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1

Fulvestrant and male breast cancer: a pooled analysis.  

PubMed

Male breast cancer is an uncommon malignancy; little is known regarding hormonal manipulations for tamoxifen-resistant male breast cancer patients. This is the first pooled analysis of the literature to synthesize all available data and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fulvestrant in male breast cancer. This study was performed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. All studies that examined the efficacy of fulvestrant in male breast cancer, regardless of sample size, were considered eligible. The search strategy retrieved 31 articles; of these, five articles were eligible (23 patients) for this pooled analysis. The mean age of the study sample was 63.1 years. Adjuvant hormonal treatment was administered in 87.5 % of cases. Fulvestrant was given as first or second line in 40 % of patients, while as third line or beyond in 60 % of patients. 79.0 % of patients at fulvestrant administration had visceral metastases. Regarding best response, in 26.1 % PR was achieved, in 47.8 % of cases SD was recorded, whereas in 26.1 % of patients PD was noted. The median PFS was equal to 5 months. No grade 3 and 4 adverse events were recorded; of note, hot flashes were reported in 18.2 % of male breast cancer patients. Fulvestrant may potentially play a promising role in the optimal therapeutic strategy for male patients with breast cancer diagnosis. However, further clinical and pharmacokinetic investigations are more than warranted before fulvestrant use becomes a common practice in male breast cancer patients. PMID:25519043

Zagouri, Flora; Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Chrysikos, Dimosthenis; Dimopoulos, Meletios-Athanasios; Psaltopoulou, Theodora

2015-01-01

2

Patterns of genetic alterations in pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis.  

PubMed

Both K-ras and p53 gene mutations are found commonly in pancreatic tumors. Analysis of the mutational patterns may provide insight into disease etiology. To further describe the mutational patterns of pancreatic cancer and to assess the evidence to date, we performed a pooled analysis of the published data on genetic mutations associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. We included data from studies that evaluated point mutations in the two genes most studied in pancreatic cancer, K-ras and p53. A majority of the 204 tumors had mutations in at least one gene, with 29% having both K-ras and p53 mutations, 39% with K-ras mutation alone, and 16% having p53 mutation alone. Sixteen percent of tumors lacked mutation in either gene. K-ras mutations were present in high frequencies in all tumor grades (>69%). A statistically significant trend was observed for p53 mutation with higher tumor grade (P = 0.04). For K-ras, G2 and G3 grades, combined, had notably higher prevalences of mutation than G1 (P = 0.004). CGT mutations in K-ras codon 12 were marginally associated with lower tumor grade (P for trend = 0.09), and these tumors were somewhat less likely to have a p53 mutation than tumors with other K-ras mutations (P = 0.06). In the 59 K-ras+/p53+ tumors, 64% had the same type of mutation (transition or transversion) in both genes, suggesting a common mechanism. The mutational pattern of p53 in pancreatic cancer is similar to bladder cancer, another smoking-related cancer, but not to lung cancer. Analyses of molecular data, such as that performed here, present new avenues for epidemiologists in the study of the etiology of specific cancers. PMID:10217065

Blanck, H M; Tolbert, P E; Hoppin, J A

1999-01-01

3

HPV-associated lung cancers: an international pooled analysis.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the etiologic risk factor for cervical cancer. Some studies have suggested an association with a subset of lung tumors, but the etiologic link has not been firmly established. We performed an international pooled analysis of cross-sectional studies (27 datasets, n = 3249 patients) to evaluate HPV DNA prevalence in lung cancer and to investigate viral presence according to clinical and demographic characteristics. HPV16/18 were the most commonly detected, but with substantial variation in viral prevalence between geographic regions. The highest prevalence of HPV16/18 was observed in South and Central America, followed by Asia, North America and Europe (adjusted prevalence rates = 22, 5, 4 and 3%, respectively). Higher HPV16 prevalence was noted in each geographic region compared with HPV18, except in North America. HPV16/18-positive lung cancer was less likely observed among White race (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.12-0.90), whereas no associations were observed with gender, smoking history, age, histology or stage. Comparisons between tumor and normal lung tissue show that HPV was more likely to be present in lung cancer rather than normal lung tissues (OR = 3.86, 95% CI = 2.87-5.19). Among a subset of patients with HPV16-positive tumors, integration was primarily among female patients (93%, 13/14), while the physical status in male cases (N = 14) was inconsistent. Our findings confirm that HPV DNA is present in a small fraction of lung tumors, with large geographic variations. Further comprehensive analysis is needed to assess whether this association reflects a causal relationship. PMID:24523449

Ragin, Camille; Obikoya-Malomo, Monisola; Kim, Sungjin; Chen, Zhengjia; Flores-Obando, Rafael; Gibbs, Denise; Koriyama, Chihaya; Aguayo, Francisco; Koshiol, Jill; Caporaso, Neil E; Carpagnano, Giovanna E; Ciotti, Marco; Dosaka-Akita, Hirotoshi; Fukayama, Masashi; Goto, Akiteru; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Gorgoulis, Vassilis; Heideman, Daniëlle A M; van Boerdonk, Robert A A; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Iwakawa, Reika; Kastrinakis, Nikolaos G; Kinoshita, Ichiro; Akiba, Suminori; Landi, Maria T; Eugene Liu, H; Wang, Jinn-Li; Mehra, Ranee; Khuri, Fadlo R; Lim, Wan-Teck; Owonikoko, Taofeek K; Ramalingam, Suresh; Sarchianaki, Emmanuela; Syrjanen, Kari; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Sykes, Jenna; Hee, Siew Wan; Yokota, Jun; Zaravinos, Apostolos; Taioli, Emanuela

2014-06-01

4

Intrauterine devices and endometrial cancer risk: A pooled analysis of the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium.  

PubMed

Intrauterine devices (IUDs), long-acting and reversible contraceptives, induce a number of immunological and biochemical changes in the uterine environment that could affect endometrial cancer (EC) risk. We addressed this relationship through a pooled analysis of data collected in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium. We combined individual-level data from 4 cohort and 14 case-control studies, in total 8,801 EC cases and 15,357 controls. Using multivariable logistic regression, we estimated pooled odds ratios (pooled-ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for EC risk associated with ever use, type of device, ages at first and last use, duration of use and time since last use, stratified by study and adjusted for confounders. Ever use of IUDs was inversely related to EC risk (pooled-OR?=?0.81, 95% CI?=?0.74-0.90). Compared with never use, reduced risk of EC was observed for inert IUDs (pooled-OR?=?0.69, 95% CI?=?0.58-0.82), older age at first use (?35 years pooled-OR?=?0.53, 95% CI?=?0.43-0.67), older age at last use (?45 years pooled-OR?=?0.60, 95% CI?=?0.50-0.72), longer duration of use (?10 years pooled-OR?=?0.61, 95% CI?=?0.52-0.71) and recent use (within 1 year of study entry pooled-OR?=?0.39, 95% CI?=?0.30-0.49). Future studies are needed to assess the respective roles of detection biases and biologic effects related to foreign body responses in the endometrium, heavier bleeding (and increased clearance of carcinogenic cells) and localized hormonal changes. PMID:25242594

Felix, Ashley S; Gaudet, Mia M; La Vecchia, Carlo; Nagle, Christina M; Shu, Xiao Ou; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Adami, Hans Olov; Beresford, Shirley; Bernstein, Leslie; Chen, Chu; Cook, Linda S; Vivo, Immaculata De; Doherty, Jennifer A; Friedenreich, Christine M; Gapstur, Susan M; Hill, Dierdre; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Lacey, James V; Levi, Fabio; Liang, Xiaolin; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony; McCann, Susan E; Negri, Eva; Olson, Sara H; Palmer, Julie R; Patel, Alpa V; Petruzella, Stacey; Prescott, Jennifer; Risch, Harvey A; Rosenberg, Lynn; Sherman, Mark E; Spurdle, Amanda B; Webb, Penelope M; Wise, Lauren A; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Xu, Wanghong; Yang, Hannah P; Yu, Herbert; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Brinton, Louise A

2015-03-01

5

A POOLED ANALYSIS OF 14 COHORT STUDIES OF ANTHROPOMETRIC FACTORS AND PANCREATIC CANCER RISK  

PubMed Central

Epidemiologic studies of pancreatic cancer risk have reported null or non-significant positive associations for obesity, while associations for height have been null. Waist and hip circumference have been evaluated infrequently. A pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies on 846,340 individuals was conducted; 2,135 individuals were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer during follow-up. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by Cox proportional hazards models, and then pooled using a random effects model. Compared to individuals with a body mass index (BMI) at baseline between 21–22.9kg/m2, pancreatic cancer risk was 47% higher (95%CI:23–75%) among obese (BMI?30kg/m2) individuals. A positive association was observed for BMI in early adulthood (pooled multivariate [MV]RR = 1.30, 95%CI=1.09–1.56 comparing BMI?25kg/m2 to a BMI between 21–22.9kg/m2). Compared to individuals who were not overweight in early adulthood (BMI<25kg/m2) and not obese at baseline (BMI<30kg/m2), pancreatic cancer risk was 54% higher (95%CI=24–93%) for those who were overweight in early adulthood and obese at baseline. We observed a 40% higher risk among individuals who had gained BMI ?10kg/m2 between BMI at baseline and younger ages compared to individuals whose BMI remained stable. Results were either similar or slightly stronger among never smokers. A positive association was observed between waist to hip ratio (WHR) and pancreatic cancer risk (pooled MVRR=1.35 comparing the highest versus lowest quartile, 95%CI=1.03–1.78). BMI and WHR were positively associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Maintaining normal body weight may offer a feasible approach to reducing morbidity and mortality from pancreatic cancer. PMID:21105029

Genkinger, Jeanine M.; Spiegelman, Donna; Anderson, Kristin E.; Bernstein, Leslie; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Calle, Eugenia E.; English, Dallas R.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Giles, Graham G.; Giovannucci, Edward; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; Larsson, Susanna C; Leitzmann, Michael; Männistö, Satu; Marshall, James R; Miller, Anthony B.; Patel, Alpa V.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Verhage, Bas AJ; Virtamo, Jarmo; Willcox, Bradley J.; Wolk, Alicja; Ziegler, Regina G.; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A.

2011-01-01

6

Dairy products and pancreatic cancer risk: a pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies.  

PubMed

Pancreatic cancer has few early symptoms, is usually diagnosed at late stages, and has a high case-fatality rate. Identifying modifiable risk factors is crucial to reducing pancreatic cancer morbidity and mortality. Prior studies have suggested that specific foods and nutrients, such as dairy products and constituents, may play a role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. In this pooled analysis of the primary data from 14 prospective cohort studies, 2212 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified during follow-up among 862 680 individuals. Adjusting for smoking habits, personal history of diabetes, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and energy intake, multivariable study-specific hazard ratios (MVHR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random effects model. There was no association between total milk intake and pancreatic cancer risk (MVHR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.82-1.18 comparing ?500 with 1-69.9 g/day). Similarly, intakes of low-fat milk, whole milk, cheese, cottage cheese, yogurt, and ice-cream were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. No statistically significant association was observed between dietary (MVHR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.77-1.19) and total calcium (MVHR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.71-1.12) intake and pancreatic cancer risk overall when comparing intakes ?1300 with <500 mg/day. In addition, null associations were observed for dietary and total vitamin D intake and pancreatic cancer risk. Findings were consistent within sex, smoking status, and BMI strata or when the case definition was limited to pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Overall, these findings do not support the hypothesis that consumption of dairy foods, calcium, or vitamin D during adulthood is associated with pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:24631943

Genkinger, J M; Wang, M; Li, R; Albanes, D; Anderson, K E; Bernstein, L; van den Brandt, P A; English, D R; Freudenheim, J L; Fuchs, C S; Gapstur, S M; Giles, G G; Goldbohm, R A; Håkansson, N; Horn-Ross, P L; Koushik, A; Marshall, J R; McCullough, M L; Miller, A B; Robien, K; Rohan, T E; Schairer, C; Silverman, D T; Stolzenberg-Solomon, R Z; Virtamo, J; Willett, W C; Wolk, A; Ziegler, R G; Smith-Warner, S A

2014-06-01

7

HPV type distribution in invasive cervical cancers in Italy: pooled analysis of three large studies  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence of HPV types in invasive cervical cancers in Italy from 1996 to 2008. Methods A pooled analysis of the three largest case series typed to date was performed. HPV typing was performed on paraffin-embedded slices. Molecular analyses were performed in four laboratories. Multivariate analyses were performed to test the associations between calendar time, age, and geographical area and the proportion of types 16/18. Results Out of 574 cancers, 24 (4.2%) were HPV negative. HPV 16 and 18 were responsible for 74.4% (378/508) and 80.3% (49/61) of the squamous cancers and adenocarcinomas, respectively. Other frequent types were 31 (9.5%), 45 (6.4%), and 58 (3.3%) for squamous cancers and 45 (13.3%), 31, 35, and 58 (5.0%) for adenocarcinomas. The proportion of HPV 16 and/or 18 decreased with age (p-value for trend <0.03), while it increased in cancers diagnosed in more recent years (p-value for trend?cancer will be greater for early onset cancers. In vaccinated women, screening could be started at an older age without reducing protection. PMID:23110797

2012-01-01

8

Cigarette smoking and risk of ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of 21 case–control studies  

PubMed Central

Purpose The majority of previous studies have observed an increased risk of mucinous ovarian tumors associated with cigarette smoking, but the association with other histological types is unclear. In a large pooled analysis, we examined the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with multiple measures of cigarette smoking with a focus on characterizing risks according to tumor behavior and histology. Methods We used data from 21 case–control studies of ovarian cancer (19,066 controls, 11,972 invasive and 2,752 borderline cases). Study-specific odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were obtained from logistic regression models and combined into a pooled odds ratio using a random effects model. Results Current cigarette smoking increased the risk of invasive mucinous (OR = 1.31; 95 % CI: 1.03–1.65) and borderline mucinous ovarian tumors (OR = 1.83; 95 % CI: 1.39–2.41), while former smoking increased the risk of borderline serous ovarian tumors (OR = 1.30; 95 % CI: 1.12–1.50). For these histological types, consistent dose– response associations were observed. No convincing associations between smoking and risk of invasive serous and endometrioid ovarian cancer were observed, while our results provided some evidence of a decreased risk of invasive clear cell ovarian cancer. Conclusions Our results revealed marked differences in the risk profiles of histological types of ovarian cancer with regard to cigarette smoking, although the magnitude of the observed associations was modest. Our findings, which may reflect different etiologies of the histological types, add to the fact that ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease. PMID:23456270

Faber, Mette T.; Kjær, Susanne K.; Dehlendorff, Christian; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Andersen, Klaus K.; Høgdall, Estrid; Webb, Penelope M.; Jordan, Susan J.; Rossing, Mary Anne; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Lurie, Galina; Thompson, Pamela J.; Carney, Michael E.; Goodman, Marc T.; Ness, Roberta B.; Modugnos, Francesmary; Edwards, Robert P.; Bunker, Clareann H.; Goode, Ellen L.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Larson, Melissa C.; Schildkraut, Joellen; Cramer, Daniel W.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Olson, Sara H.; King, Melony; Chandran, Urmila; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; van Altena, Anne M.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Brinton, Louise; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Lissowska, Jolanta; Yang, Hannah P.; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Odunsi, Kunle; Kasza, Karin; Odunsi-Akanji, Oluwatosin; Song, Honglin; Pharaoh, Paul; Shah, Mitul; Whittemore, Alice S.; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Sutphen, Rebecca; Menon, Usha; Gayther, Simon A.; Ramus, Susan J.; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Wu, Anna H.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Risch, Harvey A.

2013-01-01

9

Sinonasal cancer and occupational exposures: a pooled analysis of 12 case–control studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In order to examine the associations between sinonasal cancer and occupational exposures other than wood dust and leather dust, the data from 12 case–control studies conducted in seven countries were pooled and reanalyzed. Methods: The pooled data set included 195 adenocarcinoma cases (169 men and 26 women), 432 squamous cell carcinomas (330 men and 102 women), and 3136 controls

Danièle Luce; Annette Leclerc; Denis Bégin; Paul A. Demers; Michel Gérin; Ewa Orlowski; Manolis Kogevinas; Stefano Belli; Isabelle Bugel; Ulrich Bolm-Audorff; Louise A. Brinton; Pietro Comba; Lennart Hardell; Richard B. Hayes; Corrado Magnani; Enzo Merler; Susan Preston-Martin; Thomas L. Vaughan; Wei Zheng; Paolo Boffetta

2002-01-01

10

A Pooled Analysis of 12 Cohort Studies of Dietary Fat, Cholesterol and Egg Intake and Ovarian Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fat and cholesterol are theorized to promote ovarian carcinogenesis by increasing circulating estrogen levels. Although case–control\\u000a studies have reported positive associations between total and saturated fat intake and ovarian cancer risk, two cohort studies\\u000a have observed null associations. Dietary cholesterol and eggs have been positively associated with ovarian cancer risk. A\\u000a pooled analysis was conducted on 12 cohort studies. Among

Jeanine M. Genkinger; David J. Hunter; Donna Spiegelman; Kristin E. Anderson; W. Lawrence Beeson; Julie E. Buring; Graham A. Colditz; Gary E. Fraser; Jo L. Freudenheim; R. Alexandra Goldbohm; Susan E. Hankinson; Karen L. Koenig; Susanna C. Larsson; Michael Leitzmann; Marjorie L. McCullough; Anthony B. Miller; Carmen Rodriguez; Thomas E. Rohan; Julie A. Ross; Arthur Schatzkin; Leo J. Schouten; Ellen Smit; Walter C. Willett; Alicja Wolk; Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte; Shumin M. Zhang; Stephanie A. Smith-Warner

2006-01-01

11

Lung cancer risk among bricklayers in a pooled analysis of case-control studies.  

PubMed

Bricklayers may be exposed to several lung carcinogens, including crystalline silica and asbestos. Previous studies that analyzed lung cancer risk among these workers had several study design limitations. We examined lung cancer risk among bricklayers within SYNERGY, a large international pooled analysis of case-control studies on lung cancer and the joint effects of occupational carcinogens. For men ever employed as bricklayers we estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for study center, age, lifetime smoking history and employment in occupations with exposures to known or suspected lung carcinogens. Among 15,608 cases and 18,531 controls, there were 695 cases and 469 controls who had ever worked as bricklayers (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.28-1.68). In studies using population controls the OR was 1.55 (95% CI: 1.32-1.81, 540/349 cases/controls), while it was 1.24 (95% CI: 0.93-1.64, 155/120 cases/controls) in hospital-based studies. There was a clear positive trend with length of employment (p < 0.001). The relative risk was higher for squamous (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.42-1.98, 309 cases) and small cell carcinomas (OR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.44-2.20, 140 cases), than for adenocarcinoma (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.95-1.43, 150 cases) (p-homogeneity: 0.0007). ORs were still elevated after additional adjustment for education and in analyses using blue collar workers as referents. This study provided robust evidence of increased lung cancer risk in bricklayers. Although non-causal explanations cannot be completely ruled out, the association is plausible in view of the potential for exposure to several carcinogens, notably crystalline silica and to a lesser extent asbestos. PMID:24861979

Consonni, Dario; De Matteis, Sara; Pesatori, Angela C; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Olsson, Ann C; Kromhout, Hans; Peters, Susan; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas; Kendzia, Benjamin; Behrens, Thomas; Stücker, Isabelle; Guida, Florence; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Brüske, Irene; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil E; Gustavsson, Per; Plato, Nils; Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Simonato, Lorenzo; Forastiere, Francesco; Siemiatycki, Jack; Parent, Marie-Élise; Tardón, Adonina; Boffetta, Paolo; Zaridze, David; Chen, Ying; Field, John K; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Pearce, Neil; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Lissowska, Jolanta; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Rudnai, Peter; Fabiánová, Eleonóra; Stanescu Dumitru, Rodica; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B as; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt

2015-01-15

12

Intake of Fruits and Vegetables and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer in a Pooled Analysis of 14 Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Fruit and vegetable intake may protect against pancreatic cancer, since fruits and vegetables are rich in potentially cancer-preventive nutrients. Most case-control studies have found inverse associations between fruit and vegetable intake and pancreatic cancer risk, although bias due to reporting error cannot be ruled out. In most prospective studies, inverse associations have been weaker and imprecise because of small numbers of cases. The authors examined fruit and vegetable intake in relation to pancreatic cancer risk in a pooled analysis of 14 prospective studies from North America, Europe, and Australia (study periods between 1980 and 2005). Relative risks and 2-sided 95% confidence intervals were estimated separately for the 14 studies using the Cox proportional hazards model and were then pooled using a random-effects model. Of 862,584 men and women followed for 7?20 years, 2,212 developed pancreatic cancer. The pooled multivariate relative risks of pancreatic cancer per 100-g/day increase in intake were 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99, 1.03) for total fruits and vegetables, 1.01 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.03) for total fruits, and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.06) for total vegetables. Associations were similar for men and women separately and across studies. These results suggest that fruit and vegetable intake during adulthood is not associated with a reduced pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:22875754

Koushik, Anita; Spiegelman, Donna; Albanes, Demetrius; Anderson, Kristin E.; Bernstein, Leslie; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Bergkvist, Leif; English, Dallas R.; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Genkinger, Jeanine M.; Giles, Graham G.; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; Männistö, Satu; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Millen, Amy E.; Miller, Anthony B.; Robien, Kim; Rohan, Thomas E.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Shikany, James M.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Willett, Walter C.; Wolk, Alicja; Ziegler, Regina G.; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A.

2012-01-01

13

Tubal ligation and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes: a pooled analysis of case-control studies  

PubMed Central

Background Tubal ligation is a protective factor for ovarian cancer, but it is unknown whether this protection extends to all invasive histological subtypes or borderline tumors. We undertook an international collaborative study to examine the association between tubal ligation and ovarian cancer subtypes. Methods We pooled primary data from 13 population-based case-control studies, including 10 157 patients with ovarian cancer (7942 invasive; 2215 borderline) and 13 904 control women. Invasive cases were analysed by histological type, grade and stage, and borderline cases were analysed by histological type. Pooled odds ratios were estimated using conditional logistic regression to match on site, race/ethnicity and age categories, and to adjust for age, oral contraceptive use duration and number of full-term births. Results Tubal ligation was associated with significantly reduced risks of invasive serous (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.74-0.89; P < 0.001), endometrioid (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.40-0.59; P < 0.001), clear cell (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.40-0.67; P < 0.001) and mucinous (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.52-0.89; P = 0.005) cancers. The magnitude of risk reduction was significantly greater for invasive endometrioid (P < 0.0001) and clear cell (P = 0.0018) than for serous cancer. No significant associations were found with borderline serous or mucinous tumours. Conclusions We found that the protective effects of tubal ligation on ovarian cancer risk were subtype-specific. These findings provide insights into distinct aetiologies of ovarian cancer subtypes and mechanisms underlying the protective effects of tubal ligation. PMID:23569193

Sieh, Weiva; Salvador, Shannon; McGuire, Valerie; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Terry, Kathryn L; Rossing, Mary Anne; Risch, Harvey; Wu, Anna H; Webb, Penelope M; Moysich, Kirsten; Doherty, Jennifer A; Felberg, Anna; Miller, Dianne; Jordan, Susan J; Goodman, Marc T; Lurie, Galina; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Jensen, Allan; Høgdall, Estrid; Bandera, Elisa V; Olson, Sara H; King, Melony G; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Marees, Tamara; Massuger, Leon F; van Altena, Anne M; Ness, Roberta B; Cramer, Daniel W; Pike, Malcolm C; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Berchuck, Andrew; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Whittemore, Alice S

2013-01-01

14

Intakes of fruit, vegetables, and carotenoids and renal cell cancer risk: a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies  

PubMed Central

Fruit and vegetable consumption has been hypothesized to reduce the risk of renal cell cancer. We conducted a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies, including 1,478 incident cases of renal cell cancer (709 women and 769 men) among 530,469 women and 244,483 men followed for up to 7 to 20 years. Participants completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. Using the primary data from each study, the study-specific relative risks (RRs) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model and then pooled using a random effects model. We found that fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with a reduced risk of renal cell cancer. Compared with <200 g/d of fruit and vegetable intake, the pooled multivariate RR for ?600 g/d was 0.68 (95% CI = 0.54–0.87; P value, test for between-studies heterogeneity = 0.86; P value, test for trend = 0.001). Compared with <100 g/d, the pooled multivariate RRs (95% CIs) for ?400 g/d were 0.79 (0.63–0.99; P value, test for trend = 0.03) for total fruit, and 0.72 (0.48–1.08; P value, test for trend = 0.07) for total vegetables. For specific carotenoids, the pooled multivariate RRs (95% CIs) comparing the highest and lowest quintiles were 0.87 (0.73–1.03) for ?-carotene, 0.82 (0.69–0.98) for ?-carotene, 0.86 (0.73–1.01) for ?-cryptoxanthin, 0.82 (0.64–1.06) for lutein/zeaxanthin, and 1.13 (0.95–1.34) for lycopene. In conclusion, increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with decreasing risk of renal cell cancer; carotenoids present in fruit and vegetables may partly contribute to this protection. PMID:19505906

Lee, Jung Eun; Männistö, Satu; Spiegelman, Donna; Hunter, David J.; Bernstein, Leslie; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Buring, Julie E.; Cho, Eunyoung; English, Dallas R.; Flood, Andrew; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Giles, Graham G.; Giovannucci, Edward; Håkansson, Niclas; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Leitzmann, Michael F.; Marshall, James R.; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Miller, Anthony B.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Ross, Julie A.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Schouten, Leo J.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wolk, Alicja; Zhang, Shumin M.; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A.

2010-01-01

15

Adult height and head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis within the INHANCE Consortium  

PubMed Central

Background Several epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between adult height and cancer incidence. The only study conducted among women on mouth and pharynx cancer risk, however, reported an inverse association. This study aims to investigate the association between height and the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC) within a large international consortium of HNC. Methods We analyzed pooled individual-level data from 24 case-control studies participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. Odds Ratios (ORs) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) were estimated separately for men and women for associations between height and HNC risk. Educational level, tobacco smoking, and alcohol consumption were included in all regression models. Stratified analyses by HNC subsites were performed. Results This project included 17,666 cases and 28,198 controls. We found an inverse association between height and HNC (adjusted OR per 10 cm height =0.91, 95% CI 0.86–0.95 for men; adjusted OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.79–0.93 for women). In men, the estimated OR did vary by educational level, smoking status, geographic area, and control source. No differences by subsites were detected. Conclusions Adult height is inversely associated with HNC risk. As height can be considered a marker of childhood illness and low energy intake, the inverse association is consistent with prior studies showing that HNC occur more frequently among deprived individuals. Further studies designed to elucidate the mechanism of such association would be warranted. PMID:24271556

Leoncini, Emanuele; Ricciardi, Walter; Cadoni, Gabriella; Arzani, Dario; Petrelli, Livia; Paludetti, Gaetano; Brennan, Paul; Luce, Daniele; Stucker, Isabelle; Matsuo, Keitaro; Talamini, Renato; La Vecchia, Carlo; Olshan, Andrew F.; Winn, Deborah M.; Herrero, Rolando; Franceschi, Silvia; Castellsague, Xavier; Muscat, Joshua; Morgenstern, Hal; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Levi, Fabio; Maso, Luigino Dal; Kelsey, Karl; McClean, Michael; Vaughan, Thomas L; Lazarus, Philip; Purdue, Mark P.; Hayes, Richard B.; Chen, Chu; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Shangina, Oxana; Koifman, Sergio; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Matos, Elena; Lagiou, Pagona; Lissowska, Jolanta; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Fernandez, Leticia; Menezes, Ana; Agudo, Antonio; Daudt, Alexander W.; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Mates, Dana; Betka, Jaroslav; Yu, Guo-Pei; Schantz, Stimson; Simonato, Lorenzo; Brenner, Hermann; Conway, David I; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Thomson, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Znaor, Ariana; Rudnai, Peter; Healy, Claire; Boffetta, Paolo; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hashibe, Mia; Boccia, Stefania

2014-01-01

16

Adult height and head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis within the INHANCE Consortium.  

PubMed

Several epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between adult height and cancer incidence. The only study conducted among women on mouth and pharynx cancer risk, however, reported an inverse association. This study aims to investigate the association between height and the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC) within a large international consortium of HNC. We analyzed pooled individual-level data from 24 case-control studies participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated separately for men and women for associations between height and HNC risk. Educational level, tobacco smoking, and alcohol consumption were included in all regression models. Stratified analyses by HNC subsites were performed. This project included 17,666 cases and 28,198 controls. We found an inverse association between height and HNC (adjusted OR per 10 cm height = 0.91, 95% CI 0.86-0.95 for men; adjusted OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.79-0.93 for women). In men, the estimated OR did vary by educational level, smoking status, geographic area, and control source. No differences by subsites were detected. Adult height is inversely associated with HNC risk. As height can be considered a marker of childhood illness and low energy intake, the inverse association is consistent with prior studies showing that HNC occur more frequently among deprived individuals. Further studies designed to elucidate the mechanism of such association would be warranted. PMID:24271556

Leoncini, Emanuele; Ricciardi, Walter; Cadoni, Gabriella; Arzani, Dario; Petrelli, Livia; Paludetti, Gaetano; Brennan, Paul; Luce, Daniele; Stucker, Isabelle; Matsuo, Keitaro; Talamini, Renato; La Vecchia, Carlo; Olshan, Andrew F; Winn, Deborah M; Herrero, Rolando; Franceschi, Silvia; Castellsague, Xavier; Muscat, Joshua; Morgenstern, Hal; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Levi, Fabio; Dal Maso, Luigino; Kelsey, Karl; McClean, Michael; Vaughan, Thomas L; Lazarus, Philip; Purdue, Mark P; Hayes, Richard B; Chen, Chu; Schwartz, Stephen M; Shangina, Oxana; Koifman, Sergio; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Matos, Elena; Lagiou, Pagona; Lissowska, Jolanta; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Fernandez, Leticia; Menezes, Ana; Agudo, Antonio; Daudt, Alexander W; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Mates, Dana; Betka, Jaroslav; Yu, Guo-Pei; Schantz, Stimson; Simonato, Lorenzo; Brenner, Hermann; Conway, David I; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Thomson, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Znaor, Ariana; Rudnai, Peter; Healy, Claire; Boffetta, Paolo; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hashibe, Mia; Boccia, Stefania

2014-01-01

17

Sequence Variants and the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer: Pooled Analysis in the INHANCE Consortium  

PubMed Central

Previous molecular epidemiological studies on head and neck cancer have examined various single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), but there are very few documented associations. In the International head and neck cancer epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium, we evaluated associations between SNPs in the metabolism, cell cycle, and DNA repair pathways and the risk of head and neck cancer. We analyzed individual-level pooled data from 14 European, North American, Central American, and Asia case–control studies (5,915 head and neck cancer cases and 10,644 controls) participating in the INHANCE consortium. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for SNP effects, adjusting for age, sex, race, and country. We observed an association between head and neck cancer risk and MGMT Leu84Phe heterozygotes (OR?=?0.79, 95% CI?=?0.68–0.93), XRCC1 Arg194Trp homozygotes Arg/Arg (OR?=?2.3, 95% CI?=?1.1–4.7), ADH1B Arg48His homozygotes Arg/Arg (OR?=?2.7, 95% CI?=?1.9–4.0), ADH1C Ile350Val homozygotes Ile/Ile (OR?=?1.2, 95% CI?=?1.1–1.4), and the GSTM1 null genotype (OR?=?1.1, 95% CI?=?1.0–1.2). Among these results, MGMT Leu84Phe, ADH1B Arg48His, ADH1C Ile350Arg, and the GSTM1 null genotype had fairly low false positive report probabilities (<20%). We observed associations between ADH1B Arg48His, ADH1C Ile350Arg, and GSTM1 null genotype and head and neck cancer risk. No functional study currently supports the observed association for MGMT Leu84Phe, and the association with XRCC1 Arg194Trp may be a chance finding. PMID:22655231

Chuang, Shu-Chun; Agudo, Antonio; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Anantharaman, Devasena; Benhamou, Simone; Boccia, Stefania; Chen, Chu; Conway, David I.; Fabianova, Eleonora; Hayes, Richard B.; Healy, Claire M.; Holcatova, Ivana; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lagiou, Pagona; Lazarus, Philip; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Mahimkar, Manoj B.; Mates, Dana; Matsuo, Keitaro; Merletti, Franco; Metspalu, Andres; Morgenstern, Hal; Muscat, Joshua; Cadoni, Gabriella; Olshan, Andrew F.; Purdue, Mark; Ramroth, Heribert; Rudnai, Peter; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Elaine M.; Sturgis, Erich M.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Talamini, Renato; Thomson, Peter; Wei, Qingyi; Zaridze, David; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Znaor, Ariana; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Hashibe, Mia

2011-01-01

18

Sequence Variants and the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer: Pooled Analysis in the INHANCE Consortium.  

PubMed

Previous molecular epidemiological studies on head and neck cancer have examined various single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), but there are very few documented associations. In the International head and neck cancer epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium, we evaluated associations between SNPs in the metabolism, cell cycle, and DNA repair pathways and the risk of head and neck cancer. We analyzed individual-level pooled data from 14 European, North American, Central American, and Asia case-control studies (5,915 head and neck cancer cases and 10,644 controls) participating in the INHANCE consortium. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for SNP effects, adjusting for age, sex, race, and country. We observed an association between head and neck cancer risk and MGMT Leu84Phe heterozygotes (OR?=?0.79, 95% CI?=?0.68-0.93), XRCC1 Arg194Trp homozygotes Arg/Arg (OR?=?2.3, 95% CI?=?1.1-4.7), ADH1B Arg48His homozygotes Arg/Arg (OR?=?2.7, 95% CI?=?1.9-4.0), ADH1C Ile350Val homozygotes Ile/Ile (OR?=?1.2, 95% CI?=?1.1-1.4), and the GSTM1 null genotype (OR?=?1.1, 95% CI?=?1.0-1.2). Among these results, MGMT Leu84Phe, ADH1B Arg48His, ADH1C Ile350Arg, and the GSTM1 null genotype had fairly low false positive report probabilities (<20%). We observed associations between ADH1B Arg48His, ADH1C Ile350Arg, and GSTM1 null genotype and head and neck cancer risk. No functional study currently supports the observed association for MGMT Leu84Phe, and the association with XRCC1 Arg194Trp may be a chance finding. PMID:22655231

Chuang, Shu-Chun; Agudo, Antonio; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Anantharaman, Devasena; Benhamou, Simone; Boccia, Stefania; Chen, Chu; Conway, David I; Fabianova, Eleonora; Hayes, Richard B; Healy, Claire M; Holcatova, Ivana; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lagiou, Pagona; Lazarus, Philip; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Mahimkar, Manoj B; Mates, Dana; Matsuo, Keitaro; Merletti, Franco; Metspalu, Andres; Morgenstern, Hal; Muscat, Joshua; Cadoni, Gabriella; Olshan, Andrew F; Purdue, Mark; Ramroth, Heribert; Rudnai, Peter; Schwartz, Stephen M; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Elaine M; Sturgis, Erich M; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Talamini, Renato; Thomson, Peter; Wei, Qingyi; Zaridze, David; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Znaor, Ariana; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Hashibe, Mia

2011-01-01

19

Asian american women in california: a pooled analysis of predictors for breast and cervical cancer screening.  

PubMed

Objectives. We examined patterns of cervical and breast cancer screening among Asian American women in California and assessed their screening trends over time. Methods. We pooled weighted data from 5 cycles of the California Health Interview Survey (2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009) to examine breast and cervical cancer screening trends and predictors among 6 Asian nationalities. We calculated descriptive statistics, bivariate associations, multivariate logistic regressions, predictive margins, and 95% confidence intervals. Results. Multivariate analyses indicated that Papanicolaou test rates did not significantly change over time (77.9% in 2001 vs 81.2% in 2007), but mammography receipt increased among Asian American women overall (75.6% in 2001 vs 81.8% in 2009). Length of time in the United States was associated with increased breast and cervical cancer screening among all nationalities. Sociodemographic and health care access factors had varied effects, with education and insurance coverage significantly predicting screening for certain groups. Overall, we observed striking variation by nationality. Conclusions. Our results underscore the need for intervention and policy efforts that are targeted to specific Asian nationalities, recent immigrants, and individuals without health care access to increase screening rates among Asian women in California. PMID:25521898

Chawla, Neetu; Breen, Nancy; Liu, Benmei; Lee, Richard; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie

2015-02-01

20

Lung cancer risk among hairdressers: a pooled analysis of case-control studies conducted between 1985 and 2010.  

PubMed

Increased lung cancer risks among hairdressers were observed in large registry-based cohort studies from Scandinavia, but these studies could not adjust for smoking. Our objective was to evaluate the lung cancer risk among hairdressers while adjusting for smoking and other confounders in a pooled database of 16 case-control studies conducted in Europe, Canada, China, and New Zealand between 1985 and 2010 (the Pooled Analysis of Case-Control Studies on the Joint Effects of Occupational Carcinogens in the Development of Lung Cancer). Lifetime occupational and smoking information was collected through interviews with 19,369 cases of lung cancer and 23,674 matched population or hospital controls. Overall, 170 cases and 167 controls had ever worked as hairdresser or barber. The odds ratios for lung cancer in women were 1.65 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 2.35) without adjustment for smoking and 1.12 (95% CI: 0.75, 1.68) with adjustment for smoking; however, women employed before 1954 also experienced an increased lung cancer risk after adjustment for smoking (odds ratio = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.09, 6.47). The odds ratios in male hairdressers/barbers were generally not elevated, except for an increased odds ratio for adenocarcinoma in long-term barbers (odds ratio = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.02, 4.77). Our results suggest that the increased lung cancer risks among hairdressers are due to their smoking behavior; single elevated risk estimates should be interpreted with caution and need replication in other studies. PMID:24068200

Olsson, Ann C; Xu, Yiwen; Schüz, Joachim; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Peters, Susan; Stücker, Isabelle; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Consonni, Dario; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun; Siemiatycki, Jack; Richardson, Lesley; Mirabelli, Dario; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Simonato, Lorenzo; Gustavsson, Per; Plato, Nils; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Tardón, Adonina; Zaridze, David; Marcus, Michael W; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Pearce, Neil; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Boffetta, Paolo; Fortes, Cristina; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Kendzia, Benjamin; Behrens, Thomas; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas; Straif, Kurt

2013-11-01

21

Diet and the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer: A Pooled Analysis in the INHANCE Consortium  

PubMed Central

We investigated the association between diet and head and neck cancer (HNC) risk using data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium. The INHANCE pooled data included 22 case-control studies with 14,520 cases and 22,737 controls. Center-specific quartiles among the controls were used for food groups and frequencies per week were used for single food items. A dietary pattern score combining high fruit and vegetable intake and low red meat intake, was created. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the dietary items on the risk of HNC were estimated with a two-stage random effects logistic regression model. An inverse association was observed for higher frequency intake of fruit (4th vs. 1st quartile OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.43–0.62, ptrend<0.01) and vegetables (OR=0.66, 95% CI=0.49–0.90, ptrend=0.01). Intake of red meat (OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.13–1.74, ptrend=0.13) and processed meat (OR=1.37, 95% CI=1.14–1.65, ptrend<0.01) were positively associated with HNC risk. Higher dietary pattern scores, reflecting high fruit/vegetable and low red meat intake, were associated with reduced HNC risk (per score increment OR=0.90, 95% CI=0.84–0.97). PMID:22037906

Chuang, Shu-Chun; Jenab, Mazda; Heck, Julia E.; Bosetti, Cristina; Talamini, Renato; Matsuo, Keitaro; Castellsague, Xavier; Franceschi, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Winn, Deborah M.; La Vecchia, Carlo; Morgenstern, Hal; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Levi, Fabio; Dal Maso, Luigino; Kelsey, Karl; McClean, Michael D.; Vaughan, Thomas; Lazarus, Philip; Muscat, Joshua; Ramroth, Heribert; Chen, Chu; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Eluf-Neto, Jose; Hayes, Richard B.; Purdue, Mark; Boccia, Stefania; Cadoni, Gabriella; Zaridze, David; Koifman, Sergio; Curado, Maria Paula; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Benhamou, Simone; Matos, Elena; Lagiou, Pagona; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilla; Olshan, Andrew F.; Fernandez, Leticia; Menezes, Ana; Agudo, Antonio; Daudt, Alexander W.; Merletti, Franco; Macfarlane, Gary J.; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Mates, Dana; Holcatova, Ivana; Schantz, Stimson; Yu, Guo-Pei; Simonato, Lorenzo; Brenner, Hermann; Mueller, Heiko; Conway, David I.; Thomson, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Znaor, Ariana; Rudnai, Peter; Healy, Claire M.; Ferro, Gilles; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Hashibe, Mia

2013-01-01

22

Diet and the risk of head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis in the INHANCE consortium.  

PubMed

We investigated the association between diet and head and neck cancer (HNC) risk using data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. The INHANCE pooled data included 22 case-control studies with 14,520 cases and 22,737 controls. Center-specific quartiles among the controls were used for food groups, and frequencies per week were used for single food items. A dietary pattern score combining high fruit and vegetable intake and low red meat intake was created. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the dietary items on the risk of HNC were estimated with a two-stage random-effects logistic regression model. An inverse association was observed for higher-frequency intake of fruit (4th vs. 1st quartile OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.43-0.62, p (trend) < 0.01) and vegetables (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49-0.90, p (trend) = 0.01). Intake of red meat (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.13-1.74, p (trend) = 0.13) and processed meat (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.14-1.65, p (trend) < 0.01) was positively associated with HNC risk. Higher dietary pattern scores, reflecting high fruit/vegetable and low red meat intake, were associated with reduced HNC risk (per score increment OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.84-0.97). PMID:22037906

Chuang, Shu-Chun; Jenab, Mazda; Heck, Julia E; Bosetti, Cristina; Talamini, Renato; Matsuo, Keitaro; Castellsague, Xavier; Franceschi, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Winn, Deborah M; La Vecchia, Carlo; Morgenstern, Hal; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Levi, Fabio; Dal Maso, Luigino; Kelsey, Karl; McClean, Michael D; Vaughan, Thomas; Lazarus, Philip; Muscat, Joshua; Ramroth, Heribert; Chen, Chu; Schwartz, Stephen M; Eluf-Neto, Jose; Hayes, Richard B; Purdue, Mark; Boccia, Stefania; Cadoni, Gabriella; Zaridze, David; Koifman, Sergio; Curado, Maria Paula; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Benhamou, Simone; Matos, Elena; Lagiou, Pagona; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilla; Olshan, Andrew F; Fernandez, Leticia; Menezes, Ana; Agudo, Antonio; Daudt, Alexander W; Merletti, Franco; Macfarlane, Gary J; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Mates, Dana; Holcatova, Ivana; Schantz, Stimson; Yu, Guo-Pei; Simonato, Lorenzo; Brenner, Hermann; Mueller, Heiko; Conway, David I; Thomson, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Znaor, Ariana; Rudnai, Peter; Healy, Claire M; Ferro, Gilles; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Hashibe, Mia

2012-01-01

23

Two Estrogen-Related Variants in CYP19A1 and Endometrial Cancer Risk: A Pooled Analysis in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium  

PubMed Central

Common variants in CYP19A1 (the A alleles of rs749292 and rs727479) have been associated with a 10% to 20% increase in circulating estrogen levels in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that the presence of one or both A alleles in these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) is associated with increased endometrial cancer risk. We tested this hypothesis in a large pooled analysis of 4,998 endometrial cancer cases and 8,285 controls from 10 studies in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium. The majority of women (>66%) were whites, with smaller proportions of other races and ethnic groups (blacks, Asians, and Latinas) also included in this pooled analysis. Unconditional logistic regression was used to model the association between SNPs/haplotypes and endometrial cancer risk. Carrying the A allele of either of these SNPs was associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer, with pooled odds ratios per allele of 1.14, 95% confidence interval of 1.09-1.21, and P =7.1 × 10-7 for rs749292, and odds ratio per allele of 1.08, 95% confidence interval of 1.02-1.14, and P = 0.009 for rs727479. For rs749292, these associations were generally stronger among women age ?55 years. For both SNPs, risk increased with increasing body mass index, and for rs727479, this pattern seemed stronger among women age ?55 years (P interaction = 0.007). The combination of A alleles in the two SNPs, either by direct count or by haplotype analysis, did not increase risk above that observed for the individual SNPs. Our study provides evidence that CYP19A1 genetic variation influences susceptibility to endometrial cancer, particularly among older and obese women. PMID:19124504

Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Shu, Xiao-ou; Akbari, Mohammad R.; Chen, Chu; De Vivo, Immaculata; DeMichele, Angela; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Goodman, Marc T.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Henderson, Brian E.; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; Lacey, James V.; Le Marchand, Loic; Levine, Douglas A.; Liang, Xiaolin; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lurie, Galina; McGrath, Monica; Narod, Steven A.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Ursin, Giske; Weiss, Noel S.; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yang, Hannah P.; Zheng, Wei; Olson, Sara H.

2009-01-01

24

Estrogen receptor beta rs1271572 polymorphism and invasive ovarian carcinoma risk: pooled analysis within the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.  

PubMed

The association of ovarian carcinoma risk with the polymorphism rs1271572 in the estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) gene was examined in 4946 women with primary invasive ovarian carcinoma and 6582 controls in a pooled analysis of ten case-control studies within the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). All participants were non-Hispanic white women. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for site and age. Women with the TT genotype were at increased risk of ovarian carcinoma compared to carriers of the G allele (OR?=?1.10; 95%; CI: 1.01-1.21; p?=?0.04); the OR was 1.09 (CI: 0.99-1.20; p?=?0.07) after excluding data from the center (Hawaii) that nominated this SNP for OCAC genotyping A stronger association of rs1271572 TT versus GT/GG with risk was observed among women aged ?50 years versus older women (OR?=?1.35; CI: 1.12-1.62; p?=?0.002; p for interaction?=?0.02) that remained statistically significant after excluding Hawaii data (OR?=?1.34; CI: 1.11-1.61; p?=?0.009). No heterogeneity of the association was observed by study, menopausal status, gravidity, parity, use of contraceptive or menopausal hormones, tumor histological type, or stage at diagnosis. This pooled analysis suggests that rs1271572 might influence the risk of ovarian cancer, in particular among younger women. PMID:21673961

Lurie, Galina; Wilkens, Lynne R; Thompson, Pamela J; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Matsuno, Rayna K; Carney, Michael E; Palmieri, Rachel T; Wu, Anna H; Pike, Malcolm C; Pearce, Celeste L; Menon, Usha; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Gayther, Simon A; Ramus, Susan J; Whittemore, Alice S; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Pharoah, Paul D P; Song, Honglin; Gronwald, Jacek; Jakubowska, Anna; Cybulski, Cezary; Lubinski, Jan; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Berchuck, Andrew; Krüger Kjær, Susanne; Høgdall, Estrid; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Hein, Alexander; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Webb, Penelope M; Beesley, Jonathan; Goodman, Marc T

2011-01-01

25

Estrogen Receptor Beta rs1271572 Polymorphism and Invasive Ovarian Carcinoma Risk: Pooled Analysis within the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium  

PubMed Central

The association of ovarian carcinoma risk with the polymorphism rs1271572 in the estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) gene was examined in 4946 women with primary invasive ovarian carcinoma and 6582 controls in a pooled analysis of ten case-control studies within the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). All participants were non-Hispanic white women. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for site and age. Women with the TT genotype were at increased risk of ovarian carcinoma compared to carriers of the G allele (OR?=?1.10; 95%; CI: 1.01–1.21; p?=?0.04); the OR was 1.09 (CI: 0.99–1.20; p?=?0.07) after excluding data from the center (Hawaii) that nominated this SNP for OCAC genotyping A stronger association of rs1271572 TT versus GT/GG with risk was observed among women aged ?50 years versus older women (OR?=?1.35; CI: 1.12–1.62; p?=?0.002; p for interaction?=?0.02) that remained statistically significant after excluding Hawaii data (OR?=?1.34; CI: 1.11–1.61; p?=?0.009). No heterogeneity of the association was observed by study, menopausal status, gravidity, parity, use of contraceptive or menopausal hormones, tumor histological type, or stage at diagnosis. This pooled analysis suggests that rs1271572 might influence the risk of ovarian cancer, in particular among younger women. PMID:21673961

Lurie, Galina; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Matsuno, Rayna K.; Carney, Michael E.; Palmieri, Rachel T.; Wu, Anna H.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Pearce, Celeste L.; Menon, Usha; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Gayther, Simon A.; Ramus, Susan J.; Whittemore, Alice S.; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Song, Honglin; Gronwald, Jacek; Jakubowska, Anna; Cybulski, Cezary; Lubinski, Jan; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Berchuck, Andrew; Krüger Kjær, Susanne; Høgdall, Estrid; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Hein, Alexander; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Webb, Penelope M.; Beesley, Jonathan; Goodman, Marc T.

2011-01-01

26

Allergies and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Pooled Analysis From the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium  

PubMed Central

In order to quantify the risk of pancreatic cancer associated with history of any allergy and specific allergies, to investigate differences in the association with risk according to age, gender, smoking status, or body mass index, and to study the influence of age at onset, we pooled data from 10 case-control studies. In total, there were 3,567 cases and 9,145 controls. Study-specific odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, smoking status, and body mass index. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed by using the Cochran Q statistic. Study-specific odds ratios were pooled by using a random-effects model. The odds ratio for any allergy was 0.79 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62, 1.00) with heterogeneity among studies (P < 0.001). Heterogeneity was attributable to one study; with that study excluded, the pooled odds ratio was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.84) (Pheterogeneity = 0.23). Hay fever (odds ratio = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.96) and allergy to animals (odds ratio = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.94) were related to lower risk, while there was no statistically significant association with other allergies or asthma. There were no major differences among subgroups defined by age, gender, smoking status, or body mass index. Older age at onset of allergies was slightly more protective than earlier age. PMID:23820785

Olson, Sara H.; Hsu, Meier; Satagopan, Jaya M.; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Silverman, Debra T.; Lucenteforte, Ersilia; Anderson, Kristin E.; Borgida, Ayelet; Bracci, Paige M.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Cotterchio, Michelle; Dai, Qi; Duell, Eric J.; Fontham, Elizabeth H.; Gallinger, Steven; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Ji, Bu-Tian; Kurtz, Robert C.; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lowenfels, Albert B.; Luckett, Brian; Ludwig, Emmy; Petersen, Gloria M.; Polesel, Jerry; Seminara, Daniela; Strayer, Lori; Talamini, Renato

2013-01-01

27

Meta-analysis and pooled analysis of GSTM1 and CYP1A1 polymorphisms and oral and pharyngeal cancers: a HuGE-GSEC review.  

PubMed

The association of GSTM1 and CYP1A1 polymorphisms and oral and pharyngeal cancers was assessed through a meta-analysis of published case-control studies and a pooled analysis of both published and unpublished case-control studies from the Genetic Susceptibility to Environmental Carcinogens database (http://www.upci.upmc.edu/research/ccps/ccontrol/index.html ). Thirty publications used in the meta-analysis included a total of 7783 subjects (3177 cases and 4606 controls); 21 datasets, 9397 subjects (3130 cases and 6267 controls) were included in the pooled analysis. The GSTM1 deletion was 2-fold more likely to occur in African American and African cases than controls (odds ratio: 1.7, 95% confidence interval: 0.9-3.3), although this was not observed among whites (odds ratio: 1.0, 95% confidence interval: 0.9-1.1). The meta-analysis and pooled analysis showed a significant association between oral and pharyngeal cancer and the CYP1A1 MspI homozygous variant (meta-ORm2/m2: 1.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.4-2.7; Pooled ORm2m2: 2.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-3.1; ORm1m2 or [infi]m2m2: 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-1.6). The association was present for the CYP1A1 (exon 7) polymorphism (ORVal/Val: 2.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-4.5) in ever smokers. A joint effect was observed for GSTM1 homozygous deletion and the CYP1A1 m1m2 variant on cancer risk. Our findings suggest that tobacco use and genetic factors play a significant role in oral and pharyngeal cancer. PMID:18496222

Varela-Lema, Leonor; Taioli, Emanuela; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Barros-Dios, Juan M; Anantharaman, Devasena; Benhamou, Simone; Boccia, Stefania; Bhisey, Rajani A; Cadoni, Gabriella; Capoluongo, Ettore; Chen, Chien-Jen; Foulkes, William; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria; Hatagima, Ana; Hayes, Richard B; Katoh, Takahiko; Koifman, Sergio; Lazarus, Phillip; Manni, Johannes J; Mahimkar, Manoj; Morita, Shunji; Park, Jong; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Pavarino Bertelli, Erika Cristina; de Souza Fonseca Ribeiro, Enilze Maria; Roy, Bidyut; Spitz, Margaret R; Strange, Richard C; Wei, Qingyi; Ragin, Camille C

2008-06-01

28

Association between endometriosis and risk of histological subtypes of ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of case–control studies  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Endometriosis is a risk factor for epithelial ovarian cancer; however, whether this risk extends to all invasive histological subtypes or borderline tumours is not clear. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess the association between endometriosis and histological subtypes of ovarian cancer. Methods Data from 13 ovarian cancer case–control studies, which were part of the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, were pooled and logistic regression analyses were undertaken to assess the association between self-reported endometriosis and risk of ovarian cancer. Analyses of invasive cases were done with respect to histological subtypes, grade, and stage, and analyses of borderline tumours by histological subtype. Age, ethnic origin, study site, parity, and duration of oral contraceptive use were included in all analytical models. Findings 13?226 controls and 7911 women with invasive ovarian cancer were included in this analysis. 818 and 738, respectively, reported a history of endometriosis. 1907 women with borderline ovarian cancer were also included in the analysis, and 168 of these reported a history of endometriosis. Self-reported endometriosis was associated with a significantly increased risk of clear-cell (136 [20·2%] of 674 cases vs 818 [6·2%] of 13?226 controls, odds ratio 3·05, 95% CI 2·43–3·84, p<0·0001), low-grade serous (31 [9·2%] of 336 cases, 2·11, 1·39–3·20, p<0·0001), and endometrioid invasive ovarian cancers (169 [13·9%] of 1220 cases, 2·04, 1·67–2·48, p<0·0001). No association was noted between endometriosis and risk of mucinous (31 [6·0%] of 516 cases, 1·02, 0·69–1·50, p=0·93) or high-grade serous invasive ovarian cancer (261 [7·1%] of 3659 cases, 1·13, 0·97–1·32, p=0·13), or borderline tumours of either subtype (serous 103 [9·0%] of 1140 cases, 1·20, 0·95–1·52, p=0·12, and mucinous 65 [8·5%] of 767 cases, 1·12, 0·84–1·48, p=0·45). Interpretation Clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of specific subtypes of ovarian cancer in women with endometriosis. Future efforts should focus on understanding the mechanisms that might lead to malignant transformation of endometriosis so as to help identify subsets of women at increased risk of ovarian cancer. Funding Ovarian Cancer Research Fund, National Institutes of Health, California Cancer Research Program, California Department of Health Services, Lon V Smith Foundation, European Community's Seventh Framework Programme, German Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany, Programme of Clinical Biomedical Research, German Cancer Research Centre, Eve Appeal, Oak Foundation, UK National Institute of Health Research, National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Cancer Council Tasmania, Cancer Foundation of Western Australia, Mermaid 1, Danish Cancer Society, and Roswell Park Alliance Foundation. PMID:22361336

Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Templeman, Claire; Rossing, Mary Anne; Lee, Alice; Near, Aimee M; Webb, Penelope M; Nagle, Christina M; Doherty, Jennifer A; Cushing-Haugen, Kara L; Wicklund, Kristine G; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Lurie, Galina; Wilkens, Lynne R; Carney, Michael E; Goodman, Marc T; Moysich, Kirsten; Kjaer, Susanne K; Hogdall, Estrid; Jensen, Allan; Goode, Ellen L; Fridley, Brooke L; Larson, Melissa C; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Palmieri, Rachel T; Cramer, Daniel W; Terry, Kathryn L; Vitonis, Allison F; Titus, Linda J; Ziogas, Argyrios; Brewster, Wendy; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gentry-Maharaj, Alexandra; Ramus, Susan J; Anderson, A Rebecca; Brueggmann, Doerthe; Fasching, Peter A; Gayther, Simon A; Huntsman, David G; Menon, Usha; Ness, Roberta B; Pike, Malcolm C; Risch, Harvey; Wu, Anna H; Berchuck, Andrew

2012-01-01

29

Associations of Breast Cancer Risk Factors With Tumor Subtypes: A Pooled Analysis From the Breast Cancer Association Consortium Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have suggested that breast cancer risk factors are associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression status of the tumors. Methods We pooled tumor marker and epidemiological risk factor data from 35?568 invasive breast cancer case patients from 34 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Logistic regression models were used in case–case analyses to estimate associations between epidemiological risk factors and tumor subtypes, and case–control analyses to estimate associations between epidemiological risk factors and the risk of developing specific tumor subtypes in 12 population-based studies. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results In case–case analyses, of the epidemiological risk factors examined, early age at menarche (?12 years) was less frequent in case patients with PR? than PR+ tumors (P = .001). Nulliparity (P = 3 × 10?6) and increasing age at first birth (P = 2 × 10?9) were less frequent in ER? than in ER+ tumors. Obesity (body mass index [BMI] ? 30 kg/m2) in younger women (?50 years) was more frequent in ER?/PR? than in ER+/PR+ tumors (P = 1 × 10?7), whereas obesity in older women (>50 years) was less frequent in PR? than in PR+ tumors (P = 6 × 10?4). The triple-negative (ER?/PR?/HER2?) or core basal phenotype (CBP; triple-negative and cytokeratins [CK]5/6+ and/or epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR]+) accounted for much of the heterogeneity in parity-related variables and BMI in younger women. Case–control analyses showed that nulliparity, increasing age at first birth, and obesity in younger women showed the expected associations with the risk of ER+ or PR+ tumors but not triple-negative (nulliparity vs parity, odds ratio [OR] = 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75 to 1.19, P = .61; 5-year increase in age at first full-term birth, OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.86 to 1.05, P = .34; obesity in younger women, OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 0.95 to 1.94, P = .09) or CBP tumors. Conclusions This study shows that reproductive factors and BMI are most clearly associated with hormone receptor–positive tumors and suggest that triple-negative or CBP tumors may have distinct etiology. PMID:21191117

Chang-Claude, Jenny; Goode, Ellen L.; Couch, Fergus J.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Milne, Roger L.; Gaudet, Mia; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Cox, Angela; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Rebecca; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Blows, Fiona; Driver, Kristy; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Heinz, Judith; Sinn, Peter; Vrieling, Alina; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Heikkilä, Päivi; Blomqvist, Carl; Lissowska, Jolanta; Peplonska, Beata; Chanock, Stephen; Figueroa, Jonine; Brinton, Louise; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Liu, Jianjun; Van ‘t Veer, Laura J.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Knight, Julia A.; Mulligan, Anna Marie; O’Malley, Frances P.; Weerasooriya, Nayana; John, Esther M.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Hartmann, Arndt; Weihbrecht, Sebastian B.; Wachter, David L.; Jud, Sebastian M.; Loehberg, Christian R.; Baglietto, Laura; English, Dallas R.; Giles, Graham G.; McLean, Catriona A.; Severi, Gianluca; Lambrechts, Diether; Vandorpe, Thijs; Weltens, Caroline; Paridaens, Robert; Smeets, Ann; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E.; Cafourek, Victoria; Fredericksen, Zachary; Kosel, Matthew; Vachon, Celine; Cramp, Helen E.; Connley, Daniel; Cross, Simon S.; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Dörk, Thilo; Bremer, Michael; Meyer, Andreas; Karstens, Johann H.; Ay, Aysun; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Hillemanns, Peter; Arias Pérez, Jose Ignacio; Rodríguez, Primitiva Menéndez; Zamora, Pilar; Benítez, Javier; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Hamann, Ute; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas; Justenhoven, Christina; Brauch, Hiltrud; Eccles, Diana M.; Tapper, William J.; Gerty, Sue M.; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian P.; Jones, Angela; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; McInerney, Niall; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Chen, Shou-Tung; Hsu, Giu-Cheng; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubi?ski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Górski, Bohdan; Gronwald, Jacek; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Jager, Agnes; Kriege, Mieke; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M. A.; Collée, Margriet; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Mononen, Kari; Grip, Mervi; Hirvikoski, Pasi; Winqvist, Robert; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kauppinen, Jaana; Kataja, Vesa; Auvinen, Päivi; Soini, Ylermi; Sironen, Reijo; Bojesen, Stig E.; Dynnes Ørsted, David; Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Holland, Helene; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Radice, Paolo; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hunter, David J.; Tamimi, Rulla; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Odefrey, Fabrice; Gaborieau, Valerie; Devilee, Peter; Huijts, P.E.A.; Tollenaar, RAEM.; Seynaeve, C.; Dite, Gillian S.; Apicella, Carmel; Hopper, John L.; Hammet, Fleur; Tsimiklis, Helen; Smith, Letitia D.; Southey, Melissa C.; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Easton, Douglas; Pharoah, Paul; Sherman, Mark E.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

2011-01-01

30

Alcohol intake and colorectal cancer: A pooled analysis of 8 cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Epidemiologic studies have generally reported positive associations between alcohol consumption and risk for colorectal cancer. However, findings related to specific alcoholic beverages or different anatomic sites in the large bowel have been inconsistent. Objective: To examine the relationship of total alcohol intake and intake from specific beverages to the incidence of colorectal cancer and to evaluate whether other potential

Eunyoung Cho; Stephanie A. Smith-Warner; John Ritz; Piet A. van den Brandt; Graham A. Colditz

2004-01-01

31

Aspirin, Nonaspirin Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug, and Acetaminophen Use and Risk of Invasive Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Pooled Analysis in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium  

PubMed Central

Background Regular aspirin use is associated with reduced risk of several malignancies. Epidemiologic studies analyzing aspirin, nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and acetaminophen use and ovarian cancer risk have been inconclusive. Methods We analyzed pooled data from 12 population-based case–control studies of ovarian cancer, including 7776 case patients and 11843 control subjects accrued between 1992 and 2007. Odds ratios (ORs) for associations of medication use with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer were estimated in individual studies using logistic regression and combined using random effects meta-analysis. Associations between frequency, dose, and duration of analgesic use and risk of ovarian cancer were also assessed. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Aspirin use was associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer (OR = 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84 to 0.99). Results were similar but not statistically significant for nonaspirin NSAIDs, and there was no association with acetaminophen. In seven studies with frequency data, the reduced risk was strongest among daily aspirin users (OR = 0.80; 95% CI = 0.67 to 0.96). In three studies with dose information, the reduced risk was strongest among users of low dose (<100mg) aspirin (OR = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.53 to 0.83), whereas for nonaspirin NSAIDs, the reduced risk was strongest for high dose (?500mg) usage (OR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.64 to 0.91). Conclusions Aspirin use was associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer, especially among daily users of low-dose aspirin. These findings suggest that the same aspirin regimen proven to protect against cardiovascular events and several cancers could reduce the risk of ovarian cancer 20% to 34% depending on frequency and dose of use. PMID:24503200

2014-01-01

32

Dietary carotenoids and risk of colorectal cancer in a pooled analysis of 11 cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary carotenoids have been hypothesized to protect against epithelial cancers. The authors analyzed the associations between intakes of specific carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein þ zeaxanthin, and lycopene) and risk of colorectal cancer using the primary data from 11 cohort studies carried out in North America and Europe. Carotenoid intakes were estimated from food frequency questionnaires administered at baseline in

Satu Mannisto; Shiaw-Shyuan Yaun; David J. Hunter; Donna Spiegelman; Hans-Olov Adami; Demetrius Albanes; Brandt van den Piet A; Julie E. Buring; James R. Cerhan; Graham A. Colditz; Jo L. Freudenheim; Charles S. Fuchs; Edward Giovannucci; R. Alexandra Goldbohm; Lisa Harnack; Michael Leitzmann; Marjorie L. McCullough; Anthony B. Miller; Thomas E. Rohan; Arthur Schatzkin; Jarmo Virtamo; Walter C. Willett; Alicja Wolk; Shumin M. Zhang; Stephanie A. Smith-Warner

2007-01-01

33

Active Smoking and Breast Cancer Incidence: Pooled Analysis of Cohort Data - Mia Gaudet, Ph.D.  

