Sample records for cancer pooled analysis

  1. A Pooled Analysis of Bone Marrow Micrometastasis in Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Braun; Florian D. Vogl; Bjørn Naume; Wolfgang Janni; Michael P. Osborne; R. Charles Coombes; Günter Schlimok; Ingo J. Diel; Bernd Gerber; Gerhard Gebauer; Jean-Yves Pierga; Christian Marth; Daniel Oruzio; Gro Wiedswang; Erich-Franz Solomayer; Günther Kundt; Barbara Strobl; Tanja Fehm; George Y. C. Wong; Judith Bliss; Anne Vincent-Salomon; Klaus Pantel

    2010-01-01

    background We assessed the prognostic significance of the presence of micrometastasis in the bone marrow at the time of diagnosis of breast cancer by means of a pooled analysis. methods We combined individual patient data from nine studies involving 4703 patients with stage I, II, or III breast cancer. We evaluated patient outcomes over a 10-year follow-up period (median, 5.2

  2. Patterns of genetic alterations in pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis.

    PubMed

    Blanck, H M; Tolbert, P E; Hoppin, J A

    1999-01-01

    Both K-ras and p53 gene mutations are found commonly in pancreatic tumors. Analysis of the mutational patterns may provide insight into disease etiology. To further describe the mutational patterns of pancreatic cancer and to assess the evidence to date, we performed a pooled analysis of the published data on genetic mutations associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. We included data from studies that evaluated point mutations in the two genes most studied in pancreatic cancer, K-ras and p53. A majority of the 204 tumors had mutations in at least one gene, with 29% having both K-ras and p53 mutations, 39% with K-ras mutation alone, and 16% having p53 mutation alone. Sixteen percent of tumors lacked mutation in either gene. K-ras mutations were present in high frequencies in all tumor grades (>69%). A statistically significant trend was observed for p53 mutation with higher tumor grade (P = 0.04). For K-ras, G2 and G3 grades, combined, had notably higher prevalences of mutation than G1 (P = 0.004). CGT mutations in K-ras codon 12 were marginally associated with lower tumor grade (P for trend = 0.09), and these tumors were somewhat less likely to have a p53 mutation than tumors with other K-ras mutations (P = 0.06). In the 59 K-ras+/p53+ tumors, 64% had the same type of mutation (transition or transversion) in both genes, suggesting a common mechanism. The mutational pattern of p53 in pancreatic cancer is similar to bladder cancer, another smoking-related cancer, but not to lung cancer. Analyses of molecular data, such as that performed here, present new avenues for epidemiologists in the study of the etiology of specific cancers. PMID:10217065

  3. HPV-associated lung cancers: an international pooled analysis.

    PubMed

    Ragin, Camille; Obikoya-Malomo, Monisola; Kim, Sungjin; Chen, Zhengjia; Flores-Obando, Rafael; Gibbs, Denise; Koriyama, Chihaya; Aguayo, Francisco; Koshiol, Jill; Caporaso, Neil E; Carpagnano, Giovanna E; Ciotti, Marco; Dosaka-Akita, Hirotoshi; Fukayama, Masashi; Goto, Akiteru; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Gorgoulis, Vassilis; Heideman, Daniëlle A M; van Boerdonk, Robert A A; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Iwakawa, Reika; Kastrinakis, Nikolaos G; Kinoshita, Ichiro; Akiba, Suminori; Landi, Maria T; Eugene Liu, H; Wang, Jinn-Li; Mehra, Ranee; Khuri, Fadlo R; Lim, Wan-Teck; Owonikoko, Taofeek K; Ramalingam, Suresh; Sarchianaki, Emmanuela; Syrjanen, Kari; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Sykes, Jenna; Hee, Siew Wan; Yokota, Jun; Zaravinos, Apostolos; Taioli, Emanuela

    2014-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the etiologic risk factor for cervical cancer. Some studies have suggested an association with a subset of lung tumors, but the etiologic link has not been firmly established. We performed an international pooled analysis of cross-sectional studies (27 datasets, n = 3249 patients) to evaluate HPV DNA prevalence in lung cancer and to investigate viral presence according to clinical and demographic characteristics. HPV16/18 were the most commonly detected, but with substantial variation in viral prevalence between geographic regions. The highest prevalence of HPV16/18 was observed in South and Central America, followed by Asia, North America and Europe (adjusted prevalence rates = 22, 5, 4 and 3%, respectively). Higher HPV16 prevalence was noted in each geographic region compared with HPV18, except in North America. HPV16/18-positive lung cancer was less likely observed among White race (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.12-0.90), whereas no associations were observed with gender, smoking history, age, histology or stage. Comparisons between tumor and normal lung tissue show that HPV was more likely to be present in lung cancer rather than normal lung tissues (OR = 3.86, 95% CI = 2.87-5.19). Among a subset of patients with HPV16-positive tumors, integration was primarily among female patients (93%, 13/14), while the physical status in male cases (N = 14) was inconsistent. Our findings confirm that HPV DNA is present in a small fraction of lung tumors, with large geographic variations. Further comprehensive analysis is needed to assess whether this association reflects a causal relationship. PMID:24523449

  4. Intrauterine devices and endometrial cancer risk: a pooled analysis of the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium.

    PubMed

    Felix, Ashley S; Gaudet, Mia M; La Vecchia, Carlo; Nagle, Christina M; Shu, Xiao Ou; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Adami, Hans Olov; Beresford, Shirley; Bernstein, Leslie; Chen, Chu; Cook, Linda S; De Vivo, Immaculata; Doherty, Jennifer A; Friedenreich, Christine M; Gapstur, Susan M; Hill, Dierdre; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Lacey, James V; Levi, Fabio; Liang, Xiaolin; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony; McCann, Susan E; Negri, Eva; Olson, Sara H; Palmer, Julie R; Patel, Alpa V; Petruzella, Stacey; Prescott, Jennifer; Risch, Harvey A; Rosenberg, Lynn; Sherman, Mark E; Spurdle, Amanda B; Webb, Penelope M; Wise, Lauren A; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Xu, Wanghong; Yang, Hannah P; Yu, Herbert; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Brinton, Louise A

    2015-03-01

    Intrauterine devices (IUDs), long-acting and reversible contraceptives, induce a number of immunological and biochemical changes in the uterine environment that could affect endometrial cancer (EC) risk. We addressed this relationship through a pooled analysis of data collected in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium. We combined individual-level data from 4 cohort and 14 case-control studies, in total 8,801 EC cases and 15,357 controls. Using multivariable logistic regression, we estimated pooled odds ratios (pooled-ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for EC risk associated with ever use, type of device, ages at first and last use, duration of use and time since last use, stratified by study and adjusted for confounders. Ever use of IUDs was inversely related to EC risk (pooled-OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.74-0.90). Compared with never use, reduced risk of EC was observed for inert IUDs (pooled-OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.58-0.82), older age at first use (? 35 years pooled-OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.43-0.67), older age at last use (? 45 years pooled-OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.50-0.72), longer duration of use (? 10 years pooled-OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.52-0.71) and recent use (within 1 year of study entry pooled-OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.30-0.49). Future studies are needed to assess the respective roles of detection biases and biologic effects related to foreign body responses in the endometrium, heavier bleeding (and increased clearance of carcinogenic cells) and localized hormonal changes. PMID:25242594

  5. A Pooled Analysis of Bladder Cancer Case–Control Studies Evaluating Smoking in Men and Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana Puente; Patricia Hartge; Eberhard Greiser; Kenneth P. Cantor; Will D. King; Carlos A. González; Sylvaine Cordier; Paolo Vineis; Elsebeth Lynge; Jenny Chang-Claude; Stefano Porru; Anastasia Tzonou; Karl-Heinz Jöckel; Consol Serra; Charles F. Lynch; Ulrich Ranft; Jürgen Wahrendorf; Debra Silverman; Francisco Fernandez; Paolo Boffetta; Manolis Kogevinas

    2006-01-01

    Objective A recent study suggested that risk of bladder cancer may be higher in women than in men who smoked comparable amounts of\\u000a cigarettes. We pooled primary data from 14 case–control studies of bladder cancer from Europe and North America and evaluated\\u000a differences in risk of smoking by gender.\\u000a \\u000a Methods The pooled analysis included 8316 cases (21% women) and 17,406

  6. Previous Lung Diseases and Lung Cancer Risk: A Pooled Analysis From the International Lung Cancer Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Darren R.; Boffetta, Paolo; Duell, Eric J.; Bickeböller, Heike; Rosenberger, Albert; McCormack, Valerie; Muscat, Joshua E.; Yang, Ping; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Brueske-Hohlfeld, Irene; Schwartz, Ann G.; Cote, Michele L.; Tjønneland, Anne; Friis, Søren; Le Marchand, Loic; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Morgenstern, Hal; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Zaridze, David; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Bencko, Vladimir; Schejbalova, Miriam; Brennan, Paul; Mates, Ioan N.; Lazarus, Philip; Field, John K.; Raji, Olaide; McLaughlin, John R.; Liu, Geoffrey; Wiencke, John; Neri, Monica; Ugolini, Donatella; Andrew, Angeline S.; Lan, Qing; Hu, Wei; Orlow, Irene; Park, Bernard J.; Hung, Rayjean J.

    2012-01-01

    To clarify the role of previous lung diseases (chronic bronchitis, emphysema, pneumonia, and tuberculosis) in the development of lung cancer, the authors conducted a pooled analysis of studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Seventeen studies including 24,607 cases and 81,829 controls (noncases), mainly conducted in Europe and North America, were included (1984–2011). Using self-reported data on previous diagnoses of lung diseases, the authors derived study-specific effect estimates by means of logistic regression models or Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, sex, and cumulative tobacco smoking. Estimates were pooled using random-effects models. Analyses stratified by smoking status and histology were also conducted. A history of emphysema conferred a 2.44-fold increased risk of lung cancer (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.64, 3.62 (16 studies)). A history of chronic bronchitis conferred a relative risk of 1.47 (95% CI: 1.29, 1.68 (13 studies)). Tuberculosis (relative risk = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.87 (16 studies)) and pneumonia (relative risk = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.22, 2.01 (12 studies)) were also associated with lung cancer risk. Among never smokers, elevated risks were observed for emphysema, pneumonia, and tuberculosis. These results suggest that previous lung diseases influence lung cancer risk independently of tobacco use and that these diseases are important for assessing individual risk. PMID:22986146

  7. Cannabis smoking and lung cancer risk: Pooled analysis in the International Lung Cancer Consortium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li Rita; Morgenstern, Hal; Greenland, Sander; Chang, Shen-Chih; Lazarus, Philip; Teare, M Dawn; Woll, Penella J; Orlow, Irene; Cox, Brian; Brhane, Yonathan; Liu, Geoffrey; Hung, Rayjean J

    2015-02-15

    To investigate the association between cannabis smoking and lung cancer risk, data on 2,159 lung cancer cases and 2,985 controls were pooled from 6 case-control studies in the US, Canada, UK, and New Zealand within the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Study-specific associations between cannabis smoking and lung cancer were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for sociodemographic factors, tobacco smoking status and pack-years; odds-ratio estimates were pooled using random effects models. Subgroup analyses were done for sex, histology and tobacco smoking status. The shapes of dose-response associations were examined using restricted cubic spline regression. The overall pooled OR for habitual versus nonhabitual or never users was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.66-1.38). Compared to nonhabitual or never users, the summary OR was 0.88 (95%CI: 0.63-1.24) for individuals who smoked 1 or more joint-equivalents of cannabis per day and 0.94 (95%CI: 0.67-1.32) for those consumed at least 10 joint-years. For adenocarcinoma cases the ORs were 1.73 (95%CI: 0.75-4.00) and 1.74 (95%CI: 0.85-3.55), respectively. However, no association was found for the squamous cell carcinoma based on small numbers. Weak associations between cannabis smoking and lung cancer were observed in never tobacco smokers. Spline modeling indicated a weak positive monotonic association between cumulative cannabis use and lung cancer, but precision was low at high exposure levels. Results from our pooled analyses provide little evidence for an increased risk of lung cancer among habitual or long-term cannabis smokers, although the possibility of potential adverse effect for heavy consumption cannot be excluded. PMID:24947688

  8. Diabetes and risk of pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis from the pancreatic cancer cohort consortium

    PubMed Central

    Steplowski, Emily; Yu, Kai; Hartge, Patricia; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Brotzman, Michelle J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Arslan, Alan A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Jacobs, Eric J.; LaCroix, Andrea; Petersen, Gloria; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Allen, Naomi E.; Amundadottir, Laufey; Bao, Ying; Boeing, Heiner; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Buring, Julie E.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Duell, Eric J.; Hallmans, Göran; Howard, Barbara V.; Hunter, David J.; Hutchinson, Amy; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kraft, Peter; Mendelsohn, Julie B.; Michaud, Dominique S.; Palli, Domenico; Phillips, Lawrence S.; Overvad, Kim; Patel, Alpa V.; Sansbury, Leah; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Simon, Michael S.; Slimani, Nadia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Visvanathan, Kala; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wolpin, Brian M.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Fuchs, Charles S.; Hoover, Robert N.; Gross, Myron

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Diabetes is a suspected risk factor for pancreatic cancer, but questions remain about whether it is a risk factor or a result of the disease. This study prospectively examined the association between diabetes and the risk of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in pooled data from the NCI pancreatic cancer cohort consortium (PanScan). Methods The pooled data included 1,621 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cases and 1,719 matched controls from twelve cohorts using a nested case–control study design. Subjects who were diagnosed with diabetes near the time (<2 years) of pancreatic cancer diagnosis were excluded from all analyses. All analyses were adjusted for age, race, gender, study, alcohol use, smoking, BMI, and family history of pancreatic cancer. Results Self-reported diabetes was associated with a forty percent increased risk of pancreatic cancer (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI: 1.07, 1.84). The association differed by duration of diabetes; risk was highest for those with a duration of 2–8 years (OR = 1.79, 95 % CI: 1.25, 2.55); there was no association for those with 9+ years of diabetes (OR = 1.02, 95 % CI: 0.68, 1.52). Conclusions These findings provide support for a relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer risk. The absence of association in those with the longest duration of diabetes may reflect hypoinsulinemia and warrants further investigation. PMID:23112111

  9. Cigarette smoking and risk of ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of 21 case–control studies

    PubMed Central

    Faber, Mette T.; Kjær, Susanne K.; Dehlendorff, Christian; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Andersen, Klaus K.; Høgdall, Estrid; Webb, Penelope M.; Jordan, Susan J.; Rossing, Mary Anne; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Lurie, Galina; Thompson, Pamela J.; Carney, Michael E.; Goodman, Marc T.; Ness, Roberta B.; Modugnos, Francesmary; Edwards, Robert P.; Bunker, Clareann H.; Goode, Ellen L.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Larson, Melissa C.; Schildkraut, Joellen; Cramer, Daniel W.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Olson, Sara H.; King, Melony; Chandran, Urmila; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; van Altena, Anne M.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Brinton, Louise; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Lissowska, Jolanta; Yang, Hannah P.; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Odunsi, Kunle; Kasza, Karin; Odunsi-Akanji, Oluwatosin; Song, Honglin; Pharaoh, Paul; Shah, Mitul; Whittemore, Alice S.; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Sutphen, Rebecca; Menon, Usha; Gayther, Simon A.; Ramus, Susan J.; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Wu, Anna H.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Risch, Harvey A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The majority of previous studies have observed an increased risk of mucinous ovarian tumors associated with cigarette smoking, but the association with other histological types is unclear. In a large pooled analysis, we examined the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with multiple measures of cigarette smoking with a focus on characterizing risks according to tumor behavior and histology. Methods We used data from 21 case–control studies of ovarian cancer (19,066 controls, 11,972 invasive and 2,752 borderline cases). Study-specific odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were obtained from logistic regression models and combined into a pooled odds ratio using a random effects model. Results Current cigarette smoking increased the risk of invasive mucinous (OR = 1.31; 95 % CI: 1.03–1.65) and borderline mucinous ovarian tumors (OR = 1.83; 95 % CI: 1.39–2.41), while former smoking increased the risk of borderline serous ovarian tumors (OR = 1.30; 95 % CI: 1.12–1.50). For these histological types, consistent dose– response associations were observed. No convincing associations between smoking and risk of invasive serous and endometrioid ovarian cancer were observed, while our results provided some evidence of a decreased risk of invasive clear cell ovarian cancer. Conclusions Our results revealed marked differences in the risk profiles of histological types of ovarian cancer with regard to cigarette smoking, although the magnitude of the observed associations was modest. Our findings, which may reflect different etiologies of the histological types, add to the fact that ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease. PMID:23456270

  10. A pooled analysis of thyroid cancer incidence following radiotherapy for childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Lene H S; Lubin, Jay H; Anderson, Harald; de Vathaire, Florent; Tucker, Margaret; Bhatti, Parveen; Schneider, Arthur; Johansson, Robert; Inskip, Peter; Kleinerman, Ruth; Shore, Roy; Pottern, Linda; Holmberg, Erik; Hawkins, Michael M; Adams, M Jacob; Sadetzki, Siegal; Lundell, Marie; Sakata, Ritsu; Damber, Lena; Neta, Gila; Ron, Elaine

    2012-10-01

    Childhood cancer five-year survival now exceeds 70-80%. Childhood exposure to radiation is a known thyroid carcinogen; however, data are limited for the evaluation of radiation dose-response at high doses, modifiers of the dose-response relationship and joint effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. To address these issues, we pooled two cohort and two nested case-control studies of childhood cancer survivors including 16,757 patients, with 187 developing primary thyroid cancer. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for thyroid cancer by treatment with alkylating agents, anthracyclines or bleomycin were 3.25 (0.9-14.9), 4.5 (1.4-17.8) and 3.2 (0.8-10.4), respectively, in patients without radiotherapy, and declined with greater radiation dose (RR trends, P = 0.02, 0.12 and 0.01, respectively). Radiation dose-related RRs increased approximately linearly for <10 Gy, leveled off at 10-15-fold for 10-30 Gy and then declined, but remained elevated for doses >50 Gy. The fitted RR at 10 Gy was 13.7 (95% CI: 8.0-24.0). Dose-related excess RRs increased with decreasing age at exposure (P < 0.01), but did not vary with attained age or time-since-exposure, remaining elevated 25+ years after exposure. Gender and number of treatments did not modify radiation effects. Thyroid cancer risks remained elevated many decades following radiotherapy, highlighting the need for continued follow up of childhood cancer survivors. PMID:22857014

  11. Lung cancer risk among bricklayers in a pooled analysis of case–control studies

    PubMed Central

    Consonni, Dario; Matteis, Sara De; Pesatori, Angela C; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Olsson, Ann C; Kromhout, Hans; Peters, Susan; Vermeulen, Roel CH; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas; Kendzia, Benjamin; Behrens, Thomas; Stücker, Isabelle; Guida, Florence; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Brüske, Irene; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil E; Gustavsson, Per; Plato, Nils; Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Simonato, Lorenzo; Forastiere, Francesco; Siemiatycki, Jack; Parent, Marie-Élise; Tardón, Adonina; Boffetta, Paolo; Zaridze, David; Chen, Ying; Field, John K; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Pearce, Neil; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Lissowska, Jolanta; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Rudnai, Peter; Fabiánová, Eleonóra; Stanescu Dumitru, Rodica; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B(as); Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Bricklayers may be exposed to several lung carcinogens, including crystalline silica and asbestos. Previous studies that analyzed lung cancer risk among these workers had several study design limitations. We examined lung cancer risk among bricklayers within SYNERGY, a large international pooled analysis of case–control studies on lung cancer and the joint effects of occupational carcinogens. For men ever employed as bricklayers we estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for study center, age, lifetime smoking history and employment in occupations with exposures to known or suspected lung carcinogens. Among 15,608 cases and 18,531 controls, there were 695 cases and 469 controls who had ever worked as bricklayers (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.28–1.68). In studies using population controls the OR was 1.55 (95% CI: 1.32–1.81, 540/349 cases/controls), while it was 1.24 (95% CI: 0.93–1.64, 155/120 cases/controls) in hospital-based studies. There was a clear positive trend with length of employment (p < 0.001). The relative risk was higher for squamous (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.42–1.98, 309 cases) and small cell carcinomas (OR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.44–2.20, 140 cases), than for adenocarcinoma (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.95–1.43, 150 cases) (p-homogeneity: 0.0007). ORs were still elevated after additional adjustment for education and in analyses using blue collar workers as referents. This study provided robust evidence of increased lung cancer risk in bricklayers. Although non-causal explanations cannot be completely ruled out, the association is plausible in view of the potential for exposure to several carcinogens, notably crystalline silica and to a lesser extent asbestos. What's new? In their work, bricklayers can be exposed to various airborne carcinogens, including crystalline silica and asbestos. Previous studies of cancer risk have not accounted for full employment history or smoking status, and failed to establish a firm relationship between bricklaying and lung cancer. In this study, the authors used data from the largest collection of case-control studies on lung cancer with complete occupational and smoking history existing today, the SYNERGY project. They found clear evidence that lung cancer risk increases in proportion to the length of time spent working as a bricklayer, paving the way for better protection and compensation for those in this occupation. PMID:24861979

  12. Lung cancer risk among bricklayers in a pooled analysis of case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Consonni, Dario; De Matteis, Sara; Pesatori, Angela C; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Olsson, Ann C; Kromhout, Hans; Peters, Susan; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas; Kendzia, Benjamin; Behrens, Thomas; Stücker, Isabelle; Guida, Florence; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Brüske, Irene; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil E; Gustavsson, Per; Plato, Nils; Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Simonato, Lorenzo; Forastiere, Francesco; Siemiatycki, Jack; Parent, Marie-Élise; Tardón, Adonina; Boffetta, Paolo; Zaridze, David; Chen, Ying; Field, John K; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Pearce, Neil; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Lissowska, Jolanta; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Rudnai, Peter; Fabiánová, Eleonóra; Stanescu Dumitru, Rodica; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt

    2015-01-15

    Bricklayers may be exposed to several lung carcinogens, including crystalline silica and asbestos. Previous studies that analyzed lung cancer risk among these workers had several study design limitations. We examined lung cancer risk among bricklayers within SYNERGY, a large international pooled analysis of case-control studies on lung cancer and the joint effects of occupational carcinogens. For men ever employed as bricklayers we estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for study center, age, lifetime smoking history and employment in occupations with exposures to known or suspected lung carcinogens. Among 15,608 cases and 18,531 controls, there were 695 cases and 469 controls who had ever worked as bricklayers (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.28-1.68). In studies using population controls the OR was 1.55 (95% CI: 1.32-1.81, 540/349 cases/controls), while it was 1.24 (95% CI: 0.93-1.64, 155/120 cases/controls) in hospital-based studies. There was a clear positive trend with length of employment (p < 0.001). The relative risk was higher for squamous (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.42-1.98, 309 cases) and small cell carcinomas (OR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.44-2.20, 140 cases), than for adenocarcinoma (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.95-1.43, 150 cases) (p-homogeneity: 0.0007). ORs were still elevated after additional adjustment for education and in analyses using blue collar workers as referents. This study provided robust evidence of increased lung cancer risk in bricklayers. Although non-causal explanations cannot be completely ruled out, the association is plausible in view of the potential for exposure to several carcinogens, notably crystalline silica and to a lesser extent asbestos. PMID:24861979

  13. Meta- and pooled analysis of GSTP1 polymorphism and lung cancer: a HuGE-GSEC review.

    PubMed

    Cote, Michele L; Chen, Wei; Smith, Daryn W; Benhamou, Simone; Bouchardy, Christine; Butkiewicz, Dorota; Fong, Kwun M; Gené, Manuel; Hirvonen, Ari; Kiyohara, Chikako; Larsen, Jill E; Lin, Pinpin; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Povey, Andrew C; Reszka, Edyta; Risch, Angela; Schneider, Joachim; Schwartz, Ann G; Sorensen, Mette; To-Figueras, Jordi; Tokudome, Shinkan; Pu, Yuepu; Yang, Ping; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Wikman, Harriet; Taioli, Emanuela

    2009-04-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide. Polymorphisms in genes associated with carcinogen metabolism may modulate risk of disease. Glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP1) detoxifies polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and is the most highly expressed glutathione S-transferase in lung tissue. A polymorphism in the GSTP1 gene, an A-to-G transition in exon 5 (Ile105Val, 313A --> 313G), results in lower activity among individuals who carry the valine allele. The authors present a meta- and a pooled analysis of case-control studies that examined the association between this polymorphism in GSTP1 and lung cancer risk (27 studies, 8,322 cases and 8,844 controls and 15 studies, 4,282 cases and 5,032 controls, respectively). Overall, the meta-analysis found no significant association between lung cancer risk and the GSTP1 exon 5 polymorphism. In the pooled analysis, there was an overall association (odds ratio = 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.21) between lung cancer and carriage of the GSTP1 Val/Val or Ile/Val genotype compared with those carrying the Ile/Ile genotype. Increased risk varied by histologic type in Asians. There appears to be evidence for interaction between amount of smoking, the GSTP1 exon 5 polymorphism, and risk of lung cancer in whites. PMID:19240225

  14. Second primary cancers in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a pooled analysis of 13 cancer registries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghislaine Scélo; Paolo Boffetta; Marilys Corbex; Kee-Seng Chia; Kari Hemminki; Soren Friis; Eero Pukkala; Elisabete Weiderpass; Mary L. McBride; Elizabeth Tracey; David H. Brewster; Vera Pompe-Kirn; Erich V. Kliewer; Jon M. Tonita; Carmen Martos; Jon G. Jonasson; Paul Brennan

    2007-01-01

    Objective  To study the risk of second primary cancers in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients and the risk of NPC as second primary\\u000a cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We used data from the cancer registries from Singapore and from 12 low-incidence areas, including a total of 8,947 first occurring\\u000a NPC cases, and 167 second occurring cases. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) by comparing the second

  15. Coffee consumption and the risk of primary liver cancer: pooled analysis of two prospective studies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Taichi; Tsubono, Yoshitaka; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Ohmori, Kaori; Koizumi, Yayoi; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Shibuya, Daisuke; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2005-08-10

    Although case-control studies suggested that coffee consumption is associated with a decreased risk of liver cancer, no prospective cohort study has been carried out. To examine the association between coffee consumption and the risk of liver cancer, we conducted a pooled analysis of data available from 2 cohort studies in Japan. A self-administered questionnaire about the frequency of coffee consumption and other health habits was distributed to 22,404 subjects (10,588 men and 11,816 women) in Cohort 1 and 38,703 subjects (18,869 men and 19,834 women) in Cohort 2, aged 40 years or more, with no previous history of cancer. We identified 70 and 47 cases of liver cancer among the subjects in Cohort 1 (9 years of follow-up with 170,640 person-years) and Cohort 2 (7 years of follow-up with 284,948 person-years), respectively. We used Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to estimate the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of liver cancer incidence. After adjustment for potential confounders, the pooled RR (95% CI) of drinking coffee never, occasionally and 1 or more cups/day were 1.00 (Reference), 0.71 (0.46-1.09) and 0.58 (0.36-0.96), respectively (p for trend = 0.024). In the subgroup of subjects with a history of liver disease, we found a significant inverse association between coffee consumption and the risk of liver cancer. Our findings support the hypothesis that coffee consumption decreases the risk of liver cancer. Further studies to investigate the role of coffee in prevention of liver cancer among the high-risk population are needed. PMID:15756689

  16. Birth order and risk of childhood cancer: a pooled analysis from five US States.

    PubMed

    Von Behren, Julie; Spector, Logan G; Mueller, Beth A; Carozza, Susan E; Chow, Eric J; Fox, Erin E; Horel, Scott; Johnson, Kimberly J; McLaughlin, Colleen; Puumala, Susan E; Ross, Julie A; Reynolds, Peggy

    2011-06-01

    The causes of childhood cancers are largely unknown. Birth order has been used as a proxy for prenatal and postnatal exposures, such as frequency of infections and in utero hormone exposures. We investigated the association between birth order and childhood cancers in a pooled case-control dataset. The subjects were drawn from population-based registries of cancers and births in California, Minnesota, New York, Texas and Washington. We included 17,672 cases <15 years of age who were diagnosed from 1980 to 2004 and 57,966 randomly selected controls born 1970-2004, excluding children with Down syndrome. We calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using logistic regression, adjusted for sex, birth year, maternal race, maternal age, multiple birth, gestational age and birth weight. Overall, we found an inverse relationship between childhood cancer risk and birth order. For children in the fourth or higher birth order category compared to first-born children, the adjusted OR was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.93) for all cancers combined. When we examined risks by cancer type, a decreasing risk with increasing birth order was seen in the central nervous system tumors, neuroblastoma, bilateral retinoblastoma, Wilms tumor and rhabdomyosarcoma. We observed increased risks with increasing birth order for acute myeloid leukemia but a slight decrease in risk for acute lymphoid leukemia. These risk estimates were based on a very large sample size, which allowed us to examine rare cancer types with greater statistical power than in most previous studies, however the biologic mechanisms remain to be elucidated. PMID:20715170

  17. Birth order and Risk of Childhood Cancer: A Pooled Analysis from Five U.S. States

    PubMed Central

    Von Behren, Julie; Spector, Logan G.; Mueller, Beth A.; Carozza, Susan E.; Chow, Eric J.; Fox, Erin E.; Horel, Scott; Johnson, Kimberly J.; McLaughlin, Colleen; Puumala, Susan E.; Ross, Julie A.; Reynolds, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    The causes of childhood cancers are largely unknown. Birth order has been used as a proxy for prenatal and postnatal exposures, such as frequency of infections and in utero hormone exposures. We investigated the association between birth order and childhood cancers in a pooled case-control dataset. The subjects were drawn from population-based registries of cancers and births in California, Minnesota, New York, Texas, and Washington. We included 17,672 cases less than 15 years of age who were diagnosed from1980-2004 and 57,966 randomly selected controls born 1970-2004, excluding children with Down syndrome. We calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using logistic regression, adjusted for sex, birth year, maternal race, maternal age, multiple birth, gestational age, and birth weight. Overall, we found an inverse relationship between childhood cancer risk and birth order. For children in the fourth or higher birth order category compared to first-born children, the adjusted OR was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.93) for all cancers combined. When we examined risks by cancer type, a decreasing risk with increasing birth order was seen in the central nervous system (CNS) tumors, neuroblastoma, bilateral retinoblastoma, Wilms tumor, and rhabdomyosarcoma. We observed increased risks with increasing birth order for acute myeloid leukemia but a slight decrease in risk for acute lymphoid leukemia. These risk estimates were based on a very large sample size which allowed us to examine rare cancer types with greater statistical power than in most previous studies, however the biologic mechanisms remain to be elucidated. PMID:20715170

  18. Dietary carotenoids and risk of lung cancer in a pooled analysis of seven cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Männistö, Satu; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Spiegelman, Donna; Albanes, Demetrius; Anderson, Kristin; van den Brandt, Piet A; Cerhan, James R; Colditz, Graham; Feskanich, Diane; Freudenheim, Jo L; Giovannucci, Edward; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Graham, Saxon; Miller, Anthony B; Rohan, Thomas E; Virtamo, Jarmo; Willett, Walter C; Hunter, David J

    2004-01-01

    Intervention trials with supplemental beta-carotene have observed either no effect or a harmful effect on lung cancer risk. Because food composition databases for specific carotenoids have only become available recently, epidemiological evidence relating usual dietary levels of these carotenoids with lung cancer risk is limited. We analyzed the association between lung cancer risk and intakes of specific carotenoids using the primary data from seven cohort studies in North America and Europe. Carotenoid intakes were estimated from dietary questionnaires administered at baseline in each study. We calculated study-specific multivariate relative risks (RRs) and combined these using a random-effects model. The multivariate models included smoking history and other potential risk factors. During follow-up of up to 7-16 years across studies, 3,155 incident lung cancer cases were diagnosed among 399,765 participants. beta-Carotene intake was not associated with lung cancer risk (pooled multivariate RR = 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.87-1.11; highest versus lowest quintile). The RRs for alpha-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin, and lycopene were also close to unity. beta-Cryptoxanthin intake was inversely associated with lung cancer risk (RR = 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.86; highest versus lowest quintile). These results did not change after adjustment for intakes of vitamin C (with or without supplements), folate (with or without supplements), and other carotenoids and multivitamin use. The associations generally were similar among never, past, or current smokers and by histological type. Although smoking is the strongest risk factor for lung cancer, greater intake of foods high in beta-cryptoxanthin, such as citrus fruit, may modestly lower the risk. PMID:14744731

  19. Lung cancer risk among hairdressers: a pooled analysis of case-control studies conducted between 1985 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Ann C; Xu, Yiwen; Schüz, Joachim; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Peters, Susan; Stücker, Isabelle; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Consonni, Dario; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun; Siemiatycki, Jack; Richardson, Lesley; Mirabelli, Dario; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Simonato, Lorenzo; Gustavsson, Per; Plato, Nils; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Tardón, Adonina; Zaridze, David; Marcus, Michael W; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Pearce, Neil; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Boffetta, Paolo; Fortes, Cristina; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Kendzia, Benjamin; Behrens, Thomas; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas; Straif, Kurt

    2013-11-01

    Increased lung cancer risks among hairdressers were observed in large registry-based cohort studies from Scandinavia, but these studies could not adjust for smoking. Our objective was to evaluate the lung cancer risk among hairdressers while adjusting for smoking and other confounders in a pooled database of 16 case-control studies conducted in Europe, Canada, China, and New Zealand between 1985 and 2010 (the Pooled Analysis of Case-Control Studies on the Joint Effects of Occupational Carcinogens in the Development of Lung Cancer). Lifetime occupational and smoking information was collected through interviews with 19,369 cases of lung cancer and 23,674 matched population or hospital controls. Overall, 170 cases and 167 controls had ever worked as hairdresser or barber. The odds ratios for lung cancer in women were 1.65 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 2.35) without adjustment for smoking and 1.12 (95% CI: 0.75, 1.68) with adjustment for smoking; however, women employed before 1954 also experienced an increased lung cancer risk after adjustment for smoking (odds ratio = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.09, 6.47). The odds ratios in male hairdressers/barbers were generally not elevated, except for an increased odds ratio for adenocarcinoma in long-term barbers (odds ratio = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.02, 4.77). Our results suggest that the increased lung cancer risks among hairdressers are due to their smoking behavior; single elevated risk estimates should be interpreted with caution and need replication in other studies. PMID:24068200

  20. Estrogen Receptor Beta rs1271572 Polymorphism and Invasive Ovarian Carcinoma Risk: Pooled Analysis within the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Lurie, Galina; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Matsuno, Rayna K.; Carney, Michael E.; Palmieri, Rachel T.; Wu, Anna H.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Pearce, Celeste L.; Menon, Usha; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Gayther, Simon A.; Ramus, Susan J.; Whittemore, Alice S.; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Song, Honglin; Gronwald, Jacek; Jakubowska, Anna; Cybulski, Cezary; Lubinski, Jan; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Berchuck, Andrew; Krüger Kjær, Susanne; Høgdall, Estrid; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Hein, Alexander; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Webb, Penelope M.; Beesley, Jonathan; Goodman, Marc T.

    2011-01-01

    The association of ovarian carcinoma risk with the polymorphism rs1271572 in the estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) gene was examined in 4946 women with primary invasive ovarian carcinoma and 6582 controls in a pooled analysis of ten case-control studies within the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). All participants were non-Hispanic white women. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for site and age. Women with the TT genotype were at increased risk of ovarian carcinoma compared to carriers of the G allele (OR?=?1.10; 95%; CI: 1.01–1.21; p?=?0.04); the OR was 1.09 (CI: 0.99–1.20; p?=?0.07) after excluding data from the center (Hawaii) that nominated this SNP for OCAC genotyping A stronger association of rs1271572 TT versus GT/GG with risk was observed among women aged ?50 years versus older women (OR?=?1.35; CI: 1.12–1.62; p?=?0.002; p for interaction?=?0.02) that remained statistically significant after excluding Hawaii data (OR?=?1.34; CI: 1.11–1.61; p?=?0.009). No heterogeneity of the association was observed by study, menopausal status, gravidity, parity, use of contraceptive or menopausal hormones, tumor histological type, or stage at diagnosis. This pooled analysis suggests that rs1271572 might influence the risk of ovarian cancer, in particular among younger women. PMID:21673961

  1. Revised Tumor and Node Categorization for Rectal Cancer Based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results and Rectal Pooled Analysis Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gunderson, Leonard L.; Jessup, John Milburn; Sargent, Daniel J.; Greene, Frederick L.; Stewart, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The sixth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) rectal cancer staging subdivided stage II into IIA (T3N0) and IIB (T4N0) and stage III into IIIA (T1-2N1M0), IIIB (T3-4N1M0), and IIIC (anyTN2M0). Subsequent analyses supported revised substaging of stage III as a result of improved survival with T1-2N2 versus T3-4N2 and survival of T4N1 more similar to T3-4N2 than T3N1. The AJCC Hindgut Taskforce sought population-based validation that depth of invasion interacts with nodal status to affect survival. Methods Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based data from January 1992 to December 2004 for 35,829 patients with rectal cancer were compared with rectal pooled analysis data (3,791 patients). T4N0 cancers were stratified by tumors that perforate visceral peritoneum (T4a) versus tumors that invade or are adherent to adjacent organs or structures (T4b). N1 and N2 were stratified by number of positive nodes as follows: N1a/N1b (one v two to three nodes) and N2a/N2b (four to six v ? seven nodes). Five-year observed and relative survival rates were obtained for each TN category. Results SEER rectal cancer analyses confirm that T1-2N2 cancers have better prognosis than T3-4N2, T4bN1 have similar prognosis to T4N2, T1-2N1 have similar prognosis to T2N0/T3N0, and T1-2N2a have similar prognosis to T2N0/T3N0 (T1N2a) or T4aN0 (T2N2a). Prognosis for T4a lesions is better than T4b by N category. The number of positive nodes affects prognosis. Conclusion This SEER population-based rectal cancer analysis validates the rectal pooled analyses and supports the shift of T1-2N2 lesions from IIIC to IIIA or IIIB and T4bN1 from IIIB to IIIC. SEER outcomes support subdividing T4, N1, and N2 and revised substaging of stages II and III. Survival by TN category suggests a complex biologic interaction between depth of invasion and nodal status. PMID:19949015

  2. Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and lung cancer by histological type: a pooled analysis of the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO).

    PubMed

    Kim, Claire H; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hung, Rayjean J; McNallan, Sheila R; Cote, Michele L; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chang, Shen-Chih; Kim, Jin Hee; Ugolini, Donatella; Chen, Ying; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Andrew, Angeline S; Onega, Tracy; Duell, Eric J; Field, John K; Lazarus, Philip; Le Marchand, Loic; Neri, Monica; Vineis, Paolo; Kiyohara, Chikako; Hong, Yun-Chul; Morgenstern, Hal; Matsuo, Keitaro; Tajima, Kazuo; Christiani, David C; McLaughlin, John R; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Fabianova, Eleonora; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mates, Dana; Rudnai, Peter; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mukeria, Anush; Zaridze, David; Seow, Adeline; Schwartz, Ann G; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2014-10-15

    While the association between exposure to secondhand smoke and lung cancer risk is well established, few studies with sufficient power have examined the association by histological type. In this study, we evaluated the secondhand smoke-lung cancer relationship by histological type based on pooled data from 18 case-control studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO), including 2,504 cases and 7,276 control who were never smokers and 10,184 cases and 7,176 controls who were ever smokers. We used multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and study. Among never smokers, the odds ratios (OR) comparing those ever exposed to secondhand smoke with those never exposed were 1.31 (95% CI: 1.17-1.45) for all histological types combined, 1.26 (95% CI: 1.10-1.44) for adenocarcinoma, 1.41 (95% CI: 0.99-1.99) for squamous cell carcinoma, 1.48 (95% CI: 0.89-2.45) for large cell lung cancer, and 3.09 (95% CI: 1.62-5.89) for small cell lung cancer. The estimated association with secondhand smoke exposure was greater for small cell lung cancer than for nonsmall cell lung cancers (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.11-4.04). This analysis is the largest to date investigating the relation between exposure to secondhand smoke and lung cancer. Our study provides more precise estimates of the impact of secondhand smoke on the major histological types of lung cancer, indicates the association with secondhand smoke is stronger for small cell lung cancer than for the other histological types, and suggests the importance of intervention against exposure to secondhand smoke in lung cancer prevention. PMID:24615328

  3. Associations of Breast Cancer Risk Factors With Tumor Subtypes: A Pooled Analysis From the Breast Cancer Association Consortium Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chang-Claude, Jenny; Goode, Ellen L.; Couch, Fergus J.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Milne, Roger L.; Gaudet, Mia; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Cox, Angela; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Rebecca; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Blows, Fiona; Driver, Kristy; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Heinz, Judith; Sinn, Peter; Vrieling, Alina; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Heikkilä, Päivi; Blomqvist, Carl; Lissowska, Jolanta; Peplonska, Beata; Chanock, Stephen; Figueroa, Jonine; Brinton, Louise; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Liu, Jianjun; Van ‘t Veer, Laura J.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Knight, Julia A.; Mulligan, Anna Marie; O’Malley, Frances P.; Weerasooriya, Nayana; John, Esther M.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Hartmann, Arndt; Weihbrecht, Sebastian B.; Wachter, David L.; Jud, Sebastian M.; Loehberg, Christian R.; Baglietto, Laura; English, Dallas R.; Giles, Graham G.; McLean, Catriona A.; Severi, Gianluca; Lambrechts, Diether; Vandorpe, Thijs; Weltens, Caroline; Paridaens, Robert; Smeets, Ann; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E.; Cafourek, Victoria; Fredericksen, Zachary; Kosel, Matthew; Vachon, Celine; Cramp, Helen E.; Connley, Daniel; Cross, Simon S.; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Dörk, Thilo; Bremer, Michael; Meyer, Andreas; Karstens, Johann H.; Ay, Aysun; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Hillemanns, Peter; Arias Pérez, Jose Ignacio; Rodríguez, Primitiva Menéndez; Zamora, Pilar; Benítez, Javier; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Hamann, Ute; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas; Justenhoven, Christina; Brauch, Hiltrud; Eccles, Diana M.; Tapper, William J.; Gerty, Sue M.; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian P.; Jones, Angela; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; McInerney, Niall; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Chen, Shou-Tung; Hsu, Giu-Cheng; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubi?ski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Górski, Bohdan; Gronwald, Jacek; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Jager, Agnes; Kriege, Mieke; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M. A.; Collée, Margriet; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Mononen, Kari; Grip, Mervi; Hirvikoski, Pasi; Winqvist, Robert; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kauppinen, Jaana; Kataja, Vesa; Auvinen, Päivi; Soini, Ylermi; Sironen, Reijo; Bojesen, Stig E.; Dynnes Ørsted, David; Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Holland, Helene; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Radice, Paolo; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hunter, David J.; Tamimi, Rulla; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Odefrey, Fabrice; Gaborieau, Valerie; Devilee, Peter; Huijts, P.E.A.; Tollenaar, RAEM.; Seynaeve, C.; Dite, Gillian S.; Apicella, Carmel; Hopper, John L.; Hammet, Fleur; Tsimiklis, Helen; Smith, Letitia D.; Southey, Melissa C.; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Easton, Douglas; Pharoah, Paul; Sherman, Mark E.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that breast cancer risk factors are associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression status of the tumors. Methods We pooled tumor marker and epidemiological risk factor data from 35?568 invasive breast cancer case patients from 34 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Logistic regression models were used in case–case analyses to estimate associations between epidemiological risk factors and tumor subtypes, and case–control analyses to estimate associations between epidemiological risk factors and the risk of developing specific tumor subtypes in 12 population-based studies. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results In case–case analyses, of the epidemiological risk factors examined, early age at menarche (?12 years) was less frequent in case patients with PR? than PR+ tumors (P = .001). Nulliparity (P = 3 × 10?6) and increasing age at first birth (P = 2 × 10?9) were less frequent in ER? than in ER+ tumors. Obesity (body mass index [BMI] ? 30 kg/m2) in younger women (?50 years) was more frequent in ER?/PR? than in ER+/PR+ tumors (P = 1 × 10?7), whereas obesity in older women (>50 years) was less frequent in PR? than in PR+ tumors (P = 6 × 10?4). The triple-negative (ER?/PR?/HER2?) or core basal phenotype (CBP; triple-negative and cytokeratins [CK]5/6+ and/or epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR]+) accounted for much of the heterogeneity in parity-related variables and BMI in younger women. Case–control analyses showed that nulliparity, increasing age at first birth, and obesity in younger women showed the expected associations with the risk of ER+ or PR+ tumors but not triple-negative (nulliparity vs parity, odds ratio [OR] = 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75 to 1.19, P = .61; 5-year increase in age at first full-term birth, OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.86 to 1.05, P = .34; obesity in younger women, OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 0.95 to 1.94, P = .09) or CBP tumors. Conclusions This study shows that reproductive factors and BMI are most clearly associated with hormone receptor–positive tumors and suggest that triple-negative or CBP tumors may have distinct etiology. PMID:21191117

  4. Welding and Lung Cancer in a Pooled Analysis of Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kendzia, Benjamin; Behrens, Thomas; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Siemiatycki, Jack; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Peters, Susan; Van Gelder, Rainer; Olsson, Ann; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Stücker, Isabelle; Guida, Florence; Tardón, Adonina; Merletti, Franco; Mirabelli, Dario; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Consonni, Dario; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Gustavsson, Per; Marcus, Michael; Fabianova, Eleonora; ‘t Mannetje, Andrea; Pearce, Neil; Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun; Rudnai, Peter; Bencko, Vladimir; Janout, Vladimir; Mates, Dana; Foretova, Lenka; Forastiere, Francesco; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Boffetta, Paolo; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have indicated an increased risk of lung cancer among welders. We used the SYNERGY project database to assess welding as a risk factor for developing lung cancer. The database includes data on 15,483 male lung cancer cases and 18,388 male controls from 16 studies in Europe, Canada, China, and New Zealand conducted between 1985 and 2010. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals between regular or occasional welding and lung cancer were estimated, with adjustment for smoking, age, study center, and employment in other occupations associated with lung cancer risk. Overall, 568 cases and 427 controls had ever worked as welders and had an odds ratio of developing lung cancer of 1.44 (95% confidence interval: 1.25, 1.67) with the odds ratio increasing for longer duration of welding. In never and light smokers, the odds ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval: 1.37, 2.79). The odds ratios were somewhat higher for squamous and small cell lung cancers than for adenocarcinoma. Another 1,994 cases and 1,930 controls had ever worked in occupations with occasional welding. Work in any of these occupations was associated with some elevation of risk, though not as much as observed in regular welders. Our findings lend further support to the hypothesis that welding is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. PMID:24052544

  5. Dietary carotenoids and risk of colorectal cancer in a pooled analysis of 11 cohort studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satu Mannisto; Shiaw-Shyuan Yaun; David J. Hunter; Donna Spiegelman; Hans-Olov Adami; Demetrius Albanes; Brandt van den Piet A; Julie E. Buring; James R. Cerhan; Graham A. Colditz; Jo L. Freudenheim; Charles S. Fuchs; Edward Giovannucci; R. Alexandra Goldbohm; Lisa Harnack; Michael Leitzmann; Marjorie L. McCullough; Anthony B. Miller; Thomas E. Rohan; Arthur Schatzkin; Jarmo Virtamo; Walter C. Willett; Alicja Wolk; Shumin M. Zhang; Stephanie A. Smith-Warner

    2007-01-01

    Dietary carotenoids have been hypothesized to protect against epithelial cancers. The authors analyzed the associations between intakes of specific carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein þ zeaxanthin, and lycopene) and risk of colorectal cancer using the primary data from 11 cohort studies carried out in North America and Europe. Carotenoid intakes were estimated from food frequency questionnaires administered at baseline in

  6. Carotenoid intakes and risk of breast cancer defined by estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status: a pooled analysis of 18 prospective cohort studies123

    PubMed Central

    Spiegelman, Donna; Baglietto, Laura; Bernstein, Leslie; Boggs, Deborah A; van den Brandt, Piet A; Buring, Julie E; Gapstur, Susan M; Giles, Graham G; Giovannucci, Edward; Goodman, Gary; Hankinson, Susan E; Helzlsouer, Kathy J; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Inoue, Manami; Jung, Seungyoun; Khudyakov, Polyna; Larsson, Susanna C; Lof, Marie; McCullough, Marjorie L; Miller, Anthony B; Neuhouser, Marian L; Palmer, Julie R; Park, Yikyung; Robien, Kim; Rohan, Thomas E; Ross, Julie A; Schouten, Leo J; Shikany, James M; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Visvanathan, Kala; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Wolk, Alicja; Willett, Walter C; Zhang, Shumin M; Ziegler, Regina G; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies examining associations between carotenoid intakes and risk of breast cancer by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status are limited. Objective: We investigated these associations in a pooled analysis of 18 cohort studies. Design: Of 1,028,438 participants followed for a maximum follow-up of 26 y across studies, 33,380 incident invasive breast cancers were identified. Study-specific RRs and 95% CIs were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards regression and then pooled by using a random-effects model. Results: ?-Carotene, ?-carotene, and lutein/zeaxanthin intakes were inversely associated with the risk of ER-negative (ER?) breast cancer (pooled multivariable RRs of the comparison between the highest and lowest quintiles): ?-carotene (0.87; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.97), ?-carotene (0.84; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.93), and lutein/zeaxanthin (0.87; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.95). These variables were not inversely associated with the risk of ER-positive (ER+) breast cancer (pooled multivariable RRs for the same comparison): ?-carotene (1.04; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.09), ?-carotene (1.04; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.10), and lutein/zeaxanthin (1.00; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.07). Although the pooled RRs for quintile 5 for ?-cryptoxanthin were not significant, inverse trends were observed for ER? and ER+ breast cancer (P-trend ? 0.05). Nonsignificant associations were observed for lycopene intake. The associations were largely not appreciably modified by several breast cancer risk factors. Nonsignificant associations were observed for PR-positive and PR-negative breast cancer. Conclusions: Intakes of ?-carotene, ?-carotene, and lutein/zeaxanthin were inversely associated with risk of ER?, but not ER+, breast cancer. However, the results need to be interpreted with caution because it is unclear whether the observed association is real or due to other constituents in the same food sources. PMID:22277553

  7. COFFEE, TEA AND SUGAR-SWEETENED CARBONATED SOFT DRINK INTAKE AND PANCREATIC CANCER RISK: A POOLED ANALYSIS OF 14 COHORT STUDIES

    PubMed Central

    Genkinger, Jeanine M.; Li, Ruifeng; Spiegelman, Donna; Anderson, Kristin E.; Albanes, Demetrius; Bergkvist, Leif; Bernstein, Leslie; Black, Amanda; van den Brandt, Piet A.; English, Dallas R.; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Giles, Graham G.; Giovannucci, Edward; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Koushik, Anita; Männistö, Satu; Marshall, James R.; Miller, Anthony B.; Patel, Alpa V.; Robien, Kim; z, Thomas E.; Schairer, Catherine; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Wolk, Alicja; Ziegler, Regina G.; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Coffee has been hypothesized to have pro- and anti-carcinogenic properties, while tea may contain anti-carcinogenic compounds. Studies assessing coffee intake and pancreatic cancer risk have yielded mixed results, while findings for tea intake have mostly been null. Sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink (abbreviated as SSB) intake has been associated with higher circulating levels of insulin, which may promote carcinogenesis. Few prospective studies have examined SSB intake and pancreatic cancer risk; results have been heterogeneous. METHODS In this pooled analysis from 14 prospective cohort studies, 2,185 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified among 853,894 individuals during follow-up. Multivariate (MV) study-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random effects model. RESULTS No statistically significant associations were observed between pancreatic cancer risk and intake of coffee (MVRR=1.10, 95% CI=0.81-1.48 comparing ?900 to <0g/day; 237g?8oz), tea (MVRR=0.96, 95% CI=0.78-1.16 comparing ?400 to 0g/day; 237g?8oz) or SSB (MVRR=1.19, 95% CI=0.98-1.46 comparing ?250 to 0g/day; 355g?12oz) (p-value, test for between-studies heterogeneity >0.05). These associations were consistent across levels of sex, smoking status and body mass index. When modeled as a continuous variable, a positive association was evident for SSB (MVRR=1.06, 95% CI=1.02-1.12). CONCLUSION AND IMPACT Overall, no associations were observed for intakes of coffee or tea during adulthood and pancreatic cancer risk. Although we were only able to examine modest intake of SSB, there was a suggestive, modest positive association for risk of pancreatic cancer for intakes of SSB. PMID:22194529

  8. Safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine for cervical cancer prevention: a pooled analysis of 11 clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Descamps, Dominique; Hardt, Karin; Spiessens, Bart; Izurieta, Patricia; Verstraeten, Thomas; Breuer, Thomas; Dubin, Gary

    2009-05-01

    A pooled analysis of the safety of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine Cervarix (GlaxoSmithKline) was performed in a cohort of almost 30,000 girls and women aged > or =10 years, 16,142 who received at least one dose of the HPV-16/18 vaccine and 13,811 who received one of three controls [Al(OH)(3) or hepatitis A vaccine (720 or 360 EU)]. Data are available for a total of 45,988 vaccine doses. Solicited local and general symptoms were recorded for seven days after each dose. Serious adverse events (SAEs), pregnancies, medically significant conditions (MSCs) and new onset of chronic diseases (NOCDs), including new onset of autoimmune diseases (NOADs), were proactively monitored. Data were analyzed by vaccine group according to age (10-14, 15-25 and >25 years) and reporting period (months 0-7, months 7-12 and >month 12). Rates of solicited local and general symptoms were higher in the HPV-16/18 vaccine group than in the control groups. However, compliance with the three-dose schedule was high and did not differ between groups (93.4% for HPV-16/18 vaccine group versus 92.5% for pooled controls). No clinically relevant differences were seen between the HPV-16/18 vaccine and pooled control groups in rates of SAEs (2.8% versus 3.1%), MSCs (19.4% versus 21.4%), NOCDs (1.7% in both groups) or NOADs (0.4% versus 0.3%). Similarly, no differences in pregnancy outcomes or rates of withdrawals due to AEs or SAEs were observed between groups. In conclusion, analysis of this large database shows the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine to have a favorable safety profile in women of all ages. PMID:19221517

  9. Total exposure and exposure rate effects for alcohol and smoking and risk of head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis of case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Lubin, Jay H; Purdue, Mark; Kelsey, Karl; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Winn, Debbie; Wei, Qingyi; Talamini, Renato; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Sturgis, Erich M; Smith, Elaine; Shangina, Oxana; Schwartz, Stephen M; Rudnai, Peter; Neto, Jose Eluf; Muscat, Joshua; Morgenstern, Hal; Menezes, Ana; Matos, Elena; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Lissowska, Jolanta; Levi, Fabio; Lazarus, Philip; La Vecchia, Carlo; Koifman, Sergio; Herrero, Rolando; Franceschi, Silvia; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Fernandez, Leticia; Fabianova, Eleonora; Daudt, Alexander W; Maso, Luigino Dal; Curado, Maria Paula; Chen, Chu; Castellsague, Xavier; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Hashibe, Mia; Hayes, Richard B

    2009-10-15

    Although cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption increase risk for head and neck cancers, there have been few attempts to model risks quantitatively and to formally evaluate cancer site-specific risks. The authors pooled data from 15 case-control studies and modeled the excess odds ratio (EOR) to assess risk by total exposure (pack-years and drink-years) and its modification by exposure rate (cigarettes/day and drinks/day). The smoking analysis included 1,761 laryngeal, 2,453 pharyngeal, and 1,990 oral cavity cancers, and the alcohol analysis included 2,551 laryngeal, 3,693 pharyngeal, and 3,116 oval cavity cancers, with over 8,000 controls. Above 15 cigarettes/day, the EOR/pack-year decreased with increasing cigarettes/day, suggesting that greater cigarettes/day for a shorter duration was less deleterious than fewer cigarettes/day for a longer duration. Estimates of EOR/pack-year were homogeneous across sites, while the effects of cigarettes/day varied, indicating that the greater laryngeal cancer risk derived from differential cigarettes/day effects and not pack-years. EOR/drink-year estimates increased through 10 drinks/day, suggesting that greater drinks/day for a shorter duration was more deleterious than fewer drinks/day for a longer duration. Above 10 drinks/day, data were limited. EOR/drink-year estimates varied by site, while drinks/day effects were homogeneous, indicating that the greater pharyngeal/oral cavity cancer risk with alcohol consumption derived from the differential effects of drink-years and not drinks/day. PMID:19745021

  10. Folate intake and the risk of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer: a pooled analysis within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium.

    PubMed

    Galeone, Carlotta; Edefonti, Valeria; Parpinel, Maria; Leoncini, Emanuele; Matsuo, Keitaro; Talamini, Renato; Olshan, Andrew F; Zevallos, Jose P; Winn, Deborah M; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel; Moysich, Kirsten; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Morgenstern, Hal; Levi, Fabio; Bosetti, Cristina; Kelsey, Karl; McClean, Michael; Schantz, Stimson; Yu, Guo-Pei; Boffetta, Paolo; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hashibe, Mia; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boccia, Stefania

    2015-02-15

    There are suggestions of an inverse association between folate intake and serum folate levels and the risk of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers (OPCs), but most studies are limited in sample size, with only few reporting information on the source of dietary folate. Our study aims to investigate the association between folate intake and the risk of OPC within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium. We analyzed pooled individual-level data from ten case-control studies participating in the INHANCE consortium, including 5,127 cases and 13,249 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for the associations between total folate intake (natural, fortification and supplementation) and natural folate only, and OPC risk. We found an inverse association between total folate intake and overall OPC risk (the adjusted OR for the highest vs. the lowest quintile was 0.65, 95% CI: 0.43-0.99), with a stronger association for oral cavity (OR?=?0.57, 95% CI: 0.43-0.75). A similar inverse association, though somewhat weaker, was observed for folate intake from natural sources only in oral cavity cancer (OR?=?0.64, 95% CI: 0.45-0.91). The highest OPC risk was observed in heavy alcohol drinkers with low folate intake as compared to never/light drinkers with high folate (OR?=?4.05, 95% CI: 3.43-4.79); the attributable proportion (AP) owing to interaction was 11.1% (95% CI: 1.4-20.8%). Lastly, we reported an OR of 2.73 (95% CI:2.34-3.19) for those ever tobacco users with low folate intake, compared with nevere tobacco users and high folate intake (AP of interaction =10.6%, 95% CI: 0.41-20.8%). Our project of a large pool of case-control studies supports a protective effect of total folate intake on OPC risk. PMID:24974959

  11. Cigarette smoking and lung cancer – relative risk estimates for the major histological types from a pooled analysis of case-control studies

    PubMed Central

    Pesch, Beate; Kendzia, Benjamin; Gustavsson, Per; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Johnen, Georg; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Olsson, Ann; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Gross, Isabelle Mercedes; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Simonato, Lorenzo; Fortes, Cristina; Siemiatycki, Jack; Parent, Marie-Elise; Consonni, Dario; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Zaridze, David; Cassidy, Adrian; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Rudnai, Peter; Lissowska, Jolanta; Stücker, Isabelle; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Rudin, Charles M.; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Straif, Kurt; Brüning, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is mainly caused by smoking, but the quantitative relations between smoking and histologic subtypes of lung cancer remain inconclusive. Using one of the largest lung cancer datasets ever assembled, we explored the impact of smoking on risks of the major cell types of lung cancer. This pooled analysis included 13,169 cases and 16,010 controls from Europe and Canada. Studies with population controls comprised 66.5% of the subjects. Adenocarcinoma (AdCa) was the most prevalent subtype in never smokers and in women. Squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) predominated in male smokers. Age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated with logistic regression. ORs were elevated for all metrics of exposure to cigarette smoke and were higher for SqCC and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) than for AdCa. Current male smokers with an average daily dose of >30 cigarettes had ORs of 103.5 (95% CI 74.8-143.2) for SqCC, 111.3 (95% CI 69.8-177.5) for SCLC, and 21.9 (95% CI 16.6-29.0) for AdCa. In women, the corresponding ORs were 62.7 (95% CI 31.5-124.6), 108.6 (95% CI 50.7-232.8), and 16.8 (95% CI 9.2-30.6), respectively. Whereas ORs started to decline soon after quitting, they did not fully return to the baseline risk of never smokers even 35 years after cessation. The major result that smoking exerted a steeper risk gradient on SqCC and SCLC than on AdCa is in line with previous population data and biological understanding of lung cancer development. PMID:22052329

  12. Vitamin D receptor rs2228570 polymorphism and invasive ovarian carcinoma risk: pooled analysis in five studies within the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Lurie, Galina; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Carney, Michael E.; Palmieri, Rachel T.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Song, Honglin; Hogdall, Estrid; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; DiCioccio, Richard A.; McGuire, Valerie; Whittemore, Alice S.; Gayther, Simon A.; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Ramus, Susan J.; Goodman, Marc T.

    2010-01-01

    The association of invasive ovarian carcinoma risk with the functional polymorphism rs2228570 (aka rs10735810; FokI polymorphism) in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene was examined in 1820 white non-Hispanic cases and 3479 controls in a pooled analysis of five population-based case-control studies within the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Carriers of the rare T allele were at increased risk of ovarian carcinoma compared to women with the CC genotype in all studies combined; each copy of the T allele was associated with a modest 9% increased risk (OR=1.09; 95% CI:1.01–1.19; p=0.04). No significant heterogeneity among studies was observed (p=0.37) and, after excluding the dataset from the Hawaii study, the risk association for rs2228570 among replication studies was unchanged (OR=1.09; 95% CI: 1.00–1.19; p=0.06). A stronger association of rs2228570 with risk was observed among younger women (aged < 50 years versus 50 years or older) (p=0.04). In all studies combined, the increased risk per copy of the T allele among younger women was 24% (OR=1.24; 95% CI: 1.04–1.47; p=0.02). This association remained statistically significant after excluding the Hawaii data (OR= 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01–1.43; p=0.04). No heterogeneity of the association was observed by stage (p= 0.46), tumor histology (p=0.98), or time between diagnosis and interview (p=0.94). This pooled analysis provides further evidence that the VDR rs2228570 polymorphism might influence ovarian cancer susceptibility. PMID:20473893

  13. Comparison of anthropometric measures as predictors of cancer incidence: A pooled collaborative analysis of 11 Australian cohorts.

    PubMed

    Harding, Jessica L; Shaw, Jonathan E; Anstey, Kaarin J; Adams, Robert; Balkau, Beverley; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Briffa, Tom; Davis, Timothy M E; Davis, Wendy A; Dobson, Annette; Flicker, Leon; Giles, Graham; Grant, Janet; Huxley, Rachel; Knuiman, Matthew; Luszcz, Mary; MacInnis, Robert J; Mitchell, Paul; Pasco, Julie A; Reid, Christopher; Simmons, David; Simons, Leon; Tonkin, Andrew; Woodward, Mark; Peeters, Anna; Magliano, Dianna J

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. However, it is not known if general adiposity, as measured by body mass index (BMI) or central adiposity [e.g., waist circumference (WC)] have stronger associations with cancer, or which anthropometric measure best predicts cancer risk. We included 79,458 men and women from the Australian and New Zealand Diabetes and Cancer Collaboration with complete data on anthropometry [BMI, WC, Hip Circumference (HC), WHR, waist to height ratio (WtHR), A Body Shape Index (ABSI)], linked to the Australian Cancer Database. Cox proportional hazards models assessed the association between each anthropometric marker, per standard deviation and the risk of overall, colorectal, post-menopausal (PM) breast, prostate and obesity-related cancers. We assessed the discriminative ability of models using Harrell's c-statistic. All anthropometric markers were associated with overall, colorectal and obesity-related cancers. BMI, WC and HC were associated with PM breast cancer and no significant associations were seen for prostate cancer. Strongest associations were observed for WC across all outcomes, excluding PM breast cancer for which HC was strongest. WC had greater discrimination compared to BMI for overall and colorectal cancer in men and women with c-statistics ranging from 0.70 to 0.71. We show all anthropometric measures are associated with the overall, colorectal, PM breast and obesity-related cancer in men and women, but not prostate cancer. WC discriminated marginally better than BMI. However, all anthropometric measures were similarly moderately predictive of cancer risk. We do not recommend one anthropometric marker over another for assessing an individuals' risk of cancer. PMID:25810218

  14. Analysis of deoxyribonucleotide pools in human cancer cell lines using a liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry technique

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Tan, Shenglan; Paintsil, Elijah; Dutschman, Ginger E.; Gullen, Elizabeth A.; Chu, Edward; Cheng, Yung-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Endogenous ribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotides play a critical role in cell function, and determination of their levels is of fundamental importance in understanding key cellular processes involved in energy metabolism and molecular and biochemical signaling pathways. In this study, we determined the respective ribonucleotide and deoxyribonucleotide pool sizes in different human cell lines using a simple sample preparation method and LC/MS/MS. This assay was used to determine alterations in deoxyribonucleotide pools in human pancreatic PANC-1 cells in response to hypoxia and to treatment with either hydroxyurea or aphidicolin. The levels of all deoxyribonucleotide metabolites decreased with hypoxia treatment, except for dUMP, which increased by two-fold. This LC/MS/MS assay is simple, fast, and sensitive, and it represents a significant advance over previously published methodologies. PMID:21620803

  15. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and breast cancer risk: a nested-case-control study and a pooled meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debora Macis; Patrick Maisonneuve; Harriet Johansson; Bernardo Bonanni; Edoardo Botteri; Simona Iodice; Barbara Santillo; Silvana Penco; Giacomo Gucciardo; Giuseppe D’Aiuto; Marco Rosselli del Turco; Marinella Amadori; Alberto Costa; Andrea Decensi

    2007-01-01

    Background  A reduced activity of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) due to frequent C677T polymorphism affects DNA synthesis,\\u000a repair and methylation and may be implicated in breast cancer risk.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted a nested case-control study within a phase III prevention trial of tamoxifen. After a median follow-up of 81.2 months,\\u000a 79 of the 5,408 hysterectomised women aged 35–70 years, who had received either tamoxifen 20 mg\\/day

  16. Preoperative Radiotherapy of Advanced Rectal Cancer With Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin With or Without Cetuximab: A Pooled Analysis of Three Prospective Phase I-II Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Christian, E-mail: christian.weiss@kgu.d [Departments of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Arnold, Dirk [Departments of Haematology and Oncology, Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (Germany); Dellas, Kathrin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (Germany); Liersch, Torsten [Departments of General and Visceral Surgery, Georg-August University, Goettingen (Germany); Hipp, Matthias [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Fietkau, Rainer; Sauer, Rolf [Department of Radiation Oncology, Friedrich-Alexander University, Erlangen (Germany); Hinke, Axel [WiSP, Research Institute Pharma GmbH, Langenfeld (Germany); Roedel, Claus [Departments of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: A pooled analysis of three prospective trials of preoperative radiochemotherapy (RCT) for rectal cancer by using oxaliplatin and capecitabine with or without cetuximab was performed to evaluate the impact of additional cetuximab on pathologic complete response (pCR) rates and tumor regression (TRG) grades. Methods and Materials: Of 202 patients, 172 patients met the inclusion criteria (primary tumor stage II/III, M0). All patients received concurrent RCT, and 46 patients received additional cetuximab therapy. A correlation of pretreatment clinicopathologic factors and cetuximab treatment with early pCR rates (TRG > 50%) was performed with univariate and multivariate analyses. Toxicity data were recorded for all patients. Results: Of 172 patients, 24 (14%) patients achieved a pCR, and 84 of 172 (71%) patients showed a TRG of >50% in the surgical specimen assessment after preoperative treatment. Age, gender, and T/N stages, as well as localization of the tumor, were not associated with pCR or good TRG. The pCR rate was 16% after preoperative RCT alone and 9% with concurrent cetuximab therapy (p = 0.32). A significantly reduced TRG of >50% was found after RCT with cetuximab compared to RCT alone (p = 0.0035). This was validated by a multivariate analysis with all available clinical factors (p = 0.0037). Acute toxicity and surgical complications were not increased with additional cetuximab. Conclusions: Triple therapy with RCT and cetuximab seems to be feasible, with no unexpected toxicity. Early response assessment (TRG), however, suggests subadditive interaction. A longer follow-up (and finally randomized trials) is needed to draw any firm conclusions with respect to local and distant failure rates.

  17. Progesterone receptor variation and risk of ovarian cancer is limited to the invasive endometrioid subtype: results from the ovarian cancer association consortium pooled analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C L Pearce; A H Wu; S A Gayther; A E Bale; P A Beck; J Beesley; S Chanock; D W Cramer; R DiCioccio; R Edwards; Z S Fredericksen; M Garcia-Closas; E L Goode; A C Green; L C Hartmann; E Hogdall; S K Kjær; J Lissowska; V McGuire; F Modugno; K Moysich; R B Ness; S J Ramus; H A Risch; T A Sellers; H Song; D O Stram; K L Terry; P M Webb; D C Whiteman; A S Whittemore; W Zheng; P D P Pharoah; G Chenevix-Trench; M C Pike; J Schildkraut; A Berchuck

    2008-01-01

    There is evidence that progesterone plays a role in the aetiology of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. Therefore, genes involved in pathways that regulate progesterone may be candidates for susceptibility to this disease. Previous studies have suggested that genetic variants in the progesterone receptor gene (PGR) may be associated with ovarian cancer risk, although results have been inconsistent. We have established

  18. Genital powder use and risk of ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of 8,525 cases and 9,859 controls.

