovarian cancer risk untagged by the less dense arrays. However our study lacked power to make clear statements on the existence of hitherto untagged small effect variants.

Lu, Yi; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Johnatty, Sharon E.; deFazio, Anna; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Lambrechts, Diether; Despierre, Evelyn; Vergotes, Ignace; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Nickels, Stefan; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Dork, Thilo; Durst, Matthias; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bogdanova, Natalia; Goodman, Marc T.; Lurie, Galina; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Carney, Michael E.; Butzow, Ralf; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Leminen, Arto; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; van Altena, Anne M.; Aben, Katja K.; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; H?gdall, Estrid; Jensen, Allan; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Le, Nhu; Cook, Linda; Earp, Madalene; Kelemen, Linda; Easton, Douglas; Pharoah, Paul; Song, Honglin; Tyrer, Jonathan; Ramus, Susan; Menon, Usha; Gentry-Maharaj, Alexandra; Gayther, Simon A.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna

2013-01-01

91

Meta and pooled analyses of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk: A Huge-GSEC review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of folate, whose role in gastric carcinogenesis is controversial. The authors performed a meta-analysis and individual data pooled analysis of case-control studies that examined the association between C677T and A1298C polymorphisms (the former being associated with low folate serum levels) and gastric cancer (meta-analyses: 16 studies, 2,727 cases and 4,640

Stefania Boccia; Rayjean Hung; Gualtiero Ricciardi; Francesco Gianfagna; Matthias P. A. Ebert; Jing-Yuan Fang; Chang-Ming Gao; T. Götze; Francesco Graziano; M. Lacasaña-Navarro; Dongxin Lin; L. López-Carrillo; You-Lin Qiao; Hongbing Shen; Rachael Stolzenberg-Solomon; Toshiro Takezaki; Yu-Rong Weng; Fang Fang Zhang; P. Tikka-Kleemola; Paolo Boffetta; Emanuela Taioli

2008-01-01

92

Structural analysis of a reflux pool-boiler solar receiver  

SciTech Connect

Coupled thermal-structural finite element calculations of a reflux pool-boiler solar receiver were performed to characterize the operating stresses and to address issues affecting the service life of the receiver. Analyses performed using shell elements provided information for receiver material selection and design optimization. Calculations based on linear elastic fracture mechanics principles were performed using continuum elements to assess the vulnerability of a seam-weld to fatigue crack growth. All calculations were performed using ABAQUS, a general purpose finite element code, and elements specifically formulated for coupled thermal-structural analysis. Two materials were evaluated: 316L SS and Haynes 230 alloys. The receiver response was simulated for a combination of structural and thermal loads that represent the startup and operating conditions of the receiver. For both materials, maximum stresses in the receiver developed shortly after startup due to uneven temperature distribution across the receiver surface. The largest effective stress was near yield in the 316L SS receiver and below 39 percent of yield in the Haynes 230 receiver. The calculations demonstrated that stress reductions of over 25 percent could be obtained by reducing the aft dome thickness to one closer to the absorber. The fatigue calculations demonstrated that the stress distribution near the seam-weld notch depends primarily on the structural load created by internal pressurization of the receiver rather than the thermal, indicating that the thermal loads can be neglected when assessing the stress intensity near the seam-weld notch. The stress intensity factor, computed using the J-integral method and crack opening-displacement field equations, was significantly below the fatigue threshold for most steels. The calculations indicated that the weld notch was always loaded in compression, a condition which is not conducive to fatigue crack growth. 15 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs.

Hoffman, E.L.; Stone, C.M.

1991-06-01

93

Pooled analyses of 13 prospective cohort studies on folate intake and colon cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Studies of folate intake and colorectal cancer risk have been inconsistent. We examined the relation with colon cancer risk\\u000a in a series of 13 prospective studies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Study- and sex-specific relative risks (RRs) were estimated from the primary data using Cox proportional hazards models and\\u000a then pooled using a random-effects model.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Among 725,134 participants, 5,720 incident colon cancers were diagnosed during

Dong-Hyun Kim; Stephanie A. Smith-Warner; Donna Spiegelman; Shiaw-Shyuan Yaun; Graham A. Colditz; Jo L. Freudenheim; Edward Giovannucci; R. Alexandra Goldbohm; Saxon Graham; Lisa Harnack; Eric J. Jacobs; Michael Leitzmann; Satu Mannisto; Anthony B. Miller; John D. Potter; Thomas E. Rohan; Arthur Schatzkin; Frank E. Speizer; Victoria L. Stevens; Rachael Stolzenberg-Solomon; Paul Terry; Paolo Toniolo; Matty P. Weijenberg; Walter C. Willett; Alicja Wolk; Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte; David J. Hunter

2010-01-01

94

Postdiagnosis cruciferous vegetable consumption and breast cancer outcomes: a report from the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project.  

PubMed

Cruciferous vegetables are a major source of glucosinolate-derived bioactive compounds such as isothiocyanates, which have been shown in animal and in vitro studies to inhibit cancer growth and progression. Few studies have investigated cruciferous vegetable intake after diagnosis and breast cancer outcomes. Using data from the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project, which includes prospective data from U.S. and Chinese breast cancer survivors, we evaluated the association of cruciferous vegetables with breast cancer outcomes. Analyses included 11,390 women diagnosed with stage I-III invasive breast cancer (1990-2006) from four cohorts. Cruciferous vegetable intake (g/day) was assessed using food frequency questionnaires (mean of 22 months postdiagnosis). Study heterogeneity was evaluated by the Q statistic; hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using delayed-entry Cox regression models stratified by study. After a median follow-up of 9.0 years, 1,725 deaths and 1,421 recurrences were documented. In pooled analyses using study-specific quartiles, cruciferous vegetable intake was not associated with breast cancer outcomes, adjusting for known clinical prognostic factors and selected lifestyle factors. HRs (95% CIs) by increasing quartiles (reference = lowest quartile) were 1.08 (0.93-1.25), 1.01 (0.87-1.18), and 1.10 (0.95-1.28) for recurrence (P(trend) = 0.34) and 1.01 (0.88-1.15), 0.97 (0.84-1.11), and 0.99 (0.86-1.13) for total mortality (P(trend) = 0.84). No associations were observed for subgroups defined by estrogen receptor status, stage, or tamoxifen therapy. Cruciferous vegetable intake at approximately two years after diagnosis was not associated with recurrence or mortality. Our results do not support an association between postdiagnosis cruciferous vegetable intake and breast cancer outcomes. PMID:23765086

Nechuta, Sarah; Caan, Bette J; Chen, Wendy Y; Kwan, Marilyn L; Lu, Wei; Cai, Hui; Poole, Elizabeth M; Flatt, Shirley W; Zheng, Wei; Pierce, John P; Shu, Xiao Ou

2013-06-13

95

Impact of postmenopausal hormone therapy on cardiovascular events and cancer: pooled data from clinical trials.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and cancer from published clinical trials that studied other outcomes of postmenopausal hormone therapy as some surveys have suggested that it may decrease the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and increase the incidence of hormone dependent cancers. DESIGN: Trials that compared hormone therapy with placebo, no therapy, or vitamins and minerals in comparable groups of postmenopausal women and reported cardiovascular or cancer outcomes were searched from the literature. SUBJECTS: 22 trials with 4124 women were identified. In each group, the numbers of women with cardiovascular and cancer events were summed and divided by the numbers of women originally allocated to the groups. RESULTS: Data on cardiovascular events and cancer were usually given incidentally, either as a reason for dropping out of a study or in a list of adverse effects. The calculated odds ratios for women taking hormones versus those not taking hormones was 1.39 (95% confidence interval 0.48 to 3.95) for cardiovascular events without pulmonary embolus and deep vein thrombosis and 1.64 (0.55 to 4.18) with them. It is unlikely that such results would have occurred if the true odds ratio were 0.7 or less. For cancers, the numbers of reported events were too low for a useful conclusion. CONCLUSIONS: The results of these pooled data do not support the notion that postmenopausal hormone therapy prevents cardiovascular events.

Hemminki, E.; McPherson, K.

1997-01-01

96

Monte Carlo Test Assembly for Item Pool Analysis and Extension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A new test assembly algorithm based on a Monte Carlo random search is presented in this article. A major advantage of the Monte Carlo test assembly over other approaches (integer programming or enumerative heuristics) is that it performs a uniform sampling from the item pool, which provides every feasible item combination (test) with an equal…

Belov, Dmitry I.; Armstrong, Ronald D.

2005-01-01

97

Structural analysis of a reflux pool-boiler solar receiver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coupled thermal-structural finite element calculations of a reflux pool-boiler solar receiver were performed to characterize the operating stresses and to address issues affecting the service life of the receiver. Analyses performed using shell elements provided information for receiver material selection and design optimization. Calculations based on linear elastic fracture mechanics principles were performed using continuum elements to assess the vulnerability

E. L. Hoffman; C. M. Stone

1991-01-01

98

Microbiological Analysis in Three Diverse Natural Geothermal Bathing Pools in Iceland  

PubMed Central

Natural thermal bathing pools contain geothermal water that is very popular to bathe in but the water is not sterilized, irradiated or treated in any way. Increasing tourism in Iceland will lead to increasing numbers of bath guests, which can in turn affect the microbial flora in the pools and therefore user safety. Today, there is no legislation that applies to natural geothermal pools in Iceland, as the water is not used for consumption and the pools are not defined as public swimming pools. In this study, we conducted a microbiological analysis on three popular but different natural pools in Iceland, located at Lýsuhóll, Hveravellir and Landmannalaugar. Total bacterial counts were performed by flow cytometry, and with plate count at 22 °C, 37 °C and 50 °C. The presence of viable coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and pseudomonads were investigated by growth experiments on selective media. All samples were screened for noroviruses by real time PCR. The results indicate higher fecal contamination in the geothermal pools where the geothermal water flow was low and bathing guest count was high during the day. The number of cultivated Pseudomonas spp. was high (13,000–40,000 cfu/100 mL) in the natural pools, and several strains were isolated and classified as opportunistic pathogens. Norovirus was not detected in the three pools. DNA was extracted from one-liter samples in each pool and analyzed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbial diversity analysis revealed different microbial communities between the pools and they were primarily composed of alpha-, beta- and gammaproteobacteria.

Thorolfsdottir, Berglind Osk Th.; Marteinsson, Viggo Thor

2013-01-01

99

Computational Analysis of Flame Spread Across Alcohol Pools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulsating and uniform spread across n-propanot and ethanol liquid fuel pools is simulated via a two-dimensional, transient, numerical model which incorporates finite-rate chemical kinetics, variable properties, and a partially adaptive finite-difference gridding scheme. The model is compared to detailed, independent experimental data. The explanation and characterization of the pulsating and uniform flame spread phenomena are developedPulsating flame spread requires a

D. N. SCHILLER; H. D. ROSS; W. A. SIRIGNANO

1996-01-01

100

Reactor Noise Analysis of Swimming Pool Type Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactor power frequency spectrum measurements at various power levels (0.2 W, 1 W, 5 W, 100 W, 500 W, 5 kW and 100 kW) were made with HTR** (swimming-pool type). A low frequency AC amplifier, a magnetic tape recorder, a frequency selective amplifier with twin-T filters, a multiplier, and an integrator were used. Speed-up and speed-down techniques of tape recorder

Shuji YAMADA

1964-01-01

101

Calculation notes for surface leak resulting in pool, TWRS FSAR accident analysis  

SciTech Connect

This document includes the calculations performed to quantify the risk associated with the unmitigated and mitigated accident scenarios described in the TWRS FSAR for the accident analysis titled: Surface Leaks Resulting in Pool.

Hall, B.W.

1996-09-25

102

Calculation Notes for Subsurface Leak Resulting in Pool, TWRS FSAR Accident Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This document includes the calculations performed to quantify the risk associated with the unmitigated and mitigated accident scenarios described in the TWRS FSAR for the accident analysis titled: Subsurface Leaks Resulting in Pool.

Hall, B.W.

1996-09-25

103

Meta- and pooled analyses of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk: a huge-GSEC review.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of folate, whose role in gastric carcinogenesis is controversial. The authors performed a meta-analysis and individual data pooled analysis of case-control studies that examined the association between C677T and A1298C polymorphisms (the former being associated with low folate serum levels) and gastric cancer (meta-analyses: 16 studies, 2,727 cases and 4,640 controls for C677T and seven studies, 1,223 cases and 2,015 controls for A1298C; pooled analyses: nine studies, 1,540 cases and 2,577 controls for C677T and five studies, 1,146 cases and 1,549 controls for A1298C). An increased risk was found for MTHFR 677 TT in the meta-analysis (odds ratio (OR) = 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31, 1.77) and pooled analysis (OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.95). No association resulted for MTHFR 1298 CC (meta-OR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.65, 1.35; pooled OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.69, 1.34). Results from the pooled analysis of four studies on C677T stratified according to folate levels showed an increased risk for individuals with low (OR = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.13, 3.72) versus high (OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.54, 1.67) folate levels. Overall, these findings support the hypothesis that folate plays a role in gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:18162478

Boccia, Stefania; Hung, Rayjean; Ricciardi, Gualtiero; Gianfagna, Francesco; Ebert, Matthias P A; Fang, Jing-Yuan; Gao, Chang-Ming; Götze, Tobias; Graziano, Francesco; Lacasaña-Navarro, Marina; Lin, Dongxin; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Qiao, You-Lin; Shen, Hongbing; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Takezaki, Toshiro; Weng, Yu-Rong; Zhang, Fang Fang; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Boffetta, Paolo; Taioli, Emanuela

2007-12-27

104

Correlates of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D: Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers.  

PubMed

Low vitamin D status is common globally and is associated with multiple disease outcomes. Understanding the correlates of vitamin D status will help guide clinical practice, research, and interpretation of studies. Correlates of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations measured in a single laboratory were examined in 4,723 cancer-free men and women from 10 cohorts participating in the Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers, which covers a worldwide geographic area. Demographic and lifestyle characteristics were examined in relation to 25(OH)D using stepwise linear regression and polytomous logistic regression. The prevalence of 25(OH)D concentrations less than 25 nmol/L ranged from 3% to 36% across cohorts, and the prevalence of 25(OH)D concentrations less than 50 nmol/L ranged from 29% to 82%. Seasonal differences in circulating 25(OH)D were most marked among whites from northern latitudes. Statistically significant positive correlates of 25(OH)D included male sex, summer blood draw, vigorous physical activity, vitamin D intake, fish intake, multivitamin use, and calcium supplement use. Significant inverse correlates were body mass index, winter and spring blood draw, history of diabetes, sedentary behavior, smoking, and black race/ethnicity. Correlates varied somewhat within season, race/ethnicity, and sex. These findings help identify persons at risk for low vitamin D status for both clinical and research purposes. PMID:20562191

McCullough, Marjorie L; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Freedman, D Michal; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Flanders, W Dana; Koenig, Karen; Kolonel, Laurence; Laden, Francine; Le Marchand, Loic; Purdue, Mark; Snyder, Kirk; Stevens, Victoria L; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Virtamo, Jarmo; Yang, Gong; Yu, Kai; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Ashby, Jason; Bertrand, Kimberly; Cai, Hui; Chen, Yu; Gallicchio, Lisa; Giovannucci, Edward; Jacobs, Eric J; Hankinson, Susan E; Hartge, Patricia; Hartmuller, Virginia; Harvey, Chinonye; Hayes, Richard B; Horst, Ronald L; Shu, Xiao-Ou

2010-06-18

105

Comprehensive analysis of correlation coefficients estimated from pooling heterogeneous microarray data  

PubMed Central

Background The synthesis of information across microarray studies has been performed by combining statistical results of individual studies (as in a mosaic), or by combining data from multiple studies into a large pool to be analyzed as a single data set (as in a melting pot of data). Specific issues relating to data heterogeneity across microarray studies, such as differences within and between labs or differences among experimental conditions, could lead to equivocal results in a melting pot approach. Results We applied statistical theory to determine the specific effect of different means and heteroskedasticity across 19 groups of microarray data on the sign and magnitude of gene-to-gene Pearson correlation coefficients obtained from the pool of 19 groups. We quantified the biases of the pooled coefficients and compared them to the biases of correlations estimated by an effect-size model. Mean differences across the 19 groups were the main factor determining the magnitude and sign of the pooled coefficients, which showed largest values of bias as they approached ±1. Only heteroskedasticity across the pool of 19 groups resulted in less efficient estimations of correlations than did a classical meta-analysis approach of combining correlation coefficients. These results were corroborated by simulation studies involving either mean differences or heteroskedasticity across a pool of N?>?2 groups. Conclusions The combination of statistical results is best suited for synthesizing the correlation between expression profiles of a gene pair across several microarray studies.

2013-01-01

106

Multimarker analysis and imputation of multiple platform pooling-based genome-wide association studies  

PubMed Central

Summary: For many genome-wide association (GWA) studies individually genotyping one million or more SNPs provides a marginal increase in coverage at a substantial cost. Much of the information gained is redundant due to the correlation structure inherent in the human genome. Pooling-based GWA studies could benefit significantly by utilizing this redundancy to reduce noise, improve the accuracy of the observations and increase genomic coverage. We introduce a measure of correlation between individual genotyping and pooling, under the same framework that r2 provides a measure of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between pairs of SNPs. We then report a new non-haplotype multimarker multi-loci method that leverages the correlation structure between SNPs in the human genome to increase the efficacy of pooling-based GWA studies. We first give a theoretical framework and derivation of our multimarker method. Next, we evaluate simulations using this multimarker approach in comparison to single marker analysis. Finally, we experimentally evaluate our method using different pools of HapMap individuals on the Illumina 450S Duo, Illumina 550K and Affymetrix 5.0 platforms for a combined total of 1 333 631 SNPs. Our results show that use of multimarker analysis reduces noise specific to pooling-based studies, allows for efficient integration of multiple microarray platforms and provides more accurate measures of significance than single marker analysis. Additionally, this approach can be extended to allow for imputing the association significance for SNPs not directly observed using neighboring SNPs in LD. This multimarker method can now be used to cost-effectively complete pooling-based GWA studies with multiple platforms across over one million SNPs and to impute neighboring SNPs weighted for the loss of information due to pooling. Contact: dcraig@tgen.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Homer, Nils; Tembe, Waibhav D.; Szelinger, Szabolcs; Redman, Margot; Stephan, Dietrich A.; Pearson, John V.; Nelson, Stanley F.; Craig, David

2008-01-01

107

Menstrual and reproductive factors, and hormonal contraception use: associations with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a pooled analysis of InterLymph case-control studies  

PubMed Central

Background The two most common forms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) exhibit different sex ratios: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) occurs more frequently in men and follicular lymphoma (FL) more frequently in women. Looking among women alone, this pooled analysis explores the relationship between reproductive histories and these cancers. Materials and methods Self-reported reproductive histories from 4263 women with NHL and 5971 women without NHL were pooled across 18 case–control studies (1983–2005) from North America, Europe and Japan. Study-specific odd ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression and pooled using random-effects meta-analyses. Results Associations with reproductive factors were found for FL rather than NHL overall and DLBCL. In particular, the risk of FL decreased with increasing number of pregnancies (pooled ORtrend = 0.88, 95% CI 0.81–0.96). FL was associated with hormonal contraception (pooled OR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.04–1.63), and risks were increased when use started after the age of 21, was used for <5 years or stopped for >20 years before diagnosis. DLBCL, on the other hand, was not associated with hormonal contraception (pooled OR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.65–1.16). Conclusions Hormonal contraception is associated with an increased risk of FL but not of DLBCL or NHL overall.

Kane, E. V.; Roman, E.; Becker, N.; Bernstein, L.; Boffetta, P.; Bracci, P. M.; Cerhan, J. R.; Chiu, B. C. -H.; Cocco, P.; Costas, L.; Foretova, L.; Holly, E. A.; La Vecchia, C.; Matsuo, K.; Maynadie, M.; Sanjose, S.; Spinelli, J. J.; Staines, A.; Talamini, R.; Wang, S. S.; Zhang, Y.; Zheng, T.; Kricker, A.

2012-01-01

108

Cancer genome analysis informatics.  

PubMed

The analysis of cancer genomes has benefited from the advances in technology that enable data to be generated on an unprecedented scale, describing a tumour genome's sequence and composition at increasingly high resolution and reducing cost. This progress is likely to increase further over the coming years as next-generation sequencing approaches are applied to the study of cancer genomes, in tandem with large-scale efforts such as the Cancer Genome Atlas and recently announced International Cancer Genome Consortium efforts to complement those already established such as the Sanger Institute Cancer Genome Project. This presents challenges for the cancer researcher and the research community in general, in terms of analysing the data generated in one's own projects and also in coordinating and interrogating data that are publicly available. This review aims to provide a brief overview of some of the main informatics resources currently available and their use, and some of the informatics approaches that may be applied in the study of cancer genomes. PMID:20238077

Barrett, Ian P

2010-01-01

109

NordPoolSpot price pattern analysis for households energy management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the analysis of price fluctuations in the Nord Pool Spot (NPS) and the possibilities to introduce consumption scheduling and energy storage equipment to reduce price fluctuations in households using the real-time open market electrical energy tariffs. I. INTRODUCTION The deregulation of electricity industry is giving way to global trends toward the commodization of electric energy. (1,2). This

Aivar Auvaart; Argo Rosin; Nadezhda Belonogova; Denis Lebedev

2011-01-01

110

Comparing the effects of mass media and telecommunications on economic development: A pooled time series analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempts to test the causal relationship between communication and economic development and compare the magnitude of the economic contributions of mass media and telecommunications. 17 year's data from 23 countries were collected and subjected to pooled time series analysis. It is found that while both mass media and telecommuni cations contribute to economic development, telecommunications tends to contribute

Jianguo Zhu

1996-01-01

111

Pooling pharmacogenetic studies on the serotonin transporter: A mega-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmacogenetic studies on antidepressants have reported an association between the promoter of the serotonin transporter gene (SERTPR) and response to antidepressant treatment. In the present study, individual subject data from three pharmacogenetic studies on SERTPR were pooled (‘mega-analysis’) to investigate the role of this gene in the antidepressant activity of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). A group of 548 patients

Alessandro Serretti; Cristina Cusin; Jeffrey L. Rausch; Brigitta Bondy; Enrico Smeraldi

2006-01-01

112

Pooled Genome-Wide Analysis to Identify Novel Risk Loci for Pediatric Allergic Asthma  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide association studies of pooled DNA samples were shown to be a valuable tool to identify candidate SNPs associated to a phenotype. No such study was up to now applied to childhood allergic asthma, even if the very high complexity of asthma genetics is an appropriate field to explore the potential of pooled GWAS approach. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a pooled GWAS and individual genotyping in 269 children with allergic respiratory diseases comparing allergic children with and without asthma. We used a modular approach to identify the most significant loci associated with asthma by combining silhouette statistics and physical distance method with cluster-adapted thresholding. We found 97% concordance between pooled GWAS and individual genotyping, with 36 out of 37 top-scoring SNPs significant at individual genotyping level. The most significant SNP is located inside the coding sequence of C5, an already identified asthma susceptibility gene, while the other loci regulate functions that are relevant to bronchial physiopathology, as immune- or inflammation-mediated mechanisms and airway smooth muscle contraction. Integration with gene expression data showed that almost half of the putative susceptibility genes are differentially expressed in experimental asthma mouse models. Conclusion/Significance Combined silhouette statistics and cluster-adapted physical distance threshold analysis of pooled GWAS data is an efficient method to identify candidate SNP associated to asthma development in an allergic pediatric population.

Ricci, Giampaolo; Astolfi, Annalisa; Remondini, Daniel; Cipriani, Francesca; Formica, Serena; Dondi, Arianna; Pession, Andrea

2011-01-01

113

PoPoolation: A Toolbox for Population Genetic Analysis of Next Generation Sequencing Data from Pooled Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent statistical analyses suggest that sequencing of pooled samples provides a cost effective approach to determine genome-wide population genetic parameters. Here we introduce PoPoolation, a toolbox specifically designed for the population genetic analysis of sequence data from pooled individuals. PoPoolation calculates estimates of ?Watterson, ??, and Tajima's D that account for the bias introduced by pooling and sequencing errors, as

Robert Kofler; Pablo Orozco-Terwengel; Nicola de Maio; Ram Vinay Pandey; Viola Nolte; Andreas Futschik; Carolin Kosiol; Christian Schlötterer; Manfred Kayser

2011-01-01

114

Genetic linkage analysis using pooled DNA and infrared detection of tailed STRP primer patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mapping of a disease locus to a specific chromosomal region is an important step in the eventual isolation and analysis of a disease causing gene. Conventional mapping methods analyze large multiplex families and/or smaller nuclear families to find linkage between the disease and a chromosome marker that maps to a known chromosomal region. This analysis is time consuming and tedious, typically requiring the determination of 30,000 genotypes or more. For appropriate populations, we have instead utilized pooled DNA samples for gene mapping which greatly reduces the amount of time necessary for an initial chromosomal screen. This technique assumes a common founder for the disease locus of interest and searches for a region of a chromosome shared between affected individuals. Our analysis involves the PCR amplification of short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRP) to detect these shared regions. In order to reduce the cost of genotyping, we have designed unlabeled tailed PCR primers which, when combined with a labeled universal primer, provides for an alternative to synthesizing custom labeled primers. The STRP pattern is visualized with an infrared fluorescence based automated DNA sequencer and the patterns quantitated by densitometric analysis of the allele pattern. Differences in the distribution of alleles between pools of affected and unaffected individuals, including a reduction in the number of alleles in the affected pool, indicate the sharing of a region of a chromosome. We have found this method effective for markers 10 - 15 cM away from the disease locus for a recessive genetic disease.

Oetting, William S.; Wildenberg, Scott C.; King, Richard A.

1996-04-01

115

Pooled Sample-Based GWAS: A Cost-Effective Alternative for Identifying Colorectal and Prostate Cancer Risk Variants in the Polish Population  

PubMed Central

Background Prostate cancer (PCa) and colorectal cancer (CRC) are the most commonly diagnosed cancers and cancer-related causes of death in Poland. To date, numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with susceptibility to both cancer types have been identified, but their effect on disease risk may differ among populations. Methods To identify new SNPs associated with PCa and CRC in the Polish population, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed using DNA sample pools on Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP 6.0 arrays. A total of 135 PCa patients and 270 healthy men (PCa sub-study) and 525 patients with adenoma (AD), 630 patients with CRC and 690 controls (AD/CRC sub-study) were included in the analysis. Allele frequency distributions were compared with t-tests and ?2-tests. Only those significantly associated SNPs with a proxy SNP (p<0.001; distance of 100 kb; r2>0.7) were selected. GWAS marker selection was conducted using PLINK. The study was replicated using extended cohorts of patients and controls. The association with previously reported PCa and CRC susceptibility variants was also examined. Individual patients were genotyped using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. Results The GWAS selected six and 24 new candidate SNPs associated with PCa and CRC susceptibility, respectively. In the replication study, 17 of these associations were confirmed as significant in additive model of inheritance. Seven of them remained significant after correction for multiple hypothesis testing. Additionally, 17 previously reported risk variants have been identified, five of which remained significant after correction. Conclusion Pooled-DNA GWAS enabled the identification of new susceptibility loci for CRC in the Polish population. Previously reported CRC and PCa predisposition variants were also identified, validating the global nature of their associations. Further independent replication studies are required to confirm significance of the newly uncovered candidate susceptibility loci.

Gaj, Pawel; Maryan, Natalia; Hennig, Ewa E.; Ledwon, Joanna K.; Paziewska, Agnieszka; Majewska, Aneta; Karczmarski, Jakub; Nesteruk, Monika; Wolski, Jan; Antoniewicz, Artur A.; Przytulski, Krzysztof; Rutkowski, Andrzej; Teumer, Alexander; Homuth, Georg; Starzynska, Teresa; Regula, Jaroslaw; Ostrowski, Jerzy

2012-01-01

116

Thread Pool-Based Improvement of the Mean-Value Analysis Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The performance of information systems is an important consideration. With the help of proper performance models and evaluation\\u000a algorithms, performance metrics can be predicted accurately. The goal of our work is to improve the Mean-Value Analysis (MVA)\\u000a evaluation algorithm based on the investigation of thread pools. In our work, the performance metrics of multi-tier information\\u000a systems are predicted with the

Ágnes Bogárdi-Mészöly; Takeshi Hashimoto; Tihamér Levendovszky; Hassan Charaf

117

Autoimmune disorders and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes: a pooled analysis within the InterLymph Consortium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some autoimmune disorders are increas- ingly recognized as risk factors for non- Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) overall, but large-scale systematic assessments of risk of NHL subtypes are lacking. We performed a pooled analysis of self- reported autoimmune conditions and risk of NHL and subtypes, including 29 423 participants in 12 case-control studies. We computed pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence

Karin Ekstrom Smedby; Claire M. Vajdic; Michael Falster; Eric A. Engels; Otoniel Martõ ´ nez-Maza; Jennifer Turner; Henrik Hjalgrim; Paolo Vineis; Adele Seniori Costantini; Paige M. Bracci; Elizabeth A. Holly; John J. Spinelli; Tongzhang Zheng; Brian C.-H. Chiu; Marc Maynadie; Paul Brennan; Scott Davis; James R. Cerhan; Elizabeth C. Breen; Andrew E. Grulich; Wendy Cozen

2008-01-01

118

Theoretical analysis of library screening using a N-dimensional pooling strategy.  

PubMed Central

A solution to the problem of library screening is analysed. We examine how to retrieve those clones that are positive for a single copy landmark from a whole library while performing only a minimum number of laboratory tests: the clones are arranged on a matrix (i.e in 2 dimensions) and pooled according to the rows and columns. A fingerprint is determined for each pool and an analysis allows selection of a list containing all the positive clones, plus a few false positives. These false positives are eliminated by using another (or several other) matrix which has to be reconfigured in a way as different as possible from the previous one. We examine the use of cubes (3 dimensions) or hypercubes of any dimension instead of matrices and analyse how to reconfigure them in order to eliminate the false positives as efficiently as possible. The advantage of the method proposed is the low number of tests required and the low number of pools that require to be prepared [only 258 pools and 282 tests (258 + 24 verifications) are needed to screen the 72,000 clones of the CEPH YAC library (1) with a sequence-tagged site]. Furthermore, this method allows easy and systematic screenings and can be applied to a large physical mapping project, which will lead to an interesting map with a low, precisely known, rate of error: when fingerprinting a 150 Mb chromosome with the CEPH YAC library and 1750 sequence-tagged sites, 903,000 tests would be necessary to obtain about 20 contigs of an average length of 6.7 Mb, while only about one false positive would be expected in the resultant map. Finally, STSs can be ordered by dividing a clone library into sublibraries (corresponding to groups of microplates for example) and testing each STS on pooled clones from each sublibrary. This allows to dedicate to each STSs a fingerprint that consists in the list of the positive pools. In many cases these fingerprints will be enough to order the STSs. Indeed if large YACs (greater than 1 Mb) can be obtained, the combined screening of DNA families and YAC DNA pools would allow an integrated construction of both genetic and physical maps of the human genome, that will also reduce the optimal number of meioses needed for a 1 centimorgan linkage map.

Barillot, E; Lacroix, B; Cohen, D

1991-01-01

119

One-Dimensional Analysis of Thermal Stratification in AHTR and SFR Coolant Pools  

SciTech Connect

Thermal stratification phenomena are very common in pool type reactor systems, such as the liquid-salt cooled Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) and liquid-metal cooled fast reactor systems such as the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). It is important to accurately predict the temperature and density distributions both for design optimation and accident analysis. Current major reactor system analysis codes such as RELAP5 (for LWR’s, and recently extended to analyze high temperature reactors), TRAC (for LWR’s), and SASSYS (for liquid metal fast reactors) only provide lumped-volume based models which can only give very approximate results and can only handle simple cases with one mixing source. While 2-D or 3-D CFD methods can be used to analyze simple configurations, these methods require very fine grid resolution to resolve thin substructures such as jets and wall boundaries, yet such fine grid resolution is difficult or impossible to provide for studying the reactor response to transients due to computational expense. Therefore, new methods are needed to support design optimization and safety analysis of Generation IV pool type reactor systems. Previous scaling has shown that stratified mixing processes in large stably stratified enclosures can be described using one-dimensional differential equations, with the vertical transport by free and wall jets modeled using standard integral techniques. This allows very large reductions in computational effort compared to three-dimensional numerical modeling of turbulent mixing in large enclosures. The BMIX++ (Berkeley mechanistic MIXing code in C++) code was originally developed at UC Berkeley to implement such ideas. This code solves mixing and heat transfer problems in stably stratified enclosures. The code uses a Lagrangian approach to solve 1-D transient governing equations for the ambient fluid and uses analytical or 1-D integral models to compute substructures. By including liquid salt properties, BMIX++ code is extended to analyze liquid salt pool systems in the current AHTR design, to provide an example of its application. Similar analysis is possible for liquid-metal cooled reactors. The current AHTR baseline design uses a large buffer salt tank to provide more thermal inertial and safety margin. Reactor vessel, intermediate heat exchangers, pool reactor auxiliary cooling system heat exchangers (PHX), and direct reactor auxiliary cooling system heat exchangers (DHX) are all immerged in the buffer salt pool. These structures provide major driving sources for vertical mixing and thermal stratification. Predication of the temperature distribution within the buffer salt tank directly affects the major safety systems design, such as the PHX and DHX, safety analysis results, and structure thermal stresses analysis. The BMIX++ code is used to predict mixing and thermal stratification in this pool system. This example shows the potential of 1-D analysis methods and BMIX++ to be included in system analysis codes for pool type of Gen-IV reactor systems.

Haihua Zhao; Per F. Peterson

2007-10-01

120

A meta-analysis of experimental warming effects on terrestrial nitrogen pools and dynamics.  

PubMed

Global warming may have profound effects on terrestrial ecosystems. However, a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of warming on ecosystem nitrogen (N) pools and dynamics is not available. Here, we compiled data of 528 observations from 51 papers and carried out a meta-analysis of experimental warming effects on 13 variables related to terrestrial N pools and dynamics. We found that, on average, net N mineralization and net nitrification rate were increased by 52.2 and 32.2%, respectively, under experimental warming treatment. N pools were also increased by warming, although the magnitude of this increase was less than that of N fluxes. Soil microbial N and N immobilization were not changed by warming, probably because microbes are limited by carbon sources. Grassland and shrubland/heathland were less responsive to warming than forest, probably because the reduction of soil moisture by warming offset the temperature effect in these areas. Soil heating cable and all-day treatment appeared to be the most effective method on N cycling among all treatment methods. Results of this meta-analysis are useful for better understanding the response of N cycling to global warming and the underlying mechanism of warming effects on plants and ecosystem functions. PMID:23550663

Bai, Edith; Li, Shanlong; Xu, Wenhua; Li, Wei; Dai, Weiwei; Jiang, Ping

2013-04-04

121

Genetic polymorphisms and breast cancer risk: evidence from meta-analyses, pooled analyses, and genome-wide association studies.  

PubMed

To address the association between variants and breast cancer, an increasing number of articles on genetic association studies, genome-wide association studies (GWASs), and related meta- and pooled analyses have been published. Such studies have prompted an updated assessment of the associations between gene variants and breast cancer risk. We searched PubMed, Medline, and Web of Science and retrieved a total of 87 meta- and pooled analyses, which addressed the associations between 145 gene variants and breast cancer. Analyses met the following criteria: (1) breast cancer was the outcome, (2) the articles were all published in English, and (3) in the recent published meta- and pooled analyses, the analyses with more subjects were selected. Among the 145 variants, 46 were significantly associated with breast cancer and the other 99 (in 62 genes) were not significantly associated with breast cancer. The summary ORs for the 46 significant associations (P < 0.05) were further assessed by the method of false-positive report probability (FPRP). Our results demonstrated that 10 associations were noteworthy: CASP8 (D302H), CHEK2 (*1100delC), CTLA4 (+49G>A), FGFR2 (rs2981582, rs1219648, and rs2420946), HRAS (rare alleles), IL1B (rs1143627), LSP1 (rs3817198), and MAP3K1 (rs889312). In addition, eight GWASs were identified, in which 25 loci were obtained (14 in nine genes, six near a gene or genes, and five intergenic loci). Of the 25 SNPs, 20 were noteworthy: C6orf97 (rs2046210 and rs3757318), FGFR2 (rs2981579, rs1219648, and rs2981582), LSP1 (rs909116), RNF146 (rs2180341), SLC4A7 (rs4973768), MRPS30 (rs7716600), TOX3 (rs3803662 and rs4784227), ZNF365 (rs10995190), rs889312, rs614367, rs13281615, rs13387042, rs11249433, rs1011970, rs614367, and rs1562430. In summary, in this review of genetic association studies, 31.7% of the gene-variant breast cancer associations were significant, and 21.7% of these significant associations were noteworthy. However, in GWASs, 80% of the significant associations were noteworthy. PMID:21445572

Peng, Sihua; Lü, Bingjian; Ruan, Wenjing; Zhu, Yimin; Sheng, Hongqiang; Lai, Maode

2011-03-29

122

Fourier analysis of a gated blood-pool study during atrial flutter  

SciTech Connect

First-harmonic Fourier analysis of a gated blood-pool study is based on the assumption that the cardiac chambers contract once per cardiac cycle. In atrial arrhythmias this condition may not exist for the atria. We recently studied a patient with atrial flutter and 2:1 artioventricular conduction. There were predictable alterations in the first-harmonic Fourier phase and amplitude images. The observed changes from first-harmonic Fourier analysis were: (a) very low atrial amplitude values, and (b) absence of identifiable atrial regions on the phase image.

Makler, P.T. Jr.; McCarthy, D.M.; London, J.W.; Sandler, M.S.; Alavi, A.

1983-08-01

123

Swimming Pools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technical and engineering data are set forth on the design and construction of swimming pools. Consideration is given to site selection, pool construction, the comparative merits of combining open air and enclosed pools, and alternative uses of the pool. Guidelines are presented regarding--(1) pool size and use, (2) locker and changing rooms, (3)…

Ministry of Housing and Local Government, London (England).

124

Meta- and Pooled Analyses of the Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) C677T Polymorphism and Colorectal Cancer: A HuGE-GSEC Review  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, over 1 million cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) were reported in 2002, with a 50% mortality rate, making CRC the second most common cancer in adults. Certain racial/ethnic populations continue to experience a disproportionate burden of CRC. A common polymorphism in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene has been associated with a lower risk of CRC. The authors performed both a meta-analysis (29 studies; 11,936 cases, 18,714 controls) and a pooled analysis (14 studies; 5,068 cases, 7,876 controls) of the C677T MTHFR polymorphism and CRC, with stratification by racial/ethnic population and behavioral risk factors. There were few studies on different racial/ethnic populations. The overall meta-analysis odds ratio for CRC for persons with the TT genotype was 0.83 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77, 0.90). An inverse association was observed in whites (odds ratio = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.94) and Asians (odds ratio = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.67, 0.96) but not in Latinos or blacks. Similar results were observed for Asians, Latinos, and blacks in the pooled analysis. The inverse association between the MTHFR 677TT polymorphism and CRC was not significantly modified by smoking status or body mass index; however, it was present in regular alcohol users only. The MTHFR 677TT polymorphism seems to be associated with a reduced risk of CRC, but this may not hold true for all populations.

Taioli, E.; Garza, M. A.; Ahn, Y. O.; Bishop, D. T.; Bost, J.; Budai, B.; Chen, K.; Gemignani, F.; Keku, T.; Lima, C. S. P.; Le Marchand, L.; Matsuo, K.; Moreno, V.; Plaschke, J.; Pufulete, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Toffoli, G.; Wolf, C. R.; Moore, C. G.; Little, J.

2009-01-01

125

Separating soil CO2 efflux into C-pool-specific decay rates via inverse analysis of soil incubation data.  

PubMed

Soil organic matter (SOM) is heterogeneous in structure and has been considered to consist of various pools with different intrinsic turnover rates. Although those pools have been conceptually expressed in models and analyzed according to soil physical and chemical properties, separation of SOM into component pools is still challenging. In this study, we conducted inverse analyses with data from a long-term (385 days) incubation experiment with two types of soil (from plant interspace and from underneath plants) to deconvolute soil carbon (C) efflux into different source pools. We analyzed the two datasets with one-, two- and three-pool models and used probability density functions as a criterion to judge the best model to fit the datasets. Our results indicated that soil C release trajectories over the 385 days of the incubation study were best modeled with a two-pool C model. For both soil types, released C within the first 10 days of the incubation study originated from the labile pool. Decomposition of C in the recalcitrant pool was modeled to contribute to the total CO2 efflux by 9-11 % at the beginning of the incubation. At the end of the experiment, 75-85 % of the initial soil organic carbon (SOC) was modeled to be released over the incubation period. Our modeling analysis also indicated that the labile C-pool in the soil underneath plants was larger than that in soil from interspace. This deconvolution analysis was based on information contained in incubation data to separate carbon pools and can facilitate integration of results from incubation experiments into ecosystem models with improved parameterization. PMID:23337967

Schädel, Christina; Luo, Yiqi; David Evans, R; Fei, Shenfeng; Schaeffer, Sean M

2013-01-22

126

Milk Consumption and Bladder Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Published Epidemiological Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies investigating the association of milk consumption with bladder cancer risk have reported inconsistent findings. We conducted a meta-analysis of published cohort and case-control studies to pool the risk estimates of the association between milk intake and bladder cancer. We quantified associations with bladder cancer using meta-analysis of odds ratio (OR) associated with the highest vs. the lowest category of

Qi-Qi Mao; Yun Dai; Yi-Wei Lin; Jie Qin; Li-Ping Xie; Xiang-Yi Zheng

2011-01-01

127

Impact of Genetic Notification on Smoking Cessation: Systematic Review and Pooled-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the impact of genetic notification of smoking-related disease risk on smoking cessation in the general population. Secondary objectives were to assess the impact of genetic notification on intention-to-quit smoking and on emotional outcomes as well as the understanding and the recall of this notification. Methods A systematic review of articles from inception to August 2011 without language restriction was realized using PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, PsycINFO and Toxnet. Other publications were identified using hand search. The pooled-analysis included only randomized trials. Comparison groups were (i) high and low genetic risk versus control, and (ii) high versus low genetic risk. For the pooled-analysis random effect models were applied and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results Eight papers from seven different studies met the inclusion criteria of the review. High genetic risk notification was associated with short-term increased depression and anxiety. Four randomized studies were included in the pooled-analysis, which revealed a significant impact of genetic notification on smoking cessation in comparison to controls (clinical risk notification or no intervention) in short term follow-up less than 6 months (RR?=?1.55, 95% CI 1.09–2.21). Conclusions In short term follow-up, genetic notification increased smoking cessation in comparison to control interventions. However, there is no evidence of long term effect (up to 12 month) on smoking cessation. Further research is needed to assess more in depth how genetic notification of smoking-related disease could contribute to smoking cessation.

de Viron, Sylviane; Van der Heyden, Johan; Ambrosino, Elena; Arbyn, Marc; Brand, Angela; Van Oyen, Herman

2012-01-01

128

Newer Antidepressants and Gabapentin for Hot Flashes: An Individual Patient Pooled Analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Nonhormonal treatment options have been investigated as treatments for hot flashes, a major clinical problem in many women. Starting in 2000, a series of 10 individual double-blind placebo-controlled studies has evaluated newer antidepressants and gabapentin for treating hot flashes. This current project was developed to conduct an individual patient pooled analysis of the data from these published clinical trials. Patients and Methods Individual patient data were collected from the various study investigators who published their study results between 2000 and 2007. Between-study heterogeneity for study characteristics and patient populations was tested via ?2 tests before a pooled analysis. The primary end point, the change in hot flash activity from baseline to week 4, for each agent was calculated via both weighted and unweighted approaches, using the size of the study as the weight. Basic summary statistics were produced for hot flash score and frequency using the following three statistics: raw change, percent reduction, and whether or not a 50% reduction was achieved. Results This study included seven trials of newer antidepressants and three trials of gabapentin. The optimal doses (defined by individual study results) of the newer antidepressants paroxetine, venlafaxine, fluoxetine, and sertraline decreased hot flash scores by 41%, 33%, 13%, and 3% to 18% compared with the corresponding placebo arms, respectively. The three gabapentin trials decreased hot flashes by 35% to 38% compared with the corresponding placebo arms. Conclusion Some newer antidepressants and gabapentin, within 4 weeks of therapy initiation, decrease hot flashes more than placebo.