Cancer.gov

October 30, 2014 10:00 AM - 11:00 AM Shady Grove Room 2E 908 + Add to Outlook Calendar NOTE NEW TIME:  10:00 to 11:00 AM Speaker: Mia Gaudet, Ph.D.Director, Genetic EpidemiologyAmerican Cancer Society, Inc. Host: Shelia Hoar Zahm, Sc.D., Scientific

34

Trabectedin as single agent in relapsed advanced ovarian cancer: results from a retrospective pooled analysis of three phase II trials.  

PubMed

Three phase II studies evaluated trabectedin monotherapy as second-/third-line therapy in patients with refractory/recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC). Three different schedules were investigated: 3-h infusion every 3 weeks (3-h_q3w), 24-h infusion q3w (24-h_q3w), and 3-h weekly infusion for 3 weeks of a 4-week cycle. This retrospective pooled analysis evaluated the efficacy and the safety profile of trabectedin according to each administered regimen. Data from 295 patients were used to compare weekly versus q3w schedules, and 3-h versus 24-h infusion given q3w. Both q3w regimens showed higher overall response rate (36 vs. 16 %; p = 0.0001), disease control rate (66 vs. 46 %; p = 0.0007), and longer median progression-free survival (5.6 vs. 2.8 months; p < 0.0001) than the weekly schedule. Comparable activity was observed for the 3- and 24-h infusions q3w. Common adverse events were nausea, fatigue, vomiting, transient neutropenia, and transaminase increases. A better safety profile regarding neutropenia, fatigue, and vomiting was seen for the 3-h_q3w regimen as compared to the 24-h_q3w one. Trabectedin given as a single agent q3w as 3-h infusion is the schedule of choice for the treatment of ROC, and its efficacy and safety profile favorably compares with other active salvage treatments. PMID:23397080

del Campo, José María; Sessa, Cristiana; Krasner, Carolyn N; Vermorken, Jan B; Colombo, Nicoletta; Kaye, Stan; Gore, Martin; Zintl, Patrik; Gómez, Javier; Parekh, Trilok; Park, Youn Choi; McMeekin, Scott

2013-03-01

35

After Breast Cancer Pooling Project  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Menu Search EGRP Site: EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational

36

Familial Aggregation of Glioma: A Pooled Analysis  

PubMed Central

In genome-wide association studies, inherited risk of glioma has been demonstrated for rare familial syndromes and with common variants from 3–5 chromosomal regions. To assess the degree of familial aggregation of glioma, the authors performed a pooled analysis of data from 2 large glioma case-control studies in the United States (MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (1994–2006) and University of California, San Francisco (1991–2004)) and from the Swedish Cancer Registry (1958–2006) to measure excess cases of cancer among first-degree relatives of glioma probands. This analysis included 20,377 probands with glioma and 52,714 first-degree relatives. No overall increase was found in the expected number of cancers among family members; however, there were 77% more gliomas than expected. There were also significantly more sarcoma and melanoma cases than expected, which is supported by evidence in the literature, whereas there were significantly fewer-than-expected cases of leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and bladder, lung, pancreatic, prostate, and uterine cancers. This large pooled analysis provided sufficient numbers of related family members to examine the genetic mechanisms involved in the aggregation of glioma with other cancers in these families. However, misclassification due to unvalidated cancers among family members could account for the differences seen by study site. PMID:20858744

Scheurer, Michael E.; Etzel, Carol J.; Liu, Mei; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Wiklund, Fredrik; Tavelin, Björn; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Melin, Beatrice S.; Bondy, Melissa L.

2010-01-01

37

Gene expression profiling to predict the risk of locoregional recurrence in breast cancer: a pooled analysis.  

PubMed

The 70-gene signature (MammaPrint™) has been developed to predict the risk of distant metastases in breast cancer and select those patients who may benefit from adjuvant treatment. Given the strong association between locoregional and distant recurrence, we hypothesize that the 70-gene signature will also be able to predict the risk of locoregional recurrence (LRR). 1,053 breast cancer patients primarily treated with breast-conserving treatment or mastectomy at the Netherlands Cancer Institute between 1984 and 2006 were included. Adjuvant treatment consisted of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and/or endocrine therapy as indicated by guidelines used at the time. All patients were included in various 70-gene signature validation studies. After a median follow-up of 8.96 years with 87 LRRs, patients with a high-risk 70-gene signature (n = 492) had an LRR risk of 12.6 % (95 % CI 9.7-15.8) at 10 years, compared to 6.1 % (95 % CI 4.1-8.5) for low-risk patients (n = 561; P < 0.001). Adjusting the 70-gene signature in a competing risk model for the clinicopathological factors such as age, tumour size, grade, hormone receptor status, LVI, axillary lymph node involvement, surgical treatment, endocrine treatment, and chemotherapy resulted in a multivariable HR of 1.73 (95 % CI 1.02-2.93; P = 0.042). Adding the signature to the model based on clinicopathological factors improved the discrimination, albeit non-significantly [C-index through 10 years changed from 0.731 (95 % CI 0.682-0.782) to 0.741 (95 % CI 0.693-0.790)]. Calibration of the prognostic models was excellent. The 70-gene signature is an independent prognostic factor for LRR. A significantly lower local recurrence risk was seen in patients with a low-risk 70-gene signature compared to those with high-risk 70-gene signature. PMID:25414025

Drukker, C A; Elias, S G; Nijenhuis, M V; Wesseling, J; Bartelink, H; Elkhuizen, P; Fowble, B; Whitworth, P W; Patel, R R; de Snoo, F A; van 't Veer, L J; Beitsch, P D; Rutgers, E J Th

2014-12-01

38

Alcohol intake and pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis from the pancreatic cancer cohort consortium (PanScan)  

PubMed Central

The literature has consistently reported no association between low to moderate alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer; however, a few studies have shown that high levels of intake may increase risk. Most single studies have limited power to detect associations even in the highest alcohol intake categories or to examine associations by alcohol type. We analyzed these associations using 1,530 pancreatic cancer cases and 1,530 controls from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan) nested case–control study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. We observed no significant overall association between total alcohol (ethanol) intake and pancreatic cancer risk (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 0.86–2.23, for 60 or more g/day vs. >0 to <5 g/day). A statistically significant increase in risk was observed among men consuming 45 or more grams of alcohol from liquor per day (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.02–4.87, compared to 0 g/day of alcohol from liquor, P-trend = 0.12), but not among women (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.63–2.87, for 30 or more g/day of alcohol from liquor, compared to none). No associations were noted for wine or beer intake. Overall, no significant increase in risk was observed, but a small effect among heavy drinkers cannot be ruled out. PMID:20373013

Vrieling, Alina; Jiao, Li; Mendelsohn, Julie B.; Steplowski, Emily; Lynch, Shannon M.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Arslan, Alan A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gross, Myron; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Jacobs, Eric J.; LaCroix, Andrea; Petersen, Gloria; Zheng, Wei; Allen, Naomi; Ammundadottir, Laufey; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Boffetta, Paolo; Buring, Julie E.; Canzian, Federico; Chanock, Stephen J.; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Clipp, Sandra; Freiberg, Matthew S.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Hankinson, Susan; Hartge, Patricia; Hoover, Robert N.; Hubbell, F. Allan; Hunter, David J.; Hutchinson, Amy; Jacobs, Kevin; Kooperberg, Charles; Kraft, Peter; Manjer, Jonas; Navarro, Carmen; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Stevens, Victoria; Thomas, Gilles; Tjønneland, Anne; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wallace, Robert; Wolpin, Brian M.; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.

2011-01-01

39

Data Pooling and Analysis to Build a Preliminary Item BankAn Example Using Bowel Function in Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing bowel function (BF) in prostate cancer can help determine therapeutic trade-offs. We determined the components of BF commonly assessed in prostate cancer studies as an initial step in creating an item bank for clinical and research application. We analyzed six archived data sets representing 4,246 men with prostate cancer. Thirty-one items from validated instruments were available for analysis. Items

David T. Eton; Jin-Shei Lai; David Cella; Bryce B. Reeve; James A. Talcott; Jack A. Clark; Carol P. McPherson; Mark S. Litwin; Carol M. Moinpour

2005-01-01

40

EGFR-TKI therapy for patients with brain metastases from non-small-cell lung cancer: a pooled analysis of published data  

PubMed Central

Introduction Brain metastases are one of the leading causes of death from non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The use of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) to treat brain metastases remains controversial. Thus, we performed a pooled analysis of published data to evaluate the efficacy of EGFR-TKIs in NSCLC patients with brain metastases, particularly for tumors with activating EGFR mutations. Methods Several data sources were searched, including PubMed, Web of Science, and ASCO Annual Meetings databases. The end points were intracranial overall response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and adverse events. The pooled ORR, DCR, PFS, and OS with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated employing fixed- or random-effect models, depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. Results Sixteen published studies were included in this analysis, with a total of 464 enrolled patients. The EGFR mutational status was unknown for 362 (unselected group), and 102 had activating EGFR mutations. The pooled intracranial ORR and DCR were 51.8% (95% CI: 45.8%–57.8%) and 75.7% (95% CI: 70.3%–80.5%), respectively. A higher ORR was observed in the EGFR mutation group than in the unselected group (85.0% vs 45.1%); a similar trend was observed for the DCR (94.6% vs 71.3%). The pooled median PFS and OS were 7.4 months (95% CI, 4.9–9.9) and 11.9 months (95% CI, 7.7–16.2), respectively, with longer PFS (12.3 months vs 5.9 months) and OS (16.2 months vs 10.3 months) in the EGFR mutation group than in the unselected group. Conclusion This pooled analysis strongly suggests that EGFR-TKIs are an effective treatment for NSCLC patients with brain metastases, particularly in those patients harboring EGFR mutations. Larger prospective randomized clinical trials are warranted to confirm our conclusion and identify the most appropriate treatment model. PMID:25419145

Fan, Yun; Xu, Xiaoling; Xie, Conghua

2014-01-01

41

Data pooling and analysis to build a preliminary item bank: an example using bowel function in prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Assessing bowel function (BF) in prostate cancer can help determine therapeutic trade-offs. We determined the components of BF commonly assessed in prostate cancer studies as an initial step in creating an item bank for clinical and research application. We analyzed six archived data sets representing 4,246 men with prostate cancer. Thirty-one items from validated instruments were available for analysis. Items were classified into domains (diarrhea, rectal urgency, pain, bleeding, bother/distress, and other) then subjected to conventional psychometric and item response theory (IRT) analyses. Items fit the IRT model if the ratio between observed and expected item variance was between 0.60 and 1.40. Four of 31 items had inadequate fit in at least one analysis. Poorly fitting items included bleeding (2), rectal urgency (1), and bother/distress (1). A fifth item assessing hemorrhoids was poorly correlated with other items. Our analyses supported four related components of BF: diarrhea, rectal urgency, pain, and bother/distress. PMID:15851770

Eton, David T; Lai, Jin-Shei; Cella, David; Reeve, Bryce B; Talcott, James A; Clark, Jack A; McPherson, Carol P; Litwin, Mark S; Moinpour, Carol M

2005-06-01

42

Efficacy of nonestrogenic hot flash therapies among women stratified by breast cancer history and tamoxifen use: a pooled analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective Various nonestrogenic therapies have been found to be effective in mitigating hot flashes, but it has been unclear whether the efficacy varies by whether women have had breast cancer and/or were taking tamoxifen. Methods This study used data from Mayo Clinic/North Central Cancer Treatment Group clinical trials that evaluated the efficacy of any nonestrogenic agent for hot flashes and had information on breast cancer history or tamoxifen use. Statistically significant changes from the fourth treatment week versus the baseline week, using individual patient data, were assessed using Student’s t test. Results A total of 1,396 women from 20 hot flash studies were eligible for analysis. Overall, women without breast cancer had a similar percentage of baseline hot flash score at week 4, as did those with breast cancer (53% vs 50%, P = 0.92). Women who were not taking tamoxifen had a significantly lower percentage of hot flash score at week 4 as compared with those who used tamoxifen (54% vs 61%, P = 0.01). However, this was due to a higher reduction in hot flash scores in the placebo arms among women not receiving tamoxifen; the percentage reduction in hot flash scores at week 4 from baseline in the active therapy arms of the randomized placebo-controlled trials (ie, excluding placebo arms) was similar among the tamoxifen users and nonusers (difference in mean percentage reduction, 5.7; 95% CI, ?1.76 to 13.16). Conclusions Some nonestrogenic therapies seem to be useful for reducing hot flashes, irrespective of the etiology of hot flashes. PMID:19188850

Bardia, Aditya; Novotny, Paul; Sloan, Jeff; Barton, Deb; Loprinzi, Charles

2014-01-01

43

Folate intake and the risk of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer: A pooled analysis within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium.  

PubMed

There are suggestions of an inverse association between folate intake and serum folate levels and the risk of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers (OPCs), but most studies are limited in sample size, with only few reporting information on the source of dietary folate. Our study aims to investigate the association between folate intake and the risk of OPC within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium. We analyzed pooled individual-level data from ten case-control studies participating in the INHANCE consortium, including 5,127 cases and 13,249 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for the associations between total folate intake (natural, fortification and supplementation) and natural folate only, and OPC risk. We found an inverse association between total folate intake and overall OPC risk (the adjusted OR for the highest vs. the lowest quintile was 0.65, 95% CI: 0.43-0.99), with a stronger association for oral cavity (OR?=?0.57, 95% CI: 0.43-0.75). A similar inverse association, though somewhat weaker, was observed for folate intake from natural sources only in oral cavity cancer (OR?=?0.64, 95% CI: 0.45-0.91). The highest OPC risk was observed in heavy alcohol drinkers with low folate intake as compared to never/light drinkers with high folate (OR?=?4.05, 95% CI: 3.43-4.79); the attributable proportion (AP) owing to interaction was 11.1% (95% CI: 1.4-20.8%). Lastly, we reported an OR of 2.73 (95% CI:2.34-3.19) for those ever tobacco users with low folate intake, compared with nevere tobacco users and high folate intake (AP of interaction =10.6%, 95% CI: 0.41-20.8%). Our project of a large pool of case-control studies supports a protective effect of total folate intake on OPC risk. PMID:24974959

Galeone, Carlotta; Edefonti, Valeria; Parpinel, Maria; Leoncini, Emanuele; Matsuo, Keitaro; Talamini, Renato; Olshan, Andrew F; Zevallos, Jose P; Winn, Deborah M; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel; Moysich, Kirsten; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Morgenstern, Hal; Levi, Fabio; Bosetti, Cristina; Kelsey, Karl; McClean, Michael; Schantz, Stimson; Yu, Guo-Pei; Boffetta, Paolo; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hashibe, Mia; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boccia, Stefania

2015-02-15

44

Cigarette smoking and lung cancer – relative risk estimates for the major histological types from a pooled analysis of case-control studies  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is mainly caused by smoking, but the quantitative relations between smoking and histologic subtypes of lung cancer remain inconclusive. Using one of the largest lung cancer datasets ever assembled, we explored the impact of smoking on risks of the major cell types of lung cancer. This pooled analysis included 13,169 cases and 16,010 controls from Europe and Canada. Studies with population controls comprised 66.5% of the subjects. Adenocarcinoma (AdCa) was the most prevalent subtype in never smokers and in women. Squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) predominated in male smokers. Age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated with logistic regression. ORs were elevated for all metrics of exposure to cigarette smoke and were higher for SqCC and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) than for AdCa. Current male smokers with an average daily dose of >30 cigarettes had ORs of 103.5 (95% CI 74.8-143.2) for SqCC, 111.3 (95% CI 69.8-177.5) for SCLC, and 21.9 (95% CI 16.6-29.0) for AdCa. In women, the corresponding ORs were 62.7 (95% CI 31.5-124.6), 108.6 (95% CI 50.7-232.8), and 16.8 (95% CI 9.2-30.6), respectively. Whereas ORs started to decline soon after quitting, they did not fully return to the baseline risk of never smokers even 35 years after cessation. The major result that smoking exerted a steeper risk gradient on SqCC and SCLC than on AdCa is in line with previous population data and biological understanding of lung cancer development. PMID:22052329

Pesch, Beate; Kendzia, Benjamin; Gustavsson, Per; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Johnen, Georg; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Olsson, Ann; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Gross, Isabelle Mercedes; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Simonato, Lorenzo; Fortes, Cristina; Siemiatycki, Jack; Parent, Marie-Elise; Consonni, Dario; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Zaridze, David; Cassidy, Adrian; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Rudnai, Peter; Lissowska, Jolanta; Stücker, Isabelle; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Rudin, Charles M.; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Straif, Kurt; Brüning, Thomas

2011-01-01

45

Cigarette, cigar, and pipe smoking and the risk of head and neck cancers: pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium.  

PubMed

Cigar and pipe smoking are considered risk factors for head and neck cancers, but the magnitude of effect estimates for these products has been imprecisely estimated. By using pooled data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium (comprising 13,935 cases and 18,691 controls in 19 studies from 1981 to 2007), we applied hierarchical logistic regression to more precisely estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for cigarette, cigar, and pipe smoking separately, compared with reference groups of those who had never smoked each single product. Odds ratios for cigar and pipe smoking were stratified by ever cigarette smoking. We also considered effect estimates of smoking a single product exclusively versus never having smoked any product (reference group). Among never cigarette smokers, the odds ratio for ever cigar smoking was 2.54 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.93, 3.34), and the odds ratio for ever pipe smoking was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.55, 2.81). These odds ratios increased with increasing frequency and duration of smoking (Ptrend ? 0.0001). Odds ratios for cigar and pipe smoking were not elevated among ever cigarette smokers. Head and neck cancer risk was elevated for those who reported exclusive cigar smoking (odds ratio = 3.49, 95% CI: 2.58, 4.73) or exclusive pipe smoking (odds ratio = 3.71, 95% CI: 2.59, 5.33). These results suggest that cigar and pipe smoking are independently associated with increased risk of head and neck cancers. PMID:23817919

Wyss, Annah; Hashibe, Mia; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Yu, Guo-Pei; Winn, Deborah M; Wei, Qingyi; Talamini, Renato; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Sturgis, Erich M; Smith, Elaine; Shangina, Oxana; Schwartz, Stephen M; Schantz, Stimson; Rudnai, Peter; Purdue, Mark P; Eluf-Neto, Jose; Muscat, Joshua; Morgenstern, Hal; Michaluart, Pedro; Menezes, Ana; Matos, Elena; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Lissowska, Jolanta; Levi, Fabio; Lazarus, Philip; La Vecchia, Carlo; Koifman, Sergio; Herrero, Rolando; Hayes, Richard B; Franceschi, Silvia; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Fernandez, Leticia; Fabianova, Eleonora; Daudt, Alexander W; Dal Maso, Luigino; Curado, Maria Paula; Chen, Chu; Castellsague, Xavier; de Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino; Cadoni, Gabriella; Boccia, Stefania; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Olshan, Andrew F

2013-09-01

46

Recreational physical activity and risk of head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis within the international head and neck cancer epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence suggests that physical activity could prevent cancer, but scanty data is available on head and neck cancer (HNC). The aim of our study is to clarify the effect of recreational physical activity (rPA) on HNC. We analyzed data from four case-control studies, including 2,289 HNC cases and 5,580 controls. rPA was classified as: none/low (reference group), moderate and high. We calculated summary Odds Ratios (ORs) by pooling study-specific ORs. Overall, moderate rPA was associated with 22% lower risk of HNC compared to those with none or very low rPA levels [OR = 0.78, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 0.66, 0.91]. Moderate rPA is associated with reduced risk of oral (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.97) and pharyngeal cancer (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.53, 0.85), as well as high rPA levels (OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.88 for oral cavity, OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.38, 0.89 for pharynx). High rPA levels, however, is associated with higher risk of laryngeal cancer (OR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.88). Stratified analyses showed that such inverse association between moderate rPA and HNC was more evident among males (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.62, 0.90), subjects ?45 years (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.93), and ever smokers and ever drinkers (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.88). High rPA significantly reduces HNC risk among subject ?45 years (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.91). Promoting rPA might be inversely associated with HNC. PMID:21842237

Nicolotti, Nicola; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Cadoni, Gabriella; Arzani, Dario; Petrelli, Livia; Bosetti, Cristina; Brenner, Hermann; Hosono, Satoyo; La Vecchia, Carlo; Talamini, Renato; Matsuo, Keitaro; Müller, Heiko; Muscat, Joshua; Paludetti, Gaetano; Ricciardi, Gualtiero; Boffetta, Paolo; Hashibe, Mia; Boccia, Stefania

2011-08-01

47

Cigarette, Cigar, and Pipe Smoking and the Risk of Head and Neck Cancers: Pooled Analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium  

PubMed Central

Cigar and pipe smoking are considered risk factors for head and neck cancers, but the magnitude of effect estimates for these products has been imprecisely estimated. By using pooled data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium (comprising 13,935 cases and 18,691 controls in 19 studies from 1981 to 2007), we applied hierarchical logistic regression to more precisely estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for cigarette, cigar, and pipe smoking separately, compared with reference groups of those who had never smoked each single product. Odds ratios for cigar and pipe smoking were stratified by ever cigarette smoking. We also considered effect estimates of smoking a single product exclusively versus never having smoked any product (reference group). Among never cigarette smokers, the odds ratio for ever cigar smoking was 2.54 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.93, 3.34), and the odds ratio for ever pipe smoking was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.55, 2.81). These odds ratios increased with increasing frequency and duration of smoking (Ptrend ? 0.0001). Odds ratios for cigar and pipe smoking were not elevated among ever cigarette smokers. Head and neck cancer risk was elevated for those who reported exclusive cigar smoking (odds ratio = 3.49, 95% CI: 2.58, 4.73) or exclusive pipe smoking (odds ratio = 3.71, 95% CI: 2.59, 5.33). These results suggest that cigar and pipe smoking are independently associated with increased risk of head and neck cancers. PMID:23817919

Wyss, Annah; Hashibe, Mia; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Yu, Guo-Pei; Winn, Deborah M.; Wei, Qingyi; Talamini, Renato; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Sturgis, Erich M.; Smith, Elaine; Shangina, Oxana; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Schantz, Stimson; Rudnai, Peter; Purdue, Mark P.; Eluf-Neto, Jose; Muscat, Joshua; Morgenstern, Hal; Michaluart, Pedro; Menezes, Ana; Matos, Elena; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Lissowska, Jolanta; Levi, Fabio; Lazarus, Philip; La Vecchia, Carlo; Koifman, Sergio; Herrero, Rolando; Hayes, Richard B.; Franceschi, Silvia; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Fernandez, Leticia; Fabianova, Eleonora; Daudt, Alexander W.; Dal Maso, Luigino; Curado, Maria Paula; Chen, Chu; Castellsague, Xavier; de Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino; Cadoni, Gabriella; Boccia, Stefania; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Olshan, Andrew F.

2013-01-01

48

History of Diabetes and risk of head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium  

PubMed Central

Background A history of diabetes is associated with an increased risk of several types of cancers. Whether diabetes is a risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC) has received little attention. Methods We pooled data from 12 case-control studies including 6,448 cases and 13,747 controls, and estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between diabetes and HNC, adjusted for age, education level, sex, race/ethnicity, study center, cigarette smoking, alcohol use and body mass index (BMI). Results We observed a weak association between diabetes and the incidence of HNC overall (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.95–1.24). However, we observed a modest association among never smokers (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.22–2.07), and no association among ever smokers (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.83–1.11); likelihood ratio test for interaction p=0.001. Conclusions A history of diabetes was weakly associated with HNC overall, but we observed evidence of effect modification by smoking status, with a positive association among those who never smoked cigarettes. Impact This study suggests that glucose metabolism abnormalities may be a HNC risk factor in subgroups of the population. Prospective studies incorporating biomarkers are needed to improve our understanding of the relationship between diabetes and HNC risk, possibly providing new strategies in the prevention of HNC. PMID:22144496

Stott-Miller, Marni; Chen, Chu; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Boccia, Stefania; Brenner, Hermann; Cadoni, Gabriela; Maso, Luigino Dal; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lazarus, Philip; Levi, Fabio; Matsuo, Keitaro; Morgenstern, Hal; Müller, Heiko; Muscat, Joshua; Olshan, Andrew F.; Purdue, Mark P.; Serraino, Diego; Vaughan, Thomas L.; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Boffetta, Paolo; Hashibe, Mia; Schwartz, Stephen M.

2011-01-01

49

Stage-specific analysis of plasma protein profiles in ovarian cancer: Difference in-gel electrophoresis analysis of pooled clinical samples  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecological cancer. Non-specific symptoms early in disease and the lack of specific biomarkers hinder early diagnosis. Multi-marker blood screening tests have shown promise for improving identification of early stage disease; however, available tests lack sensitivity, and specificity. Materials and Methods: In this study, pooled deeply-depleted plasma from women with Stage 1, 2 or 3 ovarian cancer and healthy controls were used to compare the 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) protein profiles and identify potential novel markers of ovarian cancer progression. Results/Discussion: Stage-specific variation in biomarker expression was observed. For example, apolipoprotein A1 expression is relatively low in control and Stage 1, but shows a substantial increase in Stage 2 and 3, thus, potential of utility for disease confirmation rather than early detection. A better marker for early stage disease was tropomyosin 4 (TPM4). The expression of TPM4 increased by 2-fold in Stage 2 before returning to “normal” levels in Stage 3 disease. Multiple isoforms were also identified for some proteins and in some cases, displayed stage-specific expression. An interesting example was fibrinogen alpha, for which 8 isoforms were identified. Four displayed a moderate increase at Stage 1 and a substantial increase for Stages 2 and 3 while the other 4 showed only moderate increases. Conclusion: Herein is provided an improved summary of blood protein profiles for women with ovarian cancer stratified by stage. PMID:23858298

Bailey, Mark J.; Shield-Artin, Kristy L.; Oliva, Karen; Ayhan, Mustafa; Reisman, Simone; Rice, Gregory E.

2013-01-01

50

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and breast cancer risk: a nested-case-control study and a pooled meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  A reduced activity of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) due to frequent C677T polymorphism affects DNA synthesis,\\u000a repair and methylation and may be implicated in breast cancer risk.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted a nested case-control study within a phase III prevention trial of tamoxifen. After a median follow-up of 81.2 months,\\u000a 79 of the 5,408 hysterectomised women aged 35–70 years, who had received either tamoxifen 20 mg\\/day

Debora Macis; Patrick Maisonneuve; Harriet Johansson; Bernardo Bonanni; Edoardo Botteri; Simona Iodice; Barbara Santillo; Silvana Penco; Giacomo Gucciardo; Giuseppe D’Aiuto; Marco Rosselli del Turco; Marinella Amadori; Alberto Costa; Andrea Decensi

2007-01-01

51

Ixabepilone plus capecitabine in metastatic breast cancer patients with reduced performance status previously treated with anthracyclines and taxanes: a pooled analysis by performance status of efficacy and safety data from 2 phase III studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) previously treated with anthracyclines and taxanes often have decreased performance\\u000a status secondary to extensive tumor involvement. Here, we report the pooled analysis of efficacy and safety data from two\\u000a similarly designed phase III studies to provide a more precise estimate of benefit of ixabepilone plus capecitabine in MBC\\u000a patients with Karnofsky’s performance status (KPS)

Henri Roche ´; Pierfranco Conte; Edith A. Perez; Joseph A. Sparano; Binghe Xu; Jacek Jassem; Ronald Peck; Thomas Kelleher; Gabriel N. Hortobagyi

2011-01-01

52

Preoperative Radiotherapy of Advanced Rectal Cancer With Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin With or Without Cetuximab: A Pooled Analysis of Three Prospective Phase I-II Trials  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A pooled analysis of three prospective trials of preoperative radiochemotherapy (RCT) for rectal cancer by using oxaliplatin and capecitabine with or without cetuximab was performed to evaluate the impact of additional cetuximab on pathologic complete response (pCR) rates and tumor regression (TRG) grades. Methods and Materials: Of 202 patients, 172 patients met the inclusion criteria (primary tumor stage II/III, M0). All patients received concurrent RCT, and 46 patients received additional cetuximab therapy. A correlation of pretreatment clinicopathologic factors and cetuximab treatment with early pCR rates (TRG > 50%) was performed with univariate and multivariate analyses. Toxicity data were recorded for all patients. Results: Of 172 patients, 24 (14%) patients achieved a pCR, and 84 of 172 (71%) patients showed a TRG of >50% in the surgical specimen assessment after preoperative treatment. Age, gender, and T/N stages, as well as localization of the tumor, were not associated with pCR or good TRG. The pCR rate was 16% after preoperative RCT alone and 9% with concurrent cetuximab therapy (p = 0.32). A significantly reduced TRG of >50% was found after RCT with cetuximab compared to RCT alone (p = 0.0035). This was validated by a multivariate analysis with all available clinical factors (p = 0.0037). Acute toxicity and surgical complications were not increased with additional cetuximab. Conclusions: Triple therapy with RCT and cetuximab seems to be feasible, with no unexpected toxicity. Early response assessment (TRG), however, suggests subadditive interaction. A longer follow-up (and finally randomized trials) is needed to draw any firm conclusions with respect to local and distant failure rates.

Weiss, Christian, E-mail: christian.weiss@kgu.d [Departments of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Arnold, Dirk [Departments of Haematology and Oncology, Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (Germany); Dellas, Kathrin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (Germany); Liersch, Torsten [Departments of General and Visceral Surgery, Georg-August University, Goettingen (Germany); Hipp, Matthias [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Fietkau, Rainer; Sauer, Rolf [Department of Radiation Oncology, Friedrich-Alexander University, Erlangen (Germany); Hinke, Axel [WiSP, Research Institute Pharma GmbH, Langenfeld (Germany); Roedel, Claus [Departments of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2010-10-01

53

Prognostic factors for survival with bevacizumab-based therapy in colorectal cancer patients: a systematic review and pooled analysis of 11,585 patients.  

PubMed

First-line chemotherapy + bevacizumab (BEV) is one of the standards of care in advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). Contrary to anti-EGFR agents, it is currently not possible to identify the ideal candidate for BEV-based chemotherapy due to the lack of predictors of outcomes. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of risk factors for survival after B-based chemotherapy for CRC. We performed a meta-analysis by searching on the databases PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and SCOPUS for a published series that focused on prognostic factors for BEV-based therapy in advanced CRC. Pooled hazard ratios (HR) were calculated by using a random-effects model for parameters that could be considered as potential prognostic factors in ?3 papers. Twenty-nine studies, which included a total of 11,585 patients, were considered in this analysis. Five parameters were associated with survival in ?3 papers: (1) a longer progression-free interval [PFS: HR 0.87, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.78-0.97; P = 0.01]; (2) a single site of metastases (HR 0.63, 95 % CI 0.56-0.71; P < 0.00001); (3) elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH: HR 2.08, 95 % CI 1.69-2.57; P < 0.00001); (4) KRAS mutation (HR 1.66, 95 % CI 1.36-2.03; P < 0.00001); and (5) poor performance status (PS: HR 1.99, 95 % CI 1.41-2.82; P < 0.0001). Clinical variables associated with prolonged survival, after first-line treatment with chemotherapy + BEV for metastatic CRC patients, included long PFS, low LDH levels, KRAS wild-type status, good PS and a single site of metastasis. They should be considered when stratifying patients for inclusion in randomized trials. Investigations into new prognostic factors based on tumor biology are needed and of high priority. PMID:25572811

Petrelli, Fausto; Coinu, Andrea; Cabiddu, Mary; Borgonovo, Karen; Lonati, Veronica; Ghilardi, Mara; Barni, Sandro

2015-02-01

54

Estimating and explaining the effect of education and income on head and neck cancer risk: INHANCE consortium pooled analysis of 31 case-control studies from 27 countries.  

PubMed

Low socioeconomic status has been reported to be associated with head and neck cancer risk. However, previous studies have been too small to examine the associations by cancer subsite, age, sex, global region and calendar time and to explain the association in terms of behavioral risk factors. Individual participant data of 23,964 cases with head and neck cancer and 31,954 controls from 31 studies in 27 countries pooled with random effects models. Overall, low education was associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 2.02 - 3.09). Overall one-third of the increased risk was not explained by differences in the distribution of cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors; and it remained elevated among never users of tobacco and nondrinkers (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.13 - 2.31). More of the estimated education effect was not explained by cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors: in women than in men, in older than younger groups, in the oropharynx than in other sites, in South/Central America than in Europe/North America and was strongest in countries with greater income inequality. Similar findings were observed for the estimated effect of low versus high household income. The lowest levels of income and educational attainment were associated with more than 2-fold increased risk of head and neck cancer, which is not entirely explained by differences in the distributions of behavioral risk factors for these cancers and which varies across cancer sites, sexes, countries and country income inequality levels. PMID:24996155

Conway, David I; Brenner, Darren R; McMahon, Alex D; Macpherson, Lorna M D; Agudo, Antonio; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Bosetti, Cristina; Brenner, Hermann; Castellsague, Xavier; Chen, Chu; Curado, Maria Paula; Curioni, Otávio A; Dal Maso, Luigino; Daudt, Alexander W; de Gois Filho, José F; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Edefonti, Valeria; Fabianova, Eleonora; Fernandez, Leticia; Franceschi, Silvia; Gillison, Maura; Hayes, Richard B; Healy, Claire M; Herrero, Rolando; Holcatova, Ivana; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel; Kelsey, Karl; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Koifman, Sergio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lagiou, Pagona; Lazarus, Philip; Levi, Fabio; Lissowska, Jolanta; Luce, Daniele; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Mates, Dana; Matos, Elena; McClean, Michael; Menezes, Ana M; Menvielle, Gwenn; Merletti, Franco; Morgenstern, Hal; Moysich, Kirsten; Müller, Heiko; Muscat, Joshua; Olshan, Andrew F; Purdue, Mark P; Ramroth, Heribert; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Rudnai, Peter; Schantz, Stimson; Schwartz, Stephen M; Shangina, Oxana; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Elaine; Stucker, Isabelle; Sturgis, Erich M; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Talamini, Renato; Thomson, Peter; Vaughan, Thomas L; Wei, Qingyi; Winn, Deborah M; Wunsch-Filho, Victor; Yu, Guo-Pei; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zheng, Tongzhang; Znaor, Ariana; Boffetta, Paolo; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Ghodrat, Marianoosh; Amy Lee, Yuan-Chin; Hashibe, Mia; Brennan, Paul

2015-03-01

55

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), and breast cancer risk: pooled individual data analysis of 17 prospective studies  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) stimulates mitosis and inhibits apoptosis. Some published results have shown an association between circulating IGF1 and breast-cancer risk, but it has been unclear whether this relationship is consistent or whether it is modified by IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), menopausal status, oestrogen receptor status or other factors. The relationship of IGF1 (and IGFBP3) with breast-cancer risk factors is also unclear. The Endogenous Hormones and Breast Cancer Collaborative Group was established to analyse pooled individual data from prospective studies to increase the precision of the estimated associations of endogenous hormones with breast-cancer risk. Methods Individual data on prediagnostic IGF1 and IGFBP3 concentrations were obtained from 17 prospective studies in 12 countries. The associations of IGF1 with risk factors for breast cancer in controls were examined by calculating geometric mean concentrations in categories of these factors. The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs of breast cancer associated with increasing IGF1 concentrations were estimated by conditional logistic regression in 4790 cases and 9428 matched controls, with stratification by study, age at baseline, and date of baseline. All statistical tests were two-sided, and a p value of less than 0·05 was considered significant. Findings IGF1 concentrations, adjusted for age, were positively associated with height and age at first pregnancy, inversely associated with age at menarche and years since menopause, and were higher in moderately overweight women and moderate alcohol consumers than in other women. The OR for breast cancer for women in the highest versus the lowest fifth of IGF1 concentration was 1·28 (95% CI 1·14–1·44; p<0·0001). This association was not altered by adjusting for IGFBP3, and did not vary significantly by menopausal status at blood collection. The ORs for a difference in IGF1 concentration between the highest and lowest fifth were 1·38 (95% CI 1·14–1·68) for oestrogen-receptor-positive tumours and 0·80 (0·57–1·13) for oestrogen-receptor-negative tumours (p for heterogeneity=0·007). Interpretation Circulating IGF1 is positively associated with breast-cancer risk. The association is not substantially modified by IGFBP3, and does not differ markedly by menopausal status, but seems to be confined to oestrogen-receptor-positive tumours. Funding Cancer Research UK. PMID:20472501

2010-01-01

56

Recent alcohol consumption and risk of incident ovarian carcinoma: a pooled analysis of 5,342 cases and 10,358 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium  

PubMed Central

Background Studies evaluating the association between alcohol intake and ovarian carcinoma (OC) are inconsistent. Because OC and ovarian borderline tumor histologic types differ genetically, molecularly and clinically, large numbers are needed to estimate risk associations. Methods We pooled data from 12 case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium comprising 5,342 OC cases, 1,455 borderline tumors and 10,358 controls with quantitative information on recent alcohol intake to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) according to frequencies of average daily intakes of beer, wine, liquor and total alcohol. Results Total alcohol intake was not associated with all OC: consumption of >3 drinks per day compared to none, OR=0.92, 95% CI=0.76-1.10, P trend=0.27. Among beverage types, a statistically non-significant decreased risk was observed among women who consumed >8?oz/d of wine compared to none (OR=0.83, 95% CI=0.68-1.01, P trend=0.08). This association was more apparent among women with clear cell OC (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.22-0.83; P trend=0.02), although based on only 10 cases and not statistically different from the other histologic types (P value for statistical heterogeneity between histologic types = 0.09). Statistical heterogeneity of the alcohol- and wine-OC associations was seen among three European studies, but not among eight North American studies. No statistically significant associations were observed in separate analyses evaluating risk with borderline tumors of serous or mucinous histology. Smoking status did not significantly modify any of the associations. Conclusions We found no evidence that recent moderate alcohol drinking is associated with increased risk for overall OC, or that variation in risk is associated strongly with specific histologic types. Understanding modifiable causes of these elusive and deadly cancers remains a priority for the research community. PMID:23339562

2013-01-01

57

Postdiagnosis supplement use and breast cancer prognosis in the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project.  

PubMed

Vitamin supplement use after breast cancer diagnosis is common, but little is known about long-term effects on recurrence and survival. We examined postdiagnosis supplement use and risk of death or recurrence in the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project, a consortium of four cohorts of 12,019 breast cancer survivors from the United States and China. Post-treatment supplement use (vitamins A, B, C, D, E, and multivitamins) was assessed 1-5 years postdiagnosis. Associations with risk of recurrence, breast cancer-specific mortality, or total mortality were analyzed in Cox proportional hazards models separately by cohort. Individual cohort results were combined using random effects meta-analysis. Interactions with smoking, treatment, and hormonal status were examined. In multivariate models, vitamin E was associated with a decreased risk of recurrence (RR: 0.88; 95 % CI 0.79-0.99), and vitamin C with decreased risk of death (RR: 0.81; 95 % CI 0.72-0.92). However, when supplements were mutually adjusted, all associations were attenuated. There were no statistically significant associations with breast cancer mortality. The use of antioxidant supplements (multivitamins, vitamin C, or E) was not associated with recurrence, but was associated with a 16 % decreased risk of death (95 % CI 0.72-0.99). In addition, vitamin D was associated with decreased risk of recurrence among ER positive, but not ER negative tumors (p-interaction = 0.01). In this large consortium of breast cancer survivors, post-treatment use of vitamin supplements was not associated with increased risk of recurrence or death. Post-treatment use of antioxidant supplements was associated with improved survival, but the associations with individual supplement were difficult to determine. Stratification by ER status and considering antioxidants as a group may be more clinically relevant when evaluating associations with cancer risk and mortality. PMID:23660948

Poole, Elizabeth M; Shu, XiaoOu; Caan, Bette J; Flatt, Shirley W; Holmes, Michelle D; Lu, Wei; Kwan, Marilyn L; Nechuta, Sarah J; Pierce, John P; Chen, Wendy Y

2013-06-01

58

A Pooled Analysis of Limited Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated with Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Concurrent Platinum-based Chemotherapy and 70 Gy Daily Radiotherapy: CALGB 30904  

PubMed Central

Introduction Standard therapy for limited stage small cell lung cancer (L-SCLC) is concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy followed by prophylactic cranial radiotherapy. Although many consider the standard radiotherapy regimen to be 45 Gray (Gy) in 1.5 Gy twice-daily fractions, this has failed to gain widespread acceptance. We pooled data for patients assigned to receive daily radiotherapy to 70 Gy on three consecutive prospective CALGB L-SCLC cancer trials and report the results here. Methods All patients on consecutive CALGB L-SCLC trials (39808, 30002, and 30206) utilizing high dose daily radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy were included, and analyzed for toxicity, disease control and survival. Overall survival (OS) and Progression-free survival (PFS) were modeled using Cox proportional hazards models. Prognostic variables for OS-rate and PFS-rate were assessed using logistic regression model. Results 200 patients were included. The median follow-up was 78 months. Grade 3 or greater esophagitis was 23%. The median OS for pooled population was 19.9 months (95% CI: 16.7-22.3), and 5-year OS rate was 20% (95% CI: 16-27%). The 2 year progression free survival was 26% (95% CI: 21-32%). Multivariate analysis found younger age p=0.02 (HR: 1.023, 95% CI: (1.00,1.04), and female sex p=0.02 (HR:0.69, 95% CI: 0.50-0.94) independently associated with improved overall survival. Conclusion 2 Gy daily radiotherapy to a total dose of 70 Gy was well tolerated with similar survival to 45 Gy (1.5 Gy twice daily). This experience may aid practitioners decide whether high dose daily radiotherapy with platinum based chemotherapy is appropriate outside of a clinical trial. PMID:23715301

Salama, Joseph K.; Hodgson, Lydia; Pang, Herbert; Urbanic, James J.; Blackstock, A. William; Schild, Steven E.; Crawford, Jeffrey; Bogart, Jeffrey A; Vokes, Everett E.

2013-01-01

59

Decline in Tested and Self-Reported Cognitive Functioning After Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation for Lung Cancer: Pooled Secondary Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Randomized Trials 0212 and 0214  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the impact of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on self-reported cognitive functioning (SRCF), a functional scale on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30). Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 0214 randomized patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer to PCI or observation; RTOG 0212 randomized patients with limited-disease small cell lung cancer to high- or standard-dose PCI. In both trials, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT)-Recall and -Delayed Recall and SRCF were assessed at baseline (after locoregional therapy but before PCI or observation) and at 6 and 12 months. Patients developing brain relapse before follow-up evaluation were excluded. Decline was defined using the reliable change index method and correlated with receipt of PCI versus observation using logistic regression modeling. Fisher's exact test correlated decline in SRCF with HVLT decline. Results: Of the eligible patients pooled from RTOG 0212 and RTOG 0214, 410 (93%) receiving PCI and 173 (96%) undergoing observation completed baseline HVLT or EORTC QLQ-C30 testing and were included in this analysis. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was associated with a higher risk of decline in SRCF at 6 months (odds ratio 3.60, 95% confidence interval 2.34-6.37, P<.0001) and 12 months (odds ratio 3.44, 95% confidence interval 1.84-6.44, P<.0001). Decline on HVLT-Recall at 6 and 12 months was also associated with PCI (P=.002 and P=.002, respectively) but was not closely correlated with decline in SRCF at the same time points (P=.05 and P=.86, respectively). Conclusions: In lung cancer patients who do not develop brain relapse, PCI is associated with decline in HVLT-tested and self-reported cognitive functioning. Decline in HVLT and decline in SRCF are not closely correlated, suggesting that they may represent distinct elements of the cognitive spectrum.

Gondi, Vinai, E-mail: vgondi@chicagocancer.org [Central Dupage Hospital Cancer Center, Warrenville, Illinois (United States) [Central Dupage Hospital Cancer Center, Warrenville, Illinois (United States); University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Paulus, Rebecca [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Bruner, Deborah W. [Nell Hodgson Woodfull School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)] [Nell Hodgson Woodfull School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Meyers, Christina A. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gore, Elizabeth M. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States)] [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Wolfson, Aaron [University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States)] [University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Werner-Wasik, Maria [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Sun, Alexander Y. [Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada)] [Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Choy, Hak [University of Texas Southwestern Moncreif Cancer Center, Fort Worth, Texas (United States)] [University of Texas Southwestern Moncreif Cancer Center, Fort Worth, Texas (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States)] [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States)

2013-07-15

60

Obesity and survival in operable breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant anthracyclines and taxanes according to pathological subtypes: a pooled analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Obesity is an unfavorable prognostic factor in breast cancer (BC) patients regardless of menopausal status and treatment received. However, the association between obesity and survival outcome by pathological subtype requires further clarification. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis including 5,683 operable BC patients enrolled in four randomized clinical trials (GEICAM/9906, GEICAM/9805, GEICAM/2003–02, and BCIRG 001) evaluating anthracyclines and taxanes as adjuvant treatments. Our primary aim was to assess the prognostic effect of body mass index (BMI) on disease recurrence, breast cancer mortality (BCM), and overall mortality (OM). A secondary aim was to detect differences of such prognostic effects by subtype. Results Multivariate survival analyses adjusting for age, tumor size, nodal status, menopausal status, surgery type, histological grade, hormone receptor status, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, chemotherapy regimen, and under-treatment showed that obese patients (BMI 30.0 to 34.9) had similar prognoses to that of patients with a BMI?

2013-01-01

61

The After Breast Cancer Pooling Project: Rationale, Methodology, and Breast Cancer Survivor Characteristics  

PubMed Central

The After Breast Cancer Pooling Project was established to examine the role of physical activity, adiposity, dietary factors, supplement use, and quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer prognosis. This paper presents pooled and harmonized data on post-diagnosis lifestyle factors, clinical prognostic factors, and breast cancer outcomes from four prospective cohorts of breast cancer survivors (three US-based and one from Shanghai, China) for 18,314 invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed between 1976 and 2006. Most participants were diagnosed with stage I-II breast cancer (84.7%). About 60% of breast tumors were estrogen receptor (ER)+/progesterone receptor (PR)+; 21% were ER?/PR?. Among 8,118 participants with information on HER-2 tumor status, 74.8% were HER-2? and 18.5% were HER-2+. At 1–2 years post-diagnosis (on average) 17.9% of participants were obese (BMI ?30 kg/m2), 32.6% were overweight (BMI 25–29 kg/m2) and 59.9% met the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (? 2.5 hours per week of moderate activity). During follow-up (mean=8.4 years), 3,736 deaths (2,614 from breast cancer), and 3,564 recurrences have been documented. After accounting for differences in year of diagnosis and timing of post-diagnosis enrollment, five-year overall survival estimates were similar across cohorts. This pooling project of 18,000 breast cancer survivors enables the evaluation of associations of post-diagnosis lifestyle factors, QOL, and breast cancer outcomes with an adequate sample size for investigation of heterogeneity by hormone-receptor status and other clinical predictors. The project sets the stage for international collaborations for the investigation of modifiable predictors for breast cancer outcomes. PMID:21710192

Nechuta, Sarah J.; Caan, Bette J.; Chen, Wendy Y.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Lu, Wei; Patterson, Ruth E.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Kwan, Marilyn L.; Chen, Zhi; Weltzien, Erin; Pierce, John P.; Shu, Xiao Ou

2011-01-01

62

Spent fuel pool analysis using TRACE code  

SciTech Connect

The storage requirements of Spent Fuel Pools have been analyzed with the purpose to increase their rack capacities. In the past, the thermal limits have been mainly evaluated with conservative codes developed for this purpose, although some works can be found in which a best estimate code is used. The use of best estimate codes is interesting as they provide more realistic calculations and they have the capability of analyzing a wide range of transients that could affect the Spent Fuel Pool. Two of the most representative thermal-hydraulic codes are RELAP-5 and TRAC. Nowadays, TRACE code is being developed to make use of the more favorable characteristics of RELAP-5 and TRAC codes. Among the components coded in TRACE that can be used to construct the model, it is interesting to use the VESSEL component, which has the capacity of reproducing three dimensional phenomena. In this work, a thermal-hydraulic model of the Maine Yankee spent fuel pool using the TRACE code is developed. Such model has been used to perform a licensing calculation and the results obtained have been compared with experimental measurements made at the pool, showing a good agreement between the calculations predicted by TRACE and the experimental data. (authors)

Sanchez-Saez, F.; Carlos, S.; Villanueva, J. F.; Martorell, S. [Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Universitat Politenica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n, 46021, Valencia (Spain)

2012-07-01

63

Swimming Pools, Hot Rods, and Qualitative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some reactions for the identification and application of cyanuric acid. Suggests students may find this applied chemistry interesting because of the use of cyanuric acid in swimming pools and diesel engines. Lists three tests for cyanate ion and two tests for cyanuric acid. (MVL)

Clyde, Dale D.

1988-01-01

64

Homogeneous pooling group delineation for flood frequency analysis using a fuzzy expert system with genetic enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pooled flood frequency analysis has been widely used to improve flood quantile estimation at sites that have short streamflow gauging records. When conducting pooled frequency analysis, it is necessary to delineate homogeneous pooling groups. A basic requirement for a pooling group is that the catchments in a pooling group should have sufficient similarity in hydrological response to provide a basis

Chang Shu; Donald H Burn

2004-01-01

65

Facilities Services Motor Pool Business Analysis Montana State University  

E-print Network

Facilities Services Motor Pool Business Analysis Montana State University August, 2012, MSU College of Business in 1999. The following worked on the 2012 business analysis: Chris Catlett .................................................................................................... 1 #12;2 Introduction Purpose The purpose of this business analysis is to provide

Maxwell, Bruce D.

66

KRAS Mutation Status and Clinical Outcome of Preoperative Chemoradiation With Cetuximab in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of 2 Phase II Trials  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Cetuximab-containing chemotherapy is known to be effective for KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer; however, it is not clear whether cetuximab-based preoperative chemoradiation confers an additional benefit compared with chemoradiation without cetuximab in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: We analyzed EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutation status with direct sequencing and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression status with immunohistochemistry in tumor samples of 82 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were enrolled in the IRIX trial (preoperative chemoradiation with irinotecan and capecitabine; n=44) or the ERBIRIX trial (preoperative chemoradiation with irinotecan and capecitabine plus cetuximab; n=38). Both trials were similarly designed except for the administration of cetuximab; radiation therapy was administered at a dose of 50.4 Gy/28 fractions and irinotecan and capecitabine were given at doses of 40 mg/m{sup 2} weekly and 1650 mg/m{sup 2}/day, respectively, for 5 days per week. In the ERBIRIX trial, cetuximab was additionally given with a loading dose of 400 mg/m{sup 2} on 1 week before radiation, and 250 mg/m{sup 2} weekly thereafter. Results: Baseline characteristics before chemoradiation were similar between the 2 trial cohorts. A KRAS mutation in codon 12, 13, and 61 was noted in 15 (34%) patients in the IRIX cohort and 5 (13%) in the ERBIRIX cohort (P=.028). Among 62 KRAS wild-type cancer patients, major pathologic response rate, disease-free survival and pathologic stage did not differ significantly between the 2 cohorts. No mutations were detected in BRAF exon 11 and 15, PIK3CA exon 9 and 20, or EGFR exon 18-24 in any of the 82 patients, and PTEN and EGFR expression were not predictive of clinical outcome. Conclusions: In patients with KRAS wild-type locally advanced rectal cancer, the addition of cetuximab to the chemoradiation with irinotecan plus capecitabine regimen was not associated with improved clinical outcome compared with chemoradiation without cetuximab.

Kim, Sun Young; Shim, Eun Kyung [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, Hyun Yang [Division of Translational and Clinical Research I, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Translational and Clinical Research I, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Ji Yeon [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yong Sang [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Yong [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of) [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Division of Translational and Clinical Research I, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Won [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jee Hyun [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Im, Seock-Ah [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyung Hae [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hee Jin, E-mail: heejincmd@yahoo.com [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Division of Translational and Clinical Research I, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

2013-01-01

67

Pooled Analysis of Loss of Heterozygosity in Breast Cancer: a Genome Scan Provides Comparative Evidence for Multiple Tumor Suppressors and Identifies Novel Candidate Regions  

PubMed Central

Somatic loss of heterozygosity (LOH) has been widely reported in breast cancer as a means of identifying putative tumor-suppressor genes. However, individual studies have rarely spanned more than a single chromosome, and the varying criteria used to declare LOH complicate efforts to formally differentiate regions of consistent versus sporadic (random) loss. We report here the compilation of an extensive database from 151 published LOH studies of breast cancer, with summary data from >15,000 tumors and primary allelotypes from >4,300 tumors. Allelic loss was evaluated at 1,168 marker loci, with large variation in the density of informative observations across the genome. Using studies in which primary allelotype information was available, we employed a likelihood-based approach with a formal chromosomal instability and selection model. The approach seeks direct evidence for preferential loss at each locus compared with nearby loci, accounts for heterogeneity across studies, and enables the direct comparison of candidate regions across the genome. Striking preferential loss was observed (in descending order of significance) in specific regions of chromosomes 7q, 16q, 13q, 17p, 8p, 21q, 3p, 18q, 2q, and 19p, as well as other regions, in many cases coinciding with previously identified candidate genes or known fragile sites. Many of these observations were not possible from any single LOH study, and our results suggest that many previously reported LOH results are not systematic or reproducible. Our approach provides a comparative framework for further investigation of regions exhibiting LOH and identifies broad genomic regions for which there exist few data. PMID:13680524

Miller, Brian J.; Wang, Daolong; Krahe, Ralf; Wright, Fred A.

2003-01-01

68

IS URBAN LOGISTICS POOLING VIABLE? A MULTISTAKEHOLDER MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

of collaborative urban freight transport systems, where the different stakeholders of urban logistics can make system (TMS), a risk management module and a multi- criteria analysis method. In this paper we focusIS URBAN LOGISTICS POOLING VIABLE? A MULTISTAKEHOLDER MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS Jesus Gonzalez

Boyer, Edmond

69

Urban logistics pooling viabililty analysis via a multicriteria multiactor method  

E-print Network

systems, where the different stakeholders of urban logistics can make collaborative agreements to improve management system (TMS), a risk management module and a multi- criteria analysis method. In this paper weUrban logistics pooling viabililty analysis via a multicriteria multiactor method Jesus Gonzalez

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

70

salinity Budget analysis of of Western Pacific Warm Pool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Western pacific warm pool plays an important role in governing global climate variability. In particular, the unique salinity structures of warm pool, barrier layer and salinity front, have significant impacts on the heat content accumulation and zonal migration of warm pool surface water, which further modulate the formation and development of tropical climate phenomenon, such as El Niño, MJO and EAM. In order to have better understanding of how warm pool salinity contributes to climate change the salinity budget of warm pool are investigated using results from a model of the Consortium for Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO). The results show that the salinity budget of warm pool and its components have significant seasonal and annual variability. The surface freshwater flux is the dominant element of salinity budget, which is well balanced by the other ocean dynamic terms. However among all the terms of ocean dynamics, mixing is most significant, whereas advection and entrainment are not dominant, unlike most other region. The further analysis of lagged correlation coefficient between the salinity budget, salinity budget components and NIÑO 3.4 reveals that the salinity budget is highly related to El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The results indicate that the annual variability of warm pool salinity budget has a notable correlation coefficient with NIÑO 3.4 (0.7); Mealwhile,variabilities of each components of Ocean dynamics,including diffusion, advection and mixing are found to be highly correlated to ENSO.The local barrier layer is believed to be a major reason.

Gao, Shan; nie, xunwei; Qu, Tangdong

2013-04-01

71

A Pooled Exploratory Analysis of the Effect of Tumor Size and KRAS Mutations on Survival Benefit from Adjuvant Platinum-Based Chemotherapy in Node Negative Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Staging of node negative (N0) non-small cell lung cancer is modified in the 7th edition TNM classification. Here, we pool data from JBR.10 and CALGB-9633 to explore the prognostic and predictive effects of the new T-size descriptors and KRAS mutation status. Methods Node negative patients were reclassified as T2a (>3-?5cm), T2b (>5-?7cm), T3 (>7cm) or T?3 cm (?3cm but other T2 characteristics). Results Of 538 eligible patients, 288 (53.5%) were T2a, 111 (21%) T2b, 62 (11.5%) T3, while 77 (14%) T?3cm were excluded to avoid confounding. KRAS mutations were detected in 104/390 (27%) patients. T-size was prognostic for disease-free survival (DFS; p=0.03), but borderline for overall survival (OS; p=0.10), on multivariable analysis. Significant interaction between the prognostic value of KRAS and tumor size was observed for OS (p=0.01), but not DFS (p=0.10). There was a non-significant trend (p=0.24) for increased chemotherapy effect on OS with advancing T-size (HR T2a 0.90, [0.63-1.30]; T2b 0.69, [0.38-1.24]; and T3 0.57, [0.28-1.17]). The HR for chemotherapy effect on OS in T2a patients with KRAS wild-type tumors was 0.81 (p=0.36), while a trend for detrimental effect was observed in those with mutant tumors (HR 2.11; p=0.09; interaction p=0.05). Similar trends were observed in T2b-T3 patients with wild-type (HR 0.86; p=0.62), and KRAS mutant tumors (HR 1.16; p=0.74; interaction p=0.58). Conclusion Chemotherapy effect appears to increase with tumor size. However, this small study could not identify subgroups of patients who did or did not derive significant benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy based on T-size or KRAS status. PMID:22588152

Cuffe, Sinead; Bourredjem, Abderrahmane; Graziano, Stephen; Pignon, Jean-Pierre; Domerg, Caroline; Ezzalfani, Monia; Seymour, Lesley; Strevel, Elizabeth; Burkes, Ronald; Capelletti, Marzia; Jänne, Pasi A.; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Shepherd, Frances A.