    PubMed

    Terry, Kathryn L; Karageorgi, Stalo; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Merritt, Melissa A; Lurie, Galina; Thompson, Pamela J; Carney, Michael E; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Akushevich, Lucy; Lo-Ciganic, Wei-Hsuan; Cushing-Haugen, Kara; Sieh, Weiva; Moysich, Kirsten; Doherty, Jennifer A; Nagle, Christina M; Berchuck, Andrew; Pearce, Celeste L; Pike, Malcolm; Ness, Roberta B; Webb, Penelope M; Rossing, Mary Anne; Schildkraut, Joellen; Risch, Harvey; Goodman, Marc T

    2013-08-01

    Genital powder use has been associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in some, but not all, epidemiologic investigations, possibly reflecting the carcinogenic effects of talc particles found in most of these products. Whether risk increases with number of genital powder applications and for all histologic types of ovarian cancer also remains uncertain. Therefore, we estimated the association between self-reported genital powder use and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in eight population-based case-control studies. Individual data from each study were collected and harmonized. Lifetime number of genital powder applications was estimated from duration and frequency of use. Pooled ORs were calculated using conditional logistic regression matched on study and age and adjusted for potential confounders. Subtype-specific risks were estimated according to tumor behavior and histology. 8,525 cases and 9,859 controls were included in the analyses. Genital powder use was associated with a modest increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer [OR, 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-1.33] relative to women who never used powder. Risk was elevated for invasive serous (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.09-1.32), endometrioid (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.04-1.43), and clear cell (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.52) tumors, and for borderline serous tumors (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.24-1.72). Among genital powder users, we observed no significant trend (P = 0.17) in risk with increasing number of lifetime applications (assessed in quartiles). We noted no increase in risk among women who only reported nongenital powder use. In summary, genital powder use is a modifiable exposure associated with small-to-moderate increases in risk of most histologic subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:23761272

  19. Recent alcohol consumption and risk of incident ovarian carcinoma: a pooled analysis of 5,342 cases and 10,358 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies evaluating the association between alcohol intake and ovarian carcinoma (OC) are inconsistent. Because OC and ovarian borderline tumor histologic types differ genetically, molecularly and clinically, large numbers are needed to estimate risk associations. Methods We pooled data from 12 case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium comprising 5,342 OC cases, 1,455 borderline tumors and 10,358 controls with quantitative information on recent alcohol intake to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) according to frequencies of average daily intakes of beer, wine, liquor and total alcohol. Results Total alcohol intake was not associated with all OC: consumption of >3 drinks per day compared to none, OR=0.92, 95% CI=0.76-1.10, P trend=0.27. Among beverage types, a statistically non-significant decreased risk was observed among women who consumed >8?oz/d of wine compared to none (OR=0.83, 95% CI=0.68-1.01, P trend=0.08). This association was more apparent among women with clear cell OC (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.22-0.83; P trend=0.02), although based on only 10 cases and not statistically different from the other histologic types (P value for statistical heterogeneity between histologic types = 0.09). Statistical heterogeneity of the alcohol- and wine-OC associations was seen among three European studies, but not among eight North American studies. No statistically significant associations were observed in separate analyses evaluating risk with borderline tumors of serous or mucinous histology. Smoking status did not significantly modify any of the associations. Conclusions We found no evidence that recent moderate alcohol drinking is associated with increased risk for overall OC, or that variation in risk is associated strongly with specific histologic types. Understanding modifiable causes of these elusive and deadly cancers remains a priority for the research community. PMID:23339562

  20. Anthropometric and Hormonal Risk Factors for Male Breast Cancer: Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project Results

    PubMed Central

    Brinton, Louise A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The etiology of male breast cancer is poorly understood, partly because of its relative rarity. Although genetic factors are involved, less is known regarding the role of anthropometric and hormonally related risk factors. Methods In the Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project, a consortium of 11 case–control and 10 cohort investigations involving 2405 case patients (n = 1190 from case–control and n = 1215 from cohort studies) and 52013 control subjects, individual participant data were harmonized and pooled. Unconditional logistic regression generated study design–specific (case–control/cohort) odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), with exposure estimates combined using fixed effects meta-analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Risk was statistically significantly associated with weight (highest/lowest tertile: OR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.18 to 1.57), height (OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.38), and body mass index (BMI; OR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.12 to 1.51), with evidence that recent rather than distant BMI was the strongest predictor. Klinefelter syndrome (OR = 24.7; 95% CI = 8.94 to 68.4) and gynecomastia (OR = 9.78; 95% CI = 7.52 to 12.7) were also statistically significantly associated with risk, relations that were independent of BMI. Diabetes also emerged as an independent risk factor (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.37). There were also suggestive relations with cryptorchidism (OR = 2.18; 95% CI = 0.96 to 4.94) and orchitis (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.99). Although age at onset of puberty and histories of infertility were unrelated to risk, never having had children was statistically significantly related (OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.66). Among individuals diagnosed at older ages, a history of fractures was statistically significantly related (OR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.86). Conclusions Consistent findings across case–control and cohort investigations, complemented by pooled analyses, indicated important roles for anthropometric and hormonal risk factors in the etiology of male breast cancer. Further investigation should focus on potential roles of endogenous hormones. PMID:24552677

  1. Adjuvant external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of endometrial cancer (MRC ASTEC and NCIC CTG EN.5 randomised trials): pooled trial results, systematic review, and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Early endometrial cancer with low-risk pathological features can be successfully treated by surgery alone. External beam radiotherapy added to surgery has been investigated in several small trials, which have mainly included women at intermediate risk of recurrence. In these trials, postoperative radiotherapy has been shown to reduce the risk of isolated local recurrence but there is no evidence that it improves recurrence-free or overall survival. We report the findings from the ASTEC and EN.5 trials, which investigated adjuvant external beam radiotherapy in women with early-stage disease and pathological features suggestive of intermediate or high risk of recurrence and death from endometrial cancer. Methods Between July, 1996, and March, 2005, 905 (789 ASTEC, 116 EN.5) women with intermediate-risk or high-risk early-stage disease from 112 centres in seven countries (UK, Canada, Poland, Norway, New Zealand, Australia, USA) were randomly assigned after surgery to observation (453) or to external beam radiotherapy (452). A target dose of 40–46 Gy in 20–25 daily fractions to the pelvis, treating five times a week, was specified. Primary outcome measure was overall survival, and all analyses were by intention to treat. These trials were registered ISRCTN 16571884 (ASTEC) and NCT 00002807 (EN.5). Findings After a median follow-up of 58 months, 135 women (68 observation, 67 external beam radiotherapy) had died. There was no evidence that overall survival with external beam radiotherapy was better than observation, hazard ratio 1·05 (95% CI 0·75–1·48; p=0·77). 5-year overall survival was 84% in both groups. Combining data from ASTEC and EN.5 in a meta-analysis of trials confirmed that there was no benefit in terms of overall survival (hazard ratio 1·04; 95% CI 0·84–1·29) and can reliably exclude an absolute benefit of external beam radiotherapy at 5 years of more than 3%. With brachytherapy used in 53% of women in ASTEC/EN.5, the local recurrence rate in the observation group at 5 years was 6·1%. Interpretation Adjuvant external beam radiotherapy cannot be recommended as part of routine treatment for women with intermediate-risk or high-risk early-stage endometrial cancer with the aim of improving survival. The absolute benefit of external beam radiotherapy in preventing isolated local recurrence is small and is not without toxicity. Funding Medical Research Council, National Cancer Research Network, National Cancer Institute of Canada, with funds from the Canadian Cancer Society. PMID:19070891

  2. Decline in Tested and Self-Reported Cognitive Functioning After Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation for Lung Cancer: Pooled Secondary Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Randomized Trials 0212 and 0214

    SciTech Connect

    Gondi, Vinai, E-mail: vgondi@chicagocancer.org [Central Dupage Hospital Cancer Center, Warrenville, Illinois (United States) [Central Dupage Hospital Cancer Center, Warrenville, Illinois (United States); University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Paulus, Rebecca [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Bruner, Deborah W. [Nell Hodgson Woodfull School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)] [Nell Hodgson Woodfull School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Meyers, Christina A. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gore, Elizabeth M. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States)] [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Wolfson, Aaron [University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States)] [University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Werner-Wasik, Maria [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Sun, Alexander Y. [Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada)] [Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Choy, Hak [University of Texas Southwestern Moncreif Cancer Center, Fort Worth, Texas (United States)] [University of Texas Southwestern Moncreif Cancer Center, Fort Worth, Texas (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States)] [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To assess the impact of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on self-reported cognitive functioning (SRCF), a functional scale on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30). Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 0214 randomized patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer to PCI or observation; RTOG 0212 randomized patients with limited-disease small cell lung cancer to high- or standard-dose PCI. In both trials, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT)-Recall and -Delayed Recall and SRCF were assessed at baseline (after locoregional therapy but before PCI or observation) and at 6 and 12 months. Patients developing brain relapse before follow-up evaluation were excluded. Decline was defined using the reliable change index method and correlated with receipt of PCI versus observation using logistic regression modeling. Fisher's exact test correlated decline in SRCF with HVLT decline. Results: Of the eligible patients pooled from RTOG 0212 and RTOG 0214, 410 (93%) receiving PCI and 173 (96%) undergoing observation completed baseline HVLT or EORTC QLQ-C30 testing and were included in this analysis. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was associated with a higher risk of decline in SRCF at 6 months (odds ratio 3.60, 95% confidence interval 2.34-6.37, P<.0001) and 12 months (odds ratio 3.44, 95% confidence interval 1.84-6.44, P<.0001). Decline on HVLT-Recall at 6 and 12 months was also associated with PCI (P=.002 and P=.002, respectively) but was not closely correlated with decline in SRCF at the same time points (P=.05 and P=.86, respectively). Conclusions: In lung cancer patients who do not develop brain relapse, PCI is associated with decline in HVLT-tested and self-reported cognitive functioning. Decline in HVLT and decline in SRCF are not closely correlated, suggesting that they may represent distinct elements of the cognitive spectrum.

  3. Analysis of Bitcoin Pooled Mining Reward Systems

    E-print Network

    Rosenfeld, Meni

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe the various scoring systems used to calculate rewards of participants in Bitcoin pooled mining, explain the problems each were designed to solve and analyze their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  4. Pooling fMRI data: meta-analysis, mega-analysis and multi-center studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergi G. Costafreda; Craig M. Bennet; Russell A. Poldrack

    2009-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of pooled data from related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments has the potential to signifi cantly accelerate progress in brain mapping. Such data-pooling can be achieved through meta-analysis (the pooled analysis of published results), mega-analysis (the pooled analysis of raw data) or multi-site studies, which can be seen as designed mega-analyses. Current limitations in function-location brain

  5. Spent fuel pool analysis using TRACE code

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Saez, F.; Carlos, S.; Villanueva, J. F.; Martorell, S. [Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Universitat Politenica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n, 46021, Valencia (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    The storage requirements of Spent Fuel Pools have been analyzed with the purpose to increase their rack capacities. In the past, the thermal limits have been mainly evaluated with conservative codes developed for this purpose, although some works can be found in which a best estimate code is used. The use of best estimate codes is interesting as they provide more realistic calculations and they have the capability of analyzing a wide range of transients that could affect the Spent Fuel Pool. Two of the most representative thermal-hydraulic codes are RELAP-5 and TRAC. Nowadays, TRACE code is being developed to make use of the more favorable characteristics of RELAP-5 and TRAC codes. Among the components coded in TRACE that can be used to construct the model, it is interesting to use the VESSEL component, which has the capacity of reproducing three dimensional phenomena. In this work, a thermal-hydraulic model of the Maine Yankee spent fuel pool using the TRACE code is developed. Such model has been used to perform a licensing calculation and the results obtained have been compared with experimental measurements made at the pool, showing a good agreement between the calculations predicted by TRACE and the experimental data. (authors)

  6. IS URBAN LOGISTICS POOLING VIABLE? A MULTISTAKEHOLDER MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    IS URBAN LOGISTICS POOLING VIABLE? A MULTISTAKEHOLDER MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS Jesus Gonzalez. Urban consolidation and logistics sharing. III. Multi-stakeholder mutli-criteria methodology. A seems a good city logistics alternative to classical urban consolidation centres, but it is still

  7. Process evaluation of the Pool Cool Diffusion Trial for skin cancer prevention across 2 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cam Escoffery; Karen Glanz; Tom Elliott

    2008-01-01

    Though process evaluation of health programs has received growing attention, few interven- tions have reported process evaluation over multiple years. This article describes 2 years of process evaluation (2003-04) for the Pool Cool Diffusion Trial. Pool Cool is a skin cancer prevention program designed to increase sun protection habits among children and improve organizational and environmental supports for sun protection

  8. KRAS Mutation Status and Clinical Outcome of Preoperative Chemoradiation With Cetuximab in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of 2 Phase II Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sun Young; Shim, Eun Kyung [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, Hyun Yang [Division of Translational and Clinical Research I, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Translational and Clinical Research I, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Ji Yeon [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yong Sang [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Yong [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of) [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Division of Translational and Clinical Research I, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Won [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jee Hyun [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Im, Seock-Ah [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyung Hae [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hee Jin, E-mail: heejincmd@yahoo.com [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Division of Translational and Clinical Research I, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Cetuximab-containing chemotherapy is known to be effective for KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer; however, it is not clear whether cetuximab-based preoperative chemoradiation confers an additional benefit compared with chemoradiation without cetuximab in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: We analyzed EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutation status with direct sequencing and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression status with immunohistochemistry in tumor samples of 82 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were enrolled in the IRIX trial (preoperative chemoradiation with irinotecan and capecitabine; n=44) or the ERBIRIX trial (preoperative chemoradiation with irinotecan and capecitabine plus cetuximab; n=38). Both trials were similarly designed except for the administration of cetuximab; radiation therapy was administered at a dose of 50.4 Gy/28 fractions and irinotecan and capecitabine were given at doses of 40 mg/m{sup 2} weekly and 1650 mg/m{sup 2}/day, respectively, for 5 days per week. In the ERBIRIX trial, cetuximab was additionally given with a loading dose of 400 mg/m{sup 2} on 1 week before radiation, and 250 mg/m{sup 2} weekly thereafter. Results: Baseline characteristics before chemoradiation were similar between the 2 trial cohorts. A KRAS mutation in codon 12, 13, and 61 was noted in 15 (34%) patients in the IRIX cohort and 5 (13%) in the ERBIRIX cohort (P=.028). Among 62 KRAS wild-type cancer patients, major pathologic response rate, disease-free survival and pathologic stage did not differ significantly between the 2 cohorts. No mutations were detected in BRAF exon 11 and 15, PIK3CA exon 9 and 20, or EGFR exon 18-24 in any of the 82 patients, and PTEN and EGFR expression were not predictive of clinical outcome. Conclusions: In patients with KRAS wild-type locally advanced rectal cancer, the addition of cetuximab to the chemoradiation with irinotecan plus capecitabine regimen was not associated with improved clinical outcome compared with chemoradiation without cetuximab.

  9. UPDG: Utilities package for data analysis of Pooled DNA GWAS

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite being a well-established strategy for cost reduction in disease gene mapping, pooled DNA association study is much less popular than the individual DNA approach. This situation is especially true for pooled DNA genomewide association study (GWAS), for which very few computer resources have been developed for its data analysis. This motivates the development of UPDG (Utilities package for data analysis of Pooled DNA GWAS). Results UPDG represents a generalized framework for data analysis of pooled DNA GWAS with the integration of Unix/Linux shell operations, Perl programs and R scripts. With the input of raw intensity data from GWAS, UPDG performs the following tasks in a stepwise manner: raw data manipulation, correction for allelic preferential amplification, normalization, nested analysis of variance for genetic association testing, and summarization of analysis results. Detailed instructions, procedures and commands are provided in the comprehensive user manual describing the whole process from preliminary preparation of software installation to final outcome acquisition. An example dataset (input files and sample output files) is also included in the package so that users can easily familiarize themselves with the data file formats, working procedures and expected output. Therefore, UPDG is especially useful for users with some computer knowledge, but without a sophisticated programming background. Conclusions UPDG provides a free, simple and platform-independent one-stop service to scientists working on pooled DNA GWAS data analysis, but with less advanced programming knowledge. It is our vision and mission to reduce the hindrance for performing data analysis of pooled DNA GWAS through our contribution of UPDG. More importantly, we hope to promote the popularity of pooled DNA GWAS, which is a very useful research strategy. PMID:22252406

  10. Pooled Analysis of Loss of Heterozygosity in Breast Cancer: a Genome Scan Provides Comparative Evidence for Multiple Tumor Suppressors and Identifies Novel Candidate Regions

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brian J.; Wang, Daolong; Krahe, Ralf; Wright, Fred A.

    2003-01-01

    Somatic loss of heterozygosity (LOH) has been widely reported in breast cancer as a means of identifying putative tumor-suppressor genes. However, individual studies have rarely spanned more than a single chromosome, and the varying criteria used to declare LOH complicate efforts to formally differentiate regions of consistent versus sporadic (random) loss. We report here the compilation of an extensive database from 151 published LOH studies of breast cancer, with summary data from >15,000 tumors and primary allelotypes from >4,300 tumors. Allelic loss was evaluated at 1,168 marker loci, with large variation in the density of informative observations across the genome. Using studies in which primary allelotype information was available, we employed a likelihood-based approach with a formal chromosomal instability and selection model. The approach seeks direct evidence for preferential loss at each locus compared with nearby loci, accounts for heterogeneity across studies, and enables the direct comparison of candidate regions across the genome. Striking preferential loss was observed (in descending order of significance) in specific regions of chromosomes 7q, 16q, 13q, 17p, 8p, 21q, 3p, 18q, 2q, and 19p, as well as other regions, in many cases coinciding with previously identified candidate genes or known fragile sites. Many of these observations were not possible from any single LOH study, and our results suggest that many previously reported LOH results are not systematic or reproducible. Our approach provides a comparative framework for further investigation of regions exhibiting LOH and identifies broad genomic regions for which there exist few data. PMID:13680524

  11. Outcome after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in young breast cancer patients: a pooled analysis of individual patient data from eight prospectively randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Loibl, Sibylle; Jackisch, Christian; Lederer, Bianca; Untch, Michael; Paepke, Stefan; Kümmel, Sherko; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Huober, Jens; Hilfrich, Jörn; Hanusch, Claus; Gerber, Bernd; Eidtmann, Holger; Denkert, Carsten; Costa, Serban Dan; Blohmer, Jens-Uwe; Nekljudova, Valentina; Mehta, Keyur; von Minckwitz, Gunter

    2015-07-01

    Young women with breast cancer (BC) have a worse survival partly due to more aggressive tumor characteristics; however, their response to chemotherapy seems better. We investigated to what extent the prognostic factor pathological complete remission (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is applicable to young women. 8949 patients with primary BC and follow-up from eight German neoadjuvant trials were included. A subgroup of 1453 patients <40 years was compared with women aged 40-49 and ?50 years regarding pCR (ypT0 ypN0), as well as disease free survival (DFS), local recurrence free survival (LRFS), distant disease free survival (DDFS), and overall survival (OS) overall, according to pCR status and subtypes defined by hormone-receptor (HR) status and HER2. pCR was strongly associated with age without a clear age cut-off. The pCR rate was significantly higher in the young compared with other age groups (20.9 vs. 17.7 vs. 13.7 %; p < 0.001). This difference was confined to triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and HR +/HER2-. DFS, DDFS, LRFS, and OS were significantly worse for young women. Age was independently prognostic for survival in HR +/HER2-, with women <40 years without pCR having a worse DFS compared to their counterparts with pCR. Young women are more likely to achieve pCR after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, especially in HR +/HER2- and TNBC. Age is not an important prognostic factor in TNBC and HR-/HER2 + but is in HR +/HER2-. Young women with a luminal-like BC seem to benefit more from neoadjuvant chemotherapy than older women, which needs to be taken into account. PMID:26109347

  12. Lifetime Cigarette Smoking and Breast Cancer Prognosis in the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is controversy on whether former smokers have increased risk for breast cancer recurrence or all-cause mortality, regardless of how much they smoked. Methods Data were from three US cohorts in the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project, with detailed information on smoking among 9975 breast cancer survivors. Smoking was assessed an average of 2 years after diagnosis. Delayed entry Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the relationships of smoking status, cigarettes per day, years of smoking, and pack years with breast cancer prognosis. Endpoints included breast cancer recurrence (n = 1727), breast cancer mortality (n = 1059), and overall mortality (n = 1803). Results Compared with never smokers, former smokers with less than 20 pack-years of exposure had no increased risk of any outcome. However, former smokers with 20 to less than 34.9 pack-years of exposure had a 22% increased risk of breast cancer recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01 to 1.48) and a 26% increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.48). For former smokers with 35 or more pack-years of exposure, the probability of recurrence increased by 37% (HR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.13 to 1.66), breast cancer mortality increased by 54% (HR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.24 to 1.91), and all-cause mortality increased by 68% (HR = 1.68; 95% CI = 1.44 to 1.96). Current smoking increased the probability of recurrence by 41% (HR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.16 to 1.71), increased breast cancer mortality by 60% (HR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.28 to 2.03), and doubled the risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.85 to 2.54). Conclusions Lifetime cigarette smoking was statistically significantly associated with a poor prognosis among women diagnosed with breast cancer, dose-dependent increased risks of recurrence, and breast cancer and all-cause mortality. PMID:24317179

  13. Pharmacokinetics of fentanyl buccal tablet: a pooled analysis and review.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Mona; Xie, Fang

    2012-04-01

    Fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) is indicated for the treatment of breakthrough pain in patients who are already receiving and are tolerant to opioid therapy for underlying, persistent cancer pain. FBT is designed to enhance the rate and efficiency of absorption of fentanyl through the buccal mucosa. FBT was shown to be dose proportional from 100 to 1,300 ?g. This analysis provides an overview of the pharmacokinetic profile of FBT based on pooled data from nine pharmacokinetic studies. In all, 365 healthy non-opioid-tolerant adults receiving naltrexone were included in the analysis. Single-dose (100 to 1,300 ?g) pharmacokinetic parameters were dose normalized to 100 ?g. Pharmacokinetic measures included maximum observed plasma drug concentration (C(max)), plasma drug concentration versus time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(0-?)), time to reach C(max) (T(max)), apparent plasma terminal elimination rate constant, and elimination half-life. After FBT administration, fentanyl was rapidly absorbed, with T(max) ranging from 20 minutes to 4 hours postdose. Mean AUC(0-?) was 1.49 ng•hour/mL, and mean C(max) was 0.237 ng/mL. However, plasma fentanyl concentration reached 80% of C(max) within 25 minutes and was maintained through 2 hours after administration. Based on the individual studies, bioequivalence was shown for sublingual and buccal tablet placement, and no significant effect of dwell time (duration of FBT presence in the oral cavity) was observed. The pharmacokinetic profile of FBT was characterized by rapid absorption, which is consistent with the rapid-onset efficacy profile of FBT observed in clinical studies. PMID:21831253

  14. Pooling fMRI Data: Meta-Analysis, Mega-Analysis and Multi-Center Studies

    PubMed Central

    Costafreda, Sergi G.

    2009-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of pooled data from related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments has the potential to significantly accelerate progress in brain mapping. Such data-pooling can be achieved through meta-analysis (the pooled analysis of published results), mega-analysis (the pooled analysis of raw data) or multi-site studies, which can be seen as designed mega-analyses. Current limitations in function-location brain mapping and how data-pooling can be used to remediate them are reviewed, with particular attention to power aggregation and mitigation of false positive results. Some recently developed analysis tools for meta- and mega-analysis are also presented, and recommendations for the conduct of valid fMRI data pooling are formulated. PMID:19826498

  15. Legislating Traffic Safety: A Pooled Time Series Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Houston; E. Richardson Jr.; Grant W. Neeley

    Objective. This study assesses the effectiveness of state regulatory efforts to improve traffic safety. Methods. Annual data for the period 1967-1991 for all 50 states were analyzed through the use of pooled time series analysis. Results. Mandatory seat belt laws, an increased minimum legal drinking age, and a 55- mph maximum speed limit were found to reduce state traffic fatality

  16. Urban logistics pooling viabililty analysis via a multicriteria multiactor method

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Urban logistics pooling viabililty analysis via a multicriteria multiactor method Jesus Gonzalez. In the last years, collaborative transportation seems a good city logistics alternative to classical urban consolidation centres, but it is still in a development stage. This paper proposes a framework for urban

  17. Pooled Flood Frequency Analysis Using Neural Network Ensembles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Shu; D. H. Burn

    2004-01-01

    Neural network ensembles are applied as regression models for pooled flood frequency analysis by relating catchment descriptors to the target flood quantiles. A neural network ensemble is a group of artificial neural networks (ANNs) trained for the same task with their predictions combined to generate a unique output. Recent studies have shown that the ensemble approach can significantly improve the

  18. Sense and sensitivity in pooled analysis of political data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernhard Kittel

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, pooled time-series cross-section data analysis has been advocated as a method for overcoming the ‘small N, many variables’ problem in comparative political economy in order to derive valid inferences from statistical comparisons of nation states. Moreover, the approach seemed promising in handling both comparisons among different countries and developments over time. However, due to the complex structure

  19. A pooled analysis of magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Ahlbom; N Day; M Feychting; E Roman; J Skinner; J Dockerty; M Linet; M McBride; J Michaelis; J H Olsen; T Tynes; P K Verkasalo

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested an association between exposure to 50–60 Hz magnetic fields (EMF) and childhood leukaemia. We conducted a pooled analysis based on individual records from nine studies, including the most recent ones. Studies with 24\\/48-hour magnetic field measurements or calculated magnetic fields were included. We specified which data analyses we planned to do and how to do them

  20. Meat intake and cause-specific mortality: a pooled analysis of Asian prospective cohort studies123

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Eun; McLerran, Dale F; Rolland, Betsy; Chen, Yu; Grant, Eric J; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Gao, Yu-Tang; Tsuji, Ichiro; Kakizaki, Masako; Ahsan, Habibul; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Pan, Wen-Harn; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yoo, Keun-Young; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Yang, Gong; Watanabe, Takashi; Sugawara, Yumi; Parvez, Faruque; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Ohishi, Waka; Park, Sue K; Feng, Ziding; Thornquist, Mark; Boffetta, Paolo; Zheng, Wei; Kang, Daehee; Potter, John; Sinha, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Total or red meat intake has been shown to be associated with a higher risk of mortality in Western populations, but little is known of the risks in Asian populations. Objective: We examined temporal trends in meat consumption and associations between meat intake and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Asia. Design: We used ecological data from the United Nations to compare country-specific meat consumption. Separately, 8 Asian prospective cohort studies in Bangladesh, China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan consisting of 112,310 men and 184,411 women were followed for 6.6 to 15.6 y with 24,283 all-cause, 9558 cancer, and 6373 cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths. We estimated the study-specific HRs and 95% CIs by using a Cox regression model and pooled them by using a random-effects model. Results: Red meat consumption was substantially lower in the Asian countries than in the United States. Fish and seafood consumption was higher in Japan and Korea than in the United States. Our pooled analysis found no association between intake of total meat (red meat, poultry, and fish/seafood) and risks of all-cause, CVD, or cancer mortality among men and women; HRs (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality from a comparison of the highest with the lowest quartile were 1.02 (0.91, 1.15) in men and 0.93 (0.86, 1.01) in women. Conclusions: Ecological data indicate an increase in meat intake in Asian countries; however, our pooled analysis did not provide evidence of a higher risk of mortality for total meat intake and provided evidence of an inverse association with red meat, poultry, and fish/seafood. Red meat intake was inversely associated with CVD mortality in men and with cancer mortality in women in Asian countries. PMID:23902788

  1. Body size and multiple myeloma mortality: a pooled analysis of 20 prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Teras, Lauren R; Kitahara, Cari M; Birmann, Brenda M; Hartge, Patricia A; Wang, Sophia S; Robien, Kim; Patel, Alpa V; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Giles, Graham G; Singh, Pramil N; Alavanja, Michael; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Bernstein, Leslie; Buring, Julie E; Colditz, Graham A; Fraser, Gary E; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaziano, J Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Hofmann, Jonathan N; Linet, Martha S; Neta, Gila; Park, Yikyung; Peters, Ulrike; Rosenberg, Philip S; Schairer, Catherine; Sesso, Howard D; Stampfer, Meir J; Visvanathan, Kala; White, Emily; Wolk, Alicja; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; de González, Amy Berrington; Purdue, Mark P

    2014-09-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a rare but highly fatal malignancy. High body weight is associated with this cancer, but several questions remain regarding the aetiological relevance of timing and location of body weight. To address these questions, we conducted a pooled analysis of MM mortality using 1·5 million participants (including 1388 MM deaths) from 20 prospective cohorts in the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium. Proportional hazards regression was used to calculate pooled multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Associations with elevated MM mortality were observed for higher early-adult body mass index (BMI; HR = 1·22, 95% CI: 1·09-1·35 per 5 kg/m(2) ) and for higher cohort-entry BMI (HR 1·09, 95% CI: 1·03-1·16 per 5 kg/m(2) ) and waist circumference (HR = 1·06, 95% CI: 1·02-1·10 per 5 cm). Women who were the heaviest, both in early adulthood (BMI 25+) and at cohort entry (BMI 30+) were at greater risk compared to those with BMI 18·5 ? 25 at both time points (HR = 1·95, 95% CI: 1·33-2·86). Waist-to-hip ratio and height were not associated with MM mortality. These observations suggest that overall, and possibly also central, obesity influence myeloma mortality, and women have the highest risk of death from this cancer if they remain heavy throughout adulthood. PMID:24861847

  2. New England salt marsh pools: A quantitative analysis of geomorphic and geographic features

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamowicz, S.C.; Roman, C.T.

    2005-01-01

    New England salt marsh pools provide important wildlife habitat and are the object of on-going salt marsh restoration projects; however, they have not been quantified in terms of their basic geomorphic and geographic traits. An examination of 32 ditched and unditched salt marshes from the Connecticut shore of Long Island Sound to southern Maine, USA, revealed that pools from ditched and unditched marshes had similar average sizes of about 200 m2, averaged 29 cm in depth, and were located about 11 m from the nearest tidal flow. Unditched marshes had 3 times the density (13 pools/ha), 2.5 times the pool coverage (83 m pool/km transect), and 4 times the total pool surface area per hectare (913 m2 pool/ha salt marsh) of ditched sites. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that an increasing density of ditches (m ditch/ha salt marsh) was negatively correlated with pool density and total pool surface area per hectare. Creek density was positively correlated with these variables. Thus, it was not the mere presence of drainage channels that were associated with low numbers of pools, but their type (ditch versus creek) and abundance. Tidal range was not correlated with pool density or total pool surface area, while marsh latitude had only a weak relationship to total pool surface area per hectare. Pools should be incorporated into salt marsh restoration planning, and the parameters quantified here may be used as initial design targets.

  3. Melanocortin-1 receptor, skin cancer and phenotypic characteristics (M-SKIP) project: study design and methods for pooling results of genetic epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background For complex diseases like cancer, pooled-analysis of individual data represents a powerful tool to investigate the joint contribution of genetic, phenotypic and environmental factors to the development of a disease. Pooled-analysis of epidemiological studies has many advantages over meta-analysis, and preliminary results may be obtained faster and with lower costs than with prospective consortia. Design and methods Based on our experience with the study design of the Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene, SKin cancer and Phenotypic characteristics (M-SKIP) project, we describe the most important steps in planning and conducting a pooled-analysis of genetic epidemiological studies. We then present the statistical analysis plan that we are going to apply, giving particular attention to methods of analysis recently proposed to account for between-study heterogeneity and to explore the joint contribution of genetic, phenotypic and environmental factors in the development of a disease. Within the M-SKIP project, data on 10,959 skin cancer cases and 14,785 controls from 31 international investigators were checked for quality and recoded for standardization. We first proposed to fit the aggregated data with random-effects logistic regression models. However, for the M-SKIP project, a two-stage analysis will be preferred to overcome the problem regarding the availability of different study covariates. The joint contribution of MC1R variants and phenotypic characteristics to skin cancer development will be studied via logic regression modeling. Discussion Methodological guidelines to correctly design and conduct pooled-analyses are needed to facilitate application of such methods, thus providing a better summary of the actual findings on specific fields. PMID:22862891

  4. Effective detection of rare variants in pooled DNA samples using Cross-pool tailcurve analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Sequencing targeted DNA regions in large samples is necessary to discover the full spectrum of rare variants. We report an effective Illumina sequencing strategy utilizing pooled samples with novel quality (Srfim) and filtering (SERVIC4E) algorithms. We sequenced 24 exons in two cohorts of 480 samples each, identifying 47 coding variants, including 30 present once per cohort. Validation by Sanger sequencing revealed an excellent combination of sensitivity and specificity for variant detection in pooled samples of both cohorts as compared to publicly available algorithms. PMID:21955804

  5. Bladder Cancer and Exposure to Water Disinfection By-Products through Ingestion, Bathing, Showering, and Swimming in Pools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristina M. Villanueva; Kenneth P. Cantor; Joan O. Grimalt; Nuria Malats; Debra Silverman; Adonina Tardon; Reina Garcia-Closas; Alfredo Carrato; Gemma Castano; Ricard Marcos; Nathaniel Rothman; Francisco X. Real; Mustafa Dosemeci; Manolis Kogevinas; Cerdanyola del Valles

    2007-01-01

    Bladder cancer has been associated with exposure to chlorination by-products in drinking water, and experi- mental evidence suggests that exposure also occurs through inhalation and dermal absorption. The authors examined whether bladder cancer risk was associated with exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) through ingestion of water and through inhalation and dermal absorption during showering, bathing, and swimming in pools. Lifetime personal

  6. Duration, Pattern of Breastfeeding and Postnatal Transmission of HIV: Pooled Analysis of Individual Data

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Duration, Pattern of Breastfeeding and Postnatal Transmission of HIV: Pooled Analysis of Individual and Postnatal Transmission of HIV: Pooled Analysis of Individual Data from West and South African Cohorts. PLo Universitaire de Treichville, Abidjan, Co^te d'Ivoire, 7 Centre for HIV/AIDS Networking, University of Kwa

  7. Admixture Aberration Analysis: Application to Mapping in Admixed Population Using Pooled DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercovici, Sivan; Geiger, Dan

    Admixture mapping is a gene mapping approach used for the identification of genomic regions harboring disease susceptibility genes in the case of recently admixed populations such as African Americans. We present a novel method for admixture mapping, called admixture aberration analysis (AAA), that uses a DNA pool of affected admixed individuals. We demonstrate through simulations that AAA is a powerful and economical mapping method under a range of scenarios, capturing complex human diseases such as hypertension and end stage kidney disease. The method has a low false-positive rate and is robust to deviation from model assumptions. Finally, we apply AAA on 600 prostate cancer-affected African Americans, replicating a known risk locus. Simulation results indicate that the method can yield over 96% reduction in genotyping. Our method is implemented as a Java program called AAAmap and is freely available.

  8. MTH1 inhibition eradicates cancer by preventing sanitation of the dNTP pool.

    PubMed

    Gad, Helge; Koolmeister, Tobias; Jemth, Ann-Sofie; Eshtad, Saeed; Jacques, Sylvain A; Ström, Cecilia E; Svensson, Linda M; Schultz, Niklas; Lundbäck, Thomas; Einarsdottir, Berglind Osk; Saleh, Aljona; Göktürk, Camilla; Baranczewski, Pawel; Svensson, Richard; Berntsson, Ronnie P-A; Gustafsson, Robert; Strömberg, Kia; Sanjiv, Kumar; Jacques-Cordonnier, Marie-Caroline; Desroses, Matthieu; Gustavsson, Anna-Lena; Olofsson, Roger; Johansson, Fredrik; Homan, Evert J; Loseva, Olga; Bräutigam, Lars; Johansson, Lars; Höglund, Andreas; Hagenkort, Anna; Pham, Therese; Altun, Mikael; Gaugaz, Fabienne Z; Vikingsson, Svante; Evers, Bastiaan; Henriksson, Martin; Vallin, Karl S A; Wallner, Olov A; Hammarström, Lars G J; Wiita, Elisee; Almlöf, Ingrid; Kalderén, Christina; Axelsson, Hanna; Djureinovic, Tatjana; Puigvert, Jordi Carreras; Häggblad, Maria; Jeppsson, Fredrik; Martens, Ulf; Lundin, Cecilia; Lundgren, Bo; Granelli, Ingrid; Jensen, Annika Jenmalm; Artursson, Per; Nilsson, Jonas A; Stenmark, Pål; Scobie, Martin; Berglund, Ulrika Warpman; Helleday, Thomas

    2014-04-10

    Cancers have dysfunctional redox regulation resulting in reactive oxygen species production, damaging both DNA and free dNTPs. The MTH1 protein sanitizes oxidized dNTP pools to prevent incorporation of damaged bases during DNA replication. Although MTH1 is non-essential in normal cells, we show that cancer cells require MTH1 activity to avoid incorporation of oxidized dNTPs, resulting in DNA damage and cell death. We validate MTH1 as an anticancer target in vivo and describe small molecules TH287 and TH588 as first-in-class nudix hydrolase family inhibitors that potently and selectively engage and inhibit the MTH1 protein in cells. Protein co-crystal structures demonstrate that the inhibitors bind in the active site of MTH1. The inhibitors cause incorporation of oxidized dNTPs in cancer cells, leading to DNA damage, cytotoxicity and therapeutic responses in patient-derived mouse xenografts. This study exemplifies the non-oncogene addiction concept for anticancer treatment and validates MTH1 as being cancer phenotypic lethal. PMID:24695224

  9. Residential Radon and Risk of Lung Cancer A Combined Analysis of 7 North American Case-Control Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Krewski; Jay H. Lubin; Jan M. Zielinski; Michael Alavanja; Vanessa S. Catalan; R. William Field; Judith B. Klotz; Ernest G. Letourneau; Charles F. Lynch; Joseph I. Lyon; Dale P. Sandler; Janet B. Schoenberg; Daniel J. Steck; Jan A. Stolwijk; Clarice Weinberg; Homer B. Wilcox

    Background: Underground miners exposed to high levels of radon have an excess risk of lung cancer. Residential exposure to radon is at much lower levels, and the risk of lung cancer with residential exposure is less clear. We conducted a systematic analysis of pooled data from all North American residential radon studies. Methods: The pooling project included original data from

  10. Microbiological Analysis in Three Diverse Natural Geothermal Bathing Pools in Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Thorolfsdottir, Berglind Osk Th.; Marteinsson, Viggo Thor

    2013-01-01

    Natural thermal bathing pools contain geothermal water that is very popular to bathe in but the water is not sterilized, irradiated or treated in any way. Increasing tourism in Iceland will lead to increasing numbers of bath guests, which can in turn affect the microbial flora in the pools and therefore user safety. Today, there is no legislation that applies to natural geothermal pools in Iceland, as the water is not used for consumption and the pools are not defined as public swimming pools. In this study, we conducted a microbiological analysis on three popular but different natural pools in Iceland, located at Lýsuhóll, Hveravellir and Landmannalaugar. Total bacterial counts were performed by flow cytometry, and with plate count at 22 °C, 37 °C and 50 °C. The presence of viable coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and pseudomonads were investigated by growth experiments on selective media. All samples were screened for noroviruses by real time PCR. The results indicate higher fecal contamination in the geothermal pools where the geothermal water flow was low and bathing guest count was high during the day. The number of cultivated Pseudomonas spp. was high (13,000–40,000 cfu/100 mL) in the natural pools, and several strains were isolated and classified as opportunistic pathogens. Norovirus was not detected in the three pools. DNA was extracted from one-liter samples in each pool and analyzed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbial diversity analysis revealed different microbial communities between the pools and they were primarily composed of alpha-, beta- and gammaproteobacteria. PMID:23493033

  11. Monte Carlo Test Assembly for Item Pool Analysis and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belov, Dmitry I.; Armstrong, Ronald D.

    2005-01-01

    A new test assembly algorithm based on a Monte Carlo random search is presented in this article. A major advantage of the Monte Carlo test assembly over other approaches (integer programming or enumerative heuristics) is that it performs a uniform sampling from the item pool, which provides every feasible item combination (test) with an equal…

  12. Calculation notes for surface leak resulting in pool, TWRS FSAR accident analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, B.W.

    1996-09-25

    This document includes the calculations performed to quantify the risk associated with the unmitigated and mitigated accident scenarios described in the TWRS FSAR for the accident analysis titled: Surface Leaks Resulting in Pool.

  13. Calculation Notes for Subsurface Leak Resulting in Pool, TWRS FSAR Accident Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, B.W.

    1996-09-25

    This document includes the calculations performed to quantify the risk associated with the unmitigated and mitigated accident scenarios described in the TWRS FSAR for the accident analysis titled: Subsurface Leaks Resulting in Pool.

  14. EQUILIBRIUM-ANALYSIS OF PROJECT CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON THE GLOBAL SOIL ORGANIC MATTER POOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased rates of soil organic matter decomposition may represent a significant positive feedback to global warming. s a step towards assessing the potential magnitude of this response, an equilibrium analysis was performed in which representative carbon pools were associated wi...

  15. Monitoring organic loading to swimming pools by fluorescence excitation–emission matrix with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo?ena Seredy?ska-Sobecka; Colin A. Stedmon; Rasmus Boe-Hansen; Christopher K. Waul; Erik Arvin

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescence Excitation–Emission Matrix spectroscopy combined with parallel factor analysis was employed to monitor water quality and organic contamination in swimming pools. The fluorescence signal of the swimming pool organic matter was low but increased slightly through the day. The analysis revealed that the organic matter fluorescence was characterised by five different components, one of which was unique to swimming pool

  16. Chemotherapy in advanced biliary tract carcinoma: a pooled analysis of clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Eckel, F; Schmid, R M

    2007-01-01

    Owing to the lack of randomised controlled trials no standard of chemotherapy exists in the treatment of advanced biliary tract carcinoma. 5-fluorouracil or gemcitabine is recommended based on small and predominately phase II trials. The aim of this analysis was to analyse existing trials, even small and nonrandomised, and identify superior regimens. Chemotherapy trials published in English from 1985 to July 2006 were analysed as well as ASCO abstracts from 1999 to 2006. Response rate (RR=CR+PR), tumour control rate (TCR=CR+PR+SD), time to tumour progression (TTP), overall survival (OS), and toxicity were analysed. One hundred and four trials comprising 112 trial arms and 2810 patients, thereof 634 responders and 1368 patients with tumour control were analysed. Pooled RR and TCR were 22.6 and 57.3%, respectively. Significant correlations of RR and TCR with survival times were found. Subgroup analysis showed superior RRs for gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) compared with cholangiocarcinoma, but shorter OS for GBC. Furthermore, superior RRs and TCRs of gemcitabine and platinum containing regimens were found with highest RRs and TCRs in the combination subgroup. Based on published results of predominately phase II trials, gemcitabine combined with platinum compounds represents the provisional standard of chemotherapy in advanced biliary tract cancer, unless a new evidence-based standard has been defined. PMID:17325704

  17. Pooled analysis indicates that the GSTT1 deletion, GSTM1 deletion, and GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphisms do not modify breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Spurdle, Amanda B; Fahey, Paul; Chen, Xiaoqing; McGuffog, Lesley; Easton, Douglas; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Simard, Jacques; Rebbeck, Tim R; Antoniou, Antonis C; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2010-07-01

    The GSTP1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 detoxification genes all have functional polymorphisms that are common in the general population. A single study of 320 BRCA1/2 carriers previously assessed their effect in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. This study showed no evidence for altered risk of breast cancer for individuals with the GSTT1 and GSTM1 deletion variants, but did report that the GSTP1 Ile105Val (rs1695) variant was associated with increased breast cancer risk in carriers. We investigated the association between these three GST polymorphisms and breast cancer risk using existing data from 718 women BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers from Australia, the UK, Canada, and the USA. Data were analyzed within a proportional hazards framework using Cox regression. There was no evidence to show that any of the polymorphisms modified disease risk for BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers, and there was no evidence for heterogeneity between sites. These results support the need for replication studies to confirm or refute hypothesis-generating studies. PMID:19921428

  18. Use of DNA–Damaging Agents and RNA Pooling to Assess Expression Profiles Associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Status in Familial Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Logan C.; Thompson, Bryony A.; Waddell, Nic; Investigators, kConFab; Grimmond, Sean M.; Spurdle, Amanda B.

    2010-01-01

    A large number of rare sequence variants of unknown clinical significance have been identified in the breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Laboratory-based methods that can distinguish between carriers of pathogenic mutations and non-carriers are likely to have utility for the classification of these sequence variants. To identify predictors of pathogenic mutation status in familial breast cancer patients, we explored the use of gene expression arrays to assess the effect of two DNA–damaging agents (irradiation and mitomycin C) on cellular response in relation to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status. A range of regimes was used to treat 27 lymphoblastoid cell-lines (LCLs) derived from affected women in high-risk breast cancer families (nine BRCA1, nine BRCA2, and nine non-BRCA1/2 or BRCAX individuals) and nine LCLs from healthy individuals. Using an RNA–pooling strategy, we found that treating LCLs with 1.2 µM mitomycin C and measuring the gene expression profiles 1 hour post-treatment had the greatest potential to discriminate BRCA1, BRCA2, and BRCAX mutation status. A classifier was built using the expression profile of nine QRT–PCR validated genes that were associated with BRCA1, BRCA2, and BRCAX status in RNA pools. These nine genes could distinguish BRCA1 from BRCA2 carriers with 83% accuracy in individual samples, but three-way analysis for BRCA1, BRCA2, and BRCAX had a maximum of 59% prediction accuracy. Our results suggest that, compared to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, non-BRCA1/2 (BRCAX) individuals are genetically heterogeneous. This study also demonstrates the effectiveness of RNA pools to compare the expression profiles of cell-lines from BRCA1, BRCA2, and BRCAX cases after treatment with irradiation and mitomycin C as a method to prioritize treatment regimes for detailed downstream expression analysis. PMID:20174566

  19. Mirabegron for the treatment of overactive bladder: a prespecified pooled efficacy analysis and pooled safety analysis of three randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III studies

    PubMed Central

    Nitti, V W; Khullar, V; Kerrebroeck, P; Herschorn, S; Cambronero, J; Angulo, J C; Blauwet, M B; Dorrepaal, C; Siddiqui, E; Martin, N E

    2013-01-01

    Introduction To examine pooled efficacy data from three, large phase III studies comparing mirabegron (50 and 100 mg) with placebo, and pooled safety data including additional mirabegron 25 mg and tolterodine extended release (ER) 4 mg results. Methods This prespecified pooled analysis of three randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week studies, evaluated efficacy and safety of once-daily mirabegron 25 mg (safety analysis), 50 or 100 mg (efficacy and safety analyses) and tolterodine ER 4 mg (safety analysis) for the treatment of symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB). Co-primary efficacy measures were change from baseline to Final Visit in the mean number of incontinence episodes/24 h and mean number of micturitions/24 h. Key secondary efficacy end-points included mean number of urgency episodes/24 h and mean volume voided/micturitions, while other end-points included patient-reported outcomes according to the Treatment Satisfaction-Visual Analogue Scale (TS-VAS) and responder analyses [dry rate (posttreatment), ? 50% reduction in incontinence episodes/24 h, ? 8 micturitions/24 h (post hoc analysis)]. The safety analysis included adverse event (AE) reporting, laboratory assessments, ECG, postvoid residual volume and vital signs (blood pressure, pulse rate). Results Mirabegron (50 and 100 mg once daily) demonstrated statistically significant improvements compared with placebo for the co-primary end-points, key secondary efficacy variables, TS-VAS and responder analyses (all comparisons p < 0.05). Mirabegron is well tolerated and demonstrates a good safety profile. The most common AEs (? 3%) included hypertension, nasopharyngitis and urinary tract infection (UTI); the incidence of hypertensive events and UTIs decreased with increasing dose. For mirabegron, the incidence of the bothersome antimuscarinic AE, dry mouth, was at placebo level and of a lesser magnitude than tolterodine. Conclusion The efficacy and safety of mirabegron are demonstrated in this large pooled clinical trial dataset in patients with OAB. PMID:23692526

  20. RELAP5 Analysis of the Hybrid Loop-Pool Design for Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hongbin Zhang; Haihua Zhao; Cliff Davis

    2008-06-01

    An innovative hybrid loop-pool design for sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR-Hybrid) has been recently proposed. This design takes advantage of the inherent safety of a pool design and the compactness of a loop design to improve economics and safety of SFRs. In the hybrid loop-pool design, primary loops are formed by connecting the reactor outlet plenum (hot pool), intermediate heat exchangers (IHX), primary pumps and the reactor inlet plenum with pipes. The primary loops are immersed in the cold pool (buffer pool). Passive safety systems -- modular Pool Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (PRACS) – are added to transfer decay heat from the primary system to the buffer pool during loss of forced circulation (LOFC) transients. The primary systems and the buffer pool are thermally coupled by the PRACS, which is composed of PRACS heat exchangers (PHX), fluidic diodes and connecting pipes. Fluidic diodes are simple, passive devices that provide large flow resistance in one direction and small flow resistance in reverse direction. Direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS) heat exchangers (DHX) are immersed in the cold pool to transfer decay heat to the environment by natural circulation. To prove the design concepts, especially how the passive safety systems behave during transients such as LOFC with scram, a RELAP5-3D model for the hybrid loop-pool design was developed. The simulations were done for both steady-state and transient conditions. This paper presents the details of RELAP5-3D analysis as well as the calculated thermal response during LOFC with scram. The 250 MW thermal power conventional pool type design of GNEP’s Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) developed by Argonne National Laboratory was used as the reference reactor core and primary loop design. The reactor inlet temperature is 355 °C and the outlet temperature is 510 °C. The core design is the same as that for ABTR. The steady state buffer pool temperature is the same as the reactor inlet temperature. The peak cladding, hot pool, cold pool and reactor inlet temperatures were calculated during LOFC. The results indicate that there are two phases during LOFC transient – the initial thermal equilibration phase and the long term decay heat removal phase. The initial thermal equilibration phase occurs over a few hundred seconds, as the system adjusts from forced circulation to natural circulation flow. Subsequently, during long-term heat removal phase all temperatures evolve very slowly due to the large thermal inertia of the primary and buffer pool systems. The results clearly show that passive safety PRACS can effectively transfer decay heat from the primary system to the buffer pool by natural circulation. The DRACS system in turn can effectively transfer the decay heat to the environment.

  1. CXCR4 over-expression and survival in cancer: A system review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiaxin; Weng, Hao; Zhao, Bin

    2015-01-01

    C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is frequently over-expressed in various types of cancer; many agents against CXCR4 are in clinical development currently despite variable data for the prognostic impact of CXCR4 expression. Here eighty-five studies with a total of 11,032 subjects were included to explore the association between CXCR4 and progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS) in subjects with cancer. Pooled analysis shows that CXCR4 over-expression is significantly associated with poorer PFS (HR 2.04; 95% CI, 1.72-2.42) and OS (HR=1.94; 95% CI, 1.71-2.20) irrespective of cancer types. Subgroup analysis indicates significant association between CXCR4 and shorter PFS in hematological malignancy, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, esophageal cancer, renal cancer, gynecologic cancer, pancreatic cancer and liver cancer; the prognostic effects remained consistent across age, risk of bias, levels of adjustment, median follow-up period, geographical area, detection methods, publication year and size of studies. CXCR4 over-expression predicts unfavorable OS in hematological malignancy, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, esophageal cancer, head and neck cancer, renal cancer, lung cancer, gynecologic cancer, liver cancer, prostate cancer and gallbladder cancer; these effects were independence of age, levels of adjustment, publication year, detection methods and follow-up period. In conclusion, CXCR4 over-expression is associated with poor prognosis in cancer. PMID:25669980

  2. Evaluation of High Ipsilateral Subventricular Zone Radiation Therapy Dose in Glioblastoma: A Pooled Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Percy, E-mail: percylee@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Eppinga, Wietse; Lagerwaard, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cloughesy, Timothy [Neuro-Oncology Program, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States) [Neuro-Oncology Program, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Slotman, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nghiemphu, Phioanh L. [Neuro-Oncology Program, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States) [Neuro-Oncology Program, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Wang, Pin-Chieh; Kupelian, Patrick; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Demarco, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States); Selch, Michael T.; Steinberg, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Kang, Jung Julie [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) may play a role in the recurrence of glioblastoma. They are believed to originate from neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ). Because of their radioresistance, we hypothesized that high doses of radiation (>59.4 Gy) to the SVZ are necessary to control CSCs and improve progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS) in glioblastoma. Methods and Materials: 173 patients with glioblastoma pooled from 2 academic centers were treated with resection followed by chemoradiation therapy. The SVZ was segmented on computed tomography to calculate radiation doses delivered to the presumptive CSC niches. The relationships between high SVZ doses and PFS and OS were examined using Cox proportional hazards models. Five covariates were included to estimate their impact on PFS or OS: ipsilateral and contralateral SVZ doses, clinical target volume dose, age, and extent of resection. Results: Median PFS and OS were 10.4 and 19.6 months for the cohort. The mean ipsilateral SVZ, contralateral SVZ, and clinical target volume doses were 49.2, 35.2, and 60.1 Gy, respectively. Twenty-one patients who received high ipsilateral SVZ dose (>59.4 Gy) had significantly longer median PFS (12.6 vs 9.9 months, P=.042) and longer OS (25.8 vs 19.2 months, P=.173). On multivariate analysis, high radiation therapy doses to ipsilateral SVZ remained a statistically significant independent predictor of improved PFS but not of OS. The extent of surgery affected both PFS and OS on multivariate analysis. Conclusion: High radiation therapy doses to ipsilateral CSC niches are associated with improved PFS in glioblastoma.

  3. Leisure Time Physical Activity of Moderate to Vigorous Intensity and Mortality: A Large Pooled Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Steven C.; Patel, Alpa V.; Matthews, Charles E.; Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Park, Yikyung; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Linet, Martha S.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Visvanathan, Kala; Helzlsouer, Kathy J.; Thun, Michael; Gapstur, Susan M.; Hartge, Patricia; Lee, I-Min

    2012-01-01

    Background Leisure time physical activity reduces the risk of premature mortality, but the years of life expectancy gained at different levels remains unclear. Our objective was to determine the years of life gained after age 40 associated with various levels of physical activity, both overall and according to body mass index (BMI) groups, in a large pooled analysis. Methods and Findings We examined the association of leisure time physical activity with mortality during follow-up in pooled data from six prospective cohort studies in the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium, comprising 654,827 individuals, 21–90 y of age. Physical activity was categorized by metabolic equivalent hours per week (MET-h/wk). Life expectancies and years of life gained/lost were calculated using direct adjusted survival curves (for participants 40+ years of age), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) derived by bootstrap. The study includes a median 10 y of follow-up and 82,465 deaths. A physical activity level of 0.1–3.74 MET-h/wk, equivalent to brisk walking for up to 75 min/wk, was associated with a gain of 1.8 (95% CI: 1.6–2.0) y in life expectancy relative to no leisure time activity (0 MET-h/wk). Higher levels of physical activity were associated with greater gains in life expectancy, with a gain of 4.5 (95% CI: 4.3–4.7) y at the highest level (22.5+ MET-h/wk, equivalent to brisk walking for 450+ min/wk). Substantial gains were also observed in each BMI group. In joint analyses, being active (7.5+ MET-h/wk) and normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9) was associated with a gain of 7.2 (95% CI: 6.5–7.9) y of life compared to being inactive (0 MET-h/wk) and obese (BMI 35.0+). A limitation was that physical activity and BMI were ascertained by self report. Conclusions More leisure time physical activity was associated with longer life expectancy across a range of activity levels and BMI groups. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23139642

  4. Optimal forest harvest age considering carbon sequestration in multiple carbon pools: A comparative statics analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Asante; Glen W. Armstrong

    2012-01-01

    We present an analytical model for determination of the economically optimal harvest age of a forest stand considering timber value, and the value of carbon fluxes in living biomass, dead organic matter, and wood products pools. Through comparative statics analysis, we find that consideration of timber value and fluxes in biomass carbon increase harvest age relative to the timber only

  5. A Fixed Point Analysis of a Gene Pool GA with Mutation Alden H. Wright #

    E-print Network

    Wright, Alden H.

    recombination, selection, and mutation. We find and rigorously prove the stability of fixed points whiA Fixed Point Analysis of a Gene Pool GA with Mutation Alden H. Wright # Computer Science # is the string length. For linear fitness functions, we show that there is a single fixed point

  6. Admixture Aberration Analysis: Application to Mapping in Admixed Population Using Pooled DNA

    E-print Network

    Friedman, Nir

    which the admixed population was formed. When such a disease is studied, admixed individuals carrying population that has the higher prevalence of the disease around the disease gene loci. A MALD studyAdmixture Aberration Analysis: Application to Mapping in Admixed Population Using Pooled DNA SIVAN

  7. Identification of Motor Neuron Pool Marker Genes and Analysis of their Roles

    E-print Network

    Amrhein, Valentin

    Identification of Motor Neuron Pool Marker Genes and Analysis of their Roles in Motor Circuit.2.2 14BThe motor unit and muscle action 14 2 2BTranscriptional Mechanisms Controlling Motor Neuron Diversity and Connectivity 17 2.1 6BIntroduction 17 2.2 7BAcquisition of motor neuron identity

  8. Artificial neural network ensembles and their application in pooled flood frequency analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang Shu; Donald H. Burn

    2004-01-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical studies show that the generalization ability of artificial neural networks can be improved by combining several artificial neural networks in redundant ensembles. In this paper, a review is given of popular ensemble methods. Six approaches for creating artificial neural network ensembles are applied in pooled flood frequency analysis for estimating the index flood and the 10-year

  9. Weight management using a meal replacement strategy: meta and pooling analysis from six studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S B Heymsfield; C A J van Mierlo; H C M van der Knaap; M Heo; H I Frier

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although used by millions of overweight and obese consumers, there has not been a systematic assessment on the safety and effectiveness of a meal replacement strategy for weight management. The aim of this study was to review, by use of a meta- and pooling analysis, the existing literature on the safety and effectiveness of a partial meal replacement (PMR)

  10. A review and meta-analysis of health state utility values in breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Peasgood; S Ward; J Brazier

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Health-related quality of life is an important issue in the treatment of breast cancer, and health-state utilities are essential for cost-utility analysis. This paper identifies and summarises published utilities for common health-related quality of life outcomes for breast cancer, considers the impact of variation in study designs used, and pools utilities for some breast cancer health states.

  11. Pooled Genome-Wide Analysis to Identify Novel Risk Loci for Pediatric Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Giampaolo; Astolfi, Annalisa; Remondini, Daniel; Cipriani, Francesca; Formica, Serena; Dondi, Arianna; Pession, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies of pooled DNA samples were shown to be a valuable tool to identify candidate SNPs associated to a phenotype. No such study was up to now applied to childhood allergic asthma, even if the very high complexity of asthma genetics is an appropriate field to explore the potential of pooled GWAS approach. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a pooled GWAS and individual genotyping in 269 children with allergic respiratory diseases comparing allergic children with and without asthma. We used a modular approach to identify the most significant loci associated with asthma by combining silhouette statistics and physical distance method with cluster-adapted thresholding. We found 97% concordance between pooled GWAS and individual genotyping, with 36 out of 37 top-scoring SNPs significant at individual genotyping level. The most significant SNP is located inside the coding sequence of C5, an already identified asthma susceptibility gene, while the other loci regulate functions that are relevant to bronchial physiopathology, as immune- or inflammation-mediated mechanisms and airway smooth muscle contraction. Integration with gene expression data showed that almost half of the putative susceptibility genes are differentially expressed in experimental asthma mouse models. Conclusion/Significance Combined silhouette statistics and cluster-adapted physical distance threshold analysis of pooled GWAS data is an efficient method to identify candidate SNP associated to asthma development in an allergic pediatric population. PMID:21359210

  12. PoPoolation: A Toolbox for Population Genetic Analysis of Next Generation Sequencing Data from Pooled Individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Kofler; Pablo Orozco-Terwengel; Nicola de Maio; Ram Vinay Pandey; Viola Nolte; Andreas Futschik; Carolin Kosiol; Christian Schlötterer; Manfred Kayser

    2011-01-01

    Recent statistical analyses suggest that sequencing of pooled samples provides a cost effective approach to determine genome-wide population genetic parameters. Here we introduce PoPoolation, a toolbox specifically designed for the population genetic analysis of sequence data from pooled individuals. PoPoolation calculates estimates of ?Watterson, ??, and Tajima's D that account for the bias introduced by pooling and sequencing errors, as

  13. Mortality and cancer incidence in a pooled cohort of US firefighters from San Francisco, Chicago and Philadelphia (1950–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Robert D; Kubale, Travis L; Yiin, James H; Dahm, Matthew M; Hales, Thomas R; Baris, Dalsu; Zahm, Shelia H; Beaumont, James J; Waters, Kathleen M; Pinkerton, Lynne E

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine mortality patterns and cancer incidence in a pooled cohort of 29 993 US career firefighters employed since 1950 and followed through 2009. Methods Mortality and cancer incidence were evaluated by life table methods with the US population referent. Standardised mortality (SMR) and incidence (SIR) ratios were determined for 92 causes of death and 41 cancer incidence groupings. Analyses focused on 15 outcomes of a priori interest. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the potential for significant bias. Results Person-years at risk totalled 858 938 and 403 152 for mortality and incidence analyses, respectively. All-cause mortality was at expectation (SMR=0.99, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.01, n=12 028). There was excess cancer mortality (SMR=1.14, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.18, n=3285) and incidence (SIR=1.09, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.12, n=4461) comprised mainly of digestive (SMR=1.26, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.34, n=928; SIR=1.17, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.25, n=930) and respiratory (SMR=1.10, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.17, n=1096; SIR=1.16, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.24, n=813) cancers. Consistent with previous reports, modest elevations were observed in several solid cancers; however, evidence of excess lymphatic or haematopoietic cancers was lacking. This study is the first to report excess malignant mesothelioma (SMR=2.00, 95% CI 1.03 to 3.49, n=12; SIR=2.29, 95% CI 1.60 to 3.19, n=35) among US firefighters. Results appeared robust under differing assumptions and analytic techniques. Conclusions Our results provide evidence of a relation between firefighting and cancer. The new finding of excess malignant mesothelioma is noteworthy, given that asbestos exposure is a known hazard of firefighting. PMID:24142974

  14. Seismic analysis of a 400-MWe pool-type fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, D.C.; Gvildys, J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a seismic analysis of a 400-MWe pool-type fast reactor subjected to horizontal support excitation. Two types of analyses are performed - the fluid-structure interaction analysis and the sloshing analysis. In the fluid-structure interaction analysis, the fluid coupling between various components are investigated. The maximum horizontal acceleration for the reactor core and the relative displacement between the reactor core and UIS (Upper Internal Structure) are examined. Seismic stresses at critical areas are calculated. In the sloshing analysis, the sloshing frequency and wave patterns are calculated. The maximum wave height and the sloshing forces exerted on the submerged components and the primary tank are evaluated.

  15. Constipation and Cathartics as Risk Factors of Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amnon Sonnenberg; Astrid D. Müller

    1993-01-01

    Since individual case-control studies have failed to resolve the question whether constipation and use of cathartics represent significant risk factors of colorectal cancer, a meta-analysis was performed. The method by Peto was used to calculate pooled odds ratios of the cancer risk among exposed and unex-posed subjects. The analysis of 14 previously published case-control studies revealed statistically significant risks for

  16. Oxcarbazepine is effective and safe in the treatment of neuropathic pain: pooled analysis of seven clinical studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Magenta; S. Arghetti; F. Palma; S. Jann; M. Sterlicchio; C. Bianconi; V. Galimberti; M. Osio; G. Siciliano; G. Cavallotti; R. Sterzi

    2005-01-01

    The results of 7 open-label clinical studies on oxcarbazepine (OXC) in different neuropathic pain conditions, sharing the same protocols, were pooled together in order to evaluate whether the results obtained in the individual trials were confirmed in the pooled analysis of this larger sample, providing more evidence for efficacy and tolerability of OXC in these conditions. Eligible patients (>18 years

  17. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 82, ''Beyond design basis accidents in spent fuel pools''

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Throm

    1989-01-01

    Generic Issue 82, ''Beyond Design Basis Accidents in Spent Fuel Pools,'' addresses the concerns with the use of high density storage racks for the storage of spent fuel, and is applicable to all Light Water Reactor spent fuel pools. This report presents the regulatory analysis for Generic Issue 82. It includes (1) a summary of the issue, (2) a summary

  18. Autoimmune disorders and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes: a pooled analysis within the InterLymph Consortium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Ekstrom Smedby; Claire M. Vajdic; Michael Falster; Eric A. Engels; Otoniel Martõ ´ nez-Maza; Jennifer Turner; Henrik Hjalgrim; Paolo Vineis; Adele Seniori Costantini; Paige M. Bracci; Elizabeth A. Holly; John J. Spinelli; Tongzhang Zheng; Brian C.-H. Chiu; Marc Maynadie; Paul Brennan; Scott Davis; James R. Cerhan; Elizabeth C. Breen; Andrew E. Grulich; Wendy Cozen

    2008-01-01

    Some autoimmune disorders are increas- ingly recognized as risk factors for non- Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) overall, but large-scale systematic assessments of risk of NHL subtypes are lacking. We performed a pooled analysis of self- reported autoimmune conditions and risk of NHL and subtypes, including 29 423 participants in 12 case-control studies. We computed pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence

  19. Exposure to UV radiation and risk of Hodgkin lymphoma: a pooled analysis.

    PubMed

    Monnereau, Alain; Glaser, Sally L; Schupp, Clayton W; Ekström Smedby, Karin; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Kane, Eleanor; Melbye, Mads; Forétova, Lenka; Maynadié, Marc; Staines, Anthony; Becker, Nikolaus; Nieters, Alexandra; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Cocco, Pierluigi; Glimelius, Ingrid; Clavel, Jacqueline; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Chang, Ellen T

    2013-11-14

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure has been inversely associated with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) risk, but only inconsistently, only in a few studies, and without attention to HL heterogeneity. We conducted a pooled analysis of HL risk focusing on type and timing of UVR exposure and on disease subtypes by age, histology, and tumor-cell Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status. Four case-control studies contributed 1320 HL cases and 6381 controls. We estimated lifetime, adulthood, and childhood UVR exposure and history of sunburn and sunlamp use. We used 2-stage estimation with mixed-effects models and weighted pooled effect estimates by inverse marginal variances. We observed statistically significant inverse associations with HL risk for UVR exposures during childhood and adulthood, sunburn history, and sunlamp use, but we found no significant dose-response relationships. Risks were significant only for EBV-positive HL (pooled odds ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.35 to 0.91 for the highest overall UVR exposure category), with a significant linear trend for overall exposure (P = .03). Pooled relative risk estimates were not heterogeneous across studies. Increased UVR exposure may protect against HL, particularly EBV-positive HL. Plausible mechanisms involving UVR induction of regulatory T cells or the cellular DNA damage response suggest opportunities for new prevention targets. PMID:24016459

  20. Efficacy and tolerability of fluvastatin extended-release delivery system: a pooled analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christie M. Ballantyne; Franco Pazzucconi; Xavier Pintó; John P. Reckless; Evan Stein; James McKenney; Michele Bortolini; Yann Tong Chiang

    2001-01-01

    Background: At high doses, the pharmacokinetics of fluvastatin immediate-release (IR) are nonlinear, possibly due to saturation of hepatic uptake. Fluvastatin delivery to the liver in a slower but sustained fashion would be expected to avoid hepatic saturation without elevating systemic drug levels.Objective: This pooled analysis compared the efficacy and tolerability of extended-release (XL) 80-mg and IR 40-mg formulations of fluvastatin

  1. A pooled analysis of data comparing sirolimus-eluting stents with bare-metal stents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Spaulding; Joost Daemen; H. Boersma; Donald E. Cutlip; Patrick W. Serruys

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although randomized studies have shown a beneficial effect of drug-eluting stents in reducing the risk of repeated revascularization, these trials were underpowered to compare rates of death and myocardial infarction. The long-term safety of drug-eluting stents has been questioned recently. METHODS: We performed a pooled analysis of 1748 patients in four randomized trials evaluating the safety of sirolimus-eluting stents

  2. A Pooled Analysis of Data Comparing Sirolimus-Eluting Stents with Bare-Metal Stents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Spaulding; Joost Daemen; Eric Boersma; Donald E. Cutlip; Patrick W. Serruys

    2010-01-01

    Background Although randomized studies have shown a beneficial effect of drug-eluting stents in reducing the risk of repeated revascularization, these trials were underpowered to compare rates of death and myocardial infarction. The long-term safety of drug-elut- ing stents has been questioned recently. Methods We performed a pooled analysis of 1748 patients in four randomized trials evaluating the safety of sirolimus-eluting

  3. Cardiothoracic ratio for prediction of left ventricular dilation: a systematic review and pooled analysis.

    PubMed

    Loomba, Rohit S; Shah, Parinda H; Nijhawan, Karan; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Arora, Rohit

    2015-03-01

    Increased cardiothoracic ratio noted on chest radiographs often prompts concern and further evaluation with additional imaging. This study pools available data assessing the utility of cardiothoracic ratio in predicting left ventricular dilation. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify studies comparing cardiothoracic ratio by chest x-ray to left ventricular dilation by echocardiography. Electronic databases were used to identify studies which were then assessed for quality and bias, with those with adequate quality and minimal bias ultimately being included in the pooled analysis. The pooled data were used to determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of cardiomegaly in predicting left ventricular dilation. A total of six studies consisting of 466 patients were included in this analysis. Cardiothoracic ratio had 83.3% sensitivity, 45.4% specificity, 43.5% positive predictive value and 82.7% negative predictive value. When a secondary analysis was conducted with a pediatric study excluded, a total of five studies consisting of 371 patients were included. Cardiothoracic ratio had 86.2% sensitivity, 25.2% specificity, 42.5% positive predictive value and 74.0% negative predictive value. Cardiothoracic ratio as determined by chest radiograph is sensitive but not specific for identifying left ventricular dilation. Cardiothoracic ratio also has a strong negative predictive value for identifying left ventricular dilation. PMID:25760876

  4. Testing Homeopathy in Mouse Emotional Response Models: Pooled Data Analysis of Two Series of Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bellavite, Paolo; Conforti, Anita; Marzotto, Marta; Magnani, Paolo; Cristofoletti, Mirko; Olioso, Debora; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Two previous investigations were performed to assess the activity of Gelsemium sempervirens (Gelsemium s.) in mice, using emotional response models. These two series are pooled and analysed here. Gelsemium s. in various homeopathic centesimal dilutions/dynamizations (4C, 5C, 7C, 9C, and 30C), a placebo (solvent vehicle), and the reference drugs diazepam (1?mg/kg body weight) or buspirone (5?mg/kg body weight) were delivered intraperitoneally to groups of albino CD1 mice, and their effects on animal behaviour were assessed by the light-dark (LD) choice test and the open-field (OF) exploration test. Up to 14 separate replications were carried out in fully blind and randomised conditions. Pooled analysis demonstrated highly significant effects of Gelsemium s. 5C, 7C, and 30C on the OF parameter “time spent in central area” and of Gelsemium s. 5C, 9C, and 30C on the LD parameters “time spent in lit area” and “number of light-dark transitions,” without any sedative action or adverse effects on locomotion. This pooled data analysis confirms and reinforces the evidence that Gelsemium s. regulates emotional responses and behaviour of laboratory mice in a nonlinear fashion with dilution/dynamization. PMID:22548123

  5. Testing homeopathy in mouse emotional response models: pooled data analysis of two series of studies.

    PubMed

    Bellavite, Paolo; Conforti, Anita; Marzotto, Marta; Magnani, Paolo; Cristofoletti, Mirko; Olioso, Debora; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Two previous investigations were performed to assess the activity of Gelsemium sempervirens (Gelsemium s.) in mice, using emotional response models. These two series are pooled and analysed here. Gelsemium s. in various homeopathic centesimal dilutions/dynamizations (4C, 5C, 7C, 9C, and 30C), a placebo (solvent vehicle), and the reference drugs diazepam (1?mg/kg body weight) or buspirone (5?mg/kg body weight) were delivered intraperitoneally to groups of albino CD1 mice, and their effects on animal behaviour were assessed by the light-dark (LD) choice test and the open-field (OF) exploration test. Up to 14 separate replications were carried out in fully blind and randomised conditions. Pooled analysis demonstrated highly significant effects of Gelsemium s. 5C, 7C, and 30C on the OF parameter "time spent in central area" and of Gelsemium s. 5C, 9C, and 30C on the LD parameters "time spent in lit area" and "number of light-dark transitions," without any sedative action or adverse effects on locomotion. This pooled data analysis confirms and reinforces the evidence that Gelsemium s. regulates emotional responses and behaviour of laboratory mice in a nonlinear fashion with dilution/dynamization. PMID:22548123

  6. Computer technology of genogeographic analysis of a gene pool: II. Statistical transformation of maps

    SciTech Connect

    Balanovskaya, E.V.; Nurbaev, S.D.; Rychkov, Yu.G. [Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-11-01

    Transformations of computer maps of geographic distribution of gene frequencies using basic mathematical statistical procedures are considered. These transformations are designated as statistical transformation of maps. Two transformation groups are considered: of one map separately and of a group of maps. Transformations possess a value beyond their use as intermediate stages of more complicated cartographical analysis: the resulting maps carry entirely new information on the geography of genes or a gene pool. This article considers three examples of obtaining new genetic profiles using statistical transformation algorithms. These profiles are of: (1) heterozygosity (of HLA-A, B, C loci in northeastern Eurasia); (2) disease risk (Rh-incompatibility of mother and child with simultaneous registration of Rh and ABO blood groups in Eastern Europe); (3) genetic distances (from own mean ethnic values for Belarus and from mean Russian values for the gene pool of Eastern Europe). 15 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Population Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Artesunate: A Pooled Analysis of Individual Data From Patients With Severe Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Zaloumis, S G; Tarning, J; Krishna, S; Price, R N; White, N J; Davis, T M E; McCaw, J M; Olliaro, P; Maude, R J; Kremsner, P; Dondorp, A; Gomes, M; Barnes, K; Simpson, J A

    2014-01-01

    There are ~660,000 deaths from severe malaria each year. Intravenous artesunate (i.v. ARS) is the first-line treatment in adults and children. To optimize the dosing regimen of i.v. ARS, the largest pooled population pharmacokinetic study to date of the active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA) was performed. The pooled dataset consisted of 71 adults and 195 children with severe malaria, with a mixture of sparse and rich sampling within the first 12?h after drug administration. A one-compartment model described the population pharmacokinetics of DHA adequately. Body weight had the greatest impact on DHA pharmacokinetics, resulting in lower DHA exposure for smaller children (6–10?kg) than adults. Post hoc estimates of DHA exposure were not significantly associated with parasitological outcomes. Comparable DHA exposure in smaller children and adults after i.v. ARS was achieved under a dose modification for intramuscular ARS proposed in a separate analysis of children. PMID:25372510

  8. Rapid and multiplexed transcript analysis of microbial cultures using capillary electophoresis-detectable oligonucleotide probe pools.