Loprinzi, Charles L.; Sloan, Jeff; Stearns, Vered; Slack, Rebecca; Iyengar, Malini; Diekmann, Brent; Kimmick, Gretchen; Lovato, James; Gordon, Paul; Pandya, Kishan; Guttuso, Thomas; Barton, Debra; Novotny, Paul

2009-01-01

129

Consensus and pool profiles to assist in the analysis and interpretation of complex low template DNA mixtures.  

PubMed

Forensic analysis of low template (LT) DNA mixtures is particularly complicated when (1) LT components concur with high template components, (2) more than three contributors are present, or (3) contributors are related. In this study, we generated a set of such complex LT mixtures and examined two methods to assist in DNA profile analysis and interpretation: the "n/2" consensus method (Benschop et al. 2011) and the pool profile approach. N/2 consensus profiles include alleles that are reproducibly amplified in at least half of the replications. Pool profiles are generated by injecting a blend of independently amplified PCR products on a capillary electrophoresis instrument. Both approaches resulted in a similar increase in the percentage of detected alleles compared to individual profiles, and both rarely included drop-in alleles in case mixtures of pristine DNAs were used. Interestingly, the consensus and the pool profiles often showed differences for the actual alleles detected for the LT component(s). We estimated the number of contributors using different methods. Better approximations were obtained with data in the consensus and pool profiles compared to the data of the individual profiles. Consensus profiles contain allele calls only, while pool profiles consist of both allele calls and peak height information, which can be of use in (statistical) profile analysis. All advantages and limitations of the various types of profiles were assessed, and based on the results we infer that both consensus and pool profiles (or a combination thereof) are helpful in the interpretation of complex LT DNA mixtures. PMID:22131037

Benschop, Corina; Haned, Hinda; Sijen, Titia

2011-12-01

130

Dendritic cell sarcoma: A pooled analysis including 462 cases with presentation of our case series.  

PubMed

Dendritic cell tumors are extremely rare and current knowledge on these tumors is limited. The characteristics of three dendritic cell sarcoma subtypes and their optimal treatment approaches are not fully clarified. We aimed to make a systematic review of the literature and enrich the current data with five new cases. Pooled analysis of 462 reported cases revealed that the tumor had no age, gender or racial predilection. Our analysis suggests that the young age, advanced stage, intraabdominal involvement and unfavorable histological features (i.e. large tumor size, absence of lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, coagulative necrosis, high mitotic count) may predict poor prognosis. Subtypes of this tumor have different clinical behaviors with interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma being the most aggressive form. In general, surgery is the most effective treatment modality and adjuvant radiotherapy has no significant effect on overall survival of patients. The role of chemotherapy for the management of advanced disease is controversial. PMID:23755890

Saygin, Caner; Uzunaslan, Didem; Ozguroglu, Mustafa; Senocak, Mustafa; Tuzuner, Nukhet

2013-06-05

131

Patterns of ventricular emptying by Fourier analysis of gated blood-pool studies  

SciTech Connect

Temporal Fourier analysis was applied to the processing of ECG-gated cardiac blood-pool studies on a pixel-by-pixel basis, to yield information about the pattern of ventricular emptying in normal hearts and in others with conduction abnormalities. The transform data at the fundamental frequency (the heart rate) were used to construct two types of display: (a) a distribution histogram of the pixel phase values, and (b) a cinematic display of the wave of emptying as it spread over the cardiac chambers. Preliminary results indicate that temporal Fourier analysis permits visualization of the pattern of ventricular emptying, which may prove useful in the study of motion abnormalities and asynergies, including those resulting from myocardial hypertrophy or conduction abnormalities, and as an aid in the optimum placement of pacemakers.

Links, J.M.; Douglass, K.H.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

1980-10-01

132

Equilibrium analysis of carbon pools and fluxes of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Forests are an important component of the biosphere and sequestration of carbon in boreal forests may represent one of the few realistic alternatives to ameliorate changes in atmospheric chemistry. The former Soviet Union has the greatest expanse of boreal forests in the world; however, the role of these forests in the terrestrial carbon cycle is not fully understood because the carbon budget of the Soviet forest sector has not been established. In recognition of the need to determine the role of these forests in the global carbon cycle, the carbon budget of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union was assessed based on an equilibrium analysis of carbon cycle pools and fluxes. Net primary productivity was used to identify the rate of carbon turnover in the forest biomes.

Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

1993-01-01

133

In vitro RNA random pools are not structurally diverse: A computational analysis  

PubMed Central

In vitro selection of functional RNAs from large random sequence pools has led to the identification of many ligand-binding and catalytic RNAs. However, the structural diversity in random pools is not well understood. Such an understanding is a prerequisite for designing sequence pools to increase the probability of finding complex functional RNA by in vitro selection techniques. Toward this goal, we have generated by computer five random pools of RNA sequences of length up to 100 nt to mimic experiments and characterized the distribution of associated secondary structural motifs using sets of possible RNA tree structures derived from graph theory techniques. Our results show that such random pools heavily favor simple topological structures: For example, linear stem–loop and low-branching motifs are favored rather than complex structures with high-order junctions, as confirmed by known aptamers. Moreover, we quantify the rise of structural complexity with sequence length and report the dominant class of tree motifs (characterized by vertex number) for each pool. These analyses show not only that random pools do not lead to a uniform distribution of possible RNA secondary topologies; they point to avenues for designing pools with specific simple and complex structures in equal abundance in the goal of broadening the range of functional RNAs discovered by in vitro selection. Specifically, the optimal RNA sequence pool length to identify a structure with x stems is 20x.

GEVERTZ, JANA; GAN, HIN HARK; SCHLICK, TAMAR

2005-01-01

134

Predictors of Local Recurrence Following Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: A Pooled Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze a pooled set of nearly 2,000 patients treated on the American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBS) Mammosite Registry Trial and at William Beaumont Hospital (WBH) to identify factors associated with local recurrence following accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: A total of 1,961 women underwent partial breast irradiation between April 1993 and November 2010 as part of the ASBS Registry Trial or at WBH. Rates of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), regional recurrence (RR), distant metastases (DM), disease-free survival (DFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed for each group and for the pooled cohort. Clinical, pathologic, and treatment-related variables were analyzed including age, tumor stage/size, estrogen receptor status, surgical margins, and lymph node status to determine their association with IBTR. Results: The two groups weres similar, but WBH patients were more frequently node positive, had positive margins, and were less likely to be within the American Society for Radiation Oncology-unsuitable group. At 5 years, the rates of IBTR, RR, DM, DFS, CSS, and OS for the pooled group of patients were 2.9%, 0.5%, 2.4%, 89.1%, 98.5%, and 91.8%, respectively. The 5-year rate of true recurrence/marginal miss was 0.8%. Univariate analysis of IBTR found that negative estrogen receptor status (odds ratio [OR], 2.83, 95% confidence interval 1.55-5.13, p = 0.0007) was the only factor significantly associated with IBTR, while a trend was seen for age less than 50 (OR 1.80, 95% confidence interval 0.90-3.58, p = 0.10). Conclusions: Excellent 5-year outcomes were seen following APBI in over 1,900 patients. Estrogen receptor negativity was the only factor associated with IBTR, while a trend for age less than 50 was noted. Significant differences in factors associated with IBTR were noted between cohorts, suggesting that factors driving IBTR may be predicated based on the risk stratification of the patients being treated.

Shah, Chirag; Wilkinson, John Ben [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Cancer Institute, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Lyden, Maureen [Biostat Inc., Tampa, Florida (United States); Beitsch, Peter [Dallas Breast Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Vicini, Frank A., E-mail: fvicini@pol.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Cancer Institute, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States)

2012-04-01

135

Cardiovascular safety of sitagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a pooled analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with sitagliptin or non-sitagliptin comparators. Methods A post hoc assessment of cardiovascular safety in 14,611 patients was performed by pooling data from 25 double-blind studies, which randomised patients at baseline to sitagliptin 100 mg/day or a non-sitagliptin comparator (i.e., non-exposed). Included studies were limited to those at least 12 weeks in duration (range: 12 to 104 weeks). Patient-level data were used in this analysis of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including ischaemic events and cardiovascular deaths. Analyses were performed in three cohorts: the entire 25-study cohort, the cohort from placebo-controlled portions of studies (n=19), and the cohort from studies comparing sitagliptin to a sulphonylurea (n=3). Results In the entire cohort analysis, 78 patients had at least 1 reported MACE-related event, with 40 in the sitagliptin group and 38 in the non-exposed group. The exposure-adjusted incidence rate was 0.65 per 100 patient-years in the sitagliptin group and 0.74 in the non-exposed group (incidence rate ratio = 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.53, 1.30]). In the analysis comparing sitagliptin to placebo, the exposure-adjusted incidence rate was 0.80 per 100-patient-years with sitagliptin and 0.76 with placebo (incidence rate ratio = 1.01 [95% CI: 0.55, 1.86]). In the analysis comparing sitagliptin to sulphonylurea, the exposure-adjusted incidence rate was 0.00 per 100 patient-years with sitagliptin and 0.86 with sulphonylurea (incidence rate ratio = 0.00 [95% CI: 0.00, 0.31]). Conclusion A pooled analysis of 25 randomised clinical trials does not indicate that treatment with sitagliptin increases cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In a subanalysis, a higher rate of cardiovascular-related events was associated with sulphonylurea relative to sitagliptin.

2013-01-01

136

Pools, riffles, and channelization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The addition of regularly spaced deeps (pools) and shallows (riffles) that provide a variety of flow conditions, areal sorting\\u000a of stream-bed material, cover for wildlife, and a positive aesthetic experience, may be desirable in many channel projects.\\u000a Such designs will reduce adverse environmental impacts of stream channel modifications.\\u000a \\u000a Analysis of variance for pool-to-pool spacing data suggests that there is no

Edward A. Keller

1978-01-01

137

Exposure to pesticides and risk of childhood cancer: a meta-analysis of recent epidemiological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe authors performed a meta-analysis of case–control and cohort studies to clarify the possible relationship between exposure to pesticides and childhood cancers.MethodsTwo cohort and 38 case–control studies were selected for the first meta-analysis. After evaluating homogeneity among studies using the Cochran Q test, the authors calculated a pooled meta-OR stratified on each cancer site. The authors then constructed a list

Florence Vinson; Maysaloun Merhi; Isabelle Baldi; Hélène Raynal; Laurence Gamet-Payrastre

2011-01-01

138

Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and the Risk of Rarer Cancers: Design and Methods of the Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers  

PubMed Central

The Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers (VDPP), a consortium of 10 prospective cohort studies from the United States, Finland, and China, was formed to examine the associations between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and the risk of rarer cancers. Cases (total n = 5,491) included incident primary endometrial (n = 830), kidney (n = 775), ovarian (n = 516), pancreatic (n = 952), and upper gastrointestinal tract (n = 1,065) cancers and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 1,353) diagnosed in the participating cohorts. At least 1 control was matched to each case on age, date of blood collection (1974–2006), sex, and race/ethnicity (n = 6,714). Covariate data were obtained from each cohort in a standardized manner. The majority of the serum or plasma samples were assayed in a central laboratory using a direct, competitive chemiluminescence immunoassay on the DiaSorin LIAISON platform (DiaSorin, Inc., Stillwater, Minnesota). Masked quality control samples included serum standards from the US National Institute of Standards and Technology. Conditional logistic regression analyses were conducted using clinically defined cutpoints, with 50–<75 nmol/L as the reference category. Meta-analyses were also conducted using inverse-variance weights in random-effects models. This consortium approach permits estimation of the association between 25(OH)D and several rarer cancers with high accuracy and precision across a wide range of 25(OH)D concentrations.

Gallicchio, Lisa; Helzlsouer, Kathy J.; Chow, Wong-Ho; Freedman, D. Michal; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hartge, Patricia; Hartmuller, Virginia; Harvey, Chinonye; Hayes, Richard B.; Horst, Ronald L.; Koenig, Karen L.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Laden, Francine; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Parisi, Dominick; Purdue, Mark P.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Snyder, Kirk; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Varanasi, Arti; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Abnet, Christian C.; Albanes, Demetrius; Bertrand, Kimberly; Weinstein, Stephanie J.

2010-01-01

139

Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and the risk of rarer cancers: Design and methods of the Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers.  

PubMed

The Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers (VDPP), a consortium of 10 prospective cohort studies from the United States, Finland, and China, was formed to examine the associations between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and the risk of rarer cancers. Cases (total n = 5,491) included incident primary endometrial (n = 830), kidney (n = 775), ovarian (n = 516), pancreatic (n = 952), and upper gastrointestinal tract (n = 1,065) cancers and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 1,353) diagnosed in the participating cohorts. At least 1 control was matched to each case on age, date of blood collection (1974-2006), sex, and race/ethnicity (n = 6,714). Covariate data were obtained from each cohort in a standardized manner. The majority of the serum or plasma samples were assayed in a central laboratory using a direct, competitive chemiluminescence immunoassay on the DiaSorin LIAISON platform (DiaSorin, Inc., Stillwater, Minnesota). Masked quality control samples included serum standards from the US National Institute of Standards and Technology. Conditional logistic regression analyses were conducted using clinically defined cutpoints, with 50-<75 nmol/L as the reference category. Meta-analyses were also conducted using inverse-variance weights in random-effects models. This consortium approach permits estimation of the association between 25(OH)D and several rarer cancers with high accuracy and precision across a wide range of 25(OH)D concentrations. PMID:20562188

Gallicchio, Lisa; Helzlsouer, Kathy J; Chow, Wong-Ho; Freedman, D Michal; Hankinson, Susan E; Hartge, Patricia; Hartmuller, Virginia; Harvey, Chinonye; Hayes, Richard B; Horst, Ronald L; Koenig, Karen L; Kolonel, Laurence N; Laden, Francine; McCullough, Marjorie L; Parisi, Dominick; Purdue, Mark P; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Snyder, Kirk; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Tworoger, Shelley S; Varanasi, Arti; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wilkens, Lynne R; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Abnet, Christian C; Albanes, Demetrius; Bertrand, Kimberly; Weinstein, Stephanie J

2010-06-18

140

Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of non-hodgkin lymphoma: Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers.  

PubMed

Case-control studies generally suggesting an inverse association between sun exposure and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have led to speculation that vitamin D may protect against lymphomagenesis. To examine this hypothesis, the authors conducted a pooled investigation of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and subsequent NHL risk within 10 cohorts participating in the Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers. The authors analyzed measurements from 1,353 cases and 1,778 controls using conditional logistic regression and other methods to estimate the association of 25(OH)D with NHL. No clear evidence of association between categories of 25(OH)D concentration and NHL was observed overall (P(trend) = 0.68) or by sex (men, P(trend) = 0.50; women, P(trend) = 0.16). Findings for other measures (continuous log(25(OH)D), categories of 25(OH)D using sex-/cohort-/season-specific quartiles as cutpoints, categories of season-adjusted residuals of predicted 25(OH)D using quartiles as cutpoints) were generally null, although some measures of increasing 25(OH)D were suggestive of an increased risk for women. Results from stratified analyses and investigations of histologic subtypes of NHL were also null. These findings do not support the hypothesis that elevated circulating 25(OH)D concentration is associated with a reduced risk of NHL. Future research investigating the biologic basis for the sunlight-NHL association should consider alternative mechanisms, such as immunologic effects. PMID:20562184

Purdue, Mark P; Freedman, D Michal; Gapstur, Susan M; Helzlsouer, Kathy J; Laden, Francine; Lim, Unhee; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Rothman, Nathaniel; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Stevens, Victoria L; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Albanes, Demetrius; Bertrand, Kimberly; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Yu, Kai; Irish, Lonn; Horst, Ronald L; Hoffman-Bolton, Judith; Giovannucci, Edward L; Kolonel, Laurence N; Snyder, Kirk; Willett, Walter; Arslan, Alan A; Hayes, Richard B; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Hartge, Patricia

2010-06-18

141

Safety and tolerability of sitagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes: a pooled analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Sitagliptin, a highly selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, is the first in a new class of oral antihyperglycemic agents (AHAs) for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a life-long disease requiring chronic treatment and management. Therefore, robust assessment of the long-term safety and tolerability of newer therapeutic agents is of importance. The purpose of this analysis was to assess the safety and tolerability of sitagliptin by pooling 12 large, double-blind, Phase IIb and III studies up to 2 years in duration. Methods: This analysis included 6139 patients with type 2 diabetes receiving either sitagliptin 100 mg/day (N = 3415) or a comparator agent (placebo or an active comparator) (N = 2724; non-exposed group). The 12 studies from which this pooled population was drawn represent the double-blind, randomized, Phase IIB and III studies that included patients treated with the clinical dose of sitagliptin (100 mg/day) for at least 18 weeks up to 2 years and that were available in a single safety database as of November 2007. These 12 studies assessed sitagliptin as monotherapy, initial combination therapy with metformin, or add-on combination therapy with other oral AHAs (metformin, pioglitazone, sulfonylurea, sulfonylurea + metformin, or metformin + rosiglitazone). Patients in the non-exposed group were taking placebo, pioglitazone, metformin, sulfonylurea, sulfonylurea + metformin, or metformin + rosiglitazone. This safety analysis used patient-level data from each study to evaluate clinical and laboratory adverse experiences. Results For clinical adverse experiences, the incidence rates of adverse experiences overall, serious adverse experiences, and discontinuations due to adverse experiences were similar in the sitagliptin and non-exposed groups. The incidence rates of specific adverse experiences were also generally similar in the two groups, with the exception of an increased incidence rate of hypoglycemia observed in the non-exposed group. The incidence rates of drug-related adverse experiences overall and discontinuations due to drug-related adverse experiences were higher in the non-exposed group, primarily due to the increased incidence rate of hypoglycemia in this group. For cardiac- and ischemia-related adverse experiences (including serious events), there were no meaningful between-group differences. No meaningful differences between groups in laboratory adverse experiences, either summary measures or specific adverse experiences, were observed. Conclusion In patients with type 2 diabetes, sitagliptin 100 mg/day was well tolerated in clinical trials up to 2 years in duration.

Williams-Herman, Debora; Round, Elizabeth; Swern, Arlene S; Musser, Bret; Davies, Michael J; Stein, Peter P; Kaufman, Keith D; Amatruda, John M

2008-01-01

142

External beam radiotherapy for palliation of painful bone metastases: pooled data bioeffect dose response analysis of dose fractionation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bone metastases develop in up to 70% of newly diagnosed cancer patients and result in immobility, anxiety, and depression, severely diminishing the patients quality of life. Radiotherapy is a frequently used modality for bone metastasis and has been shown to be effective in reducing metastatic bone pain and in some instances, causing tumor shrinkage or growth inhibition. There is controversy surrounding the optimal fractionation schedule and total dose of external beam radiotherapy, despite many randomized trials and overviews addressing the issue. This study was undertaken to apply BED to clinical fractionation data of radiotherapeutic management of bone metastases in order to arrive at optimum BED values for acceptable level of response rate. A computerised literature search was conducted to identify all prospective clinical studies that addressed the issue of fractionation for the treatment of bone metastasis. The results of these studies were pooled together to form the database for the analysis. A total of 4111 number of patients received radiation dose ranging from 4 to 40.5 Gy in 1 to 15 fractions with dose per fraction ranging from 2 to 10 Gy. Single fraction treatments were delivered in 2013 patients and the dose varied from 4 to 10 Gy. Multifraction treatments were delivered in 2098 patients and the dose varied from 15 to 40.5 Gy. The biological effective dose (BED) was evaluated for each fractionation schedule using the linear quadratic model and an ?/? value of 10 Gy. Response rate increased significantly beyond a BED value of 14.4 Gy (p < 0.01). Based on our analysis and indications from the literature about higher retreatment and fracture rate of single fraction treatments, minimum BED value of 14.4 Gy is recommended.

Naveen, T.; Supe, Sanjay S.; Ganesh, K. M.; Samuel, Jacob

2009-01-01

143

Electronic Commerce Undergraduate Talented Person Ability System Construction - Based on Network Human Resources Pool Investigation and Study Data Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through to carries on the sample observation from the human resources pool collection's 826 electronic commerce undergraduate course talented person employment advertise information, summarized a series of need ability, and further classified them, carried on through certain method ability the quantification, then carried on the statistical analysis using the SPSS software, obtained each kind of ability to request the situation

Dong Zhiliang; Suo Yang

2010-01-01

144

Reductions in overactive bladder-related incontinence from pooled analysis of phase III trials evaluating treatment with solifenacin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The embarrassment and social stigma associated with urinary incontinence (UI) in overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) sufferers is a major reason for individuals to seek help for their condition. An analysis of 1,873 subjects with OAB with UI was conducted to assess the efficacy of solifenacin in reducing incontinence in a pooled population from four phase III clinical trials, stratified by

Linda Cardozo; David Castro-Diaz; Marc Gittelman; Arwin Ridder; Moses Huang

2006-01-01

145

Prevention of diarrhea and pneumonia by zinc supplementation in children in developing countries: Pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This study assessed the effects of zinc supplementation in the prevention of diarrhea and pneumonia with the use of a pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials in children in developing countries. Study design: Trials included were those that provided oral supplements containing at least one half of the United States Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) of zinc in children <5

Z. A. Bhutta; R. E. Black; K. H. Brown; J. Meeks Gardner; S. Gore; A. Hidayat; F. Khatun; R. Martorell; N. X. Ninh; M. E. Penny; J. L. Rosado; S. K. Roy; M. Ruel; S. Sazawal; A. Shankar

1999-01-01

146

"Pooled analysis of brain activity in Irritable Bowel Syndrome and controls during rectal balloon distension"  

PubMed Central

Background Brain-imaging literature of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) suggests an abnormal brain-gut communication. We analyzed the literature to evaluate and compare the aspects of brain activity in individuals with IBS and control subjects experiencing controlled rectal stimulation. Methods PubMed was searched until September 2010. Data from 16 articles reporting brain activity during rectal balloon distensions in IBS compared to control groups was analyzed. Prevalence rates and pairwise activations were assessed using binomial distributions for 11 selected regions of interest. The data was aggregated to adjust for center effect. Key Results There was considerable variability in the literature regarding regions and their activity patterns in controls and individuals with IBS. There was no significant difference found in the thalamus, ACC, PCC, and PFC, however results show limited evidence of consensus for the Anterior Insula (AI) (p = 0.22). Pairwise activity results suggest that pairs involving the AI tend to have more consistent activity together than pairs which do not involve the AI (Posterior Insula and AI, p = 0.08; Posterior Cingulate Cortex and AI, p = 0.16), however no pairwise evaluation reached significance. Conclusions & Inferences Our pooled analysis demonstrates that the literature reports are quite heterogeneous but there is some evidence that there may be patterns of higher activity more common in individuals with IBS than in controls. A consensus, though, regarding study designs, analysis approach and reporting could create a clearer understanding of brain involvement in IBS pathophysiology.

Sheehan, James; Gaman, Alexander; Vangel, Mark; Kuo, Braden

2010-01-01

147

Variation in dengue virus plaque reduction neutralization testing: systematic review and pooled analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) remains the gold standard for the detection of serologic immune responses to dengue virus (DENV). While the basic concept of the PRNT remains constant, this test has evolved in multiple laboratories, introducing variation in materials and methods. Despite the importance of laboratory-to-laboratory comparability in DENV vaccine development, the effects of differing PRNT techniques on assay results, particularly the use of different dengue strains within a serotype, have not been fully characterized. Methods We conducted a systematic review and pooled analysis of published literature reporting individual-level PRNT titers to identify factors associated with heterogeneity in PRNT results and compared variation between strains within DENV serotypes and between articles using hierarchical models. Results The literature search and selection criteria identified 8 vaccine trials and 25 natural exposure studies reporting 4,411 titers from 605 individuals using 4 different neutralization percentages, 3 cell lines, 12 virus concentrations and 51 strains. Of 1,057 titers from primary DENV exposure, titers to the exposure serotype were consistently higher than titers to non-exposure serotypes. In contrast, titers from secondary DENV exposures (n?=?628) demonstrated high titers to exposure and non-exposure serotypes. Additionally, PRNT titers from different strains within a serotype varied substantially. A pooled analysis of 1,689 titers demonstrated strain choice accounted for 8.04% (90% credible interval [CrI]: 3.05%, 15.7%) of between-titer variation after adjusting for secondary exposure, time since DENV exposure, vaccination and neutralization percentage. Differences between articles (a proxy for inter-laboratory differences) accounted for 50.7% (90% CrI: 30.8%, 71.6%) of between-titer variance. Conclusions As promising vaccine candidates arise, the lack of standardized assays among diagnostic and research laboratories make unbiased inferences about vaccine-induced protection difficult. Clearly defined, widely accessible reference reagents, proficiency testing or algorithms to adjust for protocol differences would be a useful first step in improving dengue PRNT comparability and quality assurance.

2012-01-01

148

The Cancer Genome Atlas completes detailed ovarian cancer analysis:  

Cancer.gov

An analysis of genomic changes in ovarian cancer has provided the most comprehensive and integrated view of cancer genes for any cancer type to date. Ovarian serous adenocarcinoma tumors from 500 patients were examined by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network. TCGA researchers completed whole-exome sequencing, which examines the protein-coding regions of the genome, on an unprecedented 316 tumors.

149

Chapter 14: Cancer Genome Analysis  

PubMed Central

Although there is great promise in the benefits to be obtained by analyzing cancer genomes, numerous challenges hinder different stages of the process, from the problem of sample preparation and the validation of the experimental techniques, to the interpretation of the results. This chapter specifically focuses on the technical issues associated with the bioinformatics analysis of cancer genome data. The main issues addressed are the use of database and software resources, the use of analysis workflows and the presentation of clinically relevant action items. We attempt to aid new developers in the field by describing the different stages of analysis and discussing current approaches, as well as by providing practical advice on how to access and use resources, and how to implement recommendations. Real cases from cancer genome projects are used as examples.

Vazquez, Miguel; de la Torre, Victor; Valencia, Alfonso

2012-01-01

150

High-throughput analysis of standardized pharmacokinetic studies in the rat using sample pooling and UPLC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

As a consequence of a continuous demand for increased throughput of pharmacokinetic (PK) studies, industries have introduced strategies to reduce the number of samples such as cassette analysis (pooling of samples after the in-life phase). Here, we have investigated whether relevant PK parameters change as a consequence of cassette analysis, and whether there are circumstances that disqualify this technique from being used. 22 compounds were intravenously and orally administered to parallel groups of 3 rats. Each compound was administered discretely. Equal volumes of three plasma samples corresponding to each time point of three discretely dosed rats with different compounds were pooled (cassette analysis). Samples were prepared by protein precipitation followed by UPLC-MS/MS analysis using pos/neg switching when required. With cassette analysis, 4 compounds, morphine, phenytoin, rofecoxib and diclofenac, showed high limit of quantification (LOQ) values after pooling, which led to less reliable PK analyses. Of all samples with contents above LOQ, about 5% could not be detected in pool samples compared to single samples. However, an excellent correlation was seen for all PK parameters when comparing the parameters obtained from discrete analysis versus those obtained from cassette analysis, although half life showed somewhat more scatter than the others. When PK parameters were grouped as low-medium-high, clearance, volume of distribution, half life and bioavailability were similar between discrete and cassette analysis for 90%, 86%, 95% and 90% of the total number of compounds tested, respectively. Some additional improvement was achieved if compounds with a low MS response were excluded. In summary, cassette analysis is an effective strategy to reduce samples without affecting the estimated PK parameters that are important for decision-making. PMID:21530131

Bueters, Tjerk; Dahlström, Jessie; Kvalvågnaes, Kristine; Betnér, Ingvar; Briem, Sveinn

2011-04-06

151

Furazolidone-based Therapies for Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Pooled-data Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim: Furazolidone-based therapies are used in developing countries to cure Helicobacter pylori infection due to its low cost. The low bacterial resistance toward furazolidone may render appealing the use of this drug even in developed countries. However, some relevant safety concerns do exist in using furazolidone. Patients and Methods: This was a systematic review with pooled-data analysis of data regarding both eradication rate and safety of furazolidone-based therapies for H. pylori infection. Intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) eradication rates were calculated. Results: Following furazolidone-based first-line therapy, H. pylori eradication rates were 75.7% and 79.6% at ITT and PP analysis, respectively (P<0.001). The overall incidence of side effects and severe side effects were 33.2% and 3.8%, respectively. At multivariate analysis, only high-dose furazolidone was associated with increased therapeutic success (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.3-2.7; P<0.001), while occurrence of side effects was relevant following treatment for a long duration (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 2.2-4.1; P<0.001), high-dose furazolidone (OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.2; P<0.001) and bismuth-containing regimens (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.5-2.8; P<0.001). Conclusions: Furazolidone-based regimens usually achieve low eradication rates. Only a high-dose regimen improves the cure rate, but simultaneously increases the incidence of severe side effects. Therefore, we suggest that patients have to be clearly informed about the possible genotoxic and carcinogenetic effects for which furazolidone use is not approved in developed countries.

Zullo, Angelo; Ierardi, Enzo; Hassan, Cesare; Francesco, Vincenzo De

2012-01-01

152

Assessing coal-mine safety regulation: A pooled time-series analysis  

SciTech Connect

This study attempts to assess the independent, relative, and conjoint effects of four types of variables on coal-mine safety: administrative (mine inspections, mine investigations, and mine safety grants); political (state party competition, gubernatorial party affiliation, and deregulation); economic (state per-capita income and unemployment rates); task-related (mine size, technology, and type of mining), and state dummy variables. Trend, Pearson correlation, and pooled time-series analyses are performed on fatal and nonfatal injury rates reported in 25 coal-producing states during the 1975-1985 time period. These are then interpreted in light of three competing theories of regulation: capture, nonmarket failure, and threshold. Analysis reveals: (1) distinctions in the total explanatory power of the model across different types of injuries, as well as across presidential administrations; (2) a consistently more powerful impact on safety of informational implementation tools (safety education grants) over command-and-control approaches (inspections and investigations) or political variables; and (3) limited, albeit conjectural, support for a threshold theory of regulation in the coal mine safety arena.

Chun Youngpyoung.

1991-01-01

153

Thermal analysis of five outdoor swimming pools heated by unglazed solar collectors  

SciTech Connect

We have analysed measurement from five outdoor swimming pools located in Switzerland and heated by unglazed solar collectors. The main contributions to the daily energy balance of the swimming pools are evaluated. They include the active and passive solar gains, as well as the heat losses related to radiation, evaporation, convection, and water renewal (in order of importance). Coherent results are obtained using multilinear regressions in order to determine the best fitting values of the empirical parameters involved in the thermal equations.

Molineaux, B.; Lachal, B.; Guisan, O. (Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland))

1994-07-01

154

Proteomic analysis of dog tears for potential cancer markers.  

PubMed

The first reference map of the proteome of pooled normal dog tears was created using 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the identity of a number of the major species determined using matrix-assisted laser desorption time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) and peptide mass fingerprint matching on protein sequence databases. In order to understand the changes in protein expression in the tear film of dogs with cancer, tears from such animals were similarly examined. A number of differences were found between the tears of healthy dogs and the dogs with cancer. Differences were found in levels of actin and albumin and in an unidentified protein which may be analogous to human lacryglobulin. These findings suggest that it may be possible to develop tear film analysis to provide a simple non-invasive test for the diagnosis and/or management of canine cancers. PMID:18164356

de Freitas Campos, Carla; Cole, Nerida; Van Dyk, Derek; Walsh, Bradley J; Diakos, Penelope; Almeida, Denise; Torrecilhas, Adriana; Laus, José Luiz; Willcox, Mark D P

2008-03-04

155

Systematic Analysis of Protein Pools, Isoforms, and Modifications Affecting Turnover and Subcellular Localization*  

PubMed Central

In higher eukaryotes many genes encode protein isoforms whose properties and biological roles are often poorly characterized. Here we describe systematic approaches for detection of either distinct isoforms, or separate pools of the same isoform, with differential biological properties. Using information from ion intensities we have estimated protein abundance levels and using rates of change in stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture isotope ratios we measured turnover rates and subcellular distribution for the HeLa cell proteome. Protein isoforms were detected using three data analysis strategies that evaluate differences between stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture isotope ratios for specific groups of peptides within the total set of peptides assigned to a protein. The candidate approach compares stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture isotope ratios for predicted isoform-specific peptides, with ratio values for peptides shared by all the isoforms. The rule of thirds approach compares the mean isotope ratio values for all peptides in each of three equal segments along the linear length of the protein, assessing differences between segment values. The three in a row approach compares mean isotope ratio values for each sequential group of three adjacent peptides, assessing differences with the mean value for all peptides assigned to the protein. Protein isoforms were also detected and their properties evaluated by fractionating cell extracts on one-dimensional SDS-PAGE prior to trypsin digestion and MS analysis and independently evaluating isotope ratio values for the same peptides isolated from different gel slices. The effect of protein phosphorylation on turnover rates was analyzed by comparing mean turnover values calculated for all peptides assigned to a protein, either including, or excluding, values for cognate phosphopeptides. Collectively, these experimental and analytical approaches provide a framework for expanding the functional annotation of the genome.

Ahmad, Yasmeen; Boisvert, Francois-Michel; Lundberg, Emma; Uhlen, Mathias; Lamond, Angus I.

2012-01-01

156

CPAP: Cancer Panel Analysis Pipeline.  

PubMed

Targeted sequencing using next-generation sequencing technologies is currently being rapidly adopted for clinical sequencing and cancer marker tests. However, no existing bioinformatics tool is available for the analysis and visualization of multiple targeted sequencing datasets. In the present study, we use cancer panel targeted sequencing datasets generated by the Life Technologies Ion Personal Genome Machine Sequencer as an example to illustrate how to develop an automated pipeline for the comparative analyses of multiple datasets. Cancer Panel Analysis Pipeline (CPAP) uses standard output files from variant calling software to generate a distribution map of SNPs among all of the samples in a circular diagram generated by Circos. The diagram is hyperlinked to a dynamic HTML table that allows the users to identify target SNPs by using different filters. CPAP also integrates additional information about the identified SNPs by linking to an integrated SQL database compiled from SNP-related databases, including dbSNP, 1000 Genomes Project, COSMIC, and dbNSFP. CPAP only takes 17 min to complete a comparative analysis of 500 datasets. CPAP not only provides an automated platform for the analysis of multiple cancer panel datasets but can also serve as a model for any customized targeted sequencing project. PMID:23893859

Huang, Po-Jung; Yeh, Yuan-Ming; Gan, Ruei-Chi; Lee, Chi-Ching; Chen, Ting-Wen; Lee, Cheng-Yang; Liu, Hsuan; Chen, Shu-Jen; Tang, Petrus

2013-08-13

157

C-Reactive Protein, Interleukin 6 and Lung Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Epidemiologic findings are inconsistent concerning the associations between C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and lung cancer risk. We conducted a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies to examine these associations. Methods A systematic literature search up to October 2011 was performed in MEDLINE and EMBASE. Study-specific risk estimates were pooled using a random-effects model. Results The 10 studies on CRP involved a total of 1918 lung cancer cases. The pooled RR of lung cancer for one unit change in natural logarithm (ln) CRP was 1.28 (95% CI 1.17–1.41). There was no statistically significant heterogeneity among studies (P?=?0.116; I2?=?36.6%). We also found that CRP was significantly associated with increased risk of lung cancer among men (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.09–1.28) but not among women. The 5 studies on IL-6 involved a total of 924 lung cancer cases. The pooled RR of lung cancer for one unit change in ln IL-6 was 1.28 (95% CI 0.92–1.79), however, statistically significant heterogeneity was found. After excluding the study contributing most to the heterogeneity, the summary estimate was essentially unchanged. Conclusion CRP was associated with increased risk of lung cancer, especially among men. There was no significant association between IL-6 and lung cancer risk.

Wang, Ze-Mu; Xi, Tao

2012-01-01

158

A meta-analysis on depression and subsequent cancer risk  

PubMed Central

Background The authors tested the hypothesis that depression is a possible factor influencing the course of cancer by reviewing prospective epidemiological studies and calculating summary relative risks. Methods Studies were identified by computerized searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO. as well as manual searches of reference lists of selected publications. Inclusion criteria were cohort design, population-based sample, structured measurement of depression and outcome of cancer known for depressed and non-depressed subjects Results Thirteen eligible studies were identified. Based on eight studies with complete crude data on overall cancer, our summary relative risk (95% confidence interval) was 1.19 (1.06–1.32). After adjustment for confounders we pooled a summary relative risk of 1.12 (0.99–1.26). No significant association was found between depression and subsequent breast cancer risk, based on seven heterogeneous studies, with or without adjustment for possible confounders. Subgroup analysis of studies with a follow-up of ten years or more, however, resulted in a statistically significant summary relative risk of 2.50 (1.06–5.91). No significant associations were found for lung, colon or prostate cancer. Conclusion This review suggests a tendency towards a small and marginally significant association between depression and subsequent overall cancer risk and towards a stronger increase of breast cancer risk emerging many years after a previous depression.

2007-01-01

159

Well-characterized open pool experiment data and analysis for model validation and development.  

SciTech Connect

Four Well-Characterized Open Pool fires were conducted by Fire Science and Technology Department. The focus of the Well-Characterized Open Pool fire series was to provide environmental information for open pool fires on a physics first principal basis. The experiments measured the burning rate of liquid fuel in an open pool and the resultant heat flux to a weapon-sized object and the surrounding environment with well-characterized boundary and initial conditions. Results presented in this report include a general description of test observation (pre- and post-test), wind measurements, fire plume topology, average fuel recession and heat release rates, and incident heat flux to the pool and to the calorimeters. As expected, results of the experiments show a strong correlation between wind conditions, fuel vaporization (mass loss) rate, and incident heat flux to the fuel and ground surface and calorimeters. Numerical fire simulations using both temporally- and spatially-dependant wind boundary conditions were performed using the Vulcan fire code. Comparisons of data to simulation predictions showed similar trends; however, simulation-predicted incident heat fluxes were lower than measured.

Sundberg, David W.; Brown, Alexander L.; Blanchat, Thomas K.

2006-12-01

160

Binary Regression Analysis With Pooled Exposure Measurements: A Regression Calibration Approach  

PubMed Central

Summary It has become increasingly common in epidemiologic studies to pool specimens across subjects in order to achieve accurate quantitation of biomarkers and certain environmental chemicals. In this paper, we consider the problem of fitting a binary regression model when an important exposure is subject to pooling. We take a regression calibration approach and derive several methods, including plug-in methods that use a pooled measurement and other covariate information to predict the exposure level of an individual subject, and normality-based methods that make further adjustments by assuming normality of calibration errors. Within each class we propose two ways to perform the calibration (covariate augmentation and imputation). These methods are shown in simulation experiments to effectively reduce the bias associated with the naive method that simply substitutes a pooled measurement for all individual measurements in the pool. In particular, the normality-based imputation method performs reasonably well in a variety of settings, even under skewed distributions of calibration errors. The methods are illustrated using data from the Collaborative Perinatal Project.

Zhang, Zhiwei; Albert, Paul S.

2010-01-01

161

Association between circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D and colorectal adenoma: A pooled analysis.  

PubMed

The relationship between the biomarker of vitamin D status, 25(OH)D, and the risk for colorectal neoplasia is suggestive but equivocal. Questions remain regarding whether there are differential associations between 25(OH)D and colorectal adenoma by gender, colorectal subsite or features of baseline and recurrent adenomas. We sought to investigate the relationship between 25(OH)D and both baseline and recurrent adenoma characteristics. Our study was conducted among 2,074 participants in a pooled population of two clinical intervention trials of colorectal adenoma recurrence. A cross-sectional analysis of 25(OH)D and baseline adenoma characteristics and a prospective study of recurrent adenomas and their characteristics were conducted. There was a statistically significant inverse association between the concentrations of 25(OH)D and the presence of three or more adenomas at baseline. Compared to participants with 25(OH)D levels of <20 ng/mL, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (95% condifdence intervals [CIs]) were 0.99 (0.70-1.41) for those with concentrations of ?20 and <30 ng/mL, and 0.73 (0.50-1.06) among participants with levels of ?30 ng/mL (p-trend?=?0.05). Baseline villous histology was also significantly inversely related to 25(OH)D levels (p-trend?=?0.04). Conversely, 25(OH)D concentrations were not associated with overall colorectal adenoma recurrence, with ORs (95% CIs) of 0.91 (0.71-1.17) and 0.95 (0.73-1.24; p-trend?=?0.85). These findings support the concept that the relationship between vitamin D and colorectal neoplasia may vary by stage of adenoma development. PMID:23754630

Jacobs, Elizabeth T; Hibler, Elizabeth A; Lance, Peter; Sardo, Christine L; Jurutka, Peter W

2013-07-11

162

Biologic markers of sun exposure and melanoma risk in women: pooled case-control analysis  

PubMed Central

A model has been proposed whereby melanomas arise through two distinct pathways dependent upon the relative influence of host susceptibility and sun exposure. Such pathways may explain site-specific patterns of melanoma occurrence. To explore this model, we investigated the relationship between melanoma risk and general markers of acute (recalled sunburns) and chronic (prevalent solar keratoses) sun exposure, stratified by anatomic site and host phenotype. Our working hypothesis was that head and neck melanomas have stronger associations with solar keratoses and weaker associations with sunburn than trunk melanomas. We conducted a collaborative analysis using original data from women subjects of 11 case–control studies of melanoma (2575 cases, 3241 controls). We adjusted for potential confounding effects of sunlamp use and sunbathing. The magnitude of sunburn associations did not differ significantly by melanoma site, nevus count or histologic sub-type of melanoma. Across all sites, relative risk of melanoma increased with an increasing number of reported lifetime ‘painful’ sunburns, lifetime ‘severe’ sunburns and ‘severe’ sunburns in youth (ptrend<0.001), with pooled odds ratios for the highest category of sunburns vs no sunburns of 3.22 (95%CI 2.04–5.09) for lifetime ‘painful’ sunburns, 2.10 (95%CI 1.30–3.38) for lifetime ‘severe’ sunburns, and 2.43 (95%CI 1.61–3.65) for ‘severe’ sunburns in youth. Solar keratoses strongly increased the risk of head and neck melanoma (pOR 4.91, 95% CI 2.10–11.46), but data were insufficient to assess risk for other sites. Reported sunburn is strongly associated with melanoma on all major body sites.