2012-01-01

72

Body size and multiple myeloma mortality: a pooled analysis of 20 prospective studies.  

PubMed

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a rare but highly fatal malignancy. High body weight is associated with this cancer, but several questions remain regarding the aetiological relevance of timing and location of body weight. To address these questions, we conducted a pooled analysis of MM mortality using 1·5 million participants (including 1388 MM deaths) from 20 prospective cohorts in the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium. Proportional hazards regression was used to calculate pooled multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Associations with elevated MM mortality were observed for higher early-adult body mass index (BMI; HR = 1·22, 95% CI: 1·09-1·35 per 5 kg/m(2) ) and for higher cohort-entry BMI (HR 1·09, 95% CI: 1·03-1·16 per 5 kg/m(2) ) and waist circumference (HR = 1·06, 95% CI: 1·02-1·10 per 5 cm). Women who were the heaviest, both in early adulthood (BMI 25+) and at cohort entry (BMI 30+) were at greater risk compared to those with BMI 18·5 ? 25 at both time points (HR = 1·95, 95% CI: 1·33-2·86). Waist-to-hip ratio and height were not associated with MM mortality. These observations suggest that overall, and possibly also central, obesity influence myeloma mortality, and women have the highest risk of death from this cancer if they remain heavy throughout adulthood. PMID:24861847

Teras, Lauren R; Kitahara, Cari M; Birmann, Brenda M; Hartge, Patricia A; Wang, Sophia S; Robien, Kim; Patel, Alpa V; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Giles, Graham G; Singh, Pramil N; Alavanja, Michael; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Bernstein, Leslie; Buring, Julie E; Colditz, Graham A; Fraser, Gary E; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaziano, J Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Hofmann, Jonathan N; Linet, Martha S; Neta, Gila; Park, Yikyung; Peters, Ulrike; Rosenberg, Philip S; Schairer, Catherine; Sesso, Howard D; Stampfer, Meir J; Visvanathan, Kala; White, Emily; Wolk, Alicja; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; de González, Amy Berrington; Purdue, Mark P

2014-09-01

73

Effective detection of rare variants in pooled DNA samples using Cross-pool tailcurve analysis  

PubMed Central

Sequencing targeted DNA regions in large samples is necessary to discover the full spectrum of rare variants. We report an effective Illumina sequencing strategy utilizing pooled samples with novel quality (Srfim) and filtering (SERVIC4E) algorithms. We sequenced 24 exons in two cohorts of 480 samples each, identifying 47 coding variants, including 30 present once per cohort. Validation by Sanger sequencing revealed an excellent combination of sensitivity and specificity for variant detection in pooled samples of both cohorts as compared to publicly available algorithms. PMID:21955804

2011-01-01

74

Cancer risk assessment from exposure to trihalomethanes in tap water and swimming pool water.  

PubMed

We investigated the concentration of trihalomethanes (THMs) in tap water and swimming pool water in the area of the Nakhon Pathom Municipality during the period April 2005-March 2006. The concentrations of total THMs, chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform in tap water were 12.70-41.74, 6.72-29.19, 1.12-11.75, 0.63-3.55 and 0.08-3.40 microg/L, respectively, whereas those in swimming pool water were 26.15-65.09, 9.50-36.97, 8.90-18.01, 5.19-22.78 and ND-6.56 microg/L, respectively. It implied that the concentration of THMs in swimming pool water was higher than those in tap water, particularly, brominated-THMs. Both tap water and swimming pool water contained concentrations of total THMs below the standards of the World Health Organization (WHO), European Union (EU) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) phase I, but 1 out of 60 tap water samples and 60 out of 72 swimming pool water samples contained those over the Standard of the USEPA phase II. From the two cases of cancer risk assessment including Case I Non-Swimmer and Case II Swimmer, assessment of cancer risk of non-swimmers from exposure to THMs at the highest and the average concentrations was 4.43 x 10(-5) and 2.19 x 10(-5), respectively, which can be classified as acceptable risk according to the Standard of USEPA. Assessment of cancer risk of swimmers from exposure to THMs at the highest and the average concentrations was 1.47 x 10(-3) and 7.99 x 10(-4), respectively, which can be classified as unacceptable risk and needs to be improved. Risk of THMs exposure from swimming was 93.9%-94.2% of the total risk. Cancer risk of THMs concluded from various routes in descending order was: skin exposure while swimming, gastro-intestinal exposure from tap water intake, and skin exposure to tap water and gastro-intestinal exposure while swimming. Cancer risk from skin exposure while swimming was 94.18% of the total cancer risk. PMID:18595407

Panyakapo, Mallika; Soontornchai, Sarisak; Paopuree, Pongsri

2008-01-01

75

Induction of apoptosis in cancer cell lines by the Red Sea brine pool bacterial extracts  

PubMed Central

Background Marine microorganisms are considered to be an important source of bioactive molecules against various diseases and have great potential to increase the number of lead molecules in clinical trials. Progress in novel microbial culturing techniques as well as greater accessibility to unique oceanic habitats has placed the marine environment as a new frontier in the field of natural product drug discovery. Methods A total of 24 microbial extracts from deep-sea brine pools in the Red Sea have been evaluated for their anticancer potential against three human cancer cell lines. Downstream analysis of these six most potent extracts was done using various biological assays, such as Caspase-3/7 activity, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), PARP-1 cleavage and expression of ?H2Ax, Caspase-8 and -9 using western blotting. Results In general, most of the microbial extracts were found to be cytotoxic against one or more cancer cell lines with cell line specific activities. Out of the 13 most active microbial extracts, six extracts were able to induce significantly higher apoptosis (>70%) in cancer cells. Mechanism level studies revealed that extracts from Chromohalobacter salexigens (P3-86A and P3-86B(2)) followed the sequence of events of apoptotic pathway involving MMP disruption, caspase-3/7 activity, caspase-8 cleavage, PARP-1 cleavage and Phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, whereas another Chromohalobacter salexigens extract (K30) induced caspase-9 mediated apoptosis. The extracts from Halomonas meridiana (P3-37B), Chromohalobacter israelensis (K18) and Idiomarina loihiensis (P3-37C) were unable to induce any change in MMP in HeLa cancer cells, and thus suggested mitochondria-independent apoptosis induction. However, further detection of a PARP-1 cleavage product, and the observed changes in caspase-8 and -9 suggested the involvement of caspase-mediated apoptotic pathways. Conclusion Altogether, the study offers novel findings regarding the anticancer potential of several halophilic bacterial species inhabiting the Red Sea (at the depth of 1500–2500 m), which constitute valuable candidates for further isolation and characterization of bioactive molecules. PMID:24305113

2013-01-01

76

Pooled analysis of clinical outcome for EGFR TKI-treated patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC.  

PubMed

Patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) appear to gain particular benefit from treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKI) if their disease tests positive for EGFR activating mutations. Recently, several large, controlled, phase III studies have been published in NSCLC patients with EGFR mutation-positive tumours. Given the increased patient dataset now available, a comprehensive literature search for EGFR TKIs or chemotherapy in EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC was undertaken to update the results of a previously published pooled analysis. Pooling eligible progression-free survival (PFS) data from 27 erlotinib studies (n = 731), 54 gefitinib studies (n = 1802) and 20 chemotherapy studies (n = 984) provided median PFS values for each treatment. The pooled median PFS was: 12.4 months (95% accuracy intervals [AI] 11.6-13.4) for erlotinib-treated patients; 9.4 months (95% AI 9.0-9.8) for gefitinib-treated patients; and 5.6 months (95% AI 5.3-6.0) for chemotherapy. Both erlotinib and gefitinib resulted in significantly longer PFS than chemotherapy (permutation testing; P = 0.000 and P = 0.000, respectively). Data on more recent TKIs (afatinib, dacomitinib and icotinib) were insufficient at this time-point to carry out a pooled PFS analysis on these compounds. The results of this updated pooled analysis suggest a substantial clear PFS benefit of treating patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC with erlotinib or gefitinib compared with chemotherapy. PMID:25100284

Paz-Ares, Luis; Soulières, Denis; Moecks, Joachim; Bara, Ilze; Mok, Tony; Klughammer, Barbara

2014-08-01

77

The Role of Prostatitis in Prostate Cancer: Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective Use systematic review methods to quantify the association between prostatitis and prostate cancer, under both fixed and random effects model. Evidence Acquisition Case control studies of prostate cancer with information on prostatitis history. All studies published between 1990-2012, were collected to calculate a pooled odds ratio. Selection criteria: the selection criteria are as follows: human case control studies; published from May 1990 to July 2012; containing number of prostatitis, and prostate cancer cases. Evidence Synthesis In total, 20 case control studies were included. A significant association between prostatitis and prostate cancer was found, under both fixed effect model (pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.39-1.62), and random effects model (OR=1.64, 95%CI: 1.36-1.98). Personal interview based case control studies showed a high level of association (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.59, 95%CI: 1.47-1.73, random effects model: pooled OR= 1.87, 95%CI: 1.52-2.29), compared with clinical based studies (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.05, 95%CI: 0.86-1.28, random effects model: pooled OR= 0.98, 95%CI: 0.67-1.45). Additionally, pooled ORs, were calculated for each decade. In a fixed effect model: 1990’s: OR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.35-1.84; 2000’s: OR=1.59, 95% CI: 1.40-1.79; 2010’s: OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.22-1.56. In a random effects model: 1990’s: OR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.08-3.62; 2000’s: OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.23-2.19; 2010’s: OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.03-1.73. Finally a meta-analysis stratified by each country was conducted. In fixed effect models, U.S: pooled OR =1.45, 95%CI: 1.34-1.57; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90. In random effects model, U.S: pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.25-1.80; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90.CONCLUSIONS: the present meta-analysis provides the statistical evidence that the association between prostatitis and prostate cancer is significant. PMID:24391995

Yunxia, Zhang; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Junjiang; Pumill, Chris

2013-01-01

78

Genome-wide Association Study for Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility using Pooled DNA  

PubMed Central

Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified four low-penetrance ovarian cancer susceptibility loci. We hypothesized that further moderate or low penetrance variants exist among the subset of SNPs not well tagged by the genotyping arrays used in the previous studies which would account for some of the remaining risk. We therefore conducted a time- and cost-effective stage 1 GWAS on 342 invasive serous cases and 643 controls genotyped on pooled DNA using the high density Illumina 1M-Duo array. We followed up 20 of the most significantly associated SNPs, which are not well tagged by the lower density arrays used by the published GWAS, and genotyping them on individual DNA. Most of the top 20 SNPs were clearly validated by individually genotyping the samples used in the pools. However, none of the 20 SNPs replicated when tested for association in a much larger stage 2 set of 4,651 cases and 6,966 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Given that most of the top 20 SNPs from pooling were validated in the same samples by individual genotyping, the lack of replication is likely to be due to the relatively small sample size in our stage 1 GWAS rather than due to problems with the pooling approach. We conclude that there are unlikely to be any moderate or large effects on ovarian cancer risk untagged by the less dense arrays. However our study lacked power to make clear statements on the existence of hitherto untagged small effect variants. PMID:22794196

Lu, Yi; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Johnatty, Sharon E.; deFazio, Anna; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Lambrechts, Diether; Despierre, Evelyn; Vergotes, Ignace; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Nickels, Stefan; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bogdanova, Natalia; Goodman, Marc T.; Lurie, Galina; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Carney, Michael E.; Butzow, Ralf; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Leminen, Arto; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; van Altena, Anne M.; Aben, Katja K.; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Høgdall, Estrid; Jensen, Allan; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Le, Nhu; Cook, Linda; Earp, Madalene; Kelemen, Linda; Easton, Douglas; Pharoah, Paul; Song, Honglin; Tyrer, Jonathan; Ramus, Susan; Menon, Usha; Gentry-Maharaj, Alexandra; Gayther, Simon A.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna

2013-01-01

79

Genome-wide association study for ovarian cancer susceptibility using pooled DNA.  

PubMed

Recent Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified four low-penetrance ovarian cancer susceptibility loci. We hypothesized that further moderate- or low-penetrance variants exist among the subset of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) not well tagged by the genotyping arrays used in the previous studies, which would account for some of the remaining risk. We therefore conducted a time- and cost-effective stage 1 GWAS on 342 invasive serous cases and 643 controls genotyped on pooled DNA using the high-density Illumina 1M-Duo array. We followed up 20 of the most significantly associated SNPs, which are not well tagged by the lower density arrays used by the published GWAS, and genotyping them on individual DNA. Most of the top 20 SNPs were clearly validated by individually genotyping the samples used in the pools. However, none of the 20 SNPs replicated when tested for association in a much larger stage 2 set of 4,651 cases and 6,966 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Given that most of the top 20 SNPs from pooling were validated in the same samples by individual genotyping, the lack of replication is likely to be due to the relatively small sample size in our stage 1 GWAS rather than due to problems with the pooling approach. We conclude that there are unlikely to be any moderate or large effects on ovarian cancer risk untagged by less dense arrays. However, our study lacked power to make clear statements on the existence of hitherto untagged small-effect variants. PMID:22794196

Lu, Yi; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Johnatty, Sharon E; Defazio, Anna; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Lambrechts, Diether; Despierre, Evelyn; Vergotes, Ignace; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Nickels, Stefan; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bogdanova, Natalia; Goodman, Marc T; Lurie, Galina; Wilkens, Lynne R; Carney, Michael E; Butzow, Ralf; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Leminen, Arto; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Massuger, Leon F A G; van Altena, Anne M; Aben, Katja K; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Høgdall, Estrid; Jensen, Allan; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Le, Nhu; Cook, Linda; Earp, Madalene; Kelemen, Linda; Easton, Douglas; Pharoah, Paul; Song, Honglin; Tyrer, Jonathan; Ramus, Susan; Menon, Usha; Gentry-Maharaj, Alexandra; Gayther, Simon A; Bandera, Elisa V; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Macgregor, Stuart; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

2012-10-01

80

Identifying sexual orientation health disparities in adolescents: analysis of pooled data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2005 and 2007.  

PubMed

We studied sexual orientation disparities in health outcomes among US adolescents by pooling multiple Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data sets from 2005 and 2007 for 14 jurisdictions. Here we describe the methodology for pooling and analyzing these data sets. Sexual orientation-related items assessed sexual orientation identity, gender of sexual contacts, sexual attractions, and harassment regarding sexual orientation. Wording of items varied across jurisdictions, so we created parallel variables and composite sexual minority variables. We used a variety of statistical approaches to address issues with the analysis of pooled data and to meet the aims of individual articles, which focused on a range of health outcomes and behaviors related to cancer, substance use, sexual health, mental health, violence, and injury. PMID:24328640

Mustanski, Brian; Van Wagenen, Aimee; Birkett, Michelle; Eyster, Sandra; Corliss, Heather L

2014-02-01

81

Melanocortin-1 receptor, skin cancer and phenotypic characteristics (M-SKIP) project: study design and methods for pooling results of genetic epidemiological studies  

PubMed Central

Background For complex diseases like cancer, pooled-analysis of individual data represents a powerful tool to investigate the joint contribution of genetic, phenotypic and environmental factors to the development of a disease. Pooled-analysis of epidemiological studies has many advantages over meta-analysis, and preliminary results may be obtained faster and with lower costs than with prospective consortia. Design and methods Based on our experience with the study design of the Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene, SKin cancer and Phenotypic characteristics (M-SKIP) project, we describe the most important steps in planning and conducting a pooled-analysis of genetic epidemiological studies. We then present the statistical analysis plan that we are going to apply, giving particular attention to methods of analysis recently proposed to account for between-study heterogeneity and to explore the joint contribution of genetic, phenotypic and environmental factors in the development of a disease. Within the M-SKIP project, data on 10,959 skin cancer cases and 14,785 controls from 31 international investigators were checked for quality and recoded for standardization. We first proposed to fit the aggregated data with random-effects logistic regression models. However, for the M-SKIP project, a two-stage analysis will be preferred to overcome the problem regarding the availability of different study covariates. The joint contribution of MC1R variants and phenotypic characteristics to skin cancer development will be studied via logic regression modeling. Discussion Methodological guidelines to correctly design and conduct pooled-analyses are needed to facilitate application of such methods, thus providing a better summary of the actual findings on specific fields. PMID:22862891

2012-01-01

82

Impact of postmenopausal hormone therapy on cardiovascular events and cancer: pooled data from clinical trials.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and cancer from published clinical trials that studied other outcomes of postmenopausal hormone therapy as some surveys have suggested that it may decrease the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and increase the incidence of hormone dependent cancers. DESIGN: Trials that compared hormone therapy with placebo, no therapy, or vitamins and minerals in comparable groups of postmenopausal women and reported cardiovascular or cancer outcomes were searched from the literature. SUBJECTS: 22 trials with 4124 women were identified. In each group, the numbers of women with cardiovascular and cancer events were summed and divided by the numbers of women originally allocated to the groups. RESULTS: Data on cardiovascular events and cancer were usually given incidentally, either as a reason for dropping out of a study or in a list of adverse effects. The calculated odds ratios for women taking hormones versus those not taking hormones was 1.39 (95% confidence interval 0.48 to 3.95) for cardiovascular events without pulmonary embolus and deep vein thrombosis and 1.64 (0.55 to 4.18) with them. It is unlikely that such results would have occurred if the true odds ratio were 0.7 or less. For cancers, the numbers of reported events were too low for a useful conclusion. CONCLUSIONS: The results of these pooled data do not support the notion that postmenopausal hormone therapy prevents cardiovascular events. PMID:9251544

Hemminki, E.; McPherson, K.

1997-01-01

83

The stomach cancer pooling (StoP) project: study design and presentation.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer affects about one million people per year worldwide, being the second leading cause of cancer mortality. The study of its etiology remains therefore a global issue as it may allow the identification of major targets, besides eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection, for primary prevention. It has however received little attention, given its comparatively low incidence in most high-income countries. We introduce a consortium of epidemiological investigations named the 'Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project'. Twenty-two studies agreed to participate, for a total of over 9000 cases and 23 000 controls. Twenty studies have already shared the original data set. Of the patients, 40% are from Asia, 43% from Europe, and 17% from North America; 34% are women and 66% men; the median age is 61 years; 56% are from population-based case-control studies, 41% from hospital-based ones, and 3% from nested case-control studies derived from cohort investigations. Biological samples are available from 12 studies. The aim of the StoP Project is to analyze the role of lifestyle and genetic determinants in the etiology of gastric cancer through pooled analyses of individual-level data. The uniquely large data set will allow us to define and quantify the main effects of each risk factor of interest, including a number of infrequent habits, and to adequately address associations in subgroups of the population, as well as interaction within and between environmental and genetic factors. Further, we will carry out separate analyses according to different histotypes and subsites of gastric cancer, to identify potential different risk patterns and etiological characteristics. PMID:24566154

Pelucchi, Claudio; Lunet, Nuno; Boccia, Stefania; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Praud, Delphine; Boffetta, Paolo; Levi, Fabio; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Hu, Jinfu; Johnson, Kenneth C; Ferraroni, Monica; Yu, Guo-Pei; Peleteiro, Bárbara; Malekzadeh, Reza; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Ye, Weimin; Zaridze, David; Maximovitch, Dmitry; Aragonés, Nuria; Martín, Vicente; Pakseresht, Mohammadreza; Pourfarzi, Farhad; Bellavia, Andrea; Orsini, Nicola; Wolk, Alicja; Mu, Lina; Arzani, Dario; Kurtz, Robert C; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Muscat, Joshua; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva

2015-01-01

84

Admixture Aberration Analysis: Application to Mapping in Admixed Population Using Pooled DNA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Admixture mapping is a gene mapping approach used for the identification of genomic regions harboring disease susceptibility genes in the case of recently admixed populations such as African Americans. We present a novel method for admixture mapping, called admixture aberration analysis (AAA), that uses a DNA pool of affected admixed individuals. We demonstrate through simulations that AAA is a powerful and economical mapping method under a range of scenarios, capturing complex human diseases such as hypertension and end stage kidney disease. The method has a low false-positive rate and is robust to deviation from model assumptions. Finally, we apply AAA on 600 prostate cancer-affected African Americans, replicating a known risk locus. Simulation results indicate that the method can yield over 96% reduction in genotyping. Our method is implemented as a Java program called AAAmap and is freely available.

Bercovici, Sivan; Geiger, Dan

85

Pooled analysis of tiotropium Respimat(®) pharmacokinetics in cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed

Tiotropium is the first bronchodilator to be studied systematically in cystic fibrosis (CF). We investigated whether any intrinsic or extrinsic factors affected pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of inhaled tiotropium delivered by Respimat(®) in adults and children with CF. Tiotropium PK in patients with CF was compared with that of healthy volunteers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This pooled analysis summarizes the PK parameters of inhaled tiotropium Respimat(®) across 9 early- and late-phase trials involving 27 healthy volunteers (1 trial), 409 patients with CF (3 trials), and 281 patients with COPD (5 trials). Patients with CF aged 5 to 11, 12 to 17, and ? 18 years had similar tiotropium plasma concentrations (geometric mean C(0.083,ss,norm): 2.22 pg/mL/?g; not determined for patients aged <5 years). The fraction excreted unchanged in the urine was 3.4-fold lower for patients aged 0.4 to <5 years than for those aged 5 to 11 years (fe(0-4,ss): 1.19% vs 4.09%). Tiotropium PK parameters were similar between CF patients and COPD patients. PMID:25161072

Sharma, Ashish; Geller, David E; Moroni-Zentgraf, Petra; Kattenbeck, Sabine; Schmid, Marion; Boland, Katja; Rapp, Barbara; Konstan, Michael W; Ratjen, Felix; Elborn, J Stuart; Koker, Paul

2014-12-01

86

Stability analysis of two-dimensional pool-boiling systems M. Speetjens  

E-print Network

) and Speetjens et al. (2006b), as well as for the follow-up study presented in this paper. Central topic, without active control, pool-boiling systems allow only two stable steady-state solutions, namely nucleateStability analysis of two-dimensional pool-boiling systems M. Speetjens , A. Reusken , S. Maier

87

Functional analysis of the marginating pool of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed

The intravascular pool of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) is composed of one compartment which is circulating and another that is marginated to the vascular endothelium. Administration of B-adrenergic agonists leads to a rapid demargination with an increase in the circulating PMN pool. The marginating PMN has previously been stated to represent an older PMN based on a higher cytochemical alkaline phosphatase activity. With the understanding that circulating PMN are heterogeneous with respect to function and size we undertook the present study to evaluate the contribution of the marginating PMN to functional and volume-dependent heterogeneity. We found that PMN isolated 7 min after epinephrine administration, presumably enriched by marginating PMN, were not different in volume, biochemically measured alkaline phosphatase activity, stimulated superoxide anion release, degranulation, or phagocytosis. These data suggest that the circulating and marginating pools of PMN are interchangeable and that the marginating PMN are not enriched by a particular subpopulation of PMN. PMID:3026170

Berkow, R L; Dodson, R W

1987-01-01

88

Microbiological analysis in three diverse natural geothermal bathing pools in Iceland.  

PubMed

Natural thermal bathing pools contain geothermal water that is very popular to bathe in but the water is not sterilized, irradiated or treated in any way. Increasing tourism in Iceland will lead to increasing numbers of bath guests, which can in turn affect the microbial flora in the pools and therefore user safety. Today, there is no legislation that applies to natural geothermal pools in Iceland, as the water is not used for consumption and the pools are not defined as public swimming pools. In this study, we conducted a microbiological analysis on three popular but different natural pools in Iceland, located at Lýsuhóll, Hveravellir and Landmannalaugar. Total bacterial counts were performed by flow cytometry, and with plate count at 22 °C, 37 °C and 50 °C. The presence of viable coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and pseudomonads were investigated by growth experiments on selective media. All samples were screened for noroviruses by real time PCR. The results indicate higher fecal contamination in the geothermal pools where the geothermal water flow was low and bathing guest count was high during the day. The number of cultivated Pseudomonas spp. was high (13,000-40,000 cfu/100 mL) in the natural pools, and several strains were isolated and classified as opportunistic pathogens. Norovirus was not detected in the three pools. DNA was extracted from one-liter samples in each pool and analyzed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbial diversity analysis revealed different microbial communities between the pools and they were primarily composed of alpha-, beta- and gammaproteobacteria. PMID:23493033

Thorolfsdottir, Berglind Osk Th; Marteinsson, Viggo Thor

2013-03-01

89

Microbiological Analysis in Three Diverse Natural Geothermal Bathing Pools in Iceland  

PubMed Central

Natural thermal bathing pools contain geothermal water that is very popular to bathe in but the water is not sterilized, irradiated or treated in any way. Increasing tourism in Iceland will lead to increasing numbers of bath guests, which can in turn affect the microbial flora in the pools and therefore user safety. Today, there is no legislation that applies to natural geothermal pools in Iceland, as the water is not used for consumption and the pools are not defined as public swimming pools. In this study, we conducted a microbiological analysis on three popular but different natural pools in Iceland, located at Lýsuhóll, Hveravellir and Landmannalaugar. Total bacterial counts were performed by flow cytometry, and with plate count at 22 °C, 37 °C and 50 °C. The presence of viable coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and pseudomonads were investigated by growth experiments on selective media. All samples were screened for noroviruses by real time PCR. The results indicate higher fecal contamination in the geothermal pools where the geothermal water flow was low and bathing guest count was high during the day. The number of cultivated Pseudomonas spp. was high (13,000–40,000 cfu/100 mL) in the natural pools, and several strains were isolated and classified as opportunistic pathogens. Norovirus was not detected in the three pools. DNA was extracted from one-liter samples in each pool and analyzed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbial diversity analysis revealed different microbial communities between the pools and they were primarily composed of alpha-, beta- and gammaproteobacteria. PMID:23493033

Thorolfsdottir, Berglind Osk Th.; Marteinsson, Viggo Thor

2013-01-01

90

Monte Carlo Test Assembly for Item Pool Analysis and Extension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new test assembly algorithm based on a Monte Carlo random search is presented in this article. A major advantage of the Monte Carlo test assembly over other approaches (integer programming or enumerative heuristics) is that it performs a uniform sampling from the item pool, which provides every feasible item combination (test) with an equal…

Belov, Dmitry I.; Armstrong, Ronald D.

2005-01-01

91

EQUILIBRIUM-ANALYSIS OF PROJECT CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON THE GLOBAL SOIL ORGANIC MATTER POOL  

EPA Science Inventory

Increased rates of soil organic matter decomposition may represent a significant positive feedback to global warming. s a step towards assessing the potential magnitude of this response, an equilibrium analysis was performed in which representative carbon pools were associated wi...

92

Calculation notes for surface leak resulting in pool, TWRS FSAR accident analysis  

SciTech Connect

This document includes the calculations performed to quantify the risk associated with the unmitigated and mitigated accident scenarios described in the TWRS FSAR for the accident analysis titled: Surface Leaks Resulting in Pool.

Hall, B.W.

1996-09-25

93

Ovarian cancer: genomic analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives Despite improvements in the management of ovarian cancer patients over the last 30 years, there has been only a minimal improvement in overall survival. While targeted therapeutic approaches for the treatment of cancer have evolved, major challenges in ovarian cancer research persist, including the identification of predictive biomarkers with clinical relevance, so that empirical drug selection can be avoided. In this article, we review published genomic analysis studies including data generated in our laboratory and how they have been incorporated into modern clinical trials in a rational and effective way. Methods Multiple published genomic analysis studies were collected for review and discussion with emphasis on their potential clinical applicability. Results Genomic analysis has been shown to be a powerful tool to identify dysregulated genes, aberrantly activated pathways and to uncover uniqueness of subclasses of ovarian tumors. The application of this technology has provided a solid molecular basis for different clinical behaviors associated with tumor histology and grade. Genomic signatures have been obtained to predict clinical end points for patients with cancer, including response rates, progression-free survival, and overall survival. In addition, genomic analysis has provided opportunities to identify biomarkers, which either result in a modification of existing clinical management or to stratification of patients to novel therapeutic approaches designed as clinical trials. Conclusions Genomic analyses have accelerated the identification of relevant biomarkers and extended our understanding of the molecular biology of ovarian cancer. This in turn, will hopefully lead to a paradigm shift from empirical, uniform treatment to a more rational, personalized treatment of ovarian cancers. However, validation of potential biomarkers on both the statistical and biological levels is needed to confirm they are of clinical relevance, in order to increase the likelihood that the desired outcome can be predicted and achieved. PMID:24265410

Wei, W.; Dizon, D.; Vathipadiekal, V.; Birrer, M. J.

2013-01-01

94

Chemotherapy in advanced biliary tract carcinoma: a pooled analysis of clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Owing to the lack of randomised controlled trials no standard of chemotherapy exists in the treatment of advanced biliary tract carcinoma. 5-fluorouracil or gemcitabine is recommended based on small and predominately phase II trials. The aim of this analysis was to analyse existing trials, even small and nonrandomised, and identify superior regimens. Chemotherapy trials published in English from 1985 to July 2006 were analysed as well as ASCO abstracts from 1999 to 2006. Response rate (RR=CR+PR), tumour control rate (TCR=CR+PR+SD), time to tumour progression (TTP), overall survival (OS), and toxicity were analysed. One hundred and four trials comprising 112 trial arms and 2810 patients, thereof 634 responders and 1368 patients with tumour control were analysed. Pooled RR and TCR were 22.6 and 57.3%, respectively. Significant correlations of RR and TCR with survival times were found. Subgroup analysis showed superior RRs for gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) compared with cholangiocarcinoma, but shorter OS for GBC. Furthermore, superior RRs and TCRs of gemcitabine and platinum containing regimens were found with highest RRs and TCRs in the combination subgroup. Based on published results of predominately phase II trials, gemcitabine combined with platinum compounds represents the provisional standard of chemotherapy in advanced biliary tract cancer, unless a new evidence-based standard has been defined. PMID:17325704

Eckel, F; Schmid, R M

2007-01-01

95

Spent fuel pool transient analysis under accident case and the flow establishment process of passive cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spent fuel pool is one of the important auxiliary equipments for nuclear reactor. In this paper, RELAP5 code was used as the research tool and the Daya Bay spent fuel pool was chosen as the analysis object. By the establishment of corresponding nodalizations, the paper eventually calculated the time spent fuel pool needed to reach boiling from steady state and

Kuo Wang; Yun Guo; He-yi Zeng

2011-01-01

96

76 FR 72923 - Pool Corporation; Analysis To Aid Public Comment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment...days. The following Analysis to Aid Public Comment...inventories, formulas, patterns, devices, manufacturing...ftc/privacy.htm. Analysis of Agreement Containing...The Agreement is for settlement purposes only and...

2011-11-28

97

RELAP5 Analysis of the Hybrid Loop-Pool Design for Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors  

SciTech Connect

An innovative hybrid loop-pool design for sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR-Hybrid) has been recently proposed. This design takes advantage of the inherent safety of a pool design and the compactness of a loop design to improve economics and safety of SFRs. In the hybrid loop-pool design, primary loops are formed by connecting the reactor outlet plenum (hot pool), intermediate heat exchangers (IHX), primary pumps and the reactor inlet plenum with pipes. The primary loops are immersed in the cold pool (buffer pool). Passive safety systems -- modular Pool Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (PRACS) – are added to transfer decay heat from the primary system to the buffer pool during loss of forced circulation (LOFC) transients. The primary systems and the buffer pool are thermally coupled by the PRACS, which is composed of PRACS heat exchangers (PHX), fluidic diodes and connecting pipes. Fluidic diodes are simple, passive devices that provide large flow resistance in one direction and small flow resistance in reverse direction. Direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS) heat exchangers (DHX) are immersed in the cold pool to transfer decay heat to the environment by natural circulation. To prove the design concepts, especially how the passive safety systems behave during transients such as LOFC with scram, a RELAP5-3D model for the hybrid loop-pool design was developed. The simulations were done for both steady-state and transient conditions. This paper presents the details of RELAP5-3D analysis as well as the calculated thermal response during LOFC with scram. The 250 MW thermal power conventional pool type design of GNEP’s Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) developed by Argonne National Laboratory was used as the reference reactor core and primary loop design. The reactor inlet temperature is 355 °C and the outlet temperature is 510 °C. The core design is the same as that for ABTR. The steady state buffer pool temperature is the same as the reactor inlet temperature. The peak cladding, hot pool, cold pool and reactor inlet temperatures were calculated during LOFC. The results indicate that there are two phases during LOFC transient – the initial thermal equilibration phase and the long term decay heat removal phase. The initial thermal equilibration phase occurs over a few hundred seconds, as the system adjusts from forced circulation to natural circulation flow. Subsequently, during long-term heat removal phase all temperatures evolve very slowly due to the large thermal inertia of the primary and buffer pool systems. The results clearly show that passive safety PRACS can effectively transfer decay heat from the primary system to the buffer pool by natural circulation. The DRACS system in turn can effectively transfer the decay heat to the environment.

Hongbin Zhang; Haihua Zhao; Cliff Davis

2008-06-01

98

Hematologic Safety and Tolerability of Topotecan in Recurrent Ovarian Cancer and Small Cell Lung Cancer: An Integrated Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose was to conduct an integrated analysis of the cumulative hematologic toxicity of topotecan in patients with relapsed ovarian cancer and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Data were pooled from eight phase II and phase III clinical studies performed in patients with relapsed stage III\\/IV ovarian cancer or extensive SCLC treated with topotecan at a dose of 1.5 mg\\/m

Deborah K. Armstrong; David Spriggs; Jeremey Levin; Ruth Poulin

99

Clinicopathological correlates and prognostic significance of KRAS mutation status in a pooled prospective cohort of epithelial ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Activating KRAS mutations are common in ovarian carcinomas of low histological grade, less advanced clinical stage and mucinous histological subtype, and form part of the distinct molecular alterations associated with type I tumors in the dualistic model of ovarian carcinogenesis. Here, we investigated the occurrence, clinicopathological correlates and prognostic significance of specific KRAS mutations in tumours from 153 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cases from a pooled, prospective cohort. Methods KRAS codon 12,13 and 61 mutations were analysed by pyrosequencing in tumours from 163 incident EOC cases in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study and Malmö Preventive Project. Associations of mutational status with clinicopathological and molecular characteristics were assessed by Pearson Chi Square test. Ovarian cancer-specific survival (OCSS) according to mutational status was explored by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling. KRAS-mutation status was also analysed in 28 concomitantly sampled benign-appearing fallopian tubes. Results Seventeen (11.1%) EOC cases harboured mutations in the KRAS gene, all but one in codon 12, and one in codon 13. No KRAS mutations were found in codon 61 and all examined fallopian tubes were KRAS wild-type. KRAS mutation was significantly associated with lower grade (p?=?0.001), mucinous histological subtype (p?=?analysis revealed a significantly improved OCSS for patients with KRAS-mutated compared to KRAS wild-type tumours (p?=?0.015). These associations were confirmed in unadjusted Cox regression analysis (HR?=?2.51; 95% CI 1.17-5.42) but did not remain significant after adjustment for age, grade and clinical stage. The beneficial prognostic impact of KRAS mutation was ony evident in tumours of low-intermediate differentiation grade (p?=?0.023), and in a less advanced clinical stage (p?=?0.014). Moreover, KRAS mutation was associated with a significantly improved OCSS in the subgroup of endometroid carcinomas (p?=?0.012). Conclusions The results from this study confirm previously demonstrated associations of KRAS mutations with well-differentiated and mucinous ovarian carcinomas. Moreover, KRAS-mutated tumours had a significantly improved survival in unadjusted, but not adjusted, analysis. A finding that merits further study is the significant prognostic impact of KRAS mutation in endometroid carcinomas, potentially indicating that response to Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK-targeting therapies may differ by histological subtype. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1788330379100147 PMID:23800114

2013-01-01

100

Pooled Safety and Efficacy Analysis Examining the Effect of Performance Status on Outcomes in Nine First-Line Treatment Trials Using Individual Data From Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Performance status (PS) is a prognostic factor in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Clinical trials typically enroll less than 10% of patients with a PS of 2 (PS2); thus, the benefit of systemic chemotherapy in PS2 patients is uncertain. Patients and Methods Individual data from 6,286 patients (509 PS2 patients) from nine clinical trials were used to compare treatment efficacy by PS. Progression-free survival (PFS), grade ? 3 adverse events, 60-day all-cause mortality, overall survival (OS), and response rate (RR) were explored in the full set of nine trials and in the five trials comparing first-line monotherapy with combination therapy. Results Compared with patients with PS of 0 or 1, PS2 patients had significantly higher rates of grade ? 3 nausea (8.5% v 16.4%, respectively; P < .0001) and vomiting (7.6% v 11.9%, respectively; P = .006) and 60-day all-cause mortality (2.8% v 12.0%, respectively; P < .0001). PS2 was prognostic for PFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.52; P < .0001; median PFS, 7.6 months for PS 0 or 1 v 4.9 months for PS2), OS (HR = 2.18; P < .0001; median OS, 17.3 months for PS 0 or 1 v 8.5 months for PS2), and RR (odds ratio = 0.61; P < .0001; 43.8% for PS 0 or 1 v 32.0% for PS2). The relative benefit and toxicity of experimental versus control treatment and monotherapy versus combination therapy were not different in PS 0 or 1 patients versus PS2 patients. Conclusion In clinical trials, PS2 patients derive similar benefit from superior treatment as patients with PS of 0 to 1 but with an increased risk of toxicities and 12% 60-day mortality. Although current treatment provides benefit, new approaches are required to approach 1-year median survival for PS2 patients. PMID:19255311

Sargent, Daniel J.; Köhne, Claus Henning; Sanoff, Hanna Kelly; Bot, Brian M.; Seymour, Matthew T.; de Gramont, Aimery; Porschen, Ranier; Saltz, Leonard B.; Rougier, Philippe; Tournigand, Christopher; Douillard, Jean-Yves; Stephens, Richard J.; Grothey, Axel; Goldberg, Richard M.

2009-01-01

101

Evaluation of High Ipsilateral Subventricular Zone Radiation Therapy Dose in Glioblastoma: A Pooled Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) may play a role in the recurrence of glioblastoma. They are believed to originate from neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ). Because of their radioresistance, we hypothesized that high doses of radiation (>59.4 Gy) to the SVZ are necessary to control CSCs and improve progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS) in glioblastoma. Methods and Materials: 173 patients with glioblastoma pooled from 2 academic centers were treated with resection followed by chemoradiation therapy. The SVZ was segmented on computed tomography to calculate radiation doses delivered to the presumptive CSC niches. The relationships between high SVZ doses and PFS and OS were examined using Cox proportional hazards models. Five covariates were included to estimate their impact on PFS or OS: ipsilateral and contralateral SVZ doses, clinical target volume dose, age, and extent of resection. Results: Median PFS and OS were 10.4 and 19.6 months for the cohort. The mean ipsilateral SVZ, contralateral SVZ, and clinical target volume doses were 49.2, 35.2, and 60.1 Gy, respectively. Twenty-one patients who received high ipsilateral SVZ dose (>59.4 Gy) had significantly longer median PFS (12.6 vs 9.9 months, P=.042) and longer OS (25.8 vs 19.2 months, P=.173). On multivariate analysis, high radiation therapy doses to ipsilateral SVZ remained a statistically significant independent predictor of improved PFS but not of OS. The extent of surgery affected both PFS and OS on multivariate analysis. Conclusion: High radiation therapy doses to ipsilateral CSC niches are associated with improved PFS in glioblastoma.

Lee, Percy, E-mail: percylee@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Eppinga, Wietse; Lagerwaard, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cloughesy, Timothy [Neuro-Oncology Program, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States) [Neuro-Oncology Program, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Slotman, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nghiemphu, Phioanh L. [Neuro-Oncology Program, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States) [Neuro-Oncology Program, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Wang, Pin-Chieh; Kupelian, Patrick; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Demarco, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States); Selch, Michael T.; Steinberg, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Kang, Jung Julie [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States)

2013-07-15

102

Identification of Motor Neuron Pool Marker Genes and Analysis of their Roles  

E-print Network

.2.2 14BThe motor unit and muscle action 14 2 2BTranscriptional Mechanisms Controlling Motor NeuronIdentification of Motor Neuron Pool Marker Genes and Analysis of their Roles in Motor Circuit Diversity and Connectivity 17 2.1 6BIntroduction 17 2.2 7BAcquisition of motor neuron identity

Amrhein, Valentin

103

Pooled Genome-Wide Analysis to Identify Novel Risk Loci for Pediatric Allergic Asthma  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide association studies of pooled DNA samples were shown to be a valuable tool to identify candidate SNPs associated to a phenotype. No such study was up to now applied to childhood allergic asthma, even if the very high complexity of asthma genetics is an appropriate field to explore the potential of pooled GWAS approach. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a pooled GWAS and individual genotyping in 269 children with allergic respiratory diseases comparing allergic children with and without asthma. We used a modular approach to identify the most significant loci associated with asthma by combining silhouette statistics and physical distance method with cluster-adapted thresholding. We found 97% concordance between pooled GWAS and individual genotyping, with 36 out of 37 top-scoring SNPs significant at individual genotyping level. The most significant SNP is located inside the coding sequence of C5, an already identified asthma susceptibility gene, while the other loci regulate functions that are relevant to bronchial physiopathology, as immune- or inflammation-mediated mechanisms and airway smooth muscle contraction. Integration with gene expression data showed that almost half of the putative susceptibility genes are differentially expressed in experimental asthma mouse models. Conclusion/Significance Combined silhouette statistics and cluster-adapted physical distance threshold analysis of pooled GWAS data is an efficient method to identify candidate SNP associated to asthma development in an allergic pediatric population. PMID:21359210

Ricci, Giampaolo; Astolfi, Annalisa; Remondini, Daniel; Cipriani, Francesca; Formica, Serena; Dondi, Arianna; Pession, Andrea

2011-01-01

104

Interventions for non-metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: systematic review and pooled analysis of observational studies  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the effects of treatments for non-metastatic invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin using evidence from observational studies, given the paucity of evidence from randomised controlled trials. Design Systematic review of observational studies. Data sources Medline, Embase, to December 2012. Review methods Observational studies of interventions for primary, non-metastatic, invasive, SCC of the skin that reported recurrence during follow-up, quality of life, initial response to treatment, adverse events, cosmetic appearance, or death from disease. Studies were excluded if data for primary cutaneous SCC was not separable from other data. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers. Meta-analysis was performed where appropriate using a random effects model to estimate the pooled proportion of an event with 95% confidence intervals. Results 118 publications were included, covering seven treatment modalities. Pooled estimates of recurrence of SCCs were lowest after cryotherapy (0.8% (95% confidence interval 0.1% to 2%)) and curettage and electrodesiccation (1.7% (0.5% to 3.4%)), but most treated SCCs were small, low risk lesions. After Mohs micrographic surgery, the pooled estimate of local recurrence during variable follow-up periods from 10 studies was 3.0% (2.2% to 3.9%), which was non-significantly lower than the pooled average local recurrence of 5.4% (2.5% to 9.1%) after standard surgical excision (12 studies), and 6.4% (3.0% to 11.0%) after external radiotherapy (7 studies). After an apparently successful initial response of SCCs to photodynamic therapy, pooled average recurrence of 26.4% (12.3% to 43.7%; 8 studies) was significantly higher than other treatments. Evidence was limited for laser treatment (1 study) and for topical and systemic treatments (mostly single case reports or small non-comparative series with limited follow-up). Conclusions Many observational studies have looked at different treatment modalities for SCC, but the evidence base for the effectiveness of these interventions is poor. Comparison of outcomes after different treatments should be interpreted cautiously owing to biases inherent in the types of study included, and lack of direct comparisons to enable the estimation of relative treatment effect. Further evidence is needed to develop a prognostic model and stratify individuals at high risk of developing SCC, to improve the evidence base for this common cancer and to optimise clinical management. Protocol registration International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) registration number CRD42011001450. PMID:24191270

2013-01-01

105

Exposure to UV radiation and risk of Hodgkin lymphoma: a pooled analysis  

PubMed Central

Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure has been inversely associated with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) risk, but only inconsistently, only in a few studies, and without attention to HL heterogeneity. We conducted a pooled analysis of HL risk focusing on type and timing of UVR exposure and on disease subtypes by age, histology, and tumor-cell Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status. Four case-control studies contributed 1320 HL cases and 6381 controls. We estimated lifetime, adulthood, and childhood UVR exposure and history of sunburn and sunlamp use. We used 2-stage estimation with mixed-effects models and weighted pooled effect estimates by inverse marginal variances. We observed statistically significant inverse associations with HL risk for UVR exposures during childhood and adulthood, sunburn history, and sunlamp use, but we found no significant dose-response relationships. Risks were significant only for EBV-positive HL (pooled odds ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.35 to 0.91 for the highest overall UVR exposure category), with a significant linear trend for overall exposure (P = .03). Pooled relative risk estimates were not heterogeneous across studies. Increased UVR exposure may protect against HL, particularly EBV-positive HL. Plausible mechanisms involving UVR induction of regulatory T cells or the cellular DNA damage response suggest opportunities for new prevention targets. PMID:24016459

Glaser, Sally L.; Schupp, Clayton W.; Ekström Smedby, Karin; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Kane, Eleanor; Melbye, Mads; Forétova, Lenka; Maynadié, Marc; Staines, Anthony; Becker, Nikolaus; Nieters, Alexandra; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Cocco, Pierluigi; Glimelius, Ingrid; Clavel, Jacqueline; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Chang, Ellen T.

2013-01-01

106

Computational Analysis of the Effects of Process Parameters on Molten Pool Transport in Cu-Ni Dissimilar Laser Weld Pool  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional, transient numerical model is used for analyzing the effects of process parameters such as laser power and the laser scanning speed on turbulent momentum, heat and mass transport in a typical dissimilar metal weld pool of a copper-nickel binary couple. The conservation equations are solved in a coupled manner using a semi-implicit pressure linked algorithm in the framework

Alexandros K. Skouras; Nilanjan Chakraborty; Suman Chakraborty

2010-01-01

107

Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 82, ''Beyond design basis accidents in spent fuel pools''  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generic Issue 82, ''Beyond Design Basis Accidents in Spent Fuel Pools,'' addresses the concerns with the use of high density storage racks for the storage of spent fuel, and is applicable to all Light Water Reactor spent fuel pools. This report presents the regulatory analysis for Generic Issue 82. It includes (1) a summary of the issue, (2) a summary

Throm

1989-01-01

108

Primary intraosseous carcinoma of the jaw: pooled analysis of world literature and report of two new cases.  

PubMed

Primary intraosseous carcinoma (PIOC) is a rare malignant neoplasm of the jaw. These tumours are believed to arise from the odontogenic epithelium and hence are also referred to as odontogenic carcinoma. A detailed search was made for squamous cell PIOC of the jaw in English literature using Medline Cancer CD. The data obtained were transferred onto dBase software. Two detailed case reports of patients treated at Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum during 1996 and 1997 were also included. A pooled analysis was carried out. Survival analysis was carried out using Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank statistics were used for comparing survival. A total of 35 cases were analysed, of which 33 were from published literature. The mean age of the patients at the time of diagnosis was 52.3 years with male to female ratio being 2.5:1. Posterior mandible was the predominant site. The median follow-up time was 28 months. Overall survival at 5 years was 37.8% (95% CI; 14.8-61.0) while the corresponding disease free survival was 29.8% (95% CI; 9.2-54.1). Primary intraosseous carcinoma is a rare tumour of jawbones, characterized by progressive swelling of the jaw, pain and loosening of tooth. The tumour is locally aggressive and metastasizes to regional nodes. The overall and disease free survival is poor with almost 50% patients failing loco-regionally within the first 2 years of follow-up. PMID:11518362

Thomas, G; Pandey, M; Mathew, A; Abraham, E K; Francis, A; Somanathan, T; Iype, M; Sebastian, P; Nair, M K

2001-08-01

109

Computer technology of genogeographic analysis of a gene pool: II. Statistical transformation of maps  

SciTech Connect

Transformations of computer maps of geographic distribution of gene frequencies using basic mathematical statistical procedures are considered. These transformations are designated as statistical transformation of maps. Two transformation groups are considered: of one map separately and of a group of maps. Transformations possess a value beyond their use as intermediate stages of more complicated cartographical analysis: the resulting maps carry entirely new information on the geography of genes or a gene pool. This article considers three examples of obtaining new genetic profiles using statistical transformation algorithms. These profiles are of: (1) heterozygosity (of HLA-A, B, C loci in northeastern Eurasia); (2) disease risk (Rh-incompatibility of mother and child with simultaneous registration of Rh and ABO blood groups in Eastern Europe); (3) genetic distances (from own mean ethnic values for Belarus and from mean Russian values for the gene pool of Eastern Europe). 15 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Balanovskaya, E.V.; Nurbaev, S.D.; Rychkov, Yu.G. [Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1994-11-01

110

Fourier analysis of a gated blood-pool study during atrial flutter  

SciTech Connect

First-harmonic Fourier analysis of a gated blood-pool study is based on the assumption that the cardiac chambers contract once per cardiac cycle. In atrial arrhythmias this condition may not exist for the atria. We recently studied a patient with atrial flutter and 2:1 artioventricular conduction. There were predictable alterations in the first-harmonic Fourier phase and amplitude images. The observed changes from first-harmonic Fourier analysis were: (a) very low atrial amplitude values, and (b) absence of identifiable atrial regions on the phase image.

Makler, P.T. Jr.; McCarthy, D.M.; London, J.W.; Sandler, M.S.; Alavi, A.

1983-08-01

111

Constipation and Cathartics as Risk Factors of Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since individual case-control studies have failed to resolve the question whether constipation and use of cathartics represent significant risk factors of colorectal cancer, a meta-analysis was performed. The method by Peto was used to calculate pooled odds ratios of the cancer risk among exposed and unex-posed subjects. The analysis of 14 previously published case-control studies revealed statistically significant risks for

Amnon Sonnenberg; Astrid D. Müller

1993-01-01

112

Analysis of pooling, equity capital and current assets of large producer marketing cooperatives with implications for export marketing  

E-print Network

ANALYSIS OF POOLING, EQUITY CAPITAL AND CURRENT ASSETS OF LARGE PRODUCER MARKETING COOPERATIVES WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR EXPORT MARKETING A Thesis by CYNTHIA HEATHER TOUGH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial... Thesis by CYNTHIA HEATHER TOUGH Approved as to style and content by: homas L. Sporle er (Chairman of Committee) William E. Black (Member) Samu (Member) espi Dani I. Padberg (H d of Department) August 1985 ABSTRACT Analysis of Pooling, Equity...

Tough, Cynthia H

1985-01-01

113

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Cancer Screening  

Cancer.gov

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Cancer Screening Martin L. Brown, Ph.D. Health Services and Economics Branch Applied Research Program Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences International Breast Cancer Screening Network Biennial Meeting May

114

A pooling-LiNGAM algorithm for effective connectivity analysis of fMRI data.  

PubMed

The Independent Component Analysis (ICA)-linear non-Gaussian acyclic model (LiNGAM), an algorithm that can be used to estimate the causal relationship among non-Gaussian distributed data, has the potential value to detect the effective connectivity of human brain areas. Under the assumptions that (a): the data generating process is linear, (b) there are no unobserved confounders, and (c) data have non-Gaussian distributions, LiNGAM can be used to discover the complete causal structure of data. Previous studies reveal that the algorithm could perform well when the data points being analyzed is relatively long. However, there are too few data points in most neuroimaging recordings, especially functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), to allow the algorithm to converge. Smith's study speculates a method by pooling data points across subjects may be useful to address this issue (Smith et al., 2011). Thus, this study focus on validating Smith's proposal of pooling data points across subjects for the use of LiNGAM, and this method is named as pooling-LiNGAM (pLiNGAM). Using both simulated and real fMRI data, our current study demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of the pLiNGAM on the effective connectivity estimation. PMID:25339895

Xu, Lele; Fan, Tingting; Wu, Xia; Chen, KeWei; Guo, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jiacai; Yao, Li

2014-01-01

115

A pooling-LiNGAM algorithm for effective connectivity analysis of fMRI data  

PubMed Central

The Independent Component Analysis (ICA)—linear non-Gaussian acyclic model (LiNGAM), an algorithm that can be used to estimate the causal relationship among non-Gaussian distributed data, has the potential value to detect the effective connectivity of human brain areas. Under the assumptions that (a): the data generating process is linear, (b) there are no unobserved confounders, and (c) data have non-Gaussian distributions, LiNGAM can be used to discover the complete causal structure of data. Previous studies reveal that the algorithm could perform well when the data points being analyzed is relatively long. However, there are too few data points in most neuroimaging recordings, especially functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), to allow the algorithm to converge. Smith's study speculates a method by pooling data points across subjects may be useful to address this issue (Smith et al., 2011). Thus, this study focus on validating Smith's proposal of pooling data points across subjects for the use of LiNGAM, and this method is named as pooling-LiNGAM (pLiNGAM). Using both simulated and real fMRI data, our current study demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of the pLiNGAM on the effective connectivity estimation. PMID:25339895

Xu, Lele; Fan, Tingting; Wu, Xia; Chen, KeWei; Guo, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jiacai; Yao, Li

2014-01-01

116

A Pooled Analysis of Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields and Childhood Brain Tumors  

PubMed Central

Pooled analyses may provide etiologic insight about associations between exposure and disease. In contrast to childhood leukemia, no pooled analyses of childhood brain tumors and exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) have been conducted. The authors carried out a pooled analysis based on primary data (1960–2001) from 10 studies of ELF-MF exposure and childhood brain tumors to assess whether the combined results, adjusted for potential confounding, indicated an association. The odds ratios for childhood brain tumors in ELF-MF exposure categories of 0.1–<0.2 ?T, 0.2–<0.4 ?T, and ?0.4 ?T were 0.95 (95% confidence interval: 0.65, 1.41), 0.70 (95% CI: 0.40, 1.22), and 1.14 (95% CI: 0.61, 2.13), respectively, in comparison with exposure of <0.1 ?T. Other analyses employing alternate cutpoints, further adjustment for confounders, exclusion of particular studies, stratification by type of measurement or type of residence, and a nonparametric estimate of the exposure-response relation did not reveal consistent evidence of increased childhood brain tumor risk associated with ELF-MF exposure. These results provide little evidence for an association between ELF-MF exposure and childhood brain tumors. PMID:20696650

Kheifets, L.; Ahlbom, A.; Crespi, C. M.; Feychting, M.; Johansen, C.; Monroe, J.; Murphy, M. F. G.; Oksuzyan, S.; Preston-Martin, S.; Roman, E.; Saito, T.; Savitz, D.; Schüz, J.; Simpson, J.; Swanson, J.; Tynes, T.; Verkasalo, P.; Mezei, G.

2010-01-01

117

Separating soil CO2 efflux into C-pool-specific decay rates via inverse analysis of soil incubation data.  

PubMed

Soil organic matter (SOM) is heterogeneous in structure and has been considered to consist of various pools with different intrinsic turnover rates. Although those pools have been conceptually expressed in models and analyzed according to soil physical and chemical properties, separation of SOM into component pools is still challenging. In this study, we conducted inverse analyses with data from a long-term (385 days) incubation experiment with two types of soil (from plant interspace and from underneath plants) to deconvolute soil carbon (C) efflux into different source pools. We analyzed the two datasets with one-, two- and three-pool models and used probability density functions as a criterion to judge the best model to fit the datasets. Our results indicated that soil C release trajectories over the 385 days of the incubation study were best modeled with a two-pool C model. For both soil types, released C within the first 10 days of the incubation study originated from the labile pool. Decomposition of C in the recalcitrant pool was modeled to contribute to the total CO2 efflux by 9-11 % at the beginning of the incubation. At the end of the experiment, 75-85 % of the initial soil organic carbon (SOC) was modeled to be released over the incubation period. Our modeling analysis also indicated that the labile C-pool in the soil underneath plants was larger than that in soil from interspace. This deconvolution analysis was based on information contained in incubation data to separate carbon pools and can facilitate integration of results from incubation experiments into ecosystem models with improved parameterization. PMID:23337967

Schädel, Christina; Luo, Yiqi; David Evans, R; Fei, Shenfeng; Schaeffer, Sean M

2013-03-01

118

Swimming Pools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technical and engineering data are set forth on the design and construction of swimming pools. Consideration is given to site selection, pool construction, the comparative merits of combining open air and enclosed pools, and alternative uses of the pool. Guidelines are presented regarding--(1) pool size and use, (2) locker and changing rooms, (3)…

Ministry of Housing and Local Government, London (England).

119

Small Renal Masses Progressing to Metastases under Active Surveillance: A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose We conducted a systematic review and pooled analysis of small renal masses under active surveillance to identify progression risk and characteristics associated with metastases. Materials and Methods A MEDLINE search was performed to identify all clinical series reporting surveillance of localized renal masses. For studies reporting individual level data, clinical and radiographic characteristics of tumors without progression were compared to those progressing to metastases. Results 18 series (880 patients, 936 masses) met screening criteria from which 18 patients progressing to metastasis were identified (mean 40.2 months). Six studies (259 patients, 284 masses) provided individual level data for pooled analysis. With a mean follow up of 33.5±22.6 months, mean initial tumor diameter was 2.3±1.3 cm and mean linear growth rate was 0.31±0.38 cm/year. 65 masses (23%) exhibited zero net growth under surveillance; of which none progressed to metastasis. Pooled analysis revealed increased age (75.1±9.1 vs. 66.6±12.3 years, p=0.03), initial tumor diameter (4.1±2.1 vs. 2.3±1.3 cm, p<0.0001), initial estimated tumor volume (66.3±100.0 vs. 15.1±60.3 cm3, p<0.0001), linear growth rate (0.8±0.65 vs. 0.3±0.4 cm/yr, p=0.0001), and volumetric growth rate (27.1±24.9 vs. 6.2±27.5 cm3/yr, p<0.0001) in the progression cohort. Conclusions A substantial proportion of small renal masses remain radiographically static following an initial period of active surveillance. Progression to metastases occurs in a small percentage of patients and is generally a late event. These results indicate that in patients with competing health risks, radiographic surveillance may be an acceptable initial approach with delayed intervention reserved for those exhibiting significant linear or volumetric growth. PMID:21766302

Smaldone, Marc C.; Kutikov, Alexander; Egleston, Brian L.; Canter, Daniel J.; Viterbo, Rosalia; Chen, David Y.T.; Jewett, Michael A.; Greenberg, Richard E.; Uzzo, Robert G.

2012-01-01

120

Bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells: a pooled analysis of 3600 subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Bulky DNA adducts are markers of exposure to genotoxic aromatic compounds, which reflect an individual’s ability to metabolically activate carcinogens and to repair DNA damage. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) represent a major class of carcinogens that are capable of forming such adducts. Factors that have been reported to be related to DNA adduct levels include smoking, diet, body mass index (BMI), genetic polymorphisms, the season of collection of biologic material, and air pollutants. Methods We pooled eleven studies (3,600 subjects) in which bulky DNA adducts were measured in human white blood cells with similar 32P-postlabelling techniques and for which a similar set of variables was available, including individual data on age, gender, ethnicity, batch, smoking habits, BMI, season of blood collection and a limited set of gene variants. Results Lowest DNA adduct levels were observed in the spring (median 0.50 adducts per 108 nucleotides), followed by summer (0.64), autumn (0.70) and winter (0.85) (p=0.006). The same pattern emerged in multivariate analysis, but only among never smokers (p=0.02). Adduct levels were significantly lower (p=0.001) in Northern Europe (the Netherlands, Denmark) (mean 0.60, median 0.40) than in Southern Europe (Italy, Spain, France, Greece) (mean 0.79, median 0.60). Conclusions In this large pooled analysis, we have found only weak associations between bulky DNA adducts and exposure variables. Seasonality (with higher adducts levels in winter) and air pollution may partly explain some of the inter-area differences (North vs South Europe), but most inter-area and inter-individual variation in adduct levels still remain unexplained. Impact Our study describes the largest pooled analysis of bulky DNA adducts so far, showing that inter-individual variation is still largely unexplained, though seasonality appears to play a role. PMID:20921335

Ricceri, Fulvio; Godschalk, Roger; Peluso, Marco; Phillips, David H.; Agudo, Antonio; Georgiadis, Panos; Loft, Steffen; Tjonneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Palli, Domenico; Perera, Frederica; Vermeulen, Roel; Taioli, Emanuela; Sram, Radim J.; Munnia, Armelle; Rosa, Fabio; Allione, Alessandra; Matullo, Giuseppe; Vineis, Paolo

2013-01-01

121

Cancer Molecular Analysis Project: Weaving a rich cancer research tapestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cancer Molecular Analysis Project (CMAP) of the NCI is integrating diverse cancer research data to elucidate fundamental etiologic processes, enable development of novel therapeutic approaches, and facilitate the bridging of basic and clinical science.