    PubMed

    Rautio, Jari J; Kataja, Kari; Satokari, Reetta; Penttilä, Merja; Söderlund, Hans; Saloheimo, Markku

    2006-06-01

    A rapid assay for multiplex transcript analysis based on solution hybridization with pools of oligonucleotide probes was developed. In this assay called TRAC (transcript analysis with aid of affinity capture) the mRNAs to be studied are hybridized with gene-specific detection probe pools and biotinylated oligo(dT) and captured on streptavidin-coated magnetic particles. Unbound sample material and nonspecifically bound detection probes are removed and the target-specific probes are eluted and detected by capillary electrophoresis. Simultaneous treatment of 96 samples was automated using a magnetic bead particle processor. The assay enabled detection of in vitro transcribed RNA at the level of 30 amol (20 pg) and over a 300-fold linear range. Besides extracted RNA, crude cell lysates were directly used as samples. The assay was used for transcriptional analysis of selected mRNAs in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei in two experimental conditions. TRAC analysis was highly reproducible, providing expression results that were consistent with conventional Northern blot analysis. The whole procedure starting from sample collecting can be carried out in 2 h, making this assay suitable for high-throughput analysis of a limited set of mRNAs e.g. in gene expression monitoring of production organism in microbial bioprocesses. PMID:16198435

  9. Radial Scars and Subsequent Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shanliang; Chen, Weixian; Hu, Qing; Ma, Tengfei; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaohui; Tang, Jinhai; Zhao, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between radial scars and breast cancer is unclear, as the results of different studies are inconsistent. We aim to solve the controversy and assess the breast cancer risk of radial scars. Methods Case-control or cohort studies about radial scars and breast cancer risk published in PubMed, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library from 2000 to 2013 were searched. Heterogeneity for the eligible data was assessed and a pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Results Five observational studies involving 2521 cases and 20290 controls were included in our study. From pooled analysis, radial scars were found to have a 1.33 fold increased risk of breast cancer, but which was not significant (P?=?0.138). Sample size contributed to heterogeneity. In subgroup analysis, the results pooled from studies with sample size >2000 show that presence of radial scars was associated with 1.6 times breast cancer risk compared to absence of radial scars. Radial scars increased the risk of breast cancer among women with proliferative disease without atypia, but no significant association between radial scars and carcinoma was noted among women with atypical hyperplasia. Conclusions Radial scars tend to be associated with an increased breast cancer risk. Radial scars should be considered among women with proliferative disease without atypia, while atypical hyperplasia is still the primary concern among women with both radial scars and atypical hyperplasia. PMID:25019286

  10. Tea consumption and prostate cancer: an updated meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Tea is supposed to have chemopreventive effect against various cancers. However, the protective role of tea in prostate cancer is still controversial. The aim of this study is to elucidate the association between tea consumption and prostate cancer risk by meta-analysis. Methods A total of 21 published articles were retrieved via both computerized searches and review of references. Estimates of OR/RR for highest versus non/lowest tea consumption levels were pooled on the basis of random effect model or fixed effect model as appropriate. Stratified analyses on tea type, population and study design were also conducted. Results No statistical significance was detected between tea consumption and prostate cancer risk in meta-analysis of all included studies (odds ratio (OR)?=?0.86, 95% CI (0.69-1.04)). Furthermore, stratified analyses on population (Asian, OR?=?0.81, 95% CI (0.55-1.08); non-Asian, OR?=?0.89, 95% CI (0.72-1.07)) and tea type (green tea, OR?=?0.79, 95% CI (0.43-1.14); black tea, OR?=?0.88, 95% CI (0.73-1.02)) also yielded non-significant association. Only the case–control study subgroup demonstrated a borderline protective effect for tea consumption against prostate cancer (OR?=?0.77, 95% CI (0.55-0.98)). Conclusion Our analyses did not support the conclusion that tea consumption could reduce prostate cancer risk. Further epidemiology studies are needed. PMID:24528523

  11. Swimming Pools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Housing and Local Government, London (England).

    Technical and engineering data are set forth on the design and construction of swimming pools. Consideration is given to site selection, pool construction, the comparative merits of combining open air and enclosed pools, and alternative uses of the pool. Guidelines are presented regarding--(1) pool size and use, (2) locker and changing rooms, (3)…

  12. Anthropometric, behavioral, and female reproductive factors and risk of multiple myeloma: a pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sophia S.; Voutsinas, Jenna; Chang, Ellen T.; Clarke, Christina A.; Lu, Yani; Ma, Huiyan; West, Dee; Lacey, James V.; Bernstein, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Background Risk of developing multiple myeloma (MM) rises with age and is greater among men and blacks than among women and whites, respectively, and possibly increased among obese persons. Other risk factors remain poorly understood. By pooling data from two complementary epidemiologic studies, we assessed whether obesity, smoking, or alcohol consumption alters MM risk and whether female reproductive history might explain the lower occurrence of MM in females than males. Methods The Los Angeles County MM Case-Control Study (1985-92) included 278 incident cases and 278 controls, matched on age, sex, race, and neighborhood of residence at case’s diagnosis. We estimated MM risk using conditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). In the prospective California Teachers Study (CTS), 152 women were diagnosed with incident MM between 1995-2009; we calculated hazard ratios using Cox proportional hazards analysis. Data from the two studies were pooled using a stratified, nested case-control sampling scheme (10:1 match) for the CTS; conditional logistic regression among 430 cases and 1,798 matched controls was conducted. Results Obesity and smoking were not associated with MM risk in the individual or combined studies. Alcohol consumption was associated with decreased MM risk among whites only (pooled OR=0.66, 95% CI=0.49-0.90) for ever vs. never drinking). Higher gravidity and parity were associated with increased MM risk, with pooled ORs of 1.38 (95% CI=1.01-1.90) for ?3 versus 1-2 pregnancies and 1.50 (95% CI=1.09-2.06) for ?3 versus 1-2 live births. Conclusions Female reproductive history may modestly alter MM risk, but appears unlikely to explain the sex disparity in incidence. Further investigation in consortial efforts is warranted. PMID:23568533

  13. Obesity, overweight and cancer mortality in the Asia-Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration: pooled analyses of 424 519 participants

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Christine Louise; Batty, G. David; Lam, Tai Hing; Barzi, Federica; Fang, Xianghua; Ho, Suzanne C; Jee, Sun Ha; Ansary-Moghaddam, Alireza; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Woodward, Mark; Huxley, Rachel R

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Excess weight is an established risk factor for several cancers but there are sparse data from Asian populations in whom overweight and obesity is increasing rapidly and adiposity can be substantially greater for the same body mass index (BMI) compared to Caucasians. Methods We examined associations of adult BMI with cancer mortality (overall and 20 sites) in geographic populations from Asia and Australia/New Zealand (ANZ) within the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration using Cox regression. Pooled data from 39 cohorts (recruitment 1961-99, median follow-up 4 years) were analyzed for 424 519 participants (77% Asian; 41% female; mean recruitment age 48 years) with individual data on BMI. Findings After excluding follow-up < 3 years, 4872 cancer deaths occurred in 401 215 participants. Hazard ratios (95% CI) for cancer sites with increased mortality risk in the obese (?30 kg/m2) relative to the normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2) were: 1.21 (1.09-1.36) for all-cause cancer (excluding lung and upper-aero digestive tract), 1.50 (1.13-1.99) for colon, 1.68 (1.06-2.67) for rectum, 1.63 (1.13-2.35) for breast in women aged ? 60 years, 2.62 (1.57-4.37) for ovary, 4.21 (1.89-9.39) for cervix, 1.45 (0.97-2.19) for prostate, and 1.66 (1.03-2.68) for leukaemia with the increased risk associated with a 5-unit increment in BMI ? 18.5 kg/m2 ranging from 1.13 (0.91-1.40) for rectum to 1.45 (1.00-2.11) for cervix. There was little evidence of regional differences in relative risk except for oropharynx and larynx where the association was inverse in ANZ but absent in Asia. Interpretation Overweight and obese individuals in populations across the Asia-Pacific region are at significantly increased risk of mortality from cancer. Strategies to prevent overweight and obesity across Asia are required to reduce the burden of cancer expected to occur if the obesity epidemic continues. Funding The APCSC has been funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, the Health Research Council of New Zealand and Pfizer Inc., through an unrestricted medical grant. PMID:20594911

  14. A Pooled Analysis of Body Mass Index and Mortality among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Sarah S.; Park, Yikyung; Signorello, Lisa B.; Patel, Alpa V.; Boggs, Deborah A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kitahara, Cari M.; Knutsen, Synnove F.; Gillanders, Elizabeth; Monroe, Kristine R.; de Gonzalez, Amy Berrington; Bethea, Traci N.; Black, Amanda; Fraser, Gary; Gapstur, Susan; Hartge, Patricia; Matthews, Charles E.; Park, Song-Yi; Purdue, Mark P.; Singh, Pramil; Harvey, Chinonye; Blot, William J.; Palmer, Julie R.

    2014-01-01

    Pooled analyses among whites and East Asians have demonstrated positive associations between all-cause mortality and body mass index (BMI), but studies of African Americans have yielded less consistent results. We examined the association between BMI and all-cause mortality in a sample of African Americans pooled from seven prospective cohort studies: NIH-AARP, 1995–2009; Adventist Health Study 2, 2002–2008; Black Women's Health Study, 1995–2009; Cancer Prevention Study II, 1982–2008; Multiethnic Cohort Study, 1993–2007; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Screening Trial, 1993–2009; Southern Community Cohort Study, 2002–2009. 239,526 African Americans (including 100,175 never smokers without baseline heart disease, stroke, or cancer), age 30–104 (mean 52) and 71% female, were followed up to 26.5 years (mean 11.7). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for mortality were derived from multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Among healthy, never smokers (11,386 deaths), HRs (CI) for BMI 25–27.4, 27.5–29.9, 30–34.9, 35–39.9, 40–49.9, and 50–60 kg/m2 were 1.02 (0.92–1.12), 1.06 (0.95–1.18), 1.32 (1.18–1.47), 1.54 (1.29–1.83), 1.93 (1.46–2.56), and 1.93 (0.80–4.69), respectively among men and 1.06 (0.99–1.15), 1.15 (1.06–1.25), 1.24 (1.15–1.34), 1.58 (1.43–1.74), 1.80 (1.60–2.02), and 2.31 (1.74–3.07) respectively among women (reference category 22.5–24.9). HRs were highest among those with the highest educational attainment, longest follow-up, and for cardiovascular disease mortality. Obesity was associated with a higher risk of mortality in African Americans, similar to that observed in pooled analyses of whites and East Asians. This study provides compelling evidence to support public health efforts to prevent excess weight gain and obesity in African Americans. PMID:25401742

  15. Vitamin D intake, blood 25(OH)D levels, and breast cancer risk or mortality: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y; Je, Y

    2014-01-01

    Background: Experimental studies suggest potential anti-carcinogenic properties of vitamin D against breast cancer risk, but the epidemiological evidence to date is inconsistent. Methods: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases along with a hand search for eligible studies to examine the association between vitamin D status (based on diet and blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)) and breast cancer risk or mortality in a meta-analysis. A random-effect model was used to calculate a pooled adjusted relative risk (RR). Results: A total of 30 prospective studies (nested case-control or cohort) were included for breast cancer incidence (n=24 studies; 31?867 cases) or mortality (n=6 studies; 870 deaths) among 6092 breast cancer patients. The pooled RRs of breast cancer incidence for the highest vs the lowest vitamin D intake and blood 25(OH)D levels were 0.95 (95% CI: 0.88–1.01) and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.83–1.02), respectively. Among breast cancer patients, high blood 25(OH)D levels were significantly associated with lower breast cancer mortality (pooled RR=0.58, 95% CI: 0.40–0.85) and overall mortality (pooled RR=0.61, 95% CI: 0.48–0.79). There was no evidence of heterogeneity and publication bias. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that high vitamin D status is weakly associated with low breast cancer risk but strongly associated with better breast cancer survival. PMID:24714744

  16. Automated vessel segmentation using cross-correlation and pooled covariance matrix analysis.

    PubMed

    Du, Jiang; Karimi, Afshin; Wu, Yijing; Korosec, Frank R; Grist, Thomas M; Mistretta, Charles A

    2011-04-01

    Time-resolved contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) provides contrast dynamics in the vasculature and allows vessel segmentation based on temporal correlation analysis. Here we present an automated vessel segmentation algorithm including automated generation of regions of interest (ROIs), cross-correlation and pooled sample covariance matrix analysis. The dynamic images are divided into multiple equal-sized regions. In each region, ROIs for artery, vein and background are generated using an iterative thresholding algorithm based on the contrast arrival time map and contrast enhancement map. Region-specific multi-feature cross-correlation analysis and pooled covariance matrix analysis are performed to calculate the Mahalanobis distances (MDs), which are used to automatically separate arteries from veins. This segmentation algorithm is applied to a dual-phase dynamic imaging acquisition scheme where low-resolution time-resolved images are acquired during the dynamic phase followed by high-frequency data acquisition at the steady-state phase. The segmented low-resolution arterial and venous images are then combined with the high-frequency data in k-space and inverse Fourier transformed to form the final segmented arterial and venous images. Results from volunteer and patient studies demonstrate the advantages of this automated vessel segmentation and dual phase data acquisition technique. PMID:21074345

  17. Age at menarche and risk of ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ting-Ting; Wu, Qi-Jun; Vogtmann, Emily; Lin, Bei; Wang, Yong-Lai

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported inconsistent associations between menarcheal age and ovarian cancer risk. To our knowledge, a meta-analysis for the association between menarcheal age and ovarian cancer has not been reported. Relevant published studies of menarcheal age and ovarian cancer were identified using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science through the end of April, 2012. Two authors (T-TG and Q-JW) independently assessed eligibility and extracted data. We pooled the relative risks (RR) from individual studies using a random-effects model and performed heterogeneity and publication bias analyses. A total of 27 observational studies consisting of 22 case-control and 5 cohort studies were included in our analysis. In a pooled analysis of all studies, a statistically significant inverse association was observed between menarcheal age (for the oldest compared with the youngest category) and ovarian cancer risk (RR=0.85; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.75–0.97). The pooled RRs of ovarian cancer for the oldest versus the youngest categories of menarcheal age in prospective and case-control studies were 0.89 (95% CI 0.76–1.03) and 0.84 (95% CI 0.70–0.99), respectively. Inverse associations between menarcheal age and ovarian cancer risk were observed in most sub-groups, but the association was restricted to invasive and borderline serous ovarian cancer. In conclusion, findings from this meta-analysis support that menarcheal age was inversely associated with the risk of ovarian cancer. More large studies are warranted to stratify results by different cancer grading and histotype of ovarian cancer. PMID:23175139

  18. [Evaluation of zygomycosis cases by pooled analysis method reported from Turkey].

    PubMed

    Zeka, Arzu Nazl?; Ta?bakan, Meltem; Pullukçu, Hüsnü; Sipahi, O?uz Re?at; Yamazhan, Tansu; Arda, Bilgin

    2013-10-01

    Zygomycosis is a rapidly-progressive invasive fungal disease with high mortality rates. Mucor, Rhizopus, Rhizomucor and Absidia species classified in Mucorales order, are the main causative agents of zygomycosis. Uncontrolled diabetes, hematologic malignancies, long term corticosteroid use and immunosuppressive therapies are the main predisposing factors for mucormycosis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the mucormycosis cases from Turkey published in national and international databases in the last 17 years by means of age, gender, co-morbidities, signs and symptoms, diagnostic methods, therapeutic modalities, and mortality rate by pooling analysis. In our study, two national (http://uvt.ulakbim.gov.tr, http://www.turkmedline.net) and two international (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, http://apps.webofknowledge.com) databases were used. A total of 64 manuscript (34 from national and 30 from international databases) published between 1995 and 2012, which were eligible for the study criteria and accessible as full text were included in the study. A total of 151 mucormycosis patients (71 female, 80 male; mean age: 45.4 ± 21.4 years) from these studies, with definitive diagnosis of invasive fungal infections according to the criteria of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) have been evaluated. Of 151 patients 91 (60%) were diagnosed as rhinocerebral, 42 (%27.8) were sinoorbital, 7 (4.6%) were pulmonary, 6 (3.9%) were disseminated, 3 (1.9%) were skin, and 2 (1.3%) were gastrointestinal mycormycosis. The most common symptoms and signs were; swelling of eye and face (n= 95, 63%), fever (n= 72, 48%), nasal obstruction (n= 60, 40%), headache (n= 58, 38%) and opthtalmoplegia (n= 48, 32%). The most common co-morbidity was diabetes (49%) followed by hematological malignancies (39.7%). Mycological cultures were performed for 82 patients, and fungal growth were detected in the clinical specimens of 51 cases. The distribution of strains isolated in culture were as follows: Mucor spp. (n= 19, 37.2%), Rhizopus spp. (n= 13, 25.5%), Zygomycetes (n= 9, 17.6%), Rhizopus oryzae (n= 4, 7.8%), Rhizopus spp. + yeast (n= 3, 5.9%), Rhizomucor spp. (n= 2, 3.9%) and Rhizosporium spp. (n= 1, 1.9%). In 133 patients, histopathological investigation and in 126 patients radiological examinations were performed for diagnosis. Both surgical debridement and antifungal therapy were employed in 115 patients. Four patients had received only surgical debridement and 30 only antifungal therapies. Classical amphotericin B (AMP-B) therapy for 77 cases, liposomal AMP-B for 60 cases, liposomal AMP-B + posaconazole for six cases and lipid complex AMP-B for two cases have been started as antifungal therapies. Total mortality rate was detected as 54.3% (82/151). In conclusion, despite new diagnostic tools and therapeutic agents, mortality rates in mucormycosis are still very high. For the management, mucormycosis should be considered early in risky patients, and surgical debridement together with effective antifungal therapy should be applied as soon as possible. PMID:24237440

  19. [Cancer Genome Atlas Pan-cancer Analysis Project].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Wang, Hong

    2015-03-20

    Cancer can exhibit different forms depending on the site of origin, cell types, the different forms of genetic mutations which also affect cancer therapeutic effect. Although many genes have been demonstrated to change a direct result of the change in phenotype, however, many cancers lineage complex molecular mechanisms are still not fully elucidated. Therefore, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network analyzed a large human tumors, in order to find the molecular changes in DNA, RNA, protein and epigenetic level, The results contain a wealth of data provides us with an opportunity for common, personality and new ideas throughout the cancer lineages form a whole description. Pan-cancer genome program first compares the 12 kinds of cancer types. Analysis of different tumor molecular changes and their functions, will tell us how effective treatment method is applied to a similar phenotype of the tumor. PMID:25936886

  20. Risk factors for MRSA in fattening pig herds - a meta-analysis using pooled data.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Sabine; Beißwanger, Elena; Käsbohrer, Annemarie; Tenhagen, Bernd-Alois

    2014-11-01

    The importance of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) as an infectious agent for humans has increased in recent years in Germany. Although it is well known that the prevalence of MRSA in pig farms is high, risk factors for the presence of MRSA in herds of fattening pigs are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate available data from previous studies on MRSA in fattening pigs in a meta-analysis to answer the question: What are the factors associated with the occurrence of MRSA in fattening pig herds? The studies on MRSA in pigs that were identified by literature research were heterogeneous with respect to the risk factors investigated and the type of herds focused on. Therefore we decided to carry out a pooling analysis on herd level rather than a typical meta-analysis. Eligible herd data were identified based on the published literature and communication with the authors. The final data set covered 400 fattening pig herds from 10 different studies and 12 risk factors. The prevalence of MRSA in the 400 fattening pig herds was 53.5%. Data were analyzed using generalized estimating equations (GEE). The resulting multivariate model confirmed previously identified risk factors for MRSA in pig herds (herd size and herd type). It also identified further risk factors: group treatment of fattening pigs with antimicrobial drugs (OR=1.79) and housing fattening pig herds on at least partially slatted floors (OR=2.39) compared to plain floor. In contrast, according to the model, fattening pig herds on farms keeping other livestock along with pigs were less likely to harbor MRSA (OR=0.54). The results underline the benefits from a pooling analysis and cooperative re-evaluation of published data. PMID:25241618

  1. Genome-wide Association Study of Subtype-Specific Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk Alleles Using Pooled DNA

    PubMed Central

    Earp, Madalene A.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Swenerton, Kenneth D.; Chenevix–Trench, Georgia; Lu, Yi; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Fasching, Peter A.; Lambrechts, Diether; Despierre, Evelyn; Vergote, Ignace; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Rossing, Mary Anne; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Friel, Grace; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Odunsi, Kunle; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Lurie, Galina; Goodman, Marc T.; Carney, Michael E.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Dürst, Matthias; Hillemanns, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bogdanova, Natalia; Leminen, Arto; Nevanlinna, Heli; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Butzow, Ralf; Bunker, Clareann H.; Modugno, Francesmary; Edwards, Robert P.; Ness, Roberta B.; du Bois, Andreas; Heitz, Florian; Schwaab, Ira; Harter, Philipp; Karlan, Beth Y.; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; Jensen, Allan; Kjær, Susanne K.; Høgdall, Claus K.; Høgdall, Estrid; Lundvall, Lene; Sellers, Thomas A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Goode, Ellen L.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; Severi, Gianluca; Southey, Melissa C.; Liang, Dong; Wu, Xifeng; Lu, Karen; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Levine, Douglas A.; Bisogna, Maria; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Iversen, Edwin S.; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Berchuck, Andrew; Cramer, Daniel W.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Chandran, Urmila; Orlow, Irene; Olson, Sara H.; Wik, Elisabeth; Salvesen, Helga B.; Bjorge, Line; Halle, Mari K.; van Altena, Anne M.; Aben, Katja K.H.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Pejovic, Tanja; Bean, Yukie T.; Cybulski, Cezary; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Brinton, Louise A.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Garcia–Closas, Montserrat; Dicks, Ed; Dennis, Joe; Easton, Douglas F.; Song, Honglin; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Eccles, Diana; Campbell, Ian G.; Whittemore, Alice S.; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Flanagan, James M.; Paul, James; Brown, Robert; Phelan, Catherine M.; Risch, Harvey A.; McLaughlin, John R.; Narod, Steven A.; Ziogas, Argyrios; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Gayther, Simon A.; Ramus, Susan J.; Wu, Anna H.; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Szafron, Lukasz M; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Cook, Linda S.; Le, Nhu D.; Brooks–Wilson, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a heterogeneous cancer with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Variants influencing the risk of developing the less-common EOC subtypes have not been fully investigated. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of EOC according to subtype by pooling genomic DNA from 545 cases and 398 controls of European descent, and testing for allelic associations. We evaluated for replication 188 variants from the GWAS (56 variants for mucinous, 55 for endometrioid and clear cell, 53 for low malignant potential (LMP) serous, and 24 for invasive serous EOC), selected using pre-defined criteria. Genotypes from 13,188 cases and 23,164 controls of European descent were used to perform unconditional logistic regression under the log-additive genetic model; odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals are reported. Nine variants tagging 6 loci were associated with subtype-specific EOC risk at P<0.05, and had an OR that agreed in direction of effect with the GWAS results. Several of these variants are in or near genes with a biological rationale for conferring EOC risk, including ZFP36L1 and RAD51B for mucinous EOC (rs17106154, OR=1.17, P=0.029, n=1,483 cases), GRB10 for endometrioid and clear cell EOC (rs2190503, P=0.014, n=2,903 cases), and C22orf26/BPIL2 for LMP serous EOC (rs9609538, OR=0.86, P=0.0043, n=892 cases). In analyses that included the 75 GWAS samples, the association between rs9609538 (OR=0.84, P=0.0007) and LMP serous EOC risk remained statistically significant at P<0.0012 adjusted for multiple testing. Replication in additional samples will be important to verify these results for the less-common EOC subtypes. PMID:24190013

  2. Sex hormone binding globulin and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    He, X Y; Liao, Y D; Yu, S; Zhang, Y; Wang, R

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies on the association between sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) level and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women reported conflicting results. A meta-analysis of prospective studies was performed to evaluate the association between SHBG level and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Pubmed (1980 to July 2014) and EMBASE (1988 to July 2014) were searched for eligible studies. Eligible studies were prospective cohort or nested case-control studies on the association between SHBG level and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Meta-analysis using random-effects model was performed to calculate the pooled risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Of 946 studies identified, 26 prospective studies from 21 publications were finally included in the meta-analysis. In postmenopausal women, the pooled RR for breast cancer comparing highest with lowest categories of SHBG was 0.64 (95% CI 0.57-0.72, p<0.001, I(2)=6.5%). The pooled RRs were not obviously altered in the sensitivity analyses and subgroup analyses. In cumulative meta-analysis, a more significant association between SHBG level and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women was observed as evidence accumulated by publication year. There was no obvious risk of publication bias. High SHBG level is significantly associated with decreased risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, and it's a protective factor of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. PMID:25565095

  3. Equilibrium analysis of carbon pools and fluxes of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

    1993-01-01

    Forests are an important component of the biosphere and sequestration of carbon in boreal forests may represent one of the few realistic alternatives to ameliorate changes in atmospheric chemistry. The former Soviet Union has the greatest expanse of boreal forests in the world; however, the role of these forests in the terrestrial carbon cycle is not fully understood because the carbon budget of the Soviet forest sector has not been established. In recognition of the need to determine the role of these forests in the global carbon cycle, the carbon budget of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union was assessed based on an equilibrium analysis of carbon cycle pools and fluxes. Net primary productivity was used to identify the rate of carbon turnover in the forest biomes.

  4. Fractionated BNCT for locally recurrent head and neck cancer: experience from a phase I/II clinical trial at Tsing Hua Open-Pool Reactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-Wei; Chen, Yi-Wei; Ho, Ching-Yin; Hsueh Liu, Yen-Wan; Chou, Fong-In; Liu, Yuan-Hao; Liu, Hong-Ming; Peir, Jinn-Jer; Jiang, Shiang-Huei; Chang, Chi-Wei; Liu, Ching-Sheng; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Chu, Pen-Yuan; Yen, Sang-Hue

    2014-06-01

    To introduce our experience of treating locally and regionally recurrent head and neck cancer patients with BNCT at Tsing Hua Open-Pool Reactor in Taiwan, 12 patients (M/F=10/2, median age 55.5 Y/O) were enrolled and 11 received two fractions of treatment. Fractionated BNCT at 30-day interval with adaptive planning according to changed T/N ratios was feasible, effective and safe for selected recurrent head and neck cancer in this trial. PMID:24369888

  5. External beam radiotherapy for palliation of painful bone metastases: pooled data bioeffect dose response analysis of dose fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naveen, T.; Supe, Sanjay S.; Ganesh, K. M.; Samuel, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Bone metastases develop in up to 70% of newly diagnosed cancer patients and result in immobility, anxiety, and depression, severely diminishing the patients quality of life. Radiotherapy is a frequently used modality for bone metastasis and has been shown to be effective in reducing metastatic bone pain and in some instances, causing tumor shrinkage or growth inhibition. There is controversy surrounding the optimal fractionation schedule and total dose of external beam radiotherapy, despite many randomized trials and overviews addressing the issue. This study was undertaken to apply BED to clinical fractionation data of radiotherapeutic management of bone metastases in order to arrive at optimum BED values for acceptable level of response rate. A computerised literature search was conducted to identify all prospective clinical studies that addressed the issue of fractionation for the treatment of bone metastasis. The results of these studies were pooled together to form the database for the analysis. A total of 4111 number of patients received radiation dose ranging from 4 to 40.5 Gy in 1 to 15 fractions with dose per fraction ranging from 2 to 10 Gy. Single fraction treatments were delivered in 2013 patients and the dose varied from 4 to 10 Gy. Multifraction treatments were delivered in 2098 patients and the dose varied from 15 to 40.5 Gy. The biological effective dose (BED) was evaluated for each fractionation schedule using the linear quadratic model and an ?/? value of 10 Gy. Response rate increased significantly beyond a BED value of 14.4 Gy (p < 0.01). Based on our analysis and indications from the literature about higher retreatment and fracture rate of single fraction treatments, minimum BED value of 14.4 Gy is recommended.

  6. Clinical outcome and prognostic factors in renal medullary carcinoma: A pooled analysis from 18 years of medical literature

    PubMed Central

    Iacovelli, Roberto; Modica, Daniela; Palazzo, Antonella; Trenta, Patrizia; Piesco, Gabriele; Cortesi, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We describe clinical features and prognostic factors of renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) by performing a pooled analysis of all reported cases since 1995. Methods: A systematic search was performed to identify all articles describing patients with medullary renal cancer until February 2013. Survivals were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method with 95% confidence intervals and compared across the groups using the log-rank test. The following factors were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model: association of extension of disease at diagnosis, response to therapy, and surgical treatment of primary tumour with overall. Results: A total 47 articles were selected; these described 165 patients with RMC plus 1 from our centre. The median age was 21 years and 98% of cases had the sickle cell trait. The mean size of the primary tumours was 6.0 cm, with an involvement of loco-regional lymph nodes in 71% of cases. The overall survival at diagnosis was 4.0 months in metastatic patients and 17.0 months in non-metastatic patients. Patients who received platinum-paclitaxel-gemcitabine had longer control of the disease when compared to topoisomerase inhibitors or targeted therapies. The multivariate analysis confirmed that the advanced stage at diagnosis increased the risk of death of about threefold. Conclusion: RMC is a tumour with poorer prognosis; based on these results, platinum-based chemotherapy is the preferred systemic treatment. Even if radical nephrectomy as an up-front strategy did not report a survival benefit, it may be considered to palliate local symptoms and to perform a correct diagnosis.

  7. Predictors of Local Recurrence Following Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: A Pooled Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Chirag; Wilkinson, John Ben [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Cancer Institute, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Lyden, Maureen [Biostat Inc., Tampa, Florida (United States); Beitsch, Peter [Dallas Breast Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Vicini, Frank A., E-mail: fvicini@pol.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Cancer Institute, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To analyze a pooled set of nearly 2,000 patients treated on the American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBS) Mammosite Registry Trial and at William Beaumont Hospital (WBH) to identify factors associated with local recurrence following accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: A total of 1,961 women underwent partial breast irradiation between April 1993 and November 2010 as part of the ASBS Registry Trial or at WBH. Rates of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), regional recurrence (RR), distant metastases (DM), disease-free survival (DFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed for each group and for the pooled cohort. Clinical, pathologic, and treatment-related variables were analyzed including age, tumor stage/size, estrogen receptor status, surgical margins, and lymph node status to determine their association with IBTR. Results: The two groups weres similar, but WBH patients were more frequently node positive, had positive margins, and were less likely to be within the American Society for Radiation Oncology-unsuitable group. At 5 years, the rates of IBTR, RR, DM, DFS, CSS, and OS for the pooled group of patients were 2.9%, 0.5%, 2.4%, 89.1%, 98.5%, and 91.8%, respectively. The 5-year rate of true recurrence/marginal miss was 0.8%. Univariate analysis of IBTR found that negative estrogen receptor status (odds ratio [OR], 2.83, 95% confidence interval 1.55-5.13, p = 0.0007) was the only factor significantly associated with IBTR, while a trend was seen for age less than 50 (OR 1.80, 95% confidence interval 0.90-3.58, p = 0.10). Conclusions: Excellent 5-year outcomes were seen following APBI in over 1,900 patients. Estrogen receptor negativity was the only factor associated with IBTR, while a trend for age less than 50 was noted. Significant differences in factors associated with IBTR were noted between cohorts, suggesting that factors driving IBTR may be predicated based on the risk stratification of the patients being treated.

  8. Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Incidence of Obesity-Related Cancers: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiang-wu; Li, Peng-zhou; Zhu, Li-yong; Zhu, Shai-hong

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate possible relationships between bariatric surgery and incidence of obesity-related cancers. Obesity is an established risk factor for obesity-related cancers but the effects of bariatric surgery on incidence of obesity-related cancers are uncertain. Material/Methods We searched 4 electronic databases to identify eligible studies: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Five observational studies were eligible and included in this meta-analysis. Random-effects or fixed-effects odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled. Results Meta-analysis of these 5 observational studies revealed that bariatric surgery was associated with a significantly (p=0.0004) reduced incidence of obesity-related cancers (OR=0.43, 95%CI, 0.27–0.69) when compared with control individuals. Pooled estimated data showed that bariatric surgery is associated with a 24% lower colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. No publication bias was detected by Egger’s or Begg’s tests. Conclusions Although bariatric surgery may significantly reduce incidence of obesity-related cancers, considering the limitations of these included studies, these findings should be confirmed by further well-designed studies. PMID:25961664

  9. Tiotropium HandiHaler® and Respimat® in COPD: a pooled safety analysis

    PubMed Central

    Halpin, David MG; Dahl, Ronald; Hallmann, Christoph; Mueller, Achim; Tashkin, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Tiotropium is prescribed for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and delivered via HandiHaler® (18 ?g once daily) or Respimat® Soft Mist™ inhaler (5 ?g once daily). The recent TIOtropium Safety and Performance In Respimat® (TIOSPIR™) study demonstrated that both exhibit similar safety profiles. This analysis provides an updated comprehensive safety evaluation of tiotropium® using data from placebo-controlled HandiHaler® and Respimat® trials. Methods Pooled analysis of adverse event (AE) data from tiotropium HandiHaler® 18 ?g and Respimat® 5 ?g randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, clinical trials in patients with COPD (treatment duration ?4 weeks). Incidence rates, rate ratios (RRs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined for HandiHaler® and Respimat® trials, both together and separately. Results In the 28 HandiHaler® and 7 Respimat® trials included in this analysis, 11,626 patients were treated with placebo and 12,929 with tiotropium, totaling 14,909 (12,469 with HandiHaler®; 2,440 with Respimat®) patient-years of tiotropium exposure. Mean age was 65 years, and mean prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was 1.16 L (41% predicted). The risk (RR [95% CI]) of AEs (0.90 [0.87, 0.93]) and of serious AEs (SAEs) (0.94 [0.89, 0.99]) was significantly lower in the tiotropium than in the placebo group (HandiHaler® and Respimat® pooled results), and there was a numerically lower risk of fatal AEs (FAEs) (0.90 [0.79, 1.01]). The risk of cardiac AEs (0.93 [0.85, 1.02]) was numerically lower in the tiotropium group. Incidences of typical anticholinergic AEs, but not SAEs, were higher with tiotropium. Analyzed separately by inhaler, the risks of AE and SAE in the tiotropium groups remained lower than in placebo and similarly for FAEs. Conclusion This analysis indicates that tiotropium is associated with lower rates of AEs, SAEs, and similar rates of FAEs than placebo when delivered via HandiHaler® or Respimat® (overall and separately) in patients with COPD. PMID:25709423

  10. RAPID ANALYSIS OF CYANURIC ACID IN SWIMMING POOL WATERS BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY USING POROUS GRAPHITIC CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    An innovative approach is presented for reducing analysis times of cynuric acid in swimming pool waters by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC method exploits the unique selectivity of porous graphitic carbon (PGC) to fully resolve within 10 minutes cyanuric ...

  11. RAPID ANALYSIS OF CYNANURIC ACID IN SWIMMING POOL WATERS BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY USING POROUS GRAPHITIC CARBON COLUMN

    EPA Science Inventory

    An innovative approach is presented for reducing analysis times of cyanuric acid in swimming pool waters by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC method exploits the unique selectivity of porous graphitic carbon (PGC) to fully resolve cyanuric acid from other p...

  12. Reductions in overactive bladder-related incontinence from pooled analysis of phase III trials evaluating treatment with solifenacin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Cardozo; David Castro-Diaz; Marc Gittelman; Arwin Ridder; Moses Huang

    2006-01-01

    The embarrassment and social stigma associated with urinary incontinence (UI) in overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) sufferers is a major reason for individuals to seek help for their condition. An analysis of 1,873 subjects with OAB with UI was conducted to assess the efficacy of solifenacin in reducing incontinence in a pooled population from four phase III clinical trials, stratified by

  13. A quantitative analysis of G-actin binding proteins and the G-actin pool in developing chick brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Devineni; L. S Minamide; M Niu; D Safer; R Verma; J. R Bamburg; V. T Nachmias

    1999-01-01

    The large G-actin pool in individual actively motile cells has been shown to be maintained primarily by the actin sequestering protein thymosin beta four (T?4). It is not clear whether T?4 or an isoform also plays a primary role in neural tissue containing highly motile axonal growth cones. To address this question we have made a definitive analysis of the

  14. Monitoring of high-power fiber laser welding based on principal component analysis of a molten pool configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiangdong, Gao; Qian, Wen

    2013-12-01

    There exists plenty of welding quality information on a molten pool during high-power fiber laser welding. An approach for monitoring the high-power fiber laser welding status based on the principal component analysis (PCA) of a molten pool configuration is investigated. An infrared-sensitive high-speed camera was used to capture the molten pool images during laser butt-joint welding of Type 304 austenitic stainless steel plates with a high-power (10 kW) continuous wave fiber laser. In order to study the relationship between the molten pool configuration and the welding status, a new method based on PCA is proposed to analyze the welding stability by comparing the situation when the laser beam spot moves along, and when it deviates from the weld seam. Image processing techniques were applied to process the molten pool images and extract five characteristic parameters. Moreover, the PCA method was used to extract a composite indicator which is the linear combination of the five original characteristics to analyze the different status during welding. Experimental results showed that the extracted composite indicator had a close relationship with the actual welding results and it could be used to evaluate the status of the high-power fiber laser welding, providing a theoretical basis for the monitoring of laser welding quality.

  15. Recreational Boating and Beach Capacity Analysis within Pool 6 of the Upper Mississippi River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heidi R. Voth; Corryne B. Goettsch

    Analyses of physical boating capacity and beach use within pool 6 of the Upper Mississippi River were conducted to determine if the pool is being used beyond its capacity. Data from the Minnesota - Wisconsin Boundary Area Commission aerial surveys were obtained for several years between 1989 and 1997. Based on the counts of moving and beached craft it was

  16. Integrative Microarray Analysis of Pathways Dysregulated in Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    E-print Network

    Gerstein, Mark

    Integrative Microarray Analysis of Pathways Dysregulated in Metastatic Prostate Cancer Sunita R array data from localized and metastatic prostate cancer. Comparison of metastatic cancer and localized pathways that were significantly dysregulated (P prostate cancer metastasis. The pathway

  17. XPG Asp1104His polymorphism and gastrointestinal cancers risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jian-Fei; Yan, Rui-Cheng; Zou, Li

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have reported the association between the Asp1104His polymorphism in xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG) gene and risk of gastrointestinal cancers. However, the results are inconsistent. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between XPG Asp1104His polymorphism and gastrointestinal cancers risk. Relevant studies were identified using PubMed, Web of Science, CNKI, WanFang and VIP databases up to July 22, 2014. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using the fixed- or random effects model. 13 case-control studies from twelve publications with 4275 patients and 5735 controls were included. Overall, a significant association was found between the XPG Asp1104His polymorphism and the risk of gastrointestinal cancers (dominant model: OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.05-1.26; His/His vs. Asp/Asp: OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01-1.32). When the analysis was stratified by ethnicity, similar results were observed in Asians under homozygote model; in stratification analysis by cancer type, increased cancer risk was detected in colorectal and hepatocellular carcinoma, but not for other gastrointestinal cancers. Furthermore, in subgroup analysis by source of control, we failed to detect any association among population, hospital and family-based populations. This meta-analysis indicated that the XPG Asp1104His polymorphism may be a risk factor for gastrointestinal cancers, especially of colorectal cancer. PMID:25550928

  18. Cruciferous vegetables intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Q. J.; Yang, Y.; Vogtmann, E.; Wang, J.; Han, L. H.; Li, H. L.; Xiang, Y. B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent associations between cruciferous vegetable (CV) intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. To our knowledge, a comprehensive and quantitative assessment of the association between CV intake and CRC has not been reported. Methods Relevant articles were identified by searching MEDLINE. We pooled the relative risks (RR) from individual studies using a random-effect model and carried out heterogeneity and publication bias analyses. Results Twenty-four case–control and 11 prospective studies were included in our analysis. When all studies were pooled, we yielded a significantly inverse association between CV (RR: 0.82; 95% confidence interval 0.75–0.90) intake and CRC risk. Specific analysis for cabbage and broccoli yielded similar result. When separately analyzed, case–control studies of CV intake yield similar results, and the results from the prospective studies showed borderline statistical significance. Moreover, significant inverse associations were also observed in colon cancer and its distal subsite both among prospective and case–control studies. Conclusions Findings from this meta-analysis provide evidence that high intake of CV was inversely associated with the risk of CRC and colon cancer in humans. Further analysis on other specific CV, food preparation methods, stratified results by anatomic cancer site, and subsite of colon cancer should be extended in future study. PMID:23211939

  19. Oxycodone for Cancer-Related Pain Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colette M. Reid; Richard M. Martin; Jonathan A. C. Sterne; Andrew N. Davies; Geoffrey W. Hanks; Susmita Mallik; John A. Spertus; Kimberly J. Reid; Harlan M. Krumholz; John S. Rumsfeld; William S. Weintraub; Purva Agarwal; Mugdha Santra; Savita Bidyasar; Judith H. Lichtman; Nanette K. Wenger; Viola Vaccarino; James R. Madison; Christian Spies; Irwin J. Schatz; Kamal Masaki; Randi Chen; Katsuhiko Yano; J. David Curb

    2006-01-01

    o evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of oxycodone in cancer-related pain, we con- ducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Four studies, comparing oral oxycodone with either oral morphine (n=3) or oral hydromorphone (n=1), were suit- able for meta-analysis. Standardized mean differences in pain scores comparing oxy- codone with control groups were pooled using random-effects models. Overall, there was

  20. Variation in dengue virus plaque reduction neutralization testing: systematic review and pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) remains the gold standard for the detection of serologic immune responses to dengue virus (DENV). While the basic concept of the PRNT remains constant, this test has evolved in multiple laboratories, introducing variation in materials and methods. Despite the importance of laboratory-to-laboratory comparability in DENV vaccine development, the effects of differing PRNT techniques on assay results, particularly the use of different dengue strains within a serotype, have not been fully characterized. Methods We conducted a systematic review and pooled analysis of published literature reporting individual-level PRNT titers to identify factors associated with heterogeneity in PRNT results and compared variation between strains within DENV serotypes and between articles using hierarchical models. Results The literature search and selection criteria identified 8 vaccine trials and 25 natural exposure studies reporting 4,411 titers from 605 individuals using 4 different neutralization percentages, 3 cell lines, 12 virus concentrations and 51 strains. Of 1,057 titers from primary DENV exposure, titers to the exposure serotype were consistently higher than titers to non-exposure serotypes. In contrast, titers from secondary DENV exposures (n?=?628) demonstrated high titers to exposure and non-exposure serotypes. Additionally, PRNT titers from different strains within a serotype varied substantially. A pooled analysis of 1,689 titers demonstrated strain choice accounted for 8.04% (90% credible interval [CrI]: 3.05%, 15.7%) of between-titer variation after adjusting for secondary exposure, time since DENV exposure, vaccination and neutralization percentage. Differences between articles (a proxy for inter-laboratory differences) accounted for 50.7% (90% CrI: 30.8%, 71.6%) of between-titer variance. Conclusions As promising vaccine candidates arise, the lack of standardized assays among diagnostic and research laboratories make unbiased inferences about vaccine-induced protection difficult. Clearly defined, widely accessible reference reagents, proficiency testing or algorithms to adjust for protocol differences would be a useful first step in improving dengue PRNT comparability and quality assurance. PMID:23020074

  1. INSTITUT NATIONAL DE RECHERCHE EN INFORMATIQUE ET EN AUTOMATIQUE Analysis of the Balancing Process in a Pool of Self-Service

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , is currently under development in some European cities. It consists of a pool of cars (some time electric cars Process in a Pool of Self-Service Cars Cyril Duron, Michel Parent et Jean-Marie Proth N°3949 Mai 2000. inria-00072700,version1-24May2006 #12;3 Analysis of the balancing process in a pool of self-service cars

  2. Incorporating Network Structure in Integrative Analysis of Cancer Prognosis Data

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin; Huang, Jian; Ma, Shuangge

    2014-01-01

    In high-throughput cancer genomic studies, markers identified from the analysis of single datasets may have unsatisfactory properties because of low sample sizes. Integrative analysis pools and analyzes raw data from multiple studies, and can effectively increase sample size and lead to improved marker identification results. In this study, we consider the integrative analysis of multiple high-throughput cancer prognosis studies. In the existing integrative analysis studies, the interplay among genes, which can be described using the network structure, has not been effectively accounted for. In network analysis, tightly-connected nodes (genes) are more likely to have related biological functions and similar regression coefficients. The goal of this study is to develop an analysis approach that can incorporate the gene network structure in integrative analysis. To this end, we adopt an AFT (accelerated failure time) model to describe survival. A weighted least squares approach, which has low computational cost, is adopted for estimation. For marker selection, we propose a new penalization approach. The proposed penalty is composed of two parts. The first part is a group MCP penalty, and conducts gene selection. The second part is a Laplacian penalty, and smoothes the differences of coefficients for tightly-connected genes. A group coordinate descent approach is developed to compute the proposed estimate. Simulation study shows satisfactory performance of the proposed approach when there exist moderate to strong correlations among genes. We analyze three lung cancer prognosis datasets, and demonstrate that incorporating the network structure can lead to the identification of important genes and improved prediction performance. PMID:23161517

  3. Biogenic and non-biogenic Si pools in terrestrial ecosystems: results from a novel analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barao, Lucia; Vandevenne, Floor; Clymans, Wim; Meire, Patrick; Frings, Patrick; Conley, Daniel; Struyf, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Silicon (Si) is a chemical element frequently associated with highly abundant silicate minerals in the Earth crust. Over millions of years, the interaction of such minerals with the atmosphere and hydrosphere produces a myriad of processed compounds, and the mineral weathering consumes CO2 during the process. The weathering of minerals also triggers the export of dissolved Si (DSi) to coastal waters and the ocean. Here, DSi is deposited in diatom frustules, in an amorphous biogenic form (BSi). Diatoms account for 50% of the primary production and are crucial for the export of carbon into the deep sea. In recent years, it was acknowledged that terrestrial systems filter the Si transition from the terrestrial mineral to the marine and coastal biological pool, by the incorporation of DSi into plants. In this process, DSi is taken up by roots together with other nutrients and precipitates in plant cells in amorphous structures named phytoliths. After dead, plant tissues become mixed in the top soil, where BSi is available for dissolution and will control the DSi availability in short time scales. Additionally, Si originated from soil forming processes can also significantly interfere with the global cycle. The Si cycle in terrestrial ecosystems is a key factor to coastal ecology, plant ecology, biogeochemistry and agro-sciences, but the high variability of different biogenic and non-biogenic Si pools remains as an obstacle to obtain accurate measurements. The traditional methods, developed to isolate diatoms in ocean sediments, only account for simple mineral corrections. In this dissertation we have adapted a novel continuous analysis method (during alkaline extraction) that uses Si-Al ratios and reactivity to differ biogenic from non-biogenic fractions. The method was originally used in marine sediments, but we have developed it to be applicable in a wide range of terrestrial, aquatic and coastal ecosystems. We first focused on soils under strong human impact in temperate (European) zones, since cultivation influences the Si cycle with multiple consequences for the environment. Results showed that the intensity of the human pressure in the agricultural systems defines the level of BSi depletion, but parent material and weathering degree can also provide the soil with other reactive non BSi fractions. Secondly we analysed the influence of non-BSi pools of volcanic origin in soils and sediments subjected to volcanic activity. Results showed that a separation method is fundamental in these systems with volcanic shards and strongly weathered products, both of which are also significantly prone to dissolution in the common alkaline sequential extractions. We conclude that the application of a method that discriminates between Si fractions is mandatory to correctly understand the Si dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems. Although time-consuming and subjected to some limitations, the continuous analysis can be used for this purpose. Future challenges remain however for identifying fractions that cannot be differentiated on either reactivity or Si-Al ratio and for correlating the reactivity of fractions extracted in alkaline environments with the availability in situ.

  4. Occupational exposure to diesel exhaust and lung cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Lipsett, M; Campleman, S

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We undertook a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the relationship between occupational diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer. METHODS: Thirty of 47 studies initially identified as potentially relevant met specified inclusion criteria. We extracted or calculated 39 independent estimates of relative risk and derived pooled estimates of risk for all studies and for numerous study subsets by using a random-effects model. We also examined interstudy heterogeneity by using linear metaregressions. RESULTS: There was substantial heterogeneity in the pooled risk estimates for all studies combined and for most subsets. Several factors consistent with higher study quality, however, contributed to increased pooled estimates of risk and lower heterogeneity, including (1) adjustment for confounding by cigarette smoking and other covariates, (2) having a lower likelihood of selection bias, and (3) having increased study power. CONCLUSION: This analysis provides quantitative support for prior qualitative reviews that have ascribed an etiologic role to occupational diesel exhaust exposure in lung cancer induction. Among study populations most likely to have had substantial exposure to diesel exhaust, the pooled smoking-adjusted relative risk was 1.47 (95% confidence interval = 1.29, 1.67). PMID:10394308

  5. Association of periodontal disease with oral cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qi-Wei; Zhou, Dong-Sheng; Peng, Hong-Juan; Ji, Ping; Liu, De-Sheng

    2014-07-01

    The objective is to evaluate the association of periodontal disease with the risk of oral cancer. Literature retrieval, selection and assessment, data extraction, and meta-analyses were performed according to the RevMan 5.0 guidelines. In the meta-analysis, we utilized random-effect model to pool the odds ratio (OR) according to the test of heterogeneity. A total of five eligible studies included 1,191 oral cancer patients and 1,992 healthy control subjects were analyzed. By meta-analysis, we found a significant association of periodontal disease with oral cancer [OR = 3.53, 95 % CI (1.52-8.23); P = 0.003]. Patients with periodontal disease have increased susceptibility to oral cancer. PMID:24756759

  6. Treatment of hepatitis C after kidney transplant: a pooled analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Fabrizi, Fabrizio; Penatti, Alessandra; Messa, Piergiorgio; Martin, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Various authors have given IFN-based therapy for hepatitis C among renal transplant recipients but the efficacy and safety of this approach remains unclear. A systematic review of the literature with a meta-analysis of clinical studies was performed in order to assess efficacy and safety of antiviral therapy (IFN-based therapy) in renal transplant recipients with hepatitis C virus infection. The primary outcomes were sustained virological response (as a measure of efficacy) and/or drop-out rate (as a measure of tolerability). The random-effects model of DerSimonian and Laird was used, with heterogeneity and sensitivity analyses. Sixteen studies (187 unique patients) were identified, one being controlled study. The summary estimate for sustained virological response and dropout rate was 0.34 (95% confidence intervals: 0.27, 0.42) and 0.32 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.44), respectively. The studies were heterogeneous with regard to dropout rate but not to sustained viral response. The most common side-effect requiring interruption of treatment was graft dysfunction (n?=?27; 51%). Stratified analysis reported a higher rate of drop-outs in those studies based on IFN monotherapy (pooled event rate, 0.43; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.63). Meta-regression analysis showed an inverse relationship between reference year (P?=?0.019), length of IFN therapy (P?=?0.029) and drop-out rate. IFN-based therapy has inadequate safety and tolerance after renal transplantation. The reasons for the high rate of graft dysfunction after IFN have not been fully elucidated. Antiviral treatment of hepatitis C among kidney graft recipients continues to be a challenge to transplant physicians. PMID:24610278

  7. Pool Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Caribbean Clear, Inc. used NASA's silver ion technology as a basis for its automatic pool purifier. System offers alternative approach to conventional purification chemicals. Caribbean Clear's principal markets are swimming pool owners who want to eliminate chlorine and bromine. Purifiers in Caribbean Clear System are same silver ions used in Apollo System to kill bacteria, plus copper ions to kill algae. They produce spa or pool water that exceeds EPA Standards for drinking water.

  8. Prognostic Value of MicroRNA-182 in Cancers: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haijun; Chen, Baoan

    2015-01-01

    Objective. MicroRNA-182 (miR-182) exhibits altered expression in various cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of miR-182 expression for cancer patient survival. Methods. Eligible studies were identified through multiple search strategies, and the hazard ratios (HRs) for patient outcomes were extracted and estimated. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the prognostic value of miR-182. Results. In total, 14 studies were included. A high miR-182 expression level predicted a worse outcome with a pooled HR of 2.18 (95% CI: 1.53–3.11) in ten studies related to overall survival (OS), especially in Chinese populations. The results of seven studies evaluating disease-free survival/relapse-free survival/recurrence-free interval/disease-specific survival (DFS/RFS/RFI/DSS) produced a pooled HR of 1.77 (95% CI: 0.91–3.43), which was not statistically significant; however, the trend was positive. When disregarding the DSS from one study, the expression of miR-182 was significantly correlated with DFS/RFS/RFI (pooled HR = 2.52, 95% CI: 1.67–3.79). Conclusions. High miR-182 expression is associated with poor OS and DFS/RFS/RFI in some types of cancers, and miR-182 may be a useful prognostic biomarker for predicting cancer prognosis. However, given the current insufficient relevant data, further clinical studies are needed. PMID:26063957

  9. Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection: A pooled analysis of five prospective, observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Kaasch, Achim J.; Barlow, Gavin; Edgeworth, Jonathan D.; Fowler, Vance G.; Hellmich, Martin; Hopkins, Susan; Kern, Winfried V.; Llewelyn, Martin J.; Rieg, Siegbert; Rodriguez-Baño, Jesús; Scarborough, Matthew; Seifert, Harald; Soriano, Alex; Tilley, Robert; T?r?k, M. Estée; Wei?, Verena; Wilson, A. Peter R.; Thwaites, Guy E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia is a common, often fatal infection. Our aim was to describe how its clinical presentation varies between populations and to identify common determinants of outcome. Methods We conducted a pooled analysis on 3395 consecutive adult patients with S. aureus bacteraemia. Patients were enrolled between 2006 and 2011 in five prospective studies in 20 tertiary care centres in Germany, Spain, United Kingdom, and United States. Results The median age of participants was 64 years (interquartile range 50–75 years) and 63.8% were male. 25.4% of infections were associated with diabetes mellitus, 40.7% were nosocomial, 20.6% were caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), although these proportions varied significantly across studies. Intravenous catheters were the commonest identified infective focus (27.7%); 8.3% had endocarditis. Crude 14 and 90-day mortality was 14.6% and 29.2%, respectively. Age, MRSA bacteraemia, nosocomial acquisition, endocarditis, and pneumonia were independently associated with death, but a strong association was with an unidentified infective focus (adjusted hazard ratio for 90-day mortality 2.92; 95% confidence interval 2.33 to 3.67, p < 0.0001). Conclusion The baseline demographic and clinical features of S. aureus bacteraemia vary significantly between populations. Mortality could be reduced by assiduous MRSA control and early identification of the infective focus. PMID:24247070

  10. Defining the Role of the MHC in Autoimmunity: A Review and Pooled Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Michelle M. A.; Stevens, Christine R.; Walsh, Emily C.; De Jager, Philip L.; Goyette, Philippe; Plenge, Robert M.; Vyse, Timothy J.; Rioux, John D.

    2008-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is one of the most extensively studied regions in the human genome because of the association of variants at this locus with autoimmune, infectious, and inflammatory diseases. However, identification of causal variants within the MHC for the majority of these diseases has remained difficult due to the great variability and extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) that exists among alleles throughout this locus, coupled with inadequate study design whereby only a limited subset of about 20 from a total of approximately 250 genes have been studied in small cohorts of predominantly European origin. We have performed a review and pooled analysis of the past 30 years of research on the role of the MHC in six genetically complex disease traits – multiple sclerosis (MS), type 1 diabetes (T1D), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's disease (CD), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) – in order to consolidate and evaluate the current literature regarding MHC genetics in these common autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We corroborate established MHC disease associations and identify predisposing variants that previously have not been appreciated. Furthermore, we find a number of interesting commonalities and differences across diseases that implicate both general and disease-specific pathogenetic mechanisms in autoimmunity. PMID:18437207

  11. [The Dagestan gene pool: analysis of the frequencies of classical genetic markers in Avars].

    PubMed

    Radzhabov, M O; Mamaev, I A; Shamov, I A; Gasaev, D G; Shil'nikova, I N; Shne?der, Iu V

    2010-04-01

    This study is part of long-term research in the gene pool of Dagestan ethnic groups. The phenotype (in percent), gene, and haplotype frequencies in three Avar populations are reported. A total of 37 alleles of 13 loci of immune and biochemical genetic marker systems (ABO, Rhesus, P, Lewis, HP, GC, C'3, TF, 6PGD, GLO1, ESD, ACP, and PGM1) have been studied. Rare haplotypes of the Rhesus system (CDE, Cde, and cdE) have been found in the populations studied. In two out of three local populations (Khunzakh and Kharakhi), a typically "Caucasoid" rare gene ACP1c of the AcP1 locus has proved to be relatively frequent (0.030 and 0.023, respectively). The frequencies of the allele variants P2, le, and Hp1 of loci of the P, Lewis, and HP systems, respectively, have been found to be lower than in other Caucasian ethnic groups and the total northern Eurasian population. The mean allele frequencies for the GC, C'3, TF, 6PGD, GLO1, and ESD systems in the populations studied are comparable wit those for both Caucasian ethnic groups and the total population of the European historical ethnographic province. Statistical analysis of the results has shown 11 cases of significant deviations of the observed phenotype frequencies from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. PMID:20536025

  12. Highly-multiplexed barcode sequencing: an efficient method for parallel analysis of pooled samples

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew M.; Heisler, Lawrence E.; St.Onge, Robert P.; Farias-Hesson, Eveline; Wallace, Iain M.; Bodeau, John; Harris, Adam N.; Perry, Kathleen M.; Giaever, Guri; Pourmand, Nader; Nislow, Corey

    2010-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing has proven an extremely effective technology for molecular counting applications where the number of sequence reads provides a digital readout for RNA-seq, ChIP-seq, Tn-seq and other applications. The extremely large number of sequence reads that can be obtained per run permits the analysis of increasingly complex samples. For lower complexity samples, however, a point of diminishing returns is reached when the number of counts per sequence results in oversampling with no increase in data quality. A solution to making next-generation sequencing as efficient and affordable as possible involves assaying multiple samples in a single run. Here, we report the successful 96-plexing of complex pools of DNA barcoded yeast mutants and show that such ‘Bar-seq’ assessment of these samples is comparable with data provided by barcode microarrays, the current benchmark for this application. The cost reduction and increased throughput permitted by highly multiplexed sequencing will greatly expand the scope of chemogenomics assays and, equally importantly, the approach is suitable for other sequence counting applications that could benefit from massive parallelization. PMID:20460461

  13. A Probabilistic Analysis of Sparse Coded Feature Pooling and Its Application for Image Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunchao; Chen, Jing; Huang, Xiujie; Wang, Yongtian

    2015-01-01

    Feature coding and pooling as a key component of image retrieval have been widely studied over the past several years. Recently sparse coding with max-pooling is regarded as the state-of-the-art for image classification. However there is no comprehensive study concerning the application of sparse coding for image retrieval. In this paper, we first analyze the effects of different sampling strategies for image retrieval, then we discuss feature pooling strategies on image retrieval performance with a probabilistic explanation in the context of sparse coding framework, and propose a modified sum pooling procedure which can improve the retrieval accuracy significantly. Further we apply sparse coding method to aggregate multiple types of features for large-scale image retrieval. Extensive experiments on commonly-used evaluation datasets demonstrate that our final compact image representation improves the retrieval accuracy significantly. PMID:26132080

  14. Work stress and risk of cancer: meta-analysis of 5700 incident cancer events in 116?000 European men and women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether work related stress, measured and defined as job strain, is associated with the overall risk of cancer and the risk of colorectal, lung, breast, or prostate cancers. Design Meta-analysis of pooled prospective individual participant data from 12 European cohort studies including 116?056 men and women aged 17-70 who were free from cancer at study baseline and were followed-up for a median of 12 years. Work stress was measured and defined as job strain, which was self reported at baseline. Incident cancers (all n=5765, colorectal cancer n=522, lung cancer n=374, breast cancer n=1010, prostate cancer n=865) were ascertained from cancer, hospital admission, and death registers. Data were analysed in each study with Cox regression and the study specific estimates pooled in meta-analyses. Models were adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic position, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and alcohol intake Results A harmonised measure of work stress, high job strain, was not associated with overall risk of cancer (hazard ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.90 to 1.04) in the multivariable adjusted analyses. Similarly, no association was observed between job strain and the risk of colorectal (1.16, 0.90 to 1.48), lung (1.17, 0.88 to 1.54), breast (0.97, 0.82 to 1.14), or prostate (0.86, 0.68 to 1.09) cancers. There was no clear evidence for an association between the categories of job strain and the risk of cancer. Conclusions These findings suggest that work related stress, measured and defined as job strain, at baseline is unlikely to be an important risk factor for colorectal, lung, breast, or prostate cancers. PMID:23393080

  15. Prolactin receptor attenuation induces zinc pool redistribution through ZnT2 and decreases invasion in MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bostanci, Zeynep, E-mail: zbostanci@hmc.psu.edu [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Nutritional Sciences, 209 Chandlee Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); The Pennsylvania State University Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Surgery, 500 University Dr., Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Alam, Samina, E-mail: sra116@psu.edu [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Nutritional Sciences, 209 Chandlee Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); The Pennsylvania State University Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Surgery, 500 University Dr., Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Soybel, David I., E-mail: dsoybel@hmc.psu.edu [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Nutritional Sciences, 209 Chandlee Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); The Pennsylvania State University Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Surgery, 500 University Dr., Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Department of Cell and Molecular Physiology, 500 University Dr., Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Kelleher, Shannon L., E-mail: slk39@psu.edu [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Nutritional Sciences, 209 Chandlee Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); The Pennsylvania State University Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Surgery, 500 University Dr., Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Department of Cell and Molecular Physiology, 500 University Dr., Hershey, PA 17033 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Prolactin receptor (PRL-R) activation regulates cell differentiation, proliferation, cell survival and motility of breast cells. Prolactin (PRL) and PRL-R over-expression are strongly implicated in breast cancer, particularly contributing to tumor growth and invasion in the more aggressive estrogen-receptor negative (ER?) disease. PRL-R antagonists have been suggested as potential therapeutic agents; however, mechanisms through which PRL-R antagonists exert their actions are not well-understood. Zinc (Zn) is a regulatory factor for over 10% of the proteome, regulating critical cell processes such as proliferation, cell signaling, transcription, apoptosis and autophagy. PRL-R signaling regulates Zn metabolism in breast cells. Herein we determined effects of PRL-R attenuation on cellular Zn metabolism and cell function in a model of ER-, PRL-R over-expressing breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-453). PRL-R attenuation post-transcriptionally increased ZnT2 abundance and redistributed intracellular Zn pools into lysosomes and mitochondria. ZnT2-mediated lysosomal Zn sequestration was associated with reduced matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) activity and decreased invasion. ZnT2-mediated Zn accumulation in mitochondria was associated with increased mitochondrial oxidation. Our results suggest that PRL-R antagonism in PRL-R over-expressing breast cancer cells may reduce invasion through the redistribution of intracellular Zn pools critical for cellular function. - Highlights: • PRL-R attenuation increased ZnT2 expression. • PRL-R attenuation increased lysosomal and mitochondrial Zn accumulation. • PRL-R attenuation decreased MMP-2 and invasion. • PRL-R antagonists may modulate lysosomal and mitochondrial Zn pools.

  16. How commonly is upper gastrointestinal cancer missed at endoscopy? A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Shyam; Trudgill, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Background and study aims: Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancer in the Western world usually presents at an advanced stage, when opportunities for curative therapy are limited. The failure to detect subtle, early-stage UGI cancer at endoscopy may contribute to a poor prognosis. We undertook a meta-analysis of studies of endoscopic miss rates for UGI cancer to quantify how often opportunities to diagnose cancer at an earlier stage are missed. Patients and methods: A MEDLINE search was conducted to identify relevant studies, and a meta-analysis was conducted. “Missed” UGI cancer was defined as cancer that had not been diagnosed by UGI endoscopy performed within 3 years before the diagnosis. Random effects meta-analysis was used to determine the event rate of missed UGI cancer. Results: Ten studies were identified that included 3,787 patients with UGI cancer. Four hundred eighty-seven UGI cancers were missed at endoscopy within 3 years before diagnosis. Marked heterogeneity was observed between studies (I 2, 94.4?%; P?analysis, the pooled miss rates were 6.4?% (95?% confidence interval [CI], 4.3?%?–?9.5?%) within 1 year and 11.3?% (95?% CI, 7.5?%?–?16.6?%) within 3 years before diagnosis. There appeared to be no difference between the miss rates of oesophageal (44?%) and gastric (51?%) cancer (P?=?0.42). Conclusion It appears that 11.3?% of UGI cancers are missed at endoscopy up to 3 years before diagnosis. To ameliorate the poor prognosis of patients with UGI cancer in the Western world, efforts should be made to improve the quality of UGI endoscopy and create opportunities for earlier diagnosis.