Olsen, Catherine M.; Zens, Michael S.; Green, Adele C.; Stukel, Therese A.; Holman, C. D'Arcy J.; Mack, Thomas; Elwood, J. Mark; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Gallagher, Richard; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Rosso, Stefano; Kirkpatrick, Connie; Zanetti, Roberto; Bishop, Julia Newton; Bataille, Veronique; Chang, Yu-Mei; Mackie, Rona; ?sterlind, Anne; Berwick, Marianne; Karagas, Margaret R.; Whiteman, David C.

2010-01-01

163

Examining the Efficacy of Adjunctive Aripiprazole in Major Depressive Disorder: A Pooled Analysis of 2 Studies  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who fail to achieve complete remission with antidepressant therapy may benefit from augmentation therapy with an atypical antipsychotic. Method: A pooled analysis was performed on 2 identical 14-week studies (8-week prospective antidepressant therapy treatment phase followed by 6-week randomized double-blind phase) evaluating the efficacy of adjunctive aripiprazole (2–20 mg/day) in DSM-IV-TR–defined MDD patients with an inadequate response to antidepressant therapy. Primary efficacy endpoint was the mean change in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score from end of the prospective phase (week 8) to end of randomized phase (week 14, last observation carried forward). Subgroup analyses were performed. The key secondary endpoint was mean change in Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) mean score. Results: At endpoint, mean change in MADRS total score was significantly greater with adjunctive aripiprazole (–8.7) than with adjunctive placebo (–5.7; p < .001). Except for a differential treatment-by-sex interaction, change in MADRS total scores were consistently greater with adjunctive aripiprazole than with adjunctive placebo, regardless of race, age, episode duration, prior antidepressant therapy response, number of historical treatment failures, severity of depressive symptoms, and antidepressant. At endpoint, MADRS remission rates were significantly greater with adjunctive aripiprazole than with placebo (25.7% vs. 15.4%; p < .001). Adjunctive aripiprazole also demonstrated significantly greater improvements in mean change from baseline in SDS total score than adjunctive placebo (–1.2 vs. –0.6; p = .001). Conclusion: Augmentation of antidepressant therapy with the atypical antipsychotic aripiprazole resulted in significant efficacy benefits across a range of subgroups of patients with MDD. Further study of a treatment-by-sex interaction is needed. Trial Registration: www.clinicaltrials.gov Identifiers: NCT00095823 and NCT00095758

Thase, Michael E.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Nelson, J. Craig; Fava, Maurizio; Swanink, Rene; Tran, Quynh-Van; Pikalov, Andrei; Yang, Huyuan; Carlson, Berit X.; Marcus, Ronald N.; Berman, Robert M.

2008-01-01

164

Prediction model to estimate presence of coronary artery disease: retrospective pooled analysis of existing cohorts  

PubMed Central

Objectives To develop prediction models that better estimate the pretest probability of coronary artery disease in low prevalence populations. Design Retrospective pooled analysis of individual patient data. Setting 18 hospitals in Europe and the United States. Participants Patients with stable chest pain without evidence for previous coronary artery disease, if they were referred for computed tomography (CT) based coronary angiography or catheter based coronary angiography (indicated as low and high prevalence settings, respectively). Main outcome measures Obstructive coronary artery disease (?50% diameter stenosis in at least one vessel found on catheter based coronary angiography). Multiple imputation accounted for missing predictors and outcomes, exploiting strong correlation between the two angiography procedures. Predictive models included a basic model (age, sex, symptoms, and setting), clinical model (basic model factors and diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and smoking), and extended model (clinical model factors and use of the CT based coronary calcium score). We assessed discrimination (c statistic), calibration, and continuous net reclassification improvement by cross validation for the four largest low prevalence datasets separately and the smaller remaining low prevalence datasets combined. Results We included 5677 patients (3283 men, 2394 women), of whom 1634 had obstructive coronary artery disease found on catheter based coronary angiography. All potential predictors were significantly associated with the presence of disease in univariable and multivariable analyses. The clinical model improved the prediction, compared with the basic model (cross validated c statistic improvement from 0.77 to 0.79, net reclassification improvement 35%); the coronary calcium score in the extended model was a major predictor (0.79 to 0.88, 102%). Calibration for low prevalence datasets was satisfactory. Conclusions Updated prediction models including age, sex, symptoms, and cardiovascular risk factors allow for accurate estimation of the pretest probability of coronary artery disease in low prevalence populations. Addition of coronary calcium scores to the prediction models improves the estimates.

2012-01-01

165

BNCT for locally recurrent head and neck cancer: preliminary clinical experience from a phase I/II trial at Tsing Hua Open-Pool Reactor.  

PubMed

To introduce our preliminary experience of treating locally and regionally recurrent Head and Neck cancer patients at Tsing Hua Open-Pool Reactor in Taiwan, four patients (M/F=3/1, median age 68 Y/O) were enrolled. BNCT with BPA (400 mg/kg) injected in 2 phases and prescription dose of 12-35 Gy (Eq.)/fraction for 2 fractions at 30 day interval can be given with sustained blood boron concentration and tolerable early toxicities for recurrent H & N cancer. PMID:21478023

Wang, L W; Wang, S J; Chu, P Y; Ho, C Y; Jiang, S H; Liu, Y W H; Liu, Y H; Liu, H M; Peir, J J; Chou, F I; Yen, S H; Lee, Y L; Chang, C W; Liu, C S; Chen, Y W; Ono, K

2011-03-30

166

Quantitative Analysis of Synaptic Vesicle Pool Replenishment in Cultured Cerebellar Granule Neurons using FM Dyes  

PubMed Central

After neurotransmitter release in central nerve terminals, SVs are rapidly retrieved by endocytosis. Retrieved SVs are then refilled with neurotransmitter and rejoin the recycling pool, defined as SVs that are available for exocytosis1,2. The recycling pool can generally be subdivided into two distinct pools - the readily releasable pool (RRP) and the reserve pool (RP). As their names imply, the RRP consists of SVs that are immediately available for fusion while RP SVs are released only during intense stimulation1,2. It is important to have a reliable assay that reports the differential replenishment of these SV pools in order to understand 1) how SVs traffic after different modes of endocytosis (such as clathrin-dependent endocytosis and activity-dependent bulk endocytosis) and 2) the mechanisms controlling the mobilisation of both the RRP and RP in response to different stimuli. FM dyes are routinely employed to quantitatively report SV turnover in central nerve terminals3-8. They have a hydrophobic hydrocarbon tail that allows reversible partitioning in the lipid bilayer, and a hydrophilic head group that blocks passage across membranes. The dyes have little fluorescence in aqueous solution, but their quantum yield increases dramatically when partitioned in membrane9. Thus FM dyes are ideal fluorescent probes for tracking actively recycling SVs. The standard protocol for use of FM dye is as follows. First they are applied to neurons and are taken up during endocytosis (Figure 1). After non-internalised dye is washed away from the plasma membrane, recycled SVs redistribute within the recycling pool. These SVs are then depleted using unloading stimuli (Figure 1). Since FM dye labelling of SVs is quantal10, the resulting fluorescence drop is proportional to the amount of vesicles released. Thus, the recycling and fusion of SVs generated from the previous round of endocytosis can be reliably quantified. Here, we present a protocol that has been modified to obtain two additional elements of information. Firstly, sequential unloading stimuli are used to differentially unload the RRP and the RP, to allow quantification of the replenishment of specific SV pools. Secondly, each nerve terminal undergoes the protocol twice. Thus, the response of the same nerve terminal at S1 can be compared against the presence of a test substance at phase S2 (Figure 2), providing an internal control. This is important, since the extent of SV recycling across different nerve terminals is highly variable11. Any adherent primary neuronal cultures may be used for this protocol, however the plating density, solutions and stimulation conditions are optimised for cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs)12,13.

Cheung, Giselle; Cousin, Michael A.

2011-01-01

167

Age at menarche and risk of ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent associations between menarcheal age and ovarian cancer risk. To our knowledge, a meta-analysis for the association between menarcheal age and ovarian cancer has not been reported. Relevant published studies of menarcheal age and ovarian cancer were identified using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science through the end of April 2012. Two authors (T-T.G. and Q-J.W.) independently assessed eligibility and extracted data. We pooled the relative risks (RRs) from individual studies using a random-effects model and performed heterogeneity and publication bias analyses. A total of 27 observational studies consisting of 22 case-control and five cohort studies were included in our analysis. In a pooled analysis of all studies, a statistically significant inverse association was observed between menarcheal age (for the oldest compared to the youngest category) and ovarian cancer risk (RR = 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75-0.97). The pooled RRs of ovarian cancer for the oldest versus the youngest categories of menarcheal age in prospective and case-control studies were 0.89 (95% CI = 0.76-1.03) and 0.84 (95% CI = 0.70-0.99), respectively. Inverse associations between menarcheal age and ovarian cancer risk were observed in most subgroups; however, the significant association was restricted to invasive and borderline serous ovarian cancer. In conclusion, findings from this meta-analysis support that menarcheal age was inversely associated with the risk of ovarian cancer. More large studies are warranted to stratify these results by different cancer grading and histotype of ovarian cancer. PMID:23175139

Gong, Ting-Ting; Wu, Qi-Jun; Vogtmann, Emily; Lin, Bei; Wang, Yong-Lai

2012-12-13

168

Antihypertensive efficacy, safety, and tolerability of the oral direct renin inhibitor aliskiren in patients with hypertension: a pooled analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antihypertensive efficacy and safety of the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren were assessed in a pooled analysis of data from seven randomized, multicenter studies. Data were available for 7,045 patients (mean age 52.5 to 59.8 years, 50.2 to 72.5% men) with mild-to-moderate hypertension (mean sitting diastolic blood pressure [msDBP] 95 to 109 mm Hg) over treatment durations of 6 to

Matthew R. Weir; Christopher Bush; David R. Anderson; Jack Zhang; Deborah Keefe; Andrew Satlin

2007-01-01

169

NaK pool-boiler bench-scale receiver durability test: Test results and materials analysis  

SciTech Connect

Pool-boiler reflux receivers have been considered as an alternative to heat pipes for the input of concentrated solar energy to Stirling-cycle engines in dish-Stirling electric generation systems. Pool boilers offer simplicity in design and fabrication. The operation of a full-scale pool-boiler receiver has been demonstrated for short periods of time. However, to generate cost-effective electricity, the receiver must operate Without significant maintenance for the entire system life, as much as 20 to 30 years. Long-term liquid-metal boiling stability and materials compatibility with refluxing NaK-78 is not known and must be determined for the pool boiler receiver. No boiling system has been demonstrated for a significant duration with the current porous boiling enhancement surface and materials. Therefore, it is necessary to simulate the full-scale pool boiler design as much as possible, including flux levels, materials, and operating cycles. On-sun testing is impractical because of the limited test time available. A test vessel was constructed with a porous boiling enhancement surface. The boiling surface consisted of a brazed stainless steel powder with about 50% porosity. The vessel was heated with a quartz lamp array providing about go W/CM2 peak incident thermal flux. The vessel was charged with NaK-78. This allows the elimination of costly electric preheating, both on this test and on fullscale receivers. The vessel was fabricated from Haynes 230 alloy. The vessel operated at 750{degrees}C around the clock, with a 1/2-hour shutdown cycle to ambient every 8 hours. The test completed 7500 hours of lamp-on operation time, and over 1000 startups from ambient. The test was terminated when a small leak in an Inconel 600 thermowell was detected. The test design and data are presented here. Metallurgical analysis of virgin and tested materials has begun, and initial results are also presented.

Andraka, C.E.; Goods, S.H.; Bradshaw, R.W.; Moreno, J.B.; Moss, T.A.; Jones, S.A.

1994-06-01

170

Fuel Burnup and Fuel Pool Shielding Analysis for Bushehr Nuclear Reactor VVER-1000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bushehr Nuclear power plant (BNPP) is currently under construction. The VVER-1000 reactor will be loaded with 126 tons of about 4% enriched fuel having 3-years life cycle. The spent fuel (SF) will be transferred into the spent fuel pool (SPF), where it stays for 8 years before being transferred to Russia. The SPF plays a crucial role during 8 years

Kamal Hadad; Navid Ayobian

2006-01-01

171

Association between RASSF1A Promoter Methylation and Ovarian Cancer: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The RAS association domain family protein 1a gene (RASSF1A) is one of the tumor suppressor genes (TSG). Inactivation of RASSF1A is critical to the pathogenesis of cancer. Aberrant TSG methylation was considered an important epigenetic silencing mechanism in the progression of ovarian cancer. A number of studies have discussed association between RASSF1A promoter methylation and ovarian cancer. However, they were mostly based on a small number of samples and showed inconsist results, Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to better identify the association. Methods Eligible studies were identified by searching the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and CNKI databases using a systematic searching strategy. We pooled the odds ratio (ORs) from individual studies using a fixed-effects model. We performed heterogeneity and publication bias analysis simultaneously. Results Thirteen studies, with 763 ovarian cancer patients and 438 controls were included in the meta-analysis. The frequencies of RASSF1A promoter methylation ranged from 30% to 58% (median is 48%) in the cancer group and 0 to 21% (median is 0) in the control group. The frequencies of RASSF1A promoter methylation in the cancer group were significantly higher than those in the control group. The pooled odds ratio was 11.17 (95% CI?=?7.51–16.61) in the cancer group versus the corresponding control group under the fixed-effects model. Conclusion The results suggested that RASSF1A promoter methylation had a strong association with ovarian cancer.

Shi, Hao; Li, Ya; Wang, Xiaozhong; Lu, Cheng; Yang, Lilan; Gu, Changmei; Xiong, Jiaqiang; Huang, Yangxin; Wang, Shixuan; Lu, Meixia

2013-01-01

172

The Association of Telomere Length and Cancer: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Telomeres shorten with each cell division and are essential for chromosomal stability. Short telomeres in surrogate tissues (e.g., blood cells) are associated with increased cancer risk in several case-control studies, but findings are inconsistent in prospective studies. Methods We systematically reviewed studies published prior to August 30, 2010 on the association between telomere length (TL) in surrogate tissues and cancer. There were 27 reports on 13 cancers and/or incident cancer investigating this association. The majority, 16, were retrospective case-control studies, 11 were prospective studies. Meta-analyses were conducted to determine odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for these studies. Results Studies on bladder, esophageal, gastric, head and neck, ovarian, renal, and overall incident cancer found associations between short telomeres and these cancers. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, breast, lung and colorectal cancer reports were inconsistent. Single studies on endometrial, prostate, and skin cancers were null. In a random effects meta-analysis, short TL was significantly associated with cancer in retrospective studies (pooled OR for the shortest TL quartile compared with the longest: 2.9, 95%CI 1.73 – 4.8, P<0.0001). The pooled OR for prospective studies was 1.16 (95%CI 0.87 – 1.54, P=0.32). All studies combined yielded a pooled OR of 1.96 (95%CI 1.37 – 2.81, P=0.0001) for the association of short TL and cancer. Conclusion and Impact There is suggestive evidence that short surrogate tissue TL is associated with cancer; the strongest evidence exists for bladder, esophageal, gastric, and renal cancers. Additional prospective studies with consistent methodology are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

Wentzensen, Ingrid M.; Mirabello, Lisa; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Savage, Sharon A.

2011-01-01

173

Analysis of protein pool of neuronal populations of cerebellar cortex in rodents of different species.  

PubMed

The protein pool of neuronal population of the cerebellar cortex was studied by interference cytometry in rodents occupying different ecological niches and differing by life style, nutrition habits, and motor activity. In all cell populations protein concentrations in the cytoplasm were higher than in the nucleus in all studied rodents and did not depend on the functional characteristics of neurons. The extreme values of protein content were determined for populations of granular and ganglion cells. High protein concentrations per volume unit of cell structure were detected in functionally different cerebellar neurons of gray rats, characterized by high motor activity and a certain degree of synanthropy, while low values were detected in mole rats, slow-moving underground rodents. Therefore, the specific protein pool of neuronal populations of the cerebellar cortex of rodents can be regarded as adaptation to habitation conditions. PMID:11276318

Orlyanskaya, T Y; Lyutikova, T M

2000-12-01

174

A keyhole volumetric model for weld pool analysis in Nd:YAG pulsed laser welding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a new model for analyzing the temperature distribution and weld pool shape in Nd:YAG pulsed laser welding. In the proposed approach, a surface flux heat transfer model is applied in the low laser energy intensity region of the weld, while a keyhole heat transfer model based on a volumetric heat source is applied in the high laser energy intensity region of the weld. The correlation between the intensity of the laser input energy and the geometric parameters of the volumetric heat source is derived experimentally. A series of MARC finite element simulations based on the proposed single pulse model are performed to investigate the shape and size of the weld pool given different laser energy intensities. A good agreement is observed between the simulation results and the experimental results obtained under equivalent single pulse welding conditions. Thus, the basic validity of the proposed model is confirmed.

Kuang, Jao-Hwa; Hung, Tsung-Pin; Chen, Chih-Kuan

2012-07-01

175

Circulating Progenitor Cell Count for Cardiovascular Risk Stratification: A Pooled Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCirculating progenitor cells (CPC) contribute to the homeostasis of the vessel wall, and a reduced CPC count predicts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We tested the hypothesis that CPC count improves cardiovascular risk stratification and that this is modulated by low-grade inflammation.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe pooled data from 4 longitudinal studies, including a total of 1,057 patients having CPC determined and major adverse

Gian Paolo Fadini; Shoichi Maruyama; Takenori Ozaki; Akihiko Taguchi; James Meigs; Stefanie Dimmeler; Andreas M. Zeiher; Saula de Kreutzenberg; Angelo Avogaro; Georg Nickenig; Caroline Schmidt-Lucke; Nikos Werner; Stefan Kiechl

2010-01-01

176

NaK pool-boiler solar receiver durability bench test. Volume 2: Metallurgical analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principal materials used in the construction of a NaK based pool-boiler were analyzed. The device, operated for 7500 hours, accumulated 1000 thermal cycles to a peak temperature of 750 C. Haynes 230, used to fabricate the pool-boiler vessel, was found to perform satisfactorily. Air-side corrosion of the pool-boiler vessel was insignificant. Internal surface of the alloy exhibited some NaK-induced elemental dissolution; this dissolution was somewhat more extensive where the alloy was exposed to the liquid metal compared to regions exposed only to NaK vapor; however, the corresponding metal loss in all regions was inconsequential, never exceeding more than a few microns. Autogenous seam welds of the alloy responded in a similar fashion, exhibiting only minimal metal loss over the course of the experiment. While there was 50% loss in ductility of the alloy there remained adequate ductility for the anticipated operating environment. An enhanced boiling nucleation surface comprised of stainless steel powder brazed to the vessel ID showed no change in its structure. It remained intact, showing no cracking after repeated thermal cycling. Other materials used in the experiment showed more extensive degradation after exposure to the NaK. IN 600, used to fabricate thermowells, exhibited extensive surface and intergranular dissolution. Grain boundary dissolution was sufficiently severe in one of the thermowells to cause an air leak, resulting in experiment termination. BNi-3, a brazing alloy used to join the pool-boiler vessel, endcaps and thermowells, showed some dissolution where it was exposed to the NaK as well as thermal aging effects. However, all brazes remained structurally sound. A nickel metal ribbon showed catastrophic dissolution, resulting in the formation of deep (greater than 30 (mu)m) pits and cavities. A zirconium metal foil used to getter oxygen from the NaK became extremely brittle.

Goods, S. H.; Bradshaw, R. W.

1995-01-01

177

Model-based experimental analysis of pool boiling heat transfer with controlled wall temperature transients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model-based approach for design, control, operation, and evaluation of pool boiling experiments with controlled steady-state and transient wall temperature up to 50 K\\/s is presented. Throughout all phases of the described approach, the requirements on the experimental infrastructure for reproducible boiling experiments are addressed by the integration of theoretical and experimental investigations. In the early design phase, these are

R Hohl; J Blum; M Buchholz; T Lüttich; H Auracher; W Marquardt

2001-01-01

178

Thermal analysis of five unglazed solar collector systems for the heating of outdoor swimming pools  

SciTech Connect

The performance and behavior of five unglazed solar collector installations, devoted to the heating of five outdoor swimming pools located in Switzerland, is studied on the basis of experimental data collected in 1988. Due to the low temperatures involved, hourly efficiencies often exceed 80%. The mean daily collector efficiency is of the order of 60% in optimal conditions and is in good agreement with the G3 simulation program.

Molineaux, B.; Lachal, B.; Guisan, O. (Univ. of Genva (Switzerland))

1994-07-01

179

A comparative analysis of dietary intakes during pregnancy in Europe: a planned pooled analysis of birth cohort studies1234  

PubMed Central

Background: There is growing evidence that despite the absence of marked deficiencies, diet during pregnancy has important implications for maternal and child health in industrialized countries. At present, relatively little is known about prevailing patterns of intake across groups with diverse sociodemographic and lifestyle patterns in these settings. Objectives: The aims of this study were to develop methods for the standardization of food group intake data and to describe the process of applying these methods to existing pregnancy cohort studies, which included >200,000 women across Europe. Design: The study developed a detailed standardization protocol to harmonize intakes of selected food groups, which included fruit, vegetables, meats, seafood, and dairy products. Standardization is necessary to facilitate valid comparisons of intake patterns and disparities across countries and will lead to the development of harmonized databases for possible future pooled analyses. Results: On the basis of comparisons with previously coordinated multicountry studies, preliminary data suggest that the standardization process yielded sufficiently comparable intake data, which indicate differences in food cultures across the countries that participated. Conclusions: This project provides lessons on the feasibility of harmonizing dietary intake data from existing studies, which can be applied in future post hoc standardization efforts. The data yielded in this analysis will also provide useful information for the development of food and nutrition policies for pregnant women in Europe, including the identification of population subgroups in which dietary inadequacies during pregnancy may be widespread.

Kogevinas, Manolis

2011-01-01

180

Analysis of Pools of Targeted Salmonella Deletion Mutants Identifies Novel Genes Affecting Fitness during Competitive Infection in Mice  

PubMed Central

Pools of mutants of minimal complexity but maximal coverage of genes of interest facilitate screening for genes under selection in a particular environment. We constructed individual deletion mutants in 1,023 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium genes, including almost all genes found in Salmonella but not in related genera. All mutations were confirmed simultaneously using a novel amplification strategy to produce labeled RNA from a T7 RNA polymerase promoter, introduced during the construction of each mutant, followed by hybridization of this labeled RNA to a Typhimurium genome tiling array. To demonstrate the ability to identify fitness phenotypes using our pool of mutants, the pool was subjected to selection by intraperitoneal injection into BALB/c mice and subsequent recovery from spleens. Changes in the representation of each mutant were monitored using T7 transcripts hybridized to a novel inexpensive minimal microarray. Among the top 120 statistically significant spleen colonization phenotypes, more than 40 were mutations in genes with no previously known role in this model. Fifteen phenotypes were tested using individual mutants in competitive assays of intraperitoneal infection in mice and eleven were confirmed, including the first two examples of attenuation for sRNA mutants in Salmonella. We refer to the method as Array-based analysis of cistrons under selection (ABACUS).

Porwollik, Steffen; Choi, Sang-Ho; Long, Fred; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene L.; McClelland, Michael

2009-01-01

181

Coffee consumption and risk of endometrial cancer: findings from a large up-to-date meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Several epidemiological studies have examined the association between coffee drinking and risk of endometrial cancer. To provide a quantitative assessment of this association, we conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies published up to October 2011 through a search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and the reference lists of retrieved article. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model, and generalized least square trend estimation was used to assess dose-response relationships. A total of 16 studies (10 case-control and six cohort studies) on coffee intake with 6,628 endometrial cancer cases were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RR of endometrial cancer for the highest versus lowest categories of coffee intake was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.62-0.81; p for heterogeneity = 0.13). By study design, the pooled RRs were 0.69 (95% CI: 0.55-0.87) for case-control studies and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.61-0.80) for cohort studies. By geographic region, the inverse association was stronger for three Japanese studies (pooled RR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.25-0.63) than five studies from USA/Canada (pooled RR = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.60-0.79) or eight studies from Europe (pooled RR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63-0.99). An increment of one cup per day of coffee intake conferred a pooled RR of 0.92 (95% CI: 0.90-0.95). In conclusion, our findings suggest that increased coffee intake is associated with a reduced risk of endometrial cancer, consistently observed for cohort and case-control studies. More large studies are needed to determine subgroups to obtain more benefits from coffee drinking in relation to endometrial cancer risk. PMID:22190017

Je, Youjin; Giovannucci, Edward

2012-01-31

182

Experimental analysis of bubble growth, departure and interactions during pool boiling on artificial nucleation sites  

SciTech Connect

The present work describes experimental results of pentane pool boiling, simplified to the cases of boiling on a single or on two adjacent nucleation sites. Bubbles growths have been recorded by a high speed camera under various wall superheat conditions. Bubble volume has been plotted as a function of time, and an experimental growth law has been proposed. Oscillations were observed during growth, showing the interaction of one bubble with the preceding bubble released from the same nucleation site. Lateral coalescence has been visualized and the images have brought to the fore the capillary effects on the distortion of the interface. (author)

Siedel, S.; Cioulachtjian, S.; Bonjour, J. [CETHIL - UMR5008 CNRS INSA-Lyon Univ. Lyon1, Bat. Sadi Carnot, 9 rue de la Physique, INSA-Lyon, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

2008-09-15

183

XRCC3 Thr241Met gene polymorphisms and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Many studies have examined the association between the XRCC3 Thr241Met gene polymorphism and lung cancer risk in various populations, but their results have been inconsistent. To assess this relationship more precisely, a meta-analysis was performed. The PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and CNKI database was searched for case–control studies published up to July 2012. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Ultimately, 17 studies, comprising 4123 lung cancer cases and 5597 controls were included. Overall, for T allele carriers (TC + TT) versus the wild-type homozygotes (CC), the pooled OR was 0.95 (95% CI?=?0.87-1.04 P?=?0.228 for heterogeneity), for TT versus CC the pooled OR was 0.99 (95% CI?=?0.86-1.15 P?=?0.315 for heterogeneity). In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, histological types of lung cancer and smoking status, no any significantly risks were found for (C/T + T/T) vs C/C or T/T vs C/C. No publication bias was found by using the funnel plot and Egger's test. Overall, there is no evidence showing a significant correlation between XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism and lung cancer risk stratified analysis by ethnicity, histology and smoking status.

2013-01-01

184

Reflux pool-boiler as a heat-transport device for Stirling engines - Postmortem analysis and next-generation design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a prior study, operation of a 75-kWt sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver was demonstrated and its performance characterized at Sandia National Laboratories. Subsequently, during the final testing phase, the receiver developed a leak, releasing part of the sodium inventory to the atmosphere. The possible causes of the leak are examined, including materials selection, thermal stresses, fatigue, high local solar flux, film boiling, and flooding limits. The results of the failure analysis are applied to the next-generation receiver design, which is presented. Plans for bench-scale testing of some design modifications are also presented.

Moreno, J. B.; Andraka, C. E.; Diver, R. B.; Moss, T. A.; Hoffman, E. L.; Stone, C. M.

185

Striking life events associated with primary breast cancer susceptibility in women: a meta-analysis study  

PubMed Central

Purpose The association between striking life events, an important stress and acute anxiety disorder, and the occurrence of primary breast cancer is unclear. The current meta-analysis was designed to assess the relationship between striking life events and primary breast cancer incidence in women. Methods Systematic computerized searching of the PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, and BMJ databases with the combinations of controlled descriptors from Mesh, including breast cancer, breast tumor, cancer of breast, mammary carcinoma, life events, life change events, case–control studies, case-base studies, cohort study, and cohort analysis and identified a total of 307 papers published from January 1995 to April 2012. Following evaluation of methodological quality with the Downs & Black criteria, seven case–control or cohort studies were selected and the association between striking life events and primary breast cancer incidence in women was measured using random effect or fixed-effect odds ratios combined with 95% confidence interval. Results The seven studies included in the final meta-analysis included 99,807 women. A meta-analysis showed that the pooled OR for striking life events and breast cancer was 1.51 (95% CI 1.15 - 1.97, P = 0.003), indicating that women with striking life events were at 1.5-fold greater risk of developing breast cancer. The pooled OR for severe striking life events and breast cancer was 2.07 (95% CI 1.06 - 4.03), indicating that women with severe striking life events were at 2-fold greater risk of developing breast cancer. Conclusions The current meta-analysis showed significant evidence for a positive association between striking life events and primary breast cancer incidence in women.

2013-01-01

186

Identification of Breast Cancer Prognosis Markers via Integrative Analysis.  

PubMed

In breast cancer research, it is of great interest to identify genomic markers associated with prognosis. Multiple gene profiling studies have been conducted for such a purpose. Genomic markers identified from the analysis of single datasets often do not have satisfactory reproducibility. Among the multiple possible reasons, the most important one is the small sample sizes of individual studies. A cost-effective solution is to pool data from multiple comparable studies and conduct integrative analysis. In this study, we collect four breast cancer prognosis studies with gene expression measurements. We describe the relationship between prognosis and gene expressions using the accelerated failure time (AFT) models. We adopt a 2-norm group bridge penalization approach for marker identification. This integrative analysis approach can effectively identify markers with consistent effects across multiple datasets and naturally accommodate the heterogeneity among studies. Statistical and simulation studies demonstrate satisfactory performance of this approach. Breast cancer prognosis markers identified using this approach have sound biological implications and satisfactory prediction performance. PMID:22773869

Ma, Shuangge; Dai, Ying; Huang, Jian; Xie, Yang

2012-09-01

187

Identification of Breast Cancer Prognosis Markers via Integrative Analysis  

PubMed Central

Summary In breast cancer research, it is of great interest to identify genomic markers associated with prognosis. Multiple gene profiling studies have been conducted for such a purpose. Genomic markers identified from the analysis of single datasets often do not have satisfactory reproducibility. Among the multiple possible reasons, the most important one is the small sample sizes of individual studies. A cost-effective solution is to pool data from multiple comparable studies and conduct integrative analysis. In this study, we collect four breast cancer prognosis studies with gene expression measurements. We describe the relationship between prognosis and gene expressions using the accelerated failure time (AFT) models. We adopt a 2-norm group bridge penalization approach for marker identification. This integrative analysis approach can effectively identify markers with consistent effects across multiple datasets and naturally accommodate the heterogeneity among studies. Statistical and simulation studies demonstrate satisfactory performance of this approach. Breast cancer prognosis markers identified using this approach have sound biological implications and satisfactory prediction performance.

Ma, Shuangge; Dai, Ying; Huang, Jian; Xie, Yang

2012-01-01

188

Analysis of gravity anomaly over coral-reef oil field: Wilfred Pool, Sullivan County, Indiana  

SciTech Connect

To compare the measured and theoretical gravity anomaly of a typical coral-reef oil field, data were collected from the wilfred Pool, Sullivan County, Indiana. Densities of available core samples from the field were determined and the anomaly was calculated, taking into account the lateral and vertical variation of density and the geologic structure known from core studies and drilling-log records of lithologic types penetrated by the wells. Comparison of the theoretical and actual anomalies indicated a rough correspondence except for several sharp negative anomalies on the flanks of the measured gravity anomaly. Further studies indicated that the negative anomalies are possibly due to fluvial erosion that produced, on the surface of the youngest Pennsylvanian sediments, channels which were later filled with glacial till of lower density than the sediments. 13 figures.

Dana, S.W.

1980-03-01

189

Analysis of the pool critical assembly pressure vessel benchmark using pentran  

SciTech Connect

The internationally circulated Pool Critical Assembly (PCA) Pressure Vessel Benchmark was analyzed using the PENTRAN Parallel Sn code system for the geometry, material, and source specifications as described in the PCA Benchmark documentation. This research focused on utilizing the BUGLE-96 cross section library and accompanying reaction rates, while examining both adaptive differencing on a coarse mesh basis as well as Directional Theta Weighted Sn differencing in order to compare the calculated PENTRAN results to measured data. The results show good comparison with the measured data as well as to the calculated results provided from TORT for the BUGLE-96 cross sections and reaction rates, which suggests PENTRAN is a viable and reliable code system for calculation of light water reactor neutron shielding and dosimetry calculations. (authors)

Edgar, C. A.; Sjoden, G. E. [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering Program, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Inst. of Technology, 770 State St, Atlanta, GA 30332-0745 (United States)

2012-07-01

190

Individual and setting level predictors of the implementation of a skin cancer prevention program: a multilevel analysis  

PubMed Central

Background To achieve widespread cancer control, a better understanding is needed of the factors that contribute to successful implementation of effective skin cancer prevention interventions. This study assessed the relative contributions of individual- and setting-level characteristics to implementation of a widely disseminated skin cancer prevention program. Methods A multilevel analysis was conducted using data from the Pool Cool Diffusion Trial from 2004 and replicated with data from 2005. Implementation of Pool Cool by lifeguards was measured using a composite score (implementation variable, range 0 to 10) that assessed whether the lifeguard performed different components of the intervention. Predictors included lifeguard background characteristics, lifeguard sun protection-related attitudes and behaviors, pool characteristics, and enhanced (i.e., more technical assistance, tailored materials, and incentives are provided) versus basic treatment group. Results The mean value of the implementation variable was 4 in both years (2004 and 2005; SD = 2 in 2004 and SD = 3 in 2005) indicating a moderate implementation for most lifeguards. Several individual-level (lifeguard characteristics) and setting-level (pool characteristics and treatment group) factors were found to be significantly associated with implementation of Pool Cool by lifeguards. All three lifeguard-level domains (lifeguard background characteristics, lifeguard sun protection-related attitudes and behaviors) and six pool-level predictors (number of weekly pool visitors, intervention intensity, geographic latitude, pool location, sun safety and/or skin cancer prevention programs, and sun safety programs and policies) were included in the final model. The most important predictors of implementation were the number of weekly pool visitors (inverse association) and enhanced treatment group (positive association). That is, pools with fewer weekly visitors and pools in the enhanced treatment group had significantly higher program implementation in both 2004 and 2005. Conclusions More intense, theory-driven dissemination strategies led to higher levels of implementation of this effective skin cancer prevention program. Issues to be considered by practitioners seeking to implement evidence-based programs in community settings, include taking into account both individual-level and setting-level factors, using active implementation approaches, and assessing local needs to adapt intervention materials.

2010-01-01

191

BAC-Pool Sequencing and Analysis of Large Segments of A12 and D12 Homoeologous Chromosomes in Upland Cotton  

PubMed Central

Although new and emerging next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have reduced sequencing costs significantly, much work remains to implement them for de novo sequencing of complex and highly repetitive genomes such as the tetraploid genome of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Herein we report the results from implementing a novel, hybrid Sanger/454-based BAC-pool sequencing strategy using minimum tiling path (MTP) BACs from Ctg-3301 and Ctg-465, two large genomic segments in A12 and D12 homoeologous chromosomes (Ctg). To enable generation of longer contig sequences in assembly, we implemented a hybrid assembly method to process ~35x data from 454 technology and 2.8-3x data from Sanger method. Hybrid assemblies offered higher sequence coverage and better sequence assemblies. Homology studies revealed the presence of retrotransposon regions like Copia and Gypsy elements in these contigs and also helped in identifying new genomic SSRs. Unigenes were anchored to the sequences in Ctg-3301 and Ctg-465 to support the physical map. Gene density, gene structure and protein sequence information derived from protein prediction programs were used to obtain the functional annotation of these genes. Comparative analysis of both contigs with Arabidopsis genome exhibited synteny and microcollinearity with a conserved gene order in both genomes. This study provides insight about use of MTP-based BAC-pool sequencing approach for sequencing complex polyploid genomes with limited constraints in generating better sequence assemblies to build reference scaffold sequences. Combining the utilities of MTP-based BAC-pool sequencing with current longer and short read NGS technologies in multiplexed format would provide a new direction to cost-effectively and precisely sequence complex plant genomes.

Buyyarapu, Ramesh; Kantety, Ramesh V.; Yu, John Z.; Xu, Zhanyou; Kohel, Russell J.; Percy, Richard G.; Macmil, Simone; Wiley, Graham B.; Roe, Bruce A.; Sharma, Govind C.

2013-01-01

192

Rivaroxaban for the prevention of venous thromboembolism after hip or knee arthroplasty. Pooled analysis of four studies.  

PubMed

Four phase III studies compared oral rivaroxaban with subcutaneous enoxaparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA or TKA). A pooled analysis of these studies compared the effect of rivaroxaban with enoxaparin on symptomatic VTE plus all-cause mortality and bleeding events, and determined whether these effects were consistent in patient subgroups. Patients (N=12,729) aged ?18 years and scheduled for elective THA or TKA received rivaroxaban 10 mg once daily or enoxaparin 40 mg once daily or 30 mg every 12 hours. The composite of symptomatic VTE and all-cause mortality, the prespecified primary efficacy endpoint and adjudicated bleeding events were analysed in the day 12± 2 active treatment pool. Subgroup analyses of these outcomes were performed over the total treatment period. In the day 12± 2 pool, the primary efficacy endpoint occurred in 29/6,183 patients receiving rivaroxaban (0.5%) versus 60/6,200 patients receiving enoxaparin (1.0%; p=0.001). Major bleeding occurred in 21 (0.3%) versus 13(0.2%) patients, p=0.23; major plus non-major clinically relevant bleeding in 176(2.8%) versus 152 (2.5%) patients, p=0.19; and any bleeding in 409 (6.6%) versus 384 (6.2%) patients, p=0.38, respectively. The reduction of symptomatic VTE plus all-cause mortality was consistent across prespecified subgroups (age, gender, body weight, creatinine clearance) in the total treatment period. Compared with enoxaparin regimens, rivaroxaban reduces the composite of symptomatic VTE and all-cause mortality after elective THA or TKA, with a small increase in bleeding, no signs of compromised liver safety and fewer serious adverse events. PMID:21136019

Turpie, Alexander G G; Lassen, Michael Rud; Eriksson, Bengt I; Gent, Michael; Berkowitz, Scott D; Misselwitz, Frank; Bandel, Tiemo J; Homering, Martin; Westermeier, Torsten; Kakkar, Ajay K

2010-12-06

193

BAC-Pool Sequencing and Analysis of Large Segments of A12 and D12 Homoeologous Chromosomes in Upland Cotton.  

PubMed

Although new and emerging next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have reduced sequencing costs significantly, much work remains to implement them for de novo sequencing of complex and highly repetitive genomes such as the tetraploid genome of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Herein we report the results from implementing a novel, hybrid Sanger/454-based BAC-pool sequencing strategy using minimum tiling path (MTP) BACs from Ctg-3301 and Ctg-465, two large genomic segments in A12 and D12 homoeologous chromosomes (Ctg). To enable generation of longer contig sequences in assembly, we implemented a hybrid assembly method to process ~35x data from 454 technology and 2.8-3x data from Sanger method. Hybrid assemblies offered higher sequence coverage and better sequence assemblies. Homology studies revealed the presence of retrotransposon regions like Copia and Gypsy elements in these contigs and also helped in identifying new genomic SSRs. Unigenes were anchored to the sequences in Ctg-3301 and Ctg-465 to support the physical map. Gene density, gene structure and protein sequence information derived from protein prediction programs were used to obtain the functional annotation of these genes. Comparative analysis of both contigs with Arabidopsis genome exhibited synteny and microcollinearity with a conserved gene order in both genomes. This study provides insight about use of MTP-based BAC-pool sequencing approach for sequencing complex polyploid genomes with limited constraints in generating better sequence assemblies to build reference scaffold sequences. Combining the utilities of MTP-based BAC-pool sequencing with current longer and short read NGS technologies in multiplexed format would provide a new direction to cost-effectively and precisely sequence complex plant genomes. PMID:24116150

Buyyarapu, Ramesh; Kantety, Ramesh V; Yu, John Z; Xu, Zhanyou; Kohel, Russell J; Percy, Richard G; Macmil, Simone; Wiley, Graham B; Roe, Bruce A; Sharma, Govind C

2013-10-08

194

Selenium and Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Selenium is a natural health product widely used in the treatment and prevention of lung cancers, but large chemoprevention trials have yielded conflicting results. We conducted a systematic review of selenium for lung cancers, and assessed potential interactions with conventional therapies. Methods and Findings Two independent reviewers searched six databases from inception to March 2009 for evidence pertaining to the safety and efficacy of selenium for lung cancers. Pubmed and EMBASE were searched to October 2009 for evidence on interactions with chemo- or radiation-therapy. In the efficacy analysis there were nine reports of five RCTs and two biomarker-based studies, 29 reports of 26 observational studies, and 41 preclinical studies. Fifteen human studies, one case report, and 36 preclinical studies were included in the interactions analysis. Based on available evidence, there appears to be a different chemopreventive effect dependent on baseline selenium status, such that selenium supplementation may reduce risk of lung cancers in populations with lower baseline selenium status (serum<106 ng/mL), but increase risk of lung cancers in those with higher selenium (?121.6 ng/mL). Pooling data from two trials yielded no impact to odds of lung cancer, OR 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.61–1.43); other cancers that were the primary endpoints of these trials, OR 1.51 (95%CI 0.70–3.24); and all-cause-death, OR 0.93 (95%CI 0.79–1.10). In the treatment of lung cancers, selenium may reduce cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and side effects associated with radiation therapy. Conclusions Selenium may be effective for lung cancer prevention among individuals with lower selenium status, but at present should not be used as a general strategy for lung cancer prevention. Although promising, more evidence on the ability of selenium to reduce cisplatin and radiation therapy toxicity is required to ensure that therapeutic efficacy is maintained before any broad clinical recommendations can be made in this context.