Kenneth H Buetow; Richard D Klausner; Howard Fine; Richard Kaplan; Dinah S Singer; Robert L Strausberg

2002-01-01

122

Design of DNA Pooling to Allow Incorporation of Covariates in Rare Variants Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Rapid advances in next-generation sequencing technologies facilitate genetic association studies of an increasingly wide array of rare variants. To capture the rare or less common variants, a large number of individuals will be needed. However, the cost of a large scale study using whole genome or exome sequencing is still high. DNA pooling can serve as a cost-effective approach, but with a potential limitation that the identity of individual genomes would be lost and therefore individual characteristics and environmental factors could not be adjusted in association analysis, which may result in power loss and a biased estimate of genetic effect. Methods For case-control studies, we propose a design strategy for pool creation and an analysis strategy that allows covariate adjustment, using multiple imputation technique. Results Simulations show that our approach can obtain reasonable estimate for genotypic effect with only slight loss of power compared to the much more expensive approach of sequencing individual genomes. Conclusion Our design and analysis strategies enable more powerful and cost-effective sequencing studies of complex diseases, while allowing incorporation of covariate adjustment. PMID:25485788

Guan, Weihua; Li, Chun

2014-01-01

123

Atopic disease and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: an InterLymph pooled analysis.  

PubMed

We performed a pooled analysis of data on atopic disease and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) from 13 case-control studies, including 13,535 NHL cases and 16,388 controls. Self-reported atopic diseases diagnosed 2 years or more before NHL diagnosis (cases) or interview (controls) were analyzed. Pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were computed in two-stage random-effects or joint fixed-effects models, and adjusted for age, sex, and study center. When modeled individually, lifetime history of asthma, hay fever, specific allergy (excluding hay fever, asthma, and eczema), and food allergy were associated with a significant reduction in NHL risk, and there was no association for eczema. When each atopic condition was included in the same model, reduced NHL risk was only associated with a history of allergy (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.68-0.94) and reduced B-cell NHL risk was associated with history of hay fever (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.77-0.95) and allergy (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.76-0.93). Significant reductions in B-cell NHL risk were also observed in individuals who were likely to be truly or highly atopic-those with hay fever, allergy, or asthma and at least one other atopic condition over their lifetime. The inverse associations were consistent for the diffuse large B-cell and follicular subtypes. Eczema was positively associated with lymphomas of the skin; misdiagnosis of lymphoma as eczema is likely, but progression of eczema to cutaneous lymphoma cannot be excluded. This pooled study shows evidence of a modest but consistent reduction in the risk of B-cell NHL associated with atopy. PMID:19654312

Vajdic, Claire M; Falster, Michael O; de Sanjose, Silvia; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Becker, Nikolaus; Bracci, Paige M; Melbye, Mads; Smedby, Karin Ekström; Engels, Eric A; Turner, Jennifer; Vineis, Paolo; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Holly, Elizabeth A; Kane, Eleanor; Spinelli, John J; La Vecchia, Carlo; Zheng, Tongzhang; Chiu, Brian C-H; Dal Maso, Luigino; Cocco, Pierluigi; Maynadié, Marc; Foretova, Lenka; Staines, Anthony; Brennan, Paul; Davis, Scott; Severson, Richard; Cerhan, James R; Breen, Elizabeth C; Birmann, Brenda; Cozen, Wendy; Grulich, Andrew E

2009-08-15

124

Pooled genome linkage scan of aggressive prostate cancer: results from the International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

While it is widely appreciated that prostate cancers vary substantially in their propensity to progress to a life-threatening\\u000a stage, the molecular events responsible for this progression have not been identified. Understanding these molecular mechanisms\\u000a could provide important prognostic information relevant to more effective clinical management of this heterogeneous cancer.\\u000a Hence, through genetic linkage analyses, we examined the hypothesis that the

Daniel J. Schaid

2006-01-01

125

Efficacy of RTS,S malaria vaccines: individual-participant pooled analysis of phase 2 data  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The efficacy of RTS,S/AS01 as a vaccine for malaria is being tested in a phase 3 clinical trial. Early results show significant, albeit partial, protection against clinical malaria and severe malaria. To ascertain variations in vaccine efficacy according to covariates such as transmission intensity, choice of adjuvant, age at vaccination, and bednet use, we did an individual-participant pooled analysis of phase 2 clinical data. Methods We analysed data from 11 different sites in Africa, including 4453 participants. We measured heterogeneity in vaccine efficacy by estimating the interactions between covariates and vaccination in pooled multivariable Cox regression and Poisson regression analyses. Endpoints for measurement of vaccine efficacy were infection, clinical malaria, severe malaria, and death. We defined transmission intensity levels according to the estimated local parasite prevalence in children aged 2–10 years (PrP2–10), ranging from 5% to 80%. Choice of adjuvant was either AS01 or AS02. Findings Vaccine efficacy against all episodes of clinical malaria varied by transmission intensity (p=0·001). At low transmission (PrP2–10 10%) vaccine efficacy was 60% (95% CI 54 to 67), at moderate transmission (PrP2–10 20%) it was 41% (21 to 57), and at high transmission (PrP2–10 70%) the efficacy was 4% (?10 to 22). Vaccine efficacy also varied by adjuvant choice (p<0·0001)—eg, at low transmission (PrP2–10 10%), efficacy varied from 60% (95% CI 54 to 67) for AS01 to 47% (14 to 75) for AS02. Variations in efficacy by age at vaccination were of borderline significance (p=0·038), and bednet use and sex were not significant covariates. Vaccine efficacy (pooled across adjuvant choice and transmission intensity) varied significantly (p<0·0001) according to time since vaccination, from 36% efficacy (95% CI 24 to 45) at time of vaccination to 0% (?38 to 38) after 3 years. Interpretation Vaccine efficacy against clinical disease was of limited duration and was not detectable 3 years after vaccination. Furthermore, efficacy fell with increasing transmission intensity. Outcomes after vaccination cannot be gauged accurately on the basis of one pooled efficacy figure. However, predictions of public-health outcomes of vaccination will need to take account of variations in efficacy by transmission intensity and by time since vaccination. Funding Medical Research Council (UK); Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Vaccine Modelling Initiative; Wellcome Trust. PMID:23454164

Bejon, Philip; White, Michael T; Olotu, Ally; Bojang, Kalifa; Lusingu, John PA; Salim, Nahya; Otsyula, Nekoye N; Agnandji, Selidji T; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Abdulla, Salim; Ghani, Azra C

2013-01-01

126

PWR core and spent fuel pool analysis using scale and nestle  

SciTech Connect

The SCALE nuclear analysis code system [SCALE, 2011], developed and maintained at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is widely recognized as high quality software for analyzing nuclear systems. The SCALE code system is composed of several validated computer codes and methods with standard control sequences, such as the TRITON/NEWT lattice physics sequence, which supplies dependable and accurate analyses for industry, regulators, and academia. Although TRITON generates energy-collapsed and space-homogenized few group cross sections, SCALE does not include a full-core nodal neutron diffusion simulation module within. However, in the past few years, the open-source NESTLE core simulator [NESTLE, 2003], originally developed at North Carolina State Univ. (NCSU), has been updated and upgraded via collaboration between ORNL and the Univ. of Tennessee (UT), so it now has a growingly seamless coupling to the TRITON/NEWT lattice physics [Galloway, 2010]. This study presents the methodology used to couple lattice physics data between TRITON and NESTLE in order to perform a three-dimensional full-core analysis employing a 'real-life' Duke Energy PWR as the test bed. The focus for this step was to compare the key parameters of core reactivity and radial power distribution versus plant data. Following the core analysis, following a three cycle burn, a spent fuel pool analysis was done using information generated from NESTLE for the discharged bundles and was compared to Duke Energy spent fuel pool models. The KENO control module from SCALE was employed for this latter stage of the project. (authors)

Murphy, J. E.; Maldonado, G. I. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2300 (United States); St Clair, R.; Orr, D. [Duke Energy, 526 S. Church St, Charlotte, NC 28202 (United States)

2012-07-01

127

Equilibrium analysis of carbon pools and fluxes of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

Forests are an important component of the biosphere and sequestration of carbon in boreal forests may represent one of the few realistic alternatives to ameliorate changes in atmospheric chemistry. The former Soviet Union has the greatest expanse of boreal forests in the world; however, the role of these forests in the terrestrial carbon cycle is not fully understood because the carbon budget of the Soviet forest sector has not been established. In recognition of the need to determine the role of these forests in the global carbon cycle, the carbon budget of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union was assessed based on an equilibrium analysis of carbon cycle pools and fluxes. Net primary productivity was used to identify the rate of carbon turnover in the forest biomes.

Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

1993-01-01

128

Pooled Genome-Wide Analysis to Identify Novel Risk Loci for Pediatric Allergic Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundGenome-wide association studies of pooled DNA samples were shown to be a valuable tool to identify candidate SNPs associated to a phenotype. No such study was up to now applied to childhood allergic asthma, even if the very high complexity of asthma genetics is an appropriate field to explore the potential of pooled GWAS approach.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe performed a pooled GWAS

Giampaolo Ricci; Annalisa Astolfi; Daniel Remondini; Francesca Cipriani; Serena Formica; Arianna Dondi; Andrea Pession; Jeffrey Whitsett

2011-01-01

129

Predictors of Local Recurrence Following Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: A Pooled Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze a pooled set of nearly 2,000 patients treated on the American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBS) Mammosite Registry Trial and at William Beaumont Hospital (WBH) to identify factors associated with local recurrence following accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: A total of 1,961 women underwent partial breast irradiation between April 1993 and November 2010 as part of the ASBS Registry Trial or at WBH. Rates of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), regional recurrence (RR), distant metastases (DM), disease-free survival (DFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed for each group and for the pooled cohort. Clinical, pathologic, and treatment-related variables were analyzed including age, tumor stage/size, estrogen receptor status, surgical margins, and lymph node status to determine their association with IBTR. Results: The two groups weres similar, but WBH patients were more frequently node positive, had positive margins, and were less likely to be within the American Society for Radiation Oncology-unsuitable group. At 5 years, the rates of IBTR, RR, DM, DFS, CSS, and OS for the pooled group of patients were 2.9%, 0.5%, 2.4%, 89.1%, 98.5%, and 91.8%, respectively. The 5-year rate of true recurrence/marginal miss was 0.8%. Univariate analysis of IBTR found that negative estrogen receptor status (odds ratio [OR], 2.83, 95% confidence interval 1.55-5.13, p = 0.0007) was the only factor significantly associated with IBTR, while a trend was seen for age less than 50 (OR 1.80, 95% confidence interval 0.90-3.58, p = 0.10). Conclusions: Excellent 5-year outcomes were seen following APBI in over 1,900 patients. Estrogen receptor negativity was the only factor associated with IBTR, while a trend for age less than 50 was noted. Significant differences in factors associated with IBTR were noted between cohorts, suggesting that factors driving IBTR may be predicated based on the risk stratification of the patients being treated.

Shah, Chirag; Wilkinson, John Ben [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Cancer Institute, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Lyden, Maureen [Biostat Inc., Tampa, Florida (United States); Beitsch, Peter [Dallas Breast Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Vicini, Frank A., E-mail: fvicini@pol.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Cancer Institute, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States)

2012-04-01

130

External beam radiotherapy for palliation of painful bone metastases: pooled data bioeffect dose response analysis of dose fractionation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bone metastases develop in up to 70% of newly diagnosed cancer patients and result in immobility, anxiety, and depression, severely diminishing the patients quality of life. Radiotherapy is a frequently used modality for bone metastasis and has been shown to be effective in reducing metastatic bone pain and in some instances, causing tumor shrinkage or growth inhibition. There is controversy surrounding the optimal fractionation schedule and total dose of external beam radiotherapy, despite many randomized trials and overviews addressing the issue. This study was undertaken to apply BED to clinical fractionation data of radiotherapeutic management of bone metastases in order to arrive at optimum BED values for acceptable level of response rate. A computerised literature search was conducted to identify all prospective clinical studies that addressed the issue of fractionation for the treatment of bone metastasis. The results of these studies were pooled together to form the database for the analysis. A total of 4111 number of patients received radiation dose ranging from 4 to 40.5 Gy in 1 to 15 fractions with dose per fraction ranging from 2 to 10 Gy. Single fraction treatments were delivered in 2013 patients and the dose varied from 4 to 10 Gy. Multifraction treatments were delivered in 2098 patients and the dose varied from 15 to 40.5 Gy. The biological effective dose (BED) was evaluated for each fractionation schedule using the linear quadratic model and an ?/? value of 10 Gy. Response rate increased significantly beyond a BED value of 14.4 Gy (p < 0.01). Based on our analysis and indications from the literature about higher retreatment and fracture rate of single fraction treatments, minimum BED value of 14.4 Gy is recommended.

Naveen, T.; Supe, Sanjay S.; Ganesh, K. M.; Samuel, Jacob

2009-01-01

131

Community Analysis of Plant Biomass-Degrading Microorganisms from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park.  

PubMed

The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels can potentially be improved by employing robust microorganisms and enzymes that efficiently deconstruct plant polysaccharides at elevated temperatures. Many of the geothermal features of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are surrounded by vegetation providing a source of allochthonic material to support heterotrophic microbial communities adapted to utilize plant biomass as a primary carbon and energy source. In this study, a well-known hot spring environment, Obsidian Pool (OBP), was examined for potential biomass-active microorganisms using cultivation-independent and enrichment techniques. Analysis of 33,684 archaeal and 43,784 bacterial quality-filtered 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences revealed that archaeal diversity in the main pool was higher than bacterial; however, in the vegetated area, overall bacterial diversity was significantly higher. Of notable interest was a flooded depression adjacent to OBP supporting a stand of Juncus tweedyi, a heat-tolerant rush commonly found growing near geothermal features in YNP. The microbial community from heated sediments surrounding the plants was enriched in members of the Firmicutes including potentially (hemi)cellulolytic bacteria from the genera Clostridium, Anaerobacter, Caloramator, Caldicellulosiruptor, and Thermoanaerobacter. Enrichment cultures containing model and real biomass substrates were established at a wide range of temperatures (55-85 °C). Microbial activity was observed up to 80 °C on all substrates including Avicel, xylan, switchgrass, and Populus sp. Independent of substrate, Caloramator was enriched at lower (<65 °C) temperatures while highly active cellulolytic bacteria Caldicellulosiruptor were dominant at high (>65 °C) temperatures. PMID:25319238

Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D; Podar, Mircea; Mosher, Jennifer J; Palumbo, Anthony V; Phelps, Tommy J; Keller, Martin; Elkins, James G

2014-10-16

132

Analysis and improvement of data-set level file distribution in Disk Pool Manager  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of the three most widely used implementations of the WLCG Storage Element specification, Disk Pool Manager[1, 2] (DPM) has the simplest implementation of file placement balancing (StoRM doesn't attempt this, leaving it up to the underlying filesystem, which can be very sophisticated in itself). DPM uses a round-robin algorithm (with optional filesystem weighting), for placing files across filesystems and servers. This does a reasonable job of evenly distributing files across the storage array provided to it. However, it does not offer any guarantees of the evenness of distribution of that subset of files associated with a given "dataset" (which often maps onto a "directory" in the DPM namespace (DPNS)). It is useful to consider a concept of "balance", where an optimally balanced set of files indicates that the files are distributed evenly across all of the pool nodes. The best case performance of the round robin algorithm is to maintain balance, it has no mechanism to improve balance. In the past year or more, larger DPM sites have noticed load spikes on individual disk servers, and suspected that these were exacerbated by excesses of files from popular datasets on those servers. We present here a software tool which analyses file distribution for all datasets in a DPM SE, providing a measure of the poorness of file location in this context. Further, the tool provides a list of file movement actions which will improve dataset-level file distribution, and can action those file movements itself. We present results of such an analysis on the UKI-SCOTGRID-GLASGOW Production DPM.

Cadellin Skipsey, Samuel; Purdie, Stuart; Britton, David; Mitchell, Mark; Bhimji, Wahid; Smith, David

2014-06-01

133

Genome-wide association study of subtype-specific epithelial ovarian cancer risk alleles using pooled DNA.  

PubMed

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a heterogeneous cancer with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Variants influencing the risk of developing the less-common EOC subtypes have not been fully investigated. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of EOC according to subtype by pooling genomic DNA from 545 cases and 398 controls of European descent, and testing for allelic associations. We evaluated for replication 188 variants from the GWAS [56 variants for mucinous, 55 for endometrioid and clear cell, 53 for low-malignant potential (LMP) serous, and 24 for invasive serous EOC], selected using pre-defined criteria. Genotypes from 13,188 cases and 23,164 controls of European descent were used to perform unconditional logistic regression under the log-additive genetic model; odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals are reported. Nine variants tagging six loci were associated with subtype-specific EOC risk at P < 0.05, and had an OR that agreed in direction of effect with the GWAS results. Several of these variants are in or near genes with a biological rationale for conferring EOC risk, including ZFP36L1 and RAD51B for mucinous EOC (rs17106154, OR = 1.17, P = 0.029, n = 1,483 cases), GRB10 for endometrioid and clear cell EOC (rs2190503, P = 0.014, n = 2,903 cases), and C22orf26/BPIL2 for LMP serous EOC (rs9609538, OR = 0.86, P = 0.0043, n = 892 cases). In analyses that included the 75 GWAS samples, the association between rs9609538 (OR = 0.84, P = 0.0007) and LMP serous EOC risk remained statistically significant at P < 0.0012 adjusted for multiple testing. Replication in additional samples will be important to verify these results for the less-common EOC subtypes. PMID:24190013

Earp, Madalene A; Kelemen, Linda E; Magliocco, Anthony M; Swenerton, Kenneth D; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Lu, Yi; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Fasching, Peter A; Lambrechts, Diether; Despierre, Evelyn; Vergote, Ignace; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Doherty, Jennifer A; Rossing, Mary Anne; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Friel, Grace; Moysich, Kirsten B; Odunsi, Kunle; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Lurie, Galina; Goodman, Marc T; Carney, Michael E; Thompson, Pamela J; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Dürst, Matthias; Hillemanns, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bogdanova, Natalia; Leminen, Arto; Nevanlinna, Heli; Pelttari, Liisa M; Butzow, Ralf; Bunker, Clareann H; Modugno, Francesmary; Edwards, Robert P; Ness, Roberta B; du Bois, Andreas; Heitz, Florian; Schwaab, Ira; Harter, Philipp; Karlan, Beth Y; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; Jensen, Allan; Kjær, Susanne K; Høgdall, Claus K; Høgdall, Estrid; Lundvall, Lene; Sellers, Thomas A; Fridley, Brooke L; Goode, Ellen L; Cunningham, Julie M; Vierkant, Robert A; Giles, Graham G; Baglietto, Laura; Severi, Gianluca; Southey, Melissa C; Liang, Dong; Wu, Xifeng; Lu, Karen; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Levine, Douglas A; Bisogna, Maria; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Iversen, Edwin S; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Berchuck, Andrew; Cramer, Daniel W; Terry, Kathryn L; Poole, Elizabeth M; Tworoger, Shelley S; Bandera, Elisa V; Chandran, Urmila; Orlow, Irene; Olson, Sara H; Wik, Elisabeth; Salvesen, Helga B; Bjorge, Line; Halle, Mari K; van Altena, Anne M; Aben, Katja K H; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Massuger, Leon F A G; Pejovic, Tanja; Bean, Yukie T; Cybulski, Cezary; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Brinton, Louise A; Lissowska, Jolanta; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Dicks, Ed; Dennis, Joe; Easton, Douglas F; Song, Honglin; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Pharoah, Paul D P; Eccles, Diana; Campbell, Ian G; Whittemore, Alice S; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Rothstein, Joseph H; Flanagan, James M; Paul, James; Brown, Robert; Phelan, Catherine M; Risch, Harvey A; McLaughlin, John R; Narod, Steven A; Ziogas, Argyrios; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Gayther, Simon A; Ramus, Susan J; Wu, Anna H; Pearce, Celeste L; Pike, Malcolm C; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Szafron, Lukasz M; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Cook, Linda S; Le, Nhu D; Brooks-Wilson, Angela

2014-05-01

134

Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of lung cancer risk detects the KLF6 gene.  

PubMed

A genome-wide association analysis using the Affymetrix 100K SNP array was carried out in a case-control study of lung cancer. Allele frequencies were estimated initially in DNA pools. Significant differences in allele frequency detected in the SNP array analysis were first tested in the same DNA pools by pyrosequencing and then by individual genotyping. DNA pooling analysis identified rs10508266 SNP, located approximately 12.5kb from the 5'-end of the KLF6 gene, as a marker showing significant association with lung cancer risk. Since the SNP was in significant linkage disequilibrium with the KLF6 gene region, we analyzed an Italian population of 338 lung adenocarcinoma cases and 335 controls for the possible role of the reported functional rs3750861 SNP, located 15.6kb from the rs10508266 SNP. The rs3750861 affects expression of KLF6 splicing variants in prostate cancer and we found that its rare allele is associated with reduced lung cancer risk (odds ratio, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.8). A Norwegian replication series of 265 non small cell lung cancer cases, and 356 controls, however, did not confirm the association. In light of the reported functional involvement of the KLF6 gene in lung cancer and in other cancer types and to the functional nature of the rs3750861 SNP, our results suggest a potential involvement of KLF6 polymorphisms in lung cancer risk, although additional studies in large series are needed to confirm our findings and to elucidate the mechanism by which the KLF6 SNPs influence lung cancer risk. PMID:17223258

Spinola, Monica; Leoni, Vera P; Galvan, Antonella; Korsching, Eberhard; Conti, Barbara; Pastorino, Ugo; Ravagnani, Fernando; Columbano, Amedeo; Skaug, Vidar; Haugen, Aage; Dragani, Tommaso A

2007-06-28

135

Diagnosis and Management of Seminal Vesicle Cysts Associated with Ipsilateral Renal Agenesis: A Pooled Analysis of 52 Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Seminal vesicle cysts combined with ipsilateral renal agenesis represent a rare urological anomaly. We searched the literature to review the clinical presentation, diagnosis and therapeutic treatment options of this anomaly. Methods: A pooled analysis was performed of 52 cases of seminal vesicle cysts combined with ipsilateral renal agenesis, including our own observation. The evaluation included: patient age at diagnosis,

D. van den Ouden; J. H. M. Blom; C. Bangma; A. H. V. C. de Spiegeleer

1998-01-01

136

Validation of Five-Colony Pool Analysis Using Multiplex Real-Time PCR for Detection of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli?  

PubMed Central

Five Escherichia coli colonies/patient were studied to evaluate the reliability of a multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli groups, using a pool of five colonies rather than individual colonies. Sensitivity and specificity were 98% and 100%, respectively, at a fifth of the cost of the individual colony analysis. PMID:19357211

Barletta, F.; Ochoa, T. J.; Ecker, L.; Gil, A. I.; Lanata, C. F.; Cleary, T. G.

2009-01-01

137

RAPID ANALYSIS OF CYNANURIC ACID IN SWIMMING POOL WATERS BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY USING POROUS GRAPHITIC CARBON COLUMN  

EPA Science Inventory

An innovative approach is presented for reducing analysis times of cyanuric acid in swimming pool waters by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC method exploits the unique selectivity of porous graphitic carbon (PGC) to fully resolve cyanuric acid from other p...

138

RAPID ANALYSIS OF CYANURIC ACID IN SWIMMING POOL WATERS BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY USING POROUS GRAPHITIC CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

An innovative approach is presented for reducing analysis times of cynuric acid in swimming pool waters by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC method exploits the unique selectivity of porous graphitic carbon (PGC) to fully resolve within 10 minutes cyanuric ...

139

GFLOW thermal-hydraulic code. Volume 1. Spent-fuel pool licensing analysis and sensitivity studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under this project, a revised GFLOW computer code has been developed and verified making available much improved input and output features. A User's Manual has been written and is published separately. Three GFLOW models of the Maine Yankee spent fuel storage pool using 1584, 224 and 72 nodes were used to simulate pool thermal conditions and make comparison to experimental

R. R. Gay; D. M. Gloski

1984-01-01

140

Monitoring of high-power fiber laser welding based on principal component analysis of a molten pool configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There exists plenty of welding quality information on a molten pool during high-power fiber laser welding. An approach for monitoring the high-power fiber laser welding status based on the principal component analysis (PCA) of a molten pool configuration is investigated. An infrared-sensitive high-speed camera was used to capture the molten pool images during laser butt-joint welding of Type 304 austenitic stainless steel plates with a high-power (10 kW) continuous wave fiber laser. In order to study the relationship between the molten pool configuration and the welding status, a new method based on PCA is proposed to analyze the welding stability by comparing the situation when the laser beam spot moves along, and when it deviates from the weld seam. Image processing techniques were applied to process the molten pool images and extract five characteristic parameters. Moreover, the PCA method was used to extract a composite indicator which is the linear combination of the five original characteristics to analyze the different status during welding. Experimental results showed that the extracted composite indicator had a close relationship with the actual welding results and it could be used to evaluate the status of the high-power fiber laser welding, providing a theoretical basis for the monitoring of laser welding quality.

Xiangdong, Gao; Qian, Wen

2013-12-01

141

Pooled analysis of brain activity in Irritable Bowel Syndrome and controls during rectal balloon distension”  

PubMed Central

Background Brain-imaging literature of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) suggests an abnormal brain-gut communication. We analyzed the literature to evaluate and compare the aspects of brain activity in individuals with IBS and control subjects experiencing controlled rectal stimulation. Methods PubMed was searched until September 2010. Data from 16 articles reporting brain activity during rectal balloon distensions in IBS compared to control groups was analyzed. Prevalence rates and pairwise activations were assessed using binomial distributions for 11 selected regions of interest. The data was aggregated to adjust for center effect. Key Results There was considerable variability in the literature regarding regions and their activity patterns in controls and individuals with IBS. There was no significant difference found in the thalamus, ACC, PCC, and PFC, however results show limited evidence of consensus for the Anterior Insula (AI) (p = 0.22). Pairwise activity results suggest that pairs involving the AI tend to have more consistent activity together than pairs which do not involve the AI (Posterior Insula and AI, p = 0.08; Posterior Cingulate Cortex and AI, p = 0.16), however no pairwise evaluation reached significance. Conclusions & Inferences Our pooled analysis demonstrates that the literature reports are quite heterogeneous but there is some evidence that there may be patterns of higher activity more common in individuals with IBS than in controls. A consensus, though, regarding study designs, analysis approach and reporting could create a clearer understanding of brain involvement in IBS pathophysiology. PMID:21118328

Sheehan, James; Gaman, Alexander; Vangel, Mark; Kuo, Braden

2010-01-01

142

Fractionated BNCT for locally recurrent head and neck cancer: experience from a phase I/II clinical trial at Tsing Hua Open-Pool Reactor.  

PubMed

To introduce our experience of treating locally and regionally recurrent head and neck cancer patients with BNCT at Tsing Hua Open-Pool Reactor in Taiwan, 12 patients (M/F=10/2, median age 55.5 Y/O) were enrolled and 11 received two fractions of treatment. Fractionated BNCT at 30-day interval with adaptive planning according to changed T/N ratios was feasible, effective and safe for selected recurrent head and neck cancer in this trial. PMID:24369888

Wang, Ling-Wei; Chen, Yi-Wei; Ho, Ching-Yin; Hsueh Liu, Yen-Wan; Chou, Fong-In; Liu, Yuan-Hao; Liu, Hong-Ming; Peir, Jinn-Jer; Jiang, Shiang-Huei; Chang, Chi-Wei; Liu, Ching-Sheng; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Chu, Pen-Yuan; Yen, Sang-Hue

2014-06-01

143

Gamma glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase and risk of cancer: Systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The prospective evidence for the associations of gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) with risk of cancer in the general population is uncertain. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published prospective observational studies evaluating the associations of baseline levels of GGT and ALT with risk of overall (incidence and/or mortality) and site-specific cancers. Relevant studies were identified in a literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, reference lists of relevant studies to April 2014 and email contact with investigators. Study specific relative risks (RRs) were meta-analyzed using random effects models. Fourteen cohort studies with data on 1.79 million participants and 57,534 cancer outcomes were included. Comparing top versus bottom thirds of baseline circulating GGT levels, pooled RRs (95% confidence intervals) were 1.32 (1.15-1.52) for overall cancer, 1.09 (0.95-1.24) for cancers of the breast and female genital organs, 1.09 (1.02-1.16) for cancers of male genital organs, 1.94 (1.35-2.79) for cancers of digestive organs and 1.33 (0.94-1.89) for cancers of respiratory and intrathoracic organs. For ALT, corresponding RRs for overall cancer were 0.96 (0.94-0.99) and 1.65 (1.52-1.79) in European and Asian populations, respectively. There was an increased risk of cancers of the digestive organs 2.44 (1.23-4.84). The pooled RR for overall cancer per 5 U/L increment in GGT levels was 1.04 (1.03-1.05). Available observational data indicate a positive log-linear association of GGT levels with overall cancer risk. The positive association was generally evident for site-specific cancers. There are geographical variations in the association of ALT and overall cancer. PMID:25043373

Kunutsor, Setor K; Apekey, Tanefa A; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Calori, Giliola; Perseghin, Gianluca

2015-03-01

144

Clinical characteristics of incidental or unsuspected gallbladder cancers diagnosed during or after cholecystectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To perform a systematic review of incidental or unsuspected gallbladder (GB) cancer diagnosed during or after cholecystectomy. METHODS: Data in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were reviewed and 26 publications were included in the meta-analysis. The inclusion criterion for incidental GB cancer was GB cancer diagnosed during or after cholecystectomy that was not suspected at a preoperative stage. Pooled proportions of the incidence, distribution of T stage, and revisional surgery of incidental GB cancer were analyzed. RESULTS: The final pooled population comprised 2145 patients with incidental GB cancers. Incidental GB cancers were found in 0.7% of cholecystectomies performed for benign gallbladder diseases on preoperative diagnosis (95%CI: 0.004-0.012). Nearly 50% of the incidental GB cancers were stage T2 with a pooled proportion of 47.0% (95%CI: 0.421-0.519). T1 and T3 GB cancers were found at a similar frequency, with pooled proportions of 23.0% (95%CI: 0.178-0.291) and 25.1% (95%CI: 0.195-0.317), respectively. The pooled proportion that completed revisional surgery for curative intent was 40.9% (95%CI: 0.329-0.494). The proportion of patients with unresectable disease upon revisional surgery was 23.0% (95%CI: 0.177-0.294). CONCLUSION: A large proportion of incidental GB cancers were T2 and T3 lesions. Revisional surgery for radical cholecystectomy is warranted in T2 and more advanced cancers. PMID:25632207

Choi, Kui Sun; Choi, Sae Byeol; Park, Pyoungjae; Kim, Wan Bae; Choi, Sang Yong

2015-01-01

145

Variation in dengue virus plaque reduction neutralization testing: systematic review and pooled analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) remains the gold standard for the detection of serologic immune responses to dengue virus (DENV). While the basic concept of the PRNT remains constant, this test has evolved in multiple laboratories, introducing variation in materials and methods. Despite the importance of laboratory-to-laboratory comparability in DENV vaccine development, the effects of differing PRNT techniques on assay results, particularly the use of different dengue strains within a serotype, have not been fully characterized. Methods We conducted a systematic review and pooled analysis of published literature reporting individual-level PRNT titers to identify factors associated with heterogeneity in PRNT results and compared variation between strains within DENV serotypes and between articles using hierarchical models. Results The literature search and selection criteria identified 8 vaccine trials and 25 natural exposure studies reporting 4,411 titers from 605 individuals using 4 different neutralization percentages, 3 cell lines, 12 virus concentrations and 51 strains. Of 1,057 titers from primary DENV exposure, titers to the exposure serotype were consistently higher than titers to non-exposure serotypes. In contrast, titers from secondary DENV exposures (n?=?628) demonstrated high titers to exposure and non-exposure serotypes. Additionally, PRNT titers from different strains within a serotype varied substantially. A pooled analysis of 1,689 titers demonstrated strain choice accounted for 8.04% (90% credible interval [CrI]: 3.05%, 15.7%) of between-titer variation after adjusting for secondary exposure, time since DENV exposure, vaccination and neutralization percentage. Differences between articles (a proxy for inter-laboratory differences) accounted for 50.7% (90% CrI: 30.8%, 71.6%) of between-titer variance. Conclusions As promising vaccine candidates arise, the lack of standardized assays among diagnostic and research laboratories make unbiased inferences about vaccine-induced protection difficult. Clearly defined, widely accessible reference reagents, proficiency testing or algorithms to adjust for protocol differences would be a useful first step in improving dengue PRNT comparability and quality assurance. PMID:23020074

2012-01-01

146

Striking life events associated with primary breast cancer susceptibility in women: a meta-analysis study  

PubMed Central

Purpose The association between striking life events, an important stress and acute anxiety disorder, and the occurrence of primary breast cancer is unclear. The current meta-analysis was designed to assess the relationship between striking life events and primary breast cancer incidence in women. Methods Systematic computerized searching of the PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, and BMJ databases with the combinations of controlled descriptors from Mesh, including breast cancer, breast tumor, cancer of breast, mammary carcinoma, life events, life change events, case–control studies, case-base studies, cohort study, and cohort analysis and identified a total of 307 papers published from January 1995 to April 2012. Following evaluation of methodological quality with the Downs & Black criteria, seven case–control or cohort studies were selected and the association between striking life events and primary breast cancer incidence in women was measured using random effect or fixed-effect odds ratios combined with 95% confidence interval. Results The seven studies included in the final meta-analysis included 99,807 women. A meta-analysis showed that the pooled OR for striking life events and breast cancer was 1.51 (95% CI 1.15 - 1.97, P = 0.003), indicating that women with striking life events were at 1.5-fold greater risk of developing breast cancer. The pooled OR for severe striking life events and breast cancer was 2.07 (95% CI 1.06 - 4.03), indicating that women with severe striking life events were at 2-fold greater risk of developing breast cancer. Conclusions The current meta-analysis showed significant evidence for a positive association between striking life events and primary breast cancer incidence in women. PMID:23941600

2013-01-01

147

Prognostic significance of osteopontin in patients with lung cancer: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Both plasma/serum/pleural effusion osteopontin concentration (PSPO) and tumor tissue osteopontin expression (TTO) have recently been reported to be involved in the prognosis of lung cancer. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to demonstrate the association between PSPO/TTO and survival in patients with lung cancer. We searched in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, Web of Science and Chinese Biomedical database (CBM) for relevant literatures. Stata 12.0 was applied to pool the eligible studies and synthesize hazard ratios (HRs) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). For PSPO, a total of 8 studies with 1000 patients were included in final analysis. Combined HR suggested high PSPO predicted an unfavorable overall survival (OS) (HR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.13-2.05) and progress-free survival (PFS) (HR=1.73, 95% CI: 1.35-2.21). For TTO, 5 studies with a total of 747 patients were employed in final analysis. Pooled HR indicated that elevated TTO was associated with poor OS (HR=2.16, 95% CI: 1.65-2.83) and disease/relapse-free survival (D/RFS) (HR=2.36, 95% CI: 1.79-3.12). Subgroup analysis was performed to explore the causes of heterogeneity. Publication bias by begg’s test was not statistically significant. Sensitivity analysis showed that the pooled results were robust. This study revealed that both high TTO and PSPO are associated with poor prognosis in patients with lung cancer.

Peng, Bin; Wang, Yi-Han; Huang, Zhuo; Feng, Shi-Jian; Wang, Yong-Sheng

2014-01-01

148

Treatment of unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with yttrium-90 radioembolization: A systematic review and pooled analysis  

PubMed Central

Radioembolization with yttrium-90 microspheres offers an alternative treatment option for patients with unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). However, the rarity and heterogeneity of ICC makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions about treatment efficacy. Therefore, the goal of the current study is to systematically review the existing literature surrounding treatment of unresectable ICCs with yttrium-90 microspheres and provide a comprehensive review of the current experience and clinical outcome of this treatment modality. We performed a comprehensive search of electronic databases for ICC treatment and identified 12 studies with relevant data regarding radioembolization therapy with yttrium-90 microspheres. Based on pooled analysis, the overall weighted median survival was 15.5 months. Tumour response based on radiological studies demonstrated a partial response in 28% and stable disease in 54% of patients at three months. Seven patients were able to be downstaged to surgical resection. The complication profile of radioembolization is similar to that of other intra-arterial treatment modalities. Overall survival of patients with ICC after treatment with yttrium-90 microspheres is higher than historical survival rates and shows similar survival to those patients treated with systemic chemotherapy and/or trans-arterial chemoembolization therapy. Therefore, the use of yttrium-90 microspheres should be considered in the list of available treatment options for ICC. However, future randomized trials comparing systemic chemotherapy, TACE and local radiation will be required to identify the optimal treatment modality for unresectable ICC. PMID:25449754

Al-Adra, D.P.; Gill, R.S.; Axford, S.J.; Shi, X.; Kneteman, N.; Liau, S.-S.

2015-01-01

149

Bleeding Risk and Mortality of Edoxaban: A Pooled Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Objective(s) Edoxaban, a factor Xa inhibitor, is a new oral anticoagulant that has been developed as an alternative to vitamin K antagonists. However, its safety remains unexplored. Methods Medline, Embase and Web of Science were searched to March 8, 2014 for prospective, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the safety profile of edoxaban with warfarin. Safety outcomes examined included bleeding risk and mortality. Results Five trials including 31,262 patients that met the inclusion criteria were pooled. Overall, edoxaban was associated with a significant decrease in major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding events [risk ratio (RR) 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74 to 0.82, p<0.001] and any bleeding events [RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.85, p<0.001]. Edoxaban also showed superiority to warfarin both in all-cause mortality [RR 0.92, 95% CI0.85 to0.99, p?=?0.02] and cardiovascular mortality [RR 0.87, 95% CI0.79 to 0.96, p?=?0.004]. Subgroup analyses indicated that RRs of edoxaban 30, 60 or 120 mg/d were 0.67 (p<0.001), 0.87 (p<0.001) and 3.3 (p?=?0.004) respectively in major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding; 0.71 (p<0.001), 0.89 (p<0.001) and 2.29 (p?=?0.002) respectively in any bleeding; as well as 0.86 (p?=?0.01), 0.87 (p?=?0.01) and 0.28 (p?=?0.41) respectively in cardiovascular death… Meanwhile, paramount to note that pooled results other than the largest trial showed edoxaban was still associated with a decrease in the rate of major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding event (p?=?0.02) and any bleeding (p?=?0.002), but neither in all-cause death (p?=?0.66) nor cardiovascular death (p?=?0.70). Conclusions Edoxaban, a novel orally available direct factor Xa inhibitor, seems to have a favorable safety profiles with respect to bleeding risk and non-inferior in mortality when compared to warfarin. Further prospective RCTs are urgently needed to confirm the results of this meta-analysis. PMID:24736694

Xu, Dachun; Xu, Yawei

2014-01-01

150

COX-2-765G>C Polymorphism Increases the Risk of Cancer: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic inflammation has been regarded as an important mechanism in carcinogenesis. Inflammation-associated genetic variants have been highly associated with cancer risk. Polymorphisms in the gene cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a pro-inflammation factor, have been suggested to alter the risk of multiple tumors, but the findings of various studies are not consistent. Methods A literature search through February 2013 was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, and CNKI databases. We used odds ratios (ORs) with confidence intervals (CIs) of 95% to assess the strength of the association between the COX-2-765G>C polymorphism and cancer risk in a random-effect model. We also assessed heterogeneity and publication bias. Results In total, 65 articles with 29,487 cancer cases and 39,212 non-cancer controls were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled OR (95% CIs) in the co-dominant model (GC vs. GG) was 1.11 (1.02–1.22), and in the dominant model ((CC+GC) vs. GG), the pooled OR was 1.12 (1.02–1.23). In the subgroup analysis, stratified by cancer type and race, significant associations were found between the-765 C allele and higher risk for gastric cancer, leukemia, pancreatic cancer, and cancer in the Asian population. Conclusion In summary, the COX-2-765 C allele was related to increased cancer susceptibility, especially gastric cancer and cancer in the Asian population. PMID:24023834

Zhang, Xiao-wei; Hua, Rui-xi; Guo, Wei-jian

2013-01-01

151

Pool Purification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Caribbean Clear, Inc. used NASA's silver ion technology as a basis for its automatic pool purifier. System offers alternative approach to conventional purification chemicals. Caribbean Clear's principal markets are swimming pool owners who want to eliminate chlorine and bromine. Purifiers in Caribbean Clear System are same silver ions used in Apollo System to kill bacteria, plus copper ions to kill algae. They produce spa or pool water that exceeds EPA Standards for drinking water.

1988-01-01

152

Prognostic Role of Survivin in Bladder Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of published literature investigating the survivin expression and its effects on bladder cancer prognosis. Materials and Methods We carefully searched online Pubmed, Cochrane Library and SCOPUS database from August 1997 to May 2013. Results A total of 14 articles met the eligibility criteria for this systematic review. The eligible studies included a total of 2,165 patients with a median number of 155 patients per study (range: 17–726). Of the 14 studies, nine evaluated immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks. In non-muscle invasive bladder tumor, the pooled hazard ratio (HR) was statistically significant for recurrence-free survival (pooled HR, 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30–2.52), progression-free survival (pooled HR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.60–2.82), cancer-specific survival (pooled HR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.32–3.06), and overall survival (pooled HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.02–2.29). The overall HRs by survivin status were robust across advanced stages. When only adjusted survival data were included, statistically significant differences were identified for all survival subgroup analyses. There was no between-study heterogeneity in the effect of survivin status on the majority of meta-analyses. There was no clear evidence of publication bias in this meta-analysis. Conclusions Survivin expression indicates worse prognosis in patients with bladder cancer but the results should be interpreted with caution. It is necessary that better-designed studies with standardized assays need to provide a better conclusion about the relationship between survivin expression and the outcome of patients with bladder cancer. PMID:24204662

Jeon, Chanhoo; Kim, Myong; Kwak, Cheol; Kim, Hyeon Hoe; Ku, Ja Hyeon

2013-01-01

153

Association between Alcohol Consumption and Cancers in the Chinese Population—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Alcohol consumption is increasing worldwide and is associated with numerous cancers. This systematic review examined the role of alcohol in the incidence of cancer in the Chinese population. Methods Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI and VIP were searched to identify relevant studies. Cohort and case-control studies on the effect of alcohol use on cancers in Chinese were included. Study quality was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Data were independently abstracted by two reviewers. Odds ratios (OR) or relative risks (RR) were pooled using RevMan 5.0. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the Q test and I-squared statistic. P<.01 was considered statistically significant. Results Pooled results from cohort studies indicated that alcohol consumption was not associated with gastric cancer, esophageal cancers (EC) or lung cancer. Meta-analysis of case-control studies showed that alcohol consumption was a significant risk factor for five cancers; the pooled ORs were 1.79 (99% CI, 1.47–2.17) EC, 1.40 (99% CI, 1.19–1.64) gastric cancer, 1.56 (99% CI, 1.16–2.09) hepatocellular carcinoma, 1.21 (99% CI, 1.00–1.46) nasopharyngeal cancer and 1.71 (99% CI, 1.20–2.44) oral cancer. Pooled ORs of the case-control studies showed that alcohol consumption was protective for female breast cancer and gallbladder cancer: OR 0.76 (99% CI, 0.60–0.97) and 0.70 (99% CI, 0.49–1.00) respectively. There was no significant correlation between alcohol consumption and lung cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, cancer of the ampulla of Vater, prostate cancer or extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Combined results of case-control and cohort studies showed that alcohol consumption was associated with 1.78- and 1.40-fold higher risks of EC and gastric cancer but was not significantly associated with lung cancer. Conclusions Health programs focused on limiting alcohol intake may be important for cancer control in China. Further studies are needed to examine the interaction between alcohol consumption and other risk factors for cancers in Chinese and other populations. PMID:21526212

Li, Ying; Yang, Huan; Cao, Jia

2011-01-01

154

Association of CYP2A6*4 with Susceptibility of Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the association between the variant of Cytochrome P450 2A6 whole gene deletion (CYP2A6*4) polymorphism and risk of lung cancer. Methods Two investigators independently searched the PubMed, Elsevier, EMBASE, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for CYP2A6*4 and lung cancer were calculated in a fixed-effects model (the Mantel-Haenszel method) and a random-effects model (the DerSimonian and Laird method) when appropriate. Results This meta-analysis included seven eligible studies, which included 2524 lung cancer cases and 2258 controls (cancer–free). Overall, CYP2A6*4 was associated with the risk of lung cancer (allele*4 vs. allele non-*4, pooled OR ?=?0.826, 95% CI ?=?0.725?0.941, P-value ?=?0.004). When stratifying for population, significant association was observed in Asian (additive model, pooled OR ?=?0.794, 95% CI ?=?0.694?0.909, P-value ?=?0.001; dominant model, pooled OR ?=?0.827, 95% CI ?=?0.709?0.965, P-value ?=?0.016; recessive model (pooled OR ?=?0.444, 95% CI ?=?0.293?0.675, P-value <0.0001). In the overall analysis, a comparably significant decrease in the frequency of *4/*4 genotype was detected between cases and controls in Asian while no *4/*4 genotype was detected in Caucasian in collected data. Conclusion This meta-analysis suggests that the CYP2A6*4 polymorphism is associated with susceptibility of lung cancer in Asian. The whole gene deletion of CYP2A6 may decrease the risk of lung cancer in Asian samples. PMID:23585826

Xie, Dongli; Ji, Weidong; Pan, Yaosheng; Li, Zhiqiang; Shen, Jiawei; Shi, Yongyong

2013-01-01

155

Worldwide risk factors for heart failure: a systematic review and pooled analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Heart failure risk factors are diverse and likely to vary among world regions. Systematic review and pooled analysis were used describe contributions of major underlying risk factors for heart failure in six world regions. Methods Electronic databases were systematically searched, and 37 clinic-based studies representing 40 countries published 1980–2008 and reporting underlying risk factors for heart failure were included. Risk factors were classified as ischemic heart disease (IHD), hypertension, rheumatic/other valvular heart disease, cardiopulmonary disease, cardiomyopathy, and “other”. Crude and age- and sex-adjusted risk factor prevalence were estimated for each region using regression analysis, under specifications of overlapping as well as additive contributions. Results Many heart failure cases were assigned multiple underlying risk factors, leading to considerable overlap. Crude IHD prevalence among heart failure patients was >50% in Europe and North America, approximately 30–40% in East Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean, and <10% in sub-Saharan Africa. Age and sex adjustment attenuated regional differences in IHD-as-risk factor but IHD remained rare in sub-Saharan Africa. Hypertension prevalence was high in heart failure patients of all regions but highest in Eastern and Central Europe and sub-Saharan Africa (age- and sex-adjusted, 35.0% and 32.6%, respectively). Cardiomyopathy was most common in Latin American and the Caribbean and sub-Saharan Africa (age- and sex-adjusted, 19.8% and 25.7%). Conclusions Heart failure risk factors vary substantially among world regions. More detailed regional heart failure epidemiology studies are needed in order to quantify the global burden of heart failure and identify regional prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:23201083

Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Farzadfar, Farshad; Oliver, John; Ezzati, Majid; Moran, Andrew

2012-01-01

156

XPG Asp1104His polymorphism and gastrointestinal cancers risk: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Several studies have reported the association between the Asp1104His polymorphism in xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG) gene and risk of gastrointestinal cancers. However, the results are inconsistent. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between XPG Asp1104His polymorphism and gastrointestinal cancers risk. Relevant studies were identified using PubMed, Web of Science, CNKI, WanFang and VIP databases up to July 22, 2014. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using the fixed- or random effects model. 13 case-control studies from twelve publications with 4275 patients and 5735 controls were included. Overall, a significant association was found between the XPG Asp1104His polymorphism and the risk of gastrointestinal cancers (dominant model: OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.05-1.26; His/His vs. Asp/Asp: OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01-1.32). When the analysis was stratified by ethnicity, similar results were observed in Asians under homozygote model; in stratification analysis by cancer type, increased cancer risk was detected in colorectal and hepatocellular carcinoma, but not for other gastrointestinal cancers. Furthermore, in subgroup analysis by source of control, we failed to detect any association among population, hospital and family-based populations. This meta-analysis indicated that the XPG Asp1104His polymorphism may be a risk factor for gastrointestinal cancers, especially of colorectal cancer.

Luo, Jian-Fei; Yan, Rui-Cheng; Zou, Li

2014-01-01

157

Occupation related pesticide exposure and cancer of the prostate: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To summarise recent literature on the risk of prostate cancer in pesticide related occupations, to calculate the meta-rate ratio, and to compare it to data from meta-analyses previously published.Methods: A meta-analysis of 22 epidemiological studies, published between 1995 and 2001, was conducted in order to pool their rate ratio estimates. Studies were summarised and evaluated for homogeneity and publication

G Van Maele-Fabry; J L Willems

2003-01-01

158

Well-characterized open pool experiment data and analysis for model validation and development.  

SciTech Connect

Four Well-Characterized Open Pool fires were conducted by Fire Science and Technology Department. The focus of the Well-Characterized Open Pool fire series was to provide environmental information for open pool fires on a physics first principal basis. The experiments measured the burning rate of liquid fuel in an open pool and the resultant heat flux to a weapon-sized object and the surrounding environment with well-characterized boundary and initial conditions. Results presented in this report include a general description of test observation (pre- and post-test), wind measurements, fire plume topology, average fuel recession and heat release rates, and incident heat flux to the pool and to the calorimeters. As expected, results of the experiments show a strong correlation between wind conditions, fuel vaporization (mass loss) rate, and incident heat flux to the fuel and ground surface and calorimeters. Numerical fire simulations using both temporally- and spatially-dependant wind boundary conditions were performed using the Vulcan fire code. Comparisons of data to simulation predictions showed similar trends; however, simulation-predicted incident heat fluxes were lower than measured.

Sundberg, David W.; Brown, Alexander L.; Blanchat, Thomas K.

2006-12-01

159

Fuel Burnup and Fuel Pool Shielding Analysis for Bushehr Nuclear Reactor VVER-1000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bushehr Nuclear power plant (BNPP) is currently under construction. The VVER-1000 reactor will be loaded with 126 tons of about 4% enriched fuel having 3-years life cycle. The spent fuel (SF) will be transferred into the spent fuel pool (SPF), where it stays for 8 years before being transferred to Russia. The SPF plays a crucial role during 8 years when the SP resides in there. This paper investigates the shielding of this structure as it is designed to shield the SF radiation. In this study, the SF isotope inventory, for different cycles and with different burnups, was calculated using WIMS/4D transport code. Using MCNP4C nuclear code, the intensity of ? rays was obtained in different layers of SFP shields. These layers include the water above fuel assemblies (FA) in pool, concrete wall of the pool and water laid above transferring fuels. Results show that ? rays leakage from the shield in the mentioned layers are in agreement with the plant's PSAR data. Finally we analyzed an accident were the water height above the FA in the pool drops to 47 cm. In this case it was observed that exposure dose above pool, 10 and 30 days from the accident, are still high and in the levels of 1000 and 758 R/hr.

Hadad, Kamal; Ayobian, Navid

160

Biologic markers of sun exposure and melanoma risk in women: pooled case-control analysis  

PubMed Central

A model has been proposed whereby melanomas arise through two distinct pathways dependent upon the relative influence of host susceptibility and sun exposure. Such pathways may explain site-specific patterns of melanoma occurrence. To explore this model, we investigated the relationship between melanoma risk and general markers of acute (recalled sunburns) and chronic (prevalent solar keratoses) sun exposure, stratified by anatomic site and host phenotype. Our working hypothesis was that head and neck melanomas have stronger associations with solar keratoses and weaker associations with sunburn than trunk melanomas. We conducted a collaborative analysis using original data from women subjects of 11 case–control studies of melanoma (2575 cases, 3241 controls). We adjusted for potential confounding effects of sunlamp use and sunbathing. The magnitude of sunburn associations did not differ significantly by melanoma site, nevus count or histologic sub-type of melanoma. Across all sites, relative risk of melanoma increased with an increasing number of reported lifetime ‘painful’ sunburns, lifetime ‘severe’ sunburns and ‘severe’ sunburns in youth (ptrend<0.001), with pooled odds ratios for the highest category of sunburns vs no sunburns of 3.22 (95%CI 2.04–5.09) for lifetime ‘painful’ sunburns, 2.10 (95%CI 1.30–3.38) for lifetime ‘severe’ sunburns, and 2.43 (95%CI 1.61–3.65) for ‘severe’ sunburns in youth. Solar keratoses strongly increased the risk of head and neck melanoma (pOR 4.91, 95% CI 2.10–11.46), but data were insufficient to assess risk for other sites. Reported sunburn is strongly associated with melanoma on all major body sites. PMID:20857492

Olsen, Catherine M.; Zens, Michael S.; Green, Adele C.; Stukel, Therese A.; Holman, C. D’Arcy J.; Mack, Thomas; Elwood, J. Mark; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Gallagher, Richard; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Rosso, Stefano; Kirkpatrick, Connie; Zanetti, Roberto; Bishop, Julia Newton; Bataille, Veronique; Chang, Yu-Mei; Mackie, Rona; Østerlind, Anne; Berwick, Marianne; Karagas, Margaret R.; Whiteman, David C.

2010-01-01

161

NaK pool-boiler bench-scale receiver durability test: Test results and materials analysis  

SciTech Connect

Pool-boiler reflux receivers have been considered as an alternative to heat pipes for the input of concentrated solar energy to Stirling-cycle engines in dish-Stirling electric generation systems. Pool boilers offer simplicity in design and fabrication. The operation of a full-scale pool-boiler receiver has been demonstrated for short periods of time. However, to generate cost-effective electricity, the receiver must operate Without significant maintenance for the entire system life, as much as 20 to 30 years. Long-term liquid-metal boiling stability and materials compatibility with refluxing NaK-78 is not known and must be determined for the pool boiler receiver. No boiling system has been demonstrated for a significant duration with the current porous boiling enhancement surface and materials. Therefore, it is necessary to simulate the full-scale pool boiler design as much as possible, including flux levels, materials, and operating cycles. On-sun testing is impractical because of the limited test time available. A test vessel was constructed with a porous boiling enhancement surface. The boiling surface consisted of a brazed stainless steel powder with about 50% porosity. The vessel was heated with a quartz lamp array providing about go W/CM2 peak incident thermal flux. The vessel was charged with NaK-78. This allows the elimination of costly electric preheating, both on this test and on fullscale receivers. The vessel was fabricated from Haynes 230 alloy. The vessel operated at 750{degrees}C around the clock, with a 1/2-hour shutdown cycle to ambient every 8 hours. The test completed 7500 hours of lamp-on operation time, and over 1000 startups from ambient. The test was terminated when a small leak in an Inconel 600 thermowell was detected. The test design and data are presented here. Metallurgical analysis of virgin and tested materials has begun, and initial results are also presented.

Andraka, C.E.; Goods, S.H.; Bradshaw, R.W.; Moreno, J.B.; Moss, T.A.; Jones, S.A.

1994-06-01

162

The Cancer Genome Atlas Pan-Cancer analysis project.  

PubMed

The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network has profiled and analyzed large numbers of human tumors to discover molecular aberrations at the DNA, RNA, protein and epigenetic levels. The resulting rich data provide a major opportunity to develop an integrated picture of commonalities, differences and emergent themes across tumor lineages. The Pan-Cancer initiative compares the first 12 tumor types profiled by TCGA. Analysis of the molecular aberrations and their functional roles across tumor types will teach us how to extend therapies effective in one cancer type to others with a similar genomic profile. PMID:24071849

Weinstein, John N; Collisson, Eric A; Mills, Gordon B; Shaw, Kenna R Mills; Ozenberger, Brad A; Ellrott, Kyle; Shmulevich, Ilya; Sander, Chris; Stuart, Joshua M

2013-10-01

163

Quantitative analysis of synaptic vesicle pool replenishment in cultured cerebellar granule neurons using FM dyes.  

PubMed

After neurotransmitter release in central nerve terminals, SVs are rapidly retrieved by endocytosis. Retrieved SVs are then refilled with neurotransmitter and rejoin the recycling pool, defined as SVs that are available for exocytosis(1,2). The recycling pool can generally be subdivided into two distinct pools - the readily releasable pool (RRP) and the reserve pool (RP). As their names imply, the RRP consists of SVs that are immediately available for fusion while RP SVs are released only during intense stimulation(1,2). It is important to have a reliable assay that reports the differential replenishment of these SV pools in order to understand 1) how SVs traffic after different modes of endocytosis (such as clathrin-dependent endocytosis and activity-dependent bulk endocytosis) and 2) the mechanisms controlling the mobilisation of both the RRP and RP in response to different stimuli. FM dyes are routinely employed to quantitatively report SV turnover in central nerve terminals(3-8). They have a hydrophobic hydrocarbon tail that allows reversible partitioning in the lipid bilayer, and a hydrophilic head group that blocks passage across membranes. The dyes have little fluorescence in aqueous solution, but their quantum yield increases dramatically when partitioned in membrane(9). Thus FM dyes are ideal fluorescent probes for tracking actively recycling SVs. The standard protocol for use of FM dye is as follows. First they are applied to neurons and are taken up during endocytosis (Figure 1). After non-internalised dye is washed away from the plasma membrane, recycled SVs redistribute within the recycling pool. These SVs are then depleted using unloading stimuli (Figure 1). Since FM dye labelling of SVs is quantal(10), the resulting fluorescence drop is proportional to the amount of vesicles released. Thus, the recycling and fusion of SVs generated from the previous round of endocytosis can be reliably quantified. Here, we present a protocol that has been modified to obtain two additional elements of information. Firstly, sequential unloading stimuli are used to differentially unload the RRP and the RP, to allow quantification of the replenishment of specific SV pools. Secondly, each nerve terminal undergoes the protocol twice. Thus, the response of the same nerve terminal at S1 can be compared against the presence of a test substance at phase S2 (Figure 2), providing an internal control. This is important, since the extent of SV recycling across different nerve terminals is highly variable(11). Any adherent primary neuronal cultures may be used for this protocol, however the plating density, solutions and stimulation conditions are optimised for cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs)(12,13). PMID:22105080

Cheung, Giselle; Cousin, Michael A

2011-01-01

164

Toward a Comprehensive Genomic Analysis of Cancer  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) convened a "Toward a Comprehensive Genomic Analysis of Cancer" workshop in Washington, D.C. This workshop brought together physicians, basic scientists and other members of the U.S. and international cancer communities to assist in outlining the most effective strategies for the development of a successful project. Information about this workshop is reported in the Executive Summary.

165

Association between tea and coffee consumption and risk of laryngeal cancer: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective: Epidemiological studies evaluating the association of tea and coffee consumption and the risk of laryngeal cancer have produced inconsistent results. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between tea and coffee consumption and laryngeal cancer risk. Methods: Pertinent studies were identified by a search in PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Wan Fang Med Online. The random effect model was used based on heterogeneity test. Publication bias was estimated using Egger’s regression asymmetry test. As a result, 11 articles were included in this meta-analysis. Results: For tea consumption and laryngeal cancer, data from 8 studies including 2167 laryngeal cancer cases were used, and the pooled results suggested that highest tea consumption versus lowest level wasn’t associated with the risk of laryngeal cancer [summary RR = 0.909, 95% CI = 0.674-1.227]. Eight studies comprising 2596 laryngeal cancer cases for coffee consumption and laryngeal cancer risk were included, and no association was found (summary RR = 1.218, 95% CI = 0.915-1.622). Conclusions: Finding from this meta-analysis suggested that tea and coffee consumption weren’t associated with the risk of laryngeal cancer. Since the potential biases and confounders could not be ruled out completely in this meta-analysis, further studies are warranted to confirm this result. PMID:25664021

Ouyang, Zhiguo; Wang, Zhaoyan; Jin, Jian

2014-01-01

166

Prolactin receptor attenuation induces zinc pool redistribution through ZnT2 and decreases invasion in MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Prolactin receptor (PRL-R) activation regulates cell differentiation, proliferation, cell survival and motility of breast cells. Prolactin (PRL) and PRL-R over-expression are strongly implicated in breast cancer, particularly contributing to tumor growth and invasion in the more aggressive estrogen-receptor negative (ER?) disease. PRL-R antagonists have been suggested as potential therapeutic agents; however, mechanisms through which PRL-R antagonists exert their actions are not well-understood. Zinc (Zn) is a regulatory factor for over 10% of the proteome, regulating critical cell processes such as proliferation, cell signaling, transcription, apoptosis and autophagy. PRL-R signaling regulates Zn metabolism in breast cells. Herein we determined effects of PRL-R attenuation on cellular Zn metabolism and cell function in a model of ER-, PRL-R over-expressing breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-453). PRL-R attenuation post-transcriptionally increased ZnT2 abundance and redistributed intracellular Zn pools into lysosomes and mitochondria. ZnT2-mediated lysosomal Zn sequestration was associated with reduced matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) activity and decreased invasion. ZnT2-mediated Zn accumulation in mitochondria was associated with increased mitochondrial oxidation. Our results suggest that PRL-R antagonism in PRL-R over-expressing breast cancer cells may reduce invasion through the redistribution of intracellular Zn pools critical for cellular function. - Highlights: • PRL-R attenuation increased ZnT2 expression. • PRL-R attenuation increased lysosomal and mitochondrial Zn accumulation. • PRL-R attenuation decreased MMP-2 and invasion. • PRL-R antagonists may modulate lysosomal and mitochondrial Zn pools.