  17. Gonorrhea and Prostate Cancer Incidence: An Updated Meta-Analysis of 21 Epidemiologic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Wen-Qing; Luo, Fei; Song, Xian-Lu; Lu, Yong-Jie; Zhao, Shan-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between gonorrhea and prostate cancer risk has been investigated widely, but the results remain inconsistent and contradictory. We conducted an updated meta-analysis to obtain a more precise estimate of this association. Material/Methods PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched for papers up to June 2014 to identify eligible studies. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the influence of gonorrhea on prostate cancer risk. Results Twenty-one observational studies (19 case-control and 2 cohort) were eligible, comprising 9965 prostate cancer patients and 118 765 participants. Pooled results indicated that gonorrhea was significantly associated with increased incidence of prostate cancer (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.14–1.52). The association between gonorrhea and prostate cancer was stronger in African American males (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.06–1.65) than in Whites (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.90–1.21). Conclusions Our findings suggest that gonorrhea is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, especially among African American males. These results warrant further well-designed, large-scale cohort studies to draw definitive conclusions. PMID:26126881

  18. Fish Intake and Risk of Liver Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rui-Xue; Duan, Yan-Ying; Hu, Jian-An

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing laboratory findings indicate that n-3 fatty acids, mainly derived from fish, inhibit cancer development and progression, but results from epidemiologic studies have been inconsistent and inconclusive. Objective To evaluate the association of fish intake with risk of liver cancer by conducting a meta-analysis. Methods Published case-control/cohort studies that evaluated the relationship between total fish intake and risk of liver cancer were found on PubMed and EMBASE. The pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained with the random-effects model. Results Five retrospective case-control studies and 5 prospective cohort studies were included in the final analysis, involving a total of 3 624 liver cancer cases. Comparing the highest with the lowest category of total fish intake, the pooled RRs of liver cancer were 0.79 (95% CI, 0.59-1.06) for case-control studies, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.70-0.96) for cohort studies and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.71-0.94) for all studies combined. The protective effects of total fish intake against liver cancer were confirmed by stratified and sensitivity analyses. In addition, an increase in fish intake of 1 serving/week was estimated to be significantly associated with 6% lower risk of liver cancer (RR = 0.94, 95% CI, 0.91-0.98). Conclusions Findings from this meta-analysis suggest that a higher fish intake is associated with reduced risk of liver cancer. PMID:25615823

  19. Expression of CXCR4 and breast cancer prognosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays a significant role in biological processes, as well as in tumorigenesis and the progression of cancer, especially breast cancer. However, the clinical application of CXCR4 for breast cancer prognosis is still very limited. A meta-analysis based on published studies was performed with the aim of obtaining an accurate evaluation of the relationship between CXCR4 expression and the prognosis of breast cancer. Methods A comprehensive search strategy was used to search relevant literature in PubMed, MEDLINE and the ISI Web of Science. The correlation between CXCR4 expression and clinicopathological features and breast cancer prognosis was analyzed. This meta-analysis was carried out using Review Manager 4.2. Result Thirteen eligible studies consisting of 3865 participants were included. We found that breast cancers with CXCR4 expression were associated with lymph node status (pooled RR =1.20, 95% CI: 1.01-1.43, P<0.001) and distant metastasis (pooled RR =1.52, 95% CI: 1.17-1.98, P?=?0.125). CXCR4 overexpression was significantly associated with disease free survival (DFS) (RR?=?0.77, 95% CI?=?0.70–0.86, P?=?0.554) and overall survival (OS) (RR?=?0.70, 95% CI?=?0.59–0.83, P?=?0.329). However, there was no significant association between CXCR4 expression and some clinical parameters of breast cancer, such as tumor category, ER status, PR status, or c-erbB-2 status. Conclusion Our meta-analysis showed that CXCR4 is an efficient prognostic factor for breast cancer. Overexpression of CXCR4 was significantly associated with lymph node status and distant metastasis and indicated poor overall and disease free survival. PMID:24475985

  20. Underscreened Women Remain Overrepresented in the Pool of Cervical Cancer Cases in Spain: A Need to Rethink the Screening Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Raquel; Alejo, María; Combalia, Neus; Tarroch, Xavier; Autonell, Josefina; Codina, Laia; Culubret, Montserrat; Bosch, Francesc Xavier; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Audit of women with invasive cervical cancer (CC) is critical for quality control within screening activities. We analysed the screening history in the 10 years preceding the study entry in women with and without CC during 2000–2011. Methods. 323 women with CC from six pathology departments in Catalonia (Spain) and 23,782 women with negative cytology were compared. Age, previous history of cytologies, and histological type and FIGO stage were collected from the pathology registries. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI95%). Results. History of cytology was registered in 26.2% of CC cases and in 78% of the control women (P < 0.0001) and its frequency decreased with increasing age. Compared to women with squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma cases were significantly more likely to have a cytology within the 3-year interval preceding cancer diagnosis (OR = 2.6 CI 95%: 1.2–5.6) and to have normal cytology results in previous screenings (OR = 2.4 CI 95%: 1.2–4.5). FIGO II–IV cases were more common among older women (older than 60 years). Conclusions. Absence of prior screening history was extremely common among CC cases compared to controls. Organized actions to reduce underscreened women and use of highly sensitive HPV-based tests could be important to reduce CC burden. PMID:26180804

  1. Aspirin for the primary prevention of skin cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, YUN; CHENG, YANG; LUO, RONG-CHENG; LI, AI-MIN

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. There are three major skin cancer types: basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. General risk factors for skin cancer include fair skin, a history of tanning and sunburn, family history of skin cancer, exposure to ultraviolet rays and a large number of moles. The incidence of skin cancer has increased in the USA in recent years. Aspirin intake is associated with chemoprotection against the development of a number of types of cancer. However, whether aspirin intake can reduce the risk of development of skin cancer is unclear. The present meta-analysis of available human studies is aimed at evaluating the association between aspirin exposure and the risk of skin cancer. All available human observational studies on aspirin intake for the primary prevention of skin cancer were identified by searching MEDLINE (Pubmed), BIOSIS, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and China National Knowledge Infrastructure prior to March 2013. The heterogeneity and publication bias of all studies were evaluated using Cochran’s Q and I2 statistics, followed by a random-effect model where applicable. The pooled data were analyzed by odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of eight case-control and five prospective cohort studies from 11 publications were selected for this analysis. There was no evidence of publication bias in these studies. Statistical analyses of the pooled data demonstrated that that a daily dose of 50–400 mg aspirin was significantly associated with a reduced risk of skin cancers (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.90–0.99; P=0.02). Stratification analysis indicated that the continual intake of low dose aspirin (?150 mg) reduced the risk of developing skin cancer (OR, 0.95; CI, 0.90–0.99; P=0.15) and that aspirin intake was significantly associated with a reduced risk of non-melanoma skin cancers (OR, 0.97; CI, 0.95–0.99; P=0.22). Overall, these findings indicated that aspirin intake was associated with a reduced risk of developing skin cancer. However, more well-designed randomized controlled trials to measure the effects of aspirin intake are required to confirm this. PMID:25663859

  2. Rivaroxaban for thromboprophylaxis after orthopaedic surgery: pooled analysis of two studies.

    PubMed

    Fisher, William D; Eriksson, Bengt I; Bauer, Kenneth A; Borris, Lars; Dahl, Ola E; Gent, Michael; Haas, Sylvia; Homering, Martin; Huisman, Menno V; Kakkar, Ajay K; Kälebo, Peter; Kwong, Louis M; Misselwitz, Frank; Turpie, Alexander G G

    2007-06-01

    Rivaroxaban (BAY 59-7939) is an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor in clinical development for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE). This analysis of pooled results from two phase II studies of rivaroxaban for VTE prevention after major orthopaedic surgery aimed to strengthen the conclusions of the individual studies. One study was conducted in patients undergoing total hip replacement (THR; N = 722), and one in patients undergoing total knee replacement (TKR; N = 621). In both studies, patients were randomized, doubleblind, to oral, twice-daily (bid) rivaroxaban beginning after surgery, or subcutaneous enoxaparin (40 mg once daily beginning before THR, and 30 mg bid beginning after TKR). Treatment continued until mandatory bilateral venography was performed 5-9 days after surgery. Total VTE (deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and all-cause mortality) occurred in 16.1-24.4% of per-protocol patients receiving rivaroxaban 5-60 mg, and 27.8% receiving enoxaparin (n = 914). There was a flat dose response relationship between rivaroxaban and total VTE (p = 0.39). Major bleeding (safety population, n = 1,317) increased dose-dependently with rivaroxaban (p < 0.001), occurring in 0.9%, 1.3%, 2.1%, 3.9%, and 7.0% of patients receiving rivaroxaban total daily doses of 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60 mg, respectively, versus 1.7% of patients receiving enoxaparin. No routine coagulation monitoring was performed, and there were no significant differences between dose response relationships with rivaroxaban after THR and TKR. Overall, rivaroxaban total daily doses of 5-20 mg had the most favorable balance of efficacy and safety, relative to enoxaparin, for the prevention of VTE after major orthopaedic surgery. PMID:17549294

  3. Exposure-response analysis and risk assessment for silica and silicosis mortality in a pooled analysis of six cohorts

    PubMed Central

    't, M; Steenland, K; Attfield, M; Boffetta, P; Checkoway, H; DeKlerk, N; Koskela, R

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To study the relation between exposure to crystalline silica and silicosis mortality. Although mortality is an important endpoint for regulators, there have been no exposure-response studies for silicosis mortality, because of the relative rareness of silicosis as an underlying cause of death, and the limited availability of quantitative exposure estimates. Methods: Data from six occupational cohorts were pooled with good retrospective exposure data in which 170 deaths from silicosis were reported. Standard life table analyses, nested case-control analyses, and risk assessment were performed. Results: The rate of silicosis mortality in the combined data was 28/100 000 py, increasing in nearly monotonic fashion from 4.7/100 000 for exposure of 0–0.99 mg/m3-years to 233/100 000 for exposure of >28.1 mg/m3-years. The estimated risk of death up to age 65 from silicosis after 45 years of exposure at 0.1 mg/m3 silica (the current standard in many countries) was 13 per 1000, while the estimated risk at an exposure of 0.05 mg/m3 was 6 per 1000. Both of these risks are above the risk of 1 per 1000 typically deemed acceptable by the US OSHA. Conclusion: The findings from this pooled analysis add further support to the need to control silica exposure and to lower the occupational standards. Our estimates of lifetime silicosis mortality risk are probably underestimates as, in addition to exposure misclassification, our study might have suffered from outcome misclassification in that silicosis deaths might have been coded to other related causes, such as tuberculosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:12409529

  4. Interleukin-8 -251A/T gene polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Bin; Li, Yun-Song; Li, Jie; Han, Yi; Liu, Zhi-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have examined the association between the interleukin-8 -251T/A (rs4073) gene polymorphism and lung cancer risk in various populations, but the results have been inconsistent. In this meta-analysis, PubMed was searched for case–control studies published through 01 December 2013. The data were extracted, and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. We assessed six published studies on the association between the interleukin-8 -251T/A polymorphism and lung cancer risk. The included studies yielded a total of 3265 lung cancer cases and 3607 controls. For the homozygous A/A and A allele carriers (T/A + A/A), the pooled ORs for all studies combining 3265 cases and 3607 controls were 1.03 (95% CI = 0.92–1.14; P = 0.235 for heterogeneity) and 1.07 (95% CI = 0.96–1.19; P = 0.245 for heterogeneity) when compared with the homozygous wild-type genotype (T/T). When the analysis was stratified by ethnicity, significant risks were found among Asians for both the A allele carriers and the homozygous A/A individuals. However, no significant associations were found in non-Asian populations using any of the genetic models. This meta-analysis suggests that the interleukin-8 -251A allele confer an increased risk for the development of lung cancer among Asians. PMID:25817779

  5. An HLA-DR–Degenerate Epitope Pool Detects Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2–Specific Immunity in Patients with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kalli, Kimberly R.; Krco, Christopher J.; Hartmann, Lynn C.; Goodman, Karin; Maurer, Matthew J.; Yu, Chao; Johnson, Elliot M.; Erskine, Courtney L.; Disis, Mary L.; Wettstein, Peter J.; Fikes, John D.; Beebe, Melanie; Ishioka, Glenn; Knutson, Keith L.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have shown the importance of helper CD4 T cells in initiating and sustaining tumor-specific CD8 T-cell immunity. This has paved the way for identifying MHC class II epitopes that could be incorporated into class I–based vaccines. In this study, the goal was to identify an HLA-DR–degenerate epitope pool derived from insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2). IGFBP-2, a regulator of insulin-like growth factor action, is overexpressed in the majority of breast and ovarian cancers. Using algorithms, we predicted 29 HLA-DR1–binding epitopes. Binding assays targeting 15 different HLA-DRs revealed that 10 epitopes were degenerate, binding to at least four different HLA-DR variants. An IFN-? enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay was used to assess immunity to these 10 epitopes in 48 patients with either breast or ovarian cancer and 18 controls. Elevated T-cell immunity in patients was detected in 4 of the 10 epitopes (IGFBP2.17, IGFBP2.22, IGFBP2.249, and IGFBP2.293). The cumulative T-cell frequency of these four epitopes was elevated in patients relative to controls. All four peptides are naturally processed and presented to CD4 T-cells. The degenerate pool of peptides covers nearly 80% of patients and may be useful for augmenting CD4 T-cell immunity in patients undergoing immunization. PMID:18559537

  6. Association between Sleep Duration and Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jie; Shi, Yuhua; Huang, Zhenping

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep duration has been shown to play an important role in the development of cancer. However, the results have been inconsistent. A meta-analysis with prospective cohort studies was performed to clarify the association between short or long sleep duration and cancer risk. Methods PubMed and Embase databases were searched for eligible publications. Pooled relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using random- or fixed- model. Results A total of 10 prospective studies (8392 incident cases and 555678 participants) were included in the meta-analysis. Neither short nor long sleep duration was statistically associated with increased risk of cancer (short sleep duration: RR=1.05, 95%CI=0.90-1.24, p=0.523; long sleep duration: RR=0.92, 95%CI=0.76-1.12, p=0.415). In the subgroup by cancer type, long sleep duration was positively associated with colorectal cancer (RR=1.29, 95%CI=1.09-1.52, p=0.003). Conclusion The present meta-analysis suggested that neither short nor long sleep duration was significantly associated with risk of cancer, although long sleep duration increased risk of with colorectal cancer. Large-scale well-design prospective studies are required to be conducted to further investigate the observed association. PMID:24023959

  7. Analysis of loss-of-piping integrity accidents in pool-type LMFBRs using SSC-P

    SciTech Connect

    Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Cazzoli, E.G.; Madni, I.K.

    1981-01-01

    A need therefore exists in this country for a generalized system simulation code which could be used as an available tool for the regulatory body for the safety analysis of pool-type LMFBR plants. For this reason, the SSC-P, a version in the Super System Code series, has been developed. SSC-P is a generalized computer program capable of simulating a variety of operational, incidental and accidental transients with particular emphasis on transients involving plant protection and plant control systems. In this paper, application of the SSC-P code to analyze loss-of-piping integrity (LOPI) accidents in pool-type plants is discussed; some parallel comparisons are made to loop-type systems, using PHENIX and CRBRP systems as reference designs.

  8. Analysis of Individual Symptoms in Generalized Anxiety – A Pooled, Multistudy, Double-Blind Evaluation of Buspirone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. Feighner; Jay B. Cohn

    1989-01-01

    Pooled data for 427 patients with generalized anxiety disorders were analyzed retrospectively from six double-blind trials evaluating buspirone, a nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic, in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. After a 4- to 7-day washout period, patients were allocated at random to receive treatment over a 4-week period. Buspirone dose ranged from 10 to 60 mg. Patients were assessed on entry

  9. Pooling data and linkage analysis in the chromosome 5q candidate region for asthma.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, K B; Burton, P R; Iyengar, S K; Elston, R C; Palmer, L J

    2001-01-01

    We investigated a variety of methods for pooling data from eight data sets (n = 5,424 subjects) to validate evidence for linkage of markers in the cytokine cluster on chromosome 5q31-33 to asthma and asthma-associated phenotypes. Chromosome 5 markers were integrated into current genetic linkage and physical maps, and a consensus map was constructed to facilitate effective data pooling. To provide more informative phenotypes with better distributional properties, variance component models were fitted using Gibbs sampling methods in order to generate residual additive genetic effects, or sigma-squared-A-random-effects (SSARs), which were used as derived phenotypes in subsequent linkage analyses. Multipoint estimates of alleles shared identically by descent (IBD) were computed for all full sibling pairs. Linkage analyses were performed with a new Haseman-Elston method that uses generalized-least-squares and a weighted combination of the mean-corrected trait-sum squared and trait-difference squared as the dependent variable. Analyses were performed with all data sets pooled together, and also separately with the resulting linkage statistics pooled by several meta-analytic methods. Our results provide no significant evidence that loci conferring susceptibility to asthma affection or atopy, as measured by total serum IgE levels, are present in the 5q31-33 region. This study has provided a clearer understanding of the significance, or lack of significance, of the 5q31-33 region in asthma genetics for the phenotypes studied. PMID:11793650

  10. Organic geochemical analysis of Brazeau, Nisku formation, hydrocarbon pools-new insights in thermochemical sulphate reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Manzano, B.K.; Machel, H.G.

    1995-12-01

    Thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) involves the reduction of anhydrite to hydrogen sulfide by hydrocarbons. Sixteen isolated pools in this study showed a gradual increase in maturation and hydrogen sulfide concentration with increasing depth. The changes to hydrocarbons with an increase in hydrogen sulfides are described.

  11. Performance of flood frequency pooling analysis in a low CV context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Das; C. Cunnane

    2012-01-01

    Pooling of flood data is widely used to provide a framework to estimate design floods by the Index Flood method. Design flood estimation with this approach involves derivation of a growth curve which shows the relationship between XT and the return period T, where XT?=?QT\\/QI and QI is the index flood at the site of interest. An implicit assumption with

  12. CHRNA3 rs1051730 polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility in Asian population: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have examined the association between the CHRNA3 rs1051730 polymorphism gene polymorphisms and lung cancer risk in various populations, but their results have been inconsistent. The PubMed was searched for case-control studies published up to Jan 01, 2015. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. In this meta-analysis, we assessed four published studies involving comprising 2,890 lung cancer cases and 2,521 controls of the association between CHRNA3 rs1051730 polymorphism and lung cancer risk. For the T allele carriers (C/T + T/T) and the homozygote T/T, the pooled ORs for all studies combined 2,890 cases and 2,521 controls were 1.93 (95% CI =1.48-2.53, P=0.34 for heterogeneity) and 1.63 (95% CI =1.27-1.99, P=0.46 for heterogeneity), when compared with the homozygous wild-type genotype (C/C). There was no observable publication bias for both polymorphisms. These results from the meta-analysis suggest that CHRNA3 rs1051730 polymorphism contributes to risk of lung cancer among Asian population. PMID:25806352

  13. Association between Dairy Intake and Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shu-bo; Yu, Jian-chun; Kang, Wei-ming; Ma, Zhi-qiang; Ye, Xin; Cao, Zhan-jiang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Observational studies have given inconsistent findings on the relationship between intake of dairy products and gastric cancer. We therefore conducted a systematic review with a meta-analysis of observational studies to summarize available evidence on this point. Methods We searched the electronic literature databases of PubMed (Medline), EMBASE and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database up until August 30, 2013. All studies were limited to the English language. Random-effects models were used to pool study results between dairy products consumption and the risk of gastric cancer. We also performed subgroup, publication bias and sensitivity analysis. Results Eight prospective studies and 18 case-control studies were included in our analysis, with a total number of 7272 gastric cancer cases and 223,355 controls. Pooled relative risks of all studies showed no significant association between dairy intake and gastric cancer (odds ratio [OR]: 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96–1.25). When study design was separately analyzed, population-based case-control studies showed a positive association between dairy intake and gastric cancer risk (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.07–1.74), whereas no associations were shown by hospital-based case-control studies (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.72–1.02) or cohort studies (OR?=?1.01, 95% CI?=?0.91–1.13). Conclusions The meta-analysis shows that no clear association apparently exists between consumption of dairy products and gastric cancer risk. Further well-designed cohort and intervention studies should be conducted to verify this lack of association. PMID:25006674

  14. Meta-analysis confirms BCL2 is an independent prognostic marker in breast Cancer

    E-print Network

    Callagy, Grace M; Webber, Mark J; Pharoah, Paul D P; Caldas, Carlos

    2008-05-29

    for the pooled analysis. Click here for file [http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/supplementary/1471- 2407-8-153-S1.xls] Additional file 2 References for 36 studies excluded from meta-analysis. References for the 36 studies summarised in additional file 1... Bcl-2 and Bax in node-negative breast cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1997, 17(4A):2499-2505. 47. McCallum M, Baker C, Gillespie K, Cohen B, Stewart H, Leonard R, Cameron D, Leake R, Paxton J, Robertson A, Purdie C, Gould A, Steel M: A prognostic...

  15. A keyhole volumetric model for weld pool analysis in Nd:YAG pulsed laser welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Jao-Hwa; Hung, Tsung-Pin; Chen, Chih-Kuan

    2012-07-01

    This study presents a new model for analyzing the temperature distribution and weld pool shape in Nd:YAG pulsed laser welding. In the proposed approach, a surface flux heat transfer model is applied in the low laser energy intensity region of the weld, while a keyhole heat transfer model based on a volumetric heat source is applied in the high laser energy intensity region of the weld. The correlation between the intensity of the laser input energy and the geometric parameters of the volumetric heat source is derived experimentally. A series of MARC finite element simulations based on the proposed single pulse model are performed to investigate the shape and size of the weld pool given different laser energy intensities. A good agreement is observed between the simulation results and the experimental results obtained under equivalent single pulse welding conditions. Thus, the basic validity of the proposed model is confirmed.

  16. Morphometric analysis of pulmonary intracapillary leukocyte pools in ex vivo-perfused rabbit lungs.

    PubMed

    Ermert, L; Duncker, H R; Rosseau, S; Schütte, H; Seeger, W

    1994-07-01

    Characterization and quantification of lung intracapillary leukocytes is of interest for a better understanding of immunological and inflammatory features in this organ. We developed a technique of computer-assisted measurement of digitalized electron-microscopic images and electronic data processing for morphometry of intracapillary leukocyte pools in rabbit lungs (L. Ermert, W. Seeger, and H.-R. Duncker, Cell Tissue Res. 271: 469-476, 1993). Measurements were undertaken in buffer-perfused isolated lungs (avoiding any reentry of washed-out cells); perfusion fixation was performed 7.5, 35, and 185 min after onset of artificial circulation (n = 5 each). Data were compared with that of nonperfused lungs fixed by tracheal instillation (baseline). Total lung capillary neutrophil counts were 1.41 x 10(9), 1.35 x 10(9), 1.37 x 10(9), and 0.69 x 10(9) (baseline, 7.5, 35, and 185 min perfusion, respectively). Corresponding data for intracapillary lymphocytes were 1.07 x 10(9), 0.84 x 10(9), 0.81 x 10(9), and 0.57 x 10(9); and for microvascular monocytes, data were 0.21 x 10(9), 0.19 x 10(9), 0.18 x 10(9), and 0.08 x 10(9). Ratios of cell volume and surface variables of the different intracapillary leukocyte types did not change during ex vivo lung perfusion. We conclude that the rabbit pulmonary capillary bed harbors large pools of different leukocytes, which surpass pool sizes of corresponding circulating cells and display very slow washout kinetics under conditions of lung-buffer perfusion. A major impact of these intracapillary leukocyte pools on immunological and inflammatory events in isolated-perfused and transplanted lungs must be assumed. PMID:8048543

  17. Quantitative DNA pooling to increase the efficiency of linkage analysis in autosomal dominant disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. F. Damji; C. J. Gallione; R. R. Allingham; B. Slotterbeck; A. E. Guttmacher; K. A. Pasyk; J. M. Vance; M. A. Pericak-Vance; M. C. Speer; D. A. Marchuk

    1998-01-01

    DNA pooling is an efficient method to rapidly perform genome-wide linkage scans in autosomal recessive diseases in inbred\\u000a populations where affected individuals are likely to be homozygous for alleles near the disease gene locus. We wanted to examine\\u000a whether this approach would detect linkage in autosomal dominant (AD) disorders where affected individuals may share one allele\\u000a identical by descent at

  18. Prognostic significance of osteopontin in patients with lung cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Bin; Wang, Yi-Han; Huang, Zhuo; Feng, Shi-Jian; Wang, Yong-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Both plasma/serum/pleural effusion osteopontin concentration (PSPO) and tumor tissue osteopontin expression (TTO) have recently been reported to be involved in the prognosis of lung cancer. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to demonstrate the association between PSPO/TTO and survival in patients with lung cancer. We searched in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, Web of Science and Chinese Biomedical database (CBM) for relevant literatures. Stata 12.0 was applied to pool the eligible studies and synthesize hazard ratios (HRs) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). For PSPO, a total of 8 studies with 1000 patients were included in final analysis. Combined HR suggested high PSPO predicted an unfavorable overall survival (OS) (HR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.13-2.05) and progress-free survival (PFS) (HR=1.73, 95% CI: 1.35-2.21). For TTO, 5 studies with a total of 747 patients were employed in final analysis. Pooled HR indicated that elevated TTO was associated with poor OS (HR=2.16, 95% CI: 1.65-2.83) and disease/relapse-free survival (D/RFS) (HR=2.36, 95% CI: 1.79-3.12). Subgroup analysis was performed to explore the causes of heterogeneity. Publication bias by begg’s test was not statistically significant. Sensitivity analysis showed that the pooled results were robust. This study revealed that both high TTO and PSPO are associated with poor prognosis in patients with lung cancer. PMID:25663958

  19. Fission matrix-based Monte Carlo criticality analysis of fuel storage pools

    SciTech Connect

    Farlotti, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, F 91128 (France); Larsen, E. W. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Standard Monte Carlo transport procedures experience difficulties in solving criticality problems in fuel storage pools. Because of the strong neutron absorption between fuel assemblies, source convergence can be very slow, leading to incorrect estimates of the eigenvalue and the eigenfunction. This study examines an alternative fission matrix-based Monte Carlo transport method that takes advantage of the geometry of a storage pool to overcome this difficulty. The method uses Monte Carlo transport to build (essentially) a fission matrix, which is then used to calculate the criticality and the critical flux. This method was tested using a test code on a simple problem containing 8 assemblies in a square pool. The standard Monte Carlo method gave the expected eigenfunction in 5 cases out of 10, while the fission matrix method gave the expected eigenfunction in all 10 cases. In addition, the fission matrix method provides an estimate of the error in the eigenvalue and the eigenfunction, and it allows the user to control this error by running an adequate number of cycles. Because of these advantages, the fission matrix method yields a higher confidence in the results than standard Monte Carlo. We also discuss potential improvements of the method, including the potential for variance reduction techniques. (authors)

  20. Prognostic value of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in lung cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yongmei; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xuedong; Gu, Lan; Pei, Hao; Kuai, Shougang; Zhang, Yingying; Shang, Zhongbo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a series of studies explored the correlation between the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and the prognosis of lung cancer. However, the current opinion regarding the prognostic role of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in lung cancer is inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis of published articles to investigate the prognostic value of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in lung cancer. The hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. An elevated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio predicted worse overall survival, with a pooled HR of 1.243 (95%CI: 1.106?1.397; Pheterogeneity=0.001) from multivariate studies and 1.867 (95%CI: 1.487?2.344; Pheterogeneity=0.047) from univariate studies. Subgroup analysis showed that a high neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio yielded worse overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (HR=1.192, 95%CI: 1.061?1.399; Pheterogeneity=0.003) as well as small cell lung cancer (SCLC) (HR=1.550, 95% CI: 1.156?2.077; Pheterogeneity=0.625) in multivariate studies. The synthesized evidence from this meta-analysis of published articles demonstrated that an elevated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was a predictor of poor overall survival in patients with lung cancer.

  1. Association between RAD51 polymorphism and breast cancer susceptibility: a meta analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Liu, Ke-Jia; Song, Jing-Song; Song, Rui; Liu, Zi-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background: RAD51 interacting with BRCA1 and BRCA2 could modulate the penetrance of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations, which may increase susceptibility for breast cancer by inhibiting DNA repair and genome stability. The purpose of this study was to provide refined statistical evidence for the association between RAD51 polymorphism and breast cancer risk. Design and results: We conducted a meta-analysis of 15 publications with a total of 11,766 cancer cases and 11,227 controls. We summarized the data on the association of RAD51 polymorphism with breast cancer risk and performed subgroup analyses by ethnicity and control source. The pooled ORs based on fixed-effects model did not indicate a modified risk of breast cancer associated with RAD51 polymorphism in the overall population. Nor did we find a significant association in any stratified analysis. Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggested that RAD51 polymorphism did not appear to represent a significant risk factor for breast cancer. PMID:25932169

  2. Pooled Analysis of Non-Union, Re-Operation, Infection, and Approach Related Complications after Anterior Odontoid Screw Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Nai-Feng; Hu, Xu-Qi; Wu, Li-Jun; Wu, Xin-Lei; Wu, Yao-Sen; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Chi, Yong-Long; Mao, Fang-Min

    2014-01-01

    Background Anterior odontoid screw fixation (AOSF) has been one of the most popular treatments for odontoid fractures. However, the true efficacy of AOSF remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to provide the pooled rates of non-union, reoperation, infection, and approach related complications after AOSF for odontoid fractures. Methods We searched studies that discussed complications after AOSF for type II or type III odontoid fractures. A proportion meta-analysis was done and potential sources of heterogeneity were explored by meta-regression analysis. Results Of 972 references initially identified, 63 were eligible for inclusion. 54 studies provided data regarding non-union. The pooled non-union rate was 10% (95% CI: 7%–3%). 48 citations provided re-operation information with a pooled proportion of 5% (95% CI: 3%–7%). Infection was described in 20 studies with an overall rate of 0.2% (95% CI: 0%–1.2%). The main approach related complication is postoperative dysphagia with a pooled rate of 10% (95% CI: 4%–17%). Proportions for the other approach related complications such as postoperative hoarseness (1.2%, 95% CI: 0%–3.7%), esophageal/retropharyngeal injury (0%, 95% CI: 0%–1.1%), wound hematomas (0.2%, 95% CI: 0%–1.8%), and spinal cord injury (0%, 95% CI: 0%–0.2%) were very low. Significant heterogeneities were detected when we combined the rates of non-union, re-operation, and dysphagia. Multivariate meta-regression analysis showed that old age was significantly predictive of non-union. Subgroup comparisons showed significant higher non-union rates in age ?70 than that in age ?40 and in age 40 to <50. Meta-regression analysis did not reveal any examined variables influencing the re-operation rate. Meta-regression analysis showed age had a significant effect on the dysphagia rate. Conclusions/Significances This study summarized the rates of non-union, reoperation, infection, and approach related complications after AOSF for odontoid factures. Elderly patients were more likely to experience non-union and dysphagia. PMID:25058011

  3. Smoking as a Risk Factor for Prostate Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of 24 Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Haddock, K. Sue; Reid, Rodney; Kupelnick, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the relationship between smoking and adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Methods. We pooled data from 24 cohort studies enrolling 21 579 prostate cancer case participants for a general variance-based meta-analysis. Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated separately for mortality and incidence studies. We tested the robustness of effect measures and evaluated statistical heterogeneity with sensitivity analyses. Results. In the pooled data, current smokers had no increased risk of incident prostate cancer (RR = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.87, 1.24), but in data stratified by amount smoked they had statistically significant elevated risk (cigarettes per day or years: RR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.46; pack years of smoking: RR = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.22). Former smokers had an increased risk (RR = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.16). Current smokers had an increased risk of fatal prostate cancer (RR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.06, 1.19). The heaviest smokers had a 24% to 30% greater risk of death from prostate cancer than did nonsmokers. Conclusions. Observational cohort studies show an association of smoking with prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Ill-defined exposure categories in many cohort studies suggest that pooled data underestimate risk. PMID:19608952

  4. Prognostic value of osteopontin expression in breast cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    XU, YING-YI; ZHANG, YA-YA; LU, WEI-FENG; MI, YAN-JUN; CHEN, YU-QIANG

    2015-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) has been implicated in tumor development and progression over the last few years. However, the prognostic value of OPN overexpression in patients with breast cancer remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association of OPN expression in the tumor with the clinicopathological characteristics and survival of breast cancer patients. A total of 8 studies met the inclusion criteria and were entered in the meta-analysis. The data analysis demonstrated that OPN expression was positively associated with lymph node metastasis [pooled odds ratio = 2.026, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.199-3.425, P=0.008, random-effects model]. We also found that OPN expression was positively associated with overall survival [hazard ratio (HR) = 3. 69, 95% CI: 1. 45-9.42, P=0.000, random-effects model) and disease -free survival (pooled HR=2.40, 95% CI: 1.27-4.55, P=0.007, fix ed -effects model). Based on the results of this study, we concluded that OPN overexpression in the tumor is a candidate positive prognostic biomarker for breast cancer patients. PMID:25798267

  5. Mediation by Peer Violence Victimization of Sexual Orientation Disparities in Cancer-Related Tobacco, Alcohol, and Sexual Risk Behaviors: Pooled Youth Risk Behavior Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Everett, Bethany G.; Russell, Stephen T.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Birkett, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the role of adolescent peer violence victimization (PVV) in sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors. Methods. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex sexual attraction, partners, or identity as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We had 4 indicators of tobacco and alcohol use and 4 of sexual risk and 2 PVV factors: victimization at school and carrying weapons. We stratified associations by gender and race/ethnicity. Results. PVV was related to disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of substance use and sexual risk, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.03, 1.6) to 11.3 (95% CI?=?6.2, 20.8), and to being a sexual minority, with ORs of 1.4 (95% CI?=?1.1, 1.9) to 5.6 (95% CI?=?3.5, 8.9). PVV mediated sexual orientation disparities in substance use and sexual risk behaviors. Findings were pronounced for adolescent girls and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Conclusions. Interventions are needed to reduce PVV in schools as a way to reduce sexual orientation disparities in cancer risk across the life span. PMID:24825215

  6. Reflux pool-boiler as a heat-transport device for Stirling engines - Postmortem analysis and next-generation design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, J. B.; Andraka, C. E.; Diver, R. B.; Moss, T. A.; Hoffman, E. L.; Stone, C. M.

    In a prior study, operation of a 75-kWt sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver was demonstrated and its performance characterized at Sandia National Laboratories. Subsequently, during the final testing phase, the receiver developed a leak, releasing part of the sodium inventory to the atmosphere. The possible causes of the leak are examined, including materials selection, thermal stresses, fatigue, high local solar flux, film boiling, and flooding limits. The results of the failure analysis are applied to the next-generation receiver design, which is presented. Plans for bench-scale testing of some design modifications are also presented.

  7. Sphingosine Kinase 1 and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yun; Wang, Yan; Wan, Zhi; Liu, Shiping; Cao, Yu; Zeng, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Background Sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) is a key regulator of the dynamic ceramide/sphingosine 1-phosphate rheostat balance and important in the pathological cancer genesis, progression, and metastasis processes. Many studies have demonstrated SK1 overexpressed in various cancers, but no meta-analysis has evaluated the relationship between SK1 and various cancers. Methods We retrieved relevant articles from the PubMed, EBSCO, ISI, and OVID databases. A pooled odds ratio (OR) was used to assess the associations between SK1 expression and cancer; hazard ratios (HR) were used for 5-year and overall survival. Review Manager 5.0 was used for the meta-analysis, and publication bias was evaluated with STATA 12.0 (Egger’s test). Results Thirty-four eligible studies (n?=?4,673 patients) were identified. SK1 positivity and high expression were significantly different between cancer, non-cancer, and benign tissues. SK1 mRNA and protein expression levels were elevated in the cancer tissues, compared with the normal tissues. SK1 positivity rates differed between various cancer types (lowest [27.3%] in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and highest [82.2%] in tongue squamous cell carcinoma). SK1 positivity and high expression were associated with 5-year survival; the HR was 1.86 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18–2.94) for breast cancer, 1.58 (1.08–2.31) for gastric cancer, and 2.68 (2.10–3.44) for other cancers; the total cancer HR was 2.21 (95% CI, 1.83–2.67; P < 0.00001). The overall survival HRs were 2.09 (95% CI, 1.35–3.22), 1.56 (1.08–2.25), and 2.62 (2.05–3.35) in breast, gastric, and other cancers, respectively. The total effect HR was 2.21 (95% CI, 1.83–2.66; P < 0.00001). Conclusions SK1 positivity and high expression were significantly associated with cancer and a shorter 5-year and overall survival. SK1 positivity rates vary tremendously among the cancer types. It is necessary to further explore whether SK1 might be a predictive biomarker of outcomes in cancer patients. PMID:24587339

  8. The Role of Adiponectin in Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Yuan; Wang, Meng; Ma, Zhong-Bing; Yu, Li-Xiang; Zhang, Qiang; Gao, De-Zong; Wang, Fei; Yu, Zhi-Gang

    2013-01-01

    Published results suggests that high adiponectin level may decrease the risk of breast cancer. However, available evidence on breast cancer is conflicting. Therefore a meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between blood adiponectin and breast cancer risk. PubMed database, Web of Science, Elsevier Science, Springer Link and bibliographies of retrieved articles were searched for epidemiological studies published up to March 2013. Meta-analysis was performed on the combined effect values (OR) as well as standardized mean difference (SMD) including 17 studies. Fixed or random effect pooled measure was selected on the basis of homogeneity test among studies. The publication bias was assessed by the Egger’s regression asymmetry test and Begg’s rank correlation test with Begg’s funnel plot. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analysis were also performed. A total of 13 studies involving 3578 breast cancer cases and 4363 controls contributed to the OR analysis. The high adiponectin level did not significantly affect breast cancer risk (OR=0.902, 95% CI=0.773–1.053). After excluding articles that were the key contributors to between-study heterogeneity, the OR of high adiponectin level was associated with decreased breast cancer risk (OR=0.838, 95% CI=0.744–0.943). There was a significantly association between high adiponectin level and postmenopausal breast cancer women (OR=0.752, 95%CI=0.604-0.936); and it was not associated with premenopausal breast cancer women (OR=0.895, 95%CI=0.638-1.256). The result of pooled measure on SMD was that the high adiponectin level was associated with decreased breast cancer risk (SMD= -0.348, 95% CI= -0.533--0.614) after excluding articles which were the key contributors to between-study heterogeneity. Our findings indicate that high adiponectin level might decrease the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. More randomized clinical trials and observational studies are needed to confirm this association with underlying biological mechanisms in the future. PMID:23991180

  9. Efficacy of the sustained-release hydromorphone in neuropathic pain management: pooled analysis of three open-label studies.

    PubMed

    Moulin, Dwight E; Richarz, Ute; Wallace, Mark; Jacobs, Adam; Thipphawong, John

    2010-09-01

    This pooled analysis was designed to determine whether the analgesic response to treatment with OROS hydromorphone, as measured by the "pain on average" scale of the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), was different in patients with neuropathic pain compared to those with nociceptive pain, after adjusting for differences in baseline characteristics. Three open-label studies on patients with neuropathic and nociceptive malignant and nonmalignant chronic pain were analyzed. A mixed model for repeated measures linear regression analysis was used to compare the effect of OROS hydromorphone on patients with neuropathic and nociceptive pain, adjusting for potentially confounding factors. Data from patients with pure neuropathic pain and mixed pain were also compared. Safety and tolerability was assessed by recording the number of adverse events. The primary outcome was "pain on average" (BPI item 5) over time. Secondary outcomes were the effect of OROS hydromorphone on other BPI items including "pain relief" and "interference with sleep." Patients with neuropathic pain showed a similar response to treatment with OROS hydromorphone to those patients with nociceptive pain. There was no statistically significant difference between the pain groups (difference between groups -0.552 at visit 7; P = .060 for overall difference between groups). For some outcome variables, treatment was more effective for patients with neuropathic pain. The treatment was generally well tolerated. This pooled analysis shows that treatment with OROS hydromorphone had similar efficacy for neuropathic and nociceptive pain. PMID:20718640

  10. Factors Affecting Mortality following Myeloablative Cord Blood Transplantation in Adults: a Pooled Analysis of Three International Registries

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Yael C; Scaradavou, Andromachi; Stevens, Cladd E.; Rubinstein, Pablo; Gluckman, Eliane; Rocha, Vanderson; Horowitz, Mary M.; Eapen, Mary; Nagler, Arnon; Shpall, Elizabeth J.; Laughlin, Mary J.; Daniely, Yaron; Pacheco, David; Barishev, Raya; Olmer, Liraz; Freedman, Laurence S.

    2012-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was conducted to examine factors affecting early mortality following myeloablative, single-unit cord blood transplantation (CBT) for hematological malignancies in adolescents and adults. Data were collected from the three main CBT registries pooling 514 records of unrelated, single, unmanipulated, first myeloablative allogeneic CBTs conducted in North America or Europe from 1995 to 2005, with an HLA match ?4/6 loci, in patients aged 12 to 55. Overall 100-, 180- day and 1-year survival (Kaplan-Meier method) were 56%, 46% and 37%, respectively, with no significant heterogeneity across registries. Multivariate analysis showed cell dose < 2.5×107/Kg (Odds Ratio [OR] 2.76, p<0.0001), older age (p=0.002), advanced disease (p=0.02), positive CMV sero-status (OR 1.37 p=0.11), female gender (OR 1.43, p=0.07) and limited CBT center experience (<10 records contributed, OR 2.08, p=0.0003) to be associated with higher 100-day mortality. A multivariate model predictive of 1-year mortality included similar prognostic factors except female gender. Transplant year did not appear as a significant independent predictor. This is the first analysis to pool records from three major CBT registries in the US and Europe. Despite some differences in practice patterns, survival was remarkably homogeneous. The resulting model may contribute to better understanding factors affecting CBT outcomes. PMID:20436518

  11. Functional genomics platform for pooled screening and generation of mammalian genetic interaction maps | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Systematic genetic interaction maps in microorganisms are powerful tools for identifying functional relationships between genes and for defining the function of uncharacterized genes. We have recently implemented this strategy in mammalian cells as a two-stage approach. First, genes of interest are robustly identified in a pooled genome-wide screen using complex shRNA libraries. Second, phenotypes for all pairwise combinations of 'hit' genes are measured in a double-shRNA screen and used to construct a genetic interaction map.

  12. Cave Pool

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A pool in the Caverns of Sonora. This cave, like many others, was formed by water combining with carbon dioxide to create a weak carbonic acid. This acid then dissolved the limestone to carve out chambers. The dissolved calcium from the limestone then combined with the carbon dioxide to create calci...

  13. Content analysis of cancer blog posts*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sujin

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The efficacy of user-defined subject tagging and software-generated subject tagging for describing and organizing cancer blog contents was explored. Methods: The Technorati search engine was used to search the blogosphere for cancer blog postings generated during a two-month period. Postings were mined for relevant subject concepts, and blogger-defined tags and Text Analysis Portal for Research (TAPoR) software–defined tags were generated for each message. Descriptive data were collected, and the blogger-defined tags were compared with software-generated tags. Three standard vocabularies (Opinion Templates, Basic Resource, and Medical Subject Headings [MeSH] Resource) were used to assign subject terms to the blogs, with results compared for efficacy in information retrieval. Results: Descriptive data showed that most of the studied cancer blogs (80%) contained fewer than 500 words each. The numbers of blogger-defined tags per posting (M?=?4.49 per posting) were significantly smaller than the TAPoR keywords (M?=?23.55 per posting). Both blogger-defined subject tags and software-generated subject tags were often overly broad or overly narrow in focus, producing less than effective search results for those seeking to extract information from cancer blogs. Conclusions: Additional exploration into methods for systematically organizing cancer blog postings is necessary if blogs are to become stable and efficacious information resources for cancer patients, friends, families, or providers. PMID:19851489

  14. LncRNA MALAT1 overexpression is an unfavorable prognostic factor in human cancer: evidence from a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Bingya; Wang, Tiejun; Wang, Hongyong

    2015-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been suggested to serve as an important role in tumor development and progression. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between lncRNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) and cancer patients’ overall survival. We systematically and carefully searched the studies from electronic databases and seriously identified according to eligibility criteria. The correlation between lncRNA MALAT1 expression and overall survival in human cancers was evaluated through Review Manager. A total of 8 studies which included 792 cancer patients were included in the final analysis. Meta-analysis showed that lncRNA MALAT1 overexpression was correlated with a poor overall survival and the pooled hazard ratio (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was 1.94 (95% CI 1.59-2.38). From subgroup analyses, we present evidence that lncRNA MALAT1 overexpression was an unfavorable prognostic factor for patients’ overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer and pancreatic cancer, the pooled HRs (95% CI) were 1.86 (95% CI 1.27-2.73) and 1.78 (95% CI 1.30-2.44), respectively. In conclusion, lncRNA MALAT1 is a potential prognostic factor in human cancers. PMID:26131129

  15. The association between breast cancer and thyroid cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Kyle R; Edirimanne, Senarath; Eslick, Guy D

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have suggested an association between breast cancer and thyroid cancer; however, there has not been a formal meta-analysis which collates the existing evidence supporting the hypothesis that breast cancer or thyroid cancer predisposes an individual to developing the other. A systematic search was carried out using PubMed and Medline. We searched for articles containing epidemiological evidence of breast cancer following thyroid cancer and vice versa. Additionally, we searched for articles that included epidemiological data involving the incidence of all second primary malignancies (SPMs) following both breast cancer and thyroid cancer, and compared the datasets. The meta-analysis performed in a total of 18 studies showed that there is a significantly increased risk of developing thyroid cancer as a second primary malignancy of breast cancer (SIR = 1.59, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.28-1.99). Additionally, there was marginally increased risk of developing breast cancer as a second primary malignancy of thyroid cancer (SIR = 1.24, 95 % CI 1.16-1.33), compared to the general risk of developing a second primary malignancy following thyroid cancer. The findings suggest that the risk of developing thyroid cancer as a second primary malignancy of breast cancer and vice versa is increased compared to the background risk of developing other SPMs. The risk of developing thyroid cancer after a primary breast cancer was higher than the risk of developing breast cancer as a second primary malignancy of thyroid cancer. This suggests that the effects of treatment-related factors and specific pathological processes of each cancer may contribute to the increased risk rather than common risk factors including genetic factors. Elucidation of the common mechanisms between breast cancer and thyroid cancer will have important implications in both diagnostic and therapeutic management of these cancers. Benefit of thyroid ultrasound screening after breast cancer surgery needs to be assessed. PMID:26058757

  16. Air pollution and lung cancer risks in China--a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Wang, Shuxiao; Aunan, Kristin; Seip, Hans Martin; Hao, Jiming

    2006-08-01

    Lung cancer is a serious health problem in China, as in the rest of the world. Many studies have already proved that air pollution as well as other environmental factors can increase the risk of lung cancer. Based on epidemiological studies carried out in China, this paper proposes odds ratios (OR) to evaluate the risk of lung cancer from indoor air pollution for the Chinese population by applying the method of meta-analysis. For domestic coal use for heating and cooking, the pooled OR values are 1.83 (95% CI: 0.62-5.41) and 2.66 (1.39-5.07) for women and both sexes, respectively. For indoor exposure to coal dust, the OR values are 2.52 (95% CI: 1.94-3.28) and 2.42 (1.62-3.63) for women and both sexes, respectively. Cooking oil vapor is another factor increasing lung cancer risk. The OR values are 2.12 (95%CI: 1.81-2.47), 1.78 (1.50-2.12) and 6.20 (2.88-13.32) for nonsmoking women, women, and both sexes, respectively. Regarding environmental tobacco smoke, the pooled OR values are 1.70 (95% CI: 1.32-2.18) and 1.64 (1.29-2.07) for nonsmoking women and both sexes, respectively. Funnel plots with statistical test have been applied to examine the publication bias, and the results implied that the analysis of coal consumption and cooking oil pollution might be affected by publication bias. The meta-analysis results confirm the association between lung cancer and indoor air pollution for the Chinese population. PMID:16406110

  17. Microarray analysis in gastric cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Giovanna; Di Rienzo, Teresa; Ojetti, Veronica

    2014-09-14

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common tumors worldwide. Although several treatment options have been developed, the mortality rate is increasing. Lymph node involvement is considered the most reliable prognostic indicator in gastric cancer. Early diagnosis improves the survival rate of patients and increases the likelihood of successful treatment. The most reliable diagnostic method is endoscopic examination, however, it is expensive and not feasible in poorer countries. Therefore, many innovative techniques have been studied to develop a new non-invasive screening test and to identify specific serum biomarkers. DNA microarray analysis is one of the new technologies able to measure the expression levels of a large number of genes simultaneously. It is possible to define the gene expression profile of the tumor and to correlate it with the prognosis and metastasis formation. Several studies in the literature have been published on the role of microarray analysis in gastric cancer and the mechanisms of proliferation and metastasis formation. The aim of this review is to analyze the importance of microarray analysis and its clinical applications to better define the genetic characteristics of gastric cancer and its possible implications in a more decisive treatment. PMID:25232233

  18. Enhanced recovery pathways lead to an improvement in postoperative outcomes following esophagectomy: systematic review and pooled analysis.

    PubMed

    Markar, S R; Karthikesalingam, A; Low, D E

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this systematic review and pooled analysis is to determine the effect of enhanced recovery programs (ERP) on clinical outcome measures following esophagectomy. Medline, Embase, trial registries, conference proceedings, and reference lists were searched for trials comparing clinical outcome from esophagectomy followed by a conventional pathway with esophagectomy followed by an ERP. Primary outcomes were the incidence of postoperative mortality, anastomotic leak and pulmonary complications, and secondary outcomes were length of hospital stay and the incidence of 30-day readmission. Nine studies were included comprising 1240 patients, 661 patients underwent esophagectomy followed conventional pathway, and 579 patients underwent ERP. Utilization of ERP was associated with a reduction in the incidence of anastomotic leak (12.2-8.3%; pooled odds ratios = 0.61; 95% confidence interval = 0.39 to 0.96; P = 0.03) and pulmonary complications (29.1-19.6%; pooled odds ratios = 0.52; 95% confidence interval = 0.36 to 0.77; P = 0.001) and length of hospital stay, and no significant change in postoperative mortality or readmission rate. There was significant variation in the design of enhanced recovery protocols, surgical approach, and utilization of neoadjuvant therapies between the studies that are important confounding variables to be considered. This study suggests a benefit to the utilization of ERP following esophagectomy. The pathways provide a template for all medical personnel interacting with these patients in order to provide incremental changes in all aspects of clinical care that translates into global improvements seen in postoperative outcomes. PMID:24697876

  19. Thin Layer Chromatographic Analysis of Free Pool Amino Acids in Cercariae, Rediae, Encysted Metacercariae, and Excysted Metacercariae of Echinostoma caproni

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth L. Ponder; Bernard Fried; Joseph Sherma

    2003-01-01

    Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to determine the free pool amino acid content of four larval stages (rediae, cercariae, encysted metacercariae, and excysted metacercariae) of the medically important digenetic trematode, Echinostoma caproni. These larval stages were obtained from experimentally infected Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Larvae were pooled, extracted in ethanol, and their free pool amino acids separated using four types

  20. The Association between Telomere Length and Cancer Prognosis: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lu; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Chao; Hou, Shuxun

    2015-01-01

    Background Telomeres are essential for chromosomal integrity and stability. Shortened telomere length (TL) has been associated with risk of cancers and aging-related diseases. Several studies have explored associations between TL and cancer prognosis, but the results are conflicting. Methods Prospective studies on the relationship between TL and cancer survival were identified by a search of PubMed up to May 25, 2015. There were no restrictions on the cancer type or DNA source. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analysis approaches were conducted to determine pooled relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Results Thirty-three articles containing forty-five independent studies were ultimately involved in our meta-analysis, of which twenty-seven were about overall cancer survival and eighteen were about cancer progression. Short TL was associated with increased cancer mortality risk (RR = 1.30, 95%CI: 1.06–1.59) and poor cancer progression (RR = 1.44, 95%CI: 1.10–1.88), both with high levels of heterogeneity (I2 = 83.5%, P = 0.012for overall survival and I2 = 75.4%, P = 0.008 for progression). TL was an independent predictor of overall cancer survival and progression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Besides, short telomeres were also associated with increased colorectal cancer mortality and decreased overall survival of esophageal cancer, but not in other cancers. Cancer progression was associated with TL in Asian and America populations and short TL predicted poor cancer survival in older populations. Compared with tumor tissue cells, TL in blood lymphocyte cells was better for prediction. In addition, the associations remained significant when restricted to studies with adjustments for age, with larger sample sizes, measuring TL using southern blotting or estimating risk effects by hazard ratios. Conclusion Short TL demonstrated a significant association with poor cancer survival, suggesting the potential prognostic significance of TL. Additional large well-designed studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:26177192

  1. Greater weight loss among men participating in a commercial weight loss program: a pooled analysis of 2 randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Barraj, Leila M; Murphy, Mary M; Heshka, Stanley; Katz, David L

    2014-02-01

    Being overweight and obese are significant health concerns for men and women, yet despite comparable needs for effective weight loss and maintenance strategies, little is known about the success of commercial weight loss programs in men. This study tests the hypothesis that men participating in a commercial weight loss program (Weight Watchers) had significantly greater weight loss than men receiving limited support from health professionals for weight loss (controls). A pooled analysis of weight loss and related physiologic parameter data from 2 randomized clinical trials was conducted. After 12 months, analysis of covariance tests showed that men in the commercial program group (n = 85) lost significantly more weight (P < .01) than men in the control group (n = 84); similar significant differences were observed for body mass index and waist circumference. These results suggest that participation in a commercial weight loss program may be a more effective means to lose weight and maintain weight loss. PMID:24461320

  2. 'Chain pooling' model selection as developed for the statistical analysis of a rotor burst protection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holms, A. G.

    1977-01-01

    A statistical decision procedure called chain pooling had been developed for model selection in fitting the results of a two-level fixed-effects full or fractional factorial experiment not having replication. The basic strategy included the use of one nominal level of significance for a preliminary test and a second nominal level of significance for the final test. The subject has been reexamined from the point of view of using as many as three successive statistical model deletion procedures in fitting the results of a single experiment. The investigation consisted of random number studies intended to simulate the results of a proposed aircraft turbine-engine rotor-burst-protection experiment. As a conservative approach, population model coefficients were chosen to represent a saturated 2 to the 4th power experiment with a distribution of parameter values unfavorable to the decision procedures. Three model selection strategies were developed.

  3. Evaluation of the prognostic role of centromere 17 gain and HER2/topoisomerase II alpha gene status and protein expression in patients with breast cancer treated with anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy: pooled analysis of two Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG) phase III trials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The HER2 gene has been established as a valid biological marker for the treatment of breast cancer patients with trastuzumab and probably other agents, such as paclitaxel and anthracyclines. The TOP2A gene has been associated with response to anthracyclines. Limited information exists on the relationship of HER2/TOP2A gene status in the presence of centromere 17 (CEP17) gain with outcome of patients treated with anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples from 1031 patients with high-risk operable breast cancer, enrolled in two consecutive phase III trials, were assessed in a central laboratory by fluorescence in situ hybridization for HER2/TOP2A gene amplification and CEP17 gain (CEP17 probe). Amplification of HER2 and TOP2A were defined as a gene/CEP17 ratio of >2.2 and ?2.0, respectively, or gene copy number higher than 6. Additionally, HER2, TopoIIa, ER/PgR and Ki67 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and patients were classified according to their IHC phenotype. Treatment consisted of epirubicin-based adjuvant chemotherapy followed by hormonal therapy and radiation, as indicated. Results HER2 amplification was found in 23.7% of the patients and TOP2A amplification in 10.1%. In total, 41.8% of HER2-amplified tumors demonstrated TOP2A co-amplification. The median (range) of HER2, TOP2A and CEP17 gain was 2.55 (0.70-45.15), 2.20 (0.70-26.15) and 2.00 (0.70-26.55), respectively. Forty percent of the tumors had CEP17 gain (51% of those with HER2 amplification). Adjusting for treatment groups in the Cox model, HER2 amplification, TOP2A amplification, CEP17 gain and HER2/TOP2A co-amplification were not associated with time to relapse or time to death. Conclusion HER2 amplification, TOP2A amplification, CEP17 gain and HER2/TOP2A co-amplification were not associated with outcome in high-risk breast cancer patients treated with anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) ACTRN12611000506998 and ACTRN12609001036202 PMID:23537287

  4. Prognostic Significance of VEGF-C Expression in Patients with Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, Bin; LI, Yunhui

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, as a lymphangiogenic factor, plays important roles in the progression of several malignancies. However, its clinical prognostic value in breast cancer still remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis of available studies to assess the association between VEGF-C expression and the ou-tcomes of breast cancer patients Methods We searched eligible studies in three English databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science) and two Chinese databases (Wanfang and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases). Key words used in the research included ‘VEGF-C”, “breast cancer”, “immunohistochemistry”, “breast neoplasma(s)”, “breast carcinoma”, “metastasis”, and “prognosis”. Fourteen studies with a total of 1, 573 breast cancer cases were finally included into the meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CIs) for lymph node metastasis, overall survival, and disease-free survival were calculated by using fixed-effects or random-effects models. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also assessed. Results Meta-analysis of random-effects model showed VEGF-C expression was associated with lymph node metastasis in patients with breast cancer (random-effects, OR = 2.14; 95 % CI 1.21—3.77, P = 0.009). VEGF-C expression was associated with poorer overall survival (fixed-effects, OR = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.46—4.14, P < 0.001) and disease-free survival (fixed-effects, OR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.32—3.35, P = 0.002) in patients with breast cancer. Conclusion VEGF-C expression is positively associated with lymph node metastasis in breast cancer, and VEGF-C detection in breast cancer might be an effective and feasible means to predict outcome.

  5. Blood glucose concentration and risk of pancreatic cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wei-Chih; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Lin, Jaw-Town; Wang, Hsiu-Po

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate potential linear and non-linear dose-response relations between blood glucose and risk of pancreatic cancer. Design Systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Data sources Search of PubMed, Scopus, and related reviews before 30 November 2013 without language restriction. Eligibility criteria Prospective studies evaluating the association between blood glucose concentration and pancreatic cancer. Retrospective and cross sectional studies excluded to avoid reverse causality. Data extraction and synthesis Two reviewers independently extracted relevant information and assessed study quality with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Random effects dose-response meta-analysis was conducted to assess potential linear and non-linear dose-response relations. Results Nine studies were included for analysis, with a total of 2408 patients with pancreatic cancer. There was a strong linear dose-response association between fasting blood glucose concentration and the rate of pancreatic cancer across the range of prediabetes and diabetes. No non-linear association was detected. The pooled rate ratio of pancreatic cancer per 0.56 mmol/L (10 mg/dL) increase in fasting blood glucose was 1.14 (95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.22; P<0.001) without significant heterogeneity. Sensitivity analysis excluding blood glucose categories in the range of diabetes showed similar results (pooled rate ratio per 0.56 mmol/L increase in fasting blood glucose was 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.27; P=0.003), strengthening the association between prediabetes and pancreatic cancer. Conclusions Every 0.56 mmol/L increase in fasting blood glucose is associated with a 14% increase in the rate of pancreatic cancer. As prediabetes can be improved or even reversed through lifestyle changes, early detection of prediabetes coupled with lifestyle changes could represent a viable strategy to curb the increasing incidence of pancreatic cancer. PMID:25556126

  6. Analysis of an open-air swimming pool solar heating system by using an experimentally validated TRNSYS model

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, Elisa; Martinez, Pedro J. [Universidad Miguel Hernandez - Edificio Torreblanca, Avda. de la Universidad s/n, 03202 Elche (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    In the case of private outdoor swimming pools, seldom larger than 100 m{sup 2}, conventional auxiliary heating systems are being installed less and less. Solar heating is an option to extend the swimming season. The temperature evolution of an open-air swimming pool highly depends on the wind speed directly on the water surface, which at the same time is influenced by the surroundings of the pool. In this paper, the TRNSYS model of a private open-air pool with a 50-m{sup 2} surface was validated by registering the water temperature evolution and the meteorological data at the pool site. Evaporation is the main component of energy loss in swimming pools. Six different sets of constants found in literature were considered to evaluate the evaporative heat transfer coefficient with the purpose of finding the most suitable one for the TRNSYS pool model. In order to do that, the evolution of the pool water temperature predicted by the TRNSYS pool model was compared with the experimentally registered one. The simulation with TRNSYS of the total system, including the swimming pool and the absorber circuit integrated into the existing filter circuit, provided information regarding the increase of the pool temperature for different collector areas during the swimming season. This knowledge, together with the economic costs, support the decision about the absorber field size. (author)

  7. Pool & Spa Safety Act

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Safely > The Pool & Spa Safety Act The Pool & Spa Safety Act Download the Act 2008 Pool & Spa ... Act Format: PDF The Virginia Graeme Baker Pool & Spa Safety Act (P&SS Act) was enacted by Congress ...

  8. Metabolic Syndrome Is Associated with Increased Breast Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Ruchi; Kelley, George A.; Hartley, Tara A.; Rockett, Ian R. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Although individual metabolic risk factors are reported to be associated with breast cancer risk, controversy surrounds risk of breast cancer from metabolic syndrome (MS). We report the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between MS and breast cancer risk in all adult females. Methods. Studies were retrieved by searching four electronic reference databases [PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Web of Science, and ProQuest through June 30, 2012] and cross-referencing retrieved articles. Eligible for inclusion were longitudinal studies reporting associations between MS and breast cancer risk among females aged 18 years and older. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each study and pooled using random-effects models. Publication bias was assessed quantitatively (Trim and Fill) and qualitatively (funnel plots). Heterogeneity was examined using Q and I2 statistics. Results. Representing nine independent cohorts and 97,277 adult females, eight studies met the inclusion criteria. A modest, positive association was observed between MS and breast cancer risk (RR: 1.47, 95% CI, 1.15–1.87; z = 3.13; p = 0.002; Q = 26.28, p = 0.001; I2 = 69.55%). No publication bias was observed. Conclusions. MS is associated with increased breast cancer risk in adult women. PMID:25653879

  9. Associations between polymorphisms of the XPC gene and lung cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mei-Ling; Hua, Rui-Xi; Zheng, Leizhen

    2014-04-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) gene plays a critical role in DNA damage recognition, and its functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may alter DNA repair capacity and cancer susceptibility. Numerous epidemiological studies have investigated the associations between XPC Lys939Gln and Ala499Val polymorphisms and lung cancer susceptibility, but the conclusions are inconclusive. We searched three electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and EBSCO) for eligible publications and performed a meta-analysis assessing the associations between XPC Lys939Gln and Ala499Val polymorphisms and lung cancer risk. We also analysed the genotype-mRNA expression correlation using the data of HapMap phase II release 23 with 270 individuals from 4 ethnicities for exploring biological plausibility of our findings. We included ten published studies of 3,882 cases and 5,219 controls for Lys939Gln, and five studies with 2,605 cases and 3,329 controls for Ala499Val. When all studies were pooled, we found a significantly increased overall lung cancer risk for Lys939Gln polymorphism (recessive model: OR = 1.14, 95 % CI = 1.01-1.29, P = 0.218 for heterogeneity). Stratification analysis also showed a higher lung cancer risk in Asian populations (recessive model: OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.04-1.52, P = 0.263 for heterogeneity). Interestingly, we found significant correlation between Lys939Gln genotypes and XPC mRNA expression for Asian populations as well. However, we did not observe any association between Ala499Val polymorphism and overall lung cancer risk, nor in further stratification analysis. This meta-analysis suggests that XPC Lys939Gln polymorphism may contribute to lung cancer risk, which needs further validation in single larger studies. PMID:24375193

  10. Association between Class III Obesity (BMI of 40–59 kg/m2) and Mortality: A Pooled Analysis of 20 Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kitahara, Cari M.; Flint, Alan J.; Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Bernstein, Leslie; Brotzman, Michelle; MacInnis, Robert J.; Moore, Steven C.; Robien, Kim; Rosenberg, Philip S.; Singh, Pramil N.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Adami, Hans Olov; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Buring, Julie E.; Freedman, D. Michal; Fraser, Gary E.; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaziano, John Michael; Giles, Graham G.; Håkansson, Niclas; Hoppin, Jane A.; Hu, Frank B.; Koenig, Karen; Linet, Martha S.; Park, Yikyung; Patel, Alpa V.; Purdue, Mark P.; Schairer, Catherine; Sesso, Howard D.; Visvanathan, Kala; White, Emily; Wolk, Alicja; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Hartge, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of class III obesity (body mass index [BMI]?40 kg/m2) has increased dramatically in several countries and currently affects 6% of adults in the US, with uncertain impact on the risks of illness and death. Using data from a large pooled study, we evaluated the risk of death, overall and due to a wide range of causes, and years of life expectancy lost associated with class III obesity. Methods and Findings In a pooled analysis of 20 prospective studies from the United States, Sweden, and Australia, we estimated sex- and age-adjusted total and cause-specific mortality rates (deaths per 100,000 persons per year) and multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for adults, aged 19–83 y at baseline, classified as obese class III (BMI 40.0–59.9 kg/m2) compared with those classified as normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2). Participants reporting ever smoking cigarettes or a history of chronic disease (heart disease, cancer, stroke, or emphysema) on baseline questionnaires were excluded. Among 9,564 class III obesity participants, mortality rates were 856.0 in men and 663.0 in women during the study period (1976–2009). Among 304,011 normal-weight participants, rates were 346.7 and 280.5 in men and women, respectively. Deaths from heart disease contributed largely to the excess rates in the class III obesity group (rate differences?=?238.9 and 132.8 in men and women, respectively), followed by deaths from cancer (rate differences?=?36.7 and 62.3 in men and women, respectively) and diabetes (rate differences?=?51.2 and 29.2 in men and women, respectively). Within the class III obesity range, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for total deaths and deaths due to heart disease, cancer, diabetes, nephritis/nephrotic syndrome/nephrosis, chronic lower respiratory disease, and influenza/pneumonia increased with increasing BMI. Compared with normal-weight BMI, a BMI of 40–44.9, 45–49.9, 50–54.9, and 55–59.9 kg/m2 was associated with an estimated 6.5 (95% CI: 5.7–7.3), 8.9 (95% CI: 7.4–10.4), 9.8 (95% CI: 7.4–12.2), and 13.7 (95% CI: 10.5–16.9) y of life lost. A limitation was that BMI was mainly ascertained by self-report. Conclusions Class III obesity is associated with substantially elevated rates of total mortality, with most of the excess deaths due to heart disease, cancer, and diabetes, and major reductions in life expectancy compared with normal weight. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25003901

  11. Breastfeeding and ovarian cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies1234

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qi-Jun; Gong, Ting-Ting; Vogtmann, Emily; Wang, Yong-Lai; Lin, Bei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies have yielded inconsistent findings between breastfeeding and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. Objective: We performed a meta-analysis to summarize available evidence of the association between breastfeeding and breastfeeding duration and EOC risk from published cohort and case-control studies. Design: Relevant published studies were identified by a search of MEDLINE through December 2012. Two authors (T-TG and Q-JW) independently performed the eligibility evaluation and data abstraction. Study-specific RRs from individual studies were pooled by using a random-effects model, and heterogeneity and publication-bias analyses were conducted. Results: Five prospective and 30 case-control studies were included in this analysis. The pooled RR for ever compared with never breastfeeding was 0.76 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.83), with moderate heterogeneity (Q = 69.4, P < 0.001, I2 = 55.3%). Risk of EOC decreased by 8% for every 5-mo increase in the duration of breastfeeding (RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.90, 0.95). The risk reduction was similar for borderline and invasive EOC and was consistent within case-control and cohort studies. Conclusions: Results of this meta-analysis support the hypothesis that ever breastfeeding and a longer duration of breastfeeding are associated with lower risks of EOC. Additional research is warranted to focus on the association with cancer grade and histologic subtypes of EOC. PMID:23966430

  12. Weight change and risk of colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Karahalios, Amalia; English, Dallas R; Simpson, Julie A

    2015-06-01

    Results from cohort studies of adult weight gain and risk of colorectal cancer are inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies assessing the association of change in weight/body mass index with colorectal cancer risk. We searched Scopus and Web of Science up to June 2014 and supplemented the search with manual searches of the reference lists of the identified articles. Thirteen studies published between 1997 and 2014 were pooled by using a random-effects model, and potential heterogeneity was explored by fitting meta-regression models. The highest weight gain category, measured by weight/body mass index, compared with a reference category, was associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 1.24), whereas no association was found for weight loss (HR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.05). There was no suggestion of heterogeneity across studies. For dose response, a 5-kg weight gain was associated with a slightly increased risk of colorectal cancer (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.05), with some heterogeneity observed (I(2) = 42%; P = 0.02), which was partially explained by sex (ratio of HRs = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.07). In this meta-analysis, gain in weight/body mass index was positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. PMID:25888582

  13. A Meta Analysis of Pancreatic Microarray Datasets Yields New Targets as Cancer Genes and Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Goonesekere, Nalin C. W.; Wang, Xiaosheng; Ludwig, Lindsey; Guda, Chittibabu

    2014-01-01

    The lack of specific symptoms at early tumor stages, together with a high biological aggressiveness of the tumor contribute to the high mortality rate for pancreatic cancer (PC), which has a five year survival rate of less than 5%. Improved screening for earlier diagnosis, through the detection of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers provides the best hope of increasing the rate of curatively resectable carcinomas. Though many serum markers have been reported to be elevated in patients with PC, so far, most of these markers have not been implemented into clinical routine due to low sensitivity or specificity. In this study, we have identified genes that are significantly upregulated in PC, through a meta-analysis of large number of microarray datasets. We demonstrate that the biological functions ascribed to these genes are clearly associated with PC and metastasis, and that that these genes exhibit a strong link to pathways involved with inflammation and the immune response. This investigation has yielded new targets for cancer genes, and potential biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. The candidate list of cancer genes includes protein kinase genes, new members of gene families currently associated with PC, as well as genes not previously linked to PC. In this study, we are also able to move towards developing a signature for hypomethylated genes, which could be useful for early detection of PC. We also show that the significantly upregulated 800+ genes in our analysis can serve as an enriched pool for tissue and serum protein biomarkers in pancreatic cancer. PMID:24740004

  14. Five Common Haplotype-Tagging Variants of Adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and Cancer Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiaoxin; Ma, Yuqing; Sang, Wei; Cui, Wenli; Li, Xinxia; Liu, Xia

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The relationship between common haplotype-tagging polymorphisms (rs266729 [11365C>G], rs822395 [?4034A>C], rs822396 [?3964A>G], rs2241766 [45T>G], and rs1501299 [276G>T]) in the ADIPOQ gene and cancer risk has been investigated in different ethnic groups; however, these studies have yielded contradictory results. With this in mind, this meta-analysis was performed in an attempt to draw a more precise conclusion regarding the association between ADIPOQ polymorphisms and cancer risk. Results: In this study, with a total of 19 eligible articles consisting of 52 studies, the pooled odds ratios (ORs) for the association between ADIPOQ rs1501299 and cancer risk were statistically significant (dominant model, TT/GT vs. GG, OR=0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77–0.92; homozygous model, TT vs. GG, OR=0.80, 95% CI: 0.68–0.94). These results suggested that ADIPOQ rs1501299 might be a protection-associated polymorphism in cancer. The stratified analyses indicated that the variant T allele of ADIPOQ rs1501299 was associated with decreased risk of cancer in both Caucasian and Asian populations when compared with the G allele. No significant association for the rest of the polymorphisms was observed under any genetic model. Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggests that the ADIPOQ rs1501299 may be a protective factor for carcinogenesis. PMID:24720830

  15. Is Your Pool Safe?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... without an adult; the pool area is off limits without adult supervision. ? Keep toys that are not in use away from the pool and out of sight. Toys can attract young children into the pool. ? Pool covers and pool alarms can be used as added layers of protection. Set rules for the pool and ...