Fritz, Heidi; Kennedy, Deborah; Fergusson, Dean; Fernandes, Rochelle; Cooley, Kieran; Seely, Andrew; Sagar, Stephen; Wong, Raimond; Seely, Dugald

2011-01-01

195

Oxycodone for Cancer-Related Pain Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

o evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of oxycodone in cancer-related pain, we con- ducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Four studies, comparing oral oxycodone with either oral morphine (n=3) or oral hydromorphone (n=1), were suit- able for meta-analysis. Standardized mean differences in pain scores comparing oxy- codone with control groups were pooled using random-effects models. Overall, there was

Colette M. Reid; Richard M. Martin; Jonathan A. C. Sterne; Andrew N. Davies; Geoffrey W. Hanks; Susmita Mallik; John A. Spertus; Kimberly J. Reid; Harlan M. Krumholz; John S. Rumsfeld; William S. Weintraub; Purva Agarwal; Mugdha Santra; Savita Bidyasar; Judith H. Lichtman; Nanette K. Wenger; Viola Vaccarino; James R. Madison; Christian Spies; Irwin J. Schatz; Kamal Masaki; Randi Chen; Katsuhiko Yano; J. David Curb

2006-01-01

196

Identification of novel epithelial ovarian cancer biomarkers by cross-laboratory microarray analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The purpose of this study was to pool information in epithelial ovarian cancer by combining studies using Affymetrix expression\\u000a microarray datasets made at different laboratories to identify novel biomarkers. Epithelial microarray expression information\\u000a across laboratories was screened and combined after preprocessing raw microarray data, then ANOVA and unpaired T test statistical analysis was performed for identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs),

Xuefeng Jiang; Tao Zhu; Jie Yang; Shuang Li; Shuangmei Ye; Shujie Liao; Li Meng; Yunping Lu; Ding Ma

2010-01-01

197

Occupation related pesticide exposure and cancer of the prostate: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To summarise recent literature on the risk of prostate cancer in pesticide related occupations, to calculate the meta-rate ratio, and to compare it to data from meta-analyses previously published.Methods: A meta-analysis of 22 epidemiological studies, published between 1995 and 2001, was conducted in order to pool their rate ratio estimates. Studies were summarised and evaluated for homogeneity and publication

G Van Maele-Fabry; J L Willems

2003-01-01

198

Variation in cancer risk estimates for exposure to powerline frequency electromagnetic fields: A meta-analysis comparing EMF measurement methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used meta-analysis to synthesize the findings from eleven case-control studies on cancer risks in humans exposed to 50-60 Hertz powerline electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Pooled estimates of risk are derived for different EMF measurement methods and types of cancer. EMF measurement methods are classified as: wiring configuration codes, distance to power distribution equipment, spot measurements of magnetic fields, and calculated

Michelle A. Miller; James R. Murphy; Thomas I Miller; A. J. Ruttenber

1995-01-01

199

Autoimmune disorders and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes: a pooled analysis within the InterLymph Consortium  

PubMed Central

Some autoimmune disorders are increasingly recognized as risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) overall, but large-scale systematic assessments of risk of NHL subtypes are lacking. We performed a pooled analysis of self-reported autoimmune conditions and risk of NHL and subtypes, including 29?423 participants in 12 case-control studies. We computed pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in a joint fixed-effects model. Sjögren syndrome was associated with a 6.5-fold increased risk of NHL, a 1000-fold increased risk of parotid gland marginal zone lymphoma (OR = 996; 95% CI, 216-4596), and with diffuse large B-cell and follicular lymphomas. Systemic lupus erythematosus was associated with a 2.7-fold increased risk of NHL and with diffuse large B-cell and marginal zone lymphomas. Hemolytic anemia was associated with diffuse large B-cell NHL. T-cell NHL risk was increased for patients with celiac disease and psoriasis. Results for rheumatoid arthritis were heterogeneous between studies. Inflammatory bowel disorders, type 1 diabetes, sarcoidosis, pernicious anemia, and multiple sclerosis were not associated with risk of NHL or subtypes. Thus, specific autoimmune disorders are associated with NHL risk beyond the development of rare NHL subtypes in affected organs. The pattern of associations with NHL subtypes may harbor clues to lymphomagenesis.

Vajdic, Claire M.; Falster, Michael; Engels, Eric A.; Martinez-Maza, Otoniel; Turner, Jennifer; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Vineis, Paolo; Seniori Costantini, Adele; Bracci, Paige M.; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Willett, Eleanor; Spinelli, John J.; La Vecchia, Carlo; Zheng, Tongzhang; Becker, Nikolaus; De Sanjose, Silvia; Chiu, Brian C.-H.; Dal Maso, Luigino; Cocco, Pierluigi; Maynadie, Marc; Foretova, Lenka; Staines, Anthony; Brennan, Paul; Davis, Scott; Severson, Richard; Cerhan, James R.; Breen, Elizabeth C.; Birmann, Brenda; Grulich, Andrew E.; Cozen, Wendy

2008-01-01

200

Incorporating network structure in integrative analysis of cancer prognosis data.  

PubMed

In high-throughput cancer genomic studies, markers identified from the analysis of single datasets may have unsatisfactory properties because of low sample sizes. Integrative analysis pools and analyzes raw data from multiple studies, and can effectively increase sample size and lead to improved marker identification results. In this study, we consider the integrative analysis of multiple high-throughput cancer prognosis studies. In the existing integrative analysis studies, the interplay among genes, which can be described using the network structure, has not been effectively accounted for. In network analysis, tightly connected nodes (genes) are more likely to have related biological functions and similar regression coefficients. The goal of this study is to develop an analysis approach that can incorporate the gene network structure in integrative analysis. To this end, we adopt an AFT (accelerated failure time) model to describe survival. A weighted least squares approach, which has low computational cost, is adopted for estimation. For marker selection, we propose a new penalization approach. The proposed penalty is composed of two parts. The first part is a group MCP penalty, and conducts gene selection. The second part is a Laplacian penalty, and smoothes the differences of coefficients for tightly connected genes. A group coordinate descent approach is developed to compute the proposed estimate. Simulation study shows satisfactory performance of the proposed approach when there exist moderate-to-strong correlations among genes. We analyze three lung cancer prognosis datasets, and demonstrate that incorporating the network structure can lead to the identification of important genes and improved prediction performance. PMID:23161517

Liu, Jin; Huang, Jian; Ma, Shuangge

2012-11-17

201

Analysis of IL-1? Release from Cryopreserved Pooled Lymphocytes in Response to Lipopolysaccharide and Lipoteichoic Acid  

PubMed Central

Pyrogens are heterogeneous group of fever-inducing substances derived from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and viruses. They incite immune response by producing endogenous pyrogens such as prostaglandins and other proinflammatory cytokines like IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?. The present study was to analyze the influence of cryopreservation in IL-1? release, a marker for inflammatory response from human lymphocytes, in response to exogenous pyrogenic stimulants. Lymphocytes isolated from pooled blood of multiple healthy individuals were cryopreserved in DMSO and glycerol for periods of 7, 14, 30, and 60 days and were challenged with LPS and LTA in vitro. The inflammatory cytokine, IL-1? release, was measured by ELISA method. It was observed that the release of IL-1? increases instantaneously after the initiation of incubation and reaches a maximum at 3 to 5 hours and then gradually decreases and gets stabilized for both pyrogens. Moreover it was also observed that the effect of cryoprotectants, DMSO (10%) and glycerol (10%), showed almost similar results for short-term storage, but DMSO-preserved lymphocytes yielded a better viability for long-term storage. Thus, the isolated cryopreserved lymphocytes system can be a promising approach for the total replacement/alteration to animal experimentation for pyrogenicity evaluation.

Nair, Sreelekshmi R.; Geetha, C. S.; Mohanan, P. V.

2013-01-01

202

Sputum colour and bacteria in chronic bronchitis exacerbations: a pooled analysis.  

PubMed

We examined the correlation between sputum colour and the presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECBs). Data were pooled from six multicentre studies comparing moxifloxacin with other antimicrobials in patients with an AECB. Sputum was collected before antimicrobial therapy, and bacteria were identified by culture and Gram staining. Association between sputum colour and bacteria was determined using logistic regression. Of 4,089 sputum samples, a colour was reported in 4,003; 1,898 (46.4%) were culture-positive. Green or yellow sputum samples were most likely to yield bacteria (58.9% and 45.5% of samples, respectively), compared with 18% of clear and 39% of rust-coloured samples positive for potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Factors predicting a positive culture were sputum colour (the strongest predictor), sputum purulence, increased dyspnoea, male sex and absence of fever. Green or yellow versus white sputum colour was associated with a sensitivity of 94.7% and a specificity of 15% for the presence of bacteria. Sputum colour, particularly green and yellow, was a stronger predictor of potentially pathogenic bacteria than sputum purulence and increased dyspnoea in AECB patients. However, it does not necessarily predict the need for antibiotic treatment in all patients with AECB. PMID:22034649

Miravitlles, Marc; Kruesmann, Frank; Haverstock, Daniel; Perroncel, Renee; Choudhri, Shurjeel H; Arvis, Pierre

2011-10-27

203

Lung cancer and DNA repair genes: multilevel association analysis from the International Lung Cancer Consortium  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide and tobacco smoking is the major associated risk factor. DNA repair is an important process, maintaining genome integrity and polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may contribute to susceptibility to LC. To explore the role of DNA repair genes in LC, we conducted a multilevel association study with 1655 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 211 DNA repair genes using 6911 individuals pooled from four genome-wide case–control studies. Single SNP association corroborates previous reports of association with rs3131379, located on the gene MSH5 (P = 3.57 × 10-5) and returns a similar risk estimate. The effect of this SNP is modulated by histological subtype. On the log-additive scale, the odds ratio per allele is 1.04 (0.84–1.30) for adenocarcinomas, 1.52 (1.28–1.80) for squamous cell carcinomas and 1.31 (1.09–1.57) for other histologies (heterogeneity test: P = 9.1 × 10?3). Gene-based association analysis identifies three repair genes associated with LC (P < 0.01): UBE2N, structural maintenance of chromosomes 1L2 and POLB. Two additional genes (RAD52 and POLN) are borderline significant. Pathway-based association analysis identifies five repair pathways associated with LC (P < 0.01): chromatin structure, DNA polymerases, homologous recombination, genes involved in human diseases with sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents and Rad6 pathway and ubiquitination. This first international pooled analysis of a large dataset unravels the role of specific DNA repair pathways in LC and highlights the importance of accounting for gene and pathway effects when studying LC.

Kazma, Remi; Babron, Marie-Claude; Gaborieau, Valerie; Genin, Emmanuelle; Brennan, Paul; Hung, Rayjean J.; McLaughlin, John R.; Krokan, Hans E.; Elvestad, Maiken B.; Skorpen, Frank; Anderssen, Endre; Vooder, Tonu; Valk, Kristjan; Metspalu, Andres; Field, John K.; Lathrop, Mark; Sarasin, Alain; Benhamou, Simone

2012-01-01

204

Lung cancer and DNA repair genes: multilevel association analysis from the International Lung Cancer Consortium.  

PubMed

Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide and tobacco smoking is the major associated risk factor. DNA repair is an important process, maintaining genome integrity and polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may contribute to susceptibility to LC. To explore the role of DNA repair genes in LC, we conducted a multilevel association study with 1655 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 211 DNA repair genes using 6911 individuals pooled from four genome-wide case-control studies. Single SNP association corroborates previous reports of association with rs3131379, located on the gene MSH5 (P = 3.57 × 10-5) and returns a similar risk estimate. The effect of this SNP is modulated by histological subtype. On the log-additive scale, the odds ratio per allele is 1.04 (0.84-1.30) for adenocarcinomas, 1.52 (1.28-1.80) for squamous cell carcinomas and 1.31 (1.09-1.57) for other histologies (heterogeneity test: P = 9.1 × 10(-)(3)). Gene-based association analysis identifies three repair genes associated with LC (P < 0.01): UBE2N, structural maintenance of chromosomes 1L2 and POLB. Two additional genes (RAD52 and POLN) are borderline significant. Pathway-based association analysis identifies five repair pathways associated with LC (P < 0.01): chromatin structure, DNA polymerases, homologous recombination, genes involved in human diseases with sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents and Rad6 pathway and ubiquitination. This first international pooled analysis of a large dataset unravels the role of specific DNA repair pathways in LC and highlights the importance of accounting for gene and pathway effects when studying LC. PMID:22382497

Kazma, Rémi; Babron, Marie-Claude; Gaborieau, Valérie; Génin, Emmanuelle; Brennan, Paul; Hung, Rayjean J; McLaughlin, John R; Krokan, Hans E; Elvestad, Maiken B; Skorpen, Frank; Anderssen, Endre; Vooder, Tõnu; Välk, Kristjan; Metspalu, Andres; Field, John K; Lathrop, Mark; Sarasin, Alain; Benhamou, Simone

2012-03-01

205

GSTT1 null genotype contributes to increased risk of gastric cancer in Chinese population: evidence from a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Previous studies suggested glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) null genotype might be a candidate genetic polymorphism with a role in the susceptibility to gastric cancer, but studies form Chinese population reported controversial findings. Thus, a meta-analysis was performed to clarify the effect of GSTT1 null genotype on gastric cancer risk in Chinese population. Eligible studies were searched in Medline, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed using the I (2) statistic. Odds ratios (OR) with the corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) were pooled to assess the association. Twenty case-control studies involving a total of 3,204 gastric cancer cases and 5,462 controls were finally included in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of all 20 studies showed that GSTT1 null genotype was associated with an elevated risk of gastric cancer in Chinese population (OR=1.26, 95 % CI 1.09-1.46, P OR=0.002). The cumulative meta-analysis showed a trend of a more obvious association between GSTT1 null genotype and risk of gastric cancer in Chinese population as information accumulated gradually. Sensitivity analysis by omitting individual study, in turns, did not materially alter the pooled ORs. This meta-analysis provides a strong evidence for the significant association between GSTT1 null genotype and gastric cancer risk in Chinese population, and GSTT1 null genotype contributes to increased risk of gastric cancer. PMID:23512328

Zhao, Yan; Luo, Yahong; Huang, Bo; Qin, Baoli; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Jianjun; Gu, Xiaohu; Zheng, Guoliang; Zheng, Zhichao

2013-03-20

206

Toward a Comprehensive Genomic Analysis of Cancer  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) convened a "Toward a Comprehensive Genomic Analysis of Cancer" workshop in Washington, D.C. This workshop brought together physicians, basic scientists and other members of the U.S. and international cancer communities to assist in outlining the most effective strategies for the development of a successful project. Information about this workshop is reported in the Executive Summary.

207

A new method for Fourier analysis in ECG-gated cardiac blood pool emission computed tomography (ECT)  

SciTech Connect

An integrated technique for Fourier analysis in multigated blood pool ECT study has been developed. Following the administration of 15-20 mCi of Tc-99m RBC, ECG-gated cardiac blood pool data were acquired using an ECT system with dual opposed gamma cameras. Fundamental studies for data acquisition showed that acquisition time of 10 sec. for each projection, 14 divisions of one cardiac cycle and angular interval of 6/sup 0/ (60 projections over 360/sup 0/) were reasonable for clinical purpose. Total acquisition time was about 5 minutes under these conditions. Data were processed as follows: 1) Transaxial (TA) tomographic images in every phase of cardiac cycle were reconstructed by convolution algorithm; 2) TA images were rotated to construct sagittal (SAG) and short axial (S-A) oblique-angle tomography which are respectively parallel and perpendicular to the long axis of either of the ventricles; 3) Images covering the portion other than the purposed ventricle were eliminated from the series of SAG images in every phase of the cycle; 4) Images in the same phase were summed to construct a series of SAG and S-A planar images; and 5) Fourier analysis was made to construct phase and amplitude images. The advantages of this method are that the phase and amplitude images from arbitrary directions can be obtained, that the region of interest can be selected on a three dimensional basis, eliminating the overlapping activity of the other ventricle or neighbouring tissues, that the diseased areas can be easily and accurately localized even in small inferior wall myocardial infarction and that patient study can be finished within 5 minutes.

Ito, T.; Maeda, H.; Takeda, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Yamaguchi, N.; Konishi, T.; Ichikawa, T.

1984-01-01

208

Socioeconomic differences in lung cancer incidence: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To investigate the associations between various socioeconomic indicators and lung cancer incidence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We searched PubMed and EMBASE databases for studies on socioeconomic position (SEP) and lung cancer incidence published through\\u000a October 2007. Random-effect model was used to pool the risk estimates from the individual studies. We stratified the analysis\\u000a by adjustment strategy to investigate the influence of smoking on socioeconomic

Anna Sidorchuk; Emilie E. Agardh; Olatunde Aremu; Johan Hallqvist; Peter Allebeck; Tahereh Moradi

2009-01-01

209

Patient-level pooled analysis of adjudicated gastrointestinal outcomes in celecoxib clinical trials: meta-analysis of 51,000 patients enrolled in 52 randomized trials  

PubMed Central

Introduction Although the safety of celecoxib has been investigated, limited data are available on complications affecting the entire (upper and lower) gastrointestinal (GI) tract, with no patient-level pooled analyses of upper and lower GI outcomes available. We therefore evaluated the upper and lower GI safety of celecoxib by using patient-level data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methods This patient-level pooled analysis included 52 prospective, randomized, double-blind parallel-group studies from the Celecoxib Clinical Database. Each study had a planned duration of continuous treatment with celecoxib or a nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (nsNSAID), rofecoxib, or the placebo comparator arm for at least 4 weeks. All studies with final reports completed by 1 October 2007 were included. The primary end point was the combined incidence of clinically significant upper and lower GI events (CSULGIEs). An independent blinded committee reviewed and adjudicated all end points by using predefined criteria and all available reported adverse events, laboratory data, and case narratives. All doses of celecoxib and all doses of all nsNSAIDs were pooled for analysis. Results The pooled analysis involved 51,048 patients; 28,614 were randomized to celecoxib; 15,278 to nsNSAIDs (including 3,248 patients taking naproxen, 2,640 taking ibuprofen, 8,066 taking diclofenac, 1,234 taking loxoprofen, and 90 taking ketoprofen); 5,827 to placebo and 1,329 to rofecoxib. The mean age was 60 years, and 65% were women. Data on 1,042 patients with potential GI events were reviewed for end-points adjudication; the adjudication committee confirmed 89 patients with CSULGIEs. The majority were in the celecoxib and nsNSAID groups (with raw incidence proportions of 37 (0.1%) and 40 (0.3%), respectively). The incidence rates were 0.3, 0.9 and 0.3 per 100 patient-years in the celecoxib, nsNSAID, and placebo groups, respectively. The time to incidence of CSULGIEs was significantly longer with celecoxib than with nsNSAIDs (P = 0.0004). Conclusions When compared with nsNSAIDs, celecoxib is associated with a significantly lower risk of all clinically significant GI events throughout the entire GI tract. This pooled analysis of 52 RCTs significantly advances the understanding of the upper and lower GI safety profile of celecoxib and its potential benefits to patients.

2013-01-01

210

NaK pool-boiler bench-scale receiver durability test: Test results and materials analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pool-boiler reflux receivers have been considered as an alternative to heat pipes for the input of concentrated solar energy to Stirling-cycle engines in dish-Stirling electric generation systems. Pool boilers offer simplicity in design and fabrication. The operation of a full-scale pool-boiler receiver has been demonstrated for short periods of time. However, to generate cost-effective electricity, the receiver must operate Without

C. E. Andraka; S. H. Goods; R. W. Bradshaw; J. B. Moreno; T. A. Moss; S. A. Jones

1994-01-01

211

Myeloperoxidase polymorphism, menopausal status, and breast cancer risk: an update meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a metabolic/oxidative lysosomal enzyme secreted by reactive neutrophils at the sites of inflamed organs and tissues during phagocytosis. MPO has been either directly or indirectly linked to neoplasia, which is a well-established risk factor for many types of cancer. A large number of studies have reported the role of MPO G-463A polymorphism regarding breast-cancer risk. However, the published findings are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to determine more precise estimations for the relationship. Eligible studies were identified by searching several electronic databases for relevant reports published before June 2012. According to the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria, a total of five eligible studies were included in the pooled analyses. When the five eligible studies concerning MPO G-463A polymorphism were pooled into this meta-analysis, there was no evidence found for a significant association between MPO G-463A polymorphism and breast-cancer risk in any genetic model. We also categorized by ethnicity (Caucasian or Asian) for subgroup analysis; according to this subgroup analysis, we found no significant association between MPO G-463A polymorphism and breast-cancer risk in any genetic model. However, in the stratified analysis for the premenopausal group, women carrying the AA genotype were found to have a significantly reduced risk (OR?=?0.56, 95% CI 0.34-0.94, p?=?0.027). Under the recessive model, there was a significant association between MPO G-463A polymorphism and breast-cancer risk (OR?=?0.57, 95% CI 0.34-0.93, p?=?0.025). We conclude that MPO-G463A polymorphism might not be a good predictor of breast-cancer risk, though menopausal status modified women's risk of developing breast cancer. PMID:23991124

Qin, Xue; Deng, Yan; Zeng, Zhi-Yu; Peng, Qi-Liu; Huang, Xiu-Li; Mo, Cui-Ju; Li, Shan; Zhao, Jin-Min

2013-08-21

212

Myeloperoxidase Polymorphism, Menopausal Status, and Breast Cancer Risk: An Update Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a metabolic/oxidative lysosomal enzyme secreted by reactive neutrophils at the sites of inflamed organs and tissues during phagocytosis. MPO has been either directly or indirectly linked to neoplasia, which is a well-established risk factor for many types of cancer. A large number of studies have reported the role of MPO G-463A polymorphism regarding breast-cancer risk. However, the published findings are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to determine more precise estimations for the relationship. Eligible studies were identified by searching several electronic databases for relevant reports published before June 2012. According to the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria, a total of five eligible studies were included in the pooled analyses. When the five eligible studies concerning MPO G-463A polymorphism were pooled into this meta-analysis, there was no evidence found for a significant association between MPO G-463A polymorphism and breast-cancer risk in any genetic model. We also categorized by ethnicity (Caucasian or Asian) for subgroup analysis; according to this subgroup analysis, we found no significant association between MPO G-463A polymorphism and breast-cancer risk in any genetic model. However, in the stratified analysis for the premenopausal group, women carrying the AA genotype were found to have a significantly reduced risk (OR?=?0.56, 95% CI 0.34–0.94, p?=?0.027). Under the recessive model, there was a significant association between MPO G-463A polymorphism and breast-cancer risk (OR?=?0.57, 95% CI 0.34–0.93, p?=?0.025). We conclude that MPO-G463A polymorphism might not be a good predictor of breast-cancer risk, though menopausal status modified women’s risk of developing breast cancer.

Peng, Qi-Liu; Huang, Xiu-Li; Mo, Cui-Ju; Li, Shan; Zhao, Jin-Min

2013-01-01

213

Association between TCF7L2 Gene Polymorphism and Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective The transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene has been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of cancer. However, the results have been inconsistent. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to clarify the associations between TCF7L2 polymorphism and cancer risk. Methods Published literature from PubMed and EMBASE were retrieved. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CIs) were calculated using fixed- or random-effects model. Results A total of 19 studies (14,814 cases and 33,856 controls) were identified for the analysis of the association between TCF7L2 polymorphism and cancer risk. The results showed that TCF7L2 polymorphism was associated with breast cancer (Homogeneous model: OR?=?1.17, 95%CI?=?1.02–1.35, I2?=?21.8%, p for heterogeneity?=?0.276; Heterogeneous model: OR?=?1.11, 95%CI?=?1.03–1.20, I2?=?0.0%, p for heterogeneity?=?0.543), prostate cancer (Homogeneous model: OR?=?0.89, 95%CI?=?0.84–0.96, I2?=?0.0%, p for heterogeneity?=?0.640; Heterogeneous model: OR?=?0.89, 95%CI?=?0.84–0.95, I2?=?0.0%, p for heterogeneity?=?0.871), and colon cancer (Heterogeneous model: OR?=?1.15, 95%CI?=?1.01–1.31, I2?=?0.0%, p for heterogeneity?=?0.658), but not with colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and ovarian cancer. Conclusions The present meta-analysis indicated that there were significantly associations between the TCF7L2 rs7903146 polymorphism and risk of breast, prostate and colon cancers, rather than colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and ovarian cancer.

Chen, Jingxiang; Yuan, Tao; Liu, Menggang; Chen, Ping

2013-01-01

214

Equilibrium-Analysis of Projected Climate Change Effects on the Global Soil Organic Matter Pool.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Increased rates of soil organic matter decomposition may represent a significant positive feedback to global warming. As a step towards assessing the potential magnitude of this response, an equilibrium analysis was performed in which representative carbo...

D. P. Turner R. Leemans

1992-01-01

215

Therapeutic Response to Vasoconstrictors in Hepatorenal Syndrome Parallels Increase in Mean Arterial Pressure: A Pooled Analysis of Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Background Vasoconstrictor therapy has been advocated as treatment for hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). Our aim was to explore whether across all tested vasoconstrictors, achievement of a substantial rise in arterial blood pressure is associated with recovery of kidney function in HRS. Study Design Pooled analysis of published studies identified by electronic database search. Setting & Population Data pooled across 501 subjects from 21 studies. Selection Criteria for Studies Human studies evaluating the efficacy of a vasoconstrictor administered for ? 72 hours in adults with HRS Type 1 or 2. Intervention Vasoconstrictor therapy. Outcomes & Measurements Cohorts’ mean arterial pressure (MAP), serum creatinine, urinary output and plasma renin activity (PRA) at baseline and at subsequent time points during treatment. Linear regression models were constructed to estimate the mean daily change in MAP, serum creatinine, urinary output and PRA for each study subgroup. Correlations were used to assess for association between variables. Results An increase in MAP is strongly associated with a decline in serum creatinine but not associated with an increase in urinary output. The associations were stronger when analyses were restricted to randomized clinical trials and were not limited to cohorts with either lower baseline MAP or lower baseline serum creatinine. The majority of the studies tested terlipressin as vasoconstrictor, whereas fewer studies tested ornipressin, midodrine, octreotide or norepinephrine. Excluding cohorts of subjects treated with terlipressin or ornipressin did not eliminate the association. Furthermore, a fall in PRA correlated with improvement in kidney function. Limitations Studies were not originally designed to test our question. We lacked access to individual patient data. Conclusions A rise in MAP during vasoconstrictor therapy in HRS is associated with improvement in kidney function, across the spectrum of drugs tested to date. These results support consideration for a goal-directed approach to the treatment of HRS.

Velez, Juan Carlos Q.; Nietert, Paul J.

2011-01-01

216

Work stress and risk of cancer: meta-analysis of 5700 incident cancer events in 116 000 European men and women  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether work related stress, measured and defined as job strain, is associated with the overall risk of cancer and the risk of colorectal, lung, breast, or prostate cancers. Design Meta-analysis of pooled prospective individual participant data from 12 European cohort studies including 116?056 men and women aged 17-70 who were free from cancer at study baseline and were followed-up for a median of 12 years. Work stress was measured and defined as job strain, which was self reported at baseline. Incident cancers (all n=5765, colorectal cancer n=522, lung cancer n=374, breast cancer n=1010, prostate cancer n=865) were ascertained from cancer, hospital admission, and death registers. Data were analysed in each study with Cox regression and the study specific estimates pooled in meta-analyses. Models were adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic position, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and alcohol intake Results A harmonised measure of work stress, high job strain, was not associated with overall risk of cancer (hazard ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.90 to 1.04) in the multivariable adjusted analyses. Similarly, no association was observed between job strain and the risk of colorectal (1.16, 0.90 to 1.48), lung (1.17, 0.88 to 1.54), breast (0.97, 0.82 to 1.14), or prostate (0.86, 0.68 to 1.09) cancers. There was no clear evidence for an association between the categories of job strain and the risk of cancer. Conclusions These findings suggest that work related stress, measured and defined as job strain, at baseline is unlikely to be an important risk factor for colorectal, lung, breast, or prostate cancers.

2013-01-01

217

Comparative evaluation of blood plasma and tumor tissue amino acid pool in radiation or neoadjuvant preoperative therapies of breast cancer with the antitumor drug Ukrain.  

PubMed

This study comparatively evaluated free amino acid pool formation in patients with T1-3N0-2M0 breast cancer treated with the drug Ukrain (25 patients, i.v. 100 mg/course) in combination with preoperative radiation or neoadjuvant therapies (25 subjects, total dose 20 Gy). All the patients underwent radical mastectomy. Preoperative radiation did not essentially change the range of the blood plasma parameters studied. However, we observed decreased concentrations of blood plasma ornithine and citrulline and a reduced content of aminobutyric acid, as compared with levels on admission, which may indicate an acceleration of detoxication processes in the liver. In comparison with healthy mammary gland tissue, the tumor tissue of the patients subjected to radiation therapy showed 1.5- to twofold increased concentrations of cysteate, taurine, aspartate, glutamate, proline, glycine, alanine, valine, tyrosine and histidine, which substantiates the idea of tumor tissue being a trap for numerous energy and plastic substrates and indicates active transport of the above compounds into the tumor. The application of Ukrain had virtually no influence on concentrations of the majority of blood plasma amino acids and derivatives: the total concentration of the compounds studied as well as the essential and nonessential amino acid pools remained unchanged. As compared with healthy breast tissue, the considerably increased levels of thiol-containing amino acids, such as methionine, cystine, cysteate and taurine, in the tumor tissue of patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy with Ukrain, indicates high activity of trans-sulfuration processes in this tissue. Simultaneously, in contrast to radiation therapy, Ukrain induced a marked dose-dependent increase in the concentration of proline in breast tumor tissue. The above changes were consistent with the results of the morphological study which confirmed the emergence of numerous foci of necrosis in the tumor and indicated activation of Ukrain-induced proteolytic and degradation processes in the tumor. The results obtained have led us to conclude that a mechanism of Ukrain's cancerostatic effect is to control the transport and reactions of intermediate amino acid metabolism as well as to activate proline biosynthesis in the tumor, causing enhanced development of connective tissue. It is suggested that an important practical conclusion from the present study is the lack of damaging effect of preoperative radiation therapy in the above regimen and the favorable (normalizing) action of Ukrain, at a course dose of 100 mg, on the amino acid pool formation in the organism of patients with breast cancer. PMID:11345030

Nefyodov, L I; Uglyanitsa, K N; Smirnov, V Y; Karavay, A V; Brzosko, W

2000-01-01

218

Stakeholder analysis and social-biophysical interdependencies for common pool resource management: La Brava Wetland (Argentina) as a case study.  

PubMed

This article gives an account of the implementation of a stakeholder analysis framework at La Brava Wetland Basin, Argentina, in a common-pool resource (CPR) management context. Firstly, the context in which the stakeholder framework was implemented is described. Secondly, a four-step methodology is applied: (1) stakeholder identification, (2) stakeholder differentiation-categorization, (3) investigation of stakeholders' relationships, and (4) analysis of social-biophysical interdependencies. This methodology classifies stakeholders according to their level of influence on the system and their potential in the conservation of natural resources. The main influential stakeholders are La Brava Village residents and tourism-related entrepreneurs who are empowered to make the more important decisions within the planning process of the ecosystem. While these key players are seen as facilitators of change, there are other groups (residents of the inner basin and fishermen) which are seen mainly as key blockers. The applied methodology for the Stakeholder Analysis and the evaluation of social-biophysical interdependencies carried out in this article can be seen as an encouraging example for other experts in natural sciences to learn and use these methods developed in social sciences. Major difficulties and some recommendations of applying this method in the practice by non-experts are discussed. PMID:21667179

Romanelli, Asunción; Massone, Héctor E; Escalante, Alicia H

2011-06-11

219

Evaluation of the prognostic role of centromere 17 gain and HER2/topoisomerase II alpha gene status and protein expression in patients with breast cancer treated with anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy: pooled analysis of two Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG) phase III trials  

PubMed Central

Background The HER2 gene has been established as a valid biological marker for the treatment of breast cancer patients with trastuzumab and probably other agents, such as paclitaxel and anthracyclines. The TOP2A gene has been associated with response to anthracyclines. Limited information exists on the relationship of HER2/TOP2A gene status in the presence of centromere 17 (CEP17) gain with outcome of patients treated with anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples from 1031 patients with high-risk operable breast cancer, enrolled in two consecutive phase III trials, were assessed in a central laboratory by fluorescence in situ hybridization for HER2/TOP2A gene amplification and CEP17 gain (CEP17 probe). Amplification of HER2 and TOP2A were defined as a gene/CEP17 ratio of >2.2 and ?2.0, respectively, or gene copy number higher than 6. Additionally, HER2, TopoIIa, ER/PgR and Ki67 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and patients were classified according to their IHC phenotype. Treatment consisted of epirubicin-based adjuvant chemotherapy followed by hormonal therapy and radiation, as indicated. Results HER2 amplification was found in 23.7% of the patients and TOP2A amplification in 10.1%. In total, 41.8% of HER2-amplified tumors demonstrated TOP2A co-amplification. The median (range) of HER2, TOP2A and CEP17 gain was 2.55 (0.70-45.15), 2.20 (0.70-26.15) and 2.00 (0.70-26.55), respectively. Forty percent of the tumors had CEP17 gain (51% of those with HER2 amplification). Adjusting for treatment groups in the Cox model, HER2 amplification, TOP2A amplification, CEP17 gain and HER2/TOP2A co-amplification were not associated with time to relapse or time to death. Conclusion HER2 amplification, TOP2A amplification, CEP17 gain and HER2/TOP2A co-amplification were not associated with outcome in high-risk breast cancer patients treated with anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) ACTRN12611000506998 and ACTRN12609001036202

2013-01-01

220

SNP genotyping on pooled DNAs: comparison of genotyping technologies and a semi automated method for data storage and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have compared the accuracy, efficiency and robustness of three methods of genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms on pooled DNAs. We conclude that (i) the frequencies of the two alleles in pools should be corrected with a factor for unequal allelic amplification, which should be estimated from the mean ratio of a set of heterozygotes (k); (ii) the repeatability of an

Stephanie Le Hellard; Stephane J. Ballereau; Peter M. Visscher; Helen S. Torrance; Jeni Pinson; Stewart W. Morris; Marian L. Thomson; Colin A. M. Semple; Walter J. Muir; Douglas H. R. Blackwood; David J. Porteous; Kathryn L. Evans

2002-01-01

221

SPOOL-FIRE: an IBM 370\\/195 code for the analysis of combined spray and pool burning of sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A code for the computation of the pressure and temperatures within a containment building as a result of a sodium fire is described. The fire is assumed to occur in two distinct phases: a spray and a pool. The spray fire is conservatively assumed to occur instantaneously. The pool fire model used is the SOFIRE-II model developed by Atomics International.

I. Charak; L. W. Person

1976-01-01

222

Summary and meta-analysis of prospective studies of animal fat intake and breast cancer.  

PubMed

The objective of the present review was to examine the potential association between animal fat intake and breast cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis and review of epidemiological cohort studies, including data reported in the Pooling Project publication of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer. Random- and fixed-effects models were utilised to generate summary relative risk estimates (SRRE), and sensitivity and influence analyses were conducted. In the meta-analysis that included data reported in the Pooling Project publication of prospective cohorts (n 8) and subsequent publications of cohort studies (n 3), no significant association was observed comparing the highest category of animal fat intake with the lowest (SRRE 1.03; 95 % CI: 0.76, 1.40). Similarly, no significant association between a 5 % increment of energy from animal fat intake and breast cancer (SRRE 1.02; 95 % CI 0.97, 1.07) was observed in the meta-analysis of these studies. In conclusion, the results of the present quantitative assessment are not supportive of a positive independent association between consumption of animal fat and breast cancer, although findings may be sensitive to the type of dietary instrument used in cohort studies. PMID:20181297

Alexander, Dominik D; Morimoto, Libby M; Mink, Pamela J; Lowe, Kimberly A

2010-02-25

223

Analysis of HLA-DP association with beryllium disease susceptibility in pooled exposed populations  

SciTech Connect

Berylliosis or Chronic Beryllium Disease is a chronic granulomatous disorder primarily involving the lung associated with the exposition to low doses of Beryllium (Be) in the workplace. Berylliosis risk has been associated with the presence of a glutamate at position 69 of the HLA-DP beta chain (HLA-DPbetaGlu69) that is expressed in about 97% of disease cases and in 27% of the unaffected Be-exposed controls (p<0.0001) (Richeldi et al. Science 1993; 262: 242-244.12). Since this first observation of an immunogenetic association between berylliosis and HLA-DPbetaGlu69 a number of studies have confirmed the role of this marker as the primary gene of susceptibility of berylliosis (Richeldi et al Am J Ind Med. 1997; 32:337-40; Wang et al J. Immunol. 1999; 163: 1647-53; Saltini et al Eur Respir J. 2001 18:677-84; Rossman et al Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 165:788-94). Moreover, a structure/function interaction between HLA-DP molecules carrying Glu69 and beryllium in driving and developing the immune response against beryllium itself has been observed as: (1) Be-specific T-cells clones obtained from berylliosis patients recognize beryllium as antigen only when presented in the context of the HLA-DP{beta}Glu69 molecules but not in the context of HLA-DP allelic variants carrying Lys69 (Lombardi G et al. J Immunol 2001; 166: 3549-3555), and (2) beryllium presents an affinity for the HLA-DP2, carrying the berylliosis marker of susceptibility HLA-DPGlu69, from 40 to 100 times higher that the HLA-DP molecule carrying Lys69 (Amicosante M. et al Hum. Immunol. 2001; 62: 686-93). However, although the immunogenetic studies performed have been addressed a number of different questions about the genetic association between berylliosis and/or beryllium sensitization, exposure levels to beryllium and HLA markers, a number of questions are still open in the field mainly due to the limitation imposed by the low number of subjects carrying berylliosis or beryllium sensitization enrolled in each immunogenetic study. In this context, the populations of the study already performed in this field by the University of Modena and Rome (by Prof. C. Saltini) and the University of Pennsylvania (by Prof. M. Rossman) have been evaluated by using similar HLA molecular typing methodologies and that both populations have now been followed up for a period of 4 to 7 years. The general objective of this study has to generate a larger data base comprising the two population with which analyze gene disease association with greater statistical power and ascertain the effect of lesser common gener variants which may be missed when analyzing associations on small populations. In particular addressing the role suggested in previous study such as: (1) the role of HLA-DP rare alleles and polymorphisms, and (2) the role of the HLA markers in disease progression from sensitization. The two populations from the already published studies (Saltini et al Eur Respir J. 2001 18:677-84; Rossman et al Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 165:788-94) present similar aspects about: ethnicity, type and length of exposure to Be dust, a broadly similar association between beryllium related abnormalities and HLA. The two population have been pooled and evaluated using common criteria of diagnosis (Sensitized subject: at least 2 positive BeLPT tests each with 2 positive wells; CBD-affected subject: identification of well formed non-caseating granulomas on biopsy), follow up and HLA typing technique (complete HLA-DRB, DQB, DPB high resolution typing using amplification with sequence specific primers or sequence based typing). The two populations included 137 subjects with Beryllium hypersensitized (BH) and 155 Be-exposed controls. Inclusion criteria were met by one hundred and six subjects with Be-hypersensitivity of whom 55 were affected by CBD (age 52 {+-} 11 years; 50 caucasians, 2 African-Americans 2 Hispanics and 1 Asian; 46 males and 9 females; mean duration of Be-exposure 15 {+-} 9 years) and 51 showed Be-sensitization without lung granulomas detected by trans-bronchial biopsy (ag

Cesare Saltini, Massimo Amicosante

2009-12-19

224

Root and Shoot Respiration of Perennial Ryegrass Are Supplied by the Same Substrate Pools: Assessment by Dynamic 13C Labeling and Compartmental Analysis of Tracer Kinetics1[OA  

PubMed Central

The substrate supply system for respiration of the shoot and root of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) was characterized in terms of component pools and the pools' functional properties: size, half-life, and contribution to respiration of the root and shoot. These investigations were performed with perennial ryegrass growing in constant conditions with continuous light. Plants were labeled with 13CO2/12CO2 for periods ranging from 1 to 600 h, followed by measurements of the rates and 13C/12C ratios of CO2 respired by shoots and roots in the dark. Label appearance in roots was delayed by approximately 1 h relative to shoots; otherwise, the tracer time course was very similar in both organs. Compartmental analysis of respiratory tracer kinetics indicated that, in both organs, three pools supplied 95% of all respired carbon (a very slow pool whose kinetics could not be characterized provided the remaining 5%). The pools' half-lives and relative sizes were also nearly identical in shoot and root (half-life < 15 min, approximately 3 h, and 33 h). An important role of short-term storage in supplying respiration was apparent in both organs: only 43% of respiration was supplied by current photosynthate (fixed carbon transferred directly to centers of respiration via the two fastest pools). The residence time of carbon in the respiratory supply system was practically the same in shoot and root. From this and other evidence, we argue that both organs were supplied by the same pools and that the residence time was controlled by the shoot via current photosynthate and storage deposition/mobilization fluxes.

Lehmeier, Christoph Andreas; Lattanzi, Fernando Alfredo; Schaufele, Rudi; Wild, Melanie; Schnyder, Hans

2008-01-01

225

Imatinib Mesylate in Advanced Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans: Pooled Analysis of Two Phase II Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Purpose Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a dermal sarcoma typically carrying a translocation between chromosomes 17 and 22 that generates functional platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB). Patients and Methods Two distinct phase II trials of imatinib (400 to 800 mg daily) in patients with locally advanced or metastatic DFSP were conducted and closed prematurely, one in Europe (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer [EORTC]) with 14-week progression-free rate as the primary end point and the other in North America (Southwest Oncology Group [SWOG]) with confirmed objective response rate as the primary end point. In the EORTC trial, confirmation of PDGFB rearrangement was required, and surgery was undertaken after 14 weeks if feasible. The SWOG study confirmed t(17;22) after enrollment. Results Sixteen and eight patients were enrolled onto the EORTC and SWOG trials, respectively. Tumor size ranged from 1.2 to 49 cm. DFSP was located on head/neck, trunk, and limb in seven, 11, and six patients, respectively, and was classic, pigmented, and fibrosarcomatous DFSP in 13, one, and nine patients, respectively. Metastases were present in seven patients (lung involvement was present six patients). Eleven patients (4%) had partial response as best response, and four patients had progressive disease as best response. Median time to progression (TTP) was 1.7 years. Imatinib was stopped in 11 patients because of progression, one patient because of toxicity, and two patients after complete resection of disease. Median overall survival (OS) time has not been reached; 1-year OS rate was 87.5%. Conclusion Imatinib is active in DFSP harboring t(17;22) including fibrosarcomatous DFSP, with objective response rate approaching 50%. Response rates and TTP did not differ between patients taking 400 mg daily versus 400 mg twice a day.