Bostanci, Zeynep, E-mail: zbostanci@hmc.psu.edu [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Nutritional Sciences, 209 Chandlee Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); The Pennsylvania State University Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Surgery, 500 University Dr., Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Alam, Samina, E-mail: sra116@psu.edu [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Nutritional Sciences, 209 Chandlee Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); The Pennsylvania State University Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Surgery, 500 University Dr., Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Soybel, David I., E-mail: dsoybel@hmc.psu.edu [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Nutritional Sciences, 209 Chandlee Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); The Pennsylvania State University Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Surgery, 500 University Dr., Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Department of Cell and Molecular Physiology, 500 University Dr., Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Kelleher, Shannon L., E-mail: slk39@psu.edu [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Nutritional Sciences, 209 Chandlee Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); The Pennsylvania State University Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Surgery, 500 University Dr., Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Department of Cell and Molecular Physiology, 500 University Dr., Hershey, PA 17033 (United States)

2014-02-15

167

Uptitrating amlodipine significantly reduces blood pressure in diabetic patients with hypertension: a retrospective, pooled analysis  

PubMed Central

Diabetic patients with hypertension are approximately twice as likely to develop cardiovascular disease as non-diabetic patients with hypertension. Given that hypertension affects ?60% of patients with diabetes, effective blood pressure (BP) management is important in this high-risk population. This post-hoc analysis pooled data from six clinical studies to quantify additional BP efficacy achieved when titrating hypertensive diabetic patients from amlodipine 5 mg to 10 mg. Approximately half of the diabetic patients were male (44/98; 44.9%) with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 60.6 (9.6) years and a baseline mean (standard error [SE]) systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) of 150.8 (1.30)/87.5 (0.94) mmHg while on amlodipine 5 mg (159.1 [1.40]/92.6 [0.94] mmHg prior to treatment). In comparison, 350/610 (57.4%) non-diabetic patients were male with a mean (SD) age of 58.7 (11.1) years and baseline mean (SE) SBP/DBP of 150.3 (0.62)/90.9 (0.41) mmHg while on amlodipine 5 mg (160.0 [0.67]/96.2 [0.45] mmHg prior to treatment). Increasing amlodipine from 5 mg to 10 mg lowered sitting SBP by ?12.5 mmHg (95% confidence interval (CI): ?15.5, ?9.5; P<0.0001) and DBP by ?6.0 mmHg (?7.4, ?4.6; P<0.0001) in diabetic patients; and SBP by ?12.4 mmHg (?13.5, ?11.3; P<0.0001) and DBP by ?7.3 mmHg (?8.0, ?6.7; P<0.0001) in non-diabetic patients. In total, 12.0% (95% CI: 6.4, 20.0) of diabetic patients achieved their BP goal versus 46.4% (42.4, 50.4) of non-diabetic patients after titration to amlodipine 10 mg. Overall, 22.0% of diabetic patients experienced 31 adverse events (AEs) and 28.9% of non-diabetic patients experienced 282 AEs. Serious AEs were reported by one (1.0%) diabetic and five (0.8%) non-diabetic patients. In this analysis, increasing amlodipine from 5 mg to 10 mg produced a clinically significant reduction in the BP of diabetic hypertensive patients, similar to non-diabetic patients, highlighting the importance of optimizing amlodipine titration in this high-risk population. PMID:25484592

Jeffers, Barrett W; Bhambri, Rahul; Robbins, Jeffery

2014-01-01

168

Quantitative Experimental Analysis of Schottky Barriers and Poole–Frenkel Emission in Carbon Nanotube Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigated carbon nanotube FETs (CNT FETs) utilizing semiconducting single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs). Multiple devices, each of different metal source and drain contacts, were fabricated on a single SWCNT. Over specific temperature regimes, transport properties of the devices were found to be consistent with the Bethe theory of thermionic emission for Schottky contacts, and the Poole-Frenkel emission was

David Perello; Dong Jae Bae; Moon J. Kim; Dongkyu Cha; Seung Yol Jeong; Bo Ram Kang; Woo Jong Yu; Young Hee Lee; Minhee Yun

2009-01-01

169

A pooled analysis to define vitamin D dose requirements for fracture prevention in seniors  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Meta-analyses reached conflicting results regarding vitamin D and fracture reduction. We pooled individual participant-level data from 11 double-blind RCTs of oral vitamin D supplementation (daily, weekly, 4-monthly) with or without calcium compared with placebo or calcium in seniors age 65 and olde...

170

Impact of community based, specialist palliative care teams on hospitalisations and emergency department visits late in life and hospital deaths: a pooled analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the pooled effect of exposure to one of 11 specialist palliative care teams providing services in patients’ homes. Design Pooled analysis of a retrospective cohort study. Setting Ontario, Canada. Participants 3109 patients who received care from specialist palliative care teams in 2009-11 (exposed) matched by propensity score to 3109 patients who received usual care (unexposed). Intervention The palliative care teams studied served different geographies and varied in team composition and size but had the same core team members and role: a core group of palliative care physicians, nurses, and family physicians who provide integrated palliative care to patients in their homes. The teams’ role was to manage symptoms, provide education and care, coordinate services, and be available without interruption regardless of time or day. Main outcome measures Patients (a) being in hospital in the last two weeks of life; (b) having an emergency department visit in the last two weeks of life; or (c) dying in hospital. Results In both exposed and unexposed groups, about 80% had cancer and 78% received end of life homecare services for the same average duration. Across all palliative care teams, 970 (31.2%) of the exposed group were in hospital and 896 (28.9%) had an emergency department visit in the last two weeks of life respectively, compared with 1219 (39.3%) and 1070 (34.5%) of the unexposed group (P<0.001). The pooled relative risks of being in hospital and having an emergency department visit in late life comparing exposed versus unexposed were 0.68 (95% confidence interval 0.61 to 0.76) and 0.77 (0.69 to 0.86) respectively. Fewer exposed than unexposed patients died in hospital (503 (16.2%) v 887 (28.6%), P<0.001), and the pooled relative risk of dying in hospital was 0.46 (0.40 to 0.52). Conclusions Community based specialist palliative care teams, despite variation in team composition and geographies, were effective at reducing acute care use and hospital deaths at the end of life. PMID:24906901

Brazil, Kevin; Sussman, Jonathan; Pereira, José; Marshall, Denise; Austin, Peter C; Husain, Amna; Rangrej, Jagadish; Barbera, Lisa

2014-01-01

171

New genetic risk variants identified in multiethnic analysis of prostate cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have newly identified 23 common genetic variants—one-letter changes in DNA known as single-nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs—that are associated with risk of prostate cancer. These results come from an analysis of more than 10 million SNPs in data pooled from studies that included over 43,000 men with prostate cancer and nearly 44,000 men without the disease. Study participants were from Australia, Ghana, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States and were of diverse ancestry.

172

Is ioflupane I123 injection diagnostically effective in patients with movement disorders and dementia? Pooled analysis of four clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Objectives To pool clinical trials of similar design to assess overall sensitivity and specificity of ioflupane I123 injection (DaTSCAN or ioflupane (123I)) to detect or exclude a striatal dopaminergic deficit disorder (SDDD), such as parkinsonian syndrome and dementia with Lewy bodies. Design Pooled analysis of three phase 3 and one phase 4 clinical trials. These four trials were selected because they were the four studies used for the US new drug application to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Setting Multicentre, open-label, non-randomised. Participants Patients with either a movement disorder or dementia, and healthy volunteers. Interventions Ioflupane (123I) was administered. Outcome measures Images were assessed by panels of 3–5 blinded experts and/or on-site nuclear medicine physicians, classified as normal or abnormal and compared with clinical diagnosis (reference standard) to determine sensitivity and specificity. Results Pooling the four studies, 928 participants were enrolled, 849 were dosed and 764 completed their study. Across all studies, when images were assessed by on-site readers, ioflupane (123I) diagnostic effectiveness had an overall (95% CI) sensitivity of 91.9% (88.7% to 94.5%) and specificity of 83.6% (78.7% to 87.9%). When reads were conducted blindly by a panel of independent experts, the overall sensitivity was 88.7% (86.8% to 90.4%) and specificity was 91.2% (89.0% to 93.0%). Conclusions In this pooled analysis, the visual assessment of ioflupane (123I) images provided high levels of sensitivity and specificity in detecting the presence/absence of an SDDD. Ioflupane (123I) imaging has the potential to improve diagnostic accuracy in patients with signs and symptoms of a movement disorder and/or dementia. Trial registration number NCT00209456. PMID:24993764

O'Brien, John T; Oertel, Wolfgang H; McKeith, Ian G; Grosset, Donald G; Walker, Zuzana; Tatsch, Klaus; Tolosa, Eduardo; Sherwin, Paul F; Grachev, Igor D

2014-01-01

173

Association between TCF7L2 Gene Polymorphism and Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective The transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene has been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of cancer. However, the results have been inconsistent. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to clarify the associations between TCF7L2 polymorphism and cancer risk. Methods Published literature from PubMed and EMBASE were retrieved. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CIs) were calculated using fixed- or random-effects model. Results A total of 19 studies (14,814 cases and 33,856 controls) were identified for the analysis of the association between TCF7L2 polymorphism and cancer risk. The results showed that TCF7L2 polymorphism was associated with breast cancer (Homogeneous model: OR?=?1.17, 95%CI?=?1.02–1.35, I2?=?21.8%, p for heterogeneity?=?0.276; Heterogeneous model: OR?=?1.11, 95%CI?=?1.03–1.20, I2?=?0.0%, p for heterogeneity?=?0.543), prostate cancer (Homogeneous model: OR?=?0.89, 95%CI?=?0.84–0.96, I2?=?0.0%, p for heterogeneity?=?0.640; Heterogeneous model: OR?=?0.89, 95%CI?=?0.84–0.95, I2?=?0.0%, p for heterogeneity?=?0.871), and colon cancer (Heterogeneous model: OR?=?1.15, 95%CI?=?1.01–1.31, I2?=?0.0%, p for heterogeneity?=?0.658), but not with colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and ovarian cancer. Conclusions The present meta-analysis indicated that there were significantly associations between the TCF7L2 rs7903146 polymorphism and risk of breast, prostate and colon cancers, rather than colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and ovarian cancer. PMID:23951231

Chen, Jingxiang; Yuan, Tao; Liu, Menggang; Chen, Ping

2013-01-01

174

Fish Intake and Risk of Liver Cancer: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing laboratory findings indicate that n-3 fatty acids, mainly derived from fish, inhibit cancer development and progression, but results from epidemiologic studies have been inconsistent and inconclusive. Objective To evaluate the association of fish intake with risk of liver cancer by conducting a meta-analysis. Methods Published case-control/cohort studies that evaluated the relationship between total fish intake and risk of liver cancer were found on PubMed and EMBASE. The pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained with the random-effects model. Results Five retrospective case-control studies and 5 prospective cohort studies were included in the final analysis, involving a total of 3 624 liver cancer cases. Comparing the highest with the lowest category of total fish intake, the pooled RRs of liver cancer were 0.79 (95% CI, 0.59-1.06) for case-control studies, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.70-0.96) for cohort studies and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.71-0.94) for all studies combined. The protective effects of total fish intake against liver cancer were confirmed by stratified and sensitivity analyses. In addition, an increase in fish intake of 1 serving/week was estimated to be significantly associated with 6% lower risk of liver cancer (RR = 0.94, 95% CI, 0.91-0.98). Conclusions Findings from this meta-analysis suggest that a higher fish intake is associated with reduced risk of liver cancer. PMID:25615823

Huang, Rui-Xue; Duan, Yan-Ying; Hu, Jian-An

2015-01-01

175

Analysis of Pools of Targeted Salmonella Deletion Mutants Identifies Novel Genes Affecting Fitness during Competitive Infection in Mice  

PubMed Central

Pools of mutants of minimal complexity but maximal coverage of genes of interest facilitate screening for genes under selection in a particular environment. We constructed individual deletion mutants in 1,023 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium genes, including almost all genes found in Salmonella but not in related genera. All mutations were confirmed simultaneously using a novel amplification strategy to produce labeled RNA from a T7 RNA polymerase promoter, introduced during the construction of each mutant, followed by hybridization of this labeled RNA to a Typhimurium genome tiling array. To demonstrate the ability to identify fitness phenotypes using our pool of mutants, the pool was subjected to selection by intraperitoneal injection into BALB/c mice and subsequent recovery from spleens. Changes in the representation of each mutant were monitored using T7 transcripts hybridized to a novel inexpensive minimal microarray. Among the top 120 statistically significant spleen colonization phenotypes, more than 40 were mutations in genes with no previously known role in this model. Fifteen phenotypes were tested using individual mutants in competitive assays of intraperitoneal infection in mice and eleven were confirmed, including the first two examples of attenuation for sRNA mutants in Salmonella. We refer to the method as Array-based analysis of cistrons under selection (ABACUS). PMID:19578432

Porwollik, Steffen; Choi, Sang-Ho; Long, Fred; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene L.; McClelland, Michael

2009-01-01

176

An Innovative Hybrid Loop-Pool SFR Design and Safety Analysis Methods: Today and Tomorrow  

SciTech Connect

Investment in commercial sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) power plants will become possible only if SFRs achieve economic competitiveness as compared to light water reactors and other Generation IV reactors. Toward that end, we have launched efforts to improve the economics and safety of SFRs from the thermal design and safety analyses perspectives at Idaho National Laboratory. From the thermal design perspective, an innovative hybrid loop-pool SFR design has been proposed. This design takes advantage of the inherent safety of a pool design and the compactness of a loop design to further improve economics and safety. From the safety analyses perspective, we have initiated an effort to develop a high fidelity reactor system safety code.

Hongbin Zhang; Haihua Zhao; Vincent Mousseau

2008-04-01

177

Analysis of protein pool of neuronal populations of cerebellar cortex in rodents of different species.  

PubMed

The protein pool of neuronal population of the cerebellar cortex was studied by interference cytometry in rodents occupying different ecological niches and differing by life style, nutrition habits, and motor activity. In all cell populations protein concentrations in the cytoplasm were higher than in the nucleus in all studied rodents and did not depend on the functional characteristics of neurons. The extreme values of protein content were determined for populations of granular and ganglion cells. High protein concentrations per volume unit of cell structure were detected in functionally different cerebellar neurons of gray rats, characterized by high motor activity and a certain degree of synanthropy, while low values were detected in mole rats, slow-moving underground rodents. Therefore, the specific protein pool of neuronal populations of the cerebellar cortex of rodents can be regarded as adaptation to habitation conditions. PMID:11276318

Orlyanskaya, T Y; Lyutikova, T M

2000-12-01

178

Three-Dimensional Ignition and Flame Propagation Above Liquid Fuel Pools: Computational Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-dimensional unsteady reactive Navier-Stokes code is developed to study the ignition and flame spread above liquid fuels initially below the flashpoint temperature. Opposed air flow to the flame spread due to forced and/or natural convection is considered. Pools of finite width and length are studied in air channels of prescribed height and width. Three-dimensional effects of the flame front near the edge of the pool are captured in the computation. The formation of a recirculation zone in the gas phase similar to that found in two-dimensional calculations is also present in the three-dimensional calculations. Both uniform spread and pulsating spread modes are found in the calculated results.

Cai, Jinsheng; Sirignano, William A.

2001-01-01

179

An HLA-DR-degenerate epitope pool detects insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2-specific immunity in patients with cancer.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown the importance of helper CD4 T cells in initiating and sustaining tumor-specific CD8 T-cell immunity. This has paved the way for identifying MHC class II epitopes that could be incorporated into class I-based vaccines. In this study, the goal was to identify an HLA-DR-degenerate epitope pool derived from insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2). IGFBP-2, a regulator of insulin-like growth factor action, is overexpressed in the majority of breast and ovarian cancers. Using algorithms, we predicted 29 HLA-DR1-binding epitopes. Binding assays targeting 15 different HLA-DRs revealed that 10 epitopes were degenerate, binding to at least four different HLA-DR variants. An IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay was used to assess immunity to these 10 epitopes in 48 patients with either breast or ovarian cancer and 18 controls. Elevated T-cell immunity in patients was detected in 4 of the 10 epitopes (IGFBP2.17, IGFBP2.22, IGFBP2.249, and IGFBP2.293). The cumulative T-cell frequency of these four epitopes was elevated in patients relative to controls. All four peptides are naturally processed and presented to CD4 T-cells. The degenerate pool of peptides covers nearly 80% of patients and may be useful for augmenting CD4 T-cell immunity in patients undergoing immunization. PMID:18559537

Kalli, Kimberly R; Krco, Christopher J; Hartmann, Lynn C; Goodman, Karin; Maurer, Matthew J; Yu, Chao; Johnson, Elliot M; Erskine, Courtney L; Disis, Mary L; Wettstein, Peter J; Fikes, John D; Beebe, Melanie; Ishioka, Glenn; Knutson, Keith L

2008-06-15

180

An HLA-DR–Degenerate Epitope Pool Detects Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2–Specific Immunity in Patients with Cancer  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown the importance of helper CD4 T cells in initiating and sustaining tumor-specific CD8 T-cell immunity. This has paved the way for identifying MHC class II epitopes that could be incorporated into class I–based vaccines. In this study, the goal was to identify an HLA-DR–degenerate epitope pool derived from insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2). IGFBP-2, a regulator of insulin-like growth factor action, is overexpressed in the majority of breast and ovarian cancers. Using algorithms, we predicted 29 HLA-DR1–binding epitopes. Binding assays targeting 15 different HLA-DRs revealed that 10 epitopes were degenerate, binding to at least four different HLA-DR variants. An IFN-? enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay was used to assess immunity to these 10 epitopes in 48 patients with either breast or ovarian cancer and 18 controls. Elevated T-cell immunity in patients was detected in 4 of the 10 epitopes (IGFBP2.17, IGFBP2.22, IGFBP2.249, and IGFBP2.293). The cumulative T-cell frequency of these four epitopes was elevated in patients relative to controls. All four peptides are naturally processed and presented to CD4 T-cells. The degenerate pool of peptides covers nearly 80% of patients and may be useful for augmenting CD4 T-cell immunity in patients undergoing immunization. PMID:18559537

Kalli, Kimberly R.; Krco, Christopher J.; Hartmann, Lynn C.; Goodman, Karin; Maurer, Matthew J.; Yu, Chao; Johnson, Elliot M.; Erskine, Courtney L.; Disis, Mary L.; Wettstein, Peter J.; Fikes, John D.; Beebe, Melanie; Ishioka, Glenn; Knutson, Keith L.

2009-01-01

181

Fission matrix-based Monte Carlo criticality analysis of fuel storage pools  

SciTech Connect

Standard Monte Carlo transport procedures experience difficulties in solving criticality problems in fuel storage pools. Because of the strong neutron absorption between fuel assemblies, source convergence can be very slow, leading to incorrect estimates of the eigenvalue and the eigenfunction. This study examines an alternative fission matrix-based Monte Carlo transport method that takes advantage of the geometry of a storage pool to overcome this difficulty. The method uses Monte Carlo transport to build (essentially) a fission matrix, which is then used to calculate the criticality and the critical flux. This method was tested using a test code on a simple problem containing 8 assemblies in a square pool. The standard Monte Carlo method gave the expected eigenfunction in 5 cases out of 10, while the fission matrix method gave the expected eigenfunction in all 10 cases. In addition, the fission matrix method provides an estimate of the error in the eigenvalue and the eigenfunction, and it allows the user to control this error by running an adequate number of cycles. Because of these advantages, the fission matrix method yields a higher confidence in the results than standard Monte Carlo. We also discuss potential improvements of the method, including the potential for variance reduction techniques. (authors)

Farlotti, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, F 91128 (France); Larsen, E. W. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

2013-07-01

182

Aspirin for the primary prevention of skin cancer: A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. There are three major skin cancer types: basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. General risk factors for skin cancer include fair skin, a history of tanning and sunburn, family history of skin cancer, exposure to ultraviolet rays and a large number of moles. The incidence of skin cancer has increased in the USA in recent years. Aspirin intake is associated with chemoprotection against the development of a number of types of cancer. However, whether aspirin intake can reduce the risk of development of skin cancer is unclear. The present meta-analysis of available human studies is aimed at evaluating the association between aspirin exposure and the risk of skin cancer. All available human observational studies on aspirin intake for the primary prevention of skin cancer were identified by searching MEDLINE (Pubmed), BIOSIS, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and China National Knowledge Infrastructure prior to March 2013. The heterogeneity and publication bias of all studies were evaluated using Cochran’s Q and I2 statistics, followed by a random-effect model where applicable. The pooled data were analyzed by odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of eight case-control and five prospective cohort studies from 11 publications were selected for this analysis. There was no evidence of publication bias in these studies. Statistical analyses of the pooled data demonstrated that that a daily dose of 50–400 mg aspirin was significantly associated with a reduced risk of skin cancers (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.90–0.99; P=0.02). Stratification analysis indicated that the continual intake of low dose aspirin (?150 mg) reduced the risk of developing skin cancer (OR, 0.95; CI, 0.90–0.99; P=0.15) and that aspirin intake was significantly associated with a reduced risk of non-melanoma skin cancers (OR, 0.97; CI, 0.95–0.99; P=0.22). Overall, these findings indicated that aspirin intake was associated with a reduced risk of developing skin cancer. However, more well-designed randomized controlled trials to measure the effects of aspirin intake are required to confirm this.

ZHU, YUN; CHENG, YANG; LUO, RONG-CHENG; LI, AI-MIN

2015-01-01

183

The Assessment of Tumor Response by Measuring the Single Largest Lesion per Organ in Metastatic Tumors: A Pooled Analysis of Previously Reported Data  

PubMed Central

Background: The RECIST 1.1 adopted a total of five target lesions to be measured, with a maximum of two lesions per organ. To the best of our knowledge, the criterion of two target lesions per organ in the RECIST 1.1 is arbitrary and has not been supported by any objective evidence. Recently, we reported that the modified RECIST 1.1 (measuring the single largest lesion in each organ) showed a high level of concordance with the original RECIST 1.1 in patients with advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), gastric cancer (GC), and colorectal cancer (CRC). However, each study had a major limitation of a small number of patients. Methods: We conducted a pooled analysis using the data from the three individual studies to improve statistical power. Tumor responses were compared according to the RECIST 1.1 and modified RECIST 1.1 (mRECIST 1.1). Results: A total of 153 patients who had at least two target lesions in any organ according to the RECIST 1.1 were included in this pooled study: 64 with NSCLC, 51 with GC, and 38 with CRC. Regardless of primary sites, the number of target lesions according to the mRECIST 1.1 was significantly lower than that according to the RECIST 1.1 (P<0.001). The assessment of tumor responses showed a high concordance between the two criteria (k = 0.908). Only eight patients (5.2%) showed disagreement in the tumor response assessment between the two criteria. The overall response rates of chemotherapy were not significantly different between the two criteria (33.3% versus 33.3%, P=1.0). Conclusions: The modified RECIST 1.1 was comparable to the original RECIST 1.1 in the tumor response assessment of patients with advanced or metastatic NSCLC, GC, and CRC. Our results suggest that it may be possible to measure the single largest lesion per organ for assessing tumor response in clinical practice.

Jang, Hyun Joo; Cho, Ji Woong; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyun Chang; Kim, Hyeong Su; Kim, Jung Han

2015-01-01

184

Comparative survival analysis of breast cancer microarray studies identifies important prognostic genetic pathways  

PubMed Central

Background An estimated 12% of females in the United States will develop breast cancer in their lifetime. Although, there are advances in treatment options including surgery and chemotherapy, breast cancer is still the second most lethal cancer in women. Thus, there is a clear need for better methods to predict prognosis for each breast cancer patient. With the advent of large genetic databases and the reduction in cost for the experiments, researchers are faced with choosing from a large pool of potential prognostic markers from numerous breast cancer gene expression profile studies. Methods Five microarray datasets related to breast cancer were examined using gene set analysis and the cancers were categorized into different subtypes using a scoring system based on genetic pathway activity. Results We have observed that significant genes in the individual studies show little reproducibility across the datasets. From our comparative analysis, using gene pathways with clinical variables is more reliable across studies and shows promise in assessing a patient's prognosis. Conclusions This study concludes that, in light of clinical variables, there are significant gene pathways in common across the datasets. Specifically, several pathways can further significantly stratify patients for survival. These candidate pathways should help to develop a panel of significant biomarkers for the prognosis of breast cancer patients in a clinical setting. PMID:20964848

2010-01-01

185

Genetic polymorphisms in Glutathione S-transferase Omega (GSTO) and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 20 studies  

PubMed Central

Glutathione S-transferase Omega (GSTO) plays an important role in the development of cancer. Recently, a number of studies have investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms on GSTO and susceptibility to cancer; however, the results remain inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis of 20 studies, involving 4770 cases and 5701 controls to identify the strength of association by pooled odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, the pooled results revealed a significantly increased risk of susceptibility for GSTO2 polymorphism (GG vs. AA: OR = 1.20, 95%CI: 1.02–1.41, Pheterogeneity = 0.116), but no significant association was found for GSTO1 polymorphism. Subgroup analysis showed that GSTO2 polymorphism significantly increased cancer risk in Caucasian population (GG vs. AA: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.06–1.64, Pheterogeneity = 0.616) and GSTO2 polymorphism was significantly associated with elevated risk of breast cancer (GG vs. AA OR = 1.37, 95%CI: 1.06–1.77; Pheterogeneity = 0.281). This meta-analysis demonstrates that GSTO2 polymorphism may significantly increase cancer risk in Caucasian population and is associated with elevated risk of breast cancer; while GSTO1 polymorphism is not associated with cancer risk. PMID:25300926

Xu, You-Tao; Wang, Jun; Yin, Rong; Qiu, Man-Tang; Xu, Lei; Wang, Jie; Xu, Lin

2014-01-01

186

Statin Use and Risk of Lung Cancer: a Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies and Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Clinical studies have shown that statin use may alter the risk of lung cancer. However, these studies yielded different results. To quantify the association between statin use and risk of lung cancer, we performed a detailed meta-analysis. A literature search was carried out using MEDLINE, EMBASE and COCHRANE database between January 1966 and November 2012. Before meta-analysis, between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed using adequate statistical tests. Fixed-effect and random-effect models were used to calculate the pooled relative risks (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Subgroup analyses, sensitivity analysis and cumulative meta-analysis were also performed. A total of 20 (five randomized controlled trials, eight cohorts, and seven case–control) studies contributed to the analysis. Pooled results indicated a non-significant decrease of total lung cancer risk among all statin users (RR = 0.89, 95% CI [0.78, 1.02]). Further, long-term statin use did not significantly decrease the risk of total lung cancer (RR = 0.80, 95% CI [0.39 , 1.64]). In our subgroup analyses, the results were not substantially affected by study design, participant ethnicity, or confounder adjustment. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis confirmed the stability of results. The findings of this meta-analysis suggested that there was no significant association between statin use and risk of lung cancer. More studies, especially randomized controlled trials and high quality cohort studies are warranted to confirm this association. PMID:24205041

Tao, Haitao; Cheng, Yao; Han, Lu; Li, Xiaoyan; Hu, Yi

2013-01-01

187

Cave Pool  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A pool in the Caverns of Sonora. This cave, like many others, was formed by water combining with carbon dioxide to create a weak carbonic acid. This acid then dissolved the limestone to carve out chambers. The dissolved calcium from the limestone then combined with the carbon dioxide to create calci...

188

Long Noncoding RNA HOTAIR as an Independent Prognostic Marker in Cancer: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background HOTAIR, a newly discovered long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA), has been reported to be aberrantly expressed in many types of cancers. This meta-analysis summarizes its potential role as a biomarker in malignancy. Methods A quantitative meta-analysis was performed through a systematic search in Pubmed, Medline and Web of Science for eligible papers on the prognostic impact of HOTAIR in cancer from inception to Feb. 28, 2014. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated to summarize the effect. Results Nineteen studies were included in the study, with a total of 2033 patients. A significant association was observed between high HOTAIR expression and poor overall survival (OS) in patients with cancer (pooled HR 2.22, 95% CI: 1.68–2.93). Place of residence (Asian or Western countries), type of cancer (digestive or non-digestive disease), sample size (more or less than 100), and paper quality (score more or less than 85%) did not alter the significant predictive value of HOTAIR in OS from various kinds of cancer but preoperative status did. By combining HRs from Cox multivariate analyses, we found that HOTAIR expression was an independent prognostic factor for cancer patients (pooled HR 2.26, 95% CI: 1.62–3.15). Subgroup analysis showed that HOTAIR abundance was an independent prognostic factor for cancer metastasis (HR 3.90, 95% CI: 2.25–6.74). For esophageal carcinoma, high HOTAIR expression was significantly associated with TNM stage (III/IV vs. I/II: OR 6.90, 95% CI: 2.81–16.9) without heterogeneity. In gastric cancer, HOTAIR expression was found to be significantly associated with lymph node metastases (present vs. absent: OR 4.47, 95% CI: 1.88–10.63) and vessel invasion (positive vs. negative: OR 2.88, 95% CI: 1.38–6.04) without obvious heterogeneity. Conclusions HOTAIR abundance may serve as a novel predictive factor for poor prognosis in different types of cancers in both Asian and Western countries. PMID:25157956

Yang, Guang; Gu, Fang; Li, Minrui; Zhong, Bihui; Hu, Jifan; Hoffman, Andrew; Chen, Minhu

2014-01-01

189

Constipation and cathartics as risk factors of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Since individual case-control studies have failed to resolve the question whether constipation and use of cathartics represent significant risk factors of colorectal cancer, a meta-analysis was performed. The method by Peto was used to calculate pooled odds ratios of the cancer risk among exposed and unexposed subjects. The analysis of 14 previously published case-control studies revealed statistically significant risks for colorectal cancer associated with both constipation and use of cathartics, the pooled odds ratios and their 95 percent confidence intervals being 1.48 (1.32-1.66) and 1.46 (1.33-1.61), respectively. The increased risk applied similarly to both sexes, it was higher in cancer of the colon than rectum. Since constipation and cathartics are associated with much lower odds ratios than various dietary components, such as fat, meat, alcohol, and low-vegetable or low-residue diets, it appears that their risk reflects the confounding influence of underlying dietary habits. PMID:8234434

Sonnenberg, A; Müller, A D

1993-10-01

190

Association between cholesterol intake and pancreatic cancer risk: Evidence from a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Quantification of the association between the intake of cholesterol and risk of pancreatic cancer is still conflicting. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the evidence from epidemiological studies of cholesterol intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer. Pertinent studies were delivered by PubMed and Web of Knowledge issued through April of 2014. A random effects model was used to process the data for analysis. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias were conducted. Dose-response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline and variance-weighted least squares regression analysis. With 4513 pancreatic cases exemplified, 16 articles were applied in the meta-analysis. Pooled results suggest that cholesterol intake level was significantly associated with the risk of pancreatic cancer [summary relative risk (RR) = 1.371, 95%CI = 1.155-1.627, I(2) = 58.2%], especially in America [summary RR = 1.302, 95%CI = 1.090-1.556]. A linear dose-response relation was attested that the risk of pancreatic cancer rises by 8% with 100?mg/day of cholesterol intake. [summary RR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04-1.13]. In conclusion, our analysis suggests that a high intake of cholesterol might increase the risk of pancreatic cancer, especially in America. PMID:25649888

Chen, Hongqiang; Qin, Shiyong; Wang, Minghai; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Shuguang

2015-01-01

191

Association between cholesterol intake and pancreatic cancer risk: Evidence from a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Quantification of the association between the intake of cholesterol and risk of pancreatic cancer is still conflicting. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the evidence from epidemiological studies of cholesterol intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer. Pertinent studies were delivered by PubMed and Web of Knowledge issued through April of 2014. A random effects model was used to process the data for analysis. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias were conducted. Dose-response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline and variance-weighted least squares regression analysis. With 4513 pancreatic cases exemplified, 16 articles were applied in the meta-analysis. Pooled results suggest that cholesterol intake level was significantly associated with the risk of pancreatic cancer [summary relative risk (RR) = 1.371, 95%CI = 1.155–1.627, I2 = 58.2%], especially in America [summary RR = 1.302, 95%CI = 1.090–1.556]. A linear dose-response relation was attested that the risk of pancreatic cancer rises by 8% with 100?mg/day of cholesterol intake. [summary RR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04–1.13]. In conclusion, our analysis suggests that a high intake of cholesterol might increase the risk of pancreatic cancer, especially in America. PMID:25649888

Chen, Hongqiang; Qin, Shiyong; Wang, Minghai; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Shuguang

2015-01-01

192

Sexual Orientation Disparities in Cancer-Related Risk Behaviors of Tobacco, Alcohol, Sexual Behaviors, and Diet and Physical Activity: Pooled Youth Risk Behavior Surveys  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors among adolescents. Methods. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex orientation as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We compared the groups on risk behaviors and stratified by gender, age (?14 years), and race/ethnicity. Results. Sexual minorities (7.6% of the sample) reported more risk behaviors than heterosexuals for all 12 behaviors (mean?=?5.3 vs 3.8; P?cancer risk, morbidity, and mortality by sexual orientation are needed to track the potential but unknown burden of cancer among sexual minorities. PMID:24328632

Corliss, Heather L.; Everett, Bethany G.; Reisner, Sari L.; Austin, S. Bryn; Buchting, Francisco O.; Birkett, Michelle

2014-01-01

193

Analysis of gravity anomaly over coral-reef oil field: Wilfred Pool, Sullivan County, Indiana  

SciTech Connect

To compare the measured and theoretical gravity anomaly of a typical coral-reef oil field, data were collected from the wilfred Pool, Sullivan County, Indiana. Densities of available core samples from the field were determined and the anomaly was calculated, taking into account the lateral and vertical variation of density and the geologic structure known from core studies and drilling-log records of lithologic types penetrated by the wells. Comparison of the theoretical and actual anomalies indicated a rough correspondence except for several sharp negative anomalies on the flanks of the measured gravity anomaly. Further studies indicated that the negative anomalies are possibly due to fluvial erosion that produced, on the surface of the youngest Pennsylvanian sediments, channels which were later filled with glacial till of lower density than the sediments. 13 figures.

Dana, S.W.

1980-03-01

194

Platelet-mediated thrombolysis in patients with ?-storage pool deficiency: a thrombelastographic analysis.  

PubMed

We present the first thrombelastographic descriptions of three patients with ?-storage pool deficiency, a platelet disorder that involves a deficiency of dense granules and moderate bleeding. The patients demonstrated a 49-54% loss of platelet-mediated clot strength over a 1-2-h period after normal thrombus formation. This pattern persisted, with some attenuation of loss of strength following administration of epsilon aminocaproic acid, desmopressin and platelets for tonsillectomy. Assessment of platelet function in patients with platelet granule disorders can be accomplished with thrombelastographic methods in ambulatory and perioperative settings; however, the effects of therapy for this disorder cannot be monitored with thrombelastography without obtaining a blood sample prior to prophylactic hemostatic intervention. PMID:21822127

Brodsky, Melissa A; Machovec, Kelly A; Chambers, Bryan P; Nielsen, Vance G

2011-10-01

195

Plasma effect on weld pool surface reconstruction by shape-from-polarization analysis  

SciTech Connect

The polarimetric state of the thermal radiations emitted by the weld metal contains geometric information about the emitting surface. Even though the analysed thermal radiation has a wavelength corresponding to a blind spectral window of the arc plasma, the physical presence of the arc plasma itself interferes with the rays radiated by the weld pool surface before attaining the polarimeter, thus modifying the geometric information transported by the ray. In the present work, the effect of the arc plasma-surrounding zone on the polarimetric state and propagation direction of the radiated ray is analyzed. The interaction with the arc plasma zone induces a drop in ray intensity and a refraction of ray optical path.

Coniglio, N.; Mathieu, A., E-mail: alexandre.mathieu@u-bourgogne.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS/Université de Bourgogne, 12 rue de la Fonderie, 71200 Le Creusot (France); Aubreton, O.; Stolz, C. [Université de Bourgogne Laboratoire Le2i UMR CNRS 6306, allée Alain Savary, 21000 Dijon (France)

2014-03-31

196

Pooled Analysis of Iron-related Genes in Parkinson’s Disease: Association with Transferrin  

PubMed Central

Pathologic features of Parkinson’s disease (PD) include death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, presence of ?-synuclein containing Lewy bodies, and iron accumulation in PD-related brain regions. The observed iron accumulation may be contributing to PD etiology but it also may be a byproduct of cell death or cellular dysfunction. To elucidate the possible role of iron accumulation in PD, we investigated genetic variation in 16 genes related to iron homeostasis in three case-control studies from the United States, Australia, and France. After screening 90 haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the genes of interest in the US study population, we investigated the five most promising gene regions in two additional independent case-control studies. For the pooled data set (1289 cases, 1391 controls) we observed a protective association (OR=0.83, 95% CI: 0.71-0.96) between PD and a haplotype composed of the A allele at rs1880669 and the T allele at rs1049296 in transferrin (TF; GeneID: 7018). Additionally, we observed a suggestive protective association (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.74-1.02) between PD and a haplotype composed of the G allele at rs10247962 and the A allele at rs4434553 in transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2; GeneID: 7036). We observed no associations in our pooled sample for haplotypes in SLC40A1, CYB561, or HFE. Taken together with previous findings in model systems, our results suggest that TF or a TF-TFR2 complex may have a role in the etiology of PD, possibly through iron misregulation or mitochondrial dysfunction within dopaminergic neurons. PMID:24121126

Rhodes, Shannon L.; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Ahmed, Ismaïl; Taylor, Kent D.; Loriot, Marie-Anne; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Bronstein, Jeff M.; Elbaz, Alexis; Mellick, George D.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Ritz, Beate

2013-01-01

197

Greater weight loss among men participating in a commercial weight loss program: a pooled analysis of 2 randomized controlled trials.  

PubMed

Being overweight and obese are significant health concerns for men and women, yet despite comparable needs for effective weight loss and maintenance strategies, little is known about the success of commercial weight loss programs in men. This study tests the hypothesis that men participating in a commercial weight loss program (Weight Watchers) had significantly greater weight loss than men receiving limited support from health professionals for weight loss (controls). A pooled analysis of weight loss and related physiologic parameter data from 2 randomized clinical trials was conducted. After 12 months, analysis of covariance tests showed that men in the commercial program group (n = 85) lost significantly more weight (P < .01) than men in the control group (n = 84); similar significant differences were observed for body mass index and waist circumference. These results suggest that participation in a commercial weight loss program may be a more effective means to lose weight and maintain weight loss. PMID:24461320

Barraj, Leila M; Murphy, Mary M; Heshka, Stanley; Katz, David L

2014-02-01

198

MicroRNA-21 Identified as Predictor of Cancer Outcome: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Growing evidence from recent studies has revealed the association of microRNA-21 (mir-21) with outcomes in multiple cancers, but inconsistent findings have been reported, which rationalized a summary and analysis of available data to investigate the prognostic role of mir-21. Materials and Methods Eligible studies were identified through several search strategies and assessed for quality. Data was extracted from studies in terms of baseline characteristics and key statistics such as hazard ratio (HR), 95% confidence interval (CI) and P value, which were utilized to calculate pooled effect size. Results 25 studies were included in the meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic role of mir-21 in malignant tumors. Elevated mir-21 level was demonstrated to moderately predict poor overall survival (OS) (HR?=?1.903, 95% CI: 1.713–2.113, P?=?0.000) and disease-free survival (DFS) (HR?=?1.574, 95% CI: 1.139–2.175, P?=?0.006) by the fixed and random effect model respectively. Importantly, subgroup analysis disclosed significant association between increased mir-21 level in cancerous tissue and worse survival status. Furthermore, over-expression of mir-21 was an independent prognostic factor for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and pancreatic cancer patients, with the pooled HR being 2.153 (95% CI: 1.693–2.739, P?=?0.000) and 1.976 (95% CI: 1.639–2.384, P?=?0.000). Conclusions Over-expression of mir-21, especially in cancerous tissue, was effectively predictive of worse prognosis in various carcinomas. Non-invasive circulating mir-21, however, exhibited modest ability to discriminate outcomes. Major concerns about mir-21 assay standardization and selection of specimen need to be fully addressed before its practical implementation in management of cancer. PMID:25098165

Zhu, Wenjie; Xu, Binghe

2014-01-01

199

GSTM1 null polymorphisms and oral cancer risk: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Many studies have examined the association between the GSTM1 null gene polymorphism and oral cancer risk in various populations, but their results have been inconsistent. To assess this relationship more precisely, a meta-analysis was performed. The PubMed and Embase databases were searched for case-control studies published up to May 2013. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Ultimately, 39 studies, comprising of 4,704 oral cancer cases and 7,090 controls, were included. Overall, for null versus present, the pooled OR was 1.29 (95% CI?=?1.20-1.40), and the heterogeneity was found in all studies. In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, significant risks were found among Asians (OR?=?1.39, 95% CI?=?1.27-1.53; P?=?0.000 for heterogeneity), but not in Caucasians (OR?=?0.99, 95% CI?=?0.83-1.18; P?=?0.677 for heterogeneity). In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrates that the GSTM1 null gene polymorphism may be an increased risk of oral cancer in Asians but not in Caucasians. PMID:23900674

Zhao, Su-Feng; Yang, Xu-Dong; Lu, Ming-Xing; Sun, Guo-Wen; Wang, Yu-Xin; Zhang, Yin-Kai; Pu, Yu-Mei; Tang, En-Yi

2014-01-01

200

Breast Cancer Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Update Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background. The incidence of breast cancer in RA patients remains controversial. Thus we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the impact of RA on breast cancer. Methods. Published literature was available from PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library. Pooled standardized incidence rate (SIR) was computed by random-effect model analysis. Results. We identified 16 separate studies in the present study, in which the number of patients ranged from 458 to 84,475. We did not find the increased cancer risk in RA patients (SIR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.72–1.02). However, subgroup analysis showed that breast cancer risk in RA patients was positively different in Caucasians (SIR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.73–0.93) and non-Caucasians (SIR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.19–1.23), respectively. In subgroup analysis by style, a reduced incidence was found in hospital-based case subjects (SIR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.69–0.97). Similarly, subgroup analysis for adjusted factors indicated that in A3 (age and sex) and A4 (age, sex, and race/ethnicity) the risk was decreased (SIR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.76–0.99; SIR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.59–0.67). Conclusions. The meta-analysis revealed no increased breast cancer risk in RA patients. However, in the subgroup analysis, the risk of breast cancer is increased in non-Caucasians patients with RA while it decreased in Caucasian population, hospital-based case subjects, and A3 group. Such relationship may provide preference for risk of breast cancer in different population. PMID:25405203

Liang, Jia-Ning; Wang, Zhuo-Yun

2014-01-01

201

Association between PTEN Gene IVS4 Polymorphism and Risk of Cancer: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a well established tumor suppressor gene. Recently, increasing studies investigated the association between PTEN IVS4 polymorphism (rs3830675) and risk of various types of cancer. However, the results from the individual studies were controversial. The aim of this meta-analysis was to elucidate whether PTEN IVS4 polymorphism was associated with cancer risk. Methods Databases including PubMed, Web of knowledge and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were systematically searched to identify potentially eligible literatures. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the strength of association between PTEN IVS4 polymorphism and cancer risk. Results A total of seven case-control studies were finally included in this meta-analysis. The pooled analysis suggested that individuals with PTEN IVS4 (?/?) genotype were significantly associated with increased risk of cancer (OR?=?1.45, 95% CI?=?1.19–1.76, P<0.001) and subgroup of digestive tract cancer (OR?=?1.67, 95% CI?=?1.28–2.18, P<0.001) compared with (+/+) genotype. The allele analysis revealed that (?) allele was significantly associated with increased risk of cancer (OR?=?1.30, 95% CI?=?1.12–1.50, P?=?0.001) and subgroup of digestive tract cancer (OR?=?1.42, 95% CI?=?1.16–1.74, P?=?0.001) compared with (+) allele. No significant association was observed between PTEN IVS4 (+/?) genotype and risk of cancer. Conclusion PTEN IVS4 (?/?) genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of cancer especially for digestive tract cancer compared with (+/+) genotype. The (?) allele of PTEN IVS4 (rs3830675) polymorphism was significantly associated with increased risk of cancer especially for digestive tract cancer compared with (+) allele. The recessive effect model and dominant effect model also demonstrated significant association between PTEN IVS4 (rs3830675) polymorphism and increased cancer risk especially for digestive tract cancer. Further large-scale and well-designed studies regarding different ethnicities are still required to confirm the results of our meta-analysis. PMID:24901890

Sun, Liping; Liu, Jingwei; Yuan, Quan; Xing, Chengzhong; Yuan, Yuan

2014-01-01

202

Quantitative analysis of the association between CRP rs2808630 and rs1417938 polymorphisms and cancer risk  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence indicates that polymorphisms in the CRP gene are important in the development of cancer. The current meta-analysis was performed to investigate the association between CRP polymorphisms 3407 A>G (rs2808630) and 29 A>T (rs1417938), and the risk of developing cancer. A search of the relevant literature was conducted using the PubMed database to identify eligible studies published up until March 25, 2014. Five case-control studies involving 888 cases and 3,167 controls for the 3407 A>G polymorphism, and six case-control studies involving 3,110 cases and 5,951 controls for the 29 A>T polymorphism were included in the current meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the fixed- or random-effects model. Meta-analysis identified no association between the CRP 3407 A>G and 29 A>T polymorphisms, and overall cancer risk. Additional stratified analysis by cancer type did not reveal any significant associations in the genetic models investigated. The findings of the present study indicated that CRP 3407 A>G and 29 A>T polymorphisms are not associated with cancer risk. PMID:25624919

WANG, JIAN-GONG; ZHANG, YANG; XIAO, TIAN-LIN

2015-01-01

203

Content analysis of cancer blog posts*  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The efficacy of user-defined subject tagging and software-generated subject tagging for describing and organizing cancer blog contents was explored. Methods: The Technorati search engine was used to search the blogosphere for cancer blog postings generated during a two-month period. Postings were mined for relevant subject concepts, and blogger-defined tags and Text Analysis Portal for Research (TAPoR) software–defined tags were generated for each message. Descriptive data were collected, and the blogger-defined tags were compared with software-generated tags. Three standard vocabularies (Opinion Templates, Basic Resource, and Medical Subject Headings [MeSH] Resource) were used to assign subject terms to the blogs, with results compared for efficacy in information retrieval. Results: Descriptive data showed that most of the studied cancer blogs (80%) contained fewer than 500 words each. The numbers of blogger-defined tags per posting (M?=?4.49 per posting) were significantly smaller than the TAPoR keywords (M?=?23.55 per posting). Both blogger-defined subject tags and software-generated subject tags were often overly broad or overly narrow in focus, producing less than effective search results for those seeking to extract information from cancer blogs. Conclusions: Additional exploration into methods for systematically organizing cancer blog postings is necessary if blogs are to become stable and efficacious information resources for cancer patients, friends, families, or providers. PMID:19851489

Kim, Sujin

2009-01-01

204

Exhaled breath analysis for lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Early diagnosis of lung cancer results in improved survival compared to diagnosis with more advanced disease. Early disease is not reliably indicated by symptoms. Because investigations such as bronchoscopy and needle biopsy have associated risks and substantial costs, they are not suitable for population screening. Hence new easily applicable tests, which can be used to screen individuals at risk, are required. Biomarker testing in exhaled breath samples is a simple, relatively inexpensive, non-invasive approach. Exhaled breath contains volatile and non-volatile organic compounds produced as end-products of metabolic processes and the composition of such compounds varies between healthy subjects and subjects with lung cancer. Many studies have analysed the patterns of these compounds in exhaled breath. In addition studies have also reported that the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) can reveal gene mutations or DNA abnormalities in patients with lung cancer. This review has summarised the scientific evidence demonstrating that lung cancer has distinct chemical profiles in exhaled breath and characteristic genetic changes in EBC. It is not yet possible to accurately identify individuals with lung cancer in at risk populations by any of these techniques. However, analysis of both volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath and of EBC have great potential to become clinically useful diagnostic and screening tools for early stage lung cancer detection. PMID:24163746

Sutedja, Tom G.; Zimmerman, Paul V.

2013-01-01

205

Sputum colour and bacteria in chronic bronchitis exacerbations: a pooled analysis.  

PubMed

We examined the correlation between sputum colour and the presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECBs). Data were pooled from six multicentre studies comparing moxifloxacin with other antimicrobials in patients with an AECB. Sputum was collected before antimicrobial therapy, and bacteria were identified by culture and Gram staining. Association between sputum colour and bacteria was determined using logistic regression. Of 4,089 sputum samples, a colour was reported in 4,003; 1,898 (46.4%) were culture-positive. Green or yellow sputum samples were most likely to yield bacteria (58.9% and 45.5% of samples, respectively), compared with 18% of clear and 39% of rust-coloured samples positive for potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Factors predicting a positive culture were sputum colour (the strongest predictor), sputum purulence, increased dyspnoea, male sex and absence of fever. Green or yellow versus white sputum colour was associated with a sensitivity of 94.7% and a specificity of 15% for the presence of bacteria. Sputum colour, particularly green and yellow, was a stronger predictor of potentially pathogenic bacteria than sputum purulence and increased dyspnoea in AECB patients. However, it does not necessarily predict the need for antibiotic treatment in all patients with AECB. PMID:22034649

Miravitlles, Marc; Kruesmann, Frank; Haverstock, Daniel; Perroncel, Renee; Choudhri, Shurjeel H; Arvis, Pierre

2012-06-01

206

Evaluation of the prognostic role of centromere 17 gain and HER2/topoisomerase II alpha gene status and protein expression in patients with breast cancer treated with anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy: pooled analysis of two Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG) phase III trials  

PubMed Central

Background The HER2 gene has been established as a valid biological marker for the treatment of breast cancer patients with trastuzumab and probably other agents, such as paclitaxel and anthracyclines. The TOP2A gene has been associated with response to anthracyclines. Limited information exists on the relationship of HER2/TOP2A gene status in the presence of centromere 17 (CEP17) gain with outcome of patients treated with anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples from 1031 patients with high-risk operable breast cancer, enrolled in two consecutive phase III trials, were assessed in a central laboratory by fluorescence in situ hybridization for HER2/TOP2A gene amplification and CEP17 gain (CEP17 probe). Amplification of HER2 and TOP2A were defined as a gene/CEP17 ratio of >2.2 and ?2.0, respectively, or gene copy number higher than 6. Additionally, HER2, TopoIIa, ER/PgR and Ki67 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and patients were classified according to their IHC phenotype. Treatment consisted of epirubicin-based adjuvant chemotherapy followed by hormonal therapy and radiation, as indicated. Results HER2 amplification was found in 23.7% of the patients and TOP2A amplification in 10.1%. In total, 41.8% of HER2-amplified tumors demonstrated TOP2A co-amplification. The median (range) of HER2, TOP2A and CEP17 gain was 2.55 (0.70-45.15), 2.20 (0.70-26.15) and 2.00 (0.70-26.55), respectively. Forty percent of the tumors had CEP17 gain (51% of those with HER2 amplification). Adjusting for treatment groups in the Cox model, HER2 amplification, TOP2A amplification, CEP17 gain and HER2/TOP2A co-amplification were not associated with time to relapse or time to death. Conclusion HER2 amplification, TOP2A amplification, CEP17 gain and HER2/TOP2A co-amplification were not associated with outcome in high-risk breast cancer patients treated with anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) ACTRN12611000506998 and ACTRN12609001036202 PMID:23537287

2013-01-01

207

Thermal analysis of cancerous breast model  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is one of the most common and dangerous cancers. Subsurface breast cancer lesions generate more heat and have increased blood supply when compared to healthy tissue, and this temperature rise is mirrored in the skin surface temperature. The rise in temperature on the skin surface, caused by the cancerous lesion, can be measured noninvasively using infrared thermography, which can be used as a diagnostic tool to detect the presence of a lesion. However, its diagnostic ability is limited when image interpretation relies on qualitative principles. In this study, we present a quantitative thermal analysis of breast cancer using a 3D computational model of the breast. The COMSOL FEM software was used to carry out the analysis. The effect of various parameters (tumor size, location, metabolic heat generation and blood perfusion rate) on the surface temperature distribution (which can be measured with infrared thermography) has been analyzed. Key defining features of the surface temperature profile have been identified, which can be used to estimate the size and location of the tumor based on (measured) surface temperature data. In addition, we employed a dynamic cooling process, to analyze surface temperature distributions during cooling and thermal recovery as a function of time. In this study, the effect of the cooling temperature on the enhancement of the temperature differences between normal tissue and cancerous lesions is evaluated. This study demonstrates that a quantification of temperature distributions by computational modeling, combined with thermographic imaging and dynamic cooling can be an important tool in the early detection of breast cancer. PMID:25328914

Chanmugam, Arjun; Hatwar, Rajeev; Herman, Cila

2013-01-01

208

Thermal analysis of cancerous breast model.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is one of the most common and dangerous cancers. Subsurface breast cancer lesions generate more heat and have increased blood supply when compared to healthy tissue, and this temperature rise is mirrored in the skin surface temperature. The rise in temperature on the skin surface, caused by the cancerous lesion, can be measured noninvasively using infrared thermography, which can be used as a diagnostic tool to detect the presence of a lesion. However, its diagnostic ability is limited when image interpretation relies on qualitative principles. In this study, we present a quantitative thermal analysis of breast cancer using a 3D computational model of the breast. The COMSOL FEM software was used to carry out the analysis. The effect of various parameters (tumor size, location, metabolic heat generation and blood perfusion rate) on the surface temperature distribution (which can be measured with infrared thermography) has been analyzed. Key defining features of the surface temperature profile have been identified, which can be used to estimate the size and location of the tumor based on (measured) surface temperature data. In addition, we employed a dynamic cooling process, to analyze surface temperature distributions during cooling and thermal recovery as a function of time. In this study, the effect of the cooling temperature on the enhancement of the temperature differences between normal tissue and cancerous lesions is evaluated. This study demonstrates that a quantification of temperature distributions by computational modeling, combined with thermographic imaging and dynamic cooling can be an important tool in the early detection of breast cancer. PMID:25328914

Chanmugam, Arjun; Hatwar, Rajeev; Herman, Cila

2012-01-01

209

Pooled analysis of safety data from pediatric Phase II RTS,S/AS malaria candidate vaccine trials.  

PubMed

Prior to progression to Clinical Development Phase III, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals performed a pooled analysis of phase two safety data following administration of 8860 doses of RTS,S/AS to 2981 children under 5 years old. RTS,S/AS was associated with increased rates of non-serious URTI, rash and diaper dermatitis graded mild or moderate. There was no significant increased rate of overall or single SAEs. Two episodes of simple febrile seizure were estimated to be related to vaccination. Significant decreased relative risks of death, any SAE, any SAE excluding malaria and pneumonia were observed. The results suggest a favourable risk-benefit balance which is to be confirmed in the ongoing Phase III trials. PMID:22108035

Vekemans, Johan; Guerra, Yolanda; Lievens, Marc; Benns, Sarah; Lapierre, Didier; Leach, Amanda; Verstraeten, Thomas

2011-12-01

210

Association between Class III Obesity (BMI of 40–59 kg/m2) and Mortality: A Pooled Analysis of 20 Prospective Studies  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of class III obesity (body mass index [BMI]?40 kg/m2) has increased dramatically in several countries and currently affects 6% of adults in the US, with uncertain impact on the risks of illness and death. Using data from a large pooled study, we evaluated the risk of death, overall and due to a wide range of causes, and years of life expectancy lost associated with class III obesity. Methods and Findings In a pooled analysis of 20 prospective studies from the United States, Sweden, and Australia, we estimated sex- and age-adjusted total and cause-specific mortality rates (deaths per 100,000 persons per year) and multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for adults, aged 19–83 y at baseline, classified as obese class III (BMI 40.0–59.9 kg/m2) compared with those classified as normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2). Participants reporting ever smoking cigarettes or a history of chronic disease (heart disease, cancer, stroke, or emphysema) on baseline questionnaires were excluded. Among 9,564 class III obesity participants, mortality rates were 856.0 in men and 663.0 in women during the study period (1976–2009). Among 304,011 normal-weight participants, rates were 346.7 and 280.5 in men and women, respectively. Deaths from heart disease contributed largely to the excess rates in the class III obesity group (rate differences?=?238.9 and 132.8 in men and women, respectively), followed by deaths from cancer (rate differences?=?36.7 and 62.3 in men and women, respectively) and diabetes (rate differences?=?51.2 and 29.2 in men and women, respectively). Within the class III obesity range, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for total deaths and deaths due to heart disease, cancer, diabetes, nephritis/nephrotic syndrome/nephrosis, chronic lower respiratory disease, and influenza/pneumonia increased with increasing BMI. Compared with normal-weight BMI, a BMI of 40–44.9, 45–49.9, 50–54.9, and 55–59.9 kg/m2 was associated with an estimated 6.5 (95% CI: 5.7–7.3), 8.9 (95% CI: 7.4–10.4), 9.8 (95% CI: 7.4–12.2), and 13.7 (95% CI: 10.5–16.9) y of life lost. A limitation was that BMI was mainly ascertained by self-report. Conclusions Class III obesity is associated with substantially elevated rates of total mortality, with most of the excess deaths due to heart disease, cancer, and diabetes, and major reductions in life expectancy compared with normal weight. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25003901

Kitahara, Cari M.; Flint, Alan J.; Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Bernstein, Leslie; Brotzman, Michelle; MacInnis, Robert J.; Moore, Steven C.; Robien, Kim; Rosenberg, Philip S.; Singh, Pramil N.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Adami, Hans Olov; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Buring, Julie E.; Freedman, D. Michal; Fraser, Gary E.; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaziano, John Michael; Giles, Graham G.; Håkansson, Niclas; Hoppin, Jane A.; Hu, Frank B.; Koenig, Karen; Linet, Martha S.; Park, Yikyung; Patel, Alpa V.; Purdue, Mark P.; Schairer, Catherine; Sesso, Howard D.; Visvanathan, Kala; White, Emily; Wolk, Alicja; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Hartge, Patricia

2014-01-01

211

A factor analysis of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms using data pooled from two venlafaxine extended-release clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Background Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) (DSM-IV) three-factor posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria was conducted to determine fit for this patient population. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of alternate symptom structures was planned to identify symptoms that cluster in this population. The response of symptom factors to treatment with venlafaxine extended release (ER) was explored. Methods Baseline 17-item Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS-SX17) data were pooled from patients enrolled in two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials. The CFA was conducted using maximum likelihood and weighted, least-squares factor extraction methods. The EFA was performed using a polychoric correlation covariance matrix and Pearson correlation matrix. Results Data from a pooled population of 685 patients (venlafaxine ER: n = 339; placebo: n = 346) were analyzed. CFA rejected the DSM-IV three-factor structure. The EFA identified a different three-factor structure as the best fit: factor 1 included reexperiencing symptoms, factor 2 included symptoms of altered mood and cognition, whereas factor 3 comprised avoidance and arousal symptoms. All DSM-IV symptom factors and all factors in the identified three-factor model responded positively to venlafaxine ER treatment. Conclusions Data are consistent with literature failing to confirm the three-factor structure of DSM-IV PTSD, and they support the DSM-5 inclusion of a symptom cluster addressing altered mood and cognition in PTSD. The efficacy of venlafaxine ER in reducing a range of symptom clusters in PTSD is consistent with its multiple mechanisms of action. PMID:24363976

Stein, Dan J; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Baldwin, David S; Szumski, Annette; Pedersen, Ronald; Davidson, Jonathan R T

2013-01-01

212

Circulating Progenitor Cell Count for Cardiovascular Risk Stratification: A Pooled Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Circulating progenitor cells (CPC) contribute to the homeostasis of the vessel wall, and a reduced CPC count predicts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We tested the hypothesis that CPC count improves cardiovascular risk stratification and that this is modulated by low-grade inflammation. Methodology/Principal Findings We pooled data from 4 longitudinal studies, including a total of 1,057 patients having CPC determined and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) collected. We recorded cardiovascular risk factors and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level. Risk estimates were derived from Cox proportional hazard analyses. CPC count and/or hsCRP level were added to a reference model including age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, prevalent CVD, chronic renal failure (CRF) and medications. The sample was composed of high-risk individuals, as 76.3% had prevalent CVD and 31.6% had CRF. There were 331 (31.3%) incident MACE during an average 1.7±1.1 year follow-up time. CPC count was independently associated with incident MACE even after correction for hsCRP. According to C-statistics, models including CPC yielded a non-significant improvement in accuracy of MACE prediction. However, the integrated discrimination improvement index (IDI) showed better performance of models including CPC compared to the reference model and models including hsCRP in identifying MACE. CPC count also yielded significant net reclassification improvements (NRI) for CV death, non-fatal AMI and other CV events. The effect of CPC was independent of hsCRP, but there was a significant more-than-additive interaction between low CPC count and raised hsCRP level in predicting incident MACE. Conclusions/Significance In high risk individuals, a reduced CPC count helps identifying more patients at higher risk of MACE over the short term, especially in combination with a raised hsCRP level. PMID:20634884

Fadini, Gian Paolo; Maruyama, Shoichi; Ozaki, Takenori; Taguchi, Akihiko; Meigs, James; Dimmeler, Stefanie; Zeiher, Andreas M.; de Kreutzenberg, Saula; Avogaro, Angelo; Nickenig, Georg; Schmidt-Lucke, Caroline; Werner, Nikos

2010-01-01

213

A Pooled Multisite Analysis of the Effects of Female Reproductive Hormones on Glioma Risk  

PubMed Central

Purpose The association between female reproductive factors and glioma risk is unclear, but most published studies have been limited by small sample size. We conducted a pooled multisite study of pre- and post-menopausal women, investigating the effect of female reproductive factors, including hormonal medications. Methods Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals assessing the effects of female reproductive factors and female hormonal medications in glioma cases and unrelated controls. Results Menarche over the age of 15 as compared to under 12 was associated with a statistically significant risk for glioma (OR = 2.00, 95% CI, 1.47–2.71). Use of Oral Contraceptive Pills (OCP) was inversely associated with risk of glioma (OR= 0.61, 95% CI, 0.50–0.74) and there was an inverse trend with longer duration of OCP use (p for trend< 0.0001). Use of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) was also inversely associated with risk of glioma (OR=0.55, 95% CI, 0.44–0.68) and there was an inverse trend with longer duration of use (p for trend< 0.0001). Compared to those reporting neither OCP use nor HRT use, those who reported using both were less likely to have a diagnosis of glioma (OR = 0.34, 95% CI, 0.24–0.48). Conclusions Female reproductive hormones may decrease the risk for glioma. The association appears to be strongest with greater length of use and use of both HRT and OCP. PMID:24890803

Krishnamachari, Bhuma; Il’yasova, Dora; Scheurer, Michael E.; Bondy, Melissa; Wrensch, Margaret; Davis, Faith

2014-01-01

214

BIOINFORMATICS ANALYSIS OF OMICS DATA TOWARDS CANCER DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS  

E-print Network

Cancer Predicts Patient Survival 42 CHAPTER 4. Molecular Classification of Cancer Using Genetic transformation 18 2.1 A typical workflow of molecular cancer classification and prediction model 38 3BIOINFORMATICS ANALYSIS OF OMICS DATA TOWARDS CANCER DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS by Jianjun Yu

Fernandez, Thomas

215

Analysis and optimal design for association studies using next-generation sequencing with case-control pools.  