  16. Prognostic Role of Phospho-STAT3 in Patients with Cancers of the Digestive System: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhen; Zhao, Jian-jun; Han, Yue; Li, Zhi-yu; Zhang, Ye-fan; Li, Yuan; Chen, Xiao; Hu, Xu-hui; Zhao, Hong; Cai, Jian-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective The definite prognostic role of p-STAT3 has not been well defined. We performed a meta-analysis evaluating the prognostic role of p-STAT3 expression in patients with digestive system cancers. Methods We searched the available articles reporting the prognostic value of p-STAT3 in patients with cancers of the digestive system, mainly including colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, esophagus cancer and pancreatic cancer. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were used to assess the prognostic role of p-STAT3 expression level in cancer tissues. And the association between p-STAT3 expression and clinicopathological characteristics was evaluated. Results A total of 22 studies with 3585 patients were finally enrolled in the meta-analysis. The results showed that elevated p-STAT3 expression level predicted inferior OS (HR=1.809, 95% CI: 1.442-2.270, P<0.001) and DFS (HR=1.481, 95% CI: 1.028-2.133, P= 0.035) in patients with malignant cancers of the digestive system. Increased expression of p-STAT3 is significantly related with tumor cell differentiation (Odds ratio (OR) =1.895, 95% CI: 1.364-2.632, P<0.001) and lymph node metastases (OR=2.108, 95% CI: 1.104-4.024, P=0.024). Sensitivity analysis suggested that the pooled HR was stable and omitting a single study did not change the significance of the pooled HR. Funnel plots and Egger’s tests revealed there was no significant publication bias in the meta-analysis. Conclusion Phospho-STAT3 might be a prognostic factor of patients with digestive system cancers. More well designed studies with adequate follow-up are needed to gain a thorough understanding of the prognostic role of p-STAT3. PMID:26024373

  17. Computational Analysis of Energy Pooling to Harvest Low-Energy Solar Energy in Organic Photovoltaic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacount, Michael; Shaheen, Sean; Rumbles, Garry; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Hu, Nan; Ostrowski, Dave; Lusk, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Current photovoltaic energy conversions do not typically utilize low energy sunlight absorption, leaving large sections of the solar spectrum untapped. It is possible, though, to absorb such radiation, generating low-energy excitons, and then pool them to create higher energy excitons, which can result in an increase in efficiency. Calculation of the rates at which such upconversion processes occur requires an accounting of all possible molecular quantum electrodynamics (QED) pathways. There are two paths associated with the upconversion. The cooperative mechanism involves a three-body interaction in which low energy excitons are transferred sequentially onto an acceptor molecule. The accretive pathway, requires that an exciton transfer its energy to a second exciton that subsequently transfers its energy to the acceptor molecule. We have computationally modeled both types of molecular QED obtaining rates using a combination of DFT and many-body Green function theory. The simulation platform is exercised by considering upconversion events associated with material composed of a high energy absorbing core of hexabenzocoronene (HBC) and low energy absorbing arms of oligothiophene. In addition, we make estimates for all competing processes in order to judge the relative efficiencies of these two processes.

  18. Respiratory viruses in lung transplant recipients: a critical review and pooled analysis of clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Vu, D-L; Bridevaux, P-O; Aubert, J-D; Soccal, P M; Kaiser, L

    2011-05-01

    Lung transplant recipients present an increased risk for severe complications associated with respiratory infections. We conducted a review of the literature examining the clinical relationship between viral respiratory infection and graft complications. Thirty-four studies describing the clinical impact of influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, human metapneumovirus, rhinovirus, enterovirus, coronavirus, bocavirus or adenovirus were identified. The detection rate of respiratory viral infection ranged from 1.4% to 60%. Viruses were detected five times more frequently when respiratory symptoms were present [odds ratio (OR) = 4.97; 95% CI = 2.11-11.68]. Based on available observations, we could not observe an association between respiratory viral infection and acute rejection (OR = 1.35; 95% CI = 0.41-4.43). We found a pooled incidence of 18% (9/50) of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) in virus-positive cases compared to 11.6% (37/319) in virus-negative cases; however, limited number of BOS events did not allow to confirm the association. Our review confirms a causal relationship between respiratory viruses and respiratory symptoms, but cannot confirm a link between respiratory viruses and acute lung rejection. This is related in part to the heterogeneity and limitations of available studies. The link with BOS needs also to be reassessed in appropriate prospective studies. PMID:21521473

  19. Analysis of IL-1? Release from Cryopreserved Pooled Lymphocytes in Response to Lipopolysaccharide and Lipoteichoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Sreelekshmi R.; Geetha, C. S.; Mohanan, P. V.

    2013-01-01

    Pyrogens are heterogeneous group of fever-inducing substances derived from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and viruses. They incite immune response by producing endogenous pyrogens such as prostaglandins and other proinflammatory cytokines like IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?. The present study was to analyze the influence of cryopreservation in IL-1? release, a marker for inflammatory response from human lymphocytes, in response to exogenous pyrogenic stimulants. Lymphocytes isolated from pooled blood of multiple healthy individuals were cryopreserved in DMSO and glycerol for periods of 7, 14, 30, and 60 days and were challenged with LPS and LTA in vitro. The inflammatory cytokine, IL-1? release, was measured by ELISA method. It was observed that the release of IL-1? increases instantaneously after the initiation of incubation and reaches a maximum at 3 to 5 hours and then gradually decreases and gets stabilized for both pyrogens. Moreover it was also observed that the effect of cryoprotectants, DMSO (10%) and glycerol (10%), showed almost similar results for short-term storage, but DMSO-preserved lymphocytes yielded a better viability for long-term storage. Thus, the isolated cryopreserved lymphocytes system can be a promising approach for the total replacement/alteration to animal experimentation for pyrogenicity evaluation. PMID:24024208

  20. Experiment on nucleate pool boiling in microgravity by using transparent heating surface - Analysis of surface heat transfer coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, C.; Kawanami, O.; Asada, Y.; Wada, Y.; Nagayasu, T.; Shinmoto, Y.; Ohta, H.; Kabov, O.; Queeckers, P.; Chikov, S.; Straub, J.

    2011-12-01

    Investigation of mechanisms in nucleate boiling under microgravity conditions is essential for the development of the cooling systems handling a large amount of waste heat. A transparent heating surface with multiple arrays of 88 thin film temperature sensors and mini-heaters was developed for the clarification of boiling heat transfer mechanisms in microgravity. To investigate gravity effects on the microlayer behaviors and corresponding local heat transfer coefficients, images of liquid-vapor behaviors underneath attached bubbles and local heat transfer data were simultaneously obtained in microgravity pool boiling. The present paper reports the analysis of the data measured during the ESA parabolic flight campaign. It was found that the liquid-vapor behaviors were strongly affected by the direction and the level of residual gravity. Various patterns of liquid-vapor behaviours and corresponding enhancement or deterioration of the heat transfer are observed.

  1. Pooled analysis of safety data from pediatric Phase II RTS,S/AS malaria candidate vaccine trials.

    PubMed

    Vekemans, Johan; Guerra, Yolanda; Lievens, Marc; Benns, Sarah; Lapierre, Didier; Leach, Amanda; Verstraeten, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    Prior to progression to Clinical Development Phase III, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals performed a pooled analysis of phase two safety data following administration of 8860 doses of RTS,S/AS to 2981 children under 5 years old. RTS,S/AS was associated with increased rates of non-serious URTI, rash and diaper dermatitis graded mild or moderate. There was no significant increased rate of overall or single SAEs. Two episodes of simple febrile seizure were estimated to be related to vaccination. Significant decreased relative risks of death, any SAE, any SAE excluding malaria and pneumonia were observed. The results suggest a favourable risk-benefit balance which is to be confirmed in the ongoing Phase III trials. PMID:22108035

  2. A factor analysis of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms using data pooled from two venlafaxine extended-release clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Dan J; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Baldwin, David S; Szumski, Annette; Pedersen, Ronald; Davidson, Jonathan R T

    2013-01-01

    Background Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) (DSM-IV) three-factor posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria was conducted to determine fit for this patient population. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of alternate symptom structures was planned to identify symptoms that cluster in this population. The response of symptom factors to treatment with venlafaxine extended release (ER) was explored. Methods Baseline 17-item Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS-SX17) data were pooled from patients enrolled in two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials. The CFA was conducted using maximum likelihood and weighted, least-squares factor extraction methods. The EFA was performed using a polychoric correlation covariance matrix and Pearson correlation matrix. Results Data from a pooled population of 685 patients (venlafaxine ER: n = 339; placebo: n = 346) were analyzed. CFA rejected the DSM-IV three-factor structure. The EFA identified a different three-factor structure as the best fit: factor 1 included reexperiencing symptoms, factor 2 included symptoms of altered mood and cognition, whereas factor 3 comprised avoidance and arousal symptoms. All DSM-IV symptom factors and all factors in the identified three-factor model responded positively to venlafaxine ER treatment. Conclusions Data are consistent with literature failing to confirm the three-factor structure of DSM-IV PTSD, and they support the DSM-5 inclusion of a symptom cluster addressing altered mood and cognition in PTSD. The efficacy of venlafaxine ER in reducing a range of symptom clusters in PTSD is consistent with its multiple mechanisms of action. PMID:24363976

  3. Three ADIPOR1 Polymorphisms and Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Changliang; Liu, Aiqun; Mao, Sufei; Ge, Lianying

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies have come to conflicting conclusions about whether polymorphisms in the adiponectin receptor 1 gene (ADIPOR1) are associated with cancer risk. To help resolve this question, we meta-analyzed case-control studies in the literature. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, the Chinese Biological Medical Database and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database were systematically searched to identify all case-control studies published through February 2015 examining any ADIPOR1 polymorphisms and risk of any type of cancer. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results A total of 13 case-control studies involving 5,750 cases and 6,762 controls were analyzed. Analysis of the entire study population revealed a significant association between rs1342387(G/A) and overall cancer risk using a homozygous model (OR 0.82, 95%CI 0.72 to 0.94), heterozygous model (OR 0.84, 95%CI 0.76 to 0.93), dominant model (OR 0.85, 95%CI 0.75 to 0.97) and allele contrast model (OR 0.88, 95%CI 0.80 to 0.97). However, subgroup analysis showed that this association was significant only for Asians in the case of colorectal cancer. No significant associations were found between rs12733285(C/T) or rs7539542(C/G) and cancer risk, either in analyses of the entire study population or in analyses of subgroups. Conclusions Our meta-analysis suggests that the ADIPOR1 rs1342387(G/A) polymorphism, but not rs12733285(C/T) or rs7539542(C/G), may be associated with cancer risk, especially risk of colorectal cancer in Asians. Large, well-designed studies are needed to verify our findings. PMID:26047008

  4. Bayesian Pathway Analysis of Cancer Microarray Data

    PubMed Central

    Korucuoglu, Melike; Isci, Senol; Ozgur, Arzucan; Otu, Hasan H.

    2014-01-01

    High Throughput Biological Data (HTBD) requires detailed analysis methods and from a life science perspective, these analysis results make most sense when interpreted within the context of biological pathways. Bayesian Networks (BNs) capture both linear and nonlinear interactions and handle stochastic events in a probabilistic framework accounting for noise making them viable candidates for HTBD analysis. We have recently proposed an approach, called Bayesian Pathway Analysis (BPA), for analyzing HTBD using BNs in which known biological pathways are modeled as BNs and pathways that best explain the given HTBD are found. BPA uses the fold change information to obtain an input matrix to score each pathway modeled as a BN. Scoring is achieved using the Bayesian-Dirichlet Equivalent method and significance is assessed by randomization via bootstrapping of the columns of the input matrix. In this study, we improve on the BPA system by optimizing the steps involved in “Data Preprocessing and Discretization”, “Scoring”, “Significance Assessment”, and “Software and Web Application”. We tested the improved system on synthetic data sets and achieved over 98% accuracy in identifying the active pathways. The overall approach was applied on real cancer microarray data sets in order to investigate the pathways that are commonly active in different cancer types. We compared our findings on the real data sets with a relevant approach called the Signaling Pathway Impact Analysis (SPIA). PMID:25036210

  5. Independent review of design and analysis for Holtec spent fuel storage racks of CPP 666 Pool 1

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.K.

    1996-03-01

    This document summarizes the analyses and review performed to develop and validate the design of the new fuel storage racks for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) Fuel Storage Area (FSA). Holtec International is responsible for the design and fabrication of the storage racks. This report describes the issues raised in the review effort and the resolutions to these issues. The conclusion is reached that the review issues for the racks of Pool 1 have been satisfactorily resolved in the final design and analysis for these racks. Section 1 of this report gives a brief description of the project. Section 2 describes the approach that Holtec used in analyzing the racks and results from these analyses. Section 3 describes the independent review process. Section 4 discusses the identification of and resolution to comments on the design analysis. Section 5 describes additional analysis performed to address major concerns with the Holtec design analysis. Section 6 presents a summary of AEC`s independent review, which is based on AEC`s final review report. Finally, Section 7 gives the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) position on the acceptability of Holtec`s design.

  6. E3-ligase Skp2 predicts poor prognosis and maintains cancer stem cell pool in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hong-kai; Zhang, Wei; Yue, Cai-feng; Yan, Min; Guan, Su; Qiang Liu, Quentin

    2014-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the severe head and neck carcinomas, which is rare in west countries but has high incidence in Southern Asia especially South China. Although NPC is relatively sensitive to radiotherapy, the prognosis of patients is poor due to the advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in tumorigenesis and develop early diagnostic techniques. S-phase kinase associated protein 2 (Skp2) is overexpressed in several human cancers and associates with poor prognosis. However, its function in NPC has not been fully addressed. In this study we found Skp2 was highly expressed in NPC specimen and correlated with poor prognosis. We generated Skp2 knockdown cells to further delineate its role in NPC development. Knockdown of Skp2 partially reduced cell proliferation, promoted cellular senescence, and decreased the population of stem cell like aldehyde dehydrogenase1 positive cells as well as their self-renewal ability. Our study not only interprets the predictive role of Skp2 in the poor prognosis of NPC patients, but also reveals that Skp2 regulates the NPC cancer stem cell maintenance, which shed lights on the target therapy and early diagnosis of NPC in clinical application. PMID:25015320

  7. Human papillomavirus and cancerous diseases of the head and neck: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Saulle, R; Semyonov, L; Mannocci, A; Careri, A; Saburri, F; Ottolenghi, L; Guerra, F; La Torre, G

    2015-05-01

    The increasing incidence of head and neck cancer (HNSCC) highlights the need to better understand the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the development of these cancers. The aims of this study were to conduct a systematic review and a meta-analysis concerning observational studies on the association between HPV infection and HNSCC and to quantify this association, thereby obtaining a reliable estimation of the risk of HPV infection in the development of head and neck cancer. Literature searches were performed using PubMed and Scopus databases. StatsDirect 2.7.8 program was used for the analysis. We found 15 case-control studies, 63 prevalence studies, and no cohort studies. The pooled odds ratio (OR) for all the included case-control studies resulted in a value of 1.63 (95% CI 1.27-2.09; P < 0.0001). The highest pooled OR resulted from the analysis of all the studies that examined HPV 16 genotype in association oral cavity (OR 5.36; 95% CI 1.4-20). The strong evidence of association between HPV infection and HNSCC highlights the importance of the introduction of specific tests in the cancer prevention practices to evaluate the presence of the virus, especially in the oral cavity, and the possibility of an extension of the vaccine anti-HPV in the male population too. PMID:24962169

  8. NaK pool-boiler bench-scale receiver durability test: Test results and materials analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Andraka; S. H. Goods; R. W. Bradshaw; J. B. Moreno; T. A. Moss; S. A. Jones

    1994-01-01

    Pool-boiler reflux receivers have been considered as an alternative to heat pipes for the input of concentrated solar energy to Stirling-cycle engines in dish-Stirling electric generation systems. Pool boilers offer simplicity in design and fabrication. The operation of a full-scale pool-boiler receiver has been demonstrated for short periods of time. However, to generate cost-effective electricity, the receiver must operate Without

  9. Optical spectra analysis for breast cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkov, S. A.; Kochemasov, G. G.; Lyubynskaya, T. E.; Maslov, N. V.; Nuzhny, A. S.; da Silva, L. B.; Rubenchik, A.

    2011-11-01

    Minimally invasive probe and optical biopsy system based on optical spectra recording and analysis seem to be a promising tool for early diagnostics of breast cancer. Light scattering and absorption spectra are generated continuously as far as the needle-like probe with one emitting and several collecting optical fibers penetrates through the tissues toward to the suspicious area. That allows analyzing not only the state of local site, but also the structure of tissues along the needle trace. The suggested method has the advantages of automated on-line diagnosing and minimal tissue destruction and in parallel with the conventional diagnostic procedures provides the ground for decision-making. 165 medical trials were completed in Nizhny Novgorod Regional Oncology Centre, Russia. Independent diagnoses were the results of fine biopsy and histology. Application of wavelet expansion and clasterization techniques for spectra analysis revealed several main spectral types for malignant and benign tumors. Automatic classification algorithm demonstrated specificity ˜90% and sensitivity ˜91%. Large amount of information, fuzziness in criteria and data noisiness make neural networks to be an attractive analytic tool. The model based on three-layer perceptron was tested over the sample of 29 `cancer' and 29 `non-cancer' cases and demonstrated total separation.

  10. The Association of Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta2(RAR?2) Methylation Status and Prostate Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yuqin; Li, Rui; Xu, Yeqiong; Chen, Liping; Nie, Zhenling; Gu, Ling; Wang, Shukui

    2013-01-01

    The retinoic acid receptor beta2(RAR?2) is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by both all-trans retinoic acid and 9-cis retinoic acid, which has been shown to function as a tumor suppressor gene in different types of human tumors. Previous reports demonstrated that the frequency of RAR?2 methylation was significantly higher in prostate cancer patients compared with controls, but the relationship between RAR?2 promoter methylation and pathological stage or Gleason score of prostate cancer remained controversial. Therefore, a meta-analysis of published studies investigating the effects of RAR?2 methylation status in prostate cancer occurrence and association with both pathological stage and Gleason score in prostate cancer was performed in the study. A total of 12 eligible studies involving 777 cases and 404 controls were included in the pooled analyses. Under the random-effects model, the pooled OR of RAR?2 methylation in prostate cancer patients, compared to non-cancer controls, was 17.62 with 95%CI?=?6.30–49.28. The pooled OR with the fixed-effects model of pathological stage in RASSF1A methylated patients, compared to unmethylated patients, was 0.67 (95%CI?=?0.40–1.09) and the pooled OR of low-GS in RAR?2 methylated patients by the random-effect model, compared to high-GS RAR?2 methylated patients, was 0.54 (95%CI?=?0.28–1.04). This study showed that RAR?2 might be a potential biomarker in prostate cancer prevention and diagnosis. The detection of RAR?2 methylation in urine or serum is a potential non-invasive diagnostic tool in prostate cancer. The present findings also require confirmation through adequately designed prospective studies. PMID:23675444

  11. Occupational exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and respiratory and urinary tract cancers: an updated systematic review and a meta-analysis to 2014.

    PubMed

    Rota, Matteo; Bosetti, Cristina; Boccia, Stefania; Boffetta, Paolo; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been associated with an excess risk of respiratory tract and bladder cancers in several industries, but the issue requires further quantification. We updated a previous systematic review by reviewing in details cohort studies on workers employed in selected industries with potential PAH exposure published between 2006 and 2014, and we summarized through a meta-analytic approach the main results of all available cohort studies published between 1958 and 2014 investigating cancers of the respiratory and urinary tracts. Thirteen papers on cohort studies investigating cancer risk in workers exposed to PAHs were retrieved through the literature search. These included workers from aluminum production industries (seven studies), iron and steel foundries (two studies), asphalt workers (two studies), and carbon black production (two studies). In the meta-analysis, an excess risk of respiratory tract cancers (mainly lung cancer) was found in iron and steel foundries [pooled relative risk (RR) 1.31, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.59 from 14 studies], while a weak excess risk (pooled RR 1.08, 95 % CI 0.95-1.23 from 11 studies) emerged for aluminum production. A borderline increase risk was also observed for cancer of the bladder in the aluminum production (pooled RR 1.28, 95 % CI 0.98-1.68 from 10 studies) and in iron and steel foundries (pooled RR 1.38, 95 % CI 1.00-1.91 from 9 studies). This updated review and meta-analysis confirm the increased risk from respiratory tract and bladder cancers in selected PAH-related occupations. It cannot be ruled out whether such excesses are due, at least in part, to possible bias or residual confounding. PMID:24935254

  12. Liposome bupivacaine for improvement in economic outcomes and opioid burden in GI surgery: IMPROVE Study pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Stephen M; Vogel, Jon D; Marcet, Jorge E; Candiotti, Keith A

    2014-01-01

    Postsurgical pain management remains a significant challenge. Liposome bupivacaine, as part of a multimodal analgesic regimen, has been shown to significantly reduce postsurgical opioid consumption, hospital length of stay (LOS), and hospitalization costs in gastrointestinal (GI) surgery, compared with intravenous (IV) opioid-based patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Pooled results from open-label studies comparing a liposome bupivacaine-based multimodal analgesic regimen with IV opioid PCA were analyzed. Patients (n=191) who underwent planned surgery and received study drug (IV opioid PCA, n=105; multimodal analgesia, n=86) were included. Liposome bupivacaine-based multimodal analgesia compared with IV opioid PCA significantly reduced mean (standard deviation [SD]) postsurgical opioid consumption (38 [55] mg versus [vs] 96 [85] mg; P<0.0001), postsurgical LOS (median 2.9 vs 4.3 days; P<0.0001), and mean hospitalization costs (US$8,271 vs US$10,726; P=0.0109). The multimodal analgesia group reported significantly fewer patients with opioid-related adverse events (AEs) than the IV opioid PCA group (P=0.0027); there were no significant between-group differences in patient satisfaction scores at 30 days. A liposome bupivacaine-based multimodal analgesic regimen was associated with significantly less opioid consumption, opioid-related AEs, and better health economic outcomes compared with an IV opioid PCA-based regimen in patients undergoing GI surgery. Study registration This pooled analysis is based on data from Phase IV clinical trials registered on the US National Institutes of Health www.ClinicalTrials.gov database under study identifiers NCT01460485, NCT01507220, NCT01507233, NCT01509638, NCT01509807, NCT01509820, NCT01461122, NCT01461135, NCT01534988, and NCT01507246. PMID:25018650

  13. Gemcitabine Adjuvant Therapy for Resected Pancreatic Cancer: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhong; Zhong, Wa; Tan, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Ling-Yun; Yuan, Yu-Hong

    2015-06-01

    Gemcitabine (GEM) is an approved treatment for unresectable pancreatic cancer; however, its role in treating resected pancreatic cancer is less clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the evidence of the role of adjuvant GEM therapy on survival in resected pancreatic cancer. Four phase III randomized trials of adjuvant GEM in patients with resected pancreatic cancer were identified and the hazard ratio (HR) for overall survival were used in this meta-analysis; 2 studies compared GEM treatment with best supportive care and 2 studies with 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid therapy. The pooled data (n=2017 patients) indicated that the overall survival data were homogenous among the studies (Q=4.371; I=31.37%; P=0. 224). The combined HR significantly favors GEM over the other treatments. The overall HR was 0.88 (range, 0. 720 to 0.940; P=0.014). The results indicate that GEM prolongs overall survival compared with other treatments after the resection of pancreatic cancer. PMID:23934134

  14. Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between CXCR4 Expression and Metastasis in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joo Yong; Kang, Dong Hyuk; Chung, Doo Yong; Kwon, Jong Kyou; Lee, Hyungmin; Cho, Nam Hoon; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Experimental studies have suggested that the stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXCR4 axis is associated with tumor aggressiveness and metastasis in several malignancies. We performed a meta-analysis to elucidate the relationship between CXCR4 expression and the clinicopathological features of prostate cancer. Materials and Methods Data were collected from studies comparing Gleason score, T stage, and the presence of metastasis with CXCR4 levels in human prostate cancer samples. The studies were pooled, and the odds ratio (OR) of CXCR4 expression for clinical and pathological variables was calculated. Results Five articles were eligible for the current meta-analysis. We found no relationship between CXCR4 expression and Gleason score (<7 vs. ?7). The forest plot using the fixed-effects model indicated an OR of 1.585 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.793~3.171; p=0.193). Further, CXCR4 expression was not associated with the T stage (analysis showed OR=1.803 (95% CI: 0.756~4.297, p=0.183). However, increased CXCR4 expression was strongly associated with metastatic disease with a fixed-effects pooled OR of 7.459 (95% CI: 2.665~20.878, p<0.001). Conclusions Our meta-analysis showed that the higher CXCR4 protein expression in prostate cancer specimens is significantly associated with the presence of metastatic disease. This supports previous experimental data supporting the role played by the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in metastasis. PMID:25606566

  15. Coffee consumption and risk of cancers: a meta-analysis of cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Coffee consumption has been shown to be associated with cancer of various sites in epidemiological studies. However, there is no comprehensive overview of the substantial body of epidemiologic evidence. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded and bibliographies of retrieved articles. Prospective cohort studies were included if they reported relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of various cancers with respect to frequency of coffee intake. We did random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regressions of study-specific incremental estimates to determine the risk of cancer associated with 1 cup/day increment of coffee consumption. Results 59 studies, consisting of 40 independent cohorts, met the inclusion criteria. Compared with individuals who did not or seldom drink coffee per day, the pooled RR of cancer was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.82-0.92) for regular coffee drinkers, 0.89 (0.84-0.93) for low to moderate coffee drinkers, and 0.82 (0.74-0.89) for high drinkers. Overall, an increase in consumption of 1 cup of coffee per day was associated with a 3% reduced risk of cancers (RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.96-0.98). In subgroup analyses, we noted that, coffee drinking was associated with a reduced risk of bladder, breast, buccal and pharyngeal, colorectal, endometrial, esophageal, hepatocellular, leukemic, pancreatic, and prostate cancers. Conclusions Findings from this meta-analysis suggest that coffee consumption may reduce the total cancer incidence and it also has an inverse association with some type of cancers. PMID:21406107

  16. [The dagestan gene pool: the genetic structure of the nine largest ethnic groups: analysis based on data on the ABO and Rhesus blood groups].

    PubMed

    Radzhabov, M O; Mamaev, I A; Shamov, I A; Gasaev, D G; Shne?der, Iu V

    2009-02-01

    Detailed analysis of the population structure of Dagestan ethnic groups based on data on the ABO and Rhesus blood groups has been carried out. A total of 32101 representatives of the nine largest ethnic groups of Dagestan (from 682 auls in 46 raions) have been examined. This allows a comprehensive genetic landscape of the Dagestan population to be drawn. Comparison of the ethnic groups studied with other Caucasian ethnic groups makes it possible to determine the position of the Dagestan gene pool in the total structure of the Caucasian gene pool. PMID:19334622

  17. BIOINFORMATICS ANALYSIS OF OMICS DATA TOWARDS CANCER DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Porgramming 69 PART 3: NON-INVASIVE TESTS FOR PROSTATE CANCER DIAGNOSIS CHAPTER 5. Autoantibody SignatureBIOINFORMATICS ANALYSIS OF OMICS DATA TOWARDS CANCER DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS by Jianjun Yu-BASED CANCER DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS CHAPTER 3. A Transcriptional Fingerprint of Estrogen in Human Breast

  18. BIOSIGNAL 2002 Textural Analysis Of Prostate Cancer In Transrectal

    E-print Network

    Juan, Alfons

    BIOSIGNAL 2002 Textural Analysis Of Prostate Cancer In Transrectal Ultrasound Images. Juan C. Perez of prostate cancer is presented. Several feature extraction methods are tested in a typical Statistical malignant tissue in the images. 1 Introduction Prostate cancer is one of the main causes of death from

  19. Cancer Nursing Education: Literature Review and Documentary Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langton, Helen; Blunden, Gillian; Hek, Gill

    The knowledge and skills needed by cancer nurses and the content and strategies of England's existing cancer nursing education programs were examined. The study included a comprehensive literature review and an analysis of course documents from selected English National Board-approved post-qualifying cancer nursing and palliative care courses…

  20. Soy food intake after diagnosis of breast cancer and survival: an in-depth analysis of combined evidence from cohort studies of US and Chinese women123

    PubMed Central

    Nechuta, Sarah J; Caan, Bette J; Chen, Wendy Y; Lu, Wei; Chen, Zhi; Kwan, Marilyn L; Flatt, Shirley W; Zheng, Ying; Zheng, Wei; Pierce, John P; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2012-01-01

    Background: Soy isoflavones have antiestrogenic and anticancer properties but also possess estrogen-like properties, which has raised concern about soy food consumption among breast cancer survivors. Objective: We prospectively evaluated the association between postdiagnosis soy food consumption and breast cancer outcomes among US and Chinese women by using data from the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project. Design: The analysis included 9514 breast cancer survivors with a diagnosis of invasive breast cancer between 1991 and 2006 from 2 US cohorts and 1 Chinese cohort. Soy isoflavone intake (mg/d) was measured with validated food-frequency questionnaires. HRs and 95% CIs were estimated by using delayed-entry Cox regression models, adjusted for sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors. Results: After a mean follow-up of 7.4 y, we identified 1171 total deaths (881 from breast cancer) and 1348 recurrences. Despite large differences in soy isoflavone intake by country, isoflavone consumption was inversely associated with recurrence among both US and Chinese women, regardless of whether data were analyzed separately by country or combined. No heterogeneity was observed. In the pooled analysis, consumption of ?10 mg isoflavones/d was associated with a nonsignificant reduced risk of all-cause (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.70, 1.10) and breast cancer–specific (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.64, 1.07) mortality and a statistically significant reduced risk of recurrence (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.92). Conclusion: In this large study of combined data on US and Chinese women, postdiagnosis soy food consumption of ?10 mg isoflavones/d was associated with a nonsignificant reduced risk of breast cancer–specific mortality and a statistically significant reduced risk of recurrence. One of the studies included in the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project, the Women's Healthy Eating & Living Study, was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00003787. PMID:22648714

  1. Collaborative Depression Treatment in Older and Younger Adults with Physical Illness: Pooled Comparative Analysis of Three Randomized Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Ell, Kathleen; Aranda, María P.; Xie, Bin; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Chou, Chih-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Objective There have been few comparisons of the effectiveness of collaborative depression care between older versus younger adults with co-morbid illness, particularly among low-income populations. Design Intent-to-treat analyses are conducted on pooled data from three randomized controlled trials that tested collaborative care aimed at improving depression, quality of life and treatment receipt. Settings Trials were conducted in oncology and primary care safety net clinics and diverse home health care programs. Participants 1,081 patients with major depressive symptoms and cancer, diabetes or other co-morbid illness. Intervention Similar intervention protocols included patient, provider, socio-cultural and organizational adaptations. Measurements The PHQ-9 depression, SF-12/20 quality-of-life, self-reported hospitalization, ER, ICU utilization, and antidepressant, psychotherapy treatment receipt are assessed at baseline, 6, 12 months. Results There are no significant differences in reducing depression symptoms (P ranged 0.18-0.58), improving quality-of-life (t=1.86, df=669, P=0.07 for physical functioning at 12 months; and P ranged 0.23-0.99 for all others) between patients ?60 versus 18-59. Both age group intervention patients have significantly higher rates of a 50% PHQ-9 reduction (older: Wald ?2[df=1]=4.82, p=0.03; younger: Wald ?2[df=1]=6.47, p=0.02), greater reduction in major depression rates (older: Wald ?2[df=1]=7.72, p=0.01; younger: Wald ?2[df=1]=4.0, p=0.05) than enhanced-usual-care patients at 6 months, and are no significant age group differences in treatment type or intensity. Conclusion Collaborative depression care in individuals with co-morbid illness is as effective in reducing depression in older patients as younger patients, including among low-income, minority patients. Patient, provider, and organizational adaptations of depression care management models may contribute to positive outcomes. PMID:20220588

  2. Analysis of Senate Bill 961: Cancer Treatment

    E-print Network

    California Health Benefits Review Program (CHBRP)

    2010-01-01

    other cancer medications or radiation; first-line treatmentTreatment Role Used alone or in combination with other cancer medications, radiation,treatment of women with recurrent or metastatic breast cancer; used as an alternative to radiation

  3. Analysis of Assembly Bill 1000: Cancer Treatment

    E-print Network

    California Health Benefits Review Program (CHBRP)

    2011-01-01

    other cancer medications or radiation; first-line treatmentTreatment Role Used alone or in combination with other cancer medications or radiationtreatment of women with recurrent or metastatic breast cancer; used as an alternative to radiation

  4. Internet cancer support groups: a feminist analysis.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Lin, Li-Chen; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2005-01-01

    Internet Cancer Support Groups (ICSGs) are an emerging form of support group on Internet specifically for cancer patients. Previous studies have indicated the effectiveness of ICSGs as a research setting or a data-collection method. Yet recent studies have also indicated that ICSGs tend to serve highly educated, high-income White males who tend to be at an early stage of cancer. In this article, a total of 317 general ICSGs and 229 ethnic-specific ICSGs searched through Google.com, Yahoo.com, Msn.com, AOL.com, and ACOR.org are analyzed from a feminist perspective. The written records of group discussions and written memos by the research staff members were also analyzed using content analysis. The idea categories that emerged about these groups include (a) authenticity issues; (b) ethnicity and gender issues; (c) intersubjectivity issues; and (d) potential ethical issues. The findings suggest that (a) researchers adopt multiple recruitment strategies through various Internet sites and/or real settings; (b) researchers raise their own awareness of the potential influences of the health-related resources provided by ICSGs and regularly update their knowledge related to the federal and state standards and/or policies related to ICSGs; and (c) researchers consider adopting a quota-sampling method. PMID:15681976

  5. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nirav R.; Borenstein, Jeff; Dubois, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    Objective There is a rapidly evolving debate on the indications and appropriate duration of therapy for postmenopausal hormone therapy. The objective of this meta-analysis was to examine the specific relationships of postmenopausal estrogen therapy (ET), postmenopausal combined (estrogen-progestogen) hormone therapy (CHT), and the incidence of breast cancer. Design We performed computerized searches of MEDLINE and CancerLit through September 2003 and reviewed reference lists of retrieved studies and meta-analyses. We included English-language studies that identified noncontraceptive postmenopausal hormone use; reported on the risks of “current use” of ET and/or CHT and breast cancer incidence; were case-control, cohort, or experimental; and reported either an odds ratio (OR), relative risk (RR), or HR with CIs. Two investigators were involved during all stages of study selection and independently extracted all data selected for inclusion in meta-analyses. Results Meta-analysis of 13 studies of ET and breast cancer (700,000 women) resulted in an OR of 1.16 (95% confidence limits [CL] 1.06, 1.28), with estimates for less than 5 years use 1.16 (1.02, 1.32) and more than 5 years use 1.20 (1.06, 1.37). Meta-analysis of eight studies of CHT and breast cancer (650,000 women) resulted in an OR of 1.39 (95% CL 1.12, 1.72), with estimates for less than 5 years use 1.35 (1.16, 1.57) and more than 5 years use 1.63 (1.22, 2.18). Conclusions Data from observational studies support the association of increased but considerably different risks for breast cancer incidence among current users of ET and CHT. These represent the first pooled estimates for ET. CHT estimates correspond to those from randomized trials. PMID:16278609

  6. Hematologic toxicity assessment in solid tumor patients treated with cetuximab: a pooled analysis of 18 randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ran; Chu, Li; Liu, Zhu-qing; Xiao, Yuan-yuan; Zhu, Xiao-li; Chen, Yi-jing; Xu, Qing

    2015-02-15

    The role of cetuximab in treatment-related hematologic toxicity is not clear. We performed a meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the overall risk of ?grade 3 hematologic toxicity events (HTEs) associated with cetuximab. PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Knowledge databases as well as abstracts presented at American Society of Clinical Oncology conferences and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched to identify relevant studies. Eligible studies included RCTs in which cetuximab in combination with chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy was compared with chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy alone. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fixed- or random-effects models. A total of 11,234 patients with a variety of advanced solid tumors from 18 RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with chemotherapy alone, the addition of cetuximab was associated with increased risks of ?grade 3 leucopenia/neutropenia and anemia events in colorectal cancer, with RRs of 1.16 (95% CI 1.05-1.27, p=0.002; incidence, 21.0 vs. 18.0%) and 2.67 (95% CI 1.53-4.65, p=0.01; incidence, 4.0 vs. 2.0%), respectively. Cetuximab was also associated with an increased risk of leucopenia/neutropenia in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (RR: 1.15; 95% CI 1.08-1.22, p<0.01). Additionally, K-ras wild type in the case of colorectal cancer patients was more vulnerable to ?grade 3 leucopenia or neutropenia events in cetuximab group (RR: 1.31; 95% CI 1.11-1.54, p=0.001). With present evidence, cetuximab in conjunction with chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy, compared with chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy alone, was associated with increased slight risk of ?grade 3 HTEs, especially in colorectal cancer and NSCLC. PMID:24975040

  7. Genetic association between the HIF-1? P582S polymorphism and cervical cancer risk: a meta analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jing; Cheng, Xiang; Xie, Rongkai; Chen, Zhengqiong; Li, Youfei; Lin, Guilan; Liu, Jianmei; Yang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1?) P582S polymorphism has been reported to increase transactivation capacity of HIF-1?, which is prone to tumorigenesis. Several published case-control studies on the association between P582S polymorphism and cervical cancer have shown mixed results. In this study, we chose to perform a meta-analysis to assess the association. Methodology/Principal findings: We conducted a meta-analysis consisting of four studies with a total of 846 cases and 991 controls. All data were collected and overall comparison was performed among all subjects. Using the fi xed effects model, the homozygous and the recessive models showed a significant increase in the risk of cervical cancer (the pooled OR=6.32, 95% CI=2.28-17.55, Phet=0.348; the pooled OR=5.86, 95% CI=2.13-16.11, Phet=0.394 respectively). Publication bias was not significantly indicated in this analysis. Conclusions: This meta-analysis demonstrates that HIF-1? P582S polymorphism may be associated with the risk of cervical cancer. PMID:25337255

  8. RAD51 135G>C substitution increases breast cancer risk in an ethnic-specific manner: a meta-analysis on 21236 cases and 19407 controls

    PubMed Central

    Sekhar, Deepa; Pooja, Singh; Kumar, Sandeep; Rajender, Singh

    2015-01-01

    RAD51 is a homolog of bacterial RecA protein, which plays an important role in preserving stability of the genome. RAD51 interacts with BRCA1 and BRCA2 for homologous recombination repair. A functional polymorphism (135G?>?C) in the RAD51 gene has been a subject of great interest, which is evidenced by at least 28 case-control studies and eight meta-analyses undertaken on this polymorphism till now. We undertook a meta-analysis on RAD51 135G?>?C data for 21236 cases and 19407 controls pooled from 28 studies on breast cancer in women. Pooled data analysis suggested a significant association of the substitution with breast cancer in the recessive model (GG?+?GC versus CC) and in the co-dominant models comparing GG versus CC and GC versus CC. Analysis of the results suggested that ‘CC’ genotype is a significant breast cancer risk factor in comparison to ‘GG’ and ‘GC’ genotypes. We also undertook pooled analyses on different ethnic groups and found that ‘CC’ was a strong risk factor in Caucasians, but not in East-Asians and populations of mixed ethnicity. In conclusion, the RAD51 135G?>?C substitution in the homozygous form (CC) increases the risk of breast cancer in an ethnic-specific manner. PMID:26108708

  9. RAD51 135G>C substitution increases breast cancer risk in an ethnic-specific manner: a meta-analysis on 21236 cases and 19407 controls.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, Deepa; Pooja, Singh; Kumar, Sandeep; Rajender, Singh

    2015-01-01

    RAD51 is a homolog of bacterial RecA protein, which plays an important role in preserving stability of the genome. RAD51 interacts with BRCA1 and BRCA2 for homologous recombination repair. A functional polymorphism (135G?>?C) in the RAD51 gene has been a subject of great interest, which is evidenced by at least 28 case-control studies and eight meta-analyses undertaken on this polymorphism till now. We undertook a meta-analysis on RAD51 135G?>?C data for 21236 cases and 19407 controls pooled from 28 studies on breast cancer in women. Pooled data analysis suggested a significant association of the substitution with breast cancer in the recessive model (GG?+?GC versus CC) and in the co-dominant models comparing GG versus CC and GC versus CC. Analysis of the results suggested that 'CC' genotype is a significant breast cancer risk factor in comparison to 'GG' and 'GC' genotypes. We also undertook pooled analyses on different ethnic groups and found that 'CC' was a strong risk factor in Caucasians, but not in East-Asians and populations of mixed ethnicity. In conclusion, the RAD51 135G?>?C substitution in the homozygous form (CC) increases the risk of breast cancer in an ethnic-specific manner. PMID:26108708

  10. Pooling Data from Multiple Longitudinal Studies: The Role of Item Response Theory in Integrative Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Patrick J.; Hussong, Andrea M.; Cai, Li; Huang, Wenjing; Chassin, Laurie; Sher, Kenneth J.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of significant challenges researchers encounter when studying development over an extended period of time, including subject attrition, the changing of measurement structures across groups and developmental periods, and the need to invest substantial time and money. Integrative data analysis is an emerging set of methodologies…

  11. Fire Effects on Nitrogen Pools and Dynamics in Terrestrial Ecosystems: A Meta-Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiqiang Wan; Dafeng Hui; Yiqi Luo

    2001-01-01

    A comprehensive and quantitative evaluation of the effects of fire on eco- system nitrogen (N) is urgently needed for directing future fire research and management. This study used a meta-analysis method to synthesize up to 185 data sets from 87 studies published from 1955 to 1999. Six N response variables related to fire were examined: fuel N amount (FNA) and

  12. Consequence analysis of aqueous ammonia spills using an improved liquid pool evaporation model

    E-print Network

    Raghunathan, Vijay

    2005-02-17

    for aqueous ammonia spills was then checked to aid in the offsite consequence analysis of aqueous ammonia spills. The behavior of the chemical released depends on its various inherent properties, ambient conditions and the spill scenario. The different... ..............................................................64 6.6 Applicability of the Model Under Different Meteorological Conditions67 6.7 Limitations of the Model.........................................................................69 VII MODELING SOFTWARE...

  13. Prognostic Value of CD166 Expression in Cancers of the Digestive System: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaotao; Liu, Yang; Qu, Dihong; Wu, Ping; Huang, Jian; Xu, A-xiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective Many studies have reported the prognostic predictive value of CD166 as a cancer stem cell marker in cancers of the digestive system; however, its predictive value remains controversial. Here, we investigate the correlation between CD166 positivity in digestive system cancers and clinicopathological features using meta-analysis. Methods A comprehensive search in PubMed and ISI Web of Science through March of 2013 was performed. Only articles containing CD166 antigen immunohistochemical staining in cancers of the digestive system were included,including pancreatic cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. Data comparing 3- and 5-year overall survival along with other clinicopathological features were collected. Results Nine studies with 2553 patients who met the inclusion criteria were included for the analysis. The median rate of CD166 immunohistochemical staining expression was 56% (25.4%–76.3%). In colorectal cancer specifically, the results of a fixed-effects model indicated that CD166-positive expression was an independent marker associated with a smaller tumor burden (T category; RR?=?0.93, 95%, CI: 0.88–0.98) but worse spread to nearby lymph nodes (N category; RR?=?1.17, 95% CI: 1.05–1.30). The 5-year overall survival rate was showed relationship with cytoplasmic positive staining of CD166 (RR?=?1.47 95% 1.21–1.79), but no significant association was found in the pool or any other stratified analysis with 3- or 5- year overall survival rate. Conclusion Based on the published studies, different cellular location of CD166 has distinct prognostic value and cytoplasmic positive expression is associated with worse prognosis outcome. Besides, our results also find CD166 expression indicate advanced T category and N-positive status in colorectal cancer specifically. PMID:23940674

  14. Meta-Analysis of Efficacy of Interventions for Elevated Depressive Symptoms in Adults Diagnosed With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cancer patients are at increased risk for depression compared with individuals with no cancer diagnosis, yet few interventions target depressed cancer patients. Methods Efficacy of psychotherapeutic and pharmacologic interventions for depression in cancer patients who met an entry threshold for depressive symptoms was examined by meta-analysis. Five electronic databases were systematically reviewed to identify randomized controlled trials meeting the selection criteria. Effect sizes were calculated using Hedges’ g and were pooled to compare pre- and postrandomization depressive symptoms with a random effects model. Subgroup analyses tested moderators of effect sizes, such as comparison of different intervention modalities, with a mixed effects model. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Ten randomized controlled trials (six psychotherapeutic and four pharmacologic studies) met the selection criteria; 1362 participants with mixed cancer types and stages had been randomly assigned to treatment groups. One outlier trial was removed from analyses. The random effects model showed interventions to be superior to control conditions on reducing depressive symptoms postintervention (Hedges’ g = 0.43, 95% confidence interval = 0.30 to 0.56, P < .001). In the four psychotherapeutic trials with follow-up assessment, interventions were more effective than control conditions up to 12–18 months after patients were randomly assigned to treatment groups (P < .001). Although each approach was more effective than the control conditions in improving depressive symptoms (P < .001), subgroup analyses showed that cognitive behavioral therapy appeared more effective than problem-solving therapy (P = .01), but not more effective than pharmacologic intervention (P = .07). Conclusions Our findings suggest that psychological and pharmacologic approaches can be targeted productively toward cancer patients with elevated depressive symptoms. Research is needed to maximize effectiveness, accessibility, and integration into clinical care of interventions for depressed cancer patients. PMID:22767203

  15. Meta-analysis and Network Analysis of Five Ovarian Cancer Gene Expression Dataset

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua Dong; Shengjun Hong; Xiaomin Xu; Yanghua Xiao; Li Jin; Momiao Xiong

    2010-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of death from cancer in women and the leading cause of death from gynecological cancer. Here we present a meta-analysis of five gene expression data sets of 432 ovarian cancer and 42 adjacent normal samples in total. We indentified 3 genes: NDN, RNASE4, IGFBP4 were significantly differentially expressed in both five data sets.

  16. Ma-Pi 2 macrobiotic diet and type 2 diabetes mellitus: pooled analysis of short-term intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Porrata-Maury, C; Hernández-Triana, M; Ruiz-Álvarez, V; Díaz-Sánchez, M E; Fallucca, F; Bin, W; Baba-Abubakari, B; Pianesi, M

    2014-03-01

    The macrobiotic, Ma-Pi 2 diet (12% protein, 18% fat and 70% carbohydrate), has shown benefit in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This pooled analysis aims to confirm results from four, 21-day intervention studies with the Ma-Pi 2 diet, carried out in Cuba, China, Ghana and Italy. Baseline and end of study biochemical, body composition and blood pressure data, were compared using multivariate statistical methods and assessment of the Cohen effect size (d). Results showed that all measured indicators demonstrated significant changes (p??0.05). Similarly, glycemia and glycemic profiles in all four studies were independent of the sample size (p?=?0.237). The Ma-Pi diet 2 significantly reduced glycemia, serum lipids, uremia and cardiovascular risk in adults with T2DM. These results suggest that the Ma-Pi 2 diet could be a valid alternative treatment for patients with T2DM and point to the need for further clinical studies. Mechanisms related to its benefits as a functional diet are discussed. PMID:24532293

  17. Health system outcomes and determinants amenable to public health in industrialized countries: a pooled, cross-sectional time series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Arah, Onyebuchi A; Westert, Gert P; Delnoij, Diana M; Klazinga, Niek S

    2005-01-01

    Background Few studies have tried to assess the combined cross-sectional and temporal contributions of a more comprehensive set of amenable factors to population health outcomes for wealthy countries during the last 30 years of the 20th century. We assessed the overall ecological associations between mortality and factors amenable to public health. These amenable factors included addictive and nutritional lifestyle, air quality, public health spending, healthcare coverage, and immunizations. Methods We used a pooled cross-sectional, time series analysis with corrected fixed effects regression models in an ecological design involving eighteen member countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development during the period 1970 to 1999. Results Alcohol, tobacco, and fat consumption, and sometimes, air pollution were significantly associated with higher all-cause mortality and premature death. Immunizations, health care coverage, fruit/vegetable and protein consumption, and collective health expenditure had negative effects on mortality and premature death, even after controlling for the elderly, density of practicing physicians, doctor visits and per capita GDP. However, tobacco, air pollution, and fruit/vegetable intake were sometimes sensitive to adjustments. Conclusion Mortality and premature deaths could be improved by focusing on factors that are amenable to public health policies. Tackling these issues should be reflected in the ongoing assessments of health system performance. PMID:16076396

  18. Comparative efficacy of aliskiren/valsartan vs valsartan in nocturnal dipper and nondipper hypertensive patients: a pooled analysis.

    PubMed

    Giles, Thomas D; Alessi, Thomas; Purkayastha, Das; Zappe, Dion

    2012-05-01

    This pooled analysis of ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring data from two 8-week randomized controlled trials compared the antihypertensive efficacy and safety of combination aliskiren/valsartan vs valsartan alone in hypertensive patients (nocturnal dippers or nondippers). At study end, patients were taking aliskiren/valsartan 300/320 mg or valsartan 320 mg. In dippers (n=138) and nondippers (n=132), aliskiren/valsartan provided significantly (P<.05) greater reductions from baseline to week 8 than valsartan in 24-hour, daytime, and last-4-hour mean ambulatory systolic BP (maSBP). Treatment differences were more pronounced in nondippers. Nighttime maSBP reductions with aliskiren/valsartan were significantly greater vs valsartan in nondippers (-17.0 mm Hg vs -8.9 mm Hg; P<.05) but not dippers (-7.6 mm Hg vs -4.5 mm Hg; P=.16). In all time periods, combination therapy was generally associated with BP reductions that were greater in nondippers than dippers. Conversion from nondipper to dipper status was 32% vs 22% for aliskiren/valsartan vs valsartan (P=.48). Both treatments were similarly well tolerated. Although the addition of aliskiren to valsartan did not significantly alter dipper status, our data suggest an increased contribution of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system to the nondipper status of hypertensive patients. PMID:22533656

  19. Acute, subacute and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans: a pooled analysis of experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Studerus, Erich; Kometer, Michael; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2011-11-01

    Psilocybin and related hallucinogenic compounds are increasingly used in human research. However, due to limited information about potential subjective side effects, the controlled medical use of these compounds has remained controversial. We therefore analysed acute, short- and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans by pooling raw data from eight double-blind placebo-controlled experimental studies conducted between 1999 and 2008. The analysis included 110 healthy subjects who had received 1-4 oral doses of psilocybin (45-315 µg/kg body weight). Although psilocybin dose-dependently induced profound changes in mood, perception, thought and self-experience, most subjects described the experience as pleasurable, enriching and non-threatening. Acute adverse drug reactions, characterized by strong dysphoria and/or anxiety/panic, occurred only in the two highest dose conditions in a relatively small proportion of subjects. All acute adverse drug reactions were successfully managed by providing interpersonal support and did not need psychopharmacological intervention. Follow-up questionnaires indicated no subsequent drug abuse, persisting perception disorders, prolonged psychosis or other long-term impairment of functioning in any of our subjects. The results suggest that the administration of moderate doses of psilocybin to healthy, high-functioning and well-prepared subjects in the context of a carefully monitored research environment is associated with an acceptable level of risk. PMID:20855349

  20. Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Infant Growth: A Pooled Analysis of Seven European Birth Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Iszatt, Nina; Stigum, Hein; Verner, Marc-André; White, Richard A.; Govarts, Eva; Murinova, Lubica Palkovicova; Schoeters, Greet; Trnovec, Tomas; Legler, Juliette; Pelé, Fabienne; Botton, Jérémie; Chevrier, Cécile; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Ranft, Ulrich; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Kasper-Sonnenberg, Monika; Klümper, Claudia; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Polder, Anuschka

    2015-01-01

    Background Infant exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may contribute to obesity. However, many studies so far have been small, focused on transplacental exposure, used an inappropriate measure to assess postnatal exposure through breastfeeding if any, or did not discern between prenatal and postnatal effects. Objectives We investigated prenatal and postnatal exposure to POPs and infant growth (a predictor of obesity). Methods We pooled data from seven European birth cohorts with biomarker concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (PCB-153) (n = 2,487), and p,p´-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE) (n = 1,864), estimating prenatal and postnatal POPs exposure using a validated pharmacokinetic model. Growth was change in weight-for-age z-score between birth and 24 months. Per compound, multilevel models were fitted with either POPs total exposure from conception to 24 months or prenatal or postnatal exposure. Results We found a significant increase in growth associated with p,p´-DDE, seemingly due to prenatal exposure (per interquartile increase in exposure, adjusted ? = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.22). Due to heterogeneity across cohorts, this estimate cannot be considered precise, but does indicate that an association with infant growth is present on average. In contrast, a significant decrease in growth was associated with postnatal PCB-153 exposure (? = –0.10; 95% CI: –0.19, –0.01). Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date of POPs exposure and infant growth, and it contains state-of-the-art exposure modeling. Prenatal p,p´-DDE was associated with increased infant growth, and postnatal PCB-153 with decreased growth at European exposure levels. Citation Iszatt N, Stigum H, Verner MA, White RA, Govarts E, Palkovicova Murinova L, Schoeters G, Trnovec T, Legler J, Pelé F, Botton J, Chevrier C, Wittsiepe J, Ranft U, Vandentorren S, Kasper-Sonnenberg M, Klümper C, Weisglas-Kuperus N, Polder A, Eggesbø M, OBELIX. 2015. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and infant growth: a pooled analysis of seven European birth cohorts. Environ Health Perspect 123:730–736;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1308005 PMID:25742056

  1. Prognostic significance of cyclooxygenase-2 in cervical cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Miaoling; Chen, Qing; Xiao, Jianpeng; Liu, Changhao; Zhao, Xiaomiao

    2013-01-15

    Published data on the prognostic value of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) overexpression in cervical cancer are conflicting and heterogeneous. We performed a meta-analysis to more precisely estimate its prognostic significance. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) or odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the effects. Twenty-three studies with 1,477 cervical cancer patients were selected to evaluate the association between COX-2 and overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), response to chemoradiation (RC) and clinicopathological parameters. High COX-2 expression predicted poor OS (HR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.54-4.18), DFS (HR: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.58-3.69) and RC (OR: 3.03, 95% CI: 1.97-4.64). Subgroup analyses showed that COX-2 overexpression was related significantly with poor OS in patients treated by chemoradiation or surgery, and in patients with squamous cell carcinoma, respectively. Besides, COX-2 overexpression was related significantly with poor DFS in chemoradiation subgroup. Furthermore, COX-2 overexpression was associated with poor RC in patients who received "FP" regimen or "P" regimen. Additionally, there were significant associations between COX-2 expression and all clinicopathological parameters except tumor grade. The pooled ORs (95% CI) were as follows: 1.49 (1.09-2.04) for age, 1.77 (1.22-2.56) for lymph node metastasis, 1.04 (0.74-1.47) for tumor grade, 1.71 (1.12-2.64) for tumor size, 2.38 (1.28-4.45) for FIGO stage, 3.96 (2.32-6.77) for histological type, 2.45(1.10-5.42) for parametrical involvement. This meta-analysis indicated that COX-2 overexpression might be an unfavorable prognostic and a chemoradiation resistance predictive factor for cervical cancer; it could potentially help to stratify patients further in clinical treatment. PMID:22729746

  2. Trend Analysis of Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Panama, Using Joinpoint Regression Analysis.

    PubMed

    Politis, Michael; Higuera, Gladys; Chang, Lissette Raquel; Gomez, Beatriz; Bares, Juan; Motta, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and its incidence is expected to increase in the future. In Panama, cancer is also one of the leading causes of death. In 1964, a nationwide cancer registry was started and it was restructured and improved in 2012. The aim of this study is to utilize Joinpoint regression analysis to study the trends of the incidence and mortality of cancer in Panama in the last decade.Cancer mortality was estimated from the Panamanian National Institute of Census and Statistics Registry for the period 2001 to 2011. Cancer incidence was estimated from the Panamanian National Cancer Registry for the period 2000 to 2009. The Joinpoint Regression Analysis program, version 4.0.4, was used to calculate trends by age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for selected cancers.Overall, the trend of age-adjusted cancer mortality in Panama has declined over the last 10 years (-1.12% per year). The cancers for which there was a significant increase in the trend of mortality were female breast cancer and ovarian cancer; while the highest increases in incidence were shown for breast cancer, liver cancer, and prostate cancer. Significant decrease in the trend of mortality was evidenced for the following: prostate cancer, lung and bronchus cancer, and cervical cancer; with respect to incidence, only oral and pharynx cancer in both sexes had a significant decrease. Some cancers showed no significant trends in incidence or mortality.This study reveals contrasting trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Panama in the last decade. Although Panama is considered an upper middle income nation, this study demonstrates that some cancer mortality trends, like the ones seen in cervical and lung cancer, behave similarly to the ones seen in high income countries. In contrast, other types, like breast cancer, follow a pattern seen in countries undergoing a transition to a developed economy with its associated lifestyle, nutrition, and body weight changes. PMID:26091467

  3. Tai chi chuan exercise for patients with breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuanqing; Yang, Kehu; Shi, Xiue; Liang, Haiqian; Zhang, Fengwa; Lv, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) is a form of aerobic exercise that may be an effective therapy for improving psychosomatic capacity among breast cancer survivors. This meta-analysis analyzed the available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of TCC in relieving treatment-related side effects and quality of life in women with breast cancer. Methods. RCTs were searched in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library through April 2014. Data were analyzed on pathology (pain, interleukin-6, and insulin-like growth factor 1), physical capacity (handgrip, limb physical fitness, and BMI), and well-being (physical, social, emotional, and general quality of life). Results. Nine RCTs, including a total of 322 breast cancer patients, were examined. Compared with control therapies, the pooled results suggested that TCC showed significant effects in improving handgrip dynamometer strength, limb elbow flexion (elbow extension, abduction, and horizontal adduction). No significant differences were observed in pain, interleukin-6, insulin-like growth factor, BMI, physical well-being, social or emotional well-being, or general health-related quality of life. Conclusion. The short-term effects of TCC may have potential benefits in upper limb functional mobility in patients with breast cancer. Additional randomized controlled trials with longer follow-up are needed to provide more reliable evidence. PMID:25793000

  4. The Cancer Genome Atlas Pan-Cancer analysis project

    E-print Network

    Lander, Eric S.

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network has profiled and analyzed large numbers of human tumors to discover molecular aberrations at the DNA, RNA, protein and epigenetic levels. The resulting rich data provide a ...

  5. Prognostic Value and Clinicopathology Significance of MicroRNA-200c Expression in Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Zhu, Weikang; Li, Yan; Yu, Yongchun

    2015-01-01

    MiR-200c has been shown to be related to cancer formation and progression. However, the prognostic and clinicopathologic significance of miR-200c expression in cancer remain inconclusive. We carried out this systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the prognostic value of miR-200c expression in cancer. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) of miR-200c for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were calculated to measure the effective value of miR-200c expression on prognosis. The association between miR-200c expression and clinical significance was measured by odds ratios (ORs). Twenty-three studies were included in our meta-analysis. We found that miR-200c was not significantly correlated with OS (HR = 1.41, 95%Cl: 0.95-2.10; P = 0.09) and PFS (HR = 1.12, 95%Cl: 0.68-1.84; P = 0.67) in cancer. In our subgroup analysis, higher expression of miR-200c was significantly associated with poor OS in blood (HR = 2.10, 95%CI: 1.52-2.90, P<0.00001). Moreover, in clinicopathology analysis, miR-200c expression in blood was significantly associated with TNM stage, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis. MiR-200c may have the potential to become a new blood biomarker to monitor cancer prognosis and progression. PMID:26035744

  6. An Epidemiological Reappraisal of the Familial Aggregation of Prostate Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kici?ski, Micha?; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Nawrot, Tim S.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on familial aggregation of cancer may suggest an overall contribution of inherited genes or a shared environment in the development of malignant disease. We performed a meta-analysis on familial clustering of prostate cancer. Out of 74 studies reporting data on familial aggregation of prostate cancer in unselected populations retrieved by a Pubmed search and browsing references, 33 independent studies meeting the inclusion criteria were used in the analysis performed with the random effects model. The pooled rate ratio (RR) for first-degree family history, i.e. affected father or brother, is 2.48 (95% confidence interval: 2.25–2.74). The incidence rate for men who have a brother who got prostate cancer increases 3.14 times (CI:2.37–4.15), and for those with affected father 2.35 times (CI:2.02–2.72). The pooled estimate of RR for two or more affected first-degree family members relative to no history in father and in brother is 4.39 (CI:2.61–7.39). First-degree family history appears to increase the incidence rate of prostate cancer more in men under 65 (RR:2.87, CI:2.21–3.74), than in men aged 65 and older (RR:1.92, CI:1.49–2.47), p for interaction?=?0.002. The attributable fraction among those having an affected first-degree relative equals to 59.7% (CI:55.6–63.5%) for men at all ages, 65.2% (CI:57.7–71.4%) for men younger than 65 and 47.9% (CI:37.1–56.8%) for men aged 65 or older. For those with a family history in 2 or more first-degree family members 77.2% (CI:65.4–85.0%) of prostate cancer incidence can be attributed to the familial clustering. Our combined estimates show strong familial clustering and a significant effect-modification by age meaning that familial aggregation was associated with earlier disease onset (before age 65). PMID:22073129

  7. HiTSelect: a comprehensive tool for high-complexity-pooled screen analysis.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Aaron A; Qin, Han; Ramalho-Santos, Miguel; Song, Jun S

    2015-02-18

    Genetic screens of an unprecedented scale have recently been made possible by the availability of high-complexity libraries of synthetic oligonucleotides designed to mediate either gene knockdown or gene knockout, coupled with next-generation sequencing. However, several sources of random noise and statistical biases complicate the interpretation of the resulting high-throughput data. We developed HiTSelect, a comprehensive analysis pipeline for rigorously selecting screen hits and identifying functionally relevant genes and pathways by addressing off-target effects, controlling for variance in both gene silencing efficiency and sequencing depth of coverage and integrating relevant metadata. We document the superior performance of HiTSelect using data from both genome-wide RNAi and CRISPR/Cas9 screens. HiTSelect is implemented as an open-source package, with a user-friendly interface for data visualization and pathway exploration. Binary executables are available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/hitselect/, and the source code is available at https://github.com/diazlab/HiTSelect. PMID:25428347

  8. Effect of telmisartan vs. ramipril on 'dipping' status and blood pressure variability: pooled analysis of the PRISMA studies.

    PubMed

    Gosse, Philippe; Schumacher, Helmut

    2014-02-01

    A retrospective pooled analysis of the 'Prospective, Randomized Investigation of the Safety and Efficacy of MICARDIS vs. Ramipril Using ABPM' studies conducted in Europe and South Africa (PRISMA I) and in the United States of America and Canada (PRISMA II) was carried out to investigate the effects of telmisartan and ramipril on dipper status (extreme dippers, dippers, non-dippers, risers/reverse dippers), and blood pressure (BP) variability in 1279 patients (with normal sleeping patterns and valid 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring recordings at baseline and end point). After 14 weeks' treatment, telmisartan had a greater systolic BP (SBP) reduction and higher smoothness index in all four dipper groups compared with ramipril. In addition, the tendency toward dipping was significantly higher in patients treated with) telmisartan than ramipril (P=0.032; odds ratio for telmisartan vs. ramipril: 1.27 (95% confidence interval: 1.102-1.58)). In patients with an early morning SBP surge ?35?mm?Hg, telmisartan treatment was associated with significantly greater reductions from baseline in the night-time low mean, early morning mean and early morning SBP surge compared with ramipril (P=0.026, P<0.0001 and P=0.0006, respectively). In this retrospective analysis, telmisartan was shown to normalize the circadian BP pattern to a dipper profile in a larger proportion of patients than ramipril, and reduce early-morning SBP surge in high-risk patients, indicative of a cardioprotective effect. These findings need to be confirmed in long-term prospective trials and observational studies. PMID:24048485

  9. Pooled-analysis of the associations between three polymorphisms in the VEGF gene and age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan; Shi, Yuhua; Xue, Chunyan; Yin, Jie; Huang, Zhenping

    2012-06-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene has been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, the results have been inconsistent. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to clarify the associations between VEGF polymorphisms and AMD risk across different populations. Published literature from PubMed and EMBASE were retrieved. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using fixed- or random-effects model. Five studies (1,280 cases and 715 controls) for rs833061 polymorphism, five studies (1,033 cases and 807 controls) for rs1413711 polymorphism, and four studies (1,217 cases and 4,079 controls) for rs2010963 polymorphism were identified. No statistically significant association was found for rs833061, rs1413711 and rs2010963 polymorphisms, although there were significant associations for rs833061 polymorphism under a homogeneous co-dominant model (CC vs. TT: OR = 1.59, 95%CI 1.14-2.23) and for rs1413711 polymorphism under a recessive model (TT vs. CT + CC: OR = 1.50, 95%CI 1.08-2.08), the results were not robust by sensitivity analysis. However, there was a significant association for rs833061 among European and East Asian populations, and for rs1413711 among Europeans. The present meta-analyses indicated that there were no significantly associations between VEGF polymorphisms (rs833061, rs1413711, rs2010963) and the risk of AMD, although the association was different for each polymorphism among different populations. PMID:22307787

  10. Analysis of haloacetic acids in water and air (aerosols) from indoor swimming pools using HS-SPME/GC/ECD.

    PubMed

    Sá, Christopher S A; Boaventura, Rui A R; Pereira, Isabel B

    2012-01-01

    A solid phase microextraction method was used for the analysis of nine haloacetic acids (HAAs) in water and air (aerosols) from indoor swimming pools (ISPs). The analysis is characterized by derivatization of HAAs to their methyl-esters with dimethyl sulphate, headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with a Carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (CAR-PDMS) fiber and gas chromatography - electron capture detector (GC/ECD). High correlation coefficients were obtained for esters mixture calibration lines and detection limits were found to be at the low ppb level. Repeatability was assessed and coefficients of variation varied from 10 to 20%. Reproducibility was also evaluated and coefficients of variation from 15 to 25% were obtained. Analytical results from four Portuguese ISPs showed that the mean concentration of total HAAs (THAAs) in water ranged from 10 ± 2 to 183 ± 28 ?g/L in which 55 ± 20% corresponded to trichloroacetic and dichloroacetic acids (TCAA and DCAA). THAAs highest concentrations were directly related to higher ISPs' water organic matter content. In the lack of European specific regulation for water from ISPs and taking into consideration that ingestion is a form of exposure, THAAs concentration values were compared with drinking water maximum contamination level (MCL) of 60 ?g/L proposed by the US EPA for the sum of five HAAs. In 35% of water sampling campaigns the sum of MBAA (monobromoacetic acid), MCAA (monochloroacetic acid), DCAA and TCAA exceeded that MCL value. The concentrations obtained for THAAs in the ISPs' atmosphere ranged from 5 ± 1 to 64 ± 10 ?g/m(3) (T = 28°C at 5 cm above the water surface) and were proportional to the aerosols' quantity, which was deeply related to indoor air ventilation system. PMID:22242869

  11. Human Lung Cancer Risks from Radon – Part III - Evidence of Influence of Combined Bystander and Adaptive Response Effects on Radon Case-Control Studies - A Microdose Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Bobby E.; Thompson, Richard E.; Beecher, Georgia C.

    2012-01-01

    Since the publication of the BEIR VI (1999) report on health risks from radon, a significant amount of new data has been published showing various mechanisms that may affect the ultimate assessment of radon as a carcinogen, in particular the potentially deleterious Bystander Effect (BE) and the potentially beneficial Adaptive Response radio-protection (AR). The case-control radon lung cancer risk data of the pooled 13 European countries radon study (Darby et al 2005, 2006) and the 8 North American pooled study (Krewski et al 2005, 2006) have been evaluated. The large variation in the odds ratios of lung cancer from radon risk is reconciled, based on the large variation in geological and ecological conditions and variation in the degree of adaptive response radio-protection against the bystander effect induced lung damage. The analysis clearly shows Bystander Effect radon lung cancer induction and Adaptive Response reduction in lung cancer in some geographical regions. It is estimated that for radon levels up to about 400 Bq m?3 there is about a 30% probability that no human lung cancer risk from radon will be experienced and a 20% probability that the risk is below the zero-radon, endogenic spontaneous or perhaps even genetically inheritable lung cancer risk rate. The BEIR VI (1999) and EPA (2003) estimates of human lung cancer deaths from radon are most likely significantly excessive. The assumption of linearity of risk, by the Linear No-Threshold Model, with increasing radon exposure is invalid. PMID:22942874

  12. Impact of beta-blockers on prostate cancer mortality: a meta-analysis of 16,825 patients

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hua; Liu, Xingjie; Guo, Fengfu; Tan, Shanfeng; Wang, Guangjian; Liu, Hongjun; Wang, Jianming; He, Xiangfei; Mo, Yanshuai; Shi, Benkang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Increasing evidence suggests that beta-blocker use might be associated with reduced mortality in prostate cancer patients. To provide a quantitative assessment of this association, we pooled data available to examine the association between beta-blocker use and mortality of prostate cancer. Methods We identified studies by a literature search of MEDLINE (from 1 January 1966) and EMBASE (from 1 January 1974), through 10 September 2014, and by searching the reference lists of pertinent articles. Two authors independently screened and reviewed the eligibility of each study. The primary outcomes were prostate cancer-specific mortality and all-cause mortality. Results A total of four studies including 16,825 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Analysis of all studies showed that beta-blocker use was associated with reduced prostate cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio =0.85, 95% confidence interval =0.77–0.94), without any heterogeneity between studies (Q=3.59, I 2=16.5%, P=0.309). However, we observed no association with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio =0.97, 95% confidence interval =0.90–1.04). There was also no evidence of the presence of significant heterogeneity between the four studies (Q=2.48, I 2=0.0%, P=0.480). Conclusion These findings indicate that beta-blocker use was associated with reduced cancer-specific mortality among prostate cancer patients taking beta-blockers. PMID:25995645

  13. Pooling techniques for bioassay screening

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L.C.; Baum, J.W.; Kaplan, E; Moorthy, A.R.

    1996-03-01

    Pooling techniques commonly are used to increase the throughput of samples used for screening purposes. While the advantages of such techniques are increased analytical efficiency and cost savings, the sensitivity of measurements decreases because it is inversely proportional to the number of samples in the pools. Consequently, uncertainties in estimates of dose and risk which are based on the results of pooled samples increase as the number of samples in the pools increases in all applications. However, sensitivities may not be seriously degraded, for example, in urinalysis, if the samples in the pools are of known time duration, or if the fraction of some attribute of the grab urine samples to that in a 24-hour composite is known (e.g., mass, specific gravity, creatinine, or volume, per 24-h interval). This paper presents square and cube pooling schemes that greatly increase throughput and can considerably reduce analytical costs (on a sample basis). The benefit-cost ratios for 5{times}5 square and 5{times}5{times}5 cube pooling schemes are 2.5 and 8.3, respectively. Three-dimensional and higher arrayed pooling schemes would result in even greater economies; however, significant improvements in analytical sensitivity are required to achieve these advantages. These are various other considerations for designing a pooling scheme, where the number of dimensions and of samples in the optimum array are influenced by: (1) the minimal detectable amount (MDA) of the analytical processes, (2) the screening dose-rate requirements, (3) the maximum masses or volumes of the composite samples that can be analyzed, (4) the information already available from results of composite analysis, and (5) the ability of an analytical system to guard against both false negative and false positive results. Many of these are beyond the scope of this paper but are being evaluated.