Rutkowski, Piotr; Van Glabbeke, Martine; Rankin, Cathryn J.; Ruka, Wlodzimierz; Rubin, Brian P.; Debiec-Rychter, Maria; Lazar, Alexander; Gelderblom, Hans; Sciot, Raf; Lopez-Terrada, Dolores; Hohenberger, Peter; van Oosterom, Allan T.; Schuetze, Scott M.

2010-01-01

226

The therapy of amblyopia: an analysis comparing the results of amblyopia therapy utilizing two pooled data sets.  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT: We previously presented the results of an original pooled data set of 961 amblyopic patients who underwent patching therapy for amblyopia from 1965 to 1994 (study group 1). Three types of amblyopia were considered: anisometropic, anisometropic-strabismic, and strabismic. Analysis of this group's success was related to the age at which therapy was initiated, the type of amblyopia, and the depth of visual loss before treatment was begun. The purpose of the current study is to test the validity of these findings on a second group of 961 amblyopes employing the data set used by Woodruff and associates in their publications (study group 2). These 2 data sets, after adjustment to conform to the definitions of age, amblyopia, anisometropia, and similar items utilized in common between the 2 study groups, will be compared for the risk factors predictive of successful occlusion therapy. OUTCOME: As in the previous study, the success of occlusion therapy is defined as a visual acuity of 20/40 or better at the end of treatment. RESULTS: Success by the 20/40 criteria was achieved in 73.7% in study group 1 and in 59.9% in study group 2. By category, the rate of success in study group 1 was 77.2% in strabismic amblyopia, 67.2% in anisometropic-strabismic amblyopia, and 66.0% in anisometropic amblyopia. In study group 2, success was 61.2% in strabismic amblyopia, 51.2% in anisometropic-strabismic amblyopia, and 63.0% in anisometropic amblyopia. Study group 1 univariate analysis related success in each group to the age at which therapy was initiated, the type of amblyopia, and the depth of visual loss before treatment in each group. In study group 2, univariate analysis related success of occlusion therapy to age and the depth of visual loss before treatment. Type of amblyopia was not related to outcome success in this group. When the 2 data sets were pooled, the risk factors for success were age and depth of visual loss at onset of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Factors that appeared closely related to a successful outcome of patching therapy were patient age and depth of visual loss before treatment. These conclusions further support the value of early detection and screening for amblyopia, its prevention, where possible, and its adequate and vigorous treatment when it is detected and diagnosed. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6

Flynn, J T; Woodruff, G; Thompson, J R; Hiscox, F; Feuer, W; Schiffman, J; Corona, A; Smith, L K

1999-01-01

227

Identification of novel causative genes determining the complex trait of high ethanol tolerance in yeast using pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis  

PubMed Central

High ethanol tolerance is an exquisite characteristic of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which enables this microorganism to dominate in natural and industrial fermentations. Up to now, ethanol tolerance has only been analyzed in laboratory yeast strains with moderate ethanol tolerance. The genetic basis of the much higher ethanol tolerance in natural and industrial yeast strains is unknown. We have applied pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis to map all quantitative trait loci (QTL) determining high ethanol tolerance. We crossed a highly ethanol-tolerant segregant of a Brazilian bioethanol production strain with a laboratory strain with moderate ethanol tolerance. Out of 5974 segregants, we pooled 136 segregants tolerant to at least 16% ethanol and 31 segregants tolerant to at least 17%. Scoring of SNPs using whole-genome sequence analysis of DNA from the two pools and parents revealed three major loci and additional minor loci. The latter were more pronounced or only present in the 17% pool compared to the 16% pool. In the locus with the strongest linkage, we identified three closely located genes affecting ethanol tolerance: MKT1, SWS2, and APJ1, with SWS2 being a negative allele located in between two positive alleles. SWS2 and APJ1 probably contained significant polymorphisms only outside the ORF, and lower expression of APJ1 may be linked to higher ethanol tolerance. This work has identified the first causative genes involved in high ethanol tolerance of yeast. It also reveals the strong potential of pooled-segregant sequence analysis using relatively small numbers of selected segregants for identifying QTL on a genome-wide scale.

Swinnen, Steve; Schaerlaekens, Kristien; Pais, Thiago; Claesen, Jurgen; Hubmann, Georg; Yang, Yudi; Demeke, Mekonnen; Foulquie-Moreno, Maria R.; Goovaerts, Annelies; Souvereyns, Kris; Clement, Lieven; Dumortier, Francoise; Thevelein, Johan M.

2012-01-01

228

Risk factors of breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The etiology of breast cancer might be explained by 2 mechanisms, namely, differentiation and proliferation of breast epithelial cells mediated by hormonal factors. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to update effects of risk factors for both mechanisms. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched up to January 2011. Studies that assessed association between oral contraceptives (OC), hormonal replacement therapy (HRT), diabetes mellitus (DM), or breastfeeding and breast cancer were eligible. Relative risks with their confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted. A random-effects method was applied for pooling the effect size. The pooled odds ratios of OC, HRT, and DM were 1.10 (95% CI = 1.03-1.18), 1.23 (95% CI = 1.21-1.25), and 1.14 (95% CI = 1.09-1.19), respectively, whereas the pooled odds ratio of ever-breastfeeding was 0.72 (95% CI = 0.58-0.89). Our study suggests that OC, HRT, and DM might increase risks, whereas breastfeeding might lower risks of breast cancer. PMID:23709491

Anothaisintawee, Thunyarat; Wiratkapun, Cholatip; Lerdsitthichai, Panuwat; Kasamesup, Vijj; Wongwaisayawan, Sansanee; Srinakarin, Jiraporn; Hirunpat, Siriporn; Woodtichartpreecha, Piyanoot; Boonlikit, Sarawan; Teerawattananon, Yot; Thakkinstian, Ammarin

2013-05-23

229

Premenopausal endogenous oestrogen levels and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Many of the established risk factors for breast cancer implicate circulating hormone levels in the aetiology of the disease. Increased levels of postmenopausal endogenous oestradiol (E2) have been found to increase the risk of breast cancer, but no such association has been confirmed in premenopausal women. We carried out a meta-analysis to summarise the available evidence in women before the menopause. Methods: We identified seven prospective studies of premenopausal endogenous E2 and breast cancer risk, including 693 breast cancer cases. From each study we extracted odds ratios of breast cancer between quantiles of endogenous E2, or for unit or s.d. increases in (log transformed) E2, or (where odds ratios were unavailable) summary statistics for the distributions of E2 in breast cancer cases and unaffected controls. Estimates for a doubling of endogenous E2 were obtained from these extracted estimates, and random-effect meta-analysis was used to obtain a pooled estimate across the studies. Results: Overall, we found weak evidence of a positive association between circulating E2 levels and the risk of breast cancer, with a doubling of E2 associated with an odds ratio of 1.10 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.27). Conclusion: Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis of a positive association between premenopausal endogenous E2 and breast cancer risk.

Walker, K; Bratton, D J; Frost, C

2011-01-01

230

A Decision Analysis for Treatment of Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the preferred treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer. DESIGN: Cancer grade, patient age,\\u000a and comorbidities are considered in a Markov model with Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses. Large and recent pooled analyses\\u000a and patient-derived utilities are included. RESULTS: Principal findings suggest benefit for radical prostatectomy relative\\u000a to watchful waiting for men under 70 years of age with low

Michael W. Kattan; Mark E. Cowen; Brian J. Miles

1997-01-01

231

Blood-pool multifunctional nanoparticles formed by temperature-induced phase transition for cancer-targeting therapy and molecular imaging.  

PubMed

Multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared based on temperature-induced phase transition in a molten mixture of Lipiodol(®), Tween 80, paclitaxel (PTX), and Pluronic F-68, wherein the Lipiodol(®)/Tween 80 mixture is used as a solubilizer for PTX, and Pluronic F-68 is used for the stabilization of the molten mixture. The morphology and size distribution of optimized multifunctional NPs were observed using transmittance electron microscopy (TEM) and a particle size analyzer. In the optical imaging of tumor-bearing mice using a near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging system, the multifunctional NPs were evaluated in terms of a time-dependent excretion profile, in vivo biodistribution and tumor-targeting capability compared to free fluorescence dye. In addition, the prolonged circulation of multifunctional NPs was confirmed by enhancement of the blood-pool in live animals using a micro-CT imaging system, because iodine-containing Lipiodol(®) has an X-ray enhancement property. Finally, the anti-tumor efficacy of multifunctional NPs was monitored by injecting the multifunctional NPs into the tail veins of tumor-bearing mice. The multifunctional NPs showed excellent tumor targetability and anti-tumor efficacy in tumor-bearing mice, caused by the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. PMID:22944301

Oh, Keun Sang; Lee, Sangmin; Na, Jin Hee; Kim, Jeong-Yeon; Kim, Dong-Eog; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Yuk, Soon Hong; Jeong, Seo Young

2012-08-24

232

Flux imbalance analysis and the sensitivity of cellular growth to changes in metabolite pools.  

PubMed

Stoichiometric models of metabolism, such as flux balance analysis (FBA), are classically applied to predicting steady state rates - or fluxes - of metabolic reactions in genome-scale metabolic networks. Here we revisit the central assumption of FBA, i.e. that intracellular metabolites are at steady state, and show that deviations from flux balance (i.e. flux imbalances) are informative of some features of in vivo metabolite concentrations. Mathematically, the sensitivity of FBA to these flux imbalances is captured by a native feature of linear optimization, the dual problem, and its corresponding variables, known as shadow prices. First, using recently published data on chemostat growth of Saccharomyces cerevisae under different nutrient limitations, we show that shadow prices anticorrelate with experimentally measured degrees of growth limitation of intracellular metabolites. We next hypothesize that metabolites which are limiting for growth (and thus have very negative shadow price) cannot vary dramatically in an uncontrolled way, and must respond rapidly to perturbations. Using a collection of published datasets monitoring the time-dependent metabolomic response of Escherichia coli to carbon and nitrogen perturbations, we test this hypothesis and find that metabolites with negative shadow price indeed show lower temporal variation following a perturbation than metabolites with zero shadow price. Finally, we illustrate the broader applicability of flux imbalance analysis to other constraint-based methods. In particular, we explore the biological significance of shadow prices in a constraint-based method for integrating gene expression data with a stoichiometric model. In this case, shadow prices point to metabolites that should rise or drop in concentration in order to increase consistency between flux predictions and gene expression data. In general, these results suggest that the sensitivity of metabolic optima to violations of the steady state constraints carries biologically significant information on the processes that control intracellular metabolites in the cell. PMID:24009492

Reznik, Ed; Mehta, Pankaj; Segrè, Daniel

2013-08-29

233

Transcriptome analysis of human gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate the genetic events associated with gastric cancer, 124,704 cDNA clones were collected from 37 human gastric cDNA libraries, including 20 full-length enriched cDNA libraries of gastric cancer cell lines and tissues from Korean patients. An analysis of the collected ESTs revealed that 97,930 high-quality ESTs coalesced into 13,001 clusters, of which 11,135 clusters (85.6%) were annotated to known

Jung-Hwa Oh; Jin Ok Yang; Yoonsoo Hahn; Mi-Rang Kim; Sang-Soon Byun; Yeo-Jin Jeon; Jeong-Min Kim; Kyu-Sang Song; Seung-Moo Noh; Sangsoo Kim; Hyang-Sook Yoo; Yong Sung Kim; Nam-Soon Kim

2005-01-01

234

Evidence of association of APOE with age-related macular degeneration - a pooled analysis of 15 studies  

PubMed Central

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of incurable visual impairment in high-income countries. Previous studies report inconsistent associations between AMD and apolipoprotein E (APOE), a lipid transport protein involved in low-density cholesterol modulation. Potential interaction between APOE and sex, and smoking status, has been reported. We present a pooled analysis (n=21,160) demonstrating associations between late AMD and APO?4 (OR=0.72 per haplotype; CI: 0.65–0.74; P=4.41×10?11) and APO?2 (OR=1.83 for homozygote carriers; CI: 1.04–3.23; P=0.04), following adjustment for age-group and sex within each study and smoking status. No evidence of interaction between APOE and sex or smoking was found. Ever smokers had significant increased risk relative to never smokers for both neovascular (OR=1.54; CI: 1.38–1.72; P=2.8×10?15) and atrophic (OR=1.38; CI: 1.18–1.61; P=3.37×10?5) AMD but not early AMD (OR=0.94; CI: 0.86–1.03; P=0.16), implicating smoking as a major contributing factor to disease progression from early signs to the visually disabling late forms. Extended haplotype analysis incorporating rs405509 did not identify additional risks beyond?2 and ?4 haplotypes. Our expanded analysis substantially improves our understanding of the association between the APOE locus and AMD. It further provides evidence supporting the role of cholesterol modulation, and low-density cholesterol specifically, in AMD disease etiology.

McKay, Gareth J.; Patterson, Chris C.; Chakravarthy, Usha; Dasari, Shilpa; Klaver, Caroline C.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Ho, Lintje; de Jong, Paulus T.V.M.; Fletcher, Astrid E.; Young, Ian S.; Seland, Johan H.; Rahu, Mati; Soubrane, Gisele; Tomazzoli, Laura; Topouzis, Fotis; Vioque, Jesus; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Sofat, Reecha; Dean, Michael; Sawitzke, Julie; Seddon, Johanna M.; Peter, Inga; Webster, Andrew R.; Moore, Anthony T.; Yates, John R.W.; Cipriani, Valentina; Fritsche, Lars G.; Weber, Bernhard H.F.; Keilhauer, Claudia N.; Lotery, Andrew J.; Ennis, Sarah; Klein, Michael L.; Francis, Peter J.; Stambolian, Dwight; Orlin, Anton; Gorin, Michael B.; Weeks, Daniel E.; Kuo, Chia-Ling; Swaroop, Anand; Othman, Mohammad; Kanda, Atsuhiro; Chen, Wei; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Wright, Alan F.; Hayward, Caroline; Baird, Paul N.; Guymer, Robyn H.; Attia, John; Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Silvestri, Giuliana

2011-01-01

235

Acute, subacute and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans: a pooled analysis of experimental studies.  

PubMed

Psilocybin and related hallucinogenic compounds are increasingly used in human research. However, due to limited information about potential subjective side effects, the controlled medical use of these compounds has remained controversial. We therefore analysed acute, short- and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans by pooling raw data from eight double-blind placebo-controlled experimental studies conducted between 1999 and 2008. The analysis included 110 healthy subjects who had received 1-4 oral doses of psilocybin (45-315 µg/kg body weight). Although psilocybin dose-dependently induced profound changes in mood, perception, thought and self-experience, most subjects described the experience as pleasurable, enriching and non-threatening. Acute adverse drug reactions, characterized by strong dysphoria and/or anxiety/panic, occurred only in the two highest dose conditions in a relatively small proportion of subjects. All acute adverse drug reactions were successfully managed by providing interpersonal support and did not need psychopharmacological intervention. Follow-up questionnaires indicated no subsequent drug abuse, persisting perception disorders, prolonged psychosis or other long-term impairment of functioning in any of our subjects. The results suggest that the administration of moderate doses of psilocybin to healthy, high-functioning and well-prepared subjects in the context of a carefully monitored research environment is associated with an acceptable level of risk. PMID:20855349

Studerus, Erich; Kometer, Michael; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

2010-09-20

236

Flow injection analysis system based on amperometric thin-film transducers for free chlorine detection in swimming pool waters.  

PubMed

This work reports on the performance of a user-friendly flow injection analysis (FIA) system for the monitoring of free chlorine. A methacrylate flow cell integrating a gold thin-film microelectrode, together with an on-chip gold counter electrode, both fabricated by microfabrication technology, provided robustness, low output impedance, rapid response and low cost to the proposed flow system. An external Ag/AgCl reference electrode placed downstream the chip completes the electrochemical cell. Amperometric detection of chlorine was carried out at a set potential of +350 mV, without oxygen interference. The proposed flow system responded linearly to chlorine concentrations in a range from 0.2 to 5 mgl(-1), with a sensitivity of 0.23 microAlmg(-1), the estimated limit of detection being 0.02 mgl(-1). In addition, the system response was kept stable for at least 10 days (+/-3sigma criterion), by keeping the flow system in an inert atmosphere when not in use. Fifteen samples of swimming pool waters were analyzed and no matrix effects were detected. Also, results were in good agreement with those obtained by a standard method. The excellent analytical performance of the system together with its good working stability would also enable its application for the detection of chlorine in other matrices such as tap water or chlorine stock solutions. PMID:19159791

Olivé-Monllau, Rosa; Orozco, Jahir; Fernández-Sánchez, César; Baeza, Mireia; Bartrolí, Jordi; Jimenez-Jorquera, Cecilia; Céspedes, Francisco

2008-10-18

237

The validity of patient- and clinician-rated measures of needs and the therapeutic relationship in psychosis: A pooled analysis.  

PubMed

Measuring outcomes of treatments for psychosis such as needs and the quality of the therapeutic relationship is important in research and routine care. However, evidence on the validity of existing outcome measures is limited. We aimed to test the convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of two widely used patient- and clinician-rated measures of needs and the therapeutic relationship. Multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) analysis was conducted on the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule (CANSAS) and the Helping Alliance Scale (HAS), both the clinician (CANSAS-C, HAS-C) and patient (CANSAS-P, HAS-P) versions, in a pooled sample of 605 psychotic patients and their clinicians. CANSAS-C and CANSAS-P items loaded substantially into one common unmet needs factor. By comparison, substantial factor loadings were found for HAS-C and HAS-P items on two separate clinician- and patient-rated therapeutic relationship factors. Common unmet needs and clinician-rated therapeutic relationship factors significantly predicted reduced psychiatric in-patient days. Our findings support the convergent validity of the CANSAS, discriminant validity of the HAS, and predictive validity of CANSAS and HAS-C. The findings may inform the use of CANSAS and HAS as psychosis outcome measures in research and routine care. PMID:23452753

Reininghaus, Ulrich; McCabe, Rosemarie; Slade, Mike; Burns, Tom; Croudace, Tim; Priebe, Stefan

2013-02-27

238

Job strain in relation to body mass index: pooled analysis of 160 000 adults from 13 cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Nyberg ST, Heikkilä K, Fransson EI, Alfredsson L, De Bacquer D, Bjorner JB, Bonenfant S, Borritz M, Burr H, Casini A, Clays E, Dragano N, Erbel R, Geuskens GA, Goldberg M, Hooftman WE, Houtman IL, Jöckel K-H, Kittel F, Knutsson A, Koskenvuo M, Leineweber C, Lunau T, Madsen IEH, Magnusson Hanson LL, Marmot MG, Nielsen ML, Nordin M, Oksanen T, Pentti J, Rugulies R, Siegrist J, Suominen S, Vahtera J, Virtanen M, Westerholm P, Westerlund H, Zins M, Ferrie JE, Theorell T, Steptoe A, Hamer M, Singh-Manoux A, Batty GD, Kivimäki M, for the IPD-Work Consortium (Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland; Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden; Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; Versailles-Saint Quentin University, Versailles, France; Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Villejuif, France; Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; Centre for Maritime Health and Safety, Esbjerg, Denmark; Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; West-German Heart Center Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; TNO, Hoofddorp, the Netherlands; Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; University College London, London, UK; Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Turku, Finland; Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany; University of Turku, Turku; Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; Uppsala University, Uppsala; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; University of Bristol, Bristol; University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland). Job strain in relation to body mass index: pooled analysis of 160 000 adults from 13 cohort studies. J Intern Med 2012; 272: 65–73. Background Evidence of an association between job strain and obesity is inconsistent, mostly limited to small-scale studies, and does not distinguish between categories of underweight or obesity subclasses. Objectives To examine the association between job strain and body mass index (BMI) in a large adult population. Methods We performed a pooled cross-sectional analysis based on individual-level data from 13 European studies resulting in a total of 161 746 participants (49% men, mean age, 43.7 years). Longitudinal analysis with a median follow-up of 4 years was possible for four cohort studies (n = 42 222). Results A total of 86 429 participants were of normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg m?2), 2149 were underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg m?2), 56 572 overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9 kg m?2) and 13 523 class I (BMI 30–34.9 kg m?2) and 3073 classes II/III (BMI ? 35 kg m?2) obese. In addition, 27 010 (17%) participants reported job strain. In cross-sectional analyses, we found increased odds of job strain amongst underweight [odds ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00–1.25], obese class I (odds ratio 1.07, 95% CI 1.02–1.12) and obese classes II/III participants (odds ratio 1.14, 95% CI 1.01–1.28) as compared with participants of normal weight. In longitudinal analysis, both weight gain and weight loss were related to the onset of job strain during follow-up. Conclusions In an analysis of European data, we found both weight gain and weight loss to be associated with the onset of job strain, consistent with a ‘U’-shaped cross-sectional association between job strain and BMI. These associations were relatively modest; therefore, it is unlikely that intervention to reduce job strain would be effective in combating obesity at a popu

Nyberg, S T; Heikkila, K; Fransson, E I; Alfredsson, L; De Bacquer, D; Bjorner, J B; Bonenfant, S; Borritz, M; Burr, H; Casini, A; Clays, E; Dragano, N; Erbel, R; Geuskens, G A; Goldberg, M; Hooftman, W E; Houtman, I L; Jockel, K-H; Kittel, F; Knutsson, A; Koskenvuo, M; Leineweber, C; Lunau, T; Madsen, I E H; Hanson, L L Magnusson; Marmot, M G; Nielsen, M L; Nordin, M; Oksanen, T; Pentti, J; Rugulies, R; Siegrist, J; Suominen, S; Vahtera, J; Virtanen, M; Westerholm, P; Westerlund, H; Zins, M; Ferrie, J E; Theorell, T; Steptoe, A; Hamer, M; Singh-Manoux, A; Batty, G D; Kivimaki, M

2012-01-01

239

Thalidomide in myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia: a pooled-analysis of individual patient data from five studies.  

PubMed

Trials to determine the effect of thalidomide in patients with Myelofibrosis with Myeloid Metaplasia (MMM) have produced inconclusive results due to different criteria for response and heterogeneous study participants. We undertook a pooled-analysis to assess the effects of such treatment on a larger series of cases and with a uniform assessment of response. We used updated data on 62 individual patients from 5 phase II trials that evaluated thalidomide therapy in MMM patients. Responsewas judged on individual disease parameters, on the improvement of the Dupriez risk categories and on the improvement of a 6 point "severity score" based on myeloproliferative and myelodepletive indexes of the disease. Overall, using standard dose of thalidomide, i.e. starting with no less than 100 mg/day, 49 patients (79%) had more than 4 weeks of therapy. Twenty-nine percent of patients with moderate to severe anemia showed an increase in hemoglobin or reduction/abolishment of blood transfusion requirements, 38% with moderate to severe thrombocytopenia had an increase in platelet counts, and 41% with high grade splenomegaly demonstrated a measurable reduction in splenic size. These effects led to an absolute decrease in the "severity" score in 44.9% of the patients. Major disease severity and high degrees of splenomegaly before therapy predicted response with a probability of 61.9%. However, worsening of the "severity" score was observed in 20.4% of the patients, 18% having a "myeloproliferative reaction" with leukocytosis and/or thrombocytosis. Sixty-six percent of the patients discontinued the drug before 6 months of treatment due to intolerance. In conclusion, there is a small but clear improvement of disease severity with thalidomide therapy in MMM. The potential for myeloproliferative reactions and the unfavorable dose-related toxicity profile argue for future studies using lower doses of this drug. PMID:12613516

Barosi, Giovanni; Giovanni, Barosi; Elliott, Michelle; Michelle, Elliott; Canepa, Letizia; Letizia, Canepa; Ballerini, Filippo; Filippo, Ballerini; Piccaluga, Pier Paolo; Pier Paolo, Piccaluga; Visani, Giuseppe; Giuseppe, Visani; Marchetti, Monia; Monia, Marchetti; Pozzato, Gabriele; Gabriele, Pozzato; Zorat, Francesca; Francesca, Zorat; Tefferi, Ayalew; Ayalew, Tefferi

2002-12-01

240

Income inequality, individual income, and mortality in Danish adults: analysis of pooled data from two cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyse the association between area income inequality and mortality after adjustment for individual income and other established risk factors. Design Analysis of pooled data from two cohort studies. The relation between income inequality in small areas of residence (parishes) and individual mortality was examined with Cox proportional hazard analyses. Setting Two population studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants 13?710 women and 12?018 men followed for a mean of 12.8 years. Main outcome measure All cause mortality. Results Age standardised mortality was highest in the parishes with the least equal income distribution. After adjustment for individual risk factors, parish income inequality was not associated with mortality, whereas individual household income was. Thus, individuals in the highest income quarter had lower mortality than those in the lowest quarter (adjusted hazard ratio for men 0.51 (95% confidence interval 0.45 to 0.59) and for women 0.60 (0.54 to 0.68)). Conclusion Area income inequality is not in itself associated with all cause mortality in this Danish population. Adjustment for individual risk factors makes the apparent effect disappear. This may be the result of Denmark's welfare system, based on a Nordic model. What is already known on this topicSeveral ecological studies have shown that higher levels of income inequality in countries, states, or smaller areas are associated with higher all cause mortalityA few prospective studies from the United States have examined this after controlling for individual risk factorsWhat this study addsInequality in the distribution of income in parishes in Copenhagen is as high as inequality reported from metropolitan areas in the United StatesArea based income inequality did not affect all cause mortality after adjustment for individual income and other risk factorsDenmark's welfare system (based on a Nordic model) may even out the effect of area inequality

Osler, Merete; Prescott, Eva; Gr?nbaek, Morten; Christensen, Ulla; Due, Pernille; Engholm, Gerda

2002-01-01

241

Body mass index in relation to oesophageal and oesophagogastric junction adenocarcinomas: a pooled analysis from the International BEACON Consortium  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies suggest an association between obesity and oesophageal (OA) and oesophagogastric junction adenocarcinomas (OGJA). However, these studies have been limited in their ability to assess whether the effects of obesity vary by gender or by the presence of gastro-oesophageal reflux (GERD) symptoms. Methods Individual participant data from 12 epidemiological studies (8 North American, 3 European and 1 Australian) comprising 1997 OA cases, 1900 OGJA cases and 11 159 control subjects were pooled. Logistic regression was used to estimate study-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and the risk of OA and OGJA. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to combine these ORs. We also investigated effect modification and synergistic interaction of BMI with GERD symptoms and gender. Results The association of OA and OGJA increased directly with increasing BMI (P for trend <0.001). Compared with individuals with a BMI <25, BMI ?40 was associated with both OA (OR 4.76, 95% CI 2.96–7.66) and OGJA (OR 3.07, 95% CI 1.89–4.99). These associations were similar when stratified by gender and GERD symptoms. There was evidence for synergistic interaction between BMI and GERD symptoms in relation to OA/OGJA risk. Conclusions These data indicate that BMI is directly associated with OA and OGJA risk in both men and women and in those with and without GERD symptoms. Disentangling the relationship between BMI and GERD will be important for understanding preventive efforts for OA and OGJA.

Hoyo, Cathrine; Cook, Michael B; Kamangar, Farin; Freedman, Neal D; Whiteman, David C; Bernstein, Leslie; Brown, Linda M; Risch, Harvey A; Ye, Weimin; Sharp, Linda; Wu, Anna H; Ward, Mary H; Casson, Alan G; Murray, Liam J; Corley, Douglas A; Nyren, Olof; Pandeya, Nirmala; Vaughan, Thomas L; Chow, Wong-Ho; Gammon, Marilie D

2012-01-01

242

Antihypertensive efficacy, safety, and tolerability of the oral direct renin inhibitor aliskiren in patients with hypertension: a pooled analysis.  

PubMed

The antihypertensive efficacy and safety of the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren were assessed in a pooled analysis of data from seven randomized, multicenter studies. Data were available for 7,045 patients (mean age 52.5 to 59.8 years, 50.2 to 72.5% men) with mild-to-moderate hypertension (mean sitting diastolic blood pressure [msDBP] 95 to 109 mm Hg) over treatment durations of 6 to 8 weeks. In placebo-controlled trials, aliskiren reduced mean sitting systolic blood pressure/msDBP from baseline by 8.6 to 12.1/7.2 to 10.3 mm Hg (75 mg), 8.7 to 13.0/7.8 to 10.3 mm Hg (150 mg), 14.1 to 15.8/10.3 to 12.3 mm Hg (300 mg), and 15.7 to 15.8/11.5 to 12.5 mm Hg (600 mg), compared with 2.9 to 10.0/3.3 to 8.6 mm Hg for placebo. Aliskiren demonstrated comparable efficacy in men and women, in patients aged <65 years or >/=65 years, and lowered blood pressure (BP) effectively in all racial subgroups. Combination of aliskiren 150 mg or 300 mg with ramipril, amlodipine, or hydrochlorothiazide provided significant additional BP reductions compared with the respective monotherapies. The overall incidence of adverse events with aliskiren monotherapy was similar to placebo (39.8% vs. 40.2%, respectively). The incidence of diarrhea with aliskiren was higher than placebo due to a significantly higher rate with aliskiren 600 mg (P < .0001 vs. placebo). In conclusion, aliskiren 150 mg or 300 mg provides highly effective and consistent BP lowering with placebo-like tolerability in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension. PMID:20409858

Weir, Matthew R; Bush, Christopher; Anderson, David R; Zhang, Jack; Keefe, Deborah; Satlin, Andrew

243

The Role of Adiponectin in Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Published results suggests that high adiponectin level may decrease the risk of breast cancer. However, available evidence on breast cancer is conflicting. Therefore a meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between blood adiponectin and breast cancer risk. PubMed database, Web of Science, Elsevier Science, Springer Link and bibliographies of retrieved articles were searched for epidemiological studies published up to March 2013. Meta-analysis was performed on the combined effect values (OR) as well as standardized mean difference (SMD) including 17 studies. Fixed or random effect pooled measure was selected on the basis of homogeneity test among studies. The publication bias was assessed by the Egger’s regression asymmetry test and Begg’s rank correlation test with Begg’s funnel plot. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analysis were also performed. A total of 13 studies involving 3578 breast cancer cases and 4363 controls contributed to the OR analysis. The high adiponectin level did not significantly affect breast cancer risk (OR=0.902, 95% CI=0.773–1.053). After excluding articles that were the key contributors to between-study heterogeneity, the OR of high adiponectin level was associated with decreased breast cancer risk (OR=0.838, 95% CI=0.744–0.943). There was a significantly association between high adiponectin level and postmenopausal breast cancer women (OR=0.752, 95%CI=0.604-0.936); and it was not associated with premenopausal breast cancer women (OR=0.895, 95%CI=0.638-1.256). The result of pooled measure on SMD was that the high adiponectin level was associated with decreased breast cancer risk (SMD= -0.348, 95% CI= -0.533--0.614) after excluding articles which were the key contributors to between-study heterogeneity. Our findings indicate that high adiponectin level might decrease the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. More randomized clinical trials and observational studies are needed to confirm this association with underlying biological mechanisms in the future.

Liu, Li-Yuan; Wang, Meng; Ma, Zhong-Bing; Yu, Li-Xiang; Zhang, Qiang; Gao, De-Zong; Wang, Fei; Yu, Zhi-Gang

2013-01-01

244

Pooling techniques for bioassay screening  

SciTech Connect

Pooling techniques commonly are used to increase the throughput of samples used for screening purposes. While the advantages of such techniques are increased analytical efficiency and cost savings, the sensitivity of measurements decreases because it is inversely proportional to the number of samples in the pools. Consequently, uncertainties in estimates of dose and risk which are based on the results of pooled samples increase as the number of samples in the pools increases in all applications. However, sensitivities may not be seriously degraded, for example, in urinalysis, if the samples in the pools are of known time duration, or if the fraction of some attribute of the grab urine samples to that in a 24-hour composite is known (e.g., mass, specific gravity, creatinine, or volume, per 24-h interval). This paper presents square and cube pooling schemes that greatly increase throughput and can considerably reduce analytical costs (on a sample basis). The benefit-cost ratios for 5{times}5 square and 5{times}5{times}5 cube pooling schemes are 2.5 and 8.3, respectively. Three-dimensional and higher arrayed pooling schemes would result in even greater economies; however, significant improvements in analytical sensitivity are required to achieve these advantages. These are various other considerations for designing a pooling scheme, where the number of dimensions and of samples in the optimum array are influenced by: (1) the minimal detectable amount (MDA) of the analytical processes, (2) the screening dose-rate requirements, (3) the maximum masses or volumes of the composite samples that can be analyzed, (4) the information already available from results of composite analysis, and (5) the ability of an analytical system to guard against both false negative and false positive results. Many of these are beyond the scope of this paper but are being evaluated.

Sun, L.C.; Baum, J.W.; Kaplan, E; Moorthy, A.R.

1996-03-01

245

Thyroid cancer after exposure to external radiation: A pooled analysis of seven studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thyroid gland of children is especially vulnerable to the carcinogenic action of ionizing radiation. To provide insights into various modifying influences on risk, seven major studies with organ doses to individual subjects were evaluated. Five cohort studies (atomic bomb survivors, children treated for tinea capitis, two studies of children irradiated for enlarged tonsils, and infants irradiated for an enlarged

Elaine Ron; Jay H. Lubin; L. M. Pottern; M. A. Tucker; J. D. Jr. Boice; R. E. Shore; Kiyohiko Mabuchi; B. Modan; A. B. Schneider

1995-01-01

246

Quantitative Measurement of Bromoform in Swimming Pool Water Using SPME with GC-MS. An Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A senior-level undergraduate laboratory experiment that demonstrates the use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the quantitative determination of bromoform in swimming pool water. Bromoform was extracted by SPME from the headspace of vials containing sodium chloride-saturated swimming pool water. Bromoform concentrations were determined from comparisons of peak areas on a student-generated calibration curve. Students compared results to OSHA water and air exposure limits for bromoform.

Hardee, John R.; Long, John; Otts, Julie

2002-05-01

247

Exhaled breath analysis for lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Early diagnosis of lung cancer results in improved survival compared to diagnosis with more advanced disease. Early disease is not reliably indicated by symptoms. Because investigations such as bronchoscopy and needle biopsy have associated risks and substantial costs, they are not suitable for population screening. Hence new easily applicable tests, which can be used to screen individuals at risk, are required. Biomarker testing in exhaled breath samples is a simple, relatively inexpensive, non-invasive approach. Exhaled breath contains volatile and non-volatile organic compounds produced as end-products of metabolic processes and the composition of such compounds varies between healthy subjects and subjects with lung cancer. Many studies have analysed the patterns of these compounds in exhaled breath. In addition studies have also reported that the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) can reveal gene mutations or DNA abnormalities in patients with lung cancer. This review has summarised the scientific evidence demonstrating that lung cancer has distinct chemical profiles in exhaled breath and characteristic genetic changes in EBC. It is not yet possible to accurately identify individuals with lung cancer in at risk populations by any of these techniques. However, analysis of both volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath and of EBC have great potential to become clinically useful diagnostic and screening tools for early stage lung cancer detection.

Sutedja, Tom G.; Zimmerman, Paul V.

2013-01-01

248

Gene Expression Analysis Of Circulating Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer Micrometastases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This final report for the Physician Research Training Award summarizes work on the genetic analysis of circulating hormone refractory prostate cancer micrometastases. As metastatic tissue is often inaccessible in advanced prostate cancer patients, analysi...

J. Rosenberg

2011-01-01

249

A meta-analysis on dose-response relationship between night shift work and the risk of breast cancer.  

PubMed

This study aimed to conduct a systematic review to sum up evidence of the associations between different aspects of night shift work and female breast cancer using a dose-response meta-analysis approach. We systematicly searched all cohort and case-control studies published in English on MEDLINE, Embase, PSYCInfo, APC Journal Club and Global Health, from January 1971 to May 2013. We extracted effect measures (relative risk, RR; odd ratio, OR; or hazard ratio, HR) from individual studies to generate pooled results using meta-analysis approaches. A log-linear dose-response regression model was used to evaluate the relationship between various indicators of exposure to night shift work and breast cancer risk. Downs and Black scale was applied to assess the methodological quality of included studies. Ten studies were included in the meta-analysis. A pooled adjusted relative risk for the association between 'ever exposed to night shift work' and breast cancer was 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.35]. Further meta-analyses on dose-response relationship showed that every 5-year increase of exposure to night shift work would correspondingly enhance the risk of breast cancer of the female by 3% (pooled RR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05; Pheterogeneity < 0.001). Our meta-analysis also suggested that an increase in 500-night shifts would result in a 13% (RR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.21; Pheterogeneity = 0.06) increase in breast cancer risk. This systematic review updated the evidence that a positive dose-response relationship is likely to present for breast cancer with increasing years of employment and cumulative shifts involved in the work. PMID:23975662

Wang, F; Yeung, K L; Chan, W C; Kwok, C C H; Leung, S L; Wu, C; Chan, E Y Y; Yu, I T S; Yang, X R; Tse, L A

2013-08-23

250

Safety and tolerability of sitagliptin in clinical studies: a pooled analysis of data from 10,246 patients with type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In a previous pooled analysis of 12 double-blind clinical studies that included data on 6,139 patients with type 2 diabetes, treatment with sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, was shown to be generally well tolerated compared with treatment with control agents. As clinical development of sitagliptin continues, additional studies have been completed, and more patients have been exposed to

Debora Williams-Herman; Samuel S Engel; Elizabeth Round; Jeremy Johnson; Gregory T Golm; Hua Guo; Bret J Musser; Michael J Davies; Keith D Kaufman; Barry J Goldstein

2010-01-01

251

Postvoid residual urine in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia: pooled analysis of eleven controlled studies with alfuzosin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. A pooled analysis was conducted in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia to examine the relationship between the postvoid residual urine (PVR) volume and various clinical characteristics and to assess the effect of alfuzosin, a clinically uroselective alpha1-blocker, on PVR volume and any other associated outcome.Methods. Nine hundred fifty-three patients, 42 to 89 years

S. Alan McNeill; Timothy B Hargreave; Christine Geffriaud-Ricouard; Jean-Philippe Santoni; Claus G Roehrborn

2001-01-01

252

Pooled analysis of two case–control studies on use of cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for malignant brain tumours diagnosed in 1997–2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To study the use of cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for malignant brain tumours. Methods: Two case–control studies on malignant brain tumours diagnosed during 1997–2003 included answers from 905 (90%) cases and 2,162 (89%) controls aged 20–80 years. We present pooled analysis of the results in the two studies. Results: Cumulative lifetime use for >2,000 h yielded for analogue

Lennart Hardell; Michael Carlberg; Kjell Hansson Mild

2006-01-01

253

Variations in rates of primary school access and enrolments in sub-Saharan Africa: a pooled cross-country time series analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

African nations lag behind in school enrolment rates. This article examines the national characteristics that explain variation in indicators of entry into first grade and primary school enrolment rates. Pooled cross-country time series analysis for the period 1980–1997 for 29 sub-Sahara African nations is used. Overall, the results strongly suggest that the major determinants of both indicators of primary education

G. B Mutangadura; V. L Lamb

2003-01-01

254

EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF THE SIX-DOSE REGIMEN OF ARTEMETHER-LUMEFANTRINE IN PEDIATRICS WITH UNCOMPLICATED PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM MALARIA: A POOLED ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL PATIENT DATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patient data from eight clinical trials were pooled and analyzed to study the efficacy and safety of the six-dose versus four-dose regimen of artemether-lumefantrine (coartemether; Coartem) in children weighing 5-25 kg. A total of 544 patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria (six-dose: 343; four-dose: 201), matched for demographic and baseline characteristics and individual coartemether doses were included in the analysis.

MICHAEL MAKANGA; ZUL PREMJI; CATHERINE FALADE; EDGAR A. MUELLER; KIM ANDRIANO; PHILIP HUNT; PATRICIA IBARRA DE PALACIOS

255

Association of Mild to Moderate Chronic Kidney Disease with Venous Thromboembolism: Pooled Analysis of Five Prospective General Population Cohorts  

PubMed Central

Background Recent findings suggest that chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Given the high prevalence of mild-to-moderate CKD in the general population, in depth analysis of this association is warranted. Methods and Results We pooled individual participant data from five community-based cohorts from Europe (HUNT2, PREVEND and Tromsø study) and United States (ARIC and CHS study) to assess the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albuminuria and CKD with objectively verified VTE. To estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for VTE, categorical and continuous spline models were fit using Cox regression with shared-frailty or random-effect meta-analysis. A total of 1,178 VTE events occurred over 599,453 person-years follow-up. Relative to eGFR 100 mL/min/1.73m2, HRs for VTE were 1.29 (95%CI, 1.04-1.59) for eGFR 75, 1.31 (1.00-1.71) for 60, 1.82 (1.27-2.60) for 45 and 1.95 (1.26-3.01) for 30 mL/min/1.73m2. Compared with albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) of 5.0 mg/g, the HRs for VTE were 1.34 (1.04-1.72) for 30 mg/g, 1.60 (1.08-2.36) for 300 mg/g and 1.92 (1.19-3.09) for 1000 mg/g. There was no interaction between clinical categories of eGFR and ACR (P=0.20). The adjusted HR for CKD defined as eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2 or albuminuria ?30 mg/g (vs. no CKD) was 1.54 (95%CI, 1.15-2.06). Associations were consistent in subgroups according to age, gender, and comorbidities as well as for unprovoked versus provoked VTE. Conclusions Both eGFR and ACR are independently associated with increased risk of VTE in the general population, even across the normal eGFR and ACR ranges.