PubMed

With its potential to discover a much greater amount of genetic variation, next-generation sequencing is fast becoming an emergent tool for genetic association studies. However, the cost of sequencing all individuals in a large-scale population study is still high in comparison to most alternative genotyping options. While the ability to identify individual-level data is lost (without bar-coding), sequencing pooled samples can substantially lower costs without compromising the power to detect significant associations. We propose a hierarchical Bayesian model that estimates the association of each variant using pools of cases and controls, accounting for the variation in read depth across pools and sequencing error. To investigate the performance of our method across a range of number of pools, number of individuals within each pool, and average coverage, we undertook extensive simulations varying effect sizes, minor allele frequencies, and sequencing error rates. In general, the number of pools and pool size have dramatic effects on power while the total depth of coverage per pool has only a moderate impact. This information can guide the selection of a study design that maximizes power subject to cost, sample size, or other laboratory constraints. We provide an R package (hiPOD: hierarchical Pooled Optimal Design) to find the optimal design, allowing the user to specify a cost function, cost, and sample size limitations, and distributions of effect size, minor allele frequency, and sequencing error rate. PMID:22972696

Liang, Wei E; Thomas, Duncan C; Conti, David V

2012-12-01

216

Alert but less alarmed: a pooled analysis of terrorism threat perception in Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Previous Australian research has highlighted disparities in community perceptions of the threat posed by terrorism. A study with a large sample size is needed to examine reported concerns and anticipated responses of community sub-groups and to determine their consistency with existing Australian and international findings. Methods Representative samples of New South Wales (NSW) adults completed terrorism perception questions as part of computer assisted telephone interviews (CATI) in 2007 (N = 2081) and 2010 (N = 2038). Responses were weighted against the NSW population. Data sets from the two surveys were pooled and multivariate multilevel analyses conducted to identify health and socio-demographic factors associated with higher perceived risk of terrorism and evacuation response intentions, and to examine changes over time. Results In comparison with 2007, Australians in 2010 were significantly more likely to believe that a terrorist attack would occur in Australia (Adjusted Odd Ratios (AOR) = 1.24, 95%CI:1.06-1.45) but felt less concerned that they would be directly affected by such an incident (AOR = 0.65, 95%CI:0.55-0.75). Higher perceived risk of terrorism and related changes in living were associated with middle age, female gender, lower education and higher reported psychological distress. Australians of migrant background reported significantly lower likelihood of terrorism (AOR = 0.52, 95%CI:0.39-0.70) but significantly higher concern that they would be personally affected by such an incident (AOR = 1.57, 95%CI:1.21-2.04) and having made changes in the way they live due to this threat (AOR = 2.47, 95%CI:1.88-3.25). Willingness to evacuate homes and public places in response to potential incidents increased significantly between 2007 and 2010 (AOR = 1.53, 95%CI:1.33-1.76). Conclusion While an increased proportion of Australians believe that the national threat of terrorism remains high, concern about being personally affected has moderated and may reflect habituation to this threat. Key sub-groups remain disproportionately concerned, notably those with lower education and migrant groups. The dissonance observed in findings relating to Australians of migrant background appears to reflect wider socio-cultural concerns associated with this issue. Disparities in community concerns regarding terrorism-related threat require active policy consideration and specific initiatives to reduce the vulnerabilities of known risk groups, particularly in the aftermath of future incidents. PMID:21992446

2011-01-01

217

Outcomes in Ethnic Minority Renal Transplant Recipients Receiving Everolimus versus Mycophenolate: Comparative Risk Assessment Results From a Pooled Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Everolimus (EVR) has demonstrated good efficacy after renal transplantation. Racial disparities in clinical outcomes after de novo renal transplantation are well documented; whether the efficacy of EVR varies based on recipient ethnicity is unknown. We conducted a comparative risk assessment of EVR by ethnicity. Methods Data on 2004 renal transplant recipients from three EVR studies were pooled to identify the impact of ethnicity on efficacy outcomes across EVR dosing groups and control groups. Ethnic groups compared were African Americans, non-U.S. blacks, Asians, Hispanics, and Caucasians. EVR groups received either 1.5 or 3 mg per day, with either standard-dose cyclosporine or reduced-dose cyclosporine. Control groups received mycophenolic acid (MPA) with standard-dose cyclosporine. Composite efficacy failure endpoint was graft loss, death, biopsy-proven acute rejection, or lost to follow-up. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated using a logistic regression model. Results The proportion of renal transplant recipients who met the composite endpoint was African Americans (46%), non-U.S. black (35%), Caucasian (31%), Hispanic (28%), and Asian (25%). The odds of meeting the composite endpoint were significantly (P=0.0001) greater for African Americans versus Caucasians but did not differ among the other ethnic groups (ethnic groups were only compared with Caucasians). EVR and MPA were associated with similar efficacy among each of the ethnic groups. Conclusion In this pooled data analysis in more than 2000 renal transplant recipients, EVR versus MPA resulted in similar composite endpoint incidence events across ethnicities. Consistent with previously published data, African Americans had poorer clinical outcomes. EVR is efficacious regardless of ethnicity. PMID:24345868

Melancon, Keith; Mulgaonkar, Shamkant P.; Delcoro, Carlos; Wiland, Anne; McCague, Kevin; Shihab, Fuad S.

2013-01-01

218

Liposome bupivacaine for improvement in economic outcomes and opioid burden in GI surgery: IMPROVE Study pooled analysis  

PubMed Central

Postsurgical pain management remains a significant challenge. Liposome bupivacaine, as part of a multimodal analgesic regimen, has been shown to significantly reduce postsurgical opioid consumption, hospital length of stay (LOS), and hospitalization costs in gastrointestinal (GI) surgery, compared with intravenous (IV) opioid-based patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Pooled results from open-label studies comparing a liposome bupivacaine-based multimodal analgesic regimen with IV opioid PCA were analyzed. Patients (n=191) who underwent planned surgery and received study drug (IV opioid PCA, n=105; multimodal analgesia, n=86) were included. Liposome bupivacaine-based multimodal analgesia compared with IV opioid PCA significantly reduced mean (standard deviation [SD]) postsurgical opioid consumption (38 [55] mg versus [vs] 96 [85] mg; P<0.0001), postsurgical LOS (median 2.9 vs 4.3 days; P<0.0001), and mean hospitalization costs (US$8,271 vs US$10,726; P=0.0109). The multimodal analgesia group reported significantly fewer patients with opioid-related adverse events (AEs) than the IV opioid PCA group (P=0.0027); there were no significant between-group differences in patient satisfaction scores at 30 days. A liposome bupivacaine-based multimodal analgesic regimen was associated with significantly less opioid consumption, opioid-related AEs, and better health economic outcomes compared with an IV opioid PCA-based regimen in patients undergoing GI surgery. Study registration This pooled analysis is based on data from Phase IV clinical trials registered on the US National Institutes of Health www.ClinicalTrials.gov database under study identifiers NCT01460485, NCT01507220, NCT01507233, NCT01509638, NCT01509807, NCT01509820, NCT01461122, NCT01461135, NCT01534988, and NCT01507246. PMID:25018650

Cohen, Stephen M; Vogel, Jon D; Marcet, Jorge E; Candiotti, Keith A

2014-01-01

219

Blood glucose concentration and risk of pancreatic cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate potential linear and non-linear dose-response relations between blood glucose and risk of pancreatic cancer. Design Systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Data sources Search of PubMed, Scopus, and related reviews before 30 November 2013 without language restriction. Eligibility criteria Prospective studies evaluating the association between blood glucose concentration and pancreatic cancer. Retrospective and cross sectional studies excluded to avoid reverse causality. Data extraction and synthesis Two reviewers independently extracted relevant information and assessed study quality with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Random effects dose-response meta-analysis was conducted to assess potential linear and non-linear dose-response relations. Results Nine studies were included for analysis, with a total of 2408 patients with pancreatic cancer. There was a strong linear dose-response association between fasting blood glucose concentration and the rate of pancreatic cancer across the range of prediabetes and diabetes. No non-linear association was detected. The pooled rate ratio of pancreatic cancer per 0.56 mmol/L (10 mg/dL) increase in fasting blood glucose was 1.14 (95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.22; P<0.001) without significant heterogeneity. Sensitivity analysis excluding blood glucose categories in the range of diabetes showed similar results (pooled rate ratio per 0.56 mmol/L increase in fasting blood glucose was 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.27; P=0.003), strengthening the association between prediabetes and pancreatic cancer. Conclusions Every 0.56 mmol/L increase in fasting blood glucose is associated with a 14% increase in the rate of pancreatic cancer. As prediabetes can be improved or even reversed through lifestyle changes, early detection of prediabetes coupled with lifestyle changes could represent a viable strategy to curb the increasing incidence of pancreatic cancer. PMID:25556126

Liao, Wei-Chih; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Lin, Jaw-Town; Wang, Hsiu-Po

2015-01-01

220

Risk of Primary Liver Cancer Associated with Gallstones and Cholecystectomy: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Recent epidemiological evidence points to an association between gallstones or cholecystectomy and the incidence risk of liver cancer, but the results are inconsistent. We present a meta-analysis of observational studies to explore this association. Methods We identified studies by a literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and relevant conference proceedings up to March 2014. A random-effects model was used to generate pooled multivariable adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Between-study heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran’s Q statistic and the I2. Results Fifteen studies (five case-control and 10 cohort studies) were included in this analysis. There were 4,487,662 subjects in total, 17,945 diagnoses of liver cancer, 328,420 exposed to gallstones, and 884,507 exposed to cholecystectomy. Pooled results indicated a significant increased risk of liver cancer in patients with a history of gallstones (OR?=?2.54; 95% CI, 1.71–3.79; n?=?11 studies), as well as cholecystectomy (OR?=?1.62; 95% CI, 1.29–2.02; n?=?12 studies), but there was considerable heterogeneity among these studies. The effects estimates did not vary markedly when stratified by gender, study design, study region, and study quality. The multivariate meta-regression analysis suggested that study region and study quality appeared to explain the heterogeneity observed in the cholecystectomy analysis. Conclusions Our results suggest that individuals with a history of gallstones and cholecystectomy may have an increased risk of liver cancer. PMID:25290940

Liu, Yanqiong; He, Yu; Li, Taijie; Xie, Li; Wang, Jian; Qin, Xue; Li, Shan

2014-01-01

221

Metabolic Syndrome Is Associated with Increased Breast Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background. Although individual metabolic risk factors are reported to be associated with breast cancer risk, controversy surrounds risk of breast cancer from metabolic syndrome (MS). We report the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between MS and breast cancer risk in all adult females. Methods. Studies were retrieved by searching four electronic reference databases [PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Web of Science, and ProQuest through June 30, 2012] and cross-referencing retrieved articles. Eligible for inclusion were longitudinal studies reporting associations between MS and breast cancer risk among females aged 18 years and older. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each study and pooled using random-effects models. Publication bias was assessed quantitatively (Trim and Fill) and qualitatively (funnel plots). Heterogeneity was examined using Q and I2 statistics. Results. Representing nine independent cohorts and 97,277 adult females, eight studies met the inclusion criteria. A modest, positive association was observed between MS and breast cancer risk (RR: 1.47, 95% CI, 1.15–1.87; z = 3.13; p = 0.002; Q = 26.28, p = 0.001; I2 = 69.55%). No publication bias was observed. Conclusions. MS is associated with increased breast cancer risk in adult women. PMID:25653879

Bhandari, Ruchi; Kelley, George A.; Hartley, Tara A.; Rockett, Ian R. H.

2014-01-01

222

A Meta Analysis of Pancreatic Microarray Datasets Yields New Targets as Cancer Genes and Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

The lack of specific symptoms at early tumor stages, together with a high biological aggressiveness of the tumor contribute to the high mortality rate for pancreatic cancer (PC), which has a five year survival rate of less than 5%. Improved screening for earlier diagnosis, through the detection of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers provides the best hope of increasing the rate of curatively resectable carcinomas. Though many serum markers have been reported to be elevated in patients with PC, so far, most of these markers have not been implemented into clinical routine due to low sensitivity or specificity. In this study, we have identified genes that are significantly upregulated in PC, through a meta-analysis of large number of microarray datasets. We demonstrate that the biological functions ascribed to these genes are clearly associated with PC and metastasis, and that that these genes exhibit a strong link to pathways involved with inflammation and the immune response. This investigation has yielded new targets for cancer genes, and potential biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. The candidate list of cancer genes includes protein kinase genes, new members of gene families currently associated with PC, as well as genes not previously linked to PC. In this study, we are also able to move towards developing a signature for hypomethylated genes, which could be useful for early detection of PC. We also show that the significantly upregulated 800+ genes in our analysis can serve as an enriched pool for tissue and serum protein biomarkers in pancreatic cancer. PMID:24740004

Goonesekere, Nalin C. W.; Wang, Xiaosheng; Ludwig, Lindsey; Guda, Chittibabu

2014-01-01

223

Impact of XRCC2 Arg188His Polymorphism on Cancer Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Association between the single nucleotide polymorphism rs3218536 (known as Arg188His) located in the X-ray repair cross complementing group 2 (XRCC2) gene and cancer susceptibility has been widely investigated. However, results thus far have remained controversial. A meta-analysis was performed to identify the impact of this polymorphism on cancer susceptibility. Methods PubMed and Embase databases were searched systematically until September 7, 2013 to obtain all the records evaluating the association between the XRCC2 Arg188His polymorphism and the risk of all types of cancers. We used the odds ratio (OR) as measure of effect, and pooled the data in a Mantel-Haenszel weighed random-effects meta-analysis to provide a summary estimate of the impact of this polymorphism on breast cancer, ovarian cancer and other cancers. All the analyses were carried out in STATA 12.0. Results With 30868 cases and 38656 controls, a total of 45 case-control studies from 26 publications were eventually included in our meta-analysis. No significant association was observed between the XRCC2 Arg188His polymorphism and breast cancer susceptibility (dominant model: OR?=?0.94, 95%CI?=?0.86–1.04, P?=?0.232). However, a significant impact of this polymorphism was detected on decreased ovarian cancer risk (dominant model: OR?=?0.83, 95%CI?=?0.73–0.95, P?=?0.007). In addition, we found this polymorphism was associated with increased upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer susceptibility (dominant model: OR?=?1.51, 95%CI?=?1.04–2.20, P?=?0.032). Conclusion The Arg188His polymorphism might play different roles in carcinogenesis of various cancer types. Current evidence did not suggest that this polymorphism was directly associated with breast cancer susceptibility. However, this polymorphism might contribute to decreased gynecological cancer risk and increased UADT cancer risk. More preclinical and epidemiological studies were still imperative for further evaluation. PMID:24621646

Deng, Xiangbing; Wei, Mingtian; Wu, Qingbin; Yang, Tinghan; Zhou, Yanhong; Wang, Ziqiang

2014-01-01

224

Hematologic toxicity assessment in solid tumor patients treated with cetuximab: A pooled analysis of 18 randomized controlled trials.  

PubMed

The role of cetuximab in treatment-related hematologic toxicity is not clear. We performed a meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the overall risk of ?grade 3 hematologic toxicity events (HTEs) associated with cetuximab. PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Knowledge databases as well as abstracts presented at American Society of Clinical Oncology conferences and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched to identify relevant studies. Eligible studies included RCTs in which cetuximab in combination with chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy was compared with chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy alone. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fixed- or random-effects models. A total of 11,234 patients with a variety of advanced solid tumors from 18 RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with chemotherapy alone, the addition of cetuximab was associated with increased risks of ?grade 3 leucopenia/neutropenia and anemia events in colorectal cancer, with RRs of 1.16 (95% CI 1.05-1.27, p?=?0.002; incidence, 21.0 vs. 18.0%) and 2.67 (95% CI 1.53-4.65, p?=?0.01; incidence, 4.0 vs. 2.0%), respectively. Cetuximab was also associated with an increased risk of leucopenia/neutropenia in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (RR: 1.15; 95% CI 1.08-1.22, p?cancer patients was more vulnerable to ?grade 3 leucopenia or neutropenia events in cetuximab group (RR: 1.31; 95% CI 1.11-1.54, p?=?0.001). With present evidence, cetuximab in conjunction with chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy, compared with chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy alone, was associated with increased slight risk of ?grade 3 HTEs, especially in colorectal cancer and NSCLC. PMID:24975040

Cui, Ran; Chu, Li; Liu, Zhu-Qing; Xiao, Yuan-Yuan; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Chen, Yi-Jing; Xu, Qing

2015-02-15

225

Integrated DNA Copy Number and Gene Expression Regulatory Network Analysis of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Integrative analysis of multi-level molecular profiles can distinguish interactions that cannot be revealed based on one kind of data in the analysis of cancer susceptibility and metastasis. DNA copy number variations (CNVs) are common in cancer cells, and their role in cell behaviors and relationship to gene expression (GE) is poorly understood. An integrative analysis of CNV and genome-wide mRNA expression can discover copy number alterations and their possible regulatory effects on GE. This study presents a novel framework to identify important genes and construct potential regulatory networks based on these genes. Using this approach, DNA copy number aberrations and their effects on GE in lung cancer progression were revealed. Specifically, this approach contains the following steps: (1) select a pool of candidate driver genes, which have significant CNV in lung cancer patient tumors or have a significant association with the clinical outcome at the transcriptional level; (2) rank important driver genes in lung cancer patients with good prognosis and poor prognosis, respectively, and use top-ranked driver genes to construct regulatory networks with the COpy Number and EXpression In Cancer (CONEXIC) method; (3) identify experimentally confirmed molecular interactions in the constructed regulatory networks using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA); and (4) visualize the refined regulatory networks with the software package Genatomy. The constructed CNV/mRNA regulatory networks provide important insights into potential CNV-regulated transcriptional mechanisms in lung cancer metastasis. PMID:25392690

Iranmanesh, Seyed M; Guo, Nancy L

2014-01-01

226

Vitamin A and Retinoid Derivatives for Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Despite reported antiproliferative activity of vitamin A and its common use for cancer, there is no comprehensive synthesis of its safety and efficacy in lung cancers. To address this issue we conducted a systematic review of the safety and efficacy of vitamin A for the treatment and prevention of lung cancers. Methods and Findings Two independent reviewers searched six electronic databases from inception to July 2009 for clinical, observational, and preclinical evidence pertaining to the safety and efficacy of vitamin A and related retinoids for lung cancers. 248 studies were included for full review and analysis. Five RCTs assessed treatment of lung cancers, three assessed primary prevention, and three looked at secondary prevention of lung cancers. Five surrogate studies, 26 phase I/II, 32 observational, and 67 preclinical studies were also included. 107 studies were included for interactions between vitamin A and chemo- or radiation- therapy. Although some studies demonstrated benefits, there was insufficient evidence overall to support the use of vitamin A or related retinoids for the treatment or prevention of lung cancers. Retinyl palmitate combined with beta carotene increased risk of lung cancer in smokers in the large CARET trial. Pooling of three studies pertaining to treatment and three studies on secondary prevention revealed no significant effects on response rate, second primary tumor, recurrence, 5-year survival, and mortality. There was a small improvement in event free survival associated with vitamin A compared to controls, RR 1.24 (95% CI 1.13–1.35). The synthetic rexinoid bexarotene increased survival significantly among a subset of patients in two RCTs (p<0.014, <0.087). Conclusions There is a lack of evidence to support the use of naturally occuring retinoids for the treatment and prevention of lung cancers. The rexinoid bexarotene may hold promise for use among a subset of patients, and deserves further study. PMID:21738614

Fritz, Heidi; Kennedy, Deborah; Fergusson, Dean; Fernandes, Rochelle; Doucette, Steve; Cooley, Kieran; Seely, Andrew; Sagar, Stephen; Wong, Raimond; Seely, Dugald

2011-01-01

227

Bayesian pathway analysis of cancer microarray data.  

PubMed

High Throughput Biological Data (HTBD) requires detailed analysis methods and from a life science perspective, these analysis results make most sense when interpreted within the context of biological pathways. Bayesian Networks (BNs) capture both linear and nonlinear interactions and handle stochastic events in a probabilistic framework accounting for noise making them viable candidates for HTBD analysis. We have recently proposed an approach, called Bayesian Pathway Analysis (BPA), for analyzing HTBD using BNs in which known biological pathways are modeled as BNs and pathways that best explain the given HTBD are found. BPA uses the fold change information to obtain an input matrix to score each pathway modeled as a BN. Scoring is achieved using the Bayesian-Dirichlet Equivalent method and significance is assessed by randomization via bootstrapping of the columns of the input matrix. In this study, we improve on the BPA system by optimizing the steps involved in "Data Preprocessing and Discretization", "Scoring", "Significance Assessment", and "Software and Web Application". We tested the improved system on synthetic data sets and achieved over 98% accuracy in identifying the active pathways. The overall approach was applied on real cancer microarray data sets in order to investigate the pathways that are commonly active in different cancer types. We compared our findings on the real data sets with a relevant approach called the Signaling Pathway Impact Analysis (SPIA). PMID:25036210

Korucuoglu, Melike; Isci, Senol; Ozgur, Arzucan; Otu, Hasan H

2014-01-01

228

Oral rivaroxaban versus standard therapy for the treatment of symptomatic venous thromboembolism: a pooled analysis of the EINSTEIN-DVT and PE randomized studies  

PubMed Central

Background Standard treatment for venous thromboembolism (VTE) consists of a heparin combined with vitamin K antagonists. Direct oral anticoagulants have been investigated for acute and extended treatment of symptomatic VTE; their use could avoid parenteral treatment and/or laboratory monitoring of anticoagulant effects. Methods A prespecified pooled analysis of the EINSTEIN-DVT and EINSTEIN-PE studies compared the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban (15 mg twice-daily for 21 days, followed by 20 mg once-daily) with standard-therapy (enoxaparin 1.0 mg/kg twice-daily and warfarin or acenocoumarol). Patients were treated for 3, 6, or 12 months and followed for suspected recurrent VTE and bleeding. The prespecified noninferiority margin was 1.75. Results A total of 8282 patients were enrolled; 4151 received rivaroxaban and 4131 received standard-therapy. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 86 (2.1%) rivaroxaban-treated patients compared with 95 (2.3%) standard-therapy-treated patients (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66–1.19; pnoninferiority?cancer patients, patients presenting with large clots, and those with a history of recurrent VTE, the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban were similar compared with standard-therapy. Conclusion The single-drug approach with rivaroxaban resulted in similar efficacy to standard-therapy and was associated with a significantly lower rate of major bleeding. Efficacy and safety results were consistent among key patient subgroups. Trial registration EINSTEIN-PE: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00439777; EINSTEIN-DVT: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00440193. PMID:24053656

2013-01-01

229

Association between CD14 Gene Polymorphisms and Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Two polymorphisms, -260C/T and -651C/T, in the CD14 gene have been implicated in susceptibility to cancer. However, the results remain inconclusive. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the association between the two polymorphisms and risk of cancer. Methods All eligible case-control studies published up to March 2014 were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science, CNKI and WanFang database. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to access the strength of this association in fixed- or random-effects model. Results 17 case-control studies from fourteen articles were included. Of those, there were 17 studies (4198 cases and 4194 controls) for -260C/T polymorphism and three studies (832 cases and 1190 controls) for -651C/T polymorphism. Overall, no significant associations between the two polymorphisms of CD14 gene and cancer risk were found. When stratified by ethnicity, cancer type and source of control, similar results were observed among them. In addition, in further subgroups analysis by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection status and tumor location in gastric cancer subgroup, we found that the CD14 -260C/T polymorphism may increase the risk of gastric cancer in H. pylori-infected individuals. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that the CD14 -260C/T polymorphism may increase the risk of gastric cancer in H. pylori-infected individuals. However, large and well-designed studies are warranted to validate our findings. PMID:24978812

Wang, Jun; Guo, Xufeng; Yu, Shijie; Song, Jia; Zhang, Jixiang; Cao, Zhuo; Wang, Jing; Liu, Min; Dong, Weiguo

2014-01-01

230

Effect of statin on risk of gynecologic cancers: a meta-analysis of observational studies and randomized controlled trials.  

PubMed

Objective. Epidemiologic and clinical findings are inconsistent concerning the risk for gynecologic cancers associated with statin use. We conducted a detailed meta-analysis of all relevant original studies to evaluate the effects of statin on the risk of gynecologic cancers. Methods. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library databases up to February 2014 looking for eligible studies. Summary relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to calculate the risk using random-effects models. Results. A total of 14 (4 randomized controlled trials, 5 cohorts, and 5 case-control) studies, involving 12,904 gynecologic cancer cases, contributed to the analysis. Pooled results indicated a non-significant decrease of total gynecologic cancer risk among statin users (RR=0.89; 95% CI, 0.78-1.01). Stratified analyses across cancer site revealed a modest protective effect of statin on ovarian cancer (RR=0.79; 95% CI, 0.64-0.98), while no association was found for endometrial cancer (RR=0.90; 95% CI, 0.75-1.07). The effect of statin use against cervical cancer and vulvar cancer is not conclusive. Furthermore, long-term statin use (>5years use) did not significantly affect the risk of endometrial cancer (RR=0.69; 95% CI, 0.44-1.10), but had an obvious decrease on the risk of ovarian cancer (RR=0.48; 95% CI, 0.28-0.80). Conclusions. Our results suggest that statin use was inversely associated with ovarian cancer risk, and the association was stronger for long-term statin use (>5years). The evidence for a protective effect of statin use against other gynecologic cancers is suggestive but not conclusive, which deserves further investigation. PMID:24736024

Liu, Yanqiong; Qin, Aiping; Li, Taijie; Qin, Xue; Li, Shan

2014-06-01

231

Coffee consumption and risk of gastric cancer: a large updated meta-analysis of prospective studies.  

PubMed

The potential role of coffee consumption in the development of various types of cancer has been extensively investigated in epidemiologic studies. How coffee consumption may modulate risk of gastric cancer, however, remains a subject open for investigation. To better quantify this relation, we quantitatively summarized evidence from prospective studies. Eligible studies were identified on PubMed and Embase databases. The summary risk estimates were obtained using the random-effects model. Subgroup, sensitivity and dose-response analyses were conducted. The present meta-analysis included 12 prospective cohort studies. A pooled analysis of these studies suggested that coffee consumption (highest vs. lowest consumption) was not associated with risk of gastric cancer (RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.93-1.36). In the subgroup analysis, significant increased risk was detected in the U.S. studies (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.06-1.74) and in the studies with <10 years of follow-up (RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.00-1.54), and the greatest increase in risk was observed in those studies without adjustment for smoking (RR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.13-1.93). There was some evidence of publication bias (P for Egger's test = 0.03). Cumulative evidence from prospective studies suggests that coffee consumption is not associated with risk of gastric cancer. The observed positive results may be confounded by smoking and need further investigation. PMID:25237829

Xie, Feiyue; Wang, Dan; Huang, Zhifang; Guo, Yajun

2014-09-01

232

Coffee Consumption and Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Large Updated Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies  

PubMed Central

The potential role of coffee consumption in the development of various types of cancer has been extensively investigated in epidemiologic studies. How coffee consumption may modulate risk of gastric cancer, however, remains a subject open for investigation. To better quantify this relation, we quantitatively summarized evidence from prospective studies. Eligible studies were identified on PubMed databases. The summary risk estimates were obtained using the random-effects model. Subgroup, sensitivity and dose-response analyses were conducted. The present meta-analysis included 12 prospective cohort studies. A pooled analysis of these studies suggested that coffee consumption (highest vs. lowest consumption) was not associated with risk of gastric cancer (RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.93–1.36). In the subgroup analysis, significant increased risk was detected in the U.S. studies (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.06–1.74) and in the studies with <10 years of follow-up (RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.00–1.54), and the greatest increase in risk was observed in those studies without adjustment for smoking (RR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.13–1.93). There was some evidence of publication bias (P for Egger’s test = 0.03). Cumulative evidence from prospective studies suggests that coffee consumption is not associated with risk of gastric cancer. The observed positive results may be confounded by smoking and need further investigation. PMID:25237829

Xie, Feiyue; Wang, Dan; Huang, Zhifang; Guo, Yajun

2014-01-01

233

SPECT gated blood pool phase analysis of lateral wall motion for prediction of CRT response.  

PubMed

Amplitude, defined as the magnitude of contraction of the myocardium, is obtained from phase analysis but has not been investigated to the same extent as phase-based parameters for predicting the outcome of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The size of scar present in the lateral wall of the left ventricle (LV) has been shown in some studies to predict response to CRT. Scar is associated with impaired regional LV wall motion and is expected to result in a reduction in the corresponding amplitude values derived from phase analysis. Our objective was to determine the correlation between amplitude and scar, and to evaluate amplitude parameters as surrogates for scar in predicting response to CRT. 49 patients underwent a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radionuclide angiography (RNA) scan as well as FDG viability and Rubidium-82 perfusion PET scans prior to undergoing CRT. Phase analysis was performed on the SPECT RNA data to extract amplitude values used to define amplitude size (AmpSize) and amplitude score (AmpScore) parameters. Scar size and scar score were obtained from the PET scans based on a 5 segment model. Scar parameters were then compared to amplitude parameters in the lateral wall for the whole population as well as both ischemic (N = 27) and non-ischemic (N = 22) populations using Pearson correlation. The ability of amplitude parameters to predict response to CRT was also investigated and compared to scar parameters. The largest ROC AUC values were obtained in the ischemic population where values of 0.67 and 0.68 were observed for lateral wall AmpSize and AmpScore respectively. Both parameters produced the same sensitivity and specificity values of 83 and 67 %. Amplitude size in the lateral wall showed significant correlation with lateral wall scar size in all patients (r = 0.51), which was further strengthened in the ischemic patient sub-group (r = 0.64). Lateral wall amplitude-based parameters obtained from SPECT RNA phase analysis produced an overall accuracy in predicting CRT response in ischemic patients that was not significantly different to that of PET lateral wall scar parameters. A significant correlation existed between amplitude size and scar size in the lateral wall. PMID:24402886

Lalonde, Michel; Birnie, David; Ruddy, Terrence D; deKemp, Robert A; Beanlands, Rob S B; Wassenaar, Richard; Wells, R Glenn

2014-03-01

234

Calcium Channel Blockers and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of 17 Observational Studies  

PubMed Central

Purpose Studies on the association between the use of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and breast cancer risk have reported inconsistent results. We quantitatively assessed this association by conducting a meta-analysis based on the evidence from observational studies. Methods We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library for relevant studies published up to and including December 31, 2013. We calculated pooled risk ratios (RRs) for cancer risk. Results A total of 17 studies (9 cohort studies, 8 case-control studies) were selected for further study. These studies included 149,607 female subjects, of which 53,812 were CCBs users, who were followed for 2–16 years. The risks of breast cancer among patients receiving CCBs were significantly different for the pooled RRs (95% confidence interval) of cohort studies 1.08 (0.95, 1.20) and case-control studies 0.98 (0.86, 1.09). Differences were also noted for cancer risk, for CCBs use of <5 years 0.96 (0.78, 1.15), and for >5 years 1.01 (0.74, 1.28), as well as for ever used 1.08 (0.95, 1.20), and for current use 1.13 (0.83, 1.42). The RR for studies longer than 10 years was 1.71 (1.01, 2.42), and for studies evaluating nifedipine was 1.10 (0.87, 1.33) and diltiazem was 0.75 (0.40, 1.10). Conclusions The long-term use of CCBs appears to have a significant relationship with breast cancer. Well-designed clinical trials are needed to optimize the doses and types of these drugs needed to minimize their carcinogenic potential. PMID:25184210

Li, Wen; Shi, Qi; Wang, Weibing; Liu, Jianrong; Li, Qi; Hou, Fenggang

2014-01-01

235

Evidence of association of APOE with age-related macular degeneration - a pooled analysis of 15 studies  

PubMed Central

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of incurable visual impairment in high-income countries. Previous studies report inconsistent associations between AMD and apolipoprotein E (APOE), a lipid transport protein involved in low-density cholesterol modulation. Potential interaction between APOE and sex, and smoking status, has been reported. We present a pooled analysis (n=21,160) demonstrating associations between late AMD and APO?4 (OR=0.72 per haplotype; CI: 0.65–0.74; P=4.41×10?11) and APO?2 (OR=1.83 for homozygote carriers; CI: 1.04–3.23; P=0.04), following adjustment for age-group and sex within each study and smoking status. No evidence of interaction between APOE and sex or smoking was found. Ever smokers had significant increased risk relative to never smokers for both neovascular (OR=1.54; CI: 1.38–1.72; P=2.8×10?15) and atrophic (OR=1.38; CI: 1.18–1.61; P=3.37×10?5) AMD but not early AMD (OR=0.94; CI: 0.86–1.03; P=0.16), implicating smoking as a major contributing factor to disease progression from early signs to the visually disabling late forms. Extended haplotype analysis incorporating rs405509 did not identify additional risks beyond?2 and ?4 haplotypes. Our expanded analysis substantially improves our understanding of the association between the APOE locus and AMD. It further provides evidence supporting the role of cholesterol modulation, and low-density cholesterol specifically, in AMD disease etiology. PMID:21882290

McKay, Gareth J.; Patterson, Chris C.; Chakravarthy, Usha; Dasari, Shilpa; Klaver, Caroline C.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Ho, Lintje; de Jong, Paulus T.V.M.; Fletcher, Astrid E.; Young, Ian S.; Seland, Johan H.; Rahu, Mati; Soubrane, Gisele; Tomazzoli, Laura; Topouzis, Fotis; Vioque, Jesus; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Sofat, Reecha; Dean, Michael; Sawitzke, Julie; Seddon, Johanna M.; Peter, Inga; Webster, Andrew R.; Moore, Anthony T.; Yates, John R.W.; Cipriani, Valentina; Fritsche, Lars G.; Weber, Bernhard H.F.; Keilhauer, Claudia N.; Lotery, Andrew J.; Ennis, Sarah; Klein, Michael L.; Francis, Peter J.; Stambolian, Dwight; Orlin, Anton; Gorin, Michael B.; Weeks, Daniel E.; Kuo, Chia-Ling; Swaroop, Anand; Othman, Mohammad; Kanda, Atsuhiro; Chen, Wei; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Wright, Alan F.; Hayward, Caroline; Baird, Paul N.; Guymer, Robyn H.; Attia, John; Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Silvestri, Giuliana

2011-01-01

236

Parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma in pediatric age: results of a pooled analysis from North American and European cooperative groups  

PubMed Central

Background Parameningeal (PM) site is a well-known adverse prognostic factor in children with localized rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). To identify risk factors associated with outcome at this site, we pooled data from 1105 patients treated in 10 studies conducted by European and North American cooperative groups between 1984 and 2004. Patients and methods Clinical factors including age, histology, size, invasiveness, nodal involvement, Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS) clinical group, site, risk factors for meningeal involvement (MI), study group, and application of radiotherapy (RT) were studied for their impact on event-free and overall survival (EFS and OS). Results Ten-year EFS and OS were 62.6 and 66.1% for the whole group. Patients without initial RT showed worse survival (10-year OS 40.8% versus 68.5% for RT treated patients). Multivariate analysis focusing on 862 patients who received RT as part of their initial treatment revealed four unfavorable prognostic factors: age <3 or >10 years, signs of MI, unfavorable site, and tumor size. Utilizing these prognostic factors, patients could be classified into different risk groups with 10-year OS ranging between 51.1 and 80.9%. Conclusions While, in general, PM localization is regarded as an adverse prognostic factor, the current analysis differentiates those with good prognosis (36% patients with 0–1 risk factor: 10-year OS 80.9%) from high-risk PM patients (28% with 3–4 factors: 10-year OS 51.1%). Furthermore, this analysis reinforces the necessity for RT in PM RMS. PMID:24356633

Merks, J. H. M.; De Salvo, G. L.; Bergeron, C.; Bisogno, G.; De Paoli, A.; Ferrari, A.; Rey, A.; Oberlin, O.; Stevens, M. C. G.; Kelsey, A.; Michalski, J.; Hawkins, D. S.; Anderson, J. R.

2014-01-01

237

Flux imbalance analysis and the sensitivity of cellular growth to changes in metabolite pools.  

PubMed

Stoichiometric models of metabolism, such as flux balance analysis (FBA), are classically applied to predicting steady state rates - or fluxes - of metabolic reactions in genome-scale metabolic networks. Here we revisit the central assumption of FBA, i.e. that intracellular metabolites are at steady state, and show that deviations from flux balance (i.e. flux imbalances) are informative of some features of in vivo metabolite concentrations. Mathematically, the sensitivity of FBA to these flux imbalances is captured by a native feature of linear optimization, the dual problem, and its corresponding variables, known as shadow prices. First, using recently published data on chemostat growth of Saccharomyces cerevisae under different nutrient limitations, we show that shadow prices anticorrelate with experimentally measured degrees of growth limitation of intracellular metabolites. We next hypothesize that metabolites which are limiting for growth (and thus have very negative shadow price) cannot vary dramatically in an uncontrolled way, and must respond rapidly to perturbations. Using a collection of published datasets monitoring the time-dependent metabolomic response of Escherichia coli to carbon and nitrogen perturbations, we test this hypothesis and find that metabolites with negative shadow price indeed show lower temporal variation following a perturbation than metabolites with zero shadow price. Finally, we illustrate the broader applicability of flux imbalance analysis to other constraint-based methods. In particular, we explore the biological significance of shadow prices in a constraint-based method for integrating gene expression data with a stoichiometric model. In this case, shadow prices point to metabolites that should rise or drop in concentration in order to increase consistency between flux predictions and gene expression data. In general, these results suggest that the sensitivity of metabolic optima to violations of the steady state constraints carries biologically significant information on the processes that control intracellular metabolites in the cell. PMID:24009492

Reznik, Ed; Mehta, Pankaj; Segrè, Daniel

2013-01-01

238

Meta-Analysis of the Prognostic Value of Smad4 Immunohistochemistry in Various Cancers  

PubMed Central

Background Accumulating evidence indicates that Smad4 (DPC4) plays a fundamental role in the development and prognosis of several types of cancer. The objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate whether the loss of Smad4 staining could serve as a prognostic marker. Methods A comprehensive meta-analysis was conducted using major useful databases to determine the relationship between the immunohistochemical detection of Smad4 and the survival of patients with various cancers. We used hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (CIs) as the effect estimation to evaluate the association of Smad4 with overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) or recurrence-free survival (RFS). The relationship between the clinical characteristics of patients and Smad4 was also evaluated using the odds ratio (OR). Results A total of 7570 patients from 26 studies were included in the analysis. The pooled results showed that loss of Smad4 staining was a negative predictor of OS with an HR of 1.97 (95% CI: 1.55–2.51; Pheterogeneity<0.001) and CSS/RFS (HR?=?1.81; 95% CI: 1.30–2.54; Pheterogeneity<0.001). In addition, loss of Smad4 staining was more likely to be found in older (OR?=?1.69, 95% CI: 1.09–2.61; Pheterogeneity?=?0.648) colorectal cancer patients with a late tumor stage (OR?=?2.31, 95% CI: 1.71–3.10; Pheterogeneity?=?0.218) and in gastric cancer patients with lymph node metastasis (OR?=?2.11, 95% CI: 1.03–4.34; Pheterogeneity?=?0.038). Conclusion Based on these results, our meta-analysis provided evidence that loss of Smad4 staining could act as an unfavorable biomarker in the prognosis of various cancers and should be used as a powerful tool in future clinical trials. PMID:25333693

Huang, Zebo; Qiu, Tianzhu; Wang, Jian; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Tongshan; Liu, Ping

2014-01-01

239

Baseline participant characteristics and risk for dropout from ten obesity randomized controlled trials: a pooled analysis of individual level data  

PubMed Central

Introduction Understanding participant demographic characteristics that inform the optimal design of obesity RCTs have been examined in few studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of individual participant characteristics and dropout rates (DORs) in obesity randomized controlled trials (RCT) by pooling data from several publicly available datasets for analyses. We comprehensively characterize DORs and patterns in obesity RCTs at the individual study level, and describe how such rates and patterns vary as a function of individual-level characteristics. Methods We obtained and analyzed nine publicly-available, obesity RCT datasets that examined weight loss or weight gain prevention as a primary or secondary endpoint. Four risk factors for dropout were examined by Cox proportional hazards including sex, age, baseline BMI, and race/ethnicity. The individual study data were pooled in the final analyses with a random effect for study, and HR and 95% CIs were computed. Results Results of the multivariate analysis indicated that the risk of dropout was significantly higher for females compared to males (HR= 1.24, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.46). Hispanics and Non-Hispanic blacks had a significantly higher dropout rate compared to non-Hispanic whites (HR= 1.62, 95% CI = 1.37, 1.91; HR= 1.22, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.35, respectively). There was a significantly increased risk of dropout associated with advancing age (HR= 1.02, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.02) and increasing BMI (HR= 1.03, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.04). Conclusion/Significance As more studies may focus on special populations, researchers designing obesity RCTs may wish to oversample in certain demographic groups if attempting to match comparison groups based on generalized estimates of expected dropout rates, or otherwise adjust a priori power estimates. Understanding true reasons for dropout may require additional methods of data gathering not generally employed in obesity RCTs, e.g. time on treatment. PMID:25599077

Kaiser, Kathryn A.; Affuso, Olivia; Desmond, Renee; Allison, David B.

2014-01-01

240

Occupation related pesticide exposure and cancer of the prostate: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Aims: To summarise recent literature on the risk of prostate cancer in pesticide related occupations, to calculate the meta-rate ratio, and to compare it to data from meta-analyses previously published. Methods: A meta-analysis of 22 epidemiological studies, published between 1995 and 2001, was conducted in order to pool their rate ratio estimates. Studies were summarised and evaluated for homogeneity and publication bias. Results: The meta-rate ratio estimate, based on 25 estimators of relative risk from 22 studies, was 1.13 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.22). Significant heterogeneity of rate ratios existed among the different studies. Therefore, a stratified analysis was carried out. Major sources of heterogeneity identified were geographic location, study design, and healthy worker effect. Overall, pooled risk estimates for studies derived from Europe were lower than those derived from the USA/Canada. A significant increase in rate ratio was observed for the occupation category of pesticide applicators, whereas no significant increase was observed for farmers. There was no evidence of publication bias. Conclusion: This increased meta-rate ratio for prostate cancer in different pesticide related occupations, including farmers, is very similar to three, previously published, meta-rate ratios for prostate cancer in farmers calculated from studies published before 1995. Although the underlying data do not identify pesticide exposure as an independent cause for prostate cancer, the fact that an increased meta-rate ratio is again obtained points to occupational exposure to pesticides as a possible factor. Future epidemiological studies should focus, as far as possible, on reliable methods to estimate actual exposure. PMID:12937183

Van Maele-Fabry, G; Willems, J

2003-01-01

241

Meta-analysis of the association between APC promoter methylation and colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Previous studies investigating the association between adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene promoter methylation and colorectal cancer (CRC) have yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the potential application of the detection of APC promoter methylation to the prevention and treatment of CRC. PubMed, Embase, and MEDLINE (results updated to October 2014) were searched for relevant studies. The effect size was defined as the weighted odds ratio (OR), which was calculated using either the fixed-effects or random-effects model. Prespecified subgroup and sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate potential heterogeneity among the included studies. Nineteen studies comprising 2,426 participants were selected for our meta-analysis. The pooled results of nine studies comprising a total of 740 subjects indicated that APC promoter methylation was significantly associated with CRC risk (pooled OR 5.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.50–8.76; P<0.01). Eleven studies with a total of 1,219 patients evaluated the association between APC promoter methylation and the presence of CRC metastasis, and the pooled OR was 0.80 (95% CI 0.44–1.46; P=0.47). A meta-analysis conducted with four studies with a total of 467 patients found no significant correlation between APC promoter methylation and the presence of colorectal adenoma (pooled OR 1.85; 95% CI 0.67–5.10; P=0.23). No significant correlation between APC promoter methylation and patients’ Dukes’ stage, TNM stage, differentiation grade, age, or sex was identified. In conclusion, APC promoter methylation was found to be significantly associated with a higher risk of developing CRC. The findings indicate that APC promoter methylation may be a potential biomarker for the carcinogenesis of CRC.

Ding, Zhenyu; Jiang, Tong; Piao, Ying; Han, Tao; Han, Yaling; Xie, Xiaodong

2015-01-01

242

Occupational exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and respiratory and urinary tract cancers: an updated systematic review and a meta-analysis to 2014.  

PubMed

Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been associated with an excess risk of respiratory tract and bladder cancers in several industries, but the issue requires further quantification. We updated a previous systematic review by reviewing in details cohort studies on workers employed in selected industries with potential PAH exposure published between 2006 and 2014, and we summarized through a meta-analytic approach the main results of all available cohort studies published between 1958 and 2014 investigating cancers of the respiratory and urinary tracts. Thirteen papers on cohort studies investigating cancer risk in workers exposed to PAHs were retrieved through the literature search. These included workers from aluminum production industries (seven studies), iron and steel foundries (two studies), asphalt workers (two studies), and carbon black production (two studies). In the meta-analysis, an excess risk of respiratory tract cancers (mainly lung cancer) was found in iron and steel foundries [pooled relative risk (RR) 1.31, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.59 from 14 studies], while a weak excess risk (pooled RR 1.08, 95 % CI 0.95-1.23 from 11 studies) emerged for aluminum production. A borderline increase risk was also observed for cancer of the bladder in the aluminum production (pooled RR 1.28, 95 % CI 0.98-1.68 from 10 studies) and in iron and steel foundries (pooled RR 1.38, 95 % CI 1.00-1.91 from 9 studies). This updated review and meta-analysis confirm the increased risk from respiratory tract and bladder cancers in selected PAH-related occupations. It cannot be ruled out whether such excesses are due, at least in part, to possible bias or residual confounding. PMID:24935254

Rota, Matteo; Bosetti, Cristina; Boccia, Stefania; Boffetta, Paolo; La Vecchia, Carlo

2014-08-01

243

Prognostic role of D-dimer in patients with lung cancer: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

D-dimer detection in patients suffering from a variety of different types of cancer has become a hot point as an emerging and promising biomarker. In this study, therefore, we evaluated the prognostic role of D-dimer in lung cancer. Initial literature was identified using the PubMed, EMBASE, and CNKI. The primary data was hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) of survival outcomes in candidate articles, including overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Finally, 11 eligible studies were included in this meta-analysis, which were published between 1996 and 2013. The estimated pooled HR and 95% CI for OS of all studies was 2.06 (95% CI 1.64-2.58, p?pooled HR and 95% CI for OS were 3.22 (95% CI 1.99-5.21, p?analysis according to the ratio of histological type and clinical stage. All the above analysis had positive results. This meta-analysis showed that D-dimer had a fine predictive role in lung cancer patients, especially in Asian group. Also, it demonstrated that D-dimer had a stronger predictive value by using the method ELISA. PMID:24114016

Ma, Xuelei; Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Jingwen; Liu, Lei

2014-03-01

244

Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between CXCR4 Expression and Metastasis in Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Experimental studies have suggested that the stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXCR4 axis is associated with tumor aggressiveness and metastasis in several malignancies. We performed a meta-analysis to elucidate the relationship between CXCR4 expression and the clinicopathological features of prostate cancer. Materials and Methods Data were collected from studies comparing Gleason score, T stage, and the presence of metastasis with CXCR4 levels in human prostate cancer samples. The studies were pooled, and the odds ratio (OR) of CXCR4 expression for clinical and pathological variables was calculated. Results Five articles were eligible for the current meta-analysis. We found no relationship between CXCR4 expression and Gleason score (<7 vs. ?7). The forest plot using the fixed-effects model indicated an OR of 1.585 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.793~3.171; p=0.193). Further, CXCR4 expression was not associated with the T stage (analysis showed OR=1.803 (95% CI: 0.756~4.297, p=0.183). However, increased CXCR4 expression was strongly associated with metastatic disease with a fixed-effects pooled OR of 7.459 (95% CI: 2.665~20.878, p<0.001). Conclusions Our meta-analysis showed that the higher CXCR4 protein expression in prostate cancer specimens is significantly associated with the presence of metastatic disease. This supports previous experimental data supporting the role played by the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in metastasis. PMID:25606566

Lee, Joo Yong; Kang, Dong Hyuk; Chung, Doo Yong; Kwon, Jong Kyou; Lee, Hyungmin; Cho, Nam Hoon; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon

2014-01-01

245

HiTSelect: a comprehensive tool for high-complexity-pooled screen analysis.  

PubMed

Genetic screens of an unprecedented scale have recently been made possible by the availability of high-complexity libraries of synthetic oligonucleotides designed to mediate either gene knockdown or gene knockout, coupled with next-generation sequencing. However, several sources of random noise and statistical biases complicate the interpretation of the resulting high-throughput data. We developed HiTSelect, a comprehensive analysis pipeline for rigorously selecting screen hits and identifying functionally relevant genes and pathways by addressing off-target effects, controlling for variance in both gene silencing efficiency and sequencing depth of coverage and integrating relevant metadata. We document the superior performance of HiTSelect using data from both genome-wide RNAi and CRISPR/Cas9 screens. HiTSelect is implemented as an open-source package, with a user-friendly interface for data visualization and pathway exploration. Binary executables are available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/hitselect/, and the source code is available at https://github.com/diazlab/HiTSelect. PMID:25428347

Diaz, Aaron A; Qin, Han; Ramalho-Santos, Miguel; Song, Jun S

2014-11-26

246

TIMI grade 3 flow and reocclusion after intravenous thrombolytic therapy: a pooled analysis.  

PubMed

Early and sustained flow of grade 3 according to Thrombolysis in Myocardial infarction (TIMI) criteria and reocclusion rates are the key measures that define the physiologic efficacy of thrombolytic agents in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. We performed a systematic overview of angiographic studies after intravenous thrombolysis with accelerated and standard-dose tissue-plasminogen activator (TPA), anisoylated plasminogen streptokinase activator complex (APSAC), and streptokinase. There were 5475 angiographic observations from 15 studies for TIMI flow analysis and 3147 angiographic observations from 27 studies for reocclusion. At 60 and 90 minutes, the rates of TIMI grade 3 flow were 57.1% and 63.2%, respectively, with accelerated TPA, 39.5% and 50.2% with standard-dose TPA, 40.2% and 50.1% with APSAC, and 31.5% at 90 minutes with streptokinase. Overall reocclusion with standard-dose TPA was 11.8% versus 6.0% for accelerated TPA, 4.2% for streptokinase, and 3.0% for APSAC. Although the incidence of TIMI grade 3 flow increased over time with all thrombolytic regimens, decreased patency was observed at 180 minutes with accelerated TPA. Still, accelerated TPA is the most effective agent to establish early (90-minute) TIMI grade 3 flow. PMID:9060794

Barbagelata, N A; Granger, C B; Oqueli, E; Suárez, L D; Borruel, M; Topol, E J; Califf, R M

1997-03-01

247

Smokeless Tobacco and Oral Cancer in South Asia: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Smokeless tobacco is considered one of the major risk factors for oral cancer. It is estimated that over 90% of the global smokeless tobacco use burden is in South Asia. This paper aims to systematically review publications reporting epidemiological observational studies published in South Asia from 1984 till 2013. Methods. An electronic search in “Medline” and “ISI Web of Knowledge” yielded 734 publications out of which 21 were included in this review. All publications were assessed for quality using a standard quality assessment tool. Effect estimates (odds ratios (OR)) were abstracted or calculated from the given data. A random effects meta-analysis was performed to assess the risk of oral cancer with the use of different forms of smokeless tobacco. Results and Conclusion. The pooled OR for chewing tobacco and risk of oral cancer was 4.7 [3.1–7.1] and for paan with tobacco and risk of oral cancer was 7.1 [4.5–11.1]. The findings of this study suggest a strong causal link between oral cancer and various forms of smokeless tobacco. Public health policies in affected countries should consider SLT specific cessation programs in addition to campaigns and activities incorporated into smoking cessation programs. PMID:25097551

Khan, Zohaib; Tönnies, Justus; Müller, Steffen

2014-01-01

248

Thyroid cancer after exposure to external radiation: A pooled analysis of seven studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thyroid gland of children is especially vulnerable to the carcinogenic action of ionizing radiation. To provide insights into various modifying influences on risk, seven major studies with organ doses to individual subjects were evaluated. Five cohort studies (atomic bomb survivors, children treated for tinea capitis, two studies of children irradiated for enlarged tonsils, and infants irradiated for an enlarged

Elaine Ron; Jay H. Lubin; L. M. Pottern; M. A. Tucker; J. D. Jr. Boice; R. E. Shore; Kiyohiko Mabuchi; B. Modan; A. B. Schneider

1995-01-01

249

Clinicopathological and Prognostic Significance of CD24 Overexpression in Patients with Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective The prognostic significance of CD24 expression for survival in patients with gastric cancer remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the impact of CD24 expression on clinicopathological features and survival outcomes in gastric cancer. Methods A comprehensive literature search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI; up to April 8, 2014) was performed for relevant studies using multiple search strategies. Correlations between CD24 expression and clinicopathological features and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Results A total of 1,041 patients with gastric cancer from 9 studies were included. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) indicated CD24 expression was associated with tumor depth (OR?=?0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] ?=?0.32–0.63; P<0.00001), status of lymph nodes (OR?=?0.40, 95% CI?=?0.25–0.64; P?=?0.0001) and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage (OR?=?0.56, 95% CI?=?0.41–0.77; P?=?0.0003). The pooled hazard ratio (HR) for OS showed overexpression of CD24 reduced OS in gastric cancer (HR?=?1.99, 95% CI?=?1.29–3.07, P?=?0.002). Whereas, combined ORs showed that CD24 expression had no correlation with tumor differentiation or Lauren classifications. Conclusion CD24 overexpression in patients with gastric cancer indicated worse survival outcomes and was associated with common clinicopathological poor prognostic factors. PMID:25503963

An, Han-Xiang

2014-01-01

250

XRCC1 polymorphisms and cervical cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis.  

PubMed

X-ray repair cross complementing 1 (XRCC1) plays a key role in DNA repair, genetic instability and tumorigenesis. A series of epidemiological studies have examined associations between XRCC1 polymorphisms and cervical cancer risk, but the findings remain inconclusive. We searched three electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and CNKI) for studies on the association between XRCC1 polymorphisms and cervical cancer risk published before June 2013. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated to estimate risk associations. A total of 28 case-control studies from 15 publications with 5,890 cervical cancer cases and 7,626 controls were identified. There was a significant association between rs25487 and cervical cancer risk in Asian populations (Dominant model: OR = 1.25, 95 % CI =1.04-1.50, P = 0.051 for heterogeneity test). After excluding three studies deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, we observed a significant association of rs1799782 with cervical cancer risk in all populations and in Asian populations (Recessive model: OR = 1.62 and 1.72, 95 % CI = 1.22-2.14 and 1.29-2.30, P = 0.090 and 0.266 for heterogeneity test, respectively). However, there was no significant association between rs25489 and cervical cancer risk. These findings were further confirmed by false-positive report probability analysis. No publication bias was found by using the funnel plot and Egger's test. This meta-analysis provides strongly statistical evidence for the association between rs1799782 and cervical cancer risk, as well as its association with rs25487 only in Asian populations. However, single large, well-designed prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24057881

Mei, Jie; Duan, Hai-Xia; Wang, Ling-Ling; Yang, Sen; Lu, Jie-Qiang; Shi, Ting-Yan; Zhao, Yu

2014-02-01

251

Applications of Innovative Technologies for the Molecular Analysis of Cancer  

Cancer.gov

This program announcement provides support for a first phase for technology evaluation and a second phase for pilot application of the technology in a study of biological interest to cancer research. Studies might appropriately target analysis of precancerous, cancerous, or metastatic cells, or host derived samples, from model cancer systems, preclinical or clinical research, or from population based research.

252

High Throughput Analysis of Breast Cancer Specimens on the Grid  

E-print Network

as well as improved treatment [1]. Some of the common methods screening of breast cancer include) and hematoxylin are standard staining methods used for breast cancer. There has been increasing interestHigh Throughput Analysis of Breast Cancer Specimens on the Grid Lin Yang1,2 , Wenjin Chen2 , Peter

253

Cancer Nursing Education: Literature Review and Documentary Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The knowledge and skills needed by cancer nurses and the content and strategies of England's existing cancer nursing education programs were examined. The study included a comprehensive literature review and an analysis of course documents from selected English National Board-approved post-qualifying cancer nursing and palliative care courses…

Langton, Helen; Blunden, Gillian; Hek, Gill

254

An analysis and hypothesis generation platform for heterogeneous cancer  

E-print Network

An analysis and hypothesis generation platform for heterogeneous cancer databases. Philip Roy QUINLAN a,1, Alastair THOMPSON a and Chris REED b a Dundee Cancer Centre, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee b School of Computing, University of Dundee, Dundee Abstract. The field of cancer research

Reed, Chris

255

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms and skin cancer risk: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

We sought to determine whether the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) A1298C and C677T polymorphisms are associated with increased skin cancer risk. We performed literature searches of the PubMed, BIOSIS Previews, and Web of Science databases to identify eligible articles published through September 15, 2013. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fixed-effects or random-effects models. Publication bias and subgroup analyses were also performed. Eight articles, which consisted of 10,066 subjects (2,672 patients and 7,394 controls), were included in the meta-analysis. Homozygous MTHFR 1298C individuals were 1.29 times more likely to develop skin cancer (95% CI, 1.04-1.61) compared with A1298C allele (AA or AC) carriers. There was an increased risk for C allele homozygotes compared with the 1,298 AA+AC carriers (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.08-1.96) when restricted to basal cell carcinomas (BCC). The 1298C homozygote carriers increased the odds of BCC by 1.47 times (95% CI, 1.07-2.01) compared with those who were 1298A homozygote carriers. ORs for all genetic models yielded a null association. The data obtained from this meta-analysis suggest that the MTHFR 1298C allele is associated with increased skin cancer risk, particularly BCC; however, no association was observed between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and skin cancer. PMID:25306137

Deng, Feng; Gao, Ying; L V, Ju-Hong; Gao, Jian-Min

2014-01-01

256

Meta-analysis in the association between obesity and risk of thyroid cancer  

PubMed Central

Although many epidemiologic studies have investigated obesity and thyroid cancer risk, definite conclusions cannot be drawn. To clarify the effects of obesity on the risk of thyroid cancer, a meta-analysis was performed. Related studies were identified from PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biology Medicine (CBM) till 16 Aug 2014. Pooled RRs and 95% CIs were used to assess the strength of the associations. A total of 16 studies including 12616154 subjects were involved in this meta-analysis. A significantly elevated thyroid cancer risk was found in overall analysis (RR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.20-1.37, P < 0.00001). In the gender subgroup analyses, a statistically significant association was found in male patients (RR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.16-1.58, P = 0.0001) and in female patients (RR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.19-1.40, P < 0.00001). When we limited the meta-analysis to studies that controlled for age (RR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.24-1.44, P < 0.00001), smoke (RR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.22-1.52, P < 0.00001), alcohol use (RR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.15-1.71, P = 0.0009), and history of benign thyroid disease (RR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.24-1.83, P < 0.0001), a significant association between obesity and thyroid cancer risk remained. This meta-analysis provides the evidence that obesity may contribute to the thyroid cancer development. PMID:25664030

Zhang, Wei; Bai, Xiyong; Ge, Huai’e; Cui, Haibin; Wei, Zhijiang; Han, Guoda

2014-01-01

257

Association between matrix metalloproteinase 1 -1607 1G>2G polymorphism and cancer risk: a meta-analysis including 19706 subjects  

PubMed Central

The association between MMP1 -1607 1G>2G polymorphism and cancer risk has been reported, but results remained controversial and ambiguous. To assess the association between MMP1 -1607 1G>2G polymorphism and cancer risk, a meta-analysis was performed. Based on comprehensive searches of the PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, Excerpta Medica Database (Embase), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), we identified outcome data from all articles estimating the association between MMP1 -1607 1G>2G polymorphism and cancer risk. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Thirty-eight studies involving 10178 cases and 9528 controls were included. Overall, significant association between MMP1 -1607 1G>2G polymorphism and cancer susceptibility was observed for additive model (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.09-1.35), for codominant model (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.10-1.63), for dominant model (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.01-1.34), for recessive model (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.14-1.52). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, the significant association was found among Asians but not among Caucasians. In the subgroup analysis by site of cancer, significant associations were found among lung cancer, colorectal cancer, head and neck cancer and bladder cancer. This meta-analysis demonstrated that the MMP1 -1607 1G>2G polymorphism was significantly associated with cancer risk. PMID:25356173

Han, Guoda; Wei, Zhijiang; Lu, Zhiliang; Cui, Haibin; Bai, Xiyong; Ge, Huai’e; Zhang, Wei

2014-01-01

258

Cross-species analysis of mouse and human cancer genomes.  