  14. Prognostic role of elevated platelet count in patients with lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Ran, Yuge

    2015-01-01

    Recently, more and more studies have shown that platelet count (PLT) may be associated with the prognosis of lung cancer (LC). However, the prognostic role of PLT in lung cancer is still controversial. In the present study, we conducted a meta-analysis of all available English studies to evaluate the prognostic value of PLT in lung cancer. In order to investigate the association between PLT and overall survival (OS), the hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) was evaluated. The odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the relationship between PLT and clinicopathological parameters. There were 12 studies (n = 5,884) were involved in this meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that elevated PLT was a negative predictor for OS and the pooled HRs was significant at 1.74 (95% confidence interval, 1.39-2.19). Elevated PLT was also significantly associated with advanced TNM stage (OR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.77-3.97) and smoking history (OR: 2.70, 95% CI: 1.79-4.08). In addition, there was no significant correlation between elevated PLT and squamous cell carcinoma (OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 0.77-3.07). Our results demonstrated that elevated PLT denotes a poor prognosis in patients with LC.

  15. Meat Consumption and Risk of Oral Cavity and Oropharynx Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-yu; Bai, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose High meat consumption, especially red and processed meat consumption is associated with an increased risk of several cancers, however, evidence for oral cavity and oropharynx cancer is limited. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to determine the association between intakes of total meat, processed meat, red meat, and white meat, and the risk of oral cavity and oropharynx cancer. Methods Electronic search of Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library Central database was conducted to select relevant studies. Fixed-effect and random-effect models were used to estimate summary relative risks (RR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Potential sources of heterogeneity were detected by meta-regression. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analysis were also performed. Results 12 case–control studies and one cohort study were included in the analyses, including 501,730 subjects and 4,104 oral cavity and oropharynx cancer cases. Pooled results indicated that high consumption of total meat, red meat, and white meat were not significantly associated with increased risk of oral cavity and oropharynx cancer (RR?=?1.14, 95% CI[0.78–1.68]; RR?=?1.05, 95% CI[0.66, 1.66] and RR?=?0.81, 95% CI[0.54, 1.22], respectively), while the high consumption of processed meat was significantly associated with a 91% increased risk of oral cavity and oropharynx cancer (RR?=?1.91, 95% CI [1.19–3.06]). Sensitivity analysis indicated that no significant variation in combined RR by excluding any of the study, confirming the stability of present results. Conclusions The present meta-analysis suggested that high consumption of processed meat was significantly associated with an increased risk of oral cavity and oropharynx cancer, while there was no significantly association between total meat, red meat or white meat and the risk of oral cavity and oropharynx cancer. More prospective cohort studies are warranted to confirm these associations. PMID:24736706

  16. Discontinuation of treatment of schizophrenic patients is driven by poor symptom response: a pooled post-hoc analysis of four atypical antipsychotic drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Liu-Seifert; David H Adams; Bruce J Kinon

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stopping antipsychotic treatment can interrupt improvement and exacerbate the illness. The reasons for discontinuing treatment during controlled clinical trials were analyzed to explore this phenomenon. METHODS: A post-hoc, pooled analysis was made of 4 randomized, double-blind clinical trials, 24–28 weeks in duration, involving 1627 patients with schizophrenia or a related disorder. Analyses combined all the atypical antipsychotic treatment groups

  17. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF THE SIX-DOSE REGIMEN OF ARTEMETHER-LUMEFANTRINE IN PEDIATRICS WITH UNCOMPLICATED PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM MALARIA: A POOLED ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL PATIENT DATA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL MAKANGA; ZUL PREMJI; CATHERINE FALADE; EDGAR A. MUELLER; KIM ANDRIANO; PHILIP HUNT; PATRICIA IBARRA DE PALACIOS

    Patient data from eight clinical trials were pooled and analyzed to study the efficacy and safety of the six-dose versus four-dose regimen of artemether-lumefantrine (coartemether; Coartem) in children weighing 5-25 kg. A total of 544 patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria (six-dose: 343; four-dose: 201), matched for demographic and baseline characteristics and individual coartemether doses were included in the analysis.

  18. Obesity and Risk of Bladder Cancer: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of 15 Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiang-Wei; Zhao, Long-Gang; Yang, Yang; Ma, Xiao; Wang, Ying-Ying; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent association between obesity and risk of bladder cancer, and the dose-response relationship between them has not been clearly defined. Methods We carried out a meta-analysis to summarize available evidence from epidemiological studies on this point. Relevant articles were identified by searching the PubMed and Web of Science databases through September 30, 2014. We pooled the relative risks from individual studies using random-effect model, and the dose—response relationship was estimated by using restricted cubic spline model. Results Fifteen cohort studies with 38,072 bladder cancer cases among 14,201,500 participants were included. Compared to normal weight, the pooled relative risks and corresponding 95% confidence intervals of bladder cancer were 1.07(1.01-1.14) and 1.10(1.06-1.14) for preobese and obesity, with moderate (I2 = 37.6%, P = 0.029) and low (I2 = 15.5%, P = 0.241) heterogeneities between studies, respectively. In a dose-response meta-analysis, body mass index (BMI) was associated with bladder cancer risk in a linear fashion (Pnon-linearity = 0.467) and the risk increased by 4.2% for each 5 kg/m2 increase. No significant publication bias was found (P = 0.912 for Begg’s test, P = 0.712 for Egger’s test). Conclusions Findings from this dose-response meta-analysis suggest obesity is associated with linear-increased risk of bladder cancer. PMID:25803438

  19. HER-2 overexpression and survival in colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Liu, Da-ren; Ye, Long-yun; Huang, Ling-na; Jaiswal, Sanjay; Li, Xiao-wen; Wang, Hou-hong; Chen, Li

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Numerous studies examining the relationship between human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) overexpression and survival in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) have yielded controversial results. We therefore performed a meta-analysis more precisely to estimate its prognostic value. Methods: Published studies investigating the effect of HER-2 overexpression on CRC survival were identified; the hazard ratios (HRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were pooled in terms of disease-specific or overall survival. Results: Eleven studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled data showed that HER-2 overexpression was negatively related to CRC survival (HR=1.10, 95% CI: 0.77–1.44). Subgroup analyses regarding test method and study quality also demonstrated little association between HER-2 overexpression and CRC survival (HR=0.89, 95% CI: 0.50–1.29; HR=0.90, 95% CI: 0.43–1.37, respectively). Conclusions: Regardless of several limitations, our study suggested that HER-2 overexpression probably had little impact on CRC survival. PMID:24903996

  20. Fish consumption and risk of gastrointestinal cancers: A meta-analysis of cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao-Feng; Zou, Jian; Dong, Jie

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess quantitatively the relationship between fish intake and the incidence of gastrointestinal cancers in a meta-analysis of cohort studies. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, and the bibliographies of retrieved articles. Prospective cohort studies were included if they reported relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of various cancers with respect to fish intake. When RRs were not available in the published article, they were computed from the exposure distributions. Two investigators extracted the data independently and discrepancies were resolved by discussion with a third investigator. We performed random-effect meta-analyses and meta-regressions of study-specific incremental estimates to determine the risk of cancer associated with a 20-g/d increment of fish consumption. RESULTS: Forty-two studies, comprising 27 independent cohorts, met our inclusion criteria. The studies included 2325040 participants and 24115 incident cases of gastrointestinal cancer, with an average follow-up of 13.6 years. Compared with individuals who did not eat, or seldom ate, fish, the pooled RR of gastrointestinal cancers was 0.93 (95%CI: 0.88-0.98) for regular fish consumers, 0.94 (0.89-0.99) for low to moderate fish consumers, and 0.91 (0.84-0.97) for high fish consumers. Overall, a 20-g increase in fish consumption per day was associated with a 2% reduced risk of gastrointestinal cancers (RR = 0.98; 95%CI: 0.96-1.01). In subgroup analyses, we noted that fish consumption was associated with reduced risk of colorectal (RR = 0.93; 95%CI: 0.87-0.99; P < 0.01), esophageal (RR = 0.91; 95%CI: 0.83-0.99; P < 0.05) and hepatocellular cancers (RR = 0.71; 95%CI: 0.48-0.95; P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggested that fish consumption may reduce total gastrointestinal cancer incidence. Inverse relationships were also detected between fish consumption and specific types of cancers. PMID:25386090

  1. Analysis and simulation of a cold-air pool and high wintertime ozone episode in Utah's Uintah Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neemann, Erik M.

    High ozone concentrations associated with a winter cold-air pool during the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study are investigated. Field campaign observations combined with numerical simulations are analyzed in Utah's Uintah Basin from 1-6 February 2013 when ozone concentrations exceeded 150 ppb. Cold-air pool sensitivity to cloud microphysics and snow cover variations within the Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations are examined, along with their impact on air quality in Community Multiscale Air Quality model simulations. Ice-dominant clouds are found to enhance cold-air pool strength compared to liquid-dominant clouds through increased nocturnal cooling and decreased longwave cloud forcing. The presence of snow cover also strengthens cold-air pool structure by lowering near-surface air temperatures and increasing boundary layer stability due to reduced absorbed solar insolation by the high-albedo snow surface. Snow cover also increases ozone levels by enhancing solar radiation available for photochemical reactions. Flow features affecting Uintah Basin cold-air pools that affect pollutant mixing and air quality within the basin are studied, including: penetration of clean air into the basin from across the surrounding mountains, elevated easterlies within the inversion layer, and diurnal upslope and drainage flows.

  2. Who Benefits From Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Gastric Cancer? A Meta-Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ohri, Nitin, E-mail: ohri.nitin@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Garg, Madhur K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Aparo, Santiago; Kaubisch, Andreas [Department of Medical Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)] [Department of Medical Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Tome, Wolfgang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Kennedy, Timothy J. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Kalnicki, Shalom; Guha, Chandan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Large randomized trials have demonstrated significant survival benefits with the use of adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation therapy for gastric cancer. The importance of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) remains unclear. We performed an up-to-date meta-analysis of randomized trials testing the use of RT for resectable gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized trials testing adjuvant (including neoadjuvant) RT for resectable gastric cancer. Hazard ratios describing the impact of adjuvant RT on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were extracted directly from the original studies or calculated from survival curves. Pooled estimates were obtained using the inverse variance method. Subgroup analyses were performed to determine whether the efficacy of RT varies with chemotherapy use, RT timing, geographic region, type of nodal dissection performed, or lymph node status. Results: Thirteen studies met all inclusion criteria and were used for this analysis. Adjuvant RT was associated with a significant improvement in both OS (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.70-0.86, P<.001) and DFS (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.63-0.80, P<.001). In the 5 studies that tested adjuvant chemoradiation therapy against adjuvant chemotherapy, similar effects were seen for OS (HR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.67-1.03, P=.087) and DFS (HR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.91-0.65, P=.002). Available data did not reveal any subgroup of patients that does not benefit from adjuvant RT. Conclusion: In randomized trials for resectable gastric cancer, adjuvant RT provides an approximately 20% improvement in both DFS and OS. Available data do not reveal a subgroup of patients that does not benefit from adjuvant RT. Further study is required to optimize the implementation of adjuvant RT for gastric cancer with regard to patient selection and integration with systemic therapy.

  3. A Pooled Analysis of Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Multiple Myeloma in the International Multiple Myeloma Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Birmann, Brenda; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Spinelli, John; Cozen, Wendy; Camp, Nicola J.; Moysich, Kirsten; Chiu, Brian; Steplowski, Emily; Krzystan, Joseph; Boffetta, Paolo; Benhaim-Luzon, Véronique; Brennan, Paul; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Costas, Laura; Seniori Costantini, Adele; Miligi, Lucia; Cocco, Pierluigi; Becker, Nikolaus; Foretová, Lenka; Maynadié, Marc; Nieters, Alexandra; Staines, Anthony; Tricot, Guido; Milliken, Kevin; Weisenburger, Dennis; Zheng, Tongzhang; Baris, Dalsu; Purdue, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent findings suggest that alcohol consumption may reduce risk of multiple myeloma (MM). Methods To better understand this relationship, we conducted an analysis of six case-control studies participating in the International Multiple Myeloma Consortium (1,567 cases, 7,296 controls). Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) relating different measures of alcohol consumption and MM risk were computed by unconditional logistic regression with adjustment for age, race, and study center. Results Cases were significantly less likely than controls to report ever drinking alcohol (men: OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.59-0.89, women: OR 0.81, 0.68-0.95). The inverse association with MM was stronger when comparing current to never drinkers (men: OR=0.57, 95% CI 0.45-0.72, women: OR=0.55, 95% CI 0.45-0.68), but null among former drinkers. We did not observe an exposure-response relationship with increasing alcohol frequency, duration or cumulative lifetime consumption. Additional adjustment for body mass index, education, or smoking did not affect our results; and the patterns of association were similar for each type of alcohol beverage examined. Conclusions Our study is, to our knowledge, the largest of its kind to date, and our findings suggest that alcohol consumption may be associated with reduced risk of MM. Impact Prospective studies, especially those conducted as pooled analyses with large sample sizes, are needed to confirm our findings and further explore whether alcohol consumption provides true biologic protection against this rare, highly fatal malignancy. PMID:23964064

  4. Development of an Instrument to Measure Behavioral Health Function for Work Disability: Item Pool Construction and Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Marfeo, Elizabeth E.; Ni, Pengsheng; Haley, Stephen M.; Jette, Alan M.; Bogusz, Kara; Meterko, Mark; McDonough, Christine M.; Chan, Leighton; Brandt, Diane E.; Rasch, Elizabeth K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To develop a broad set of claimant-reported items to assess behavioral health functioning relevant to the Social Security disability determination processes, and to evaluate the underlying structure of behavioral health functioning for use in development of a new functional assessment instrument. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Community. Participants Item pools of behavioral health functioning were developed, refined, and field-tested in a sample of persons applying for Social Security disability benefits (N=1015) who reported difficulties working due to mental or both mental and physical conditions. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measure Social Security Administration Behavioral Health (SSA-BH) measurement instrument Results Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) specified that a 4-factor model (self-efficacy, mood and emotions, behavioral control, and social interactions) had the optimal fit with the data and was also consistent with our hypothesized conceptual framework for characterizing behavioral health functioning. When the items within each of the four scales were tested in CFA, the fit statistics indicated adequate support for characterizing behavioral health as a unidimensional construct along these four distinct scales of function. Conclusion This work represents a significant advance both conceptually and psychometrically in assessment methodologies for work related behavioral health. The measurement of behavioral health functioning relevant to the context of work requires the assessment of multiple dimensions of behavioral health functioning. Specifically, we identified a 4-factor model solution that represented key domains of work related behavioral health functioning. These results guided the development and scale formation of a new SSA-BH instrument. PMID:23548542

  5. A retrospective pooled analysis assessing the effect of age on the immunogenicity of Havrix™ in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Crasta, Priya; de Ridder, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Over recent decades, the global incidence of hepatitis A virus infection has been reduced by improvements in sanitation infrastructure and through immunization programs. The immunogenicity and field efficacy of the inactivated hepatitis A vaccine (Havrix™, GSK, Belgium) has been demonstrated in clinical trials, population-impact studies as well as in several outbreak settings. However, immunological data in older populations are limited, with only few studies assessing the immune response of this vaccine in adults aged ?40 years. This retrospective pooled analysis of 4 2-dose primary vaccination studies compared the immunogenicity and safety of the inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in adults aged ?40 years with subjects aged 20-30 years (control group; N = 80 in each group). Fifteen days after the first vaccine dose, 79.7% (95% CI: 68.8-88.2) and 92.3% (95% CI: 84.0-97.1) of subjects were seropositive in the ?40 years and control groups, respectively; 97.5% (95% CI: 91.2-99.7) and 97.4% (95% CI: 91.0-99.7), respectively, were seropositive one month after the first dose. All subjects in both groups (95% CIs: 95.4-100 and 95.3-100, respectively) were seropositive one month after the second dose. Safety profiles were similar in both groups. In conclusion, the inactivated hepatitis A vaccine induced similar immune responses in adults aged ?40 and 20-30 years one month after the first and second dose whereas younger subjects may demonstrate a higher seroconversion rate 15 days after the first dose. PMID:26029816

  6. Efficacy and Safety of Moxifloxacin in Hospitalized Patients with Secondary Peritonitis: Pooled Analysis of Four Randomized Phase III Trials

    PubMed Central

    Tellado, Jose M.; Weiss, Günter; Alder, Jeffrey; Kruesmann, Frank; Arvis, Pierre; Hussain, Tajamul; Solomkin, Joseph S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Secondary peritonitis is an advanced form of complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAI) requiring hospitalization, surgical source control, and empiric antibiotic therapy against causative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Methods: This pooled analysis of four prospective, active-controlled randomized clinical trials compared the efficacy and safety of moxifloxacin with that of comparator antibiotics in patients with confirmed secondary peritonitis. The primary efficacy endpoint was clinical success rate at test-of-cure (TOC) between day 10 and 45 post-therapy in the per-protocol (PP) population. Safety and clinical efficacy were assessed also in the intent-to-treat population (ITT). Bacteriological success was assessed at TOC in the microbiologically-valid population as a secondary efficacy endpoint. Results: Overall clinical success rates at TOC were 85.3% (431 of 505 patients) in the moxifloxacin and 88.4% (459 of 519 patients) in the comparator treatment groups (PP population, point estimate for the difference in success rates: ?3.0%; 95% CI ?7.06%, 1.05%), respectively. Similar clinical success rates between moxifloxacin and comparators were observed by anatomical site of infection, and ranged from 80.6% to 100% for moxifloxacin and from 71.4% to 96.6% for comparators, respectively. Bacteriologic success rates were similar with moxifloxacin (82.4%) and comparators (86.8%), respectively. The proportion of patients experiencing any treatment-emergent adverse events was slightly higher with moxifloxacin (67.3%) versus comparators (59.8%). Rates of drug-related adverse events (20.9% versus 20.0%) and deaths (4.3% versus 3.4%) were similar in moxifloxacin and comparator groups; none of the deaths were drug-related. Conclusions: The data suggests that once-daily IV (or IV/PO) moxifloxacin has a comparable efficacy and safety profile to antibiotic regimens approved previously in the subgroup of patients with secondary peritonitis of mild-to-moderate severity. PMID:24833256

  7. A comparative analysis of cancer prevalence in cancer registry areas of France, Italy and Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Verdecchia; A. Micheli; M. Colonna; V. Moreno; M. I. Izarzugaza; E. Paci

    2002-01-01

    A comparative analysis of cancer prevalence in France, Spain and Italy is presented as part of the EUROPREVAL project. The three countries are culturally and sociologically relatively homogeneous compared with Europe as a whole. However, in all three countries, the cancer registries (CRs) providing the data for prevalence calculation cover only small fractions of the populations, and have been operating

  8. The role of acupoint stimulation as an adjunct therapy for lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of death in cancer patients. Clinical studies showed that a variety of acupoint stimulations have been extensively used for lung cancer patients, including needle insertion, injection with herbal extraction, plaster application, and moxibustion. However, the role of acupoint stimulation in lung cancer treatment was not fully reviewed. Methods In the present study, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the role of acupoint stimulation in lung cancer treatment by electronic and manual searching in seven databases, including Ovid (Ovid MEDLINE, AMED, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE), EBSCOhost research databases (Academic Search premier, MEDLINE, CIHAHL Plus), PreQuest (British Nursing Index, ProQuest Medical Library, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I, PsycINFO), and ISI web of knowledge (Web of Science, BIOSIS Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, Chinese Science Citation Database), CNKI, Wanfang Data, and CQVIP. Results Our study showed that acupoint stimulation has strong immunomodulatory effect for lung cancer patients as demonstrated by the significant increase of IL-2, T cell subtypes (CD3+ and CD4+, but not CD8+ cells), and natural killer cells. Further analysis revealed that acupoint stimulation remarkably alleviates the conventional therapy-induced bone marrow suppression (hemoglobin, platelet, and WBC reduction) in lung cancer patients, as well as decreases nausea and vomiting. The pooled studies also showed that acupoint stimulation can improve Karnofsky performance status, immediate tumor response, quality of life (EORCT-QLQ-C30), and pain control of cancer patients. Conclusions Acupoint stimulation is found to be effective in lung cancer treatment, further confirmatory evaluation via large scale randomized trials is warranted. PMID:24344728

  9. Association between the NBS1 Glu185Gln polymorphism and lung cancer risk: a systemic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lixin; Cheng, Jinsong; Gao, Jinyu; Wang, Jipeng; Liu, Xiaoning; Xiong, Liwen

    2013-03-01

    Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome protein 1 (NBS1) is one of the most important DNA repair proteins playing important roles in maintaining the genomic stability of NDA. Previous studies regarding the association between NBS1 8360G>C (Glu185Gln) polymorphism and lung cancer reported conflicting results. To derive a more precise estimation of this association, a systemic review and meta-analysis was performed. We performed a meta-analysis using eligible case-control studies to summarize the data on the association between the NBS1 Glu185Gln polymorphism and lung cancer risk. Odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (95 %CIs) were pooled to assess the association between NBS1 Glu185Gln polymorphism and lung cancer risk. Six case-control studies with a total of 2,348 lung cancer cases and 2,401 controls without canner were included into the meta-analysis. Overall, there was an association between NBS1 Glu185Gln polymorphism and lung cancer risk under the dominant comparison model (fixed-effects OR GluGln/GlnGln vs. GluGlu = 1.21, 95 % CI 1.07-1.37, P = 0.002, I (2) = 8.1 %). Subgroup analysis by race suggested a significant association between NBS1 Glu185Gln polymorphism and lung cancer risk in Asians (fixed-effects OR GluGlnGlnGln vs. GluGlu = 1.22, 95 % CI 1.06-1.41, P = 0.005) but not in Caucasians (fixed-effects OR GluGlnGlnGln vs. GluGlu = 1.17, 95 % CI 0.91-1.50, P = 0.220). This meta-analysis supports that there is an association between NBS1 Glu185Gln polymorphism and lung cancer risk. More studies are needed to further verify this association. PMID:23275190

  10. The TP53 codon 72 Pro/Pro genotype may be associated with an increased lung cancer risk in North China: an updated meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Hao, Li-Ran; Yue, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Background: The polymorphism of TP53 codon 72, a transversion of G to C (Arg to Pro), has been demonstrated to be associated with the risk for lung cancer. However, individual studies conducted in Chinese have provided conflicting and inconclusive findings. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis by pooling all currently available case-control studies to estimate the effect of TP53 codon 72 Arg/Pro polymorphism on the development of lung cancer in the Chinese population. Material/Methods: Related studies were identified from PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biology Medicine (CBM) till 10 October 2014. Pooled ORs and 95% CIs were used to assess the strength of the associations. Results: A total of 12 case-control studies including 3681 lung cancer cases and 4358 controls were involved in this meta-analysis. Overall, no significant association was found between TP53 codon 72 variation and lung cancer risk when all studies in the Chinese population pooled into this meta-analysis. However, in the subgroup analysis by geographical locations, significantly increased risk was found in the population from North China under all genetic models (Allele model, OR=1.22, 95% CI: 1.04-1.43; Dominant model, OR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.01-1.25; Recessive model, OR=1.41, 95% CI: 1.07-1.87; Homozygous model, OR=1.47, 95% CI: 1.09-1.99; Heterozygous model, OR=1.40, 95% CI: 1.04-1.89). Conclusions: This meta-analysis provides the evidence that TP53 codon 72 polymorphism may contribute to the lung cancer development in North China and studies with large sample size and gene-gene (gene-environment) interactions are warranted to verify this finding. PMID:26064201

  11. Uncertainty analysis of suppression pool heating during an ATWS in a BWR-5 plant. An application of the CSAU methodology using the BNL engineering plant analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Mallen, A.N. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Johnsen, G.W. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lellouche, G.S. [Technical Data Services, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The uncertainty has been estimated of predicting the peak temperature in the suppression pool of a BWR power plant, which undergoes an NRC-postulated Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS). The ATWS is initiated by recirculation-pump trips, and then leads to power and flow oscillations as they had occurred at the LaSalle-2 Power Station in March of 1988. After limit-cycle oscillations have been established, the turbines are tripped, but without MSIV closure, allowing steam discharge through the turbine bypass into the condenser. Postulated operator actions, namely to lower the reactor vessel pressure and the level elevation in the downcomer, are simulated by a robot model which accounts for operator uncertainty. All balance of plant and control systems modeling uncertainties were part of the statistical uncertainty analysis that was patterned after the Code Scaling, Applicability and Uncertainty (CSAU) evaluation methodology. The analysis showed that the predicted suppression-pool peak temperature of 329.3 K (133{degrees}F) has a 95-percentile uncertainty of 14.4 K (26{degrees}F), and that the size of this uncertainty bracket is dominated by the experimental uncertainty of measuring Safety and Relief Valve mass flow rates under critical-flow conditions. The analysis showed also that the probability of exceeding the suppression-pool temperature limit of 352.6 K (175{degrees}F) is most likely zero (it is estimated as < 5-104). The square root of the sum of the squares of all the computed peak pool temperatures is 350.7 K (171.6{degrees}F).

  12. The association between deficient manganese levels and breast cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Fei; Cai, Wen-Song; Li, Jiang-Lin; Feng, Zhe; Cao, Jie; Xu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    There are conflicting reports on the correlation between manganese (Mn) levels and breast cancer. The purpose of the present study is to clarify the association between Mn levels and breast cancer using a meta-analysis approach. We searched articles indexed in Pubmed and the Chinese Journal Full-text Database (CJFD) published as of August 2014 that met our predefined criteria. Eleven eligible studies involving 1302 subjects were identified. Overall, pooled analysis indicated that subjects with breast cancer had lower Mn levels than the healthy controls (SMD = -1.51, 95% CI = [-2.47, -0.56]). Further subgroup analysis found a similar pattern in China (SMD = -1.32, 95% CI = [-2.33, -0.32]) and Korea (SMD = -4.08, 95% CI = [-4.63, -3.54]), but not in Turkey (SMD = -0.96, 95% CI = [-3.19, 1.27]). Further subgroup analysis also found a similar pattern in different sample specimens (serum: SMD = -1.24, 95% CI = [-2.31, -0.16]; hair: SMD = -1.99, 95% CI = [-3.91, -0.06]) and different types of Mn measurement (inductively coupled plasma-atomic absorption spectrometry (ICP-AAS): SMD = -1.14, 95% CI = [-2.24, -0.04]; graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS): SMD = -1.94, 95% CI = [-2.38, -1.49]; inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES): SMD = -3.77, 95% CI = [-4.70, -2.85]). No evidence of publication bias was observed. In conclusion, this meta-analysis supports a significant association between deficient Mn levels and breast cancer. However, the subgroup analysis found that there was contradiction regarding races and geography, like China and Turkey. Thus this finding needs further confirmation by trans-regional multicenter, long-term observation in a cohort design to obtain better understanding of causal relationships between Mn levels and breast cancer, through measuring Mn at baseline to investigate whether the highest Mn category versus lowest was associated with breast cancer risk.

  13. Validating genetic risk associations for ovarian cancer through the international Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C L Pearce; D J Van Den Berg; S J Ramus; A Gentry-Maharaj; U Menon; S A Gayther; A R Anderson; C K Edlund; A H Wu; X Chen; J Beesley; P M Webb; S K Holt; C Chen; J A Doherty; M A Rossing; A S Whittemore; V McGuire; R A DiCioccio; M T Goodman; G Lurie; M E Carney; L R Wilkens; R B Ness; K B Moysich; R Edwards; E Jennison; S K Kjaer; E Hogdall; C K Hogdall; E L Goode; T A Sellers; R A Vierkant; J C Cunningham; J M Schildkraut; A Berchuck; P G Moorman; E S Iversen; D W Cramer; K L Terry; A F Vitonis; L Titus-Ernstoff; H Song; P D P Pharoah; A B Spurdle; H Anton-Culver; A Ziogas; W Brewster; V Galitovskiy; G Chenevix-Trench

    2009-01-01

    The search for genetic variants associated with ovarian cancer risk has focused on pathways including sex steroid hormones, DNA repair, and cell cycle control. The Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) identified 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes in these pathways, which had been genotyped by Consortium members and a pooled analysis of these data was conducted. Three of the 10

  14. Total fat consumption and pancreatic cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qi-Wei; Yao, Qi-Yuan

    2015-07-01

    Fat consumption has been hypothesized to influence pancreatic cancer risk, but the results of epidemiologic studies have been controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies to investigate this issue. Relevant published studies were identified by searching MEDLINE (PubMed) through February 2014. Two authors (Q.-W.S. and Q.-Y.Y.) independently assessed eligibility and the extracted data. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) were pooled using a random-effects model. We also carried out heterogeneity and publication bias analyses. Six cohort and 13 case-control studies with 6159 pancreatic cancer cases and 1?068?476 noncases were included in this meta-analysis. The summary RR for pancreatic cancer for the highest versus lowest intake was 1.04 [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.90-1.20, I=57.3%, P for heterogeneity=0.001] for total fat. In addition, when separately analyzed by study design, case-control (RR=1.03, 95% CI=0.83-1.27, I=55.8%, P for heterogeneity=0.007) and cohort studies (RR=1.05, 95% CI=0.85-1.29, I=66.7%, P for heterogeneity=0.010) yielded similar results. Furthermore, no statistically significant associations were observed in the subgroup analyses on the basis of fat source, geographic location, whether using energy-adjusted models, and whether adjusted for several potential confounders and important risk factors. There was no evidence of publication bias or significant heterogeneity between subgroups on meta-regression analyses. The results of this meta-analysis do not support an independent association between diets high in total fat and pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:25089377

  15. Evaluation of the p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism and its association with cancer risk: a HuGE review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Haroon; Khalil, Aftab; Rashid, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Codon 72 is a hotspot of polymorphisms in the TP53 gene, which encodes a hub protein in the protein-protein interaction network of p53. It is thus a central player in the apoptotic pathway, preventing cancer. A large number of articles have been published exploring its association with an increased susceptibility to most common cancers. However, these studies have produced inconclusive results, which may be due to their small sample sizes or study designs. To comprehensively evaluate the potential correlation between the TP53 Pro72Arg polymorphism and cancer risk and to better characterize the Pro72Arg polymorphism, we performed a systematic HuGE review and meta-analysis of candidate studies through online resources, according to the proposal of MOOSE and the PRISMA statement. The identified articles were carefully examined according to the inclusion criteria. Pooled odds ratios were calculated on the basis of different genetic models, while heterogeneity was assessed through a chi-based Q-test and I2. After applying the inclusion filters, we obtained a pool of 54 eligible studies, representing 18 718 cases and 21 261 controls. Overall, non-significant cancer risk was observed in all the genetic models but their observed heterogeneity was extremely significant. In subgroup analysis, an increased susceptibility was observed in the case of colorectal cancer, while in cancers of the female reproductive system, significantly increased risk was detected in all the genetic models except the dominant model. In another subgroup analysis, significantly increased cancer risk was observed among Asians in homozygous and recessive models, while in Americans increased cancer risk was observed only in dominant and recessive models. No association was observed in the rest of the populations. In conclusion, pooled subgroup analysis on the basis of ethnicity proved that the TP53 Arg72Pro polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of cancer in Asians and Americans only and is not associated in other populations. It can therefore be concluded that this meta-analysis of available data suggests partial confirmation of the association between the TP53 Arg72Pro polymorphism and cancer risk susceptibility. PMID:25882871

  16. GWAS meta-analysis and replication identifies three new susceptibility loci for ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Ramus, Susan J.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Goode, Ellen L.; Lawrenson, Kate; Price, Melissa; Fridley, Brooke L.; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Shen, Howard; Weber, Rachel; Karevan, Rod; Larson, Melissa C.; Song, Honglin; Tessier, Daniel C.; Bacot, François; Vincent, Daniel; Cunningham, Julie M.; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Aben, Katja K.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Armasu, Sebastian M.; Baglietto, Laura; Bandera, Elisa V.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Birrer, Michael J.; Bloom, Greg; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brenton, James D.; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Brown, Robert; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian; Carney, Michael E; Carvalho, Renato S.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chen, Y. Anne; Chen, Zhihua; Chow, Wong-Ho; Cicek, Mine S.; Coetzee, Gerhard; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Despierre, Evelyn; Doherty, Jennifer A; Dörk, Thilo; du Bois, Andreas; Dürst, Matthias; Eccles, Diana; Edwards, Robert; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Fenstermacher, David; Flanagan, James; Gao, Yu-Tang; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham; Gjyshi, Anxhela; Gore, Martin; Gronwald, Jacek; Guo, Qi; Halle, Mari K; Harter, Philipp; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hillemanns, Peter; Hoatlin, Maureen; Høgdall, Estrid; Høgdall, Claus K.; Hosono, Satoyo; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Kalli, Kimberly R.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Konecny, Gottfried E.; Krakstad, Camilla; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Nathan; Lee, Janet; Leminen, Arto; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lubi?ski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Lurie, Galina; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Nakanishi, Toru; Narod, Steven A.; Ness, Roberta B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nickels, Stefan; Noushmehr, Houtan; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara; Orlow, Irene; Paul, James; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M; Permuth-Wey, Jenny; Pike, Malcolm C; Poole, Elizabeth M; Qu, Xiaotao; Risch, Harvey A.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schwaab, Ira; Severi, Gianluca; Shen, Hui; Shridhar, Vijayalakshmi; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Sieh, Weiva; Southey, Melissa C.; Spellman, Paul; Tajima, Kazuo; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J; Timorek, Agnieszka; Tworoger, Shelley S.; van Altena, Anne M.; Berg, David Van Den; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wik, Elisabeth; Winterhoff, Boris; Woo, Yin Ling; Wu, Anna H; Yang, Hannah P.; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Zulkifli, Famida; Goodman, Marc T.; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F; Pearce, Celeste L; Berchuck, Andrew; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Iversen, Edwin; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Gayther, Simon A.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Sellers, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified four susceptibility loci for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with another two loci being close to genome-wide significance. We pooled data from a GWAS conducted in North America with another GWAS from the United Kingdom. We selected the top 24,551 SNPs for inclusion on the iCOGS custom genotyping array. Follow-up genotyping was carried out in 18,174 cases and 26,134 controls from 43 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We validated the two loci at 3q25 and 17q21 previously near genome-wide significance and identified three novel loci associated with risk; two loci associated with all EOC subtypes, at 8q21 (rs11782652, P=5.5×10-9) and 10p12 (rs1243180; P=1.8×10-8), and another locus specific to the serous subtype at 17q12 (rs757210; P=8.1×10-10). An integrated molecular analysis of genes and regulatory regions at these loci provided evidence for functional mechanisms underlying susceptibility that implicates CHMP4C in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. PMID:23535730

  17. Duration, Pattern of Breastfeeding and Postnatal Transmission of HIV: Pooled Analysis of Individual Data from West and South African Cohorts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renaud Becquet; Ruth Bland; Valériane Leroy; Nigel C. Rollins; Didier K. Ekouevi; Anna Coutsoudis; François Dabis; Hoosen M. Coovadia; Roger Salamon; Marie-Louise Newell

    2009-01-01

    Background: Both breastfeeding pattern and duration are associated with postnatal HIV acquisition; their relative contribution has not been reliably quantified. Methodology and Principal Findings: Pooled data from 2 cohorts: in urban West Africa where breastfeeding cessation at 4 months was recommended but exclusive breastfeeding was rare (Ditrame Plus, DP); in rural South Africa where high rates of exclusive breastfeeding were

  18. HPLC analysis of nonprotein thiols in planktonic diatoms: pool size, redox state and response to copper and cadmium exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Rijstenbil; J. A. Wijnholds

    1996-01-01

    A sensitive method was developed to analyze low molecular weight thiols involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification in phytoplankton. The aims of this study were to (1) separate and measure all relevant thiols in a single HPLC run, (2) measure redox states of the thiols and (3) identify specific responses of thiols (pools, redox) to heavy metals by testing diatoms

  19. GSTM1 null genotype and gastric cancer risk in the Chinese population: an updated meta-analysis and review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi-Liang; Cui, Yong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Although a number of studies have been conducted on the association between the GSTM1 null genotype and gastric cancer in People’s Republic of China, this association remains elusive and controversial. To clarify the effects of the GSTM1 null genotype on the risk of gastric cancer, an updated meta-analysis was performed in the Chinese population. Related studies were identified from PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biology Medicine (CBM) up to November 5, 2014. A total of 25 studies including 3,491 cases and 5,921 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, a significant association (odds ratio [OR] =1.47, 95% CI: 1.28–1.69) was found between the null GSTM1 and gastric cancer risk when all studies in Chinese population were pooled into the meta-analysis. In subgroup analyses stratified by quality score, geographic area, and source of controls, the same results were observed. Additionally, a significant association was found both in smokers and non-smokers. This meta-analysis showed that the null GSTM1 may be a potential biomarker for gastric cancer risk in Chinese, and further studies with gene–gene and gene–environment interactions are required for definite conclusions. PMID:25995643

  20. Association between Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of 39 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Song, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Background The associations between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk were comprehensively investigated to clarify issues that remain controversial. Methodology/Principal Findings An electronic search was conducted of several databases, including PubMed, the Cochrane library, Web of Science, EMBASE, CBM and CNKI, for papers that describe the association between Fok1, poly-A repeat, Bsm1, Taq1 or Apa1 polymorphisms of the VDR gene and breast cancer risk. Summary odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated based on a fixed-effect model (FEM) or random-effect model (REM), depending on the absence or presence of significant heterogeneity. A total of 39 studies met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of high-quality studies showed that the Fok1 polymorphism of the VDR gene was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (ff vs. Ff+FF, OR: 1.09, 95%CI: 1.02 to 1.16, p?=?0.007). No significant associations were observed between the other polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. No positive results were detected by pooling the results of all relevant studies. Conclusion A meta-analysis of high-quality studies demonstrated that the Fok1 polymorphism of the VDR gene was closely associated with breast cancer risk. PMID:24769568

  1. Red and processed meat consumption and the risk of lung cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis of 33 published studies

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xiu-Juan; Gao, Qing; Qiao, Jian-Hong; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Cui-Ping; Liu, Ju

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analysis was to summarize the published studies about the association between red/processed meat consumption and the risk of lung cancer. 5 databases were systematically reviewed, and random-effect model was used to pool the study results and to assess dose-response relationships. Results shown that six cohort studies and twenty eight case-control studies were included in this meat-analysis. The pooled Risk Radios (RR) for total red meat and processed meat were 1.44 (95% CI, 1.29-1.61) and 1.23 (95% CI, 1.10-1.37), respectively. Dose-response analysis revealed that for every increment of 120 grams red meat per day the risk of lung cancer increases 35% and for every increment of 50 grams red meat per day the risk of lung cancer increases 20%. The present dose-response meta-analysis suggested that both red and processed meat consumption showed a positive effect on lung cancer risk. PMID:25035778

  2. Horizontal Participatory Planning in Prostate Cancer Prevention: An Analysis of the Mississippi Prostate Cancer Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Besong Tataw; Olúgbémiga T. Ekúndayò

    2012-01-01

    We examined the Mississippi Prostrate Cancer Project (MPCP) using a 12-point assessment tool organized within three conceptual elements: stakeholder participation, cultural and structural relationships, and partnership synergy. A case study design involving participant observation and content analysis is adopted, and interpretive methods including frame and categorical analysis are used in data analysis. Though MPCP did not meet all the criteria

  3. Integrated quantitative fractal polarimetric analysis of monolayer lung cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Suman; Zhang, Lin; Quang, Tri; Farrahi, Tannaz; Narayan, Chaya; Deshpande, Aditi; Na, Ying; Blinzler, Adam; Ma, Junyu; Liu, Bo; Giakos, George C.

    2014-05-01

    Digital diagnostic pathology has become one of the most valuable and convenient advancements in technology over the past years. It allows us to acquire, store and analyze pathological information from the images of histological and immunohistochemical glass slides which are scanned to create digital slides. In this study, efficient fractal, wavelet-based polarimetric techniques for histological analysis of monolayer lung cancer cells will be introduced and different monolayer cancer lines will be studied. The outcome of this study indicates that application of fractal, wavelet polarimetric principles towards the analysis of squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cancer cell lines may be proved extremely useful in discriminating among healthy and lung cancer cells as well as differentiating among different lung cancer cells.

  4. Effect of Exercise Training on Peak Oxygen Consumption in Patients with Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yuanyuan; Pituskin, Edith N.; Battaglini, Claudio L.; Scott, Jessica M.; Hornsby, Whitney E.; Haykowsky, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the effects of supervised exercise training on peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) in adults with cancer. Methods. A literature review using Ovid MEDLINE (1950–2010), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1991–2010), AMED (1985–2010), Embase (1988–2010), PubMed (1966–2010), Scopus (1950–2010), and Web of Science (1950–2010) was performed to identify randomized controlled trials examining the effects of supervised exercise training on measurement of VO2peak (via gas exchange analysis) in adults with cancer. Studies were selected using predetermined criteria, and two independent reviewers extracted data. Weighted mean differences (WMDs) were calculated using random effect models. Results. Six studies evaluated VO2peak involving a total of 571 adult cancer patients (exercise, n = 344; usual care control, n = 227). Pooled data indicated that exercise training was associated with a statistically significant increase in VO2peak (WMD, 2.90 ml·kg?1·min?1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16–4.64); however, significant heterogeneity was evident in this estimate (I2, 87%). Usual care (control) was associated with a significant decline in VO2peak from baseline to postintervention (WMD, ?1.02 ml·kg?1·min?1; 95% CI, ?1.46 to ?0.58; I2, 22%). Sensitivity analyses indicated superior improvements in VO2peak for studies conducted for a shorter duration (<4 months) and following the completion of adjuvant therapy (p-values < .001). Exercise training was not associated with a higher incidence of adverse events, although safety was not rigorously monitored or reported. Conclusions. Supervised exercise training is associated with significant improvements in VO2peak following a diagnosis of early-stage cancer, with minimal adverse events. PMID:21212429

  5. Comparative proteomics analysis of oral cancer cell lines: identification of cancer associated proteins

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A limiting factor in performing proteomics analysis on cancerous cells is the difficulty in obtaining sufficient amounts of starting material. Cell lines can be used as a simplified model system for studying changes that accompany tumorigenesis. This study used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to compare the whole cell proteome of oral cancer cell lines vs normal cells in an attempt to identify cancer associated proteins. Results Three primary cell cultures of normal cells with a limited lifespan without hTERT immortalization have been successfully established. 2DE was used to compare the whole cell proteome of these cells with that of three oral cancer cell lines. Twenty four protein spots were found to have changed in abundance. MALDI TOF/TOF was then used to determine the identity of these proteins. Identified proteins were classified into seven functional categories – structural proteins, enzymes, regulatory proteins, chaperones and others. IPA core analysis predicted that 18 proteins were related to cancer with involvements in hyperplasia, metastasis, invasion, growth and tumorigenesis. The mRNA expressions of two proteins – 14-3-3 protein sigma and Stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 – were found to correlate with the corresponding proteins’ abundance. Conclusions The outcome of this analysis demonstrated that a comparative study of whole cell proteome of cancer versus normal cell lines can be used to identify cancer associated proteins. PMID:24422745

  6. Effect of HLA-B-associated Transcript 3 Polymorphisms on Lung Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Junfei; Wang, Hongyuan; Hu, Weizhen; Jin, Yuanhong

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between the HLA-B-associated transcript 3 polymorphisms and lung cancer risk is a subject of debate. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between these polymorphisms and lung cancer susceptibility. Material/Methods A systematic search of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Wanfang, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure) was performed. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results Ten case-control studies with 37 945 and 56 807 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, a significant association between rs1052486 polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility was observed (OR=1.07, 95% CI 1.01–1.12, P=0.01). In addition, a significant association was found for rs3117582 polymorphism (OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.22–1.37, P<0.01). Conclusions This meta-analysis suggested that HLA-B-associated transcript 3 polymorphisms are risk factors for lung cancer. PMID:25430685

  7. Virtual Tide Pool

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science NetLinks (PBS; )

    2003-04-29

    Virtual Tide Pool features a three dimensional view of a tide pool during both low and high tides. Students can see animals that live under, above, and at the waters surface. This site offers the ability to pan the tide pool for a 360 degree view, with zoom options, and gives descriptions of the animals found during both low and high tides.

  8. Meta-Analysis of Massage Therapy on Cancer Pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Yeop; Yeo, Sujung; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lim, Sabina

    2015-07-01

    Cancer pain is the most common complaint among patients with cancer. Conventional treatment does not always relieve cancer pain satisfactorily. Therefore, many patients with cancer have turned to complementary therapies to help them with their physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being. Massage therapy is increasingly used for symptom relief in patients with cancer. The current study aimed to investigate by meta-analysis the effects of massage therapy for cancer patients experiencing pain. Nine electronic databases were systematically searched for studies published through August 2013 in English, Chinese, and Korean. Methodological quality was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and Cochrane risk-of-bias scales. Twelve studies, including 559 participants, were used in the meta-analysis. In 9 high-quality studies based on the PEDro scale (standardized mean difference, -1.24; 95% confidence interval, -1.72 to -0.75), we observed reduction in cancer pain after massage. Massage therapy significantly reduced cancer pain compared with no massage treatment or conventional care (standardized mean difference, -1.25; 95% confidence interval, -1.63 to -0.87). Our results indicate that massage is effective for the relief of cancer pain, especially for surgery-related pain. Among the various types of massage, foot reflexology appeared to be more effective than body or aroma massage. Our meta-analysis indicated a beneficial effect of massage for relief of cancer pain. Further well-designed, large studies with longer follow-up periods are needed to be able to draw firmer conclusions regarding the effectiveness. PMID:25784669

  9. Prognostic significance of SOX2 in head and neck cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhongyi; Liu, Gengchun; Huang, Baqun; Sun, Jingyuan; Wu, Dehua

    2014-01-01

    Sex determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2) has been identified as a putative cancer stem cells (CSCs) marker in Head and Neck Cancers (HNC). However, the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of SOX2 in HNC patients remains controversial. We reviewed the literature by performing a meta-analysis based on the data from 7 studies (9 cohorts) to evaluate the association between SOX2 and clinicopathological/prognostic parameters in patients with HNC. Pooled hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as the effect size estimate. Our analysis results suggested that high SOX2 expression predicted unfavorable OS (HR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.09-2.18) and DFS (HR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.13-2.10) of patients with HNC. In addition, increased SOX2 was also significantly associated with high tumor grade (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.06-3.28), advanced TNM stage (OR: 4.22, 95% CI: 2.62-6.80), lymph node metastasis (OR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.50-3.35) and distant metastasis (OR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.26-3.15). Our study suggested that SOX2 expression can be served as a candidate unfavorable prognostic biomarker for HNC patients, indicating that it might be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:25664000

  10. Effects of antiepileptic comedication on levetiracetam pharmacokinetics: a pooled analysis of data from randomized adjunctive therapy trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Perucca; B. E Gidal; Eugène Baltès

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the influence of commonly used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on levetiracetam pharmacokinetics at steady state.Methods: Plasma levetiracetam concentrations at steady state were determined by capillary gas chromatography in 590 epilepsy patients included in phase III trials and treated with doses of 1000–4000mg per day in two divided daily doses. The data were pooled and kinetic parameters estimated by

  11. Duration, Pattern of Breastfeeding and Postnatal Transmission of HIV: Pooled Analysis of Individual Data from West and South African Cohorts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renaud Becquet; Ruth Bland; Valériane Leroy; Nigel C. Rollins; Didier K. Ekouevi; Anna Coutsoudis; François Dabis; Hoosen M. Coovadia; Roger Salamon; Marie-Louise Newell; Landon Myer

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundBoth breastfeeding pattern and duration are associated with postnatal HIV acquisition; their relative contribution has not been reliably quantified.Methodology and Principal FindingsPooled data from 2 cohorts: in urban West Africa where breastfeeding cessation at 4 months was recommended but exclusive breastfeeding was rare (Ditrame Plus, DP); in rural South Africa where high rates of exclusive breastfeeding were achieved, but with

  12. Pooled Peer Ratings, Self-Ratings, and Estimated Ratings of Therapeutic Communication and Popularity: A Relational Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Y. F. Ho

    2010-01-01

    Two studies of therapeutic communication and popularity were conducted in the framework of Dialogic Action Therapy (Ho & Wang, 2009) that accords centrality to the bidirectional nature of interpersonal perceptions. Pooled peer ratings, self-ratings, and estimates of peer ratings were collected from 88 Chinese students in psychology who knew one another well. Self-inflation was operationally defined as the self-rating minus

  13. DNA pooling analysis of 21 norepinephrine transporter gene SNPs with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: no evidence for association.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Knight, Jo; Brookes, Keeley; Mill, Jonathan; Sham, Pak; Craig, Ian; Taylor, Eric; Asherson, Philip

    2005-04-01

    The norepinephrine system is known to play a role in attentional and cognitive-energetic mechanisms and is thought to be important in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Stimulant medications are known to alter the activity of norepinephrine as well as dopamine in the synapse and the highly selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, atomoxetine, is an effective treatment for ADHD symptoms. This study set out to investigate whether common polymorphisms within the norepinephrine transporter gene (NET1) are associated with DSM-IV ADHD combined subtype, using a sample that has previously shown association with genes that affect the synaptic release and uptake of neurotransmitters; DAT1 and SNAP-25. We identified 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from publicly available databases that had minor allele frequencies > or =5% and span the NET1 genomic region, including those analyzed in previous studies of ADHD. DNA pooling was used to screen for associations using two case pools (n = 180 cases) and four control pools (n = 334 controls). We identified three SNPs that showed suggestive evidence for association using either case-control or within family tests of association, however, none of these were significant after adjustment for the number of markers analyzed. We conclude that none of the markers show significant evidence of association with ADHD although we cannot rule out small genetic effects. PMID:15719398

  14. Analysis of Senate Bill 255: Breast Cancer

    E-print Network

    California Health Benefits Review Program

    2011-01-01

    treatment of patients with early stage invasive breast cancer recommends lumpectomy with radiationradiation as a treatment option for women with breast cancercancer who were treated with mastectomy or with lumpectomy with radiation treatment.

  15. Long-term evaluation of combined prolonged-release oxycodone and naloxone in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic pain: pooled analysis of extension phases of two Phase III trials

    PubMed Central

    Blagden, M; Hafer, J; Duerr, H; Hopp, M; Bosse, B

    2014-01-01

    Background While opioids provide effective analgesia, opioid-induced constipation (OIC) can severely impact quality of life and treatment compliance. This pooled analysis evaluated the maintenance of efficacy and safety during long-term treatment with combined oxycodone/naloxone prolonged-release tablets (OXN PR) in adults with moderate-to-severe chronic pain. Methods Patients (N = 474) received open-label OXN PR during 52-week extension phases of two studies, having completed 12-week, double-blind, randomized treatment with oxycodone prolonged-release tablets (Oxy PR) or OXN PR. Analgesia and bowel function were assessed at each study visit using ‘Average pain over last 24 h scale and Bowel Function Index (BFI), respectively. Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication was assessed at study end only. Key Results Improvement in bowel function was particularly marked in patients who switched from Oxy PR in the double-blind phase to OXN PR during the extension phase, resulting in a clinically meaningful reduction (?12 points) in BFI score: at the start of the extension phases, mean (SD) BFI score was 44.3 (28.13), and was 29.8 (26.36) for patients who had received OXN PR in the double-blind phase. One week later, BFI scores were similar for the two groups (26.5 [24.40] and 27.5 [25.60], respectively), as was observed throughout the following months. Fewer than 10% of patients received laxatives regularly. Mean 24-h pain scores were low and stable throughout the extension phases. No unexpected adverse events were observed. Conclusions & Inferences Pooled data demonstrate OXN PR is an effective long-term therapy for patients with chronic non-cancer pain, and can address symptoms of OIC. No new safety issues were observed which were attributable to the long-term administration of OXN PR. PMID:25346155

  16. On the use of heterogeneous pooling groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Kjeldsen; David Jones

    2010-01-01

    Pooling of data from catchments considered similar in terms of morphology, climatology and other important hydrological factors is a widely used technique in regional frequency analysis of extreme hydrological events. An often cited key assumption of many such pooling methods is that the statistical distribution of the events is identical across sites within a region (geographically contiguous or not) except

  17. Visual gene-network analysis reveals the cancer gene co-expression in human endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Endometrial cancers (ECs) are the most common form of gynecologic malignancy. Recent studies have reported that ECs reveal distinct markers for molecular pathogenesis, which in turn is linked to the various histological types of ECs. To understand further the molecular events contributing to ECs and endometrial tumorigenesis in general, a more precise identification of cancer-associated molecules and signaling networks would be useful for the detection and monitoring of malignancy, improving clinical cancer therapy, and personalization of treatments. Results ECs-specific gene co-expression networks were constructed by differential expression analysis and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). Important pathways and putative cancer hub genes contribution to tumorigenesis of ECs were identified. An elastic-net regularized classification model was built using the cancer hub gene signatures to predict the phenotypic characteristics of ECs. The 19 cancer hub gene signatures had high predictive power to distinguish among three key principal features of ECs: grade, type, and stage. Intriguingly, these hub gene networks seem to contribute to ECs progression and malignancy via cell-cycle regulation, antigen processing and the citric acid (TCA) cycle. Conclusions The results of this study provide a powerful biomarker discovery platform to better understand the progression of ECs and to uncover potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of ECs. This information might lead to improved monitoring of ECs and resulting improvement of treatment of ECs, the 4th most common of cancer in women. PMID:24758163

  18. Prognostic Value of Circulating Tumor Cells in Ovarian Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiangliang; Xie, Guohua; Ma, Yanhui; Shen, Lisong

    2015-01-01

    Background The prognostic value of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in ovarian cancer has been investigated in previous studies, but the results are controversial. Therefore we performed a meta-analysis to systematically review these data and evaluate the value of CTCs in ovarian cancer. Materials and Methods A literary search for relevant studies was performed on Embase, Medline and Web of Science databases. Then pooled hazard ratios (HRs) for survival with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), subgroup analyses, sensitivity analyses, meta-regression analyses and publication bias were conducted. Results This meta-analysis is based on 11 publications and comprises a total of 1129 patients. The prognostic value of the CTC status was significant in overall survival (OS) (HR, 1.61;95% CI,1.22–2.13) and progression-free survival (PFS)/disease-free survival (DFS) (HR, 1.44; 95%CI, 1.18–1.75). Furthermore, subgroup analysis revealed that the value of CTC status in OS was significant in "RT-PCR" subgroup (HR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.34–3.03), whereas it was not significant in "CellSearch" subgroup (HR, 1.15; 95% CI 0.45–2.92) and "other ICC" subgroup (HR, 1.09; 95% CI 0.62–1.90). The presence of CTC was also associated with an increased CA-125 (OR, 4.07; 95%CI, 1.87–8.85). Conclusion Our study demonstrates that CTC status is associated with OS and PFS/DFS in ovarian cancer. PMID:26098665

  19. Comparative proteome analysis of human epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Éthier, Chantal; Gagné, Pierre; Mercier, Geneviève; Bonicalzi, Marie-Ève; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Droit, Arnaud; Winstall, Eric; Isabelle, Maxim; Poirier, Guy G

    2007-01-01

    Background Epithelial ovarian cancer is a devastating disease associated with low survival prognosis mainly because of the lack of early detection markers and the asymptomatic nature of the cancer until late stage. Using two complementary proteomics approaches, a differential protein expression profile was carried out between low and highly transformed epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines which realistically mimic the phenotypic changes observed during evolution of a tumour metastasis. This investigation was aimed at a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying differentiation, proliferation and neoplastic progression of ovarian cancer. Results The quantitative profiling of epithelial ovarian cancer model cell lines TOV-81D and TOV-112D generated using iTRAQ analysis and two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry revealed some proteins with altered expression levels. Several of these proteins have been the object of interest in cancer research but others were unrecognized as differentially expressed in a context of ovarian cancer. Among these, series of proteins involved in transcriptional activity, cellular metabolism, cell adhesion or motility and cytoskeleton organization were identified, suggesting their possible role in the emergence of oncogenic pathways leading to aggressive cellular behavior. Conclusion The differential protein expression profile generated by the two proteomics approaches combined to complementary characterizations studies will open the way to more exhaustive and systematic representation of the disease and will provide valuable information that may be helpful to uncover the molecular mechanisms related to epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:17892554

  20. Prophylactic Effect of Lamivudine for Chemotherapy-Induced Hepatitis B Reactivation in Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ruohui; Pan, Lingxiao; Gao, Jin; Ye, Xigang; Zhang, Xiaoshen; Zheng, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    Background Three strategies using lamivudine have been proposed to prevent chemotherapy-induced HBV (hepatitis B virus) reactivation in the clinical setting. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the efficacy of the early preemptive strategy, deferred preemptive strategy and therapeutic strategy in patients with HBsAg-positive breast cancer during chemotherapy. Methods Clinical studies published from database inception until Nov 1, 2014, were included for analysis. The primary outcomes were overall survival, rate of chemotherapy disruption and virological and clinical reactivation. The secondary outcomes were the rates of HBV-related chemotherapy disruption, HBV-related mortality, YMDD mutations and withdrawal hepatitis. Results Four hundred and thirty patients in four studies that compared the early preemptive strategy with a therapeutic strategy were included. Application of early preemptive lamivudine was superior in reducing HBV recurrence (pooled OR: 0.12, 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.31, P< 0.0001), the incidence of HBV-related hepatitis (pooled OR: 0.13, 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.37, P< 0.0001) and the rate of chemotherapy disruption (pooled OR: 0.37, 95% CI, 0.23 to 0.60, P< 0.0001). In these two groups, no significant difference was found in overall mortality (P = 0.32), YMDD mutant rate (P = 0.13) or incidence of withdrawal hepatitis (P = 0.38). Of the two studies that compared the efficacy of an early and a deferred preemptive strategy, one showed that an early preemptive strategy significantly reduced the incidence of hepatitis (P = 0.046), whereas the other showed no significant difference (P = 0.7). Conclusions An early preemptive strategy is superior to a therapeutic strategy in decreasing the incidence of HBV reactivation, incidence of HBV-related hepatitis and rate of chemotherapy disruption in patients with breast cancer. A deferred preemptive strategy might be an alternative approach to controlling viral replication. PMID:26057738

  1. [Analysis of diagnostic errors in cancer of the esophagus].

    PubMed

    Khodzhaeva, M Kh

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of the results of investigation of 610 esophageal cancer patients treated in the Samarkand regional cancer center has shown that the rate of erroneous diagnosis based on anamnestic data and the results of clinical noninstrumental investigation is 70.5%. The rate of diagnostic errors of x-ray examination varies within 32.1-74.4%. Repeated x-ray examination in the negative group of patients revealed esophageal cancer in 17.8%. These cases can be regarded as potentialities of correct radiodiagnosis. Correct diagnosis in endoscopy was established in 89.6%. Esophagoscopy permitted not only correct diagnosis but also provided material for a morphological study. PMID:3363518

  2. Cancer cells detection and pathology quantification utilizing image analysis techniques.

    PubMed

    Goudas, Theodosios; Maglogiannis, Ilias

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced image analysis tool for the accurate and fast characterization and quantification of cancer and apoptotic cells in microscopy images utilizing adaptive thresholding and a Support Vector Machines classifier. The segmentation results are also enhanced through a Majority Voting and a Watershed technique. The proposed tool was evaluated by experts on breast cancer images and the reported results were accurate and reproducible. PMID:23366907

  3. Prostate cancer among pesticide applicators: a meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Van Maele-Fabry; J. L. Willems

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To analyse data from peer-reviewed, case-referent and cohort studies, studying the occurrence of prostate cancer in pesticide applicators and in some other, related, occupational categories, in order to determine a possible relationship of cancer of the prostate with pesticide exposure; to calculate a meta-rate ratio and to compare it with the meta-rate ratios obtained in a previous meta-analysis performed

  4. Detection of breast cancer using independent component analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fadi Abu-Amara; Ikhlas Abdel-Qader

    2007-01-01

    Screening mammograms remain the best method to protect women from breast cancer. To increase the value of this modality and reduce the strain on the radiologists; automation of detection is a necessity. In this paper we investigate combining principal component analysis (PCA) with independent component analysis (ICA) to identify regions of suspicious (ROS) from digitized mammographic films. The experimental results

  5. Pathway analysis of genome-wide association study data highlights pancreatic development genes as susceptibility factors for pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Duell, Eric J.; Yu, Kai; Risch, Harvey A.; Olson, Sara H.; Kooperberg, Charles; Wolpin, Brian M.; Jiao, Li; Dong, Xiaoqun; Wheeler, Bill; Arslan, Alan A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gallinger, Steven; Gross, Myron; Hartge, Patricia; Hoover, Robert N.; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Klein, Alison P.; LaCroix, Andrea; Mandelson, Margaret T.; Petersen, Gloria; Zheng, Wei; Agalliu, Ilir; Albanes, Demetrius; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Bracci, Paige M.; Buring, Julie E.; Canzian, Federico; Chang, Kenneth; Chanock, Stephen J.; Cotterchio, Michelle; Gaziano, J.Michael; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Goggins, Michael; Hallmans, Göran; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hoffman Bolton, Judith A.; Hunter, David J.; Hutchinson, Amy; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Jenab, Mazda; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kraft, Peter; Krogh, Vittorio; Kurtz, Robert C.; McWilliams, Robert R.; Mendelsohn, Julie B.; Patel, Alpa V.; Rabe, Kari G.; Riboli, Elio; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Tjønneland, Anne; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Virtamo, Jarmo; Visvanathan, Kala; Watters, Joanne; Yu, Herbert; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.

    2012-01-01

    Four loci have been associated with pancreatic cancer through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Pathway-based analysis of GWAS data is a complementary approach to identify groups of genes or biological pathways enriched with disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) whose individual effect sizes may be too small to be detected by standard single-locus methods. We used the adaptive rank truncated product method in a pathway-based analysis of GWAS data from 3851 pancreatic cancer cases and 3934 control participants pooled from 12 cohort studies and 8 case–control studies (PanScan). We compiled 23 biological pathways hypothesized to be relevant to pancreatic cancer and observed a nominal association between pancreatic cancer and five pathways (P < 0.05), i.e. pancreatic development, Helicobacter pylori lacto/neolacto, hedgehog, Th1/Th2 immune response and apoptosis (P = 2.0 × 10?6, 1.6 × 10?5, 0.0019, 0.019 and 0.023, respectively). After excluding previously identified genes from the original GWAS in three pathways (NR5A2, ABO and SHH), the pancreatic development pathway remained significant (P = 8.3 × 10?5), whereas the others did not. The most significant genes (P < 0.01) in the five pathways were NR5A2, HNF1A, HNF4G and PDX1 for pancreatic development; ABO for H. pylori lacto/neolacto; SHH for hedgehog; TGFBR2 and CCL18 for Th1/Th2 immune response and MAPK8 and BCL2L11 for apoptosis. Our results provide a link between inherited variation in genes important for pancreatic development and cancer and show that pathway-based approaches to analysis of GWAS data can yield important insights into the collective role of genetic risk variants in cancer. PMID:22523087

  6. Gene network-based cancer prognosis analysis with sparse boosting

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shuangge; Huang, Yuan; Huang, Jian; Fang, Kuangnan

    2013-01-01

    Summary High-throughput gene profiling studies have been extensively conducted, searching for markers associated with cancer development and progression. In this study, we analyse cancer prognosis studies with right censored survival responses. With gene expression data, we adopt the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to describe the interplay among genes. In network analysis, nodes represent genes. There are subsets of nodes, called modules, which are tightly connected to each other. Genes within the same modules tend to have co-regulated biological functions. For cancer prognosis data with gene expression measurements, our goal is to identify cancer markers, while properly accounting for the network module structure. A two-step sparse boosting approach, called Network Sparse Boosting (NSBoost), is proposed for marker selection. In the first step, for each module separately, we use a sparse boosting approach for within-module marker selection and construct module-level ‘super markers ’. In the second step, we use the super markers to represent the effects of all genes within the same modules and conduct module-level selection using a sparse boosting approach. Simulation study shows that NSBoost can more accurately identify cancer-associated genes and modules than alternatives. In the analysis of breast cancer and lymphoma prognosis studies, NSBoost identifies genes with important biological implications. It outperforms alternatives including the boosting and penalization approaches by identifying a smaller number of genes/modules and/or having better prediction performance. PMID:22950901

  7. Diagnostic performance of magnifying narrow-band imaging for early gastric cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ying-Ying; Lian, Qing-Wu; Lin, Zheng-Hua; Zhong, Jing; Xue, Meng; Wang, Liang-Jing

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the performance of magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging (ME-NBI) in the diagnosis of early gastric cancer (EGC). METHODS: Systematic literature searches were conducted until February 2014 in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Ovid, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases by two independent reviewers. Meta-analysis was performed to calculate the pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio and to construct a summary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Subgroup analyses were performed based on the morphology type of lesions, diagnostic standard, the size of lesions, type of assessment, country and sample size to explore possible sources of heterogeneity. A Deeks’ asymmetry test was used to evaluate the publication bias. RESULTS: Fourteen studies enrolling 2171 patients were included. The pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio for ME-NBI diagnosis of EGC were 0.86 (95%CI: 0.83-0.89), 0.96 (95%CI: 0.95-0.97) and 102.75 (95%CI: 48.14-219.32), respectively, with the area under ROC curve being 0.9623. Among the 14 studies, six also evaluated the diagnostic value of conventional white-light imaging, with a sensitivity of 0.57 (95%CI: 0.50-0.64) and a specificity of 0.79 (95%CI: 0.76-0.81). When using “VS” (vessel plus surface) ME-NBI diagnostic systems in gastric lesions of depressed macroscopic type, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.64 (95%CI: 0.52-0.75) and 0.96 (95%CI: 0.95-0.98). For the lesions with a diameter less than 10 mm, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.74 (95%CI: 0.65-0.82) and 0.98 (95%CI: 0.97-0.98). CONCLUSION: ME-NBI is a promising endoscopic tool in the diagnosis of early gastric cancer and might be helpful in further target biopsy. PMID:26167089

  8. HUMAN VIRAL ONCOGENESIS: A CANCER HALLMARKS ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Mesri, Enrique A.; Feitelson, Mark; Munger, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Approximately twelve percent of all human cancers are caused by oncoviruses. Human viral oncogenesis is complex and only a small percentage of the infected individuals develop cancer and often many years to decades after initial infection. This reflects the multistep nature of viral oncogenesis, host genetic variability and the fact that viruses contribute to only a portion of the oncogenic events. In this review, the Hallmarks of Cancer framework of Hanahan & Weinberg (2000 and 2011) is used to dissect the viral, host and environmental co-factors that contribute to the biology of multistep oncogenesis mediated by established human oncoviruses. The viruses discussed include Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), high-risk Human Papillomaviruses (HPV16/18), Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV, HCV respectively), Human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1) and Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV). PMID:24629334

  9. FDG-PET and other imaging modalities for the evaluation of breast cancer recurrence and metastases: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, LingLing; Han, Yuan; Sun, XiaoGuang; Liu, JianJun

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Breast carcinoma is the most common cancer in female patients with a propensity for recurrence and metastases. The accuracy of ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), scintimammography (SMM) and positron emission tomography (PET) in diagnosing the recurrent and/or breast cancer has never been systematically assessed, and present systematic review was aimed at this issue. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for articles dealt with detection of recurrent and/or metastatic breast cancer by US, CT, MRI, SMM or PET whether interpreted with or without the use of CT. Histopathologic analysis and/or close clinical and imaging follow-up for at least 6 months were used as golden reference. We extracted data to calculate sensitivity, specificity, summary receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve and to test for heterogeneity. Result In 42 included studies, US and MRI had highest pooled specificity (0.962 and 0.929, respectively); MRI and PET had highest pooled sensitivity (0.9500 and 0.9530, respectively). The AUC of US, CT, MRI, SMM and PET was 0.9251, 0.8596, 0.9718, 0.9386 and 0.9604, respectively. Results of pairwise comparison between each modality demonstrated that AUC of MRI and PET was higher than that of US or CT, p < 0.05. No statistical significance was found between MRI and PET. There was heterogeneity among studies and evidence of publication bias. Conclusion In conclusion, MRI seemed to be a more useful supplement to current surveillance techniques to assess patients with suspected recurrent and/or metastatic breast cancer. If MRI shows an indeterminate or benign lesion or MRI was not applicable, FDG-PET could be performed in addition. PMID:20091186

  10. Microfluidic Devices for Cancer Screening by N-Glycan Analysis | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Project Summary A microfluidic-based screening method will be developed to differentiate different disease states of cancer. The screening method is based on high-resolution microchip electrophoresis coupled with laser-induced fluorescence detection. N-Glycan profiles are generated for all samples and compared by statistical analysis. The method relies on the analysis of the entire N-glycan profile, not a single biomarker, to provide sufficient differentiation among control individuals, patients suffering from various stages of cancer, and patients with pre-malignant diseases.

  11. Relationship of Dietary Intake of Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids with Risk of Prostate Cancer Development: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Michael E.; Sio, Maria Christina D.; Sorongon, Mishell C.; Dy, Jun S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine the relationship between dietary omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and omega-6 fatty acids (n-6 PUFA) with prostate cancer risk from meta-analysis of prospective studies. Design. The literature retrieved from electronic biomedical databases up to June 2011 was critically appraised. General variance-based method was used to pool the effect estimates at 95% confidence interval. Heterogeneity was assessed by Chi2 and quantified by I2. Results. Eight cohort studies were included for meta-analysis. n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA, and their derivatives were not significantly associated with risk of prostate cancer in general. A significant negative association between high dietary intake of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and prostate cancer risk (pooled RR: 0.915; 95% CI: 0.849, 0.985; P = 0.019) was noted. Likewise, a slightly positive association was noted on dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA, composed of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with prostate cancer risk (pooled RR: 1.135; 95% CI: 1.008, 1.278; P = 0.036); however, when two other cohort studies with data of EPA and DHA, both analyzed separately, were included into the pool, the association became not significant (RR: 1.034; 95% CI: 0.973, 1.096; P = 0.2780). Conclusion. Intake of n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA does not significantly affect risk of prostate cancer. High intake of ALA may reduce risk of prostate cancer, while intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids does not have a significant effect. PMID:23193480

  12. Feasibility of breast cancer screening by PIXE analysis of hair.

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh, N; Kabiri, Z; Kakuee, O; Saleh-Kotahi, M; Changizi, V; Fathollahi, V; Oliaiy, P; Omranipour, R

    2013-06-01

    To reveal the role of key elements present in the hair of breast cancer patients on cancer development, the levels of a number of elements in scalp hair samples of 82 people including healthy individuals, people suffering from benign breast disease, and breast cancer patients were measured by PIXE analysis. Pellets of hair samples were prepared and bombarded by 2.2 MeV proton beam of a 3-MV Van de Graaff accelerator. The number of incident ions hitting the sample was indirectly measured using the RBS spectrum of a thin Ag film placed in the beam path. The concentrations of S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, and Cu in the hair of healthy individuals were in agreement with those observed in the hair of hyperplasia and cancer patients within standard deviations. However, a lower average level of zinc was found in samples from hyperplasia and breast cancer patients. Strong positive correlations were found between iron and potassium as well as between calcium and potassium in the cancer patients. These results could be of significance in the screening for breast cancer. PMID:23625730

  13. Hyperspectral imaging and quantitative analysis for prostate cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Hamed; Halig, Luma V.; Schuster, David M.; Osunkoya, Adeboye; Master, Viraj; Nieh, Peter T.; Chen, Georgia Z.; Fei, Baowei

    2012-07-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging modality for various medical applications. Its spectroscopic data might be able to be used to noninvasively detect cancer. Quantitative analysis is often necessary in order to differentiate healthy from diseased tissue. We propose the use of an advanced image processing and classification method in order to analyze hyperspectral image data for prostate cancer detection. The spectral signatures were extracted and evaluated in both cancerous and normal tissue. Least squares support vector machines were developed and evaluated for classifying hyperspectral data in order to enhance the detection of cancer tissue. This method was used to detect prostate cancer in tumor-bearing mice and on pathology slides. Spatially resolved images were created to highlight the differences of the reflectance properties of cancer versus those of normal tissue. Preliminary results with 11 mice showed that the sensitivity and specificity of the hyperspectral image classification method are 92.8% to 2.0% and 96.9% to 1.3%, respectively. Therefore, this imaging method may be able to help physicians to dissect malignant regions with a safe margin and to evaluate the tumor bed after resection. This pilot study may lead to advances in the optical diagnosis of prostate cancer using HSI technology.