Mahmoodi, Bakhtawar K.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Naess, Inger Anne; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Braekkan, Sigrid K.; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Brodin, Ellen E.; Meijer, Karina; Sang, Yingying; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Hallan, Stein I.; Hammerstr?m, Jens; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.; Astor, Brad C.; Coresh, Josef; Folsom, Aaron R.; Hansen, John-Bjarne; Cushman, Mary

2012-01-01

256

Duration, Pattern of Breastfeeding and Postnatal Transmission of HIV: Pooled Analysis of Individual Data from West and South African Cohorts  

PubMed Central

Background Both breastfeeding pattern and duration are associated with postnatal HIV acquisition; their relative contribution has not been reliably quantified. Methodology and Principal Findings Pooled data from 2 cohorts: in urban West Africa where breastfeeding cessation at 4 months was recommended but exclusive breastfeeding was rare (Ditrame Plus, DP); in rural South Africa where high rates of exclusive breastfeeding were achieved, but with longer duration (Vertical Transmission Study, VTS). 18-months HIV postnatal transmission (PT) was estimated by Kaplan-Meier in infants who were HIV negative, and assumed uninfected, at age >1 month. Censoring with (to assess impact of mode of breastfeeding) and without (to assess effect of breastfeeding duration) breastfeeding cessation considered as a competing event. Of 1195 breastfed infants, not HIV-infected perinatally, 38% DP and 83% VTS children were still breastfed at age 6 months. By age 3 months, 66% of VTS children were exclusively breastfed since birth and 55% of DP infants predominantly breastfed (breastmilk+water-based drinks). 18-month PT risk (95%CI) in VTS was double that in DP: 9% (7–11) and 5% (3–8), respectively (p?=?0.03). However, once duration of breastfeeding was allowed for in a competing risk analysis assuming that all children would have been breastfed for 18-month, the estimated PT risk was 16% (8–28) in DP and 14% (10–18) in VTS (p?=?0.32). 18-months PT risk was 3.9% (2.3–6.5) among infants breastfed for less than 6 months, and 8.7% (6.8–11.0) among children breastfed for more than 6 months; crude hazard ratio (HR): 2.1 (1.2–3.7), p?=?0.02; adjusted HR 1.8 (0.9–3.4), p?=?0.06. In individual analyses of PT rates for specific breastfeeding durations, risks among children exclusively breastfed were very similar to those in children predominantly breastfed for the same period. Children exposed to solid foods during the first 2 months of life were 2.9 (1.1–8.0) times more likely to be infected postnatally than children never exposed to solids this early (adjusted competing risk analysis, p?=?0.04). Conclusions Breastfeeding duration is a major determinant of postnatal HIV transmission. The PT risk did not differ between exclusively and predominantly breastfed children; the negative effect of mixed breastfeeding with solids on PT were confirmed.

Becquet, Renaud; Bland, Ruth; Leroy, Valeriane; Rollins, Nigel C.; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Coutsoudis, Anna; Dabis, Francois; Coovadia, Hoosen M.; Salamon, Roger; Newell, Marie-Louise

2009-01-01

257

Association between microsomal epoxide hydrolase 1 polymorphisms and susceptibility to esophageal cancer: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Microsomal epoxide hydrolase 1 (EPHX1) plays an important role in the detoxification of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. EPHX1 Tyr113His and His139Arg polymorphisms have been reported to have some impacts on the EPHX1 activity. Previous case-control studies assessing the associations between EPHX1 polymorphisms and esophageal cancer risk reported conflicting results. To quantitatively summarize the associations of EPHX1 Tyr113His and His139Arg polymorphisms with esophageal cancer risk, a systemic review and meta-analysis of published studies were performed. Published literatures from PubMed, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched. The strength of the associations between EPHX1 polymorphisms and esophageal cancer risk was estimated by the pooled odds ratios (ORs) with its 95 % confidence interval (95 %CI). This meta-analysis yielded nine case-control studies, which included nine studies for Tyr113His polymorphism (1,291 cases and 2,120 controls) and seven studies for His139Arg polymorphism (899 cases and 1,615 controls). Overall, meta-analysis showed that EPHX1 Tyr113His polymorphism was not associated with esophageal cancer risk under all genetic models. Meta-analysis of these seven studies for EPHX1 His139Arg polymorphism showed that EPHX1 His139Arg polymorphism was also not associated with esophageal cancer risk under all genetic models. However, subgroup analysis by ethnicity further showed that there was an obvious association between EPHX1 His139Arg polymorphism and decreased risk of esophageal cancer in Caucasians (ArgArg versus HisArg/HisHis: OR = 0.52, 95 %CI 0.27-0.97, P = 0.041). This meta-analysis suggests that EPHX1 His139Arg polymorphism is associated with decreased risk of esophageal cancer in Caucasians. In addition, more studies with large samples are needed to get a more precise estimation on the associations mentioned above. PMID:23681797

Zhao, Weixin; Luo, Jianfeng; Cai, Xuwei

2013-05-17

258

Use of thiazolidinediones and the risk of bladder cancer among people with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes have a 40% increased risk of bladder cancer. Thiazolidinediones, especially pioglitazone, may increase the risk. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the risk of bladder cancer among adults with type 2 diabetes taking thiazolidinediones. Methods: We searched key biomedical databases (including MEDLINE, Embase and Scopus) and sources of grey literature from inception through March 2012 for published and unpublished studies, without language restrictions. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies and case–control studies that reported incident bladder cancer among people with type 2 diabetes who ever (v. never) were exposed to pioglitazone (main outcome), rosiglitazone or any thiazolidinedione. Results: Of the 1787 studies identified, we selected 4 RCTs, 5 cohort studies and 1 case–control study. The total number of patients was 2 657 365, of whom 3643 had newly diagnosed bladder cancer, for an overall incidence of 53.1 per 100 000 person-years. The one RCT that reported on pioglitazone use found no significant association with bladder cancer (risk ratio [RR] 2.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91–6.13). The cohort studies of thiazolidinediones (pooled RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04–1.26; I2 = 0%) and of pioglitazone specifically (pooled RR 1.22, 95% CI 1.07–1.39; I2 = 0%) showed significant associations with bladder cancer. No significant association with bladder cancer was observed in the two RCTs that evaluated rosiglitazone use (pooled RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.34–2.23; I2 = 0%). Interpretation: The limited evidence available supports the hypothesis that thiazolidinediones, particularly pioglitazone, are associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer among adults with type 2 diabetes.

Colmers, Isabelle N.; Bowker, Samantha L.; Majumdar, Sumit R.; Johnson, Jeffrey A.

2012-01-01

259

Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the M5-50: An Implementation of the International Personality Item Pool Item Set  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Goldberg's International Personality Item Pool (IPIP; Goldberg, 1999) provides researchers with public-domain, free-access personality measurement scales that are proxies of well-established published scales. One of the more commonly used IPIP sets employs 50 items to measure the 5 broad domains of the 5-factor model, with 10 items per factor.…

Socha, Alan; Cooper, Christopher A.; McCord, David M.

2010-01-01

260

Analysis of Freshwater Mussels (Unionidae) at Specific Sites in Pool 5 and Lake Pepin, Upper Mississippi River, 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In July 1994, freshwater mussels were collected using qualitative and quantitative (0.25 sq m total substratum) methods at the following locations in the upper Mississippi River (UMR): directly on and between two wingdams at river mile (RM) 741.6 in Pool ...

A. C. Miller B. S. Payne

1996-01-01

261

Amino acid analysis in five pooled single plant cell samples using capillary electrophoresis coupled to laser-induced fluorescence detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study 21 amino acid standards, samples of pure phloem sap and samples of pooled mesophyll cells were derivatized with fluorescein isothiocyanate, separated by capillary electrophoresis and detected with laser-induced fluorescence at 488 nm. Two different background electrolytes, a sodium borate buffer containing sodium dodecyl sulfate and a sodium borate buffer containing ?-cyclodextrin, were used for the separation. Using

Kathleen Arlt; Stephan Brandt; Julia Kehr

2001-01-01

262

AN ASSESSMENT OF CARBON POOLS, STORAGE, AND WOOD PRODUCTS MARKET SUBSTITUTION USING LIFE-CYCLE ANALYSIS RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study utilized the results from a life-cycle assessment (LCA) of housing construction to analyze forest products' role in energy displacement and carbon cycling. It analyzed the behavior of three carbon pools associated with forest products: the forest, forest products, and fossil fuel displaced by forest products in end-use markets. The LCA provided data that allowed us to create an

John Perez-Garcia; Bruce Lippke; Jeffrey Comnick; Carolina Manriquez

2006-01-01

263

Spool-Fire: An IBM 370/195 Code for the Analysis of Combined Spray and Pool Burning of Sodium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A code for the computation of the pressure and temperatures within a containment building as a result of a sodium fire is described. The fire is assumed to occur in two distinct phases: a spray and a pool. The spray fire is conservatively assumed to occur...

I. Charak L. W. Person

1976-01-01

264

Analysis of Pools of Targeted Salmonella Deletion Mutants Identifies Novel Genes Affecting Fitness during Competitive Infection in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pools of mutants of minimal complexity but maximal coverage of genes of interest facilitate screening for genes under selection in a particular environment. We constructed individual deletion mutants in 1,023 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium genes, including almost all genes found in Salmonella but not in related genera. All mutations were confirmed simultaneously using a novel amplification strategy to produce labeled

Carlos A. Santiviago; M. Megan Reynolds; Steffen Porwollik; Sang-Ho Choi; Fred Long; Helene L. Andrews-Polymenis; Michael McClelland

2009-01-01

265

Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) gene polymorphisms and ovarian cancer risk: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

This meta-analysis aims to examine whether the genotype status of MspI, Ile462Val, and Thr461Asn polymorphisms in Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) is associated with ovarian cancer risk. Eligible case-control studies were identified through search in MEDLINE (end of search: October 2010). Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were appropriately derived from fixed effects or random effects models. Concerning MspI polymorphism, seven studies were eligible (1,051 cases and 1,613 controls); 11 studies were eligible (1,680 cases and 3,345 controls) for Ile462Val and three studies were eligible (349 cases and 785 controls) for Thr461Asn. Ile462Val polymorphism seemed to confer elevated ovarian cancer risk concerning homozygous carriers (pooled OR = 2.65, 95 % CI: 1.40-5.03, p = 0.003, fixed effects), as well as at the recessive model (pooled OR = 2.10, 95 % CI: 1.13-3.92, p = 0.020, fixed effects); these findings were replicated upon Caucasian subjects. MspI polymorphism was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (for heterozygous TC vs TT carriers pooled OR = 1.10, 95 % CI: 0.91-1.34, p = 0.329, fixed effects; for homozygous CC vs. TT carriers pooled OR = 1.11, 95 % CI: 0.65-1.90, p = 0.693, fixed effects). With respect to Thr461Asn polymorphism a finding of borderline statistical significance emerged, pointing to marginally elevated ovarian cancer risk in heterozygous Thr/Asn carriers (pooled OR = 1.62, 95 % CI: 0.97-2.70, p = 0.066, fixed effects), but not in homozygous Asn/Asn carriers (pooled OR = 1.40, 95 % CI: 0.18-10.89, p = 0.749, fixed effects). Ile462Val status seems to represent a meaningful risk factor for ovarian cancer in Caucasians. Additional case-control studies of high methodological quality are needed in order to further substantiate and enrich the present findings. Special attention should be paid upon the design of future studies; Asian and African populations should represent points of focus. PMID:22733497

Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P; Choussein, Souzana; Vlahos, Nikos F

2012-06-26

266

PoolHap: Inferring Haplotype Frequencies from Pooled Samples by Next Generation Sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advance of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, increasingly ambitious applications are becoming feasible. A particularly powerful one is the sequencing of polymorphic, pooled samples. The pool can be naturally occurring, as in the case of multiple pathogen strains in a blood sample, multiple types of cells in a cancerous tissue sample, or multiple isoforms of mRNA in a cell.

Quan Long; Daniel C. Jeffares; Qingrun Zhang; Kai Ye; Viktoria Nizhynska; Zemin Ning; Chris Tyler-Smith; Magnus Nordborg; Thomas Mailund

2011-01-01

267

Birth Size and Breast Cancer Risk: Re-analysis of Individual Participant Data from 32 Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Birth size, perhaps a proxy for prenatal environment, might be a correlate of subsequent breast cancer risk, but findings from epidemiological studies have been inconsistent. We re-analysed individual participant data from published and unpublished studies to obtain more precise estimates of the magnitude and shape of the birth size–breast cancer association. Methods and Findings Studies were identified through computer-assisted and manual searches, and personal communication with investigators. Individual participant data from 32 studies, comprising 22,058 breast cancer cases, were obtained. Random effect models were used, if appropriate, to combine study-specific estimates of effect. Birth weight was positively associated with breast cancer risk in studies based on birth records (pooled relative risk [RR] per one standard deviation [SD] [= 0.5 kg] increment in birth weight: 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–1.09) and parental recall when the participants were children (1.02; 95% CI 0.99–1.05), but not in those based on adult self-reports, or maternal recall during the woman's adulthood (0.98; 95% CI 0.95–1.01) (p for heterogeneity between data sources = 0.003). Relative to women who weighed 3.000–3.499 kg, the risk was 0.96 (CI 0.80–1.16) in those who weighed < 2.500 kg, and 1.12 (95% CI 1.00–1.25) in those who weighed ? 4.000 kg (p for linear trend = 0.001) in birth record data. Birth length and head circumference from birth records were also positively associated with breast cancer risk (pooled RR per one SD increment: 1.06 [95% CI 1.03–1.10] and 1.09 [95% CI 1.03–1.15], respectively). Simultaneous adjustment for these three birth size variables showed that length was the strongest independent predictor of risk. The birth size effects did not appear to be confounded or mediated by established breast cancer risk factors and were not modified by age or menopausal status. The cumulative incidence of breast cancer per 100 women by age 80 y in the study populations was estimated to be 10.0, 10.0, 10.4, and 11.5 in those who were, respectively, in the bottom, second, third, and top fourths of the birth length distribution. Conclusions This pooled analysis of individual participant data is consistent with birth size, and in particular birth length, being an independent correlate of breast cancer risk in adulthood.

McCormack, Valerie

2008-01-01

268

Differential Impact of Cilostazol on Restenosis According to Implanted Stent Type (from a Pooled Analysis of Three DECLARE Randomized Trials).  

PubMed

Even in the drug-eluting stent era, restenosis has remained an unresolved issue, particularly in the treatment of complex coronary lesions. In this study, patient-level data from 3 randomized trials (Drug-Eluting Stenting Followed by Cilostazol Treatment Reduces Late Restenosis in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus [DECLARE-DIABETES] and Drug-Eluting Stenting Followed by Cilostazol Treatment Reduces Late Restenosis in Patients With Long Native Coronary Lesions [DECLARE-LONG] I and II) were pooled to estimate the differential antirestenotic efficacy of add-on cilostazol according to the implanted drug-eluting stent in patients at high risk for restenosis. A total of 1,399 patients underwent sirolimus-eluting stent (SES; n = 450), paclitaxel-eluting stent (n = 450), and zotarolimus-eluting stent (n = 499) implantation and received triple-antiplatelet therapy (TAT; aspirin, clopidogrel, and cilostazol, n = 700) and dual-antiplatelet therapy (aspirin and clopidogrel, n = 699). Randomization of antiplatelet regimen was stratified by stent type. In-stent late loss after TAT was significantly lower than that after dual-antiplatelet therapy, regardless of implanted stent type. However, the incidence of in-segment restenosis after TAT was significantly lower with SES (0.5% vs 6.7%, p = 0.014) and zotarolimus-eluting stent (12.2% vs 20.0%, p = 0.028) implantation but not paclitaxel-eluting stent implantation (14.4% vs 20.0%, p = 0.244). A significant interaction was present between stent type and antiplatelet regimen for the risk for in-segment restenosis (p = 0.004). Post hoc analysis using bootstrap resampling methods showed that the relative risk reduction for in-segment restenosis after TAT was most prominent with SES implantation. In conclusion, add-on cilostazol effectively reduced restenosis in patients at high risk for restenosis, particularly in those receiving SES, suggesting the sustainable utility of add-on cilostazol therapy in newer generation drug-eluting stents with comparable efficacy with that of SES. PMID:23890573

Lee, Seung-Whan; Ahn, Jung-Min; Han, Seungbong; Park, Gyung-Min; Cho, Young-Rak; Lee, Woo-Seok; Jang, Jeong-Yoon; Kwon, Chang-Hee; Lee, Jong-Young; Kim, Won-Jang; Kang, Soo-Jin; Kim, Young-Hak; Lee, Cheol-Whan; Kim, Jae-Joong; Park, Seong-Wook; Park, Seung-Jung

2013-07-24

269

Analysis on risk factors for cervical cancer using induction technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths in woman worldwide. New approach to the analysis of risk factors and management of cervical cancer is discussed in this study. We identified the combined patterns of cervical cancer risk factors including demographic, environmental and genetic factors using induction technique. We compared logistic regression and a decision tree algorithm, CHAID (Chi-squared

Seung Hee Ho; Sun Ha Jee; Jong-eun Lee; Jong Sup Park

2004-01-01

270

Swimming pool granuloma  

MedlinePLUS

A swimming pool granuloma is a long-term (chronic) skin infection. It is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium marinum . ... A swimming pool granuloma occurs when water containing Mycobacterium marinum bacteria enters a break in the skin. Signs of ...

271

Acute, subacute and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans: a pooled analysis of experimental studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psilocybin and related hallucinogenic compounds are increasingly used in human research. However, due to limited information about potential subjective side effects, the controlled medical use of these compounds has remained controversial. We therefore analysed acute, short- and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans by pooling raw data from eight double-blind placebo-controlled experimental studies conducted between 1999 and 2008.

Erich Studerus; Michael Kometer; Felix Hasler; Franz X Vollenweider

2011-01-01

272

Cost-effectiveness analysis of seismically isolated pool structures for the storage of nuclear spent-fuel assemblies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study introduces a method for evaluating cost-effectiveness of seismically isolated pool structures, taking account of fluid–structure interaction effects. As a measure of cost-effectiveness, the procedure estimates minimum life-cycle cost, sum of initial construction cost and excepted damage cist over life-cycle of the structure. The expected damage cost is the function of failure probabilities, which are computed by frequency domain

Kwan-Soon Park; Hyun-Moo Koh; Junho Song

2004-01-01

273

The Prognostic Value of p16 Hypermethylation in Cancer: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The prognostic value of p16 promoter hypermethylation in cancers has been evaluated for several years while the results remain controversial. We thus performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing the impact of p16 methylation on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) to clarify this issue. Methods We searched Pubmed, Embase and ISI web of knowledge to identify studies on the prognostic impact of p16 hypermethylation in cancers. A total of 6589 patients from 45 eligible studies were included in the analysis. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated to estimate the effect using random-effects model. Results The analysis indicated that p16 hypermethylation had significant association with poor OS of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (HR 1.74, 95% CI: 1.36–2.22) and colorectal cancer (CRC) (HR 1.80; 95% CI 1.27–2.55). Moreover, the significant correlation was present between p16 hypermethylation and DFS of NSCLC (HR 2.04, 95% CI: 1.19–3.50) and head and neck cancer (HR 2.24, 95% CI: 1.35–3.73). Additionally, in the analysis of the studies following REMARK guidelines more rigorously, p16 hypermethylation had unfavorable impact on OS of NSCLC (HR 1.79, 95% CI: 1.35–2.39) and CRC (HR 1.96, 1.16–3.34), and on DFS of NSCLC (HR 2.12, 95% CI: 1.21–3.72) and head and neck cancer (HR 2.24, 95% CI: 1.35–3.73). Conclusions p16 hypermethylation might be a predictive factor of poor prognosis in some surgically treated cancers, particularly in NSCLC.

Luo, Liang; Liu, Long-Shan; Shi, Hui-Juan; Chen, Min-Hu

2013-01-01

274

P53 codon 72 Arg/Pro polymorphism and lung cancer risk in Asians: an updated meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The polymorphism of p53 codon 72, a transversion of G to C (Arg to Pro), has been demonstrated to be associated with the risk for lung cancer. However, individual studies conducted in Asians have provided conflicting and inconclusive findings. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis by pooling all currently available case-control studies to estimate the effect of p53 codon 72 Arg/Pro polymorphism on the development of lung cancer. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with the corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (95 %CIs) were calculated to assess this effect. A total of 14 individual studies involving 7,929 cases and 5,924 controls were included into this meta-analysis according to the inclusion criteria. The overall OR for the dominant genetic model indicated that the p53 codon 72 Arg/Pro variant was positively correlated with lung cancer risk (ORArg/Pro + Pro/Pro vs. Arg/Arg?=?1.14, 95 %CI 1.07-1.23, P OR?analysis of population-based studies. The histological types of lung cancer and smoking status seemed to exert no effect on the lung cancer risk. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the stability of the above findings. The updated meta-analysis suggests that the p53 codon 72 Arg/Pro polymorphism is a risk factor for lung cancer in the Asian population. However, the potential role of gene-environment interaction in lung cancer susceptibility needs further investigation in future studies with high quality. PMID:23812725

Wang, Siyang; Lan, Xingang; Tan, Sheng; Wang, Siwen; Li, Yu

2013-06-28

275

Optical spectra analysis for breast cancer diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimally invasive probe and optical biopsy system based on optical spectra recording and analysis seem to be a promising\\u000a tool for early diagnostics of breast cancer. Light scattering and absorption spectra are generated continuously as far as\\u000a the needle-like probe with one emitting and several collecting optical fibers penetrates through the tissues toward to the\\u000a suspicious area. That allows analyzing

S. A. Belkov; G. G. Kochemasov; T. E. Lyubynskaya; N. V. Maslov; A. S. Nuzhny; L. B. Da Silva; A. Rubenchik

276

Proteomics Analysis of Bladder Cancer Exosomes*  

PubMed Central

Exosomes are nanometer-sized vesicles, secreted by various cell types, present in biological fluids that are particularly rich in membrane proteins. Ex vivo analysis of exosomes may provide biomarker discovery platforms and form non-invasive tools for disease diagnosis and monitoring. These vesicles have never before been studied in the context of bladder cancer, a major malignancy of the urological tract. We present the first proteomics analysis of bladder cancer cell exosomes. Using ultracentrifugation on a sucrose cushion, exosomes were highly purified from cultured HT1376 bladder cancer cells and verified as low in contaminants by Western blotting and flow cytometry of exosome-coated beads. Solubilization in a buffer containing SDS and DTT was essential for achieving proteomics analysis using an LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF MS approach. We report 353 high quality identifications with 72 proteins not previously identified by other human exosome proteomics studies. Overrepresentation analysis to compare this data set with previous exosome proteomics studies (using the ExoCarta database) revealed that the proteome was consistent with that of various exosomes with particular overlap with exosomes of carcinoma origin. Interrogating the Gene Ontology database highlighted a strong association of this proteome with carcinoma of bladder and other sites. The data also highlighted how homology among human leukocyte antigen haplotypes may confound MASCOT designation of major histocompatability complex Class I nomenclature, requiring data from PCR-based human leukocyte antigen haplotyping to clarify anomalous identifications. Validation of 18 MS protein identifications (including basigin, galectin-3, trophoblast glycoprotein (5T4), and others) was performed by a combination of Western blotting, flotation on linear sucrose gradients, and flow cytometry, confirming their exosomal expression. Some were confirmed positive on urinary exosomes from a bladder cancer patient. In summary, the exosome proteomics data set presented is of unrivaled quality. The data will aid in the development of urine exosome-based clinical tools for monitoring disease and will inform follow-up studies into varied aspects of exosome manufacture and function.

Welton, Joanne L.; Khanna, Sanjay; Giles, Peter J.; Brennan, Paul; Brewis, Ian A.; Staffurth, John; Mason, Malcolm D.; Clayton, Aled

2010-01-01

277

Systematic Analysis of RNAi Reports Identifies Dismal Commonality at Gene-Level and Reveals an Unprecedented Enrichment in Pooled shRNA Screens.  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi) has opened promising avenues to better understand gene function. Though many RNAi screens report on the identification of genes, very few, if any, have been further studied and validated. Data discrepancy is emerging as one of RNAi main pitfalls. We reasoned that a systematic analysis of lethality-based screens, since they score for cell death, would examine the extent of hit discordance at inter-screen level. To this end, we developed a methodology for literature mining and overlap analysis of several screens using both siRNA and shRNA flavors, and obtained 64 gene lists censoring an initial list of 7,430 nominated genes. We further performed a comparative analysis first at a global level followed by hit re-assessment under much more stringent conditions. To our surprise, none of the hits overlapped across the board even for PLK1, which emerged as a strong candidate in siRNA screens; but only marginally in the shRNA ones. Furthermore, EIF5B emerges as the most common hit only in the shRNA screens. A highly unusual and unprecedented result was the observation that 5,269 out of 6,664 nominated genes (~80%) in the shRNA screens were exclusive to the pooled format, raising concerns as to the merits of pooled screens which qualify hits based on relative depletions, possibly due to multiple integrations per cell, data deconvolution or inaccuracies in intracellular processing causing off-target effects. Without golden standards in place, we would encourage the community to pay more attention to RNAi screening data analysis practices, bearing in mind that it is combinatorial in nature and one active siRNA duplex or shRNA hairpin per gene does not suffice credible hit nomination. Finally, we also would like to caution interpretation of pooled shRNA screening outcomes. PMID:23848309

Bhinder, Bhavneet; Djaballah, Hakim

2013-11-01

278

Reproductive Factors, Oral Contraceptive Use, and Human Papillomavirus Infection: Pooled Analysis of the IARC HPV Prevalence Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

High parity, early age at first full-term pregnancy (FTP), and long-term oral contraceptive (OC) use increase cervical cancer risk, but it is unclear whether these variables are also associated with increased risk of acquisition and persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, the main cause of cervical cancer. Information on reproductive and menstrual characteristics and OC use were collected from 14

Salvatore Vaccarella; Rolando Herrero; Min Dai; Peter J. F. Snijders; Chris J. L. M. Meijer; Jaiye O. Thomas; Pham Thi; Hoang Anh; Catterina Ferreccio; Elena Matos; Hector Posso; Silvia de Sanjose; Hai-Rim Shin; Sukhon Sukvirach; Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce; Guglielmo Ronco; Raj Rajkumar; You-Lin Qiao; Nubia Muno; Silvia Franceschi

2006-01-01

279

Statins and the Risk of Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Several epidemiologic studies have evaluated the association between statins and lung cancer risk, whereas randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on cardiovascular outcomes provide relevant data as a secondary end point. We conducted a meta-analysis of all relevant studies to examine this association. Methods A systematic literature search up to March 2012 was performed in PubMed database. Study-specific risk estimates were pooled using a random-effects model. Results Nineteen studies (5 RCTs and 14 observational studies) involving 38,013 lung cancer cases contributed to the analysis. They were grouped on the basis of study design, and separate meta-analyses were conducted. There was no evidence of an association between statin use and risk of lung cancer either among RCTs (relative risk [RR] 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76–1.09), among cohort studies (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.82–1.07), or among case-control studies (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.57–1.16). Low evidence of publication bias was found. However, statistically significant heterogeneity was found among cohort studies and among case-control studies. After excluding the studies contributing most to the heterogeneity, summary estimates were essentially unchanged. Conclusion The results of our meta-analysis suggest that there is no association between statin use and the risk of lung cancer.

Tan, Min; Song, Xiaolian; Zhang, Guoliang; Peng, Aimei; Li, Xuan; Li, Ming; Liu, Yang; Wang, Changhui

2013-01-01

280

Safety and tolerability of sitagliptin in clinical studies: a pooled analysis of data from 10,246 patients with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background In a previous pooled analysis of 12 double-blind clinical studies that included data on 6,139 patients with type 2 diabetes, treatment with sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, was shown to be generally well tolerated compared with treatment with control agents. As clinical development of sitagliptin continues, additional studies have been completed, and more patients have been exposed to sitagliptin. The purpose of the present analysis is to update the safety and tolerability assessment of sitagliptin by pooling data from 19 double-blind clinical studies. Methods The present analysis included data from 10,246 patients with type 2 diabetes who received either sitagliptin 100 mg/day (N = 5,429; sitagliptin group) or a comparator agent (placebo or an active comparator) (N = 4,817; non-exposed group). The 19 studies from which this pooled population was drawn represent the double-blind, randomized studies that included patients treated with the usual clinical dose of sitagliptin (100 mg/day) for between 12 weeks and 2 years and for which results were available as of July 2009. These 19 studies assessed sitagliptin taken as monotherapy, initial combination therapy with metformin or pioglitazone, or as add-on combination therapy with other antihyperglycemic agents (metformin, pioglitazone, a sulfonylurea ± metformin, insulin ± metformin, or rosiglitazone + metformin). Patients in the non-exposed group were taking placebo, metformin, pioglitazone, a sulfonylurea ± metformin, insulin ± metformin, or rosiglitazone + metformin. The analysis used patient-level data from each study to evaluate between-group differences in the exposure-adjusted incidence rates of adverse events. Results Summary measures of overall adverse events were similar in the sitagliptin and non-exposed groups, except for an increased incidence of drug-related adverse events in the non-exposed group. Incidence rates of specific adverse events were also generally similar between the two groups, except for increased incidence rates of hypoglycemia, related to the greater use of a sulfonylurea, and diarrhea, related to the greater use of metformin, in the non-exposed group and constipation in the sitagliptin group. Treatment with sitagliptin was not associated with an increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events. Conclusions In this updated pooled safety analysis of data from 10,246 patients with type 2 diabetes, sitagliptin 100 mg/day was generally well tolerated in clinical trials of up to 2 years in duration.

2010-01-01

281

A systems biology analysis of autophagy in cancer therapy.  

PubMed

Autophagy, which degrades redundant or damaged cellular constituents, is intricately relevant to a variety of human diseases, most notably cancer. Autophagy exerts distinct effects on cancer initiation and progression, due to the intrinsic overlapping of autophagic and cancer signalling pathways. However, due to the complexity of cancer as a systemic disease, the fate of cancer cells is not decided by any one signalling pathway. Numerous autophagic inter-connectivity and cross-talk pathways need to be further clarified at a systems level. In this review, we propose a systems biology perspective for the comprehensive analysis of the autophagy-cancer network, focusing on systems biology analysis in autophagy and cancer therapy. Together, these analyses may not only improve our understanding on autophagy-cancer relationships, but also facilitate cancer drug discovery. PMID:23791881

Shi, Zheng; Li, Chun-yang; Zhao, Si; Yu, Yang; An, Na; Liu, Yong-xi; Wu, Chuan-fang; Yue, Bi-song; Bao, Jin-ku

2013-06-18

282

Dietary glycaemic index, glycaemic load and endometrial and ovarian cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Long-term consumption of a high glycaemic index (GI) or glycaemic load (GL) diet may lead to chronic hyperinsulinaemia, which is a potential risk factor for cancer. To date, many studies have examined the association between GI, GL and cancer risk, although results have been inconsistent, therefore our objective was to conduct a systematic review of the literature. Medline and Embase were systematically searched using terms for GI, GL and cancer to identify studies published before December 2007. Random effects meta-analyses were performed for endometrial cancer, combining maximally adjusted results that compared risk for those in the highest versus the lowest category of intake. Separate analysis examined risk by body mass index categories. Five studies examining GI and/or GL intake and endometrial cancer risk were identified. Pooled effect estimates for endometrial cancer showed an increased risk for high GL consumers (RR 1.20; 95% CI: 1.06–1.37), further elevated in obese women (RR 1.54; 95% CI: 1.18–2.03). No significant associations were observed for GI. Only two studies examined ovarian cancer and therefore no meta-analysis was performed, but results indicate positive associations for GL also. A high GL, but not a high GI, diet is positively associated with the risk of endometrial cancer, particularly among obese women.

Mulholland, H G; Murray, L J; Cardwell, C R; Cantwell, M M

2008-01-01

283

Trace elements determinations in cancerous and non-cancerous human tissues using instrumental neutron activation analysis  

SciTech Connect

Recent improvements in analyzing techniques when coupled to the growing knowledge of trace element biochemistry provide a powerful tool to investigate the relationship between trace elements and cancer. It is hoped that selective delivery or restriction of specific minerals may aid in cancer prevention or treatment. Tissues were collected at the time of surgery of various cancer patients including colon cancer and breast cancer. Three kinds of tissues were taken from a patient; cancerous, noncancerous, and transitional tissue obtained from a region located between the cancer and healthy tissues. A total of 57 tissues were obtained from 19 cancer patients. Seven of them were colon cancer patients, and 5 of them were breast cancer patients. Nine elements were determined using instrumental activation analysis. Cancerous colon tissue had significantly higher concentrations of selenium and iron than healthy tissues. Cancerous breast tissue had significantly higher concentrations of selenium, iron, manganese, and rubidium than healthy tissues. Iron can be enriched in cancer tissue because cancer tissue retains more blood vessels. Selenium is enriched in cancer tissue, possibly in an effort of the body to inhibit the growth of tumors. The manganese enrichment can be explained in the same manner as selenium considering its suspected anticarcinogenicity. It is not certain why rubidium was enriched in cancer tissue. It could be that this is the result of alteration of cell membrane permeability, change in extracellular matrix, or increased metabolism in cancer tissue.

Choi, Insup.

1989-01-01

284

Immunoglobulin E and cancer: a meta-analysis and a large Swedish cohort study.  

PubMed

We quantified associations between IgE and cancer in a meta-analysis and cohort study. Pubmed and Embase were searched to extract information using predefined inclusion criteria. In the Apolipoprotein MOrtality RISk (AMORIS) database, 24,820 persons had IgE measurements. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze associations between IgE and cancer. Twenty-seven studies were reviewed from which seven case-control studies were included for analysis. The pooled relative risk (random effects model) was 0.97 (95% CI 0.86-1.09). Cell types of tumor origin (mesenchymal tissue or cells of the nervous system, lymphatic or hematopoietic tissue, and epithelium) modified the effect. In the AMORIS cohort, 862 persons developed cancer. Hazard ratios comparing quartiles of IgE were similar to the findings in the meta-analysis (HR 0.87 (95% CI 0.72-1.06); 0.94 (0.78-1.14); 0.90 (0.74-1.10) for the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartile compared to the 1st quartile), but there was no pattern by tumor origin. Both studies showed a weak inverse association between IgE and cancer, but a pattern by cancer type was only seen in the meta-analysis. Our findings suggest the need for prospective studies studying IgE and cancer. Measurements of IgE should be combined with other information, e.g., bio-banked samples containing other key immunological discriminators. PMID:20533084

Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Garmo, Hans; Binda, Elisa; Hayday, Adrian; Karagiannis, Sophia N; Hammar, Niklas; Walldius, Göran; Lambe, Mats; Jungner, Ingmar; Holmberg, Lars

2010-06-09

285

Pooled samples bias fungal community descriptions.  

PubMed

We tested the accuracy of molecular analyses for recovering the species richness and structure of pooled fungal communities of known composition. We constructed replicate pools of 2-20 species and analysed these pools by two separate pooling-DNA extraction procedures and three different molecular analyses (Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library-sequencing). None of the methods correctly described the known communities. Only clone library-sequencing with high sequencing per pool (?100 clones) recovered reasonable estimates of richness. Frequency data were skewed with all procedures and analyses. These results indicate that the error introduced by pooling samples is significant and problematic for ecological studies of fungal communities. PMID:21564998

Avis, P G; Branco, S; Tang, Y; Mueller, G M

2009-07-06

286

Method for data analysis in different institutions: Example of image guidance of prostate cancer patients.  

PubMed

Multi-institutional collaborations allow for more information to be analyzed but the data from different sources may vary in the subgroup sizes and/or conditions of measuring. Rigorous statistical analysis is required for pooling the data in a larger set. Careful comparison of all the components of the data acquisition is indispensable: identical conditions allow for enlargement of the database with improved statistical analysis, clearly defined differences provide opportunity for establishing a better practice. The optimal sequence of required normality, asymptotic normality, and independence tests is proposed. An example of analysis of six subgroups of position corrections in three directions obtained during image guidance procedures for 216 prostate cancer patients from two institutions is presented. PMID:23721940

Piotrowski, T; Rodrigues, G; Bajon, T; Yartsev, S

2013-05-28

287

Safety of ranibizumab in routine clinical practice: 1-year retrospective pooled analysis of four European neovascular AMD registries within the LUMINOUS programme  

PubMed Central

Purpose Evaluation of 1-year safety profile of intravitreal ranibizumab 0.5?mg in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NV-AMD) within routine clinical practice. Methods The LUMINOUS programme comprises a prospective observational study assessing ranibizumab ‘real-world’ safety and clinical effectiveness across licensed indications worldwide and an annual retrospective pooled safety analysis from completed NV-AMD ranibizumab registries. 1-year data from four European registries are available. This retrospective pooled safety analysis assessed 1-year incidence rates for safety events of particular interest (key ocular or systemic events possibly related to the injection procedure or vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition) together with treatment exposure. Patients were treated according to local protocols within the ranibizumab licence. Results Data of 4444 patients from registries in Germany (n=3470), the Netherlands (n=243), Belgium (n=260) and Sweden (n=471) were retrospectively pooled. Between 70.4% and 84.4% of enrolled patients completed 1?year of follow-up. Most frequent overall ocular events of particular interest were retinal pigment epithelial tears (27 patients; <1%) and intraocular pressure-related events (12 patients; <0.3%). Most frequent non-ocular event of particular interest was stroke (19 patients; 0.4%); annual incidence of stroke was low across all registries (0.0–0.5%). Conclusions Ranibizumab demonstrated favourable 1-year safety profile for NV-AMD in this routine clinical practice sample, consistent with previous reported trial data. Additional data from a larger patient population are needed to better describe the long-term safety profile of ranibizumab in routine clinical practice and further evaluate risk for infrequent but serious events in ‘real-life’ settings. The 5-year LUMINOUS prospective observational study will address this need.

Holz, Frank G; Bandello, Francesco; Gillies, Mark; Mitchell, Paul; Osborne, Aaron; Sheidow, Tom; Souied, Eric; Figueroa, Marta S

2013-01-01

288

Associations of Suboptimal Growth with All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in Children under Five Years: A Pooled Analysis of Ten Prospective Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Child undernutrition affects millions of children globally. We investigated associations between suboptimal growth and mortality by pooling large studies. Methods Pooled analysis involving children 1 week to 59 months old in 10 prospective studies in Africa, Asia and South America. Utilizing most recent measurements, we calculated weight-for-age, height/length-for-age and weight-for-height/length Z scores, applying 2006 WHO Standards and the 1977 NCHS/WHO Reference. We estimated all-cause and cause-specific mortality hazard ratios (HR) using proportional hazards models comparing children with mild (?2?Zanalysis and contributed a total of 55 359 person-years, during which 1315 deaths were observed. All degrees of underweight, stunting and wasting were associated with significantly higher mortality. The strength of association increased monotonically as Z scores decreased. Pooled mortality HR was 1.52 (95% Confidence Interval 1.28, 1.81) for mild underweight; 2.63 (2.20, 3.14) for moderate underweight; and 9.40 (8.02, 11.03) for severe underweight. Wasting was a stronger determinant of mortality than stunting or underweight. Mortality HR for severe wasting was 11.63 (9.84, 13.76) compared with 5.48 (4.62, 6.50) for severe stunting. Using older NCHS standards resulted in larger HRs compared with WHO standards. In cause-specific analyses, all degrees of anthropometric deficits increased the hazards of dying from respiratory tract infections and diarrheal diseases. The study had insufficient power to precisely estimate effects of undernutrition on malaria mortality. Conclusions All degrees of anthropometric deficits are associated with increased risk of under-five mortality using the 2006 WHO Standards. Even mild deficits substantially increase mortality, especially from infectious diseases.

Olofin, Ibironke; McDonald, Christine M.; Ezzati, Majid; Flaxman, Seth; Black, Robert E.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Caulfield, Laura E.; Danaei, Goodarz

2013-01-01

289

What Does Cancer Treatment Look Like in Consumer Cancer Magazines? An Exploratory Analysis of Photographic Content in Consumer Cancer Magazines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an exploratory analysis of several highly circulated consumer cancer magazines, the authors evaluated congruency between visual images of cancer patients and target audience risk profile. The authors assessed 413 images of cancer patients\\/potential patients for demographic variables such as age, gender, and ethnicity\\/race. They compared this profile with actual risk statistics. The images in the magazines are considerably younger,

Selene G. Phillips; Lindsay J. Della; Steve H. Sohn

2011-01-01

290

Alcohol intake and renal cell cancer risk: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: An inverse association between alcoholic beverage intake and risk of renal cell cancer has been suggested in recent studies. Methods: We examined the association between alcoholic beverages and renal cell cancer risk in a meta-analysis. We identified relevant studies by searching the database of PubMed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE published through August 2011. We combined the study-specific relative risks (RRs) using a random-effects model. Results: A total of 20 case–control studies, 3 cohort studies, and 1 pooled analysis of cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. We observed that alcoholic beverage intake was associated with a lower risk of renal cell cancer in combined analysis of case–control and cohort studies; for total alcoholic beverage intake, combined RRs (95% confidence intervals) comparing top with bottom categories were 0.76 (0.68–0.85) in case–control studies, and 0.71 (0.63–0.78) in cohort studies (P for difference by study design=0.02). The inverse associations were observed for both men and women and for each specific type alcoholic beverage (beer, wine, and liquor). Also, we found that one drink per day of alcoholic beverage conferred the reduction in renal cell cancer risk, but further drinking above that level did not add benefit. Conclusion: The findings from our meta-analysis support the hypothesis that alcoholic beverage intake is inversely associated with a lower risk of renal cell cancer, with moderate consumption conferring the protection and higher consumption conferring no additional benefits.

Song, D Y; Song, S; Song, Y; Lee, J E

2012-01-01

291

Testicular cancer and viral infections: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

In 1984, Newell and coworkers were the first to suggest that testicular cancer might have a viral etiology since it showed similar characteristics to Hodgkin's lymphoma. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was conducted to investigate a possible association between viral infections (EBV, CMV, Parvovirus B19, HPV, and HIV) and testicular cancer. Articles published from 1985 through June 2010 were located from MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, 21 articles were finally included in the review. For infection with EBV, CMV, Parvovirus B19, and HIV the pooled OR were 4.80 (95% CI 0.98-23.54), 1.85 (95% CI 0.92-3.70), 2.86 (95% CI 0.35-23.17), and 1.79 (95% CI 1.45-2.21) respectively. No pooling was possible for HPV infection studies due to small numbers. The results support a possible association, but more epidemiological studies with better viral identification and localization methods are needed to verify these findings. J. Med. Virol. 85:2165-2175, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23959966

Yousif, Lamyaa; Hammer, Gaël P; Blettner, Maria; Zeeb, Hajo

2013-08-19

292

Prostate Cancer and Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A Meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Prostate cancer is the most common neoplasm of American men and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths. Research suggests that infection and subsequent inflamma- tion may be an important risk factor in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. In this meta-analysis, we examine the current epidemiological evidence for the association between specific sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and prostate

Marcia L. Taylor; Arch G. Mainous; Brian J. Wells

293

Breast cancer risk analysis: A genetic epidemiology service for families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast Cancer Risk Analysis, a service for women with breast cancer and their families, makes use of information drawn from fields such as genetics, epidemiology, and counseling. Its aim is to provide individuals with background information and information regarding the etiology and risks of breast cancer. Based on this information, individuals are helped to make appropriate decisions pertaining to treatment

Patricia T. Kelly

1992-01-01

294

Cancer Nursing Education: Literature Review and Documentary Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The knowledge and skills needed by cancer nurses and the content and strategies of England's existing cancer nursing education programs were examined. The study included a comprehensive literature review and an analysis of course documents from selected English National Board-approved post-qualifying cancer nursing and palliative care courses…

Langton, Helen; Blunden, Gillian; Hek, Gill

295

Effect of nonionic radiocontrast agents on the occurrence of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with mild-moderate chronic renal insufficiency: pooled analysis of the randomized trials.  