PubMed

Fundamental advances in our understanding of the human cancer genome have been made over the last five years, driven largely by the development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. Here we will discuss the tools and technologies that have been used to profile human tumors, how they may be applied to the analysis of the mouse cancer genome, and the results thus far. In addition to mutations that disrupt cancer genes, NGS is also being applied to the analysis of the transcriptome of cancers, and, through the use of techniques such as ChIP-Seq, the protein-DNA landscape is also being revealed. Gaining a comprehensive picture of the mouse cancer genome, at the DNA level and through the analysis of the transcriptome and regulatory landscape, will allow us to "biofilter" for driver genes in more complex human cancers and represents a critical test to determine which mouse cancer models are faithful genetic surrogates of the human disease. PMID:24173316

Robles-Espinoza, Carla Daniela; Adams, David J

2014-04-01

259

MiR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism increases risk of gastric cancer: A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To systematically evaluate the association between the miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism and susceptibility to gastric cancer. METHODS: A comprehensive electronic search was conducted for articles published up until January 27, 2014 in Medline (PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database (Embase), the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar. Only case-control studies published in English that evaluated the association between the miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism and susceptibility to gastric cancer were included. Furthermore, only studies with sufficient data allowing for calculation of odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were included. These values were used in the quantitative synthesis to assess the strength of the association between the miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism and risk of gastric cancer. RESULTS: The database search identified 1002 eligible studies, of which seven (comprising 4112 cases and 5811 controls) were included for the meta-analysis. The results indicate that miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism is more likely to be associated with gastric cancer risk. In the overall analysis, a significantly increased cancer risk was found in the heterozygote (GG vs GC) comparison (OR = 1.14, 95%CI: 1.03-1.27; P = 0.01 for pooled OR). In the ethnicity subgroup analysis, a similar result was found among Caucasians (OR = 1.36, 95%CI: 1.01-1.85; P = 0.04 for pooled OR). In the stratified analysis by quality of studies, a significantly increased cancer risk was found in the heterozygote comparison among high quality studies (OR = 1.12, 95%CI: 1.01-1.26; P = 0.04 for pooled OR). When stratified on the basis of sample size, a significantly increased cancer risk was found among small sample size subgroups for the allelic (G vs C: OR = 1.16, 95%CI: 1.03-1.30; P = 0.01), homozygote (GG vs CC: OR = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.03-1.73; P = 0.03) and recessive model (GG vs GC + CC: OR = 0.05, 95%CI: 0.00-0.10; P = 0.03) comparisons. CONCLUSION: The miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism is associated with increased gastric cancer risk, particularly evident in high quality studies with small sample sized Caucasian populations. PMID:25386093

Xie, Wen-Qun; Tan, Shi-Yun; Wang, Xiao-Fan

2014-01-01

260

Effect of Metformin on Cancer Risk and Treatment Outcome of Prostate Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Observational Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Laboratory studies have shown the anti-tumor effect of metformin on prostate cancer. However, recent epidemiological studies have yielded inconclusive results. Methods We searched PubMed database from the inception to May 30 2014 for studies which assessed the effect of metformin use on cancer risk of prostate cancer, biochemical recurrence (BCR) and all-cause mortality of patients with prostate cancer. The pooled results and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by random-effect model. Results Twenty-one studies were eligible according to the inclusion criteria. Based on the pooled results of available observational studies, metformin use was significantly associated with a decreased cancer risk (14 datasets, 963991 male subjects, odds ratio: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.85–0.97) and BCR (6 datasets, 2953 patients, hazard ratio: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.68–0.98) of prostate cancer. However, the association of metformin use with all-cause mortality of patients with prostate cancer was not significant (5 datasets, 9241 patients, hazard ratio: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.64–1.14). Conclusion Results suggest that metformin use appears to be associated with a significant reduction in the cancer risk and BCR of prostate cancer, but not in all-cause mortality of patients with prostate cancer. PMID:25545701

Yu, Hongliang; Yin, Li; Jiang, Xuesong; Sun, Xiujin; Wu, Jing; Tian, Hao; Gao, Xianshu; He, Xia

2014-01-01

261

Herpes simplex virus type 2 or human herpesvirus 8 infection and prostate cancer risk: A meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed type of cancer and the sixth leading cause of cancer mortality among males worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the infection by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) or human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) and the risk of prostate cancer. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, CNKI and CBM. The association of HSV-2 or HHV-8 infection with the risk of prostate cancer was separately assessed. Estimates of the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled by the fixed- or random-effects model. A total of 11 articles with 2,996 cases and 3,875 controls were included in this meta-analysis. HSV-2 infection was associated with increased prostate cancer risk (OR=1.209; 95% CI, 1.003-1.456). Results of the stratified analysis suggested that such an association existed among participants from North and South America (OR=1.226; 95% CI, 1.000-1.503). No significant correlation was observed in the HHV-8 group (OR=1.106; 95% CI, 0.765-1.598). Further investigations and large-sample studies are required to elucidate the possible mechanism underlying viral carcinogenesis and the association between herpes virus infection and the risk of prostate cancer. PMID:24648964

Ge, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Xiao; Shen, Peng

2013-05-01

262

Prevalence of depression in cancer patients: a meta-analysis of diagnostic interviews and self-report instruments  

PubMed Central

Objective We aimed to investigate the prevalence of depression in cancer patients assessed by diagnostic interviews and self-report instruments, and to study differences in prevalence between type of instrument, type of cancer and treatment phase. Methods A literature search was conducted in four databases to select studies on the prevalence of depression among adult cancer patients during or after treatment. A total of 211 studies met the inclusion criteria. Pooled mean prevalence of depression was calculated using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. Results Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale—depression subscale (HADS-D)???8, HADS-D ?11, Center for Epidemiologic Studies???16, and (semi-)structured diagnostic interviews were used to define depression in 66, 53, 35 and 49 studies, respectively. Respective mean prevalence of depression was 17% (95% CI?=?16–19%), 8% (95% CI?=?7–9%), 24% (95% CI?=?21–26%), and 13% (95% CI?=?11–15%) (p?cancer to 31% in patients with cancer of the digestive tract, on the basis of diagnostic interviews. Prevalence of depression was highest during treatment 14% (95% CI?=?11–17%), measured by diagnostic interviews, and 27% (95% CI?=?25–30%), measured by self-report instruments. In the first year after diagnosis, prevalence of depression measured with diagnostic interviews and self-report instruments were 9% (95% CI?=?7–11%) and 21% (95% CI?=?19–24%), respectively, and they were 8% (95% CI?=?5–12%) and 15% (95% CI?=?13–17%)???1?year after diagnosis. Conclusions Pooled mean prevalence of depression in cancer patients ranged from 8% to 24% and differed by the type of instrument, type of cancer and treatment phase. Future prospective studies should disentangle whether differences in prevalence of depression are caused by differences in the type of instrument, type of cancer or treatment phase. PMID:24105788

Krebber, A M H; Buffart, L M; Kleijn, G; Riepma, I C; de Bree, R; Leemans, C R; Becker, A; Brug, J; van Straten, A; Cuijpers, P; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I M

2014-01-01

263

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Diagnostic and Prognostic Serum Biomarkers of Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Our systematic review summarizes the evidence concerning the accuracy of serum diagnostic and prognostic tests for colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods The databases MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched iteratively to identify the relevant literature for serum markers of CRC published from 1950 to August 2012. The articles that provided adequate information to meet the requirements of the meta-analysis of diagnostic and prognostic markers were included. A 2-by-2 table of each diagnostic marker and its hazard ratio (HR) and the confidence interval (CI) of each prognostic marker was directly or indirectly extracted from the included papers, and the pooled sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic marker and the pooled HR and the CI of the prognostic marker were subsequently calculated using the extracted data. Results In total, 104 papers related to the diagnostic markers and 49 papers related to the prognostic serum markers of CRC were collected, and only 19 of 92 diagnostic markers were investigated in more than two studies, whereas 21 out of 44 prognostic markers were included in two or more studies. All of the pooled sensitivities of the diagnostic markers with >?=?3 repetitions were less than 50%, and the meta-analyses of the prognostic markers with more than 3 studies were performed, VEGF with highest (2.245, CI: 1.347–3.744) and MMP-7 with lowest (1.099, CI: 1.018–1.187)) pooled HRs are presented. Conclusions The quality of studies addressing the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of the tests was poor, and the results were highly heterogeneous. The poor characteristics indicate that these tests are of little value for clinical practice. PMID:25105762

Liu, Zhongyu; Zhang, Yingchong; Niu, Yulong; Li, Ke; Liu, Xin; Chen, Huijuan; Gao, Chunfang

2014-01-01

264

Discontinuation of treatment of schizophrenic patients is driven by poor symptom response: a pooled post-hoc analysis of four atypical antipsychotic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Stopping antipsychotic treatment can interrupt improvement and exacerbate the illness. The reasons for discontinuing treatment during controlled clinical trials were analyzed to explore this phenomenon. METHODS: A post-hoc, pooled analysis was made of 4 randomized, double-blind clinical trials, 24–28 weeks in duration, involving 1627 patients with schizophrenia or a related disorder. Analyses combined all the atypical antipsychotic treatment groups

Hong Liu-Seifert; David H Adams; Bruce J Kinon

2005-01-01

265

Predictors of infarct size after primary coronary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction from pooled analysis from four contemporary trials.  

PubMed

Determinates of infarct size in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have been incompletely characterized, in part because of the limited sample size of previous studies. Databases therefore were pooled from 4 contemporary trials of primary or rescue PCI (EMERALD, COOL-MI, AMIHOT, and ICE-IT), in which the primary end point was infarct size assessed using technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomographic imaging, measured at the same core laboratory. Of 1,355 patients, infarct size was determined using technetium-99m sestamibi imaging in 1,199 patients (88.5%), at a mean time of 23 +/- 15 days. Median infarct size of the study population was 10% (interquartile range 0% to 23%; mean 14.9 +/- 16.1%). Using multiple linear regression analysis of 18 variables, left anterior descending infarct artery, baseline Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction grade 0/1 flow, male gender, and prolonged door-to-balloon time were powerful independent predictors of infarct size (all p <0.0001). Other independent correlates of infarct size were final Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction grade <3 flow (p = 0.0001), previous AMI (p = 0.005), symptom-onset-to-door time (p = 0.021), and rescue angioplasty (p = 0.026). In conclusion, anterior infarction, time to reperfusion, epicardial infarct artery patency before and after reperfusion, male gender, previous AMI, and failed thrombolytic therapy were important predictors of infarct size after angioplasty in patients with AMI assessed using technetium-99m sestamibi imaging and should be considered when planning future trials of investigational drugs or devices designed to enhance myocardial recovery. PMID:17950792

Stone, Gregg W; Dixon, Simon R; Grines, Cindy L; Cox, David A; Webb, John G; Brodie, Bruce R; Griffin, John J; Martin, Jack L; Fahy, Martin; Mehran, Roxana; Miller, Todd D; Gibbons, Raymond J; O'Neill, William W

2007-11-01

266

A Pooled Analysis of Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Multiple Myeloma in the International Multiple Myeloma Consortium  

PubMed Central

Background Recent findings suggest that alcohol consumption may reduce risk of multiple myeloma (MM). Methods To better understand this relationship, we conducted an analysis of six case-control studies participating in the International Multiple Myeloma Consortium (1,567 cases, 7,296 controls). Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) relating different measures of alcohol consumption and MM risk were computed by unconditional logistic regression with adjustment for age, race, and study center. Results Cases were significantly less likely than controls to report ever drinking alcohol (men: OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.59-0.89, women: OR 0.81, 0.68-0.95). The inverse association with MM was stronger when comparing current to never drinkers (men: OR=0.57, 95% CI 0.45-0.72, women: OR=0.55, 95% CI 0.45-0.68), but null among former drinkers. We did not observe an exposure-response relationship with increasing alcohol frequency, duration or cumulative lifetime consumption. Additional adjustment for body mass index, education, or smoking did not affect our results; and the patterns of association were similar for each type of alcohol beverage examined. Conclusions Our study is, to our knowledge, the largest of its kind to date, and our findings suggest that alcohol consumption may be associated with reduced risk of MM. Impact Prospective studies, especially those conducted as pooled analyses with large sample sizes, are needed to confirm our findings and further explore whether alcohol consumption provides true biologic protection against this rare, highly fatal malignancy. PMID:23964064

Andreotti, Gabriella; Birmann, Brenda; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Spinelli, John; Cozen, Wendy; Camp, Nicola J.; Moysich, Kirsten; Chiu, Brian; Steplowski, Emily; Krzystan, Joseph; Boffetta, Paolo; Benhaim-Luzon, Véronique; Brennan, Paul; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Costas, Laura; Seniori Costantini, Adele; Miligi, Lucia; Cocco, Pierluigi; Becker, Nikolaus; Foretová, Lenka; Maynadié, Marc; Nieters, Alexandra; Staines, Anthony; Tricot, Guido; Milliken, Kevin; Weisenburger, Dennis; Zheng, Tongzhang; Baris, Dalsu; Purdue, Mark P.

2013-01-01

267

Incidence of adverse events with telmisartan compared with ACE inhibitors: evidence from a pooled analysis of clinical trials.  

PubMed

Telmisartan is indicated for the prevention of cardiovascular events in high-risk patients, based on comparable efficacy to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, ramipril, in the ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET(®)) trial. However, tolerability must be considered when selecting treatments. This analysis compared the tolerability of telmisartan and ACE inhibitors using data pooled from 12 comparative, randomized studies involving 2564 telmisartan-treated patients and 2144 receiving ACE inhibitors (enalapril, lisinopril, or ramipril). Incidence rates of adverse events for the combined ACE inhibitor treatments and for telmisartan were similar (42.8% vs 43.9%, respectively) as were the rates of serious adverse events (1.8% vs 1.7% for telmisartan, respectively). Patients receiving ACE inhibitors had more cough (8.6% vs 2.6% with telmisartan, P < 0.0001). Results were similar irrespective of age, gender, or ethnicity. The adverse event of angioedema was observed in four patients (0.2%) receiving ACE inhibitors versus none with telmisartan (P = 0.043). There were small, numerical differences in serious adverse events. A total of 107 patients (5.0%) receiving ACE inhibitors and 93 patients (3.6%) receiving telmisartan discontinued treatment because of adverse events (P = 0.021); of these, 32.7% and 5.4%, respectively, were discontinuations due to cough (relative risk reduction of 88% [P < 0.0001] with telmisartan). Telmisartan and ACE inhibitors produced comparable blood pressure reductions at marketed doses. Telmisartan and ACE inhibitors are suitable for the prevention of cardiovascular events in high-risk patients, but telmisartan is better tolerated, particularly with regard to cough. PMID:22272064

Mancia, Giuseppe; Schumacher, Helmut

2012-01-01

268

Development of an Instrument to Measure Behavioral Health Function for Work Disability: Item Pool Construction and Factor Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To develop a broad set of claimant-reported items to assess behavioral health functioning relevant to the Social Security disability determination processes, and to evaluate the underlying structure of behavioral health functioning for use in development of a new functional assessment instrument. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Community. Participants Item pools of behavioral health functioning were developed, refined, and field-tested in a sample of persons applying for Social Security disability benefits (N=1015) who reported difficulties working due to mental or both mental and physical conditions. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measure Social Security Administration Behavioral Health (SSA-BH) measurement instrument Results Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) specified that a 4-factor model (self-efficacy, mood and emotions, behavioral control, and social interactions) had the optimal fit with the data and was also consistent with our hypothesized conceptual framework for characterizing behavioral health functioning. When the items within each of the four scales were tested in CFA, the fit statistics indicated adequate support for characterizing behavioral health as a unidimensional construct along these four distinct scales of function. Conclusion This work represents a significant advance both conceptually and psychometrically in assessment methodologies for work related behavioral health. The measurement of behavioral health functioning relevant to the context of work requires the assessment of multiple dimensions of behavioral health functioning. Specifically, we identified a 4-factor model solution that represented key domains of work related behavioral health functioning. These results guided the development and scale formation of a new SSA-BH instrument. PMID:23548542

Marfeo, Elizabeth E.; Ni, Pengsheng; Haley, Stephen M.; Jette, Alan M.; Bogusz, Kara; Meterko, Mark; McDonough, Christine M.; Chan, Leighton; Brandt, Diane E.; Rasch, Elizabeth K.

2014-01-01

269

Personal history of diabetes, genetic susceptibility to diabetes, and risk of brain glioma: a pooled analysis of observational studies  

PubMed Central

Background Brain glioma is a relatively rare and fatal malignancy in adulthood with few known risk factors. Some observational studies have reported inverse associations between diabetes and subsequent glioma risk, but possible mechanisms are unclear. Methods We conducted a pooled analysis of original data from five nested case-control studies and two case-control studies from the U.S. and China that included 962 glioma cases and 2,195 controls. We examined self-reported diabetes history in relation to glioma risk, as well as effect modification by seven glioma risk-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We also examined the associations between 13 diabetes risk-associated SNPs, identified from genome-wide association studies, and glioma risk. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models. Results We observed a 42% reduced risk of glioma for individuals with a history of diabetes (OR=0.58, 95% CI: 0.40–0.84). The association did not differ by sex, study design, or after restricting to glioblastoma, the most common histological sub-type. We did not observe any significant per-allele trends among the 13 diabetes-related SNPs examined in relation to glioma risk. Conclusion These results support an inverse association between diabetes history and glioma risk. The role of genetic susceptibility to diabetes cannot be excluded, and should be pursued in future studies together with other factors that might be responsible for the diabetes-glioma association. Impact These data suggest the need for studies that can evaluate, separately, the association between type 1 and type 2 diabetes and subsequent risk of adult glioma. PMID:24220915

Kitahara, Cari M.; Linet, Martha S.; Brenner, Alina V.; Wang, Sophia S.; Melin, Beatrice S.; Wang, Zhaoming; Inskip, Peter D.; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Braganza, Melissa Z.; Carreón, Tania; Feychting, Maria; Gaziano, J. Michael; Peters, Ulrike; Purdue, Mark P.; Ruder, Avima M.; Sesso, Howard D.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Waters, Martha A.; White, Emily; Zheng, Wei; Hoover, Robert N.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hartge, Patricia; Rajaraman, Preetha

2013-01-01

270

Role of protective stoma in low anterior resection for rectal cancer: A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To provide a comprehensive evaluation of the role of a protective stoma in low anterior resection (LAR) for rectal cancer. METHODS: The PubMed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases were searched for studies and relevant literature published between 2007 and 2014 regarding the construction of a protective stoma during LAR. A pooled risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was used to assess the outcomes of the studies, including the rate of postoperative anastomotic leakage and reoperations related to leakage. Funnel plots and Egger’s tests were used to evaluate the publication biases of the studies. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 11 studies were included in the meta-analysis. In total, 5612 patients were examined, 2868 of whom had a protective stoma and 2744 of whom did not. The sample size of the studies varied from 34 to 1912 patients. All studies reported the number of patients who developed an anastomotic leakage and required a reoperation related to leakage. A random effects model was used to calculate the pooled RR with the corresponding 95%CI because obvious heterogeneity was observed among the 11 studies (I2 = 77%). The results indicated that the creation of a protective stoma during LAR significantly reduces the rate of anastomotic leakage and the number of reoperations related to leakage, with pooled RRs of 0.38 (95%CI: 0.30-0.48, P < 0.00001) and 0.37 (95%CI: 0.29-0.48, P < 0.00001), respectively. The shape of the funnel plot did not reveal any evidence of obvious asymmetry. CONCLUSION: The presence of a protective stoma effectively decreased the incidences of anastomotic leakage and reoperation and is recommended in patients undergoing low rectal anterior resections for rectal cancer.

Wu, Sheng-Wen; Ma, Cong-Chao; Yang, Yu

2014-01-01

271

Meta-analysis and Network Analysis of Five Ovarian Cancer Gene Expression Dataset  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of death from cancer in women and the leading cause of death from gynecological cancer. Here we present a meta-analysis of five gene expression data sets of 432 ovarian cancer and 42 adjacent normal samples in total. We indentified 3 genes: NDN, RNASE4, IGFBP4 were significantly differentially expressed in both five data sets.

Hua Dong; Shengjun Hong; Xiaomin Xu; Yanghua Xiao; Li Jin; Momiao Xiong

2010-01-01

272

Analysis of trihalomethanes in water and air from indoor swimming pools using HS-SPME/GC/ECD.  

PubMed

Headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with further quantification by gas chromatography and electron capture detector (GC/ECD) was used to analyze trihalomethanes (THMs) in water and air from indoor swimming pools (ISPs). High correlation coefficients were obtained for the calibration lines in water with detection limits of 0.2 ?g/L for trichloromethane (TCM) and bromodichloromethane (BDCM), 0.1 ?g/L for dibromochloromethane (DBCM) and 0.5 ?g/L for tribromomethane (TBM). Coefficients of variation values were 5-10% for repeatability and 15-25% for reproducibility. In air analysis, high correlation coefficients were also obtained for the calibration lines with detection limits of 2.5 ?g/m(3) for TCM and BDCM and 1.25 ?g/m(3) for DBCM and TBM. Repeatability and reproducibility coefficients of variation were the same as in water analysis. Analytical results from a survey in four Portuguese ISPs showed that the mean concentration of total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) in water ranged from 22±2 to 577±58 ?g/L. In the lack of European specific regulation for THMs in water from ISPs and taking into consideration that ingestion is a form of exposure, TTHMs' values were compared with European drinking water maximum contamination level (100 ?g/L, Directive 98/83/CE). From the reported TTHMs mean concentration values in ISPs' water, 40% exceeded that value. TTHMs values determined in the air (T = 30°C) ranged from 98±10 to 1225±123 ?g/m(3) and from 51±5 ?g/m(3)to 519±52 ?g/m(3)at 5 and 150 cm above the water surface, respectively. As expected, swimmers are more exposed to high concentrations of THMs than lifeguards. As there is no European specific regulation for THMs in ISPs' air, the highest TCM values were compared with maximum values reported in the literature for ISPs (1630 ?g/m(3)) and with the inhalation exposure limit (10,000 ?g/m(3)) established for TCM by European occupational legislation (Directive 2000/39/CE). PMID:21337249

Sá, Christopher S A; Boaventura, Rui A R; Pereira, Isabel B

2011-01-01

273

¹H NMR metabolomics analysis of the effect of dichloroacetate and allopurinol on breast cancers.  

PubMed

Metabolomics analysis was used to determine the effect of two well known, non-proprietary metabolic modulators, dichloroacetate and allopurinol on breast cancer cell lines. Dichloroacetate, a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibitor and allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase/dehydrogenase inhibitor, have been previously explored as chemotherapeutics showing potential in some cancer subtypes while at the same time leading to unexpected increase in proliferation in others. In this work, metabolic effects of these drugs, applied singly and in combination, were explored in three different breast cell lines including cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 and normal control cell line, MCF-10A. The metabolic changes induced by these drugs were monitored by (1)H NMR metabolic profiling. Analyses were performed on complete spectral data as well as quantified metabolic data in intracellular fractions and extracellular media leading to the determination of the most significantly affected metabolites. The effect of dichloroacetate and allopurinol is the most apparent in the metabolic profile of extracellular media. In MCF-7 cells, dichloroacetate treatment is dominant with only a minor observed influence of allopurinol in combined treatment. In MDA-MB-231 cells, both allopurinol and DCA lead to a metabolic shift with the allopurinol change dominating the effect of combined treatment. Results show the power of metabolomics as a tool for fast molecular profiling of drug effects in cells. In summary, treatments of breast cancer cells with DCA and allopurinol result in larger changes in metabolites found in extracellular medium than intracellular pools. PMID:24074721

Lefort, Natalie; Brown, Amy; Lloyd, Vett; Ouellette, Rodney; Touaibia, Mohamed; Culf, Adrian S; Cuperlovic-Culf, Miroslava

2014-05-01

274

AN ASSESSMENT OF CARBON POOLS, STORAGE, AND WOOD PRODUCTS MARKET SUBSTITUTION USING LIFE-CYCLE ANALYSIS RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study utilized the results from a life-cycle assessment (LCA) of housing construction to analyze forest products' role in energy displacement and carbon cycling. It analyzed the behavior of three carbon pools associated with forest products: the forest, forest products, and fossil fuel displaced by forest products in end-use markets. The LCA provided data that allowed us to create an

John Perez-Garcia; Bruce Lippke; Jeffrey Comnick; Carolina Manriquez

2006-01-01

275

Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the M5-50: An Implementation of the International Personality Item Pool Item Set  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Goldberg's International Personality Item Pool (IPIP; Goldberg, 1999) provides researchers with public-domain, free-access personality measurement scales that are proxies of well-established published scales. One of the more commonly used IPIP sets employs 50 items to measure the 5 broad domains of the 5-factor model, with 10 items per factor. The…

Socha, Alan; Cooper, Christopher A.; McCord, David M.

2010-01-01

276

Analysis of Pools of Targeted Salmonella Deletion Mutants Identifies Novel Genes Affecting Fitness during Competitive Infection in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pools of mutants of minimal complexity but maximal coverage of genes of interest facilitate screening for genes under selection in a particular environment. We constructed individual deletion mutants in 1,023 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium genes, including almost all genes found in Salmonella but not in related genera. All mutations were confirmed simultaneously using a novel amplification strategy to produce labeled

Carlos A. Santiviago; M. Megan Reynolds; Steffen Porwollik; Sang-Ho Choi; Fred Long; Helene L. Andrews-Polymenis; Michael McClelland

2009-01-01

277

Fish Intake and Ovarian Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of 15 Case-Control and Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Previous epidemiological studies have shown that fish consumption may modify the risk of ovarian cancer. However, these studies yielded controversial results. The present meta-analysis was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between fish intake and ovarian cancer risk. Methods A literature search was carried out using Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library Central database for all relevant studies up to August 2013. We pooled the relative risks (RR) from individual studies using fixed-effect or random-effect model, and carried out heterogeneity and publication bias analyses. Results A total of 15 (ten case–control, and five cohort) studies were included in the present meta-analysis, representing data for 889,033 female subjects and 6,087 ovarian cancer cases. We found that total fish intake was not significantly associated with the risk of ovarian cancer among cohort studies (RR?=?1.04 95% CI [0.89, 1.22]) as well as case–control studies (RR?=?0.90, 95% CI [0.73,1.12]). There was no evidence of publication bias as suggested by Begg's test (P?=?0.55) and Egger's test(P?=?0.29). Conclusions The present meta-analysis showed that total fish consumption was not significantly associated with the risk of ovarian cancer. Further analysis on different fish species and food preparation methods should be conducted in future studies. PMID:24732053

Jiang, Pei-yue; Jiang, Zhong-bo; Shen, Ke-xin; Yue, Ying

2014-01-01

278

The Cancer Genome Atlas Pan-Cancer analysis project  

E-print Network

The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network has profiled and analyzed large numbers of human tumors to discover molecular aberrations at the DNA, RNA, protein and epigenetic levels. The resulting rich data provide a ...

Lander, Eric S.

279

Association of the vascular endothelial growth factor -2578C/A polymorphism with cancer risk: A meta-analysis update  

PubMed Central

The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) -2578C/A polymorphism has been previously reported to be associated with cancer risk; however, the results have been controversial. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore the association between the VEGF -2578C/A polymorphism with the cancer risk. A total of 37 case-control studies were identified. The pooled analysis showed that there was no association between VEGF -2578C/A and the risk of cancer, and the odds ratios (ORs) [with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs)] were 0.97 (0.91–1.04) for C vs. A, 0.94 (0.86–1.02) for CC vs. AA, 0.92 (0.80–1.06) for CA vs. AA, 0.96 (0.89–1.03) for CC/CA vs. AA and 0.97 (0.88–1.08) for CC vs. CA/AA. Subgroup analyses according to ethnicity, source of control and type of cancer showed that the VEGF -2578C/A polymorphism is associated with colorectal and lung cancers. Additionally, the polymorphism may decrease the risk of cancer in the Asian population. This VEGF polymorphism was not associated with a risk of cancer for the Caucasian [0.92 (0.76–1.11) for CC vs. AA] and African populations [1.31 (0.67–2.58) for CC vs. AA], and it was not associated with bladder [1.06 (0.74–1.53) for CC/AA] and breast cancers [1.01 (0.90–1.15) for CC/AA]. Therefore, the present meta-analysis indicates that VEGF -2578C/A may only be associated with the risk of colorectal cancer, lung cancer and the Asian population. More studies with larger sample sizes are required to provide more conclusive evidence. PMID:25279153

CHEN, QUANCHI; ZHOU, ZIFEI; SHAN, LIANGCHENG; HUA, YINGQI; ZENG, HUI; LIU, PENGCHENG; CAI, ZHENGDONG

2014-01-01

280

Association between NFKB1 ?94ins/del ATTG Promoter Polymorphism and Cancer Susceptibility: An Updated Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Nuclear factor-?B is associated with the pathogenesis of numerous malignancies, and the functional polymorphism ?94ins/del ATTG (rs28362491) in the human NFKB1 gene is associated with cancer risk. Previous studies on the association between the ?94ins/del ATTG polymorphism and cancer risk reported conflicting results. To clarify this relationship, we performed a meta-analysis of 21 case-control studies involving 6127 cases and 9238 controls. We used pooled odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) to assess the association. We found that the NFKB1 promoter ?94ins/del ATTG polymorphism was significantly associated with cancer risk in four genetic models (ins/ins versus del/del, OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.11–1.93; dominant model, OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.03–1.53; recessive model, OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.05–1.51; ins allele versus del allele, OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.05–1.35). Stratified analyses revealed a significant association between the polymorphism and ovarian, oral, and prostate cancers. Similar results were determined in an Asian population and not in a Caucasian population. Thus, our results suggested that the polymorphism can contribute to cancer risk. Moreover, the polymorphism can exert race- and cancer-specific effects on cancer risk. Further large-scale and functional studies are necessary to elucidate this possible effect. PMID:24895544

Tao, Jun; Cao, Qiang; Gu, Jinbao; Deng, Xiaheng; Wang, Jun; Liu, Xuzhong; Wang, Zijie; Wu, Bian; Lu, Qiang; Yin, Changjun

2014-01-01

281

Polymorphism of DNA methyltransferase 3B -149C/T and cancer risk: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Published data on the association between DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 3B -149C/T polymorphism and cancer risk remain inconclusive. To derive a more precise estimation for this association, we performed a meta-analysis of 5,903 cancer cases and 8,132 controls from 22 published case-control studies. We used odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the strength of the association. Our meta-analysis suggested that DNMT3B -149C/T polymorphism was associated with the risk of head and neck cancer under heterozygote comparison (OR 0.73, 95 % CI 0.59-0.90) and dominant model (OR 1.75, 95 % CI 0.62-0.92), although no evidence of association between DNMT3B -149C/T polymorphism and cancer risk was observed as we compared in the pooled analyses (homozygote comparison: OR 0.96, 95 % CI 0.86-1.09; heterozygote comparison: OR 1.07, 95 % CI 0.86-0.32; dominant model: OR 1.03, 95 % CI 0.85-1.25; recessive model: OR 0.93, 95 % CI 0.8-1.08). More studies are needed to detect DNMT3B -149C/T polymorphism and its association with cancer in different ethnic populations incorporated with environment exposures in the susceptibility of different kinds of cancer. PMID:25433949

Zhu, Jing; Du, Songtao; Zhang, Jiaqi; Wang, Yingnan; Wu, Qiaoling; Ni, Jixiang

2015-01-01

282

The therapy of amblyopia: an analysis of the results of amblyopia therapy utilizing the pooled data of published studies.  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT: Although the treatment of amblyopia with occlusion has changed little over the past 3 centuries, there is little agreement about which regimes are most effective and for what reasons. OBJECTIVE: To determine the outcome of occlusion therapy in patients with anisometropic, strabismic, and strabismic-anisometropic amblyopia employing the raw data from 961 patients reported in 23 studies published between 1965 and 1994. DESIGN: Analysis of the published literature on amblyopia therapy results during the above interval, utilizing primary data obtained from the authors of these articles or tables published in the articles detailing individual patient outcomes. PARTICIPANTS: 961 amblyopic patients, participants in 23 studies, undergoing patching therapy for amblyopia from 1965 to 1994 with anisometropia, strabismus, or anisometropia-strabismus. MAIN OUTCOMES: In the pooled data set, success of occlusion therapy was defined as visual acuity of 20/40 at the end of treatment. RESULTS: Success by the 20/40 criteria was achieved in 512 of 689 (74.3%) patients. By category, 312 of 402 (77.6%) were successful in strabismic amblyopia, 44 of 75 (58.7%) in strabismic-anisometropic amblyopia, and 72 of 108 (66.7%) in anisometropic amblyopia. Success was not related to the duration of occlusion therapy, type of occlusion used, accompanying refractive error, patient's sex, or eye. Univariate analyses showed that success was related to the age at which therapy was initiated; the type of amblyopia; the depth of visual loss before treatment for the anisometropic patients and the strabismic patients, but not for the anisometropic-strabismic patients; and the difference in spherical equivalents between eyes, for the anisometropic patients. Logistic/linear regression revealed that 3 were independent predictors of a successful outcome of amblyopia therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Factors that appear most closely related to a successful outcome are age, type of amblyopia, and depth of visual loss before treatment. These may be related to factors, as yet undetermined in the pathogenesis of amblyopia. With present emphasis on the value of screening and prevention and the development of new screening tools, such a look at the results of amblyopia therapy in a large population seems indicated. Images FIGURE 4 PMID:10360300

Flynn, J T; Schiffman, J; Feuer, W; Corona, A

1998-01-01

283

The Effect of Dosing Regimens on the Antimalarial Efficacy of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine: A Pooled Analysis of Individual Patient Data  

PubMed Central

Background Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) is increasingly recommended for antimalarial treatment in many endemic countries; however, concerns have been raised over its potential under dosing in young children. We investigated the influence of different dosing schedules on DP's clinical efficacy. Methods and Findings A systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify all studies published between 1960 and February 2013, in which patients were enrolled and treated with DP. Principal investigators were approached and invited to share individual patient data with the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN). Data were pooled using a standardised methodology. Univariable and multivariable risk factors for parasite recrudescence were identified using a Cox's regression model with shared frailty across the study sites. Twenty-four published and two unpublished studies (n?=?7,072 patients) were included in the analysis. After correcting for reinfection by parasite genotyping, Kaplan–Meier survival estimates were 97.7% (95% CI 97.3%–98.1%) at day 42 and 97.2% (95% CI 96.7%–97.7%) at day 63. Overall 28.6% (979/3,429) of children aged 1 to 5 years received a total dose of piperaquine below 48 mg/kg (the lower limit recommended by WHO); this risk was 2.3–2.9-fold greater compared to that in the other age groups and was associated with reduced efficacy at day 63 (94.4% [95% CI 92.6%–96.2%], p<0.001). After adjusting for confounding factors, the mg/kg dose of piperaquine was found to be a significant predictor for recrudescence, the risk increasing by 13% (95% CI 5.0%–21%) for every 5 mg/kg decrease in dose; p?=?0.002. In a multivariable model increasing the target minimum total dose of piperaquine in children aged 1 to 5 years old from 48 mg/kg to 59 mg/kg would halve the risk of treatment failure and cure at least 95% of patients; such an increment was not associated with gastrointestinal toxicity in the ten studies in which this could be assessed. Conclusions DP demonstrates excellent efficacy in a wide range of transmission settings; however, treatment failure is associated with a lower dose of piperaquine, particularly in young children, suggesting potential for further dose optimisation. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24311989

2013-01-01

284

Human Lung Cancer Risks from Radon – Part III - Evidence of Influence of Combined Bystander and Adaptive Response Effects on Radon Case-Control Studies - A Microdose Analysis  

PubMed Central

Since the publication of the BEIR VI (1999) report on health risks from radon, a significant amount of new data has been published showing various mechanisms that may affect the ultimate assessment of radon as a carcinogen, in particular the potentially deleterious Bystander Effect (BE) and the potentially beneficial Adaptive Response radio-protection (AR). The case-control radon lung cancer risk data of the pooled 13 European countries radon study (Darby et al 2005, 2006) and the 8 North American pooled study (Krewski et al 2005, 2006) have been evaluated. The large variation in the odds ratios of lung cancer from radon risk is reconciled, based on the large variation in geological and ecological conditions and variation in the degree of adaptive response radio-protection against the bystander effect induced lung damage. The analysis clearly shows Bystander Effect radon lung cancer induction and Adaptive Response reduction in lung cancer in some geographical regions. It is estimated that for radon levels up to about 400 Bq m?3 there is about a 30% probability that no human lung cancer risk from radon will be experienced and a 20% probability that the risk is below the zero-radon, endogenic spontaneous or perhaps even genetically inheritable lung cancer risk rate. The BEIR VI (1999) and EPA (2003) estimates of human lung cancer deaths from radon are most likely significantly excessive. The assumption of linearity of risk, by the Linear No-Threshold Model, with increasing radon exposure is invalid. PMID:22942874

Leonard, Bobby E.; Thompson, Richard E.; Beecher, Georgia C.

2012-01-01

285

Meta-analysis of oncological outcome after abdominoperineal resection or low anterior resection for lower rectal cancer.  

PubMed

In lower rectal cancer, postoperative outcome is still subject of controversy between the advocates of abdominoperineal resection (APR) and low anterior resection (LAR). Reports suggest that low anterior resection may be oncologically superior to abdominoperineal excision, although no good evidence exists to support this. Publications were identified which assessed the differences comparing 5-year survival, local recurrence, circumferential resection margin rate, complications and so on. A meta-analysis was performed to clarify the safety and feasibility of the two procedures with several types of outcome measures. A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria, and comprised 6,850 cases. Analysis of these data showed that LAR group was highly correlated with 5-year survival (pooled OR?=?1.73, 95%CI: 1.30-2.29, P?=?0.0002 random-effect). And local recurrence rate of APR group was significantly higher than that in LAR group (pooled OR?=?0.63, 95%CI: 0.53-0.75, P?pooled OR?=?0.43, 95%CI: 0.36-0.52, P?pooled OR?=?0.52, 95%CI: 0.29-0.92, P?=?0.03 random-effect). Patients treated by APR have a higher rate of CRM involvement, a higher local recurrence, and poorer prognosis than LAR. And there is evidence that in selected low rectal cancer patients, LAR can be used safely with a better oncological outcome than APR. due to the inherent limitations of the present study, for example, the trails available for this systematic review are limited and the finite retrospective data, future prospective randomized controlled trials will be useful to fully investigate these outcome measures and to confirm this conclusion. PMID:25430561

Wang, Xiao-Tong; Li, De-Gang; Li, Lei; Kong, Fan-Biao; Pang, Li-Ming; Mai, Wei

2015-01-01

286

Accuracy of transbronchial needle aspiration for mediastinal staging of non-small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: The reported accuracy of transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) for mediastinal staging in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) varies widely. We performed a meta-analysis to estimate the accuracy of TBNA for mediastinal staging in NSCLC. Methods: Medline, Embase, and the bibliographies of retrieved articles were searched for studies evaluating TBNA accuracy with no language restriction. Meta-analytical methods were used to construct summary receiver-operating characteristic curves and to pool sensitivity and specificity. Results: Thirteen studies met inclusion criteria, including six studies that surgically confirmed all TBNA results and enrolled at least 10 patients with and without mediastinal metastasis (tier 1). Methodological quality varied but did not affect diagnostic accuracy. In tier 1 studies the median prevalence of mediastinal metastasis was 34%. Using a random effects model, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 39% (95% CI 17 to 61) and 99% (95% CI 96 to 100), respectively. Compared with tier 1 studies, the median prevalence of mediastinal metastasis (81%; p = 0.002) and pooled sensitivity (78%; 95% CI 71 to 84; p = 0.009) were higher in non-tier 1 studies. Sensitivity analysis confirmed that the sensitivity of TBNA depends critically on the prevalence of mediastinal metastasis. The pooled major complication rate was 0.3% (95% CI 0.01 to 4). Conclusions: When properly performed, TBNA is highly specific for identifying mediastinal metastasis in patients with NSCLC, but sensitivity depends critically on the study methods and patient population. In populations with a lower prevalence of mediastinal metastasis, the sensitivity of TBNA is much lower than reported in recent lung cancer guidelines. PMID:15994251

Holty, J; Kuschner, W; Gould, M

2005-01-01

287

Meat Consumption and Risk of Oral Cavity and Oropharynx Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies  

PubMed Central

Purpose High meat consumption, especially red and processed meat consumption is associated with an increased risk of several cancers, however, evidence for oral cavity and oropharynx cancer is limited. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to determine the association between intakes of total meat, processed meat, red meat, and white meat, and the risk of oral cavity and oropharynx cancer. Methods Electronic search of Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library Central database was conducted to select relevant studies. Fixed-effect and random-effect models were used to estimate summary relative risks (RR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Potential sources of heterogeneity were detected by meta-regression. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analysis were also performed. Results 12 case–control studies and one cohort study were included in the analyses, including 501,730 subjects and 4,104 oral cavity and oropharynx cancer cases. Pooled results indicated that high consumption of total meat, red meat, and white meat were not significantly associated with increased risk of oral cavity and oropharynx cancer (RR?=?1.14, 95% CI[0.78–1.68]; RR?=?1.05, 95% CI[0.66, 1.66] and RR?=?0.81, 95% CI[0.54, 1.22], respectively), while the high consumption of processed meat was significantly associated with a 91% increased risk of oral cavity and oropharynx cancer (RR?=?1.91, 95% CI [1.19–3.06]). Sensitivity analysis indicated that no significant variation in combined RR by excluding any of the study, confirming the stability of present results. Conclusions The present meta-analysis suggested that high consumption of processed meat was significantly associated with an increased risk of oral cavity and oropharynx cancer, while there was no significantly association between total meat, red meat or white meat and the risk of oral cavity and oropharynx cancer. More prospective cohort studies are warranted to confirm these associations. PMID:24736706

Li, Xiao-yu; Bai, Bo

2014-01-01

288

Occupation and cancer of the larynx: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between occupational exposure, defined by occupational categories and job title, and laryngeal cancer. A systematic review and meta-analysis of 21 tobacco and alcohol-adjusted case-control studies including data from 6,906 exposed cases and 10,816 exposed controls was performed to investigate the frequency of laryngeal cancer in different occupations. Job classifications were harmonized using the International Standard Classification of Occupations. Pooled odds ratios (OR [95 % confidence intervals (CI)]) were calculated for the different occupational groups. A significantly increased risk of laryngeal cancer was observed for the occupational category of 'production-related workers, transport equipment operators, and laborers' (OR=1.3 [1.2-1.4]); particularly at risk were occupations as: miners (OR=1.6 [1.2-2.1]), tailors (OR=1.7 [1.2-2.3]), blacksmith and toolmakers (OR=1.5 [1.2-1.7]), painters (OR=1.4 [1.1-1.9]), bricklayers and carpenters (OR=1.3 [1.2-1.5]), and transport equipment operators (OR=1.3 [1.2-1.5]). Individuals working as 'professional, technical, and related workers' (OR=0.7 [0.6- 0.8]), 'administrative and managerial workers' (OR=0.6 [0.4-0.7]), or 'clerical and related workers' (OR=0.8 [0.7-0.9]) had laryngeal cancer less frequently. Occupational exposure, defined by occupational categories and job title, is likely to be an independent risk factor for laryngeal cancer. Further research on specific occupations with increased risk of laryngeal cancer is warranted to explore the underlying mechanisms. PMID:25311307

Bayer, O; Cámara, R; Zeissig, S R; Ressing, M; Dietz, A; Locati, L D; Ramroth, H; Singer, S

2014-10-14

289

Meta-analysis: does garlic intake reduce risk of gastric cancer?  

PubMed

In the past 2 decades, various epidemiological studies investigated whether garlic can positively modify the risk of gastric cancer. Garlic contains numerous sulfide compounds, including diallyl trisulfide, which have anticarcinogenic properties. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine if garlic intake reduces the risk of gastric cancer. An electronic search of MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE to June 2014 was completed. There were 14 case control studies, 2 randomized controlled studies, and 1 cohort study that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. We used a random effects model to calculate pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of gastric cancer with garlic consumption. Meta-analysis of a total of 8,621 cases and 14,889 controls was conducted. Significant variability in duration of garlic intake and reference categories for amount of intake was noted. High, low, and any garlic intake were all associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer. High intake had the most significant risk reduction, OR = 0.49 (95% CI: 0.38-0.62). Heterogeneity was low (I(2) = 30.85, P = 0.17). A more modest risk reduction was associated with low intake, OR = 0.75 (95% CI: 0.58-0.97). Half of the studies did not separate garlic intake into high or low amounts, intake was only noted as consumption vs. non-consumption. Any amount of consumption still showed a risk reduction similar to low intake, OR = 0.77 (95% CI: 0.60-1.00). Low and any amount of consumption showed moderate heterogeneity (58% and 45%, respectively). Garlic intake appears to be associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer. Further high quality studies are required to confirm this finding and to assess the amount of garlic that needs to be consumed for protective effect. PMID:25411831

Kodali, R T; Eslick, Guy D

2015-01-01

290

Who Benefits From Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Gastric Cancer? A Meta-Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Large randomized trials have demonstrated significant survival benefits with the use of adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation therapy for gastric cancer. The importance of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) remains unclear. We performed an up-to-date meta-analysis of randomized trials testing the use of RT for resectable gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized trials testing adjuvant (including neoadjuvant) RT for resectable gastric cancer. Hazard ratios describing the impact of adjuvant RT on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were extracted directly from the original studies or calculated from survival curves. Pooled estimates were obtained using the inverse variance method. Subgroup analyses were performed to determine whether the efficacy of RT varies with chemotherapy use, RT timing, geographic region, type of nodal dissection performed, or lymph node status. Results: Thirteen studies met all inclusion criteria and were used for this analysis. Adjuvant RT was associated with a significant improvement in both OS (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.70-0.86, P<.001) and DFS (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.63-0.80, P<.001). In the 5 studies that tested adjuvant chemoradiation therapy against adjuvant chemotherapy, similar effects were seen for OS (HR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.67-1.03, P=.087) and DFS (HR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.91-0.65, P=.002). Available data did not reveal any subgroup of patients that does not benefit from adjuvant RT. Conclusion: In randomized trials for resectable gastric cancer, adjuvant RT provides an approximately 20% improvement in both DFS and OS. Available data do not reveal a subgroup of patients that does not benefit from adjuvant RT. Further study is required to optimize the implementation of adjuvant RT for gastric cancer with regard to patient selection and integration with systemic therapy.

Ohri, Nitin, E-mail: ohri.nitin@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Garg, Madhur K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Aparo, Santiago; Kaubisch, Andreas [Department of Medical Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)] [Department of Medical Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Tome, Wolfgang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Kennedy, Timothy J. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Kalnicki, Shalom; Guha, Chandan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)

2013-06-01

291

The -1082A>G polymorphism in promoter region of interleukin-10 and risk of digestive cancer: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The -1082A>G polymorphism is located in promoter region of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and it could affect the production of IL-10. Numerous studies have investigated the association between IL-10 -1082A>G and risk of digestive cancer. However, the conclusion is still inconsistent. Here, we have performed a meta-analysis and systematic review to determine the association between the IL-10 -1082A>G and susceptibility to digestive cancer. In this meta-analysis, we identified 40 eligible studies, involving 7195 patients of digestive cancer and 11755 controls. By pooling all eligible studies, we found the variant -1082G allele significantly increased risk of digestive cancer (G vs. A: OR = 1.181, 95% CI: 1.057-1.319). Further stratified analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of cancer types, ethnicities, study design, sample size and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Stratified analysis suggested that, the -1082A>G polymorphism was only associated with increased risk for gastric cancer (G vs. A: OR = 1.281, 95% CI: 1.102-1.488) and in Asian population (G vs. A: OR = 1.399, 95% CI: 1.188-1.646). No significant publication bias was detected. Based on 40 studies and 18950 participants, we found the variant IL-10 -1082G allele significantly increased susceptibility to digestive cancer, especially for gastric cancer and in Asian population. PMID:25091209

Li, Chunxue; Tong, Weidong; Liu, Baohua; Zhang, Anping; Li, Fan

2014-01-01

292

Virtual Tide Pool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Virtual Tide Pool features a three dimensional view of a tide pool during both low and high tides. Students can see animals that live under, above, and at the waters surface. This site offers the ability to pan the tide pool for a 360 degree view, with zoom options, and gives descriptions of the animals found during both low and high tides.

Science NetLinks (PBS; )

2003-04-29

293

Use of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Bladder Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies  

PubMed Central

Purpose Several epidemiologic studies have evaluated the association between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and bladder cancer risk and the results were varied. Thus, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of studies exclusively dedicated to the relationship between the 3 most commonly used analgesics and bladder cancer risk. Methods A systematic literature search up to November 2012 was performed in PubMed database for 3 categories of analgesics: acetaminophen, aspirin or non-aspirin NSAIDs. Study-specific risk estimates were pooled using a random-effects model. Results Seventeen studies (8 cohort and 9 case-control studies), involving a total of 10,618 bladder cancer cases, were contributed to the analysis. We found that acetaminophen (relative risk [RR] 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88–1.17) and aspirin (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.91–1.14) were not associated with bladder cancer risk. Although non-aspirin NSAIDs was statistically significantly associated with reduced risk of bladder cancer among case-control studies (but not cohort studies), the overall risk was not statistically significant (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.73–1.05). Furthermore, we also found that non-aspirin NSAIDs use was significantly associated with a 43% reduction in bladder cancer risk among nonsmokers (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.43–0.76), but not among current smokers. Conclusion The results of our meta-analysis suggest that there is no association between use of acetaminophen, aspirin or non-aspirin NSAIDs and bladder cancer risk. However, non-aspirin NSAIDs use might be associated with a reduction in risk of bladder cancer for nonsmokers. PMID:23894577

Zhang, Haifeng; Jiang, Dongpeng; Li, Xuedong

2013-01-01

294

Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C polymorphisms with colorectal cancer risk: A meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide and a leading cause of cancer-related mortality. This meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effect of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutants on the risk of CRC. A literature search was conducted on PubMed, Medline and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. Eligible studies were collected based on rigorous criteria of inclusion. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by the fixed- or random-effects model. After all the studies were pooled, the OR of CRC for individuals carrying the MTHFR 677TT genotype, compared to the CC genotype, was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.82-0.97). When analyzed by ethnicity, Asians with the MTHFR 1298CC genotype exhibited a decreased risk of CRC (OR=0.69; 95% CI: 0.54-0.89). In a mixed population, a significantly reduced risk of CRC was observed among carriers of the 677TT (OR=0.86; 95% CI: 0.76-0.96) and the 1298CC (OR=0.82; 95% CI: 0.69-0.98) genotypes, compared to the wild-type homozygous genotype. In the subgroup of colon cancer, the OR of 677TT vs. CC+CT was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72-0.96) and the OR of 1298CC vs. AA+AC was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.69-0.96). In the rectal cancer subgroup, the OR of 677TT vs. CC+CT was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.77-0.97). Therefore, this meta-analysis suggested that the MTHFR 677T and 1298C alleles were associated with a low risk of CRC. PMID:24649029

Zhao, Mengmeng; Li, Xuelian; Xing, Chengzhong; Zhou, Baosen

2013-09-01

295

Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C polymorphisms with colorectal cancer risk: A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide and a leading cause of cancer-related mortality. This meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effect of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutants on the risk of CRC. A literature search was conducted on PubMed, Medline and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. Eligible studies were collected based on rigorous criteria of inclusion. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by the fixed- or random-effects model. After all the studies were pooled, the OR of CRC for individuals carrying the MTHFR 677TT genotype, compared to the CC genotype, was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.82–0.97). When analyzed by ethnicity, Asians with the MTHFR 1298CC genotype exhibited a decreased risk of CRC (OR=0.69; 95% CI: 0.54–0.89). In a mixed population, a significantly reduced risk of CRC was observed among carriers of the 677TT (OR=0.86; 95% CI: 0.76–0.96) and the 1298CC (OR=0.82; 95% CI: 0.69–0.98) genotypes, compared to the wild-type homozygous genotype. In the subgroup of colon cancer, the OR of 677TT vs. CC+CT was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72–0.96) and the OR of 1298CC vs. AA+AC was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.69–0.96). In the rectal cancer subgroup, the OR of 677TT vs. CC+CT was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.77–0.97). Therefore, this meta-analysis suggested that the MTHFR 677T and 1298C alleles were associated with a low risk of CRC. PMID:24649029

ZHAO, MENGMENG; LI, XUELIAN; XING, CHENGZHONG; ZHOU, BAOSEN

2013-01-01

296

Cost Trend Analysis of Initial Cancer Treatment in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the high cost of initial cancer care, that is, care in the first year after diagnosis, limited information is available for specific categories of cancer-related costs, especially costs for specific services. This study purposed to identify causes of change in cancer treatment costs over time and to perform trend analyses of the percentage of cancer patients who had received a specific treatment type and the mean cost of care for patients who had received that treatment. Methodology/Principal Findings The analysis of trends in initial treatment costs focused on cancer-related surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and treatments other than active treatments. For each cancer-specific trend, slopes were calculated for regression models with 95% confidence intervals. Analyses of patients diagnosed in 2007 showed that the National Health Insurance (NHI) system paid, on average, $10,780 for initial care of a gastric cancer patient and $10,681 for initial care of a lung cancer patient, which were inflation-adjusted increases of $6,234 and $5,522, respectively, over the 1996 care costs. During the same interval, the mean NHI payment for initial care for the five specific cancers increased significantly (p<0.05). Hospitalization costs comprised the largest portion of payments for all cancers. During 1996–2007, the use of chemotherapy and radiation therapy significantly increased in all cancer types (p<0.05). In 2007, NHI payments for initial care for these five cancers exceeded $12 billion, and gastric and lung cancers accounted for the largest share. Conclusions/Significance In addition to the growing number of NHI beneficiaries with cancer, treatment costs and the percentage of patients who undergo treatment are growing. Therefore, the NHI must accurately predict the economic burden of new chemotherapy agents and radiation therapies and may need to develop programs for stratifying patients according to their potential benefit from these expensive treatments. PMID:25279947

Li, Tsai-Yun; Hsieh, Jan-Sing; Lee, King-Teh; Hou, Ming-Feng; Wu, Chia-Ling

2014-01-01

297

GWAS meta-analysis and replication identifies three new susceptibility loci for ovarian cancer.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified four susceptibility loci for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), with another two suggestive loci reaching near genome-wide significance. We pooled data from a GWAS conducted in North America with another GWAS from the UK. We selected the top 24,551 SNPs for inclusion on the iCOGS custom genotyping array. We performed follow-up genotyping in 18,174 individuals with EOC (cases) and 26,134 controls from 43 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We validated the two loci at 3q25 and 17q21 that were previously found to have associations close to genome-wide significance and identified three loci newly associated with risk: two loci associated with all EOC subtypes at 8q21 (rs11782652, P = 5.5 × 10(-9)) and 10p12 (rs1243180, P = 1.8 × 10(-8)) and another locus specific to the serous subtype at 17q12 (rs757210, P = 8.1 × 10(-10)). An integrated molecular analysis of genes and regulatory regions at these loci provided evidence for functional mechanisms underlying susceptibility and implicated CHMP4C in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. PMID:23535730

Pharoah, Paul D P; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Ramus, Susan J; Phelan, Catherine M; Goode, Ellen L; Lawrenson, Kate; Buckley, Melissa; Fridley, Brooke L; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Shen, Howard; Weber, Rachel; Karevan, Rod; Larson, Melissa C; Song, Honglin; Tessier, Daniel C; Bacot, François; Vincent, Daniel; Cunningham, Julie M; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Aben, Katja K; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Armasu, Sebastian M; Baglietto, Laura; Bandera, Elisa V; Beckmann, Matthias W; Birrer, Michael J; Bloom, Greg; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brenton, James D; Brinton, Louise A; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Brown, Robert; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian; Carney, Michael E; Carvalho, Renato S; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chen, Y Anne; Chen, Zhihua; Chow, Wong-Ho; Cicek, Mine S; Coetzee, Gerhard; Cook, Linda S; Cramer, Daniel W; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Despierre, Evelyn; Doherty, Jennifer A; Dörk, Thilo; du Bois, Andreas; Dürst, Matthias; Eccles, Diana; Edwards, Robert; Ekici, Arif B; Fasching, Peter A; Fenstermacher, David; Flanagan, James; Gao, Yu-Tang; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham; Gjyshi, Anxhela; Gore, Martin; Gronwald, Jacek; Guo, Qi; Halle, Mari K; Harter, Philipp; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hillemanns, Peter; Hoatlin, Maureen; Høgdall, Estrid; Høgdall, Claus K; Hosono, Satoyo; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Kalli, Kimberly R; Karlan, Beth Y; Kelemen, Linda E; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Konecny, Gottfried E; Krakstad, Camilla; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D; Lee, Nathan; Lee, Janet; Leminen, Arto; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lubi?ski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Lurie, Galina; Massuger, Leon F A G; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B; Nakanishi, Toru; Narod, Steven A; Ness, Roberta B; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nickels, Stefan; Noushmehr, Houtan; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara; Orlow, Irene; Paul, James; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M; Permuth-Wey, Jenny; Pike, Malcolm C; Poole, Elizabeth M; Qu, Xiaotao; Risch, Harvey A; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Salvesen, Helga B; Schwaab, Ira; Severi, Gianluca; Shen, Hui; Shridhar, Vijayalakshmi; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Sieh, Weiva; Southey, Melissa C; Spellman, Paul; Tajima, Kazuo; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L; Thompson, Pamela J; Timorek, Agnieszka; Tworoger, Shelley S; van Altena, Anne M; van den Berg, David; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A; Vitonis, Allison F; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S; Wik, Elisabeth; Winterhoff, Boris; Woo, Yin Ling; Wu, Anna H; Yang, Hannah P; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Zulkifli, Famida; Goodman, Marc T; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F; Pearce, Celeste L; Berchuck, Andrew; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Iversen, Edwin; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Gayther, Simon A; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Sellers, Thomas A

2013-04-01

298

GWAS meta-analysis and replication identifies three new susceptibility loci for ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified four susceptibility loci for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with another two loci being close to genome-wide significance. We pooled data from a GWAS conducted in North America with another GWAS from the United Kingdom. We selected the top 24,551 SNPs for inclusion on the iCOGS custom genotyping array. Follow-up genotyping was carried out in 18,174 cases and 26,134 controls from 43 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We validated the two loci at 3q25 and 17q21 previously near genome-wide significance and identified three novel loci associated with risk; two loci associated with all EOC subtypes, at 8q21 (rs11782652, P=5.5×10-9) and 10p12 (rs1243180; P=1.8×10-8), and another locus specific to the serous subtype at 17q12 (rs757210; P=8.1×10-10). An integrated molecular analysis of genes and regulatory regions at these loci provided evidence for functional mechanisms underlying susceptibility that implicates CHMP4C in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. PMID:23535730

Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Ramus, Susan J.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Goode, Ellen L.; Lawrenson, Kate; Price, Melissa; Fridley, Brooke L.; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Shen, Howard; Weber, Rachel; Karevan, Rod; Larson, Melissa C.; Song, Honglin; Tessier, Daniel C.; Bacot, François; Vincent, Daniel; Cunningham, Julie M.; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Aben, Katja K.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Armasu, Sebastian M.; Baglietto, Laura; Bandera, Elisa V.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Birrer, Michael J.; Bloom, Greg; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brenton, James D.; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Brown, Robert; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian; Carney, Michael E; Carvalho, Renato S.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chen, Y. Anne; Chen, Zhihua; Chow, Wong-Ho; Cicek, Mine S.; Coetzee, Gerhard; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Despierre, Evelyn; Doherty, Jennifer A; Dörk, Thilo; du Bois, Andreas; Dürst, Matthias; Eccles, Diana; Edwards, Robert; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Fenstermacher, David; Flanagan, James; Gao, Yu-Tang; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham; Gjyshi, Anxhela; Gore, Martin; Gronwald, Jacek; Guo, Qi; Halle, Mari K; Harter, Philipp; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hillemanns, Peter; Hoatlin, Maureen; Høgdall, Estrid; Høgdall, Claus K.; Hosono, Satoyo; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Kalli, Kimberly R.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Konecny, Gottfried E.; Krakstad, Camilla; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Nathan; Lee, Janet; Leminen, Arto; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lubi?ski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Lurie, Galina; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Nakanishi, Toru; Narod, Steven A.; Ness, Roberta B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nickels, Stefan; Noushmehr, Houtan; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara; Orlow, Irene; Paul, James; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M; Permuth-Wey, Jenny; Pike, Malcolm C; Poole, Elizabeth M; Qu, Xiaotao; Risch, Harvey A.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schwaab, Ira; Severi, Gianluca; Shen, Hui; Shridhar, Vijayalakshmi; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Sieh, Weiva; Southey, Melissa C.; Spellman, Paul; Tajima, Kazuo; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J; Timorek, Agnieszka; Tworoger, Shelley S.; van Altena, Anne M.; Berg, David Van Den; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wik, Elisabeth; Winterhoff, Boris; Woo, Yin Ling; Wu, Anna H; Yang, Hannah P.; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Zulkifli, Famida; Goodman, Marc T.; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F; Pearce, Celeste L; Berchuck, Andrew; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Iversen, Edwin; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Gayther, Simon A.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Sellers, Thomas A.