  14. Integrated Proteomic and Metabolic Analysis of Breast Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Patrick G.; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Wang, Tao; Vasilatos, Shauna; Huang, Yi; Van Houten, Bennett; Pandey, Akhilesh; Davidson, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most persistent hallmarks of cancer biology is the preference of tumor cells to derive energy through glycolysis as opposed to the more efficient process of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). However, little is known about the molecular cascades by which oncogenic pathways bring about this metabolic switch. We carried out a quantitative proteomic and metabolic analysis of the MCF10A derived cell line model of breast cancer progression that includes parental cells and derivatives representing three different tumor grades of Ras-driven cancer with a common genetic background. A SILAC (Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino acids in Cell culture) labeling strategy was used to quantify protein expression in conjunction with subcellular fractionation to measure dynamic subcellular localization in the nucleus, cytosol and mitochondria. Protein expression and localization across cell lines were compared to cellular metabolic rates as a measure of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), glycolysis and cellular ATP. Investigation of the metabolic capacity of the four cell lines revealed that cellular OXPHOS decreased with breast cancer progression independently of mitochondrial copy number or electron transport chain protein expression. Furthermore, glycolytic lactate secretion did not increase in accordance with cancer progression and decreasing OXPHOS capacity. However, the relative expression and subcellular enrichment of enzymes critical to lactate and pyruvate metabolism supported the observed extracellular acidification profiles. This analysis of metabolic dysfunction in cancer progression integrated with global protein expression and subcellular localization is a novel and useful technique for determining organelle-specific roles of proteins in disease. PMID:24086712

  15. Clinicopathological significance and potential drug target of RUNX3 in non-small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lijun; Lan, Hongwen; Su, Yushu; Li, Jun; Wan, Jingwen

    2015-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence indicates that RUNX3 is a candidate tumor suppressor in several types of human tumors, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the correlation between RUNX3 hypermethylation and clinicopathological characteristics of NSCLC remains unclear. Here, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate the effects of RUNX3 hypermethylation on the incidence of NSCLC and clinicopathological characteristics. Methods A detailed literature search was made using Medline, Embase and Web of Science for related research publications written in English. The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated. The data were extracted and assessed independently by two reviewers. Analysis of pooled data was performed. The odds ratio (OR) and hazard ratio were calculated and summarized. Results Final analysis of 911 NSCLC patients from 13 eligible studies was performed. We observed that RUNX3 hypermethylation was significantly higher in NSCLC than in normal lung tissue; the pooled OR from seven studies including 361 NSCLC and 345 normal lung tissue (OR 7.08, confidence interval 4.12–12.17, P<0.00001). RUNX3 hypermethylation may also be associated with pathological types. The pooled OR was obtained from eleven studies including 271 squamous cell carcinoma and 389 adenocarcinoma (OR 0.41, confidence interval 0.19–0.89, P=0.02), which indicated that RUNX3 hypermethylation is significantly higher in adenocarcinoma that in squamous cell carcinoma. We did not find that RUNX3 hypermethylation was correlated with clinical stage or differentiated status. However, NSCLC patients with RUNX3 hypermethylation had a lower survival rate than those without RUNX3 hypermethylation. Conclusion The results of this meta-analysis suggest that RUNX3 hypermethylation is associated with an increased risk and worse survival in NSCLC. RUNX3 hypermethylation, which induces inactivation of the RUNX3 gene, plays an important role in lung carcinogenesis and clinical outcome.

  16. Modeling of LNG Pool Spreading and Vaporization

    E-print Network

    Basha, Omar 1988-

    2012-11-20

    sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the effect of boiling heat transfer regimes, friction, thermal contact/roughness correction parameter and VLE/mixture thermodynamics on the pool spreading behavior. The aim was to provide a better understanding...

  17. CERNA WORKING PAPER SERIES Strategic inputs into patent pools

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 CERNA WORKING PAPER SERIES Strategic inputs into patent pools Justus Baron Henry Delcamp Working;2 Strategic inputs into patent pools1 Justus BARON2 Henry DELCAMP3 Abstract: This article explores what factors determine the decision of a patent pool to accept new inputs. We propose a dynamic analysis

  18. Integrated analysis of differentially expressed genes in breast cancer pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, DAOBAO; YANG, HONGJIAN

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to detect the differences between breast cancer cells and normal breast cells, and investigate the potential pathogenetic mechanisms of breast cancer. The sample GSE9574 series was downloaded, and the microarray data was analyzed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Gene Ontology (GO) cluster analysis using the GO Enrichment Analysis Software Toolkit platform and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis for DEGs was conducted using the Gene Set Analysis Toolkit V2. In addition, a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed, and target sites of potential transcription factors and potential microRNA (miRNA) molecules were screened. A total of 106 DEGs were identified in the current study. Based on these DEGs, a number of bio-pathways appear to be altered in breast cancer, including a number of signaling pathways and other disease-associated pathways, as indicated by KEGG pathway clustering analysis. ATF3, JUND, FOSB and JUNB were detected in the PPI network. Finally, the most significant potential target sites of transcription factors and miRNAs in breast cancer, which are important in the regulation of gene expression, were identified. The results indicated that miR-93, miR-302A, miR-302B, miR-302C, miR-302D, miR-372, miR-373, miR-520E and miR-520A were closely associated with the occurrence and development of breast cancer. Therefore, changes in the expression of these miRNAs may alter cell metabolism and trigger the development of breast cancer and its complications.

  19. Proteomic analysis of pancreatic juice for the identification of biomarkers of pancreatic cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeong Youp Park; Sun-A Kim; Joo Won Chung; Seungmin Bang; Seung Woo Park; Young-Ki Paik; Si Young Song

    2011-01-01

    Introduction  Protein profiles of endoscopically collected pancreatic juice from normal, chronic pancreatitis patients and pancreatic cancer\\u000a patients were compared to identify diagnostic biomarkers of pancreatic cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Secretin was injected intravenously and pancreatic juice was collected via selective cannulation of the pancreatic duct during\\u000a endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Pancreatic juices consisting of three pooled samples for normal control, chronic\\u000a pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer

  20. Comprehensive analysis of microRNAs in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs (approximately 22 nucleotides in length) that play important roles in breast cancer progression by downregulating gene expression. The detailed mechanisms and biological functions of miRNA molecules in breast carcinogenesis have yet to be fully elucidated. This study used bioinformatics and experimental approaches to conduct detailed analysis of the dysregulated miRNAs, arm selection preferences, 3' end modifications, and position shifts in isoforms of miRNAs (isomiRs) in breast cancer. Methods Next-generation sequencing (NGS) data on breast cancer was obtained from the NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA). The miRNA expression profiles and isomiRs in normal breast and breast tumor tissues were determined by mapping the clean reads back to human miRNAs. Differences in miRNA expression and pre-miRNA 5p/3p arm usage between normal and breast tumor tissues were further investigated using stem-loop reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results The analysis identified and confirmed the aberrant expression of 22 miRNAs in breast cancer. Results from pathway enrichment analysis further indicated that the aberrantly expressed miRNAs play important roles in breast carcinogenesis by regulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Data also indicated that the position shifts in isomiRs and 3' end modifications were consistent in breast tumor and adjacent normal tissues, and that 5p/3p arm usage of some miRNAs displayed significant preferences in breast cancer. Conclusions Expression pattern and arm selection of miRNAs are significantly varied in breast cancers through analyzing NGS data and experimental approach. These miRNA candidates have high potential to play critical roles in the progression of breast cancer and could potentially provide as targets for future therapy. PMID:23281739

  1. Estimation and selection of complex covariate effects in pooled nested case-control studies with heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengling; Lu, Wenbin; Krogh, Vittorio; Hallmans, Göran; Clendenen, Tess V; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne

    2013-09-01

    A major challenge in cancer epidemiologic studies, especially those of rare cancers, is observing enough cases. To address this, researchers often join forces by bringing multiple studies together to achieve large sample sizes, allowing for increased power in hypothesis testing, and improved efficiency in effect estimation. Combining studies, however, renders the analysis difficult owing to the presence of heterogeneity in the pooled data. In this article, motivated by a collaborative nested case-control (NCC) study of ovarian cancer in three cohorts from United States, Sweden, and Italy, we investigate the use of penalty regularized partial likelihood estimation in the context of pooled NCC studies to achieve two goals. First, we propose an adaptive group lasso (gLASSO) penalized approach to simultaneously identify important variables and estimate their effects. Second, we propose a composite agLASSO penalized approach to identify variables with heterogeneous effects. Both methods are readily implemented with the group coordinate gradient decent algorithm and shown to enjoy the oracle property. We conduct simulation studies to evaluate the performance of our proposed approaches in finite samples under various heterogeneity settings, and apply them to the pooled ovarian cancer study. PMID:23632625

  2. Estimation and selection of complex covariate effects in pooled nested case–control studies with heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengling; Lu, Wenbin; Krogh, Vittorio; Hallmans, Göran; Clendenen, Tess V.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge in cancer epidemiologic studies, especially those of rare cancers, is observing enough cases. To address this, researchers often join forces by bringing multiple studies together to achieve large sample sizes, allowing for increased power in hypothesis testing, and improved efficiency in effect estimation. Combining studies, however, renders the analysis difficult owing to the presence of heterogeneity in the pooled data. In this article, motivated by a collaborative nested case–control (NCC) study of ovarian cancer in three cohorts from United States, Sweden, and Italy, we investigate the use of penalty regularized partial likelihood estimation in the context of pooled NCC studies to achieve two goals. First, we propose an adaptive group lasso (gLASSO) penalized approach to simultaneously identify important variables and estimate their effects. Second, we propose a composite agLASSO penalized approach to identify variables with heterogeneous effects. Both methods are readily implemented with the group coordinate gradient decent algorithm and shown to enjoy the oracle property. We conduct simulation studies to evaluate the performance of our proposed approaches in finite samples under various heterogeneity settings, and apply them to the pooled ovarian cancer study. PMID:23632625

  3. Pan-Cancer Analysis of APOBEC Mutagenesis - Dmitry A. Gordenin, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2014

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Pan-Cancer Analysis of APOBEC Mutagenesis - Dmitry A. Gordenin Pan-Cancer Analysis of APOBEC Mutagenesis - Dmitry A. Gordenin, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2014 You will need Adobe Flash Player 8 or later

  4. Pooled analysis of clinical trial data evaluating the safety and effectiveness of diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% for the treatment of acute ankle sprain

    PubMed Central

    Lionberger, David R; Joussellin, Eric; Yanchick, Jillmarie; Magelli, Merrell; Lanzarotti, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    This pooled analysis assessed the efficacy and safety of the diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP) for the treatment of acute mild-to-moderate ankle sprain. Data from 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies enrolling 274 male and female patients aged 18 to 65 years with acute ankle sprain were pooled and evaluated. The primary end point was pain reduction on movement assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS). Safety and tolerability were also assessed. Beginning approximately 3 hours after initial treatment, DETP-treated patients experienced statistically significant and sustained lower mean VAS scores in pain intensity on movement (mean ± SD, 54.1 ± 20.0 mm versus 60.3 ± 16.8 mm) compared with placebo-treated patients, representing a 20% versus 13% reduction in VA S pain scores from baseline (P = 0.012). This statistically significant difference in mean VAS score was maintained through day 7 (9.4 ± 14.4 mm versus 18.4 ± 18.2 mm, P < 0.0001). The DETP and placebo patches were well tolerated. These results further confirm the efficacy and safety of DETP for the treatment of acute pain from ankle sprains. PMID:24198574

  5. Analysis of leakage current mechanisms in Pt/Au Schottky contact on Ga-polarity GaN by Frenkel-Poole emission and deep level studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Peta Koteswara; Park, Byungguon; Lee, Sang-Tae; Noh, Young-Kyun; Kim, Moon-Deock; Oh, Jae-Eung

    2011-07-01

    We report the Frenkel-Poole emission in Pt/Au Schottky contact on Ga-polarity GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy using current-voltage-temperature (I-V-T) characteristics in the temperature ranging from 200 K to 375 K. Using thermionic emission model, the estimated Schottky barrier height is 0.49 eV at 200 K and 0.83 eV at 375 K, respectively, and it is observed that the barrier height increases with increase in temperature. The extracted emission barrier height (?t) for Ga-polarity GaN Schottky diode by Frenkel-Poole theory is about 0.15 eV. Deep level transient spectroscopy study shows a deep level with activation energy of 0.44 eV, having capture cross-section 6.09 × 10-14 cm2, which is located between the metal and semiconductor interface, and trap nature is most probably associated with dislocations in Ga-polarity GaN. The analysis of I-V-T characteristics represents that the leakage current is due to effects of electrical field and temperature on the emission of electron from a trap state near the metal-semiconductor interface into continuum states associated with conductive dislocations in Ga-polarity GaN Schottky diode.

  6. Association between P16INK4a Promoter Methylation and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Siwei; Hua, Feng; Zhao, Hui; Xu, Hongrui; You, Jiacong; Sun, Linlin; Wang, Weiqiang; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Qinghua

    2013-01-01

    Background Aberrant methylation of CpG islands acquired in tumor cells in promoter regions plays an important role in carcinogenesis. Accumulated evidence demonstrates P16INK4a gene promoter hypermethylation is involved in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), indicating it may be a potential biomarker for this disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency of P16INK4a gene promoter methylation between cancer tissue and autologous controls by summarizing published studies. Methods By searching Medline, EMBSE and CNKI databases, the open published studies about P16INK4a gene promoter methylation and NSCLC were identified using a systematic search strategy. The pooled odds of P16INK4A promoter methylation in lung cancer tissue versus autologous controls were calculated by meta-analysis method. Results Thirty-four studies, including 2 652 NSCLC patients with 5 175 samples were included in this meta-analysis. Generally, the frequency of P16INK4A promoter methylation ranged from 17% to 80% (median 44%) in the lung cancer tissue and 0 to 80% (median 15%) in the autologous controls, which indicated the methylation frequency in cancer tissue was much higher than that in autologous samples. We also find a strong and significant correlation between tumor tissue and autologous controls of P16INK4A promoter methylation frequency across studies (Correlation coefficient 0.71, 95% CI:0.51–0.83, P<0.0001). And the pooled odds ratio of P16INK4A promoter methylation in cancer tissue was 3.45 (95% CI: 2.63–4.54) compared to controls under random-effect model. Conclusion Frequency of P16INK4a promoter methylation in cancer tissue was much higher than that in autologous controls, indicating promoter methylation plays an important role in carcinogenesis of the NSCLC. Strong and significant correlation between tumor tissue and autologous samples of P16INK4A promoter methylation demonstrated a promising biomarker for NSCLC. PMID:23577085

  7. Fanfares & Fireworks Pool Party

    E-print Network

    Pilyugin, Sergei S.

    Highlights Fanfares & Fireworks Pool Party Notes from the Office Class Photo TheELIWeekly Fireworks & Pool Party This is a very exciting week! We have two activities for you to participate in. As always, feel free to bring your family and conversation partners. Fanfares & Fireworks On Tuesday, we

  8. Fanfares & Fireworks Pool Party

    E-print Network

    Pilyugin, Sergei S.

    Highlights Fanfares & Fireworks Pool Party Ramadan Reminder ELI Places of Origin Notes from the Office Birthdays TheELIWeekly Fireworks & Pool Party This is a very exciting week! We have two. Fanfares & Fireworks On Wednesday, we will be going to Fanfares and Fireworks. Come listen

  9. Reference Values and Age and Sex Differences in Physical Performance Measures for Community-Dwelling Older Japanese: A Pooled Analysis of Six Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Seino, Satoshi; Shinkai, Shoji; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Obuchi, Shuichi; Yoshida, Hideyo; Hirano, Hirohiko; Kim, Hun Kyung; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Takahashi, Ryutaro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine age- and sex-specific reference values for six physical performance measures, i.e. hand-grip strength, one-legged stance, and gait speed and step length at both usual and maximum paces, and to investigate age and sex differences in these measures among community-dwelling older Japanese adults. Methods We conducted a pooled analysis of data from six cohort studies collected between 2002 and 2011 as part of the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology-Longitudinal Interdisciplinary Study on Aging. The pooled analysis included cross-sectional data from 4683 nondisabled, community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older (2168 men, 2515 women; mean age: 74.0 years in men and 73.9 years in women). Results Unweighted simple mean (standard deviation) hand-grip strength, one-legged stance, usual gait speed, usual gait step length, maximum gait speed, and maximum gait step length were 31.7 (6.7) kg, 39.3 (23.0) s, 1.29 (0.25) m/s, 67.7 (10.0) cm, 1.94 (0.38) m/s, and 82.3 (11.6) cm, respectively, in men and 20.4 (5.0) kg, 36.8 (23.4) s, 1.25 (0.27) m/s, 60.8 (10.0) cm, 1.73 (0.36) m/s, and 69.7 (10.8) cm, respectively, in women. All physical performance measures showed significant decreasing trends with advancing age in both sexes (all P<0.001 for trend). We also constructed age- and sex-specific appraisal standards according to quintiles. With increasing age, the sex difference in hand-grip strength decreased significantly (P<0.001 for age and sex interaction). In contrast, sex differences significantly increased in all other measures (all P<0.05 for interactions) except step length at maximum pace. Conclusion Our pooled analysis yielded inclusive age- and sex-specific reference values and appraisal standards for major physical performance measures in nondisabled, community-dwelling, older Japanese adults. The characteristics of age-related decline in physical performance measures differed between sexes. PMID:24923425

  10. Identifying Precursory Cancer Lesions Using Temporal Texture Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aldrin Barreto Flores; Leopoldo Altamirano Robles; Rosa Maria Morales Tepalt; Juan D. Cisneros Aragon

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a method for the temporal analysis of texture in colposcopy. The objective is to find temporal texture patterns in order to detect precursory cancer lesions analyzing colposcopy video frames. Preprocessing of the frames is necessary in order to deal with patient movement and non uniform illumination. We use a stabilization algorithm based in a homography and to

  11. DCE-MRI Data Analysis for Cancer Area Classification

    E-print Network

    Castellani, Umberto

    DCE-MRI Data Analysis for Cancer Area Classification U. Castellani, M. Cristani, A. Daducci, P and functional parameters ob- tained by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) techniques are analyzed, which in proposing a machine learning methodology to segment auto- matically these MRI data, by isolating tumor areas

  12. Swimming pool. View of aisle between swimming pool and seating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Swimming pool. View of aisle between swimming pool and seating area. Non-original spa pool is partially visible on right. - Jewish Community Center of San Francisco, 3200 California Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. Folate intake and MTHFR polymorphism C677T is not associated with ovarian cancer risk: evidence from the meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenglin; Chen, Peizhan; Hu, Pingting; Li, Mian; Li, Xiaoguang; Guo, He; Li, Jingquan; Chu, Ruiai; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Hui

    2013-12-01

    Folate is essential for DNA synthesis and methylation and implicated in the process of carcinogenesis. Several studies inconclusively suggested increased folate intake may reduce ovarian cancer risk. Studies concerning the association between C677T polymorphism in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), an important enzyme in folate metabolism, and ovarian cancer risk also resulted in no agreement. The meta-analysis was conducted based on current studies to assess the association between folate intake, the MTHFR C667T polymorphism and ovarian cancer risk. 1,158 cases out of 217,309 participants from four cohort studies, 4,519 cases and 6,031 controls from four case-control studies about folate intake along with 5,617 cases and 9,808 controls from 10 publications concerning the polymorphism were pooled, respectively. We detected no significant association between total folate (RR = 1.04, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.87-1.23) or dietary folate (RR = 0.88, 95 % CI = 0.75-1.05) intake and ovarian cancer risk, and also no significant relationship was found between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and ovarian cancer risk (TT vs. CC: odds ratio (OR) = 1.15, 95 % CI = 0.90-1.46; CT vs. CC: OR = 1.04, 95 % CI = 0.94-1.16). Our analysis indicated neither folate intake nor MTHFR C677T polymorphism is related to altered susceptibility of ovarian cancer. PMID:24129496

  14. Functional analysis-make or break for cancer predictability.

    PubMed

    Deniz, Miriam; Holzmann, Karlheinz; Wiesmüller, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Copy number variations (CNVs) encompass a variety of genetic alterations including deletions and amplifications and cluster in regions of the human genome with intrinsic instability. Small-sized CNVs can act as initial genetic changes giving rise to larger CNVs such as acquired somatic copy number aberrations (CNAs) promoting cancer formation. Previous studies provided evidence for CNVs as an underlying cause of elevated breast cancer risk when targeting breast cancer susceptibility genes and of accelerated breast cancer progression when targeting oncogenes. With the development of novel techniques for genome-wide detection of CNVs at increasingly higher resolution, it became possible to qualitatively and quantitatively analyse manifestation of DNA damage resulting from defects in any of the large variety of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair mechanisms. Breast carcinogenesis, particularly in familial cases, has been linked with a defect in the homologous recombination (HR) pathway, which in turn switches damage removal towards alternative, more error-prone DSB repair pathways such as microhomology-mediated non-homologous end joining (mmNHEJ). Indeed, increased error-prone DSB repair activities were detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes from individuals with familial breast cancer risk independently of specific gene mutations. Intriguingly, sequence analysis of breakpoint regions revealed that the majority of genome aberrations found in breast cancer specimens are formed by mmNHEJ. Detection of pathway-specific error-prone DSB repair activities by functional testing was proposed to serve as biomarker for hereditary breast cancer risk and responsiveness to therapies targeting HR dysfunction. Identification of specific error-prone DSB repair mechanisms underlying CNAs and ultimately mammary tumour formation highlights potential targets for future breast cancer prevention regimens. PMID:23541693

  15. Edinburgh Research Explorer Coexpression analysis of large cancer datasets provides insight

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Andrew

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Coexpression analysis of large cancer datasets provides insight, Theocharidis, T, Goodlad, JR, Gregory, CD & Freeman, TC 2013, 'Coexpression analysis of large cancer datasets Coexpression analysis of large cancer datasets provides insight into the cellular phenotypes of the tumour

  16. Dietary Factors Affecting Thyroid Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young Ae; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-07-01

    Some dietary factors are proposed to affect thyroid carcinogenesis, but previous studies have reported inconsistent findings. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis, including 18 eligible studies, to clarify the role of dietary factors in the risk of thyroid cancer. The relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated to assess the association and heterogeneity tests and subgroup and sensitivity analyses, and bias assessments were performed. When the results from all studies were combined, dietary iodine, fish, and cruciferous vegetable intake were not associated with thyroid cancer. However, when the data were divided by geographic location based on iodine availability, a slight increase in the risk of thyroid cancer was observed among those consuming a high total amount of fish in iodine nondeficient areas (RR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.03-1.35; P for heterogeneity = 0.282). When excluding the studies examining a single food item and hospital-based controls, a high intake of cruciferous vegetables was associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer in iodine-deficient areas (RR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.18-1.74; P for heterogeneity = 0.426). This meta-analysis implies that the role of dietary factors, such as fish and cruciferous vegetables, in thyroid cancer risk can differ based on iodine availability. PMID:25996474

  17. Clinical outcomes of self-expandable stent placement for benign esophageal diseases: A pooled analysis of the literature

    PubMed Central

    van Halsema, Emo E; van Hooft, Jeanin E

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the outcomes of self-expandable stent placement for benign esophageal strictures and benign esophageal leaks in the literature. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched for relevant articles published between January 2000 and July 2014. Eight prospective studies were identified that analyzed the outcomes of stent placement for refractory benign esophageal strictures. The outcomes of stent placement for benign esophageal leaks, perforations and fistulae were extracted from 20 retrospective studies that were published after the inclusion period of a recent systematic review. Data were pooled and analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Fully covered self-expandable metal stents (FC SEMS) (n = 85), biodegradable (BD) stents (n = 77) and self-expandable plastic stents (SEPS) (n = 70) were inserted in 232 patients with refractory benign esophageal strictures. The overall clinical success rate was 24.2% and according to stent type 14.1% for FC SEMS, 32.9% for BD stents and 27.1% for SEPS. Stent migration occurred in 24.6% of cases. The overall complication rate was 31.0%, including major (17.7%) and minor (13.4%) complications. A total of 643 patients were treated with self-expandable stents mainly for postsurgical leaks (64.5%), iatrogenic perforations (19.6%), Boerhaave’s syndrome (7.8%) and fistulae (3.7%). FC SEMS and partially covered SEMS were used in the majority of patients. Successful closure of the defect was achieved in 76.8% of patients and according to etiology in 81.4% for postsurgical leaks, 86.0% for perforations and 64.7% for fistulae. The pooled stent migration rate was 16.5%. Stent-related complications occurred in 13.4% of patients, including major (7.8%) and minor (5.5%) complications. CONCLUSION: The outcomes of stent placement for refractory benign esophageal strictures were poor. However, randomized trials are needed to put this into perspective. The evidence on successful stent placement for benign esophageal leaks, perforations and fistulae is promising. PMID:25685270

  18. The Age-Specific Quantitative Effects of Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes: A Pooled Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Farzadfar, Farshad; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Woodward, Mark; Wormser, David; Kaptoge, Stephen; Whitlock, Gary; Qiao, Qing; Lewington, Sarah; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; vander Hoorn, Stephen; Lawes, Carlene M. M.; Ali, Mohammed K.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Ezzati, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Background The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex are not available. Methods We reviewed large cohort pooling projects, evaluating effects of baseline or usual exposure to metabolic risks on ischemic heart disease (IHD), hypertensive heart disease (HHD), stroke, diabetes, and, as relevant selected other CVDs, after adjusting for important confounders. We pooled all data to estimate relative risks (RRs) for each risk factor and examined effect modification by age or other factors, using random effects models. Results Across all risk factors, an average of 123 cohorts provided data on 1.4 million individuals and 52,000 CVD events. Each metabolic risk factor was robustly related to CVD. At the baseline age of 55–64 years, the RR for 10 mmHg higher SBP was largest for HHD (2.16; 95% CI 2.09–2.24), followed by effects on both stroke subtypes (1.66; 1.39–1.98 for hemorrhagic stroke and 1.63; 1.57–1.69 for ischemic stroke). In the same age group, RRs for 1 mmol/L higher TC were 1.44 (1.29–1.61) for IHD and 1.20 (1.15–1.25) for ischemic stroke. The RRs for 5 kg/m2 higher BMI for ages 55–64 ranged from 2.32 (2.04–2.63) for diabetes, to 1.44 (1.40–1.48) for IHD. For 1 mmol/L higher FPG, RRs in this age group were 1.18 (1.08–1.29) for IHD and 1.14 (1.01–1.29) for total stroke. For all risk factors, proportional effects declined with age, were generally consistent by sex, and differed by region in only a few age groups for certain risk factor-disease pairs. Conclusion Our results provide robust, comparable and precise estimates of the effects of major metabolic risk factors on CVD and diabetes by age group. PMID:23935815

  19. Coffee consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Alessio; Discacciati, Andrea; Larsson, Susanna C; Wolk, Alicja; Orsini, Nicola

    2014-10-15

    Several studies have analyzed the relationship between coffee consumption and mortality, but the shape of the association remains unclear. We conducted a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies to examine the dose-response associations between coffee consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and all cancers. Pertinent studies, published between 1966 and 2013, were identified by searching PubMed and by reviewing the reference lists of the selected articles. Prospective studies in which investigators reported relative risks of mortality from all causes, CVD, and all cancers for 3 or more categories of coffee consumption were eligible. Results from individual studies were pooled using a random-effects model. Twenty-one prospective studies, with 121,915 deaths and 997,464 participants, met the inclusion criteria. There was strong evidence of nonlinear associations between coffee consumption and mortality for all causes and CVD (P for nonlinearity < 0.001). The largest risk reductions were observed for 4 cups/day for all-cause mortality (16%, 95% confidence interval: 13, 18) and 3 cups/day for CVD mortality (21%, 95% confidence interval: 16, 26). Coffee consumption was not associated with cancer mortality. Findings from this meta-analysis indicate that coffee consumption is inversely associated with all-cause and CVD mortality. PMID:25156996

  20. Evaluation of Current Consensus Statement Recommendations for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: A Pooled Analysis of William Beaumont Hospital and American Society of Breast Surgeon MammoSite Registry Trial Data

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, J. Ben [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Beitsch, Peter D. [Dallas Surgical Group, Dallas, Texas (United States)] [Dallas Surgical Group, Dallas, Texas (United States); Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Arthur, Doug [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Camden, New Jersey (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Wazer, David E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts and Rhode Island Hospital/Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts and Rhode Island Hospital/Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Keisch, Martin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Healthcare Associates, Miami, Florida (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Healthcare Associates, Miami, Florida (United States); Shaitelman, Simona F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lyden, Maureen [Biostat International, Inc, Tampa, Florida (United States)] [Biostat International, Inc, Tampa, Florida (United States); Chen, Peter Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Vicini, Frank A., E-mail: fvicini@pol.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Michigan Healthcare Professionals/21st Century Oncology, Farmington Hills, Michigan (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Consensus Statement (CS) recommendations for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) are associated with significantly different outcomes in a pooled analysis from William Beaumont Hospital (WBH) and the American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBrS) MammoSite® Registry Trial. Methods and Materials: APBI was used to treat 2127 cases of early-stage breast cancer (WBH, n=678; ASBrS, n=1449). Three forms of APBI were used at WBH (interstitial, n=221; balloon-based, n=255; or 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, n=206), whereas all Registry Trial patients received balloon-based brachytherapy. Patients were divided according to the ASTRO CS into suitable (n=661, 36.5%), cautionary (n=850, 46.9%), and unsuitable (n=302, 16.7%) categories. Tumor characteristics and clinical outcomes were analyzed according to CS group. Results: The median age was 65 years (range, 32-94 years), and the median tumor size was 10.0 mm (range, 0-45 mm). The median follow-up time was 60.6 months. The WBH cohort had more node-positive disease (6.9% vs 2.6%, P<.01) and cautionary patients (49.5% vs 41.8%, P=.06). The 5-year actuarial ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), regional nodal failure (RNF), and distant metastasis (DM) for the whole cohort were 2.8%, 0.6%, 1.6%. The rate of IBTR was not statistically higher between suitable (2.5%), cautionary (3.3%), or unsuitable (4.6%) patients (P=.20). The nonsignificant increase in IBTR for the cautionary and unsuitable categories was due to increased elsewhere failures and new primaries (P=.04), not tumor bed recurrence (P=.93). Conclusions: Excellent outcomes after breast-conserving surgery and APBI were seen in our pooled analysis. The current ASTRO CS guidelines did not adequately differentiate patients at an increased risk of IBTR or tumor bed failure in this large patient cohort.

  1. Lung Cancer Occurrence in Never-Smokers: An Analysis of 13 Cohorts and 22 Cancer Registry Studies

    PubMed Central

    Thun, Michael J; Hannan, Lindsay M; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Boffetta, Paolo; Buring, Julie E; Feskanich, Diane; Flanders, W. Dana; Jee, Sun Ha; Katanoda, Kota; Kolonel, Laurence N; Lee, I-Min; Marugame, Tomomi; Palmer, Julie R; Riboli, Elio; Sobue, Tomotaka; Avila-Tang, Erika; Wilkens, Lynne R; Samet, Jon M

    2008-01-01

    Background Better information on lung cancer occurrence in lifelong nonsmokers is needed to understand gender and racial disparities and to examine how factors other than active smoking influence risk in different time periods and geographic regions. Methods and Findings We pooled information on lung cancer incidence and/or death rates among self-reported never-smokers from 13 large cohort studies, representing over 630,000 and 1.8 million persons for incidence and mortality, respectively. We also abstracted population-based data for women from 22 cancer registries and ten countries in time periods and geographic regions where few women smoked. Our main findings were: (1) Men had higher death rates from lung cancer than women in all age and racial groups studied; (2) male and female incidence rates were similar when standardized across all ages 40+ y, albeit with some variation by age; (3) African Americans and Asians living in Korea and Japan (but not in the US) had higher death rates from lung cancer than individuals of European descent; (4) no temporal trends were seen when comparing incidence and death rates among US women age 40–69 y during the 1930s to contemporary populations where few women smoke, or in temporal comparisons of never-smokers in two large American Cancer Society cohorts from 1959 to 2004; and (5) lung cancer incidence rates were higher and more variable among women in East Asia than in other geographic areas with low female smoking. Conclusions These comprehensive analyses support claims that the death rate from lung cancer among never-smokers is higher in men than in women, and in African Americans and Asians residing in Asia than in individuals of European descent, but contradict assertions that risk is increasing or that women have a higher incidence rate than men. Further research is needed on the high and variable lung cancer rates among women in Pacific Rim countries. PMID:18788891

  2. Risk for lung cancer in workers exposed to benzidine and/or beta-naphthylamine: a protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Risk for lung cancer in workers exposed to benzidine (BZ) and/or beta-naphthylamine (BNA), which are well-known bladder carcinogens, has been examined in many epidemiological studies, but individual epidemiological studies generally lack the power to examine the association between BZ/BNA exposure and lung cancer. We conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the risk for lung cancer among workers exposed to BZ/BNA occupationally. Methods/design Studies will be identified by a MEDLINE, EMBASE, CDSR, and CINAHL search and by the reference lists of articles/relevant reviews. Eligible studies will be cohort and case-control studies that report occupational BZ/BNA exposure and the outcome of interest (lung cancer death/incidence). The method of meta-analysis will be used to combine standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and/or standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) from retrospective and prospective cohort studies and odds ratios (ORs) from case-control studies. Two reviewers will independently screen articles, extract data, and assess scientific quality using standardized forms and published quality assessment tools tailored for each study design. Overall pooled risk estimates and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) will be obtained using random effects model. This systematic review and meta-analysis will be conducted following the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines, and results will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Discussion This review will identify and synthesize studies of the association between occupational BZ/BNA exposure and lung cancer. The findings will help to identify whether BZ/BNA could cause lung cancer and might indicate whether workers with exposure to BZ/BNA have a need for preventive measures against non-urological cancer besides bladder cancer. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014010250 PMID:25281283

  3. Insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF1R) expression and survival in non-small cell lung cancer patients: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shuang; Qiu, Zhixin; He, Jinlan; Li, Lei; Li, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 (IGF1R) plays an important role in cancer progression. Previous studies have been controversial with respect to the associations between IGF1R expression and non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) prognosis. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the prognostic value of IGF1R expression in NSCLC patients and the relationship between the expression of IGF1R and clinical characteristics. Two independent reviewers searched PubMed, Embase, Ovid Medline and CNKI to identify eligible studies. Overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS) and clinicopathological characteristics were collected from included studies. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) or odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated to estimate the effect. 17 studies comprising 3,294 patients were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed IGF1R positive expression was associated with an unfavorable DFS in NSCLC patients on univariate analysis (HR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.09-1.46, P = 0.002) and multivariate analysis (HR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.01-2.20, p = 0.045), but the relationship between IGF1R expression and OS have no significant difference on univariate analysis (HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.82-1.01, P = 0.157) and multivariate analysis (HR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.45-1.41, P = 0.427). Ever smoking and smaller tumor size (T1 or T2) were associated with IGF1R positive expression: pooled OR 1.45 (1.13-1.85) and pooled OR 0.61 (0.60-0.95). Our results suggested IGF1R positive expression as an unfavorable factor for DFS in NSCLC patients, and IGF1R expression was associated with smoking status and tumor size. PMID:25400749

  4. Analysis of adult neurogenesis: evidence for a prominent "non-neurogenic" DCX-protein pool in rodent brain.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Thomas; Jagasia, Ravi; Herrmann, Annika; Matile, Hugues; Borroni, Edilio; Francis, Fiona; Kuhn, Hans Georg; Czech, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Here, we have developed a highly sensitive immunoassay for Dcx to characterize expression in brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of rodents. We demonstrate that Dcx is widely expressed during development in various brain regions and as well can be detected in cerebrospinal fluid of rats (up to 30 days postnatal). While Dcx protein level decline in adulthood and were detectable in neurogenic regions of the adult rodent brain, similar levels were also detectable in brain regions expected to bear no neurogenesis including the cerebral cortex and CA1/CA3 enriched hippocampus. We monitored DCX protein levels after paradigms to increase or severely decrease adult hippocampal neurogenesis, namely physical activity and cranial radiation, respectively. In both paradigms, Dcx protein- and mRNA-levels clearly reflected changes in neurogenesis in the hippocampus. However, basal Dcx-levels are unaffected in non-neurogenic regions (e.g. CA1/CA3 enriched hippocampus, cortex). These data suggest that there is a substantial "non-neurogenic" pool of Dcx- protein, whose regulation can be uncoupled from adult neurogenesis suggesting caution for the interpretation of such studies. PMID:23690918

  5. Social stratification and science education: A longitudinal analysis, 1981-1986, of minorities' integration into the scientific talent pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulkey, Lynn M.; Ellis, Ronald S.

    It is common knowledge that scientists are those persons who have the unique attributes required to perform in the role, but contrary to what is widely believed, scientists might also be those who have had access to resources of which other members of the population have been deprived. This study investigates the effectiveness of interventions designed to mediate the negative influence of ascription (race and ethnicity) on the scientific talent pool (students having interest and ability in science). Minorities refers to participants representing the major ethnic and racial groups in the New York City school system: Blacks and Hispanics. Cross-tabulations showed that urban underachieving public high school students take significantly more mathematics and science classes, more frequently graduate from high school and more often enroll in college as compared with students of the same population, who were not exposed to the program. These findings on the effectiveness of tutoring, career counseling, exposure to industrial and academic research sites and to scientist role models, and after-school and weekend classes in mathematics and science, reinforce the observations of Thomas (1986) of the importance of prerequisites for increasing participation of minorities in the natural and technical sciences and mathematics. They extend knowledge of factors which lessen the effects of ascription on educational attainment, and which promote meritocratic conditions for achieving a scientific occupation.

  6. A historical discourse analysis of the cancerous and non-cancerous body in secondary biology textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Neil Thomas

    This dissertation applies the archeological concepts developed by Michel Foucault to a study of thirteen biology textbooks (1993-2004) in order to develop an understanding of 'purchased truths' concerning cancer. This study focuses on the construction of the health/illness dialogue concerning cancer within the textbooks and not the meaning that the individual makes from reading the text; as such this study concerns itself with social truths rather than the search for an individual awareness of names, dates, or places. This study investigates the practices that allow the creation of dialogues that are inserted into a biology textbook and looks at how discursive formations create the 'truth regime' from which the biology textbook is said to speak. Using the Foucaultian themes of 'event', 'emergence', 'enunciation', and 'exteriority' a new reading of topics concerning cancer emerge from biology textbooks. Cancer is a disease that will impact the lives of countless individuals but coverage devoted to the pathology of cancer in secondary biology textbooks is very limited and no study textbook devoted a whole chapter to the discussion of cancer. There is an identified reduction in the number of pages and depth of coverage devoted to cancer in the newer biology texts compared to the older texts. Humans are pictured more than plants or animals in presentations concerning cancer with emphasis being placed on the digitalization of human cells via the scanning electron microscope. When the whole body is presented it is seldom located within the technology of disease diagnosis and treatment but rather is posed for specific social control. Just as each digitized picture of the cancerous cell in the texts is used to create a story so too are the pictures of the whole body in action. Possible story lines offered by the publishing houses concerning the reaction of the body to cancer are shown to intermingle with risk factor analysis to project a sense of Foucaultian 'governmentality' based on assumed control and self regulation by the informed reader. In conclusion a procedure is suggested to further analyze additional textbooks concerning biological/educational issues that have been recast as social problems.

  7. Saturation of an Intra-Gene Pool Linkage Map: Towards a Unified Consensus Linkage Map for Fine Mapping and Synteny Analysis in Common Bean

    PubMed Central

    Galeano, Carlos H.; Fernandez, Andrea C.; Franco-Herrera, Natalia; Cichy, Karen A.; McClean, Phillip E.; Vanderleyden, Jos; Blair, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    Map-based cloning and fine mapping to find genes of interest and marker assisted selection (MAS) requires good genetic maps with reproducible markers. In this study, we saturated the linkage map of the intra-gene pool population of common bean DOR364×BAT477 (DB) by evaluating 2,706 molecular markers including SSR, SNP, and gene-based markers. On average the polymorphism rate was 7.7% due to the narrow genetic base between the parents. The DB linkage map consisted of 291 markers with a total map length of 1,788 cM. A consensus map was built using the core mapping populations derived from inter-gene pool crosses: DOR364×G19833 (DG) and BAT93×JALO EEP558 (BJ). The consensus map consisted of a total of 1,010 markers mapped, with a total map length of 2,041 cM across 11 linkage groups. On average, each linkage group on the consensus map contained 91 markers of which 83% were single copy markers. Finally, a synteny analysis was carried out using our highly saturated consensus maps compared with the soybean pseudo-chromosome assembly. A total of 772 marker sequences were compared with the soybean genome. A total of 44 syntenic blocks were identified. The linkage group Pv6 presented the most diverse pattern of synteny with seven syntenic blocks, and Pv9 showed the most consistent relations with soybean with just two syntenic blocks. Additionally, a co-linear analysis using common bean transcript map information against soybean coding sequences (CDS) revealed the relationship with 787 soybean genes. The common bean consensus map has allowed us to map a larger number of markers, to obtain a more complete coverage of the common bean genome. Our results, combined with synteny relationships provide tools to increase marker density in selected genomic regions to identify closely linked polymorphic markers for indirect selection, fine mapping or for positional cloning. PMID:22174773

  8. Folic Acid Supplementation Use and the MTHFR C677T Polymorphism in Orofacial Clefts Etiology: An Individual Participant Data Pooled-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Butali, Azeez; Little, Julian; Chevrier, Cécile; Cordier, Sylvian; Steegers-Theunissen, Regine; Jugessur, Astanand; Oladugba, Bola; Mossey, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examines gene-environment interaction (GEI) between the MTHFR C667T polymorphism and folic acid in the etiology of orofacial clefts (OFC). We used a pooled-analyticapproach on four studies that used similar methods. Methods We used logistic regression to analyse the pooled sample of 1149 isolated cases and 1161 controls. Fetal and maternal MTHFR C677T genotypes, and maternal periconceptional exposure to smoking, alcohol, vitamin containing folic acid and folic acid supplements were contrasted between the cleft types [non-syndromic clefts lip or without cleft palate (CL(P)) and non syndromic cleft palate (CP)] and control groups. Results There was a reduced risk of CL(P) with maternal folic acid use (p=0.008; OR=0.70, 95% CI: 0.65–0.94) and with supplements containing folic acid (p=0.028, OR=0.80, 95% CI: 0.65–0.94). Maternal smoking increased the risk of both CL(P) (p<10e?3; OR=1.62, 95% CI: 1.35–1.95) and CP (p=0.028; OR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.04–1.83). No significant risk was observed with either maternal or fetal MTHFR C677T genotypes. Conclusion This individual paticipant data (IPD) meta-analysis affords greater statistical power and can help alleviate the problems associated with aggregate-level data-sharing. The result of this IPD meta-analysis is consistent with previous reports suggesting that folic acid and smoking influence OFC outcomes. PMID:23670871

  9. Spectral analysis of cell-graphs for automated cancer diagnosis Cigdem Demir1

    E-print Network

    Yener, Bülent

    cancer diagnosis, spectral graph theory, feature extraction 1. Introduction In traditional cancer in cancerous cells to define their distinctive features. In this method, we identify the cell clustersSpectral analysis of cell-graphs for automated cancer diagnosis Cigdem Demir1 , S. Humayun Gultekin

  10. Competing risks analysis in mortality estimation for breast cancer patients from independent risk groups

    E-print Network

    on breast cancer and other cause mortality. To estimate mortality probabilities from breast cancer and other, 9], our study predicts breast cancer mortality and mortality from other causes as a functionCompeting risks analysis in mortality estimation for breast cancer patients from independent risk

  11. Multielement ICP-AES Analysis of Hair Samples and a Chemometrics Study for Cancer Diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. O. Wang; Z. X. Zhuang; E. Zhu; C. L. Yang; T. Wan; L. J. Yu

    1995-01-01

    Over 100 hair samples were collected from the Xiamen area of south China, including 72 healthy people and 34 cancer patients, for the study of distinguishing cancer patients from others; another 64 hair samples were collected from patients with liver, stomach, lung, and miscellaneous cancers and were used for the discrimination analysis of different types of cancers, The samples were

  12. Perioperative Blood Transfusion Promotes Worse Outcomes of Bladder Cancer after Radical Cystectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, You-Lin; Jiang, Bo; Yin, Fu-Fen; Shi, Hao-Qing; Xu, Xiao-Dong; Zheng, Shuai-Shuai; Wu, Shuai; Hou, Si-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple studies have investigated the effect of perioperative blood transfusion (PBT) for patients with radical cystectomy (RC), but the results have been inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between PBT and the clinical outcomes of RC patients. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library and BIOSIS previews to identify relevant literature for studies that focused on the relationship of PBT and outcomes of patients undergoing RC. A fixed or random effects model was used in this meta-analysis to calculate the pooled hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results A total of 7080 patients in 6 studies matched the selection criteria. Aggregation of the data suggested that PBT in patients who underwent RC correlated with increased all-cause mortality, cancer-specific mortality and cancer recurrence. The combined HRs were 1.19 (n = 6 studies, 95% CI: 1.11–1.27, Z = 4.71, P<0.00001), 1.17 (n = 4 studies, 95% CI: 1.06–1.30, Z = 3.06, P = 0.002), 1.14 (n = 3 studies, 95% CI: 1.03–1.27, Z = 2.50, P = 0.01), respectively. The all-cause mortality associated with PBT did not vary by the characteristics of the study, including number of study participants, follow-up period and the median blood transfusion ratio of the study. Conclusion Our data showed that PBT significantly increased the risks of all-cause mortality, cancer-specific mortality and cancer recurrence in patients undergoing RC for bladder cancer. PMID:26080092

  13. In-depth Proteomic Analysis of Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer to Discover Molecular Targets and Candidate Biomarkers*

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Takefumi; Hassanein, Mohamed; Amann, Joseph M.; Liu, Qinfeng; Slebos, Robbert J. C.; Rahman, S. M. Jamshedur; Kaufman, Jacob M.; Zhang, Xueqiong; Hoeksema, Megan D.; Harris, Bradford K.; Li, Ming; Shyr, Yu; Gonzalez, Adriana L.; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Massion, Pierre P.; Carbone, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in proteomic analysis of human samples are driving critical aspects of biomarker discovery and the identification of molecular pathways involved in disease etiology. Toward that end, in this report we are the first to use a standardized shotgun proteomic analysis method for in-depth tissue protein profiling of the two major subtypes of nonsmall cell lung cancer and normal lung tissues. We identified 3621 proteins from the analysis of pooled human samples of squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and control specimens. In addition to proteins previously shown to be implicated in lung cancer, we have identified new pathways and multiple new differentially expressed proteins of potential interest as therapeutic targets or diagnostic biomarkers, including some that were not identified by transcriptome profiling. Up-regulation of these proteins was confirmed by multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. A subset of these proteins was found to be detectable and differentially present in the peripheral blood of cases and matched controls. Label-free shotgun proteomic analysis allows definition of lung tumor proteomes, identification of biomarker candidates, and potential targets for therapy. PMID:22761400

  14. In-depth proteomic analysis of nonsmall cell lung cancer to discover molecular targets and candidate biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Takefumi; Hassanein, Mohamed; Amann, Joseph M; Liu, Qinfeng; Slebos, Robbert J C; Rahman, S M Jamshedur; Kaufman, Jacob M; Zhang, Xueqiong; Hoeksema, Megan D; Harris, Bradford K; Li, Ming; Shyr, Yu; Gonzalez, Adriana L; Zimmerman, Lisa J; Liebler, Daniel C; Massion, Pierre P; Carbone, David P

    2012-10-01

    Advances in proteomic analysis of human samples are driving critical aspects of biomarker discovery and the identification of molecular pathways involved in disease etiology. Toward that end, in this report we are the first to use a standardized shotgun proteomic analysis method for in-depth tissue protein profiling of the two major subtypes of nonsmall cell lung cancer and normal lung tissues. We identified 3621 proteins from the analysis of pooled human samples of squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and control specimens. In addition to proteins previously shown to be implicated in lung cancer, we have identified new pathways and multiple new differentially expressed proteins of potential interest as therapeutic targets or diagnostic biomarkers, including some that were not identified by transcriptome profiling. Up-regulation of these proteins was confirmed by multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. A subset of these proteins was found to be detectable and differentially present in the peripheral blood of cases and matched controls. Label-free shotgun proteomic analysis allows definition of lung tumor proteomes, identification of biomarker candidates, and potential targets for therapy. PMID:22761400

  15. A stable isotope-labeled internal standard is essential for correcting for the interindividual variability in the recovery of lapatinib from cancer patient plasma in quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianmei; Wiegand, Richard; LoRusso, Patricia; Li, Jing

    2013-01-01

    The development and validation of a LC-MS/MS method is often performed using pooled human plasma, which may fail to account for variations in interindividual matrices. Since calibrator standards and quality control samples are routinely prepared in pooled human plasma, variations in the extraction recovery and/or matrix effect between pooled plasma and individual patient plasma can cause erroneous measurements. Using both pooled human plasma as well as individual healthy donor and cancer patient plasma samples, we evaluated the analytical performance of two classes of internal standards (i.e., non-isotope-labeled and isotope-labeled) in the quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis of lapatinib. After exhaustive extraction with organic solvent, the recovery of lapatinib, a highly plasma protein-bound drug, varied up to 2.4-fold (range, 29 – 70%) in 6 different donors of plasma and varied up to 3.5-fold (range, 16 – 56%) in the pretreatment plasma samples from 6 cancer patients. No apparent matrix effects were observed for lapatinib in both pooled and individual donor or patient plasma samples. The calibration curve range was 5 – 5000 ng/ml of lapatinib in plasma. Both the non-isotope-labeled (zileuton) and isotope-labeled (lapatinib-d3) internal standard methods showed acceptable specificity, accuracy (within 100 ± 10%), and precision (< 11%) in the determination of lapatinib in pooled human plasma. Nevertheless, only the isotope-labeled internal standard could correct for the interindividual variability in the recovery of lapatinib from patient plasma samples. As inter- and intra-patient matrix variability is commonly presented in the clinical setting, this study provides an example underscoring the importance of using a stable isotope-labeled internal standard in quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis for therapeutic drug monitoring or pharmacokinetic evaluation. PMID:24189203

  16. Cancer survivorship in children and young adults: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Erin J W; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2010-01-01

    Survivorship has been described in a variety of ways. Understanding how survivorship is applied in the context of childhood cancer survivors is important to the practice of pediatric nursing because it will offer nurses new possibilities for providing guidance, support, and assistance in enhancing outcomes for childhood cancer survivors and their families. Accordingly, the purpose of this article is to provide a conceptual framework that will assist nurses in their efforts to attain the common goal of successful survivorship in childhood cancer survivors. The method of concept analysis developed by Walker and Avant is used. The result is a definition of survivorship that is relevant and useful for research and clinical practice in pediatric oncology. PMID:20044589

  17. Functional and genetic analysis of the colon cancer network

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease that has proven to be difficult to understand on the single-gene level. For this reason a functional elucidation needs to take interactions among genes on a systems-level into account. In this study, we infer a colon cancer network from a large-scale gene expression data set by using the method BC3Net. We provide a structural and a functional analysis of this network and also connect its molecular interaction structure with the chromosomal locations of the genes enabling the definition of cis- and trans-interactions. Furthermore, we investigate the interaction of genes that can be found in close neighborhoods on the chromosomes to gain insight into regulatory mechanisms. To our knowledge this is the first study analyzing the genome-scale colon cancer network. PMID:25079297

  18. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of candidate genes in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Erin M; Riggs, Bridget M; Delmas, Amber L; Koch, Abby; Hakam, Ardeshir; Brown, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2). A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site) per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC) of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00, p-value = 0.003). Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated. PMID:25826459

  19. Low Rates of Treatment Failure in Children Aged 2–59 Months Treated for Severe Pneumonia: A Multisite Pooled Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Matthew P.; Thea, Donald M.; Sadruddin, Salim; Bari, Abdul; Bonawitz, Rachael; Hazir, Tabish; Bin Nisar, Yasir; Qazi, Shamim A.

    2013-01-01

    Background.?Despite advances in childhood pneumonia management, it remains a major killer of children worldwide. We sought to estimate global treatment failure rates in children aged 2–59 months with World Health Organization–defined severe pneumonia. Methods.?We pooled data from 4 severe pneumonia studies conducted during 1999–2009 using similar methodologies. We defined treatment failure by day 6 as death, danger signs (inability to drink, convulsions, abnormally sleepy), fever (?38°C) and lower chest indrawing (LCI; days 2–3), LCI (day 6), or antibiotic change. Results.?Among 6398 cases of severe pneumonia from 10 countries, 564 (cluster adjusted: 8.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.9%–11.5%) failed treatment by day 6. The most common reasons for clinical failure were persistence of fever and LCI or LCI or fever alone (75% of failures). Seventeen (0.3%) children died. Danger signs were uncommon (<1%). Infants 6–11 months and 2–5 months were 2- and 3.5-fold more likely, respectively, to fail treatment (adjusted OR [AOR], 1.8 [95% CI, 1.4–2.3] and AOR, 3.5 [95% CI, 2.8–4.3]) as children aged 12–59 months. Failure was increased 7-fold (AOR, 7.2 [95% CI, 5.0–10.5]) when comparing infants 2–5 months with very fast breathing to children 12–59 months with normal breathing. Conclusions.?Our findings demonstrate that severe pneumonia case management with antibiotics at health facilities or in the community is associated with few serious morbidities or deaths across diverse geographic settings and support moves to shift management of severe pneumonia with oral antibiotics to outpatients in the community. PMID:23264361

  20. Genomic expression profiling and bioinformatics analysis of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Han, Dong-Yan; Fu, Da; Xi, Hao; Li, Qian-Yu; Feng, Li-Jin; Zhang, Wei; Ji, Guo; Xiao, Jia-Cheng; Wei, Qing

    2015-09-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a polygenic disease and the fourth leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide; however, the tumorigenesis of pancreatic cancer remains poorly understood. Research at a molecular level, which includes the exploration of biomarkers for early diagnosis and specific targets for therapy, may effectively aid in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer in its early stages and in the development of targeted molecular?biological approaches for treatment, thus improving prognosis. By conducting expression profiling in para?carcinoma, carcinoma and relapse of human pancreatic tissues, 319 genes or transcripts with differential expression levels >3?fold between these tissue types were identified. Further analysis with Gene Ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes demonstrated that the translation, nucleus assembly processes and molecular functions associated with vitamin B6 and pyridoxal phosphate binding in pancreatic carcinoma were abnormal. Pancreatic cancer was additionally identified to be closely associated with certain autoimmune diseases, including type I diabetes mellitus and systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:26062681

  1. Safety and tolerability of canakinumab, an IL-1? inhibitor, in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: a pooled analysis of three randomised double-blind studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to assess the safety and tolerability of different doses of canakinumab versus placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods Data were pooled from three studies in 1026 T2DM patients with different routes of administration, treatment regimens and follow-up duration. Canakinumab groups were categorised as low (0.03 mg/kg i.v. once; N = 20), intermediate (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg i.v. once, 5 and 15 mg s.c. monthly; N = 247), medium (1.5 mg/kg i.v. once, 50 mg s.c. monthly and 150 mg s.c. once; N = 268), and high doses (10 mg/kg i.v. once and 150 mg s.c. monthly; N = 137) and compared with placebo (N = 354). Incidences of adverse events (AEs), serious AEs (SAEs), discontinuations due to AEs, deaths, AEs of special interest related to interleukin-1? inhibition and T2DM disease, and laboratory abnormalities related to haematology and biochemistry parameters were reported. Safety was also analysed by age (<65, ?65) and gender. Results Average exposure across all groups was???6 months (maximum ~17 months). No dose response in AEs was observed but a trend towards more patients having at least one AE across canakinumab groups relative to placebo (P?=?0.0152) was observed. SAEs were few and the incidence rate for most canakinumab groups was lower than that of placebo group except for the high-dose group (0.94% versus 0.58% per month in placebo). A total of five patients discontinued treatment due to AEs across treatment groups. No death was reported in any of the three studies. A small, non-significant increase in the incidence rate of infection AEs was observed on canakinumab groups relative to placebo. Canakinumab was associated with mostly mild decreases in WBC, neutrophils and platelet counts. Additionally, mild increases in SGPT, SGOT and bilirubin were reported. Overall, despite small differences, no clinically relevant findings were observed with respect to laboratory values and vital signs. Conclusions This pooled analysis demonstrated that canakinumab was safe and well tolerated over a treatment period up to 1.4 years at the four pooled doses evaluated, in agreement with safety findings reported in the individual studies. PMID:24884602

  2. The Association of RAS Association Domain Family Protein1A (RASSF1A) Methylation States and Bladder Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Tianyi; Wang, Shukui; He, Bangshun; Pan, Yuqin; Song, Guoqi; Gu, Ling; Chen, Liping; Nie, Zhenling; Xu, Yeqiong; Li, Rui

    2012-01-01

    RAS association domain family protein 1a (RASSF1A) is a putative tumor suppressor gene located on 3p21, has been regarded playing important roles in the regulation of different types of human tumors. Previous reports demonstrated that the frequency of RASSF1A methylation was significantly higher in patients group compared with controls, but the relationship between RASSF1A promoter methylation and pathological features or the tumor grade of bladder cancer remains controversial. Therefore, A meta-analysis of published studies investigating the effects of RASSF1A methylation status in bladder cancer occurrence and association with both pTNM (p, pathologic stage; T, tumor size; N, node status; M, metastatic status) and tumor grade in bladder cancer was performed in the study. A total of 10 eligible studies involving 543 cases and 217 controls were included in the pooled analyses. Under the fixed-effects model, the OR of RASSF1A methylation in bladder cancer patients, compared to non-cancer controls, was 8. 40 with 95%CI?=?4. 96–14. 23. The pooled OR with the random-effects model of pTNM and tumor grade in RASSF1A methylated patients, compared to unmethylated patients, was 0. 75 (95%CI?=?0. 28–1. 99) and 0. 39 (95%CI?=?0. 14–1. 09). This study showed that RASSF1A methylation appears to be an independent prognostic factor for bladder cancer. The present findings also require confirmation through adequately designed prospective studies. PMID:23139773

  3. Swimming pool granuloma

    MedlinePLUS

    Aquarium granuloma; Fish tank granuloma ... Risks include exposure to swimming pools, salt water aquariums, or ocean fish. ... Wash hands and arms thoroughly after cleaning aquariums. Or, wear rubber gloves when cleaning.

  4. Swimming Pool Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... closing/self-latching Window guards Pool alarms Swimming Lessons - Where We Stand Children need to learn to ... Some factors you may consider before starting swimming lessons for younger children include: Frequency of exposure to ...

  5. Weld pool phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.; Zacharia, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); DebRoy, T. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    During welding, the composition, structure and properties of the welded structure are affected by the interaction of the heat source with the metal. The interaction affects the fluid flow, heat transfer and mass transfer in the weld pool, and the solidification behavior of the weld metal. In recent years, there has been a growing recognition of the importance of the weld pool transport processes and the solid state transformation reactions in determining the composition, structure and properties of the welded structure. The relation between the weld pool transport processes and the composition and structure is reviewed. Recent applications of various solidification theories to welding are examined to understand the special problems of weld metal solidification. The discussion is focussed on the important problems and issues related to weld pool transport phenomena and solidification. Resolution of these problems would be an important step towards a science based control of composition, structure and properties of the weld metal.

  6. Incidence and risk of hypertension with vandetanib in cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Wei-Xiang; Shen, Zan; Lin, Feng; Sun, Yuan-jue; Min, Da-liu; Tang, Li-Na; He, Ai-Na; Yao, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Aim To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of published clinical trials to determine incidence rate and overall risk of hypertension with vandetanib in cancer patients. Methods A comprehensive literature search for studies published up to March 2012 was performed. Summary incidence rates, relative risk (RR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated employing fixed- or random-effects models depending on the heterogeneity of the included trials. Results A total of 11 trials with 3154 patients were included for the meta-analysis. The summary incidences of all-grade and high-grade hypertension in patients with cancer were 24.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 18.1–30.2%] and 6.4% (95% CI, 3.3–9.5%), respectively. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that the pooled incidences of all-grade and high-grade hypertension were 21.8% [95% CI, 15–30.5%] and 7.6% (95% CI, 2.8–18.8%), respectively, among non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, and 32.1% (95% CI: 27.3–37.3%) and 8.8% (5.9%–12.9%), respectively, among MTC patients, and 15.4 (95% CI: 3.2–33.7%) and 3.4% (95% CI: 1%–11.1%) respectively, among non-MTC/NSCLC tumors patients. Furthermore, vandetanib was associated with a significant increased risk of all-grade hypertension (RR 5.1, 95% CI: 3.76–6.92, P = 0.000) and high-grade hypertension (RR 8.06, 95% CI: 3.41–19.04, P = 0.000) in comparison with controls. Conclusions There is a significant risk of developing hypertension in cancer patients receiving vandetanib. Appropriate monitoring and treatment is strongly recommended to prevent cardiovascular complications. PMID:22882307

  7. Worry about breast cancer recurrence: a population-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Apoorva; Chagpar, Anees B

    2014-07-01

    As more patients with breast cancer survive treatment, the importance of their long-term quality of life is increasing. One important concern for many survivors is fear of recurrence. To better understand worry about recurrence, we conducted a population-based statistical analysis. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is the largest annual source of health information for the U.S. population. We obtained data from the 2010 survey, which asked breast cancer survivors about their fear of recurrence and quality of life. Data were analyzed using SUDAAN software. The 2010 NHIS sample represented 2,668,697 breast cancer survivors. On univariate analysis, worry about recurrence was correlated with current age (P = 0.03) and radiation therapy (P = 0.04). Worry was strongly associated with perceived risk of recurrence (P < 0.01) and decreased overall quality of life (P < 0.01) as well as lower self-reported physical (P < 0.01) and mental (P < 0.01) health and poor satisfaction with social activities and relationships (P < 0.01). On multivariate analysis, worry was not independently associated with decreased quality of life (P = 0.09). However, those who "always worried" about recurrence had a lower quality of life (odds ratio, 0.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.01 to 0.45). Worry about recurrence among breast cancer survivors is associated with age and radiation therapy and is correlated with self-reported physical health, mental health, social relationships, and overall quality of life. It is a significant predictor of decreased quality of life in those who worry the most. Screening for worry about recurrence is an important measure for the improvement of quality of life among breast cancer survivors. PMID:24987893

  8. Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis of Ovarian and Breast Cancer Tumor Peptidomes

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhe; Wu, Chaochao; Xie, Fang; Slysz, Gordon W.; Tolic, Nikola; Monroe, Matthew E.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Payne, Samuel H.; Fujimoto, Grant M.; Moore, Ronald J.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Levine, Douglas; Townsend, Reid; Davies, Sherri; Li, Shunqiang; Ellis, Matthew; Boja, Emily; Rodriguez, Henry; Rodland, Karin D.; Liu, Tao; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant degradation of proteins is associated with many pathological states, including cancers. Mass spectrometric analysis of tumor peptidomes, the intracellular and intercellular products of protein degradation, has the potential to provide biological insights on proteolytic processing in cancer. However, attempts to use the information on these smaller protein degradation products from tumors for biomarker discovery and cancer biology studies have been fairly limited to date, largely due to the lack of effective approaches for robust peptidomics identification and quantification, and the prevalence of confounding factors and biases associated with sample handling and processing. Herein, we have developed an effective and robust analytical platform for comprehensive analyses of tissue peptidomes, and which is suitable for high throughput quantitative studies. The reproducibility and coverage of the platform, as well as the suitability of clinical ovarian tumor and patient-derived breast tumor xenograft samples with post-excision delay of up to 60 min before freezing for peptidomics analysis, have been demonstrated. Moreover, our data also show that the peptidomics profiles can effectively separate breast cancer subtypes, reflecting tumor-associated protease activities. Peptidomics complements results obtainable from conventional bottom-up proteomics, and provides insights not readily obtainable from such approaches.

  9. AFM-based analysis of human metastatic cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Sarah E.; Jin, Yu-Sheng; Tondre, Julianne; Wong, Roger; Rao, Jian Yu; Gimzewski, James K.

    2008-09-01

    Recently biomechanics of cancer cells, in particular stiffness or elasticity, has been identified as an important factor relating to cancer cell function, adherence, motility, transformation and invasion. We report on the nanomechanical responses of metastatic cancer cells and benign mesothelial cells taken from human body cavity fluids using atomic force microscopy. Following our initial study (Cross et al 2007 Nat. Nanotechnol. 2 780-3), we report on the biophysical properties of patient-derived effusion cells and address the influence of cell morphology on measured cell stiffness. Using a cytocentrifugation method, which yields morphologically indistinguishable cells that can be prepared in 1 min and avoids any possible artifacts due to 12 h ex vivo culture, we find that metastatic tumor cells are more than 80% softer than benign cells with a distribution over six times narrower than that of normal cells. Consistent with our previous study, which yielded distinguishable cell populations based on ex vivo growth and morphological characteristics, our results show it is unlikely that morphology alone is sufficient to explain the difference in elastic moduli for these two cell types. Moreover, analysis of non-specific cell adhesion inherent to tumor and normal cells collected from patients show surface adhesion of tumor cells is ~33% less adhesive compared to that of normal cells. Our findings indicate that biomechanical-based functional analysis may provide an additional platform for cytological evaluation and diagnosis of cancer in the future.