PubMed

Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The recent literature contains numerous clinical trials with similar design, endpoints, and patient populations, describing the nephrotoxic effects of various contrast agents, which are higher with ionic vs. nonionic contrast agents. The difference in the incidence of CIN with nonionic contrast agents may be due to the number of benzene rings (monomer vs. dimer), iodine content, osmolality, and viscosity of the individual contrast agents. We evaluated the recently published data from clinical studies with nonionic iodinated contrast agents in patients with preexisting chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) and report the results of pooled analysis of data from recent prospective independent studies of CIN with various nonionic contrast agents. Review of the recent literature revealed that the CIN incidence varies across the studies reviewed and the contrast agents used. The highest incidence of CIN was observed in studies using iohexol or ioxilan. Results of the pooled analysis of nonionic contrast agents (with more than one randomized study) showed a similar incidence of CIN after iodixanol and iopamidol in patients with preexisting CRI, while both agents showed a significantly lower incidence of CIN compared to iohexol. Since iodixanol is more expensive than iopamidol, this observation may be clinically relevant. PMID:15926184

Sharma, Samin K; Kini, Annapoorna

2005-07-01

296

Efficacy and safety of combined prolonged-release oxycodone and naloxone in the management of moderate\\/severe chronic non-malignant pain: results of a prospectively designed pooled analysis of two randomised, double-blind clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Two randomised 12-week, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter studies comparing oxycodone PR\\/naloxone PR and oxycodone PR alone on symptoms of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction in patients with moderate\\/severe non-malignant pain have been conducted. METHODS: These studies were prospectively designed to be pooled and the primary outcome measure of the pooled data analysis was to demonstrate non-inferiority in 12-week analgesic efficacy of oxycodone

Oliver Löwenstein; Petra Leyendecker; Eberhard A Lux; Mark Blagden; Karen H Simpson; Michael Hopp; Björn Bosse; Karen Reimer

2010-01-01

297

A Simulation Based Analysis of Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX) Technique Using Motoneuron Pool and Surface Electromyogram Models  

PubMed Central

Motor unit number index (MUNIX) measurement has recently achieved increasing attention as a tool to evaluate the progression of motoneuron diseases. In our current study, the sensitivity of the MUNIX technique to changes in motoneuron and muscle properties was explored by a simulation approach utilizing variations on published motoneuron pool and surface electromyogram (EMG) models. Our simulation results indicate that, when keeping motoneuron pool and muscle parameters unchanged and varying the input motor unit numbers to the model, then MUNIX estimates can appropriately characterize changes in motor unit numbers. Such MUNIX estimates are not sensitive to different motor unit recruitment and rate coding strategies used in the model. Furthermore, alterations in motor unit control properties do not have a significant effect on the MUNIX estimates. Neither adjustment of the motor unit recruitment range nor reduction of the motor unit firing rates jeopardizes the MUNIX estimates. The MUNIX estimates closely correlate with the maximum M wave amplitude. However, if we reduce the amplitude of each motor unit action potential rather than simply reduce motor unit number, then MUNIX estimates substantially underestimate the motor unit numbers in the muscle. These findings suggest that the current MUNIX definition is most suitable for motoneuron diseases that demonstrate secondary evidence of muscle fiber reinnervation. In this regard, when MUNIX is applied, it is of much importance to examine a parallel measurement of motor unit size index (MUSIX), defined as the ratio of the maximum M wave amplitude to the MUNIX. However, there are potential limitations in the application of the MUNIX methods in atrophied muscle, where it is unclear whether the atrophy is accompanied by loss of motor units or loss of muscle fiber size.

Li, Xiaoyan; Rymer, William Zev; Zhou, Ping

2013-01-01

298

EGF +61A>G polymorphism and gastrointestinal cancer risk: a HuGE review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Emerging evidences from preclinical and clinical studies have shown that epidermal growth factor (EGF) has some effectiveness against endogenously arising carcinogenesis. Functional +61A>G polymorphism (rs4444903 A>G) in the promoter region of the EGF gene was observed to modulate EGF levels, thus affecting the susceptibility to gastrointestinal cancer; but individually published studies showed inconclusive results. The aim of this Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) review and meta-analysis was to derive a more precise estimation of the association between EGF +61A>G polymorphism and gastrointestinal cancer risk. A literature search of Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science and Chinese BioMedical databases from inception through July 2012 was conducted. Twelve studies were assessed with a total of 2868 gastrointestinal cancer cases and 4278 healthy controls. When all the eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis, the results showed that the G allele and GG genotype of EGF +61A>G polymorphism might increase the risk of gastrointestinal cancer. In the stratified analysis by cancer types, the G allele and GG genotype of EGF +61A>G polymorphism showed displayed significant correlations with increased risk of esophageal cancer. We also found significant correlations between the G carrier (GG+AG) and GG genotype of EGF +61A>G polymorphism and colorectal cancer risk. However, EGF +61A>G polymorphism did not appear to have an influence on gastric cancer susceptibility. Results from the current meta-analysis indicate that EGF +61A>G polymorphism might increase the risk of esophageal and colorectal cancers. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to determine whether genetic associations between EGF +61A>G polymorphism and susceptibility to gastric cancer are significant. PMID:23403233

Piao, Ying; Liu, Zhaozhe; Ding, Zhenyu; Xu, Long; Guo, Fang; Sun, Qingqing; Xie, Xiaodong

2013-02-09

299

poolMC: Smart pooling of mRNA samples in microarray experiments  

PubMed Central

Background Typically, pooling of mRNA samples in microarray experiments implies mixing mRNA from several biological-replicate samples before hybridization onto a microarray chip. Here we describe an alternative smart pooling strategy in which different samples, not necessarily biological replicates, are pooled in an information theoretic efficient way. Further, each sample is tested on multiple chips, but always in pools made up of different samples. The end goal is to exploit the compressibility of microarray data to reduce the number of chips used and increase the robustness to noise in measurements. Results A theoretical framework to perform smart pooling of mRNA samples in microarray experiments was established and the software implementation of the pooling and decoding algorithms was developed in MATLAB. A proof-of-concept smart pooled experiment was performed using validated biological samples on commercially available gene chips. Differential-expression analysis of the smart pooled data was performed and compared against the unpooled control experiment. Conclusions The theoretical developments and experimental demonstration in this paper provide a useful starting point to investigate smart pooling of mRNA samples in microarray experiments. Although the smart pooled experiment did not compare favorably with the control, the experiment highlighted important conditions for the successful implementation of smart pooling - linearity of measurements, sparsity in data, and large experiment size.

2010-01-01

300

Association between Helicobacter pylori Infection and Pancreatic Cancer Development: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Pancreatic cancer is one of the most troublesome malignancies with dismal prognosis. H. pylori has been recognized as a type I carcinogen. Several studies have evaluated the association between H. pylori infection and pancreatic cancer development, however, the conclusions are inconsistent. Methods Literature search was carried out in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and CNKI databases to identify eligible researches. We performed overall meta-analysis of all studies included and subgroup analysis based on regional distribution. Quality of the studies (assessed by Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale for case-control studies) and CagA+ strains of H. pylori were taken into consideration, and we conducted additional analyses including high-quality researches and those concerning CagA+ H. pylori respectively. Results 9 studies involving 3033 subjects (1083 pancreatic cancer cases, 1950 controls) were included. Summary OR and 95%CI of the overall meta-analysis of all included studies were 1.47 and 1.22-1.77, pooled data of the 4 high-quality studies were OR 1.28, 95%CI 1.01-1.63. OR of the 5 studies examined CagA+ strains was 1.42, corresponding 95%CI was 0.79 to 2.57. Summary estimates of subgroup analysis based on regional distribution are as follows, Europe group: OR 1.56, 95%CI 1.15-2.10; East Asia group: OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.33-3.02; North America group: OR 1.17, 95%CI 0.87-1.58. There was not obvious heterogeneity across the 9 studies. No publication bias was detected. Conclusion H. pylori infection is significantly, albeit weakly, associated with pancreatic cancer development. The association is prominent in Europe and East Asia, but not in North America. CagA+ H. pylori strains appear not to be associated with pancreatic cancer. However, more studies, especially prospective studies, are needed to validate our results.

Gao, Yi

2013-01-01

301

Proteomic Analysis of Prostate Cancer Field Effect.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have undertaken a novel proteomic approach to identify proteins altered in both cancer and benign cells near the cancers. This is to take advantage of the field effect of the cancer, the malignancy associated changes in normal cells, to discover cancer...

M. J. Wilson

2011-01-01

302

How good is endoscopic ultrasound for TNM staging of gastric cancers? A meta-analysis and systematic review  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for staging of gastric cancers. METHODS: Only EUS studies confirmed by surgery were selected. Only studies from which a 2 × 2 table could be constructed for true positive, false negative, false positive and true negative values were included. Articles were searched in Medline, Pubmed, Ovid journals, Cumulative index for nursing & allied health literature, International pharmaceutical abstracts, old Medline, Medline nonindexed citations, and Cochrane control trial registry. Two reviewers independently searched and extracted data. The differences were resolved by mutual agreement. 2 × 2 tables were constructed with the data extracted from each study. Meta-analysis for the accuracy of EUS was analyzed by calculating pooled estimates of sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and diagnostic odds ratio. Pooling was conducted by both the Mantel-Haenszel method (fixed effects model) and DerSimonian Laird method (random effects model). The heterogeneity of studies was tested using Cochran’s Q test based upon inverse variance weights. RESULTS: Initial search identified 1620 reference articles and of these, 376 relevant articles were selected and reviewed. Twenty-two studies (n = 1896) which met the inclusion criteria were included in this analysis. Pooled sensitivity of T1 was 88.1% (95% CI: 84.5-91.1) and T2 was 82.3% (95% CI: 78.2-86.0). For T3, pooled sensitivity was 89.7% (95% CI: 87.1-92.0). T4 had a pooled sensitivity of 99.2% (95% CI: 97.1-99.9). For nodal staging, the pooled sensitivity for N1 was 58.2% (95% CI: 53.5-62.8) and N2 was 64.9% (95% CI: 60.8-68.8). Pooled sensitivity to diagnose distant metastasis was 73.2% (95% CI: 63.2-81.7). The P for chi-squared heterogeneity for all the pooled accuracy estimates was > 0.10. CONCLUSION: EUS results are more accurate with advanced disease than early disease. If EUS diagnoses advanced disease, such as T4 disease, the patient is 500 times more likely to have true anatomic stage of T4 disease.

Puli, Srinivas Reddy; Reddy, Jyotsna Batapati Krishna; Bechtold, Matthew L; Antillon, Mainor R; Ibdah, Jamal A

2008-01-01

303

Benign thyroid disease is associated with breast cancer: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The controversial relationship between benign thyroid diseases and breast cancer (BC) has been investigated for over 50 years. Despite extensive population studies, the results as a whole have been inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to collate and analyse available data, calculating a pooled odds ratio (OR) of the risk of BC in patients diagnosed with benign thyroid diseases. Studies were obtained from a database search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Current Contents Connect and Google Scholar with additional cross checking of reference lists. Inclusion criteria required a confirmed diagnosis of a benign thyroid disease, reporting of an OR or data to calculate an OR (and 95% confidence interval, CI) and the use of an internal control group as the comparator. Collated data was assessed for heterogeneity and a pooled OR calculated. 28 studies were included in the meta-analysis. There was significant evidence of an increased risk of BC in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis, evident in a pooled OR 2.92 (95% CI 2.13-4.01). In addition, the results supported an increased risk associated with the presence of anti-thyroid antibodies (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.63-2.50) and goitre (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.39-3.69). Subgroup analysis of antibody presence revealed increased risk associated with both anti-TPO (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.82-3.83) and anti-TG (2.71, 95% CI 1.58-4.69). Quantitative analysis of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism was not significant. While these results indicate an association between thyroid auto-immunity and BC, further prospective studies are required to definitively prove causality. PMID:22434524

Hardefeldt, Prue J; Eslick, Guy D; Edirimanne, Senarath

2012-03-21

304

Lung Cancer Occurrence in Never-Smokers: An Analysis of 13 Cohorts and 22 Cancer Registry Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBetter information on lung cancer occurrence in lifelong nonsmokers is needed to understand gender and racial disparities and to examine how factors other than active smoking influence risk in different time periods and geographic regions.Methods and FindingsWe pooled information on lung cancer incidence and\\/or death rates among self-reported never-smokers from 13 large cohort studies, representing over 630,000 and 1.8 million

Michael J Thun; Lindsay M Hannan; Lucile L Adams-Campbell; Paolo Boffetta; Julie E Buring; Diane Feskanich; W. Dana Flanders; Sun Ha Jee; Kota Katanoda; Laurence N Kolonel; I-Min Lee; Tomomi Marugame; Julie R Palmer; Elio Riboli; Tomotaka Sobue; Erika Avila-Tang; Lynne R Wilkens; Jon M Samet

2008-01-01

305

Analysis of leakage current mechanisms in Pt/Au Schottky contact on Ga-polarity GaN by Frenkel-Poole emission and deep level studies  

SciTech Connect

We report the Frenkel-Poole emission in Pt/Au Schottky contact on Ga-polarity GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy using current-voltage-temperature (I-V-T) characteristics in the temperature ranging from 200 K to 375 K. Using thermionic emission model, the estimated Schottky barrier height is 0.49 eV at 200 K and 0.83 eV at 375 K, respectively, and it is observed that the barrier height increases with increase in temperature. The extracted emission barrier height ({phi}{sub t}) for Ga-polarity GaN Schottky diode by Frenkel-Poole theory is about 0.15 eV. Deep level transient spectroscopy study shows a deep level with activation energy of 0.44 eV, having capture cross-section 6.09 x 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}, which is located between the metal and semiconductor interface, and trap nature is most probably associated with dislocations in Ga-polarity GaN. The analysis of I-V-T characteristics represents that the leakage current is due to effects of electrical field and temperature on the emission of electron from a trap state near the metal-semiconductor interface into continuum states associated with conductive dislocations in Ga-polarity GaN Schottky diode.

Rao, Peta Koteswara; Park, Byungguon; Lee, Sang-Tae; Noh, Young-Kyun; Kim, Moon-Deock [Department of Physics, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jae-Eung [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 425-791 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-07-01

306

GC-EI-TOF-MS analysis of in vivo carbon-partitioning into soluble metabolite pools of higher plants by monitoring isotope dilution after 13CO2 labelling.  

PubMed

The established GC-EI-TOF-MS method for the profiling of soluble polar metabolites from plant tissue was employed for the kinetic metabolic phenotyping of higher plants. Approximately 100 typical GC-EI-MS mass fragments of trimethylsilylated and methoxyaminated metabolite derivatives were structurally interpreted for mass isotopomer analysis, thus enabling the kinetic study of identified metabolites as well as the so-called functional group monitoring of yet non-identified metabolites. The monitoring of isotope dilution after (13)CO(2) labelling was optimized using Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 or Oryza sativa IR57111 plants, which were maximally labelled with (13)C. Carbon isotope dilution was evaluated for short (2h) and long-term (3 days) kinetic measurements of metabolite pools in root and shoots. Both approaches were shown to enable the characterization of metabolite specific partitioning processes and kinetics. Simplifying data reduction schemes comprising calculation of (13)C-enrichment from mass isotopomer distributions and of initial (13)C-dilution rates were employed. Metabolites exhibited a highly diverse range of metabolite and organ specific half-life of (13)C-label in their respective pools ((13)C-half-life). This observation implied the setting of metabolite specific periods for optimal kinetic monitoring. A current experimental design for the kinetic metabolic phenotyping of higher plants is proposed. PMID:17475294

Huege, Jan; Sulpice, Ronan; Gibon, Yves; Lisec, Jan; Koehl, Karin; Kopka, Joachim

2007-05-01

307

A Platelet Acquired Storage Pool Disorder Associated with Tamoxifen Therapy  

PubMed Central

The antiestrogenic drug tamoxifen, used in patients with breast cancer, is associated with an increase in arterial and venous thrombotic events, the mechanism of which is not clearly understood. We report a case of a lady who presented with new bruising and prolonged bleeding following a tooth extraction 4–6 weeks after starting tamoxifen. Investigations were consistent with an acquired platelet storage pool disorder. Repeat platelet function analysis was normal, performed 3 months after discontinuation of tamoxifen. We present a previously clinically unreported effect of tamoxifen on platelet function.

Nayak, Lalitha; Schmaier, Alvin H.

2012-01-01

308

Smoking Before the First Pregnancy and the Risk of Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

The authors conducted a meta-analysis of the association between smoking before a first pregnancy, when undifferentiated breast tissue may be vulnerable to tobacco carcinogens, and the risk of breast cancer. A search of the published literature through August 2010 identified 23 papers reporting on associations between smoking before a first pregnancy and breast cancer. Odds ratios or hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for known or suspected breast cancer risk factors, were abstracted from each study. Data were pooled using both fixed- and random-effects models. The fixed-effect summary risk ratio for breast cancer among the women who smoked before their first pregnancy versus women who had never smoked was 1.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.07, 1.14); the random-effects estimate was similar. The separate fixed-effect risk ratios for smoking only before the first pregnancy (5 studies) or only after the first pregnancy (16 studies) were both 1.07, providing no evidence that breast tissue is more susceptible to malignant transformation from smoking before the first pregnancy. While these small summary risk ratios may represent causal effects, residual confounding could readily produce estimates of this size in the absence of any causal effect.

DeRoo, Lisa A.; Cummings, Peter; Mueller, Beth A.

2011-01-01

309

Factors influencing subjective quality of life in patients with schizophrenia and other mental disorders: a pooled analysis.  

PubMed

Subjective quality of life (SQOL) is an important outcome in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. However, there is only limited evidence on factors influencing SQOL, and little is known about whether the same factors influence SQOL in patients with schizophrenia and other mental disorders. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with SQOL and test whether these factors are equally important in schizophrenia and other disorders. For this we used a pooled data set obtained from 16 studies that had used either the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile or the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life for assessing SQOL. The sample comprised 3936 patients with schizophrenia, mood disorders, and neurotic disorders. After controlling for confounding factors, within-subject clustering, and heterogeneity of findings across studies in linear mixed models, patients with schizophrenia had more favourable SQOL scores than those with mood and neurotic disorders. In all diagnostic groups, older patients, those in employment, and those with lower symptom scores had higher SQOL scores. Whilst the strength of the association between age and SQOL did not differ across diagnostic groups, symptom levels were more strongly associated with SQOL in neurotic than in mood disorders and schizophrenia. The association of employment and SQOL was stronger in mood and neurotic disorders than in schizophrenia. The findings may inform the use and interpretation of SQOL data for patients with schizophrenia. PMID:20483566

Priebe, Stefan; Reininghaus, Ulrich; McCabe, Rosemarie; Burns, Tom; Eklund, Mona; Hansson, Lars; Junghan, Ulrich; Kallert, Thomas; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs; Ruggeri, Mirella; Slade, Mike; Wang, Duolao

2010-05-18

310

Analysis of adult neurogenesis: evidence for a prominent "non-neurogenic" DCX-protein pool in rodent brain.  

PubMed

Here, we have developed a highly sensitive immunoassay for Dcx to characterize expression in brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of rodents. We demonstrate that Dcx is widely expressed during development in various brain regions and as well can be detected in cerebrospinal fluid of rats (up to 30 days postnatal). While Dcx protein level decline in adulthood and were detectable in neurogenic regions of the adult rodent brain, similar levels were also detectable in brain regions expected to bear no neurogenesis including the cerebral cortex and CA1/CA3 enriched hippocampus. We monitored DCX protein levels after paradigms to increase or severely decrease adult hippocampal neurogenesis, namely physical activity and cranial radiation, respectively. In both paradigms, Dcx protein- and mRNA-levels clearly reflected changes in neurogenesis in the hippocampus. However, basal Dcx-levels are unaffected in non-neurogenic regions (e.g. CA1/CA3 enriched hippocampus, cortex). These data suggest that there is a substantial "non-neurogenic" pool of Dcx- protein, whose regulation can be uncoupled from adult neurogenesis suggesting caution for the interpretation of such studies. PMID:23690918

Kremer, Thomas; Jagasia, Ravi; Herrmann, Annika; Matile, Hugues; Borroni, Edilio; Francis, Fiona; Kuhn, Hans Georg; Czech, Christian

2013-05-14

311

Efficacy and Safety of Artemether-Lumefantrine in the Treatment of Acute, Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria: A Pooled Analysis  

PubMed Central

Randomized trials have confirmed the efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Data from seven studies supported by Novartis (1996–2007), including 647 adults (> 16 years of age, 83.3% completed the study) and 1,332 children (? 16 years of age, 89.3% completed the study) with microscopically confirmed uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria and treated with the recommended regimen of AL, were pooled. The 28-day polymerase chain reaction–corrected parasitologic cure rate (primary efficacy endpoint) was 97.1% (495 of 510) in adults and 97.3% (792 of 814) in children (evaluable population). Gametocytemia prevalence after day was 4.2% (23 of 554) in adults and 0.9% (8 of 846) in children. No noteworthy safety signals were observed. Serious adverse events occurred in 1.4% of the adults and 1.3% of the children. This study is the largest data set to date assessing AL therapy for treatment of acute uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. Artemether-lumefantrine showed high cure rates and rapid resolution of parasitemia, fever, and gametocytemia in adults and children, and showed an excellent safety and tolerability profile.

Makanga, Michael; Bassat, Quique; Falade, Catherine O.; Premji, Zulfiqarali G.; Krudsood, Srivicha; Hunt, Philip; Walter, Verena; Beck, Hans-Peter; Marrast, Anne-Claire; Cousin, Marc; Rosenthal, Philip J.

2011-01-01

312

Efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine in the treatment of acute, uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria: a pooled analysis.  

PubMed

Randomized trials have confirmed the efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Data from seven studies supported by Novartis (1996-2007), including 647 adults (> 16 years of age, 83.3% completed the study) and 1,332 children (? 16 years of age, 89.3% completed the study) with microscopically confirmed uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria and treated with the recommended regimen of AL, were pooled. The 28-day polymerase chain reaction-corrected parasitologic cure rate (primary efficacy endpoint) was 97.1% (495 of 510) in adults and 97.3% (792 of 814) in children (evaluable population). Gametocytemia prevalence after day was 4.2% (23 of 554) in adults and 0.9% (8 of 846) in children. No noteworthy safety signals were observed. Serious adverse events occurred in 1.4% of the adults and 1.3% of the children. This study is the largest data set to date assessing AL therapy for treatment of acute uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. Artemether-lumefantrine showed high cure rates and rapid resolution of parasitemia, fever, and gametocytemia in adults and children, and showed an excellent safety and tolerability profile. PMID:22049029

Makanga, Michael; Bassat, Quique; Falade, Catherine O; Premji, Zulfiqarali G; Krudsood, Srivicha; Hunt, Philip; Walter, Verena; Beck, Hans-Peter; Marrast, Anne-Claire; Cousin, Marc; Rosenthal, Philip J

2011-11-01

313

Cardiovascular safety of liraglutide assessed in a patient-level pooled analysis of phase 2: 3 liraglutide clinical development studies.  

PubMed

We assessed the cardiovascular safety of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, using existing clinical data. Patient-level results from all completed phase 2 and 3 studies from the liraglutide clinical development programme were pooled to determine rates of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE): cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke. MACE were identified by querying the study database using Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) terms combined with serious adverse events recorded by study investigators. Broad, narrow, and custom groups of MedDRA queries were used. Candidate events from each query were independently adjudicated post hoc. In 15 studies (6638 patients; 4257 liraglutide treated), there were 114 patients with MACE identified using the broad MedDRA query. Of these, 44 were classified as serious adverse events and 39 were adjudicated as MACE. The incidence ratio for adjudicated broad/serious MACE associated with liraglutide was 0.73 (95% CI 0.38-1.41) versus all comparator drugs (metformin, glimepiride, rosiglitazone, insulin glargine, placebo), within cardiovascular safety limits defined by the United States Food & Drug Administration for diabetes therapies under current investigation. PMID:21653676

Marso, Steven P; Lindsey, Jason B; Stolker, Joshua M; House, John A; Martinez Ravn, Gabriela; Kennedy, Kevin F; Jensen, Troels M; Buse, John B

2011-06-08

314

An Epidemiological Reappraisal of the Familial Aggregation of Prostate Cancer: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Studies on familial aggregation of cancer may suggest an overall contribution of inherited genes or a shared environment in the development of malignant disease. We performed a meta-analysis on familial clustering of prostate cancer. Out of 74 studies reporting data on familial aggregation of prostate cancer in unselected populations retrieved by a Pubmed search and browsing references, 33 independent studies meeting the inclusion criteria were used in the analysis performed with the random effects model. The pooled rate ratio (RR) for first-degree family history, i.e. affected father or brother, is 2.48 (95% confidence interval: 2.25–2.74). The incidence rate for men who have a brother who got prostate cancer increases 3.14 times (CI:2.37–4.15), and for those with affected father 2.35 times (CI:2.02–2.72). The pooled estimate of RR for two or more affected first-degree family members relative to no history in father and in brother is 4.39 (CI:2.61–7.39). First-degree family history appears to increase the incidence rate of prostate cancer more in men under 65 (RR:2.87, CI:2.21–3.74), than in men aged 65 and older (RR:1.92, CI:1.49–2.47), p for interaction?=?0.002. The attributable fraction among those having an affected first-degree relative equals to 59.7% (CI:55.6–63.5%) for men at all ages, 65.2% (CI:57.7–71.4%) for men younger than 65 and 47.9% (CI:37.1–56.8%) for men aged 65 or older. For those with a family history in 2 or more first-degree family members 77.2% (CI:65.4–85.0%) of prostate cancer incidence can be attributed to the familial clustering. Our combined estimates show strong familial clustering and a significant effect-modification by age meaning that familial aggregation was associated with earlier disease onset (before age 65).

Kicinski, Michal; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Nawrot, Tim S.

2011-01-01

315

Incidence and time course of extrapyramidal symptoms with oral and long-acting injectable paliperidone: a posthoc pooled analysis of seven randomized controlled studies  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to compare incidence rates and time course of extrapyramidal symptom (EPS)-related treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) between oral and long-acting injectable (LAI) paliperidone. Methods The analysis included pooled data (safety analysis set, 2,256 antipsychotic-treated and 865 placebo-treated patients with schizophrenia) from seven randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled paliperidone studies (three oral [6 weeks each] and four LAI [9–13 weeks]) and assessed comparable doses (oral, 3–15 mg; LAI, 25–150 mg eq. [US doses 39–234 mg]). We summarized incidence rates and time of onset for EPS-related TEAE, categorized by EPS group terms, ie, tremor, dystonia, hyperkinesia, parkinsonism, and dyskinesia, and use of anti-EPS medication. Mean scores over time for the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS, for dyskinesia), Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS, for akathisia), and Simpson Angus Rating Scale (SAS, for parkinsonism) were graphed. Results Incidence rates for all categories of spontaneously reported EPS-related TEAEs except for hyperkinesia, were numerically lower in pooled LAI studies than in pooled oral studies. Highest rates were observed in the first week of paliperidone-LAI (for all EPS symptoms except dyskinesia) and oral paliperidone treatment (except parkinsonism and tremor). Anti-EPS medication use was significantly lower in LAI (12%) versus oral studies (17%, P = 0.0035). Mean values for EPS scale scores were similar between LAI and oral treatment at endpoint, and no dose response was evident. Mean reductions (standard deviation) from baseline to endpoint in EPS scale scores were larger for LAI (AIMS, ?0.10 [1.27]; BARS, ?0.09 [1.06]; SAS, ?0.04 [0.20]) versus oral studies (AIMS, ?0.08 [1.32]; BARS, ?0.03 [1.24]; SAS, 0.0 [0.23]). These changes favored LAI for BARS (P = 0.023) and SAS (P < 0.0001), but not for AIMS (P = 0.49), at endpoint for the studies. Conclusion In this posthoc descriptive analysis, incidence rates of spontaneously reported EPS-related TEAEs were numerically lower following approximately 90 days of exposure with LAI and approximately 40 days with oral paliperidone at comparable doses.

Gopal, Srihari; Liu, Yanning; Alphs, Larry; Savitz, Adam; Nuamah, Isaac; Hough, David

2013-01-01

316

Swimming pool. View of aisle between swimming pool and seating ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Swimming pool. View of aisle between swimming pool and seating area. Non-original spa pool is partially visible on right. - Jewish Community Center of San Francisco, 3200 California Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

317

Pooled analysis of two Swedish case-control studies on the use of mobile and cordless telephones and the risk of brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-2003.  

PubMed

Here we present the pooled analysis of 2 case-control studies on the association of brain tumours with mobile phone use. Use of analogue cellular phones increased the risk for acoustic neuroma by 5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2-9% per 100 hrs of use. The risk increased for astrocytoma grade III-IV with latency period with highest estimates using >10-year time period from first use of these phone types. The risk increased per one year of use of analogue phones by 10%, 95% CI = 6-14%, digital phones by 11%, 95% CI = 6-16%, and cordless phones by 8%, 95% CI = 5-12%. For all studied phone types OR for brain tumours, mainly acoustic neuroma and malignant brain tumours, increased with latency period, especially for astrocytoma grade III-IV. PMID:17362659

Mild, Kjell Hansson; Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael

2007-01-01

318

Saturation of an intra-gene pool linkage map: towards a unified consensus linkage map for fine mapping and synteny analysis in common bean.  

PubMed

Map-based cloning and fine mapping to find genes of interest and marker assisted selection (MAS) requires good genetic maps with reproducible markers. In this study, we saturated the linkage map of the intra-gene pool population of common bean DOR364 × BAT477 (DB) by evaluating 2,706 molecular markers including SSR, SNP, and gene-based markers. On average the polymorphism rate was 7.7% due to the narrow genetic base between the parents. The DB linkage map consisted of 291 markers with a total map length of 1,788 cM. A consensus map was built using the core mapping populations derived from inter-gene pool crosses: DOR364 × G19833 (DG) and BAT93 × JALO EEP558 (BJ). The consensus map consisted of a total of 1,010 markers mapped, with a total map length of 2,041 cM across 11 linkage groups. On average, each linkage group on the consensus map contained 91 markers of which 83% were single copy markers. Finally, a synteny analysis was carried out using our highly saturated consensus maps compared with the soybean pseudo-chromosome assembly. A total of 772 marker sequences were compared with the soybean genome. A total of 44 syntenic blocks were identified. The linkage group Pv6 presented the most diverse pattern of synteny with seven syntenic blocks, and Pv9 showed the most consistent relations with soybean with just two syntenic blocks. Additionally, a co-linear analysis using common bean transcript map information against soybean coding sequences (CDS) revealed the relationship with 787 soybean genes. The common bean consensus map has allowed us to map a larger number of markers, to obtain a more complete coverage of the common bean genome. Our results, combined with synteny relationships provide tools to increase marker density in selected genomic regions to identify closely linked polymorphic markers for indirect selection, fine mapping or for positional cloning. PMID:22174773

Galeano, Carlos H; Fernandez, Andrea C; Franco-Herrera, Natalia; Cichy, Karen A; McClean, Phillip E; Vanderleyden, Jos; Blair, Matthew W

2011-12-08

319

Association between RASSF1A Promoter Methylation and Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer (PCa) remains as one of the most common cause of cancer related death among men in the US. The widely used prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening is limited by low specificity. The diagnostic value of other biomarkers such as RAS association domain family protein 1 A (RASSF1A) promoter methylation in prostate cancer and the relationship between RASSF1A methylation and pathological features or tumor stage remains to be established. Therefore, a meta-analysis of published studies was performed to understand the association between RASSF1A methylation and prostate cancer. In total, 16 studies involving 1431 cases and 565 controls were pooled with a random effect model in this investigation. The odds ratio (OR) of RASSF1A methylation in PCa case, compared to controls, was 14.73 with 95% CI = 7.58–28.61. Stratified analyses consistently showed a similar risk across different sample types and, methylation detection methods. In addition, RASSF1A methylation was associated with high Gleason score OR=2.35, 95% CI: 1.56–3.53. Furthermore, the pooled specificity for all included studies was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.72–0.94), and the pooled sensitivity was 0.76 (95% CI: 0.55–0.89). The specificity in each subgroup stratified by sample type remained above 0.84 and the sensitivity also remained above 0.60. These results suggested that RASSF1A promoter methylation would be a potential biomarker in PCa diagnosis and therapy.

Pan, Jincheng; Chen, Junxing; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Xu; Huang, Bin; Zhuang, Jintao; Mo, Chengqiang; Qiu, Shaopeng

2013-01-01

320

Cigarette Smoking and Adenocarcinomas of the Esophagus and Esophagogastric Junction: A Pooled Analysis From the International BEACON Consortium  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies that showed an association between smoking and adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction were limited in their ability to assess differences by tumor site, sex, dose–response, and duration of cigarette smoking cessation. Methods We used primary data from 10 population-based case–control studies and two cohort studies from the Barrett’s Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium. Analyses were restricted to white non-Hispanic men and women. Patients were classified as having esophageal adenocarcinoma (n = 1540), esophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma (n = 1450), or a combination of both (all adenocarcinoma; n = 2990). Control subjects (n = 9453) were population based. Associations between pack-years of cigarette smoking and risks of adenocarcinomas were assessed, as well as their potential modification by sex and duration of smoking cessation. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) estimated using multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, education, and gastroesophageal reflux, were pooled using a meta-analytic methodology to generate summary odds ratios. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results The summary odds ratios demonstrated strong associations between cigarette smoking and esophageal adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.64 to 2.34), esophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.84 to 2.58), and all adenocarcinoma (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.83 to 2.37). In addition, there was a strong dose–response association between pack-years of cigarette smoking and each outcome (P < .001). Compared with current smokers, longer smoking cessation was associated with a decreased risk of all adenocarcinoma after adjusting for pack-years (<10 years of smoking cessation: OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.60 to 1.13; and ?10 years of smoking cessation: OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.56 to 0.89). Sex-specific summary odds ratios were similar. Conclusions Cigarette smoking is associated with increased risks of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction in white men and women; compared with current smoking, smoking cessation was associated with reduced risks.

Kamangar, Farin; Whiteman, David C.; Freedman, Neal D.; Gammon, Marilie D.; Bernstein, Leslie; Brown, Linda M.; Risch, Harvey A.; Ye, Weimin; Sharp, Linda; Pandeya, Nirmala; Webb, Penelope M.; Wu, Anna H.; Ward, Mary H.; Giffen, Carol; Casson, Alan G.; Abnet, Christian C.; Murray, Liam J.; Corley, Douglas A.; Nyren, Olof; Vaughan, Thomas L.; Chow, Wong-Ho

2010-01-01

321

Metabolic and transcriptional analysis of acid stress in Lactococcus lactis, with a focus on the kinetics of lactic acid pools.  

PubMed

The effect of pH on the glucose metabolism of non-growing cells of L. lactis MG1363 was studied by in vivo NMR in the range 4.8 to 6.5. Immediate pH effects on glucose transporters and/or enzyme activities were distinguished from transcriptional/translational effects by using cells grown at the optimal pH of 6.5 or pre-adjusted to low pH by growth at 5.1. In cells grown at pH 5.1, glucose metabolism proceeds at a rate 35% higher than in non-adjusted cells at the same pH. Besides the upregulation of stress-related genes (such as dnaK and groEL), cells adjusted to low pH overexpressed H(+)-ATPase subunits as well as glycolytic genes. At sub-optimal pHs, the total intracellular pool of lactic acid reached approximately 500 mM in cells grown at optimal pH and about 700 mM in cells grown at pH 5.1. These high levels, together with good pH homeostasis (internal pH always above 6), imply intracellular accumulation of the ionized form of lactic acid (lactate anion), and the concomitant export of the equivalent protons. The average number, n, of protons exported with each lactate anion was determined directly from the kinetics of accumulation of intra- and extracellular lactic acid as monitored online by (13)C-NMR. In cells non-adjusted to low pH, n varies between 2 and 1 during glucose consumption, suggesting an inhibitory effect of intracellular lactate on proton export. We confirmed that extracellular lactate did not affect the lactate: proton stoichiometry. In adjusted cells, n was lower and varied less, indicating a different mix of lactic acid exporters less affected by the high level of intracellular lactate. A qualitative model for pH effects and acid stress adaptation is proposed on the basis of these results. PMID:23844205

Carvalho, Ana Lúcia; Turner, David L; Fonseca, Luís L; Solopova, Ana; Catarino, Teresa; Kuipers, Oscar P; Voit, Eberhard O; Neves, Ana Rute; Santos, Helena

2013-07-03

322

Swimming pool cleaner poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... acids in them, or breathes in their fumes. Chlorine, a chemical in swimming pool cleaners, is more ... Bromine Calcium chloride Calcium hypochlorite Chelated copper ... bisulfate, phosphoric acid, sodium thiosulfate, cyanuric acid)

323

Storage Pool Deficiencies  

MedlinePLUS

... should be performed by a specialist at a hemophilia treatment centre. In people with storage pool deficiencies: The ... Hemophilia How Do You Get Hemophilia? Severity of Hemophilia Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment Hemophilia in Pictures FAQs Resources Carriers and Women ...

324

Glutathione S-transferase T1 gene polymorphism and colorectal cancer risk: An updated analysis.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The association between glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) gene polymorphisms and colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility is still controversial. In order to clarify the effect of GSTT1 genotype on the CRC risk, we carried out an updated meta-analysis of published case-control studies to provide more precise evidence. METHODS: Two investigators independently searched the databases of Pubmed, EMBASE and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) up to October 15, 2012. Crude odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to investigate the strength of the association in a fixed- or random-effects model depending on statistical heterogeneity. RESULTS: Forty-six case-control studies with 15,373 colorectal cancer cases and 21,238 controls were included. Overall, the pooled results indicated that GSTT1 null genotype was significantly associated with increased CRC risk (OR=1.21, 95% CI=1.10-1.33). When stratifying for ethnicity and control sources, we also observed positive association between GSTT1 null genotype and increased risk of CRC. When stratifying by the location, we found there was a statistically significant association in the rectal cancer (OR=1.28, 95% CI=1.01-1.64), but not in colon cancer (OR=1.27, 95% CI=0.94-1.73). Subgroup analyses for Dukes stage, histological differentiation of CRC and smoking habit did not reveal any significant differences in genotype distribution. In addition, we observed a strong correlation between increased CRC risk and the combined GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotype. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that the GSTT1 null genotype may contribute to increased risk of colorectal cancer. More well-designed studies based on larger population are needed to confirm our results. PMID:23773486

Qin, Xian-Peng; Zhou, Yong; Chen, Yi; Li, Ning-Ning; Chen, Bo; Yang, Ping; Wu, Xiao-Ting

2013-06-14

325

Screening for cervical cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The systematic review on which this paper is based provided evidence for the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care to update their guideline regarding screening for cervical cancer. In this article we highlight three questions covered in the full review that pertain to the effectiveness of screening for reducing cervical cancer mortality and incidence as well as optimal timing and frequency of screening. Methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Central from 1995 to 2012 for relevant randomized controlled trials and observational studies with comparison groups. Eligible studies included women aged 15 to 70 years who were screened using conventional cytology, liquid-based cytology or human papillomavirus DNA tests. Relevance screening, data extraction, risk of bias analyses and quality assessments were performed in duplicate. We conducted a meta-analysis using a random-effects model on the one body of evidence that could be pooled. Results From the 15,145 screened citations, 27 papers (24 studies) were included; five older studies located in a United States Preventive Services Task Force review were also included. A randomized controlled trial in India showed even a single lifetime screening test significantly decreased the risk of mortality from and incidence of advanced cervical cancer compared to no screening (mortality: risk ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.47, 0.90; incidence: relative risk 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.42, 0.75). Cytology screening was shown to be beneficial in a cohort study that found testing significantly reduced the risk of being diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer compared to no screening (risk ratio 0.38; 95% confidence interval 0.23, 0.63). Pooled evidence from a dozen case–control studies also indicated a significant protective effect of cytology screening (odds ratio 0.35; 95% confidence interval 0.30, 0.41). This review found no conclusive evidence for establishing optimal ages to start and stop cervical screening, or to determine how often to screen; however the available data suggests substantial protective effects for screening women 30 years and older and for intervals of up to five years. Conclusions The available evidence supports the conclusion that cervical screening does offer protective benefits and is associated with a reduction in the incidence of invasive cervical cancer and cervical cancer mortality.