2013-01-01

299

Association of RAGE polymorphisms and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 27 studies.  

PubMed

The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a member of immunoglobulin superfamily, has been proved to stimulate survival, growth, and metastatic spread of cancers cells. Evidence suggested that the 82G/S, -374T/A, and -429T/C polymorphisms in RAGE promoter region might affect the risk of cancer; however, data from epidemiological studies showed conflicting results that remain to be further clarified. This meta-analysis was performed to derive a more precise estimation of 82G/S, -374T/A, and -429T/C polymorphisms and risk of cancer. A comprehensive electronic search was conducted for articles published up until December 2, 2014, in Medline (PubMed), Embase, the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar. A total of 12 case-control articles were included in this meta-analysis, providing 3,374 cases and 3,757 controls for 82G/S, 2,936 cases and 3,338 controls for -374T/A, and 2,882 cases and 3,279 controls for -429T/C specifically. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence interval (CI) was calculated to evaluate the associations with risk of cancer. Overall, we observed significantly increased risk of cancer in relation to 82G/S (A vs. G: OR 1.321, 95 % CI 1.164-1.499, P het 0.028; AA vs. GG: OR 1.823, 95 % CI 1.541-2.157, P het < 0.001; AG vs. GG: OR 1.399, 95 % CI 1.120-1.746, P het 0.002; GA+AA vs. GG: OR 1.470, 95 % CI 1.187-1.821, P het 0.002; AA vs. GG+AG: OR 1.416, 95 % CI 1.158-1.732, P het 0.107) and reduced risk of cancer in relation to -374T/A (AA vs. TT: OR 0.818, 95 % CI 0.686-0.976, P het 0.025; A vs. T: OR 0.908, 95 % CI 0.840-0.981, P het 0.014). In subgroup analysis for 82G/S, a significantly elevated cancer risk was indicated in the population of Asian and patients with lung cancer, and for -374T/A, reduced risk was indicated in population of Caucasian and patients with lung cancer and breast cancer. But no significant association was observed between -429T/C and risk of cancer. Thus, this meta-analysis revealed that 82G/S polymorphism is associated with a significantly increased risk of cancer, while -374T/A polymorphism is associated with a reduced risk of cancers. PMID:25603950

Xia, Wenjie; Xu, Youtao; Mao, Qixing; Dong, Gaochao; Shi, Run; Wang, Jie; Zheng, YanYan; Xu, Lin; Jiang, Feng

2015-02-01

300

Long-term evaluation of combined prolonged-release oxycodone and naloxone in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic pain: pooled analysis of extension phases of two Phase III trials  

PubMed Central

Background While opioids provide effective analgesia, opioid-induced constipation (OIC) can severely impact quality of life and treatment compliance. This pooled analysis evaluated the maintenance of efficacy and safety during long-term treatment with combined oxycodone/naloxone prolonged-release tablets (OXN PR) in adults with moderate-to-severe chronic pain. Methods Patients (N = 474) received open-label OXN PR during 52-week extension phases of two studies, having completed 12-week, double-blind, randomized treatment with oxycodone prolonged-release tablets (Oxy PR) or OXN PR. Analgesia and bowel function were assessed at each study visit using ‘Average pain over last 24 h scale and Bowel Function Index (BFI), respectively. Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication was assessed at study end only. Key Results Improvement in bowel function was particularly marked in patients who switched from Oxy PR in the double-blind phase to OXN PR during the extension phase, resulting in a clinically meaningful reduction (?12 points) in BFI score: at the start of the extension phases, mean (SD) BFI score was 44.3 (28.13), and was 29.8 (26.36) for patients who had received OXN PR in the double-blind phase. One week later, BFI scores were similar for the two groups (26.5 [24.40] and 27.5 [25.60], respectively), as was observed throughout the following months. Fewer than 10% of patients received laxatives regularly. Mean 24-h pain scores were low and stable throughout the extension phases. No unexpected adverse events were observed. Conclusions & Inferences Pooled data demonstrate OXN PR is an effective long-term therapy for patients with chronic non-cancer pain, and can address symptoms of OIC. No new safety issues were observed which were attributable to the long-term administration of OXN PR. PMID:25346155

Blagden, M; Hafer, J; Duerr, H; Hopp, M; Bosse, B

2014-01-01

301

Association between Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of 39 Studies  

PubMed Central

Background The associations between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk were comprehensively investigated to clarify issues that remain controversial. Methodology/Principal Findings An electronic search was conducted of several databases, including PubMed, the Cochrane library, Web of Science, EMBASE, CBM and CNKI, for papers that describe the association between Fok1, poly-A repeat, Bsm1, Taq1 or Apa1 polymorphisms of the VDR gene and breast cancer risk. Summary odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated based on a fixed-effect model (FEM) or random-effect model (REM), depending on the absence or presence of significant heterogeneity. A total of 39 studies met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of high-quality studies showed that the Fok1 polymorphism of the VDR gene was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (ff vs. Ff+FF, OR: 1.09, 95%CI: 1.02 to 1.16, p?=?0.007). No significant associations were observed between the other polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. No positive results were detected by pooling the results of all relevant studies. Conclusion A meta-analysis of high-quality studies demonstrated that the Fok1 polymorphism of the VDR gene was closely associated with breast cancer risk. PMID:24769568

Zhang, Kai; Song, Lihua

2014-01-01

302

Two-pool model analysis of data in hemodialysis by means of programmable pocket calculator TI 59.  

PubMed

Four parameters of a two-pool model are evaluated by an iterative method using the explicit solutions of the linear differential equations. For this it was presumed that the residual renal clearance is sufficiently small. Five data pairs of measured plasma concentrations ci for the time points ti (i = 0 to 4), as well as the dialyzer and residual renal clearances (KD and KR), must be given and put in the calculator. A sample run is shown for urea kinetics. The parameter estimation takes about 10 min. The program is suitable to assist in the individualization of dialysis therapy. PMID:3839735

Guthke, R; Günther, K; Stein, G; Knorre, W A

1985-01-01

303

Integrated quantitative fractal polarimetric analysis of monolayer lung cancer cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital diagnostic pathology has become one of the most valuable and convenient advancements in technology over the past years. It allows us to acquire, store and analyze pathological information from the images of histological and immunohistochemical glass slides which are scanned to create digital slides. In this study, efficient fractal, wavelet-based polarimetric techniques for histological analysis of monolayer lung cancer cells will be introduced and different monolayer cancer lines will be studied. The outcome of this study indicates that application of fractal, wavelet polarimetric principles towards the analysis of squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cancer cell lines may be proved extremely useful in discriminating among healthy and lung cancer cells as well as differentiating among different lung cancer cells.

Shrestha, Suman; Zhang, Lin; Quang, Tri; Farrahi, Tannaz; Narayan, Chaya; Deshpande, Aditi; Na, Ying; Blinzler, Adam; Ma, Junyu; Liu, Bo; Giakos, George C.

2014-05-01

304

Microarray data analysis for cancer classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer diagnosis is one of the most important emerging clinical applications of gene expression microarray data. In this work, we aim to develop an automated system for robust and reliable cancer diagnoses based on gene microarray data. Support vector machine classifiers outperform other popular classifiers, such as K nearest neighbours, naive Bayes, neural networks and decision tree, often to a

Alireza Osareh; Bita Shadgar

2010-01-01

305

Cancer incidence in men: a cluster analysis of spatial patterns  

PubMed Central

Background Spatial clustering of different diseases has received much less attention than single disease mapping. Besides chance or artifact, clustering of different cancers in a given area may depend on exposure to a shared risk factor or to multiple correlated factors (e.g. cigarette smoking and obesity in a deprived area). Models developed so far to investigate co-occurrence of diseases are not well-suited for analyzing many cancers simultaneously. In this paper we propose a simple two-step exploratory method for screening clusters of different cancers in a population. Methods Cancer incidence data were derived from the regional cancer registry of Umbria, Italy. A cluster analysis was performed on smoothed and non-smoothed standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of the 13 most frequent cancers in males. The Besag, York and Mollie model (BYM) and Poisson kriging were used to produce smoothed SIRs. Results Cluster analysis on non-smoothed SIRs was poorly informative in terms of clustering of different cancers, as only larynx and oral cavity were grouped, and of characteristic patterns of cancer incidence in specific geographical areas. On the other hand BYM and Poisson kriging gave similar results, showing cancers of the oral cavity, larynx, esophagus, stomach and liver formed a main cluster. Lung and urinary bladder cancers clustered together but not with the cancers mentioned above. Both methods, particularly the BYM model, identified distinct geographic clusters of adjacent areas. Conclusion As in single disease mapping, non-smoothed SIRs do not provide reliable estimates of cancer risks because of small area variability. The BYM model produces smooth risk surfaces which, when entered into a cluster analysis, identify well-defined geographical clusters of adjacent areas. It probably enhances or amplifies the signal arising from exposure of more areas (statistical units) to shared risk factors that are associated with different cancers. In Umbria the main clusters were characterized by high risks for cancers with alcohol and tobacco both as risk factors. Tobacco-only related cancers formed a separate cluster to the alcohol- and tobacco-related sites. Joint spatial analysis or investigation of hypothesized exposures might be used for further investigation into interesting geographical clusters. PMID:19032769

Cassetti, Tiziana; La Rosa, Francesco; Rossi, Luca; D'Alò, Daniela; Stracci, Fabrizio

2008-01-01

306

Radiation pneumonitis as a function of mean lung dose: an analysis of pooled data of 540 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine the relation between the incidence of radiation pneumonitis and the three-dimensional dose distribution in the lung.Methods and Materials: In five institutions, the incidence of radiation pneumonitis was evaluated in 540 patients. The patients were divided into two groups: a Lung group, consisting of 399 patients with lung cancer and 1 esophagus cancer patient and a Lymph.\\/Breast group

Stefan L. S. Kwa; Joos V. Lebesque; Jacqueline C. M. Theuws; Lawrence B. Marks; Mike T. Munley; Gunilla Bentel; Dieter Oetzel; Uwe Spahn; Mary V. Graham; Robert E. Drzymala; James A. Purdy; Allen S. Lichter; Mary K. Martel; Randall K. Ten Haken

1998-01-01

307

A platelet acquired storage pool disorder associated with tamoxifen therapy.  

PubMed

The antiestrogenic drug tamoxifen, used in patients with breast cancer, is associated with an increase in arterial and venous thrombotic events, the mechanism of which is not clearly understood. We report a case of a lady who presented with new bruising and prolonged bleeding following a tooth extraction 4-6 weeks after starting tamoxifen. Investigations were consistent with an acquired platelet storage pool disorder. Repeat platelet function analysis was normal, performed 3 months after discontinuation of tamoxifen. We present a previously clinically unreported effect of tamoxifen on platelet function. PMID:23326738

Nayak, Lalitha; Schmaier, Alvin H

2012-01-01

308

A Platelet Acquired Storage Pool Disorder Associated with Tamoxifen Therapy  

PubMed Central

The antiestrogenic drug tamoxifen, used in patients with breast cancer, is associated with an increase in arterial and venous thrombotic events, the mechanism of which is not clearly understood. We report a case of a lady who presented with new bruising and prolonged bleeding following a tooth extraction 4–6 weeks after starting tamoxifen. Investigations were consistent with an acquired platelet storage pool disorder. Repeat platelet function analysis was normal, performed 3 months after discontinuation of tamoxifen. We present a previously clinically unreported effect of tamoxifen on platelet function. PMID:23326738

Nayak, Lalitha; Schmaier, Alvin H.

2012-01-01

309

Multiplex sequencing of pooled mitochondrial genomes-a crucial step toward biodiversity analysis using mito-metagenomics.  

PubMed

The advent in high-throughput-sequencing (HTS) technologies has revolutionized conventional biodiversity research by enabling parallel capture of DNA sequences possessing species-level diagnosis. However, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based implementation is biased by the efficiency of primer binding across lineages of organisms. A PCR-free HTS approach will alleviate this artefact and significantly improve upon the multi-locus method utilizing full mitogenomes. Here we developed a novel multiplex sequencing and assembly pipeline allowing for simultaneous acquisition of full mitogenomes from pooled animals without DNA enrichment or amplification. By concatenating assemblies from three de novo assemblers, we obtained high-quality mitogenomes for all 49 pooled taxa, with 36 species >15 kb and the remaining >10 kb, including 20 complete mitogenomes and nearly all protein coding genes (99.6%). The assembly quality was carefully validated with Sanger sequences, reference genomes and conservativeness of protein coding genes across taxa. The new method was effective even for closely related taxa, e.g. three Drosophila spp., demonstrating its broad utility for biodiversity research and mito-phylogenomics. Finally, the in silico simulation showed that by recruiting multiple mito-loci, taxon detection was improved at a fixed sequencing depth. Combined, these results demonstrate the plausibility of a multi-locus mito-metagenomics approach as the next phase of the current single-locus metabarcoding method. PMID:25294837

Tang, Min; Tan, Meihua; Meng, Guanliang; Yang, Shenzhou; Su, Xu; Liu, Shanlin; Song, Wenhui; Li, Yiyuan; Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Aibing; Zhou, Xin

2014-12-16

310

Multiplex sequencing of pooled mitochondrial genomes—a crucial step toward biodiversity analysis using mito-metagenomics  

PubMed Central

The advent in high-throughput-sequencing (HTS) technologies has revolutionized conventional biodiversity research by enabling parallel capture of DNA sequences possessing species-level diagnosis. However, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based implementation is biased by the efficiency of primer binding across lineages of organisms. A PCR-free HTS approach will alleviate this artefact and significantly improve upon the multi-locus method utilizing full mitogenomes. Here we developed a novel multiplex sequencing and assembly pipeline allowing for simultaneous acquisition of full mitogenomes from pooled animals without DNA enrichment or amplification. By concatenating assemblies from three de novo assemblers, we obtained high-quality mitogenomes for all 49 pooled taxa, with 36 species >15 kb and the remaining >10 kb, including 20 complete mitogenomes and nearly all protein coding genes (99.6%). The assembly quality was carefully validated with Sanger sequences, reference genomes and conservativeness of protein coding genes across taxa. The new method was effective even for closely related taxa, e.g. three Drosophila spp., demonstrating its broad utility for biodiversity research and mito-phylogenomics. Finally, the in silico simulation showed that by recruiting multiple mito-loci, taxon detection was improved at a fixed sequencing depth. Combined, these results demonstrate the plausibility of a multi-locus mito-metagenomics approach as the next phase of the current single-locus metabarcoding method. PMID:25294837

Tang, Min; Tan, Meihua; Meng, Guanliang; Yang, Shenzhou; Su, Xu; Liu, Shanlin; Song, Wenhui; Li, Yiyuan; Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Aibing; Zhou, Xin

2014-01-01

311

Tumor-Associated Neutrophils as a New Prognostic Factor in Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Tumor-associated neutrophils (TAN) have been reported in a variety of malignancies. We conducted an up-to-date meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic role of TAN in cancer. Method Pubmed, Embase and web of science databases were searched for studies published up to April 2013. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The impact of neutrophils localization and primary antibody were also assessed. Results A total of 3946 patients with various solid tumors from 20 studies were included. High density of intratumoral neutrophils were independently associated with unfavorable survival; the pooled HRs were 1.68 (95%CI: 1.36–2.07, I2?=?55.8%, p<0.001) for recurrence-free survival (RFS)/disease-free survival (DFS), 3.36 (95%CI: 2.08–5.42, I2?=?0%, p<0.001) for cancer-specific survival (CSS) and 1.66 (95%CI: 1.37–2.01, I2?=?70.5%, p<0.001) for overall survival (OS). Peritumoral and stromal neutrophils were not statistically significantly associated with survival. When grouped by primary antibody, the pooled HRs were 1.80 (95%CI: 1.47–2.22, I2?=?67.7%, p<0.001) for CD66b, and 1.44 (95%CI: 0.90–2.30, I2?=?45.9%, p?=?0.125) for CD15, suggesting that CD66b positive TAN might have a better prognostic value than CD15. Conclusion High levels of intratumoral neutrophils are associated with unfavorable recurrence-free, cancer-specific and overall survival. PMID:24906014

Donskov, Frede; Wang, Guanghui; Liu, Qi; Du, Jiajun

2014-01-01

312

Assessment of tumor response to chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer using 18F-FLT: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the diagnostic performance of 3'-deoxy-3'-18F-fluorothymidine positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FLT PET/CT) and FLT PET for evaluating response to chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer. Methods Databases such as PubMed (MEDLINE included) and excerpta medica database (EMBASE), were searched for relevant original articles. The included studies were assessed for methodological quality with quality assessment of diagnosis accuracy studies (QUADAS) score tool. Histopathological analysis and/or clinical and/or radiological follow-up for at least 6 months were used as the reference standard. The data were extracted by two reviewers independently to analyze the sensitivity, specificity, summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve, area under the curve (AUC), and heterogeneity. Results The present study analyzed a total of 4 selected articles. The pool sensitivity was 0.773 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.594-0.900]. The pooled specificity was 0.685 (95% CI: 0.479-0.849) on basis of FEM. The pooled LR+, LR-, and DOR were 2.874 (1.492-5.538), 0.293 (0.146-0.589), and 14.891 (3.238-68.475), respectively. The AUC was 0.8636 (±0.0655), and the Q* index was 0.7942 (±0.0636). Conclusions Our results indicate that 18F-FLT PET/CT or PET is useful to predict chemotherapy response in breast cancer with reasonable sensitivity, specificity and DOR. However, future larger scale clinical trials will be needed to assess the regimen of 18F-FLT PET/CT or PET in monitoring the response to chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. PMID:25400416

Deng, Sheng-Ming; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Yi-Wei

2014-01-01

313

Effect of HLA-B-associated Transcript 3 Polymorphisms on Lung Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The association between the HLA-B-associated transcript 3 polymorphisms and lung cancer risk is a subject of debate. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between these polymorphisms and lung cancer susceptibility. Material/Methods A systematic search of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Wanfang, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure) was performed. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results Ten case-control studies with 37 945 and 56 807 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, a significant association between rs1052486 polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility was observed (OR=1.07, 95% CI 1.01–1.12, P=0.01). In addition, a significant association was found for rs3117582 polymorphism (OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.22–1.37, P<0.01). Conclusions This meta-analysis suggested that HLA-B-associated transcript 3 polymorphisms are risk factors for lung cancer. PMID:25430685

Zhao, Junfei; Wang, Hongyuan; Hu, Weizhen; Jin, Yuanhong

2014-01-01

314

Association between PLCE1 rs2274223 A > G polymorphism and cancer risk: proof from a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) plays an important role in cell growth, differentiation and oncogenesis. An increasing number of individual studies have investigated the association between PLCE1 rs2274223 polymorphism and cancer risk, but the conclusions are inconclusive. To obtain a comprehensive conclusion, we performed a meta-analysis of 22 studies with 13188 cases and 14666 controls. The pooled results indicated that PLCE1 rs2274223 A > G polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of overall cancer (G vs. A: OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.06–1.25; GG vs. AA: OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.10–1.55; GA vs. AA: OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.08–1.30; GG/GA vs. AA: OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.08–1.32; GG vs. GA/AA: OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.04–1.42). The stratification analysis showed the polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) other than gastric cancer (GC), especially among the subgroups of Asian, high quality score, sample size > 1000 and the studies consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). This meta-analysis demonstrated that PLCE1 rs2274223 A > G polymorphism may be associated with increased susceptibility to cancer, especially for ESCC. However, due to the substantial heterogeneities across the studies, the conclusion might be not conclusive that need more studies to confirm. PMID:25614244

Xue, Wenji; Zhu, Meiling; Wang, Yiwei; He, Jing; Zheng, Leizhen

2015-01-01

315

Association of Promoter Methylation of RUNX3 Gene with the Development of Esophageal Cancer: A Meta Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) is a member of the runt-domain family of transcription factors. Emerging evidence indicates that RUNX3 is a tumor suppressor gene in several types of human cancers including esophageal cancer. However, the association between RUNX3 promoter methylation and esophageal cancer remains unclear. Here we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate the effects of RUNX3 promoter methylation on the incidence of esophageal cancer. Methods A detailed literature search was made on Medline, Pubmed and Web of Science for related research publications written in English and/or Chinese. Methodological quality of the studies was also evaluated. The data were extracted and assessed by two reviewers independently. Analysis of pooled data were performed, the odds ratios (OR) were calculated and summarized respectively. Results Final analysis of 558 patients from 9 eligible studies was performed. The result showed that RUNX3 methylation was significantly higher in esophageal cancer than in normal squamous mucosa from the proximal resection margin or esophageal benign lesions (OR?=?2.85, CI?=?2.01–4.05, P<0.00001). The prevalence of lymph node involvement, tumor size (T1–T2 vs T3–T4) and histological grade was significantly greater in RUNX3-negative cases (RUNX3 unmethylated groups) than in RUNX3-positive cases (OR?=?0.25, CI?=?0.14–0.43, P<0.00001). RUNX3 methylation was significantly higher in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) than Barrett’s esophagus (OR?=?0.35, CI?=?0.20–0.59, P<0.0001). In addition, the pooled HR for overall survival (OS) showed that decreased RUNX3 expression was associated with worse survival in esophageal cancer (HR?=?4.31, 95% CI?=?2.57–7.37, P<0.00001). Conclusions The results of this meta-analysis suggest that RUNX3 methylation is associated with an increased risk, progression as well as worse survival in esophageal cancer. RUNX3 methylation, which induces the inactivation of RUNX3 gene, plays an important role in esophageal carcinogenesis. PMID:25229459

Wang, Yi; Qin, Xiuguang; Wu, Jieqing; Qi, Bo; Tao, Yipeng; Wang, Wenju; Liu, Fulei; Li, Hanchen; Zhao, Baosheng

2014-01-01

316

Genetic 135G/C polymorphism of RAD51 gene and risk of cancer: a meta-analysis of 28,956 cases and 28,372 controls.  

PubMed

The RAD51 gene is essential for the repair of damaged DNA related to tumor development. Although a number of genetic studies have attempted to link the 135G/C polymorphism of RAD51 gene to the risk of cancer, the results were inconclusive. The present study aimed at investigating the pooled association using the more comprehensive meta-analysis. The PubMed, EBSCO, and BIOSIS databases were searched to identify eligible studies which were published in English before March 2014. Data were extracted using standardized methods. The association was assessed by odds ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence interval (CI). Begg's test was used to measure publication bias. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to assess the stability of the results. A total of 45 eligible studies with 28,956 patients and 28,372 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, significant association was detected between 135G/C polymorphism and increased cancer risk (C allele vs. G allele: OR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.18-1.28; CC vs. GG: OR 2.41, 95 % CI 2.12-2.74; CC vs. CG: OR 3.86, 95 % CI 3.41-4.37; recessive model: OR 3.57, 95 % CI 3.19-4.00). In further stratified analysis, significantly elevated cancer risk was observed among Caucasians but not Asians. Subgroup analysis by different cancers also showed their significant associations in breast cancer, hematologic malignances, ovarian cancer, colorectal cancer and endometrial cancer, but not in head and neck cancer. Our results indicated that the RAD51 135G/C polymorphism was a candidate for susceptibility of cancer. The effect of the variants on the expression levels and the possible functional role of the variants in different cancers should be addressed in further studies. PMID:24859942

Zhang, Bei-Bei; Wang, Dao-Gang; Xuan, Chao; Sun, Gui-Li; Deng, Kai-Feng

2014-12-01

317

Enhanced Recovery after Elective Open Surgical Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: A Complementary Overview through a Pooled Analysis of Proportions from Case Series Studies  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs in elective open surgical repair (OSR) of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Background Open surgical repair of AAA is associated with high morbidity and mortality, prolonged hospital stay and high costs. ERAS programs contribute to the optimization of treatment by reducing hospital stay and improving clinical outcomes. Methods A review of PubMed, EMBASE and LILACS databases was conducted. As only one randomized controlled trial was found, a pooled analysis of proportions from case series was conducted, considering it a complementary overview of the topic. Inclusion criteria were case series with more than five cases reported, adult patients who underwent an elective OSR of AAA and use of an ERAS program. ERAS was compared to conventional perioperative care. The pooled proportion and the confidence interval (CI) are shown for each outcome. The overlap of the CI suggests similar effect of the interventions studied. Results Thirteen case series studies with ERAS involving 1,250 patients were compared to six case series with conventional care with a total of 1,429 patients. The pooled, respective proportions for ERAS and conventional care were: mortality, 1.51% [95% CI: 0.0091, 0.0226] and 3.0% [95% CI 0.0183, 0.0445]; and incidence of complications, 3.82% [95% CI 0.0259, 0.0528] and 4.0% [95% CI 0.03, 0.05]. Conclusion This review shows that ERAS and conventional care therapies have similar mortality and complication rates in OSR of AAA. PMID:24887022

Gurgel, Sanderland J. T.; El Dib, Regina; do Nascimento, Paulo

2014-01-01

318

HIF-1? -1790G>A polymorphism significantly increases the risk of digestive tract cancer: A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the association between hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) polymorphisms (-1772C>T and -1790G>A) and the risk of digestive tract cancer. METHODS: A total of 13 eligible studies were retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the strength of the associations. RESULTS: By pooling the eligible studies, we found that the HIF-1? -1772C>T polymorphism was not associated with the risk of developing digestive tract cancer (dominant comparison, OR: 1.156; 95%CI: 0.839-1.593; Pheterogeneity = 0.007), and no significant association was found in the Asian population or the Caucasian population. However, for the -1790G>A polymorphism, carriers of the variant -1790A allele had a significantly increased risk of digestive tract cancer compared with those with the wildtype -1790G allele (dominant comparison, OR: 3.252; 95%CI: 1.661-6.368; Pheterogeneity < 0.001). Additionally, this increased risk of digestive cancer was only detected in Asians; there was no significant association in Caucasians. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis demonstrates that the HIF-1? -1790G>A polymorphism is associated with a significantly increased risk of digestive tract cancer, while the -1772C>T polymorphism is not. PMID:25663785

Sun, Xiao; Liu, Ying-Di; Gao, Wei; Shen, Shao-Hua; Li, Meng

2015-01-01

319

Vasectomy and the risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis examining vasectomy status, age at vasectomy, and time since vasectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to conduct a quantitative review of prostate cancer studies to pool relative risk (RR) estimates on the association between prostate cancer and vasectomy, in an attempt to determine whether there is an association, and if so, its magnitude. Random-effects models were examined along with a linear model for time since vasectomy. The pooled RR

L K Dennis; D V Dawson; M I Resnick

2002-01-01

320

Genomic profile analysis of diffuse-type gastric cancers  

PubMed Central

Background Stomach cancer is the third deadliest among all cancers worldwide. Although incidence of the intestinal-type gastric cancer has decreased, the incidence of diffuse-type is still increasing and its progression is notoriously aggressive. There is insufficient information on genome variations of diffuse-type gastric cancer because its cells are usually mixed with normal cells, and this low cellularity has made it difficult to analyze the genome. Results We analyze whole genomes and corresponding exomes of diffuse-type gastric cancer, using matched tumor and normal samples from 14 diffuse-type and five intestinal-type gastric cancer patients. Somatic variations found in the diffuse-type gastric cancer are compared to those of the intestinal-type and to previously reported variants. We determine the average exonic somatic mutation rate of the two types. We find associated candidate driver genes, and identify seven novel somatic mutations in CDH1, which is a well-known gastric cancer-associated gene. Three-dimensional structure analysis of the mutated E-cadherin protein suggests that these new somatic mutations could cause significant functional perturbations of critical calcium-binding sites in the EC1-2 junction. Chromosomal instability analysis shows that the MDM2 gene is amplified. After thorough structural analysis, a novel fusion gene TSC2-RNF216 is identified, which may simultaneously disrupt tumor-suppressive pathways and activate tumorigenesis. Conclusions We report the genomic profile of diffuse-type gastric cancers including new somatic variations, a novel fusion gene, and amplification and deletion of certain chromosomal regions that contain oncogenes and tumor suppressors. PMID:24690483

2014-01-01

321

Visual gene-network analysis reveals the cancer gene co-expression in human endometrial cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Endometrial cancers (ECs) are the most common form of gynecologic malignancy. Recent studies have reported that ECs reveal distinct markers for molecular pathogenesis, which in turn is linked to the various histological types of ECs. To understand further the molecular events contributing to ECs and endometrial tumorigenesis in general, a more precise identification of cancer-associated molecules and signaling networks would be useful for the detection and monitoring of malignancy, improving clinical cancer therapy, and personalization of treatments. Results ECs-specific gene co-expression networks were constructed by differential expression analysis and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). Important pathways and putative cancer hub genes contribution to tumorigenesis of ECs were identified. An elastic-net regularized classification model was built using the cancer hub gene signatures to predict the phenotypic characteristics of ECs. The 19 cancer hub gene signatures had high predictive power to distinguish among three key principal features of ECs: grade, type, and stage. Intriguingly, these hub gene networks seem to contribute to ECs progression and malignancy via cell-cycle regulation, antigen processing and the citric acid (TCA) cycle. Conclusions The results of this study provide a powerful biomarker discovery platform to better understand the progression of ECs and to uncover potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of ECs. This information might lead to improved monitoring of ECs and resulting improvement of treatment of ECs, the 4th most common of cancer in women. PMID:24758163

2014-01-01

322

Sputum analysis: non-invasive early lung cancer detection.  

PubMed

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths over the world, characterized by a very high mortality rate. Molecular technique development tries to focus on early detection of cancers by studying molecular alterations that characterize cancer cells. Worldwide lung cancer research has focused on an ever-increasing number of molecular elements of carcinogenesis at genetic, epigenetic and protein levels. The non-invasiveness is the characteristic that all clinical trials on cancer detection should have. Abnormal chest imaging and/or non-specific symptoms are initial signals of lung cancer that appear in an advanced stage of disease. This fact represents the cause of the low 5-year survival rate: over 90% of patients dying within 5 years of diagnosis. Since smokers have higher quantity of sputum containing exfoliated cells from the bronchial tree, and the sputum represents the most easily accessible biological fluid and its collection is non-invasive, analysis of this sample represents a good area of research in early lung cancer diagnosis. Continued cigarette smoking is the cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with an estimated attributable risk factor exceeding 80% in smoking affected individuals. Lung cancer is found in 40-70% of patients with COPD, particularly in severe disease, and it is a common cause of death in these patients. A large prospective trial of almost half a million non-smokers showed as lung cancer is also common in patients with COPD who have never smoked. This review describes issues related to early lung cancer screening using non-invasive methods. PMID:23086732

D'Urso, Vittorio; Doneddu, Valentina; Marchesi, Irene; Collodoro, Angelo; Pirina, Pietro; Giordano, Antonio; Bagella, Luigi

2013-05-01

323

Analysis of leakage current mechanisms in Pt/Au Schottky contact on Ga-polarity GaN by Frenkel-Poole emission and deep level studies  

SciTech Connect

We report the Frenkel-Poole emission in Pt/Au Schottky contact on Ga-polarity GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy using current-voltage-temperature (I-V-T) characteristics in the temperature ranging from 200 K to 375 K. Using thermionic emission model, the estimated Schottky barrier height is 0.49 eV at 200 K and 0.83 eV at 375 K, respectively, and it is observed that the barrier height increases with increase in temperature. The extracted emission barrier height ({phi}{sub t}) for Ga-polarity GaN Schottky diode by Frenkel-Poole theory is about 0.15 eV. Deep level transient spectroscopy study shows a deep level with activation energy of 0.44 eV, having capture cross-section 6.09 x 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}, which is located between the metal and semiconductor interface, and trap nature is most probably associated with dislocations in Ga-polarity GaN. The analysis of I-V-T characteristics represents that the leakage current is due to effects of electrical field and temperature on the emission of electron from a trap state near the metal-semiconductor interface into continuum states associated with conductive dislocations in Ga-polarity GaN Schottky diode.

Rao, Peta Koteswara; Park, Byungguon; Lee, Sang-Tae; Noh, Young-Kyun; Kim, Moon-Deock [Department of Physics, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jae-Eung [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 425-791 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-07-01

324

Coupled Two-Way Clustering Analysis of Breast Cancer and Colon Cancer Gene Expression Data  

E-print Network

We present and review Coupled Two Way Clustering, a method designed to mine gene expression data. The method identifies submatrices of the total expression matrix, whose clustering analysis reveals partitions of samples (and genes) into biologically relevant classes. We demonstrate, on data from colon and breast cancer, that we are able to identify partitions that elude standard clustering analysis.

Getz, G; Kela, I; Domany, E; Notterman, D A; Getz, Gad; Gal, Hilah; Kela, Itai; Domany, Eytan; Notterman, Dan A.

2003-01-01

325

Sentinel lymph node in oesophageal cancer—a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) have been used to predict regional lymph node metastasis in patients with melanoma and breast cancer. However, the validity of the SLN hypothesis is still controversial for oesophageal cancer. We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of radio-guided SLN mapping for oesophageal cancer. Methods A systematic search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Current Contents Connect, Cochrane library, Google scholar, Science Direct, and Web of Science. Original data was abstracted from each study and used to calculate a pooled event rates and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Results The search identified 23 relevant articles. The overall detection rate was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.894-0.950), sensitivity 0.87 (95% CI: 0.811-0.908), negative predictive value 0.77 (95% CI: 0.568-0.890) and the accuracy was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.817-0.921). In the adenocarcinoma cohort, detection rate was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.923-0.992), sensitivity 0.84 (95% CI: 0.743-0.911) and the accuracy was 0.87(95% CI: 0.796-0.913). In the squamous cell carcinoma group, detection rate was 0.89 (95% CI: 00.792-0.943), sensitivity 0.91 (95% CI: 0.754-0.972) and the accuracy was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.732-0.914). Conclusions It is possible to identify and obtain a SLN before neoadjuvant therapy in oesophageal cancer. However, further work is needed to optimize radiocolloid type, refine the technique and develop a quick and accurate way to determine SLN status intraoperatively. This technique has to be further evaluated before it can be applied widely. PMID:24772341

Nagaraja, Vinayak; Cox, Michael R.

2014-01-01

326

Immunoexpression analysis and prognostic value of BLCAP in breast cancer.  

PubMed

Bladder Cancer Associated Protein (BLCAP, formerly Bc10), was identified by our laboratory as being down-regulated in bladder cancer with progression. BLCAP is ubiquitously expressed in different tissues, and several studies have found differential expression of BLCAP in various cancer types, such as cervical and renal cancer, as well as human tongue carcinoma and osteosarcoma. Here we report the first study of the expression patterns of BLCAP in breast tissue. We analyzed by immunohistochemistry tissue sections of normal and malignant specimens collected from 123 clinical high-risk breast cancer patients within the Danish Center for Translational Breast Cancer Research (DCTB) prospective study dataset. The staining pattern, the distribution of the immunostaining, and its intensity were studied in detail. We observed weak immunoreactivity for BLCAP in mammary epithelial cells, almost exclusively localizing to the cytoplasm and found that levels of expression of BLCAP were generally higher in malignant cells as compared to normal cells. Quantitative IHC analysis of BLCAP expression in breast tissues confirmed this differential BLCAP expression in tumor cells, and we could establish, in a 62-patient sample matched cohort, that immunostaining intensity for BLCAP was increased in tumors relative to normal tissue, in more than 45% of the cases examined, indicating that BLCAP may be of value as a marker for breast cancer. We also analyzed BLCAP expression and prognostic value using a set of tissue microarrays comprising an independent cohort of 2,197 breast cancer patients for which we had follow-up clinical information. PMID:23049907

Gromova, Irina; Gromov, Pavel; Kroman, Niels; Wielenga, Vera Timmermans; Simon, Ronald; Sauter, Guido; Moreira, José M A

2012-01-01

327

Immunoexpression Analysis and Prognostic Value of BLCAP in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Bladder Cancer Associated Protein (BLCAP, formerly Bc10), was identified by our laboratory as being down-regulated in bladder cancer with progression. BLCAP is ubiquitously expressed in different tissues, and several studies have found differential expression of BLCAP in various cancer types, such as cervical and renal cancer, as well as human tongue carcinoma and osteosarcoma. Here we report the first study of the expression patterns of BLCAP in breast tissue. We analyzed by immunohistochemistry tissue sections of normal and malignant specimens collected from 123 clinical high-risk breast cancer patients within the Danish Center for Translational Breast Cancer Research (DCTB) prospective study dataset. The staining pattern, the distribution of the immunostaining, and its intensity were studied in detail. We observed weak immunoreactivity for BLCAP in mammary epithelial cells, almost exclusively localizing to the cytoplasm and found that levels of expression of BLCAP were generally higher in malignant cells as compared to normal cells. Quantitative IHC analysis of BLCAP expression in breast tissues confirmed this differential BLCAP expression in tumor cells, and we could establish, in a 62-patient sample matched cohort, that immunostaining intensity for BLCAP was increased in tumors relative to normal tissue, in more than 45% of the cases examined, indicating that BLCAP may be of value as a marker for breast cancer. We also analyzed BLCAP expression and prognostic value using a set of tissue microarrays comprising an independent cohort of 2,197 breast cancer patients for which we had follow-up clinical information. PMID:23049907

Gromova, Irina; Gromov, Pavel; Kroman, Niels; Wielenga, Vera Timmermans; Simon, Ronald; Sauter, Guido; Moreira, José M. A.

2012-01-01

328

Breast cancer prognosis by combinatorial analysis of gene expression data  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: The potential of applying data analysis tools to microarray data for diagnosis and prognosis is illustrated on the recent breast cancer dataset of van 't Veer and coworkers. We re-examine that dataset using the novel technique of logical analysis of data (LAD), with the double objective of discovering patterns characteristic for cases with good or poor outcome, using them

Gabriela Alexe; Sorin Alexe; David E Axelrod; Tibérius O Bonates; Irina I Lozina; Michael Reiss; Peter L Hammer

2006-01-01

329

Prostate cancer among pesticide applicators: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To analyse data from peer-reviewed, case-referent and cohort studies, studying the occurrence of prostate cancer in pesticide applicators and in some other, related, occupational categories, in order to determine a possible relationship of cancer of the prostate with pesticide exposure; to calculate a meta-rate ratio and to compare it with the meta-rate ratios obtained in a previous meta-analysis performed

G. Van Maele-Fabry; J. L. Willems

2004-01-01

330

Human viral oncogenesis: a cancer hallmarks analysis.  

PubMed

Approximately 12% of all human cancers are caused by oncoviruses. Human viral oncogenesis is complex, and only a small percentage of the infected individuals develop cancer, often many years to decades after the initial infection. This reflects the multistep nature of viral oncogenesis, host genetic variability, and the fact that viruses contribute to only a portion of the oncogenic events. In this review, the Hallmarks of Cancer framework of Hanahan and Weinberg (2000 and 2011) is used to dissect the viral, host, and environmental cofactors that contribute to the biology of multistep oncogenesis mediated by established human oncoviruses. The viruses discussed include Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV, respectively), human T cell lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1), and Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV). PMID:24629334

Mesri, Enrique A; Feitelson, Mark A; Munger, Karl

2014-03-12

331

Incidence and time course of extrapyramidal symptoms with oral and long-acting injectable paliperidone: a posthoc pooled analysis of seven randomized controlled studies  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to compare incidence rates and time course of extrapyramidal symptom (EPS)-related treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) between oral and long-acting injectable (LAI) paliperidone. Methods The analysis included pooled data (safety analysis set, 2,256 antipsychotic-treated and 865 placebo-treated patients with schizophrenia) from seven randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled paliperidone studies (three oral [6 weeks each] and four LAI [9–13 weeks]) and assessed comparable doses (oral, 3–15 mg; LAI, 25–150 mg eq. [US doses 39–234 mg]). We summarized incidence rates and time of onset for EPS-related TEAE, categorized by EPS group terms, ie, tremor, dystonia, hyperkinesia, parkinsonism, and dyskinesia, and use of anti-EPS medication. Mean scores over time for the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS, for dyskinesia), Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS, for akathisia), and Simpson Angus Rating Scale (SAS, for parkinsonism) were graphed. Results Incidence rates for all categories of spontaneously reported EPS-related TEAEs except for hyperkinesia, were numerically lower in pooled LAI studies than in pooled oral studies. Highest rates were observed in the first week of paliperidone-LAI (for all EPS symptoms except dyskinesia) and oral paliperidone treatment (except parkinsonism and tremor). Anti-EPS medication use was significantly lower in LAI (12%) versus oral studies (17%, P = 0.0035). Mean values for EPS scale scores were similar between LAI and oral treatment at endpoint, and no dose response was evident. Mean reductions (standard deviation) from baseline to endpoint in EPS scale scores were larger for LAI (AIMS, ?0.10 [1.27]; BARS, ?0.09 [1.06]; SAS, ?0.04 [0.20]) versus oral studies (AIMS, ?0.08 [1.32]; BARS, ?0.03 [1.24]; SAS, 0.0 [0.23]). These changes favored LAI for BARS (P = 0.023) and SAS (P < 0.0001), but not for AIMS (P = 0.49), at endpoint for the studies. Conclusion In this posthoc descriptive analysis, incidence rates of spontaneously reported EPS-related TEAEs were numerically lower following approximately 90 days of exposure with LAI and approximately 40 days with oral paliperidone at comparable doses. PMID:24092977

Gopal, Srihari; Liu, Yanning; Alphs, Larry; Savitz, Adam; Nuamah, Isaac; Hough, David

2013-01-01

332

CERNA WORKING PAPER SERIES Strategic inputs into patent pools  

E-print Network

1 CERNA WORKING PAPER SERIES Strategic inputs into patent pools Justus Baron Henry Delcamp Working;2 Strategic inputs into patent pools1 Justus BARON2 Henry DELCAMP3 Abstract: This article explores what factors determine the decision of a patent pool to accept new inputs. We propose a dynamic analysis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

333

Clinical outcomes of self-expandable stent placement for benign esophageal diseases: A pooled analysis of the literature  

PubMed Central

AIM: To analyze the outcomes of self-expandable stent placement for benign esophageal strictures and benign esophageal leaks in the literature. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched for relevant articles published between January 2000 and July 2014. Eight prospective studies were identified that analyzed the outcomes of stent placement for refractory benign esophageal strictures. The outcomes of stent placement for benign esophageal leaks, perforations and fistulae were extracted from 20 retrospective studies that were published after the inclusion period of a recent systematic review. Data were pooled and analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Fully covered self-expandable metal stents (FC SEMS) (n = 85), biodegradable (BD) stents (n = 77) and self-expandable plastic stents (SEPS) (n = 70) were inserted in 232 patients with refractory benign esophageal strictures. The overall clinical success rate was 24.2% and according to stent type 14.1% for FC SEMS, 32.9% for BD stents and 27.1% for SEPS. Stent migration occurred in 24.6% of cases. The overall complication rate was 31.0%, including major (17.7%) and minor (13.4%) complications. A total of 643 patients were treated with self-expandable stents mainly for postsurgical leaks (64.5%), iatrogenic perforations (19.6%), Boerhaave’s syndrome (7.8%) and fistulae (3.7%). FC SEMS and partially covered SEMS were used in the majority of patients. Successful closure of the defect was achieved in 76.8% of patients and according to etiology in 81.4% for postsurgical leaks, 86.0% for perforations and 64.7% for fistulae. The pooled stent migration rate was 16.5%. Stent-related complications occurred in 13.4% of patients, including major (7.8%) and minor (5.5%) complications. CONCLUSION: The outcomes of stent placement for refractory benign esophageal strictures were poor. However, randomized trials are needed to put this into perspective. The evidence on successful stent placement for benign esophageal leaks, perforations and fistulae is promising. PMID:25685270

van Halsema, Emo E; van Hooft, Jeanin E

2015-01-01

334

The Age-Specific Quantitative Effects of Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes: A Pooled Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex are not available. Methods We reviewed large cohort pooling projects, evaluating effects of baseline or usual exposure to metabolic risks on ischemic heart disease (IHD), hypertensive heart disease (HHD), stroke, diabetes, and, as relevant selected other CVDs, after adjusting for important confounders. We pooled all data to estimate relative risks (RRs) for each risk factor and examined effect modification by age or other factors, using random effects models. Results Across all risk factors, an average of 123 cohorts provided data on 1.4 million individuals and 52,000 CVD events. Each metabolic risk factor was robustly related to CVD. At the baseline age of 55–64 years, the RR for 10 mmHg higher SBP was largest for HHD (2.16; 95% CI 2.09–2.24), followed by effects on both stroke subtypes (1.66; 1.39–1.98 for hemorrhagic stroke and 1.63; 1.57–1.69 for ischemic stroke). In the same age group, RRs for 1 mmol/L higher TC were 1.44 (1.29–1.61) for IHD and 1.20 (1.15–1.25) for ischemic stroke. The RRs for 5 kg/m2 higher BMI for ages 55–64 ranged from 2.32 (2.04–2.63) for diabetes, to 1.44 (1.40–1.48) for IHD. For 1 mmol/L higher FPG, RRs in this age group were 1.18 (1.08–1.29) for IHD and 1.14 (1.01–1.29) for total stroke. For all risk factors, proportional effects declined with age, were generally consistent by sex, and differed by region in only a few age groups for certain risk factor-disease pairs. Conclusion Our results provide robust, comparable and precise estimates of the effects of major metabolic risk factors on CVD and diabetes by age group. PMID:23935815

Farzadfar, Farshad; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Woodward, Mark; Wormser, David; Kaptoge, Stephen; Whitlock, Gary; Qiao, Qing; Lewington, Sarah; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; vander Hoorn, Stephen; Lawes, Carlene M. M.; Ali, Mohammed K.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Ezzati, Majid

2013-01-01

335

The marginated pool.  

PubMed

The pulmonary circulation harbors a large intravascular reservoir of leukocytes referred to as the Marginated Pool. This marginated pool is balanced by propelling and retaining forces acting on leukocytes during their passage through the pulmonary circulation. The present paper discusses these factors and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:11867908

Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Goetz, Alwin E

2002-01-01

336

Pooling Your Assets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For small, private institutions, the real estate pooled income fund can be ideal for constructing new facilities, especially if the facility will produce revenue. Even a public or well-endowed private institution may have a unique project for which a pooled income fund may be a nontraditional funding solution. (MSE)

Hart, Kenneth M.

1990-01-01

337

Fanfares & Fireworks Pool Party  

E-print Network

Highlights Fanfares & Fireworks Pool Party Notes from the Office Class Photo TheELIWeekly Fireworks & Pool Party This is a very exciting week! We have two activities for you to participate in. As always, feel free to bring your family and conversation partners. Fanfares & Fireworks On Tuesday, we

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

338

Fanfares & Fireworks Pool Party  

E-print Network

Highlights Fanfares & Fireworks Pool Party Ramadan Reminder ELI Places of Origin Notes from the Office Birthdays TheELIWeekly Fireworks & Pool Party This is a very exciting week! We have two. Fanfares & Fireworks On Wednesday, we will be going to Fanfares and Fireworks. Come listen

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

339

Dietary acrylamide and cancer risk: An updated meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The debate on the potential carcinogenic effect of dietary acrylamide is open. In consideration of the recent findings from large prospective investigations, we conducted an updated meta-analysis on acrylamide intake and the risk of cancer at several sites. Up to July 2014, we identified 32 publications. We performed meta-analyses to calculate the summary relative risk (RR) of each cancer site for the highest versus lowest level of intake and for an increment of 10 µg/day of dietary acrylamide, through fixed-effects or random-effects models, depending on the heterogeneity test. Fourteen cancer sites could be examined. No meaningful associations were found for most cancers considered. The summary RRs for high versus low acrylamide intake were 0.87 for oral and pharyngeal, 1.14 for esophageal, 1.03 for stomach, 0.94 for colorectal, 0.93 for pancreatic, 1.10 for laryngeal, 0.88 for lung, 0.96 for breast, 1.06 for endometrial, 1.12 for ovarian, 1.00 for prostate, 0.93 for bladder and 1.13 for lymphoid malignancies. The RR was of borderline significance only for kidney cancer (RR?=?1.20; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.00-1.45). All the corresponding continuous estimates ranged between 0.95 and 1.03, and none of them was significant. Among never-smokers, borderline associations with dietary acrylamide emerged for endometrial (RR?=?1.23; 95% CI, 1.00-1.51) and ovarian (RR?=?1.39; 95% CI, 0.97-2.00) cancers. This systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies indicates that dietary acrylamide is not related to the risk of most common cancers. A modest association for kidney cancer, and for endometrial and ovarian cancers in never smokers only, cannot be excluded. PMID:25403648

Pelucchi, Claudio; Bosetti, Cristina; Galeone, Carlotta; La Vecchia, Carlo

2014-11-18

340

Social stratification and science education: A longitudinal analysis, 1981-1986, of minorities' integration into the scientific talent pool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is common knowledge that scientists are those persons who have the unique attributes required to perform in the role, but contrary to what is widely believed, scientists might also be those who have had access to resources of which other members of the population have been deprived. This study investigates the effectiveness of interventions designed to mediate the negative influence of ascription (race and ethnicity) on the scientific talent pool (students having interest and ability in science). Minorities refers to participants representing the major ethnic and racial groups in the New York City school system: Blacks and Hispanics. Cross-tabulations showed that urban underachieving public high school students take significantly more mathematics and science classes, more frequently graduate from high school and more often enroll in college as compared with students of the same population, who were not exposed to the program. These findings on the effectiveness of tutoring, career counseling, exposure to industrial and academic research sites and to scientist role models, and after-school and weekend classes in mathematics and science, reinforce the observations of Thomas (1986) of the importance of prerequisites for increasing participation of minorities in the natural and technical sciences and mathematics. They extend knowledge of factors which lessen the effects of ascription on educational attainment, and which promote meritocratic conditions for achieving a scientific occupation.

Mulkey, Lynn M.; Ellis, Ronald S.

341

Integrative analysis of a cancer somatic mutome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The consecutive acquisition of genetic alterations characterizes neoplastic processes. As a consequence of these alterations, molecular interactions are reprogrammed in the context of highly connected and regulated cellular networks. The recent identification of the collection of somatically mutated genes in breast tumors (breast cancer somatic \\

Pilar Hernández; Xavier Solé; Joan Valls; Víctor Moreno; Gabriel Capellá; Ander Urruticoechea; Miguel Angel Pujana

2007-01-01

342

DNA methylation analysis in human cancer  

PubMed Central

Chapter summary The functional impact of aberrant DNA methylation and the widespread alterations in DNA methylation in cancer development has led to the development of a variety of methods to characterize the DNA methylation patterns. This chapter will critique and describe the major approaches to analyzing DNA methylation. PMID:23359152

O'Sullivan, Eileen; Goggins, Michael

2014-01-01

343

Evaluation of Current Consensus Statement Recommendations for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: A Pooled Analysis of William Beaumont Hospital and American Society of Breast Surgeon MammoSite Registry Trial Data  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Consensus Statement (CS) recommendations for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) are associated with significantly different outcomes in a pooled analysis from William Beaumont Hospital (WBH) and the American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBrS) MammoSite® Registry Trial. Methods and Materials: APBI was used to treat 2127 cases of early-stage breast cancer (WBH, n=678; ASBrS, n=1449). Three forms of APBI were used at WBH (interstitial, n=221; balloon-based, n=255; or 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, n=206), whereas all Registry Trial patients received balloon-based brachytherapy. Patients were divided according to the ASTRO CS into suitable (n=661, 36.5%), cautionary (n=850, 46.9%), and unsuitable (n=302, 16.7%) categories. Tumor characteristics and clinical outcomes were analyzed according to CS group. Results: The median age was 65 years (range, 32-94 years), and the median tumor size was 10.0 mm (range, 0-45 mm). The median follow-up time was 60.6 months. The WBH cohort had more node-positive disease (6.9% vs 2.6%, P<.01) and cautionary patients (49.5% vs 41.8%, P=.06). The 5-year actuarial ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), regional nodal failure (RNF), and distant metastasis (DM) for the whole cohort were 2.8%, 0.6%, 1.6%. The rate of IBTR was not statistically higher between suitable (2.5%), cautionary (3.3%), or unsuitable (4.6%) patients (P=.20). The nonsignificant increase in IBTR for the cautionary and unsuitable categories was due to increased elsewhere failures and new primaries (P=.04), not tumor bed recurrence (P=.93). Conclusions: Excellent outcomes after breast-conserving surgery and APBI were seen in our pooled analysis. The current ASTRO CS guidelines did not adequately differentiate patients at an increased risk of IBTR or tumor bed failure in this large patient cohort.

Wilkinson, J. Ben [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Beitsch, Peter D. [Dallas Surgical Group, Dallas, Texas (United States)] [Dallas Surgical Group, Dallas, Texas (United States); Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Arthur, Doug [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Camden, New Jersey (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Wazer, David E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts and Rhode Island Hospital/Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts and Rhode Island Hospital/Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Keisch, Martin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Healthcare Associates, Miami, Florida (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Healthcare Associates, Miami, Florida (United States); Shaitelman, Simona F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lyden, Maureen [Biostat International, Inc, Tampa, Florida (United States)] [Biostat International, Inc, Tampa, Florida (United States); Chen, Peter Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Vicini, Frank A., E-mail: fvicini@pol.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Michigan Healthcare Professionals/21st Century Oncology, Farmington Hills, Michigan (United States)

2013-04-01

344

Relationship of Dietary Intake of Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids with Risk of Prostate Cancer Development: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine the relationship between dietary omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and omega-6 fatty acids (n-6 PUFA) with prostate cancer risk from meta-analysis of prospective studies. Design. The literature retrieved from electronic biomedical databases up to June 2011 was critically appraised. General variance-based method was used to pool the effect estimates at 95% confidence interval. Heterogeneity was assessed by Chi2 and quantified by I2. Results. Eight cohort studies were included for meta-analysis. n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA, and their derivatives were not significantly associated with risk of prostate cancer in general. A significant negative association between high dietary intake of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and prostate cancer risk (pooled RR: 0.915; 95% CI: 0.849, 0.985; P = 0.019) was noted. Likewise, a slightly positive association was noted on dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA, composed of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with prostate cancer risk (pooled RR: 1.135; 95% CI: 1.008, 1.278; P = 0.036); however, when two other cohort studies with data of EPA and DHA, both analyzed separately, were included into the pool, the association became not significant (RR: 1.034; 95% CI: 0.973, 1.096; P = 0.2780). Conclusion. Intake of n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA does not significantly affect risk of prostate cancer. High intake of ALA may reduce risk of prostate cancer, while intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids does not have a significant effect. PMID:23193480

Chua, Michael E.; Sio, Maria Christina D.; Sorongon, Mishell C.; Dy, Jun S.

2012-01-01

345

Hyperspectral imaging and quantitative analysis for prostate cancer detection  

PubMed Central

Abstract. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging modality for various medical applications. Its spectroscopic data might be able to be used to noninvasively detect cancer. Quantitative analysis is often necessary in order to differentiate healthy from diseased tissue. We propose the use of an advanced image processing and classification method in order to analyze hyperspectral image data for prostate cancer detection. The spectral signatures were extracted and evaluated in both cancerous and normal tissue. Least squares support vector machines were developed and evaluated for classifying hyperspectral data in order to enhance the detection of cancer tissue. This method was used to detect prostate cancer in tumor-bearing mice and on pathology slides. Spatially resolved images were created to highlight the differences of the reflectance properties of cancer versus those of normal tissue. Preliminary results with 11 mice showed that the sensitivity and specificity of the hyperspectral image classification method are 92.8% to 2.0% and 96.9% to 1.3%, respectively. Therefore, this imaging method may be able to help physicians to dissect malignant regions with a safe margin and to evaluate the tumor bed after resection. This pilot study may lead to advances in the optical diagnosis of prostate cancer using HSI technology. PMID:22894488

Akbari, Hamed; Halig, Luma V.; Schuster, David M.; Osunkoya, Adeboye; Master, Viraj; Nieh, Peter T.; Chen, Georgia Z.; Fei, Baowei

2012-01-01

346

Saturation of an Intra-Gene Pool Linkage Map: Towards a Unified Consensus Linkage Map for Fine Mapping and Synteny Analysis in Common Bean  

PubMed Central

Map-based cloning and fine mapping to find genes of interest and marker assisted selection (MAS) requires good genetic maps with reproducible markers. In this study, we saturated the linkage map of the intra-gene pool population of common bean DOR364×BAT477 (DB) by evaluating 2,706 molecular markers including SSR, SNP, and gene-based markers. On average the polymorphism rate was 7.7% due to the narrow genetic base between the parents. The DB linkage map consisted of 291 markers with a total map length of 1,788 cM. A consensus map was built using the core mapping populations derived from inter-gene pool crosses: DOR364×G19833 (DG) and BAT93×JALO EEP558 (BJ). The consensus map consisted of a total of 1,010 markers mapped, with a total map length of 2,041 cM across 11 linkage groups. On average, each linkage group on the consensus map contained 91 markers of which 83% were single copy markers. Finally, a synteny analysis was carried out using our highly saturated consensus maps compared with the soybean pseudo-chromosome assembly. A total of 772 marker sequences were compared with the soybean genome. A total of 44 syntenic blocks were identified. The linkage group Pv6 presented the most diverse pattern of synteny with seven syntenic blocks, and Pv9 showed the most consistent relations with soybean with just two syntenic blocks. Additionally, a co-linear analysis using common bean transcript map information against soybean coding sequences (CDS) revealed the relationship with 787 soybean genes. The common bean consensus map has allowed us to map a larger number of markers, to obtain a more complete coverage of the common bean genome. Our results, combined with synteny relationships provide tools to increase marker density in selected genomic regions to identify closely linked polymorphic markers for indirect selection, fine mapping or for positional cloning. PMID:22174773

Galeano, Carlos H.; Fernandez, Andrea C.; Franco-Herrera, Natalia; Cichy, Karen A.; McClean, Phillip E.; Vanderleyden, Jos; Blair, Matthew W.

2011-01-01

347

Integrated Proteomic and Metabolic Analysis of Breast Cancer Progression  

PubMed Central

One of the most persistent hallmarks of cancer biology is the preference of tumor cells to derive energy through glycolysis as opposed to the more efficient process of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). However, little is known about the molecular cascades by which oncogenic pathways bring about this metabolic switch. We carried out a quantitative proteomic and metabolic analysis of the MCF10A derived cell line mod