  10. Comprehensive quantitative analysis of ovarian and breast cancer tumor peptidomes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhe; Wu, Chaochao; Xie, Fang; Slysz, Gordon W; Tolic, Nikola; Monroe, Matthew E; Petyuk, Vladislav A; Payne, Samuel H; Fujimoto, Grant M; Moore, Ronald J; Fillmore, Thomas L; Schepmoes, Athena A; Levine, Douglas A; Townsend, R Reid; Davies, Sherri R; Li, Shunqiang; Ellis, Matthew; Boja, Emily; Rivers, Robert; Rodriguez, Henry; Rodland, Karin D; Liu, Tao; Smith, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant degradation of proteins is associated with many pathological states, including cancers. Mass spectrometric analysis of tumor peptidomes, the intracellular and intercellular products of protein degradation, has the potential to provide biological insights on proteolytic processing in cancer. However, attempts to use the information on these smaller protein degradation products from tumors for biomarker discovery and cancer biology studies have been fairly limited to date, largely due to the lack of effective approaches for robust peptidomics identification and quantification and the prevalence of confounding factors and biases associated with sample handling and processing. Herein, we have developed an effective and robust analytical platform for comprehensive analyses of tissue peptidomes, which is suitable for high-throughput quantitative studies. The reproducibility and coverage of the platform, as well as the suitability of clinical ovarian tumor and patient-derived breast tumor xenograft samples with postexcision delay of up to 60 min before freezing for peptidomics analysis, have been demonstrated. Moreover, our data also show that the peptidomics profiles can effectively separate breast cancer subtypes, reflecting tumor-associated protease activities. Peptidomics complements results obtainable from conventional bottom-up proteomics and provides insights not readily obtainable from such approaches. PMID:25350482

  11. Next-Generation Sequence Analysis of Cancer Xenograft Models

    PubMed Central

    Rossello, Fernando J.; Tothill, Richard W.; Britt, Kara; Marini, Kieren D.; Falzon, Jeanette; Thomas, David M.; Peacock, Craig D.; Marchionni, Luigi; Li, Jason; Bennett, Samara; Tantoso, Erwin; Brown, Tracey; Chan, Philip; Martelotto, Luciano G.; Watkins, D. Neil

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) studies in cancer are limited by the amount, quality and purity of tissue samples. In this situation, primary xenografts have proven useful preclinical models. However, the presence of mouse-derived stromal cells represents a technical challenge to their use in NGS studies. We examined this problem in an established primary xenograft model of small cell lung cancer (SCLC), a malignancy often diagnosed from small biopsy or needle aspirate samples. Using an in silico strategy that assign reads according to species-of-origin, we prospectively compared NGS data from primary xenograft models with matched cell lines and with published datasets. We show here that low-coverage whole-genome analysis demonstrated remarkable concordance between published genome data and internal controls, despite the presence of mouse genomic DNA. Exome capture sequencing revealed that this enrichment procedure was highly species-specific, with less than 4% of reads aligning to the mouse genome. Human-specific expression profiling with RNA-Seq replicated array-based gene expression experiments, whereas mouse-specific transcript profiles correlated with published datasets from human cancer stroma. We conclude that primary xenografts represent a useful platform for complex NGS analysis in cancer research for tumours with limited sample resources, or those with prominent stromal cell populations. PMID:24086345

  12. Agricultural use of DDT and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: pooled analysis of three case-control studies in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Baris, D.; Zahm, S. H.; Cantor, K. P.; Blair, A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this pooled analysis was to examine whether exposure to DDT was associated with the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among male farmers. METHODS: Data from three case-control studies from four midwestern states in the United States (Nebraska, Iowa, Minnesota, Kansas) were pooled to carry out analyses of 993 cases and 2918 controls. Information on use of agricultural pesticides and other risk factors was based on interviews. Non-farmers (people who had never lived or worked on a farm) were used as a reference category. RESULTS: There were 161 cases and 340 controls who reported use of DDT on animals or crops, or on both, yielding an odds ratio (OR) of 1.2 (95% confidence intervals (95% CI) 1.0 to 1.6). Farmers who had used DDT for > or = 15 years had an OR of 1.5 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.3). Adjustment for respondent status and use of other pesticides resulted in slightly reduced ORs. Analyses by the number of days of use a year was limited to the Nebraska data. The most notable increase was found among farmers who used DDT for > or = 5 days a year (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 5.9); however, additional adjustment for use of organophosphates, phenoxyacetic acids, and the individual pesticides lindane, malathion, and atrazine reduced the ORs to 1.0, 0.9, 1.1, 1.6, and 1.9 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: No strong consistent evidence was found for an association between exposure to DDT and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. It seems that the excess risk initially found may be explained by use of other pesticides.   PMID:9849538

  13. Histopathology of Gastric Cancer in Kashmir - A Five Year Retrospective Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nassima Chanda; A. R. Khan; M. Romana; Saud Lateef

    Our study was a five year analysis of gastric cancers performed in the Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Srinagar. This included an analysis of 152 cases of gastric cancers which accounted for 21.9% of gastrointestinal cancers. Pylorus was the commonest site involved, followed by the body and then cardia-fundus. Grossly the commonest type was an infiltrative lesion. Microscopically according

  14. Increased circulating microRNA-155 as a potential biomarker for breast cancer screening: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Faliang; Hou, Jinchao; Jin, Wei; Li, Jiaqiu; Yue, Yongfang; Jin, Hongchuan; Wang, Xian

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of circulating microRNA-155 (miR-155) for breast cancer (BC). PubMed, Embase, EBSCO (ASP/BSP), Cochrane Library and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched up to 30 January 2014 for eligible studies. Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) was employed to assess the quality of the included studies. Meta-analysis were performed in Meta-Disc 1.4 and Stata 12.0. Three studies with total 184 BC patients and 75 control individuals were included in this meta-analysis. All of the included studies are of high quality (QUADAS scores 12 or 13). The summary estimates revealed that the pooled sensitivity is 79% (95% confidence interval (CI): 72%-84%) and the specificity is 85% (95% CI: 75%-92%), for the diagnosis of breast cancer. In addition, the area under the summary ROC curve (AUC) is 0.9217. The current evidence suggests that circulating miR-155 has the potential diagnostic value with a high sensitivity and specificity for BC. More prospective studies on the diagnostic value of circulating miR-155 for BC are needed in the future. PMID:24840899

  15. GST genotypes and lung cancer susceptibility in Asian populations with indoor air pollution exposures: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hosgood, H Dean; Berndt, Sonja I; Lan, Qing

    2007-01-01

    About half of the world’s population is exposed to smoke from heating or cooking with coal, wood, or biomass. These exposures, and fumes from cooking oil use, have been associated with increased lung cancer risk. Glutathione S-transferases play an important role in the detoxification of a wide range of human carcinogens in these exposures. Functional polymorphisms have been identified in the GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 genes, which may alter the risk of lung cancer among individuals exposed to coal, wood and biomass smoke and cooking oil fumes. We performed a meta-analysis of six published studies (912 cases; 1063 controls) from regions in Asia where indoor air pollution makes a substantial contribution to lung cancer risk, and evaluated the association between the GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null, and GSTP1 105Val polymorphisms and lung cancer risk. Using a random effects model, we found that carriers of the GSTM1 null genotype had a borderline significant increased lung cancer risk (odds ratio (OR), 1.31; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.95–1.79; p=0.100), which was particularly evident in the summary risk estimate for the four studies carried out in regions of Asia that use coal for heating and cooking (OR, 1.64; 95%CI, 1.25–2.14; p=0.0003). The GSTT1 null genotype was also associated with an increased lung cancer risk (OR, 1.49; 95%CI, 1.17–1.89; p=0.001), but no association was observed for the GSTP1 105Val allele. Previous meta- and pooled-analyses suggest at most a small association between the GSTM1 null genotype and lung cancer risk carried out in populations where the vast majority of lung cancer is attributed to tobacco, and where indoor air pollution from domestic heating and cooking is much less than in developing Asian countries. Our results suggest that the GSTM1 null genotype may be associated with a more substantial risk of lung cancer in populations with coal exposure. PMID:17428724

  16. Effect of Proliferator-Activated Receptor-? Pro12Ala Polymorphism on Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhijiang; Han, Guoda; Bai, Xiyong

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) Pro12Ala polymorphism and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is still controversial. A meta-analysis was performed. Material/Methods We conducted a literature search using PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochran databases. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Fixed-effects and random-effects models were used. Dominant model, recessive model, and additive model were used in this meta-analysis. Results Fifteen studies including 13575 cases and 17085 controls were included in our meta-analysis. Result of this meta-analysis found that PPAR? Pro12Ala polymorphism was significantly associated with a reduced risk of CRC (OR=0.90; 95% CI 0.83–0.98; P=0.01). No significant association was found between PPAR? Pro12Ala polymorphism and CRC risk in Asians (OR=0.80; 95% CI 0.60–1.09; P=0.15). However, PPAR? Pro12Ala polymorphism was significantly associated with a reduced risk of CRC in Caucasians (OR=0.91; 95% CI 0.83–0.99; P=0.03). When stratified analysis was performed by CRC site, no positive association was found between PPAR? Pro12Ala polymorphism and rectal cancer (OR=0.95; 95% CI 0.74–1.22; P=0.71). However, a reduced risk of colon cancer was observed (OR=0.85; 95% CI 0.76–0.94; P=0.002). Conclusions In summary, this study suggests that PPAR? Pro12Ala polymorphism was a protective factor of CRC. PMID:26049557

  17. Polymorphisms of the XPC gene may contribute to the risk of head and neck cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Li, Zufei; Zhong, Qi; Zhou, Weiguo; Chen, Xuejun; Chen, Xiaohong; Fang, Jugao; Huang, Zhigang

    2014-04-01

    Polymorphisms of the XPC gene have been reported to be associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer (HNC), though the exact biological effect is still unclear. Genetic association studies (GAS) investigating the associations between three common polymorphisms (PAT, Lys939Gln, and Ala499Val) of the XPC gene and HNC risk have produced contradictory and inconclusive results. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the contributions of these polymorphisms to the risk of HNC. A literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases to indentify eligible studies. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to evaluate the strength of the associations under a fixed- or random-effect model according to heterogeneity test. Twelve case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis with a total of 3,078 HNC patients and 4,311 healthy controls. For XPC PAT, a significant overall association was found under all major genetic models. Stratified analyses further indicated significant associations in the Caucasian, population-based, non-PCR-RFLP, esophageal cancer and oral cancer subgroups. For XPC Lys939Gln, few significant results were found in either the overall analysis or stratified analyses. For XPC Ala499Val, the combined results revealed a significantly increased risk of HNC for carriers of the 499Val allele. This meta-analysis shows that the XPC PAT and Ala499Val polymorphisms may be associated with an increased risk of HNC, while XPC Lys939Gln may not be associated with HNC risk. Despite some limitations, this meta-analysis establishes solid statistical evidence for an association between XPC genetic polymorphisms and HNC risk that warrants further validation. PMID:24338715

  18. Effect of Proliferator-Activated Receptor-? Pro12Ala Polymorphism on Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhijiang; Han, Guoda; Bai, Xiyong

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The association between peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) Pro12Ala polymorphism and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is still controversial. A meta-analysis was performed. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted a literature search using PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochran databases. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Fixed-effects and random-effects models were used. Dominant model, recessive model, and additive model were used in this meta-analysis. RESULTS Fifteen studies including 13575 cases and 17085 controls were included in our meta-analysis. Result of this meta-analysis found that PPAR? Pro12Ala polymorphism was significantly associated with a reduced risk of CRC (OR=0.90; 95% CI 0.83-0.98; P=0.01). No significant association was found between PPAR? Pro12Ala polymorphism and CRC risk in Asians (OR=0.80; 95% CI 0.60-1.09; P=0.15). However, PPAR? Pro12Ala polymorphism was significantly associated with a reduced risk of CRC in Caucasians (OR=0.91; 95% CI 0.83-0.99; P=0.03). When stratified analysis was performed by CRC site, no positive association was found between PPAR? Pro12Ala polymorphism and rectal cancer (OR=0.95; 95% CI 0.74-1.22; P=0.71). However, a reduced risk of colon cancer was observed (OR=0.85; 95% CI 0.76-0.94; P=0.002). CONCLUSIONS In summary, this study suggests that PPAR? Pro12Ala polymorphism was a protective factor of CRC. PMID:26049557

  19. CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism is associated with prostate cancer susceptibility: evidence from a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Gang; Xu, Weiguo; Liu, Hedai; Zhang, Ming; Huang, Qian; Liao, Zhijun

    2013-05-01

    Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), an important phase I xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme, is responsible for metabolizing numerous carcinogens, particularly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The genetic polymorphism of CYP1A1 at the site of MspI (CYP1A1 MspI) has been implicated in prostate cancer risk, but the results of individual studies remain conflicting and inconclusive. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the association of CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism with prostate cancer risk more precisely. We performed a comprehensive search of the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases from their inception up to September 20, 2012 for relevant publications. The pooled odds ratios with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated to assess the association of CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism with prostate cancer risk. In addition, stratified analyses by ethnicity and sensitivity analyses were conducted for further estimation. Sixteen eligible publications with 6,411 subjects were finally included into the meta-analysis after checking the retrieved papers. Overall, meta-analysis of total studies suggested that individuals carrying the TC genotype and a combined C genotype (CC + TC) were more susceptible to prostate cancer (OR(TC vs. TT) = 1.33, 95% CI 1.10-1.61, P(OR) = 0.004; OR(CC+TC vs. TT) = 1.27, 95% CI 1.05-1.55, P(OR) = 0.016). Stratified analysis of high quality studies also confirmed the significant association (OR(TC vs. TT) = 1.32, 95% CI 1.04-1.67, P(OR) = 0.024; OR(CC+TC vs. TT) = 1.30, 95% CI 1.02-1.66, P(OR) = 0.035). In subgroup analyses by ethnicity, a significant association between the CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism and risk of prostate cancer was found among Asians (OR(TC vs. TT) = 1.44, 95% CI 1.20-1.72, P(OR) < 0.001; OR(CC+TC vs. TT) = 1.33, 95% CI 1.12-1.58, P(OR) = 0.001), but not in Caucasians or mixed populations. The meta-analysis suggests an important role of the CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism in the risk of developing prostate cancer, especially in Asians. PMID:23475304

  20. Distinguishing cancerous from noncancerous cells through analysis of electrical noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelady, D. C.; Richmond, T. C.; Maggi, A. N.; Lo, C.-M.; Rabson, D. A.

    2007-10-01

    Since 1984, electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) has been used to monitor cell behavior in tissue culture and has proven sensitive to cell morphological changes and cell motility. We have taken ECIS measurements on several cultures of noncancerous and cancerous human ovarian surface epithelial cells. By analyzing the noise in real and imaginary electrical impedance, we demonstrate that it is possible to distinguish the two cell types purely from the signatures of their electrical noise. Our measures include power-spectral exponents, Hurst and detrended fluctuation analysis, and estimates of correlation time; principal-component analysis combines all the measures. The noise from both cancerous and noncancerous cultures shows correlations on many time scales, but these correlations are stronger for the noncancerous cells.

  1. Consortium analysis of 7 candidate SNPs for ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Ramus, Susan J; Vierkant, Robert A; Johnatty, Sharon E; Pike, Malcolm C; Van Den Berg, David J; Wu, Anna H; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Menon, Usha; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Gayther, Simon A; Dicioccio, Richard A; McGuire, Valerie; Whittemore, Alice S; Song, Honglin; Easton, Douglas F; Pharoah, Paul D P; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chanock, Stephen; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise; Terry, Kathryn L; Cramer, Daniel W; Tworoger, Shelley S; Hankinson, Susan E; Berchuck, Andrew; Moorman, Patricia G; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Cunningham, Julie M; Liebow, Mark; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Hogdall, Estrid; Hogdall, Claus; Blaakaer, Jan; Ness, Roberta B; Moysich, Kirsten B; Edwards, Robert P; Carney, Michael E; Lurie, Galina; Goodman, Marc T; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Kropp, Silke; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Webb, Penelope M; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Goode, Ellen L

    2008-07-15

    The Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium selected 7 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), for which there is evidence from previous studies of an association with variation in ovarian cancer or breast cancer risks. The SNPs selected for analysis were F31I (rs2273535) in AURKA, N372H (rs144848) in BRCA2, rs2854344 in intron 17 of RB1, rs2811712 5' flanking CDKN2A, rs523349 in the 3' UTR of SRD5A2, D302H (rs1045485) in CASP8 and L10P (rs1982073) in TGFB1. Fourteen studies genotyped 4,624 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 8,113 controls of white non-Hispanic origin. A marginally significant association was found for RB1 when all studies were included [ordinal odds ratio (OR) 0.88 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79-1.00) p = 0.041 and dominant OR 0.87 (95% CI 0.76-0.98) p = 0.025]; when the studies that originally suggested an association were excluded, the result was suggestive although no longer statistically significant (ordinal OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.79-1.06). This SNP has also been shown to have an association with decreased risk in breast cancer. There was a suggestion of an association for AURKA, when one study that caused significant study heterogeneity was excluded [ordinal OR 1.10 (95% CI 1.01-1.20) p = 0.027; dominant OR 1.12 (95% CI 1.01-1.24) p = 0.03]. The other 5 SNPs in BRCA2, CDKN2A, SRD5A2, CASP8 and TGFB1 showed no association with ovarian cancer risk; given the large sample size, these results can also be considered to be informative. These null results for SNPs identified from relatively large initial studies shows the importance of replicating associations by a consortium approach. PMID:18431743

  2. Pool size measurements facilitate the determination of fluxes at branching points in non-stationary metabolic flux analysis: the case of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Heise, Robert; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Stitt, Mark; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Pool size measurements are important for the estimation of absolute intracellular fluxes in particular scenarios based on data from heavy carbon isotope experiments. Recently, steady-state fluxes estimates were obtained for central carbon metabolism in an intact illuminated rosette of Arabidopsis thaliana grown photoautotrophically (Szecowka et al., 2013; Heise et al., 2014). Fluxes were estimated therein by integrating mass-spectrometric data of the dynamics of the unlabeled metabolic fraction, data on metabolic pool sizes, partitioning of metabolic pools between cellular compartments and estimates of photosynthetically inactive pools, with a simplified model of plant central carbon metabolism. However, the fluxes were determined by treating the pool sizes as fixed parameters. Here we investigated whether and, if so, to what extent the treatment of pool sizes as parameters to be optimized in three scenarios may affect the flux estimates. The results are discussed in terms of benchmark values for canonical pathways and reactions, including starch and sucrose synthesis as well as the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation and oxygenation reactions. In addition, we discuss pathways emerging from a divergent branch point for which pool sizes are required for flux estimation, irrespective of the computational approach used for the simulation of the observable labeling pattern. Therefore, our findings indicate the necessity for development of techniques for accurate pool size measurements to improve the quality of flux estimates from non-stationary flux estimates in intact plant cells in the absence of alternative flux measurements.

  3. Pool size measurements facilitate the determination of fluxes at branching points in non-stationary metabolic flux analysis: the case of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Heise, Robert; Fernie, Alisdair R; Stitt, Mark; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Pool size measurements are important for the estimation of absolute intracellular fluxes in particular scenarios based on data from heavy carbon isotope experiments. Recently, steady-state fluxes estimates were obtained for central carbon metabolism in an intact illuminated rosette of Arabidopsis thaliana grown photoautotrophically (Szecowka et al., 2013; Heise et al., 2014). Fluxes were estimated therein by integrating mass-spectrometric data of the dynamics of the unlabeled metabolic fraction, data on metabolic pool sizes, partitioning of metabolic pools between cellular compartments and estimates of photosynthetically inactive pools, with a simplified model of plant central carbon metabolism. However, the fluxes were determined by treating the pool sizes as fixed parameters. Here we investigated whether and, if so, to what extent the treatment of pool sizes as parameters to be optimized in three scenarios may affect the flux estimates. The results are discussed in terms of benchmark values for canonical pathways and reactions, including starch and sucrose synthesis as well as the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation and oxygenation reactions. In addition, we discuss pathways emerging from a divergent branch point for which pool sizes are required for flux estimation, irrespective of the computational approach used for the simulation of the observable labeling pattern. Therefore, our findings indicate the necessity for development of techniques for accurate pool size measurements to improve the quality of flux estimates from non-stationary flux estimates in intact plant cells in the absence of alternative flux measurements. PMID:26082786

  4. MICA polymorphisms and cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Mengyao; Wang, Jun; Yuan, Lei; Zhang, Yunting; Zhang, Jixiang; Dong, Weiguo; Peng, Xiulan

    2015-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A transmembrane (MICA-TM) polymorphism has been implicated in susceptibility to cancer. However, the results are inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the association between the MICA-TM polymorphisms and cancer risk. All eligible case-control studies published up to August 20, 2014 were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science, CNKI and Wanfang databases. The cancer risk associated with the MICA polymorphism was estimated for each study by odds ratios (OR) together with its 95% confidence interval (CI), respectively. 21 studies from 19 publications with 3620 cases and 4903 controls were included. Overall, no significant associations between the MICA-TM polymorphism and cancer risk were found (A4 allele: OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.88-1.07; A5 allele: OR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.81-1.04; A5.1 allele: OR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.89-1.18; A6 allele: OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.95-1.15; A9 allele: OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.80-1.14; A10 allele: OR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.43-1.79; del: OR = 2.50, 95% CI: 0.73-8.58; A7 allele: OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.43-2.00). When stratified by ethnicity, similar results were observed among Asians; however, there were significant association in Caucasian population for A5 (OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.68-0.87) and A9 allele (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.66-0.85). This meta-analysis suggests that the MICA-TM A5 and A9 alleles may be an important protective factor for cancer in Caucasian populations. PMID:25785062

  5. Reference Values and Age Differences in Body Composition of Community-Dwelling Older Japanese Men and Women: A Pooled Analysis of Four Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Seino, Satoshi; Shinkai, Shoji; Iijima, Katsuya; Obuchi, Shuichi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Hideyo; Kawai, Hisashi; Nishi, Mariko; Murayama, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Yu; Amano, Hidenori; Takahashi, Ryutaro

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine age- and sex-specific body composition reference values and investigate age differences in these parameters for community-dwelling older Japanese men and women, using direct segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Methods We conducted a pooled analysis of data collected in four cohort studies between 2008 and 2012: Kusatsu Longitudinal Study, Hatoyama Cohort Study, Itabashi Cohort Study, and Kashiwa Cohort Study. The pooled analysis included cross-sectional data from 4478 nondisabled, community-dwelling adults aged 65-94 years (2145 men, 2333 women; mean age: 72.9 years in men and 72.6 years in women). Body weight, fat mass (FM), percentage FM, fat-free mass (FFM), and appendicular lean soft tissue mass were measured using the InBody 720 and 430 (Biospace Co. Ltd, Seoul, Korea). The values were then normalized by height in meters squared to determine body mass index (BMI), FM index (FMI), FFM index (FFMI), and skeletal muscle mass index (SMI). Results Simple means (standard deviation) of BMI, percentage FM, FMI, FFMI, and SMI were 23.4 (2.9) kg/m2, 24.9 (6.3)%, 5.96 (2.09) kg/m2, 17.4 (1.5) kg/m2, and 7.29 (0.76) kg/m2, respectively, in men and 22.7 (3.3) kg/m2, 31.7 (7.1)%, 7.40 (2.61) kg/m2, 15.3 (1.2) kg/m2, and 5.86 (0.67) kg/m2, respectively, in women. We then calculated quartiles and quintiles for these indices after stratifying for sex and 5-year age group. FFMI and SMI decreased significantly with age in both sexes (P < 0.001 for trends), but FFMI remained constant among the women with only a 1% decrease up to age 84 years. Percentage FM increased significantly, with age (P < 0.001 in men and P = 0.045 in women for trends), but FMI was unchanged in both sexes (P = 0.147 in men and P = 0.176 in women for trends). Conclusion The present data should be useful in the clinical evaluation of body composition of older Japanese and for international comparisons. The small age-related decrease in FFMI may be a noteworthy characteristic of body composition change in older Japanese women. PMID:26147341

  6. Vernal Pool Lessons and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Nancy; Colburn, Betsy

    This curriculum guide accompanies Certified: A Citizen's Step-by-Step Guide to Protecting Vernal Pools which is designed to train volunteers in the process of identifying vernal pool habitat so that as many of these pools as possible can be certified by the Massachusetts Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program. Vernal pools are a kind of…

  7. Prognostic value of cancer stem cell marker CD133 in ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Quan; Chen, Aihua; Song, Huamei; Tao, Jing; Yang, Huaijie; Zuo, Manzhen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between CD133 expression and prognosis and clinicopathological features of ovarian cancer. Methods: The electronic and manual searches were performed through the database of PubMed Chinese Wanfang databases (up to September 15, 2014) was performed using the following keywords ovarian cancer, CD133, AC133, prominin-1. Meta-analysis was performed by using Review Manager 5.2 and the outcomes included the overall survival and various clinicopathological features. Results: A total of 1051 ovarian cancer patients from 8 studies were included. Meta-analysis showed that overexpression of CD133 was highly correlated with reduced 2-year overall survival (OR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.06-2.63, P = 0.03, fixed-effect). With respect to clinicopathological features, CD133 level was positively correlated with tumor stage (OR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.12-0.58, P = 0.001 random-effect). But not correlated with patients’ age (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.68-1.86, P = 0.65 fixed-effect), tumor grade (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.06-1.62, P = 0.17 random-effect), histological type (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.82-1.47, P = 0.54 fixed-effect) and response to treatment (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.61-1.16, P = 0.29 fixed-effect). Conclusion: On the basis of current retrospective evidence, the present meta-analysis indicated that high level of CD133 expression trends to correlate with a worse prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer.

  8. Robotic cleaning of a spent fuel pool

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, H.T.; Marian, F.A. (PSE and G Research Corp., Newark, NJ (US)); Silverman, E.B.; Barkley, V.P. (ARD Corp., Columbia, MD (US))

    1987-05-01

    Spent fuel pools at nuclear power plants are not cleaned routinely, other than by purifying the water that they contain. Yet, debris can collect on the bottom of a pool and should be removed prior to fuel transfer. At Public Service Electric and Gas Company's Hope Creek Nuclear Power Plant, a submersible mobile robot - ARD Corporation's SCAVENGER - was used to clean the bottom of the spent fuel pool prior to initial fuel loading. The robotic device was operated remotely (as opposed to autonomously) with a simple forward/reverse control, and it cleaned 70-80% of the pool bottom. This paper reports that a simple cost-benefit analysis shows that the robotic device would be less expensive, on a per mission basis, than other cleaning alternatives, especially if it were used for other similar cleaning operations throughout the plant.

  9. Prognostic Significance of Cyclin D1 Expression in Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Wei, Jun; Xu, Chuanhui; Zhao, Zhongxin; You, Tiangeng

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cyclin D1 plays a vital role in cancer cell cycle progression and is overexpressed in many human cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the prognostic value of cyclin D1 overexpression in colorectal cancer is conflicting and heterogeneous. We conducted a meta-analysis to more precisely evaluate its prognostic significance. Methods A comprehensive literature search for relevant studies published up to January 2014 was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was used to estimate the effects. Results 22 studies with 4150 CRC patients were selected to evaluate the association between cyclin D1 and overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and clinicopathological parameters. In a random-effects model, the results showed that cyclin D1 overexpression in CRC was significantly associated with both poor OS (HR?=?0.73, 95% CI: 0.63–0.85, P<0.001) and DFS (HR?=?0.60, 95% CI: 0.44–0.82, P?=?0.001). Additionally, cyclin D1 overexpression was significantly associated with more relative older patients (?60 years) (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.44–0.89, P?=?0.009), T3,4 tumor invasion (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.57–0.85, P<0.001), N positive (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.60–0.95, P?=?0.016) and distant metastasis (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.36–0.99, P?=?0.047) of CRC. Conclusion The meta-analysis results indicated that cyclin D1 is an unfavorable prognostic factor for CRC. Cyclin D1 overexpression might be associated with poor clinical outcome and some clinicopathological factors such as age, T category, N category and distant metastasis in CRC patients. PMID:24728073

  10. Tobacco smoking and gastric cancer: review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Trédaniel, J; Boffetta, P; Buiatti, E; Saracci, R; Hirsch, A

    1997-08-01

    Although declining, gastric cancer (GC) is estimated to be second in frequency worldwide. Major causes appear to be environmental rather than genetic. A relationship has been suggested between tobacco smoking and GC. A number of epidemiological studies have been performed dealing with this question. All the cohort studies showed a significantly increased risk of GC of the order of 1.5-2.5 for cigarette smokers. Evidence from case-control studies is less consistent. We have carried out a meta-analysis on the 40 studies providing a quantitative estimate of the association between GC risk and tobacco smoking. Results suggest a risk of stomach cancer among smokers of the order of 1.5-1.6 as compared to non-smokers. The summary relative risk was higher in men (1.59) than in women (1.11). Several studies examined the dose-response relationship which existed in 4 cohort studies and 6 case-control studies. We estimated the number of GC cases attributable to tobacco smoking occurring worldwide: in total, over 80,000 cases of GC (11% of all estimated cases) may be attributed to tobacco smoking each year. This figure is larger than that estimated for other cancers for which association with tobacco smoking is clearly established, such as pancreatic and renal cancers. PMID:9259392

  11. Risk of second breast cancer in female Hodgkin’s lymphoma survivors: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Women treated for Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) have an elevated risk of developing second breast cancer (SBC) compared with the general population. We planned this meta-analysis to quantify the long-term risk of SBC and analyze the contributing risk factors among HL survivors. Methods According to predefined selection criteria, literature search identified 34 studies that were included in the analyses. Results After eliminating overlapping or duplicate data, 957 incidences of SBC were encountered in 24,505 females with HL over a median follow-up of 14.9?years. The medians: age at the diagnosis of HL, age at diagnosis of SBC, and latency since HL treatment to the development of SBC were 23.7, 35.0, and 17.7?years, respectively. The pooled relative risk (RR) of SBC was 8.23 (95% CI, 5.43-12.47, I2?=?96%), with a median absolute excess rate of 22.9 per 10,000 person-years. The RR was found inversely related to age at diagnosis of HL with the highest rate (68.7; [95%CI, 28.08-168.11], I2?=?79%), occurred in young patients (? 15?years old), where the RR in older women (? 40?years old) was not significant (0.55; [95% CI, 0.09-3.52]). Analysis of RR by 5-year increments since the treatment of HL showed that the risk was highest after 15–19?years of latency (13.87; [95% CI, 7.91-24.30], I2?=?89%). Analysis of the effect of treatment modalities showed that the RR rates were (4.70; [95% CI, 3.28-6.75], I2?=?74%), (5.65; [95%CI, 2.94-10.88], I2?=?91%), and (1.19; [95% CI, 0.50-2.82], I2?=?65%), for radiotherapy (RT) only, combined RT and chemotherapy (CT), and CT only, respectively. To investigate the demonstrated heterogeneity, meta-regression analysis was performed when feasible. In most such analyses, the natural logarithm of RR was inversely associated with age at HL diagnosis. Conclusions We conclude that, the current meta-analysis provided the most recent comprehensive estimate of the risk of SBC in a broad-range of HL survivors. Younger age at diagnosis proved to be a dominant risk factor. The obtained results would serve providing breast cancer screening recommendations for HL survivors. PMID:22639888

  12. Comparative Proteomics Analysis of Gastric Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Morisaki, Tamami; Yashiro, Masakazu; Kakehashi, Anna; Inagaki, Azusa; Kinoshita, Haruhito; Fukuoka, Tatsunari; Kasashima, Hiroaki; Masuda, Go; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Kubo, Naoshi; Muguruma, Kazuya; Ohira, Masaichi; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for cancer progression, metastasis, and recurrence. To date, the specific markers of CSCs remain undiscovered. The aim of this study was to identify novel biomarkers of gastric CSCs for clinical diagnosis using proteomics technology. CSC-like SP cells, OCUM-12/SP cells, OCUM-2MD3/SP cells, and their parent OCUM-12 cells and OCUM-2MD3 cells were used in this study. Protein lysates from each cell line were analyzed using QSTAR Elite Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry, coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation technology. Candidate proteins detected by proteomics technology were validated by immunohistochemical analysis of 300 gastric cancers. Based on the results of LC-MS/MS, eight proteins, including RBBP6, GLG1, VPS13A, DCTPP1, HSPA9, HSPA4, ALDOA, and KRT18, were up-regulated in both OCUM-12/SP cells and OCUM-2MD3/SP cells when compared to their corresponding parent cells. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the expression level of RBBP6, HSPA4, DCTPP1, HSPA9, VPS13A, ALDOA, GLG1, and CK18 was high in OCUM-12/SP and OCUM-2MD3/SP, in compared with the control of parent OCUM-12 and OCUM-2MD3. These proteins were significantly associated with advanced invasion depth, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, or advanced clinical stage. RBBP6, DCTPP1, HSPA4, and ALDOA expression in particular were significantly associated with a poor prognosis in the 300 gastric cancer patients. RBBP6 was determined to be an independent prognostic factor. The motility-stimulating ability of OCUM-12/SP cells and OCUM-2MD3/SP cells was inhibited by RBBP6 siRNA. These findings might suggest that the eight proteins, RBBP6, GLG1, VPS13A, DCTPP1, HSPA9, HSPA4, ALDOA, and KRT18, utilizing comparative proteomics analysis, were perceived to be potential CSC markers of gastric cancer. Of the eight candidate proteins, RBBP6 was suggested to be a promising prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target for gastric cancer. PMID:25379943

  13. Effect of Coffee Consumption on the Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haibin; Hua, Ying; Zheng, Xiangyun; Shen, Zhaojun; Luo, Hui; Tao, Xuejiao; Wang, Zhiyi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Results from observational epidemiologic studies on the relationship between coffee consumption and gastric cancer are inconsistent and inconclusive. To assess the association between coffee consumption and the risk of gastric cancer, we summarized evidence from prospective cohort studies. Methods Relevant studies were retrieved through computer searches (PubMed, EmBase and the Cochrane Library) and a review of references up to December 2014. The quality of the included studies was evaluated by Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale. We used a meta-analytic approach to estimate overall hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for regular coffee drinkers versus individuals who seldom drank coffee. Sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis were performed to assess the reliability of our results. A dose–response analysis was performed to assess the risk of gastric cancer based on the level of coffee consumption. Results Nine prospective cohort studies involving 1,250,825 participants and 3027 gastric cancer cases were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled HR of gastric cancer for the study-specific regularly versus seldom coffee drinking categories was 1.05 (95% CI, 0.88 to 1.25) with significant heterogeneity across studies (I2 = 74.0%, P = 0.000). After the sensitivity analysis, three studies were deleted; however the association remained insignificant (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.08). Subgroup analysis by anatomic location showed a risk for coffee consumption associated with cardia cancer (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.45; heterogeneity, I2 = 36.4, P = 0.207). In the dose–response analysis, there was no significant association between coffee intake (in cups) and the risk of gastric cancer (P for linearity trend and non-linearity > 0.05). Conclusion Our meta-analysis demonstrated that coffee consumption was not associated with overall gastric cancer risk; however, coffee consumption may be a risk factor for gastric cardia cancer. PMID:26023935

  14. Generating a focused view of disease ontology cancer terms for pan-cancer data integration and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tsung-Jung; Schriml, Lynn M.; Chen, Qing-Rong; Colbert, Maureen; Crichton, Daniel J.; Finney, Richard; Hu, Ying; Kibbe, Warren A.; Kincaid, Heather; Meerzaman, Daoud; Mitraka, Elvira; Pan, Yang; Smith, Krista M.; Srivastava, Sudhir; Ward, Sari; Yan, Cheng; Mazumder, Raja

    2015-01-01

    Bio-ontologies provide terminologies for the scientific community to describe biomedical entities in a standardized manner. There are multiple initiatives that are developing biomedical terminologies for the purpose of providing better annotation, data integration and mining capabilities. Terminology resources devised for multiple purposes inherently diverge in content and structure. A major issue of biomedical data integration is the development of overlapping terms, ambiguous classifications and inconsistencies represented across databases and publications. The disease ontology (DO) was developed over the past decade to address data integration, standardization and annotation issues for human disease data. We have established a DO cancer project to be a focused view of cancer terms within the DO. The DO cancer project mapped 386 cancer terms from the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC), The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), International Cancer Genome Consortium, Therapeutically Applicable Research to Generate Effective Treatments, Integrative Oncogenomics and the Early Detection Research Network into a cohesive set of 187 DO terms represented by 63 top-level DO cancer terms. For example, the COSMIC term ‘kidney, NS, carcinoma, clear_cell_renal_cell_carcinoma’ and TCGA term ‘Kidney renal clear cell carcinoma’ were both grouped to the term ‘Disease Ontology Identification (DOID):4467 / renal clear cell carcinoma’ which was mapped to the TopNodes_DOcancerslim term ‘DOID:263 / kidney cancer’. Mapping of diverse cancer terms to DO and the use of top level terms (DO slims) will enable pan-cancer analysis across datasets generated from any of the cancer term sources where pan-cancer means including or relating to all or multiple types of cancer. The terms can be browsed from the DO web site (http://www.disease-ontology.org) and downloaded from the DO’s Apache Subversion or GitHub repositories. Database URL: http://www.disease-ontology.org PMID:25841438

  15. Generating a focused view of disease ontology cancer terms for pan-cancer data integration and analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tsung-Jung; Schriml, Lynn M; Chen, Qing-Rong; Colbert, Maureen; Crichton, Daniel J; Finney, Richard; Hu, Ying; Kibbe, Warren A; Kincaid, Heather; Meerzaman, Daoud; Mitraka, Elvira; Pan, Yang; Smith, Krista M; Srivastava, Sudhir; Ward, Sari; Yan, Cheng; Mazumder, Raja

    2015-01-01

    Bio-ontologies provide terminologies for the scientific community to describe biomedical entities in a standardized manner. There are multiple initiatives that are developing biomedical terminologies for the purpose of providing better annotation, data integration and mining capabilities. Terminology resources devised for multiple purposes inherently diverge in content and structure. A major issue of biomedical data integration is the development of overlapping terms, ambiguous classifications and inconsistencies represented across databases and publications. The disease ontology (DO) was developed over the past decade to address data integration, standardization and annotation issues for human disease data. We have established a DO cancer project to be a focused view of cancer terms within the DO. The DO cancer project mapped 386 cancer terms from the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC), The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), International Cancer Genome Consortium, Therapeutically Applicable Research to Generate Effective Treatments, Integrative Oncogenomics and the Early Detection Research Network into a cohesive set of 187 DO terms represented by 63 top-level DO cancer terms. For example, the COSMIC term 'kidney, NS, carcinoma, clear_cell_renal_cell_carcinoma' and TCGA term 'Kidney renal clear cell carcinoma' were both grouped to the term 'Disease Ontology Identification (DOID):4467 / renal clear cell carcinoma' which was mapped to the TopNodes_DOcancerslim term 'DOID:263 / kidney cancer'. Mapping of diverse cancer terms to DO and the use of top level terms (DO slims) will enable pan-cancer analysis across datasets generated from any of the cancer term sources where pan-cancer means including or relating to all or multiple types of cancer. The terms can be browsed from the DO web site (http://www.disease-ontology.org) and downloaded from the DO's Apache Subversion or GitHub repositories. Database URL: http://www.disease-ontology.org PMID:25841438

  16. XPC gene polymorphisms contribute to bladder cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qiang-Sheng; Hua, Rui-Xi; Zeng, Rui-Fang; Long, Jian-Ting; Peng, Zhen-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the association between three polymorphisms (Lys939Gln, Ala499Val and PAT-/+) of Xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) gene and bladder cancer susceptibility; however, the findings are inconclusive. In order to acquire a more precise estimation of the relationship, we performed a meta-analysis based on 10 studies including 3,934 cases and 4,269 controls for Lys939Gln, five studies including 2,113 cases and 2,249 controls for Ala499Val, and seven studies including 2,834 cases and 3,048 controls for PAT-/+ polymorphism. We searched publications from EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Chinese Biomedical. We calculated pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by using either fixed-effects or random-effects model according to the between-study heterogeneity. We found that all studied polymorphisms were individually associated with increased overall cancer risks, as shown by ORs (95% CIs) below: the Lys939Gln (Gln/Gln vs. Lys/Lys: OR?=?1.39, 95% CI?=?1.08-1.79; recessive model: OR?=?1.42, 95% CI?=?1.11-1.83; and allele comparing: OR?=?1.12, 95% CI?=?1.003-1.24), the Ala499Val (Val/Val vs. Ala/Ala: OR?=?1.82, 95% CI?=?1.19-2.79; recessive model: OR?=?1.70, 95% CI?=?1.18-2.46; and allele comparing: OR?=?1.23, 95% CI?=?1.01-1.50), and the PAT-/+ (+/+ vs. -/-: OR?=?1.36, 95% CI?=?1.03-1.79 and recessive model: OR?=?1.34, 95% CI?=?1.06-1.70). Furthermore, stratification analyses demonstrated an increased risk for Asian populations as to the Lys939Gln and PAT-/+ whereas for Caucasian populations as to the Ala499Val polymorphism in the homozygous and recessive models. Despite some limitations, this meta-analysis suggests that XPC polymorphisms are associated with bladder cancer risk, but this association warrants further validation in well-designed studies with large sample sizes. PMID:23918308

  17. Association between BRIP1 (BACH1) polymorphisms and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pabalan, Noel; Jarjanazi, Hamdi; Ozcelik, Hilmi

    2013-01-01

    Inconsistency of reported associations between the Pro919Ser polymorphism in the BRCA1 interacting protein 1 (BRIP1) gene and breast cancer prompted us to undertake a meta-analysis. Although investigated by fewer studies, we have also studied the risk associated with the two additional BRIP1 polymorphisms, C47G and G64A, and breast cancer riskWe conducted searches of the published literature in MEDLINE through PubMed up to October 2012. Individual data on 5,122 cases and 5,735 controls from eight published case-control studies were evaluated for the Pro919Ser polymorphism. Accordingly, C47G and G64A polymorphisms were studied in 1,539 cases and 1,183 controls, and 667 and 782, respectively.In the overall analysis, association was lacking between the Pro919Ser polymorphism and breast cancer risk (odds ratio [OR] 0.98-1.02), materially unchanged when confined to subjects of European ancestry (OR 0.96-1.03) or even in the high-powered studies (OR 0.97-1.03). In the menopausal subgroups, premenopausal women followed the null pattern (OR 0.94-0.98) for the Pro and Ser allele contrasts, but not for the Pro-Ser genotype comparison where significant increased risk was observed (OR 1.39, P = 0.002). The postmenopausal women (>50 years) exhibited a range of pooled effects from protection (OR 0.83, P = 0.11) in the Pro-Ser genotype to slightly increased risk (OR 1.12-1.16, P = 0.28-0.42) in the Pro and Ser allele comparisons. The G64A polymorphism effects were essentially null (OR 0.90-0.98), but C47G was found to confer non-significantly increased risk under all genetic models (OR 1.27-1.40).Upon conclusion, overall summary estimates imply no associations but suggest susceptibility among carriers of the C47G polymorphism and Pro-Ser genotype in premenopausal women. The premenopausal findings and variable outcomes in postmenopausal women require more studies for confirmation. PMID:23225146

  18. A Meta-Analysis of Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Advanced Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Ye, Lin; Yao, Gui-Ying; Liu, Cui; Sun, Niu-Niu; Li, Xiao-Jing; Zhai, Shi-Cong; Niu, Ling-Juan; Zhang, Jun-Bo; Ji, Hong-Long; Li, Xiu-Min

    2015-01-01

    Background Concurrent chemoradiotherapy is a standard treatment for local advanced esophageal cancer, but the outcomes are controversial. Our goals were to compare the therapeutic effects of concurrent chemoradiotherapy and radiotherapy alone in local advanced esophageal cancer using meta-analysis. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane library were searched for studies comparing chemoradiotherapy with radiotherapy alone for advanced esophageal cancer. Only randomized controlled trials were included, and extracted data were analyzed with Review Manager Version 5.2. The pooled relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for statistical analysis. Results Nine studies were included. Of 1,135 cases, 612 received concurrent chemoradiotherapy and 523 were treated with radiotherapy alone. The overall response rate (complete remission and partial remission) was 93.4% for concurrent chemoradiotherapy and 83.7% for radiotherapy alone (P = 0.05). The RR values of 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year survival rates were 1.14 (95% CI: 1.04 - 1.24, P = 0.006), 1.66 (95% CI: 1.34 - 2.06, P < 0.001), and 2.43 (95% CI: 1.63 - 3.63, P < 0.001), respectively. The RR value of the merged occurrence rate of acute toxic effects was 2.34 (95% CI: 1.90 - 2.90, P <0.001). There was no difference in the incidence of late toxic effects, which had an RR value of 1.21 (95% CI: 0.96 - 1.54, P = 0.11). The RR level of persistence and recurrence was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.62 - 0.81, P <0.001), and for the distant metastasis rate, the RR value was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.61 - 1.02, P = 0.07). Conclusions Concurrent chemoradiotherapy significantly improved overall survival rate, reduced the risk of persistence and recurrence, but had little effect on the primary tumor response, and increased the occurrence of acute toxic effects. PMID:26046353

  19. An Examination of Male and Female Odds Ratios by BMI, Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Consumption for Cancers of the Oral Cavity, Pharynx and Larynx in Pooled Data from 15 Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lubin, Jay H.; Muscat, Joshua; Gaudet, Mia M.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Curado, Maria Paula; Maso, Luigino Dal; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Sturgis, Erich M.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Castellsague, Xavier; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Smith, Elaine; Fernandez, Leticia; Matos, Elena; Franceschi, Silvia; Fabianova, Eleonora; Rudnai, Peter; Purdue, Mark P; Mates, Dana; Wei, Qingyi; Herrero, Rolando; Kelsey, Karl; Morgenstern, Hal; Shangina, Oxana; Koifman, Sergio; Lissowska, Jolanta; Levi, Fabio; Daudt, Alexander W.; Neto, Jose Eluf; Chen, Chu; Lazarus, Philip; Winn, Deborah M.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Menezes, Ana; La Vecchia, Carlo; McClean, Michael; Talamini, Renato; Rajkumar, Thangarajan; Hayes, Richard B.; Hashibe, Mia

    2012-01-01

    Background Greater tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption and lower body mass index (BMI) increase odds ratios (OR) for oral cavity, oropharyngeal, hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers; however, there are no comprehensive sex-specific comparisons of ORs for these factors. Methods We analyzed 2,441 oral cavity (925 females and 1,516 males), 2,297 oropharynx (564 females and 1,733 males), 508 hypopharynx (96 females and 412 males) and 1,740 larynx (237 females and 1,503 males) cases from the INHANCE consortium of 15 head and neck cancer case-control studies. Controls numbered from 7,604 to 13,829 subjects, depending on analysis. Analyses fitted linear-exponential excess ORs models. Results ORs were increased in underweight (<18.5 BMI) relative to overweight and obese categories (?25 BMI) for all sites and were homogeneous by sex. ORs by smoking and drinking in females compared to males were significantly greater for oropharyngeal cancer (p<0.01 for both factors), suggestive for hypopharyngeal cancer (p=0.05 and p=0.06, respectively), but homogeneous for oral cavity (p=0.56 and p=0.64) and laryngeal (p=0.18 and p=0.72) cancers. Conclusions The extent that OR modifications of smoking and drinking by sex for oropharyngeal and, possibly, hypopharyngeal cancers represent true associations, or derive from unmeasured confounders or unobserved sex-related disease subtypes (e.g., human papillomavirus positive oropharyngeal cancer) remains to be clarified. PMID:21744095

  20. Diagnostic value of interleukin-8 in colorectal cancer: A case-control study and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Wen-Jun; Xu, Jin-Ming; Xu, Wen-Li; Gu, Dong-Hua; Li, Pei-Wei

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the diagnostic value of serum interleukin-8 (IL-8) in the detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: An original study was conducted to explore the potential value of IL-8 in CRC diagnosis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed and the area under the curve (AUC) value was calculated. PUBMED and EMBASE were searched (to October, 2013), supplemented with manual screening for relevant publications. Meta-analysis methods were applied to pool sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and diagnostic odds ratios and to construct a summary receiver-operating characteristic (sROC) curve. Heterogeneity across studies was checked by the I2 test and Deek’s funnel plot method was applied to test publication bias. RESULTS: In our original study, serum IL-8 yielded an AUC of 0.742 [95%CI: 0.635-0.849]. The sensitivity and specificity were 85.42% and 54.05%, respectively, at a cut-off value of 5.39. In this meta-analysis, we included five studies with 668 CRC patients and 374 controls and one study in our own center with 48 CRC patients and 37 controls. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of IL-8 were 0.69 (95%CI: 0.42-0.87) and 0.85 (95%CI: 0.68-0.94) for CRC detection. Besides, the area under the sROC curve was 0.86 (95%CI: 0.82-0.88). Subgroup analysis suggested that there was no heterogeneity in the Asian subgroup but some in the European subgroup. In addition, no publication bias was found according to the Deek’s funnel plot asymmetry test. CONCLUSION: Serum IL-8 is a promising biomarker for CRC detection and may become a clinically useful tool to identify high-risk patients. PMID:25473192

  1. Efficacy and safety of the six-dose regimen of artemether–lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in adolescents and adults: A pooled analysis of individual patient data from randomized clinical trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edgar A. Mueller; Michele van Vugt; Wilhelm Kirch; Kim Andriano; Philip Hunt; Patricia Ibarra de Palacios

    2006-01-01

    To demonstrate the superiority of the six-dose over the four-dose regimen of artemether–lumefantrine (co-artemether, Coartem®) in patients >12 years, data from 11 randomized clinical trials were pooled and analyzed. A total of 1368 patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria (six-dose: 598; four-dose: 770) were included in the analysis, together with 717 patients treated with comparators. Analysis of the 28-day cure

  2. Comprehensive analysis of targetable oncogenic mutations in chinese cervical cancers

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Libing; Li, Jiajia; Jiang, Wei; Shen, Xuxia; Yang, Wentao; Wu, Xiaohua; Yang, Huijuan

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in 16 targetable oncogenic genes were examined using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and direct sequencing in 285 Chinese cervical cancers. Their clinicopathological relevance and prognostic significance was assessed. Ninety-two nonsynonymous somatic mutations were identified in 29.8% of the cancers. The mutation rates were as follows: PIK3CA (12.3%), KRAS (5.3%), HER2 (4.2%), FGFR3-TACC3 fusions (3.9%), PTEN (2.8%), FGFR2 (1.8%), FGFR3 (0.7%), NRAS (0.7%), HRAS (0.4%) and EGFR (0.4%). No mutations were detected in AKT1 or BRAF, and the fusions FGFR1-TACC1, EML4-ALK, CCDC6-RET and KIF5B-RET were not found in any of the cancers. RTK and RAS mutations were more common in non-squamous carcinomas than in squamous carcinomas (P=0.043 and P=0.042, respectively). RAS mutations were more common in young patients (<45 years) (13.7% vs. 7.7%, P=0.027). RTK mutations tended to be more common in young patients, whereas PIK3CA/PTEN/AKT mutations tended to be more common in old patients. RAS mutations were significantly associated with disease relapse. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of major targetable oncogenic mutations in a large cohort of cervical cancer cases. Our data reveal that a considerable proportion of patients with cervical cancers harbor known druggable mutations and might benefit from targeted therapy. PMID:25669975

  3. Comprehensive analysis of targetable oncogenic mutations in chinese cervical cancers.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Libing; Li, Jiajia; Jiang, Wei; Shen, Xuxia; Yang, Wentao; Wu, Xiaohua; Yang, Huijuan

    2015-03-10

    Mutations in 16 targetable oncogenic genes were examined using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and direct sequencing in 285 Chinese cervical cancers. Their clinicopathological relevance and prognostic significance was assessed. Ninety-two nonsynonymous somatic mutations were identified in 29.8% of the cancers. The mutation rates were as follows: PIK3CA (12.3%), KRAS (5.3%), HER2 (4.2%), FGFR3-TACC3 fusions (3.9%), PTEN (2.8%), FGFR2 (1.8%), FGFR3 (0.7%), NRAS (0.7%), HRAS (0.4%) and EGFR (0.4%). No mutations were detected in AKT1 or BRAF, and the fusions FGFR1-TACC1, EML4-ALK, CCDC6-RET and KIF5B-RET were not found in any of the cancers. RTK and RAS mutations were more common in non-squamous carcinomas than in squamous carcinomas (P=0.043 and P=0.042, respectively). RAS mutations were more common in young patients (<45 years) (13.7% vs. 7.7%, P=0.027). RTK mutations tended to be more common in young patients, whereas PIK3CA/PTEN/AKT mutations tended to be more common in old patients. RAS mutations were significantly associated with disease relapse. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of major targetable oncogenic mutations in a large cohort of cervical cancer cases. Our data reveal that a considerable proportion of patients with cervical cancers harbor known druggable mutations and might benefit from targeted therapy. PMID:25669975

  4. The impact of the Oncotype Dx breast cancer assay in clinical practice: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Josh J.; Roth, Joshua A.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the Oncotype Dx (ODX) breast cancer assay on adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) treatment decisions has been evaluated in many previous studies. However, it can be difficult to interpret the collective findings, which were conducted in diverse settings with limited sample sizes. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to synthesize the results and provide insights about ODX utility. Studies, identified from PubMed, Embase, ASCO, and SABCS, were included if patients had ER+, node –, early-stage breast cancer, reported use of ODX to inform actual ACT decisions. Information was summarized and pooled according to: (1) distribution of ODX recurrence scores (RS), (2) impact of ODX on ACT recommendations, (3) impact of ODX on ACT use, and (4) proportion of patients following the treatment suggested by the ODX RS. A total of 23 studies met inclusion criteria. The distribution of RS categories was 48.8 % low, 39.0 % intermediate, and 12.2 % high (21 studies, 4,156 patients). ODX changed the clinical-pathological ACT recommendation in 33.4 % of patients (8 studies, 1,437 patients). In patients receiving ODX, receipt of ACT were: 28.2 % overall, 5.8 % low, 37.4 % intermediate, and 83.4 % high. High RS patients were significantly more likely to follow the treatment suggested by ODX versus low RS patients RR: 1.07 (1.01–1.14). The pooled results are consistent with most individual studies to date. The increased proportion of intermediate scores relative to original estimates may have implications for the clinical utility and cost impacts of testing. In addition, low versus high RS patients were significantly more likely to follow the ODX results, suggesting a tendency toward less aggressive treatment, despite a high ODX RS. Finally, there was a lack of studies on the impact of ODX on ACT use versus standard approaches, suggesting that additional studies are warranted. PMID:23974828

  5. Analysis of DNA methylation in pancreatic cancer: an update.

    PubMed

    Pilarsky, Christian; Grützmann, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive tumor and the fourth common cause of cancer death in the Western world. The lack of effective therapeutic strategies is due to the late diagnosis of this disease. Methylation markers could improve early detection and help in the surveillance of PDAC after treatment. Analysis of hypermethylation in the tumor tissue might help to identify new therapeutic strategies and aid in the understanding of the pathophysiological changes occurring in pancreatic cancer. There are several methods for the detection of methylated events, but methylation-specific PCR (MSP-PCR) is the method of choice if a small number of genes will be tested in a larger set of patients samples. After isolation of the DNA by standard procedure, the DNA is then modified using sodium bisulfide. PMID:25421660

  6. Automated analysis of clonal cancer cells by intravital imaging

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Sarah Earley; Giedt, Randy J; Weissleder, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal analyses of single cell lineages over prolonged periods have been challenging particularly in processes characterized by high cell turn-over such as inflammation, proliferation, or cancer. RGB marking has emerged as an elegant approach for enabling such investigations. However, methods for automated image analysis continue to be lacking. Here, to address this, we created a number of different multicolored poly- and monoclonal cancer cell lines for in vitro and in vivo use. To classify these cells in large scale data sets, we subsequently developed and tested an automated algorithm based on hue selection. Our results showed that this method allows accurate analyses at a fraction of the computational time required by more complex color classification methods. Moreover, the methodology should be broadly applicable to both in vitro and in vivo analyses. PMID:24349895

  7. Cancer risk in families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer diagnosed by mutation analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HF Vasen; JT Wijnen; FH Menko; JH Kleibeuker; BG Taal; G Griffioen; FM Nagengast; EH Meijers-Heijboer; L Bertario; L Varesco; ML Bisgaard; J Mohr; R Fodde; PM Khan

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is characterized by early-onset colorectal cancer and the occurrence of various other cancers. The recent isolation of four mismatch repair genes responsible for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer allows for the identification of carriers within affected families. The purpose of this study was to assess the age-specific cancer risk in a large series of

  8. Rural factors and survival from cancer: analysis of Scottish cancer registrations

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, N C; Elliott, A M; Sharp, L; Ritchie, L D; Cassidy, J; Little, J

    2000-01-01

    In this survival study 63 976 patients diagnosed with one of six common cancers in Scotland were followed up. Increasing distance from a cancer centre was associated with less chance of diagnosis before death for stomach, breast and colorectal cancers and poorer survival after diagnosis for prostate and lung cancers. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10839303

  9. Promoter methylation and polymorphism of E-cadherin gene may confer a risk to prostate cancer: a meta-analysis based on 22 studies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zheng; Zhou, Hongbing; Liu, Yi

    2014-10-01

    Emerging evidence has suggested that -160C/A polymorphism and promoter methylation of E-cadherin gene may contribute to the risk of prostate cancer. However, the results are still conflicting. We aim to systematically evaluate the potential of promoter methylation and polymorphism in E-cadherin gene to confer a risk to prostate cancer through meta-analysis. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were searched to identify eligible studies published before April 1, 2014. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with their 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were calculated by using the random-effect model or the fixed-effect model, according to heterogeneity test. Subgroup analyses were also performed to explore the potential sources of heterogeneity. Sensitivity and publication bias analyses were used to test the robustness of our results. We performed a meta-analysis of 22 included studies, with 11 on -160C/A polymorphism and another 11 on promoter methylation of E-cadherin gene. Our meta-analysis results suggested that E-cadherin -160C/A polymorphism may be a potential risk factor for prostate cancer. Furthermore, we observed that the frequencies of promoter methylation of E-cadherin gene in the prostate cancer tissues were significantly higher than those of normal tissues, indicating that promoter methylation of E-cadherin gene may play an important role in prostate carcinogenesis. In conclusion, the present meta-analysis provides further evidence that promoter methylation and -160C/A polymorphism of E-cadherin gene may confer a risk to prostate cancer. Identifying these risk factors for prostate cancer will improve early detection, allow for selective chemoprevention, and provide further insights into its disease mechanisms. PMID:25056535

  10. Development of an UPLC mass spectrometry method for measurement of myofibrillar protein synthesis: application to analysis of murine muscles during cancer cachexia

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Maria; Sato, Shuichi; Enos, Reilly T.; Baynes, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Cachexia, characterized by skeletal muscle mass loss, is a major contributory factor to patient morbidity and mortality during cancer. However, there are no reports on the rate of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) in skeletal muscles that vary in primary metabolic phenotype during cachexia, in large part because of the small-size muscles and regional differences in larger muscles in the mouse. Here, we describe a sensitive method for measurement of MPS and its application to analysis of MPS in specific muscles of mice with (ApcMin/+) and without (C57BL/6) cancer cachexia. Mice were injected with a loading dose of deuterated phenylalanine (D5F), and myofibrillar proteins were extracted from skeletal muscles at 30 min. The relative concentrations of D5F and naturally occurring phenylalanine (F) in the myofibrillar proteins and the amino acid pool were quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatograph (UPLC) mass spectrometry (MS). The rate of MPS was determined from D5F-to-F ratio in the protein fraction compared with the amino acid pool. The rate of MPS, measured in 2–5 mg of muscle protein, was reduced by up to 65% with cachexia in the soleus, plantaris, diaphragm, and oxidative and glycolytic regions of the gastrocnemius. The rate of MPS was significantly higher in the oxidative vs. glycolytic gastrocnemius muscle. A sufficiently sensitive UPLC MS method requiring a very small amount of muscle has been developed to measure the rate of MPS in various mouse muscles. This method should be useful for studies in other animal models for quantifying effects of cancer and anti-cancer therapies on protein synthesis in cachexia, and particularly for analysis of sequential muscle biopsies in a wide range of animal and human studies. PMID:23329823

  11. Diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted MRI for detection of pelvic metastatic lymph nodes in patients with cervical cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, G; Zhou, H; Jia, Z; Deng, H

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI has emerged as a new technique for detecting the pelvic lymph metastases in patients with cervical cancer. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the diagnostic value of DW imaging (DWI) for benign/malignant discrimination of pelvic lymph nodes (LNs). Studies about DWI for the detection of metastatic LNs were searched in the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, EBSCO, the Cochrane Library and three Chinese databases. Based on the extracted data, we determined pooled sensitivities, specificities and diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) across studies, calculated positive and negative likelihood ratios (LRs) and constructed summary receiver operating characteristic curves with area under the curve (AUC) and Q* obtained. We also analysed the heterogeneity between studies based on subgroup analysis, threshold effect and publication bias. In total, 15 studies involving 1021 patients met the inclusion criteria. The pooled sensitivity, specificity and DOR of DWI were 0.86 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.84-0.89], 0.84 (95% CI, 0.83-0.86) and 47.21 (95% CI, 25.67-86.81), respectively. LR syntheses yielded overall positive LR of 6.55 (95% CI, 4.77-9.01) and negative LR of 0.17 (95% CI, 0.12-0.23). The AUC and Q* index were 0.9384 and 0.8754, respectively. The heterogeneity was relatively high between studies; however, there was no evidence for threshold effect and publication bias. DWI is beneficial in the pelvic nodal assessment in patients with cervical cancer. Large-scale, high-quality trials with standard protocols are required to evaluate its clinical value for discrimination of metastatic from non-metastatic pelvic LNs in patients with cervical cancer. Advances in knowledge include providing evidence to assess the role of DWI in nodal staging of cervical cancer. PMID:26111112

  12. Disentangling pooled triad genotypes for association studies.

    PubMed

    Shi, Min; Umbach, David M; Weinberg, Clarice R

    2014-09-01

    Association studies that genotype affected offspring and their parents (triads) offer robustness to genetic population structure while enabling assessments of maternal effects, parent-of-origin effects, and gene-by-environment interaction. We propose case-parents designs that use pooled DNA specimens to make economical use of limited available specimens. One can markedly reduce the number of genotyping assays required by randomly partitioning the case-parent triads into pooling sets of h triads each and creating three pools from every pooling set, one pool each for mothers, fathers, and offspring. Maximum-likelihood estimation of relative risk parameters proceeds via log-linear modeling using the expectation-maximization algorithm. The approach can assess offspring and maternal genetic effects and accommodate genotyping errors and missing genotypes. We compare the power of our proposed analysis for testing offspring and maternal genetic effects to that based on a difference approach and that of the gold standard based on individual genotypes, under a range of allele frequencies, missing parent proportions, and genotyping error rates. Power calculations show that the pooling strategies cause only modest reductions in power if genotyping errors are low, while reducing genotyping costs and conserving limited specimens. PMID:24962618

  13. The analysis of microRNA-34 family expression in human cancer studies comparing cancer tissues with corresponding pericarcinous tissues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liguang; Yu, Jianyu; Xu, Jun; Zheng, Chunlong; Li, Xiaowei; Du, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Recently many studies have focused on the microRNA-34 (miR-34) family expression in various cancers; nevertheless, the controversial results of these studies still exist in identifying miR-34 members as new biomarkers of cancers. Therefore, we carried out this comprehensive meta-analysis of published studies that compared the miR-34 family expression profiles between cancer tissues and paired neighboring noncancerous tissues to systemically evaluate the findings globally and address the inconsistencies of pertinent literatures. The data included in this article were collected from Embase, PubMed and Web of Science up to December 2013. To overcome the difficulties that many raw data were unavailable and study methods were different, a vote-counting strategy was adopted to identify consistent markers in our analysis. Ultimately, a total of 23 cancers were reported in the 61 eligible studies, of which 46 studies provided fold-change value information. In the consistently reported cancer types, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), glioma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) ranked at the top with down-regulated feature. Cervical neoplasm was consistently reported to be over-expressed in the panel of each member of miR-34s. Subgroup analysis of miR-34 family expression demonstrated that colorectal cancer (CRC), gastric cancer (GC), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and prostate cancer (PCa) were most frequently reported with inconsistent regulations. Our meta-analysis showed that miR-34 family members could be expected to become potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in some types of human cancers. Further well-designed and larger sample studies are surely warranted to identify the role of the miR-34 family in the occurrence and development of tumors. PMID:25452192

  14. Analysis of a Partial Male-Sterile Mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana Isolated from a Low-Energy Argon Ion Beam Mutagenized Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Min; Bian, Po; Wu, Yuejin; Yu, Zengliang

    2008-04-01

    A screen for Arabidopsis fertility mutants, mutagenized by low-energy argon ion beam, yielded two partial male-sterile mutants tc243-1 and tc243-2 which have similar phenotypes. tc243-2 was investigated in detail. The segregation ratio of the mutant phenotypes in the M2 pools suggested that mutation behaved as single Mendelian recessive mutations. tc243 showed a series of mutant phenotypes, among which partial male-sterile was its striking mutant characteristic. Phenotype analysis indicates that there are four factors leading to male sterility. a. Floral organs normally develop inside the closed bud, but the anther filaments do not elongate sufficiently to position the locules above the stigma at anthesis. b. The anther locules do not dehisce at the time of flower opening (although limited dehiscence occurs later). c. Pollens of mutant plants develop into several types of pollens at the trinucleated stage, as determined by staining with DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole), which shows a variable size, shape and number of nucleus. d. The viability of pollens is lower than that of the wild type on the germination test in vivo and vitro.

  15. How to map your industry's profit pool.

    PubMed

    Gadiesh, O; Gilbert, J L

    1998-01-01

    Many managers chart strategy without a full understanding of the sources and distribution of profits in their industry. Sometimes they focus their sights on revenues instead of profits, mistakenly assuming that revenue growth will eventually translate into profit growth. In other cases, they simply lack the data or the analytical tools required to isolate and measure variations in profitability. In this Manager's Tool Kit, the authors present a way to think clearly about where the money's being made in any industry. They describe a framework for analyzing how profits are distributed among the activities that form an industry's value chain. Such an analysis can provide a company's managers with a rich understanding of their industry's profit structure--what the authors call its profit pool--enabling them to identify which activities are generating disproportionately large or small shares of profits. Even more important, a profit-pool map opens a window onto the underlying structure of the industry, helping managers see the various forces that are determining the distribution of profits. As such, a profit-pool map provides a solid basis for strategic thinking. Mapping a profit pool involves four steps: defining the boundaries of the pool, estimating the pool's overall size, estimating the size of each value-chain activity in the pool, and checking and reconciling the calculations. The authors briefly describe each step and then apply the process by providing a detailed example of a hypothetical retail bank. They conclude by looking at ways of organizing the data in chart form as a first step toward plotting a profit-pool strategy. PMID:10179650

  16. Glycerol Phenylbutyrate Treatment in Children with Urea Cycle Disorders: Pooled Analysis of Short and Long-term Ammonia Control and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Susan A.; Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Diaz, George A.; McCandless, Shawn E.; Rhead, William; Smith, Wendy; LeMons, Cynthia; Nagamani, Sandesh C.S.; Coakley, Dion F.; Mokhtarani, Masoud; Scharschmidt, Bruce F.; Lee, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) in the treatment of pediatric patients with urea cycle disorders (UCDs). Study Design UCD patients (n=26) ages 2 months through 17 years were treated with GPB and sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPBA) in two short-term, open-label crossover studies, which compared 24-hour ammonia exposure (AUC0–24) and glutamine levels during equivalent steady-state dosing of GPB and sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPBA). These 26 patients plus an additional 23 patients also received GPB in one of three 12-month, open label extension studies, which assessed long-term ammonia control, hyperammonemic (HA) crises, amino acids levels, and patient growth. Results Mean ammonia exposure on GPB was non-inferior to NaPBA in each of the individual crossover studies. In the pooled analyses, it was significantly lower on GPB vs. NaPBA (mean [SD] AUC0–24: 627 [302] vs. 872 [516] µmol/L; p=0.008) with significantly fewer abnormal values (15% on GPB vs. 35% on NaPBA; p = 0.02). Mean ammonia levels remained within the normal range during 12 months of GPB dosing and, when compared with the 12 months preceding enrollment, a smaller percentage of patients (24.5% vs. 42.9%) experienced fewer (17 vs. 38) HA crises. Glutamine levels tended to be lower with GPB than with NaPBA during short-term dosing (mean [SD]: 660.8 [164.4] vs. 710.0 [158.7] µmol/L; p=0.114) and mean glutamine and branched chain amino acids levels, as well as other essential amino acids, remained within the normal range during 12 months of GPB dosing. Mean height and weight Z-scores were within normal range at baseline and did not change significantly during 12 months of GPB treatment. Conclusions Dosing with GPB was associated with 24-hour ammonia exposure that was non-inferior to that during dosing with NaPBA in individual studies and significantly lower in the pooled analysis. Long-term GPB dosing was associated with normal levels of glutamine and essential amino acids, including branched chain amino acids, age-appropriate growth and fewer HA crises as compared with the 12 month period preceding enrollment. PMID:24630270

  17. The Prognostic Role of mTOR and P-mTOR for Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Liu, Dan; Qiu, Zhi-Xin; Zhao, Shuang; Zhang, Li; Li, Wei-Min

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR) are potential prognostic markers and therapeutic targets for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the association between mTOR/p-mTOR expression and NSCLC patients’ prognosis remains controversial. Thus, a meta-analysis of existing studies evaluating the prognostic role of mTOR/p-mTOR expression for NSCLC was conducted. Materials and Methods A systemically literature search was performed via Pubmed, Embase, Medline as well as CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure). Studies were included that reported the hazard ratio (HR) and 95%CI for the association between mTOR/p-mTOR expression and NSCLC patients’ survival. Random-effects model was used to pool HRs. Results Ten eligible studies were included in this meta-analysis, with 4 about m-TOR and 7 about p-mTOR. For mTOR, the pooled HR of overall survival (OS) was 1.00 (95%CI 0.5 to 1.99) by univariate analysis and 1.22 (95%CI 0.53 to 2.82) by multivariate analysis. For p-mTOR, the pooled HR was 1.39 (95%CI 0.97 to 1.98) by univariate analysis and 1.42 (95%CI 0.56 to 3.60) by multivariate analysis. Conclusion The results indicated that no statistically significant association was found between mTOR/p-mTOR expression and NSCLC patients’ prognosis. PMID:25680114

  18. The analysis of the factors effect on coalbed methane pool concentration and high-production -- The North China coalbed methane districts as an example

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shengwei; Zhang Ming; Zhuang Xiaoli

    1997-12-31

    The factors which affect coalbed methane (CBM) pool concentration and high-production based upon the exploration and research of the North China CBM districts are coal facies, coal rank and metamorphic types, structural features, the surrounding rocks and their thickness, and hydrogeological conditions. Coal facies, coal rank and their metamorphic types mainly affect the CBM forming characteristic, while the other factors effect the trap of CBM pool. The interaction of the above factors determines the petrophysics of coal reservoirs and extractability of CBM. The high-production areas where CBM pools develop well in North China CBM districts are sites which have a favorable coordination of the five factors. The poor-production areas where CBM pools are undeveloped in North China are caused by action of one or more unfavorable factors. Therefore the favorable factors coordination is the prerequisite in selecting sites for coalbed methane recovery.

  19. Validation and Advanced Development of Glycan Node Analysis in Lung Cancer Research | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  20. Nanoscale/Molecular analysis of Fecal Colonocytes for Colorectal Cancer Screening | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  1. Voxel-based population analysis for correlating local dose and rectal toxicity in prostate cancer radiotherapy

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Voxel-based population analysis for correlating local dose and rectal toxicity in prostate cancer utilized for predicting toxicity in prostate cancer radiotherapy are based on dose-volume histograms. One and, as such, must be considered during the inverse IMRT planning step. Keywords: Prostate cancer

  2. Flavonoids Intake and Risk of Lung Cancer: A Meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Na-Ping Tang; Bo Zhou; Bin Wang; Rong-Bin Yu; Jing Ma

    2009-01-01

    Objective: A number of studies have evaluated the association between flavonoids intake and lung cancer risk. However, results were inconsistent. To clarify the role of flavonoids in lung cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis on this topic. Methods: Two authors independently searched PubMed and EMBASE for studies regarding the association of flavonoids intake with lung cancer risk. Summary relative risks (RRs)

  3. Adjacent slice prostate cancer prediction to inform MALDI imaging biomarker analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shao-Hui Chuang; Xiaoyan Sun; Lisa Cazares; Julius Nyalwidhe; Dean Troyer; O. John Semmes; Jiang Li; Frederic D. McKenzie

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer among men in US [1]. Traditionally, prostate cancer diagnosis is made by the analysis of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and histopathological images of biopsy samples under microscopes. Proteomic biomarkers can improve upon these methods. MALDI molecular spectra imaging is used to visualize protein\\/peptide concentrations across biopsy samples to search for

  4. Stochastic pooling networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonnell, Mark D.; Amblard, Pierre-Olivier; Stocks, Nigel G.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce and define the concept of a stochastic pooling network (SPN), as a model for sensor systems where redundancy and two forms of 'noise'—lossy compression and randomness—interact in surprising ways. Our approach to analysing SPNs is information theoretic. We define an SPN as a network with multiple nodes that each produce noisy and compressed measurements of the same information. An SPN must combine all these measurements into a single further compressed network output, in a way dictated solely by naturally occurring physical properties—i.e. pooling—and yet cause no (or negligible) reduction in mutual information. This means that SPNs exhibit redundancy reduction as an emergent property of pooling. The SPN concept is applicable to examples in biological neural coding, nanoelectronics, distributed sensor networks, digital beamforming arrays, image processing, multiaccess communication networks and social networks. In most cases the randomness is assumed to be unavoidably present rather than deliberately introduced. We illustrate the central properties of SPNs for several case studies, where pooling occurs by summation, including nodes that are noisy scalar quantizers, and nodes with conditionally Poisson statistics. Other emergent properties of SPNs and some unsolved problems are also briefly discussed.

  5. Cable Pool - Cherryfield

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The USGS monitors the Narraguagus River at Cherryfield, Maine at a location called Cable Pool. This spot was once renowned for Atlantic salmon, where anglers would line the banks, waiting their turn to cast a line into the water. In fact, posts along the river bank to hold the waiting anglers rods e...