2013-01-01

326

CYP2A6 deletion polymorphism is associated with decreased susceptibility of lung cancer in Asian smokers: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of some tobacco carcinogens, which is an important risk factor of lung cancer. Among CYP2A6 allelic variants, CYP2A6*4 presents a whole gene deletion that accounts for the majority of poor metabolizer. In this study, a meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between CYP2A6*4 and risk of lung cancer. Literature searches were conducted to identify peer-reviewed manuscripts published up to December 20, 2012. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were calculated in a fixed-effects model and a random-effects model when appropriate. Eight eligible studies with 3,203 lung cancer cases and 2,839 controls were included in this study. Overall, no significant association was observed in CYP2A6*4 with the risk of lung cancer under any genetic model for all samples after correction. However, subgroup analysis showed that significant associations were observed in Asian with pooled OR (95 %CI) of 0.761 (0.672-0.861) for allele comparison, 0.769 (0.668-0.886) for dominant model, and 0.522 (0.359-0.760) for recessive model. Furthermore, after stratifying Asian samples according to smoking status, significant associations were only observed in smokers with pooled OR (95 %CI) of 0.713 (0.607-0.838) for allele comparison, 0.720 (0.596-0.869) for dominant model, and 0.444 (0.275-0.715) for recessive model. This meta-analysis suggests that the CYP2A6*4 polymorphism was associated with susceptibility of lung cancer for smokers in Asian. The whole gene deletion of CYP2A6 might decrease the risk of tobacco-related lung cancer in Asian. PMID:23649654

Liu, Yu-Liang; Xu, Yu; Li, Fan; Chen, Hong; Guo, Shu-Liang

2013-05-07

327

Mortality risk in preterm and small-for-gestational-age infants in low-income and middle-income countries: a pooled country analysis  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Babies with low birthweight (<2500 g) are at increased risk of early mortality. However, low birthweight includes babies born preterm and with fetal growth restriction, and not all these infants have a birthweight less than 2500 g. We estimated the neonatal and infant mortality associated with these two characteristics in low-income and middle-income countries. Methods For this pooled analysis, we searched all available studies and identified 20 cohorts (providing data for 2 015 019 livebirths) from Asia, Africa, and Latin America that recorded data for birthweight, gestational age, and vital statistics through 28 days of life. Study dates ranged from 1982 through to 2010. We calculated relative risks (RR) and risk differences (RD) for mortality associated with preterm birth (<32 weeks, 32 weeks to <34 weeks, 34 weeks to <37 weeks), small-for-gestational-age (SGA; babies with birthweight in the lowest third percentile and between the third and tenth percentile of a US reference population), and preterm and SGA combinations. Findings Pooled overall RRs for preterm were 6·82 (95% CI 3·56–13·07) for neonatal mortality and 2·50 (1·48–4·22) for post-neonatal mortality. Pooled RRs for babies who were SGA (with birthweight in the lowest tenth percentile of the reference population) were 1·83 (95% CI 1·34–2·50) for neonatal mortality and 1·90 (1·32–2·73) for post-neonatal mortality. The neonatal mortality risk of babies who were both preterm and SGA was higher than that of babies with either characteristic alone (15·42; 9·11–26·12). Interpretation Many babies in low-income and middle-income countries are SGA. Preterm birth affects a smaller number of neonates than does SGA, but is associated with a higher mortality risk. The mortality risks associated with both characteristics extend beyond the neonatal period. Differentiation of the burden and risk of babies born preterm and SGA rather than with low birthweight could guide prevention and management strategies to speed progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4—the reduction of child mortality. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Katz, Joanne; Lee, Anne CC; Kozuki, Naoko; Lawn, Joy E; Cousens, Simon; Blencowe, Hannah; Ezzati, Majid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Marchant, Tanya; Willey, Barbara A; Adair, Linda; Barros, Fernando; Baqui, Abdullah H; Christian, Parul; Fawzi, Wafaie; Gonzalez, Rogelio; Humphrey, Jean; Huybregts, Lieven; Kolsteren, Patrick; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri; Mullany, Luke C; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Nien, Jyh Kae; Osrin, David; Roberfroid, Dominique; Sania, Ayesha; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Silveira, Mariangela F; Tielsch, James; Vaidya, Anjana; Velaphi, Sithembiso C; Victora, Cesar G; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Black, Robert E

2013-01-01

328

Traditional Chinese medicines in the treatment of hepatocellular cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Liver cancer is a common malignancy with a high mortality rate. Given the poor prognosis associated with this cancer, many patients seek additional therapies that may improve quality of life or survival. Several Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) have been evaluated in clinical trials, but little is known about them outside of China. Methods We searched independently and in duplicate 8 electronic databases, including 2 Chinese language databases, until February 2009. We included any randomized clinical trials (RCT) evaluating a TCM oral preparation for the treatment of hepatocellular cancers. We abstracted data on survival, tumor response, and performance scores. We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis and applied a meta-regression analysis. Results We included 45 RCTs (n = 3,236). All studies employed an active control group. In general, the reporting of methodological issues was poor. We analyzed data from 37 trials reporting on complete response effects score (Relative Risk [RR] of 1.26 (95 CI, 1.04–1.52, P = 0.01, I2 = 0%, P = 0.99). Products containing ginseng, astragalus and mylabris had a larger treatment effect (OR 1.34, 95% CI, 1.04–1.71, P = 0.01) than the pooled broad estimate, also the case for astragalus-based treatments (OR 1.35, 95% CI, 1.001–1.80. P = 0.048). We examined survival rates and pooled 15 studies reporting on 6 month outcomes (RR 1.10, 95% CI, 1.04–1.15, P = < 0.0001, I2 = 0%, P = 0.60). This effect was consistent at other prospective dates, including 12 months (22 trials, RR 1.26, 95% CI, 1.17–1.36, P = < 0.0001, I2 = 7%, P = 0.36), 24 months (15 trials, 1.72, 95% CI, 1.40–2.03, P = < 0.0001, I2 = 0%, P = 0.75); and, at 36 months (8 trials, RR 2.40, 95% CI, 1.65–3.49, P = < 0.0001, I2 = 0%, P = 0.62). Limitations All included trials were conducted in China where emerging evidence suggests many RCTs are not, in fact, randomized. Publication bias may exist, favouring positive reports. Conclusion Our meta-analysis displays compelling evidence of effectiveness for hepatocellular cancers that should be evaluated in high-quality and transparent clinical trials.

2009-01-01

329

Cancer risk analysis in families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common fatal cancers in developed countries and represents a significant public-health issue. About 3%-5% of patients with CRC have hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Cancer morbidity and mortality can be reduced if early and intensive screening is pursued. However, despite advances in screening, population-wide genetic screening for HNPCC is not currently considered feasible due to its complexity and expense. If the risk of a family having HNPCC can be identified/assessed, then only the high-risk fraction of the population would undergo intensive screening. This identification is currently performed by a genetic counselor/physician who makes the decision based on some pre-defined criteria. Here, we report on a system to identify the risk of a family having HNPCC based on its history. We compare artificial neural networks and statistical approaches for assessing the risk of a family having HNPCC and discuss the experimental results obtained by these two approaches. PMID:16871728

Köküer, Münevver; Naguib, Raouf N G; Jancovic, Peter; Younghusband, H Banfield; Green, Roger C

2006-07-01

330

Circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF) peptides and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I, IGF-II) and their binding proteins (IGFBP-1-6) play a key role in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, suggesting possible involvement in carcinogenesis. Several epidemiological studies show associations of IGFs with prostate cancer. We searched the published literature for all studies relating levels of IGFs or IGFBPs with prostate cancer. We performed random effects meta-analysis to calculate summary odds ratios. The number of studies (prostate cancer cases) included in each meta-analysis were 42 (7,481) IGF-I; 10 (923) IGF-II; 3 (485) IGFBP-1; 5 (577) IGFBP-2; 29 (6,541) IGFBP-3; and 11 (3,545) IGF-1:IGFBP-3 ratio. The pooled odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) per standard deviation increase in peptide, were: IGF-I, OR = 1.21 (1.07, 1.36); IGF-II, OR = 1.17 (0.93, 1.47); IGFBP-1, OR = 1.21 (0.62, 2.33); IGFBP-2, OR = 1.18 (0.90, 1.54); IGFBP-3, OR = 0.88 (0.79, 0.98); IGFI:IGFBP-3 ratio, OR = 1.10 (0.97, 1.24). For all exposures, there was substantial heterogeneity (all I2 > 75%), partly explained by study design: the magnitude of associations was smaller in prospective versus retrospective studies, and for IGFBP-3 the inverse association with prostate cancer risk was seen in retrospective but not prospective studies. There was weak evidence that associations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 with prostate cancer were stronger for advanced disease. Our meta-analysis confirms that raised circulating lGF-I is positively associated with prostate cancer risk. Associations between IGFBP-3 and prostate cancer were inconsistent, and there was little evidence for a role of IGF-II, IGFBP-1 or IGFBP-2 in prostate cancer risk.

Rowlands, Mari-Anne; Gunnell, David; Harris, Ross; Vatten, Lars J; Holly, Jeff MP; Martin, Richard M

2009-01-01

331

GWAS meta-analysis and replication identifies three new susceptibility loci for ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified four susceptibility loci for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with another two loci being close to genome-wide significance. We pooled data from a GWAS conducted in North America with another GWAS from the United Kingdom. We selected the top 24,551 SNPs for inclusion on the iCOGS custom genotyping array. Follow-up genotyping was carried out in 18,174 cases and 26,134 controls from 43 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We validated the two loci at 3q25 and 17q21 previously near genome-wide significance and identified three novel loci associated with risk; two loci associated with all EOC subtypes, at 8q21 (rs11782652, P=5.5×10-9) and 10p12 (rs1243180; P=1.8×10-8), and another locus specific to the serous subtype at 17q12 (rs757210; P=8.1×10-10). An integrated molecular analysis of genes and regulatory regions at these loci provided evidence for functional mechanisms underlying susceptibility that implicates CHMP4C in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer.

Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Ramus, Susan J.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Goode, Ellen L.; Lawrenson, Kate; Price, Melissa; Fridley, Brooke L.; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Shen, Howard; Weber, Rachel; Karevan, Rod; Larson, Melissa C.; Song, Honglin; Tessier, Daniel C.; Bacot, Francois; Vincent, Daniel; Cunningham, Julie M.; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Aben, Katja K.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Armasu, Sebastian M.; Baglietto, Laura; Bandera, Elisa V.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Birrer, Michael J.; Bloom, Greg; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brenton, James D.; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Brown, Robert; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian; Carney, Michael E; Carvalho, Renato S.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chen, Y. Anne; Chen, Zhihua; Chow, Wong-Ho; Cicek, Mine S.; Coetzee, Gerhard; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Despierre, Evelyn; Doherty, Jennifer A; Dork, Thilo; du Bois, Andreas; Durst, Matthias; Eccles, Diana; Edwards, Robert; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Fenstermacher, David; Flanagan, James; Gao, Yu-Tang; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham; Gjyshi, Anxhela; Gore, Martin; Gronwald, Jacek; Guo, Qi; Halle, Mari K; Harter, Philipp; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hillemanns, Peter; Hoatlin, Maureen; H?gdall, Estrid; H?gdall, Claus K.; Hosono, Satoyo; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Kalli, Kimberly R.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Konecny, Gottfried E.; Krakstad, Camilla; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Nathan; Lee, Janet; Leminen, Arto; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Lurie, Galina; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Nakanishi, Toru; Narod, Steven A.; Ness, Roberta B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nickels, Stefan; Noushmehr, Houtan; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara; Orlow, Irene; Paul, James; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M; Permuth-Wey, Jenny; Pike, Malcolm C; Poole, Elizabeth M; Qu, Xiaotao; Risch, Harvey A.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schwaab, Ira; Severi, Gianluca; Shen, Hui; Shridhar, Vijayalakshmi; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Sieh, Weiva; Southey, Melissa C.; Spellman, Paul; Tajima, Kazuo; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J; Timorek, Agnieszka; Tworoger, Shelley S.; van Altena, Anne M.; Berg, David Van Den; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wik, Elisabeth; Winterhoff, Boris; Woo, Yin Ling; Wu, Anna H; Yang, Hannah P.; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Zulkifli, Famida; Goodman, Marc T.; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F; Pearce, Celeste L; Berchuck, Andrew; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Iversen, Edwin; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Gayther, Simon A.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Sellers, Thomas A.

2013-01-01

332

Metabolic syndrome and postmenopausal breast cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: The role of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its individual components in postmenopausal breast cancer (PBC) risk is still unclear. We reviewed and summarized epidemiological studies assessing the association of MS with the risk of PBC. METHODS: We conducted an electronic search, without restrictions, for articles published before October 31, 2012. Every included study was to report risk estimates with 95% CIs for the association between MS and PBC. Study-specific estimates were pooled using random-effects models. RESULTS: Nine articles (with 6,417 cancer cases), all published in English, were included in the meta-analysis. MS was associated with a 52% increase in cancer risk (P < 0.001)-for the most part confined to noncohort studies (109% increased risk); the risk estimates changed little, depending on populations (United States and Europe) and definition of the syndrome (traditional vs nontraditional). The risk estimates for PBC were 1.12 (P = 0.068) for higher values of body mass index/waist circumference, 1.19 (P = 0.005) for hyperglycemia (higher fasting glucose or diabetes), 1.13 (P = 0.027) for higher blood pressure, 1.08 (P = 0.248) for higher triglycerides, and 1.39 (P = 0.008) for lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. All these estimates were lower than those associated with MS in the same studies. CONCLUSIONS: MS is associated with a moderately increased risk of PBC. No single component explains the risk conveyed by the full syndrome. PMID:23571527

Esposito, Katherine; Chiodini, Paolo; Capuano, Annalisa; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Maiorino, Maria Ida; Rafaniello, Concetta; Giugliano, Dario

2013-04-01

333

Genetic polymorphisms of xeroderma pigmentosum group D gene Asp312Asn and Lys751Gln and susceptibility to prostate cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Many studies have reported the role of xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) with prostate cancer risk, but the results remained controversial. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to assess the association between XPD Asp312Asn and Lys751Gln polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk. A total of 8 studies including 2620 cases and 3225 controls described Asp312Asn genotypes, among which 10 articles involving 3230 cases and 3582 controls described Lys751Gln genotypes and were also involved in this meta-analysis. When all the eligible studies were pooled into this meta-analysis, a significant association between prostate cancer risk and XPD Asp312Asn polymorphism was found. For Asp312Asn polymorphism, in the stratified analysis by ethnicity and source of controls, prostate cancer risk was observed in co-dominant, dominant and recessive models, while no evidence of any associations of XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism with prostate cancer was found in the overall or subgroup analyses. Our meta-analysis supports that the XPD Asp312Asn polymorphism contributed to the risk of prostate cancer from currently available evidence. However, a study with a larger sample size is needed to further evaluate gene-environment interaction on XPD Asp312Asn and Lys751Gln polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk. PMID:23973729

Ma, Qingtong; Qi, Can; Tie, Chong; Guo, Zhanjun

2013-08-23

334

The relationship between preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension and maternal risk of breast cancer: A meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. It has long been recognized that some human breast cancers are hormone dependent. Preeclampsia is a syndrome of pregnancy defined by the onset of hypertension and proteinuria and characterized by dysfunction of the maternal endothelium. Many hormonal changes occur with preeclampsia, and we hypothesize that these changes may influence the risk of maternal breast cancer. We also analyzed the relation between pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and maternal risk of breast cancer. Methods. Among 13 relevant publications about preeclampsia and six relevant publications about PIH, some studies find preeclampsia associated with a lower risk of breast cancer, but others did not. Therefore, these results are inconclusive. We conducted meta-analysis to evaluate more precisely the relationship between preeclampsia, PIH and maternal risk of breast cancer. Results. The pooled estimate of the hazard ratio (HR) associated with preeclampsia was 0.86 (95% CI 0.73-1.01), and that associated with PIH was 0.83 (0.66-1.06), both based on the random effects model. Conclusion. Some suggestive but not entirely consistent nor conclusive evidence was found on the association between the history of preeclampsia or PIH with the subsequent risk of breast cancer. PMID:23240638

Kim, Jung Sun; Kang, Eun Joo; Woo, Ok Hee; Park, Kyong Hwa; Woo, Sang Uk; Yang, Dae Sik; Kim, Ae-Ree; Lee, Jae-Bok; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Jun Suk; Seo, Jae Hong

2012-12-16

335

Molecular analysis of mutations in the hprt gene of V79 hamster fibroblasts: effects of imbalances in the dCTP, dGTP and dTTP pools.  

PubMed

dCMP-deaminase-deficient V79/dC hamster cells have highly imbalanced deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pools, i.e. a 17-fold larger dCTP pool, a slightly reduced dTTP and a very low dGTP pool, compared to dCMP-deaminase-proficient V79/p cells. Nevertheless, the two lines showed the same rates of spontaneous mutation at the hprt and ouabain-resistance loci. Analysis of spontaneous hprt mutations indicated an increase in misincorporation of C in V79/dC cells, although it was not statistically significant. When the dCTP pool was further increased fivefold by incubating V79/dC cells with cytidine, C misincorporation increased to 88%, but the mutation frequency remained unchanged. The dNTP pools of V79/dC cells were also altered by treatment with thymidine, or with thymidine plus deoxycytidine. After incubation with thymidine alone, the dCTP pool all but disappeared, whereas it maintained a normal level in the presence of deoxycytidine. In both cases dTTP rose to nmol amounts, and dGTP accumulated. Incubation with 10 mM thymidine was the only treatment that increased the mutation frequency; T misincorporation then accounted for 94% of the base substitutions. In the presence of deoxycytidine the cells had a dTTP/dCTP ratio of 0.04, but 86% of the base substitutions involved C misincorporation and most probably originated from G mis-incorporation caused by excess dGTP. Alterations of RNA splicing and hot spots for base substitutions varied with the imbalance, the latter showed "next-nucleotide effects". Our results suggest that the fidelity of DNA replication in V79 cells is only affected by large changes in the pool and is more sensitive to changes in dGTP than in dCTP or dTTP. PMID:7563070

Darè, E; Zhang, L H; Jenssen, D; Bianchi, V

1995-10-01

336

Statin Use and Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Emerging evidence suggests that statins may decrease the risk of cancers. However, available evidence on prostate cancer (PCa) is conflicting. We therefore examined the association between statin use and risk of PCa by conducting a detailed meta-analysis of all observational studies published regarding this subject. Methods Literature search in PubMed database was undertaken through February 2012 looking for observational studies evaluating the association between statin use and risk of PCa. Before meta-analysis, the studies were evaluated for publication bias and heterogeneity. Pooled relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effects model (DerSimonian and Laird method). Subgroup analyses, sensitivity analysis and cumulative meta-analysis were also performed. Results A total of 27 (15 cohort and 12 case-control) studies contributed to the analysis. There was heterogeneity among the studies but no publication bias. Statin use significantly reduced the risk of both total PCa by 7% (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.87–0.99, p?=?0.03) and clinically important advanced PCa by 20% (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.70–0.90, p<0.001). Long-term statin use did not significantly affect the risk of total PCa (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.84–1.05, p?=?0.31). Stratification by study design did not substantially influence the RR. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis confirmed the stability of results. Cumulative meta-analysis showed a change in trend of reporting risk from positive to negative in statin users between 1993 and 2011. Conclusions Our meta-analysis provides evidence supporting the hypothesis that statins reduce the risk of both total PCa and clinically important advanced PCa. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and to identify the underlying biological mechanisms.

Bansal, Dipika; Undela, Krishna; D'Cruz, Sanjay; Schifano, Fabrizio

2012-01-01

337

Meta-analysis of robotic and laparoscopic surgery for treatment of rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To conduct a meta-analysis to determine the relative merits of robotic surgery (RS) and laparoscopic surgery (LS) for rectal cancer. METHODS: A literature search was performed to identify comparative studies reporting perioperative outcomes for RS and LS for rectal cancer. Pooled odds ratios and weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using either the fixed effects model or random effects model. RESULTS: Eight studies matched the selection criteria and reported on 661 subjects, of whom 268 underwent RS and 393 underwent LS for rectal cancer. Compared the perioperative outcomes of RS with LS, reports of RS indicated favorable outcomes considering conversion (WMD: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.11-0.58; P = 0.001). Meanwhile, operative time (WMD: 27.92, 95% CI: -13.43 to 69.27; P = 0.19); blood loss (WMD: -32.35, 95% CI: -86.19 to 21.50; P = 0.24); days to passing flatus (WMD: -0.18, 95% CI: -0.96 to 0.60; P = 0.65); length of stay (WMD: -0.04; 95% CI: -2.28 to 2.20; P = 0.97); complications (WMD: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.71-1.55; P = 0.82) and pathological details, including lymph nodes harvested (WMD: 0.41, 95% CI: -0.67 to 1.50; P = 0.46), distal resection margin (WMD: -0.35, 95% CI: -1.27 to 0.58; P = 0.46), and positive circumferential resection margin (WMD: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.12-2.39; P = 0.42) were similar between RS and LS. CONCLUSION: RS for rectal cancer is superior to LS in terms of conversion. RS may be an alternative treatment for rectal cancer. Further studies are required.

Lin, Shuang; Jiang, Hong-Gang; Chen, Zhi-Heng; Zhou, Shu-Yang; Liu, Xiao-Sun; Yu, Ji-Ren

2011-01-01

338

Life course sun exposure and risk of prostate cancer: population-based nested case-control study (ProtecT) and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

There is currently no means of primary prevention for prostate cancer. Increased exposure to ultraviolet-radiation may be protective, but the literature is inconclusive. We investigated associations of life-course exposure to sunlight with prostate cancer. The study design was a UK-wide nested case-control study, based on 1,020 PSA-detected cases and 5,044 matched population controls and a systematic review with meta-analysis. Men with olive/brown skin (OR= 1.47; 95% CI: 1.00 to 2.17), men who burnt rarely/never (OR= 1.11; 0.95 to 1.29) and men with the lowest levels of intense sun exposure in the 2 years prior to diagnosis (OR = 1.24; 1.03 to 1.50) had an increased prostate cancer risk. However, amongst men with prostate cancer, spending less time outside was associated with a reduced risk of advanced cancer (OR = 0.49; 0.27 to 0.89) and high Gleason grade (OR = 0.62; 0.43 to 0.91), and men who burnt rarely/never had a reduced risk of advanced cancer (OR = 0.71; 0.47 to 1.08). The meta-analysis provided weak evidence that men with the lowest (versus highest) sunlight exposure had an increased prostate cancer risk (4 studies, random-effects pooled relative risk = 1.13; 0.98 to 1.29) and higher advanced or fatal prostate cancer risk (6 studies, random-effects pooled relative risk = 1.14; 0.98 to 1.33). Our data and meta-analyses provide limited support for the hypothesis that increased exposure to sunlight may reduce prostate cancer risk. The findings warrant further investigation because of their implications for vitamin D chemoprevention trials.

Gilbert, Rebecca; Metcalfe, Chris; Oliver, Steven E; Whiteman, David C; Bain, Chris; Ness, Andy; Donovan, Jenny; Hamdy, Freddie; Neal, David E; Lane, J Athene; Martin, Richard M

2009-01-01

339

Pooled analysis of two case-control studies on the use of cellular and cordless telephones and the risk of benign brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-2003.  

PubMed

The use of cellular and cordless telephones and the risk of brain tumours is of concern since the brain is a high exposure area. We present the results of a pooled analysis of two case-control studies on benign brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-2003 including answers from 1,254 (88%) cases and 2,162 (89%) controls aged 20-80 years. For acoustic neuroma, the use of analogue cellular phones gave an odds ratio (OR) of 2.9 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 2.0-4.3; for digital cellular phones, OR=1.5; 95% CI=1.1-2.1; and for cordless telephones, OR=1.5, 95% CI=1.04-2.0. The highest OR was found for analogue phones with a latency period of >15 years; OR=3.8, 95% CI=1.4-10. Regarding meningioma, the results were as follows: for analogue phones, OR=1.3, 95% CI=0.99-1.7; for digital phones, OR=1.1, 95% CI=0.9-1.3; and for cordless phones, OR=1.1, 95% CI=0.9-1.4. In the multivariate analysis, a significantly increased risk of acoustic neuroma was found with the use of analogue phones. PMID:16391807

Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Hansson Mild, Kjell

2006-02-01

340

Asenapine effects on individual Young Mania Rating Scale items in bipolar disorder patients with acute manic or mixed episodes: a pooled analysis  

PubMed Central

Background An exploratory post hoc analysis was conducted to evaluate the potential differential effects over time of asenapine and olanzapine compared with placebo on the eleven individual items comprising the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) in patients with manic or mixed episodes in bipolar I disorder. Methods Data were pooled from two 3-week randomized, controlled trials in which the eleven individual items comprising the YMRS were measured over 21 days. An analysis of covariance model adjusted by baseline value was used to test for differences in changes from baseline in YMRS scores between groups. Results Each of the eleven individual YMRS item scores was significantly reduced compared with placebo at day 21. After 2 days of treatment, asenapine and olanzapine were superior to placebo for six of the YMRS items: disruptive/aggressive behavior, content, irritability, elevated mood, sleep, and speech. Conclusion Reduction in manic symptoms over 21 days was associated with a broad-based improvement across all symptom domains with no subset of symptoms predominating.

Cazorla, Pilar; Zhao, Jun; Mackle, Mary; Szegedi, Armin

2013-01-01

341

Dose-specific Meta-Analysis and Sensitivity Analysis of the Relation between Alcohol Consumption and Lung Cancer Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol drinking increases the risk of several types of cancer, but studies of the relation between alcohol and lung cancer risk are complicated by smoking. The authors carried out meta-analyses for four study designs and conducted sensitivity analyses to assess the results. Pooled smoking-unadjusted relative risks (RRs) for brewery workers and alcoholics were 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99, 1.39)

Jeffrey E. Korte; Paul Brennan; S. Jane Henley; Paolo Boffetta

342

The effect of TGF-?1 polymorphism on systemic sclerosis: a systematic review and pooled analysis of available literature.  

PubMed

Transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc). To investigate whether TGF-?1 gene promoter polymorphisms were associated with the susceptibility of SSc, we performed a meta-analysis based on all available studies through PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, Embase, and Chinese Biomedical, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Google Scholar with the last report up to March 15, 2013. Crude odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were used to estimate the strength of the association. A fixed or random effects model was adopted according to heterogeneity test. Heterogeneity among studies was evaluated using I (2) . Meta-regression was used to explore potential sources of between-study heterogeneity. Publication bias was estimated using Begg's and Egger's test. Totally, seven papers with 663 SSc patients and 908 healthy controls were subjected to the final analysis. These studies encompass seven for TGF-?1 codon 10, three for codon 25 and three for -509C/T. We failed to detect any association of these promoter polymorphism with SSc susceptibility. For TGF-?1 codon 10 polymorphism, subgroup analyses by race, genotype testing method and classification of SSc were further performed. Similarly, no association was observed. Significant heterogeneity was detected among the studies in all genetic models of TGF-?1 codon 10 polymorphism. Publication bias was absent. Taken together, our meta-analysis did not provided an evidence of confirming association between TGF-?1 (codon 10, codon 25, -509C/T) gene polymorphism and SSc. Nevertheless, due to smaller sample sizes, larger sample studies including different ethnic groups should be considered in future to confirm our results. PMID:23864144

Wan, Ya-Nan; Wang, Yu-Jie; Yan, Jun-Wei; Li, Xiang-Pei; Tao, Jin-Hui; Wang, Bing-Xiang; Peng, Wen-Jia; Wang, Jing

2013-07-18

343

PIXE analysis of elements in gastric cancer and adjacent mucosa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The elemental regional distributions in 20 resected human stomach tissues were obtained using PIXE analysis. The samples were pathologically divided into four types: normal, adjacent mucosa A, adjacent mucosa B and cancer. The targets for PIXE analysis were prepared by wet digestion with a pressure bomb system. P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se were measured and statistically analysed. We found significantly higher concentrations of P, K, Cu, Zn and a higher ratio of Cu compared to Zn in cancer tissue as compared with normal tissue, but statistically no significant difference between adjacent mucosa and cancer tissue was found.

Liu, Qixin; Zhong, Ming; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Yan, Lingnuo; Xu, Yongling; Ye, Simao

1990-04-01

344

GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk in Asians: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) enzymes are involved in conjugation of electrophilic compounds to glutathione, and glutathione S-transferase T 1 (GSTT1) and glutathione S-transferase M 1 (GSTM1) polymorphisms have been implicated as risk factors for prostate cancer. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to define the effect of GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes on prostate cancer risk in Asians. We searched the PubMed and Wanfang Medical databases to identify published case-control studies investigating the associations of GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes with risk of prostate cancer in Asians. Heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran's Q statistic and odds ratios (OR) with corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) from individual studies were pooled using fixed or random effects models according to the heterogeneity. There were 18 studies (2,046 cases, 2,876 controls) on GSTM1 polymorphism, 15 studies (1,677 cases, 2,431 controls) on GSTT1 polymorphism, and 6 studies (675 cases, 853 controls) on GSTM1/GSTT1 interaction analysis. Overall, GSTM1 null genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of prostate cancer in Asians (random effects OR 1.80, 95 % CI 1.48-2.18, P?cancer in Asians (random effects OR 1.40, 95 % CI 1.10-1.80, P?cancer in Asians (random effects OR 2.14, 95 % CI 1.59-2.89, P?=?0.007). In conclusion, GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes are associated with increased risk of prostate cancer in Asians, and GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes are risk factors for the development of prostate cancer. PMID:23817691

Liu, Dajun; Liu, Ying; Ran, Limei; Shang, Huiping; Li, Detian

2013-06-28

345

The Prognostic Value of BRAF Mutation in Colorectal Cancer and Melanoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Mutation of BRAF is a predominant event in cancers with poor prognosis such as melanoma and colorectal cancer. BRAF mutation leads to a constitutive activation of mitogen activated protein kinase pathway which is essential for cell proliferation and tumor progression. Despite tremendous efforts made to target BRAF for cancer treatment, the correlation between BRAF mutation and patient survival is still a matter of controversy. Methods/Principal Findings Clinical studies on the correlation between BRAF mutation and patient survival were retrieved from MEDLINE and EMBASE databases between June 2002 and December 2011. One hundred twenty relevant full text studies were categorized based on study design and cancer type. Publication bias was evaluated for each category and pooled hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using random or fixed effect meta-analysis based on the percentage of heterogeneity. Twenty six studies on colorectal cancer (11,773 patients) and four studies on melanoma (674 patients) were included in our final meta-analysis. The average prevalence of BRAF mutation was 9.6% in colorectal cancer, and 47.8% in melanoma reports. We found that BRAF mutation increases the risk of mortality in colorectal cancer patients for more than two times; HR?=?2.25 (95% CI, 1.82–2.83). In addition, we revealed that BRAF mutation also increases the risk of mortality in melanoma patients by 1.7 times (95% CI, 1.37–2.12). Conclusions We revealed that BRAF mutation is an absolute risk factor for patient survival in colorectal cancer and melanoma.

Safaee Ardekani, Gholamreza; Jafarnejad, Seyed Mehdi; Tan, Larry; Saeedi, Ardavan; Li, Gang

2012-01-01

346

Cancer Genome Sequencing—An Interim Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract With the publishing,of the first complete,whole,genome,of a human cancer and its paired normal, we have passed a key milestone,in the,cancer,genome,sequencing,strategy. The generation of such data will, thanks to technical advances, soon,become,commonplace.,As a significant number,of proof- of-concept studies have been published, it is important to analyze,now,the likely implications,of these data and how,this information,might,frame,cancer,research,in the near future. The diversity of genes

Edward J. Fox; Jesse J. Salk; Lawrence A. Loeb

347

Robotic cleaning of a spent fuel pool  

SciTech Connect

Spent fuel pools at nuclear power plants are not cleaned routinely, other than by purifying the water that they contain. Yet, debris can collect on the bottom of a pool and should be removed prior to fuel transfer. At Public Service Electric and Gas Company's Hope Creek Nuclear Power Plant, a submersible mobile robot - ARD Corporation's SCAVENGER - was used to clean the bottom of the spent fuel pool prior to initial fuel loading. The robotic device was operated remotely (as opposed to autonomously) with a simple forward/reverse control, and it cleaned 70-80% of the pool bottom. This paper reports that a simple cost-benefit analysis shows that the robotic device would be less expensive, on a per mission basis, than other cleaning alternatives, especially if it were used for other similar cleaning operations throughout the plant.

Roman, H.T.; Marian, F.A. (PSE and G Research Corp., Newark, NJ (US)); Silverman, E.B.; Barkley, V.P. (ARD Corp., Columbia, MD (US))

1987-05-01

348

Pathway-based personalized analysis of cancer  

PubMed Central

We introduce Pathifier, an algorithm that infers pathway deregulation scores for each tumor sample on the basis of expression data. This score is determined, in a context-specific manner, for every particular dataset and type of cancer that is being investigated. The algorithm transforms gene-level information into pathway-level information, generating a compact and biologically relevant representation of each sample. We demonstrate the algorithm’s performance on three colorectal cancer datasets and two glioblastoma multiforme datasets and show that our multipathway-based representation is reproducible, preserves much of the original information, and allows inference of complex biologically significant information. We discovered several pathways that were significantly associated with survival of glioblastoma patients and two whose scores are predictive of survival in colorectal cancer: CXCR3-mediated signaling and oxidative phosphorylation. We also identified a subclass of proneural and neural glioblastoma with significantly better survival, and an EGF receptor-deregulated subclass of colon cancers.

Drier, Yotam; Sheffer, Michal; Domany, Eytan

2013-01-01

349

Gene Expression Analysis of Breast Cancer Progression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease with varying clinical behavior, and response to therapy that cannot be predicted based on clinical and pathologic classifications. It is the primary goal of our research to identify and characterize biological...

W. L. Gerald

2003-01-01

350

Gene Expression Analysis of Breast Cancer Progression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease with varying clinical behavior, and response to therapy that cannot be predicted based on clinical and pathologic classifications. It is the primary goal of our research to identify and characterize biological...

W. L. Gerald

2004-01-01

351

Gene Expression Analysis of Breast Cancer Progression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease with varying clinical behavior, and response to therapy that cannot be predicted based on existing classifications. It is the primary goal of our research to identify and characterize biological pathways and i...

W. L. Gerald

2005-01-01

352

Classification of Ovarian Cancer: A Genomic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic cancer, accounting for over 16,000 deaths. In the US annually (1). The poor\\u000a prognosis of this disease is due to the lack of reliable screening tools, the late stage of disease at the time of diagnosis,\\u000a the high rate of recurrence of the disease, and the poor response to chemotherapy in the recurrent

Michael P. Stany; Tomas Bonome; Fred Wamunyokoli; Kristen Zorn; Laurent Ozbun; Dong-Choon Park; Ke Hao; Jeff Boyd; Anil K. Sood; David M. Gershenson; Ross S. Berkowitz; Samuel C. Mok; Michael J. Birrer

353

Getting Pool Light Right.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the use of lighting, both artificial and natural, that can enhance the aesthetic quality and functionality of areas with indoor swimming pools. Discusses glare and shadow-reduction measures that aid competitive events, including lighting above and below water levels, and highlights lighting issues during televised events. Descriptions of…

Hunsaker, Scot

1998-01-01

354

Diabetes increases the risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this meta-analysis was to collate and analyse all primary observational studies investigating the risk of breast cancer (BC) associated with diabetes. In addition, we aimed to complete subgroup analyses by both type of diabetes and gender of study participants to further clarify the origin of any such association between the two. Studies were obtained from a database search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Current Contents Connect and Google Scholar with additional cross-checking of reference lists. Collated data were assessed for heterogeneity and a pooled odds ratio (OR) calculated. Forty-three studies were included in the meta-analysis with 40 studies investigating BC in women and six studies investigating BC in men. Overall, we found a significantly increased risk of BC associated with diabetes in women (OR 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.29). After subgroup analysis by type of diabetes, the association was unchanged with type 2 diabetes (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.07-1.40) and nullified with gestational diabetes (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.79-1.40). There were insufficient studies to calculate a pooled OR of the risk of BC associated with type 1 diabetes. There was an increased risk of BC in males with diabetes mellitus; however, the results did not reach statistical significance (OR 1.29, 95% CI 0.99-1.67). In conclusion, diabetes increases the risk of BC in women. This association is confirmed in women with type 2 diabetes and supports the hypothesis that diabetes is an independent risk factor for BC. PMID:23035011

Hardefeldt, Prue J; Edirimanne, Senarath; Eslick, Guy D

2012-11-19

355

A statistical reevaluation of the data used in the Lanphear et al. ( 2005 ) pooled-analysis that related low levels of blood lead to intellectual deficits in children.  

PubMed

Abstract A pooled-analysis by Lanphear et al. (2005) of seven cohort studies of the association between blood lead (BPb) concentrations in children and measures of their intelligence concluded that "environmental lead exposure in children who have maximal blood lead levels <7.5??g/dL is associated with intellectual deficits." This study has played a prominent role in shaping the public understanding of the effects upon children's IQ of low BPb exposures (e.g., BPb???10??g/dL). Here we present a reanalysis of the data used by Lanphear et al. to evaluate the robustness of their conclusions. Our analysis differed from that of Lanphear et al. primarily in how we controlled for non-lead variables (allowing a number of them to be site-specific), how we defined summary measures of BPb exposure, and in how we decided which BPb measures and transformations best modeled the data. We also reproduced the Lanphear et al. analysis. Although we found some small errors and questionable decisions by Lanphear et al. that, taken alone, could cause doubt in their conclusions, our reanalysis tended to support their conclusions. We concluded that there was statistical evidence that the exposure-response is non-linear over the full range of BPb evaluated in these studies, which implies that, for a given increase in blood lead, the associated IQ decrement is greater at lower BPb levels. However at BPb below 10?µg/dL, the exposure-response is adequately modeled as linear. We also found statistical evidence for an association with IQ among children who had maximal measured BPb levels ?7??g/dL, and concurrent BPb levels as low as ?5??g/dL. PMID:24040996

Crump, Kenny S; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Bowers, Teresa S; Cahoy, Dexter; Chandalia, Juhi K

2013-10-01

356

Body mass index and mortality rate among Hispanic adults: a pooled analysis of multiple epidemiologic data sets  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI, kg m?2) and mortality rate among Hispanic adults. METHODS AND PROCEDURES Analysis of five data sets (total N = 16 798) identified after searching for publicly available, prospective cohort data sets containing relevant information for at least 500 Hispanic respondents (?18 years at baseline), at least 5 years of mortality follow-up, and measured height and weight. Data sets included the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the Puerto Rico Heart Health Program (PRHHP), the Hispanic Established Population for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (HEPESE), the San Antonio Heart Study (SAHS) and the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging. RESULTS Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusting for sex and smoking, were fit within three attained-age strata (18 to younger than 60 years, 60 to younger than 70 years, and 70 years and older). We found that underweight was associated with elevated mortality rate for all age groups in the PRHHP (hazard ratios [HRs] = 1.38–1.60) and the SAHS (HRs = 1.88–2.51). Overweight (HRs = 0.38 and 0.84) and obesity grade 2–3 (HRs = 0.75 and 0.60) associated with reduced mortality rate in the HEPESE dataset for those in the 60 to younger than 70 years, and 70 years and older attained-age strata. Weighted estimates combining the HRs across the data sets revealed a similar pattern. CONCLUSION Among Hispanic adults, there was no clear evidence that overweight and obesity associate with elevated mortality rate.

Fontaine, KR; McCubrey, R; Mehta, T; Pajewski, NM; Keith, SW; Bangalore, SS; Crespo, CJ; Allison, DB

2011-01-01

357

Lung cancer diagnosis from proteomic analysis of preinvasive lesions  

PubMed Central

Early detection may help improve survival from lung cancer. In this study our goal was to derive and validate a signature from the proteomic analysis of bronchial lesions that could predict the diagnosis of lung cancer. Using previously published studies of bronchial tissues we selected a signature of 9 matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) mass to charge ratio features to build a prediction model diagnostic of lung cancer. The model was based on MALDI MS signal intensity (MALDI score) from bronchial tissue specimens from our 2005 published cohort of 51 patients. The performance of the prediction model in identifying lung cancer was tested in an independent cohort of bronchial specimens from 60 patients. The probability of having lung cancer based on the proteomic analysis of the bronchial specimens was characterized by an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.77 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.88) in this validation cohort. Eight of the 9 features were identified and validated by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. These results demonstrate that proteomic analysis of endobronchial lesions may facilitate the diagnosis of lung cancer and the monitoring of high risk individuals for lung cancer in surveillance and chemoprevention trials.

Rahman, S.M. Jamshedur; Gonzalez, Adriana L.; Li, Ming; Seeley, Erin H.; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Zhang, Xueqiong J.; Manier, M. Lisa; Olson, Sandy; Shah, Ronak N.; Miller, Alison; Putnam, Joe B.; Miller, York E.; Franklin, Wilbur A.; Blot, William J.; Carbone, David P.; Shyr, Yu; Caprioli, Richard M.; Massion, Pierre P.

2011-01-01

358

The Detergent-Soluble Cytoplasmic Pool of Survivin Suppresses Anoikis and Its Expression Is Associated with Metastatic Disease of Human Colon Cancer  

PubMed Central

Survivin is a component of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) that is essential for accurate chromosome segregation. Interfering with the function of Survivin in mitosis leads to chromosome segregation errors and defective cytokinesis. Survivin contains a Baculovirus IAP Repeat (BIR) and therefore was originally classified as inhibitor of apopotosis protein (IAP), yet its role in apoptosis after cellular stress remains largely unknown. We demonstrate here, that Survivin predominantly suppresses anoikis, a form of programmed cell death induced by loss of cellular adhesion to extracellular matrix. Interestingly, cells ectopically overexpressing EGFP-Survivin showed after loss of cell-matrix-interaction a decreased expression of I?B-?. Subsequent subcellular protein fractionation and immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that XIAP interacts with detergent-soluble Survivin which is known to cooperatively activate NF-?B signaling. Examination of the expression levels of detergent soluble Survivin in colorectal cancer cell lines and in colorectal cancerous tissues revealed that detergent soluble cytoplasmic Survivin levels correlated inversely with anoikis susceptibility in colorectal cancer. Therefore, the detergent soluble cytoplasmic Survivin might be a promising predictive biomarker for lymph node and distant metastases of colorectal cancer. We conclude that an anti-apoptotic function of detergent-soluble Survivin in interphase cells experiencing anoikis is mediated at least via XIAP/I?B-?/NF-?B signaling.

Hori, Masato; Miki, Tomoharu; Okamoto, Mayumi; Yazama, Futoshi; Konishi, Hiroaki; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Shimamoto, Fumio; Ota, Takahide; Temme, Achim; Tatsuka, Masaaki

2013-01-01

359

A Meta-Analysis of the Accuracy of Prostate Cancer Studies Which Use Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic Tool  

PubMed Central

Objective We aimed to do a meta-analysis of the existing literature to assess the accuracy of prostate cancer studies which use magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) as a diagnostic tool. Materials and Methods Prospectively, independent, blind studies were selected from the Cochrane library, Pubmed, and other network databases. The criteria for inclusion and exclusion in this study referenced the criteria of diagnostic research published by the Cochrane center. The statistical analysis was adopted by using Meta-Test version 6.0. Using the homogeneity test, a statistical effect model was chosen to calculate different pooled weighted values of sensitivity, specificity, and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves method was used to assess the results. Results We chose two cut-off values (0.75 and 0.86) as the diagnostic criteria for discriminating between benign and malignant. In the first diagnostic criterion, the pooled weighted sensitivity, specificity, and corresponding 95% CI (expressed as area under curve [AUC]) were 0.82 (0.73, 0.89), 0.68 (0.58, 0.76), and 83.4% (74.97, 91.83). In the second criterion, the pooled weighted sensitivity, specificity,